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Title: Dictionary of Battles
Author: Harbottle, Thomas Benfield
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_. Bold text is
delimited with the ‘=’ character.

The text was printed in two columns, which have not been preserved here.
The printer, when setting a reference from one topic to another,
sometimes gave the reference on a separate line, but often on a single
line. To preserve the regular structure of the entries, the former has
been adopted.

In the Preface, the editor informs us that Mr. Harbottle died before he
could do the final editorial work (correcting the proofs and preparing
the Index.) In light of that apology, we have taken pains to correct the
many minor errors which are reasonably attributable to the printer.
Please see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details.



                         DICTIONARY OF BATTLES

               SONNENSCHEIN’S DICTIONARIES OF QUOTATIONS

   1. ENGLISH (_Third Edition_)                   P. H. Dalbiac.

   2. CLASSICAL (_Second Edition_)                T. B. Harbottle.

   3. FRENCH AND ITALIAN (_Second Edition_)    {  T. B. Harbottle.
                                               {  P. H. Dalbiac.

   4. GERMAN                                      Lilian Dalbiac.

   5. SPANISH                                     T. B. Harbottle.

   6. WHAT GREAT MEN HAVE SAID ABOUT GREAT MEN    W. Wale.

   7. CONTEMPORARY [ENGLISH] QUOTATIONS           H. Swan.

   8. FAMOUS SAYINGS AND THEIR AUTHORS            E. Latham.

   9. DICTIONARY OF HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS          T. B. Harbottle.

  10. DICTIONARY OF BATTLES                       T. B. Harbottle.



                             DICTIONARY OF
                                BATTLES

               From the Earliest Date to the Present Time


                                   By
                       THOMAS BENFIELD HARBOTTLE

    AUTHOR OF "DICTIONARY OF QUOTATIONS" (CLASSICAL); "DICTIONARY OF
 HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS"; CO-AUTHOR OF "DICTIONARY OF QUOTATIONS" (FRENCH
                              AND ITALIAN)


[Illustration]


                                 LONDON
                      SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. LTD.
                     HIGH STREET, BLOOMSBURY, W.C.
                                  1904



                                PREFACE


The sad death of Mr. Harbottle, just as this work was going to press,
has thrown upon me the onus of correcting the proofs and preparing the
Index. The necessity for hurrying the work through the press has
precluded comparison of the references in every instance with the
original sources from which the Author had taken them; if therefore some
few printer’s errors or varieties of spelling may still remain, they
may, I hope, be attributed to the imperfections of one, who had to step
suddenly into the breach caused by the loss of a valued friend and
collaborator, whose patience in research, depth of knowledge and
accuracy in compilation, he could never hope to equal.

                                _October, 1904._      P. H. DALBIAC.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                         DICTIONARY OF BATTLES



                                   A


                    Abensberg (Campaign of Wagram.)

Fought April 20, 1809, between the French and Bavarians under Napoleon,
about 90,000 strong, and the Austrians, 80,000 in number, under the
Archduke Charles. On the French left, Lanne’s corps drove back the
Austrians, after a feeble resistance. In the centre the Bavarians were
hard pressed, but eventually Napoleon succeeded in turning the Austrian
flank, left exposed by the defeat of their right, and Charles was forced
to retreat. The Austrians lost 7,000, the French and Bavarians about
3,000 killed and wounded.


                         Aberdeen (Civil War).

Fought September 13, 1644, between the Covenanters, 3,000 strong, under
Lord Burleigh, and the Royalists, about 1,500 strong, under Montrose.
The Covenanters were put to flight, and no quarter being given, they
lost heavily before reaching Aberdeen. The Royalist losses were
insignificant.


                  Aboukir (French Invasion of Egypt).

Fought July 5, 1799, Napoleon attacking the position held by Mustapha
Pasha, who had recently landed in Egypt at the head of 18,000 Turks. The
French were completely successful, two-thirds of the Turkish troops
being killed or driven into the sea, while 6,000, with the Pasha,
surrendered.


                  Aboukir (British Invasion of Egypt).

Fought March 8, 1801, when 5,000 British under Sir Ralph Abercromby
disembarked on the beach at Aboukir, in the face of a force of 2,000
French under General Friant. The landing was effected under a heavy
musketry and artillery fire, which cost the assailants 1,100 killed and
wounded, and the French were driven from their positions with a loss of
500 men.


                                Aboukir.

_See_ Nile.


                     Abu Hamed (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought August 7, 1897, when the Dervish entrenchments outside Abu Hamed
were stormed by a Soudanese Brigade, with 2 guns Royal Artillery, under
Major-General Hunter. The Mahdist garrison was driven through the town,
losing heavily, and their commander, Mohammed Zain, captured. The
Egyptian loss was 80 killed and wounded, including 4 British officers.


                      Abu Klea (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought January 17, 1885, between a British force, 1,500 strong, under
Sir Herbert Stewart, and 12,000 Mahdists, of whom about 5,000 actually
attacked. The British square was broken at one corner, owing to the
jamming of a Gardner gun, and the Mahdists forcing their way inside, a
desperate hand-to-hand conflict followed. Eventually the assailants were
driven off, and the square reformed. The British loss was 18 officers,
among them Colonel Fred. Burnaby, and 150 men. In the immediate vicinity
of the square, 1,100 Arab dead were counted.


                      Abu Kru (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought January 19, 1885, between 1,200 British troops under Sir Herbert
Stewart, and a large force of Mahdists. The Mahdists attacked a short
distance from the Nile, and the British square moved towards the river,
repelling all assaults successfully till they reached the Nile. The
British losses were 121, including Sir Herbert Stewart, mortally
wounded. This action is also known as the battle of Gubat.


                   Acapulco (Mexican Liberal Rising).

Fought August 9, 1855, between the Mexican Government troops under Santa
Anna, and the Liberals under Juarez. Santa Anna was totally routed and
fled from the country.


                       Accra (First Ashanti War).

Fought 1824, between 10,000 Ashantis and a force of 1,000 British under
Sir Charles McCarthy. The British were surrounded and routed by the
natives, McCarthy being killed.


                       Accra (First Ashanti War).

Fought 1825, between 15,000 Ashantis and 400 British troops, with 4,600
native auxiliaries. The Ashantis were completely defeated, and the king
compelled to abandon his designs on Cape Coast Castle.


           Acragas (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

This fortress was besieged B.C. 406 by the Carthaginians under Hannibal,
the garrison being commanded by Dexippus the Spartan. Early in the siege
a pestilence in the Carthaginian camp carried off Hannibal, who was
succeeded by his cousin, Himilco. A relieving army of 35,000 Syracusans,
under Daphnæus fought a pitched battle with the Carthaginians under the
walls of the city, and succeeded in seizing and holding one of their
camps, but shortly afterwards dissensions broke out in the garrison, and
many of the foreign mercenaries deserting, the citizens, after a siege
of eight months, left the place _en masse_. The Carthaginians at once
occupied the fortress.


                         Acre (Third Crusade).

Siege was laid to this city by the Christians in August, 1189, and it
was obstinately defended by the Saracens for two years, during which the
Crusaders are said to have lost 120,000 men. In June, 1191, the
besiegers were reinforced by an English army under Richard Cœur de
Lion, and in the following month the garrison surrendered.


                                 Acre.

The city remained in the hands of the Christians till 1291, when it was
captured by the Moslems under Malek al Aschraf, Sultan of Egypt. The
last stronghold in the Holy Land thus passed out of the keeping of the
Christians.


                    Acre (French Invasion of Egypt).

The city was besieged March 17, 1799, by the French under Napoleon, and
defended by the Turks under Djezzar, and a small force of British seamen
under Sir Sidney Smith. An assault on the 28th was repulsed with loss,
and then a threatened attack by a Syrian army forced Napoleon to
withdraw a large portion of his troops. On the resumption of the siege,
no less than seven more assaults were delivered, while the French had to
meet eleven sallies of the besieged, but they were unable to effect a
lodgment, and on May 21 Napoleon reluctantly raised the siege. The fall
of Acre would have placed the whole of Syria, and possibly of the
Turkish Empire, in the hands of the French.


                 Acre (Mehemet Ali’s Second Rebellion).

Mehemet Ali having refused to accept the conditions imposed upon him by
the Quadrilateral Alliance, Acre was bombarded, November 3, 1840, by a
combined British and Turkish fleet under Sir R. Stopford, and the town
laid in ruins.


                        Acs (Hungarian Rising).

Fought July 2, 1849, between 25,000 Hungarians, under Görgey, and the
Russo-Austrian army, greatly superior in numbers, under Prince
Windischgrätz. The allies attacked the entrenched camp of the
Hungarians, outside Komorn, while the Hungarians made an attempt to turn
the allied left. Both attacks were repulsed, and the battle was
undecided.


                Actium (Mark Antony’s Second Rebellion).

Fought September 2, B.C. 31, between the fleet of Antony, 460 galleys,
and that of Octavius, about 250 sail, but much lighter and less well
manned than those of Antony. The battle was fiercely contested, with
varying fortune; but at a critical moment Cleopatra ordered the Egyptian
admiral to make sail, and with 60 galleys withdrew from the fight. She
was followed by Antony, and his fleet, discouraged by his flight,
surrendered after ten hours’ fighting. The Octavians captured 300
galleys, and 5,000 Antonians fell in the action. A few days later
Antony’s land army of 120,000 men laid down their arms.


                    Acultzingo (Franco-Mexican War).

Fought April 28, 1862, between the French, 7,500 strong, under General
Lorencez, and the main Mexican army, about 10,000 in number, under
General Zaragoça. The Mexicans held a strong position in the Cumbres
Pass, from which they were driven by the French, and forced to retire
upon La Puebla.


                  Admagetobriga (Gallic Tribal Wars).

Fought B.C. 61 between the Sequani under Ariovistus, and the Hædui under
Eporedorix. The Hædui were defeated, with the loss of the flower of
their chivalry, and were compelled to give hostages and pay tribute to
Ariovistus.


                        Adnatuca (Gallic Wars).

Fought B.C. 53, when a Roman force of 9,000 men under Titurius Sabinus
was attacked in its camps by the Eburones under Ambiorix. The assault
failed, but an offer by Ambiorix of a safe passage to the nearest Roman
station was accepted. On the march the Romans were treacherously
attacked by the Eburones and cut to pieces, Sabinius being among the
slain.


                 Adowa (Italian Invasion of Abyssinia).

Fought March 1, 1896, when the Italian force under General Baratieri
attacked the Shoan army, strongly posted in a difficult country, and was
routed with enormous loss.


                     Adrianople (Bulgarian Rising).

Fought April 15, 1205, between the Imperial troops under the Latin
Emperor, Baldwin I, and the revolted Bulgarians under their chief,
Calo-John. The Bulgarian cavalry fled, and lured the Latin horse in
pursuit. Then turning upon them, they routed them with the loss of their
leader, the Comte de Blois, and in the end the Imperialists were
completely defeated and the Emperor captured.


                       Adwalton Moor (Civil War).

Fought January 30, 1643, when the Parliamentarians, numbering 4,000,
with a levy of armed peasants, were defeated by 10,000 Royalists under
Newcastle. Fairfax, who commanded the Parliament force, succeeded in
reaching Hull. The battle is also known as that of Atherton Moor.

Ægina (Third Messenian War).

Fought B.C. 458, between the Athenian fleet, and that of Ægina, aided by
the Peloponnesian States. The Athenians were victorious, capturing 70
ships, and landing they invested Ægina, which fell into their hands
after a siege of a little less than two years.

Ægospotami (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 405, between 180 Athenian triremes, under Conon, and 180
Peloponnesian ships under Lysander. The Athenian fleet was lying at
Ægospotami, opposite Lampsacus, where Lysander was stationed. For four
days in succession the Athenian admiral crossed the straits, and
endeavoured, but in vain, to bring on a general action. On the fifth day
Lysander waited till the Athenians had returned to their anchorage, and
then, making a sudden dash across the straits, caught them unprepared,
and seized all but twenty ships, putting to death all the Athenians who
were captured. This disaster destroyed the naval power of Athens, and
was soon followed by the end of the Peloponnesian War.

Ægusa (First Punic War).

Fought March 10, B.C. 241, between the Roman fleet of 200 quinqueremes
under C. Lutatius Catulus, and a Carthaginian fleet under Hanno
despatched to relieve the town. The action was fought in heavy weather,
and the Roman sailors, being far better trained than their opponents,
Catulus gained a signal victory, capturing 70 and sinking 50 of the
enemy’s ships. The victory ended the First Punic War.


                        Agedincum (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 52, between the Romans under Labienus, and the Celts under
Camalogenus. Labienus was endeavouring to effect a junction with Caesar,
which the Celts were opposing, and Labienus, crossing the Marne in face
of their army, inflicted upon them a severe defeat, in which Camalogenus
fell.


                    Aghrim (Wars of the Revolution).

Fought July 12, 1691, between William III’s troops, under Ginkel, and
the French and Irish under St. Ruth. The English struggled in vain to
carry St. Ruth’s entrenchments, which were protected by a bog, but his
flank was at last turned by the cavalry, which found a passage through
the morass, and St. Ruth was killed. The Irish then broke and fled, and
are said to have lost between 6,000 and 7,000 in the pursuit.


                    Agincourt (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought October 25, 1415, between the French, numbering 50,000, under the
Constable d’Albret, and about 15,000 English, mostly archers, under
Henry V. The archers protected their front with a palisade of stakes,
which broke the charge of the French men-at-arms, and the French army
was routed with a loss of 10,000 slain, including the Constable and the
Dukes of Alençon, Brabant and Bar, and 15,000 prisoners, including the
Duke of Orleans and Marshal Boucicaut. The English lost only 1,600,
among whom were the Duke of York and the Earl of Oxford.


               Agnadello (War of the League of Cambrai).

Fought May 14, 1509, between 30,000 French under Louis XII and Marshal
Trioulzio, and 35,000 Venetians under General Alviani. The Venetians
were defeated with a loss of 6,000 men and 20 guns, Alviani being taken,
and in consequence of his victory, Louis XII occupied all the territory
assigned to him by the League, up to the Mincio.


                      Agordat (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought December 21, 1893, between 2,200 Italians, and native troops,
under General Arimondi, and 11,500 Mahdists under Ahmed Ali, who had
invaded Italian territory. The Mahdists were routed with a loss of about
3,000 men. The Italians lost 13, and 225 natives killed and wounded.


                     Agra (Farokshin’s Rebellion).

Fought 1713, between the Great Mogul, Jehandar Shah, with 70,000 troops,
under Zulfikar Khan, and the rebel Moguls under Jehandar’s nephew,
Farokshin. After a stubborn fight, the rebels overpowered the Imperial
troops, and Jehandar Shah was captured and put to death by Farokshin,
who ascended the throne.


                      Agra (Second Mahratta War).

The fortress was besieged October 4, 1803, by the British under General
Lake, and was defended by a garrison of Sindhia’s troops, 6,000 strong,
who held the citadel, while seven additional battalions were encamped in
the town. The latter force was attacked on the 10th and routed, losing
26 guns, while the survivors, 2,600 in number, surrendered on the
following day. On the 17th the batteries opened fire on the citadel, and
on the 18th the garrison surrendered.


                         Agra (Indian Mutiny).

On August 2, 1857, the British garrison holding Agra sallied out to
attack a body of 10,000 rebels encamped within four miles of the city.
The Kotah contingent, which formed a portion of the British force,
deserted to the mutineers, and the British troops, hard pressed and
short of ammunition, were driven back into Agra, and forced to take
refuge in the fort. In October of the same year Colonel Greathed’s
column of four battalions and two cavalry regiments encountered close to
Agra a force of 7,000 mutineers. The rebels at first held their own, but
were eventually put to flight, and pursued with great slaughter for ten
miles.


                    Ahmedabad (First Mahratta War).

This strong fortress, garrisoned by 8,000 Arabs and Scinde Infantry, and
2,000 Mahrattas, was taken by assault, after a short bombardment, by a
British force under General Goddard, February 15, 1780. The British lost
106 killed and wounded, including 12 officers.


                    Ahmed Khel (Second Afghan War).

Fought 1880, when a British force under General Stewart on the march to
Ghuzni was attacked by about 15,000 Ghilzais. A rush of 3,000 Ghazis was
successfully repulsed, and the enemy defeated and driven off, leaving
1,000 dead on the field. The British lost 17 only.


              Ahmednugger (Mogul Invasion of the Deccan).

This place was besieged in 1599 by the Moguls under Mirza Khan, one of
Akbar’s generals, and defended by a garrison of Deccanis under Chand
Bibi, ex-Queen of Bijapur. A practicable breach having been effected,
the garrison was disposed to surrender, but Chand Bibi, heading the
defenders, superintended the repair of the breach, and succeeding in
holding out until a peace was signed by which the Great Mogul agreed to
leave Ahmednugger unmolested.


                    Aiguillon (Hundred Years’ War).

This fortress was besieged by the French under John, Duke of Normandy,
in May, 1347, and was defended by a small English garrison under Sir
Walter Manny, who held out bravely till the end of August, repelling
numerous assaults. The defeat of Cressy then forced the Duke of Normandy
to lead his army northward, and he was compelled to raise the siege.


                    Aix, Ile d’ (Seven Years’ War).

Fought March 4, 1758, when a British squadron of seven sail, under Sir
Edward Hawke, attacked a French squadron of five ships of the line and
six frigates, convoying forty transports, and drove them ashore on the
Ile d’Aix. This delayed the French expedition to North America, and
facilitated the capture of Cape Breton.


            Aix-la-Chapelle (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought March 3, 1795, between the French under Miranda and the Austrians
under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The French were totally defeated, and
fled in disorder, with a loss of 3,500 killed and wounded and 1,500
prisoners.


                  Aiznadin (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

Fought July 13, 633, between 45,000 Moslems under Khaled and 70,000
Imperial troops under Werdan. The Imperialists were routed with great
slaughter, leaving Khaled to prosecute the siege of Damascus. The
Moslems only admit a loss of 470.


                    Aladja Dagh (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought 1877, between the Russians under General Loris Melikoff, and the
Turks under Mukhtar Pasha. The Russians were victorious, and Mukhtar was
compelled to take refuge under the walls of Erzeroum.


                 Alamo, Storming of the (Texan Rising).

On February 22, 1836, General Santa Anna, with the advance guard of the
Mexican army, appeared before the walls of the Alamo, a fortified
mission station held by 145 Texans under Colonel Travis, who replied to
a summons to surrender by a cannon shot. On March 1 the garrison was
reinforced by 30 men, Santa Anna’s force at this date being 4,000. On
the 6th 2,500 Mexicans assaulted the fort, and at the third attempt
effected an entrance. The building was defended room by room, the church
within the enclosure being the last building captured, when all the
survivors were put to the sword. The victory cost the Mexicans 400
killed and many wounded. “Remember the Alamo” became the watchword of
the Texans.


                      Aland (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought July, 1714, between the Russian fleet of 30 ships of the line and
180 galleys under Admiral Apraxine, and the Swedish, about one-third of
that strength, under Admiral Erinschild. The Swedes sought to prevent
the landing of a Russian force on the island of Aland, and fought an
unequal combat for three hours, when they were overpowered and forced to
retire. The Czar, Peter the Great, who was serving under Apraxine as
Rear-Admiral, captured Erinschild’s flagship.


                   Alarcos (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought July 19, 1195, between the Moors under Yakub el Maasur, and the
Spaniards under Alfonso VIII of Castile. The Spaniards were utterly
routed, and very few escaped to Calatrava. The Moors claimed to have
taken 30,000 prisoners.


                       Albuera (Peninsular War).

Fought May 16, 1811, between the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish
forces, numbering 46,000, of whom 7,000 only were British infantry, the
whole army being under the command of Marshal Beresford, and 33,000
French under Marshal Soult. The French attacked Beresford’s position,
and the Spaniards offering but a poor resistance, defeat was only
averted by the extraordinary valour of the British troops, especially of
the Fusilier Brigade, which came into action when the day seemed lost,
and drove the French from the field. Of the 7,000 British, but 1,800
were left standing. The French lost over 8,000, including five generals.


               Alcantara (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought 1706, when a force of British and Portuguese under Lord Galway
attacked and drove out of Alcantara the garrison, consisting of a
portion of Marshal Berwick’s army. Ten French battalions laid down their
arms, and 60 guns were captured.


                   Aleppo (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

This place was besieged by the Moslems under Abu Obeidah and Khaled in
638, and the city almost immediately surrendered, but the garrison
retired to the citadel, where under Youkinna it maintained a stubborn
defence for five months, and caused heavy loss to the besiegers. At last
the citadel was taken by surprise, and Youkinna became a convert to
Mohammedanism. This was the last serious resistance offered in Syria to
the invading Moslems.


                   Aleppo (Tartar Invasion of Syria).

Fought November 11, 1400, between the Tartars under Tamerlane, and the
Turks under the Syrian Emirs. Instead of standing a siege, the Emirs
sallied out to meet Tamerlane in the open field, and suffered a
disastrous defeat. They were driven back into Aleppo with the loss of
many thousands, and a few days later the Tartars sacked the city and
captured the citadel.


                         Aleppo (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1516, between the Turks under Selim I, and the Egyptians under
the Mameluke Sultan, Tooman Beg. After a sanguinary engagement, the
Egyptians were utterly routed, and Selim added the whole of Syria to the
Ottoman dominions.


                          Alesia (Gallic War).

Siege was laid to the town by the Romans under Cæsar, B.C. 52, and it
was defended by the Gauls, numbering 80,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry
under Vercingetorix, the Romans being about 50,000 strong. An attempt
was made by the Belgi, with an army of 260,000 warriors, to relieve the
town, but they were met and routed by Labienus with terrific slaughter.
This disaster so discouraged the garrison that the town immediately
surrendered, Vercingetorix being sent a prisoner to Rome, where five
years later he was beheaded as a rebellious subject of Rome.


              Alessandria (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 18, 1799, between the French, 14,000 strong under Moreau,
and the Imperialists under Bellegarde. The French gained a signal
victory, the loss of the Imperialists being 1,500 men and 5 guns.


                 Alexandria (Moslem Invasion of Egypt).

This city, the capital of Egypt, was besieged by the Moslems, under
Amrou, in 638, and after a defence of fourteen months, in the course of
which the besiegers lost 23,000 men, surrendered, leaving the victors
undisputed masters of Egypt.


                Alexandria (British Invasion of Egypt).

Fought March 21, 1801, between the French under General Menou, and the
British expeditionary force under Sir Ralph Abercromby. The French
cavalry charged the British right, but were repulsed, and after hard
fighting the French were defeated and driven under the walls of
Alexandria. Among those who fell was Sir Ralph Abercromby, mortally
wounded.


                    Alexandria (Arabi’s Rebellion).

Arabi Pasha having refused to cease work upon the forts of Alexandria,
the Admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour, who had under his command a fleet of
8 battleships and 5 gunboats, decided to shell them. He opened fire on
the morning of July 11, 1882, and the bombardment continued till the
evening of the 12th, when the forts were totally destroyed, and the
garrison abandoned the city. The gunboat _Condor_, under Lord Charles
Beresford, particularly distinguished herself, running close in under
the forts, and doing considerable damage.


                          Alford (Civil War).

Fought July 2, 1645, between the Royalists under Montrose, and the
Covenanters under General Baillie. Baillie crossed the Don to attack
Montrose, whom he imagined to be in retreat, but who was really waiting
for him in a well-chosen position. The attack was repulsed, the
Covenanters being routed with heavy loss.


                    Algeciras Bay (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought July 8, 1801, between a British squadron of 7 ships of the line,
1 frigate and 1 brig, under Sir James Saumarez, and a French squadron of
3 line-of-battle ships and 1 frigate, under Admiral Linois. The French
were aided by the Spanish gunboats and the shore batteries, and Saumarez
lost the _Hannibal_, which ran ashore, and was captured by the French.
The British lost 121 killed and 240 wounded. The French lost 306 killed.
On July 12, the French squadron, which had been reinforced meanwhile by
5 Spanish ships of the line, was again attacked by Sir James Saumarez,
who succeeded in capturing the _St. Antoine_ and blowing up the
_Hermenegilda_. The British lost only 17 killed and 100 wounded; the
allies, 2,000, chiefly in the _Hermenegilda_.


                                Algheri.

Fought 1353, between the Aragonese under Pedro IV (the Great) and the
Genoese. Pedro won a complete victory, driving the Genoese out of
Sardinia, the whole of which island became an appanage of the crown of
Aragon.


                                Algiers.

This town was attacked July 8, 1775, by a Spanish force of 51 ships of
war and 26,000 men under Don Pedro de Castijon and Count O’Reilly. After
a severe conflict, the Spaniards failed to dislodge their opponents, and
retired, with a loss of over 3,000 killed and wounded. The Algerines
lost about 5,000.


                        Algiers, Bombardment of.

In 1816 Lord Exmouth, in command of 19 British war ships, and
accompanied by 6 Dutch ships under Van Capellan, bombarded the forts of
Algiers, mounting 500 guns. The bombardment lasted for about eight
hours, and resulted in the destruction of the forts and a large part of
the city. The Dey then gave way, and agreed to the total abolition of
Christian slavery in his dominions. The loss of the allies amounted to
885 killed and wounded; that of the Algerines to over 6,000.


                        Alhama (War of Granada).

This fortress, one of the ring of strong places protecting the Moorish
capital, Granada, was surprised by a small party of Spaniards, under
Juan de Ortiga, in the early morning of February 28, 1482. They scaled
the ramparts unperceived, and opened the gates to the Spanish army. The
garrison continued to defend the streets most obstinately, and it was
only after hard fighting that the Spaniards mastered the town. An
attempt was made to recapture the place by Abul Hasan, King of Granada,
who set down before it, with 50,000 Moors. March 5, 1482. The garrison,
under the Marquis of Cadiz, made a gallant defence, and on the 29th,
Abul Hasan, alarmed by the approach of a strong relieving army under
Ferdinand, raised the siege.


                  Alhandega (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought 939, between the Moors under Abd al Rahman, and the Christians
under Ramiro II of Leon. The Moors, 100,000 strong, were besieging
Zamora, when they were attacked by Ramiro, who, aided by a sortie of the
garrison, utterly routed them. In the battle 20,000 Moors fell, and
40,000 are said to have been drowned in the moat surrounding the city.


               Alicante (War of the Spanish Succession).

On June 29, 1706, Alicante was taken by a British squadron of 5 ships
under Sir George Byng. The fleet attacked the city walls, while the
suburbs were occupied by a landing party of marines under Sir John
Jennings. The place was captured with a loss to the British of only 30
killed and 80 wounded.


                     Aligurh (First Mahratta War).

This fortress, the arsenal of Sindhia of Gwalior, was captured August
29, 1803, by the 76th Highlanders under Colonel Monson, forming part of
General Lake’s army. The place was strongly fortified and surrounded by
a ditch 100 feet wide, containing 10 feet of water. The Highlanders
carried the fortress by storm, blowing in the main gate, and fighting
their way from room to room till the place was captured. Two hundred and
eighty-one guns were taken. The British loss amounted to 223 killed and
wounded.


                        Aliwal (First Sikh War).

Fought January 28, 1846, between the British, 10,000 strong, under Sir
Harry Smith, and 20,000 Sikhs under Runjur Singh. The troops of the
Khalsa withstood three charges of the British cavalry with splendid
bravery, but at last broke and fled, losing many drowned in the Sutlej,
besides those left on the field. The British captured 67 guns.


                              Aljubarotta.

Fought August, 1385, between the Castilians, under John I, in support of
the claim of Beatrix of Castile to the throne of Portugal, and the
Portuguese under the Regent John. The Portuguese inflicted a crushing
defeat upon the Spaniards, and John I was compelled to withdraw his
troops, and renounce his sister’s claim.


               Alkmaar (Netherlands War of Independence).

Siege was laid to this place August 21, 1573, by 16,000 Spaniards under
Don Frederico de Toledo. It was defended by a garrison of 800 soldiers
and 1,300 armed burghers. On September 18, an assault was delivered,
which was repulsed, with a loss to the besiegers of 1,000 men, while
only 37 of the garrison fell. The opening of the dykes at last rendered
the position of the Spaniards most precarious, and on October 8 the
siege was raised.


                Alkmaar (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought October 2, 1799, between 30,000 British and Russians under the
Duke of York, and the French, in about equal strength, under Brune. The
action began by the Russians driving in the French advanced posts.
Meanwhile the Duke of York had outflanked them, and as soon as he was in
position a simultaneous attack on the French left and centre forced
Brune to abandon the key of his position, Alkmaar, which was at once
occupied by the allies.


               Allia, The (First Invasion of the Gauls).

Fought July 16, 389 B.C., between the Romans, 40,000 strong, under
Quintus Sulpicius, and the Gauls, about equal in numbers, under Brennus.
The Romans took post on the Allia to check the advance of the Gauls on
Rome. Here they were attacked by Brennus, who routed the right wing,
where the younger soldiers were posted, and then broke the Roman centre
and left, putting them to flight with enormous loss.


                          Alma (Crimean War).

Fought September 20, 1854, between the Russians, 40,000 strong, under
Prince Mentschikoff, and the allied British and French armies, 26,000
strong, under Lord Raglan and Marshal St. Arnaud. The bulk of the
fighting fell upon the British Second and Light Divisions and the
Guards, who carried the heights held by the Russians at the point of the
bayonet, and utterly routed them. The Russians lost 1,200 killed, and
left 4,700 prisoners, many of them wounded, in the hands of the allies.
The British loss amounted to 3,000 killed and wounded; that of the
French to 1,000.


                Almanza (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought April 25, 1707, between the French under Marshal Berwick, and the
British and Portuguese under Lord Galway and the Marques das Minas.
Galway, though inferior in cavalry, attacked at first with success, but
the Portuguese on the right broke and fled, and the British centre,
attacked in front and flank simultaneously, was routed and forced to
surrender. As a consequence of this defeat, the whole of Spain was lost
to Charles with the exception of Catalonia.


               Almenara (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought July 10, 1710, when the British contingent of the Archduke
Charles’ army, under General Stanhope, attacked and defeated the
Spaniards under Philip V, after severe fighting. So complete was the
rout that Philip’s army was only saved by the fall of night from
complete destruction.


                         Almorah (Gurkha War).

Fought April 25, 1815, when 2,000 British regulars under Colonel Nicolls
and a force of irregular troops under Colonel Gardiner assaulted and
captured the heights of the town of Almorah. The result of this victory
was the surrender of the province of Kumaon and all its fortresses.


                         Alne (Scottish Wars).

Fought November 13, 1093, between the Scots under Malcolm Canmore and
the English. The Scots were totally defeated, and Malcolm and his eldest
son Edward slain in the battle.


                         Alresford (Civil War).

Fought March 29, 1644, between the Royalists under the Earl of Brentford
and Sir Ralph Hopton, and the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller.
The Parliament forces were victorious, but their losses were so severe
that Waller was unable to follow up his advantage, and the Royalists
made an orderly retreat.


                    Alsen (Schleswig-Holstein War).

This island, in which the Danish garrison of Düppel had taken refuge,
was captured by the Prussians, who crossed from the mainland in boats on
the night of June 29, 1864, and under a heavy fire carried the Danish
entrenchments, and compelled them to surrender. This was the last
engagement of the war.


                     Altendorf (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 24, 1632, between Gustavus Adolphus, with 40,000 Swedes
and Germans, and the Imperialists, of about equal numbers, under
Wallenstein. Wallenstein was very strongly posted on the hill and in the
ruined castle of the Altenwald, and after a day spent in fruitless
assaults, the King was forced to retire, having lost about 2,300 in
killed and wounded. The defenders admitted a loss of 70 officers and
2,000 men killed, besides wounded and prisoners.


                 Alto Pascio (Guelfs and Ghibellines).

Fought 1325, between the Ghibellines under Castruccio Castracane of
Lucca, and the Florentine Guelfs. The Florentines were defeated with
heavy loss, among the trophies taken by Castracane being the _carroccio_
of Florence.


                  Amakusa (Revolt of the Christians).

In 1638, the castle of Amakusa, held by 30,000 rebels under Masada
Shiro, was captured after very hard fighting by the troops of the
Shôgun, under Matsudaira Nobutsuna. The defenders set fire to the
castle, and perished to the last man, either in the flames or by the
sword.


                        Amalinde (Kaffir Wars).

Fought 1818 between the Gaikas and the forces of Ndlambi, in which the
former were utterly routed.


                    Amatola Mountain (Kaffir Wars).

Fought 1846, between the Kaffirs under Sandilli, and the British and
Cape troops under Colonels Campbell and Somerset. Sandilli was totally
defeated, but, rallying his forces, he made a successful attack on the
British baggage train, the loss of which forced them to retire.


                       Ambate (Conquest of Peru).

Fought 1532, between the two Peruvian chiefs Atahualpa and Huascar, in
which the latter suffered a complete defeat.


                            Ambracian Gulf.

Fought B.C. 435, when a Corinthian fleet of 75 ships attempted the
relief of Epidamnus, which was besieged by the Corcyreans, and was
defeated with heavy loss by 80 Corcyrean triremes.


                                 Ambur.

Fought 1749, between the army of Anwar-ud-din, Nawab of Arcot, 20,000
strong, and the combined forces of Muzuffer Jung and Chunda Sahib, aided
by a French contingent under M. d’Auteil. Anwar-ud-din was defeated and
slain, and Muzuffer Jung assumed the title of Subahdar of the Deccan,
Chunda Sahib that of Nawab of Arcot.


                                 Ambur.

This strong fortress was held by a garrison of 500 Sepoys, under Captain
Calvert, and a detachment of Mysore troops under Mukhlis Khan. This man
had assumed the status of an independent chief, but being suspected of
intriguing with Hyder Ali, was arrested by Calvert. Hyder laid siege to
the place November 10, 1767; but Calvert, now secure from treachery
within, held out with his small garrison till December 6, when the
approach of a relieving force obliged Hyder to raise the siege.


                         Amida (Persian Wars).

This fortress, defended by a Roman garrison, was besieged, and after a
vigorous defence taken by storm by the Persians under Sapor II in 359.
The garrison and inhabitants were put to the sword. The siege, which
lasted 73 days, cost the Persians 30,000 men, and so weakened Sapor that
he was compelled to relinquish his designs upon the Eastern Empire.

The fortress was again besieged by the Persians under Kobad in 503,
being defended as before by a Roman garrison. After a defence of three
months, which cost the besiegers 50,000 men, a weakly defended tower was
surprised at night, and on the following day the Persians, headed by
their King, scaled the walls, and massacred 80,000 of the garrison and
inhabitants.


                      Amiens (Franco-German War).

Fought November 27, 1870, between the French under General Faure, and
the Germans under Manteuffel. The French were compelled to abandon the
city, but the Germans failed to secure a decisive victory. The French
lost 1,383 killed and wounded, and 1,000 missing; the Germans, 76
officers and 1,216 men.


                     Amoaful (Second Ashanti War).

Fought January 31, 1874, when the British expeditionary force under Sir
Garnet Wolseley defeated the Ashantis after a desperate resistance,
which cost the assailants 16 officers and 174 men killed and wounded.
The 42nd Regiment, which led the attack, lost 9 officers and 105 men.


                Amorium (Moslem Invasion of Asia Minor).

Fought 838, between the Moslems under the Caliph Motassem, and the
Greeks under Theophilus. Thirty thousand Persian horsemen, serving under
the Emperor, succeeded in breaking the Moslem line, but the Greeks
themselves were overthrown by the Moslems, and the day ended in a
complete rout of the Imperial army. Motassem then laid siege to Amorium,
and after a defence of 55 days, which cost the besiegers 70,000 men, the
gates were opened by treachery, and 30,000 Christians were massacred.


                    Amphipolis (Peloponnesian War).

Fought March 422 B.C. between 1,500 Athenians, with a contingent of
allies under Cleon, and the Spartans, 2,000 hoplites, besides light
armed troops, under Brasidas. Cleon advanced to attack Amphipolis, but
finding the garrison preparing for a sortie, wheeled about and commenced
to retreat, He was at once assailed by Brasidas, and his left fled
without striking a blow. The Athenian right and centre offered some
resistance, but in the end were routed with heavy loss. Both Brasidas
and Cleon fell, the latter while fleeing from the field.


                  Amstetten (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought November 5, 1805, when the Russians retiring on Vienna fought a
rear-guard action against Murat’s cavalry and a portion of Lannes’
corps, in which they were defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed, wounded,
and prisoners.


                      Añaquito (Conquest of Peru).

Fought January 8, 1546, between the troops of the Viceroy, Blasco Nuñez,
and those of Gonzalo Pizarro. Pizarro gained a signal victory, the
Viceroy being among the slain, and in consequence the Government of Peru
fell into Pizarro’s hands.


                     Ancona (Unification of Italy).

This place was attacked, September, 1860, by the Piedmontese fleet of 13
warships under Admiral Persano, and the army of General Cialdini. It was
defended by a small Papal garrison under La Moricière, and after a
resistance of over a week, at the end of which time Persano forced the
boom guarding the harbour, La Moricière capitulated.


                      Ancrum Moor (Scottish Wars).

Fought February 17, 1545, between the English under Sir Ralph Evans, and
the Scots under the Earl of Angus. The Borderers who had joined the
English deserted during the action, with the result that the Scots were
completely victorious.


                                Ancyræ.

Fought B.C. 242, between the Syrians under Seleucus Callinicus, and the
rebels under his brother Hierax, aided by a large contingent of Gauls.
After a desperate struggle, in which Hierax nearly lost his life at the
hands of his barbarian auxiliaries, Seleucus was utterly routed.


                Angora (Tartar Invasion of Asia Minor).

Fought June 30, 1402, between the Tartars under Tamerlane, and the Turks
under Bajazet I. The numbers engaged are variously estimated at from one
to two millions, Tamerlane, it is said, having at least 800,000 men in
the field. The Turks were totally defeated, Bajazet and one of his sons
being captured, while another son was killed.


                    Angostura (Americo-Mexican War).

Fought February 21, 1847, between the Mexicans under Santa Anna and the
Americans under General Scott, when the Mexicans were totally defeated.


                      Angostura (Paraguayan War).

Fought December 22 to 27, 1868, between the Paraguayans under Lopez, and
the allied armies of the Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Uruguay. Lopez
held his position for six days against the greatly superior forces of
the allies, but was then compelled to retire, leaving in the hands of
the enemy 1,000 prisoners and 6 guns.


                     Antietam (American Civil War).

Fought September 17, 1862, between the main Confederate army under
General Lee, and the Federals under General M’Clellan. On the morning of
the 17th Lee had only 35,000 men on the ground against M’Clellan’s
95,000. The Federals strongly attacked Lee’s left, and after a stubborn
fight drove it back, but reinforcements arriving, Lee resumed the
offensive, and recovered his lost positions. On the following day
neither side was disposed to resume the struggle, and the battle was
therefore indecisive. The Federals lost 12,460 men; the Confederates
about 9,000.


                                Antioch.

Fought B.C. 244, between the Syrians under Seleucus Callinicus and the
Egyptians under Ptolemy Energetes. Seleucus was routed and compelled to
take refuge within the walls of Antioch.


              Antioch (Aurelian’s Expedition to Palmyra).

Fought B.C. 272, between the Palmyrenians under Zenobia, and the Romans
under the Emperor Aurelian. Zenobia’s heavy cavalry defeated and drove
from the field the Roman horse, but her infantry was unable to withstand
the charge of the legionaries, and she was totally defeated.


                        Antioch (First Crusade).

The city was besieged, October 21, 1097, by the Crusaders under Godefroi
de Bouillon, and defended by a Saracen garrison under Baghasian. The
siege was unskilfully conducted, and provisions and munitions ran short
in the Christian camp, with the result that the place held out till June
3, 1098, when it was taken by stratagem. An indiscriminate massacre
followed, in which 10,000 of the defenders perished. On the 28th of the
same month the Crusading army was attacked outside Antioch a force of
Saracens under Kirboga. Kirboga concentrated his attack against one wing
of the Christians, and outflanked it, but was then assailed by the main
body, and driven off with heavy loss.


                        Antium (War of Chiozza).

Fought May 30, 1378, when Vittorio Pisani, with 14 Venetian galleys,
defeated the Genoese fleet under Fieschi. The Genoese lost 6 ships, and
Fieschi was taken prisoner.


               Antwerp (Netherlands War of Independence).

This city was sacked by the Spaniards, November 4, 1576. It was defended
by 6,000 troops, mostly Walloons, who offered little resistance to the
5,600 Spaniards under Sancho d’Avila, who formed the attacking force.
Having effected an entrance, the Spaniards proceeded to massacre the
inhabitants, of whom 8,000 are said to have perished. This event is
known as the Spanish Fury.


                    Antwerp (Liberation of Belgium).

When Holland refused to recognize the London Protocol creating Belgium
into an independent State, the French laid siege to Antwerp, November,
1832. The city, which was defended by Chassé, held out till December 23,
when, the citadel being demolished by the French fire, it was forced to
capitulate.


                         Aong (Indian Mutiny).

Fought July 15, 1857, between the British relieving force under Havelock
and the mutineers who were opposing their advance on Cawnpore. The
rebels were defeated and driven from their entrenchments.


                      Aquae Sextiae (Cimbric War).

Fought B.C. 102, when the Teutones under the king Teutobod, were totally
routed by the Romans under Marius.


                      Aquidaban (Paraguayan War).

The last stand of the Paraguayans against the allied armies of the
Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Uruguay, May 1, 1870. Lopez, with a
small force of Paraguayans and 5,000 Indians, met the attack of the
allies under General Camera on the banks of the Aquidaban, and after a
sanguinary engagement, in which he and the Vice-President Sanchez fell,
his army was cut to pieces, and the war ended. During the war the
population of Paraguay was reduced from 1,500,000 to 221,000, of whom
only 29,000 were males over fifteen years of age.


                    Aquileia (Eugenius’ Usurpation).

Fought September 6 and 7, 394, between Theodosius, Emperor of the East,
and Eugenius, the usurping Emperor of the West, whose army was commanded
by Arbogastes. The first day’s fighting went against Theodosius, who was
only saved by darkness from a severe reverse, but during the night a
force sent by Arbogastes to secure the passes in Theodosius’ rear,
deserted to his standard, and thus reinforced and aided by a dust storm
which blew in the faces of his antagonists and disordered their ranks,
he on the following day gained a signal victory.


                       Aras (First Mahratta War).

Fought May 18, 1775, between Raghunath Rao, the claimant to the
Peshwaship, with 20,000 Mahrattas, and 2,500 British troops under
Colonel Keating, and the army of the Mahratta chieftains, 25,000 strong
under Hari Pant Phunhay. Raghunath’s undisciplined levies fled, and
threw the British line into confusion; but they rallied, and after hard
fighting repulsed the Mahrattas with heavy loss. The British lost 222,
including 11 officers.


                   Arausio (Fourth Gallic Invasion).

Fought B.C. 105, when the Gauls under Boiorix totally routed two
consular armies under Cæpio and Cn. Mallius Maximus. It is said that
80,000 Romans fell.


                 Arbela (Alexander’s Asiatic Campaign).

Fought October 31, 331 B.C., between 47,000 Macedonians under Alexander
the Great, and the Persian army, three or four times as numerous, under
Darius Codomannus. Alexander, who led the Macedonian right wing, forced
a passage between the Persian left and centre, and attacked the centre
on the flank. After a stubborn resistance, and though meanwhile the
Macedonian left had been hard pressed, the Persians gave way, and Darius
taking to flight, the whole army fled in confusion, and was routed with
enormous loss, especially at the passage of the Lycas, which barred
their retreat. This victory made Alexander master of Asia.


              Arcis-sur-Aube (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought March 21, 1814, between 23,000 French under Napoleon, and 60,000
allies under Schwartzenberg. The French made a gallant stand against
superior numbers, and in the end effected an orderly retreat, with a
loss of about 2,000. The allies’ losses were considerably heavier.


                 Arcola (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought November 15, 16, and 17, 1796, between the main Austrian army
under Alvinzi, and the French under Napoleon. Napoleon’s object was to
drive back Alvinzi before he could effect a junction with Davidowich,
who was descending from the Tyrol. The village of Arcola was occupied on
the 15th, after severe fighting, in which Napoleon was in great personal
danger on the bridge, but it was evacuated during the night. On the 16th
Napoleon again attacked the village, but the Austrians held their
ground. On the 17th he turned the position, and Davidowich still
remaining inactive, Alvinzi was driven back, with losses variously
estimated at from 8,000 to 18,000. The French also lost heavily.


                                 Arcot.

This fortress was captured by Clive, with a force of 200 Europeans and
300 Sepoys, in August, 1751. The garrison, 1,100 strong, offered no
resistance, but marched out on Clive’s approach. In the course of the
autumn Arcot was beleaguered by an army of 10,000 natives, and 150
Frenchmen under Chunda Sahib, the French nominee for the Nawabship of
Arcot. Against this overwhelming force, Clive, whose garrison had been
reduced by sickness to 120 Europeans, and less than 200 Sepoys, held out
for seven weeks, till the approach of a Mahratta army forced Chunda
Sahib to raise the siege. The garrison had 45 Europeans and 30 Sepoys
killed.


                     Argaum (Second Mahratta War).

Fought November 28, 1803, between the British under Wellesley (the Duke
of Wellington) and the forces of the Rajah of Berar, under Sindhia of
Gwalior. Three of Wellesley’s battalions, which had previously fought
well, on this occasion broke and fled, and the situation was at one time
very serious. Wellesley, however, succeeded in rallying them, and in the
end defeated the Mahrattas, with the loss of all their guns and baggage.
The British lost 346 killed and wounded. This victory ended the Second
Mahratta War.


                 Argentaria (Invasion of the Alemanni).

Fought May, 378, between the Romans under Gratianus and the Alemanni
under Priarius. The Alemanni were overwhelmed by the Roman legionaries,
though they stood their ground bravely, and only 5,000 escaped from the
field. Priarius was slain.


                             Argentoratum.

Fought August, 357, between 13,000 Romans under Julian, and a vastly
superior army of Alemanni under Chnodomar. The Romans attacked the
German lines shortly before night-fall, after a long march, and though
the right wing, under Julian, was at first driven in, they were rallied
by their general, and the left and centre pressing on, the Alemanni were
totally routed, with a loss of 6,000, in addition to those who fell in
the flight. The Romans lost 4 tribunes and 243 soldiers only. Chnodomar
was taken prisoner.


                     Arginusæ (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 406, between 150 Athenian triremes under Thrasyllus and
other generals, and 120 Peloponnesian ships under Callicratidas. The
Peloponnesians were routed, with a loss of 70 vessels, sunk or taken,
and Callicratidas slain. The Athenians lost 25 ships with their crews,
and the generals were brought to trial for not having taken proper steps
to rescue the men of the disabled ships. They were convicted, and six of
them, including Thrasyllus, executed. This victory temporarily restored
to Athens the command of the sea.


                   Argos (Roman Invasion of Greece).

Fought B.C. 195, between Nabis of Sparta, with 15,000 men, and 50,000
Romans and Macedonians under Flaminius. Nabis was totally defeated, and
though allowed to retain Sparta, was compelled to restore to the Achæan
league all his foreign possessions.


                      Arikera (Second Mysore War).

Fought May 13, 1791, between the British under Lord Cornwallis, and the
forces of Tippu Sahib. The latter was encamped between Arikera and
Seringapatam, and was attacked by Cornwallis, who attempted to surprise
him by a night march, but was foiled by heavy rain. A frontal attack on
Tippu’s position was, however, successful, and, aided by a flank
movement under Maxwell, resulted in the total defeat of the Mysore
troops, with a loss of over 2,000. The British loss amounted to 500.
This is also known as the battle of Carigat.


                              Arius, The.

Fought B.C. 214, between the Syrians under Antiochus the Great, and the
Parthians and Bactrians under Arsaces III, and Euthydemus. Antiochus was
severely wounded, but remained at the head of his troops, and completely
routed the enemy with enormous loss.


                     Arkenholm (Douglas Rebellion).

Fought May 12, 1455, between the troops of James II of Scotland and the
rebels under the Douglas brothers. The rebels were completely defeated.
Archibald Douglas was killed, Hugh captured, and James, Earl of Douglas,
forced to take refuge in England.


                       Arklow (Irish Rebellion).

Fought 1798, when General Needham, with about 1,400 Militia and
Volunteers, defended the town from the attack of 27,000 rebels led by
Father John Murphy. The rebels were beaten off with great slaughter, and
their intended advance on Dublin prevented.


                        Armada, The Invincible.

The fight with the Spanish Armada in the Channel began on Sunday, July
21, 1588, and lasted with intervals until the 30th. The Armada consisted
of 130 ships, many of large size, under the command of the Duke of
Medina Sidonia. The English fleet numbered 197 in all, but only 34 were
Queen’s ships, and of these but 8 were over 600 tons burden. Lord Howard
of Effingham commanded, with Drake and Hawkins as his lieutenants. The
English vessels hung on to the flanks of the Spanish ships as they
sailed up channel, harassing them in every way, and doing considerable
damage, until the Armada anchored in Calais roads. Here many of their
finest vessels were captured or destroyed by fire-ships, and finally on
the 30th, Medina Sidonia decided to attempt to escape northwards. His
fleet was scattered by storms, and many wrecked on the Scotch and Irish
coasts, and in the end only about one-half of the Armada returned to
Spain.


                                 Arnee.

Fought 1751, shortly after the relief of Arcot, between 900 British
troops, under Clive, with 600 Mahratta horse under Basin Rao, and a
French force of 4,800, including 300 Europeans, who were in charge of a
convoy of treasure. Clive took up a position in swampy ground, crossed
by a causeway along which the convoy must pass. The French were thrown
into disorder, and forced to retreat, but night saved them from complete
destruction. The treasure was captured.


                       Arnee (First Mysore War).

An indecisive action fought June 7, 1782, between the British under Sir
Eyre Coote, and the Mysore troops under Hyder Ali.


                       Arques (Eighth Civil War).

Fought September 23, 1589, between 5,000 Huguenots under Henri IV, and
30,000 Leaguers under the Duc de Mayenne. Henri had taken up a strong
position, defended by marshy ground, and of such a nature that Mayenne
could only bring against the king 5,000 troops at a time, thus
neutralizing the disparity of numbers. He repulsed attack after attack,
with heavy loss to the assailants, and eventually Mayenne was forced to
withdraw, with the loss of about half his army.


                         Arrah (Indian Mutiny).

A house in Arrah was, in 1857, defended by Mr. Boyle, with 16 Englishmen
and 60 Sikh police, against the attacks of three revolted native
regiments, led by a Zemindar named Kur Singh. This small garrison held
out from July 25 till August 3, when they were relieved by a small field
force under Major Vincent Eyre.


                       Arras (Wars of Louis XIV).

This place, held by a French garrison, was besieged August, 1654, by the
Spaniards under the Great Condé. On the 24th a relieving army under
Turenne attacked the Spanish lines, and totally routed them with a loss
of 3,000 men. Condé succeeded in rallying the remainder of his army, and
made a masterly retreat to Cambray.


                        Arretium (Etruscan War).

Fought B.C. 283, when the consular army of L. Cæcilius Metellus,
marching to the relief of Arretium, which the Etruscans were besieging,
met with a disastrous defeat. Thirteen thousand, including Metellus,
were slain, and the rest made prisoners.


             Arroyo Grande (Uruguayan War of Independence).

Fought 1842, between the Argentine troops under Oribe, and the
Uruguayans under Ribera. Ribera was totally defeated, and Oribe
proceeded to lay siege to Montevideo.


                        Arsouf (Third Crusade).

Fought 1192, between the English Crusaders under Richard Cœur de
Lion, and the Saracens, 300,000 strong under Saladin. The Saracens made
a desperate onslaught on the English, and both their wings gave way, but
the centre under the king stood firm and finally drove back the Moslems
in great disorder, with a loss of 40,000 men.


                        Ascalon (First Crusade).

Fought August 19, 1099, between the Crusaders under Godefroi de
Bouillon, and the Saracens under Kilidj Arslan. The Crusaders gained a
signal victory, and for a time the Moslem resistance to the Christian
occupation of the Holy Land came to an end.


                 Asculum (Pyrrhus’ Invasion of Italy).

Fought B.C. 279, between 45,000 Romans under Sulpicius Saverrio and P.
Decius Mus, and the Epirots, with their Italian allies, in about equal
force. The Romans fought to raise the siege of Asculum, but were finally
routed by the Epirot cavalry and elephants, and driven back to their
camp with a loss of 6,000. The Epirots lost 3,000.


                         Asculum (Social War).

Fought B.C. 89, between 75,000 Romans under Strabo, who was besieging
the town, and 60,000 Italians under Judacilius, who had marched to its
relief. The Romans were victorious, but Judacilius succeeded in throwing
a considerable portion of his army into the beleaguered city.


                       Ashdown (Danish Invasion).

Fought 871, between the West Saxons under Æthelred and the Danes under
Bag Secg and Halfdene. Largely owing to the brilliant leading of Alfred
(the Great), who commanded one of the wings, the Danes, after a
desperate conflict, which lasted throughout the day, were finally put to
flight, having lost one of their kings and five jarls.


                      Ashtee (Third Mahratta War).

Fought February 19, 1818, between the army of the Peshwá, Baji Rao,
under Gokla, and the British under General Smith. The Peshwá fled before
the action began, and Gokla, charging at the head of his cavalry, was
killed, whereupon the Mahrattas broke and fled in confusion.


                     Asirghur (Third Mahratta War).

This fortress, held by Jeswunt Rao, with a strong Mahratta garrison, was
besieged by a British force under Sir John Malcolm and General Doveton,
March 18, 1819. On the 21st the garrison was driven into the upper fort,
and after a continuous bombardment, Jeswunt Rao surrendered April 7. The
British loss during the siege was 313 killed and wounded; that of the
garrison somewhat less.


                       Askultsik (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1828, between 30,000 Turks and the Russians, 17,000 strong, under
General Paskiewitch. The Turks were routed, and their camp, with all
artillery and baggage, captured. Paskiewitch then laid siege to the
town, which was defended by a garrison of 50,000 men, and after a siege
of three weeks, carried it by storm, August 28.


                               Aspendus.

Fought B.C. 191, between the Syrian fleet of Antiochus the Great, under
Hannibal, and a Rhodian squadron under Eudamus. Though Hannibal was in
superior force, he suffered a severe defeat.


                      Aspern (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought May 21 and 22, 1809, between 36,000 French under Napoleon, and
70,000 Austrians under the Archduke Charles. The battle commenced about
four p.m. on the 21st by an attack on the French position at Aspern, and
at nightfall the Austrians had established a lodgment in the village. On
the 22nd, both armies having been reinforced during the night, the
combat was renewed round Aspern, which was taken and retaken ten times,
while Essling was the scene of an equally desperate conflict. Towards
evening the bridge by which Napoleon had crossed the Danube was swept
away, and Napoleon was compelled to retire. Each side lost about 20,000
men, and both claimed the victory. Among the French who fell were
Marshal Lannes and General St. Hilaire.


                    Aspromonte (Garibaldi’s Rising).

Fought August 29, 1862, between a small force of “Red Shirts” under
Garibaldi, and the royal troops under General Pallavicini. After a short
engagement, in which Garibaldi was wounded, the “Red Shirts,” largely
outnumbered and surrounded, laid down their arms.


                      Assandun (Danish Invasion).

The last of the five battles fought in 1016 between the English under
Edmund Ironside and the Danish invaders under Knut. Owing to the
treachery of Ædric, who crossed over with the Hereford men in the course
of the battle, the English were defeated, and shortly afterwards Knut
was proclaimed King of England.


                      Assaye (First Mahratta War).

Fought September 23, 1803, when General Wellesley (the Duke of
Wellington) with 4,500 British and native troops routed the army of
Sindhia of Gwalior, over 30,000 strong. All the camp equipment and 100
guns were taken. The Duke always considered this the bloodiest action,
for the numbers engaged, that he ever witnessed. The British loss
amounted to 1,566, or more than one-third of Wellesley’s entire force.


                               Astrakhan.

Siege was laid to this town, 1569, by the Turks under Selim II, who
required it as a base for his projected invasion of Persia. It was held
by a small Russian garrison, which made an obstinate defence, and was
finally relieved by an army despatched to its assistance by Ivan the
Terrible, which attacked the Turkish lines, and utterly routed them.


                     Atahualpa (Conquest of Peru).

Fought 1531, between 160 Spaniards under Pizarro, and 30,000 Peruvians,
forming the escort of the Inca, Manco-Capac. The battle was nothing but
a butchery, Pizarro, who had invited the Inca to visit him, falling upon
the unsuspecting Peruvians, seizing Manco-Capac, and slaughtering 4,000
men, without the loss of a single Spaniard.


                       Atbara (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought April 8, 1898, between the British and Egyptian army, 14,000
strong, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 18,000 Mahdists under Mahmad.
The Mahdists occupied an entrenched zareeba on the Atbara, where they
were attacked and utterly routed, with a loss in the zareeba of 5,000
killed and 1,000 prisoners, while many more fell in the pursuit. Mahmad
was captured. The Anglo-Egyptian losses were 570 killed and wounded,
including 29 British officers.


                     Athenry (Conquest of Ireland).

Fought 1316 between the English under William de Burgh and Richard de
Bermingham, and the O’Connors under their chieftain, Feidlim. The
O’Connors were defeated, 11,000 of the sept falling in the battle. This
is the last appearance of the O’Connors as a clan in Irish history.


                             Atherton Moor.

_See_ Adwalton Moor.


                               Auerstadt.

_See_ Jena.


                               Augsburg.

Fought 900, between the Germans and the invading Hungarians. The
Christians fought gallantly, but were overwhelmed by the numbers of the
barbarian cavalry, and in the end suffered a signal defeat.


                         Auldearn (Civil War).

Fought May 9, 1645, when Montrose and his Highlanders defeated a largely
superior force of Covenanters under Sir John Hurry, who was marching
northward to raid the lands of the Gordons.


                                 Auray.

Fought September 27, 1364, between the partisans of John de Montfort,
and those of Charles of Blois, the rival claimants to the Dukedom of
Brittany. The English party, under Sir John Chandos, were besieging
Auray, when they were attacked by the French, who were led by Bertrand
du Guesclin. Chandos’ position, however, was very strong, and the French
were unable to make any impression upon it. Meanwhile they were thrown
into utter confusion by an attack on their flank, and were ultimately
routed, with heavy loss, Charles of Blois being among the slain.
Bertrand du Guesclin was captured. De Montfort was shortly afterwards
acknowledged by Charles V of France as Duke of Brittany.


                         Aussig (Hussite War).

Fought 1426, between the Germans under the Emperor Sigismund, and the
Taborites, the extreme section of the Hussites, under John Zisca. The
Germans were signally defeated.


                  Austerlitz (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought December 2, 1805, between 50,000 Russians and 25,000 Austrians
under Kutusoff, and 75,000 French under Napoleon. An attempt to turn the
French flank failed, and led to the left of the allies being entirely
cut off from their centre. Their left and centre were thus beaten in
detail, and the right, which had at first held its own, was surrounded,
and driven in disorder across a partially frozen lake, where many
perished. The allies lost 20,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, and a
large number of guns. The French lost about 5,000. The battle is called
the Battle of the Three Emperors, those of Russia, Austria, and France
being all present with their respective armies.


                         Avaricum (Gallic War).

This place was made the headquarters of the revolted Gauls under
Vercingetorix, B.C. 53, and was besieged by Cæsar, with 50,000 Romans.
The place was strongly defended, but supplies ran short, and
Vercingetorix attempted to withdraw his troops. In this he was
unsuccessful, and the Romans, delivering a vigorous assault, took
possession of the town, and massacred the garrison and inhabitants.


                     Avus (Second Macedonian War).

Fought B.C. 198, between 20,000 Macedonians under Philip, and two Roman
legions under T. Quinctius Flamininus. A force of 4,000 legionaries
penetrated to the rear of Philip’s camp, and when Flamininus attacked in
front, they fell upon the Macedonian rear, and completely routed them,
with a loss of 2,000.


                       Axarquia (War of Granada).

Fought March 20, 1483, between a Spanish force of 3,000 knights, and
about 2,000 infantry, under the Marquis of Cadiz, and a strong Moorish
force under Abul Hasan. The Spaniards were marching through the defile
of Axarquia, on their way to attack Malaga, when they were assailed in
front and flank, and totally routed, losing 800 killed and 1,600
prisoners. Among the killed were 400 men of rank.


             Ayacucho (South American War of Independence).

Fought December 9, 1824, between the South American patriots, 5,780
strong, under Sucre, and the Spaniards, 9,310 in number, under Laserna.
The latter were routed with a loss of 2,100 killed and wounded, and over
3,500 prisoners, including Laserna, in addition to 15 guns. The Patriots
lost 979. This engagement, which is also known as the Battle of
Candorcanqui, practically decided the question of South American
independence.


                      Aylesford (Jutish Invasion).

Fought 456, between the Jutes under Hengist and Horsa, and the Britons
under Vortigern. Horsa was slain in the battle, but the Jutes were
victorious.


                       Azimghur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought April 15, 1858, between a British column, composed of three
regiments of infantry and three of Sikh cavalry, under Sir Edward
Layard, and the Dinapur mutineers, about 5,000 strong, under Kur Singh.
The rebels were routed and dispersed, Kur Singh falling mortally
wounded.


                                Azores.

In 1591, a fleet of 7 ships under Lord Thomas Howard was driven from
Floris by the Spanish fleet under Don Alfonso Bassano. The action was
chiefly remarkable for the gallant fight made by Sir Richard Grenville
in the _Revenge_, which maintained an unequal struggle for nine hours,
when her gallant commander was mortally wounded, and she surrendered at
daybreak.



                                   B


                       Badajos (Peninsular War).

On March 17, 1812, this fortress, held by a garrison of French, Hessians
and Spaniards, 5,000 strong, under Phillipon, was invested by
Wellington. The breaches were declared to be practicable on April 5, and
an assault was ordered. After terrible slaughter, the town was taken,
with a loss to the assailants of 3,500, the total British losses during
the siege exceeding 5,000. Fearful excesses were committed after the
assault, and for two days the troops were completely out of hand.


                    Baduli-ki-Serai (Indian Mutiny).

Fought June 8, 1857, when a British force, under Sir Henry Barnard,
defeated a large body of mutineers, who were opposing their march to
Delhi. All the rebels’ guns were captured.


                Bagdad (Tartar Invasion of Mesopotamia).

This city was captured by the Tartars under Tamerlane, July 23, 1401.


               Bagradas (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 49, between the Cæsareans under Curio and the Numidians
under Juba and Saburra, who adhered to the fortunes of Pompey. The Roman
cavalry was cut to pieces, before the legionaries could come to its
assistance, and eventually the Romans were surrounded, and cut down to a
man, Curio being amongst the slain. This victory left the Pompeians
masters of Africa.


                       Bahur (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August, 1752, between the French, numbering 2,500, including
natives, under M. Kirkjean, and 2,000 British troops, with 4,000 of
Mohammed Ali’s levies, under Major Lawrence. The French were totally
defeated, losing heavily in men, guns and stores. This victory
determined the Mahrattas, who were wavering, to throw in their lot with
the British.


                        Balaclava (Crimean War).

Fought October 25, 1854, between 30,000 Russians under Prince
Mentschikoff, and the British under Lord Raglan. The Russians, having
driven the Turks from their redoubts at Kadikoi, entered the valley of
Balaclava, where they were encountered and driven back by the Heavy
Cavalry Brigade under General Scarlett. Later in the day, acting under a
mistaken order, Lord Cardigan at the head of the Light Brigade, charged
the Russian guns at the head of the valley, and captured their
batteries. Being, however, shelled from all sides, he was compelled to
retire with heavy loss. Of this famous feat of arms, General Pelissier
is reported to have said, “C’est magnifique, mais ce n’est pas la
guerre.” Another feature of this singular battle was the repulse by the
Highland Brigade, in line, of a charge of the Russian cavalry. The
British losses were small, except in the case of the Light Brigade,
whose casualties amounted to 272 out of 673 who took part in the charge.


                   Balls Bluff (American Civil War).

Fought October 21, 1861, between the Federals under General Stone, and
the Confederates under General Evans. The Federals crossed the Potomac
to attack the Southern position, but were repulsed, and driven back over
the river in confusion losing 1,100 killed and wounded, 700 prisoners
and the only three guns which they had succeeded in taking across. The
Confederates lost 155 only.


                      Ballymore (Irish Rebellion).

Fought June 3, 1798, when Colonel Walpole, with 500 Royal troops, on the
march to Enniscorthy, was surprised and overpowered by a body of rebels
under Father Murphy. Walpole and the majority of his force were cut to
pieces.


                    Baltimore (Second American War).

This city was attacked September 11, 1814, by a British fleet of ten
sail, under Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, and a land force of 3,270
under General Ross, who fell during the action. The Americans, 17,000
strong, under General Winder, were defeated, but the British retired on
the evening of the 13th. The British lost 46 killed and 300 wounded, the
Americans, 20 killed, 90 wounded, and 200 prisoners.


                 Bamian (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This city was invested by the Mongols under Genghiz Khan in 1221, and
after an obstinate defence, lasting several months, was taken by storm.
Genghiz, who had seen a favourite grandson killed during the progress of
the siege, gave orders that neither woman nor child was to be spared,
and the whole city with its inhabitants was wiped out.


                         Banda (Indian Mutiny).

Fought April 19, 1858, between a force of rather over 1,000 British
troops under General Whitlock, and 7,000 mutineers under the Nawab of
Banda. After an obstinate conflict the rebels were totally routed.


             Banda Islands (Wars of the French Revolution).

These islands, forming part of the Dutch East Indian possessions, were
captured March 8, 1796, by a British squadron under Admiral Peter
Rainier.


                     Bands, The (Danish Invasion).

Fought 961, between the Scots under their king, Indulph, and the Danish
pirates. The Danes were defeated, but Indulph fell in the battle.


                     Bangalore (Second Mysore War).

This place was besieged by the British under Lord Cornwallis, March 5,
1791, and notwithstanding numerous efforts to relieve it on the part of
Tippu Sahib, it was taken by storm on the night of the 21st, Tippu’s
final attempt being beaten off by the reserve with heavy loss. The
British casualties were few.


                      Bannockburn (Scottish Wars).

Fought June 24, 1314, between the Scots under Robert Bruce, and the
English invaders under Edward II. Bruce’s position was partly covered by
a marsh, and further strengthened by pitfalls, in which the English
cavalry were entrapped, and defeated with great loss. The king escaped
with difficulty and the invasion was abandoned.


                      Bapaume (Franco-German War).

Fought January 3, 1871, between the French under General Faidherbe, and
the Germans under Von Goeben. The result was indecisive, and though the
French gained some tactical successes, the result strategically was an
advantage to the Germans, as General Faidherbe was compelled to desist
from his attempt to raise the siege of Péronne. The Germans lost 52
officers and 698 men; the French 53 officers and 1516 men killed and
wounded, and 550 prisoners.


          Barbosthenian Mountains (Wars of the Achæan League).

Fought 192 B.C. between the Spartans under Narbis, and the Achæan League
under Philopœmen. Nabis was totally routed, with the loss of
three-fourths of his troops.


               Barcelona (War of the Spanish Succession).

This city, which was held for Philip V of Spain by a Spanish garrison,
was besieged September 14, 1705, by the British under the Earl of
Peterborough. After a short bombardment, the place surrendered, October
9.


                      Barnet (Wars of the Roses).

Fought April 14, 1471, between the Yorkists under Edward IV, and the
Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick. Warwick prepared to attack the
king as he issued from Barnet, but Edward came out during the night and
took up a position opposite Warwick unseen. The left of the Yorkists was
outflanked and beaten, but their right outflanked and defeated the
Lancastrian left, and then fell upon and routed the centre. Warwick was
slain. The losses on the two sides are said to have amounted in all to
1,000 killed.


                        Barosa (Peninsular War).

In the course of the operations for the relief of Cadiz, General Graham,
with 4,000 British troops, defeated Marshal Victor with 9,000 French,
March 5, 1811. The French lost 2,000 killed and wounded, including two
generals, 6 guns, 2 eagles, and 400 prisoners. The British losses
amounted to 50 officers and 1,160 rank and file. A large Spanish force
under La Peña stood idly by, and took no part in the action.


           Barquisimeto (South American War of Independence).

Fought 1813, between the Colombian patriots under Simon Bolivar, and the
Spanish Royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.


                       Basing (Danish Invasion).

A victory of the Danish invaders in 871 over the West Saxons.


                Bassano (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought September 8, 1796, when Napoleon, who had on the previous day
destroyed the Austrian vanguard at Primolano, fell upon the main body of
Wurmser’s army. The assault on the town of Bassano was delivered by
Augereau’s division on the right, and Masséna’s on the left, and the
French utterly routed the Austrians, Wurmser narrowly escaping capture.
Six thousand men laid down their arms, and when Wurmser collected his
scattered forces, he had but 16,000 left out of the 60,000 with which he
had commenced the campaign.


                     Bassein (First Mahratta War).

This place, held by a Mahratta garrison, was besieged by a British force
under General Goddard, November 13, 1780. A serious attempt was made to
relieve the garrison, but the defeat of the relieving force by Colonel
Hartley at Dugaar, on December 10, completely discouraged the defenders,
and they surrendered on the following day.


                        Bassorah (Arab Revolt).

Fought in 665 between the Caliph Ali, at the head of 29,000 Moslems, and
the rebel Arabs in superior force, under Telha and Zobin. The rebels
were defeated with heavy loss, Telha and Zobin being slain, and Ayesha,
the widow of the prophet, who had espoused their cause, captured. This
victory is known to Moslems as the Day of the Camel, 70 men, who in
succession held the bridle of the camel on which Ayesha was mounted,
being killed in the fight which raged round her.


                       Batavia (Napoleonic Wars).

This town was captured by the British under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, with
10,000 troops, August 26, 1811. The French and Dutch garrison had
abandoned the town, and occupied a strong position at Fort Cornelius, in
the immediate neighbourhood. The British stormed the entrenchments, with
a loss of 872 killed and wounded, whereupon the survivors of the
garrison laid down their arms.


                   Batoche (Riel’s Second Rebellion).

Fought May 9 to 12, 1885, when 750 Canadians under General Middleton
gradually drove back and finally defeated Riel’s force of half-breeds
and Indians, with a loss of 224. The Canadians lost only 54 killed and
wounded. Riel surrendered on the 15th.


                               Batowitz.

Fought 1653 between 40,000 Poles under John II, and the Wallachians
under Bogdan. The Poles, who were waiting to intercept the passage of
the Wallachians, were thrown into disorder by a furious charge headed by
Bogdan in person, and almost completely annihilated.


                     Bautzen (Campaign of Leipzic).

Fought May 20 and 21, 1813, between 150,000 French under Napoleon, and
the Prussians and Russians, 100,000 strong, under Blucher and Count
Wittgenstein. The allies were strongly posted in and around Bautzen,
while their front was protected by the Spree. On the 20th Napoleon
forced the passage of the Spree, and seized Bautzen after severe
fighting, driving the allies from their first line of defence. On the
22nd he attacked the second line, while a flank march of Ney’s corps
drove in their right flank, and captured all their positions. The allies
retired in good order, lack of cavalry preventing Napoleon from pushing
his advantage. The allies lost 15,000 killed and wounded in the two
days; the French, 1,300.


                          Bavay (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 57 between the Romans, 50,000 strong, under Cæsar, and a
large force of Gauls, drawn from the Nervii, Viromandui, Atrebates and
other tribes. The Gauls attacked as the Romans were pitching their camp
on the banks of the Sambre, but, although surprised, the legionaries
stood their ground, and utterly routed their assailants. The Nervii, in
particular, were practically annihilated.


                        Baylen (Peninsular War).

Fought July 19, 1808, between 15,000 Spaniards under Castaños, and
20,000 French under Dupont. The French were totally defeated with a loss
of over 2,000 men, and Dupont surrendered with his whole army.


                         Baza (War of Granada).

This fortress, one of the outposts of Granada, was besieged by
Ferdinand, with 95,000 Spaniards, in June 1489, and was defended by a
strong Moorish garrison under Sidi Yahye. The town was very strong, and
was gallantly defended, and the siege lasted until December, when the
place was surrendered on honourable terms.


                  Beachy Head (War of the Revolution).

A naval action fought June 30, 1690, between a combined English and
Dutch fleet of 73 sail under Torrington, and a French fleet of 78 ships
under de Tourville, which had been despatched to create a diversion in
favour of James II in Ireland. The allies were defeated, the Dutch
losing six and the British one ship.


                      Beaugé (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought March 22, 1421, between the English under the Duke of Clarence,
and the Armagnacs, aided by the Scottish mercenaries, resulting in one
of the few defeats sustained by the English during the French wars. The
Duke and his immediate following, charging ahead of his troops,
vigorously attacked the Scottish outposts, and, becoming separated from
the main body, was surrounded and slain, all his gentlemen being either
killed or captured. The bodies were afterwards recovered by the English
archers, but the defeat was complete.


                     Beaumont (Franco-German War).

Fought August 30, 1870, between the Fifth French Corps d’Armée under
General de Failly, and the Fourth and Twelfth German Army Corps under
the Crown Prince of Saxony. The French were surprised in their
cantonments, and were driven back upon Monzon, with a loss of 4,800 men
and 42 guns. The Germans lost about 3,500.


                 Beaune-la-Rolande (Franco-German War).

Fought November 28, 1870, between 9,000 Germans under the Grand Duke of
Mecklenburg, and 60,000 French under General Crouzat. The French
assailed the German position, but, notwithstanding the disparity of
numbers, the Germans succeeded in maintaining their ground, after a
desperate encounter, driving off their assailants with a loss of 8,000
men. The Germans lost 37 officers and 817 men only.


                     Beauséjour (Seven Years’ War).

This fort in Nova Scotia, held by a garrison of 460 men under Duchambon
de Vergor, was invested June 4, 1755, by 2,000 Massachusetts volunteers
and a small force of regulars under Colonel Monckton. On the 14th the
besiegers opened fire, and on the 16th the garrison surrendered.


                          Beaver’s Dam Creek.

_See_ Seven Days’ Battle.


                Bedr (Mohammed’s War with the Koreish).

Fought in 623, and notable as the first military exploit of Mohammed,
who, with only 313 followers, routed a force of 950 Koreish, who had
been sent out to meet and protect a caravan of 1,000 camels, with which
was their chief, Abu Sophian. After his victory, Mohammed pursued and
captured the caravan.


                    Bedriacum (Revolt of Vitellius).

Fought April 14, 69, between the legions of the Emperor Otho and the
Vitellians under Valens. The Imperial troops were utterly routed, and
driven back to their camp, which they surrendered to the Vitellians on
the following day.


                          Bega (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1696, between the Turks, under Mustapha II, and the Imperialists,
when the Turks gained a complete victory.


                        Belgrade (Ottoman Wars).

Siege was laid to this city by a large Turkish army under Mohammed II,
the defence being in the hands of John Hunyady. After a gallant
resistance of 40 days, the Turks were compelled to raise the siege,
September 4, 1456. This was Hunyady’s last exploit, and he died a month
later. Mohammed was wounded in the course of the siege.


                        Belgrade (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 16, 1717, between 40,000 Austrians under Prince Eugene,
and 180,000 Turks under the Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pasha. The Turks were
entrenched in and around Belgrade, and were attacked by Eugene at night.
His right wing lost touch and were in danger of being overwhelmed, but
was rescued by the Prince. The main attack was completely successful,
and the Turks were driven out of their positions with a loss of 20,000
killed and wounded, and 166 guns. The Austrians lost almost as heavily,
among those who fell being Marshal Hauben.


                        Belgrade (Ottoman Wars).

On October 8, 1789, the city was surrendered by the Turks, after a brief
siege, to an Austrian army under General Laudon.


                     Belle Isle (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 20, 1759, between a British fleet of 27 ships of the
line and 6 frigates under Sir Edward Hawke, and a French fleet of 20
ships of the line and 6 frigates under Admiral de Conflans. The French
were completely defeated, losing 6 ships and a large number of men. The
British lost 2 ships ashore, and 58 killed and 251 wounded.


                     Belle Isle (Seven Years’ War).

On June 7, 1761, the island was captured by 8,000 British troops under
General Hodgson, convoyed by the fleet under Admiral Keppel. After a
first repulse, the troops made good their landing, and the garrison of
Palais, the principal town, at once capitulated.


              Belle Isle (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 23, 1795, between a British fleet of 17 battleships under
Lord Bridport, and a French squadron. The French endeavoured to escape,
but the British gave chase, and captured three ships, with a loss of 3
killed and 113 wounded. The French lost about 700.


                     Bellevue (Franco-German War).

Fought October 7, 1870, when Marshal Bazaine attempted to break through
the lines of the Germans investing Metz. He was unsuccessful, and was
driven back into the city with a loss of 64 officers and 1,193 men. The
Germans lost 75 officers and 1,703 men.


                       Belmont (Second Boer War).

Fought November 23, 1899, between a Boer commando, about 3,000 strong,
occupying a strong position on the hills near Belmont, and Lord
Methuen’s division of 7½ battalions of infantry and a regiment of
cavalry. The Boer position was carried by a frontal attack, which cost
the assailants 28 officers and 270 men. The Boers lost about 300 killed
and wounded, and 50 prisoners.


                    Benburb (Great Irish Rebellion).

Fought June 5, 1646, when 5,500 Irish rebels under O’Neill, totally
routed the Scottish army under Monro. The Scots left 3,000 dead upon the
field, and the fugitives were ruthlessly butchered by the Irish in their
flight.


                         Bender (Ottoman Wars).

This place, held by a Turkish garrison, was besieged by the Russians
under Count Panin, August, 1768. After a defence of two months, the
place was taken by storm, and the garrison put to the sword.


                       Benevento (Italian Wars).

Fought February 26, 1266, between the Neapolitans, under Mainfroy, the
usurper of the crown of the Two Sicilies, and the French under Charles
of Anjou. After a sanguinary engagement, in which Mainfroy was slain,
the Neapolitans were utterly routed, and Charles of Anjou remained in
undisputed possession of the throne.


                Beneventum (Pyrrhus’ Invasion of Italy).

Fought B.C. 275, when Pyrrhus with a strong force of Epirots and
Italians made a night attack upon the consular army of M. Carius
Dentatus, encamped in a strong position near Beneventum. Pyrrhus was
repulsed with considerable loss, including eight elephants. Encouraged
by this success, the Romans shortly afterwards advanced to meet Pyrrhus
in the open plain, and were at first driven back by the elephants, but
rallying, they drove these back through Pyrrhus’ lines, and disordered
the Epirot phalanx, and a charge of the legionaries completed the rout.
This was Pyrrhus’ last serious attack against the Roman power, and he
soon afterwards left Italy.


                     Beneventum (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 214, between 18,000 Carthaginians under Hanno, and 20,000
Romans under Tiberius Gracchus. Hanno’s troops were routed, his infantry
being cut to pieces, and he himself escaping with difficulty, with a
portion of his cavalry.


                     Beneventum (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 212, when a Roman consular army under Cn. Fulvius, stormed
Hanno’s camp, three miles from Beneventum, at daybreak, and surprising
the Carthaginians, routed them with heavy loss and captured all the corn
and supplies intended for the revictualling of Capua.


               Bennington (American War of Independence).

Fought August 10, 1777, between a British force under Colonel Baum, and
the New Hampshire troops under General Stark. Baum had been ordered to
seize the American magazines at Bennington, but found the place too
strong, and asked for reinforcements. Meanwhile they were surrounded and
attacked by Stark. The British fought till their ammunition was
exhausted and then surrendered, while Baum was killed trying to cut his
way through the American lines.


                          Berea (Kaffir Wars).

Fought December 20, 1852, between the British under General Cathcart,
about 2,500 strong, and the Basutos, many thousands in number, under
Moshesh. The British, after hard fighting, succeeded in holding their
ground, but were obliged on the following day to retreat to the
entrenched camp on the Caledon, having suffered a loss of 37 killed and
15 wounded.


                      Beresina (Moscow Campaign).

On November 28, 1812, the French Grande Armée, in retreat from Moscow,
was attacked by the Russians under Tchitchakoff and Wittgenstein. The
former on the right bank, assailed Napoleon, who had already crossed the
river, while Wittgenstein attacked Victor’s corps, which formed the
French rear-guard. The attack on Napoleon was repulsed, but on the other
side of the river the Russian onslaught caused a panic among those who
were waiting to cross, and though the rear-guard made a brave
resistance, the losses among the stragglers and others were enormous.
The official Russian report says that 36,000 bodies were recovered from
the Beresina after the thaw.


                              Berestecko.

Fought 1653, between the Poles 100,000 strong under John II, and a large
army of Wallachians, Lithuanians, and Ukraine Tartars, 300,000 in all,
under Bogdan of Wallachia. After a sanguinary battle, the Poles were
completely victorious, defeating Bogdan with enormous loss.


                       Bergen (Seven Years’ War).

Fought April 13, 1759, between the French under the Duc de Broglie, and
the Hanoverians, about 40,000 strong, under Ferdinand of Brunswick. The
French gained a signal victory, and retained possession of Bergen, the
recapture of which was the object of Ferdinand’s advance.


            Bergen-op-Zoom (War of the Austrian Succession).

This fortress, held by a garrison of Dutch and English under Cronstrun,
was besieged July 15, 1747, by 25,000 French under Count Lowendahl. The
besieged made numerous vigorous sorties, inflicting heavy losses upon
the French, but on September 17 the besiegers, by an unexpected assault,
effected a lodgment, and after severe fighting captured the place. The
French lost 22,000 men during the siege; the garrison 4,000. A Scottish
brigade in the Dutch service specially distinguished itself, losing
1,120 out of a strength of 1,450.


            Bergen-op-Zoom (Wars of the French Revolution).

On March 8, 1875, Bergen, which was held by a French garrison 6,000
strong, under General Bizonet, was attacked by a British force, 4,000
strong under General Cooke. The force was divided into four columns, one
of which, approaching the town from the harbour side, at low water,
effected an entrance, while two of the others gained the top of the
battlements but could get no further. At dawn on the 9th, as there was
no prospect of ultimate success, the assailants retired, having suffered
a loss of 300 killed and 1,800 prisoners, many of whom were wounded.


            Bergen-op-Zoom (Wars of the French Revolution).

In the outskirts of the town a battle took place September 19, 1799,
between 35,000 British and Russians under the Duke of York, and the
French under Vandamme. The Russians on the right met with disaster,
their commander, Hermann, with nearly all his division, being taken
prisoners, but the British repulsed the French attack with heavy loss.
The victory, however, was not of much advantage to the allies, who were
forced to continue their retreat to Zijp. The French lost about 3,000
killed and wounded, and the British 500 only, but the Russian casualties
amounted to 3,500, while they also lost 26 guns.


                   Bergfried (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought February 3, 1807, when Leval’s division of Soult’s corps forced
the bridge of Bergfried, and carried the village, driving out the
Russians after a short and sharp encounter, with a loss of about 1,200
men. The French lost 700.


                Béthune (War of the Spanish Succession).

This small fortress, held by a French garrison of 3,500 under M. du Puy
Vauban, was invested July 14, 1707, by the Imperialists, with 30
battalions under Count Schulemburg. Vauban made a most skilful and
gallant defence, lasting 35 days, when, the garrison being reduced to
1,500 men, he was compelled to surrender. This little place cost the
allies 3,500 in killed and wounded.


             Betioca (South American War of Independence).

Fought 1813, between the Colombian patriots under Simon Bolivar, and the
Spanish royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.


                      Betwa, The (Indian Mutiny).

Fought April 1, 1858, between 1,200 British under Sir Hugh Rose, forming
part of the force besieging Jhansi, and 20,000 rebels, chiefly belonging
to the Gwalior contingent, under Tantia Topi. The enemy was thrown into
confusion by a charge of cavalry on the flank, and, being then attacked
with the bayonet, broke and fled, leaving 1,000 dead on the field and
all their guns.


                  Beylan (Mehemet Ali’s First Rising).

Fought 1831, between the Syrians and Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha, and
the Turks, the latter being completely defeated.


                      Beymaroo (First Afghan War).

Fought November 23, 1841, when a detachment of General Elphinstone’s
force, under Brigadier Shelton, attempted to dislodge a large body of
Afghans, posted near Beymaroo village. The detachment had one gun only,
which, being well served, did considerable execution, but it broke down,
whereupon the Afghans attacked, and a charge of Ghazis caused a panic
and a disorderly flight to the British camp.


                         Bezetha (Jewish War).

Fought October, 66, when the Romans under Cestius Gallus were attacked
by the populace of Jerusalem, and driven out of their camp, with a loss
of 6,000 men and all their baggage and siege train.


                    Bhurtpur (Second Mahratta War).

This city, garrisoned by about 8,000 of the Rajah’s troops, was besieged
by General Lake, January 4, 1805. Finding that his siege train was
inadequate to reduce the town by the ordinary methods, Lake determined
to carry it by storm. Four successive assaults were made, but without
success, and on April 21 Lake was obliged to withdraw, having lost 3,200
men during the siege.


                       Bhurtpur, Second Siege of.

The city was again besieged by the British under Lord Combermere in
1827, a dispute having taken place as to the succession, and the Rajah
who was under British protection having been expelled. After a
bombardment of two months, which had little effect on the fortress, it
was taken by assault.


                Biberac (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought October, 1796, between the French under Moreau, and the Austrians
under the Archduke Charles, who had previously defeated Jourdan at
Warzburg, and now turned upon Moreau, who was retreating through the
Black Forest. Moreau severely defeated the Austrians, and continued his
retreat unmolested.


                         Bibracte (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 58, between the Romans under Cæsar and a largely superior
force of Helvetii. The battle was a momentous one, for a defeat to Cæsar
meant destruction. He therefore sent away all his officers’ horses,
giving them to understand that they must stand their ground to the last.
In the event, the Helvetii were totally routed, and compelled to submit
to the domination of Rome.


                      Bilbao (First Carlist War).

This fortress was besieged by the Carlists November 9, 1836, and was
defended by a small Christino garrison. The besiegers took possession of
some of the suburbs, which were recaptured by a sortie. Finally, after
several unsuccessful attempts, Espartero, at the head of about 18,000
Christinos, drove off the besiegers, December 25, and relieved the city,
capturing the Carlist artillery of 25 pieces. In the action the
Christinos lost 714 killed and wounded, while the losses of the garrison
during the siege amounted to about 1,300.


                        Bingen (Gallic Revolt).

In the year 70, Petilius Cerialis, who, with four Roman legions, had
crossed the Alps from Switzerland, surprised the revolted Gauls under
Tutor, in their camp at Bingen. The Gallic legionaries in Tutor’s army
deserted to the Romans, and Tutor was totally defeated.


                 Biruan (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

Fought 1221, between 80,000 Tartars under Katuku, and the troops of
Jellalladin, Sultan of Kharismia, 60,000 strong. The Tartars were routed
and driven from the field in confusion.


                        Bithur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought August 16, 1857, when 4,000 mutineers, strongly posted, were
attacked and routed by the relieving force under General Havelock. When
driven from their position, the rebels had to cross a stream in their
rear by a small bridge, and had Havelock possessed an adequate cavalry
force, but few could have escaped.


                Bitonto (War of the Polish Succession).

Fought May 25, 1734, between the Imperialists, 10,000 strong, and the
Spaniards under Mortemar. The Imperialists were driven from a strong
position, with heavy loss, and the victory resulted in the establishment
of Spanish rule throughout the Neapolitan provinces.


                   Blackheath (Flammock’s Rebellion).

Fought June 22, 1497, between the royal troops under Henry VII, and the
rebels under Flammock and Lord Audley. The rebels were defeated with a
loss of 2,000 killed, and all their leaders were captured and executed.


                   Black Rock (Second American War).

Fought 1814, between 1,400 British troops under General Riall, and a
force of 2,000 American Indians, occupying a strong position at Black
Rock. The British stormed the entrenchments and dispersed the enemy,
following up their success by the seizure of Buffalo.


                   Blackwater (O’Neill’s Rebellion).

Fought 1598, between 5,000 Irish rebels under Hugh O’Neill, and 5,000
English under Sir Henry Bagnall, the English Marshal. Bagnall was
defeated with a loss of 1,500 and all his ammunition and baggage, while
he himself was killed by O’Neill.


                   Bladensburg (Second American War).

Fought August 24, 1814, between the British under General Ross, and the
Americans under General Winder, who was opposing the British advance
upon Washington, and had taken up a position which commanded the only
bridge over the Potomac. Ross attacked with a portion of his force,
under Thornton, and, having carried the bridge, a combined assault upon
the main position resulted in a signal defeat of the American army,
which broke and fled. Ross entered Washington the same evening.


                   Blanquefort (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought November 1, 1450, when the English made a sally from Bordeaux to
repel a marauding band under Amanien. The English cavalry, advancing too
rapidly, became separated from the main body, and was cut off. Amanien
then fell upon the infantry, who, being unsupported, were overwhelmed
and almost annihilated. So great was the slaughter that the day was long
known in Bordeaux as the “Male Journée.”


               Blenheim (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 13, 1704, between the British and Imperialists under
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French and Bavarians under
Marshals Tallard and Marsin, and the Elector of Bavaria. The French
numbered 60,000, the allies 52,000. Tallard had massed his best troops
in the village of Blenheim, and Marlborough, seeing the weakness of his
centre, hurled his cavalry against it, and cut the French line in two.
Prince Eugene meanwhile had withstood the attack of Marsin and the
Elector, and, after Marlborough’s charge, he assumed the offensive, and
the French right and centre were totally routed. The French lost 40,000,
including 1,600 prisoners, amongst whom was Marshal Tallard. The allies
lost about 11,000.


                   Bloore Heath (Wars of the Roses).

Fought September 23, 1459, between the Yorkists under the Earl of
Salisbury, and the Lancastrians under Henry VI. The former, who were
inferior in numbers, were attacked by Henry, who crossed a brook before
the assault. As the Lancastrians were reforming after the crossing, the
Yorkists charged down upon them, and dispersed them with heavy loss.


                      Blueberg (Napoleonic Wars).

On January 8, 1806, a British force 6,600 strong, under General Baird,
which had just landed at Saldanha Bay, was attacked by the Dutch and
French under General Janssens, issuing from Cape Town. The British
gained a signal victory, in which they lost 212 killed, wounded and
missing, while their opponents’ losses amounted to about 300. Baird at
once occupied Cape Town.


           Boadicea, Defeat of (Roman Occupation of Britain).

In the year 61, Suetonius, with 10,000 legionaries, totally routed an
enormous host of Britons under Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, who had
sacked Camelodunum, and taken Londinium and Verulamium. The Britons lost
80,000 killed, and Boadicea took poison on the battlefield.


              Bois-le-Duc (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought November 12, 1794, between the French and Austrians under the
Duke of York, and the French under Moreau. Moreau’s object was to enter
Holland at a period when the dykes would be no obstacle to his advance,
and for the purpose endeavoured to cross the Meuse at Fort Crèvecœur,
near Bois-le-Duc. The allies however, disputed his passage so vigorously
that Moreau was forced to retire, and give up his project.


                Bokhara (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This city was besieged by the Tartar army under Genghis Khan in March,
1220, and was held by a Kharismian garrison. On the approach of the
Tartars, however, the Kharismian general, with the whole garrison,
20,000 strong, fled from the place, and the Bokhariots, having no means
of defending themselves, opened the gates to Genghis. The Governor held
out for a short time in the citadel, which was finally fired and
destroyed.


                              Boomplaats.

Fought August 29, 1848, between the British, 800 strong, with 250
Griquas, under Sir Harry Smith, and a force of 1,000 Transvaal Boers
under Commandant Jan Kock. The British stormed the Boer position and
drove out the defenders, at a cost of 22 killed and 38 wounded. The
Boers stated their losses at 5 killed and 9 wounded.


               Borghetto (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought May 30, 1796, in the course of Napoleon’s pursuit of Beaulieu.
The French crossed the Mincio at Borghetto, having previously repaired
the bridge under a heavy fire, and forced the Austrians to evacuate
Peschiera, with a loss of 500 prisoners, besides killed and wounded.


                     Bornholm (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1676, between the fleet of Charles XI of Sweden, and a combined
Dutch and Danish squadron. The Swedes were utterly routed, a disaster
which was followed by the loss of Helsingborg, Landscroon, and other
fortresses.


                               Bornhoven.

Fought 1227, between the Danes under Valdemar II, and the insurgents of
the province of Dithmarsh, who had risen against the Danish dominion.
The royal troops were totally routed, and, as a consequence, the
province was lost to the Danish crown.


                      Borodino (Moscow Campaign).

Fought September 5, 1812, between 120,000 Russians under Kutusoff, and
the French in equal force under Napoleon. The Russians, who were
intrenched in a very strong position, were attacked soon after daybreak,
and their first line of redoubts was carried and held by the French till
the end of the day, but the victory was far from decisive, as at
nightfall Napoleon retired to his original position, leaving the
Russians in possession of the field. The French lost 10,000 killed,
including 8 generals, and 20,000 wounded, including 30 generals. The
Russians lost about 45,000. This battle is also called the Battle of the
Moskowa.


               Boroughbridge (Rebellion of the Marches).

Fought 1322, between the Royalists under Edward II, and the rebels under
Hereford and Lancaster. The rebels, falling back before the king, were
surprised by a force under Sir Andrew Harclay while crossing the bridge
at Boroughbridge, and were utterly routed. Hereford was killed, and
Lancaster, with several hundred barons and knights, surrendered.


                 Borysthenes, The (Russo-Polish Wars).

Fought 1512, when the Poles under Sigismund I defeated an army of
Muscovites, 80,000 strong, with enormous slaughter.


                   Bosra (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

This strong fortress was besieged, 632, by 4,000 Moslems under Serjabil.
A sortie of the garrison nearly caused their destruction, but they were
rescued by the arrival of 1,500 horse under Khaled. After a brief
interval, the whole of the garrison marched out of the city to give
battle, but were defeated by Khaled with a loss to his troops of 250 men
only, and the city was shortly afterwards betrayed by Romanus, the
Governor.


                  Bosworth Field (Wars of the Roses).

Fought August 21, 1485, between Richard III and Henry Duke of Richmond
(Henry VII). Richmond had received a promise from Lord Stanley and his
uncle that they would desert during the battle, and, after holding aloof
for some time, they came over, with their followers, at a critical
moment of the engagement, and Richard was routed and slain. He fought to
the end, and among others who fell with him were the Duke of Norfolk and
Lord Ferrers.


                 Bothwell Bridge (Covenanters’ Rising).

Fought June 22, 1679, when the Royal troops, under the Duke of Monmouth,
defeated the Covenanters with great slaughter.


                               Boulogne.

Siege was laid to the town by the English under Henry VIII, September
14, 1544. It was defended with great gallantry, and, in the face of
enormous difficulties, for two months, when it was forced to surrender,
the inhabitants being allowed to march out with their arms and property.


                       Bourbon (Napoleonic Wars).

On July 8, 1810, this island was captured by a British squadron of five
ships under Commodore Rowley, with a detachment of troops under Colonel
Keatinge. The British lost 22 killed and 79 wounded.


                  Bouvines (Wars of Philip Augustus).

Fought 1214 between the French under Philip Augustus, and the Germans,
Flemish and English under Otho IV, the numbers engaged on both sides
being considerable. The French gained a signal victory, which broke up
the coalition and rendered the position of Philip Augustus secure on the
throne of France.


                     Bovianum (Second Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 307 between the Romans under Titus Minucius, and the
Samnites under Statius Gellius. Gellius attempted to relieve Bovianum,
which the Romans were besieging, and was totally defeated, though
Minucius fell in the battle. This defeat broke the Samnite power, and
they sued for peace in the following year, leaving Rome without dispute
the first power in Italy.


              Boyaca (South American War of Independence).

Fought August 17, 1819, between the Colombian patriots under Bolivar,
and the Spanish Royalists, 2,500 strong, under Colonel Barreiro. Bolivar
crossed the Cordilleras, under incredible difficulties, and, eluding
Barreiro, took up a position at Boyaca, cutting him off from his base at
Bogota. The Spaniards attacked him, and were routed with heavy loss,
Barreiro and 1,600 men being captured. The patriots lost 66 only.


                  Boyne, The (War of the Revolution).

Fought July 1, 1690, between the forces of William III, and the Irish
under James II. William and the elder Schomberg attacked the front of
James’s position, while the younger Schomberg crossed the Boyne a few
miles higher up, and attacked him in flank. William forced the passage
of the river, and drove the Irish from their entrenchments at a cost of
500 killed and wounded, including the elder Schomberg. The Irish lost
1,500.


                       Braddock Down (Civil War).

Fought January 19, 1643, between the Royalists under Sir Ralph Hopton,
and the Parliamentary forces under Ruthven. The latter had crossed the
Tamar and occupied Liskeard, without adequate support, and was defeated
by the Royalists with heavy loss.


               Bramham Moor (Northumberland’s Rebellion).

Fought February 20, 1408, when Sir Thomas Rokeby, High Sheriff of
Yorkshire, defeated the Earl of Northumberland, who had again raised the
standard of rebellion in the North. The Earl was slain, and the
rebellion subsided.


               Brandywine (American War of Independence).

Fought September 11, 1777, between 18,000 British under General Howe,
and 8,000 Americans under Washington. The British General made a flank
movement with a large portion of his force, whereupon Washington
attacked the British in the front, but, being ill supported by his
lieutenant, Sullivan, he was driven back, and forced to retreat, with a
loss of 900 killed and wounded and 300 prisoners. The British lost 590
killed and wounded.


                      Brechin (Douglas Rebellion).

Fought 1452, between the revolted Douglasses under the Earl of Craufurd,
and the Royal troops under the Earl of Huntly. The Douglasses were
defeated.


              Bregenz (War of the League Above the Lake).

Fought January 1408, between the troops of the League Above the Lake and
the burghers of Constance, aided by the Suabian nobles. The Leaguers
were totally routed, with the result that the League was shortly
afterwards dissolved.


                       Breitenfeld, First Battle.

_See_ Leipsic.

            Breitenfeld, Second Battle (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought November 2, 1642, between the Imperialists under the Archduke
Leopold and Piccolomini, and the Swedes under Torstenson. The latter,
who were in retreat, were caught by the pursuing Austrians at
Breitenfeld, but turning upon them, they offered a desperate resistance,
and finally drove them from the field, totally routed, with a loss of
10,000 men.


                              Brenneville.

Fought August 20, 1119, between a small body of English cavalry under
Henry I, and a similar French force under Louis VI. Though only about
900 men were engaged, and very few killed, the fight was considered a
decisive victory for the English, and Louis shortly afterwards made
peace, conceding Henry’s terms.


                         Brentford (Civil War).

Fought November 12, 1642, between the Royalists under Prince Rupert, and
a Parliamentary force under Denzil Holles. Three regiments stationed at
Brentford were driven out of their entrenchments by the Royalists,
losing 1,500 prisoners and 11 guns.


                       Brescia (Italian Rising).

This city, where the populace had risen and shut up the small Austrian
garrison in the citadel, was carried by assault by General Haynau, with
about 4,000 Austrians, March 31, 1849. Carrying the Porta Torrelunga, he
fought his way from barricade to barricade, till, by the evening of
April 1, the resistance of the citizens was overcome. The Austrians lost
480 killed, including General Nugent, and many wounded. The wholesale
executions ordered by Haynau after the capture earned for him the
sobriquet of the Hyæna.


                      Breslau (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 22, 1757, between 90,000 Austrians under Prince Charles
of Lorraine, and 25,000 Prussians under the Prince of Bevern. The
Prussians, who were encamped under the walls of Breslau, were driven
into the city with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, 3,600 prisoners,
including the Prince of Bevern, and 80 guns. They evacuated the city at
once, leaving a garrison of 6,000, which surrendered two days later. The
Austrians lost 8,000 killed and wounded.


                    Brest (War of the Holy League).

Fought August 10, 1512, between the English fleet of 45 sail under Lord
Edward Howard, and the French fleet of 39 sail under Jean de Thenouënel.
The French ships were driven into Brest, or along the coast, with heavy
loss. The English lost 2 ships and 1,600 men.


                       Bridge of Dee (Civil War).

Fought June 18, 1639, between the Covenanters, 2,300 strong, and the
Royal troops under Lord Aboyne. The bridge itself was barricaded and
held by 100 sharpshooters, under Colonel Johnstone, and Montrose, who
led the Covenanters, finding the defences too strong, succeeded by a
stratagem in drawing off the main body of the defenders, whereupon he
forced a passage. The losses on both sides were very small.


                  Brienne (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought January 29, 1814, between 18,000 French under Napoleon, and about
30,000 Russians and Prussians under Blucher. The allies were driven from
their positions, and the Château de Brienne taken. After nightfall a
determined attempt to retake the château was made by the Russians under
Sachen, but they failed to dislodge the French. The allies lost about
4,000; the French 3,000 killed and wounded.


               Brihuega (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought 1710 between the British under Stanhope, and the French under the
Duc de Vendôme. Stanhope, who was retreating from Madrid to Catalonia,
was surprised and surrounded, and, though he made a gallant stand,
fighting till all his powder was spent, and then leading a bayonet
charge, his force was at last reduced to 500 men, when he surrendered.


                Brill (Netherlands War of Independence).

This fortress was captured from the Spaniards by the Beggars of the Sea,
about 400 strong, under De la Marck and Treslong, April 1, 1572. It was
the first success of the Netherlands patriots in their struggle against
Spanish rule, and may be said to have laid the foundation of the Dutch
republic.


                   Brittany, Action off (Gallic War).

This, the first sea fight in the Atlantic, was fought B.C. 56, between
the Roman fleet under Brutus, and the fleet of the Veneti, consisting of
220 galleys. The Romans were victorious, and the surrender of the Veneti
and the whole of Brittany quickly followed.


                  Bronkhorst Spruit (First Boer War).

The opening engagement of the war, when, on December 20, 1880, a British
column, 259 strong, under Colonel Anstruther, was ambushed by 150
mounted Boers under Joubert, and defeated with a loss of 155 killed and
wounded. The Boers stated their losses at 2 killed and 5 wounded only.


                Brooklyn (American War of Independence).

Fought August 27, 1776, between 30,000 British under Sir William Howe,
and the Americans, about 11,000 strong, under General Putnam. The
Americans were completely defeated, with a loss of about 2,000 killed
and wounded. The British lost 65 killed and 255 wounded.


                     Brunanburh (Danish Invasion).

Fought 937, when Æthelstan defeated with great slaughter the combined
armies of Anlaf the Dane, Owen of Cumberland, and Constantine III of
Scotland.


                       Bucharest (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1771, between the Turks under Mousson Oglou, and the Russians
under General Romanzoff. The Turks were totally defeated.


                   Buena Vista (Americo-Mexican War).

Fought February 22, 1846, between 18,000 Mexicans under General Santa
Anna, and 4,500 Americans under General Zachary Taylor. The Americans
occupied a series of heights commanding the Angostura pass, and were
there attacked by Santa Anna, who failed to dislodge them, the day
ending with the combatants occupying the same ground as in the morning.
On the 23rd, however, Santa Anna retired. The Americans lost 746 killed
and wounded; the Mexicans admitted a loss of 1,500 killed, but it was
probably heavier.


                    Buenos Ayres (Napoleonic Wars).

This city was captured June 27, 1806, by a _coup de main_, by a British
force, 1,700 strong, under General Beresford, aided by a small squadron
under Sir Home Popham. Beresford, however, was not strong enough to hold
the place, and before reinforcements could arrive he was defeated by the
South Americans under General Liniers, with a loss of 250 killed and
wounded, and compelled to surrender with his whole force.


                    Buenos Ayres (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought July 5, 1807 when 9,000 British troops under General Whitelocke
assaulted the city. They penetrated into the streets, but suffered
terrible losses from the defenders’ fire from windows and roofs, and,
General Whitelocke proving a most incapable leader, were forced to
surrender and evacuate the whole of the River Plate region.


                   Buenos Ayres (Mitre’s Rebellion).

Fought November 6, 1874, between the Argentine Government troops under
Sarmiento, and the rebels under Mitre and Aredondo. The rebels were
defeated, and Mitre forced to surrender.


                     Bull Run (American Civil War).

Fought July 21, 1861, between 40,000 Federals under General M’Dowell,
and 30,000 Confederates under General Beauregard. The Confederates
occupied a position extending for about nine miles along the southern
bank of the Bull Run, and an attempt to turn and drive in their left was
at first successful, but, being rallied by General Beauregard, they
assumed the offensive, and totally routed the Northerners, with a loss
of 1,492 killed and wounded, 1,600 prisoners, and 28 guns. The
Confederates lost 1,752.


             Bull Run, Second Battle (American Civil War).

Fought August 30, 1862, between the Confederates under Stonewall
Jackson, and the Federals under General Pope. The Federals attacked
Jackson’s position, which he maintained till evening, when, the Federal
left giving way, he ordered a general advance, and drove the enemy from
the field with heavy loss. Over 7,000 prisoners were taken.


             Bunker’s Hill (American War of Independence).

Fought June 17, 1775, when 2,000 British troops, forming a portion of
General Gage’s army, dislodged the Americans holding Breeds Hill and
Bunker’s Hill, on the outskirts of Boston. The position was stubbornly
contested, the assailants losing 800 men.


               Burlington Heights (Second American War).

Fought May 5, 1813, when the British under Colonel Procter were attacked
by 1,300 Americans under General Clay, while engaged with another
American force holding Burlington Heights. The Americans broke the
British line and seized their guns, but Procter, who had only 1,000 men,
with some Indian auxiliaries, rallied his troops and routed Clay, with a
loss of nearly 1,000 killed, wounded and captured.


                       Burns Hill (Kaffir Wars).

Fought 1847, between the Kaffirs under Sandilli, and a small British
force sent to arrest that chief. The British were greatly outnumbered,
and were defeated and forced to retreat.


                        Busaco (Peninsular War).

Fought by Wellington, September 29, 1810, to secure his retreat to
Torres Vedras. He occupied the heights of Busaco with 25,000 men and was
attacked by 40,000 French under Masséna. The actual assault was
delivered by the corps of Ney and Reynier, but they could make no
impression, and were repulsed with a loss of about 4,500. The British
lost 1,300 killed and wounded.


                                 Buxar.

Fought October 23, 1764, between 7,000 British troops and sepoys under
Major Monro, and the army of Oude, 40,000 strong, under Surabjah Daulah,
who was accompanied by the Great Mogul, Shah Allum. The British gained a
signal victory, Surabjah Daulah abandoning his camp with a loss of 4,000
men and 130 guns. The British lost 847 killed and wounded.


                     Buzenval (Franco-German War).

A sortie from Paris under General Trochu on January 19, 1871. The
French, advancing under cover of a fog, established themselves in the
Park of Buzenval, and occupied St. Cloud, where they maintained their
position throughout the day. At other points, however, they were less
successful, and, on the morning of the 20th, the force at St. Cloud,
finding itself unsupported, was obliged to retire, and all the captured
positions were abandoned. The Germans lost 40 officers and 570 men; the
French 189 officers and 3,881 men. This sortie is also known as the
Battle of Mont Valérien.


                               Byzantium.

Fought 318 B.C., between the Macedonian fleet under Antigonus, and that
of the Asiatic rebels under Clytus. The Asiatics were surprised at
anchor, most of the crews being ashore, and, after a feeble defence, the
whole of their fleet was destroyed or captured, with the exception of
the admiral’s galley, in which Clytus succeeded in escaping.


                  Byzantium (War of the Two Empires).

In 323 the city was besieged by Constantine the Great after his victory
over Licinius at Hadrianopolis. Licinius, finding the place difficult of
defence, crossed into Asia and collected an army to raise the siege. He
was, however, defeated at Chrysopolis, and Byzantium surrendered in 324.
Constantine was proclaimed Emperor of the united Empire, and Byzantium,
under its modern name of Constantinople, was made the capital.



                                   C


            Cabala (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

Fought B.C. 379, between the Syracusans under Dionysius, and the
Carthaginians under Mago. The latter were totally defeated and Mago
slain.


                    Cabria (Third Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 72, between three Roman legions under Lucullus, and the
Pontic army under Diophantus and Taxiles. The Pontic cavalry, on which
Mithridates chiefly relied, was overwhelmed by Fabius Hadrianus, and the
king was driven out of Pontus, which was erected into a Roman province.


                  Cadesia (Moslem Invasion of Persia).

Fought 636, between 30,000 Moslems under Said, the lieutenant of the
Caliph Omar, and 120,000 Persians under Rustam. Throughout the first day
the Persians, superior in numbers, but far inferior in warlike
qualities, sustained the attacks of the Moslems without losing ground,
but on the following day Rustam was slain, and his followers, losing
heart, were driven headlong from the field, with fearful slaughter. The
Moslems lost 7,500 in the battle.


                                 Cadiz.

On April 19, 1587, Sir Francis Drake, with between 30 and 40 English
ships, entered Cadiz Bay, and destroyed over 100 Spanish vessels. This
exploit Drake described as “Singeing the King of Spain’s beard.”


                     Cadsand (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought November 10, 1357, between 2,500 English under the Earl of Derby,
and 5,000 Flemings in the French service. The Flemings were defeated
with a loss of 1,000 men.


                         Cairo (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1517, between the Turks under Selim I, and the Egyptians under
the Mameluke Sultan, Toomaan Bey. The Egyptians were utterly routed and
Cairo taken, 50,000 of the inhabitants being massacred. Toomaan Bey, the
last of the Mamelukes, was hanged before the city gates, and Egypt
annexed to the Ottoman Empire.


                                Cajwah.

Fought January 8, 1659, between the Moguls of Delhi, under Aurungzebe,
the Great Mogul, and the army raised by his brother Shuja, in support of
Dara, the rightful heir to the throne. After an obstinate conflict,
Shuja was driven from the field with heavy losses in men, leaving behind
him 114 guns.


                         Calafat (Crimean War).

This position, strongly entrenched and held by 30,000 Turks under Ahmed
Pasha, was invested by the Russians, 40,000 strong, under General Aurep,
about the middle of February, 1854. The Russians delivered assault after
assault upon the place, without effect, and finally withdrew their
forces in May; having suffered a loss from disease, privation, and
battle of 20,000 men. The Turks lost 12,000.


                      Calais (Hundred Years’ War).

Siege was laid to this fortress in August 1346 by the English under
Edward III. The citizens made a gallant defence, holding out for nearly
a year, but at last were forced to surrender August 4, 1347. In the
course of the siege, six burgesses offered themselves to the king as
ransom for their fellow citizens; but their lives were spared on the
intercession of Queen Philippa.


                                Calais.

The last English stronghold in France was captured by the French under
the Duc de Guise, January 8, 1558, after a siege of seven days only.
Mary is said to have exclaimed, on hearing the news, that at her death
the word “Calais” would be found engraven on her heart.


                   Calatafimi (Unification of Italy).

Fought May 15, 1860, between Garibaldi’s “Thousand Volunteers,” with a
few thousand Sicilian “Picciotti” and 4,000 Neapolitans under General
Landi. The Neapolitans were driven back with heavy loss, and retreated
in disorder to Palermo. Garibaldi lost, of his thousand, 18 killed and
128 wounded.


                               Calcutta.

Siege was laid to the city June 16, 1756, by Sarabjah Daulah, Nawab of
Bengal, with a large force. The garrison, consisting of 514 regulars and
militia, and 1,000 matchlock men, under Captain Minchin, was quite
inadequate to man the defences, and it was decided to abandon the city,
remove all non-combatants to the ships, and only defend the fort. The
Governor, Mr. Drake, was among those who left the place, and he was
accompanied by Captain Minchin, who deserted his post, as did many of
the militiamen, with the result that only 190 remained for the defence
of the fort. An assault was repulsed, with a loss to the defenders of 95
killed and wounded, but on the 20th the little garrison surrendered. The
survivors were thrust into a small room, known as the Black Hole, and
used as a soldiers’ prison, and out of 146 only 23 survived the horrors
of the night.


                Caldiero (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought November 11, 1796, between the French under Napoleon and the
Austrians under Alvinzi. Napoleon attacked the Austrian position, and,
for the first time in the campaign, suffered a reverse, being unable to
carry the enemy’s lines, and eventually, after severe fighting, retiring
with a loss of 3,000. Within the week, however, this defeat was avenged
by the victory of Arcola.


                Caldiero (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

On November 30, 1800, Masséna, with 50,000 French, encountered the
Austrians, 80,000 strong, under the Archduke Charles, strongly posted in
the village and on the heights of Caldiero. Masséna attacked and carried
the heights, but the village held out until nightfall. During the night
the Archduke removed his baggage and artillery, leaving a corps of 5,000
men, under General Hillinger, to protect his retreat, which force was on
the following day captured _en bloc_. The Austrians lost 3,000 killed
and wounded, and, including Hillinger’s corps, 8,000 prisoners; the
French about 4,000 killed and wounded. Thus, though the battle was
indecisive, Masséna gained a considerable strategic victory.


                      Calicut (Second Mysore War).

Fought December 10, 1790, between 9,000 Mysore troops under Hussein Ali,
and a British force of one European and two native regiments under
Colonel Hartley. Hussein Ali occupied a strong position in front of
Calicut, which was attacked and carried by Hartley with a loss of 52
only. The enemy lost 1,000 killed and wounded, and 2,400 prisoners,
including their commander.


              Callao (South American War of Independence).

On the night of November 5, 1820, Lord Cochrane, who with three Chilian
frigates was blockading the Spaniards in Callao, rowed into the harbour
with 240 seamen and marines, and cut out the Spanish frigate _Esmeralda_
from under the 300 guns of the shore batteries. He lost in the
enterprise 41 killed and wounded, while the whole of the crew of the
_Esmeralda_, including the Spanish Admiral, was captured or killed.


                                Callao.

The town was bombarded by the Spanish fleet of 11 warships, May 2, 1866.
The Peruvian batteries replied vigorously, and, after severe fighting,
drove off the Spanish ships with a loss of 300. The Peruvians lost 1,000
killed and wounded.


                 Calpulalpam (Mexican Liberal Rising).

Fought December 20, 1860, between the Mexican Government troops under
Miramon, and the Liberals under Juarez. The Liberals won a signal
victory, which opened the way to Mexico, and brought about the downfall
of Miramon’s administration.


                       Calven, The (Swabian War).

Fought March 22, 1499, between 6,300 men of the Grisons under Benedict
Fontana, and 15,000 Imperialists under Maximilian I. The Swiss carried
the Austrian entrenchments, and drove them out with heavy loss.


                             Cambuskenneth.

_See_ Stirling.


                 Camden (American War of Independence).

Fought August 16, 1780, between the British under Cornwallis, and the
Americans under Gates and de Kalb. Cornwallis had concentrated about
2,000 men at Camden, and though the Americans numbered 5,000, they were
of very inferior quality. After a small affair of outposts, the British
attacked the American levies, who were unable to face the steady attack
of the regulars, and fled with heavy loss. Among the killed was de Kalb.
The British lost 312 killed and wounded.


               Camelodunum (Second Invasion of Britain).

Fought 43, between the Romans under the Emperor Claudius, and the
Britons under Caractacus. The Britons were routed, and Camelodunum,
Caractacus’ capital, taken.


                     Camerinum (Third Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 298, between two Roman legions under Lucius Scipio, and the
Samnites under Gellius Equatius, aided by a force of Gauls. Scipio, who
had been stationed near Camerinum to watch the pass through which the
Gauls were expected to cross the Apennines, was unable to prevent the
junction of the two armies, and was totally defeated, one of his legions
being cut to pieces.


                  Campaldino (Guelfs and Ghibellines).

Fought June 11, 1289, between the Guelfs of Florence and the Ghibellines
who had been expelled from the city. The latter were utterly routed, and
this defeat put an end to their power in Florence. The battle is notable
for the presence of Dante in the ranks of the victors.


                       Campen (Seven Years’ War).

Fought October 18, 1759, between the Prussians under the Prince of
Brunswick, and the French under General de Castries, when the Prussians
were defeated with a loss of 1,600 men.


             Campo Santo (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought February 8, 1743, between the Spaniards under Mortemar, and the
Imperialists under Count Traum. Mortemar was endeavouring to effect a
junction with the army of the Prince de Conti, and though the action was
undecided, its results were in favour of the Imperialists, who prevented
the two armies from joining hands.


                 Campus Castorum (Revolt of Vitellius).

Fought in 69 between the revolted legionaries, 70,000 strong, under
Valens and Cæcina, and the army of the Emperor Otho under Suetonius
Paulinus. The Imperial troops gained some advantage, but Suetonius did
not consider himself strong enough to follow it up, and was relieved of
his command by Otho.


              Camperdown (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought between the British fleet, 16 line-of-battle ships, under Admiral
Duncan, and the Dutch, in equal force, under Admiral de Winter, October
11, 1797. The Dutch fleet was on its way to co-operate with the French
in a landing in Ireland, and was intercepted by Duncan, who at once gave
battle. The British fleet, in two lines, broke through the Dutch line,
and, in the general action which followed, captured eight ships,
including the flagship, the _Vrijheid_. The British lost 1,040 killed
and wounded, the Dutch 1,160 and 6,000 prisoners.


                         Candia (Candian War).

Siege was laid to this place by the Turks under Jussuf, the Capitan
Pasha, in 1648, and was defended by a small garrison of Venetians, under
Luigi Moncenigo. So vigorous was the defence that the Turks lost 20,000
men in the first six months of the siege. The siege lasted over twenty
years, the place being from time to time revictualled and reinforced by
the Venetians and the French, but it was finally surrendered by
Morosini, September 27, 1669.


                          Canea (Candian War).

This place was besieged June 24, 1644, by 50,000 Turks under Jussuf, the
Capitan Pasha, and defended by a small force of Venetians and Candians,
who held out until August 22, repulsing numerous assaults, which cost
the Turks 20,000 men.


                       Cannæ (Second Punic War).

Fought August 2, B.C. 216, between 90,000 Romans under Varro, and about
50,000 Carthaginians under Hannibal. Hannibal, though outnumbered in
infantry, was much superior in cavalry. The Romans were drawn up with
the sea in their rear, and were attacked and broken by the Carthaginian
horse. The infantry followed up the attack, and, flight being
impossible, the Romans were slaughtered where they stood, 80,000
falling, including the Consul Æmilius, 25 superior officers, and 80
senators. The Carthaginians lost 6,000.


                  Cape Bona (Invasion of the Vandals).

Fought 468, between the Roman fleet of 1,100 galleys and transports
under Basiliscus, and the fleet of the Vandals under Genseric. The
Romans were lying at anchor, having landed their troops, and Genseric,
taking advantage of a favourable wind, sent in a fleet of fireships,
following them up by a determined attack. More than half the Roman ships
were destroyed, Basiliscus escaping with difficulty.


           Cape Finisterre (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought May 3, 1747, between a British fleet of 16 sail under Admiral
Anson, and a French fleet of 38 sail under Admiral de la Jonquière. The
French were completely defeated, losing 10 ships and nearly 3,000
prisoners.


           Cape Finisterre (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought October 14, 1747, when a British fleet of 14 ships under Admiral
Hawke attacked a French fleet of 9 battleships under Admiral de
Letendeur. The French were signally defeated, losing four ships. The
British lost 598 killed and wounded.


                   Cape Finisterre (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought July 22, 1805, between a British fleet of 15 sail of the line
under Sir Robert Calder, and the combined French and Spanish fleets
returning from the West Indies, under Admiral Villeneuve. The French
fleet, consisting of 20 battleships, was attacked by Calder, who
captured 2 ships. Fogs and light airs prevented him from following up
his advantage next day, for which he was tried by court-martial and most
unjustly censured. The British loss was 183 killed and wounded, the
French losing 149 killed and 327 wounded.


               Cape Henry (American War of Independence).

Fought March 16, 1781, between a British fleet of eight ships of the
line and three frigates under Vice-Admiral Arbuthnot, and a French
squadron stronger by one frigate. The French were forced to retire, the
British losing 30 killed and 64 wounded.


             Cape Passaro (War of the Quadruple Alliance).

Fought July 31, 1718, between a British fleet of 21 ships under Sir
George Byng, and a Spanish fleet of 29 ships under Don Antonio
Castañeta. Admiral Byng attacked the Spaniards in the Straits of
Messina, and, after a very severe action, in which both sides lost
heavily, captured or destroyed no less than 15 of the Spanish ships.
Castañeta died of wounds received in the action. This battle is also
known as the Battle of Messina.


           Cape St. Vincent (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought February 14, 1797, between a British fleet of 15 ships of the
line and 5 frigates under Sir John Jervis, and a Spanish fleet of 26
sail of the line and 12 frigates. In spite of their superior numbers,
the Spaniards were totally defeated, losing 4 ships and over 3,000
prisoners, in addition to heavy losses in killed and wounded. The
British lost 74 killed and 227 wounded. For this signal victory, Jervis
was created Lord St. Vincent.


                    Caprysema (First Messenian War).

Fought B.C. 743, between the Spartans and Corinthians, and the
Messenians with their allies from other Peloponnesian states under
Cristomenes. The Spartans were routed, and, but for the eloquence of
Tyrtacus, would have abandoned the struggle.


                       Capua (Second Punic War).

This place was besieged in the autumn of B.C. 212, by 60,000 Romans
under Q. Fulvius and Appius Claudius. The Romans formed a double wall of
circumvallation round the city, and, early in the winter, their defences
were attacked by the garrison from within and Hannibal from without, but
with no success. Hannibal then attempted to draw the besiegers from
their position by marching upon Rome, but only a small portion of the
besieging force followed him. It being thus found impossible to relieve
the city, it shortly afterwards surrendered.


             Carabobo (South American War of Independence).

Fought June 24, 1821, between the Colombian patriots, 8,000 strong,
under Bolivar, and the Spanish Royalists, about 4,000 in number, under
La Torre. The Royalists were utterly routed, barely 400 reaching Porto
Cabello. This battle determined the independence of Colombia.


             Caracha (South American War of Independence).

Fought 1813, between the Colombian Patriots under Bolivar and the
Spanish Royalists, Bolivar gaining a complete victory.


                      Caraguatay (Paraguayan War).

Fought August 1869, between the Paraguayans under Lopez, and the
Brazilians under the Comte d’Eu. After a stubborn engagement the
Brazilians were victorious.


                        Carbisdale (Civil War).

Fought April 27, 1650, between the Royalists of Orkney, 1,000 strong,
with 500 Swedish mercenaries, and a small Parliamentary force under
Colonel Strachan. Montrose, who commanded the Royalists, saw his troops
broken by the Parliamentary horse, only the Swedes offering any serious
resistance. The Royalists lost 396 killed and wounded and over 400
prisoners, while Strachan only had lost 2 wounded. This was Montrose’s
last fight, and he was soon afterwards captured.


              Carénage Bay (American War of Independence).

Fought 1778, between the French under the Comte d’Estaing, and the
English under Admiral Barrington and General Meadows. After a severe
encounter, the French were defeated, and the British took possession of
the island of St. Lucia.


                                Carigat.

_See_ Arikera.


                Carlisle (Rebellion of the Forty-five).

This city was besieged by the Jacobites under the Young Pretender,
November 9, 1745, and was defended by the Cumberland and Westmoreland
Militia, with small force of regulars, under Colonel Durand. The
besiegers opened fire on the 13th, and on the evening of the 14th, under
pressure of the inhabitants, Durand surrendered.


                  Carnoul (Persian Invasion of India).

Fought 1739, between the Persians under Nadir Shah, and the Moguls under
the Emperor Mohammed Shah and his Grand Vizier, Nizam-ul-Mulk. The
Persian veterans completely defeated the raw Mogul levies, and Nadir
Shah shortly afterwards occupied and sacked Delhi, carrying off, it is
said, jewels and coin to the value of thirty millions sterling.


                 Carpi (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought July 1701, between the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, and the
French army in Lombardy, under Marshal Catinat. The French were signally
defeated, and, in consequence, Catinat was recalled from the command.


                         Carrhæ (Parthian War).

Fought B.C. 53, between the Romans, 52,000 strong, under Publius
Crassus, and the Parthians under Sillaces. The Parthians, who were
entirely cavalry, adopted their usual tactics of retiring and drawing
their foes in pursuit. As the heavily armed legionaries became strung
out across the plain, they turned upon them and cut them down in detail.
Of the division, 6,000 strong, which actually came into action, 500 were
made prisoners, and the rest, including Crassus, slain.


                      Carrical (Seven Years’ War).

An action was fought off this place August 2, 1758, between a British
squadron under Admiral Pococke, and the French under Comte d’Aché. After
a severe engagement, the French fleet drew off, but the English pursuit,
owing to damaged rigging, was ineffectual, and d’Aché reached
Pondicherry without the loss of a ship.


                      Carthage (Third Punic War).

In B.C. 152 siege was laid to this city by a Roman consular army under
Manius Manilius, aided by a fleet under L. Censorinus. The Carthaginian
army under Hasdrubal was encamped outside the walls, and greatly
hindered the operations of the Romans, who would have made little
progress but for the efforts of Scipio Æmilianus, then a military
tribune. In B.C. 148, Scipio was made consul, and appointed to the
command, and he succeeded in completely blockading the city, which,
after an obstinate resistance lasting six years, was captured B.C. 146
and razed to the ground.


                  Carthage (Invasion of the Vandals).

Fought September 14, 533, between the Vandals under Gelimer, about
160,000 strong, and the Romans under Belisarius, far inferior in
numbers. Gelimer divided his army into three, of which he led one
portion to attack the main body of the Romans. The action was
precipitated, however, by the hasty attack by Ammatas of the vanguard,
wherein he was routed with heavy loss. Gelimer then fell upon the
pursuing Romans, but Belisarius coming up, the Vandals were put to
flight, and the Romans gained a complete victory. On the following day
Carthage opened her gates to the victors.


              Carthagena (War of the Austrian Succession).

This port was blockaded March 9, 1741, by a British fleet under Admiral
Vernon. An unsuccessful attack was made upon the forts, and eventually
Vernon, having lost 3,000 men during the operations, withdrew April 9.


                       Casal (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought April 1640, between the French, 10,000 strong, under Harcourt,
and the Spaniards, numbering 20,000, who were besieging Casal. Harcourt
pierced the Spanish lines and totally defeated them, with a loss of
3,000 killed and wounded, 800 prisoners, and 18 guns.


              Casilinum (Second Frank Invasion of Italy).

Fought 554, between 18,000 Imperial troops under Narses, and the Franks
and Alemanni, 30,000 strong, under Buccelin. The Romans won a signal
victory, and are said by the chroniclers to have exterminated the
invading army with a loss to themselves of 80 only. Buccelin fell in the
battle.


                Cassano (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 16, 1705, between the French under the Duc de Vendôme,
with 35 battalions and 45 squadrons, and the Imperialists under Prince
Eugene. The Prince, with greatly inferior numbers, attacked the French
in a strong position, which he succeeded in carrying as the night fell.
The Imperialists lost about 4,000; the French about 5,000.


                       Castalla (Peninsular War).

Fought April 13, 1813, between 17,000 allied troops under Sir John
Murray, and 15,000 French under Suchet. The French were defeated. The
allies lost 600 killed and wounded; the French, according to Suchet,
800, according to Murray, 3,000, but the former figure is probably
nearer to the truth.


                 Castelfidardo (Unification of Italy).

Fought September 18, 1860, between the Papal troops under General La
Moricière, about 8,000 strong, and the Sardinians, 40,000 strong, under
General Cialdini. The Papal army was totally routed, and, after the
action, La Moricière was only able to assemble about 300 infantry, with
which remnant he made his way to Ancona.


                             Castelnaudary.

Fought September 1, 1632, between the troops of Louis XIII and the rebel
nobles under the Duc de Montmorenci, son of the Constable. The rebels
were utterly routed, and Montmorenci taken prisoner.


              Castiglione (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought September 8, 1706, between the Imperialists under the Prince of
Hesse, and the French under General de Medavi. The Prince was besieging
Castiglione, when he was attacked by the French, and totally defeated,
with a loss of 8,000 killed, wounded, and missing.


              Castiglione (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought August 3, 1796, between the French under Napoleon, and the
Imperialists under Wurmser. Napoleon, with 25,000 men, advanced upon
Lonato, while Augereau moved upon Castiglione. Lonato was carried by
assault, and the Austrian army cut in two. One part under General
Bazalitch effected a retreat to the Mincio, but the other section was
cut up by a French division under Guyeaux and Junot’s dragoons, near
Salo, losing 3,000 prisoners and 20 guns.

In the portion of the action fought near Castiglione, the Austrians were
defeated with a loss of 2,000 men, after a desperate encounter, and
driven back upon Mantua. On the 4th, Napoleon at Lonato, with only
12,000 men, was summoned to surrender by a portion of Bazalitch’s force,
4,000 strong. Napoleon, however, succeeded in making the messenger think
that he was in the middle of the main French army, and consequently the
whole Austrian detachment laid down their arms.


                      Castillejos (Moroccan War).

Fought January 1, 1860, when the advance guard of the Spanish army,
under General Prim, defeated a strong force of Moors, after severe
fighting. The victory opened the road to Tetuan.


                    Castillon (Hundred Years’ War).

This was the last battle of the Hundred Years’ War, and was fought July
17, 1453. The English under Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, marched to the
relief of Castillon, and attacked the lines of the besiegers, but were
taken in flank by a sortie from the French entrenchments and totally
defeated, Talbot being slain. On October 19 following, Bordeaux opened
her gates to the French.


            Catana (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

Fought B.C. 387 between 200 Syracusan galleys under Leptines, and a
vastly superior Carthaginian fleet. The Syracusans were utterly routed,
partly owing to their inferior numbers, but also in part to the bad
generalship of Leptines, who dispersed his ships too widely, allowing
them to be overwhelmed in detail. The victors at once entered upon the
siege of Syracuse.


                  Caudine Forks (Second Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 322, when four Roman legions, under T. Veturius Calvinus and
Spurius Postumus were entrapped by the Sabines under Pontius, in the
narrow pass of Caudium. The Romans fought till nightfall, suffering
heavy loss, and next day, finding every exit from the pass barred, the
survivors surrendered.


                        Cawnpur (Indian Mutiny).

The Residency of Cawnpur was invested by the mutineers June 6, 1857, and
defended by a small garrison until June 24, when the survivors, about
450 in number, surrendered under promise from the Nana Sahib of a safe
conduct to Allahabad. They were, however, fired upon as they took to the
boats, and only a few escaped. The survivors of this massacre were
afterwards murdered in cold blood by order of the Nana Sahib.


                        Cawnpur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought December 6, 1857, between the British under Sir Colin Campbell,
and 25,000 rebels, including the Gwalior contingent. The mutineers were
routed at all points, and fled, pursued by the cavalry for 14 miles,
suffering heavy loss. Out of 36 guns, 32 were captured. The British lost
99 only.


                   Cecryphalea (Third Messenian War).

A naval action, fought B.C. 458 between the Peloponnesians and the
Athenians, in which the latter were victorious.


                   Cedar Creek (American Civil War).

Fought October 17, 1864, between 10,000 Confederates under General
Early, and about 40,000 Federals under General Sheridan. Under cover of
a fog, Early turned Sheridan’s right, capturing 18 guns, but Sheridan,
rallying his broken right wing, totally routed the Confederates, who had
been engaged in plundering the captured camp. The Federal losses were
the heavier, but Sheridan captured 22 guns, besides retaking the 18 he
had lost at the beginning of the action.


                  Cedar Mountain (American Civil War).

Fought August 9, 1862, between 15,000 Confederates under Jackson, and
about 20,000 Federals under General Pope. The strong Confederate
position was assailed at 5 p.m., and successive attacks were repulsed
until late in the evening, when the fighting ceased. The Federals lost
about 2,800 killed, wounded, and missing; the Confederates, 800 or 900.


                                Cepeda.

Fought October 23, 1859, between the troops of the Argentine
Confederation under Urquiza, and those of the State of Buenos Ayres,
under Mitre. Urquiza was victorious, and in the following month Buenos
Ayres entered the Confederation.


                               Cephisus.

Fought 1307 between the Catalan “Great Band,” 9,500 strong, and the
troops of Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens, 15,000 in number. The
Catalans surrounded their camp with an artificial inundation, into which
the Duke’s cavalry rode unsuspectingly, and were cut to pieces, de
Brienne being amongst the slain.


                      Cerignola (Neapolitan War).

Fought 1503 between the Spaniards under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the
French under the Duc de Nemours. The French were totally defeated and
Nemours slain.


                    Cerisolles (Wars of Charles V).

Fought 1544, between the French under François de Bourbon, and the
Imperialists under du Gast, the French gaining a complete victory.


            Chacabuco (South American War of Independence).

Fought February 12, 1817, between the Chilian patriots under San Martin,
and the Spanish royalists. The Chilians won a complete victory.


                      Chæronea (Amphictyonic War).

Fought August B.C. 338 between the Macedonians under Philip, and the
Athenians and Thebans under Chares and Theagenes respectively. Philip
had 30,000 foot and 2,000 horse, the latter led by Alexander, then a lad
of eighteen; the allies were slightly fewer in number. Philip reinforced
his right wing, which was opposed by the Athenians, and sent his heavy
cavalry against the Thebans, on the allied right. Their charge broke the
Theban ranks, and they then attacked the Athenians in flank and rear. A
hopeless rout ensued, the Theban “Sacred Band” dying where they stood.
The Athenians lost 6,000 killed and 2,000 prisoners. The Thebans were
almost annihilated.


                   Chæronea (First Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 86, between the Romans under Sulla, 30,000 strong, and the
troops of Pontus, 90,000 in number, under Archelaus. The Romans were
completely victorious.


                   Chalcedon (Third Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 74, between the Roman Fleet, under Rutilius Nudo, and that
of Pontus. The Romans sallied out of the harbour, but were driven back,
and the Pontic fleet then broke the chain protecting the entrance and
destroyed the whole of the Roman ships, 70 in number.


                      Chalgrove Field (Civil War).

A cavalry skirmish fought June 18, 1643, between the Royalists under
Prince Rupert, and the Parliamentarians under Hampden, and notable only
for the fact that Hampden was killed in the affair.


             Châlons (Revolt of the Legions of Aquitaine).

Fought 271, between the troops of the Emperor Aurelian, and the revolted
legions under Tetricus. Tetricus, who was only a puppet in the hands of
his soldiers, concerted measures with Aurelian for their destruction,
and so posted his forces as to give the Emperor the advantage, after
which he deserted, with a few followers. The revolted legionaries fought
desperately, but were cut to pieces.


                  Châlons (Invasion of the Alemanni).

Fought July 366 between the Romans under Jovinus, and the Alemanni under
Vadomair. After an obstinate engagement, lasting throughout the day, the
Alemanni were routed with a loss of 6,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners.
The Romans lost 1,200.


                    Châlons (Invasion of the Huns).

Fought 451 between the Romans and the Visigoths under Actius and
Theodoric respectively, and the Huns under Attila. The battle was fought
on an open plain, and while the right and centre of the allies withstood
Attila’s onslaught, the Visigoths on the left made a furious charge, in
which Theodoric fell, and totally routed the right of the Huns. Attila
then withdrew to his camp, having suffered heavy loss, and prepared to
resist the attack of the allies on the following day. Actius, however,
did not renew the conflict, and allowed Attila to retreat unmolested.


                                Châlons.

Arising out of a tournament in 1274, in which the life of Edward I was
endangered by foul play, a fight in earnest took place between the
English and French knights present. The French were worsted, and a
considerable number slain. This fight is called the “Little” Battle of
Châlons.


               Champ-Aubert (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought February 10, 1814, when Napoleon with his main army, by an
extraordinary forced march through a difficult country, fell upon
Blucher’s army marching upon Paris, viâ Châlons. Blucher was advancing
in three divisions, and Napoleon attacked the second of these, under
Alsusieff, and completely dispersed it, taking 2,000 prisoners and all
the guns. On the following day he encountered Sachen, who with 20,000
men formed the advance guard, and defeated him at Montmirail, with a
loss of 6,000, forcing him to abandon the main road and retire on
Château Thierry. On the 13th he encountered General d’York, with 30,000
Russians and Prussians at Château Thierry, driving him out with heavy
loss, including 3,000 prisoners, while finally on the 14th he turned on
the main body under Blucher himself, who, not being sufficiently strong
to face the main French army, was compelled to retire, which he did in
good order, after losing 3,000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners. This
flank march is considered one of Napoleon’s most brilliant achievements.


                 Chancellorsville (American Civil War).

Fought May 2, 3, and 4, 1863, between 53,000 Confederates under Lee, and
120,000 Federals under Hooker. Lee, though largely outnumbered, detached
half his force under Jackson to turn Hooker’s right, while he contained
the Federals with the rest of his army. Jackson’s march was successfully
carried out, and on the afternoon of the 2nd he commenced his attack,
routing the Federal 11th Corps. This success, however, cost the
Confederates dear, for Jackson’s staff was mistaken in the dusk for that
of a Federal general, and was fired into by a South Carolina regiment,
and Jackson mortally wounded. On the 3rd the attack was renewed in front
and flank, with further success for the Confederates, while on the 4th
the Federals were driven off, and Hooker forced to recross the
Rappahannock on the 5th. The Confederates lost about 10,000 men; the
Federals about 18,000, including 7,650 prisoners.


                      Chanda (Third Mahratta War).

This fortress, the chief stronghold of the Rajah of Nagpur, was besieged
by a British force under Colonel Adams, May 9, 1818. It was defended by
over 3,000 of the Rajah’s troops, but after two days’ bombardment the
place was taken by storm, with small loss to the assailants, while the
garrison had 500 killed, including the commandant.


                   Chandernagore (Seven Years’ War).

This place was besieged March 14, 1757, by Clive, with 2,000 Company’s
troops, and defended by 600 Frenchmen and 300 Sepoys. On the 19th three
British ships under Admiral Watson arrived, and on the 24th a joint
attack by sea and land resulted in the capture of the place.


                     Charasiab (Second Afghan War).

Fought October 6, 1879, when Sir Frederick Roberts attacked a force of
Afghans and Ghilzais, who were massed on the road by which a convoy was
approaching from Zahidabad, under General Macpherson. The enemy was
routed and dispersed, and the convoy reached camp safely.


                     Charenton (War of the Fronde).

Fought February 8, 1649, between the Royal troops, 8,000 strong, under
the Great Condé, and the forces of the Paris Parliament under Clanleu.
Condé gained a complete victory, driving the Frondeurs from all their
entrenchments, and forcing them back upon Paris with heavy loss,
including 100 officers. Among the slain was Clauleu.


                    Charleston (American Civil War).

The siege of this place may be considered to have commenced April 6,
1863, on which day the Federal fleet crossed the bar. On the 7th an
attack was made upon fort Sumter by nine ironclads under Admiral Dupont,
which was repulsed with a loss of 1 ship and the disabling of several
others. The defenders lost 2 men only. On July 10th and 11th a land
force attacked Fort Wagner, but was repulsed with loss. On the 18th an
assault by three brigades under General Seymour was also repulsed with
enormous loss; and preparations were then made for a sap. On September
5, after a very heavy bombardment, Fort Wagner proved to be untenable,
and, with the works on Morris Island, was abandoned, but the besiegers
failed in all their attempts on Fort Sumter, and the inner defences.
From this time the siege became a mere blockade of the port, until, on
the approach of Sherman’s army, the garrison, then 9,000 strong,
evacuated the city, February 18, 1865.


                   Châteauguay (Second American War).

Fought 1813, between the Americans, 7,000 strong, under General Hampton,
and a force of Canadian Militia, far inferior in numbers, who were
strongly posted near Châteauguay. The Americans attempted to storm the
Canadian lines, but the Canadians made a most gallant defence, and
repulsed them with heavy loss.


                Châteauneuf-Raudon (Hundred Years’ War).

This fortress was besieged 1380 by the French under Du Guesclin, and was
defended by an English garrison under de Ros. After an obstinate defence
the town surrendered, July 4, but the siege was fatal to Du Guesclin,
who succumbed to his fatigues and privations.


                            Château Thierry.

_See_ Champ-Aubert.


                   Chattanooga (American Civil War).

Fought November 24 to 27, 1863, between 80,000 Federals under Grant, and
the Confederate Army of the West, 40,000 strong, under Bragg. The attack
on the Confederate lines commenced on the 27th, the Federals capturing
Look Out Mountain, on their extreme left. They advanced unseen through a
thick fog, to the upper slopes, and drove out the defenders, whence this
action is known as the “Battle above the Clouds.” On the following day
Bragg’s centre was pierced, while the fighting of the 26th and 27th was
in the nature of severe rearguard actions. The Federals lost 5,286
killed and wounded, and 330 missing. The Confederates lost fewer in
killed and wounded, but they left in the hands of the Federals 6,142
prisoners, 40 guns and 7,000 rifles. Also called the “Battle of
Missionary Ridge.”


                   Che-mul-pho (Russo-Japanese War).

Fought February 8, 1904, between a Japanese squadron of four protected
cruisers, convoying transports, under Admiral Uriu, and a Russian
cruiser and gunboat which sought to oppose the landing. After a smart
action the cruiser was blown up to avoid capture, and the gunboat
destroyed, the Russians losing 504 killed and wounded. The Japanese
suffered no material damage.


                         Cheriton (Civil War).

Fought March 29, 1644, when the Royalists under Lord Firth were defeated
by the Parliamentarians under Waller. This defeat prevented the
threatened Royalist incursion into Kent and Sussex.


                         Chetaté (Crimean War).

Fought January 6 to 9, 1854. On the 6th the advanced Russian post of
6,000 men at Chetaté under General Fischbuch was attacked by 6,000 Turks
under Ahmed Pasha, and after heavy fighting, in which the Russians lost
3,000 killed and wounded, and many prisoners, and the Turks 1,000, was
driven out of the village. On the following days the Russians made
desperate attempts to recover the position, General Anrep, on the 9th,
bringing up some 20,000 men from Cragova. All their efforts, however,
failed, and the three days’ fighting cost them a further 2,000 men, the
Turks losing about 1,000.


                     Chevilly (Franco-German War).

Fought September 30, 1870, when a sortie from Paris under General Vinoy
was repulsed by the Sixth German Corps under Von Tümpling, with a loss
of 74 officers and 2,046 men. The Germans lost 28 officers and 413 men
killed and wounded.


                              Chevy Chace.

_See_ Otterburn.


                Chiari (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought September 1, 1701, between the Imperialists, about 28,000 strong,
under Prince Eugene, and the French and Spaniards under the Duke of
Savoy. The Prince occupied the small town of Chiari, where he was
attacked by the allies, who, after two hours’ hard fighting, were
repulsed with a loss of nearly 3,000. Owing to the strength of their
position, the Imperialists lost 117 only.


                   Chickahominy (American Civil War).

Fought June 3, 1864, between the Federal Army of the Potomac under
Grant, and the Confederate army of Virginia under Lee. Grant attacked
the Southerners’ entrenchments, with the object of forcing the passage
of the Chickahominy, and his first onslaught met with some success, but
the Confederates, rallying, drove back their assailants to their
original position with heavy loss. All further attempts on Lee’s lines
failed, and the Federals were finally repulsed with a loss of over
13,000 killed, wounded and missing. The Confederates lost about 6,000.


                   Chickamauga (American Civil War).

Fought September 19 and 20, 1863, between the Confederate Army of the
West under General Bragg, and the Federals under General Rosecrans. On
the 19th the Confederates attacked along the whole line and drove back
their opponents, cutting them off from the river, and forcing them to
bivouac for the night in a waterless country. On the 20th the attack was
renewed, and though Bragg’s right was repulsed, he was elsewhere
successful, and by nightfall Rosecrans was in full retreat. Bragg
however, failed to follow up his victory, and allowed Rosecrans to
retire on Chattanooga unmolested. The Federals lost 16,351 men and 36
guns; the Confederates about 12,000.


                   Chillianwallah (Second Sikh War).

Fought January 14, 1849, between the British under Lord Gough, and the
Sikhs, 40,000 strong, under Shere Singh. The battle was very evenly
contested, and though in the end Lord Gough drove the Sikhs from the
field, his own position was so insecure that he was himself compelled to
retire after the action.


              Chiloe (South American War of Independence).

On January 19, 1826, the small group of islands, held for the Spanish
crown by a garrison under Quintanella, was surrendered to a force of
Chilians, 4,000 strong, with a small squadron of warships under Freyre.


                     Chingleput (Seven Years’ War).

This fortress, defended by a French garrison of 40 Europeans and 500
native troops, was captured, 1752, by Clive, with a force of about 700
recruits and Sepoys.


                          Chios (Social War).

Chios having risen against Athenian rule in B.C. 357, a fleet of 60
ships under Chabrias and Chares was sent to reduce it. A force having
been landed, a joint attack was made by the fleet and the army, but in
attempting to enter the harbour, the galley of Chabrias, which led the
way, was surrounded and overpowered, Chabrias falling. The troops were
then withdrawn, and the attack abandoned.


                                 Chios.

Fought B.C. 201 between the Macedonian fleet, 48 triremes and some
smaller vessels under Philip, and the combined fleets of Rhodes and
Pergamus under Theophiliscus and Attalus. Philip was defeated with the
loss of half his ships, 3,000 killed and 5,000 prisoners. The allies
lost 6 ships and 800 men.


                       Chiozza (War of Chiozza).

This city, which had been captured by the Genoese from Venice, was
besieged by the Venetians under Pisani and defended by Doria, who was
killed during the siege. The place made an obstinate resistance, but was
forced to surrender June 24, 1380, the Venetians capturing 19 Genoese
galleys and 4,000 prisoners. This disaster broke the power of the
Genoese Republic for many years.


                    Chippewa (Second American War).

Fought July 6, 1814, between 4,000 Americans under General Jacob Brown,
and 2,400 British, 1,500 being regulars, under General Riall. Riall
attacked Brown in a strong position at Chippewa, and was repulsed with
considerable loss.


                                Chitor.

Towards the end of the thirteenth century this fortress was besieged by
the Pathans under Ala-ud-Din, and was defended by the Rana, Lakhsman.
The first attack was repulsed, though the Rajputs suffered terribly, but
at the second attempt the Pathans overpowered the defenders, who were
mercilessly put to the sword. All the Rajput women in the place
committed suttee, to avoid captivity. Lakhsman Singh and eleven out of
his twelve sons fell in the defence.

The second sack of Chitor took place in 1535, when the Rana Bikrmajit
made a gallant but unavailing defence against the Gujeratis under
Bahadur Shah. Thirteen thousand women were slain by the remnant of the
garrison, before they opened the gates, and rushed out to fall fighting.
Only one small child of the Royal line escaped the massacre, namely Udai
Singh. It was during the reign of this Udai Singh that the third sack
took place in 1568, by the Delhi Moguls under Akbar. Udai Singh deserted
his capital, which was defended by a garrison of 8,000 Rajputs under
Jagmal. The siege was scientifically conducted, and, a breach having
been effected, an assault was ordered. A mine, however, was exploded in
the breach, killing 500 of the assailants, and the assault was repulsed.
Shortly afterwards Jagmal was killed, and a second assault proved
successful, the garrison, refusing to surrender, being put to the sword.


                      Chitral (Chitral Campaign).

On March 3, 1895, the Chitral garrison, consisting of 90 Sikhs and 280
Kashmir Imperial Service troops, with 7 British officers under Captain
Campbell, was attacked by a large force of Chitralis and Bajauris under
Shere Afzal, the Pretender to the Chitral throne, and Umrar Khan of
Bajaur. A sortie was repulsed, with a loss of 58, including 2 British
officers, and General Baj Singh, who commanded the Kashmiris, but in
spite of a series of attacks, and continual mining operations, the
garrison held out until April 18, when it was relieved by Colonel Kelly.
One fifth of the garrison was killed or wounded.


                      Chizai (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought July 1372, between the French under Du Guesclin, and the English
under Thomas Hampton. Du Guesclin, who was engaged in the siege of
Chizai, was attacked by the English, in about equal force to his own,
and, after a long and bloody engagement, totally defeated them, and
captured the town. The reverse cost Edward III Saintonge and Poitou.


                        Choczim (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1769, between the Russians under Galitzin, and the Turks under
Mohammed Emin Pasha. The Russians, who were endeavouring to capture
Choczim by a _coup de main_, were met and defeated by the Turks with
considerable loss.


                     Chong-ju (Russo-Japanese War).

The first encounter between the land forces of Russia and Japan, April,
1904, when the advanced guard of the First Japanese Army came in contact
with a force of Cossacks under General Mischtchenko, and after a brisk
engagement drove them back and occupied Chong-ju. The losses on both
sides were small.


                    Chorillos (Peruvio-Chilian War).

Fought January 13, 1861, between the Chilians under General Baquedano
and the Peruvians under General Caceres. The Peruvians were totally
defeated with a loss of 9,000 killed and wounded, and 2,000 prisoners.
The Chilians lost 800 killed and 2,500 wounded.


              Chotusitz (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought May 17, 1742, between the Austrians under Prince Charles of
Lorraine, and the Prussians under Frederick the Great. The numbers were
about equal, but the steadiness of the Prussian infantry eventually wore
down the Austrians, and they were forced to retreat, though in good
order, leaving behind them 18 guns and 12,000 prisoners. The killed and
wounded numbered about 7,000 on each side, and the Austrians made 1,000
prisoners. The Prussian cavalry delivered several desperate and
unsuccessful charges, and were almost destroyed.


                   Christianople (Dano-Swedish Wars).

The first military exploit of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who, during
the war of 1611, made a night assault on this fortress with 1,500 men,
and blowing in the gate, captured the place without losing a man.


                 Chrysopolis (War of the Two Empires).

Fought 323 between 60,000 troops under Licinius, Emperor of the East,
and a force detached by Constantine from the siege of Byzantium.
Licinius was totally defeated, with a loss of 25,000, and surrendered.
The result of this victory was the re-union of the whole of the Roman
Empire under one head.


                 Chrystlers Farm (Second American War).

Fought November 11, 1813, between 800 British under Colonel Morrison,
and about 3,000 Americans under General Boyd. The Americans were
defeated with a loss of 249 killed and wounded and 100 prisoners. The
British lost 203.


                                Chunar.

This fortress, which was held for Shir Khan Sur, Nawab of Bengal, was
besieged by the Moguls under Humayun in 1538. This is the first siege in
Indian history which was conducted according to the rules of war, and
was notable for the use made of artillery by both sides. After a siege
lasting several months, the garrison was forced by famine to surrender.


                   Cibalis (War of the Two Empires).

Fought October 8, 315, between Constantine the Great, with 20,000 men,
and Licinius, Emperor of the East, with 35,000. Constantine was posted
in a defile, where he was attacked by Licinius. The attack was repulsed,
and Constantine followed the enemy into the open plain, where Licinius
rallied his troops, and resumed the offensive. The day seemed lost, when
a charge of the right wing, under Constantine in person, once more broke
the Illyrians, and Licinius having lost 20,000 of his best troops,
abandoned his camp during the night and retreated to Sirmium.


                    Ciudad Rodrigo (Peninsular War).

This town was invested by Wellington January 8, 1812, and carried by
assault twelve days later. The besiegers lost during the siege 1,290
killed and wounded, of whom 710, including Generals Craufurd and
Mackinnon, fell in the storm. The French lost 300 killed and wounded,
1,500 prisoners, and 150 guns.


                      Ciuna (Second Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 315, between the Romans under Caius Mænius and the Samnites
under Pontius. The Romans gained a signal victory.


                 Civitella (Norman Invasion of Italy).

Fought 1033, when 3,000 Normans under Robert Guiscard assailed and
totally routed a miscellaneous force of Germans and Italians under Pope
Leo IX. Only the Germans offered any serious resistance, but they were
cut down to a man, and the Pope was overtaken in his flight and
captured.


                      Clissau (Swedo-Polish Wars).

Fought July 13, 1702, between the Swedes, 12,000 strong, under Charles
XII, and 24,000 Poles and Saxons under Frederick Augustus. The Saxons
fought gallantly, but the Poles fled at the first onslaught, and in the
end the Swedes gained a complete victory. Among those who fell was the
Duke of Holstein, commanding the Swedish cavalry.


                 Clontarf (Norse Invasion of Ireland).

Fought April 24, 1014, when the Scandinavian invaders were totally
routed by the Irish of Munster, Connaught, Ulster and Meath, under Brian
Boru. The Norsemen are said to have lost 6,000 men. Brian Boru and his
son fell in the battle.


                 Clusium (Conquest of Cisalpine Gaul).

Fought B.C. 225, when the Gauls utterly routed a Roman army with a loss
said to have amounted to 50,000 men.


                                Cnidus.

Fought B.C. 394 between 120 Spartan triremes under Pisander and a
largely superior Persian fleet under Pharnabazus, and Conon the
Athenian. Pisander was defeated and slain, and his fleet destroyed.
Persia thus re-established her power in the Greek cities of Asia, and
the maritime power of Sparta was destroyed.

Cockerel (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought May, 1364, between the Navarrese under Jean de Grailli, aided by
a force of English mercenaries under John Joel, and the French, 10,000
strong, under Bertrand du Guesclin. Du Guesclin, who was executing a
strategic retreat, was attacked by the English, who were surrounded and
overpowered, Joel falling. De Grailli came to their aid, but was also
overwhelmed and made prisoner, and the Navarrese, deprived of their
leaders, laid down their arms.


                       Colenso (Second Boer War).

Fought December 15, 1899, being the first action in Sir Redvers Buller’s
campaign for the relief of Ladysmith. Buller attempted to carry by a
frontal attack the Boer position on the opposite side of the Tugela, and
notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, was compelled to retire,
with a loss of 71 officers and 1,055 rank and file. Of this total the
Irish Brigade lost about half. The Boers captured 10 guns.


             Colline Gate (Civil War of Marius and Sulla).

Fought B.C. 82 between the adherents of Sulla, and the Roman democrats
and Samnites under Pontius, outside the walls of Rome. The battle was
obstinately contested, but, after a fight lasting throughout the night,
the insurgents were routed, and 4,000 prisoners taken. This victory of
the aristocratic party ended the civil war.


                     Colombey (Franco-German War).

Fought August 11, 1870, between the retiring French army, and the
advance guard of the First German Army Corps under von Steinmetz. The
French maintained most of their positions, but two of their divisions
were overthrown, and Bazaine’s retreat on Verdun was seriously delayed.
The French lost about 7,000; the Germans 222 officers and 5,000 men.


                Colombo (Wars of the French Revolution).

This town was captured from the Dutch in 1796, by a squadron of four
British warships, and a small force of troops under Admiral Peter
Rainier and Colonel Stuart.


          Concha Rayada (South American War of Independence).

Fought February 1818, between the Spanish Royalists, 5,000 strong, under
General Osorio, and the Chilians and Colombians under San Martin. The
Spaniards gained a complete victory.


                      Concon (Chilian Civil War).

Fought August 21, 1891, between 10,000 Congressists under General del
Canto, and 11,000 Balmacedists under General Barbosa. Aided by the fire
of three warships, the Congressists, who had landed unopposed on the
20th, stormed the entrenchments of the Balmacedists, and drove them out
with a loss of 1,648 killed and wounded, and 1,500 prisoners. The
victors lost 869.


                             Condorcanqui.

_See_ Ayacucho.

                   Constantine (Conquest of Algeria).

This fortified city in Eastern Algeria, which, under Hadji Ahmad, had
held out for six years against French rule, was invested by the French,
7,000 strong, under Marshal Clausel, in the autumn of 1836. Having no
breaching pieces, Clausel essayed an assault, but was repulsed with a
loss of 2,000 men, and abandoned the siege. In the following year
General Damrémont sat down before Constantine October 6, with 10,000
men, and on the 12th, a breach having been effected, an assault was on
the point of taking place, when Damrémont was killed. His successor,
General Valée, however, took the place by storm on the following day.


              Constantinople (Moslem Invasion of Europe).

This city was besieged in 668, by the Saracens under Sophian, the
lieutenant of the Caliph Moawiyeh. The Moslem fleet passed the
Hellespont unopposed, but their attack upon the city was met with a most
determined resistance. After keeping the field from April to September,
Sophian retired into winter quarters, but renewed active operations
during the following and five succeeding summers, without success,
until, in 675, he finally abandoned the siege, having lost in its
progress over 30,000 men.

In 716, the Saracens again laid siege to the city, with 120,000 men
under Moslemeh, brother of the Caliph Solyman. A fleet of 1,800 sail
co-operated with the land forces, but was destroyed by the Greek fire
ships, and thus obtaining the command of the sea, the citizens were
relieved from all fear of famine, and repulsed all Moslemeh’s assaults.
After a siege of 13 months, the Saracens withdrew, after a defeat at the
hands of a Bulgarian relieving army, in which they lost 22,000 men.


                    Constantinople (Fourth Crusade).

The city was besieged July 7, 1203, by the French and Venetian Crusaders
under Count Thibaut de Champagne. After a feeble defence, it was
surrendered July 18, by the Usurper, Alexius, and occupied by the
Crusaders, who restored Isaac Angelus to the throne, and withdrew.

In January 1204 the Crusaders again laid siege to Constantinople, and at
the end of three months, in the course of which Isaac Angelus died, and
Mourzoufle assumed the purple, they stormed and pillaged the city.
Baldwin was then proclaimed first Latin Emperor of the East.

On July 25, 1261, Constantinople was taken by surprise by the troops of
the Greek Emperor, Michael Palæologus, under his lieutenant, Alexius
Strategopulus. The Latin Emperor, Baldwin II, made no attempt at
resistance, but escaped to the Venetian galleys, and the restoration of
the Greek Empire was accomplished without opposition.


                            Constantinople.

A naval action fought February 13, 1352, between 64 Genoese galleys
under Doria, and 75 Greek and Venetian galleys under Pisani. The Genoese
were victorious, taking or sinking 26 galleys, and forcing Pisani to
retire into the fortified harbour. The Genoese lost 13 galleys.


              Constantinople (Ottoman Invasion of Europe).

On June 10, 1422, Amurath II, with 200,000 Turks, laid siege to the
city, which was defended by the Greek garrison under the Emperor Manuel.
After a siege of two months, in which the Turks lost heavily in their
numerous assaults, and in the defenders’ sallies, Amurath was called
away to Boursa by a domestic revolt, and raised the siege.

On April 6, 1453, the Turks again laid siege to Constantinople with
258,000 men under Mohammed II. The garrison, consisting of 5,000 Greeks
and 2,000 foreigners, though short of ammunition, made a gallant
defence, but were overpowered by numbers in a general assault on May 25,
and the city was captured. Constantine Palæologus, the last Emperor of
the East, was killed by an unknown hand, in the tumult which followed
the storming of the ramparts.


                     Copenhagen (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought April 2, 1801, between the British fleet of 20 sail of the line,
besides frigates, under Admirals Hyde Parker and Nelson, and the Danish
fleet of 10 line-of-battle ships, aided by the shore batteries. Nelson
attacked with 12 ships, Parker remaining in reserve, but three of
Nelson’s vessels running aground, he met the Danish line with 9 only.
The Danes offered a strenuous resistance, and Parker hoisted the signal
to retire, but Nelson put the telescope to his blind eye, and refused to
see the signal. The action continued until the Danish fire was silenced.
The British lost 1,200 men, and had six vessels seriously damaged. The
Danes had one ship destroyed, and the rest of their fleet completely
disabled. The result of this victory was the dissolution of the league
of the Northern Powers.


                     Copenhagen (Napoleonic Wars).

The city was captured September 5, 1807, by 20,000 British troops under
Lord Cathcart, after a four days’ bombardment of the forts and citadel
by 27 ships of the line. The Danish fleet of 18 sail of the line, which
was surrendered, would otherwise, under a secret clause of the Treaty of
Tilsit, have been placed at the disposal of Napoleon.


            Copratus, The (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 316, between the Macedonians under Antigonus, and the
Asiatics under Eumenes. Each army was about 30,000 strong, and Eumenes
fell upon the Macedonians as they were crossing the Copratus, and
signally defeated them, though Antigonus was able to retreat in good
order.


                   Cordova (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought August 1010, between the Berbers under Sulaiman, aided by the
Spaniards under Sancho, Count of Castile, and the Moors of Cordova under
Almudy. Almudy marched out of Cordova to meet the Berbers, but was
utterly routed, with a loss of 20,000, including most of his principal
Emirs.


                      Corinth (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 429, between 47 Peloponnesian ships under Cnemus, and 20
Athenian triremes under Phormio. Phormio, who was blockading the Gulf of
Corinth, allowed Cnemus to pass into the open sea, and when disordered
by the heavy weather prevailing, he attacked and completely defeated the
Peloponnesians, capturing 12 ships.


                       Corinth (Corinthian War).

Fought B.C. 394 between 14,000 Spartans, and 26,000 Athenians,
Corinthians, Thebans and Argives. The allies were defeated, losing twice
as many men as their opponents, but the Spartans, in spite of their
victory, were obliged to retire, leaving the Isthmus in their
possession.


                     Corinth (American Civil War).

Fought October 3 and 4, 1862, between the Confederates under Van Dorn,
and the Federals under Rosecrans. Rosecrans was strongly entrenched at
Corinth, where he was attacked on the 3rd, and driven into his inner
lines. The attack was renewed on the 4th, but an attempt to storm the
entrenchments was repulsed, and the Federals, taking the offensive
against the disordered Southerners, drove them from the field with a
loss of 6,423 killed and wounded, and 2,248 prisoners. The Federals lost
2,359 killed, wounded, and missing.


                      Coroneia (Bœotian Wars).

Fought B.C. 447, when an Athenian army under Tolmides, which had entered
Bœotia to reduce certain of the Bœotian towns which had thrown off
their allegiance to Athens, was encountered and totally defeated by a
largely superior force of Bœotians. Almost all the surviving
Athenians were captured, and, to secure their release, Athens resigned
her claims over Bœotia.


                       Coroneia (Corinthian War).

Fought August B.C. 394, between the Athenians, Argives, Thebans, and
Corinthians, and the Spartans under Agesilaus. The Spartan right
defeated the Argives, but their left fled before the Thebans, who then
attacked the Spartan right, but, after a desperate struggle, were
defeated. The Spartans, however, had suffered so severely that Agesilaus
was compelled to evacuate Bœotia.


                    Corrichie (Huntly’s Rebellion).

Fought 1562, between the troops of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the
Scottish rebels under the Earl of Huntly. The rebels, whose forces had
been greatly reduced by desertions, were totally defeated, and Huntly
slain.


                 Corte Nuova (Guelfs and Ghibellines).

Fought 1237, between the Imperialists under Frederick II, and the
Lombard Guelfs under the leadership of the Milanese. Frederick won a
signal victory, capturing the _carroccio_ of Milan.


                       Corumba (Paraguayan War).

Fought 1877, between the Paraguayans and a Brazilian army corps which
was endeavouring to enter Paraguay from the north-east. The Brazilians
retired in disorder, being pursued for many miles, and suffering heavy
loss. The battle is remarkable for the presence in the Paraguayan army
of a corps of Amazons led by Eliza Lynch.


                        Coruña (Peninsular War).

Fought January 16, 1809, between 14,000 British under Sir John Moore,
and 20,000 French under Soult, who was endeavouring to prevent the
British from embarking. The French attacks were uniformly repulsed, and
the troops safely embarked, with a loss of about 800, including Sir John
Moore. The French lost about 2,000.


              Compedion (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 281 between the Macedonians under Lysimachus, and the
Syrians under Seleucus. The two generals met in single combat, in front
of their armies, and Seleucus, though 81 years of age, defeated and slew
his ancient comrade in arms. The two armies then engaged, and the
Syrians gained a complete victory.


                     Coulmiers (Franco-German War).

Fought November 9, 1870, between 20,000 Germans under Von der Tann, and
a largely superior French force under General d’Aurelle de Paladines.
After maintaining their position for the greater part of the day, the
Germans were driven back, having lost 576 killed and wounded, 800
prisoners, an ammunition column and 2 guns. The French losses were about
1,500.


                        Courtrai (Flemish War).

Fought 1302, between the French under Robert d’Artois, and the Flemings
under Guy de Namur. The French were utterly routed, and so great was the
carnage among the French nobility and knighthood, that after the battle
4,000, some say 7,000, gilt spurs, were hung up as trophies in Courtrai
cathedral. From this circumstance this battle is commonly known as the
Battle of the Spurs.


                      Coutras (Eighth Civil War).

Fought 1587 between the Huguenots under Henry of Navarre (Henri IV) and
the Catholics under the Duc de Joyeuse. The Catholic army was
annihilated, Joyeuse being amongst the slain.


                      Covelong (Seven Years’ War).

This fortress, held by a French garrison of 350, was captured by Clive
in 1752, after a few days’ siege. Clive had only 200 European recruits
and 500 Sepoys, and had great difficulty in getting his men to face the
French fire. Having, however, managed to erect a battery which commanded
the place, the Governor surrendered. On the following day Clive ambushed
and defeated, with a loss of 100 men, a relieving force approaching from
Chingleput.


                     Coverypank (Seven Years’ War).

Fought February 1752, between the British, 380 Europeans, and 1,300
Sepoys, under Clive, and the troops of Rajah Sahib, with 400 Frenchmen,
in all about 5,000. Clive’s advance guard marched into an ambush, and
with difficulty held its ground against the fire of 9 guns. Meanwhile
Clive passed round the enemy’s position, and attacked them vigorously in
the rear, whereupon they fled in panic. Most of the Frenchmen and the
guns were captured.


                  Craonne (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought March 7, 1814, between 55,000 French under Napoleon, and about
90,000 of the allies under Blucher. Blucher occupied a very strong
position on the heights about Craonne, which was attacked and carried by
Victor’s and Ney’s corps at the point of the bayonet. The French lost
9,000, the allies 7,000 killed and wounded.


                     Cravant (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought July 31, 1423. A force of Armagnacs under Buchan, Constable of
France, with some Scottish mercenaries under Sir John Stewart, was
advancing upon Craonne, the capture of which town would secure Charles
VII’s communications with Champagne. They were attacked by the
Burgundians and English under the Earl of Salisbury, and defeated with
heavy loss. Both Buchan and Stewart were captured.


                      Crayford (Jutish Invasion).

Fought 456 between the Jutes under Hengest, and the Britons under
Vortigern. The Britons were defeated, and driven out of Kent.


                      Crefeld (Seven Years’ War).

Fought June 23, 1758, between 32,000 Hanoverians, Hessians and
Brunswickers under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, and about 50,000
French under the Comte de Clermont. The French were totally defeated,
with heavy loss.


                   Cremona (Second Gallic Invasion).

Fought B.C. 198, when the Romans defeated with heavy slaughter an
invading army of Gauls under Hamilcar, a Carthaginian. Hamilcar was
slain.


                     Cremona (Revolt of Vitellius).

Fought December 69, between the Vitellians, and the Flavians under
Antonius Primus, 40,000 strong. The Vitellians, who were without a
leader, having deposed their general, Cæcina, were attacked in their
camp, and after a hard fight, which lasted throughout the night, were
totally routed. The victors sacked and burnt Cremona.


                Cremona (War of the Spanish Succession).

This city, held by a French garrison, was surprised by the Imperialists
under Prince Eugene, February 1, 1702. The town was entered without the
alarm being given, and many important officers, including Marshal
Villeroy, were made prisoners. A portion of the garrison, however, still
held out in the citadel, and made Eugene’s tenure of the town
precarious, and finally, on the approach of a relieving force under the
Prince de Vaudemont, he was forced to withdraw his troops. The garrison
lost 1,000 killed.


                      Cressy (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought August 26, 1346, when a very inferior force of English under
Edward III defeated the French under Philip VI. The battle is notable as
being the first in which the English army was mainly composed of
infantry, and as proving the powerlessness of mounted men against the
English archers. The French losses were 11 princes, 1,200 knights, and
30,000 of lesser ranks, a total exceeding the whole English force.


           Crimisus (Third Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

Fought June B.C. 340, between 10,000 Sicilians under Timoleon, and
70,000 Carthaginians, including the “Sacred Band” of 2,500 Carthaginian
citizens of good birth, under Hamilcar and Hasdrubal. Timoleon attacked
the Carthaginians while they were crossing the Crimisus, and routed and
dispersed the Sacred Band before the main army had crossed. A heavy
storm of rain in the faces of the Carthaginians came to the aid of the
Sicilians, and after a severe struggle, they gained a signal victory,
and the Carthaginians fled, leaving 10,000 dead in the field, and 15,000
prisoners. Many more were drowned in their endeavour to recross the
river.


           Cronion (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

Fought B.C. 379 between the Syracusans under Dionysius, and the
Carthaginians. The Syracusans were defeated, with enormous loss, and
Dionysius forced to accept unfavourable terms of peace.


                      Cropredy Bridge (Civil War).

Fought June 29, 1644, between the Royalists under Charles I, and a
detachment of the Parliamentary army under Sir William Waller. Waller
crossed the Cherwell near Banbury with the object of taking the
Royalists in the rear, but was repulsed with considerable loss.


                    Crosskeys (American Civil War).

A rearguard action, fought June 8, 1862, between 8,000 Confederates
under Ewell, and about 15,000 Federals under Tremont. Ewell was given
the task of holding Tremont in check, while General Jackson marched to
meet the Federals under Shields, who were endeavouring to effect a
junction with Tremont. The Confederates held their ground, beating back
their opponents with a loss of 664 killed and wounded. After the action,
Ewell crossed the river, burning the bridge behind him, and Jackson was
enabled to fall upon Shields with his whole force.


                                Crotona.

Fought 983, between the Germans under Otho II, and the Greeks, aided by
40,000 Saracens under the Caliph of Egypt. After an obstinate
engagement, Otho was totally defeated, losing many of his bravest
knights.


                     Crotoye (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought 1347, during the siege of Calais by Edward III. The French fleet
attempted to relieve the town, but was defeated and driven off with
heavy loss by the English fleet.


                                Cuaspad.

Fought December 6, 1862, between the Ecuadorians under Flores, 6,000
strong, and 4,000 Colombians under Mosquera. The Ecuadorians were
utterly routed, losing 1,500 killed and wounded, 2,000 prisoners, and
all their guns.


                               Cuddalore.

Fought June 13, 1783, when a portion of the British force under General
Stewart attacked the French entrenchments in front of Cuddalore, and
after hard fighting, drove the French into the town with a loss of 700
men and 13 guns. The British lost 1,013 killed and wounded.


                               Cuddalore.

A naval action was fought off Cuddalore June 30, 1783, between a British
squadron of 17 sail under Sir Edward Hughes, and 12 French ships under
Suffren. The French, as usual, declined to come to close quarters, and
after a long range action, in which Hughes lost 532 men, fighting was
suspended at nightfall, leaving Suffren in possession of the roads, and
able to prevent the complete investment of Cuddalore.


                Culloden (Rebellion of the Forty-five).

Fought April 16, 1746, between the Royal troops under the Duke of
Cumberland, and the Highlanders under the Young Pretender. The rebels
were completely routed by the English regulars, and in addition to heavy
loss in the field, suffered terribly in the pursuit, being ruthlessly
cut down by the cavalry. Cumberland’s cruelty on this occasion earned
for him the title of “Butcher.” The Royalists lost 309 killed and
wounded. This battle is sometimes called the Battle of Drummossie Moor.


               Cunaxa (Expedition of Cyrus the Younger).

Fought B.C. 401 between the Persians, about 400,000 strong, under
Artaxerxes, and the army of his brother Cyrus, consisting of 100,000
Orientals, with 14,000 Greek mercenaries, under Clearchus. The Greeks on
the right wing drove back the Persian left, and Cyrus in the centre
broke the king’s body-guard, which fled in disorder. While pursuing his
brother, however, he was struck down, and his Orientals at once took to
flight. The Greeks refused to surrender, and were allowed to retain
their arms and march, to the coast. This expedition of Cyrus forms the
subject of Xenophon’s “Anabasis.”


                Curicta (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 49, when the Cæsarian fleet under Dolabella was totally
destroyed by the Pompeian fleet under Marcus Octavius. This victory cut
off the Cæsarian army under Caius Antonius, which was quartered on the
island of Curicta, and Antonius was forced to surrender.


                      Curupayti (Paraguayan War).

Fought September 22, 1866, between the troops of Brazil, Argentine and
Uruguay, under General Flores, and the Paraguayans under Lopez. The
allies were totally defeated, and Flores abandoned the army, returning
to Montevideo.


                      Custozza (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 24, 1866, between 60,000 Austrians under the Archduke
Albert, and 140,000 Italians under General La Marmora. La Marmora
crossed the Mincio, and advanced against the Archduke, who was covering
Verona. The Italians having to pass through a hilly country, the columns
were much broken up, and as they debouched into the plain of Custozza,
they were beaten in detail, and driven back by the Austrians, who gained
a signal victory. The Austrians lost 4,650 killed and wounded; the
Italians, 720 killed, 3,112 wounded, and 4,315 prisoners. La Marmora was
compelled to recross the Mincio.


                       Cuzco (Conquest of Peru).

This city was besieged 1536, by 200,000 Peruvians, and was defended by
250 Spaniards under Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro. After a siege of five
months, Almagro, to whom certain of the conquered territories had been
assigned by the king of Spain, arrived with his troops, and attacked and
totally routed the Peruvians. He then laid siege to the place on his own
account, and shortly afterwards compelled Gonzalo Pizarro to capitulate.
Juan died in the course of the siege.


                                 Cyme.

Fought B.C. 474, between the fleet of Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, and the
Etruscan fleet, which was investing the Greek colony of Cyme. The
Etruscans were routed, and from this defeat dates the rapid decline of
the Etruscan power.


                             Cynoscephalæ.

Fought July 364 B.C., between the Thebans and Thessalians under
Pelopidas, and the forces of Alexander, Despot of Pheræ. Both armies
made a forced march to seize the heights of Cynoscephalæ, and reached
the spot almost simultaneously. The Theban cavalry drove back
Alexander’s horse, but lost time in the pursuit, and his infantry made
good their position on the heights. However, after very hard fighting,
they were dislodged, and Alexander completely routed, though Pelopidas
fell in the battle.


                 Cynoscephalæ (Second Macedonian War).

Fought B.C. 197, between the Romans, 26,000 strong, under Flamininus,
and the Macedonians, in about equal force under Philip. The Roman
vanguard, coming unexpectedly upon the enemy, was repulsed, but
Flamininus bringing up the legionaries, the battle became more equal. On
the right Philip, with half his phalanx, drove back the Romans, but his
left wing was utterly routed, and the victorious Roman right then turned
and attacked the Macedonian right in flank and rear, and won a complete
victory. The Macedonians lost 13,000 killed and wounded. The Roman
losses were small.


                     Cynossema (Peloponnesian War).

Fought 411 B.C., between 86 Peloponnesian ships under Mindarus, and 76
Athenian triremes under Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. The Athenian centre
was broken, but, in the moment of victory, Thrasybulus fell upon the
Peloponnesians with the right wing, and totally routed them, while
Thrasyllus on the left also drove off his adversaries, after hard
fighting.


                 Cyssus (War with Antiochus the Great).

Fought B.C. 191 between the Roman fleet of 105 triremes under Caius
Livius, and the fleet of Antiochus, numbering 70 sail, under
Polyxenides. Polyxenides sailed out of Cyssus to encounter the Romans,
but was defeated with a loss of 23 ships, and forced to seek refuge at
Ephesus.


                      Cyzicus (Peloponnesian War).

Fought 410 B.C., when Alcibiades, with 86 Athenian ships, surprised the
Peloponnesian Admiral Mindarus, who was besieging Cyzicus, and, after a
hard fight, totally defeated him. Mindarus was slain, 60 triremes were
taken or destroyed, and the Peloponnesian fleet was practically
annihilated.


                    Cyzicus (First Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 88, when the army of Mithridates, who was besieging Cyzicus,
was hemmed by the Romans under Lucullus, and though the latter, with
inferior forces, did not venture on a pitched battle, he fought a series
of minor engagements, in which he eventually destroyed the Pontic army,
their losses amounting in the end to over 200,000 men.


                   Czarnovo (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought December 24, 1806, between the French under Napoleon, and the
Russians, about 15,000 strong, under Count Tolstoy. Napoleon, with
Davoust’s corps, crossed the Ukra, and made a night attack upon the
Russians, driving them out of Czarnovo with a loss of 1,600 and several
guns. The French lost 700.


               Czaslau (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought 1742, between the Prussians under Frederic the Great, and the
Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Prussians were driven
from the field, but the Austrians abandoned the pursuit to plunder, and
the king, rallying his troops, broke the Austrian main body, and
defeated them with a loss of 4,000 men.



                                   D


                               Daegastan.

Fought 603 between the Northumbrians under Æthelfrith, and the Picts and
Scots under Aidan, King of the Scots. Æthelfrith was victorious, and
extended his dominions as far as Chester.


                     Dalmanutha (Second Boer War).

Fought August 21 to 28, 1900, when the position of the Boers from
Belfast to Machadodorp covering the Delagoa Bay Railway, and extending
over a line 30 miles long, was attacked on the west by Lord Roberts, and
on the south by Sir Redvers Buller. On the 28th Buller entered
Machadodorp, by which time the Boers, who were under General Botha, had
been driven from all their positions. Kruger at once fled to Delagoa
Bay. The British loss in the four days amounted to about 500.


                  Damascus (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

This city was besieged by the Moslems under Khaled in 633, and was
defended by a large garrison of Greeks and Romans. The city made an
obstinate defence, and the defenders succeeded in sending a demand for
succour to Werdan, the general of Heraclius. Werdan’s approach drew
Khaled away from the place, and as he was retiring he was attacked by
the garrison, whom he defeated with enormous loss. He then marched
against Werdan, defeated him, and returned to prosecute the siege. After
a gallant defence, the city, 70 days later, was taken by storm.


                  Damascus (Tartar Invasion of Syria).

On January 25, 1401, Damascus was captured, through treachery, by the
Tartars under Tamerlane.


                    Damme (Wars of Philip Augustus).

Fought April, 1213, when an English fleet of 500 vessels under the Earl
of Salisbury attacked and dispersed a large fleet of French ships
designed to support Philip Augustus’ invasion of Flanders. The English
captured 300 and burnt 100 vessels, and Philip Augustus was forced to
abandon his design.


                        Dan-no-ura (Taira War).

Fought 1189, between the army of the Shôgun, Yoritomo, under his
brothers Noriyori and Yoshitsune, and the Taira Clan under Munemori,
when the Taira were routed and dispersed. This defeat broke the power of
the clan, and the Minamoto became the dominant clan in Japan.


                      Dantzig (Thirty Years’ War).

This fortress was besieged by the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus in
1627, and was defended by a Polish garrison which successfully resisted
all attempts to storm the place, until the truce of September 16, 1629.
In a night attack on May 27, 1627, the King of Sweden was severely
wounded, while in the autumn of the same year a sally was made from the
port by the Dantzig ships, which defeated the Swedish fleet under
Admiral Stjernsköld, the Admiral being killed, 1 ship captured and 1
destroyed.


                    Dantzig (Campaign of Friedland).

On March 19, 1807, Marshal Lefebvre, with 18,000 French, laid siege to
the city, which was defended by a garrison of 14,000 Prussians, and
4,000 Russians under Marshal Kalkreuth. For complete investment it was
necessary for Lefebvre to encompass a circuit of about 17 leagues, for
which purpose his numbers were too few, and he made little progress.
Receiving reinforcements, however, he opened his first parallel April 1,
while on the 12th an important outwork was carried. On the 23rd the
batteries opened fire, and on May 15 a determined effort to relieve the
place was made by a force of 8,000 Russians, who were repulsed with a
loss of 2,000, the French losing 400 only. From this point the city was
left to its fate, and an assault was ordered for the 21st. Before this
date, however, Marshal Kalkreuth signified his readiness to parley, and
on May 26 the place was surrendered, the garrison being then reduced to
7,000 effectives.


                     Dantzig (Campaign of Leipsic).

After the Moscow retreat, General Rapp, with 30,000 French, mostly
survivors of the Moscow campaign, was besieged in Dantzig, January 1813,
by the allies, 30,000 in number, under the Duke of Würtemberg. Rapp made
a strenuous defence, but his works were mastered one by one, and,
finding his garrison dwindling rapidly from starvation and exposure, he
surrendered November 29, 1813, by which date the defenders numbered only
18,000 men.


                        Dargai (Tirah Campaign).

Fought October 20, 1897, when a British brigade, under General Yeatman
Biggs, stormed the heights, which were held by a large force of Afridis.
The actual storming was accomplished by the Gordon Highlanders, and the
British loss amounted to 37 killed and 175 wounded. Colonel Mathias’
speech to the Gordons, before leading them to the charge was,
“Highlanders, the General says the position must be taken at all costs.
The Gordons will take it.”


                  Dazaifu (Chinese Invasion of Japan).

In 1281, Hwan Buako, the General of Kublai Khan, at the head of 100,000
Chinese, and 10,000 Koreans, endeavoured to effect a landing at Dazaifu.
The Japanese, however, kept them at bay for 60 days, at the end of which
time the Chinese fleet was wrecked and dispersed by a typhoon. The
survivors, under Chang Pak, took refuge in the island of Takashima,
where they were attacked and cut to pieces by the troops of the Daimiyo
of Choshiu, under Shoni Kagasuke, only 3,000 out of the vast host making
their way back to China.


                       Deeg (First Mahratta War).

Fought 1780 between the British, 6,000 strong under General Fraser, and
the Mahrattas under Holkar of Indore, with 14 battalions of infantry, a
numerous cavalry, and 160 guns. The Mahrattas were utterly routed,
leaving 87 guns on the field. The British lost 643, including General
Fraser, killed.


                      Deeg (Second Mahratta War).

The fortress, which was held by a garrison of Holkar’s troops, was
besieged December 11, 1804, by the British under Lord Lake. After six
days’ bombardment, it was stormed on the 23rd, and the citadel captured
on the following day. Over 100 guns were taken.


                     Delhi (First Mongol Invasion).

Fought 1297, between 200,000 Mongols under Kuttugh Khan, and 300,000
Delhi Mohammedans, with 2,700 elephants, under Ala-ud-Din. The Indian
right wing, with a successful charge, broke the Mongols left, but
carried the pursuit too far. Meanwhile the right of the Mongol army
assailed the Indian left and drove it from the field. Kuttugh Khan,
however, had lost so heavily, that he was unable to follow up his
advantage, and retreated with all speed from India.


                    Delhi (Second Mongol Invasion).

Fought 1398, between the Mongols under Tamerlane, and the Delhi
Mohammedans under Mahmud Tughlak. Tamerlane, having crossed the Jumna to
reconnoitre with an escort of 700 horsemen, was attacked by Mahmud with
5,000 cavalry. Tamerlane repulsed the attack, and later, having brought
his main body across the river, totally defeated Mahmud, and drove him
into Delhi, which at once surrendered. The city was plundered, and
Tamerlane withdrew laden with spoil.


                      Delhi (Second Mahratta War).

Fought September 11, 1803, between 4,500 British under General Lake, and
19,000 Mahrattas of Scindiah’s army under Bourquin. The enemy occupied a
strong position with the Jumna in their rear, and Lake, feigning a
retreat, drew them from their lines, and then turning upon them drove
them with the bayonet into the river, inflicting enormous loss upon
them. The British lost 400 only.


                      Delhi (Second Mahratta War).

The city was invested October 7, 1804, by 20,000 Mahrattas, with 100
guns, under Jeswunt Rao Holkar, and was successfully defended for nine
days by a small British garrison. At the end of this period, Holkar
withdrew. So small was the garrison, that they were on constant duty on
the ramparts, throughout the siege, without relief.


                         Delhi (Indian Mutiny).

After the outbreak at Meerut, Delhi became the rallying place of the
mutineers, and on June 8, 1857, Sir Harry Barnard commenced the siege of
the city. His force was too small for a complete investment, while the
mutineers numbered 30,000, and could obtain continual reinforcements,
and ample supplies. The garrison made constant sorties, and fighting was
incessant at the outposts. On September 8 the breaching batteries opened
fire, and on the 14th the final assault was made and the city entered.
It was not, however, till the 20th that the Palace was taken, and all
resistance at an end. Among those who fell was John Nicholson.


                      Delium (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 424 between the Athenians under Hippocrates. 17,000 strong,
and the Bœotians under Pagondas, 18,000 strong. The armies met on a
plain before Delium, and after an obstinate encounter, in which the
Thebans on the right overpowered the Athenians, while their left attack
was repulsed, the appearance of a large body of cavalry on their flank
alarmed the Athenians, who broke and fled, Hippocrates fell in the
battle.


                          Delphi (Sacred War).

Fought B.C. 355, between the Phocians, 5,000 strong, under Philomelus,
and the Locrians. Philomelus, who had seized Delphi, attacked the
Locrians on the heights above the sacred city, and routed them with
heavy loss, many being driven over the precipice.


                Denain (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought 1712, when the camp of the allies, held by 10 battalions under
the Earl of Albemarle, was attacked by 130 French battalions under
Marshal Villiers. Prince Eugene made an effort to relieve the Earl, but
was unable to cross the Scheldt, and the allies were overwhelmed by
superior numbers, only about 4,000 making good their retreat. Five
generals were killed or captured.


                    Dennewitz (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought September 6, 1813, between the French army of the north under
Ney, and the allies under the Crown Prince of Sweden. Ney had detached
Bertrand’s division to mask Dennewitz, while his main body marched past
the position on the road to Berlin, but Bertrand delayed so long before
Dennewitz, that what was intended for a demonstration became a serious
action, in which the full force of both sides was engaged. The French
were defeated with a loss of 10,000 men and 43 guns.


                                Deorham.

Fought 577, when Ceawlin, King of Wessex, defeated the Welsh, and
extended the borders of Wessex to the Bristol Channel, thus severing the
Welsh nation into two parts.


                      Dessau (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought April 15, 1626, between the German Protestants under Count von
Mansfeldt, and the Imperialists, about 20,000 strong, under Wallenstein.
Mansfeldt was attacking the fort of Dessau, on the Elbe, when
Wallenstein, approaching under cover of the woods, fell upon his flank,
and totally routed him, killing or capturing nearly three-fourths of his
army.


              Dettingen (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought June 27, 1743, between the British, 40,000 strong, under George
II, and 60,000 French under the Duc de Noailles. The British, who were
retiring upon Hanau from Aschaffenburg, found their retreat cut off by
the French, Dettingen being held by 23,000 men under de Grammont, while
the main body was on the opposite bank of the Maine. De Grammont left
his lines to attack the British, whereupon George II put himself at the
head of his troops, and led a charge which broke the French and drove
them headlong into the river. Their losses in crossing were heavy, and
they left 6,000 killed and wounded on the field. This is the last
occasion on which the Sovereign has led British troops in battle.


                       Deutschbrod (Hussite War).

Fought 1422 between the Taborite section of the Hussites under John
Zisca, and the Germans under the Emperor Sigismund. Zisca was completely
victorious.


                               Devicotta.

This fortress, held for Pertab Singh by a garrison of the Tanjore army,
was captured in 1749, after a three days’ bombardment, by a British
force of 2,300 men under Major Lawrence. An attack upon the breach,
headed by Clive, was nearly disastrous, as the Sepoys hung back, and of
the Europeans engaged, only Clive and three others escaped, but Lawrence
arriving opportunely with the main column, the place was stormed.


                                Diamond.

A faction fight, known as the battle of Diamond which took place
September 21, 1795, at a village in Co. Armagh, between the Peep o’ Day
Boys and the Defenders. The former were victorious, killing 48 of their
opponents.


                    Diamond Hill (Second Boer War).

Fought June 11 and 12, 1900, when General Botha, with the main Boer army
of 15,000 men, strongly entrenched about 15 miles from Pretoria, was
attacked by Lord Roberts with 17,000 men and 70 guns, and driven from
his position. The Boer lines were so extended that three distinct
actions were in progress at the same time. The British lost 25 officers
and 137 men killed and wounded.


                             Dingaan’s Day.

Fought December 16, 1838, between the Boers of the Transvaal, and the
Zulus under Dingaan. The Zulus were totally routed, with heavy loss. The
Boer losses were small.


                         Dipæa (Arcadian War).

Fought B.C. 471, between the Spartans and the Arcadian League. The
Arcadians were totally defeated, and Tegea, the head of the League,
shortly afterwards submitted to Sparta.


                                  Diu.

This fortified Portuguese factory was besieged early in September, 1537,
by a fleet of 76 Turkish galleys, and 7,000 soldiers under Solyman,
Pasha of Egypt, acting with whom was an army of 20,000 Gujeratis under
Bahadur Shah, and Khojah Zofar, an Italian renegade. The garrison of
600, under Antonio de Silveira, repulsed assault after assault, but were
nearly at the end of their resources, when the false rumour of an
approaching Portuguese fleet caused Solyman to withdraw.


                                  Diu.

In 1545 Diu was again besieged by the Gujeratis, the garrison being
commanded by Mascarenhas. Khojah Zofar, who led the besiegers, was
killed in the course of the siege, and was succeeded by Rami Khan. The
garrison, at the end of several months, was on the point of
surrendering, owing to famine, when it was relieved by Juan de Castro,
who signally defeated the Gujeratis, and raised the siege.


                        Djerbeh (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1560, between the fleet of Solyman I, Sultan of Turkey, under
Piycála Pasha, and the combined squadrons of Malta, Venice, Genoa and
Florence. The Christian fleet was utterly routed, the Turks securing
thereby the preponderance in the Mediterranean.


                        Dniester (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 9, 1769, between the Russians under Prince Gallitzin,
and the Turks under Ali Moldovani Pasha. The Turks crossed the river in
the face of the Russian army, and attacked their lines with great
impetuosity. After severe fighting, however, they were beaten off, and
forced to withdraw from Choczim.


                      Dodowah (First Ashanti War).

Fought 1826, between the Ashanti army, which had invaded the Gold Coast,
and the British under Colonel Purdon. The Ashantis fought bravely, but
were routed with heavy loss.


                       Dogger Bank (Dutch Wars).

Fought August 15, 1781, between a British fleet of seven battleships and
six frigates, under Admiral Hyde Parker, and a Dutch fleet of equal
strength under Admiral Zoutman. After a severe engagement, the Dutch
bore away, and reached their port in safety, the British fleet being too
crippled to pursue. The British lost 109 killed and 362 wounded; the
Dutch 1 ship, the _Hollandia_, 142 killed and 403 wounded.


                       Dollar (Danish Invasion).

Fought 875, when the Danish invaders under Thorstem totally defeated the
men of Alban under Constantine. The Danes subsequently occupied
Caithness, Sutherlandshire, Ross and Moray.


                   Dolni-Dubnik (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought November 1, 1877, when General Gourko, with two divisions of the
Russian guard, dislodged the Turks from the redoubt of Dolni-Dubnik, and
forced them to retire upon Plevna. There was little actual fighting, the
Turks retiring without much resistance, but the action is important,
because the capture of the redoubt made the investment of Plevna
complete.


                               Dominica.

Fought April 12, 1782, between the British fleet of 36 sail of the line,
under Rodney, with Hood second in command, and the French fleet of 33
sail under de Grasse. Rodney departed from the usual tactics of a ship
to ship action, and broke the enemy’s line, gaining a complete victory,
and capturing or destroying 5 ships, while 2 more were captured within
the next few days. The British lost 261 killed and 837 wounded. The
French losses have been put as high as 15,000, but it is probable that
they lost about 3,000 killed and wounded, while 7,980 were taken in the
captured ships. This action is also known as the battle of the Saints.


                      Domokos (Greco-Turkish War).

Fought May 17, 1879, between five Turkish divisions of the army under
Edhem Pasha, and the Greeks under the Crown Prince of Greece, about
40,000 strong. The Greeks held their ground till late in the evening,
when the right was outflanked, and forced to give ground, though, when
the action ceased, the Turks had made no other advance. Edhem was
prepared to renew the fight on the following day, but the Crown Prince
found that the retirement of his right had rendered the position
untenable, and retreated during the night. The Greeks lost 600 killed
and wounded; the Turks about 1,800.


                      Donabew (First Burmah War).

Fought March 7, 1825, when General Cotton, with about 700 troops,
attacked three strong stockades held by 12,000 Burmans under Maha
Bandoola. The smallest of the three was carried, but Cotton’s force was
too small, and it was not till the 25th that Sir Archibald Campbell
arrived, and, shelling the stockade, forced the Burmans to evacuate the
position. Maha Bandoola was killed.


              Donauwörth (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought July 2, 1704, between the British and Imperialists under the Duke
of Marlborough, and the French and Bavarians under Marshal Tallard. The
Duke attacked the enemy’s entrenched position at Schellenberg, in front
of Donauwörth, and drove them out, forcing them to abandon the town. The
victors lost 5,374 killed and wounded. The French losses are unknown,
but were probably heavier.


                               Dormeille.

Fought 602, between the Neustrians under Clothaire II, and Austrasians
and Burgundians under Theodobert and Thierry. Clothaire was defeated
with great slaughter.


                       Dorylæum (First Crusade).

Fought July 1097, between 70,000 Crusaders under Bohemond and Raymond of
Thoulouse, and 250,000 Saracens under the Sultan Soliman. The Saracens
drove back Bohemond’s division on their camp, which they proceeded to
plunder, and, while so engaged, were attacked by Raymond and totally
routed with a loss of 30,000. The Crusaders lost 4,000.


                 Douai (War of the Spanish Succession).

This place was besieged by the allies under Prince Eugene, April 25,
1710, and was defended by a French garrison, 8,000 strong, under General
d’Albergotti. The place was obstinately defended, numerous sorties being
made, but, the French army being unable to relieve it, d’Albergotti was
forced to surrender June 26. The besiegers lost 8,000 killed and
wounded.


                        Douro (Peninsular War).

Fought May 12, 1809, when 12,000 British under Wellesley (the Duke of
Wellington) crossed the Douro and drove the French under Soult out of
Oporto. The French numbered about 24,000, of whom 5,000 were killed,
wounded or captured, mainly during the pursuit. In the action itself,
the French lost 500, the British, 116.


                          Dover (Dutch Wars).

Fought November 29, 1652, between a Dutch fleet of 95 sail, under Van
Tromp, and an English fleet of 40 ships, under Blake. The Dutch were
victorious, the English fleet being much cut up, and two ships captured.


                        Downs, The (Dutch Wars).

Fought June 1, 2 and 3, 1666, between the English fleet under the Duke
of Albemarle, and the Dutch under De Ruyter, Van Tromp and De Witt.
After an obstinate fight, Albemarle, on the 3rd, retired, after setting
fire to his disabled vessels, but the Dutch were too seriously crippled
to pursue.


                      Drepanum (First Punic War).

Fought B.C. 249, during the siege of Lilybæum, between the Roman fleet
of 123 galleys under Publius Claudius, and the Carthaginians under
Adherbal. Claudius was defeated, losing 93 ships, 8,000 killed and
20,000 prisoners, while the victors did not lose a ship.


                     Dresden (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 27, 1813, between 130,000 French under Napoleon, and
200,000 Russians, Prussians and Austrians, under Count Wittgenstein,
Kleist, and Prince Schwartzemberg, respectively. The Emperors of Russia
and Austria, and the King of Prussia, were present on the field.
Napoleon, who was in possession of Dresden, made his main attack upon
the Austrian left, which was separated from the centre by the ravine of
Planen. This attack, which was entrusted to Murat, was completely
successful, and the Austrians were driven with heavy loss into the
ravine. Meanwhile, the centre and right of the allies had been attacked
with equal success, and finally they were driven from the field with a
loss of 10,000 killed and wounded, 15,000 prisoners, and 40 guns. The
French lost about 10,000.


                        Dreux (First Civil War).

Fought 1562, between the Huguenots under the Prince de Condé, and the
Catholics under the Constable, Montmorency. The Constable, heading a
charge of the Catholic cavalry, was overthrown and captured by Coligny.
The Catholics then fled, but the Huguenots, carrying the pursuit too
far, were charged and routed by François de Guise, and Condé made
prisoner. The victory thus rested with the Catholics.


                     Driefontein (Second Boer War).

Fought March 10, 1900, between the Boer Army covering Bloemfontein,
under de Wet, and the British under Lord Roberts. The Boers occupied a
position about seven miles in extent, which was attacked in front by
Kelly-Kenny’s division, and on the left flank by that of Tucker. The
Boers were driven out and the road to Bloemfontein opened, at a cost to
the British of 424 killed and wounded. The Boers left over 100 dead on
the field.


                                Dristen.

This strong post on the Danube was defended for fifty-five days in 973,
by the Russians under their Duke Swatoslaus, against the Greeks under
the Emperor John Zimisces. At the end of that time the Russians were
forced to surrender, thus ending their invasion of Byzantine territory.


                   Drogheda (Great Irish Rebellion).

Siege was laid to this town, which was held by an English garrison under
Sir Henry Tichborne, by the Irish rebels, under Owen Roe O’Neil, in
December, 1641. The garrison held out successfully for three months,
when O’Neil was compelled to raise the siege.


                         Drogheda (Civil War).

On September 3, 1649, siege was laid to the place by the Parliamentary
army under Cromwell, the garrison of 2,500 English regulars being under
Sir Arthur Aston. An assault on the 10th was repulsed, but on the 12th
the town was stormed, and the garrison put to the sword. Four thousand
soldiers and inhabitants, including Aston, are said to have perished.


                    Drumclog (Covenanters’ Rising).

Fought June 11, 1679, when a party of Covenanters, under Balfour of
Burleigh, defeated the royal troops, under Claverhouse.


                            Drummossie Moor.

_See_ Culloden.


                        Dubba (Scinde Campaign).

Fought March 24, 1843, between 5,000 British troops, under Sir Charles
Napier, and 20,000 Beluchis, under the Amir Shir Mohamed. The enemy was
strongly posted behind a double nullah, which was carried by the
infantry with great gallantry, and the Beluchis were totally defeated.


                     Duffindale (Kat’s Rebellion).

The scene of the defeat of the rebels under Kat, by the royal troops,
under the Earl of Warwick, in 1549.


                        Dunbar (Scottish Wars).

Fought April 27, 1296, between the English, under Edward I, and the
Scots under the Earl of Athol. The Scots were defeated, with a loss of
10,000 men. This defeat led to the surrender of Balliol, and Edward was
proclaimed King of Scotland.


                        Dunbar (Scottish Wars).

This town was besieged, 1339, by the English, under the Earl of
Salisbury, and was defended by Agnes, Countess of March, known as Black
Agnes of Dunbar, whose husband, the Governor, was absent at the time. So
vigorous was the defence, that Salisbury was compelled to withdraw from
the siege.


                          Dunbar (Civil War).

Fought September 3, 1650, between 14,000 Parliamentarians under Cromwell
and Monk, and the Scottish Royalists, 27,000 strong, under David Leslie.
Leslie left a strong position on the heights near Dunbar, to meet
Cromwell, and was routed with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and
10,000 prisoners. Cromwell’s losses were small.


                Dundalk (Scottish Invasion of Ireland).

Fought October 5, 1318, between the Scots under Edward Bruce, 3,000 in
number, and the English and Irish under John de Bermingham. The Scots
were totally defeated, Bruce, with about 30 of his knights, and over 80
men-at-arms, being killed, and the invasion came to an end.


                                Dundee.

_See_ Talana Hill.


                       Dunes (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought June 14, 1650, between the Spaniards, 14,000 strong, under Don
John of Austria and the Great Condé, and the French in equal force under
Turenne. A force landed from the English fleet commenced the attack on
the Spaniards, which was vigorously supported by Turenne, and the
Spaniards were totally defeated, with a loss of 4,000 killed, wounded
and captured. Ten days later the town of Dunkirk capitulated.


                  Dunganhill (Great Irish Rebellion).

Fought August 8, 1647, between the Irish rebels, and an English force
under Colonel Michael Jones. The Irish were routed with a loss of 6,000.


                       Dunkeld (Jacobite Rising).

Fought August 21, 1689, between the Highlanders under Colonel Cannon,
and the Cameronian Regiment under Colonel Cleland. The fight took place
in the town of Dunkeld, where the Cameronians held a house belonging to
the Marquis of Athole. The Highlanders were unable to dislodge them, and
eventually retired, Cannon being killed.


                               Dunsinnan.

Fought 1054, between the usurper, Macbeth, and the Anglo-Saxons under
Siward, Earl of Northumberland, who was supporting Malcolm Canmore, the
son of the murdered Duncan. Macbeth was defeated, losing 10,000 men, and
fled to the north. The Anglo-Saxons lost 1,500.


                       Duplin (Baliol’s Rising).

Fought August 12, 1332, between the Scottish barons, under Edward
Baliol, and the forces of David, King of Scotland. Though largely
outnumbered Baliol was victorious.


                    Düppel (Schleswig-Holstein War).

This fortress, protected by an outer chain of ten redoubts, was invested
by the Prussians, 16,000 strong, under Prince Frederick Charles, and the
first parallel opened, March 30, 1864. The Danish garrison numbered
22,000. On April 17, after a heavy bombardment, the Prussians were
launched at the first six of the chain of redoubts, and, after a brief
resistance, they were captured and the place was immediately afterwards
surrendered. The Prussians lost 70 officers and 1,331 men, the Danes,
including prisoners, 5,500.


                  Durazzo (Norman Invasion of Italy).

This fortress, which was defended by a garrison of Greeks and
Macedonians under George Palæologus, was besieged by the Normans, under
Robert Guiscard, July 17, 1081. On October 18, the besiegers, now
reduced to 18,000, were attacked by a force of about 75,000 Greeks,
under Alexius Comnenus, and after a terrible struggle, in which the
Normans were almost overpowered, the victory rested with Guiscard. The
Greeks lost about 6,000. On the Norman side, the Italian auxiliaries
suffered heavily, but only 20 Norman knights were killed.
Notwithstanding this disaster, the city still held out, and it was not
till February 8, 1082, that a night surprise rendered the Normans
masters of the place.


                 Dürrenstein (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought November 11, 1805, during Napoleon’s advance on Vienna, when
Mortier, with one French division, was attacked by 30,000 Russians, and
would have been overwhelmed but for the timely arrival of another
division. The French lost 3,000; the Russians about the same number.


                     Dwina, The (Swedo-Polish War).

Fought 1701, between 15,000 Swedes under Charles XII, and 12,000 Saxons
under Marshal von Stenau. Charles, who was marching upon Riga, found the
passage of the Dwina barred by von Stenau. Having the wind at his back,
he set fire to a large quantity of straw, and under cover of the smoke,
crossed the river unperceived. He then attacked the Saxons, who, after
an obstinate engagement, were defeated and driven from the field.


                   Dyle (Norman Invasion of France).

Fought 896, between the Norman invaders, and the Germans under Arnulph,
Emperor of Germany. The Normans were totally routed with enormous loss.


              Dyrrachium (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 48, between the Cæsarians, under Julius Cæsar, and the
Pompeians, under Pompey. The latter having formed an entrenched camp
some distance from Dyrrachium, Cæsar interposed his army between the
camp and the town. This interrupted Pompey’s communications, and he, in
consequence, attacked the Cæsarian lines, which he forced, at the cost
of 1,000 men, and obliged Cæsar to retire.



                                   E


                    Ebersberg (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought May 3, 1809, when Masséna’s corps stormed the bridge and castle
of Ebersberg, which was held by about 30,000 Austrians under the
Archduke Charles. After the bridge was captured, a terrible conflict
followed in the streets of Ebersberg, and finally the Austrians were
driven out, with a loss of about 3,000 killed and wounded, 4,000
prisoners and many guns. The French admit a loss of 1,700 only.


                     Eckmühl (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought April 22, 1809, between 90,000 French, under Napoleon, and 76,000
Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. The Austrians occupied a position
on the high ground above Eckmühl, from which they were dislodged after
severe fighting, but the approach of night enabled the Archduke to draw
off his troops in tolerable order towards Ratisbon, with a loss of about
5,000 killed and wounded, and 3,000 prisoners. The French loss is stated
at 2,500. By this victory Napoleon cut the main Austrian army in two.


                       Ecnomus (First Punic War).

Fought B.C. 256, between 330 Roman galleys, with crews of 100,000 men,
under L. Manlius Valso, and M. Attilius Regulus, and 350 Carthaginian
ships under Hanno. After a hard-fought battle, in which the Romans lost
24 vessels, they defeated the Carthaginians, with a loss of 30 ships
sunk and 64 captured, and drove the rest of the fleet to Carthage.


                         Edessa (Persian Wars).

Fought 259, between the Romans under Valerian, and the Persians under
Sapor I. The Romans were totally defeated, and Valerian taken prisoner.


                     Edgeworth (Wars of the Roses).

Fought July 26, 1469, between the Yorkists under Pembroke, and the
troops of the revolted Nevilles. The Lancastrians attacked Pembroke,
whose troops were chiefly Welshmen, and, notwithstanding a stubborn
resistance, defeated them with heavy loss, no less than 168 Welsh
knights falling, besides rank and file. Edward IV, who was in the
neighbourhood, though not present at the battle, was captured soon
after.


                         Edgehill (Civil War).

The first battle of the Civil War, October 23, 1642, between the
Royalists under Charles I, and the Parliamentarians, under Essex, each
army being about 20,000 strong. The victory was claimed by both sides,
but the advantage rested with the King, as the Parliamentarians failed
to face Prince Rupert’s cavalry, and the Royalists were not prevented
from continuing their march on London.


                    Elandslaagte (Second Boer War).

Fought October 21, 1899, between a strong Boer force under General Koch,
and 3 battalions and 5 squadrons of British troops, with 12 guns, under
General French. The Boers occupied a strong position, on high ground
near the Ladysmith-Dundee railway, from which they were driven by the
infantry and Imperial Light Horse (dismounted) with a loss of 250 killed
and wounded, and 200 prisoners, including Koch. The British lost 35
officers and 219 men.


                    Elands River (Second Boer War).

On August 4, 1900, a force of 400 Australians, under Colonel Hore, were
surrounded by 2,500 Boers, with 6 guns. The Australians occupied an
exposed kopje, with no water nearer than the river half-a-mile away.
Their maxim became unserviceable, an attempt by General Carrington to
relieve them failed, and so severe was the Boer fire that, in 11 days,
1,800 shells fell within their lines. They held out, however, till
August 15, when they were relieved by Lord Kitchener, having lost 75
killed and wounded, and nearly all their horses.


                    El Caney (Spanish-American War).

Fought July 1, 1898, when 12,000 Americans, under General Shafter,
captured from the Spaniards, after heavy fighting, the strong position
of El Caney and San Juan Hill, commanding Santiago de Cuba. The
Spaniards made various attempts on the 2nd and 3rd to dislodge them, but
without success. The American losses during the three days amounted to
115 officers and 1,570 men killed and wounded.


                  Elchingen (Campaign of Austerlitz).

Fought October 14, 1805, when Ney’s corps, after repairing the bridge of
Elchingen under fire, stormed and captured the convent and village,
driving out 20,000 Austrians, and taking 3,000 prisoners and a number of
guns.


                       Elena (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought 1877, between the Russians under Loris Melikoff, and the Turks
under Muhktar Pasha, in which the former were victorious.


                       Elinga (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 206, between 74,000 Carthaginians, under Hanno, and 48,000
Romans under Scipio Africanus. The battle was fought on the open plain
in front of Hanno’s camp, and resulted in a complete victory for the
Romans. This battle, which is also known as the battle of Silpia, ended
the Carthaginian domination in Spain.


                               Elk Horn.

_See_ Pea Ridge.


                               Ellandune.

In this battle, fought 823, the Mercians under Beorwulf, were totally
routed by the West Saxons under Egbert.


                               Elleporus.

Fought B.C. 389, between the Sicilians, 23,000 strong, under Dionysius
of Syracuse, and the Italiots, 17,000 strong, under Heloris. Dionysius
attacked the Italiot vanguard, under Heloris himself, on the march, and
the Italiot army, coming into action in detachments, was beaten
piecemeal, and finally routed with heavy loss. The survivors, 10,000 in
number, surrendered, and were allowed to go free. Heloris was slain.


                       El Teb (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought February 4, 1884, when a column of 3,500 Egyptian troops under
Baker Pasha, marching to relieve Sinkat, was overwhelmed, and
practically annihilated by 12,000 Soudanese under Osman Digna. The
Egyptians lost 2,360 killed and wounded.


                                El Teb.

_See_ Trinkitat.


                          Embata (Social War).

Fought B.C. 356, when an Athenian fleet of 120 sail, under Chares,
designed to attack the Chians, with 100 galleys, in the straits between
Chios and the mainland. The day proving stormy, however, his colleagues
Iphicrates and Timoleon declined the enterprise as too hazardous, and
Chares attacking alone, with a third of the fleet, was defeated with
heavy loss.


                     Emesa (Expedition to Palmyra).

Fought 272, between the Romans under Aurelian, and the Palmyrenians
under Zenobia. Zenobia was completely defeated, and forced to retire
within the walls of Palmyra, to which Aurelian at once laid siege.


                     Empingham (Wells’ Rebellion).

Fought March 12, 1470, when Edward IV totally routed the northern
rebels, under Sir Robert Wells. The battle is called “Loose-coat Field,”
from the precipitate flight of the rebels, who threw off their upper
garments to flee the faster.


                 Engen (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought May 3, 1800, between the French, 75,000 strong, under Moreau, and
110,000 Austrians under De Kray. Moreau had crossed the Rhine on the
1st, and was advancing through the Black Forest, and the battle was in
reality two distinct actions. Moreau’s right, 25,000 strong, under
Lecourbe, overtook the Austrian rear-guard, and drove them into and
through Stokach, capturing 4,000 prisoners, and a large depot of
munitions and stores. Moreau in the centre was attacked at Engen by
40,000 Austrians, under De Kray, whom he repulsed with a loss of 2,000
killed and wounded, and 5,000 prisoners. The French lost 2,000 killed
and wounded.


                     Englefield (Danish Invasion).

Fought 871, the first of the series of battles between the West Saxons
and the Danish invaders. The former, under their king, Æthelred,
defeated the Danes.


                                Enslin.

_See_ Graspan.


             Eutaw Springs (American War of Independence).

Fought September 8, 1781, between the British garrison of Charleston,
under Colonel Stewart, and the Americans, under General Greene. The
British were attacked and at first driven back, but rallying carried the
American positions, but with a loss of 700 men, which so weakened their
small force that they were unable to profit by the victory.


                      Entholm (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought June 11, 1676, between the Danish fleet, under van Tromp, and
Swedes. The Swedes were defeated with very heavy loss in ships and men.


                               Entzheim.

_See_ Sinzheim.


                         Ephesus (Ionian War).

Fought 499 B.C., between the Athenians and Ionians, under Aristagorus,
and the Persians, under Artaphernes. The Greeks who were retreating to
the coast after burning Sardis, were overtaken by the pursuing Persians,
under the walls of Ephesus, and signally defeated. The Athenians
thereupon withdrew their fleet, and took no further part in the war.


                   Ephesus (Gallic Invasion of Asia).

Fought B.C. 262, between the Syrians, under Antigonus, and the Gallic
invaders. Antigonus was disastrously defeated.


                Erbach (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought May 15, 1800, between 15,000 French under Sainte-Suzanne, and
36,000 Austrians under de Kray. The Austrians, who had 12,000 cavalry,
attacked vigorously, but the French, though driven back at certain
points, were not routed, and held to their main positions for 12 hours,
until the approach of St. Cyr’s corps forced the Austrians to retire.
Both sides lost heavily in the action.


              Erisa (South American War of Independence).

Fought December, 1814, between the Spanish royalists, under Bover, 8,000
strong, and the American patriots, under Ribas. Ribas was totally
defeated, and taken prisoner, and in revenge for the death of Bover, who
fell in the battle, he was beheaded, and his head publicly exposed in
Caraccas.


                       Espinosa (Peninsular War).

Fought November 10, 1808, between 18,000 French under Victor, and 30,000
Spaniards under Blake. The Spaniards were routed, and Blake’s army
scattered. The French lost about 1,100 men.


                                Essling.

_See_ Aspern.


                                Etampes.

Fought 604, between the Burgundians, under Queen Brunehilde, and the
Neustrians under Clothaire II. The latter were totally defeated with
heavy loss.


                      Ethandun (Danish Invasion).

Fought 878, between the West Saxons, under Alfred, and the Danes, under
Guthrum. The Danes were totally defeated, and Alfred’s victory was
followed by the Peace of Wedmore, which lasted for fifteen years.


                Eurymedon, The (Third Persian Invasion).

Fought B.C. 470, between the Persian fleet and army, and the Athenians
and Delians, under Cimon. The Greeks were victorious both by land and
sea, defeating the Persian fleet with a loss of 200 ships, and routing
the land army with great slaughter. This victory secured the adhesion of
the south of Asia Minor to the Athenian Confederacy.


                         Evesham (Barons’ War).

Fought August 4, 1265, between the royalists under Prince Edward, and
the Barons under Simon de Montfort. The Barons were taken by surprise,
having at first mistaken Edward’s army for reinforcements under young de
Montfort, and were totally defeated, Simon de Montfort falling. This
defeat ended the Barons’ War.


                     Eylau (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought February 8, 1807, between 90,000 French under Napoleon, and
80,000 Russians under Bennigsen. Napoleon attacked at daybreak, all
along the line, but could at first make no impression on the Russian
infantry. Later in the day Davoust all but succeeded in turning the
Russian left, but the opportune arrival of a Prussian corps under
l’Estocq enabled the Russians to repulse him, and after a sanguinary
engagement, which lasted till ten p.m., both armies retained their
original positions. On the following day the Russians retired
unmolested. The French lost about 30,000; the Russians about 20,000
killed and wounded.



                                   F


                       Faenza (First Gothic War).

Fought 541, between 20,000 Roman legionaries, and the Goths under
Totila, King of Italy. The Romans made no attempt to resist the
onslaught of the Goths, but throwing down their arms fled ignominiously,
giving the Goths an easy victory.


                    Fair Oaks (American Civil War).

Fought May 31, and June 1, 1862, between the Federals under General
M’Clellan and the Confederates under General Johnston. M’Clellan was
advancing upon Richmond, and his left wing was attacked in the afternoon
of the 31st, and notwithstanding the arrival of Sumner’s corp in
support, was driven back for two miles. On the 1st the Federals
recovered the ground they had lost, but made no further progress, and at
the end of the day the Confederates, who were largely outnumbered, were
permitted to retire unmolested. The Federals lost over 7,000 killed and
wounded, the Confederates about 4,500, including General Johnston. This
is also called the Battle of Seven Pines.


                        Falkirk (Scottish Wars).

Fought July 23, 1298, between the English under Edward I, and the Scots
under Sir William Wallace. The Scots, who were greatly inferior in
numbers, were strongly posted behind a morass, which at first greatly
hampered the English attack. In the end, however, the English archers
overcame the Scottish defence, and a final charge, led by the king in
person, utterly routed them. Wallace escaped from the field, but was a
fugitive for the rest of his life.


                 Falkirk (Rebellion of the Forty-five).

Fought August 17, 1746, between the rebel Highlanders, 8,000 strong,
under the Young Pretender, and a force of 8,000 British troops, with
1,000 Campbells under General Hawley. The charge of the Highlanders
broke the British line, and they were driven headlong from the field,
with a loss of 600 killed and wounded, 700 prisoners, 7 guns, and all
tents and baggage. The rebels lost 120 only.


                        Famagosta (Cyprus War).

This place was besieged by the Turks under Mustapha Pasha, in October,
1570, and was defended by 7,000 men, half Venetians, half Cypriotes,
under Marcantonio Bragadino. The garrison held out until August 1, 1571,
when it capitulated, marching out with the honours of war. After the
surrender, however, Mustapha murdered in cold blood, Bragadino and four
of his lieutenants. The Turks lost 50,000 men in the course of the
siege.


                   Farquhar’s Farm (Second Boer War).

Fought October 29, 1899, between the main Boer army, under Joubert, and
the garrison of Ladysmith, under Sir George White. The Boer position
covered about eight miles, and White attacked in three columns, one of
which, detached to the left to hold a position at Nicholson’s Nek, was
overwhelmed and surrendered. The Boers meanwhile developed a strong
attack against the British right, and White, having no guns capable of
coping with the heavy Boer ordnance, ordered a retreat. This was
effected in good order, and was greatly aided by the opportune arrival
of two heavy naval guns, under Captain Hedworth Lambton. The British
lost 317 killed and wounded, and 1,068 missing. The Boer losses are
unknown, but were certainly small.


                Farrington Bridge (Arundel’s Rebellion).

Fought July 27, 1549, between a small force of Cornish rebels, and an
equal number of Royal troops under Lord Russell. The rebels were
defeated and driven from the field, but there was no pursuit. Each side
lost about 300.


               Faventia (Civil War of Marius and Sulla).

Fought B.C. 82, between the consular army of Norbanus, and the Sullans
under Metellus. Norbanus attacked with his army wearied by a long march,
and his force was totally broken up, only 1,000 remaining with the
eagles after the battle.


             Fehrbellin (Swedish Invasion of Brandenburg).

Fought June 28, 1675, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the
Brandenburgers, 15,000 strong, under the Elector, Frederick William. The
Swedes were totally defeated, and forced to evacuate Brandenburg.


                       Ferkeh (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought June 7, 1896, between 9,500 Egyptian troops, with a British horse
battery, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 4,000 Mahdists under the Emir
Hamada. Kitchener, by a night march, surprised the Mahdists in their
camp, and after two hours’ fighting, drove them out with a loss of 1,500
killed and 500 prisoners. Of 62 Emirs present in the camp, 44 fell and
four were captured. The Egyptians lost 20 killed and 81 wounded.


                      Ferozeshah (First Sikh War).

Fought December 21, 1845, between 50,000 Sikhs, with 108 guns, under Lal
Singh, and 16,700 British and native troops, under Sir Hugh Gough. An
attempt was made to carry the Sikh entrenched camp by a night attack,
but this was unsuccessful. When the attack was renewed at dawn,
dissensions among the Sikh leaders enfeebled the resistance, and the
Sikhs were defeated with a loss of about 7,000. The British losses were
694 killed, 1,721 wounded.


                        Ferrara (Hundred Days).

Fought April 12, 1815, when Murat, with 50,000 Italians, endeavoured to
force the passage of the Po in the face of an Austrian army, under
General Bianchi. He was repulsed with heavy loss, and forced to retreat
southward.


                    Ferrybridge (Wars of the Roses).

Fought 1461, shortly before the battle of Towton, when a force of
Lancastrian cavalry, under Lord Clifford, defeated the Yorkists, under
Lord Fitzwalter, who was endeavouring to secure the passage of the Aire
at Ferrybridge. Lord Fitzwalter was killed.


                              Fethanleag.

Fought 584, between the West Saxons, under Ceawlin, and the Britons
under Cutha. The Britons were defeated.


                 Fish Creek (Riel’s Second Rebellion).

Fought April 24, 1885, when General Middleton, with 400 Canadians,
attempted to drive the rebels, 280 strong, from a strong position near
Fish Creek. After losing 50 men, Middleton withdrew. The rebels lost 29
killed and wounded.


                  Fisher’s Hill (American Civil War).

Fought September 21, 1864, between 40,000 Federals, under General
Sheridan, and 12,000 Confederates, under General Early. The Confederates
were defeated and driven from their position with a heavy loss in
prisoners and 11 guns.


                      Fleurus (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 29, 1622, between the Spaniards, under Spinola, and the
Palatinate troops, under Count von Mansfeldt and Christian of Brunswick.
The Germans were endeavouring to retreat into Holland after their defeat
at Hoechst and were intercepted by the Spaniards, through whom they
tried to fight their way. In this effort the infantry was almost
entirely cut to pieces, but about 7,000 cavalry reached Breda with the
two generals.


                                Fleurus.

Fought July 1, 1690, between the French, under Marshal Luxembourg, and
the Germans and Dutch under the Prince of Waldeck. The French gained a
signal victory, the allies being driven from the field in disorder with
a loss of 14,000 killed and wounded, and 49 guns.


                Fleurus (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 16, 1794, between the Austrians, 80,000 strong, under the
Duke of Coburg, and an equal force of French, under Jourdan. The
Austrians attacked, and after a severe engagement, were repulsed and
compelled to fall back in the direction of Brussels to cover that city.


                        Flodden (Scottish Wars).

Fought September 9, 1513, when the English, under the Earl of Surrey,
attacked the Scots, under James IV, in a strong position on the hill of
Flodden. The position was turned by the English left wing, under
Stanley, and the Scots totally defeated with heavy losses. James and all
his principal nobles fell.


                  Florence (German Invasion of Italy).

This city was besieged in 406, by the German invaders under Radagaisus,
and was almost on the verge of starvation, when the approach of Stilicho
at the head of a large Roman army, encouraged the defenders to further
resistance. The besiegers, in fact, now became the besieged, for
Stilicho surrounded their camp, and starved the Germans into surrender.


                    Flushing (Walcheren Expedition).

This town was besieged by the British under Lord Chatham and surrendered
after a feeble defence, August 16, 1809.


                        Foksani (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 21, 1789, between the Turks, under Yusuf Pasha, and the
Russians and Austrians under Suwaroff and the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The
allies stormed the Turkish entrenched camp and drove out the Turks with
a loss of 2,000 men.


               Fontenoy (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought May 11, 1745, between 50,000 British, Dutch and Austrian troops,
under the Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The
Duke endeavoured to relieve Tournay, which the French were besieging,
and the British troops captured the heights on which the French were
posted. The Prince of Waldeck, however, who commanded the Dutch, failed
to support the Duke, and the French being reinforced, the trenches were
retaken, and the British beaten back. Tournay fell shortly afterwards.


                     Formigny (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought April 15, 1450, when the newly landed English reinforcements
under Kyrielle were totally defeated, and almost annihilated, by the
French under the Comte de Clermont. This defeat practically put an end
to the English domination in the north of France.


           Fornham St. Genevieve (Rebellion of the Princes).

Fought 1173, between the supporters of the rebel princes under Robert de
Beaumont, and the forces of Henry II under the Justiciary, Richard de
Lucy. The rebels were defeated.


                        Fornovo (Italian Wars).

Fought July 6, 1495, between 34,000 Venetians and Mantuans under
Francisco de Gonzaga of Mantua, and 8,000 French and Swiss under Charles
VIII. The French were attacked as they were retiring, but succeeded in
repulsing the Italians at a cost of only 100 of all ranks, while the
assailants lost 3,500 killed and wounded.


                   Fort Frontenac (Seven Years’ War).

This place, held by about 110 French troops, under Noyan, was captured
by Colonel Bradstreet with 3,000 Colonials, August 27, 1758. The capture
was of extreme importance, as it robbed the French of the control of
Lake Ontario, and severed their communications with their posts on the
Ohio.


                   Fort St. David (Seven Years’ War).

This fortress was besieged, May 14, 1758, by a French force under Lally
Tollendal, and defended by a garrison of 800 British and 1,600 native
troops. The defence was not energetically conducted, and, on the arrival
in the roads of a French fleet under Comte d’Aché, the garrison
surrendered, June 2.


                   Fort St. David (Seven Years’ War).

A naval action was fought off this place, April 29, 1758, between 7
British ships under Admiral Pococke, and a squadron of 9 French vessels
under Comte d’Aché. After a short and indecisive engagement, the French
sheered off, but the British were too severely damaged in the rigging to
give chase. The French lost one ship, driven ashore.


                 Fort William Henry (Seven Years’ War).

This fort, held by 2,200 British and Colonial troops under Colonel
Monro, was besieged, August 4, 1757, by Montcalm, with 6,000 French and
Canadians and 1,600 Indians. Montcalm’s batteries opened on the 6th, and
on the 9th, having lost 300 killed and wounded, and nearly all his guns
being disabled, Monro surrendered. He was to be permitted to retire
unmolested to Fort Edward, but the French were unable to control their
Indian allies, who attacked the unarmed column as it retired. Before
order was restored, some 50 had been killed, and 400 carried off
prisoners by the Indians.


        Forum Terebronii (First Gothic Invasion of the Empire).

Fought 251, between the Romans under Decius, and the Goths under Cniva.
The Gothic army was drawn up in three lines, and the legionaries
overthrew the two first, but, in attacking the third, they became
entangled in a morass, and were utterly routed. Decius and his son were
slain.


                     Frankenhausen (Peasants’ War).

Fought May 15, 1525, between the troops of Saxony, Hesse and Brunswick,
and the revolted peasants under Thomas Münzer. The peasants were utterly
routed, and Münzer captured and hanged out of hand. This entirely put an
end to the rising.


                 Frankfort-on-Oder (Thirty Years’ War).

This place was taken by storm by Gustavus Adolphus, at the head of
15,000 Swedes, April 2, 1631. Schaumberg and Montecucculi, who were in
the town, escaped with a portion of the cavalry, but 1,800 of the
Imperialist garrison were killed, and 800 captured, with 30 standards
and 18 heavy guns.


                     Franklin (American Civil War).

Fought June 30, 1864, between 30,000 Federals under General Schofield,
and 40,000 Confederates under General Hood. Schofield occupied a strong
position covering Nashville, where he was attacked by Hood, who
penetrated his lines. The Federals, however, rallied, and recaptured the
lost positions, and after nightfall, Schofield was enabled to cross the
Harpeth in good order, and effect a junction with General Thomas. The
Confederates lost about 4,500; the Federals, 1,500 killed and wounded
and 1,000 prisoners.


                        Frastenz (Suabian War).

Fought April 20, 1499, when the Swiss, under Heinrich Wolleb, attacked
the Austrians who occupied a strongly entrenched position, and drove
them out with a loss of 3,000 killed. Wolleb, who led the charge, was
the first to fall on the Swiss side.


                Fraubrunnen (Invasion of the “Guglers”).

Fought January, 1376, between the Bernese, and the “Guglers,” French and
English mercenaries, under Baron Ingelram von Coucy, who claimed the
Canton of Aargau in right of his mother. The “Guglers” were totally
routed, and compelled to retire from Switzerland.


                   Frauenstadt (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought February 12, 1706, between 10,000 Swedes under Marshal
Reinschild, and 20,000 Russians and Saxons under General Schulemburg.
The battle did not last a quarter of an hour, for the allies fled
without making any resistance. No less than 7,000 _loaded_ muskets were
picked up on the battlefield.


                  Fredericksburg (American Civil War).

Fought December 13, 1862 between 150,000 Federals under General
Burnside, and 80,000 Confederates under General Lee. The Confederates,
who occupied a range of heights fringing the Massaponax River, were
attacked by the Federals, whom they repulsed after hard fighting, with a
loss of 13,771 killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 1,800 only, but
Lee, owing to his inferior numbers, did not feel strong enough to push
his victory home, and allowed Burnside to evacuate Fredericksburg
unmolested.


                   Fredericshall (Dano-Swedish Wars).

This fortress, the strongest in Norway, was besieged by the Swedes,
under Charles XII, early in December, 1718. On the 11th, as he was
inspecting the advanced batteries, the king was struck by a round shot,
and fell dead. The Swedes at once raised the siege.


                               Freteval.

Fought 1194, between the English under Richard Cœur de Lion, and the
French under Philip Augustus. Richard gained a complete victory.


                     Fribourg (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 3, 5 and 9, 1644, between 20,000 French under the Great
Condé and Turenne, and 15,000 Bavarians under the Comte de Mercy. On the
3rd, Turenne, after a long flank march, attacked the Bavarians on the
flank, while Condé assailed their front, at 5 p.m. When night fell, the
Bavarians were giving way, and during the night de Mercy retired to a
fresh position. Here he was attacked on the 5th, but held his ground
throughout the day. The French losing twice as many men as their
opponents. Three days later de Mercy found it necessary to retreat, and
on the 9th he was attacked while retiring by a force of cavalry. This he
repulsed, but Condé, coming up, rescued his cavalry, and drove the
Bavarians headlong before him, capturing all their artillery and
baggage.


                   Friedland (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought June 14, 1807, between 80,000 French under Napoleon, and 70,000
Russians under Bennigsen. The battle began at 3 a.m., at which time only
Lannes’ corps was on the field. Bennigsen at first contented himself
with an artillery duel, and did not attack in force till 7 a.m., when
26,000 French were in position. These held their ground till the arrival
of Napoleon, who with his fresh troops launched an attack against the
Russian columns massed in a bend of the river Alle, drove large numbers
of them into the river, and occupied Friedland after hard fighting. It
was 10 p.m. before the Russians were finally driven from the field,
having lost 15,000 killed and wounded and 10,000 prisoners. The French
lost between 9,000 and 10,000. This victory was followed by the
signature of the Peace of Tilsit.


                   Fuentes d’Oñoro (Peninsular War).

Fought May 5, 1811, in the course of Masséna’s attempt to relieve
Almeida. Wellington, with 34,000 men, occupied a position behind Fuentes
d’Oñoro, which was attacked by Masséna with 34,000 troops and 36 guns.
He failed to capture the position, and finally retired, in good order.
The British lost 1,200 killed and wounded, and 300 prisoners. The French
losses are variously estimated, but were certainly heavier.


                       Fulford (Norse Invasion).

Fought 1066, between the Norsemen under Harold Hardrada, King of Norway,
the English under Earls Edwin and Morcar. The English were defeated.


                   Furruckabad (Second Mahratta War).

Fought November 14, 1804, between a small British force under Lord Lake,
and an army of 60,000 Mahrattas under Jeswunt Rao Holkar. Holkar was
signally defeated with heavy loss. The British casualties were only 2
killed and 20 wounded.


                     Fushimi (Japanese Revolution).

Fought 1868, between the troops of Aizu and Kuwana, under the Shôgun,
Yoshinobu, and the forces of Satsuma and Choshu, who gained a complete
victory.


                       Futteypur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought July 12, 1857, between a strong force of rebels, and the British
troops under Havelock, who was marching to the relief of Lucknow. The
rebels were completely defeated, losing 11 guns, while not a single
European in the British force was killed.



                                   G


                     Gadebesk (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought December 20, 1712, between the Swedes, 12,000 strong, under
General Steinbock, and 24,000 Danes and Saxons. The allies occupied a
position protected by marshy ground, where they were attacked by the
Swedes, and, after three hours’ hard fighting, driven from their
entrenchments with heavy loss.


                             Gaines’ Mill.

_See_ Seven Days’ Battles.


                      Gangud (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1714, between the Russian fleet under Peter the Great, and the
Swedish, under Admiral Ehrenskiöld. The Swedes were utterly routed and
Ehrenskiöld and the whole of his squadron captured.


                       Garigliano (Italian Wars).

Fought November 8, 1503, between the Spaniards, 12,000 strong, under
Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the French, in greatly superior force, under
Francisco de Gonzaga of Mantua. Gonzaga, wishing to pass the Garigliano,
had thrown a bridge over it, and proceeded to cross in face of the
Spanish army. After very severe fighting, the French drove back the
Spaniards, and made good the passage of the river.


                       Garigliano (Italian Wars).

Fought December 29, 1503, between the Spaniards, about 15,000 strong,
under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and the French, slightly superior in number,
under the Marquis of Saluzzo. Gonsalvo crossed the Garigliano at two
points, and fell upon the French, who were retiring on Gasta. After hard
fighting, in which the Chevalier Bayard bore a notable part, the French
were utterly routed, leaving 4,000 dead on the field, and all their
artillery and baggage. The Spanish loss is unknown.


                      Garigliano (Italian Rising).

Fought October, 1850, between the Italian patriots under Cialdini, and
the Neapolitans under Francis II of Naples. The patriots were
victorious.


                         Gate Pah (Maori War).

Fought April 27, 1864, when 1,700 British soldiers and blue-jackets,
under General Cameron, attacked the Maori stockade known as the Gate
Pah. After a short bombardment, 600 men forced their way into the
stockade, but were repulsed. On the following day it was found that the
stockade had been evacuated. The British lost 14 officers, and 98 men
killed and wounded. Only 30 dead and wounded Maories were found in and
near the Pah.


                       Gaulauli (Indian Mutiny).

Fought May 22, 1858, between a British column under Sir Hugh Rose, and
20,000 rebels under Tantia Topi, the Ranee of Jhansi, and other rebel
leaders. The overwhelming numbers of the rebels at first gave them the
advantage, but a bayonet charge broke them, and they fled in disorder
with heavy loss. This victory was followed by the recovery of Calpi.


                 Gaza (Alexander’s Asiatic Campaigns).

This city, defended by a Persian garrison, under Batis, was besieged by
Alexander the Great October, 332 B.C. Utilizing the engines he had
employed against Tyre, he succeeded, after some weeks, in breaching the
walls, and, after three unsuccessful assaults, carried the city by
storm, the garrison being put to the sword.


                 Gaza (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 312, between the Syrians and Egyptians under Seleucus and
Ptolemy Soter, 25,000 strong, and an equal force of Macedonians under
Demetrius Poliorcetes. The Macedonians were routed, losing 5,000 killed,
8,000 wounded, and all their treasure and baggage.


                        Gebora (Peninsular War).

Fought February 19, 1811, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and
12,000 Spaniards, under Mendizabal. The Spaniards were routed with a
loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, 5,000 prisoners and all their guns.


                               Gelt, The.

Fought February, 1570, between the rebel Borderers under Leonard Dacre,
and the royal troops under Lord Hunsdon. The rebels were completely
routed.


              Gemblours (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought January 31, 1578, between the Netherlands patriots, 20,000
strong, under General Goignies, and the Spaniards, in about equal force,
under Don John of Austria. The patriots, who were retiring from Namur,
were followed by Don John, who sent forward a picked force of 1,600 men,
under Gonzaga and Mondragon in pursuit. They attacked the rearguard,
under Philip Egmont, and dispersed it, and then, falling suddenly upon
the main body, utterly routed it, with a loss, it is said, of 10,000
killed and prisoners. The Spaniards lost ten or eleven at most.


                                 Genoa.

In 1746, the Genoese, incensed by the license of the soldiery, rose
against the Austrian garrison, under General Botta, and after five days’
street fighting, lasting from December 6 to 10, drove them out of the
city, with a loss of 5,000 men.


                 Genoa (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought March 13, 1795, between a British fleet of 14 sail of the line
under Admiral Hotham, and a French fleet of 15 sail. The action lasted
throughout the day, and on the following morning the French retired,
leaving two line-of-battle ships in the hands of the British. The
British lost 74 killed and 284 wounded.


                 Genoa (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

In April, 1800, Genoa, held by the French, under Masséna, was besieged
by the Austrians under General Melas, and later in the siege under
General Ott. The city had for some time been blockaded on the seaward
side by the British fleet, under Lord Keith. Provisions were
consequently scarce, and notwithstanding some successful sorties,
Masséna was forced to capitulate, June 5, the garrison marching out
without laying down their arms.


             Geok Tepe (Russian Conquest of Central Asia).

This place, the stronghold of the Tekke Turcomans, defended by a
garrison of 15,000, was besieged, September 9, 1878, by the Russians,
under General Lomakine. After a short bombardment, an attempt was made
to storm the fortress, which was repulsed with a loss of 500. The
breaching guns were with difficulty saved, and the Russians retired on
the following day. About 4,000 Turcomans were killed by shell fire.

In 1881, a second attempt was made by Skobeloff, with 10,000 Russians,
the garrison being now nearly 30,000 strong. After a regular siege,
lasting from the 8th to the 17th of January, the place was stormed,
6,500 Turcomans falling in the assault, and 8,000 in the subsequent
pursuit.


                               Gerberoi.

Fought 1080, between the troops of William the Conqueror, and those of
his son Robert, who claimed the Dukedom of Normandy, and was receiving
aid from Philip I of France. Robert was defeated and made prisoner, and,
obtaining his father’s forgiveness, resigned his claim to the Dukedom.


                         Gergovia (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 52, between the Romans under Julius Cæsar, and the Gauls
under Vercingetorix. Cæsar was besieging the town, but was compelled to
retreat. Before retiring, however, he delivered an assault which was
repulsed by the Gauls, the Romans leaving over 700 legionaries, and 46
centurions dead on the field.


                               Germaghah.

Genghis Khan’s first battle, fought 1193, when with 6,000 men he
defeated the army of his father-in-law, Ung Khan, under Sankun, 10,000
strong, surprising them in a narrow pass, and inflicting heavy loss upon
them.


               Germantown (American War of Independence).

Fought October 4, 1777, between the Americans under Washington, and the
British under Sir William Howe. The Americans attacked the British
entrenchments, and were repulsed with heavy loss.


                        Gerona (Peninsular War).

This fortress, held by 3,000 Spanish regulars, under Mariano Alvarez,
was besieged, June 4, 1809, by General Verdier, with 18,000 French.
Though ill-provided with food, medicines, and money, and receiving but
little assistance from outside, Alvarez held out gallantly till December
10, when he capitulated, and the garrison marched out with the honours
of war.


                    Gettysburg (American Civil War).

Fought July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, between the army of the Potomac under
General Meade, and the army of Virginia under General Lee. On the 1st,
Meade’s position in front of Gettysburg was attacked by A. P. Hills’
corps, and the Federals driven in confusion into the town. On the 2nd,
Meade took up a fresh position behind Gettysburg, where he repulsed all
the Confederate attacks, though at a heavy cost. On the 3rd, Meade
succeeded in driving back the Confederate left, but Lee’s main attack
succeeded in driving the Federals from the ridge. They rallied and
retook it, but had lost too heavily to assume the offensive. Lee again
offered battle on the 4th, but the Federals declined it, and Lee retired
unmolested, having lost about 20,000 men in the three days. The Federal
losses were about the same.


                                Gherain.

Fought August 2, 1763, between the army of Mir Cossim, the deposed Nawab
of Bengal, and the British under Major Adams. A severe engagement,
lasting four hours, ended in a signal victory for the British.


                      Ghoaine (First Afghan War).

Fought August 30, 1842, between General Nott’s force, on its march from
Kandahar to Ghuzni, and the Afghans, under Shems-ud-din, Governor of
Ghuzni. The Afghans were totally defeated, losing all their guns, tents
and baggage.


                       Ghuzni (First Afghan War).

This fortress, garrisoned by 3,000 Afghans, under Haidar Khan, was
captured, January 21, 1839, by the British. The besiegers having no
breaching guns, it was found necessary to blow in the main gate, and the
place was then stormed, at a cost of 18 officers and 162 rank and file,
killed and wounded. The garrison lost 500 killed.


                    Gibbel Rutts (Irish Rebellion).

Fought May 26, 1798, when the regulars, under Sir James Duff, attacked
the camp of the rebels on the Curragh, and dispersed them at the point
of the bayonet, with a loss of 350 killed.


               Gibraltar (War of the Spanish Succession).

This fortress was captured, July 24, 1704, by a combined British and
Dutch fleet, under Sir George Rooke, from the Spaniards under the
Marquis de Salinas. The resistance of the garrison lasted 2 days only,
during which the allies lost 12 officers and 276 men killed and wounded.


                               Gibraltar.

From 1779 to 1783, Gibraltar sustained a siege at the hands of a
combined French and Spanish force, who, though provided with powerful
floating batteries, were unable to make any impression on the defences.
In the course of the siege, the garrison, under General Elliot, were
several times reinforced and revictualled by British fleets, which ran
the gauntlet of the blockade.


                              Gihon, The.

Fought 1362, between the Getes under their Khan, and the Tartars under
Tamerlane. The Tartars were defeated, and the Getes marched upon
Samarcand, but sickness robbed them of nearly all their horses, and they
were forced to retire.


                 Gingi (Mogul Invasion of the Deccan).

This place was besieged by the Moguls in 1689, and was defended by Rajah
Ram. The siege was carried on in desultory fashion, first by Zulfikar
Khan, then by Kambaksh, son of Aurungzebe, and then again by Zulfikar
Khan. After three years had been wasted, Aurungzebe took command in
person, and after conniving at the escape of Rajah Ram, carried the
place by storm.


                   Gislikon (War of the Sonderbund).

Fought November 23, 1847, when the Federals, under General Dufour,
attacked the troops of the Sonderbund, under Colonel Salis-Soglio,
strongly posted at Gislikon, near Lake Zug, and drove them from their
position. The losses were very small. On the following day the Federals
entered Lucerne, and the Civil War, which had lasted 20 days only, came
to an end.


                      Gitschin (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 29 and 30, 1866, between the Prussians, 16,000 strong, under
Prince Frederick Charles, and the Austrians and Saxons, 30,000 strong,
under Count Clam Gallas. The Austrians were defeated, and driven from
all their positions with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and 7,000
prisoners.


                               Gladsmuir.

_See_ Prestonpans.


                              Glen Fruin.

Fought 1604, between the royal troops under the Duke of Argyll, and the
Macgregors and other clans, when the Highlanders gained a complete
victory.


                    Glenlivet (Huntly’s Rebellion).

Fought October 4, 1594, between the troops of James VI, 10,000 strong,
under the Earl of Argyll, and the rebel Earls of Errol and Huntly.
Though inferior in numbers, the rebels gained a complete victory,
driving off the royal troops with a loss of 500 men.


                              Glen Malone.

Fought 1580, between the English settlers under Lord Grey de Wilton, and
the Irish septs. The English suffered a serious defeat, among the slain
being Sir Peter Carew.


                             Glenmarreston.

Fought 638, when the Scots under Donald Bree, King of Dalriada, utterly
routed the invading Angles.


                        Glorious First of June.

_See_ Ushant.


                        Goits (Italian Rising).

Fought May 30, 1848, between the Piedmontese under Charles Albert of
Savoy, and the Austrians under General Radetsky. The Austrians were
completely defeated, and Radetsky compelled to take refuge behind the
line of the Adige.


                    Golden Rock (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 7, 1753, between 1,500 British under Major Lawrence,
together with 5,000 Tanjore troops under Monakji, and a detachment of
French and Mysoris, forming part of the army besieging Trichinopoly. The
Golden Rock was taken by assault, and the enemy driven off in confusion,
but the victory would have been more decisive had the Tanjore horse
pursued with more vigour.


                      Goodwins, The (Dutch Wars).

Fought July 1, 1666, between a British fleet of 60 sail, under the Duke
of Albemarle, and a Dutch fleet of 71 sail-of-the-line, and 30 smaller
vessels, under van Tromp and de Ruyter. The action lasted two days, and
was desperately contested, but the Dutch being reinforced in the morning
of the 3rd, Albemarle bore away. On the 4th, having been joined by
Prince Rupert’s squadron, he renewed the attack, but without success.
The English lost 10 ships, while most of the others were disabled. The
killed and wounded amounted to 1,700, while 2,000 were taken prisoners.


                        Goraria (Indian Mutiny).

Fought November 23 and 24, 1857, between a British column, about 3,000
strong, under Brigadier Stuart, and a body of 5,000 rebels. The
mutineers occupied a strong position, and the British were unable to
dislodge them on the 23rd. On the following day the attack was renewed,
and the rebels were driven out and dispersed, with a loss of over 1,500.


                   Gorni-Dubnik (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought October 24, 1877, between the 2nd Division of the Russian Guard,
under General Gourko, and the Turks, who were holding the redoubt of
Gorni-Dubnik, under Achmet Hefzi Pasha. After very heavy fighting, the
Russians succeeded in dislodging their opponents, with a loss of 1,500
killed and wounded, and 53 officers and 2,250 men captured, including
the Pasha. The Russians lost 3,300 killed and wounded, including 116
officers of the Guards.


                    Gorodeczno (Campaign of Moscow).

Fought August 12, 1812, between 36,000 French and Austrians, under
General Reynier and the Prince of Schwartzemberg, and the Russians, in
equal force, under General Tormazoff. The Russians were defeated and
driven from their positions, with a loss of 4,000 men. The French and
Austrians lost about 2,000.


                                  Goa.

In 1511, Goa, held by a Portuguese garrison, under Albuquerque, was
invested by Kumal Khan, General of the Rajah of Bijapore, at the head of
60,000 men. After a siege of 20 days Albuquerque found his communication
with his fleet threatened, and withdrew the garrison. In the same year,
however, having collected a force of 1,500 men with 23 ships at
Cananore, he attacked Goa, and at once forced an entrance. After severe
fighting in the streets, the Deccanis fled in confusion to the mainland,
with a loss of 6,000. The Portuguese lost 50 only.


                                  Goa.

This fort, which was held by a Portuguese garrison of 700, under the
Viceroy, Luis de Ataida, was attacked by Ali Adil Shah, Rajah of
Bijapore, with 135,000 men and 350 guns, in 1570. Aided by the
civilians, and 1,300 monks, the garrison made so strenuous a defence,
that the Rajah was beaten off, after losing 12,000 men.


              Grampians, The (Roman Invasion of Scotland).

Fought 84, probably on the Moor of Ardoch, between the Romans under
Agricola, and the Caledonians, 30,000 strong, under Galgacus. The
Caledonians attacked with great bravery, but were beaten by the
superiority of the Roman discipline, and retired with a loss of 10,000
men. The Romans also lost heavily.


                   Granada (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought 1319, when a Spanish army, under the Regents Pedro and John of
Castile, appeared under the walls of Granada. A sortie of 5,000 picked
Moors, under Said Othman took place, and the Christians were utterly
routed, both the Regents being slain.


                       Granada (War of Granada).

On April 26, 1491, Ferdinand the Catholic, with an army of 50,000
Spaniards, sat down before Granada, the last stronghold of the Moors in
Spain. The siege was carried on in somewhat desultory fashion, and in
the early days one serious sortie was made by the inhabitants and
garrison, who were, however, defeated, with a loss of 2,000 killed. The
city held out until November 25, when Abdallah, the last king of
Granada, capitulated.


                       Grandella (Italian Wars).

Fought 1266, between the troops of the Two Sicilies, under Manfred, son
of the Emperor Frederick II, and the French, under Charles of Anjou.
Manfred was defeated, and fell in the battle, Charles seizing the crown
of the double kingdom.


                      Grandson (Burgundian Wars).

Fought March 2, 1476, between the Swiss, 18,000 strong, and the
Burgundians, numbering 36,000, under Charles the Bold. Charles
endeavoured to entice the Swiss into the plain, and to that end ordered
a retreat. He was followed by the Swiss, and his rearguard being
attacked, was seized with panic, and fled, and in the end Charles was
completely defeated and his camp captured.


             Granicus, The (Alexander’s Asiatic Campaigns).

Fought May, 334 B.C., between 35,000 Macedonians, under Alexander the
Great, and 40,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries, under Memnon of
Rhodes, and various Persian satraps. Alexander crossed the Granicus in
the face of the Persian army, leading the way himself at the head of the
heavy cavalry, and having dispersed the Persian light horse, he brought
up the phalanx, which fell upon and routed the Greek mercenaries. The
Persians lost heavily, while the Macedonians’ loss was very slight.


                    Grant’s Hill (Seven Years’ War).

Fought September 14, 1758, when Major Grant, with 800 Highlanders, and
Provincials, attacked a body of Indians in the French service near Fort
Duquesne. He was repulsed, and in turn attacked by the garrison of the
Fort, 3,000 strong, under M. de Ligneris. Grant was totally defeated,
losing 273 in killed, wounded and prisoners, and was himself captured.


                       Graspan (Second Boer War).

Fought November 25, 1899, between Lord Methuen’s division, with a naval
brigade, 400 strong, and a Boer commando of about 2,500 men. The Boers
occupied a strong position, the key of which, a high kopje, was attacked
in front and flank, and carried, with a loss of 9 officers and 185 men.
The marines, who numbered 200, lost 3 officers and 86 men of this total.
The Boers lost about 100. This is also called the battle of Enslin.


                              Gravelines.

Fought July 13, 1538, between 8,500 French and Germans, under Marshal de
Thermes, and about 10,000 Spanish, Germans and Flemings, under Count
Egmont. De Thermes’ right rested on the sea, and a cavalry charge,
headed by Egmont, broke his line, after severe hand-to-hand fighting,
and the French fled in confusion, leaving 1,500 dead on the field, while
as many more were driven into the sea, and drowned. Large numbers were
cut down in the pursuit, and de Thermes was captured.


                    Gravelotte (Franco-German War).

Fought August 18, 1870, between the French, under Bazaine, and the
combined German army under the supreme command of William of Prussia.
The battle was most hotly contested, but while the French held their
ground in the neighbourhood of Gravelotte, the Germans turned their
right flank at St. Privat, and they were eventually obliged to abandon
all their positions, and retire into Metz, where they were subsequently
blockaded. The German losses amounted to 899 officers and 19,260 men
killed and wounded. The French losses were somewhat less. This battle is
also known as the battle of St. Privat.


                   Great Meadows (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 3, 1752, between 350 Virginians, under Washington, and 700
French, under Coulon de Villiers. The Virginians occupied a square log
enclosure, known as Fort Necessity, where they resisted the French
attack for nine hours, till lack of ammunition forced Washington to
surrender. The Virginians lost 60 killed and wounded; the French
considerably less.


                Grenada (American War of Independence).

Fought July 3, 1779, between a British fleet of 24 sail, under Admiral
Byron, and a French fleet of 20 sail-of-the-line, and 10 frigates, under
the Comte d’Estaing. Admiral Byron attacked the French with a view of
recapturing Grenada, but was unsuccessful, though he inflicted upon them
a loss of 1,200 killed and 1,500 wounded. The British lost 183 killed
and 346 wounded.


                     Grangam (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1721, between the Swedes, and the Russian fleet under Admiral
Golitshin. The Swedes were completely defeated, losing four
line-of-battle ships captured.


                    Grochow (Second Polish Rising).

Fought February 25, 1831, between the Poles, 90,000 strong under Prince
Michael Radziwill, and 120,000 Russians, under General Dubitsch. After a
sanguinary engagement, the Russians were defeated, with a loss of 10,000
killed and wounded. The Poles lost about 5,000.


                  Gross-Beeren (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 23, 1813, between the French army of the north, under
Oudinot, and the allies, 80,000 strong, under the Crown Prince of
Sweden, who was covering the road to Berlin. Regnier, whose corps formed
the centre of Oudinot’s army, captured Gross-Beeren, which was retaken
by the Prussians under von Bulow, and again recovered by Fournier’s and
Guilleminot’s divisions, but Oudinot was not sufficiently strong to
press his advantage, and retired with a loss of 1,500 men, and 8 guns.


                  Gross-Jägersdorf (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 30, 1757, between 28,000 Prussians, under Marshal
Lehwaldt, and a largely superior force of Russians, under General
Apraxine. The Prussians were defeated, but Apraxine failed to follow up
his victory, and recrossed the frontier.


                         Grozka (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1739, between the Austrians, under Count Neipperg, and the Turks,
under the Grand Vizier. The Austrians were defeated, with heavy loss.


                             Grunnervaldt.

Fought 1404, between the Poles, under Vladislas IV, and the Teutonic
Knights, under their Grand Master. The Poles gained a complete victory,
and it is said that 50,000 knights perished, though it is more than
doubtful whether their whole army amounted to so many.


              Guadeloupe (Wars of the French Revolution).

This island was taken by a British force under Sir John Jervis, July 3,
1794, with a loss of 3 officers and 33 men killed and wounded. It was
recaptured by the French, on December 10, of the same year.


                      Guad-el-Ras (Moroccan War).

Fought March 23, 1860, when 25,000 Spaniards, under Marshal O’Donnell,
routed a large force of Moors, entrenched in a very strong position
behind the Guad-el-Ras. This victory ended the war.


               Guastalla (War of the Polish Succession).

Fought September 19, 1734, between the Imperialists, under the Prince of
Würtemberg, and the French, under Marshal de Coligny. The Imperialists
were defeated with a loss of about 4,000, including the Prince of
Würtemberg. The French losses were about the same.


                                 Gubat.

_See_ Abu Klea.


         Guildford Court House (American War of Independence).

Fought March 16, 1781, between the British, under Lord Cornwallis, and a
largely superior force of Americans, under General Greene. The Americans
occupied a strongly entrenched position in and round Guildford, and the
battle consisted of a series of independent actions, in which the
British were uniformly successful, driving out the Americans with heavy
casualties, and the loss of all their guns and ammunition. The British
lost 548 killed and wounded, but the victory served little purpose, as
Lord Cornwallis was too weak to pursue his advantage.


                               Guinegate.

Fought August 16, 1513, when a body of French cavalry, who aimed at
relieving Terouënne, which was besieged by the English, under Henry
VIII, and the Imperialists, under Maximilian I, were put to flight by
the allies without striking a blow. The French fled so precipitately
that the action was dubbed the Battle of the Spurs.


                       Gujerat (Second Sikh War).

Fought February 22, 1849, between the British, 25,000 strong, under Lord
Gough, and 50,000 Sikhs, under Shir Singh. The British artillery,
numbering 84 pieces, broke the Sikh lines, and after resisting for over
two hours, they fled, and were practically annihilated in the pursuit.
Fifty-three guns were taken. The British lost only 92 killed and 682
wounded.


                   Gunzburg (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought October 9, 1805, when Ney’s corps carried the three bridges over
the Danube, at or near this town, driving off the Austrians with a loss
of 300 killed and wounded, and 1,000 prisoners.


                     Gwalior (First Mahratta War).

This strong fortress was captured from the Mahrattas, August 3, 1780, by
a British force of about 2,000 men, mostly sepoys, under Captain Popham.
The wall was scaled by two companies of sepoys, under Captain Bruce,
supported by 20 Europeans, and followed by two battalions. The garrison
was completely surprised, and an entrance effected without opposition,
whereupon the place was surrendered to the assailants, who had not lost
a man.


                        Gwalior (Indian Mutiny).

Fought June 17, 18 and 19, 1858, between a British column under Sir Hugh
Rose, and a large body of rebels, led by the Ranee of Jhansi in person.
On the 17th the mutineers were driven out of the cantonments with heavy
loss, while on the following days the important positions in the town
were captured in succession, until by the evening of the 19th, the
British were in undisputed possession of Gwalior. The Ranee was known to
be amongst the slain, though her body was never found.



                                   H


               Haarlem (Netherlands War of Independence).

This city was invested by the Spaniards, 30,000 strong, under Don
Francisco de Toledo, December 11, 1572. It was held by a garrison of
4,000, under Ripperda, including a corps of Amazons, led by a widow
named Kenau Hasselaer. The batteries opened on the 18th, and on the 21st
an assault was repulsed, the assailants losing 400, the garrison three
or four only. A second assault, on January 31, 1573, was also repulsed,
while a brilliant sortie, on March 25, captured a large and welcome
convoy of provisions. On May 28, however, the patriot flotilla of 150
vessels under Martin Brand, on the lake, was defeated by 100 Spanish
ships, under Count Bossu. From this point the reduction of the city by
famine was inevitable, and the place was surrendered, July 12, 1573. The
garrison, reduced to 1,800, was massacred, with the exception of 600
Germans, and altogether 2,300 persons perished after the capitulation.
The Spaniards lost 12,000 men in the course of the siege.


                               Hadranum.

Fought B.C. 344, between Timoleon, the deliverer of Sicily, with 2,000
followers, and Hiketas, Tyrant of Leontini, with 10,000 men. The two had
been summoned to the assistance of the rival factions in Hadranum, and
Hiketas, who arrived first, was resting his men under the walls, when he
was surprised by Timoleon, and totally routed. This was Timoleon’s first
exploit, and Hadranum became his headquarters.


                 Hadrianople (War of the Two Empires).

Fought July 3, 323, between Constantine, Emperor of the West, with
120,000 troops, and Licinius, Emperor of the East, with 165,000.
Licinius, by the skilful manœuvring of Constantine, was enticed from
his entrenched camp into the open plain, and his raw levies being
powerless against the Western veterans, he was totally defeated. It is
said that 34,000 perished in the battle.


           Hadrianople (Second Gothic Invasion of the East).

Fought August 9, 378, between the Romans, under the Emperor Valens, and
the Goths, under Fritigern. The Roman cavalry fled from the field, and
the legionaries were surrounded and ridden down by the overwhelming
masses of the Gothic horse. Two thirds of the legionaries, and 39 great
officers and tribunes perished. Valens was carried off the field
wounded, but the hut in which he was lying was fired, and he perished in
the flames.


                  Hahozaki (Tartar Invasion of Japan).

Fought 1274, between the troops of the province of Kiushiu and the
Tartars forming the expedition, despatched by Kublai Khan, under Lin Fok
Heng. After severe fighting, in which the Japanese suffered heavily, Lin
was severely wounded, and withdrew to his ships. A heavy gale destroyed
a large number of the Tartar and Korean vessels, and finally the remnant
of the invading force made good its escape.


                               Haliartus.

Fought B.C. 395, when Lysander, at the head of a Spartan force, without
waiting as had been arranged to effect a junction with Pausanius,
attacked the town of Haliartus. The Haliartians, seeing from the
battlements that a body of Thebans was approaching, made a sortie, and
the Spartans, attacked simultaneously in front and rear, were routed,
and Lysander slain.


                     Halidon Hill (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1383, in the course of an attempt by Archibald Douglas, the
Regent, to relieve Berwick, which was besieged by Edward III. The Scots
were powerless against the English archers, and were defeated with a
loss of 30,000, including the Regent, and four Earls. This defeat
resulted in the submission of Scotland, and Edward placed Balliol upon
the throne.


                                Halieis.

Fought B.C. 459, between the Athenians, and the combined forces of
Corinth and Epidamnus. The Athenians were victorious.


                      Hallue (Franco-German War).

Fought December 23 and 24, 1870, between 40,000 French, under General
Faidherbe, and 22,500 Germans, under Manteuffel. The French lost heavily
in the village lying in front of their position, but the Germans were
unable to carry the entrenchments on the heights. After their attack had
been repulsed, the French assumed the offensive, but with no decisive
result. The Germans lost 927 killed and wounded; the French over 1,000,
besides 1,300 prisoners.


                  Hampton Roads (American Civil War).

Fought March 8 and 9, 1862, between the Confederate armoured frigate,
_Merrimac_, and 5 gunboats, under Captain Buchanan, and 5 Federal
warships, under Captain Marston. On the 8th, the _Merrimac_ destroyed
two Federal vessels, and drove one ashore, but on the 9th, the Federals
were reinforced by the arrival of the turret-ship _Monitor_, and after
an indecisive action, the _Merrimac_ drew off. In the two days, the
Confederates lost only 10 killed and wounded, but the Federal losses
were far heavier, the _Cumberland_ alone losing 150 out of a crew of
400.


                      Hanau (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought October 30 and 31, 1813, between 80,000 French, the survivors of
Leipsic, under Napoleon, and 45,000 Austrians and Bavarians, under
General Wrede, who had occupied a position at Hanau, barring Napoleon’s
retreat to France. On the 30th, Napoleon attacked Wrede’s left, which
was astride of the road, and driving it back continued his retreat with
the main body, leaving three divisions, under Marmont, to secure his
rearguard. On the 31st, the rearguard, under Mortier, attacked Hanau,
and Wrede being dangerously wounded, his successor, Fresnel, drew off,
leaving the road clear. The French lost 6,000, the allies 10,000 men in
the two days.


             Hardenberg (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought June 15, 1580, between the Dutch Patriots, under Count Philip
Hohenlo, and the Royalists, under Martin Schenck. Fatigued by a long
march, the Patriots were no match for Schenck’s fresh troops, and after
an hour’s fighting, were broken and almost annihilated.


                                Harlaw.

Fought July 24, 1411, between the rebel Highlanders, under Donald, Lord
of the Isles, and the Lowland Scots, under the Earl of Mar, together
with the town militia of Aberdeen, led by their Provost. After a most
sanguinary battle, the Lowlanders were utterly routed. Among the slain
were the Provost, many knights, 500 men-at-arms, and the majority of the
burghers forming the militia. The Highlanders lost 500 only.


                  Harper’s Ferry (American Civil War).

Fought September 16, 1862, when the Confederates, three divisions, under
General “Stonewall” Jackson surrounded the Federal garrison of Harper’s
Ferry, 11,000 strong, with 73 guns, and forced them to surrender.


                       Hashin (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought March 20, 1885, when 8,000 British troops, under General Graham,
defeated a detachment of Osman Digna’s army, inflicting upon them a loss
of about 1,000 killed. The British lost 48 killed and wounded.


                   Haslach (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought October 11, 1805, when General Dupont, with 6,000 French,
marching upon Ulm, was suddenly confronted with an army of Austrians,
60,000 strong, strongly posted on the Michelberg. Dupont at once seized
and entrenched the village of Hanau, which he held until dark against
25,000 Austrians, under the Archduke Ferdinand. After nightfall he
withdrew, carrying off 4,000 prisoners.


                     Hastenbech (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 26, 1757, between 50,000 Hanoverians and others, under the
Duke of Cumberland, and 80,000 French, under Marshal d’Estrées. The
Duke, who had taken post on the Weser, to protect Hanover, was
overpowered by d’Estrées, and driven back to Slade, on the Elbe, with a
loss of several hundred men. This defeat was followed by the signature
of the Convention of Closter-Seven.


                      Hastings (Norman Conquest).

Fought October 14, 1066, a fortnight after the landing of William the
Conqueror. The English, under Harold, fought entirely on the defensive,
at first with success, but were at last lured from their position by a
feigned flight of the Normans, and were then totally routed. Harold was
among the fallen. This battle is also known as the Battle of Senlac.


                       Hatvan (Hungarian Rising).

Fought April 2, 1849, when the Austrians, 15,000 strong under Marshal
Schlick, attacked the 7th Hungarian corps, of about equal strength, and
after a severe engagement, were totally defeated.


                Havana (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought October 12, 1748, between a British squadron of seven ships,
under Admiral Knowles, and a Spanish squadron of equal strength. The
action was fought with little determination, and though the British
captured one ship, the result was far from decisive. The Spaniards lost
298, the British 179 killed and wounded.


                       Havana (Seven Years’ War).

In June, 1762, the Earl of Clanwilliam, with 11,000 British troops,
supported by a squadron, under Admiral Pococke, laid siege to Havana.
Moro Castle, the key of the defences, was taken by storm, and after a
siege of two months and eight days the city was captured.


                              Heathfield.

Fought 633, between the Mercians, under Penda, and the Northumbrians,
under Edwin. The latter were defeated and Edwin slain.


                              Heavenfield.

Fought 634, between the Anglo-Saxons, under the Bretwalda, Oswald of
Northumbria, and the Britons, under Cadwallon. The Britons were totally
routed.


                   Hedgeley Moor (Wars of the Roses).

Fought April 25, 1464, between the Lancastrians, under Margaret of Anjou
and Sir Ralph Percy, and the Yorkists, under Lord Montague. The
Lancastrians were totally defeated, Percy falling in the battle.


            Heiliger-Zee (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought May 23, 1568, between the “Beggars,” under Louis of Nassau, and
5,000 veteran Spaniards, under Aremberg. Louis occupied a very strong
position on a wooded height, near the monastery of the Holy Lion, his
front being protected by a morass crossed by a narrow causeway. The
Spanish infantry traversed this to the attack, but were repulsed, and
Count Aremberg, leading a charge of horse, in the hope of restoring the
day, fell mortally wounded. Upon this the Spaniards broke and fled,
having suffered a loss of 1,600 men.


                   Heilsberg (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought June 10, 1807, between 30,000 French, under Marshal Soult, and
80,000 Russians, under General Bennigsen. The Russians occupied the
heights on both sides of the Alle, and the plains below, being in
greater force on the left bank. The French attacked and drove the
Russians into the entrenchments, but could make no further progress, and
night put an end to an obstinate but inconclusive conflict, in which the
Russians lost about 10,000, the French, 8,000 killed and wounded.


                    Hekitai-Kan (Invasion of Korea).

Fought 1595, between the Japanese, under Kobayagawa Takakage, and the
Chinese, under Li Chin. The Chinese were utterly routed, Li’s army being
almost annihilated, and he himself escaping with difficulty from the
field.


                     Heligoland (Napoleonic Wars).

This island was captured, August 31, 1807, from the Danes, by a small
British squadron, under Admiral Thomas Russell.


                 Heliopolis (French Invasion of Egypt).

Fought March 20, 1800, between 10,000 French, under Kléber, and about
70,000 Turks, under Ibrahim Bey. The Turks were utterly routed, with a
loss of several thousand men, while the French only lost about 300
killed and wounded.


                  Hellespont (War of the Two Empires).

Fought 323, between the fleet of Constantine the Great, consisting of
200 small galleys, under Crispus, and that of Licinius, numbering 350
sail, under Amandus. After two days’ hard fighting, Crispus forced the
passage of the Hellespont, and totally routed the Eastern fleet, with a
loss of 130 ships and 5,000 men.


                                Helorus.

Fought B.C. 492, between Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela, and the
Syracusans. The Syracusans were totally routed, and were so weakened by
this defeat, that Syracuse fell an easy prey to Gelon, Hippocrates’
successor, in the following year.


                    Helsingborg (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1710, between 20,000 Swedes, of whom 12,000 were raw recruits,
under General Steinbock, and the Danish invading army. The Swedes won a
signal victory, and the invaders were compelled to take refuge under the
walls of Helsingborg, and a few days later to embark for Denmark.
Besides killed, they left 4,000 wounded prisoners in the hands of the
Swedes.


                     Hemushagu (Invasion of Korea).

Fought 1595, between the Japanese, under Konishi Yukinaga, and the
Chinese, under Li Chin. The Japanese were defeated, and forced to retire
upon the capital.


                    Hengestesdun (Danish Invasion).

Fought 835, when the men of Wessex, under Egbert, totally defeated the
Danes and Cornish Britons.


             Hennersdorf (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought November, 1745, between 60,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and 40,000 Austrians and Saxons, under Prince Charles of
Lorraine. Frederick surprised Prince Charles on the march, and utterly
routed his vanguard, comprised of Saxons, with enormous loss. The
Austrians were compelled in consequence to retire into Bohemia.


                 Heraclea (Pyrrhus’ Invasion of Italy).

Fought B.C. 280, between the Epirots, 30,000 strong, under Pyrrhus, and
about 35,000 Romans, under P. Laverius Lævinus. The Romans crossed the
Siris in the face of the enemy, when they were attacked by Pyrrhus, and
after a furious conflict, were at last broken by his elephants, and fled
in disorder, losing about 7,000 men. The Epirots lost 4,000.


                               Heraclea.

Fought 313, between the Illyrians, under Licinius, afterwards Emperor of
the East, and the troops of the reigning Emperor Maximinus. Licinius was
marching with 30,000 men to the relief of Heraclea, when he was attacked
by Maximinus, with 70,000. Licinius was at first driven back by weight
of numbers, but his skill, and the steadiness of his troops, enabled him
to rally, and eventually Maximinus was defeated with heavy loss.


                Herat (Tartar Invasion of Afghanistan).

This city was captured, 1220, by 20,000 Tartars, under Sudah Bahadur.
The Governor, Emin Malek, was entirely unprepared to stand a siege, and
surrendered when the Tartars appeared before the walls. Having meanwhile
been retaken by a _coup-de-main_, by Shems-ed-din, who held it as an
independent chieftain, Herat was again besieged by the Mongols, under
Tuli Khan, in 1221. After a brief, but resolute resistance, during which
Shems-ed-din fell, the inhabitants opened the gates to the besiegers,
and the garrison was put to the sword.


                       Herat (Perso-Afghan Wars).

On November 22, 1837, Mohamed, Shah of Persia, laid siege to the city,
which was held by an Afghan garrison, under Yar Mohamed. After a
somewhat desultory siege, an attempt was made to storm the place, June
24, 1838, when the Persians were repulsed with a loss of 1,700 men. From
this time a tacit armistice existed till September 9, when the Shah
withdrew his army.


                      Herdonea (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 210, when the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, defeated, and
practically destroyed an army of 25,000 Romans, under Cnæus Fulvius.
Fulvius was among the slain.


                      Héricourt (Burgundian Wars).

Fought November 13, 1474, between the Swiss, 18,000 strong, and the
Burgundians, 10,000 in number. The Burgundians were totally defeated,
the town of Héricourt taken.


                      Hermanstadt (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1442, and notable as being the first appearance of John Huniades
in arms against the Turks. With an army of Hungarians he totally
defeated Mejid Bey, who was besieging Hermanstadt, inflicting on the
Turks a loss of 20,000 men, and relieving the place. The Hungarians lost
3,000.


                      Hernani (First Carlist War).

Fought August 29, 1836, between the British legion, under General Evans,
and the Carlists. Evans was defeated.


                      Hernani (First Carlist War).

Fought March 15 and 16, 1837, between the British legion, and a small
contingent of Cristinos, under General Evans, and about 17,000 Carlists,
under Don Sebastian, strongly posted on the Hernani road. On the 15th,
Evans attacked the Carlists on the Venta heights, and after five hours’
fighting occupied the position. On the 16th, when the conflict was
resumed, the Carlists retired into Hernani, but reinforcements arriving,
they took the offensive, and forced Evans to retreat.


                      Herrera (First Carlist War).

Fought August 23, 1837, between the Carlists, under Don Carlos, with
General Moreno in actual command, and the Cristinos, under General
Buerens. Don Carlos, who was marching upon Madrid, attacked Buerens
before he could effect a junction with Espartero, and severely defeated
him, the Cristinos losing 50 officers, and 2,600 men killed, wounded and
missing. Don Carlos, after this victory, advanced to within twelve miles
of Madrid, when the appearance of Espartero, at the head of 20,000
troops, obliged him to retire.


                  Herrings, The (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought at Roncray-St.-Denis, February 12, 1429. Sir John Fastolfe was in
charge of a convoy of salt fish for the English army before Orleans, and
hearing of the approach of a French force, under the Bastard of Orleans,
intrenched himself at Roncray. Here the French attacked him, and were
repulsed with heavy loss, the Bastard being severely wounded.


                      Hexham (Wars of the Roses).

Fought May 15, 1464, when the Yorkists, under Montague, surprised the
Lancastrians, under Somerset, in their camp at Linnels, near Hexham. The
Lancastrians were practically in a trap, and had no option but to
surrender. Somerset and many other important leaders were taken, and
promptly executed. This success secured Edward IV on the throne.


            Himera (First Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

Fought 480 B.C., between the Syracusans and Agrigentines, 557,000
strong, under Gelon, Tyrant of Syracuse, and the Carthaginians, said to
number 300,000, under Hamilcar. The Carthaginians were totally routed,
and Hamilcar slain.


            Himera (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

This place was besieged by the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, B.C. 409.
A first assault was repulsed, and Diocles arriving in the harbour with
25 ships, rescued half the inhabitants. Three days later he returned for
the remainder, but too late, for before he could reach the harbour the
breach was stormed. The town was sacked, and 3,000 prisoners were
sacrificed to appease the shade of Hamilcar, who had fallen in the
battle of 480.


                    Hippo (Invasion of the Vandals).

Siege was laid to this city in May, 430, by the Vandals, under Genseric.
It was defended by Boniface, Count of Africa, who having command of the
sea, was able to keep the city well provisioned, and after fourteen
months Genseric retired. Among those who died during the siege was St.
Augustine.


                    Hochkirchen (Seven Years’ War).

Fought October 14, 1758, between the Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and the Austrians, under Count Daun. Frederick, who was encamped
on the heights of Hochkirchen, was surprised in the early morning by the
Austrians, who broke into his camp and seized his artillery. He
succeeded, however, in forming up his troops, and descending into the
plain, made good his retreat to Bautzen. The Prussians lost 9,000 men,
including the Prince of Brunswick and Marshal Keith, all their tents and
baggage, and 101 guns. The Austrians lost 8,000 killed and wounded.


               Hochstett (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 19, 1800, between 70,000 French, under Moreau, and about
80,000 Austrians, under de Kray. Moreau crossed the Danube with the
object of cutting off the Austrians from their base, and forcing them to
evacuate Ulm. In a battle which lasted 18 hours, he succeeded in
establishing himself upon the left bank, and making Ulm untenable. The
French took 5,000 prisoners and 20 guns, but the losses on both sides in
killed and wounded were small for the numbers engaged.


                      Hoechst (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought June 10, 1622, between 20,000 Palatinate troops, under Christian
of Brunswick, and 33,000 Imperialists, under Tilly. Christian having
failed to join forces with Mansfeldt, was in retreat, and was engaged in
holding a bridge over the Main. While thus employed he was overtaken by
Tilly, and though a village covering the bridge was held gallantly for
five hours, he was at last overpowered, losing about 12,000 in killed,
wounded and prisoners. The Imperialist loss was comparatively small.


                     Hogland (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1789, between the Russian fleet, under Admiral Greig, and the
Swedes, under the Duke of Sudermanland. Each side lost a ship, but
strategically the affair was a Russian victory, for the Swedes were
compelled to seek the protection of the forts of Sveaborg.


            Hohenfriedberg (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought June 3, 1745, between the Austrians and Saxons, under Charles of
Lorraine, and the Prussians, under Frederick the Great. The Saxons, who
were encamped at Strigau, were attacked in the early morning, and
defeated before the Austrians could come to their aid. Frederick then
turned upon the Austrians, and routed them, after desperate fighting.
The Austrians and Saxons lost 4,000 killed and wounded, 7,000 prisoners,
including 4 generals, and 66 guns. The Prussians lost 2,000.


              Hohenlinden (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought December 3, 1800, between the French, 60,000 strong, under
Moreau, and 70,000 Austrians, under the Archduke John. Moreau occupied
the small clearing of Hohenlinden, and the surrounding forest, while the
Austrian army marched by five distinct routes to rendezvous at
Hohenlinden. The Archduke’s attack on the village was repulsed, and
meanwhile Moreau had fallen upon his advancing columns at various
points, and after severe fighting defeated them. The Austrians lost
7,000 killed and wounded, 12,000 prisoners and 87 guns.


                  Hollabrunn (Campaign of the Danube).

A rearguard action to protect the retreat of the main Russian army,
under Kutusoff, November 16, 1805, between 7,000 Russians, under Prince
Bagration, and the French, under Lannes. Bagration did not retire until
he had lost half his force.


                     Homildon Hill (Scottish Wars).

Fought September, 1402, when the Percies lay in wait for a Scottish
force, under Murdach Stewart, and Archibald, Earl of Douglas, who were
returning from a foray into England. The Scots were totally routed,
losing Stewart, 4 Scottish peers, and 80 gentlemen of rank.


                                Honain.

Fought 629, between 12,000 Moslems, under Mohammed, and a force of pagan
Arabs, 4,000 strong. The Moslems were lured into the valley of Honain,
and were assailed by slingers and archers from the surrounding heights.
They were, however, rallied by the Prophet, and totally routed the
Pagans, who submitted to the rule of Mohammed.


              Hondschook (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought September, 1793, between the Austrians, under Freytag, and the
French, under Houchard. The Austrians occupied a strong position from
which they were driven in disorder, and with heavy loss. As a
consequence of this victory, the siege of Dunkirk was raised.


                             Hooghly, The.

Fought November 24, 1759, between three British ships, under Commodore
Wilson, and a Dutch squadron of seven sail. After two hours’ fighting,
the Dutch were completely defeated, and all their ships captured.
Meanwhile a force of 700 Europeans and 800 Sepoys landed from the Dutch
fleet, was defeated with heavy loss by 330 British troops and 800
Sepoys, under Colonel Forde.


                  Huesca (Mohammedan Empire in Spain).

Fought 1105, when the Moors, under Ali attacked the Spaniards, who,
under Alfonso VI of Castile, were besieging Huesca. Ali was utterly
routed, losing 10,000 killed in the battle.


                      Huesca (First Carlist War).

Fought May 23, 1837, between 20,000 Carlists, under Don Carlos and Don
Sebastian, and 12,000 Cristinos and British under General Irribarreu.
The British legion behaved unsteadily and the Cristinos were driven from
the field, though the pursuit was checked by a brilliant cavalry charge,
in which Irribarreu fell. The Cristinos lost over 1,000 killed and
wounded, of which number the British legion lost 277.


                       Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought May, 1866, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the
Argentinians, under Mitre. Mitre attacked the Paraguayan entrenchments,
but was repulsed with heavy loss.


                       Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought February, 1868, between the Paraguayan batteries, and a flotilla
of Brazilian gunboats, endeavouring to force the passage. Their attempt
was a complete failure, and the whole flotilla was sunk.


                       Humaita (Paraguayan War).

Fought September, 1868, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the
allied armies of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. The allies largely
outnumbered Lopez’s forces, and forced him to abandon his entrenchments
at Humaita, and retire to Tebienari.


                    Humblebeck (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1700, when Charles XII, with a small force of Swedes, landed in
face of the Danish army, which was strongly entrenched close the shore,
and drove them headlong from their position with heavy loss.


             Hydaspes, The (Alexander’s Campaigns in Asia).

Fought B.C. 327, between 65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 Asiatics, under
Alexander the Great, and the army of the Indian king Porus, numbering
30,000 infantry, with 200 elephants and 300 war chariots. Alexander
crossed the river a few miles above Porus’ entrenchments, and utterly
routed him, with a loss of 12,000 killed and 9,000 prisoners, including
Porus himself. The Macedonians lost 1,000 only.


                    Hyderabad (Conquest of Scinde).

Fought March 24, 1843, between 6,000 British troops, under Sir Charles
Napier, and 20,000 Beluchis, under Shir Mohammed. The latter was
strongly entrenched behind the Fullali, but the Beluchis, being thrown
into disorder by a heavy artillery fire, were overthrown by a charge of
cavalry on their exposed flank, and a frontal attack by the 22nd
Regiment. This defeat put an end to the resistance of the Scinde Emirs.


                                 Hysiæ.

Fought, approximately, 668 B.C., between the Spartans and the Argives.
The former were totally defeated, and Argos was left in undisputed
possession of the supremacy of the Peloponnesus.



                                   I


                        Ichinotani (Taira War).

Fought 1189, between the troops of the Shogun Minamoto-no-Yoritomo,
under his brothers Norigoris and Yoshitsune, and the forces of the Taira
clan. The Taira were signally defeated.


                     Iclistavisus (Germanic Wars).

Fought 16, between 8 Roman legions, under Germanicus, and the Germans,
under Arminius. The Germans attacked the Romans in the open plain, but
failed against the superior discipline of the legionaries, and were
routed with enormous loss. Arminius with difficulty cut his way out of
the press and escaped.


                     Immac (Revolt of Elagabalus).

Fought June 7, 218, between the Syrian legions, under Elagabalus, and
the Imperial troops and Pretorians, under the Emperor Macrinus. The
Pretorians, by their superior valour and discipline, broke the legions
opposed, and the victory would have been theirs, but at the crisis of
the fight, Macrinus fled, and this so discouraged his troops, that in
the end they were totally defeated.


                 Imola (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought February 3, 1797, when 8,000 French and Italians, under Victor,
defeated the Papal troops, 7,000 strong, under General Colli. Victor
took the Papal army in the rear, and routed them with a loss of a few
hundred only, as no stand was made.


               Indus, The (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

Fought A.D. 1221, between 300,000 Tartars, under Genghis Khan, and the
army of Jellalladin, Sultan of Kharismia, 30,000 strong. Jellalladin
fought with his back to the river, and after an obstinate conflict, in
which he inflicted heavy loss on his assailants, was driven across the
Indus, having lost 19,000 men killed and drowned. The Tartars lost
20,000.


                                Ingavi.

Fought November 18, 1841, between the Bolivians, under Ballivian, 3,800
strong, and the Peruvians, 5,200 strong, under Gamarra. The Peruvians
were utterly routed, and their army dispersed, Gamarra being among the
killed.


                        Ingogo (First Boer War).

Fought February 8, 1881 when a small British column, consisting of 5
companies of infantry, 4 guns, and a small mounted force, attacked the
Boer position, and were repulsed with a loss of 139 killed and wounded.
The Boers admitted a loss of 14 only.


                     Inhlobane Mountain (Zulu War).

Fought March 28, 1879, when a British force of 1,300 men, under Colonels
Buller and Russell, attacked a strong Zulu kraal, and after severe
fighting, were repulsed with considerable loss.


                        Inkerman (Crimean War).

Fought November 5, 1854, when 50,000 Russians, under Prince
Mentschikoff, attacked the British position at Inkerman, held by about
8,000 troops. There was a dense fog, and the battle was chiefly a series
of detached hand-to-hand combats some of the most serious fighting being
round the Sandbag Battery, where the Russians lost 1,200 killed. At 10
o’clock, the French arrived on the scene, and the Russians were soon in
full retreat, having suffered very heavy loss.


                        Inverlochy (Civil War).

Fought February 2, 1645, when Montrose, with 1,500 Royalist Highlanders,
defeated 3,000 Campbells and Lowland Covenanters, with a loss of 1,700
men. Argyle left the command of his forces to Campbell of Auchinbrech,
taking refuge in a vessel on Loch Linnhe. This defeat broke the power of
the Campbells in the Highlands for many years.

                     Inverkeithing (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1317, between the English invaders, and the Scots, under the Earl
of Fife. The first onslaught of the English drove the Scots from their
positions, but they were rallied by William Sinclair, Bishop of Dunkeld,
and forced the English to retire to their ships.


                       Inverary (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1510, between the Scots, under Robert Bruce, and the English,
under Sir John Mowbray, with whom was a small force of Scottish
sympathisers with the English claims, under the Earl of Buchan. The
English were totally defeated and driven from the field with heavy loss.


                Ipsus (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 302, between the Syrians, 32,000 strong, under Seleucus, and
the Macedonians, 30,000 in number, under Antigonus. Seleucus utterly
routed the Macedonians, Antigonus being among the slain. Demetrius
Poliorcetes, who now took command, only succeeded in rallying 8,000 men,
after fleeing for 200 miles.


                       Irun (First Carlist War).

This fortress was captured, May 18, 1837, by 10,000 Cristinos and
British, under General Evans. Evans appeared before the place at noon,
and summoned it to surrender. On the Carlists refusing, an assault was
ordered; by 11 p.m. the fortress was taken, with very small loss to the
assailants.


                        Isandhlwana (Zulu War).

Fought January 22, 1879, when six companies of the 24th Regiment, with
two guns and a small force of Natal volunteers, under Colonel Durnford,
were overwhelmed and massacred by the Zulus, under Matyana. Of the
regulars, 26 officers and 600 men were killed, in addition to 24
officers, and a large number of men in the Colonial force.


                  Isara, The (Third Gallic Invasion).

Fought August 8, 121 B.C., between the Arverni and Allobroges, under
Betuitdus, and the Romans, under Q. Fabius Maximus. The Gauls were
totally defeated, and a bridge breaking down under the press of the
fugitives, they suffered enormous loss.


                      Isaszcq (Hungarian Rising).

Fought April 6, 1849, between the Hungarians, 42,000 strong, under
Görgey, and the Croats, under Jellachich. The Hungarian First Corps,
under Klapka, was put to flight, but the rest stood their ground, and
repulsed the Croat attack. Both armies bivouacked for the night on the
ground they held, but early on the following morning Jellachich retired,
the Hungarians thus being entitled to claim a victory.


                   Isle de France (Napoleonic Wars).

This island, now known as Mauritius, was captured from the French,
December 3, 1810, by a fleet of 19 ships, under Admiral Bertie,
convoying a number of transports, carrying 10,000 troops, under General
Abercromby. The British lost 167 killed, wounded and missing. Seven
frigates and ten sloops were taken, as well as 21 French and 3 captured
British merchantmen.


                    Isly (Abd-el-Kader’s Rebellion).

Fought August 14, 1844, between 8,000 French, under Marshal Bugeaud, and
45,000 Algerines, chiefly cavalry, under Abd-el-Kader. The French
infantry repulsed all the charges of the Algerine Horse, and aided by
the artillery, inflicted heavy loss upon them; when sufficiently shaken,
a charge of the French cavalry completed the rout, and the Algerines
fled, leaving 1,500 dead on the field. Abd-el-Kader was captured.


                         Ismail (Ottoman Wars).

This fortress was taken by assault by the Russians, under Suwaroff,
December 22, 1790. The Russians lost enormous numbers in the storm, and
in revenge they massacred the garrison and inhabitants without mercy.


                 Issus (Alexander’s Asiatic Campaigns).

Fought B.C. 333, between 35,000 Macedonians, under Alexander the Great,
and a vast horde of Asiatics, with 30,000 Greek mercenaries, under
Darius, King of Persia. The Persians were drawn up on the right bank of
the Pinarus, which crosses the plain of Issus. Alexander, led his heavy
cavalry to the attack on the left, crossing the river, and routing the
Persian cavalry. The phalanx in the centre was opposed to the Greek
mercenaries, and after heavy fighting, the Macedonians made good their
footing on the right bank. Alexander meanwhile led his squadrons against
the bodyguard of Darius, who fled from the field, followed by the whole
of the Asiatics, and the victory was complete.


                         Issus (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1488, between the Turks, under Bajazet II, and the Egyptians,
under the Sultan of Egypt. The Turks were defeated.


                               Itabitsu.

Fought October, 740, between the Japanese rebels, under Hirotsuke,
13,000 strong, and the troops of the Emperor Shommu under Ono-no-Atsuma.
The Imperial troops, who were only 8,000 in number, attacked the rebels
as they were crossing the river, and routed them with heavy loss.
Hirotsuke was killed.


                        Ivry (Eighth Civil War).

Fought March 14, 1590, between the Huguenots, under Henri IV, and the
Catholics, under the Duc de Mayenne. Henri gained a complete victory,
and marched forward to invest Paris.



                                   J


                  Jalula (Moslem Invasion of Persia).

Fought 637, between the Moslems, under Said, and the Persians, under
Yezdegerd. Yezdegerd fled from the field, and his troops discouraged,
were totally routed with heavy loss.


                                Jamaica.

This island was captured from the Spaniards, May, 1655 by a combined
English naval and military force, under Admiral Penn and General
Venables.


                       Jarnac (Third Civil War).

Fought March 13, 1569, between the Catholics, under the Marshal de
Tavannes, and the Huguenots, under the Prince de Condé. The brunt of the
action was borne by the Huguenot cavalry, who were overpowered by the
Catholics, and Condé slain.


                         Jassy (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 20, 1620, between the Poles under Gratiani, and the
Turks, under Osman II. The Poles were completely defeated.


                     Jellalabad (First Afghan War).

This fortress was besieged by the Afghans, under Mohammed Akbar Khan,
March 11, 1842, after the destruction of General Elphinstone’s force in
the Khoord Cabul pass. It was defended by a small British garrison,
under General Sale. Akbar led his whole army to the assault, but was
gallantly repulsed, and then sat down to besiege the place in form. An
attempt to relieve it by Brigadier Wyld, in January, 1843, failed, Wyld
being defeated in the Khyber Pass by the Khyberis. The garrison
meanwhile made several successful sorties, and on April 7, drove Akbar
Khan out of his entrenchments, with a loss of all his guns, and many
men, forcing him to raise the siege. All chance of a renewal of the
investment was ended by the arrival on the 18th, of a strong relieving
force, under General Pollock.


               Jemappes (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought November 6, 1792, between the Austrians, under the Archduke
Albert, and the French, under Dumouriez. The Austrians occupied a very
strong position on the heights above Jemappes, from which they were
driven with heavy loss, the French gaining a signal victory.


                        Jena (Campaign of Jena).

This name is generally given to the two battles fought October 14, 1806,
by the two wings of the French army under Napoleon, at Auerstadt and
Jena. At Auerstadt the Prussian left, 70,000 strong, under the Duke of
Brunswick, was encountered by the French right, under Davoust, with
slightly inferior numbers, and after very severe fighting, were
defeated, the Duke of Brunswick being killed. Napoleon, on the left,
with 100,000 men, attacked the Prince of Hohenlohe with 70,000
Prussians, and after a sternly fought engagement, drove him from the
field. The two defeated armies, retiring by converging routes upon
Weimar, the retreat became a rout, and Napoleon’s pursuing cavalry
caused them further heavy losses. The Prussians in the two actions lost
22,000 killed and wounded, 18,000 prisoners and 300 guns. Twenty
generals were killed, wounded or captured. The French lost 11,000 killed
and wounded, 7,000 of whom fell at Auerstadt.


                                Jersey.

Fought 1550, when an English squadron, under Sir William Winter,
attacked a French fleet, which was besieging St. Heliers. The French
were completely routed, losing 1,000 killed and wounded, and the siege
was raised.


                        Jerusalem (Jewish War).

This city was besieged by Titus, with 60,000 Romans, in March, 70 A.D.
It was defended with the utmost heroism by the Jews, who were led by the
Zealot faction. At the end of six weeks Titus gained possession of the
suburb of Bezetha, and then by hard fighting, captured position after
position, until on September 8, the resistance of the defenders was
finally overcome. Josephus says that 1,100,000 persons perished in the
siege, but this is doubtless an exaggeration. The Romans after the
capture sold 97,000 into slavery.


                 Jerusalem (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

Early in 637 Jerusalem was besieged by the Moslems, at first, under Abu
Obeidah, and later by the Khalif Omar. After a defence of four months,
during which scarcely a day passed without a sortie or an assault, the
city was surrendered by the Patriarch Sophronius.


                       Jerusalem (First Crusade).

The Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, laid siege to the city, June
7, 1099, and on July 15, it was taken by assault, and for three days was
the scene of a promiscuous massacre, in which 70,000 Moslems perished.


                               Jerusalem.

On October 2, 1187, the Holy City was besieged by the Saracens, under
Saladin, and after a siege lasting fourteen days, in the course of which
several determined sorties were repulsed, the Moslems forced an
entrance, and Guy de Lusignan, the last King of Jerusalem, surrendered.
The Christians were given forty days to evacuate the city.


                        Jhansi (Indian Mutiny).

This place, which fell into the hands of the mutineers in June, 1857,
was recaptured by Sir Hugh Rose, who invested it in March, 1858, and
carried the city by assault, April 2.


                     Jidballi (Somali Expedition).

Fought January 10, 1904, between the Somalis, 5,000 strong, and a small
British and native force, under Sir Charles Egerton. The Somalis’ camp
was attacked, and after a brisk action they were driven out and pursued
by the cavalry for twelve miles, losing 1,000 killed in the fight and
pursuit. The British losses were very small.


                                 Jiron.

Fought February 28, 1829, between the Peruvians, under Lamar, and the
Colombians, under Sucre. The battle was indecisive, both sides claiming
the victory, and it was followed by the signature of peace, September
23.


                         Jitgurh (Gurkha War).

Fought January 14, 1815, between 4,500 British troops, under General
Wood, and 1,200 Gurkhas, occupying a strong stockade. The British were
led unexpectedly into the zone of fire by a treacherous guide, and
though Wood fought his way to a position from which he could have
carried the stockade, he retired, having suffered considerable loss,
just when the Gurkhas were about to abandon their works.


                         Jotapata (Jewish War).

This place was besieged by Vespasian, with 60,000 Romans, December, 67,
and was defended by the Jewish army under Josephus. The fortress held
out for 47 days, when it was stormed and sacked. Josephus gave himself
up to Vespasian.


                     Jugdulluck (First Afghan War).

At this place the remnant of General Elphinstone’s army made their last
stand, January 12, 1842, against the Afghans and Ghilzais. Of the few
who escaped the massacre at this point, only one, Dr. Brydon, succeeded
in reaching Jellalabad.


            Julian’s Defeat by the Persians (Persian Wars).

Fought June 28, 363, between the Romans, under Julian, and the Persians,
under Sapor II. Julian had advanced against Ctesiphon, the Persian
capital, but finding himself too weak to attack it, was retreating along
the left bank of the Tigris. In the course of the retreat he was
attacked by the Persians, and worsted in an action unimportant in
itself, but resulting in the death of Julian, who was mortally wounded
in the skirmish. The election of Jovian as Emperor was followed by a
peace which restored to Sapor almost all the Roman conquests in Persia.


              Junin (South American War of Independence).

Fought 1824, between the Spanish Royalists, under General Cauterac, and
the Colombian Patriots, under Sucre. The Spaniards were completely
defeated.



                                   K


                     Kaiping (Chino-Japanese War).

Fought January 10, 1895, when a Chinese force in a strongly entrenched
position was attacked and driven out by a Japanese brigade under General
Nogi. The fighting lasted three hours, the Chinese showing more
steadiness than usual, and inflicting on the assailants a loss of 300
killed and wounded.


                     Kagoshima (Satsuma Rebellion).

On August 18, 1876, the rebels, who were closely besieged in their lines
at Enotake, succeeded in passing through the Imperial troops, and making
a forced march, under Saigo Takamori, seized the city of Kagoshima. They
were quickly followed by the Imperial army, under Prince Taruhito, and
an engagement followed which lasted for ten days, at the end of which
time the insurgents were driven out and retired to Shirogama, both sides
having suffered heavy loss.


                         Kagul (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 3, 1770, between 17,000 Russians, under Roumiantsoff, and
150,000 Turks, under Halil Pasha. The Russian rear was threatened by a
force of 80,000 Tartars, under the Khan of Crim Tartary, but
Roumiantsoff boldly attacked the Turkish lines, and after severe
fighting drove the Turks out of their entrenchments in headlong flight,
capturing all their artillery and baggage.


                      Kalisch (Russo-Swedish War).

Fought 1706, between 10,000 Swedes, under General Meyerfeld, and 30,000
Russians and Poles, under Prince Mentschikoff. The Swedes were defeated
with considerable loss.


                         Kalunga (Gurkha War).

This place was attacked by the British under General Gillespie, in
October, 1814, and was defended by the Gurkhas under Bulbuddur Singh. An
unsuccessful assault cost the besiegers 260 officers and men, and after
waiting a month for the arrival of heavy guns, a breach was made, and a
general assault ordered. This also failed, 680 men being killed and
wounded. The fortress was then shelled for three days, at the end of
which time the survivors of the garrison, 70 only out of 600, made their
escape, and the place was captured.


                         Kalpi (Indian Mutiny).

This town, which had fallen into the hands of the mutineers, was
besieged by Sir Hugh Rose, May 19, 1858. The garrison made two
ineffectual sorties, in which they were repulsed with heavy loss, and on
the 23rd the town was entered without further resistance, the mutineers
having fled.


                      Kamarut (First Burmah War).

Fought July 8, 1824, when a small British force, under Sir Archibald
Campbell, stormed a series of stockades held by 10,000 Burmans, under
Tuamba Wangyee. The Burmans left 800 dead on the field, including their
leader.


                          Kambula (Zulu War).

Fought March 29, 1879, when Colonel Wood, with 2,000 British and native
auxiliaries, was attacked in his lager by three Zulu impi. The Zulus
were repulsed with very heavy loss, and pursued for seven miles. The
British lost 81 killed and wounded. The defeat practically broke
Cetewayo’s power.


               Kandahar (Tartar Invasion of Afghanistan).

This city was besieged by the Tartars, under Tuli Khan, in 1221. The
Tartars possessed themselves of the city, and were investing the
citadel, when Jellalladin, Sultan of Kharismia, fell upon them with a
large force and cut them to pieces.


                               Kandahar.

Siege was laid to Kandahar in March, 1545, by the Moguls, under Humayun.
The place, which was defended by an Afghan garrison under Mirza Askari,
held out for five months, when, weakened by famine and desertion, the
garrison was forced to surrender.


                     Kandahar (Perso-Afghan Wars).

In the autumn of 1648 the Persians, under Abbas II, laid siege to the
city, which was defended by a Mogul garrison. An attempt to relieve it
was made by Aurungzebe, but he arrived to find it already in the hands
of the Persians. He in turn laid siege to it, but was unsuccessful, and
after four months was compelled to retire. Subsequent attempts to
recapture the city were made by Said Ullah, the Vizier, and Dara Sheko,
the eldest son of Shah Jehan, but without success.


                               Kandahar.

Fought July 29, 1834, when Shah Sujah, the expelled Amir of Afghanistan,
attempted to take the city. His successor, Dost Mahomed, and Kohandil
Khan sallied forth at the head of their troops, and totally defeated
Shah Sujah, dispersing his followers.


                     Kandahar (Second Afghan War).

Fought September 1, 1880, between the British, under Lord Roberts, and
the Afghans, under Ayub Khan, immediately after the completion of the
famous march from Kabul. Ayub was completely defeated, with a loss of
2,000 men, and his army dispersed. The British losses were only 248
killed and wounded.


                      Kapolna (Hungarian Rising).

Fought February 26 and 27, 1849, between four Hungarian divisions, under
Dembinski, and the Austrians, under Windischgrätz, of whom only
Schlick’s corps, 15,000 strong, was seriously engaged. The Hungarians
held their own on the 26th, but on the evening of the 27th Schlick
captured the key of the position at Kapolna, whereupon the Hungarians
retired, though unpursued.


                     Kappel (Second War of Kappel).

Fought October 10, 1531, between the army of the Swiss Catholic Cantons,
8,000 strong, and 1,300 Zurichers, under George Göldli, reinforced later
in the day by a similar number under Rudolf Lavater. Göldli attacked in
defiance of orders, and was totally defeated, among those who fell being
Zwingli.


                       Kara Burur (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 11, 1791, when the Russian fleet, under Admiral
Ouschakoff, totally defeated the Turks after a sanguinary engagement.


                               Karamuran.

Fought during the winter of 1225, between 300,000 Tartars under Genghiz
Khan, and 500,000 Turks, Chinese and others under Shidasker of Tangat.
Shidasker was totally routed, with a loss, it is said, of 300,000 men.


                 Karaku (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

Fought 1218, between the Tartars, 700,000 strong, under Genghiz Khan,
and 400,000 Kharismians under the Sultan Mehemed. At nightfall the
battle was undecided, and the armies withdrew to their camps, but
Mehemet, who had lost 140,000, refused to renew the conflict on the
following day, and Genghiz Khan, having suffered too severely to attack
his entrenchments, withdrew.


                        Karee (Second Boer War).

Fought March 29, 1900, when a Boer force holding a line of hills about
eighteen miles north of Bloemfontein, were driven from their
entrenchments by a British division under General Tucker. The British
lost 10 officers and 172 men killed and wounded.


                       Kargaula (Cossack Rising).

Fought 1774, between the insurgent Cossacks of the Don, under Ikkelman
Pugatcheff, and the Russians, under Prince Gallitzin. The insurgents
were routed with great slaughter, and Pugatcheff fled to the mountains.


                          Kars (Crimean War).

This fortress, held by a Turkish garrison under General Williams, was
besieged by the Russians in the course of the Crimean war. The place was
most gallantly defended but was finally forced by famine to capitulate,
November, 1855.


                       Kars (Russo-Turkish War).

This fortress, garrisoned by 24,000 Turks under Hussein Pasha, was
stormed by the Russians under Loris Melikoff on the night of November
17, 1877. The attacking force was led by Lazareff, and after severe
fighting captured all the eastern forts. Hussein then endeavoured to cut
his way through to the west, but the bulk of his force was driven back,
and only he and a few of his officers succeeded in the attempt. The
Russians lost 2,273, killed and wounded; the Turks 2,500 killed, 4,500
wounded, 17,000 prisoners, and 303 guns.


                      Kashgal (Soudan Campaigns).

On November 3, 1883, an Egyptian force, 11,000 strong, under Hicks
Pasha, with several British officers, was led by a treacherous guide
into a defile, where they were attacked by the Mahdists, and after
fighting for three days, were massacred almost to a man.


                     Kassassin (Arabi’s Rebellion).

Fought August 28, 1882, between the British, under General Graham, and
the Egyptians, under Arabi Pasha. Arabi attacked the British position,
Graham remaining on the defensive throughout the day, but towards
evening he launched his heavy cavalry, under Sir Baker Russell, against
the enemy, who broke and fled. The British losses were only 11 killed
and 68 wounded.


                    Katzbach (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 22, 1813, between 130,000 French, under Napoleon, and
100,000 Prussians, under Blucher. Blucher, who had on the previous day
retired behind the Haynau, was pressed hard by Napoleon, and driven
across the Katzbach, with considerable loss.


                    Katzbach (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 26, 1813, between the French, under Macdonald, and the
Prussians, under Blucher. Macdonald crossed the Katzbach, and while
waiting for his left wing and cavalry under Souham, was attacked by
Blucher, and driven back. As Macdonald was retiring Souham appeared on
the field, but before he could deploy he was attacked and routed with
great slaughter, while the centre under Lauriston also suffered severely
in recrossing the river. The French lost 15,000 killed and wounded, and
over 100 guns.


                        Kazan (Cossack Rising).

Fought 1774, between the rebel Cossacks, under Pugatcheff, and the
Russians, under General Michelson. The Cossacks were utterly routed.


                     Kemendine (First Burmah War).

Fought June 10, 1824, when 3,000 British troops, under Sir Archibald
Campbell, stormed a series of stockades, occupied by a large force of
Burmans, and drove out the defenders with heavy loss.


                       Keresztes (Ottoman Wars).

Fought October 24 to 26, 1596, between the Turks, under Mohammed III,
and the Imperialists and Transylvanians, under the Archduke Maximilian
and Prince Sigismund of Transylvania. The battle at first went badly for
the Turks, and Mohammed would have fled but for the remonstrances of the
Grand Vizier. In the end, however, they gained the upper hand, and the
Archduke was totally defeated.


                Kharisme (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This city, the capital of Kharismia, was besieged by the Tartars under
the three sons of Genghiz Khan, in the summer of 1220. It was most
obstinately defended for a period of seven months by the inhabitants,
under Himartekin, but in February the Tartars mastered the place,
massacring 100,000 persons.


                      Khartoum (Soudan Campaign).

This city, defended by an Egyptian garrison under General Gordon, was
invested by the Mahdi in the early part of 1884, and, after a gallant
defence, was stormed January 26, 1885. The forerunners of the relieving
force, consisting of the river gunboats under Lord Charles Beresford,
arrived off the city on the 28th, two days too late, and after a brief
engagement with the Mahdist batteries, returned down the river.


                       Khelat (First Afghan War).

This place, which was defended by a garrison of Beluchis, under Mehrab
Khan, was captured by a British force, 1,000 strong, under General
Willshire, November 13, 1839. The defenders lost 400 killed, including
their leader and 2,000 prisoners. The British lost 37 killed and 107
wounded.


                    Khojah Pass (First Afghan War).

Fought March 28, 1842, when General England, in an endeavour to relieve
General Nott in Kandahar, marched into the pass with 500 men only,
without waiting for the rest of his brigade, and was defeated by the
Afghans with a loss of 100 killed and wounded, and compelled to retire
to Quetta.


                 Khoord Kabul Pass (First Afghan War).

While passing through this defile, the British force, under General
Elphinstone, retreating on Jellalabad, was attacked by the Afghans,
January 8, 1842, and lost 3,000, including followers.


                    Killiecrankie (Jacobite Rising).

Fought July 27, 1689, between 4,500 Royal troops, under General Mackay,
and 2,500 Highland Jacobites, under Dundee. Dundee allowed Mackay to
enter the plain below the pass of Killiecrankie, and then descending
from the heights, fell upon and utterly routed the Royalists, with a
loss of over 2,000 killed and 500 prisoners. The Jacobites lost about
900, but amongst them was Dundee. Mackay on reaching Stirling had only
400 men with the colours.


                          Kilsyth (Civil War).

Fought August 15, 1645, between the Royalists, under Montrose, and the
Covenanters, under Baillie. The Royalists won a signal victory,
Baillie’s infantry, 6,000 in number, being cut down almost to a man.


                      Kimberley (Second Boer War).

This town, defended by a garrison of 4,000 (including armed townsmen)
under Colonel Kekewich, was besieged October 15, 1899, by the Boers,
under Commandant Wessels, and later under General Cronje. It withstood a
severe and continuous bombardment till February 15, 1900, when it was
relieved by a force of cavalry, 5,000 strong, under General French. The
losses of the garrison during the siege amounted to 18 officers and 163
men.


                               Kin-chau.

_See_ Nanshan


                       Kineyri (Second Sikh War).

Fought June 18, 1848, between 8,000 Bhawalpuris, under Futteh Mohammed
Khan, aided by 3,000 Sikh irregulars, under Lieutenant Edwardes, and the
Sikhs, 8,000 strong, under Rung Ram. The Bhawalpuris were repulsed in an
attack on the Sikh positions, but the arrival of Lieutenant Edwardes’
guns turned the scale, and at a second attempt the entrenchments were
stormed and captured, with a loss to the victors of 300 men. The Sikhs
lost 500 killed in the action, and many more during their flight to
Multan.


                 Kinloss (Danish Invasion of Scotland).

Fought 1009, between the Danes under Sweyn of Denmark, and the Scots,
under Malcolm II. The Danes were besieging Nairne, and Malcolm
attempting to raise the siege, they attacked and defeated him after hard
fighting, in which Malcolm was wounded.


                Kinnesaw Mountain (American Civil War).

Fought June 27, 1864, between 90,000 Federals, under General Sherman,
and 50,000 Confederates, under General Johnston. Sherman attacked
Johnston in a strong position and was repulsed with a loss of about
3,000, the Confederates losing 500 only.


                     Kinsale (O’Neil’s Rebellion).

This town, which had been seized in September, 1601, by 5,000 Spaniards,
under Juan d’Aguila, sent to support the rebels, was besieged by the
Royal troops, under Lord Mountjoy and the Earl of Thomond. On December
23 an attempt by Sir Hugh O’Neil to relieve the place was defeated,
whereupon d’Aguila surrendered and was permitted to ship for Spain.


                       Kiöge (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought July, 1677, between the Danish fleet, under Admiral Juel, and the
Swedes, under Admiral Horn. The Swedes suffered a disastrous defeat,
losing eleven ships of the line sunk or captured.


                      Kirbekan (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought February 10, 1885, when the British, about 1,000 strong, under
General Earle, stormed the heights of Kirbekan, which were held by a
strong Mahdist force, and totally routed them, with heavy loss. The
British lost 60, among whom was General Earle, killed.


                   Kirch-Denkern (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 16, 1761, between the Prussians, under Prince Ferdinand, and
the French, under Soubise and the Duc de Broglie. The French attacked
the strong Prussian position in and around Kirch-Denkern, and after
severe fighting were repulsed with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded.


                      Kirkee (Third Mahratta War).

Fought November 5, 1817, between the Mahrattas under Bajee Rao, and a
British force of one European and three native regiments, under Colonel
Burr. On moving out of his entrenchments, the flanks of Burr’s force
were attacked by the Mahratta horse, but their charge was repulsed, and
the British advancing drove off the enemy with a loss of over 500. The
British loss was 75 killed and wounded.


                           Kiso (Taira War).

Fought September, 1180, between the adherents of the Minamoto clan,
under Yoshinaka, and the troops of Taira-no-Kiyomori. The Taira men
attacked the position of Yoshinaka at Kiso, but were defeated and driven
from the field with heavy loss.


                     Kissingen (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought July 10, 1866, between the Prussians, under General Falkenstein,
and the Bavarians, under General Zoller. The Bavarians were defeated and
driven out of Kissingen with heavy loss.


                  Kiu-lien-cheng (Russo-Japanese War).

Fought May 1, 1904, between 40,000 Japanese, under Marshal Kuroki, and
the Russians, about 30,000 strong, under General Sassulitch. After four
days of skirmishing, the Japanese crossed the Yalu, April 30, and on the
following day attacked the Russian position at Kiu-lien-Cheng, driving
out the defenders with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, 30 officers
and 500 men prisoners, and 48 guns. The Japanese lost 898 killed and
wounded.


                    Kizil-Tepe (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought June 25, 1877, between the Russians, under General Loris
Melikoff, and the Turks, in superior numbers, under Mahktar Pasha. The
Russians were defeated, and forced to raise the siege of Kars.


                      Klausenburg (Ottoman Wars).

Fought May, 1660, between the Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Mahomet
Köprili, and the Transylvanians, under the Voivode, George Ragotski II.
The Turks gained a complete victory, Ragotski being mortally wounded.


                               Klonchino.

Fought July 4, 1610, between the Russians, under Choniski, aided by a
contingent of 5,000 Swedes, under James de la Gardie, and the Poles,
under Sigismund III. The Russians were totally defeated, and, as a
result, the usurper, Basil Choniski, was deposed.


                    Koeniggratz (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought July 3, 1866, between 200,000 Austrians, with 600 guns, under
Marshal Benedek, and the Prussian armies of Prince Frederick Charles and
the Crown Prince, together about equal to the Austrians in number. The
Austrians, who occupied a very strong position, were attacked in the
early morning by Prince Frederick Charles, who, however, made little
impression upon them, and it was not till the arrival of the Crown
Prince on their right flank at 2 p.m. that any advantage was obtained.
Then, however, the Prussians succeeded in piercing the Austrian lines,
and seized the key of the position, after which further resistance being
hopeless, the Austrians retired, with a loss of 20,000 killed and
wounded, 20,000 prisoners, and 174 guns. The Prussians lost 10,000.


                  Koenigswartha (Campaign of Leipzig).

Fought May 19, 1813, when General Peyri’s Italian division, about 8,000
strong, was attacked and defeated by 15,000 Russians, under Barclay de
Tolly, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded. The opportune arrival of
the cavalry of Ney’s corps saved the division from destruction.


                Kojende (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This fortress was besieged in 1219, by the Tartars, under Tuchi Khan,
and defended by a Kharismian garrison, under Timar Malek. After an
obstinate resistance, Timar, finding he could hold out no longer,
embarked with his officers and his best troops, and sailed down the
Jaxartes, pursued by the Tartars, whom, however, after heavy fighting,
he succeeded in escaping. The city surrendered the day after Timar’s
departure.


                       Kokein (First Burmah War).

Fought December 12, 1824, when 1,800 British troops, under Sir Archibald
Campbell, stormed and captured two large stockades, garrisoned by about
20,000 Burmans, under Maka Bandula.


                       Kolin (Seven Years’ War).

Fought June 18, 1757, between 34,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and 54,000 Austrians, under Marshal Daun. Daun occupied the
heights between Kolin and Chotzewitz, where he was attacked by
Frederick, who had nearly succeeded in turning his right flank when the
Prussian right broke and fled. The Prussian cavalry charged gallantly
six times, but could make no impression on the Austrian defence, and
Frederick was beaten back with a loss of 14,000 men and 43 guns. The
Austrians lost 9,000.


                       Komatsu (Nine Years’ War).

Fought September 5, 1062, between the Japanese rebels, under Sadatoki,
and the Imperial troops, under Yoriyoshi. Sadatoki, who was besieged in
his camp, made a vigorous sortie at the head of 8,000 men, but after a
severe conflict was repulsed. The fighting was renewed on subsequent
days, and on the 16th Sadatoki was slain, and the rebellion came to an
end.


                       Komorn (Hungarian Rising).

An action fought by Görgey, April 26, 1849, for the relief of Komorn,
which was besieged by the Austrians. In the early morning two Hungarian
corps, under Klapka and Damjanics, surprised the Austrian entrenched
camp, taking 6 guns and 200 prisoners. The Austrians retired, though not
energetically pursued, and the fortress was relieved.


                Koniah (Mehemet Ali’s First Rebellion).

Fought 1831, between the Turks, under Reschid Pasha, and the Egyptians
and Syrians, under Ibrahim Pasha. After a severe engagement, the Turks
were totally defeated, and fled in disorder. Reschid was severely
wounded, and captured.


                              Kornspruit.

_See_ Sanna’s Post.


                     Korygaom (Third Mahratta War).

Fought January 1, 1818, when a small British force of under 1,000 men,
chiefly native troops, under Captain Staunton, was attacked by 25,000
Mahrattas, under the Peshwa, Baji Rao. The British held their ground
gallantly all day, and the approach during the night of large
reinforcements under General Smith determined the Peshwa to retreat,
with a loss of 600. The British lost 275, including 5 out of 8 British
officers.


                        Kossova (Ottoman Wars).

Fought June 15, 1389, between the Turks, under Murad I, and the combined
army of the Servians, Bosnians, and Albanians, under Lazar, Despot of
Servia. The Turks gained a signal victory, though Murad was mortally
wounded in the battle. This success secured the Turkish domination over
Servia and the neighbouring states.


                        Kossova (Ottoman Wars).

Fought October 17, 1747, and two following days, between the Hungarians
and Wallachians, 80,000 strong, under John Hunniades, and a vastly
superior Turkish army, under Murad II. The Hungarians left their
entrenchments to attack the Turks, and throughout the day the battle was
evenly contested. On the 18th, however, the Wallachians deserted to the
Turks, and the Hungarians, assailed in front and rear, were hard
pressed, while on the 19th they were unable to maintain their position,
and were forced to retire, defeated, with a loss of 17,000 killed and
wounded. The Turks are said to have lost 40,000 men in the three days.


                         Kotah (Indian Mutiny).

This place, which had been seized by the rebellious troops of the Rajah
of Kotah, 5,000 in number, was besieged by General Roberts, March 22,
1858. The Rajah, who held the citadel, joined forces with the British,
and after a short bombardment the town was stormed, March 30.


                         Kotzim (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 22, 1622, between the Poles, 60,000 strong, under
Chodkiewicz, and the Turks, 300,000 in number, under Osman II.
Chodkiewicz, old and worn out by fatigue, was forced to retire to his
tent in the middle of the battle, and on his death-bed handed over the
command to Labomirski, by whom the Turks were totally routed, with a
loss of 30,000 men.


                         Kotzim (Ottoman Wars).

Fought November 11, 1673, between 40,000 Poles and Lithuanians, under
John Sobieski, and 80,000 Turks, under Hussein Pasha. The Turks occupied
a strongly entrenched position, which was stormed by the Poles, and the
Turks driven into the river, losing over 40,000 killed. In consequence
of this signal victory, Kotzim capitulated, and Caplan Pasha, who was
approaching with a large army, recrossed the frontier.


                       Krakovicz (Ottoman Wars).

On January 17, 1475, 40,000 Moldavian peasants, aided by 7,000 Hungarian
and Polish regulars, under Stephen of Moldavia, fell upon Suleiman
Pasha, with 100,000 Turks, in an untenable position near Lake Krakovicz,
and totally defeated them, driving them into the lake. Very few of the
Turks escaped death, either by the sword or by drowning.


                      Krasnaoi (Moscow Campaign).

Fought November 17, 1812, when the Russians, 50,000 strong, under
Kutusoff, after a series of combats on the two preceding days, during
which they had inflicted heavy losses on the retreating French army,
were defeated by the corps of Davoust and the Young Guard. The French
losses amounted to 5,000 killed and wounded, and about 8,000 missing.


                    Kringellen (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought August 29, 1612, when a force of Scots in the Danish service,
under Colonel George Sinclair, were ambushed in the mountains by the
Norwegians, and massacred, notwithstanding a strenuous resistance. Only
two of the Scots succeeded in escaping.


                         Kronia (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1738, between the Imperialists under Counts Wallis and Neipperg,
and the Turks. The latter were defeated, but at very heavy cost, and the
Imperial army was so weakened that it was unable to prevent the Turks
capturing Semendaia, Orsova, and other important fortresses.


                        Krotzka (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 23, 1739, between 56,000 Austrians, under Count Wallis, and
over 100,000 Turks, under El Hadj Mohammed Pasha. The Austrian vanguard
was attacked by the Turks when approaching Kotzin and driven back, but
the main body withstood the Turkish onslaught from 5 a.m. to sunset,
when Wallis retired, with a loss of 5,700 killed and 4,500 wounded,
including 9 generals. The Turkish loss is unknown, but was very heavy.


                       Kulevtcha (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1829, between the Russians, under General Diebitsch, and 40,000
Turks, under Reschid Pasha. The Russians were lying in wait for Reschid
in the Kulevtcha defile, and after a severe struggle, totally routed the
Turks, with a loss of 5,000 killed and wounded, and all their guns. The
Pasha himself escaped with difficulty.


                      Kulm (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 29 and 30, 1813, between the French, under Vandamme, and
the Austrians, and Russians, with a small force of Prussians, under the
Prince of Schwartzenberg, who were retreating after their defeat at
Dresden. To check the pursuit they occupied Kulm, from which they were
driven by Vandamme on the 29th. On the 30th, however, not having
received his expected reinforcements, Vandamme was compelled to remain
on the defensive, and being attacked in front by the Austrians and
Russians, and in the rear by the Prussians, he was totally routed, with
a loss of 6,000 killed, 7,000 prisoners, and 48 guns, being himself
wounded and captured. The allies lost about 5,000.


                                 Kumai.

Fought February, 1355, between the troops of the Emperor Gomarakami,
under Yoshinori, and the rebel Japanese, under Moronoshi and Tokiushi.
The rebels were defeated, and Moronoshi severely wounded.


                     Kumamoto (Satsuma Rebellion).

The castle in this town was besieged February 22, 1876, by the Satsuma
rebels, 15,000 strong, under Saigo. The place was gallantly defended by
the garrison under General Tani Tateki, though many Samurai deserted to
the rebels, and strenuous efforts were made by the Imperial army under
Prince Taruhito to come to its relief. In the course of March Saigo was
attacked in the rear by a force under General Kuroda, but still
maintained the siege, and it was not till April 14, when the garrison
was on the verge of starvation, that Kuroda, bringing up every available
man, succeeded in driving off the rebels and raising the siege.


                     Kunersdorf (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 12, 1759, between 40,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and 80,000 Austrians and Russians, under Generals Landon and
Soltykoff. Frederick first attacked the Russians in flank, driving them
out of their entrenchments, and capturing 180 guns. Then, against the
advice of Seidlitz, he attacked the Austrian position on the left of the
allies, and, though deserted by the Russians, the Austrians held their
ground, and, bringing all their artillery to bear on the Prussians at
close quarters, totally routed them, with a loss of 20,000 men. The
allies lost 24,000.


                       Kunobitza (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1443, between the Turks, under Amurath II, and the Hungarians,
under John Hunniades. The Turks were utterly routed, and in consequence
Amurath concluded with them a ten years’ truce.


                                Kurdlah.

Fought March 11, 1795, between the army of the Mahratta Confederacy,
under the Peshwa, Madhao Rao II, and Hari Pant, and the forces of the
Nizam of Hyderabad. The troops of the Nizam gained an advantage in the
fight, but the Nizam being persuaded to leave the field, his troops
followed him, and were soon in headlong flight. The Nizam was captured a
few days later.



                                   L


                           La Belle Famille.

_See_ Niagara.


                           Lade (Ionian War).

Fought B.C. 494, between a Persian fleet of 600 sail, which was
blockading Miletus under Artaphernes, and 353 Lesbian, Chian and Samian
ships, which attempted to raise the siege. The Samians, bribed by the
Persians, deserted at the beginning of the action, with the exception of
11 vessels, and the Greeks were totally defeated, with heavy loss. The
Chians made a specially gallant fight.


                                 Lade.

Fought B.C. 201, between the Rhodian fleet, under Theophiliscus, and the
Macedonians, under Heraclides. The Macedonians had rather the better of
the encounter, though both sides claimed the victory.


                      Ladysmith (Second Boer War).

Sir George White, with about 12,000 troops, was shut up in Ladysmith by
the invading army, under General Joubert, November 2, 1899. The Boers,
who were well provided with heavy guns, contented themselves in the main
with a continuous bombardment. On January 6, 1900, however, a picked
force, under Commandant de Villiers, supported by several thousand Boer
marksmen posted on the heights, made attempt to force the British lines
at Waggon Hill and Caesar’s Camp. The battle lasted throughout the day,
and more than once the defenders were very hard pressed, but they held
their ground till nightfall, when the Boers withdrew, having lost about
800 men. From this date the Boers again contented themselves with
bombarding the town, until it was finally relieved by Sir Redvers
Buller, February 27. In addition to deaths by disease, the garrison lost
during the siege 89 officers and 805 men, more than half of whom fell in
the battle of January 6.


              La Favorita (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought January 16, 1797, between the French, under Napoleon, and the
Austrians, under Provera. Provera moved upon Mantua to succour the
beleaguered garrison, and was aided by a sortie in force. Napoleon,
making a forced march from the field of Rivoli, fell upon Provera and
totally routed him, while the sortie was repulsed by the French
besieging force at the point of the bayonet. Provera surrendered, with
5,000 men.


            La Fère Champenoise (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought March 25, 1814, between Marmont’s and Mortier’s corps, 30,000
strong, and the allied army marching on Paris. The French were defeated
and forced to retire, with a loss of about 5,000 men and many guns. This
was the last action fought in the north before the first abdication of
Napoleon.


                     Lagos (War of the Revolution).

Fought June 17, 1693, when a squadron of 23 Dutch and English ships,
under Sir George Rooke, was attacked by a French fleet of 71 sail,
whilst convoying 400 merchantmen to the Mediterranean. The French
destroyed 90 merchant ships, and one English and two Dutch warships. The
skilful manœuvring of Rooke, however, saved the rest of the convoy
from destruction.


                   La Hogue (War of the Revolution).

Fought May 19 and 20, 1692, between a combined Dutch and English fleet
of 96 sail, under Admirals Russell and Allemande, and a French fleet of
64 sail of the line and 47 smaller vessels, under de Tourville. After
heavy loss on both sides, the French fleet was dispersed, with a loss of
three ships. On the 22nd Admiral Rooke destroyed 16 sail of the line and
a number of transports.


                Lahore (First Tartar Invasion of India).

Fought 1296, between the Mongols, 100,000 strong, under Amir Daood, and
the army of Ala-ud-Din, King of Delhi, under his brother, Alaf Khan. The
Mongols were routed, with a loss of 12,000 men.


                    Lake Erie (Second American War).

Fought September 10, 1813, between the English flotilla of six
schooners, under Commodore Barclay, and a largely superior American
squadron, under Commodore Perry. The whole British flotilla was
destroyed, with a loss of 134 killed and wounded. The Americans lost 27
killed and 96 wounded.


                    Lake George (Seven Years’ War).

Fought September 8, 1755, between 1,500 French and Indians, under Baron
Dieskau, and 2,500 New England militia, under Colonel William Johnson. A
small force sent by Johnson to the relief of Fort Lyman was ambushed by
the French and driven back to camp, but Dieskau pursuing, was repulsed
in his attack upon the camp, with a loss of about 400. Dieskau himself
was wounded and captured. The loss of the New England men during the day
was 216 killed and 96 wounded, most of whom fell in the ambush.


               Lake Kerguel (Tartar Invasion of Russia).

Fought July, 1391, between 300,000 Russians, under Tokatmich, and an
equal force of Tartars, under Tamerlane. The battle began at daybreak,
and by mid-day the Russians were utterly routed, and fled in disorder,
leaving their camp in the hands of Tamerlane.


                             Lake Regillus.

Fought B.C. 497, the first authentic date in the history of Rome. The
details handed down, however, belong to the domain of legend rather than
to that of history. According to the chroniclers, this was the last
attempt of the Tarquinian family to recover the throne of Rome. They
were, however, totally routed by the Romans, under Aulus Postumius, and
all the sons of Tarquinius, and his son-in-law, Mamilius, were slain in
the battle. The legend avers that the Romans, when victory was trembling
in the balance, found at their head two young men on white horses, whom
they claimed to be Castor and Pollux.


                Lake Vadimon (Gallic Invasion of Italy).

Fought B.C. 283, between the Romans, under P. Cornelius Dolabella, and
the Gauls and their Etruscan allies. Dolabella attacked the Etruscans as
they were crossing the Tiber close to the lake, and destroyed the flower
of their army. He then fell upon the Gauls, whom he also defeated with
heavy loss, with the result that in the following year they made peace
and withdrew from Italy.


                Landau (War of the Spanish Succession).

This fortress, held by a French garrison under M. de Melac, was besieged
by the Imperialists, under Prince Louis of Baden, June 19, 1702. The
garrison made a gallant defence, but was forced to surrender, September
10. The Comte de Soissons, elder brother of Prince Eugene, fell during
the siege.


                                Landen.

_See_ Neerwinde.


                    Landskrone (Dane-Swedish Wars).

Fought July 14, 1676, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the
Danes, under Christian V, in which the Danes suffered a serious defeat.


                    Langensalza (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 27, 1866, between 12,000 Prussians, under General Flics, and
the Hanoverians, in about equal strength, under George, King of Hanover.
The Prussians attacked the Hanoverian position, and after severe
fighting were repulsed with a loss of about 1,400 killed and wounded,
and 900 prisoners. The Hanoverians lost 1,392. The victory, however, was
fruitless, as the Prussians in the neighbourhood were in overwhelming
numbers, and the King was compelled to surrender on the 29th. This is
the last appearance of Hanover in history as an independent state.


                         Langport (Civil War).

Fought July 10, 1645, between the Parliamentarians, under Fairfax, and
the Royalists, under Lord Goring. The Royalists were routed, and driven
by Cromwell’s horse nearly into Bridgwater, with a loss of 300 killed
and 1,400 prisoners.


                      Lang’s Nek (First Boer War).

Fought January 28, 1881, when a British column, 1,100 strong, under
General Colley, attacked the Boers in a strong position at Lang’s Nek.
The British were repulsed with a loss of 198 killed and wounded. The
Boers lost 14 killed and 27 wounded.


                               Langside.

Fought May 13, 1568, when the army of Mary Queen of Scots, 6,000 strong,
was defeated and dispersed by the forces of the Regent, Murray. The
Queen’s troops were broken by a cavalry charge, in which they lost 300,
while only one man of the victorious horse was killed, and fled in
confusion from the field. Mary escaped to England.


               Lannoy (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought January, 1567, between 3,000 Flemish Protestants, under Pierre
Cornaille, and a small force of the Duchess of Parma’s troops, under
Novicarmes. The Flemings, mostly half-armed peasants, were cut to pieces
by the Spaniards, 2,600 being killed in one hour’s fighting.


                         Lansdown (Civil War).

Fought July 5, 1643, between the Royalists, under Sir Ralph Hopton, and
the Parliamentarians, under Waller, who was endeavouring to prevent
Hopton’s advance upon Bath. The Royalists stormed Waller’s entrenchments
and forced him to retreat, though at a heavy cost to themselves.


                   Laon (Allied Invasion of France).

This fortress, held by the allies under Blucher, was attacked May 9,
1814, by the French under Ney and Marmont. Ney seized two of the
suburbs, but Marmont, failing to support him as promised, he could not
make good his footing. During the night the allies attacked and routed
Marmont, and on the 10th Ney, after hard fighting, was forced to yield
the ground he had gained. The French lost about 6,000 men; the allies
5,000.


                                La Paz.

Fought January, 1865, between the partizans of General Belza and those
of Colonel Melgarejo, each of whom had proclaimed himself Provisional
President of Bolivia. Belza’s forces were totally defeated, and himself
slain.


                    La Placilla (Chilian Civil War).

Fought August 28, 1891, between 10,000 Congressists, under General Del
Canto, and 14,000 Balmacedists, under General Barbosa. The latter were
routed with a loss of 3,363 killed and wounded, including Barbosa, while
thousands laid down their arms on the field. The Congressists, who lost
1,609, at once occupied Valparaiso, and a few days late Balmaceda
committed suicide.


                    La Puebla (Franco-Mexican War).

Fought May 5, 1862, between the French, 7,500 strong, under General
Lorencez, and about 12,000 Mexicans, under General Zaragoça. The French
endeavoured to carry the ridge of the Cerro de Guadalupe, commanding the
town, but were repulsed by General Negreti, with 1,200 men, losing 456
killed and wounded, and forced to retire from La Puebla. The Mexicans
lost 215 only.


                    La Puebla (Franco-Mexican War).

On May 4, 1863, the French army, 25,000 strong, under General Forey,
laid siege to La Puebla, which was held by a Mexican garrison under
General Ortega. Forey’s force was too small for a complete investment,
and he began operations against the Fort of San Xavier. On the 29th this
post was taken by storm, the French losing 230, the defenders 600 men.
From this point the French obtained foothold in the town, and then
proceeded to capture the houses block by block. So determined was the
resistance, however, that their progress was very slow, and by April 7
they had made next to no advance, though they had lost a further 600
men. Later in the month an attack on the Convent of Santa Cruz was
repulsed with a loss of 480. On May 8 a relieving force of 10,500 men,
under General Comonfort, was defeated by a small French column under
Bazaine, losing 8 guns and 1,000 prisoners, and from this point further
resistance was useless. Ortega, therefore, after a most gallant defence,
surrendered with 1,455 officers and 11,000 men, May 17, 1863.


                      Larcay (Chilian Revolution).

Fought December, 1829, between the Federalists, or Government Party,
under General Zastera, and the Pelucones, or Unitarians, under General
Prieto. The Pelucones gained a signal victory, following which they
drove out the Government and abrogated the constitution of 1828.


                  Largs (Norse Invasion of Scotland).

Fought October 2, 1263, between the Norsemen, under Haco, and the Scots.
The Norse fleet of 160 ships was driven ashore off Largs by a violent
storm, and many of them wrecked, and Haco landed a force to protect the
shipwrecked crews. This force was attacked by the Scots and utterly
routed, and Haco was forced to withdraw, and abandon the project of
invasion. The only name on the Scottish side which has come down to us
as taking part in the battle is that of Sir Pierce Curry.


                     Larissa (Third Macedonia War).

Fought 171 B.C., between the Romans, 40,000 strong, under P. Licinius
Crassus, and 43,000 Macedonians, under Perseus. The Romans were defeated
with a loss of 2,200 killed and 600 prisoners.


               Larissus, The (Wars of the Achæan League).

Fought B.C. 209, between the Achæans, under Philopœmen, and the
Ætolians and Eleans. The allies were defeated and cut to pieces, the
Elean general being among the slain.


                   La Rochelle (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought June 22, 1372, when an English fleet, under the Earl of Pembroke,
intended for the relief of La Rochelle, was intercepted by a greatly
superior Spanish fleet, under Don Ambrosio Bercenegra, and after very
hard fighting was entirely destroyed or captured.


                   La Rochelle (Huguenot Rebellion).

This fortress, the principal Huguenot stronghold in France, was besieged
by the Royal troops, under Richelieu, in 1627. The garrison, under the
mayor, Guiton, made a gallant defence, but the assassination of
Buckingham prevented the arrival of the promised English succours, and
the town surrendered, after holding out for fourteen months.


                La Rothière (Allied Campaign in France).

Fought February 1, 1814, between 32,000 French, under Napoleon, and
100,000 Prussians, Russians, and Würtembergers, under Blucher. Napoleon
held a strong position, where he was attacked by Blucher, whom he
succeeded in holding at bay till late in the afternoon, when Blucher
captured the village of La Rothière. Napoleon with the Young Guard
retook the village, and the battle ended with the French in possession
of the field. The French lost 5,000, the allies about 8,000, and
Napoleon was enabled to continue his retirement without molestation.


             Las Navas de Tolosa (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought July 10, 1212, between a huge army of Moors, said by the
chroniclers to have amounted to 600,000, under Mohammed al Nasin, and
the allied armies of the Kings of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Navarre, and
Portugal. The Moors were utterly routed, very few of their enormous host
escaping from the field.


                    Las Salinas (Conquest of Peru).

Fought April 20, 1538, between the forces of Francisco Pizarro and those
of Almagro. The latter were totally routed, and Almagro captured and
executed.


                     Laswari (Second Mahratta War).

Fought November 1, 1803, between the British, 10,000 strong, under
General Lake, and Scindhia’s army, consisting of 9,000 infantry and
5,000 cavalry. Scindhia’s veteran infantry made a most gallant defence,
standing their ground until 7,000 had fallen, when the survivors laid
down their arms. The cavalry also suffered heavily. The British loss
amounted to about 800. Seventy-two guns and a large quantity of
ammunition and stores were captured.


                       Laupen (Burgundian Wars).

Fought June 21, 1339, between 5,000 Swiss of Berne and the Forest
Cantons, under Rudolf von Erlach, and 15,000 Burgundians, under the
Counts of Kiburg and Nidau. Despite their superior numbers, the
Burgundians were unable to withstand the charge of the Swiss, and were
utterly routed and forced to raise the siege of Laupen.


                     Lautulæ (Second Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 316, between the Samnites, under Pontius, and the Romans,
under Q. Fabius Maximus. The Romans were defeated with great slaughter.


               Lawfeldt (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought July 3, 1747, between the allied Austrians and British, under the
Duke of Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The village of
Lawfeldt was thrice carried by the French and thrice recaptured, but
about noon the British centre was driven in, and defeat was imminent,
when a cavalry charge, headed by Sir John Ligonier, saved the day, and
enabled the Duke to retire in good order. The allies lost 5,620 killed
and wounded, the French about 10,000.


                    Le Bourget (Franco-German War).

A determined sortie by the French from Paris, October 27, 1870, in which
they carried the village of Le Bourget. They held their ground there
until October 30, when they were driven out by the Prussian Guard Corps,
leaving 1,200 prisoners in the hands of the Germans, who lost 34
officers and 344 men.


                     Leck, The (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought April 5, 1632, between 26,000 Swedes and German Protestants,
under Gustavus Adolphus, and 20,000 Imperialists, under Count Tilly.
Gustavus had prepared a bridge to cross the river, and immediately after
daybreak his engineers commenced to fix it, the Swedish artillery
meanwhile keeping the Imperialists in check. In the artillery duel Tilly
was mortally wounded, and his troops retired, leaving the Swedes to
effect the passage unmolested.


                     L’Ecluse (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought 1340, when the English fleet surprised the French in a narrow
channel, and totally routed them, with a loss of 90 ships and 30,000
men.


                                Leghorn.

Fought off Leghorn March 31, 1653, when six English ships, under
Commodore Appleton, were destroyed by a Dutch fleet of 16 sail, under
Admiral Van Gelen. Only a sloop escaped the destruction. Van Gelen was
mortally wounded during the action.


                 Legnano (Wars of the Lombard League).

Fought May 29, 1176, between the Lombard League, aided by Venice and the
Pope, and the Imperialists, under Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick was
utterly routed, and fled from Italy in disguise.


                      Leipsic (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought September 7, 1631, between 20,000 Swedes and an equal force of
Saxons, under Gustavus Adolphus and John George, Elector of Saxony, and
44,000 Imperialists, under Tilly. The Imperialist right totally routed
the Saxons, who fled from the field, headed by the Elector. Meanwhile,
the Swedes had completely defeated the left of the Imperialists, under
Pappenheim, and repulsed the centre under Tilly, and on the return of
the right from pursuing the Saxons, they were attacked by the Swedish
left, and driven from the field, only four regiments holding their
ground in a wood until nightfall. The Imperialists lost 8,000 killed and
wounded and 5,000 prisoners; the allies 2,700, of whom only 700 were
Swedes. Gustavus captured the whole of Tilly’s artillery, and his
victory was the salvation of the Protestant cause, which was trembling
in the balance.


                     Leipsic (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought October 16, 17, and 18, 1813, between the French, under Napoleon,
and the forces of the Great Coalition. Napoleon, who held Leipsic with
155,000 men, was faced by 160,000 Austrians and Russians, under the
Prince of Schwartzemberg, and 60,000 Prussians, under Blucher. On the
16th Schwartzemberg attacked, being faced by Napoleon with 115,000 men,
and, after an obstinate engagement, which lasted till nightfall, the
French had gained a little ground. At the same time Blucher attacked
Marmont, who, with 24,000 men, held his own throughout the day. The
French lost 27,000; the allies about 35,000. Both sides receiving
reinforcements during the night, Napoleon on the morning of the 17th was
at the head of 150,000 troops, while the allies numbered nearly 300,000,
including the Swedes under Bernadotte. Little was done on the 17th, but
on the 18th Napoleon moved out to drive back the allies, and leave a
road of retreat open. He was repulsed at all points, and driven back
into Leipsic, whence during the night of the 18th to 19th, the French
retired by the only serviceable bridge. The corps under Poniatowski left
to cover the retreat was almost annihilated, and Poniatowski killed. The
French lost in the three days over 60,000 men, while the losses of the
allies were also enormous.


                    Leitskau (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 27, 1813, between 5,000 French, under General Girard, and
a Prussian division, under General Hirschberg, aided by some Cossacks,
under Czernitcheff. Girard was defeated, losing heavily in killed and
wounded, besides 1,500 prisoners and 6 guns.


                      Le Mans (Franco-German War).

Fought January 10, 11, and 12, between the Germans, 50,000 strong, under
Prince Frederick Charles, and the French, numbering about 150,000, under
General Chanzy. The French army was completely routed, and the whole
force so completely demoralised as to be no longer an effective fighting
unit. The Germans took 20,000 prisoners, 17 guns, and great quantities
of war material, at a cost to themselves of 200 officers and 3,200 men.


                       Lens (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 20, 1648, between the French, 14,000 strong, under Condé,
and the Austrians, in somewhat superior force, under the Archduke
Leopold. Condé feigned a retreat, to draw the enemy from their lines,
and then turning upon them, decisively defeated them, with a loss of
4,000 killed, 6,000 prisoners, and all their baggage and artillery.


                               Leontini.

This city, the stronghold of the National party in Sicily, held by a
garrison of Syracusans and Roman deserters, was stormed and sacked, B.C.
211, by three Roman legions under M. Marcellus. Two thousand Roman
deserters captured in the place were put to the sword. Hippocrates
succeeded in escaping.


                         Lepanto (Cyprus War).

Fought October 17, 1571, between a fleet of 250 Spanish and Venetian
ships, under Don John of Austria, and a Turkish fleet of 270 sail, under
Piale, the Capitan Pasha. The Turkish left wing, under the Dey of
Algiers, met with some success, but the centre and right were almost
destroyed, the Turks losing 200 vessels, and, it is said, 30,000 men.
Piale was killed. The Dey of Algiers succeeded in extricating the
majority of his ships. The allies lost between 4,000 and 5,000 men,
including 15 Venetian captains.


                      Lerida (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought September, 1642, between the Spaniards, under Leganez, and the
French, under Lamothe-Houdancourt. The Spanish army was defeated, and
this victory, in conjunction with the fall of Perpignan, gave the French
possession of Roussillon.


                      Lerida (Thirty Years’ War).

This city, held by a garrison of 4,000 Spaniards, under Don Jorge Britt,
was besieged by the French, under the Great Condé, May 12, 1647. The
defence was vigorous, the garrison making constant sorties, and about
the middle of June the appearance of a large Spanish army at Fraga
forced Condé either to deliver an assault or to raise the siege. He
chose the second alternative and withdrew his troops June 17.


                       Lesno (Russo-Swedish War).

A series of actions, fought 1709 between 40,000 Russians, under Peter
the Great, and 15,000 Swedes, under General Levenhaupt, who was
escorting a convoy of 8,000 waggons to the army of Charles XII. The
battle lasted over five days, at the end of which time the remnant of
the Swedes, though defeated, were permitted to retire in good order, but
without their convoy. The Swedes lost in this series of actions
two-thirds of their numbers. The Russians lost 10,000 men.


                Leucopetra (Wars of the Achæan League).

Fought 146 B.C., between a Roman Consular Army, under Lucius Mummius,
and the forces of the Achæan League, under Diacus. The Greeks, who were
only half as strong as their opponents, were routed, and all resistance
came to an end, the Greek cities, one after another, opening their gates
to the Romans.


                       Leuctra (Bœotian War).

Fought July, 371 B.C., between 11,000 Spartans, under Cleombrotus, and
6,000 Thebans, under Epaminondas. The principal fighting took place on
the Theban left, where Epaminondas had massed his best troops, and after
a fierce encounter the Spartans were driven back, leaving 1,000 dead,
including Cleombrotus, on the field. As a result of this defeat, the
Spartans evacuated Bœotia.


                      Leuthen (Seven Years’ War).

Fought December 5, 1757, between 33,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and 90,000 Austrians, under Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count
Daun. Frederick made a feigned attack on the Austrian right wing, and
then under cover of the ground withdrew the major part of his force, and
strongly attacked the Austrian left, which was driven back and finally
overthrown by a charge of cavalry. The Austrians lost 7,000 killed and
wounded, 20,000 prisoners, including three generals, and 134 guns. The
Prussians lost 5,000 killed and wounded. In consequence of this victory,
Breslau surrendered to Frederick, with over 18,000 troops, on December
10.


                          Lewes (Barons’ War).

Fought May 14, 1264, between the Barons, under Simon de Montfort, and
the Royalists, under Henry III and Prince Edward. The king was
completely defeated, and the two parties signed an agreement, known as
the Mise of Lewes, to submit the points in dispute to arbitration.


               Lexington (American War of Independence).

Fought April 19, 1775, between the Royal troops, under General Gage, and
the Americans. After a brief engagement the Americans were defeated, and
retired. The losses on both sides were very small.


                    Lexington (American Civil War).

This place was invested September 18, 1861, by the Confederates, 8,000
strong, under General Price, who having cut off their supplies, forced
the garrison of 3,500, under Colonel Mulligan, to surrender, September
20. The Confederates lost 100 men only.


               Leyden (Netherlands War of Independence).

This city was invested May 26, 1574, by 8,000 Walloons and Germans under
Valdez, who in the course of a few days had erected 62 batteries round
the place. There was no garrison, with the exception of a few
“freebooters” and a burgher guard, under Jan van der Does. The Prince of
Orange, in order to save the city, determined to open the dykes, and on
August 3 the gates at Schiedam and Rotterdam were opened, and the dykes
broken along the course of the Yssel. Meanwhile the citizens had come to
an end of their bread, but by strenuous efforts the fleet under Admiral
Boisot succeeded in throwing relief into the city at the beginning of
October. By this time the city was on the verge of starvation, and 8,000
of the inhabitants had perished of pestilence. The Spaniards, however,
had been driven from work after work, and on October 3 the last of their
redoubts was mastered, and Valdez was forced to raise the siege.


                      Lignitz (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 15, 1760. Frederick the Great with 30,000 Prussians was
posted near Lignitz, and expecting to be attacked by the Austrians,
90,000 strong, under Count Daun, commenced a retreat towards Parchwitz,
and took up a position which, according to Daun’s plan was to have been
occupied by Landon’s corps. Landon, quite unconscious of the presence of
the Prussians, marched into the middle of Frederick’s lines, and was
utterly routed, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, 6,000 prisoners
and 82 guns.


                         Ligny (Hundred Days).

Fought June 16, 1815, between 84,000 Prussians under Blucher and 60,000
French under Napoleon. The French attacked Blucher’s position, and met
with a stout resistance, especially at the village of Ligny, but by
sundown the Prussians had exhausted their last resources, and Napoleon,
bringing up the Guard, and a division of heavy cavalry, drove them from
their positions, with a loss of about 12,000. The French lost 8,000
killed and wounded.


                 Lille (War of the Spanish Succession).

This city was besieged August 12, 1708, by the Imperialists, under
Prince Eugene, and was defended by a French garrison, under M. de
Bouflers, which after repulsing several determined assaults, surrendered
October 25. The besiegers lost in the course of the siege 3,632. The
French lost about 7,000.


                      Lilybæum (First Punic War).

This fortress was besieged B.C. 250, by the Romans, under C. Attilius
and L. Manlius, and was defended by a Carthaginian garrison, 10,000
strong, under Himilcon. The Romans invested the place both by sea and
land, but the superior seamanship of the Carthaginians enabled them from
time to time to throw succour into the place. The first line of the
defences was soon carried but the Romans were then confronted with a
second rampart, equally strong, and the siege was begun anew. In 249 P.
Claudiûs took over the command, but a defeat of the Roman fleet at
Drepanum gave the Carthaginians complete command of the sea, and though
the Romans continued to blockade the fortress on the land side, it held
out till 241. After the naval battle of Ægusæ Carthage sued for peace.


                           Lincoln, Fair of.

Fought in the streets of Lincoln, 1217, between the Royal troops, under
the Earl of Pembroke, and the adherents of the Dauphin Louis, under the
Comte de la Perche. The Royalists were victorious, and the French leader
was killed.


                       Lindley (Second Boer War).

At this place a force of 500 yeomanry, under Colonel Spragge, after
holding out for four days against a largely superior Boer force,
surrendered May 27, 1900.


                               Linkoping.

Fought 1598, between the Poles, under Sigismund III, King of Poland and
Sweden, and the Swedes, under Charles the Regent. The Poles were
surprised and totally defeated, with a loss of 20,000 men, the Swedes
losing, it is said, only 240. This victory was shortly followed by the
dethronement of Sigismund and the accession of Charles as King of
Sweden.


                  Liparæan Islands (First Punic War).

The scene of a naval battle, B.C. 257, in which the Roman fleet, under
the Consul, C. Attilius, completely defeated the Carthaginians.


                         Lippe (Germanic Wars).

Fought B.C. 11 between the Romans, under Drusus, and the Sicambri, Suevi
and Cherusii. The Romans were largely outnumbered and surrounded, and so
certain were the Germans of victory, that they had already apportioned
the spoil among the various tribes. Drusus, however, attacked the
barbarians vigorously, and totally routed them with very heavy loss.


                       Lissa (Seven Weeks’ War).

The only naval action between ironclads in European waters, fought July
20, 1866, between the Austrian fleet of 7 armoured ships and some
obsolete wooden vessels, under Admiral Tegethoff, and the Italian fleet
of 10 armour-clads, under Admiral Persano. Tegethoff attacked in wedge
formation, with his flagship as the apex, and broke the line of the
Italian fleet, which was steaming, line ahead, across his bows. He
rammed and sank the Italian flagship, and the rest of the action was a
melée in which the Italians were defeated and driven off, with a loss of
3 ships and over 1,000 men. This defeat forced the Italians to raise the
siege of Lissa.


                    Little Big Horn (Sioux Rising).

On June 25, 1876, General Custer, with the 7th United States Cavalry,
700 strong, attacked the village of the Sioux chief, Sitting Bull. He
divided his force into three columns, one of which, led by himself,
marched into an ambush, and was massacred to a man. The other two
columns were vigourously attacked by the Sioux, and forced to retire.
The cavalry lost on this occasion 265 killed.


            Lodi, Bridge of (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought May 10, 1796, during Napoleon’s pursuit of the retiring
Austro-Sardinian army, under Beaulieu. The bridge over the Adda was
defended by the Austrian rear-guard, with some 20 guns, commanding
passage. Napoleon sent a force of cavalry round by a ford to take the
defenders in rear, and then rushed the bridge, the stormers being led by
Berthier and Masséna, while Napoleon himself was in the thick of the
fighting. The French loss is said not to have exceeded 400, while the
Austrians lost in the action and subsequent pursuit, 2,000 killed and
wounded, 1,000 prisoners, and 20 guns.


                      Loftcha (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought September 3, 1877, between 20,000 Russians, under Prince
Imeretinsky, and 15,000 Turks, under Adil Pasha. The actual attack on
the Turkish positions was made by Skobeleff, at first with 5,000, and
afterwards with 9,000 men, and the Turks were driven out of Loftcha with
a loss of 5,200 killed. The Russians lost 1,500 killed and wounded.


                  Loigny-Pouprey (Franco-German War).

Fought December 1, 1870, between the Germans, 34,000 strong, under the
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, and about 90,000 French, forming the army of
the Loire, under General d’Aurelle de Paladines. The Germans gained a
signal victory, completely breaking the aggressive power of the Army of
the Loire. The French lost 18,000 killed and wounded and 9 guns, the
Germans 4,200.


                         Loja (War of Granada).

Fought July 4, 1482, between the Spaniards, under Ferdinand the
Catholic, and the Moors, under Ali Atar. The King, who was besieging
Loja, was encamped on the heights of Almohacen, but finding the position
insecure, decided upon a retreat. As he was retiring he was vigorously
attacked by the garrison, and though, after very heavy fighting, he
succeeded in withdrawing in good order, he lost most of his baggage and
artillery.


                                Lonato.

_See_ Castiglione.


                  Londonderry (War of the Revolution).

This town in which the Ulster Protestants, to the number of about
30,000, had taken refuge, was besieged by James II, April 19, 1689. It
was defended by about 7,000 armed citizens, under Major Henry Baker, and
held out until July 30, when Colonel Kirke succeeded in forcing the boom
at the head of Lough Foyle and reprovisioning the town. The besiegers
then withdrew, having lost 5,000 men during the siege. The garrison was
reduced to 4,000. Among those who died during the siege was Major Baker.


                           Loose Coat Field.

_See_ Empingham.


                      Loudon Hill (Scottish Wars).

Fought 1306, between the Scots, under Robert Bruce, and the English,
under the Regent Pembroke. Bruce met the attack of the English cavalry
with a line of spearmen, which they were unable to break, and they were
driven off with heavy loss. Pembroke thereupon withdrew his army and
returned to England.


              Louisburg (War of the Austrian Succession).

This place, the strongest fortress in America, was captured June 16,
1745, by a force of New Englanders, under Pepperel, aided by a naval
force under Commodore Warren.


                     Louisburg (Seven Years’ War).

Louisburg, having been restored to the French, was invested June 3,
1758, by a force of 11,600 British troops, under General Amherst, and a
fleet of 41 ships of war, under Admiral Boscawen. It was defended by
3,800 French regulars, besides Indians and armed citizens, under the
Chevalier de Drucour, while in the harbour were 12 ships of war, with
crews numbering 3,000 men. Owing to heavy weather no siege guns were
landed till the 18th, but by July 20 a practicable breach had been
effected, whereupon the garrison surrendered. During the siege the
defenders lost 1,200 men killed or died of disease, while the prisoners
numbered 5,637, and 239 guns and mortars were taken. Wolfe, who
commanded a brigade, specially distinguished himself.


                    Löwenberg (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought August 21, 1813, between 130,000 French, under Napoleon, and
80,000 Prussians, under Blucher. Blucher being vigorously attacked,
retired behind the Haynau without offering any serious resistance to the
French advance. The Prussians lost 2,000 killed and wounded.


                      Lowositz (Seven Years’ War).

Fought October 1, 1756, between 24,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and a somewhat superior force of Austrians, under Marshal Brown.
Brown was marching to relieve the Saxons penned up in Pirna, when he was
attacked by the Prussians, who, after hard fighting, forced him to
retire. Each side lost about 3,000, but the victory was of great
importance to Frederick, as it led to the surrender at Pirna of 17,000
Saxons and 80 guns.


                        Lucena (War of Granada).

Fought April, 1483, when the Moors, under Abdullah and Ali Atar, who
were besieging Lucena, were attacked by a Spanish relieving force under
the Comte de Cabra. The Moorish infantry fled, and Ali Atar, heading a
charge of cavalry in a gallant attempt to retrieve the day, was slain,
whereupon his following broke and fled, pursued by the Christians to the
banks of the Xenil, where the majority were cut to pieces.


                        Lucknow (Indian Mutiny).

On the approach of the rebel Sepoy army, July 1, 1857, the garrison and
residents took refuge in the Residency, which had been prepared to stand
a siege. On September 19, 1857, a force of 3,179 British troops, under
Havelock and Outram, left Cawnpore to relieve the garrison. On the 23rd
they encountered and defeated a force of 12,000 rebels at the Alumbagh,
capturing 5 guns. On the 25th they forced the Charbagh bridge, and
captured the Secunderbagh, and the main body, after prolonged street
fighting, reached the Residency, the rearguard with the wounded getting
in on the 26th. The loss during the operations amounted to 535, while
the garrison up to this time had lost 483 killed and wounded. Outram now
took command and the garrison held out until November 19, when it was
relieved, after very heavy fighting, by a column under Sir
Colin-Campbell, and the whole force withdrawn. On March 1, 1858, the
recovery of the city from the rebels commenced by the capture of the
Alumbagh, and was completed on the 21st, when the mutineers were finally
driven from the place. During the interval the various fortresses and
palaces held by the rebels were successively carried by assault, the
fighting in many cases being exceedingly severe.


                               Lugdunum.

_See_ Lyons.


                Luncarty (Danish Invasions of Scotland).

Fought 980, between the Scots, under Kenneth III, and the Danish
corsairs, who had landed on the Tay to attack Dunkeld. After a furious
hand-to-hand fight the Danes were defeated and driven to their ships.


                      Lunden (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1676, between the Swedes, under Charles XI, and the Danes, under
Christian V. Both sides claimed the victory, but the advantage rested
with the Swedes, for Christian had to fall back upon Copenhagen, while
Charles forced the Danes to raise the siege of Malmoe.


                  Lundy’s Lane (Second American War).

Fought July 25, 1814, between 5,000 Americans, under General Jacob
Brown, and 3,000 British, under Sir George Drummond. Drummond occupied
high ground on each side of Lundy’s Lane, where he was attacked by the
Americans. The fighting lasted till far into the night, when a final
assault was repulsed, and the Americans retired to Chippewa with a loss
of 858. The British lost 878.


                      Lutter (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 27, 1626, between the Imperialists, under Tilly, and the
Danes and Germans, under Christian IV of Denmark. The allies were
retreating before Tilly, who came up with them in an open plain near the
Castle of Lutter, where the King had taken up a strong position. Tilly
attacked, and notwithstanding Christian’s personal gallantry, his
infantry was overwhelmed, while the German cavalry refused to take any
part in the fight. The Danes left 4,000 dead on the field, and Tilly
captured 2,000 prisoners, 22 guns and 60 standards. The King with
difficulty cut his way through the enemy’s horse, and escaped.


                      Lützen (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought November 16, 1632, between 20,000 Swedes, under Gustavus
Adolphus, and 30,000 Imperialists, under Wallenstein. The Swedes
attacked with success on their right, but their left was driven back by
Pappenheim, and Gustavus, hurrying off to rally them fell mortally
wounded. The fall of their king, however, did not dishearten the Swedes,
and a fresh charge, in which Pappenheim was killed, gave them a complete
victory. A dense fog, however, came on, which enabled Wallenstein to
effect an orderly retreat, though he left all his guns on the field.


                     Lützen (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought May 2, 1813, between the French, 70,000 strong, under Napoleon,
and the Russians and Prussians, 65,000 strong, under Wittgenstein and
Blucher. The King of Prussia and the Russian Emperor were present on the
field. Napoleon held five villages in front of Lützen, round which the
battle centred. They were taken and re-taken several times during the
day, but at 8 p.m., in spite of the remonstrances of Blucher, the two
sovereigns ordered a retreat, and the honours of the day rested with the
French. The allies lost about 20,000; the French about 18,000.


                Luzzara (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 15, 1702, between the French, 35,000 strong, under the Duc
d’Anjou, and 25,000 Imperialists, under Prince Eugene. The Prince
attacked the French in their entrenchments in front of Luzzara, and
after a stubborn resistance, drove them out with a loss of about 4,000
men. The Imperialists lost 27,000 killed and wounded.


                            Lynn Haven Bay.

Fought September 5, 1781, between a British fleet of 19 ships of the
line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Thomas Graves, and a French fleet of
25 line of battle ships. Admiral Graves attacked the French as they were
lying in Lynn Haven Bay, but was unsuccessful, and drew off after two
hours’ hard fighting, with a loss of 79 killed and 230 wounded. The
French lost 22 officers and 200 men killed and wounded.


                                 Lyons.

Fought 197 between the legions of Britain, under Clodius Albinus, and
the legions of Pannonia, under Severus, both generals having been
proclaimed Emperor by their respective troops on the death of Pertinax.
Albinus was defeated and slain.



                                   M


                         Macalo (Italian Wars).

Fought October 11, 1427, when the Venetians, under Carmagnola, in a
strong position near Macalo, were attacked by the Milanese, under
Malatesta. The Venetians repulsed the attack, and assuming the
offensive, surrounded Malatesta, and compelled him to surrender with his
whole force, numbering about 10,000 men.


         Madonna dell’ Oleno (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought September 30, 1744, between the French and Spaniards, under
Prince Louis de Conti and Don Philip of Spain, and the Imperialists,
under the King of Sardinia. With a view of relieving Cuneo, which the
allies were besieging, the King attacked their lines, and though he was
defeated in the battle, he gained his object, for Conti was compelled by
lack of supplies to raise the siege, October 22, having suffered heavy
losses from famine, flood and battle.


                                Madras.

This city was invested by the French under Labourdonnais, with 9 ships
and about 3,700 troops, mostly Europeans, September 14, 1746. It was
defended by a garrison of 200, and after a week’s bombardment,
surrendered September 25. The garrison lost 5 men only; the French not a
single man.


                       Madras (Seven Years’ War).

On December 16, 1758, Madras was invested by Lally-Tollendal with 2,000
European and 4,000 native troops. The garrison consisted of 4,000 men,
more than half of whom were Sepoys, under Colonel Laurence, After a
bombardment lasting from January 2, 1759, to February 16,
Lally-Tollendal was on the point of ordering an assault, when the
arrival of the British fleet caused him to raise the siege and retire.
The garrison lost during the siege 1,341 killed and wounded. The French
losses amounted to 700 Europeans, besides Sepoys.


                       Madeira (Napoleonic Wars).

This island was occupied without bloodshed by a combined naval and
military force, under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and General Bowyer,
December 26, 1807.


             Maestricht (Netherlands War of Independence).

This city, the German Gate of the Netherlands, was besieged by the
Spaniards, under Prince Alexander of Parma, March 12, 1579. It was held
by a garrison of 1,000 troops and 1,200 armed burghers, under Melchior,
while the besiegers numbered 20,000. Two unsuccessful assaults were made
April 8, which cost the Spaniards 670 officers and 4,000 men, but
finally the place was taken by surprise, and a massacre followed, in
which 6,000 of the inhabitants perished.


                      Mafeking (Second Boer War).

This small township, entirely destitute of regular defences, was
invested October, 1899, by a force of 5,000 Boers, under General Cronje,
and defended by a garrison of about 700 irregulars and armed townsmen,
under Colonel Baden-Powell. Later in the siege Cronje withdrew a large
part of his force, leaving about 2,000 under Snyman to prosecute the
siege. Though the bombardment was continuous, only one resolute attempt
was made to penetrate the defences; when on May 12, 1900, 300 Boers,
under Sarel Eloff, succeeded in getting within the lines, but were
surrounded and forced to surrender. On May 17, the place was relieved by
a cavalry column under Colonel Mahon. The garrison lost 273, the Boers
about 1,000, in the course of the siege.


                     Magdeburg (Thirty Years’ War).

This city, held by a small Swedish garrison, under Falkenberg, was
besieged by the Imperialists, under Tilly, March, 1631. After a
desultory bombardment, Tilly was forced by the approach of Gustavus
Adolphus either to raise the siege or to attempt a storm. Choosing the
latter course, an assault was delivered, under Pappenberg, and after two
hours’ severe fighting, in the course of which Falkenberg fell, the
garrison was overpowered. The victory was sullied by an infamous
massacre of the unarmed inhabitants, thousands of whom perished at the
hands of the Croats and Walloons.


                     Magenta (Franco-Austrian War).

Fought June 4, 1859, between the 2nd French Corps d’Armée, under
Macmahon, and the main Austrian army, under Marshal Giulay, about
100,000 strong. Macmahon attacked the Austrian position, and, after hard
fighting, drove them out of Magenta, and totally defeated them with a
loss of about 6,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 4,400.


                    Magersfontein (Second Boer War).

Fought December 11, 1899, between 9,000 Boers, under General Cronje, and
Lord Methuen’s division, with the addition of the Highland Brigade.
Cronje’s position was exceedingly strong, and an attempt to turn it by a
flank march undertaken at night led to a disaster to the Highland
brigade, who came under a heavy fire before they were extended, and lost
57 officers and over 700 men, including their brigadier, General
Wauchope. Eventually the attacking force was withdrawn, without having
made any impression on the Boer position. The total British losses were
68 officers and 1,011 men. The Boers admitted a loss of 320, but it was
probably considerably heavier.


                Magnesia (War with Antiochus the Great).

Fought B.C. 190, between Antiochus the Great, with 80,000 troops, and
the Romans, 40,000 strong, under Cnæus Domitius. Antiochus, leading the
right wing, drove back the Roman left and penetrated to their camp,
which he nearly succeeded in capturing. His left wing, however, was
routed, and his elephants becoming unmanageable, broke the ranks of the
phalanx, whereupon his whole army fled in confusion, with a loss, it is
said, of 50,000 killed. The Romans lost 300 only.


                       Maharajpur (Gwalior War).

Fought December 29, 1843, between the British, 14,000 strong, with 40
guns, under Sir Hugh Gough, and the troops of Bhagerat Rao Scindhia,
18,000 strong, with 100 guns. The Mahrattas occupied a strong position
at Maharajpur, the exact locality of their lines being unknown to Sir
Hugh, until his troops came under fire. The British at once charged and
carried the batteries, and finally routed the Gwalior infantry at a cost
of 787 killed and wounded. The Mahrattas lost 3,000 killed and wounded,
and 56 guns.


                      Maharajpur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought July 16, 1857, between 5,000 rebels, under the Nana Sahib, and
the British relieving force, under Havelock. The Nana was entrenched
across the Grand Trunk Road, and his position being too strong for a
frontal attack, Havelock turned his left flank. After severe fighting
the rebels were defeated, though Havelock was left with only 800
Europeans available for further service. On the following day Cawnpore
was re-occupied.


                     Mahidpur (Third Mahratta War).

Fought December 21, 1817, between the British, under Sir Thomas Hislop,
and the army of Holkar of Indore. The Mahrattas, with 70 guns, were
strongly posted behind the Sipra, which Sir Thomas crossed in the face
of a heavy fire, and completely defeated them. The British lost 778
killed and wounded, the Mahrattas about 3,000.


                        Maida (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought July 4, 1806, between the British expeditionary force in
Calabria, 5,000 strong, under Sir John Stuart, and the French, in equal
strength, under General Reynier. The British charged with the bayonet,
and the French, though veterans, failing to withstand the onslaught,
broke and fled, losing very heavily in the pursuit.


                       Maidan (First Afghan War).

Fought September 14, 1842, between the British, under General Nott, and
12,000 Afghans, under Shems-ud-din, who occupied the heights commanding
the road to Kabul. Nott attacked and carried the Afghan position, the
Afghans being driven off with heavy loss.


                      Maiwand (Second Afghan War).

Fought July 27, 1880, between a small British force, with 6 guns, under
General Burrows, and the Afghan army, under Ayub Khan. A Bombay native
regiment was broken by a Ghazi rush, and although the 66th Regiment
fought magnificently, the British were routed, with a loss of 32
officers and 939 men killed, and 17 officers and 151 men wounded. The
survivors escaped with difficulty to Kandahar.


                       Main, The (Germanic War).

Fought B.C. 9, when the Romans, under Drusus, attacked and totally
routed the Marcomanni, driving them to the eastward and occupying their
territory.


                       Majorca (Napoleonic Wars).

This island was captured from the Spaniards in 1706, by a small British
force under Sir John Leake.


                        Majuba (First Boer War).

Fought February 27, 1881, when a British column, 647 strong, under Sir
George Colley, posted on the summit of Majuba Hill, was attacked and
driven off by the Boers under General Joubert. A strong party of young
Boers stormed the hill while the fire of the defenders was kept down by
a picked body of marksmen, and the British were driven from their
position with heavy loss, especially during the retirement down the
hillside. The casualties amounted to 223 killed and wounded, Sir George
Colley being killed, and 50 prisoners. The Boer losses were very small.
After this disaster an armistice was agreed to, and peace soon
afterwards concluded.


                                Malacca.

This city, which was defended by 30,000 Malays, under the Sultan
Mohammed, was captured by Albuquerque, with 19 ships and 1,400
Portuguese regulars, after a very feeble defence, in 1513.


                        Malaga (War of Granada).

This city, defended by a Moorish garrison, under Hamet Zeli, was
besieged by the Spaniards, 60,000 strong, under Ferdinand the Catholic,
April 17, 1487. After an obstinate resistance, lasting for four months,
the garrison was forced to surrender, and Ferdinand and Isabella entered
the city August 18th. The inhabitants were sold into slavery.


                Malaga (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 13, 1704, between the combined British and Dutch fleets,
consisting of 45 sail of the line, under Sir George Rooke, and the
French fleet of 53 line-of-battle-ships, under the Comte de Thoulouse.
The French admiral was endeavouring to effect a junction with the
Spanish fleet, which was engaged in the siege of Gibraltar, and was
brought to action by Sir George Rooke off Malaga. The fighting was
severe, and though no ships were lost on either side, the British gained
an important strategic victory as the junction of the two hostile fleets
was prevented. The British lost 6 officers and 687 men killed, and 18
officers and 1,645 wounded. The French lost 191 officers and 3,048 men
killed and wounded.


                   Malakand Pass (Chitral Campaign).

Fought April 3, 1895, when the British expedition, under General Low,
15,000 strong, forced the pass, which was held by about 12,000
tribesmen, with a loss of 8 officers and 61 men killed and wounded. The
Chitralis lost about 500.


                        Malakoff (Crimean War).

This fort, forming an important part of the southern defences of
Sebastopol, was stormed by 30,000 French, under General Pelissier,
September 8, 1855. The Russians being taken by surprise, made but a
feeble resistance.


                     Malavilly (Third Mysore War).

Fought March 20, 1799, when the camp of the British force, under Lord
Harris, marching on Seringapatam, was attacked in force by Tippu Sahib.
The enemy was thrown into confusion by a charge of cavalry, under
General Floyd, and retired with a loss of about 1,000. The British
losses were trifling.


                       Maldon (Danish Invasion).

Fought 991, between the Anglo-Saxons, under Brihtnoth, and the Danes,
under Olaf Triggvason and Guthmund. The Anglo-Saxons were completely
defeated and Brihtnoth slain.


                    Malegnano (Franco-Austrian War).

Fought June 8, 1859, between three French divisions, under Marshal
Baraguay d’Hilliers, and the Austrians, in about equal force. After
three hours’ hard fighting, the Austrians were defeated and driven out
of Malegnano, with heavy loss, including 1,000 prisoners. The French
lost 850 killed and wounded.


                                Mahnate.

_See_ Varese.


                  Malo-Jaroslawetz (Moscow Campaign).

Fought October 24, 1812, between 24,000 Russians, under General
Doctoroff, and a portion of Eugène Beauharnais’ corps, 15,000 strong,
under General Delzons. After a sanguinary engagement, in which
Malo-Jaroslawetz was taken and retaken seven times, the action ended in
a drawn battle, but the strategical success lay with the Russians, who
obliged Napoleon to abandon the southerly line of retreat he had
projected. The French lost 5,000, including General Delzons killed, the
Russians about 6,000.


              Malplaquet (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought September 11, 1709, between the British and Imperialists, under
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French, under Marshal Villars.
Villars offered battle with the object of relieving Mons, which the
allies were besieging, but while they were waiting for reinforcement
from Tournay, he was enabled to entrench himself strongly on the ground
he had chosen. After desperate fighting, however, the French position
was carried from end to end, and they were driven out with a loss of
17,000 killed and wounded. The allies lost, according to most accounts,
about 8,000, though some contemporaries assert that their losses were
even heavier than those of the French.


                         Malta (Ottoman Wars).

This place was besieged May 19, 1565, by 30,000 Turks, under Mustapha
Pasha, aided by a fleet of 185 sail, under Piale, the Capitan Pasha. It
was defended by the Knights of Malta, under their Grand-Master
Lavalette, and though St. Elmo was taken, Valetta held out against
numerous assaults until September 11, when Mustapha raised the siege.
The garrison lost 5,000 men, the Turks 20,000.


                 Malta (Wars of the French Revolution).

The town of Valetta and the island of Malta were captured from the
French September 5, 1800, by a combined British naval and military
force, under Captain George Martin, R.N., and Major-General Pigott. Two
line-of-battle-ships and three frigates were seized in the harbour.


                             Malvern Hill.

_See_ Seven Days’ Battles.


                               Mandonia.

Fought B.C. 338, between the Italian Greeks, under Archidamus, King of
Sparta, and the Lucanians. The Greeks were defeated, and Archidamus
slain.


                     Mangalore (First Mysore War).

This place was besieged June 20, 1783, by Tippu Sahib with his whole
army, and was defended by a small British garrison, under Colonel
Campbell. On the conclusion of peace between France and England, the
French officer assisting Tippu withdrew, and on August 2 an armistice
was arranged, during which the garrison was to receive regular supplies.
This article was evaded, and the defenders half starved, and after some
delay Tippu renewed the siege. No attempt, however, was made to relieve
the place, and after a gallant defence, Campbell surrendered January 26,
1763.


                    Manilla (American-Spanish War).

Fought May 1, 1898, between the American squadron of 6 ships, under
Admiral Dewey, and 11 Spanish vessels, chiefly small, and unarmoured.
The Spanish fleet was totally destroyed, the Americans suffering no
loss.


                    Mansfield (American Civil War).

Fought April 8, 1864, between 20,000 Federals, under General Banks, and
about 8,000 Confederates, under General Taylor. Banks, while marching
through a difficult country, was attacked by Taylor, and utterly routed,
at a cost to the assailants of less than a thousand men. Besides heavy
losses in killed and wounded, the Federals lost 3,500 prisoners, 22
guns, and 220 waggons of stores and ammunition.


                     Mantineia (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 418, between 10,000 Spartans and Tegeans, under Agis, and an
equal force of Athenians, under Laches and Nicostratus. The Spartan left
was completely routed, but the Athenian centre and left failed to
withstand the Spartan attack, and but for the defeat of Agis’ left wing,
would have been surrounded and captured. In the end the Spartans gained
a signal victory. Laches and Nicostratus both fell in the action.


                      Mantineia (Bœotian War).

Fought B.C. 362, between the Bœotians, under Epaminondas, and the
combined forces of Athens, Sparta, and Mantineia. Epaminondas attacked
strongly with his left, holding back his right in reserve, and after the
driving back of the Mantineians, routed the Spartans in the centre. The
Athenians were hardly engaged, but the Bœotian victory was complete.
In the pursuit Epaminondas, fell and the loss of the great leader so
disheartened the Bœotians that they did not further press their
victory.


                 Mantineia (Wars of the Achæan League).

Fought B.C. 208, between the Achæans, under Philopœmen, and the
Spartans, under Machanidas. The Achæans drove the Spartans into a ravine
in great disorder, and routed them with a loss of 4,000 killed, amongst
whom was Machanidas.


                 Mantua (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

This city was invested by Napoleon June 4, 1796, and was defended by
14,000 Austrians, under General Canto d’Irles. The siege was vigorously
prosecuted, but the approach of Wurmser with a large Austrian army
forced Napoleon to concentrate his forces, and he raised the siege July
31. After a brief campaign, which resulted in the dispersal of Wurmser’s
army, that general, with the remnant of his forces, was shut up in the
city, which was again closely invested September 19. Wurmser held out
till his provisions were exhausted, when, on February 2, 1797, he
surrendered, with 20,000 men, of whom only 10,000 were fit for service.
It is computed that 27,000 perished during the siege.


                      Maogamalcha (Persian Wars).

This fortress, defended by a Persian garrison, and considered
impregnable, was besieged by the Romans under the Emperor Julian in 363.
A mine was carried from the trenches under the ramparts, and three
cohorts broke through into the streets, whereupon the garrison deserted
the ramparts and the besiegers entered. The place was sacked, and
afterwards razed to the ground.


                  Marathon (Second Persian Invasion).

Fought September 490 B.C., between the Athenians and Platæans, 10,000
and 1,000 strong respectively, under Miltiades, and the army of Darius
Hystaspes, about 100,000 in number, under Datis. Being greatly
outnumbered, Miltiades altered the usual arrangement of the Greek line,
so as to extend his wings across the whole width of the valley in which
the battle was fought, and thus escape being outflanked. To effect this
he was forced to weaken his centre, which was repulsed, but both his
wings drove back the invaders, and then fell upon and routed the
victorious Persian centre. The Persians fled in confusion to their
ships, which they succeeded in launching, and escaped with a loss of
6,400. The Athenians lost 192 only.


               Marcianopolis (Gothic Invasion of Thrace).

Fought 376, between the Romans, under Lupicinus, and the Goths, under
Fritigern. The Romans were totally defeated, but stood their ground to
the last, and were cut to pieces almost to a man. Lupicinus fled as soon
as the ultimate success of the Goths became apparent.


                    Mardis (War of the Two Empires).

Fought 315, shortly after the battle of Cibalis, between Constantine,
Emperor of the West, and Licinius, Emperor of the East. Constantine
moved a body of 5,000 men round his opponent’s flank, and attacked him
simultaneously in front and rear. The Illyrian veterans formed a double
front, and held their ground, though with heavy loss, till nightfall,
when Licinius, having lost thousands of his best troops, drew off his
army towards the mountains of Macedonia. The consequence of this defeat
was the acquisition by Constantine of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Dacia,
Macedonia and Greece.


                Marengo (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought June 14, 1800, between 30,000 French, under Napoleon, and 40,000
Austrians, under Melas. The Austrians attacked, and drove back in
disorder the first line under Victor, and, following up their success, a
serious defeat for Napoleon seemed inevitable, when the arrival of the
reserve corps under Desaix turned the scale. Undercover of his attack,
the broken divisions reformed, and the Austrians were finally repulsed
at all points, and fled in disorder. Desaix was killed at the head of
his troops.


                                Margus.

Fought May, 285, between the legions of the Emperor Carinus and those of
Diocletian, who had been raised to the purple by his soldiers. The
troops of Diocletian, wasted by the Persian War, were all but
overpowered by the fresher legions of Carinus, but the defection during
the battle of one of his generals turned the scale, and Carinus himself
being killed by an officer whom he had wronged, Diocletian gained a
complete victory.


                  Maria Zell (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought November 8, 1805, during the French advance on Vienna, between
Davoust’s corps, and the Austrian corps, under General von Meerfeld. The
Austrians were defeated and driven off in disorder, leaving 4,000
prisoners in the hands of the French.


                    Mariendahl (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought May 2, 1645, between the French, under Turenne, and the
Imperialists, under Merci. Turenne, who had 3,000 infantry and 8
regiments of horse, was surprised in his camp by Merci at 2 a.m., and
being placed between two fires, was compelled to beat a disastrous
retreat, with the loss of almost all his infantry, 1,200 cavalry, and
all his artillery and baggage.


                       Marignano (Italian Wars).

Fought September 13 and 14, 1575, between 50,000 French, under Francis
I, and about 40,000 Swiss mercenaries. The Swiss attacked the French
camp, and forcing the lines, fought till midnight without decisive
result. On the morning of the 14th the battle was renewed, and the Swiss
were on the point of success, when the arrival of a small force of
Venetians obliged them to withdraw. The French lost 6,000 men, and the
Swiss losses were very heavy, including 1,200 who perished in the flames
of a village they were defending after the repulse of the attack.
Marshal Trivulzio, who commanded a wing of the French army, called the
action the “Battle of Giants.”


                   Marosch, The (Conquest of Dacia).

Fought 101, between the Dacians, under Decebalus, and the Romans, under
Trajan. The Dacians were utterly routed, and driven across the river
with heavy loss.


                     Marseglia (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought October 4, 1693, tween the French, under Marshal de Catinat, and
the Austrians, Spanish, and English, under the Duke of Savoy. The
allies, who were inferior in numbers, were attacked by the French, and,
after severe fighting, driven across the Po with a loss of about 6,000.
The Duke of Schomberg and Lord Warwick were taken prisoners. The loss of
the French was slightly less.


                   Mars-la-Tour (Franco-German War).

Fought August 18, 1870, between the French, under Marshal Bazaine, and
the 3rd and 10th German Army corps, under Von Alvensleben. The Germans,
though at times very hard pressed, succeeded in holding their ground,
and prevented the French breaking through to the westward. The battle is
chiefly remarkable for the desperate charges of the German cavalry, and
especially of Von Bredow’s brigade, against the French infantry, under
cover of which the shattered German infantry was enabled to reform. The
losses were about equal, amounting to about 16,000 killed and wounded on
each side. The action is also known as the Battle of Vionville.


                       Marston Moor (Civil War).

Fought July 2, 1644, between 18,000 Royalists, under Prince Rupert, and
27,000 Parliamentarians, under Manchester, Leven and Fairfax. For the
first time in the war, Rupert’s cavalry was repulsed by Cromwell’s
Ironsides, and though the right wing under Fairfax was broken, the left
and centre were victorious, and the Royalists were totally defeated,
with a loss of 4,000. This victory gave the Parliament complete control
of the north.


                       Martinesti (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 23, 1789, between the Austrians and Russians, 27,000
strong, under the Prince of Coburg and Suwaroff, and the Turks, 80,000
strong, under Osman Pasha. The allies stormed the Turkish entrenchments,
and drove out the defenders, of whom 7,000 were killed and wounded,
while 8,000 were drowned in crossing the Rymna. The victors lost 617
killed and wounded.


              Martinique (Wars of the French Revolution).

This island was captured from the French in 1794, by a combined naval
and military force under Sir John Jervis and Sir George Grey, with a
loss to the victors of 6 officers and 37 men killed and wounded.


                     Martinique (Napoleonic Wars).

Having been restored to France at the Peace of Amiens, Martinique was
again taken by the British, February 24, 1809, the force engaged being
under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane, and Lieut.-General Beckwith.


                              Maserfield.

Fought 642, between the Northumbrians, under Oswald, and the Mercians,
under Penda. The latter were defeated, and Penda slain.


                    Masulipatam (Seven Years’ War).

This fortress, held by a French garrison, under Conflans, was besieged
by the British, about 2,500 strong, under Colonel Forde, in March, 1759.
After a fortnight’s bombardment the place was taken by storm, the
resistance being very feeble, and Conflans surrendered with his whole
force, which considerably outnumbered the assailants. One hundred and
twenty guns were taken in the fortress.


                Matchevitz (First Polish Insurrection).

Fought October 10, 1794, between the Russians, under Baron de Fersen,
and the Poles, under Kosciusko. The Poles, after hard fighting, were
totally defeated, leaving 6,000 dead upon the field, while Kosciusko was
severely wounded.


                        Matchin (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 10, 1791, between the Turks, under Yussuf Pasha, and the
Russians, under Prince Repnin. The left and centre of the Turkish army
held its ground manfully, and the victory was long in doubt, but a
brilliant charge of the Russian left, under General Kutusoff, drove back
the Turks who were defeated with heavy loss.


                       Maxen (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 21, 1759, between the Austrians, under Marshal Daun, and
the Prussians, under General Finck. Daun surrounded Finck’s position,
and after comparatively little fighting compelled him to surrender with
over 15,000 men, including 17 generals. Seventeen guns were captured.
The casualties on both sides were very small.


                         Maya (Peninsula War).

Fought July 25, 1813, between a British division, under General Stewart,
and the French divisions of d’Armagnac, Abbé and Maransin. The French,
at a cost of 1,500 men, forced the pass of Maya, driving back the
British with a loss of 1,400 men and 4 guns.


              Maypo (South American War of Independence).

Fought April 5, 1818, between the Chilian Patriots, 9,000 strong, under
San Martin, and 6,000 Spanish Royalists, under General Osorio. The
Spaniards were totally defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and 2,350
prisoners, the Chilians losing over 1,000 killed and wounded. The result
of the battle was the establishment of the independence of Chili.


                       Medellin (Peninsular War).

Fought March 28, 1809, between the French, under Marshal Victor, and
30,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards soon gave way, and were
mercilessly sabred in the pursuit by the French cavalry, losing, it is
said, 18,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 300 only.


               Medina (Mohammed’s War with the Koreish).

Siege was laid to this town in 625 by 10,000 Koreish, under Abu Sophian.
It was defended by Mohammed with 3,000 Moslems, and during the space of
20 days several half-hearted assaults were easily repulsed. At the end
of this time Abu Sophian withdrew, and the Koreish made no further
attempt to interfere with the progress of Mohammedanism.


                 Medola (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought August 5, 1796, between the French, 23,000 strong, under
Napoleon, and 25,000 Austrians, under Wurmser. The Austrians were
totally defeated, and driven back to Roveredo, with a loss of 2,000
killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners and 20 guns. Prior to this defeat
Wurmser had succeeded in revictualling Mantua, but at very heavy cost,
the Austrian losses during the three days’ fighting, from the 3rd to the
5th, amounting to 20,000 men and 60 guns.


                       Meeanee (Scinde Campaign).

Fought February 17, 1843, between 2,800 British and native troops, under
Sir Charles Napier, and about 20,000 Beluchis, under the Amirs of
Scinde. The infantry were at one time almost overpowered by the
overwhelming numbers of the enemy, who attacked with great bravery, but
they were rescued by a charge of the 9th Bengal cavalry, who broke up
the assailants, and in the end the Beluchis were routed with a loss of
5,000 men and several guns. The British lost 256 killed and wounded.


                Meerut (First Mongol Invasion of India).

This place was besieged in 1398 by the Tartars, under Tamerlane. It was
considered impregnable, and Tamerlane commenced mining operations, but
these methods were too slow for his followers, who by means of scaling
ladders carried the fortress by storm, and massacred all the
inhabitants. Tamerlane afterwards completed his mines and destroyed all
the defences.


                  Megaletaphrus (First Messenian War).

Fought 740 B.C., between the Messenians, under Aristomenes, and the
Spartans. The Messenians were surrounded and cut to pieces, Aristomenes
escaping with a few followers.


                              Megalopolis.

Fought B.C. 331, in the attempt of the Spartans, aided by the Arcadians,
Achæans and Eleians, to shake off the Macedonian yoke, during
Alexander’s absence in Asia. The allies, under Agis, King of Sparta,
were besieging Megalopolis, which had declined to join the league, when
they were attacked by the Macedonians, under Antipater, and completely
routed, Agis falling in the battle.


                Megalopolis (Wars of the Achæan League).

Fought B.C. 226, between the Spartans, under Cleomenes, and the forces
of the Achæan League, under Aratus. The Achæans early gained an
advantage, and the Spartans fled, pursued by the light troops. These,
however, being unsupported, the Spartans turned and routed them, and
then overwhelmed the Achæan hoplites in their turn with enormous
slaughter.


                   Melanthias (Sclavonian Invasion).

Fought 559, between the Imperial troops, under Belisarius, and the
Sclavonians and Bulgarians, under Zabergan, Prince of Bulgaria. The
barbarians assailed the Roman lines, but were easily repulsed, and so
precipitate was their flight that only about 500 fell. This was
Belisarius’ last victory, and it was closely followed by his disgrace
and death.


                                Meldorp.

Fought 1500, between the Danes, 30,000 strong, under John of Denmark,
and the inhabitants of the province of Dithmarsh, which John designed to
bring again under Danish rule, after two centuries of virtual
independence. The advancing Danes delivered an assault against a small
fortified outpost, but were repulsed, and driven in confusion into the
surrounding marshes, where over 11,000 perished.


                        Melitene (Persian Wars).

Fought 578, between the Imperial troops, under Tiberius, and the
Persians, under Chosroes. After a somewhat indecisive battle, at the end
of which each side had held its ground, Chosroes, owing to his heavy
losses, found it necessary to retire during the night. The battle was,
however, signalised by an exploit of a Scythian chief, in command of the
Roman left wing, who at the head of his cavalry charged through the
Persian ranks, plundered the royal tent, and then cut his way out
through the opposing hosts.


                Memphis (Athenian Expedition to Egypt).

This city was captured B.C. 459 by an Athenian fleet of 200 ships, which
sailed up the Nile to the assistance of Inaros, who had raised the
standard of revolt against Persia. The citadel, however, held out until
B.C. 456, when a Persian army, under Megabyzus, defeated the Athenians
and drove them out of Memphis.


                  Memphis (Moslem Conquest of Egypt).

In 638, Amron, lieutenant of the Caliph Omar, with 8,000 Moslems,
invested the city, and after a siege of seven months, in the course of
which the besiegers were nearly overwhelmed by the rising of the Nile,
the place was taken by assault. On the site of the Moslem encampment
were laid the foundations of Old Cairo.


                     Memphis (American Civil War).

A river action fought June 6, 1862, between 8 Confederate armed vessels,
under Commodore Montgomery, and 10 Federal gunboats, under Commodore
Davis. Only one of the Confederate vessels escaped destruction, and
Memphis fell.


                       Mensourah (Fifth Crusade),

Fought 1249, between the French, under Louis IX, and the Moslems. The
town of Mensourah was seized by the Comte d’Artois, but being
surrounded, he and the knights with him were killed. The king meanwhile
had seized the Saracen camp, but was unable to hold his ground, and was
driven back to Damietta. In the course of his retreat, however, he was
surrounded and taken prisoner by the Saracens, with his whole army.


                     Mentana (Garibaldian Rising).

Fought November 3, 1867, between 10,000 Garibaldians, under Garibaldi,
and the French and Papal troops, 5,000 strong, under General Kanzler.
Garibaldi was totally defeated, a result largely due to the brilliant
work of 1,500 Papal Zouaves, who drove them out of position after
position. The Garibaldians lost 1,100 killed and wounded, and 1,000
prisoners. The allies’ losses were only 182 killed and wounded, of which
the Papal troops lost 144.


                   Merida (Moorish Empire in Spain).

This place was besieged in 712 by 18,000 Moors, under Musa. After a
defeat in the open plain before the city, the Spaniards made a long and
obstinate defence, which cost the besiegers many lives, but in the end
they were forced by famine to surrender.


                               Merseburg.

Fought 934 between the Germans, under Henry the Fowler, and the
Hungarian invaders. The Hungarians were completely defeated, with heavy
loss, and withdrew from Germany, which they did not again invade for
twenty years.


                 Merta (Mogul Invasion of the Deccan).

This strong fortress, belonging to the Rajput Rajah of Malwar, was
besieged, 1561, by Sharf-ud-Din Hussein, one of the generals of Akbar,
the Great Mogul. The place held out gallantly for several months, but
was then forced by famine to capitulate. One of the Malwar chiefs,
however, refused all terms, and cut his way out at the head of 500 men,
of whom 250 fell in the enterprise.


                       Merton (Danish Invasion).

Fought 871, between the West Saxons, under Alfred, and the Danish
invaders. After a severe engagement the Danes were victorious.


                                Messina.

Fought October 2, 1284, between the Sicilian and Catalan fleet, under
the Grand Admiral, Roger de Lauria, and the French fleet, under Charles
of Anjou. The Sicilians, who largely outnumbered the French, totally
defeated them, burning or destroying practically the whole of their
fleet. Charles of Anjou was captured, and henceforth made no further
attempt to re-establish his authority in Sicily.


                                Messina.

_See_ Cape Passaro.


                      Metaurus (Second Punic War).

Fought 207 B.C., between 50,000 Romans, under Claudius Nero and Marcus
Livius, and the Carthaginians, in rather smaller force, under Hasdrubal.
The Carthaginians were surprised at early dawn as they were endeavouring
to find a ford in the Metaurus, and being vigorously attacked, were
totally routed, Hasdrubal being slain. The completeness of the victory
was due to Nero, who being in command of the right wing, where the
ground prevented his getting to close quarters, and seeing the Roman
left hard pressed by Hasdrubal’s best troops, led the major part of his
force round the Roman rear, and fell upon Hasdrubal’s right, routing him
utterly.


                        Methuen (Scottish Wars).

Fought June 19, 1306, when a small Scottish force, under Robert Bruce,
was attacked and defeated by the English in superior force.


                       Metz (Franco-German War).

This fortress was invested by the Germans after the defeat of Bazaine at
Gravelotte in August 18, 1870, and after several fruitless attempts to
break through the German lines had been repulsed, Bazaine surrendered to
Prince Frederick Charles on October 26, with 3 marshals, 6,000 officers,
and 173,000 men. The Germans took 56 eagles. 622 field guns, 72
mitrailleuses, 376 pieces of fortress artillery, and about 300,000
rifles.


                      Mexico (Conquest of Mexico).

Fought June 20, 1520, when the Spaniards, under Cortez, who were
evacuating Mexico during the night, were attacked by the Aztecs, and
suffered heavy loss. The Spaniards called this event the “Noche Triste.”


                  Michelberg (Campaign of the Danube).

Fought October 16, 1805. Ney’s corps stormed the heights of the
Michelberg at the same time that Lannes carried the Frauenberg, driving
the Austrians back into Ulm, where on the 17th General Mack capitulated
with 30,000 men.


             Middelburg (Netherlands War of Independence).

This fortress, the last stronghold in Walcheren to hold out for the
Spanish king, was besieged by the Patriots in the winter of 1593. It was
defended by a garrison under Colonel Mondragon, who in spite of a
gallant resistance and numerous attempts to relieve him, was forced by
famine to surrender, February 18, 1594.


                    Milazzo (Unification of Italy).

Fought July 18, 1860, between the Italian Volunteers, under Garibaldi,
and the Neapolitans, under General Bosco. The Neapolitans occupied a
strongly entrenched position, which Garibaldi succeeded in turning, the
Neapolitans, after a severe struggle, being totally defeated and driven
out.


                  Miletopolis (First Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 86, between the Romans, under Flavius Fimbria, and the
Pontic troops, under Mithridates. The Romans gained a complete victory.


               Millesimo (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought April 13, 1796, when the divisions of Augereau, Masséna and La
Harpe attacked the Austrians, strongly entrenched, under General Colli,
and after severe fighting, drove them back, thus cutting Colli’s
communications with General Beaulieu, the Austrian Commander-in-Chief.
The Austro-Sardinians lost about 6,000 men and 30 guns, and all
effective co-operation between the two wings was at an end. Also called
the Battle of Monte Lezino.


                   Mill Springs (American Civil War).

Fought January 19, 1862, between the Federals, about 9,000 strong, under
General Thomas, and 8,000 Confederates, under General Crittenden. The
Confederates attacked, and at first drove back the Federals, who began
the action with 5,000 men only, but reinforcements arriving. Thomas
repulsed the assailants with considerable loss, capturing 12 guns. The
Federals lost 246 only. This was the first considerable defeat suffered
by the Confederates in the war.


                       Minden (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 1, 1759, between the French, 64,000 strong, under the
Marquis de Contades, and the Hanoverians, British and Prussians, 54,000
strong, under Ferdinand of Brunswick. Ferdinand detached a force of
10,000 men to threaten de Contades’ rear, and then, attacking strongly,
broke the first line of the French. But for the failure of the allies’
cavalry to advance, the French would have been routed. As it was, they
were able to rally, and effect an orderly retreat, though with a loss of
7,086 killed, wounded and prisoners, 43 guns and 17 standards. The
allies lost 2,762, fully a half of this number being in the ranks of the
six English regiments present, who bore the brunt of the battle.


                      Minorca (Seven Years’ War).

This place, garrisoned by 2,800 British troops, under General Blakeney,
was invested by the French, under the Duc de Richelieu, May, 1756. On
May 20, a British squadron of 15 line-of-battle-ships and 3 sloops,
under Admiral Byng, attacked Richelieu’s blockading squadron of 12 sail
of the line and 5 frigates, with the object of throwing succours into
the place. The attack, however, was conducted with so little resolution
and resource, that Byng failed in his object, and allowed the French
ships to escape him. Blakeney was shortly afterwards forced to
surrender, and Byng was tried by court-martial, condemned and shot.


                                Minorca.

Having been restored to England by the Treaty of Paris in 1762, Minorca
was again recaptured in 1781, by a force of 12,000 French and Spaniards,
the garrison, under General Murray, being only 700 strong. Murray made a
sturdy defence but was forced to surrender.


                               Miohosaki.

Fought September, 764, between the Japanese rebels, under Oshikatsa, and
the Imperial troops, under Saiki-no-Sanya. The rebels were totally
routed, and Oshikatsa and his son slain.


                   Miraflores (Peruvio-Chilian War).

Fought January 15, 1881, between the Chilians, under General Baquedano,
and the Peruvians, under General Caceres. The Peruvians were totally
defeated, losing 3,000 killed and wounded, while the victors lost 500
killed and 1,625 wounded. Following up their victory, the Chilians
occupied Lima on the 17th, and the war came to an end.


                  Missionary Ridge. _See_ Chattanooga.


                Missolonghi (Greek War of Independence).

This place was besieged in 1821 by a force of 11,000 Turks, under Omar
Brionis Pasha, and was defended by a small Greek garrison, under
Mavrocordatos. The little garrison made so gallant a defence, that at
the end of two months Omar was forced to raise the siege. On April 27,
1825, the town was again besieged by the Turks and was again most
obstinately defended by the garrison and inhabitants. So little progress
was made that it was found necessary to call for the aid of the Egyptian
army, under Ibrahim, son of Mehemet Ali. It was not, however, till three
months after his arrival before the place that it was finally taken by
storm, April 22, 1826, having held out for all but a year.


                              Mita Caban.

Fought 1362, between the Tartars, under Tamerlane, and the Getes, under
the Khan Elias. The Getes were routed with heavy loss.


                                Miyako.

Fought June, 1353, between the revolted Moronoshi, and the troops of the
Emperor of the South, Gomurakami, under Yoshinori. Moronoshi gained a
complete victory, and Yoshinori and the Emperor fled into the Eastern
provinces.


                                Miyako.

Fought December 30, 1391, between the troops of the provinces of Idzumo
and Idzumi, under Mitsuyaki, and those of the Emperor of the South,
Gokameyama. A series of engagements took place in and around Miyako, and
in the end Mitsuyaki was driven off with heavy loss, among the killed
being the Daimio of Idzumi.


                    Modder River (Second Boer War).

Fought November 28, 1899, between a Boer force, about 9,000 strong,
under General Cronje, and the British, under Lord Methuen. Cronje held a
strong position on both banks of the river, which was not accurately
known to Lord Methuen, who was marching to the Modder. His columns came
under fire about 7 a.m., and the action lasted till evening, when a
turning movement enabled him to drive Cronje from his entrenchments. The
British losses were 24 officers and 461 men killed and wounded, those of
the Boers being about the same.


                         Mohacz (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 29, 1526, between 30,000 Hungarians, under King Lewis, and
Tomore, Bishop of Kolocz, and over 100,000 Turks, with 300 guns, under
Solyman the Magnificent. The Hungarians made a heroic resistance against
overwhelming numbers, but were finally routed, leaving 22,000 dead on
the field, including the king, 7 bishops, 28 magnates, and over 500
nobles. This disaster placed Hungary at the mercy of Solyman, and was
quickly followed by the fall of Buda-Pesth.


                         Mohacz (Ottoman Wars).

On the battlefield where 160 years previously Solyman had gained so
decisive a victory, the Austrians and Hungarians signally defeated the
Turks, under Mohammed IV, in 1687. In consequence of this disaster,
following upon a long series of reverses, Mohammed was deposed by the
discontented soldiery.


                       Mohilev (Moscow Campaign).

Fought July 23, 1812, between 28,000 French, under Davoust, and 60,000
Russians, under Prince Bagration. Bagration attacked Davoust in a strong
position, which counter-balanced the great disparity of numbers, and the
Russians were repulsed with a loss of about 4,000. The French lost
barely 1,000.


                   Mohrungen (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought January 25, 1807, between 10,000 French, under Bernadotte, and
14,000 Russians, under General Marhof. The French were defeated with a
loss of about 1,000 killed and wounded.


                    Molino del Rey (Peninsular War).

Fought December 21, 1808, between 26,000 French, under General St. Cyr,
and the Spaniards, about equal in strength, under Reding. The Spaniards
were routed with a loss of 10,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 50
guns, at very slight cost to the victors.


               Molwitz (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought April 8, 1741, between the Prussians, 30,000 strong, under
Frederick the Great, and the Austrians, under Marshal Neuperg. Frederick
surprised the Austrian general, and, after severe fighting, drove him
from his entrenchments, with a loss of about 5,000 killed, wounded and
prisoners. The Prussians lost 2,500.


                    Monarda (Moorish Insurrection).

Fought March 18, 1501, between the Spaniards, under the Count di
Cifuentes and Alonso de Aguilar, and the insurgent Moors. The Spaniards
were largely outnumbered, and were overpowered by the rebels, suffering
a disastrous defeat. De Aguilar was killed, fighting to the end.


                    Monongahela (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 9, 1755, between 900 French and Indians, under
Contrecœur, and about 1,400 British and Virginians, under Braddock.
The English were attacked shortly after crossing the river, and though
the officers and the Virginians fought gallantly, the troops, ignorant
of Indian warfare, gave way to panic, and after three hours’ fighting,
were driven across the Monongahela, with a loss of 877 killed and
wounded. Of 86 officers, 63 fell, including Braddock, who was mortally
wounded. The French lost 16 only; their Indian allies somewhat more
heavily.


                     Mons-en-Puelle (Flemish War).

Fought 1304, between the French, under Philip IV, and the Flemings. The
Flemings were unable to withstand the charge of the French cavalry, and
broke and fled, leaving 6,000 dead on the field.


                     Montcontour (Third Civil War).

Fought October 3, 1569, between the Huguenots, under Henri le Béarnais,
and the Catholics, under the Duc d’Anjou and Marshal de Tavannes. The
Huguenots occupied an untenable position, and at the end of half an hour
were utterly routed, and almost exterminated, some 700 only remaining
with the colours after the battle.


                 Monte Aperto (Guelfs and Ghibellines).

Fought September 4, 1260, between the Florentine Guelfs, and the
Ghibellines, who had been driven from the city, under Manfred of Sicily.
The Guelfs were totally routed, and the victors took possession of
Florence, and re-established their rule.


               Montebello (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought June 9, 1800, between the French, under Napoleon, and the
Austrians, under General Ott. Napoleon, being ignorant of the fall of
Genoa, was marching to the relief of that city, when his advanced guard,
under Lannes, was attacked by Ott, who was endeavouring to effect a
junction with Melas. Lannes held his ground until reinforcements
arrived, when he assumed the offensive, and drove the Austrians from the
field with heavy loss, capturing 5,000 prisoners.


                   Montebello (Franco-Austrian War).

Fought May 20, 1859, between the Austrians, under General Stadion, and
about 7,000 French, under General Forey. The Austrians were defeated and
driven back to Stradella, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and
200 prisoners.


                   Monte Caseros (Urquiza’s Rising).

Fought February 3, 1852, between the Argentine Government troops, under
President Rosas, the leader of the Gaucho party, 25,000 strong, and
20,000 insurgents, under Urquiza. Rosas was totally defeated, and
compelled to fly to England, thus ending the long domination of the
Gauchos in the Argentine Republic.


                             Monte Lezino.

_See_ Millesimo.


               Montenotte (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought April 10 and 11, 1796, when d’Argentian, with the central
division of the Austro-Sardinian army, attacked the French position at
Montenotte, held by Cervoni’s division. Cervoni was driven back, but the
key to the position was held throughout the day by Tampon, with 1,500
men, and on the 12th d’Argentian found himself outflanked by Augereau
and Masséna, and was compelled to fall back, with a loss of 1,000
killed, 2,000 prisoners, and some guns. This was Napoleon’s first
victory.


                 Montereau (Allied Campaign in France).

Fought February 18, 1814, between the rearguard of the French army,
under Napoleon, and the Würtembergers, under Prince Eugène of
Würtemberg. Eugène attacked Napoleon’s position, but was repulsed with a
loss of about 2,000 killed and wounded and 4,000 prisoners.


                    Monterey (Americo-Mexican War).

This town in southern California was captured from the Mexicans,
September 23, 1846, by the Americans, under General Taylor, and this
success was followed by the occupation of the whole of Northern Mexico
by the American army.


                     Montevideo (Napoleonic Wars).

This city was taken by assault February 3, 1807, by 3,000 British
troops, under Sir Samuel Auchmuty. The capture was preceded by an action
outside the town, in which the Rifle corps, now the Rifle Brigade,
especially distinguished itself. The British losses amounted to about
600.


              Montevideo (Uruguayan War of Independence).

This city was besieged February 16, 1843, by the Argentine troops, under
Oribe, and was defended by the Uruguayans, and a number of foreign
residents, amongst others Garibaldi, under General Paz. In the course of
the siege, Garibaldi, at the head of 160 Italians, made a sortie, in
which he held his own for a whole day against 12,000 Argentines, and
eventually effected a retreat in good order. The intervention of France
and England eventually forced Oribe to raise the siege, November, 1845.


              Montevideo (Uruguayan War of Independence).

Fought October 8, 1851, between the combined forces of Uruguay, Brazil
and Paraguay, under Urquiza, and the Argentines, under Oribe. The
Argentines were besieging Montevideo, and Oribe was hemmed in in his
lines by the allies, and forced to capitulate.


                              Montevideo.

Fought August, 1863, between the Colorados, or Liberal party, of
Uruguay, under General Venancio Flores, and the Blancos, under General
Medina. The Blancos were victorious.


                Montfaucon (Norman Invasion of France).

Fought 887, between the French, under Eudes, and the Norman invaders.
The latter were totally defeated, losing 19,000 men in the battle, and
were forced to retire from before the walls of Paris, which they were
besieging.


                                Montiel.

Fought 1369, between the French, under Bertrand du Guesclin, and the
Spaniards, under Pedro II of Castile. Pedro was routed and taken
prisoner, and Henry of Trastamare placed on the throne of Castile.


                  Montlhéry (War of the Public Good).

Fought 1465, between the forces of the Ligue du Bien Public, under the
Comte de Charolais, and the Royal troops, under Louis XI. Louis was
totally defeated, after a sanguinary engagement, and driven from the
field.


                    Montmirail. _See_ Champ Aubert.


                    Montmorenci (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 31, 1759, during the siege of Quebec, when Wolfe, with 5,000
men, attacked the entrenched camp of the French, which was defended by
12,000 men under Montcalm. As the British were landing, 13 companies of
grenadiers advanced to the attack without waiting for the main body.
They were repulsed with heavy loss, which so weakened Wolfe that he
decided not to press the attack further. The British loss amounted to
443, almost the whole of which fell upon the grenadiers. The French
losses were very small.


                      Montreal (Seven Years’ War).

This city was surrendered to the British, under General Amherst, by
Vaudreuil, Governor-General of Canada, September 8, 1760. One of the
conditions of the surrender was that the whole of the French army in
Canada and its dependencies must lay down their arms. Canada thus became
a part of the British dominions.


                             Mont Valérien.

_See_ Buzenval.


                       Moodkee (First Sikh War).

Fought December 18, 1845, between the British, 12,000 strong, with 42
guns, under Sir Hugh Gough, and the Sikhs, 30,000 strong, with 40 guns,
under Taj Singh. Gough, at the end of a long march, was surprised by the
Sikhs, and his force thrown into some confusion, but he succeeded in
rallying them, and finally drove the Sikhs from the field, capturing 17
guns. The British loss was 872 killed and wounded, among the former
being Generals M’Caskill and Sir Robert Sale.


                Mook (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought April 14, 1574, between the Dutch Patriots, 8,000 strong, under
Count Louis of Nassau, and 5,000 Spaniards, under Don Sancho d’Avila.
The village of Mook was held by the Dutch infantry, who were driven out
by the Spaniards, and totally routed, with a loss of at least 4,000.
Among the slain were the Counts Louis and Henry of Nassau.


                        Morat (Burgundian Wars).

Fought June 22, 1746, between the Burgundians, 35,000 strong, under
Charles the Bold, and 24,000 Swiss, under Hans Waldmann. After a few
hours’ hard fighting the Burgundians were driven into the plain, where
the Swiss utterly routed them, no less than 8,000 falling. The Swiss
chroniclers aver that the victors only lost 500 killed.


                         Morawa (Ottoman Wars).

Fought November 3, 1443, between the Hungarians, under John Hunniades,
with 12,000 horse and 20,000 foot, and a greatly superior Turkish army,
under Amurath II. The Turks were defeated, with a loss of 2,000 killed
and 4,000 prisoners. This battle is also called the Battle of Nissa.


                      Morazzone (Italian Rising).

Fought 1848 between 1,500 Garibaldian volunteers, under Garibaldi, and
5,000 Austrians, under General d’Aspré. After a resistance lasting
eleven hours, Garibaldi, hopelessly out-numbered, withdrew his force
from the town, and executed a masterly retreat to Arona.


                      Morella (First Carlist War).

This fortress, the last stronghold of the Carlists, was besieged by
Espartero, with 20,000 Cristinos, May 23, 1840. It was defended by a
garrison of 4,000 veterans, under Cabrera, who on the 30th attempted to
break through the besiegers’ lines. His plan, however, had been
betrayed, and he was met and driven back, whereupon the place
surrendered. Cabrera, however, with a portion of the garrison, made a
second and this time a successful attempt to cut his way out.


                 Morgarten (First Swiss-Austrian War).

Fought November 16, 1315. The men of Schwyz, 1,400 in number, took post
in the Pass of Morgarten, and lay in wait for the Archduke Leopold, who,
with 15,000 Austrians, was marching into Schwyz. Having disordered the
Austrian ranks by rolling down boulders upon them, the Swiss then fell
upon them with their halberds, and totally routed them, with a loss of
1,500 killed.


                              Morshedabad.

Fought July 24, 1763, between the troops of Mir Cossim, the deposed
Nawab of Bengal, and a British force of 750 Europeans and a large body
of native troops, under Major Adams. The British stormed Cossim’s
entrenchments, driving out his army in confusion, and followed up their
victory by the occupation of Morshedabad, without further opposition.


                       Mortara (Italian Rising).

Fought March 21, 1849, between the Piedmontese, under the Duke of Savoy
(Victor Emmanuel) and General Darando, and the main Austrian army, under
Radetsky. No steps had been taken by the Piedmontese to render Mortara
defensible, and little guard was kept, with the result that they were
surprised by Radetsky, and driven out of the town in confusion, with a
loss of 500 killed and wounded, 2,000 prisoners and 5 guns. The
Austrians lost 300 only.


                 Mortimer’s Cross (Wars of the Roses).

Fought February 2, 1461, when Edward, Duke of York, defeated the
Lancastrians, under the Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire, and drove them
back into Wales, thus preventing a concentration of the Lancastrian
forces.


                Mortlack (Danish Invasion of Scotland).

Fought 1010, between the Danes, under Sweyn, and the Scots, under
Malcolm II. After a long and obstinate engagement the Danes were totally
defeated, and forced to flee to their ships. A victory for them on this
occasion would probably have given them a permanent lodgment in
Scotland, as Malcolm had his last available man in the field.


                 Mortmant (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought February 17, 1814, between the Russian advance-guard, under the
Count de Pahlen, and the French rear-guard, under Victor. The Russians
were repulsed with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, and 11 guns.


               Möskirch (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought May 5, 1800, between 50,000 French, under Moreau, and 60,000
Austrians, under de Kray. The French advance-guard, under Lecourbe,
approaching Möskirch found the heights strongly held by the Austrians,
and attempted to carry them, but without success. The arrival of the
main body, however, turned the scale, and the Austrians were obliged to
abandon all their positions, with a loss of about 5,000 men. The French
lost about 3,500.


                                Moskowa.

_See_ Borodino.


                                 Motya.

This city, the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in Sicily, was
besieged by Dionysius of Syracuse, with 83,000 men, B.C. 398. Having
built a mole to connect the mainland and the island on which Motya
stood, he erected thereon his new engines of war, the catapults, used
for the first time in this siege. He also built large moving towers to
enable him to cope with the lofty defences of the place, and by these
devices succeeded in effecting an entrance. Every house, however, was in
itself a small fortress, and after days of street fighting, which cost
the assailants a heavy price, the city was still unsubdued. At last by a
night surprise he mastered the quarter which still held out, and the
inhabitants were massacred or sold as slaves.


                   Mount Gaurus (First Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 342, between the Romans, under Valerius Corvus, and the
Samnites. The Romans won a signal victory.


                  Mount Lactarius (Second Gothic War).

Fought March 553, between the troops of the Emperor Justinian, under
Narses, and the Goths, under Teias, the last Gothic king of Italy. The
Romans gained a signal victory, and Teias was slain, the Goths thereupon
accepting the rule of Justinian.


                             Mount Panium.

Fought B.C. 198, between the Syrians, under Antiochus the Great, and the
Greeks and Egyptians, under Scopas. Scopas was routed, and Antiochus
took possession of all the territory held by Egypt in Asia, up to the
frontier of Egypt proper.


                 Mount Seleucus (Revolt of Magnentius).

Fought August 10, 353, between the rebels, under Magnentius, and the
Imperial legions, under Constantius. Constantius forced the passage of
the Cottian Alps, and defeated Magnentius in a sanguinary battle, which
dispersed his army and finally broke his power, Gaul and Italy being
thus again brought under the Imperial sway.


                Mount Tabor (French Invasion of Egypt).

Fought April 15, 1799, when Napoleon defeated and dispersed the Syrian
army raised to create a diversion in favour of the beleaguered garrison
of Acre. Kléber’s division bore the brunt of the fighting.


             Mount Taurus (Moslem Invasion of Asia Minor).

Fought 804, between the Moslems, under Harroun-al-Raschid, and the
Greeks, under the Emperor Nicephorus I. The Greeks were totally
defeated, with a loss of 40,000 men, and Nicephorus, wounded in three
places, with difficulty escaped from the field.


             Mount Tifata (Civil War of Marius and Sulla).

Fought B.C. 83, when the legions of Sulla defeated the army of the
Consul, Norbanus, with heavy loss, and drove them to take refuge in
Capua.


               Mouscron (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought 1794, between the French, under Moreau and Souham, and the
Austrians, under General Clarifait. The French were victorious.


                     Mühlberg (Wars of Charles V).

Fought April 24, 1547, between the German Protestants, 9,000 strong,
under the Elector Frederick of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse, and
the Imperial army, together with 3,500 Papal troops, 13,000 in all,
under Charles V. The Protestants were totally defeated, and their two
leaders taken prisoners. The Imperialists lost 50 only.


                               Mühldorf.

Fought 1322, between the Imperial troops, under the Emperor Louis the
Bavarian, and the German malcontents, under Frederick, Duke of Austria.
Louis won a signal victory, and put an end to the resistance to his
rule.


                        Mühlhausen (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 58, between the Romans, 36,000 strong, under Julius Cæsar,
and the Sequani, under Ariovistus. The Romans occupied two camps, one of
which was held successfully by two legions against a determined attack
of the Gauls. The attack having been repulsed, Cæsar united his forces,
and led them against the Sequani, whom he totally routed with enormous
loss.


                        Mukwanpur (Gurkha War).

Fought February 27, 1816, when a village, forming part of Sir David
Ochterlony’s position, was attacked by 2,000 Gurkhas. The village was
defended by three companies of Sepoys and 40 men of the 87th Regiment,
and the defenders were hard pressed, but the arrival of reinforcements
enabled them after severe fighting to beat off the assailants with very
heavy loss.


                       Multan (Second Sikh War).

This fortress, defended by the Sikhs, under Mulraj, was besieged by
Lieutenant Edwardes with about 1,200 men in July, 1848. After an
ineffectual bombardment, the siege was raised September 22, but was
renewed December 27 by General Whish, with 17,000 men and 64 guns. After
a heavy bombardment the place was stormed January 2, 1849, and on the
22nd of the same month Mulraj surrendered the citadel. The British loss
during the siege was 210 killed and 910 wounded.


                    Münchengrätz (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 28, 1866, between the advance-guard of Prince Frederick
Charles’ army, and the Austrians, under Count Clam-Gallas. The Austrians
were defeated with a loss of about 300 killed and wounded, and 1,000
prisoners. The Prussian losses were very small.


                 Munda (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought March 17, B.C. 45, between the Pompeians, under Cnæus Pompeius,
and the Cæsareans, under Julius Cæsar. The Pompeians were totally
defeated, losing 30,000 men, including Labienus and Varro, while the
Cæsareans lost 1,000 only. Cnæus Pompey was wounded. This defeat put an
end to the resistance of the Pompeian faction in Spain, and the action
is further notable as being Cæsar’s last battle.


                      Muret (Albigensian Crusade).

Fought 1213, between the Catholics, under Simon de Montfort, and the
Albigenses, under the Count of Thoulouse, aided by Pedro II of Aragon.
The Albigenses were routed, and this defeat put an end to their
organized resistance. Pedro fell in the battle.


                   Murfreesboro (American Civil War).

Fought December 31, 1862, between 35,000 Confederates, under General
Bragg, and 40,000 Federals, under General Rosecrans. Bragg attacked and
drove back the Federal right, but the centre and left held their ground,
and prevented the defeat degenerating into a rout. Both sides lost
heavily, but the Confederates captured a large number of prisoners and
over 20 guns. On the following day the Federal right retook the ground
it had lost on the 31st, and at the end of the day both armies occupied
their original positions. Early on January 2, however, Bragg retired in
good order. Each side lost about 8,000, killed, wounded and missing, in
the two days’ fighting.


                     Mursa (Revolt of Magnentius).

Fought September 28, 351, between the usurper Magnentius, with 100,000
troops, and the Emperor Constantius, with 80,000. The battle was
severely contested, but finally the legions of Magnentius were driven
from the field with a loss of 24,000; that of the victors amounting to
30,000.


                       Musa Bagh (Indian Mutiny).

Fought March 19, 1858, when a British force, under Sir James Outram,
totally routed a body of mutineers, 7,000 strong, under Huzrat Mahal,
Begum of Oude, which was holding the Musa Bagh, a fortified palace in
the outskirts of Lucknow.


                    Muta (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

Fought 629, between the Moslems, under Zaid, and the troops of the
Emperor Heraclius. Zaid was slain, and so successively were Jaafar and
Abdallah, who followed him in the command, but the banner of the prophet
was then raised by Khaled, who succeeded in repulsing the onslaught of
the Imperial troops, and on the following day led the Moslems undefeated
from the field. This is the first battle between the Mohammedan Arabs
and a foreign enemy.


                     Muthal, The (Jugurthine War).

Fought B.C. 108, between the Numidians, under Jugurtha, and the Romans,
under Metellus Numidicus. The Numidians were strongly posted on the
heights above the river, but were driven out by the legionaries with
heavy loss. Jugurtha did not again face the Romans in the field,
contenting himself with a guerilla warfare.


                Mutina (Mark Antony’s First Rebellion).

Fought April 16, 43 B.C., between the adherents of Antony, and three
Consular armies, under Hirtius, Octavius, and Vibius Pansa. Antony, who
was besieging Mutina, was attacked simultaneously by the three armies.
That of Pansa was routed, and Pansa slain but Octavius and Hirtius
gained some small success. Antony, however, was undefeated, and
continued the siege. On the 27th Octavius and Hirtius made a combined
attack on his lines, and succeeded in forcing their way through into the
town, though Hirtius fell in the action.


                    Mycale (Third Persian Invasion).

Fought August, 479 B.C., between the Greeks, under Leotychides the
Spartan, and a large Persian army. The Greeks effected a landing near
Cape Mycale, and drove the Persians back upon their entrenchments, which
they then carried by storm, whereupon the Persian auxiliaries fled. The
fugitives were slaughtered in detail by the revolted Ionians, and the
whole army destroyed.


                        Mylæ (First Punic War).

Fought B.C. 260, when the Roman fleet, under Caius Duilius, defeated the
Carthaginians, under Hannibal, with loss of 50 ships, 3,000 killed and
7,000 prisoners. Duilius had introduced the boarding bridge, which was
lowered on to the deck of the opposing galley, and this gave full scope
to the superior powers of the Romans in hand-to-hand fighting.


                 Mylex (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 36, between the Pompeian fleet, under Sextus Pompeius, and
the fleet of the Triumvirs, under Agrippa. The Pompeians were defeated.


               Myonnesus (War with Antiochus the Great).

Fought B.C. 190, between the Roman fleet, under Caius Livius, and the
fleet of Antiochus, under Polyxenides, who had an advantage of nine
ships. He was, however, defeated by the superior seamanship of the
Romans, with a loss of 42 vessels.


                     Mytilene (Peloponnesian War).

This city, which had revolted against Athens, was invested in the autumn
of 428 B.C. by the Athenians, under Paches, with 1,000 hoplites and a
fleet of triremes. A feeble attempt at relief by a Peloponnesian
squadron, under Alcidas, was unsuccessful, and in May, 427, the city
surrendered, and all the male inhabitants were condemned to death. In
the end, however, only the leaders of the revolt were executed.


                     Mytilene (Peloponnesian War).

A naval action fought B.C. 406, between 140 Peloponnesian vessels, under
Callicratidas, and 70 Athenian triremes, under Conon. Conon was
defeated, with the loss of 30 ships, the rest of his fleet being driven
into Mytilene, where it was blockaded.



                                   N


                       Nachod (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 27, 1866, between the 5th Prussian Corps, under General
Steinmetz, and the Austrians, under General Ramming. The Austrian
cavalry, which was considerably superior in number, was defeated by the
Prussian Uhlans, and the action resulted in the retreat of the
Austrians, with a considerable loss in killed and wounded. The
Prussians, who lost 900, captured 2,000 prisoners and 5 guns.


                        Næfels (War of Kiburg).

Fought April 9, 1388, between 6,000 Austrians, under Tockenburg, and 500
men of Glarus with a few Schwyzers. The Swiss were driven from their
first position behind the “Letzi” at the entrance to the valley, but,
retiring to the heights of the Rauhberg, disordered the advancing
columns by rolling boulders upon them, and, then attacking, utterly
routed them. The Austrians lost 80 knights and 2,000 soldiers.


                     Nagy-Sarló (Hungarian Rising).

Fought April 19, 1849, between the Hungarians, 25,000 strong, under
Görgey, and the Austrians, who endeavoured to prevent Görgey
constructing bridges over the Gran. The Austrians were signally
defeated, and the river successfully bridged.


                 Naissus (Gothic Invasion of the East).

Fought 269 between the Imperial troops, under the Emperor Claudius
Gothicus, and the invading Goths. The Romans were hard pressed, when the
Gothic lines were attacked in the rear by a force of 5,000 men, which
Claudius had concealed for this purpose in the neighbouring mountains,
and being thrown into confusion, were totally routed. Fifty thousand men
are said to have fallen in the battle.


                                Najara.

_See_ Navarrete.


                     Nanshan (Russo-Japanese War).

Fought May 26, 1904, between three Japanese divisions, under General
Oku, and a Russian division, with a large force of artillery, under
General Stoessel. The Russians occupied a very strongly entrenched
position on the heights of Nanshan. After an artillery preparation, the
Japanese attempted to storm the heights, eight successive attacks
failing before the concentrated fire of the Russian guns, though the
last survivors of the assailants got within 30 yards of the trenches.
The infantry were then retired, and after a further bombardment, aided
by the Japanese fleet in Kiuchau Bay, the whole force attacked
simultaneously, and, penetrating the defences on the Russian left, drove
them from their positions with heavy loss, the defenders leaving 500
dead on the field. The Japanese lost 4,304 killed, wounded and missing.
Seventy-eight guns were taken, and the Russians penned up in Port
Arthur.


                       Narva (Russo-Swedish War).

Fought November 30, 1700, between 8,000 Swedes, under Charles XII, and
80,000 Russians, under General Dolgorouky. The Russians were besieging
Narva, and after driving in two large bodies who occupied advanced
positions, Charles boldly attacked their entrenched camp. After a brief
cannonade, the Swedes stormed the trenches, and though the Russian
artillerymen stood to their guns, after three hours’ hard fighting, the
defenders were driven out in disorder having lost 18,000 in the
trenches, while many more fell in the fight. The Swedes lost 600 only.


                          Naseby (Civil War).

Fought June 14, 1645, between 14,000 Parliamentarians, under Fairfax,
and 7,500 Royalists, under Charles I, with Prince Rupert in actual
command. Rupert’s first charge broke the Parliamentary left wing, but,
as usual, the pursuit was carried too far, and before the cavalry
returned, Cromwell on the right had turned the scale, and the battle was
over. The Royalist infantry, overwhelmed by superior numbers, was almost
annihilated, 5,000 prisoners, and all the artillery and munitions of war
being captured.


                    Nashville (American Civil War).

Fought December 15 and 16, 1863, between 50,000 Federals, under General
Thomas, and 40,000 Confederates, under General Hood. Thomas attacked the
left of Hood’s lines before Nashville, and after hard fighting, in which
Hood lost 1,200 prisoners and 16 guns, the Confederates withdrew during
the night to a position a few miles in the rear. Here they were again
attacked on the 16th, and, though at first holding their ground, were in
the end driven from the field in confusion, with heavy loss in killed
and wounded, besides 4,460 prisoners and 54 guns.


               Naulachus (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought September 3, B.C. 36, between the Pompeian fleet of 300 ships,
under Sextus Pompeius, and the fleet of the Triumvirs, of equal
strength, under Agrippa. The action was severely contested, but in the
end Agrippa was victorious, and Pompeius fled with 17 vessels only.


                     Naupactus (Peloponnesian War).

Fought 429 B.C. between 20 Athenian ships, under Phormio, and 77
Peloponnesian ships, under Cnemas. The Athenians were entrapped by
Cnemas at the entrance to the Bay of Naupactus, and 9 of his vessels
driven ashore. The remaining 11 fled towards Naupactus, closely pursued
by the Peloponnesians, when the rearmost of the flying Athenians
suddenly turned, and rammed the leading ship of Cnemas’ squadron. The
pursuers hesitated, and the rest of the Athenians then returned, and
gained a complete victory, taking 6 ships, and recovering 8 of the 9
which had run ashore.


                 Navarino (Greek War of Independence).

Fought October 20, 1827, when the allied fleets of Great Britain, France
and Russia under Codrington, de Rigny, and Heiden respectively, and
numbering in all 24 ships, annihilated the Turkish and Egyptian fleets,
60 vessels being entirely destroyed, and the remainder driven ashore.
The allies lost 272 in killed and wounded; the Turks over 4,000. This
battle is noteworthy as being the last general action fought under the
old conditions between wooden sailing ships.


                    Navarrete (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought April 3, 1367, between 24,000 English, under Edward the Black
Prince, and 60,000 French and Spaniards, under Bertrand du Guesclin and
Henry de Trastamare. The English, mainly owing to the skill of their
archers, completely defeated their opponents, with heavy loss, du
Guesclin being made prisoner. This battle is also known as the Battle of
Najara.


                                 Naxos.

Fought September, 376 B.C., between 80 Athenian triremes, under
Chabrias, and 60 Spartan ships, under Pollio, who was endeavouring to
waylay the Athenian grain ships from the Euxine. Pollio was totally
defeated, with a loss of 49 triremes.


                            Nechtan’s Mere.

Fought May 20, 685, between the Picts, under Brude, and the
Northumbrians, under Ecgfrith. The latter was defeated, and the Picts by
their victory freed themselves from the Northumbrian domination.


                   Neerwinde (War of the Revolution).

Fought July 19, 1693, between the English, under William III, and the
French in superior force, under Marshal Luxemberg. The French attacked
the English entrenchments, and were at first repulsed, but after eight
hours’ hard fighting, they succeeded in driving them back all along the
line, though owing largely to the personal bravery of the King, the
retirement was in good order. This victory which cost the French 10,000
men, was a barren one, for William’s retreat was unmolested, and he was
almost at once in a condition to renew the conflict. This is also called
the Battle of Landen.


               Neerwinde (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought March 18, 1793, between the French, under Dumouriez, and the
Austrians, under the Prince of Coburg. The Austrians won a signal
victory, and in consequence of his defeat Dumouriez was compelled to
evacuate Belgium.


                               Negapatam.

Fought 1746, off the Coromandel coast between a British squadron of 6
ships, under Captain Peyton, and 9 French ships, under Labourdonnais.
The fight was conducted almost entirely at long range, and was
indecisive, but after the action Peyton sheered off and made for
Trincomalee, thus practically admitting defeat, though the French had in
fact suffered the heavier loss.


                               Negapatam.

Siege was laid to this place October 21, 1781, by a British force, 4,000
strong, under Colonel Braithwaite. The garrison, partly Dutch and partly
Mysore troops, though 8,000 in number, did not wait for a bombardment,
but surrendered November 3.


                               Negapatam.

A naval action was fought off this place in 1782 between a British
squadron, under Sir Edward Hughes, and a French squadron, under Suffren.
The opposing forces were of about equal strength, and the action was
indecisive, but the French designs on Negapatam were frustrated, and
Suffren drew off to the southward.


                 Nehavend (Moslem Invasion of Persia).

Fought A.D. 637 between the Moslems, under Said, the lieutenant of the
Caliph Omar, and a Persian army, 150,000 strong. The Persians were
utterly routed, this being the last stand made against the conquering
Moslems.


                           Neon (Sacred War).

Fought B.C. 354, between the Phocians and certain mercenary troops,
10,000 in all, under Philomelus, and the Thebans and Locrians. The
Phocians were totally defeated, and Philomelus, driven fighting and
covered with wounds to the edge of a precipice, preferred death to
surrender, and sprang over the cliff.


                Neuwied (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought April 18, 1797, between the French, 80,000 strong, under Hoche,
and the Austrians, under Werneck. Hoche won a signal victory, driving
the Austrians beyond the Lahn, with a loss of 8,000 men and 80 guns.


                    Neville’s Cross (Scottish Wars).

Fought October 17, 1346, between the Scottish invading army, under David
II, and the northern levies, under Henry Percy and Ralph Neville. The
Scots were completely routed, with a loss of 15,000 men, and David and
many of his nobles captured.


                        Newburn (Scottish Wars).

Fought August 28, 1640, between 4,500 English, under Lord Conway, and
the Scottish army, 22,500 strong, under Leslie. Conway endeavoured to
hold the ford of Newburn, near Newcastle, but his raw levies, after a
cannonade of three hours, fled in confusion. Conway was consequently
obliged to evacuate Newcastle, which was occupied by the Scots. The
losses on both sides were small.


                          Newbury (Civil War).

Fought September 20, 1643, between the Royalists, under Charles I, and
the Parliamentarians, under Essex. The object of Charles was to stop
Essex’s march on London, and though his troops held their ground
throughout the day, he could not be said to have gained a victory, as
during the night he felt himself obliged to abandon his position.

A second indecisive battle was fought at Newbury, October 27, 1644, when
the Royalists, under Charles I, again sustained throughout the day,
without giving ground, the attacks of the Parliamentary army, under
Waller, Manchester, and others, but, as on the previous occasion,
retired during the night.


                    Newmarket (American Civil War).

Fought May 13, 1864, between 15,000 Federals, under Sigel, and 3,500
Confederates, under Breckenridge. The Confederates, by a rapid flank
movement, fell upon Sigel’s force while on the march, and drove them to
seek shelter in a wood behind their artillery. The guns were then most
gallantly attacked and taken by 250 boys, pupils of the Lexington
Military School, who lost 80 of their number in the charge. Sigel
retired, having lost very heavily in men, and leaving 6 guns in the
enemy’s hands.


                   New Orleans (Second American War).

This city, held by a garrison of 12,000 Americans, under General
Jackson, was attacked December, 1814, by a British force of 6,000 men,
under General Keane, aided by the fleet. On the 13th the American
warships, lying in the Mississippi, were captured by a boat attack, and
by the 21st the whole of the troops were disembarked. After a few
skirmishes, Sir Edward Pakenham, arrived and took command on the 25th,
and on January 1, 1815, a determined attack was made upon the American
position. This failed, and owing to difficulties as to supplies, the
British retired. On the 7th a final assault took place, but the
assailants were again repulsed, with a loss of 1,500, including
Pakenham, and the expedition then withdrew. At the time of the action
peace had already been concluded, though of course neither party was
aware of the fact.


                   New Orleans (American Civil War).

On April 16, 1862, the Federal fleet of 30 armed steamers and 21 mortar
vessels, under Commodore Farragut, began the attack on this city by the
bombardment of Fort Jackson. After this fort and Fort Mary had been
shelled with little intermission until the 25th, Farragut forced the
passage, and anchoring off the Levée of New Orleans, the city at once
surrendered. The forts, however, still held out, but a mutiny broke out
in Fort Jackson, and on the 28th they surrendered to Commodore Porter.


                      New Ross (Irish Rebellion).

Fought June 5, 1799, between 30,000 rebels, under Father Roche and
Bagenal Harvey, and about 1,400 regulars, under General Johnstone. The
rebels attacked the troops posted in New Ross, and penetrated into the
centre of the town, but were then driven back with the bayonet, and
totally routed, with a loss of 2,600 killed.


                Newtown Butler (War of the Revolution).

Fought August 2, 1689, between 5,000 Catholics, under Maccarthy, and
3,000 Protestants, under Colonel Wolseley, in defence of Enniskillen.
The Catholics were totally routed, and fled in disorder, losing 1,500 in
the action, and 500 drowned in Lough Erne.


                      Niagara (Seven Years’ War).

This fort was besieged in June, 1759, by 2,500 British, with 900
Indians, under General Prideaux, the garrison consisting of 600 French,
under Captain Pouchot. Prideaux was killed by the premature explosion of
a shell, and Sir William Johnson succeeded to the command. On July 24,
when the garrison were almost _in extremis_, an attempt to relieve the
fort was made by 1,300 French and Indians, under Ligneris, but he was
repulsed by Johnson with considerable loss, at La Belle Famille, and
Pouchot at once surrendered.


                         Nicæa (First Crusade).

This city was besieged by the Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, May
14, 1097. The Saracens were greatly aided in the defence by the
possession of Lake Ascanius, but with great labour the crusaders
transported boats from the sea to the lake, and thus completed the
investment of the place. Two determined attempts to relieve it were made
by the Sultan Soliman, but both were repulsed, and Nicæa surrendered
June 20.


                            Nicholson’s Nek.

_See_ Farquhar’s Farm.


                   Nicopolis (Third Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 66, between the Romans, under Pompey, and the army of
Mithridates. The Romans had occupied the heights in front of the
retreating Asiatics, and Mithridates encamped under their position. In
the night the Romans attacked him in his camp, and utterly routed him.
This was the last battle fought by Mithridates against the legions of
Rome.


                               Nicopolis.

Fought B.C. 47, when Domitius Calvinus, with one Roman legion and a
contingent of Pontic and other Asiatic troops, encountered the
Bosporans, under Pharnaces. Calvinus’ Asiatic troops fled at the first
onset, and he was completely defeated, only the steadiness of the Romans
saving him from disaster.


                       Nicopolis (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 28, 1395, between 10,000 French and 50,000 Hungarians,
under the Duc de Nevers and Sigismund of Hungary, and the Turkish army
of Bajazet I. The French charged the Turkish lines, without waiting for
the Hungarians, and penetrated the two first lines, killing 1,500 Turks,
but they were then overpowered by the Janissaries in the third line and
3,000 killed, while all the survivors were captured. Bajazet then turned
upon the Hungarians, who fled without striking a blow. Bajazet massacred
all his prisoners, excepting 25 nobles.


                     Nicopolis (Russo-Turkish War).

This place was captured July 16, 1877, by the 9th Russian Army Corps,
under General Krudener, after two days’ bombardment, when the garrison
of 7,000 Turks surrendered. The Russians lost 1,300 killed and wounded.


              Nieuport (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought July 2, 1600, between the Dutch, under Maurice of Orange, and the
Spaniards, under the Archduke Albert of Austria. Prince Maurice was
surprised by the Archduke in a very critical position, but succeeded in
holding his own, and after a long and evenly-contested engagement,
ultimately defeated the Spaniards with heavy loss.


                      Nikko (Japanese Revolution).

Fought 1868, between the adherents of the Shogun, under Otori Keisuke,
and the Imperial army, under Saigo Takamori. The rebels were defeated,
and fled to the castle of Wakamatsu.


                    Nile (French Invasion of Egypt).

Fought August 1, 1798. Admiral Brueys, with 13 ships of the line and
4 frigates, was anchored in Aboukir Bay. Nelson, with 13
line-of-battleships and one 50-gun ship, penetrated with half his
squadron between the French line and the shore, while his remaining
ships engaged them on the outside. Thus caught between two fires,
the French were utterly routed, only two of their vessels escaping
capture or destruction. Admiral Brueys was killed, and his ship
L’Orient blown up. This battle is also known as the Battle of
Aboukir.


                        Nineveh (Persian Wars).

Fought December 1, 627, between the Imperial troops, under the Emperor
Heraclius, and the Persians, under Rhazates, the general of Chosroes II.
The Persians stood their ground manfully throughout the day and far into
the night, and were almost annihilated before the surviving remnant
retreated in good order to their camp. The Romans also lost heavily, but
the victory opened the way to the royal city of Destigerd, which fell
into the hands of Heraclius, and peace was made the following year.


             Niquitas (South American War of Independence).

Fought 1813, when the Colombian Patriots, under Bolivar, completely
defeated the Spanish Royalists.


                Nisib (Mehemet Ali’s Second Rebellion).

Fought June 23, 1839, between 30,000 Turks, under Hafiz Pasha, and
Mehemet Ali’s Syro-Egyptian army, under his son Ibrahim. Ibrahim was far
the stronger in artillery, and his fire so shattered the Turks, that
when he finally advanced his infantry, they made no stand, but turned
and fled. Von Moltke, as a captain in the Turkish service, was under
fire in this action for the first time.


                        Nisibis (Persian Wars).

This fortress, known as the Bulwark of the East, was thrice besieged in
338, 346 and 350 by Sapor II, King of Persia. In the two former years he
was compelled to retire after a siege of 60 and 80 days respectively. In
350 the city was defended by a garrison under Lucilianus, and Sapor,
finding the ordinary methods unavailing, diverted the course of the
Mygdonius, and by building dams formed a large lake, upon which he
placed a fleet of armed vessels, and attacked the city almost from the
level of the ramparts. Under pressure of the water a portion of the wall
gave way, and the Persians at once delivered an assault, but were
repulsed; and by the following day the garrison had rebuilt the wall. At
the end of about three months, Sapor, having lost 20,000 men, raised the
siege.


                                 Nissa.

A naval action, fought at the mouth of the Nissa in 1064, between the
Danish fleet, under Sweyn II, and the Norwegians under Harold Hardrada.
Sweyn was totally defeated, and his fleet destroyed, he himself escaping
with difficulty to Zealand.


                                 Nissa.

_See_ Morawa.


                         Nive (Peninsular War).

Fought December 13, 1813, between 35,000 French, under Soult, and 14,000
British and Portuguese, under Wellington. Having crossed the Nive on the
10th, Wellington took up a strong position on the heights near the
village of St. Pierre. Here he was attacked by Soult, but repulsed him,
and occupied the French position in front of the Adour. The French
losses in this battle and the combats which preceded it, amounted to
10,000 men. The British lost 5,019 killed and wounded.


                       Nivelle (Peninsular War).

Fought November 10, 1813, when the French, under Soult, were driven from
a very strong position by the British, under Wellington, and forced to
retire behind the Nivelle. The French lost 4,265, including about 1,200
prisoners, 51 guns, and all their field magazines. The British lost
2,694 killed and wounded.


                    Nordlingen (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought September 6, 1634, between 40,000 Imperialists, under Ferdinand
of Hungary, and a numerically inferior force of Germans and Swedes,
under the Duke of Weimar and Count Horn. The action was fought to
relieve Nordlingen, which Ferdinand was besieging, and resulted in the
total defeat of the allies, who lost 12,000 killed, 6,000 prisoners,
including Horn, and 80 guns.


                    Nordlingen (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought August 3, 1645, between 17,000 French under Condé, and 14,000
Imperialists, under Mercy. The French attacked the village of
Allersheim, where the Imperialists were strongly entrenched, and after
very severe fighting, the left under Turenne succeeded in expelling
them, with a loss of 6,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and almost all
their guns. General Mercy was killed. The French loss amounted to about
4,000.


                    Noisseville (Franco-German War).

A sortie of the French, under Bazaine, from Metz, August 31, 1870, in
the endeavour to break through the investing line of the Germans, under
Prince Frederick Charles. The French had some slight success at first,
and maintained the ground they had won during the day, but on September
1, their further efforts to advance were fruitless, and they were driven
back into Metz with a loss of 145 officers and 3,379 men. The Germans
lost 126 officers and 2,850 men.


                             Northallerton.

_See_ Standard.


                    Northampton (Wars of the Roses).

Fought July 10, 1460, between the Lancastrians, under Henry VI, and the
Yorkists, under the Earl of Warwick. The king’s entrenchments were
betrayed by Lord Grey de Ruthyn, and the Lancastrians were defeated with
a loss of 300 killed, including Buckingham, Shrewsbury, Egremont, and
other prominent men. The King was made prisoner.


                      North Foreland (Dutch Wars).

Fought July 25, 1666, between the English fleet, under the Duke of
Albemarle and Prince Rupert, and the Dutch, under Van Tromp and de
Ruyter. The English gained a complete victory, capturing or burning 20
ships. The Dutch had 4,000 men killed or drowned.


                      Notion (Peloponnesian War).

Fought B.C. 407 between the Peloponnesian fleet, under Lysander, and the
Athenian fleet of Alcibiades, which was lying at Notion. Alcibiades was
not present during the action, which was the result of a surprise, and
the Athenians were defeated with a loss of 15 ships.


                   Nova Carthago (Second Punic War).

This city, defended by a small Carthaginian garrison, under Mago, was
stormed by 27,500 Romans, under Scipio, B.C. 209.


                         Novara (Italian Wars).

Fought June 6, 1515, between 10,000 French, under La Tremouille, and
13,000 Swiss. The French camp was surprised by the Swiss, who, after
hard fighting, totally routed the French with a loss of 6,000 men. The
Swiss losses were also heavy.


                        Novara (Italian Rising).

Fought March 23, 1849, between 50,000 Piedmontese, under Chrzanowski,
and three Austrian army corps, under Radetsky. After hard fighting the
Piedmontese were completely defeated and driven from the field in
disorder.


                 Novi (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought August 15, 1799, between the French, under Joubert, and the
Russians and Austrians, under Suwaroff. Early in the action Joubert
fell, Moreau succeeding to the command. The result was disastrous to the
French, who were defeated with a loss of 7,000 killed and wounded, 3,000
prisoners, and 37 guns. The allies lost 6,000 killed and wounded and
1,200 prisoners.


                       Nujufghur (Indian Mutiny).

Fought August 24, 1857, between 6,000 rebels, under Mohammed Bukht Khan,
and a small British force, under John Nicholson. The rebels were
defeated, at small cost, with a loss of over 800 men and all their guns.


                       Numantia (Lusitanian War).

This city, defended by the inhabitants under Megaravicus, was besieged
B.C. 142 by a Roman consular army. In the course of 141 the Romans were
twice defeated under the walls, and though negotiations for a surrender
were entered into in the following year, they were not concluded, and in
139 the new Roman commander, Popilius Lænas, refused to ratify the
terms. Shortly afterwards he was again defeated by the Numantians, as
was his successor Mancius in 137. It was not till the arrival of Scipio
Æmilianus in 134 that the lengthy resistance of the inhabitants was at
last overcome, and fifteen months after he took command the city fell,
in the autumn of 133 B.C.



                                   O


                               Oberstein.

Fought 1533, between the Poles, under Tarnowski, and the Wallachians,
under Bogdan. The Wallachians were signally defeated, with heavy loss.


               Obligado (Uruguayan War of Independence).

Fought November, 1845, between the Argentine fleet, under Oribe, and the
combined French and British squadrons. The allies were victorious, and
Oribe was forced to raise the siege of Montevideo, while the waters of
the Parana were opened to the shipping of all nations.


                        Ocaña (Peninsular War).

In this action, at which Joseph Buonaparte was present, Soult, with
30,000 French, defeated 53,000 Spaniards, under Areizaga, with a loss of
5,000 killed and wounded, 26,000 prisoners, including 3 generals, 45
guns, and all their baggage and transport. The French only lost 1,700
men.


                    Ocean Pond (American Civil War).

Fought February 20, 1864, between 5,000 Confederates, under General
Finnegan, and 6,000 Federals, under General Seymour. The Confederates
occupied a strong position, protected by swamps and forests, near Lake
City, where they were attacked by Seymour, whom they defeated with a
loss of 1,200 men and 5 guns. The Confederates loss amounted to 700.


                       Ockley (Danish Invasion).

Fought 851, between the Danes, and the West Saxons, under Ethelwulf. The
Danes were completely defeated.


                        Oczakov (Ottoman Wars).

This fortress, defended by 10,000 Turks and Bosnians, was besieged 1737,
by the Russians, under Count Münnich, and after the magazine had been
blown up was stormed by the besiegers, and the garrison cut to pieces.
In 1788 the place was again besieged by the Russians, under Potemkin,
and after a strenuous resistance of six months, was taken by storm,
December 17. In the massacre which followed, 40,000 of the garrison and
inhabitants were put to the sword.


                       Odawara (Hojo Rebellion).

The castle of Odawara, the last stronghold of the Hojo family, was
besieged by the Japanese Imperial troops, under Hideyoshi. The castle
held out for over three months, but at last finding that they could hope
for no support from without, the garrison surrendered, and the power of
the Hojo family came to an end.


                              Œnophyta

Fought B.C. 457, between the Athenians, under Myronides, and the Thebans
and other Bœotian states. The Bœotians were totally defeated, and
were in consequence compelled to acknowledge the headship of Athens, and
to contribute men to her armies.


                        Ofen (Hungarian Rising).

This fortress, held by an Austrian garrison, under General Hentzi, was
besieged by the Hungarians, under Görgey, May 4, 1849. After an
unsuccessful assault, a siege in due form was commenced, and several
further assaults having also failed, the place was finally taken by
storm on the 21st. General Hentzi was mortally wounded.


                Ohud (Mohammed’s War with the Koreish).

Fought 623, between 950 Moslems, under Mohammed, and 3,000 Koreish of
Mecca, under Abu Sophian. The latter were victorious, 70 Moslems being
slain, and the Prophet himself wounded, but Abu Sophian did not feel
himself strong enough to follow up his victory by an attack upon Medina.


                                Olmedo.

Fought 1467, between the Spanish adherents of the Infante Alfonso, a
claimant to the throne, under the Archbishop of Toledo, and the Royal
troops, under Henry of Castile. After an action which began late in the
afternoon, and lasted for three hours, without any very decisive result,
the Archbishop, who was considerably inferior in numbers, withdrew his
troops, leaving Henry in possession of the field.


                       Olmütz (Seven Years’ War).

This place was besieged by Frederick the Great, May, 1758. Having
insufficient troops to completely invest the place, Frederick’s task was
a difficult one, and Marshal Daun was able to keep communications open,
and supply the town with provisions. After a siege of seven weeks, the
Austrians captured a convoy of 4,000 waggons, under the escort of
Landon, destined for the Prussian army, and Frederick was forced by this
loss to raise the siege, and retire.


                       Olpæ (Peloponnesian War).

Fought 426 B.C., between a small Athenian force, under Demosthenes, and
a force of Ambraciots, with 3,000 Spartan hoplites, under Eurylochus.
Demosthenes gained a complete victory, by means of an ambuscade, and
Eurylochus was slain.


                        Oltenitza (Crimean War).

Fought 1853, when a Turkish army, superior in numbers, under Omar Pasha,
totally defeated the Russian army which had invaded the Danubian
Principalities.


                      Omdurman (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought September 2, 1898, between the British and Egyptians, 23,000
strong, under Sir Herbert Kitchener, and 50,000 Dervishes, under the
Khalifa. The Dervishes attacked the British zareba, and were repulsed
with heavy loss. Kitchener then advanced, to drive the enemy before him
into Omdurman, and capture the place. In the course of the operation,
however, the Egyptian Brigade on the British right, under General
Macdonald, became isolated, and was attacked in front by the centre of
the Dervish army, while his flank and rear were threatened by the
Dervish left, which had not previously been engaged. The position was
critical, but through the extreme steadiness of the Soudanese, who
changed front under heavy fire, the attack was repulsed. The British and
Egyptian losses were 500 killed and wounded. The Dervishes lost about
15,000.


                         Onao (Indian Mutiny).

Fought July 28, 1857, between Havelock’s relieving force, 1,500 strong,
and the rebels, who occupied a strong position near Onao, so protected
on the flanks that a frontal attack was necessary. This was successful,
and after the town had been passed, a further attack by the mutineers
was repulsed, with a loss of 300 men and 15 guns.


                               Onessant.

Fought July 27, 1778, between 30 British ships of the line, under
Admiral Keppel, and a French squadron of equal force, under the Comte
d’Estaing. After a fight which lasted throughout the day, the two fleets
drew off to repair damages, neither side having lost a ship.


                             Oondwa Nullah.

Fought September, 1763, when 3,000 British and native troops, under
Major Adams, carried by storm the entrenchments and the fort held by Mir
Cossim’s army of 60,000 men with 100 guns. Mir Cossim fled and his army
was entirely dispersed.


                                Ooscata.

Fought August 23, 1768, when the camp of the Mahratta contingent, under
Morari Rao, forming a part of Colonel Donald Campbell’s column, was
attacked by a detachment of Hyder Ali’s army. The Mahrattas repulsed the
Mysore cavalry with a loss of about 300, at a cost to themselves of 18
only.


                     Opequan (American Civil War).

Fought September 19, 1864, between 13,000 Confederates, under General
Early, and 45,000 Federals, under General Sheridan. Success at first
inclined to the side of the Southerners, but their left wing was broken
by a charge of 7,000 cavalry, under Custer, and the Confederates were
completely routed and fled in confusion.


                        Oporto (Peninsular War).

Fought March 28, 1809, when the French, under Soult, completely defeated
the Portuguese under Lima and Pareiras, outside the city of Oporto.
Soult followed up his success by storming Oporto, with horrible
slaughter, it being computed that 10,000 of the inhabitants perished.
The French lost 500 only.


                 Oran (Ximenes’ Expedition to Morocco).

Fought May 17, 1509, between the Moors and the Spaniards, under Navarro.
The Spaniards, late in the evening, attacked and drove off the Moors
from a strong position on the heights above the city. They then stormed
the city itself, escalading the walls by placing their pikes in the
crevices of the stones. The Moors lost in the battle and the storm 4,000
killed and about 8,000 prisoners, while the losses of the victors were
very small.


                  Orchomenus (First Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 85, between the Pontic army, under Archelaus, and the
Romans, under Sulla. The Asiatic cavalry attacked and drove back the
Roman line, but Sulla himself rallied his troops, and led them in a
charge which totally routed the enemy with heavy loss.


                             Ordovici, The.

Fought A.D. 50, between the Romans, under Ostorius Scapula, and the
Britons, under Caractacus. The Britons occupied the slope of a hill,
where they were attacked by the Romans and totally routed. Caractacus
fled to the Brigantes, by whom he was surrendered, and sent a captive to
Rome.


                     Orleans (Hundred Years’ War).

This city was besieged by the English, under the Regent, the Duke of
Bedford, in October, 1428. In April, 1429, a French force, 7,000 strong,
under Dunois and Joan of Arc, succeeded in entering, it having been
found impossible to invest the place completely. After various
successful attacks on the batteries erected by the besiegers, Joan, on
the 6th and 7th of May, led the garrison to victory against the English
lines, and on the 8th Bedford was compelled to raise the siege.


                        Orthez (Peninsular War).

Fought February 27, 1814, between the British under Wellington, and the
French, under Soult. The French were driven out of Orthez and across the
Luy de Béarn, with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 6 guns.


                                 Oruro.

Fought 1862, between the Bolivian Government troops, under the
President, General Acha, and the rebels, under General Perez, who had
proclaimed himself President. Perez was utterly routed.


               Ostend (Netherlands War of Independence).

This place was besieged, July 5, 1601, by the Spaniards, under the
Archduke Albert. The town made a most remarkable defence, holding out
for more than three years, but Spinola having taken command of the
besiegers, it was finally captured, September 14, 1604, by which time
scarcely a house in the town was left standing. The Spaniards lost
70,000 men in the course of the siege.


                         Ostia (Italian Wars).

This place, held by a French garrison, under Menaldo Guerri, was
besieged in 1500 by the Spaniards, under Gonsalvo de Cordova. After five
days’ bombardment, an attack was made upon the town on the opposite side
by a small party of Spaniards resident in Rome, under Garcilasso de la
Vega. Thus between two fires, Guerri surrendered.


                       Ostrolenka (Crimean War).

Fought 1853, between the Turks, under Omar Pasha, and the Russian army
which had invaded the Danubian Principalities. The Turks, who were
considerably superior in numbers, gained a complete victory.


                     Ostrowno (Campaign of Moscow).

Fought July 25 and 26, 1812, between the French corps of Ney and Prince
Eugène, with Murat’s cavalry, and the Russian corps of Count Osterman
and General Konownitzyn. The Russians were defeated and driven back on
both days, with a loss of 3,000 killed and wounded, 800 prisoners and 8
guns. The French loss was about the same.


                       Oswego (Seven Years’ War).

This place, held by a garrison of 1,400 Provincial troops, under Colonel
Mercer, was besieged by the French, under Montcalm, August 11, 1756.
After a bombardment of 3 days, in the course of which Mercer was killed,
the place surrendered. The losses on both sides were very small.


                 Otrar (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This city was besieged, 1219, by 200,000 Mongols, under Oktai and
Zagatai, sons of Genghiz Khan, and defended by a garrison of 60,000,
under Gazer Khan. The place was entered after a four months’ siege, by
which time the garrison was reduced to 20,000 men, but with this remnant
Gazer Khan held out in the citadel for another month.


                       Otterburn (Scottish Wars).

Fought August 19, 1388, between 9,000 English, under Henry Percy
(Hotspur) and a greatly inferior force of Scots, under Earls Douglas and
Murray. Hotspur attacked the Scottish entrenchments, and was totally
defeated, with a loss of about 2,000. The battle is celebrated in the
old ballad of “Chevy Chace.”


                      Otumba (Conquest of Mexico).

Fought July 8, 1520, between 200 Spaniards, with some thousands of
Tlascalan auxiliaries, under Cortes, and a force of about 200,000
Aztecs. The Spaniards, wearied by a long march on their retreat from
Mexico, were intercepted by the Aztecs, and after many hours’ fighting,
were on the verge of defeat, when a charge of a few cavaliers, headed by
Cortes, into the very heart of the Aztec army, so discouraged them that
they fled in disorder. It is said that 20,000 Aztecs fell.


               Oudenarde (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought July 11, 1708, between 80,000 British and Imperialists, under
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and 100,000 French, under the Duke of
Burgundy and Marshal Vendôme. The French, who were besieging Oudenarde,
raised the siege on the advance of the allies, and marched to meet them,
but were totally defeated with a loss of 3,000 killed, 7,000 prisoners,
and 10 guns. The allies lost 2,000.



                                   P


                     Paardeberg (Second Boer War).

Fought February 18, 1900, between 5,000 Boers, under Cronje, and the
British, numbering 4 Infantry Brigades, with 4 batteries, under Lord
Kitchener. Cronje had taken refuge in the bed of the Tugela river, and
an attempt was made to dislodge him. The absence of cover for the
attacking force, however, rendered this impossible, but he was
surrounded, and on the arrival of Lord Roberts, subjected to a sustained
artillery fire, which lasted until he surrendered on the 27th. The
British losses during the operations amounted to 98 officers and 1,437
men, of whom 1,100 fell in the battle of the 18th. The prisoners taken
numbered 3,000 Transvaalers and 1,100 Free Staters, with 6 guns.


                                 Pabon.

Fought September 17, 1861, between the troops of Buenos Ayres, under
Mitre, aided by an Italian legion, under Piloni, and the army of the
Argentine Confederation, under Urquiza. The latter were defeated.


                      Pagahar (First Burmah War).

The only occasion during the war when the Burmans met the British in the
open. In 1825 Sir Archibald Campbell, with 1,300 men, encountered 15,000
Burmans, under Zay-ya-Thayan but the battle was almost a bloodless one,
for the Burmans failed to make any stand, their general being the first
to flee.


                      Pagasæan Gulf (Sacred War).

Fought B.C. 352, between the Phocians, under Onomarchus, and the
Macedonians, under Philip. Philip’s infantry was about equal in numbers
to that of the Phocians, but he was far superior in cavalry, and in the
end the Phocians were completely defeated, with the loss of a third of
their number. Onomarchus was slain.


                  Palais Gallien (War of the Fronde).

Fought September 5, 1649, between the Royal troops, 8,000 strong, under
the Marshal de la Meilleraic, and 7,000 Bordelais, under the Ducs de
Bouillon and de la Rochefoucauld. The Bordelais successfully repulsed
four or five assaults, but by nightfall were driven from their
entrenchments into the city, with a loss of about 120. The assailants
lost over 1,000 killed and wounded.


                       Palermo (Italian Rising).

Fought May 26 and 27, 1848, when Garibaldi, with 750 of his “Thousand
Volunteers,” and about 3,000 Sicilian “Picciotti,” succeeded in
surprising one of the gates of Palermo, which was garrisoned by 18,000
Neapolitans, under General Lanza. The “Picciotti” fled at the first
shot, but Garibaldi penetrated into the city, where, being joined by the
citizens, he erected barricades, and after some severe fighting, in
which the Neapolitans suffered heavily, General Lanza surrendered. The
last of the Neapolitan troops were withdrawn on June 20.


                      Palestrina (Italian Rising).

Fought May 9, 1849, between 4,000 Italian Patriots, under Garibaldi, and
7,000 Neapolitans, under King Ferdinand. After three hours’ fighting,
the Neapolitans were totally routed. Garibaldi was wounded in the
action.


                    Palestro (Unification of Italy).

Fought May 30, 1859, between the Sardinians, under General Cialdini, and
the Austrians, under General Stadion. The Austrians attacked the
Sardinians while they were crossing the Sesia, but were repulsed, and
Cialdini effected the passage successfully and drove the Austrians out
of Palestro with considerable loss.


                    Palmyra (Expedition to Palmyra).

This city was besieged by the Romans, under Aurelian, after the defeat
of Zenobia at Emesa in 272. An obstinate defence was made by the Queen,
but Aurelian being reinforced by Probus early in 273, Zenobia fled from
the city and the place was captured. Zenobia failed to escape, and was
brought into Aurelian’s camp. During his return march, Aurelian learnt
that the citizens had risen, and massacred the Governor and the garrison
he had left in the place. He thereupon retraced his steps, and destroyed
the city, sparing neither young nor old.


                    Palo Alto (Americo-Mexican War).

Fought May 8, 1846, between the Americans, under General Taylor, and the
Mexicans, under Arista. The Mexicans were completely routed, at very
small cost to the victors.


                   Panama (Raids of the Buccaneers).

On December 16, 1670, Morgan the Buccaneer sailed from Hispaniola with
37 ships and about 2,000 men to plunder this town. Having captured the
castle of San Lorenzo, at the mouth of the Chagre, an exploit which cost
the assailants 170 out of 400 men engaged, while two-thirds of the
garrison were killed, Morgan started to cross the Isthmus, at the head
of 1,200 men, January 18, 1671. The garrison of Panama, 2,400 strong,
met him outside the city, and were defeated with heavy loss, the
Buccaneers losing 600 men. Morgan then sacked the place, and on February
24, withdrew with 175 mule loads of plunder, and 600 prisoners.


                   Panama (Raids of the Buccaneers).

Fought April 23, 1680, between the Buccaneers, with three ships, under
John Coxon, and three Spanish vessels. The Spaniards were defeated,
after a hard fight in which two Spanish vessels were captured by
boarding. The Spanish commander was killed. The Buccaneers then entered
the Bay, and captured six vessels lying in the roads.


                               Pandosia.

Fought 331 B.C., between the Italian Greeks, under Alexander of Epirus,
and the Lucanians. During the battle Alexander was stabbed by a Lucanian
exile serving in the Greek army, and the Greeks were in the end
defeated.


                      Pandu Naddi (Indian Mutiny).

Fought July 15, 1857, between a British relieving force, under Havelock,
and the mutineers who were opposing his advance to Cawnpore. By a forced
march in the heat of the day, Havelock succeeded in seizing the bridge
over the Pandu Naddi, which the mutineers were engaged in mining, thus
securing an open road to Cawnpore. The rebels were driven off after a
short engagement.


                      Pandu Naddi (Indian Mutiny).

Fought November 26, 1857, between 1,400 British, under General Windham,
and the advance guard of the mutineers and the Gwalior contingent, under
the Nana Sahib. The rebels were posted beyond the river, and the British
crossing the dry bed, drove them from their entrenchments, capturing 3
guns. Windham, then finding himself close to the main body of mutineers,
retired towards Cawnpore.


                    Panipat (Third Mongol Invasion).

Fought April 20, 1526, between the Delhi Mohammedans, 10,000 strong,
with 100 elephants, under Ibrahim, and the Mongols, about 2,000 picked
men, under Baber, the first of the Great Moguls. Ibrahim was totally
defeated, being himself among the slain. The battle marked the end of
the Afghan dynasty of Delhi, and the commencement of the Mogul Empire.


                                Panipat.

Fought November 5, 1536, between Akbar, the Great Mogul, with about
20,000 troops, and the forces of the revolted Hindu Rajahs, 100,000
strong, under Hemu. The Hindus attacked, and the onslaught of the
elephants being repulsed, their ranks were thrown into disorder, and the
Moguls gained a complete victory. Hemu was wounded and captured. By this
victory Akbar recovered Delhi, which had fallen into the hands of the
rebels.


                                Panipat.

Fought 1759, between the Mahrattas, 85,000 strong, under Sedashao Rao
Bhao, cousin of the Peshwa, and the Duranis, numbering, with Hindu
allies, about 90,000. The Bhao attacked, and dispersed Ahmed’s Indian
troops, but on the Duranis coming into action, the Mahrattas were broken
and utterly routed, with enormous loss. The Bhao, and the son of the
Peshwa were among the slain.


                      Panormus (First Punic War).

Fought B.C. 250, between 25,000 Romans, under L. Cæcilius Metellus, and
the Carthaginian army in Sicily, under Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal offered
battle in front of Panormus, and Metellus sent out his light troops to
engage him. They ran back into the town before a charge of the
elephants, which, following closely, were driven into the ditch
surrounding the place, where many were killed. Meanwhile Metellus
sallied out with his legionaries, and taking Hasdrubal in flank
completely routed him. The whole of the Carthaginian elephants in Sicily
were killed or captured in this battle.


         Parætakene Mountains (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought 316 B.C., between the Macedonians, 30,000 strong, under
Antigonus, and an equal force of Asiatics, under Eumenes. Eumenes
attacked the Macedonian camp, and after a severe engagement, in which
the Asiatics held the advantage, Antigonus, by successful manœuvring,
withdrew his army without serious loss, leaving Eumenes a barren
victory.


                        Parana (Paraguayan War).

Fought 1866, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the Brazilians,
under Porto Alegre. Lopez was victorious.


                   Paris (Allied Invasion of France).

On March 30, 1814, Paris, which was defended only by 20,000 regulars and
National Guard, under Marmont, was attacked by the Grand Army of the
allies, under Schwartzemberg. Three columns assaulted the French
positions at Vincennes, Belleville and Montmartre, while a fourth
attacked the extreme left of the French line in order to turn the
heights of Montmartre. The two first positions were carried, and
Montmartre turned, whereupon Joseph having fled, Marmont surrendered.
The French lost over 4,000 men; the allies about 8,000.


                       Paris (Franco-German War).

Paris was invested by the main German army, under the King of Prussia
and von Moltke, September 19, 1870. The garrison, under the command of
General Trochu, made a gallant defence, many serious sorties taking
place, but the Germans gradually mastered the outer defences, and
finally, being much straitened by famine, the city surrendered January
28, 1871.


                        Parkany (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August, 1663, between 200,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier,
Achmet Köprili Pasha, and the Hungarians, in far smaller force, under
Count Forgacz. The Hungarians were defeated, and driven into Neuhäusel,
which town, after a valiant resistance of six weeks, capitulated
September 24.


                 Parma (War of the Polish Succession).

Fought June 29, 1734, between the French, under Marshal de Coigny, and
the Imperialists, 60,000 strong, under General de Mercy. The
Imperialists were defeated with a loss of 6,000, including de Mercy. The
French loss was almost as heavy.


                  Paso de la Patria (Paraguayan War).

Fought 1866, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the Brazilians,
under Porto Alegre. The Paraguayans gained a signal victory.


                      Patay (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought June 18, 1429, between the French, under Joan of Arc and the Duc
d’Alençon, and the English, under Talbot and Sir John Fastolfe. The
English were retiring after the siege of Orleans, and their advanced
guard under Talbot, being attacked by the French, was seized with a
panic, and refusing to meet the charge of the French cavalry, broke and
fled. The main body, under Fastolfe, however, maintained its formation,
and made good its retreat to Etampes. Talbot was made prisoner.


                  Patila (Tartar Invasion of Persia).

Fought 1394, between the Tartars, under Tamerlane, and the Persians,
under Shah Mansur. The Persians vigorously attacked the Tartar centre,
and Tamerlane was nearly overwhelmed, but rallying his troops he led a
charge which restored the battle, and gained a complete victory. The
complete subjugation of Persia followed.


                   Pavia (Invasion of the Alemanni).

Fought 271, between the Romans, under Aurelian, and the German invaders.
Aurelian gained a signal victory, and the Alemanni recrossed the
frontier.


                   Pavia (Lombard Conquest of Italy).

This city was besieged in 568 by the Lombards, under Alboin, and after a
gallant defence, lasting over three years, was at last subdued, rather
by famine than by force of arms, and surrendered to the besiegers. Pavia
then became the capital of the Lombard kingdom of Italy.


                         Pavia (Italian Wars).

Fought May 22, 1431, on the Ticino, near Pavia, between 85 Venetian
galleys, under Nicolas Trevisani, and a somewhat superior number of
galleys in the pay of the Milanese. The Venetians were defeated, with a
loss of 70 galleys and 3,000 men.


                       Pavia (Wars of Charles V).

Fought February 25, 1525, between the French, under Francis I, and the
Imperialists, under Lannoy. Francis, who was besieging Pavia, awaited
the attack of the Imperialists on his lines, and his artillery wrought
great havoc in their ranks, then, charging at the head of his cavalry,
he was repulsed by Lannoy’s infantry, and the Swiss mercenaries being
taken in flank, and thrown into disorder, the battle was lost. Francis
was captured. This is the occasion on which he wrote to his mother,
“Rien ne m’est demouré, excepté l’honneur et la vie qui est sauve.”


                 Peach Tree Creek (American Civil War).

Fought July 22, 1864, in the course of the operations round Atlanta,
between the Federals, under General Sherman, and the Confederates, under
General Hood. Hood attacked the Federal position, and drove off their
left wing, capturing 13 guns and some prisoners; being reinforced,
however, the Federals rallied, and recovered the lost ground. The
Confederates, however, claimed the victory. The Federals lost 3,722,
including General McPherson. The Confederate losses were about the same.


                    Pea Ridge (American Civil War).

Fought March 7 and 8, 1862, between 16,000 Confederates, under General
von Dorn, and the Federals, in equal force, under General Curtis. On the
7th the Confederates drove back the Federal right wing, and nearly
succeeded in cutting their communications, though they lost General
M’Culloch in the course of the action. On the 8th the Federals drove
back the Southerners, and recovered the ground they had lost, the battle
ending without decisive result. The losses on each side were about
1,000. This is also called the Battle of Gek Horn.


                   Peiwar Kotal (Second Afghan War).

Fought December 2, 1878, between a British force, 3,200 strong, under
Sir Frederick Roberts, with 13 guns, and about 18,000 Afghans, with 11
guns, strongly posted in the Kotal. By an able, but difficult turning
movement, the pass was crossed, and the Afghans completely defeated,
with heavy loss, all their guns being captured. The British lost 20
killed and 78 wounded.


                   Peking (Tartar Invasion of China).

This city was besieged by the Tartars, under Genghiz Khan, in 1210, and
after a long and obstinate defence, which so exhausted the besiegers
that Genghiz Khan is said to have decimated his men in order to feed the
rest, the city was taken by stratagem.


              Pelekanon (Ottoman Conquest of Asia Minor).

Fought 1329, between the Turks, under Orkhan, and the forces of
Andronicus the Younger, Emperor of the East. The Imperialists were
defeated. This is the first occasion in which the Byzantines met the
Ottoman invaders in battle.


                     Pelischat (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought August 30, 1877, when the Turks, 25,000 strong, with 50 guns,
made a sortie from Plevna, and attacked the Russian lines in front of
Poradim. The Russians, 20,000 strong, under General Zotoff, succeeded in
repulsing all the Turkish attacks, with a loss of about 3,000 killed and
wounded. The Russians lost 1,000.


                 Pelusium (Persian Conquest of Egypt).

Fought 525 B.C., between the Persians, under Cambyses, and the
Egyptians, under Psammeticus. The Egyptians were totally defeated, and
this victory was followed by the complete subjugation of Egypt, which
became a Persian satrapy.


               Pelusium (War of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 321, between the Macedonians, under the Regent, Perdiccas,
and the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Lagus. Perdiccas attacked the fortress,
but was driven off with heavy loss, including 1,000 drowned in the Nile.


                   Peña Cerrada (First Carlist War).

This fortress, held by a Carlist garrison, under Gergue, was captured by
Espartero with 19,000 Cristinos, June 21, 1838. After shelling the place
for 7 hours, Espartero attacked the Carlists, who held the heights
outside the town, and dispersed them, capturing 600 prisoners, and all
their guns. The remainder of the garrison then abandoned the place.


             Penobscot Bay (American War of Independence).

Fought July 14, 1779, when a British squadron of 10 ships, under Sir
George Collier, completely destroyed an American squadron of 24 ships,
and captured the 3,000 men who formed their crews.


                     Pen Selwood (Danish Invasion).

Fought 1016, between the English, under Edmund Ironside, and the Danes,
under Knut, shortly after Edmund’s election as King by the Witanegemot.
This was the first of the series of engagements between the two rivals,
which ended with the Peace of Olney.


                       Pered (Hungarian Rising).

Fought June 21, 1849, between the Hungarians, 16,000 strong, under
Görgey, and the Austrians and Russians, under Prince Windischgrätz. The
allies attacked the Hungarian position, and after severe fighting, drove
them out, with a loss of about 3,000.


                     Perembacum (First Mysore War).

Fought September 10, 1780, when a Mysore force, 11,000 strong, under
Tippu Sahib, surrounded and cut to pieces a detachment of Sir Hector
Monro’s army, 3,700 in number, under Colonel Baillie. Only a few,
including Baillie himself, escaped the massacre.


                       Perisabor (Persian Wars).

This fortress, defended by an Assyrian and Persian garrison, was
captured, May, 363, by the Romans, under Julian. The fortress was
dismantled and the town destroyed.


                               Perpignan.

This fortress was besieged by the French, 11,000 strong, under the
Seigneur du Lude, at the end of 1474, and was defended by a Spanish
garrison. The Spanish army could not succeed in relieving the place, and
after holding out with great gallantry until March 14, 1475, the
garrison, reduced to 400 men, surrendered, and were allowed to march out
with the honours of war. The capture of Perpignan gave France possession
of Rousillon.


                    Perryville (American Civil War).

Fought October 8, 1862, between 45,000 Federals, under General Buell,
and a somewhat smaller Confederate army, under General Bragg. The
Confederates attacked, and drove back the Federals, but no decisive
result was arrived at, and during the night Bragg withdrew, having
inflicted a loss of 4,000 on the enemy, and captured an artillery train.
The Confederates lost about 2,500 killed and wounded.


              Persepolis (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 316, between the Macedonians, 31,000 strong, with 65
elephants, under Antigonus, and 42,000 Asiatics, with 114 elephants,
under Eumenes. At the first onslaught, Antigonus’ infantry was
overwhelmed, but his cavalry retrieved the day, and seizing the enemy’s
camp, threw Eumenes’ phalanx into confusion. Upon this the Macedonian
infantry rallied, and gained a complete victory, Eumenes being captured.


            Peshawar (Second Mohammedan Invasion of India).

Fought 1001, between 10,000 Afghans, under Sultan Mahmud of Ghuzni, and
42,000 Punjabis, with 300 elephants, under the Rajah Jaipal of Lahore.
The Rajah was totally defeated, and captured with 15 of his principal
chiefs.


                    Petersburg (American Civil War).

Fought June 15 to 18, 1864, forming an episode in the Federal attack on
Richmond. General Beauregard, with 8,000 men, was charged with the
defence of Petersburg, and at the same time had to contain General
Butler at Bermuda Hundred. His entrenchments before Petersburg were
attacked on the 15th by General Smith, and a portion of the first line
carried. On the 16th Beauregard withdrew the force masking Bermuda
Hundred, and concentrated his troops in front of Petersburg, but after
holding out till the afternoon, a panic seized the defenders, and they
were driven from the first line. Beauregard, however, rallied them, and
retook the entrenchments. During the night he withdrew to a second and
stronger line of defences, and on the 17th and 18th repulsed, with
terrible slaughter, all the efforts of the Federals to carry it.


                    Petersburg (American Civil War).

On June 30, 1864, a mine was exploded under the Confederate defences in
front of Petersburg, and an attempt was made by the Federals to carry
the entrenchments during the confusion that ensued. The Confederates,
however, stood their ground, repulsing all attacks with heavy loss, and
of the Federals who succeeded in entering the breast-works, 5,000 were
killed or captured. Both the generals commanding, Lee and Grant, were
present during the action.


                      Peterwaradin (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 5, 1716, when Prince Eugene, with 80,000 Imperialists,
mostly veterans from the Flanders campaign, signally defeated 150,000
Turks under Darnad Ali Pasha. The Turks lost 30,000 killed, 50 standards
and 250 guns. The Imperialists lost about 3,000.


                         Petra (Persian Wars).

This strong fortress, garrisoned by 1,500 Persians, was besieged by the
Romans, 8,000 strong, under Dagisteus, in 549. After a series of
unsuccessful assaults the Romans succeeded in bringing down a large
portion of the outer wall by mining. By this time the garrison was
reduced to 400, but Dagisteus, delaying to storm the fortress, the
Persians succeeded in throwing in reinforcements, which brought the
garrison up to 3,000. Meanwhile all the breaches had been repaired, and
the Romans had to undertake a second siege. At last a breach was
effected, and after very severe fighting the besiegers effected a
lodgement. Of the defenders 700 fell in the second siege, and 1,070 in
the storm, while of 700 prisoners, only 18 were unwounded. Five hundred
retreated to the citadel, and held out to the last, perishing in the
flames when it was fired by the Romans.


               Pharsalus (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought August 9, B.C. 48, between the Pompeians, 60,000 strong, under
Pompey, and Cæsareans, 25,000 strong, under Cæsar. The Pompeian cavalry
drove back that of Cæsar, but following in pursuit, were thrown into
confusion by the legionaries, whereupon they turned and fled from the
field; the infantry followed and the battle became a rout, in which
15,000 Pompeians, and only 200 Cæsareans fell. After the battle, 20,000
Pompeians surrendered.


                     Pharsalus (Greco-Turkish War).

Fought May 6, 1897, when Edhem Pasha, with three Turkish divisions,
drove the Greeks from their entrenchments in front of Pharsalus, at a
cost of about 230 killed and wounded. The Greek loss was not very heavy.


                        Philiphaugh (Civil War).

Fought September 13, 1645, when 4,000 Lowland horse, under David Leslie,
surprised and cut to pieces Montrose’s force of Highlanders, encamped
near Selkirk. Montrose escaped with a few followers.


                    Philippi (Rebellion of Brutus).

Fought B.C. 42, between the Republicans, under Brutus and Cassius,
100,000 strong, and the army of the Triumvirs, about equal in numbers,
under Octavius and Mark Antony. Brutus on the right repulsed the legions
of Octavius, and penetrated into his camp. Cassius, however, was
overthrown by Antony, and would have been overwhelmed but for the
arrival of aid from the successful right wing. The action was renewed on
the second day, when the Triumvirs were completely victorious, and the
Republican army dispersed. Brutus committed suicide on the field of
battle.


          Philippopolis (First Gothic Invasion of the Empire).

This city was besieged, 251, by the Goths, under Cniva, and after a
gallant defence, and the defeat of an attempt by Decius to relieve it,
was stormed and sacked. It is said that 100,000 of the garrison and
inhabitants perished in the siege and subsequent massacre.


                   Philippopolis (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought February 17, 1878, between the Russians, under General Gourko,
and the Turks, under Fuad and Shakir Pashas. The Turks made a stubborn
defence of the approaches to Philippopolis, but were overpowered by
superior numbers, and forced to retreat with a loss of 5,000 killed and
wounded, 2,000 prisoners, and 114 guns. The Russians lost 1,300.


              Philipsburg (War of the Polish Succession).

This fortress, held by the Imperialists, was besieged 1734, by the
French, under the Duke of Berwick. The Duke was killed by a cannon ball
while visiting the trenches, but the place fell soon afterwards,
notwithstanding the efforts of Prince Eugene to relieve it.


                    Pieter’s Hill (Second Boer War).

The scene of the severest fighting in the course of Sir Redvers Buller’s
final and successful attempt to relieve Ladysmith. The operations
commenced by the capture of Hlangwane, on February 19, 1900, which gave
the British command of the Tugela, which was crossed on the 21st. On the
22nd a steady advance was made up to the line of Pieter’s Hill, which
was attacked by the Irish Brigade, under General Hart, on the 23rd. At a
cost of nearly half their numbers, they succeeded in establishing
themselves under cover, close to the Boer trenches, but could not
dislodge the defenders. It was not till the 27th, when Buller had turned
the Boer left, that a general assault was successful, and the Boers
evacuated the position. The British losses during the operations were
1,896 killed and wounded.


                     Pingyang (Chino-Japanese War).

Fought September 15, 1894, between the Japanese, 14,000 strong, under
General Nodzu, and 12,000 Chinese, entrenched in a strong position.
After severe fighting the Chinese were driven from their entrenchments
with heavy loss. The Japanese lost 650 killed and wounded.


                     Pinkie Cleugh (Scottish Wars).

Fought September, 1547, between the Scots, under the Earl of Huntly, and
the English, under the Protector Somerset. The Scots crossed the Esk,
and attacked the English lines, at first with success, but they were
thrown into confusion by a charge of cavalry, and in the end fled from
the field with heavy loss.


                      Pirot (Servo-Bulgarian War).

Fought November 26 and 27, 1885, between 40,000 Servians, under King
Milan, and 45,000 Bulgarians, under Prince Alexander. After some
desultory fighting, the Bulgarians seized the town of Pirot in the
course of the afternoon. At dawn on the 27th, the Servians, by a
surprise attack, recovered Pirot, which was later retaken by the
Bulgarians, though the Servians continued to hold a position to the
south of the town till nightfall. Early next morning an armistice was
concluded. The Bulgarians lost 2,500, the Servians 2,000 killed and
wounded.


                           Pittsburg Landing.

_See_ Shiloh.


                 Placentia (Invasion of the Alemanni).

Fought 271, between the Romans, under Aurelian, and the invading
Alemanni. The barbarians attacked the Romans in the dusk of evening,
after a long and fatiguing march, and threw them into disorder, but they
were rallied by the Emperor, and after severe fighting, succeeded in
beating off their assailants.


                 Plains of Abraham (Seven Years’ War).

Fought September 13, 1759, when Wolfe, who was lying on shipboard in the
St. Lawrence above Quebec, with 4,000 troops, effected a landing
secretly in the night of the 12th to the 13th, and took up unperceived a
strong position on the Plains of Abraham. Next morning he was attacked
by Montcalm, with about equal numbers, but notwithstanding the most
desperate efforts, the French were unable to carry the position, and
were driven back into Quebec with a loss of about 1,500. Both Wolfe and
Montcalm fell mortally wounded. The British loss amounted to 664 killed
and wounded. The French immediately afterwards evacuated Quebec.


                       Plassy (Seven Years’ War).

Fought 1757, between the British, 3,000 strong, with 8 guns, under
Clive, and the army of Surabjah Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, aided by a
small force of Frenchmen. Clive was encamped in a grove of mango-trees,
where he was attacked by the Nawab. He beat off the attack, and then
stormed the Nawab’s lines, totally routing his army, which fled in
panic, with a loss of about 500. The British lost 72 only.


                    Platæa (Third Persian Invasion).

Fought B.C. 479, between the Greeks, about 100,000 strong, under
Pausanias the Spartan, and 300,000 Persians, with 50,000 Greek
auxiliaries, under Mardonius. The Persians fought bravely, but were
overborne by the superior discipline and heavier armour of the Greeks,
and Mardonius falling, a panic ensued, and they fled to their entrenched
camp. This was stormed by the Athenians, and no quarter was given, with
the result, it is said, that with the exception of a body of 40,000
which left the field early in the battle, only 3,000 Persians escaped.


                      Platæa (Peloponnesian War).

In 429 B.C., this city, held by a garrison of 400 Platæans and 80
Athenians, was besieged by the Spartans, under Archidamus. All the
useless mouths were sent out of the place, only 110 women being retained
to bake bread. The garrison repulsed numerous assaults, and the siege
soon resolved itself into a blockade, but provisions becoming scarce, an
attempt was made to break through the enemy’s lines, which half the
garrison succeeded in doing, with the loss of one man. The remainder
held out till 427, when being on the verge of starvation, they
surrendered. The survivors were tried for having deserted Bœotia for
Athens, at the outbreak of the war, and 200 Platæans, and 25 Athenians
were put to death.


                     Plescow (Russo-Swedish Wars).

This fortress was besieged by the Swedes, under Gustavus Adolphus,
August 20, 1615, and defended by a Russian garrison. It is notable as
marking a departure from the established practice of surrounding a
besieged city with walls of circumvallation. For these Gustavus
substituted a series of entrenched camps, communications between which
were maintained by strong patrolling forces. Little progress was made,
owing to a delay in the arrival of the Swedish breaching guns, and
through the mediation of England, negotiations were opened with Russia,
and the siege raised, October 14, 1615.


                      Plevna (Russo-Turkish War).

Four battles were fought in the course of the siege of Plevna, the first
three being attacks on the Russian defences, and the fourth, Osman
Pasha’s final attempt to cut his way through the besieger’s lines.

On July 20, 1877, the advance guard of Krüdener’s corps, 6,500 strong,
under Schilder-Schuldener, attacked the defences to the north and east
of Plevna. The Russians advanced with impetuosity, and carried some of
the advanced trenches, driving the defenders back to the outskirts of
the town, but their heavy loss, and a failure of ammunition compelled a
retreat, and the Turks rallying, drove them from the positions they had
captured, and pursued them for some distance. The Russians lost
two-thirds of their officers, and nearly 2,000 men.

The second battle took place, July 30, when General Krüdener, with
30,000 Russians in two divisions, assailed the Turkish redoubts to the
north and east of the town. Schakofsky had command of the latter attack,
Krüdener himself leading the assault on the Gravitza redoubt on the
north. Krüdener was absolutely unsuccessful. Schakofsky by 5.30 p.m. was
in possession of two of the eastern redoubts, but before nightfall these
were retaken by the Turks, and the Russians retired, defeated all along
the line. Their losses amounted to 169 officers and 7,136 men, of whom
2,400 were left dead on the field. On the 11th and 12th of September,
the investing army, 95,000 strong, under the Grand Duke Michael,
attacked Plevna on three sides, Osman Pasha having now 30,000 men under
his command. On the 11th an attack on the Omar Tabrija redoubt was
repulsed with a loss to the Russians of 6,000 men. The attack on the
Gravitza redoubts resulted in the capture of the “Bloody Battery,” which
the Russians held till the end of the siege. On the south-west,
Skobeleff captured two of the six inner redoubts which protected that
angle of the fortress. On the 12th, the attack on the second Gravitza
redoubt was repulsed, and the two redoubts captured by Skobeleff were
retaken, after a terrible struggle. The losses in the two days’ fighting
amounted to 20,600 including 2,000 prisoners, on the Russian side, on
that of the Turks to 5,000. Of these, 8,000 Russians, and 4,000 Turks
fell in Skobeleff’s attack.

On December 10, Osman Pasha, at the head of 25,000 Turks, accompanied by
9,000 convalescents and wounded in carts, attempted to cut his way
through the Russian army, now 100,000 strong, under the King of
Roumania, with Todleben as Chief of the Staff. The attempt was made on
the east of Plevna, and was directed against the Imperial Grenadiers,
under General Ganetzki. Having successfully crossed the Vid, Osman
charged down upon the Russians, on a line two miles in length, and
carried the first line of entrenchments. Todleben, however, hurried up
reinforcements, and the Turks were in turn attacked, and driven back in
confusion across the river, Osman being severely wounded. Here they made
their last stand, but were overpowered, and driven into Plevna, which
before evening capitulated, after a defence lasting 143 days. In this
engagement, the Turks lost 5,000, and the Russians 2,000 killed and
wounded.


                                Podhaic.

Fought 1667, between 10,000 Poles, under John Sobieski, and 80,000
Cossacks and Tartars who were besieging Kaminiec. The Cossacks were
totally routed and forced to evacuate Poland.


                       Podol (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 26, 1866, between the advance-guard of Prince Frederick
Charles’ army, and the Austrians, under General Clam-Gallas. The
Austrians were defeated and driven out of Podol, after severe fighting,
in which they lost heavily. The Prussians took 500 prisoners.


                 Poitiers (Gothic Invasion of France).

Fought 507, between the Franks, under Clovis, and the Visigoths, under
Alaric II. Clovis and Alaric met in single combat, and Alaric was slain,
following which the Goths were utterly routed. By this decisive victory,
the province of Aquitaine was added to the Frankish dominions.


                     Poitiers (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought September 19, 1356, between 8,000 English, under Edward the Black
Prince, and 80,000 French, under King John of France. The English
occupied a strong position behind lanes and vineyards, in which their
archers were posted. The French cavalry, charging up the lanes, were
thrown into confusion by the bowmen, and were then taken in flank by the
English knights and men-at-arms, who completely routed them, with a loss
of 8,000 killed, and numerous prisoners, including the King. The English
losses were very small.


                         Pola (War of Chiozza).

Fought 1380, when Doria, with 22 Genoese galleys, offered battle to the
Venetian fleet, under Pisani, which was lying at Pola. Pisani sallied
out with 20 galleys, and captured the Genoese flag-ship, Doria being
killed. The Genoese, however, rallied, drove Pisani back, and defeated
him with a loss of 2,000 killed, and 15 galleys and 1,900 men captured.


              Pollentia (First Gothic Invasion of Italy).

Fought March 29, 403, between the Goths, under Alaric, and the Romans,
under Stilicho. Stilicho attacked the Gothic camp while they were
celebrating the festival of Easter, and owing to the surprise, the
charge of the Roman cavalry threw them into confusion. They were,
however, soon rallied by Alaric, and the Romans driven off with heavy
loss, but Stilicho advancing at the head of the legionaries, forced his
way into the camp, and drove out the Goths with enormous slaughter.
Alaric’s wife was among the captives.


                     Pollicore (First Mysore War).

Fought August 27, 1781, between 11,000 British, under Sir Eyre Coote and
the Mysoris, 80,000 strong, under Haidar Ali. Coote seized the village
of Pollicore, turning Haidar’s flank and forcing him to retreat, after
an action lasting eight hours. The British lost 421 killed and wounded,
the Mysoris about 2,000.


                      Polonka (Russo-Polish Wars).

Fought 1667, between the Russian invaders, and the Poles, under
Czarnieçki. The Russians were totally routed, a defeat which was largely
instrumental in bringing about the signature of peace in the same year.


                       Polotsk (Moscow Campaign).

Fought August 18, 1812, between 33,000 French and Bavarians, under
General Saint Cyr, and 30,000 Russians, under Count Wittgenstein. The
Russians were taken by surprise, and after an action which lasted two
hours only, were driven back with a loss of 3,000 killed, 1,500
prisoners and 14 guns. The French lost a little over 1,000 killed and
wounded.


                       Polotsk (Moscow Campaign).

Fought October 18, 1812, when General Saint-Cyr, with 30,000 French and
Bavarians, was attacked and defeated by the Russians, in slightly
superior force, under Count Wittgenstein, and forced to evacuate
Polotsk.


                       Ponani (First Mysore War).

Fought November 19, 1780, when a force of British and native troops,
about 2,500 strong, under Colonel Macleod, entrenched near Ponani, were
attacked before daybreak by a strong force of Mysoris, under Tippu
Sahib. The Mysoris were repulsed at the point of the bayonet, with a
loss of 1,100. The British loss was 87 only.


                              Pondicherry.

This place was invested by the British, under Admiral Boscawen, with a
fleet of 30 sail, and a land force of 6,000 men, August 30, 1748, and
was defended by a French garrison of 4,800, under Dupleix. The siege was
grossly mismanaged, and in October Boscawen was forced to withdraw,
having lost by sickness or in action nearly a third of his land force.
The French lost 250 only during the siege.


                    Pondicherry (Seven Years’ War).

In August, 1760, Colonel Coote, with about 8,000 British and native
troops, invested this place, which was held by a French garrison, 3,000
strong, under Lally-Tollendal. Coote was almost immediately superseded
by Colonel Monson, but the latter having been wounded, Coote resumed the
command. Fire was not opened from the breaching batteries till December
8th, and on the 31st a terrific hurricane wrecked all the land
batteries, and drove ashore six ships of the blockading squadron. On
January 10, 1761, however, fire was reopened, and the town surrendered
on the 15th.


                              Pondicherry.

Having been surrendered to the French by the Peace of Paris, Pondicherry
was again besieged by a British force, under Sir Hector Monro, in
conjunction with a squadron of ships, under Sir Edward Vernon, August 8,
1778. It was gallantly defended by the French, under M. Bellecombe,
until the middle of October, when after a month’s bombardment the place
surrendered.


                              Pondicherry.

A naval action was fought off Pondicherry, August 10, 1778, during the
third siege, when a French squadron of 5 ships, under M. Tronjolly,
issued from the roads, and offered battle to the 5 ships of Sir Edward
Vernon. The French were worsted, and driven back to their anchorage.


                              Pondicherry.

A second naval action off this place was fought June 20, 1783, between a
British squadron of 18 ships of the line, and 12 frigates, under Sir
Edward Hughes, and a French squadron, under de Suffren. The battle was
undecided, the British ships suffering considerably in masts and
rigging, and being unable to chase when de Suffren sheered off. The
British loss was 520 killed and wounded.


                        Pontevert (Gallic War).

Fought 57 B.C., between 50,000 Romans, under Cæsar, and the Suevi,
300,000 strong, under Galba. The Suevi attacked the Roman entrenched
camp, but were repulsed with very heavy loss and their army dispersed.


                   Pont Valain (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought 1370, between the French, under du Guesclin, and the English,
under Sir Thomas Granson. The French surprised the English camp, but the
English rallied, and a severe conflict followed, in which the French
attack was at first repulsed. A flank movement of the French, however,
threw the English into disorder, and they were defeated with a loss of
nearly 10,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners, among the latter being
Sir Thomas Granson.


                     Poonah (Second Mahratta War).

Fought October 25, 1802, between the forces of Jeswunt Rao, and the
united armies of the Peshwa and Sindhia of Gwalior. After an evenly
contested action, Jeswunt Rao got the upper hand, and gained a complete
victory, Sindhia fleeing from the field, leaving behind him all his guns
and baggage.


                   Port Arthur (Chino-Japanese War).

This place, held by a Chinese garrison of 9,000 men, was attacked and
stormed by the Japanese, after a short bombardment. The Chinese made but
a feeble resistance, the assailants losing only 270 killed and wounded.


                   Port Arthur (Russo-Japanese War).

Fought February 8, 1904, between a Japanese fleet of 16 warships, under
Vice-Admiral Togo, and the Russian fleet of 6 battleships and 10
cruisers, under Vice-Admiral Stark, lying at anchor off Port Arthur. The
Japanese attacked with torpedo boats, and succeeded in seriously
damaging 2 battleships and a cruiser, which were beached at the mouth of
the harbour. They then opened a bombardment, in which they injured a
third battleship and four more cruisers sustaining no damage to their
own ships. The Russians lost 56 killed and wounded, the Japanese, 58,
chiefly in the torpedo boats.

On April 13, the Japanese torpedo flotilla attacked the Russian
squadron, under Makaroff. The battleship Petropavlovsk was torpedoed and
sunk, Makaroff and 700 officers and men being drowned. The battleship
Pobieda, and a destroyer were also torpedoed, but managed to reach the
harbour. The Japanese suffered no material loss.

After numerous only partially successful attempts to block the fairway,
the Japanese, on May 2, sent in a fleet of merchant steamers,
accompanied by the torpedo flotilla. Of these, eight succeeded in
reaching the outer harbour, and two of them broke the boom guarding the
inner harbour, and were blown up by their commanders in the fairway.
Several others were sunk near the harbour entrance. Of the 179 officers
and men forming the crews of the merchant steamers, only 42 were rescued
by the Japanese, though a few survivors fell into the hands of the
Russians. This is one of the most daring exploits in the history of
naval warfare.


                Porte St. Antoine (Wars of the Fronde).

Fought July 2, 1652, between the Royal troops, under Turenne, and 5,000
insurgents, under Condé. Condé occupied a position round the gate,
protected by barricades and fortified houses, where he was attacked by
Turenne. The barricades were taken and retaken several times, but at
last, after heavy fighting, Condé abandoned all idea of penetrating into
Paris, and retired. His losses were heavy, especially in officers, among
the severely wounded being the Duc de Nemurs, and the Duc de la
Rochefoucauld.


                   Port Hudson (American Civil War).

This fortress was invested, May 25, 1863, by five Federal divisions,
under General Banks, and defended by 6,000 Confederates, under General
Gardner. An assault on the 27th was repulsed, and a regular siege
commenced. After a second unsuccessful assault, on June 14, the
garrison, having no hope of relief, surrendered, July 9, having lost 800
men during the siege. The losses of the besiegers were far heavier, the
two unsuccessful assaults showing a heavy list of casualties.


                         Portland (Dutch Wars).

Fought February 18, 1653, between an English fleet of about 70 sail,
under Blake, Deane and Monk, and a Dutch fleet of 73 ships, convoying
300 merchantmen, under Van Tromp, de Ruyter and Evetzen. In the early
part of the engagement, which was very severely contested, three English
ships were carried by the board, and that portion of the fleet which had
come into action was nearly overwhelmed. At this crisis, however, the
rest of the English ships engaged, the battle was restored, and the
captured ships retaken. On the 19th the battle was renewed off the Isle
of Wight, 5 Dutch ships being captured or destroyed. On the 20th the
Dutch sheered off defeated, having lost during the three days’ fighting,
11 men-of-war, 60 merchant ships, 1,500 killed and wounded and 700
prisoners. The English losses were also heavy.


                 Porto Bello (Raids of the Buccaneers).

This Spanish-American fortress was captured in 1665 by 460 Buccaneers,
under Morgan. The walls were scaled, and the town sacked, unheard-of
cruelties being perpetrated by the Filibusters.


             Porto Bello (War of the Austrian Succession).

This place was captured from the Spaniards, November 21, 1740, by a
British fleet of 6 ships, under Admiral Vernon. The British loss was
trifling.


                     Porto Novo (First Mysore War).

Fought July 1, 1781, between 8,500 British troops, under Sir Eyre Coote,
and about 65,000 Mysoris, under Hyder Ali. Hyder occupied a strongly
entrenched camp, blocking the British advance upon Cuddalore. Here he
was attacked by Coote, and after a day’s hard fighting the position was
stormed, and Hyder forced to retreat. The British lost 306 only, while
the Mysoris are computed to have lost 10,000.


                            Porto Praya Bay.

Fought April 16, 1781, when Commodore Johnstone, in command of a British
squadron of 5 ships of the line and 5 frigates, repulsed a determined
attack of a French squadron of 11 sail, under de Suffren. The loss in
the British squadron amounted to 36 killed and 147 wounded.


                  Port Republic (American Civil War).

Fought June 9, 1862, between the Federals, 12,000 strong, under General
Shields, and an equal force of Confederates, under General Jackson. The
Federals were completely defeated, a portion of their army being driven
from the field in disorder and with heavy loss.


                                Potidæa.

This city was besieged by a force of about 3,000 Athenians, B.C. 432,
and was defended by a small garrison of Corinthians, under Aristæus. The
town held out until the winter of 429, when the garrison surrendered,
and were permitted to go free.


             Potosi. (South-American War of Independence).

Fought April, 1825, between, the Bolivians, under Bolivar, and the
Spanish Royalists, under Olaneta. The Spaniards were completely
defeated.


                      Prague (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought November 8, 1620, when the Imperialists, under Maximilian of
Bavaria and Count Tilly, drove 22,000 Bohemians, under Frederick of
Bohemia, up to the walls of Prague, and signally defeated them, with a
loss of 5,000 men and all their artillery. Frederick was obliged to take
refuge in the city, and soon afterwards capitulated. The battle only
lasted an hour, and the Imperialists lost no more than 300 men.


                       Prague (Seven Years’ War).

Fought May 6, 1757, between 70,000 Austrians, under Charles of Lorraine,
and 60,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great. The Austrians occupied
a very strong position on the Moldau, which was attacked and carried by
Frederick, Charles being driven back into Prague with a loss of 8,000
killed and wounded and 9,000 prisoners. Marshal Braun was among the
killed. The Prussians lost 13,000, including Marshal Schwerin.


                  Prairie Grove (American Civil War).

A sanguinary but indecisive action, fought December 7, 1862, between the
Confederates, under General Hindman, and the Federals, under General
Herron. The losses were about equal.


                          Preston (Civil War).

Fought August 17, 1648, when Langdale, with 4,000 Royalists, was
deserted by the main body of the Scottish invading army, and left to
face the attack of about 8,000 Parliamentarians under Cromwell. The
Royalists fought desperately for four hours, but were overpowered, and
the whole force killed or captured.


                  Preston (Rebellion of the Fifteen).

Fought November 12, 1715, between 4,000 Jacobites, under General
Forster, and a small force of Royal troops, chiefly dragoons, under
General Wills. The Jacobites had barricaded the approaches to the town,
and held their ground throughout the day, but reinforcements arriving,
Wills was able to invest the place completely; and early on the morning
of the 14th Forster surrendered. Many of the rebels having left the town
on the night of the 12th, the prisoners numbered 1,468. The Jacobite
loss in killed and wounded was 42, that of the Royalists about 200.


               Prestonpans (Rebellion of the Forty-five).

Fought September 21, 1745, between 2,300 Royal troops, under Sir John
Cope, and a slightly superior force of Jacobites, under the Young
Pretender. Cope’s infantry failed to stand up against the charge of the
Highlanders, and fled in confusion, losing heavily in killed and
wounded, and 1,600 prisoners, including 70 officers. The Highlanders
lost about 140 killed and wounded. This action is also known as the
Battle of Gladsmuir.


               Primolano (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought September 7, 1796, when Napoleon surprised and totally routed the
vanguard of Wurmser’s army. The Austrians lost over 4,000 killed,
wounded and prisoners.


               Princeton (American War of Independence).

Fought 1776 between the Americans, under Washington, and the British,
under General Gage. The British were defeated, and this victory enabled
Washington to regain possession of New Jersey.


                       Pruth, The (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 2, 1770, when the Russians, under General Romanzoff,
stormed the triple entrenchments held by the main Turkish army, 120,000
strong, under Halil Bey, and drove out the Turks with a loss of 20,000
killed and wounded.


              Puente (South American War of Independence).

Fought February 16, 1816, between the Colombian Patriots, under
Lorrices, and the Spanish Royalists, under Morillo. The Royalists gained
a complete victory.


                Puente de la Reyna (Second Carlist War).

Fought October 6, 1872, between 50,000 Carlists, under Ollo, and about
9,000 Republicans, under Moriones. The Republicans were defeated after
hard fighting, and were at last driven in disorder from the field by a
bayonet charge. The Carlists lost 113 only; the losses of the
Republicans were far heavier.


                     Pultowa (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought July 8, 1709, between the Swedes, 24,000 strong, under Charles
XII, and the Russians, 70,000 in number, under Peter the Great. After
some successes early in the battle the Swedes were overwhelmed by the
Czar’s great superiority in artillery, and were defeated with a loss of
9,000 killed and wounded and 6,000 prisoners. Charles with difficulty
made his escape from the field by swimming the Borysthenes.


                     Pultusk (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1703, between 10,000 Swedes, under Charles XII, and an equal
force of Saxons, under Marshal von Stenau. The Saxons made practically
no resistance, but fled from the field, losing only 600 killed and 1,000
prisoners.


                    Pultusk (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought December 26, 1806, between 43,000 Russians, under Bennigsen, and
18,000 French, under Lannes. Lannes endeavoured to pierce the Russian
left and cut them off from the town, but he did not succeed in getting
through, and in this part of the field the action was indecisive. On the
left the French did little more than hold their own, but the Russians
retired during the night, having lost 3,000 killed and wounded, 2,000
prisoners, and a large number of guns. The French admitted a loss of
1,500 only, but this is probably an understatement, Russian accounts
estimating the French losses at 8,000.


                    Puna (Raids of the Buccaneers).

On April 27, 1687, three Buccaneering vessels, under Captain Davis,
engaged two Spanish men-of-war off Puna. The action was entirely one of
long-range firing, and lasted till May 3, when the Spanish commander
withdrew his ships. In the seven days only three or four Buccaneers were
wounded.


                      Punniar (Gwalior Campaign).

Fought December 29, 1843, between the left wing of Sir Hugh Gough’s
army, under General Grey, and a force of 12,000 Mahrattas, with 40 guns.
The Mahrattas were totally routed.


                     Pydna (Third Macedonian War).

Fought June 22, 168 B.C., between the Romans, under Æmilius Paulus, and
the Macedonians, under Perseus. The Macedonian phalanx attacked the
Roman line, and drove them back on their camp, but becoming disordered
by the uneven ground, was broken by the legionaries and cut to pieces.
The result was a total defeat of the Macedonians, with a loss of 20,000
killed and 11,000 prisoners. The phalanx here fought its last fight and
perished to a man.


                  Pyramids (French Invasion of Egypt).

Fought July 21, 1798, when the Mameluke army, under Murad Bey,
endeavoured to arrest Napoleon’s march on Cairo. The Mameluke infantry,
numbering about 20,000, took no part in the fight, but their cavalry,
perhaps at that time the finest in the world, charged the French squares
with the utmost gallantry. They were, however, repulsed time after time,
with great slaughter, and were eventually driven into the Nile, where
the shattered remnants escaped by swimming.


                       Pyrenees (Peninsular War).

The engagements fought between Wellington’s lieutenants and Soult’s
army, which was endeavouring to relieve San Sebastian, are known as the
Battles of the Pyrenees. They include the fighting from July 25 to
August 2, 1813, and specially the actions of Roncesvalles, Maya,
Santarem and Buenzas. The British loss in these battles amounted to
7,300, while the French lost fully double that number.


               Pylos and Sphacteria (Peloponnesian War).

The promontory of Pylos, which is separated by a narrow channel from the
island of Sphacteria, was seized and fortified by an Athenian force
under Demosthenes, B.C. 425. Here he was besieged by the Spartans under
Thrasymelidas, with a land force and a fleet of 43 ships, the crews of
which occupied Sphacteria. Demosthenes repulsed an attack on Pylos, and
Eurymedon, arriving with 50 Athenian vessels, defeated the Spartan
fleet, and blockaded Sphacteria. After a protracted siege, the arrival
of reinforcements, under Cleon, enabled the Athenians to land 14,000 men
in the island, and the garrison, reduced from 420 to 292, surrendered.



                                   Q


                      Quatre Bras (Hundred Days).

Fought June 16, 1815, between the advance guard of the British army,
under Wellington, and the left wing of the French army, 16,000 strong,
under Ney. Napoleon’s object was to prevent the junction of the British
and the Prussians, and Ney’s orders were to drive back the British,
while Napoleon, with his main body, engaged the Prussians. Ney attacked
at 3 p.m., but the British held their own till evening, when Ney, not
receiving the reinforcements he expected, began to fall back. Wellington
then attacked vigorously all along the line, retaking all the positions
occupied by the French during the day.


                       Quebec (Seven Years’ War).

This city was besieged June, 1759, by 9,000 British troops, under
General Wolfe, assisted by a fleet of 22 ships of war, under Admiral
Holmes. The place was defended by about 16,000 French, under Montcalm.
Wolfe was too weak numerically for an investment, and his object was to
draw Montcalm into an engagement. On July 31 he was defeated in an
attack on Montcalm’s lines outside the city, but on September 13, having
landed above Quebec, he met and defeated the French, who evacuated the
place on the 17th.

After defeating General Murray, April 27, 1760, the Chevalier de Levis
laid siege to Quebec, with about 8,000 French and Canadians. The
garrison consisted of no more than 2,500 effectives, but owing to the
superiority of their artillery, Levis was unable to make any impression
on the defences. On May 15 a small British squadron anchored off the
city, and on the following day attacked and destroyed the French ships
carrying de Levis’ supplies and reserve of ammunition, whereupon he
hastily raised the siege, leaving behind him 40 siege guns and all his
sick and wounded.


                Queenston Heights (Second American War).

Fought October 13, 1812, between 4,000 British (chiefly Canadian
volunteers), under General Brock, and about 5,000 Americans, under Van
Rensselaer. The Americans attacked the British position on Queenston
Heights, and after very severe fighting, were totally defeated. The
exact losses are unknown, but the British took 1,000 prisoners, and the
American column was practically annihilated.


                    Quiberon Bay (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 20, 1759, between the British fleet, 23 sail of the line
and 10 frigates, under Hawke, and 21 French line-of-battleships and 3
frigates, under Conflans. The action was fought in a heavy gale on a lee
shore, and resulted in the French being driven to take refuge in
Quiberon Bay, with a loss of 2 ships sunk and 2 captured.
Notwithstanding the gale, Hawke followed up his advantage, and standing
in, succeeded in capturing or destroying all but four of the ships which
had taken refuge in the bay, though in so doing he lost two of his own
ships, which were driven ashore and wrecked. The British lost in the
action only 1 officer and 270 men killed and wounded.


                     Quipuaypan (Conquest of Peru).

Fought 1532, between the rival Peruvian chiefs, Atahualpa and Huascar.
Huascar was totally routed, and taken prisoner.


               Quistello (War of the Polish Succession).

Fought July, 1734, between the Imperialists, under Prince Eugene, and
the French, under the Duc de Broglie. Prince Eugene gained a signal
victory.



                                   R


                       Raab (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought June 14, 1809, between 44,000 French, under Eugene Beauharnais,
and about 40,000 Austrians, under the Archduke John. The French attacked
the Austrian position, and driving them successively from the villages
of Kismegyer and Szabadhegy, totally defeated them. Under cover of
night, however, the Archduke was able to make an orderly retirement,
with a loss of about 3,000 killed and wounded and 2,500 prisoners. The
French lost something over 2,000.


                             Radcot Bridge.

Fought 1387, between the troops of Richard II, under De Vere, Duke of
Ireland, and the forces of the Lords Appellant, under the Earl of Derby
(Henry IV). De Vere and his troops fled almost without striking a blow,
and the King was thus left entirely in the power of the Barons.


                         Ragatz (Armagnac War).

Fought March, 1446, between the Austrians and the Swiss Confederation.
The Swiss gained a brilliant victory, which was followed by peace with
Austria and the Armagnacs.


                    Rajahmundry (Seven Years’ War).

Fought December 9, 1758, between 2,500 British troops, under Colonel
Forde, in conjunction with about 5,000 native levies, and the French,
6,500 strong, under Conflans. The native troops did little on either
side, but Forde’s 500 Europeans routed Conflans’ Frenchmen, and the
latter fled with considerable loss.


                       Rakersberg (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1416, between 20,000 Turks, under Ahmed Bey, and 12,000 Austrians
and others, under Duke Ernest of Styria. Duke Ernest marched to the
relief of Rakersberg, which the Turks were besieging, and drove them
from the field utterly routed. It is said that the Turkish losses
amounted to more than the whole Christian army. Ahmed Bey was among the
slain.


                     Ramillies (Seven Years’ War).

Fought May 23, 1706, between the British and Imperialists, under
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, about 80,000 strong, and the French, in
equal force, under Marshal Villeroy. The allies drove the French out of
Ramillies, their resistance on the whole being unworthy of them, and in
the end they were disastrously defeated with heavy loss, 5,000 being
killed and wounded, while 6,000 prisoners and 50 guns were taken. The
allies lost less than 3,000.


                                 Ramla.

Fought 1177, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the Christians of
Jerusalem, under Renaud de Châtillon. The Christians won a complete
victory.


                      Ramnugger (Second Sikh War).

Fought November, 1849, when Lord Gough attempted to dislodge Shir Singh,
who with about 35,000 Sikhs, had occupied a position behind the Chenab
opposite Ramnugger. The attempt was made by a brigade under General
Campbell, with a cavalry force under General Cureton, and failed owing
to the unexpected strength of the Sikh artillery, which was well posted
and served. General Cureton was killed.


                                Raphia.

Fought B.C. 223, between the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Philopator, and
the Syrians, under Antiochus the Great. Antiochus at first held the
advantage, but pressing too far in the pursuit, was overpowered and
totally routed. The Syrians lost 14,000 killed and 4,000 prisoners.


                Rastadt (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought 1796, between the French, under Moreau, and the Austrians, under
the Archduke Charles. After a severe engagement Moreau succeeded in
seizing the heights held by the Austrians, and forced Charles to retreat
to the Danube.


                      Raszyn (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought April 19, 1809, between 30,000 Austrians, under the Archduke
Ferdinand, and about 20,000 French and Poles, under Poniatowski. The
Archduke was marching on Warsaw when Poniatowski, to whom the defence of
that city had been entrusted, came out to meet him, and after a stubborn
fight in the woods and marshes round Raszyn, was driven back upon
Warsaw, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded. A few days later he
surrendered the city to the Austrians to save it from a bombardment.


              Rathenow (Swedish Invasion of Brandenburg).

Fought June 25, 1675, between the Brandenburgers, 15,000 strong, under
the Elector Frederick William, and the Swedes, under Charles XI. The
Swedes, wearied by a long march, were surprised by the Elector in their
camp, and suffered a serious reverse.


                         Rathmines (Civil War).

Fought August 2, 1649, between the Royalists, under Ormonde, and the
Parliamentary garrison of Dublin, under Colonel Jones. Ormonde having
ordered a night attack upon Dublin, the Parliamentarians made a sortie,
and driving back the assaulting column, attacked the main body of the
Royalists in their camp, totally routing them, with a loss of 4,000
killed and wounded and 2,000 prisoners. All Ormonde’s artillery was
captured.


                                Ravenna.

Fought 729 between the troops of Leo the Iconoclast, and a force of
Italians, raised by Pope Gregory II, in defence of image worship. After
a severe struggle, the Greeks were routed, and in their flight to their
ships were slaughtered by thousands. It is said that the waters of the
Po were so infected with blood, that for six years the inhabitants of
Ravenna would not eat any fish caught in that river.


                   Ravenna (War of the Holy League).

Fought 1512, between the troops of the Holy League, and the French,
under Gaston de Foix. The French gained a signal victory, but Gaston de
Foix fell in the moment of his triumph, pierced with sixteen wounds.


                       Reading (Danish Invasion).

Fought 871, between the Danish invaders, and the West Saxons, under
Æthelred and Alfred. The West Saxons, after a stubborn resistance, were
defeated and driven from the field with great slaughter.


                       Rebec (Wars of Charles V).

Fought 1524. between the Imperialists, under Constable de Bourbon, and
the French, under Bonnivet. The French were totally defeated, with heavy
loss, among those who fell being the Chevalier de Bayard.


                          Redan (Crimean War).

This fort, forming part of the southern defences of Sebastopol, was
attacked by the British Second and Light Divisions, September 8, 1855.
The ramparts were stormed, but the assailants were unable to make good
their footing, and were eventually repulsed with heavy loss. The fall of
the Malakoff, however, rendered the southern side of Sebastopol
untenable, and the Russians retired during the night. The British losses
amounted to 2,184 killed and wounded.


                     Reddersberg (Second Boer War).

Fought April 3, 1900, when 5 companies of British infantry were
surrounded by a force of Boers, with 5 guns, and after holding out for
twenty-four hours, were compelled by want of water to surrender, having
lost 4 officers and 43 men killed and wounded. The prisoners numbered
405.


                   Reims (Allied Invasion of France).

Fought March 13, 1814, when Napoleon, with 30,000 French, surprised and
routed 13,000 Prussians and Russians, under Saint-Priest, with a loss of
6,000 killed, wounded and prisoners. The French lost a few hundreds
only.


                      Revel (Russo-Swedish Wars).

This port was attacked in the spring of 1790 by the Swedish fleet, under
the Duke of Sudermanland. The Russian batteries, however, aided by the
fleet under Admiral Chitchagoff, drove them off with considerable loss.


                         Revolax (Finland War).

Fought April 27, 1808, when General Klingspoor, with about 8,000 Swedes,
surprised an isolated Russian column of about 4,000 men, under General
Boulatoff. The Russians were surrounded, and tried to cut their way
through, but failed, less than 1,000 succeeding in escaping from the
trap. General Boulatoff fell fighting to the last.


                                  Rhé.

St. Martin, the capital of this island, was besieged by the English,
under the Duke of Buckingham, from July 17 to October 29, 1627. An
assault on October 27 was repulsed, and the landing of the Duke of
Schomberg, with 6,000 French, on the island, made the English lines
untenable, whereupon Buckingham raised the siege. While returning to his
ships Buckingham was attacked by the French, and suffered considerably.
The English losses during the operations amounted to about 4,000 men.


                    Rheinfeldt (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought 1638, between the Protestant Germans, under Duke Bernard of Saxe
Weimar, and the Imperialists, under Jean de Wert. The Duke was besieging
Rheinfeldt, when he was attacked by de Wert, and forced to raise the
siege and retire. After retreating, however, a short distance only,
unpursued, he suddenly retraced his steps, and taking the Imperialists
by surprise, inflicted upon them a severe defeat, dispersing their army
and capturing de Wert. In this action fell the veteran Duc de Rohan.


                         Rhodes (Ottoman Wars).

This place, defended by the Knights, under their Grand Master, Pierre
d’Aubusson, was besieged May 23, 1480, by a Turkish army, under Meshid
Pasha, aided by a fleet of 160 ships. The siege lasted three months, and
was raised after the failure of the second assault, the Turks having by
that time lost 10,500 killed and wounded.

A second and successful siege was begun July 28, 1522, by Solyman the
Magnificent. The Knights, under Villiers de L’Isle Adam, held out until
December 21, repulsing numerous attacks, but at last, worn by famine,
they were compelled to surrender. The Turks are stated to have lost by
disease and battle over 100,000 men. This siege is notable as being the
first in which the Turks used explosive bombs.


                      Riachuelo (Paraguayan War).

Fought June 11, 1865, between the fleets of Paraguay and Brazil. After a
sanguinary engagement the advantage rested with the Brazilians.


                     Richmond (American Civil War).

Fought August 30, 1862, between the Confederates, about 6,000 strong,
under General Kirby Smith, and 8,000 Federals, under General Manson. The
Federals were routed and driven headlong into Richmond, where 5,000
prisoners, 9 guns and 10,000 stand of arms were captured. The
Confederate losses were slight.


                     Richmond (American Civil War).

In the neighbourhood of this place were fought the final actions of the
war, when Lee, with the army of Virginia, endeavoured to break through
the ring of Grant’s troops by which he was surrounded, and being
everywhere repulsed, was compelled to surrender March 8, 1865, on which
date he had but 10,000 effectives under his command.


                  Rich Mountain (American Civil War).

Fought July 12, 1861, between 15,000 Federals, under General McClellan,
and 6,000 Confederates, under General Garnett. The Federals stormed the
heights of Rich Mountain and Laurel Hill, and drove the Southerners from
their positions, with a loss of about 1,000, including prisoners. During
the pursuit on the following day, General Garnett was killed in a
cavalry skirmish.


                     Rietfontein (Second Boer War).

Fought October 24, 1899, between 4,000 British, under Sir George White,
and the Free Staters, who were advancing to interrupt the retreat of
Colonel Yule from Dundee. The enemy occupied a range of hills about
seven miles from Ladysmith, where they were attacked by White. After an
indecisive action the British retired to Ladysmith, with a loss of 111
killed and wounded, but the object aimed at was attained, for the Boers
were prevented from interfering with Colonel Yule’s march.


                       Rieti (Neapolitan Rising).

Fought March 21, 1821, between 12,000 Neapolitans, under General Pepe,
and the Austrian invading army, 80,000 strong. As long as he was
opposing only the advance guard, Pepe made a most resolute resistance,
but on their being reinforced from the main body, the Neapolitans were
overpowered by superior numbers, and finally driven in confusion from
the field. Two days’ later the Austrians entered Naples, and reinstated
Ferdinand on the throne.


                       Riga (Thirty Years’ War).

This place was invested by the Swedes, under Gustavus Adolphus, in the
early part of August, 1621, and was defended by a garrison of 300 Poles.
A resolute defence was made, and several determined assaults repulsed,
but a large breach having having been effected by September 11, the
garrison, now reduced to a handful, had no option but to surrender, and
the town was entered by the Swedes, September 15, 1621.


                        Rimnitz (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 22, 1789, when 25,000 Austrians and Russians, under the
Duke of Coburg and Suwaroff, routed an army of 90,000 Turks, under the
Grand Vizier. The Turkish losses were enormous, the whole army being
killed, captured, or dispersed.


                         Rinya (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 21, 1556, between 40,000 Turks, under Ali Pasha, and a
comparatively small force of Austrians and Hungarians, under Thomas
Nadasdy. The Turks were defeated with heavy loss, the Christians losing
300 men only.


                       Rio Seco (Peninsular War).

Fought July 14, 1808, when Marshal Bessières, with about 14,000 French,
defeated 26,000 Spaniards, under Cuesta. The Spaniards lost about 6,000,
while the French loss was only 370 killed and wounded. Following upon
this victory, Joseph entered Madrid.


                 Rivoli (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought January 14, 1797. when the Austrians, with five divisions, under
Alvinzi, attacked Napoleon’s position on the heights of Rivoli. The
position proved too strong to be carried, and Napoleon’s superb handling
of his troops resulted in the total defeat of the assailants. The fifth
Austrian division, which had not taken part in the frontal attack,
appeared in the rear of the French position after the battle was over,
and being forced by overwhelming numbers, laid down its arms. Masséna,
who had specially distinguished himself, took his title from this battle
when later ennobled by Napoleon.


                  Roanoke Island (American Civil War).

This island, which commanded the entrance to Albemarle Sound, North
Carolina, and which was defended by 1,800 Confederates, under General
Wise, was attacked February 7, 1862, by three brigades of Federals,
under General Burnside, aided by 26 gunboats. On the 8th the Federals
landed, overpowered the garrison, and occupied the island, losing 235
killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 91 killed and wounded. Of 7
Confederate gunboats employed in the defence, 5 were captured or
destroyed.


                Rocoux (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought 1747, between the French, under Maurice de Saxe, and the
Imperialists, under Charles of Lorraine. The French won a signal
victory, as the result of which they occupied Brabant.


                      Rocroi (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought May 19, 1643, between the French, 22,000 strong, under the Great
Condé, and 27,000 Spaniards, under Don Francisco de Melo. The battle was
sternly contested, and at first went against the French, their left wing
being repulsed, and the centre shaken. Want of cavalry, however,
prevented Melo pressing home his advantage, and the French, rallying,
broke the Spanish line, and severely defeated them. The Spaniards lost
9,000 killed, and 6,000 prisoners in the infantry alone. The French only
admitted a loss of 2,000, but it was doubtless considerably heavier.


                        Roliça (Peninsular War).

Fought August 17, 1808, when Wellington, with 14,000 British and
Portuguese, of whom only 4,000 came into action, attacked the French,
3,000 strong, under Laborde, and after a half-hearted resistance drove
them from their position, with a loss of 500 men. The allies lost about
400.


                  Rome (First Invasion of the Gauls).

The first siege of Rome by the Gauls, under Brennus, took place B.C.
387. No attempt was made to defend the city, which was seized and burnt
by the barbarians, the greater part of the population fleeing to Veii
and other neighbouring cities. The Capitol, however, was held by the
leading Patrician families, and it is said withstood a siege of six
months, when Brennus accepted a heavy ransom and withdrew his army.


                Rome (Second Gothic Invasion of Italy).

The city was besieged in 408 by the Goths, under Alaric, and after being
brought to the verge of starvation and losing many thousands from
famine, the Romans capitulated, but retained their freedom on payment of
a heavy ransom, whereupon Alaric retired northward in 409. In the course
of the year, however, Alaric seized Ostia, the port of Rome, and
summoned the city to surrender. In the absence of the Emperor Honorius,
the populace forced the authorities to yield; and Alaric, after deposing
Honorius, and bestowing the purple on Attalus, withdrew his troops. In
410, during the month of August, Alaric for the third time appeared
before the walls, and on the night of the 24th the Salarian gate was
opened to the besiegers by some sympathisers within the city, and Rome
was given over to pillage and massacre, in which thousands perished.


                      Rome (Ricimer’s Rebellion).

The rebel Count Ricimer, with a large army of Burgundians, Suevi and
other barbarians, laid siege to Rome in 472, and after a defence of
three months the besiegers entered the city by storming the Bridge of
Hadrian, and sacked it.


                        Rome (First Gothic War).

In March, 537, the city was besieged by the Goths, under Vitiges, and
defended by Belisarius. After a determined resistance, during which a
vigorous assault was repulsed, and several successful sorties made, with
heavy loss to the besiegers, Vitiges in March, 538, was compelled to
raise the siege.


                       Rome (Second Gothic War).

In May, 546, Totila, King of Italy, at the head of an army of Goths,
laid siege to Rome, which was defended by a garrison of 3,000, under
Bassas. An attempt to relieve it by Belisarius was on the point of
success, but Bassas failed to co-operate with the relieving force, and
Belisarius was forced to retire, whereupon the city surrendered,
December 17, 546.

It was recovered by Belisarius in the following February, but was again
besieged by Totila in 549. On this occasion it was defended by a
garrison of 3,000 troops, under Demetrius, who, aided by the
inhabitants, made a gallant resistance, but the Gate of St. Paul was
opened to the besiegers by some Isaurian sympathisers within the walls,
and Totila thus made himself master of the last Italian city excepting
Ravenna, which had resisted his victorious army.

In 552, after the defeat of Totila at Tagina, Rome was invested by the
Imperial army, under Narses, who, after a brief siege, stormed the
defences, and finally delivered the city from the Gothic domination.


                                 Rome.

In the course of dispute with Pope Gregory VII, who had refused to
recognize him as emperor, Henry III of Germany laid siege to Rome in
1082. After two interruptions to the siege, the city was finally
surrendered to him by the Roman nobles, March, 1084. Gregory was
deposed, and the anti-Pope Clement III set upon the pontifical throne,
Henry at the same time assuming the Imperial purple.


                       Rome (Wars of Charles V).

The city was taken by storm May 9, 1527, by the Imperialists under the
Constable de Bourbon, who fell in the assault. A massacre followed, in
which 8,000 of the inhabitants perished. The Pope retired to the Castle
of St. Angelo, where he held out until November 26, when a treaty
between him and Charles V put an end to the conflict.


                         Rome (Italian Rising).

After the proclamation of a Roman republic by Garibaldi and his
adherents in 1848, a French army, under General Oudinot, was sent to
restore the papal rule. On April 30, 1849, the French, 7,000 strong,
attacked the Porta San Pancrazio, where they were encountered by the
Republicans, under Garibaldi, and repulsed, with a loss of 300 killed
and wounded and 500 prisoners. The Garibaldians lost 100.

On June 3 of the same year the French, under Oudinot, 20,000 strong,
made a night attack upon the Garibaldians, who brought up about 8,000
men to oppose them. The Garibaldians were repulsed, with a loss of over
2,000, including 200 officers. Oudinot then laid siege to the city,
which, after a terrible bombardment, surrendered July 2, 1849.


             Romerswael (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought January 29, 1574, between the “Beggars of the Sea,” under Admiral
Boisot, and a Spanish fleet of 75 ships, under Julian Romero. The
“Beggars” grappled the enemy’s ships in a narrow estuary, and after a
very severe encounter, in which the Spaniards lost 15 vessels and 1,200
men, Romero retreated to Bergen-op-Zoom.


                             Roncesvalles.

Fought 778 between the Franks, under Charlemagne, and the Basques and
Gascons, under Loup II. The army of Charlemagne, retreating from Spain,
was caught in the defile of Roncesvalles, in the Pyrenees, and the
rearguard was totally annihilated, among those who fell being the famous
Paladin, Roland.


                     Roncesvalles (Peninsular War).

One of the actions known as the “Battles of the Pyrenees,” fought July
25, 1813. Soult, at the head of Clauset’s division, attacked the
British, consisting of three brigades, under General Byng, but was
unable to carry their position, and after severe fighting was repulsed
with a loss of 400. The British lost 181 killed and wounded.


                       Rorke’s Drift (Zulu War).

On the night of January 22, 1879, after the disaster of Isandhlwana,
this outpost, held by a company of the 24th Regiment and details, in all
139 men, under Lieutenants Bromhead and Chard, R.E., was attacked by a
force of Zulus, estimated at 4,000. After a most heroic defence, in
which many acts of heroism were performed, especially in the removal of
the sick from the hospital, which was fired by the Zulus, the assailants
were beaten off, leaving over 400 dead on the field. The little garrison
lost 25 killed and wounded. Eight Victoria Crosses and nine
Distinguished Conduct medals were awarded for this affair.


                      Rosbach (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 5, 1757, between 80,000 French and Austrians, under
Marshal Soubise, and 30,000 Prussians, under Frederick the Great.
Frederick, who occupied the heights of Rosbach, was attacked by the
allies. The Prussian cavalry, however, under Seidlitz, charged down upon
the Austrians, and threw them into disorder, and the infantry falling
upon the broken columns utterly routed them, with a loss of 4,000 killed
and wounded, 7,000 prisoners, including 11 generals and 63 guns. The
Prussians lost 3,000 only.


                               Rosbecque.

Fought 1382 between 50,000 Flemings, under Philip van Arteveldt, and the
French, under Charles VI. The Flemings at first drove back the French,
but were overwhelmed by the charges of the French cavalry on their
flanks, and were in the end utterly routed. Thousands fell in the action
and subsequent pursuit, amongst them van Arteveldt.


                      Rostock (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought June, 1677, between the Danish fleet, under Admiral Juel, and the
Swedes, under Admiral Horn. The Swedes were completely defeated.


             Rotto Freddo (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought July, 1746, when the rearguard of the retreating French army,
under Marshal Maillebois, was attacked by the Austrians, under Prince
Lichtenstein, and after a gallant resistance defeated with heavy loss.
In consequence of this defeat the French garrison of Placentia, 4,000
strong, surrendered to the Imperialists.


                      Rouen (Hundred Years’ War).

This city was besieged 1418, by the English, under Henry V. After a
gallant defence the garrison surrendered January 15, 1419, the city
paying a ransom of 300,000 crowns.


                       Roundway Down (Civil War).

Fought July 13, 1643, when the Parliamentarians, under Waller and
Hazlerigg, attacked the Royalists, under Prince Maurice, who was
advancing to the relief of Devizes. The Parliamentarians were totally
defeated, their attack on Prince Maurice being repulsed, while at the
same time they were taken in the rear by a sortie from the town. Of
1,800 infantry, 600 were killed and the rest taken prisoners.


                           Roncray-St.-Denis.

_See_ Herrings.


                Roveredo (Napoleon’s Italian Campaigns).

Fought September 4, 1796, between 25,000 Austrians, under Davidowich,
and the main body of Napoleon’s army. Napoleon attacked the Austrian
entrenched position, and in spite of a determined defence, carried it,
driving the enemy out of Roveredo with heavy loss, including 7,000
prisoners and 15 guns. This victory enabled Masséna to occupy Trent, and
the remnants of the Austrian army were driven headlong into the Tyrol.


                       Rowton Heath (Civil War).

Fought September 24, 1645, when a body of Royalist cavalry, under Sir
Marmaduke Langdale, which was endeavouring to prevent the investment of
Chester, was attacked by the Parliamentary horse, under Colonel Poyntz.
The first attack was repulsed with loss, but Poyntz receiving infantry
support, rallied his troops, and drove the Royalists from the field,
with a loss of 300 killed and wounded and 1,000 prisoners.


                       Roseburgh (Scottish Wars).

This town, defended by an English garrison, was besieged by the Scots,
under James II of Scotland, in 1460, and after a stubborn defence was
captured and destroyed. This is the first occasion on which artillery
was used by the Scots. During the siege the Scottish king was killed by
the bursting of a gun of large calibre, August 3, 1460.


                  Rullion Green (Covenanters’ Rising).

Fought November, 1666, between the Covenanters, under Colonel Wallace,
and the Royal troops, under General Dalziel. The Covenanters were
defeated.


              Rumersheim (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 26, 1709, between the French, under Marshal Villiers, and
the Imperialists, under Count Mercy. Mercy was defeated and driven out
of Alsace.


                Ruspina (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought January 3, 46 B.C., between Julius Cæsar, with three legions, and
a force of Pompeians, composed entirely of cavalry and archers, under
Labienus. Cæsar’s troops were surrounded, but behaving with extreme
steadiness, were able to retire to Ruspina in good order, though with
very heavy loss.


              Rynemants (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought August 1, 1578, between the Dutch Patriots, 20,000 strong, under
Count Bossu and François de la Noue, and the Spaniards, numbering about
30,000, under Don John of Austria. Don John crossed the Demer, and
attacked Bossu in his entrenchments. He was however repulsed, after
severe fighting, and retired, leaving 1,000 dead on the field. He
offered battle in the open on the following morning, but Bossu declined
to leave his lines, and Don John was indisposed to renew the attack, and
fell back upon Namur.



                                   S


                      Saalfeld (Campaign of Jena).

Fought October 10, 1806, between 7,000 Prussians, under Prince Louis of
Prussia, and a division of Lannes’ corps, under the Marshal himself. The
Prussian infantry was broken and driven under the walls of Saalfeld,
whereupon the prince put himself at the head of his cavalry, and charged
the advancing French. The charge was repulsed, and the Prince refusing
to surrender was cut down and killed. The Prussians lost in this action
400 killed and wounded, 1,000 prisoners, and 20 guns.


                       Sabugal (Peninsular War).

Fought April 3, 1811, between three British divisions, under Wellington,
and the French, consisting of Reynier’s corps. Reynier held the salient
angle of the French position on the Coa, and was driven back after less
than an hour’s fighting, with a loss of about 1,500. The British lost
200 only.


                       Sacile (Napoleon’s Wars).

Fought April 16, 1809, between 45,000 Austrians, under the Archduke
John, and 36,000 French and Italians, under Eugène Beauharnais, Regent
of Italy. After hard fighting, in which little generalship was shown on
either side, a flank movement of the Austrians, which menaced the French
line of retreat, forced Eugène to retire, victory thus resting with the
Austrians. The losses were about equal on the two sides.


              Sacripontus (Civil War of Marius and Sulla).

Fought B.C. 82, between the legions of Sulla and the army of the younger
Marius, 40,000 strong. Sulla’s veterans were too steady for the newer
levies of Marius, and the latter was routed, with the loss of more than
half his army killed or captured. After this victory Sulla occupied
Rome.


                                Sadowa.

_See_ Koeniggratz.


                      Sadulapur (Second Sikh War).

Fought December 3, 1848. After the failure of his frontal attack on the
Sikh position at Ramnugger in November, Lord Gough despatched a force
under Sir Joseph Thackwell, to cross the Chenab and turn the Sikh left.
An indecisive action followed, which Lord Gough claimed as a victory,
but though the Sikhs retired, it was slowly, and only to take up a fresh
position, which Thackwell did not consider himself strong enough to
attack.


                       Sagunto (Peninsular War).

This fortress, held by a Spanish garrison, was besieged by the French,
22,000 strong, under Soult, September 23, 1811. Built on the heights
above Murviedro, the place was accessible on one side only, and an
attempt to escalade this was repulsed September 28. A regular siege was
then commenced, and a second unsuccessful assault was made on October
18. On the 25th General Blake, with 30,000 Spaniards, made an attempt to
relieve the place, but was defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed and
wounded and 4,000 prisoners, the victory costing the French about 800
men. On the following day the garrison surrendered.


                    St. Alban’s (Wars of the Roses).

Two engagements were fought here in the course of the war. On May 22,
1455, 2,000 Lancastrians, under Henry VI, posted in the town, were
attacked by 3,000 Yorkists, under the Duke of York. The Duke pierced the
Lancastrian centre, and drove them out of St. Alban’s with heavy loss,
among those who were killed being the Earls of Somerset and
Northumberland.

The second battle took place February 17, 1461, when the army of
Margaret of Anjou, led by Somerset, Exeter, and others, attacked the
Yorkists, under Warwick, Warwick withdrew his main body, leaving his
left unsupported to withstand the Lancastrian attacks, and these troops,
after a feeble resistance, broke and fled. Henry VI, who was a prisoner
in Warwick’s camp, escaped and rejoined the Queen, and a rapid advance
on London would probably have led to his reinstatement. Warwick,
however, took such prompt measures as to render the Lancastrian victory
practically fruitless.


                         St. Aubin du Cormier.

Fought 1487, between the Royal troops, under La Tremouille, and the
forces of the rebel Princes, under Marshal de Rieux. The rebels were
totally defeated, and a large number of nobles made prisoners, including
the Duc d’Orléans and the Prince of Orange.


                 St. Charles (French-Canadian Rising).

Fought 1837, between the Loyalists, under Colonel Wetherall, and the
Canadian rebels. The latter were defeated.


                     St. Denis (Second Civil War).

Fought November 10, 1567, between the Catholics, under the Constable
Montmorenci, and the Huguenots, under the Prince de Condé. Victory
rested with the Catholics, but at the cost of the Constable, who was
killed, and the battle had no decisive effect upon the course of the
war.


                  St. Denis (French-Canadian Rising).

Fought 1837, between the Canadian rebels, and a force of British and
Canadian troops, under Colonel Gore. The rebels were victorious, but the
results of their victory were unimportant.


                     Ste. Croix (Napoleonic Wars).

This island, held by a small Danish garrison, was captured by a British
naval and military force, under Admiral Sir A. J. Cochrane and General
Bowyer, December 25, 1807, but little resistance being offered.


                 St. Eustache (French-Canadian Rising).

Fought 1837, between the rebels, under Girod, and the Government troops,
under Sir John Colborne. The rebels were completely defeated, and the
rebellion was suppressed.


                      Ste. Foy (Seven Years’ War).

Fought April 27, 1760, between 3,000 British troops, under General
Murray, and 8,000 French, under the Chevalier de Lévis, who was
approaching from Montreal, with the object of recapturing Quebec. Murray
marched out to attack Lévis, but was defeated and driven back into
Quebec with a loss of over a third of his force. The French lost about
800.


                       St. George (Ottoman Wars).

This place, the capital of the island of Cephalonia, was besieged in
October, 1500, by the Spaniards and Venetians, under Gonsalvo de Cordova
and Pesaro. The garrison consisted of 400 Turks only, but being veteran
soldiers they made a most gallant defence; but at the end of two months
the place was stormed from two quarters simultaneously, and the
survivors of the garrison, some 80 only, laid down their arms.


                      St. Gothard (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 1, 1664, between 100,000 Turks, under Achmet Köpriali
Pasha, and 60,000 French and Germans, under Montecucculi, who occupied a
strong position behind the Raab. On the Turks advancing to the attack, a
young Turk rode out, and challenged a Christian to single combat. The
challenge was accepted by the Chevalier de Lorraine, who killed his
adversary. The Turks then assaulted Montecucculi’s entrenchment, but
could make no impression, and after hard fighting were beaten off with a
loss of 8,000 killed.


                 St. Jacob an der Mirs (Armagnac War).

Fought September, 1444, between 30,000 Armagnacs, under the Dauphin, and
1,300 Confederate Swiss. The Swiss being hard pressed, occupied the
hospital of St. Jacob an der Mirs, where they maintained the unequal
fight until the last man had fallen. The Armagnacs, however, had lost
2,000 killed, and the Dauphin felt compelled to abandon the invasion of
Switzerland.


                        St. Kitts (Dutch Wars).

Fought May 10, 1667, when Sir John Harman, commanding an English
squadron of 12 frigates, fell in with a combined Dutch and French fleet
of 22 sail, under Commodore Kruysen and M. de la Barre, off St. Kitts.
Notwithstanding his inferiority, Harman boldly attacked, and gained a
signal victory, burning 5 and sinking several more of the enemy’s
vessels. The allies took refuge in the harbour of St. Kitts, and Sir
John, following them in, destroyed the rest of their fleet, at a cost of
80 men only.


               St. Lucia (Wars of the French Revolution).

This island was captured from the French, April 4, 1794, by a British
squadron, under Sir John Jervis.


                St. Mary’s Clyst (Arundel’s Rebellion).

Fought August 4, 1549, when Lord Russell, marching with the Royal army
to the relief of Exeter, was attacked by 6,000 rebels, detached from the
besieging force. The rebels were defeated with a loss of 1,000 killed,
and Arundel was forced to raise the siege of Exeter.


                              St. Privat.

_See_ Gravelotte.


                              St. Quentin.

Fought August 10, 1557, between 22,000 French and Germans, under the
Constable Montmorenci, and about 5,000 Spanish and Flemish cavalry of
the Duke of Savoy’s army, under Count Egmont, supported by a small force
of infantry. The French, in attempting to throw reinforcements into St.
Quentin, were entrapped in a narrow pass, and were utterly routed, with
a loss of 15,000 killed, wounded and captured, and all but two of their
guns. The Spaniards only lost 50 men.


                    St. Quentin (Franco-German War).

Fought January 19, 1871, between the French, 40,000 strong, under
General Faidherbe, and 33,000 Germans, under Von Göben. The French were
decisively defeated, with a loss of 3,500 killed and wounded, 9,000
prisoners, and 6 guns. The Germans lost 96 officers and 2,304 men.


                     St. Thomas (Napoleonic Wars).

This island was captured from the Danes, December 21, 1807, by a
combined British naval and military force, under Admiral Sir A. J.
Cochrane and General Bowyer.


                              Saints, The.

_See_ Dominica.


                   Salado. (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought 1344, between the Portuguese and Castilians, under Alfonso IV of
Portugal and Alfonso XI of Castile, and the Moors, under Abu Hamed, Emir
of Morocco. The Christians won a signal victory, and Alfonso so
distinguished himself in the battle as to earn the title of the “Brave.”


                      Salamanca (Peninsular War).

Fought July 22, 1812, when Wellington, with 46,000 British and Spanish
troops, encountered 42,000 French, under Marmont. The battle was forced
on by Marmont, who was endeavouring to interrupt Wellington’s retreat,
but the Marshal was severely wounded early in the day, and the conduct
of the action was in the hands of General Bonnet. The result was a
signal victory for the British, the French losing 12,500 killed, wounded
and prisoners, and 12 guns. The British and Spanish loss amounted to
about 6,000. These figures include the skirmishes of the days preceding
the battle, during which the armies were in touch.


                  Salamanca (Mexican Liberal Rising).

Fought March 10, 1858, between the Government troops, under Miramon, and
the Liberals, under Doblado. Doblado’s raw levies could not face
Miramon’s trained troops, and were utterly routed.


                   Salamis (Third Persian Invasion).

Fought 480 B.C. between the Greek fleet of 370 sail, under Themistocles,
and the Persian fleet, of over 1,000 galleys. The Greeks at first
hesitated to attack in face of the overwhelming numbers of the Persian
ships, but an Athenian trireme, commanded by Aminias, dashed in, and
being followed by the rest of the Athenians and the Æginetans in good
order, the Persians were, after a hard struggle, totally defeated, with
the loss of more than half their fleet. Xerxes and his army witnessed
the rout from the shores of Salamis.


               Salamis (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 307, between the Macedonian fleet, under Demetrius
Poliorcetes, and the Egyptians, under Ptolemy Soter. The Egyptians were
routed, with the loss of 100 ships captured and the rest sunk, and
30,000 prisoners.


                       Salankemen (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 19, 1691, between 100,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier,
Mustapha Köpriali Pasha, and 45,000 Imperialists, under the Margrave
Louis. The Turks were signally defeated and Köpriali slain.


                   Salano (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought 1340 between the Spaniards, under Alfonso XI of Castile, and the
Moors, under Abu ’l Hasan of Granada. The Moors, who were besieging
Tarifa, were attacked by the Spaniards, who utterly routed them and
relieved the town. Abu ’l Hamed fled to Africa, and Alfonso was enabled
to recover Algeciras.


             Saldanha Bay (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought August 17, 1796, when Sir Keith Elphinstone, with a British
squadron, entered the bay, and after capturing a Dutch ship of war lying
in the harbour, landed a force, to which the garrison surrendered after
a brief resistance.


                                 Salo.

_See_ Castiglione.


               Samarcand (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia).

This place, which was defended by a garrison of 110,000 Turks and
Kharismians, under the Governor, Alub Khan, was besieged by the Tartars,
under Genghiz Khan, in June, 1220. The garrison harassed the Tartars by
numerous sorties, and little progress was made with the siege, but some
of the inhabitants, hoping to save the city from pillage, opened the
gates to the besiegers. After heroic efforts to defend the city against
the overwhelming hordes of the enemy, Alub Khan put himself at the head
of 1,000 picked horsemen and cut his way out. The survivors of the
garrison, now reduced to 30,000, were put to the sword.


                  Samaghar (Rebellion of Aurungzebe).

Fought June, 1658, between the army of the Great Mogul, Shah Jehan,
under Dara, and the forces of his rebellious sons, Aurungzebe and Marad.
Dara was totally defeated, and his army dispersed, and three days later
the rebels occupied Agra, where Shah Jehan was imprisoned and Aurungzebe
seized the crown.


                Sampford Courtney (Arundel’s Rebellion).

The final engagement with the rebels, fought August 17, 1549, when
Arundel was defeated by the Royal troops, under Lord Russell, with a
loss of 700 killed and many prisoners, including most of the
ring-leaders in the rising.


             San Giovanni (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 17, 1799, between the French, under Macdonald, and the
Russians, under Suwaroff. After three days’ hard fighting, the French
were forced to retreat, having suffered a loss of 6,000 killed and
wounded and 9,000 prisoners. The Russian losses were about 6,000.


                      San Isidoro (Paraguay War).

Fought April, 1870, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the allied
army of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, under General Camera. Camera
attacked Lopez’s entrenchments and drove him out, forcing him to take
refuge in the mountains with the small remnant of his troops.


                      San Jacinto (Texan Rising).

Fought April 2, 1836, when the Mexican army, under Santa Anna, about
5,000 strong, was routed and almost destroyed by the Texans, under
General Houston. The survivors, with Santa Anna and his staff, were
taken prisoners, and Texas was freed from the Mexican yoke.


                              San Jacinto.

Fought February 12, 1867, between the adherents of the Emperor
Maximilian, under Miramon, and the Mexican Constitutionalists, under
Escobedo. Miramon was defeated, and his army surrendered, he himself
escaping with difficulty from the field.


                               San Juan.

_See_ El Caney.


              San Lazaro (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought June, 1746, between the Austrians, 40,000 strong, under Prince
Lichtenstein, and the French and Spaniards, under Marshal Maillebois.
The allies attacked the Austrian entrenched camp, and after an obstinate
conflict, lasting nine hours, were repulsed with a loss of 10,000 killed
and wounded.


                    Sanna’s Post (Second Boer War).

Fought March 31, 1900, when a force of cavalry, with 2 R.H.A. batteries
and a considerable convoy, under Colonel Broadwood, was ambushed by a
party of Boers, under De Wet, while crossing a donga. The guns were just
entering the donga when the Boers opened fire, and 4 guns of Q battery
succeeded in getting clear and opening fire, stuck to their work till
only 10 men of the battery were left standing. Broadwood succeeded in
extricating his force, but at a cost of 19 officers and 136 men killed
and wounded, 426 prisoners, 7 guns, and the whole of his convoy. General
Colville’s column was within a few miles, but though the firing was
heard, he failed to relieve. This is also known as the action of
Kornspruit.


                    San Sebastian (Peninsular War).

This town was besieged July 10, 1813, by the British, under General
Graham, and was defended by a French garrison, under General Rey. An
assault on July 25 was repulsed, and pending the arrival of heavy guns
from England, the siege resolved itself into a blockade. Active
operations were resumed, and on the 31st the town was taken by storm.
Rey, however, still held out in the citadel, and it was only after
further bombardment that he surrendered on September 9. The besiegers’
losses amounted to over 2,500 killed and wounded.


                   San Sebastian (First Carlist War).

This fortress, held by a garrison of Cristinos and a small detachment of
the British legion, under Colonel Wylde, was besieged by the Carlists,
under Sagastibelza, February, 1836. The siege was carried on in
desultory fashion, with constant fighting between the outposts, till
June, 1836, when General Evans, with 10,000 British and Spanish troops,
occupied the advanced Carlist positions, and forced them to withdraw.


                    Santa Lucia (Rio Grande Rising).

Fought 1842, between the Brazilian Government troops, under General
Caxias, and the rebels, 6,000 strong, under Feliciano. The rebels were
totally defeated.


                   Santarem (Dom Miguel’s Rebellion).

Fought February 18, 1834, when the Portuguese Government troops, under
Marshal Saldanha, totally defeated the “Miguelists,” under Dom Miguel.


            Santa Vittoria (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought July 26, 1702, when 4 regiments of Prince Eugene’s army, under
General Visconti, were attacked by 15,000 French and Spaniards, under
the Duc de Vendôme. The Imperialists were forced to abandon their camp
and retire with the loss of their baggage, but lost only 500 men, while
their qualified success cost the allies nearly 2,000 killed and wounded.


                    Santiago (Spanish-American War).

Fought July 3, 1898, between the American fleet of 4 battleships and 3
cruisers, under Admiral W. T. Sampson, and the Spanish fleet of 4
armoured cruisers and 3 torpedo-boats, under Admiral Cervera. The
Spaniards endeavoured to escape from the blockaded harbour of Santiago,
but were unsuccessful, the whole squadron being destroyed. The Americans
suffered hardly any damage, the Spanish gunnery being very inefficient,
and lost only 1 man killed.


                        Sapienza (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1490 between the Turkish fleet, under Kemal Reis, and the
Venetians. The Venetians suffered a severe reverse, this being the first
naval victory of the Turks in the Mediterranean.


               Saragossa (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought August 20, 1700, between 25,000 Spaniards, and a force of
Austrians, British, Dutch and Portuguese troops, 23,000 in number, under
the Archduke Charles. The Portuguese in the right wing gave way, leading
a large force of Spaniards in pursuit, but the left and centre stood
their ground, and finally repulsed the enemy, with a loss of 4,000
prisoners, besides killed and wounded. The Archduke at once took
possession of Saragossa.


                      Saragossa (Peninsular War).

In June, 1808, siege was laid to this city by the French, under Marshal
Lefebvre. A successful defence was made, and the marshal’s forces being
insufficient to effect a prompt capture, he raised the siege in August.
In December of the same year it was again besieged by the French, under
Moncey and Mortier, and defended by a Spanish garrison, under Palafox. A
most heroic defence was made, notable for the bravery of Agostina, the
maid of Saragossa, who took the place of her wounded lover on the
ramparts, and helped to serve the guns, but despite all the efforts of
Palafox, the place was stormed, and, after very severe house to house
fighting, captured, February 21, 1809.


                               Saratoga.

_See_ Stillwater.


                Sardis (Wars of Alexander’s Successors).

Fought B.C. 280, between the troops of Pergamus, under Eumenes, and the
Syrians, under Antigonus Soter. Eumenes gained a signal victory, and
annexed a large part of the dominions of Antigonus.


                      Sárkány (Hungarian Rising).

Fought December 30, 1848, between the Austrians, under Windischgrätz,
and the Hungarians, under General Perczel. Perczel had been entrusted by
Görgey with the defence of the Sárkány defile, but on being attacked by
the Austrians, his division made little resistance, and fled in
disorder, thus forcing Görgey to retire from the line he had chosen to
defend.


                Sauchie Barn (Rebellion of the Barons).

Fought June 18, 1488, between the rebel Barons, under Angus
“Bell-the-Cat,” and the troops of James III of Scotland, under the king.
The royal army was totally defeated and James slain.


                  Saucourt (Norse Invasion of France).

Fought 861 between the Neustrians, under Louis III, and the invading
Norsemen, when Louis gained a brilliant victory.


                       Sauroren (Peninsular War).

Fought July 28, 1813, between the French, 25,000 strong, under Soult,
and the British, 12,000 strong, under Wellington. Soult attempted to
turn the British left in order to drive them from a strong position, but
after severe fighting he was repulsed, with a loss of about 3,000. The
British losses were about 2,600. Soult renewed his attempt to force
Wellington’s lines on the 30th, but was again repulsed, with a loss of
2,000 killed and wounded and 3,000 prisoners. The British loss amounted
to 1,900.


                           Savage’s Station.

_See_ Seven Days’ Battle.


                    Savandroog (Second Mysore War).

Siege was laid to this place December 10, 1791, by a column of Lord
Cornwallis’ army, about 4,000 strong. It was defended by a strong
garrison of Mysoris, and was considered impregnable, but a practicable
breach having been effected, it was taken by storm eleven days later,
the garrison offering little resistance. The assailants did not lose a
man.


                   Saxa Rubra (Revolt of Maxentius).

Fought October 28, 312, between the Imperial troops, under Constantine,
and the legions of Italy, under Maxentius. The Italian cavalry, posted
on the wings, was routed by Constantine’s horse; the infantry, thus left
unsupported, fled from the field, only the Pretorians making a brave
resistance, and dying where they stood. Maxentius escaped, but crossing
the Tiber into Rome by the Milvian Bridge, was forced by the crowd of
fugitives into the river and drowned.


                 Scarpheia (War of the Achæan League).

Fought B.C. 146, between the Romans, under Metellus, and the Achæans,
under Critolaus. The Greeks were totally defeated with heavy loss,
Critolaus being killed.


                          Scio (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 5, 1769, between a Russian fleet of 10 sail of the line,
under Admiral Spiritoff, and 15 Turkish ships, with some small vessels,
under the Capitan Pasha. Alter a severe engagement, in which both the
flag-ships were blown up, the Turks were driven into the Bay of Tchesme,
where a few days later their fleet was destroyed by fire-ships.


                   Schipka Pass (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought August 21, 1877, and following days, when the Russians, 7,000
strong, under General Darozhinsky, holding the pass, were attacked by
25,000 Turks, under Suleiman Pasha. The Russians were driven from point
after point of their defences, and were on the verge of being
overwhelmed, when the arrival of reinforcements enabled them to assume
the offensive and recover their lost positions, and on the 26th fighting
ceased. The Russian losses amounted to 4,000, including Darozhinsky,
while the Turks lost about 11,500.

On September 16 Suleiman, reinforced to 40,000 men, made an attempt to
carry the Russian position on Mount St. Nicholas, but was repulsed with
a loss of 3,000, the Russians losing 31 officers and about 1,000 rank
and file.

By January 8, 1878, the Russian force in the Schipka had been increased
to 60,000 men, under General Radetski, while the Turks, numbering 40,000
were under Vessil Pasha. General Mirsky, with 25,000 men, attacked the
Turkish entrenchments and drove them out of all their positions, and on
the following day Vessil Pasha surrendered with 36,000 men and 93 guns.
The Russians lost 5,000.


                     Schwechat (Hungarian Rising).

Fought October 30, 1848, between the Austrians, under Prince
Windischgrätz, and the Hungarians, under General Moga. The Hungarian
militia made a very feeble stand against the Austrian regulars, and were
driven back all along the line with considerable loss.


                        Scutari (Ottoman Wars).

This place, held by a Venetian garrison, under Antonio Loredano, was
besieged by the Turks, under Suleiman Pasha, May, 1474. The garrison
held out stoutly till the middle of August, when Suleiman raised the
siege.

Four years later, in June, 1478, Mohammed II invested it, the garrison
now being under the command of Antonio di Lezze. Though few in numbers,
the Venetians withstood a continuous bombardment, repulsing two serious
assaults, until September 8, when Mohammed retired, leaving behind him
only a blockading force. When on the conclusion of peace the place was
handed over to the Turks only 450 men and 150 women were alive in the
town. In the first assault the Turks lost 12,000 men, and an even
greater number, it is said, in the second.


                       Sebastopol (Crimean War).

This fortress was besieged by the allied French and British armies,
under Marshal St. Arnaud and Lord Raglan, September 28, 1854. It was
defended by a large force of Russians, under Prince Mentschikoff, with
General Todleben as his principal engineer officer. The besiegers were
too few for a complete investment, and though the harbour was closed by
the British fleet, under Sir Edmund Lyons, the Russians were throughout
the siege enabled to obtain reinforcements and provisions from the north
side. The batteries opened on October 17, and from that time till
September 8, 1855, the town was more or less continuously bombarded. On
that day the Malakoff, an important part of the southern defences, was
stormed by the French, and the place became untenable, the allies
entering it unopposed on the following day. The Russians, during the
later days of the bombardment, are said to have lost as many as 3,000
men a day.


              Secchia, The (War of the Polish Succession).

Fought September 14, 1734, when the Imperialists, under Count
Köningsegg, surprised the camp of the French army, under the Duc de
Broglie, capturing 5,000 prisoners, 100 guns and the whole of the
stores, baggage and ammunition.


                  Secessionville (American Civil War).

Fought June 15, 1862, when 6,000 Federals, under General Benham,
attacked the strong position of Secessionville, covering the road to
Charleston, which was held by 2,000 Confederates, under General Evans.
The Federals were repulsed with a loss of 600 men, the Confederates
losing 200.


                     Secunderbagh (Indian Mutiny).

Fought November 16, 1857, during the second relief of Lucknow by Sir
Colin Campbell. The Secunderbagh, a walled enclosure of strong masonry,
held by a large body of rebels, was, after a bombardment of about an
hour and a half, taken by storm by the 93rd Highlanders and the 4th
Punjabis, with very heavy loss to the enemy, over 2,000 dead bodies
being afterwards carried out of the enclosure.


                       Sedan (Franco-German War).

This battle, the most decisive of the war, was fought September 1, 1870,
The French, under Marshal Macmahon, who was wounded early in the action,
were driven from all their positions by the Germans, under the King of
Prussia, and compelled to retire into Sedan, where they laid down their
arms. The Emperor Napoleon III was among the prisoners, and one of the
results of the surrender was his dethronement and the proclamation of a
republic in Paris. The battle is remarkable for the charge of the
Chasseurs d’Afrique, under General Margueritte, in the neighbourhood of
Floing. The brigade was cut to pieces and the general killed. The
Germans lost in the action 460 officers and 8,500 men; the French 3,000
killed, 14,000 wounded, and 21,000 prisoners, while 83,000 subsequently
surrendered in Sedan. The Germans took 419 guns, 139 fortress guns and
66,000 rifles.


                   Sedgemoor (Monmouth’s Rebellion).

Fought July 5, 1685, between the Royal troops, under the Earl of
Faversham, and the rebels, under James, Duke of Monmouth. Monmouth
attempted a night attack on Faversham’s camp, but the alarm was given,
and the Royal troops falling upon their assailants, put Monmouth’s
cavalry to flight, and though his infantry made a sturdy resistance they
were at length overpowered and routed with heavy loss. This defeat put
an end to the rebellion.


                      Segeswár (Hungarian Rising).

Fought July 31, 1849, between the Hungarians, under General Bem, and the
Russians, under General Lüders. The Russians, after a severe engagement,
were totally defeated.


                  Segikahara (Rebellion of Hideyori).

Fought September 16, 1600, between the troops of the Shogun Tokugawa
Tyeyasa, 80,000 strong, and 130,000 rebels, under Mitsunari. The rebels
were utterly routed with the loss of 30,000 killed, among whom was
Mitsunari, and the rebellion was suppressed.


                   Seine Mouth (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought August 15, 1416, when the English fleet, under Bedford, sailed
into the Seine with the object of revictualling Harfleur, which the
French were besieging. The blockading force, consisting of 8 large
Genoese carracks, besides smaller vessels, attacked the English fleet,
and after six hours’ hard fighting were totally defeated, with a loss of
5 carracks and 5 other ships, while Bedford succeeded in throwing
supplies into the town.


                           Selby (Civil War).

Fought April 11, 1644, between the Royalists, 3,300 strong, under
Colonel John Bellasis, and a slightly superior force of
Parliamentarians, under Sir Thomas Fairfax. Bellasis had occupied Selby
with the object of preventing a junction between Fairfax’s troops and
those of the Scots at Durham. He was attacked by Fairfax and totally
defeated, with the loss of 1,600 men and all his artillery and baggage.


           Selinus (Second Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily).

This city was besieged by the Carthaginians, 100,000 strong, under
Hannibal, B.C. 409. An attempt by the Syracusans, under Diocles, to
relieve came too late, for after resisting stubbornly for nine days, the
garrison, hopelessly outnumbered, were overpowered; and the place
stormed and sacked, all the survivors being carried off into captivity.


                        Seminara (Italian Wars).

Fought 1495 between 6,000 Spaniards and Neapolitans, under Gonsalvo de
Cordova and Ferdinand of Naples, and a largely superior French army,
under D’Aubigny. The Neapolitans fled almost without striking a blow,
and though the Spaniards fought well, they were overpowered by numbers,
and in the end totally routed, only Gonsalvo with 400 Spanish cavalry
making an orderly retreat.


                       Sempach (War of Sempach).

Fought July 9, 1386, between 6,000 Austrians, under Duke Leopold, and
1,500 Swiss Confederates. The Swiss gained a complete victory, the
Austrians losing 1,500 killed and wounded, while only 120 Swiss fell.
The battle is celebrated for the heroic action of Arnold von Winkelried,
who broke the line of the Austrian spearmen at the cost of his life, and
enabled his followers to penetrate their phalanx.


                      Seneff (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought August 11, 1674, between the French, 45,000 strong, under Condé,
and the Flemings and Spaniards, 60,000 strong, under the Prince of
Orange. Orange, finding Condé’s position too strong to attack, began a
retreat towards Le Quesnay, thereby exposing his flank. Condé took
instant advantage of this error, and dispersed the vanguard of the
allies, but the Prince took up a strong position at Seneff, from which
Condé was unable to dislodge him, and the conflict ended in a drawn
battle, after seventeen hours’ hard fighting.


                       Senegal (Napoleonic Wars).

The French garrison of this place surrendered, July 13, 1809, to a
British force of 1 frigate and 2 brigs, with some transports carrying
troops, under Captain G. H. Columbine.


                       Senekal (Second Boer War).

Fought May 29, 1900, when a British force, under General Rundle,
attacked the Boers, strongly posted on the Biddulphsberg. The attack was
made amidst great bush fires, in which many of the wounded perished, and
was unsuccessful, the British losses amounting to 7 officers and 177 men
killed and wounded.


                                Senlac.

_See_ Hastings.


                     Sentinum (Third Samnite War).

Fought B.C. 298, between five Roman legions, under Q. Fabius Maximus and
Publius Decius, and the Samnites and Gauls, under Gellius Equatius. The
Roman left was disordered by the war-chariots of the Gauls, but was
rallied by Decius, who restored the battle, but at the cost of his life.
On the right the Samnites were routed, and Fabius then fell upon the
Gauls in flank, and broke them. Meanwhile the Samnite camp was attacked,
and Equatius slain, the Romans gaining a signal victory. The losses of
the victors amounted to 8,200, while the Gauls and Samnites lost 25,000
killed and 8,000 prisoners.


                          Sepeia (Argive War).

Fought B.C. 494, between the Spartans, under Cleomenes, and the Argives.
The Spartans, by a ruse, succeeded in surprising the Argives while the
soldiers were dining, and totally routed them. This defeat deprived
Argos of the paramountcy in the Peloponnesus.


                   Seringapatam (Second Mysore War).

This city was besieged, February 5, 1792, by 22,000 British and native
troops, with 86 guns, under Lord Cornwallis, and defended by a Mysori
garrison, under Tippu Sahib. On the 6th an assault upon the outlying
works was successful, all the redoubts commanding the city being
carried, at a cost to the assailants of 530, while the Mysoris lost
20,000. On the approach of reinforcements, under General Abercromby, on
the 16th, Tippu consented to treat, and peace was signed in the
following month.


                    Seringapatam (Third Mysore War).

The second siege by General Harris, opened April 6, 1799, when the city
was defended by a garrison of 20,000, under Tippu. On May 3, the breach
was declared practicable, and the place was stormed by 4,000 men, under
General Baird. Tippu was slain in the rout which followed the assault.
The British losses during the siege amounted to 1,464. About 8,000
Mysoris fell in the assault.


                     Seringham (Seven Years’ War).

Fought 1753, between 1,000 British troops, under Major Laurence, and the
French, with their Mahratta and Mysori allies, under M. Astruc. The
French attacked in force an isolated post, held by 200 Sepoys, and
carried it before Major Laurence could come up. He then attacked, and in
turn carried the position, driving off the French, and the Mahrattas who
came up to their support, and captured three guns.


                      Seskar (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1790, between the Swedish fleet, under the Duke of Sudermanland,
and a Russian squadron, under Admiral Kruze. The Swedes were totally
defeated, after a severe engagement, which lasted from daybreak till far
into the night.


                     Seta (Yoshinaka’s Rebellion).

Fought 1183, between the army of Yoritomo, under his brothers Noriyori
and Yoshitsune, and that of Yoshinaka. The rebels were completely
defeated, and Yoshinaka killed.


               Seven Days’ Battles (American Civil War).

A series of actions fought by General Lee, with 100,000 Confederates,
against General M’Clellan, with 95,000 Federals, Lee’s object being to
relieve Richmond. On June 26, 1862, General Hill, with 1,400
Confederates, attacked M’Call’s division, in a strong position at
=Beaver’s Dam Creek=, which attack M’Call repulsed, at small cost to his
force. On the 27th, General Porter, 35,000 strong, posted on the
Chickahominy at =Gaines’ Mill=, was attacked by 54,000 Confederates,
under Lee in person. The Southerners advanced under a heavy artillery
fire, and after severe fighting, drove the Federals across the river,
and captured 20 guns. On the 28th, M’Clellan prepared to withdraw to the
James River, his centre having been pierced, and commenced his retreat.
On the 29th, 4 Confederate divisions, under Longstreet, aided by an
armoured train, came up with Sumner’s corps at =Savage’s Station=, but
was repulsed, Sumner thus inflicting a serious check upon the pursuing
columns. On the 30th, 3 divisions, under General Jackson, overtook the
Federal rearguard, under General French, near the =White Oak Swamp=, and
an artillery duel followed, which cost the Federals some guns. Two
divisions, under Longstreet, also attacked M’Call’s division, and routed
it, M’Call being captured. By the evening of the 30th, M’Clellan reached
=Malvern Hill=, overlooking the James River, and determined to oppose
here the further advance of the Confederates. On July 1st, the
Confederates attacked, but the Federals held their ground throughout the
day, and on the 2nd retired in good order and practically unmolested.
The Federals admit a loss of 15,249 men and 25 guns during the
operations, but Confederate accounts put the figures much higher, and
claim 51 guns. The losses of the Southerners were also very heavy,
especially at Malvern Hill, but Lee’s object was accomplished, and
Richmond was relieved.


                     Sevenoaks (Cade’s Rebellion).

Fought June 18, 1450, between the rebels, under Cade, and the royal
troops, under Sir Humphrey Stafford. The force under Stafford was quite
inadequate for the work in hand, and was routed, Stafford being killed.


                              Seven Pines.

_See_ Fair Oaks.


               Shahjehan (Tartar Invasion of Kharismia.)

This city was besieged 1221, by the Tartars, under Tuli Khan, and was
obstinately defended by the garrison under a Turkish general named
Bugha. For twenty-one successive days the besiegers delivered assaults,
which were repulsed, but finally the inhabitants made terms with Tuli
Khan, and opened the gates.


                       Shaldiran (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 24, 1514, between 120,000 Turks, under Selim I, and about
80,000 Persians, under the Shah Ismael. The wing led by the Shah in
person was victorious, but the Persian left was totally routed, and in
endeavouring to restore the battle on that side Ismael was wounded,
whereupon the army was seized with panic, and took to flight.


             Shannon and Chesapeake (Second American War).

A famous frigate action, fought May 29, 1813, between the British
frigate _Shannon_, of 38 guns, commanded by Captain Broke, and the
American frigate _Chesapeake_, also of 38 guns, under Captain John
Lawrence. The _Chesapeake_ sailed out of Boston Harbour to attack the
_Shannon_, and after a brisk action was taken by the board by the
British. The _Shannon_ lost 4 officers and 21 men killed, and 3 officers
and 56 men wounded; the _Chesapeake_, 8 officers and 39 men killed, and
9 officers and 106 men wounded. Captain Lawrence was killed and Captain
Broke wounded.


                        Sheerness (Dutch Wars).

Fought June 7, 1667, and following days, when the Dutch fleet, under de
Ruyter, sailed up the Medway as far as Upnor Castle, and destroyed 7
ships of war.


                Sheriffmuir (Rebellion of the Fifteen).

Fought November 13, 1715, between 3,500 royal troops, under the Duke of
Argyle, and 9,000 Highlanders, under the Earl of Mar. Argyle’s left wing
was routed by the Macdonalds, and his left and centre, though at first
they held their own, were in the end compelled to retire, and Argyle
effected a retreat in good order to Stirling.


                      Sherstone (Danish Invasion).

Fought 1016, between Edmund Ironside, and Knut, the rival claimants to
the throne. The battle was indecisive.


        Shijo Nawate (War of the Northern and Southern Empires).

Fought 1339, between the army of the Northern Emperor, under Takaugi and
Tadayoshi, and the troops of the Southern Emperor, under Kusunoki
Masatsura. Masatsura was attacked at Yoshino, which place was
temporarily the Imperial residence. Feeling that he was too weak to
defend it, he marched out with his whole force to meet his assailants,
and fell fighting to the last, the Northern troops gaining a complete
victory. Japan was soon afterwards again united, under the rule of the
Northern line.


                      Shiloh (American Civil War).

Fought April 6 and 7, 1862, between the Confederates, 43,000 strong,
under General Johnston, and the Federals, 40,000 strong, under General
Grant. The Confederates attacked Grant’s position on the west of the
Tennessee river, and surprised the Federals, driving back the first line
in confusion. By nightfall, Grant was practically defeated, but Johnston
failed to take advantage of his opportunity, and Grant being reinforced
by 20,000 men during the night, was able on the 7th to assume the
offensive. After severe fighting the Southerners were driven from the
field with a loss of 9,740 killed and wounded and 959 prisoners, General
Johnston being among the killed. The Federals lost 9,617 killed and
wounded, and 4,044 prisoners.


                   Shinowara (Yoshinaka’s Rebellion).

Fought April, 1183, between the troops of the rebel Daimio Yoshinaka,
and the Japanese Imperial army, consisting of 100,000 horsemen, under
Taira-no-Kore. The Imperial troops were defeated with a loss of 20,000
killed.


                     Shirogawa (Satsuma Rebellion).

Fought September 24, 1876, when the last remnants of the rebels, under
Saigo, were defeated by the Imperial army, under Prince Taruhito. The
rebels were practically annihilated, and most of the leaders of the
revolt killed. Saigo, after the defeat, committed _Hara-kiri_ on the
field.


                     Sholapur (Third Mahratta War).

Fought May 10, 1818, when a body of cavalry, under General Pritzen,
forming part of General Monro’s force, attacked and dispersed the
retreating remnant of the Peshwa’s army. Sholapur surrendered on the
15th, the operations having cost the British only 97 killed and wounded,
while the loss of the Mahrattas exceeded 800 killed.


                     Sholingur (First Mysore War).

Fought September 27, 1781, between the British, 10,000 strong, under Sir
Eyre Coote, and the Mysoris, numbering about 80,000, under Hyder Ali.
Hyder was surprised in the act of striking camp, and though a series of
cavalry charges enabled him to withdraw his guns in safety, it was at a
cost of 5,000 men that he eventually made good his retreat. The British
loss did not exceed 100.


                    Shrewsbury (Percy’s Rebellion).

Fought July 21, 1403, when the royalists, under Henry IV, met and
defeated the insurgents, under Hotspur. Hotspur was killed, and Douglas
and Worcester taken prisoners. The battle was the baptism of fire of
Henry, Prince of Wales (Henry V), who displayed great bravery, and was
severely wounded.


                      Sidassir (Third Mysore War).

Fought March 6, 1799, between the advance guard of General Stuart’s
force, composed of three regiments, under Colonel Montresor, and 12,000
Mysoris, under Tippu Sahib. Montresor’s small force withstood the attack
of Tippu’s troops for over six hours, and their ammunition was all but
exhausted when Stuart came up, and drove back the enemy with a loss of
2,000 men. The British lost 143 killed and wounded.


                             Sievershausen.

Fought July 9, 1553, between the Germans, under Maurice, Elector of
Saxony, and the Brandenburgers, under the Margrave Albert. The
Brandenburgers were defeated, but Maurice was wounded in the action, and
died two days later.


                                Siffin.

A series of actions extending over a hundred days, in 656, between the
Moslems, under the Caliph Ali, and the adherents Moawiyeh, the son of
Abu Sophian, a pretender to the Caliphate. In the course of these
engagements Ali lost 25,000, and Moawiyeh 45,000 men, but the latter was
undefeated, and the sanguinary conflict was ended by an unsatisfactory
compromise.


                        Sikajoki (Finland War).

Fought April 18, 1808, between the Swedes, under General Klingspor, and
the Russians, under General Bouxhoevden. The Russians endeavoured to
outflank the Swedes by moving out on to the ice at the mouth of the
Sikajoki river, at the same time assailing them in front. Both attacks
were repulsed, and after eight hours fighting, Klingspor took the
offensive, and drove the Russians from the field, with heavy loss. The
Swedes lost 1,000 killed and wounded.


                        Silistria (Crimean War).

This fortress was besieged by the Russians in 1854, and was defended by
a Turkish garrison, who received valuable assistance from two English
officers, Captain Buller and Lieutenant Nasmyth. Many attempts to storm
the place were repulsed, and though no efforts were made to relieve
them, the garrison held out until June 22, when the Russians raised the
siege, having suffered a loss of over 12,000 men.


                                Silpia.

_See_ Elinga.


                     Simnitza (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought June 26, 1877, between the Russians, under the Grand Duke
Nicholas, and the Turkish garrison of Sistova. On the night of the 26th,
the Russian advance-guard, 15,000 strong, under Dragomiroff, crossed the
Danube in boats, and then, under Skobeleff, drove the Turks headlong
from their entrenchments. On the morning of the 27th, Sistova was
occupied, the Russians having lost 820 only in the operations.


                        Singara (Persian Wars).

Fought 348, between the Romans, under Constantius, and the Persians, in
largely superior force, under Sapor II. The Persian king, having posted
the major part of his army on the heights overlooking Singara, engaged
the Romans with a comparatively small force of light-armed troops, who
were easily routed by the legionaries. The pursuit, however, was carried
too far, and when night fell, the Romans, exhausted by their efforts,
bivouacked under the heights. During the night, Sapor led his best
troops to the attack, and routed the weary Romans, with terrible
slaughter.


                        Singara (Persian Wars).

This fortress, held by a Roman garrison, was captured, after a brief
siege, by the Persians, under Sapor II, in 360. The garrison was sent
into captivity and the fortress dismantled.


                        Sinnaca (Parthian War).

At this place the remnants of the army of Crassus, after the battle of
Carrhæ, B.C. 53, surrendered to the Parthians. Only 5,000 men were with
the eagles.


                         Sinope (Crimean War).

Fought 1853, when the Russian fleet attacked the Turkish fleet of 9
sail, lying in the harbour of Sinope. No quarter was given, and the
Turkish fleet was totally destroyed. Over 4,000 Turks were killed, and
it is said that only 400, almost all wounded, escaped the massacre.


                     Sinzheim (Wars of Louis XIV).

Fought October 4, 1674, between the French, under Turenne, and the
Imperialists, under General Caprara and the Duke of Lorraine. The French
gained a signal victory. This action is also known as the Battle of
Entzheim.


                    Sitabaldi (Third Mahratta War).

Fought November 24, 1817, between a small force of Madras native troops,
and some Bengal cavalry, in all about 1,300 men, under Colonel Scott,
and the army of Nappa Sahib, Rajah of Nagpur, 18,000 strong, with 36
guns. The Sepoys held their ground for 18 hours, and eventually beat off
their assailants, at a cost to themselves of about 300 men.


                      Skalitz (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 28, 1866, between the 5th Prussian Army Corps, under General
Steinmetz, and the 6th and 8th Austrian Corps, under General Ramming.
The Austrians were defeated, and Skalitz occupied by the Prussians, who
captured 4,000 prisoners and 8 guns.


                    Slivnitza (Servo-Bulgarian War).

Fought November 17, 18 and 19, 1885, between the Servians, 28,000
strong, under King Milan, and Bulgarians, at first 10,000 in number, but
reinforced on the night of the 17th and during the 18th, by a further
5,000, under Prince Alexander. On the 17th, Prince Alexander, who
occupied a position strong against a frontal attack, but very vulnerable
on his left, made a strong attack on the Servian left, to distract
attention from his weak flank. This attack was repulsed, and on the
following day the Servians attacked Alexander’s left. Having been
reinforced, however, he was able to beat them off, while a frontal
attack was also repulsed with loss. On the 19th the Servian attacks were
again unsuccessful, and by 3 p.m. they were in full retreat, pursued by
the Bulgarians. The Servians lost about 2,000, the victors 3,000 in
killed and wounded, in the three days.


                      Sluys (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought June 24, 1340, when the English fleet of 250 sail, under Sir
Robert Morley and Richard Fitzalan, attacked the French fleet of about
200 sail, under Hugues Quiéret, lying in Sluys Harbour. Practically the
whole of the French fleet was captured or destroyed, and Quiéret was
killed. The French lost 25,000 men, the English 4,000.


                    Smolensko (Russo-Swedish Wars).

Fought September 22, 1708, when Charles XII of Sweden, with 4,000
infantry and 6 regiments of cavalry, attacked a force of 16,000 Cossacks
and Tartars. The king with one regiment was in the course of the action
cut off from the rest of his troops by a body of Tartars, and had a
narrow escape. His immediate following was reduced to 5 men, when he was
rescued by a cavalry charge. In the end the Swedes routed the Cossacks
with heavy loss.


                    Smolensko (Campaign of Moscow).

Fought August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French, under Napoleon, and
130,000 Russians, under Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000
respectively were actually engaged. Bagration’s corps occupied the town
of Smolensko, which Napoleon attacked, carrying two of the suburbs.
During the night the Russians set fire to the place, and evacuated it,
having lost in the action about 10,000 killed and wounded. The French
lost 9,000.


                       Sobraon (First Sikh War).

Fought February 10, 1846, between the British, about 15,000 strong, and
25,000 Sikhs, under Runjur Singh. The Sikhs were strongly entrenched on
the Sutlej, and Sir Hugh Gough, with feigned attacks on their centre and
right, succeeded in pushing home his assault on their left, and after
hard fighting drove the defenders to the river, where many perished. The
British lost 2,383, the Sikhs about 8,000.


                        Soczawa (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski and the Turks, under
Mohammed IV. The Poles, who had been reinforced by the Lithuanians,
under Paz, totally routed the Turks, who were greatly superior in
numbers, and drove them in confusion into Kaminiec, with the exception
of which fortress, the whole of Poland was thus freed from the Ottoman
invaders.


                 Sohr (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought September 30, 1745, between 18,000 Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and 35,000 Austrians, under Prince Charles of Lorraine. The
Prussians attacked the Austrian position and the Austrians, failing to
display their usual courage made no stand against the steady advance of
the Prussian infantry, and were driven back in confusion, with a loss of
6,000 killed, wounded and prisoners, and 22 guns. The Prussians lost
between three and four thousand men.


                               Soissons.

Fought 486, and notable as the first military exploit of Clovis, the
founder of the Merovingian dynasty, who here defeated Syagrius, Count of
Soissons, and annexed his dominions.


                         Solebay (Dutch Wars).

Fought May 28, 1672, when the French and English fleets, together about
140 sail, under the Comte d’Estrées and the Duke of York, were surprised
at anchor, by a Dutch fleet of 115 ships, under de Ruyter. The French
were first attacked, but soon edged out of the fight, and the bulk of
the work fell to the English. The battle was indecisive, for though the
Dutch lost five or more ships, and the English one only, the allied
fleet was too crippled to take the offensive for over a month after the
action.


                    Solferino (Franco-Austrian War).

Fought June 24, 1859, between 150,000 Austrians, under the Emperor
Francis Joseph, with Generals Wimpffen and Scholick in actual command,
and the French and Piedmontese, under Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel.
The French attacked the Austrian position on the heights round
Solferino, which were held by Scholick, and after very hard fighting,
they were captured by the corps of Macmahon and Baraguay d’Hilliers.
Meanwhile Wimpffen, with three Army Corps, attacked the French left, but
was held at bay throughout the day by Marshal Niel’s corps, and when
night fell, the Austrian centre being broken, Francis Joseph had no
option but to retreat, and consequently recrossed the Mincio. The
Austrians lost 22,000 killed, wounded and missing. The allies’ losses
were 18,000, of which number the Piedmontese corps of 25,000 lost 4,000.


                      Solway Moss (Scottish Wars).

Fought December 14, 1542, between the Scottish invading army, under
Oliver Sinclair, and a band of 500 English borderers, under Thomas Dacre
and John Musgrave. The Scots were totally defeated, and many important
nobles captured.


             Somnauth (Mahmud’s Twelfth Invasion of India).

This city, one of the holy places of India, was captured by the Afghans,
under Sultan Mahmud of Ghuzni, in 1024. According to tradition, he
carried off the great gates of the city to Ghuzni; and certain gates
purporting to be the same, but which afterwards proved to be of later
date, were brought back to India with a flourish of trumpets, after the
capture of Ghuzni by the British in 1842.


                        Son-Tai (Tongking War).

This fortress, defended by a garrison of 25,000 Chinese, including
10,000 “Black Flags,” under Lin Yung Ku, was attacked by the French,
under Admiral Courbet, with 7 river gun-boats and force of 7,000 men,
December 14, 1883. On this day the outer defences were carried, and the
garrison driven into the citadel. During the night the French were
surprised by a sortie, which however they repulsed, after severe
fighting. On the 16th they stormed the citadel, losing in the three days
92 officers and 318 men killed and wounded. The Chinese lost about
1,000.


                         Sorata (Inca Rising).

This city was besieged, 1780, by the revolted Peruvians, under Andrés,
the last of the Incas. The fortifications, well provided with artillery,
proved impregnable, but Andrés diverted certain mountain torrents
against the walls, and thus opened a large breach, through which the
Peruvians entered the city, and massacred the whole of the garrison and
inhabitants. Of 20,000 souls, it is said that only one priest escaped.


                  South Mountain (American Civil War).

Fought September 14, 1862, between the Federals, under General
M’Clellan, and the Confederates, under General Lee. Lee’s object was to
hold M’Clellan in check while Jackson captured Harper’s Ferry, and to
this end he posted General D. Hill with 15,000 on South Mountain. Here
Hill was attacked, and driven to the upper slopes, but being reinforced
by a portion of Longstreet’s command, he maintained his position there,
withdrawing on the morning of the 15th. Each side lost about 2,500 men,
but Lee had gained his object, as the delay to M’Clellan ensured the
capture of Harper’s Ferry.


                     Southwark (Cade’s Rebellion).

Fought July 5, 1450, between the rebels, under Cade, and the citizens of
London, under Matthew Gough. The Londoners endeavoured to hold London
Bridge, to prevent the plundering expeditions of Cade’s followers into
the city, but were driven back, and the central drawbridge set on fire.
The Londoners lost heavily, among the killed being Gough.


                      Southwold Bay (Dutch Wars).

Fought 1665, between the English fleet, under the Duke of York, and the
Dutch fleet, under Admiral Opdam. The English were completely
victorious, the Dutch losing 18 ships and 7,000 men. The English lost
one ship only, and 700 men.


                           Spanish Galleons.

_See_ Vigo Bay.


                              Sphacteria.

_See_ Pylos.


                     Spicheren (Franco-German War).

Fought August 6, 1870, between the Germans, under Von Alvensleben, and a
superior French force, under General Frossard. After an obstinate
encounter, the French were driven from all their positions with heavy
loss, and compelled to retreat on Metz. The Germans lost 223 officers
and 4,648 men. The battle is remarkable for the storming of the Rote
Berg by 1 company of the 39th Regiment and 4 companies of the 74th
Regiment, under General von François, who was killed. These 5 companies
maintained their position throughout the afternoon, in face of a vastly
superior force. This action is also known as the Battle of Forbach.


                      Spion Kop (Second Boer War).

General Buller’s second attempt to break through the Boer lines on the
Tugela, and relieve Ladysmith, is known by this name. The operations
commenced on the 19th, 24,000 men being employed. On that day Sir
Charles Warren’s division commenced to turn the Boer right, and
gradually drove them from ridge to ridge till the evening of the 22nd,
when by a night surprise, Spion Kop, the centre of the position, was
seized. It was, however, found impossible to get artillery up the steep
slopes, and the brigade holding the hill lost about a third of their
strength in the course of the 23rd, including the Brigadier, General
Woodgate. At nightfall, Colonel Thorneycroft, who had been appointed to
the command, abandoned the hill, and on the following day General Buller
decided to recross the Tugela. The British losses during the operations
amounted to 87 officers and 1,647 men.


                 Spira (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought November 15, 1703, between the French, under Marshal Tallard, and
the Imperialists, under the Prince of Hesse, each side being about
20,000 strong. After a severe engagement, the Imperialists were
overpowered by the French cavalry, and totally defeated with a loss of
6,000 killed, wounded and missing. Among the prisoners was the Prince of
Hesse.


              Splitter (Swedish Invasion of Brandenburg).

Fought January, 1679, between 16,000 Swedes, under Field-Marshal Horn,
and 10,000 Brandenburgers, under the Elector Frederick William. The
Swedes were utterly routed, Horn being taken prisoner, and not more than
1,500 succeeded in making their way to Riga.


                  Spottsylvania (American Civil War).

A continuation of the Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 10 to 12,
1864, between the Confederates, under General Lee, and the Federals,
under General Grant. Lee’s position covering Richmond was attacked on
the 10th by Grant, and the day ended with both armies in their original
positions, while the losses, especially on the side of the assailants,
were very heavy. On the 12th Grant renewed the attack, and General
Hancock, on the right surprised the first line of the Confederate
defences, and compelled General Johnson and his division to surrender.
With this exception, entailing the loss of about a mile of ground Lee
held his own throughout the day, and Grant had suffered too severely to
renew the attack. The losses from the 5th, the date of the first Battle
of the Wilderness, to the 12th inclusive, were: Federals, about 50,000
killed and wounded, Confederates, about 12,000.


                                 Spurs.

_See_ Courtrai.


                                 Spurs.

_See_ Guinegate.


                     Stadtlohn (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought August 9, 1623, between the army of the Protestant Princes of
Germany, about 22,000 strong, under Duke Christian of Brunswick and the
Imperialists, under Tilly. The Protestants were utterly routed and
dispersed, Christian fleeing to Holland.


                   Staffarda (War of the Revolution).

Fought 1690, between the French, under Marshal Catinat, and the
Imperialists, under Victor Amadeus of Savoy. The Imperialists met with a
crushing defeat.


                            Stamford Bridge.

Fought September 25, 1066, between the English, under Harold, and the
Norse invaders, under Harold Hardrada and Tostig. The Norsemen were
surprised by Harold in their camp, and totally defeated, both Hardrada
and Tostig being killed, and the survivors driven to their ships.


                  Stamford Bridge (Wars of the Roses).

An encounter between the retainers of Sir Thomas Neville, and those of
Lord Egremont, which developed into a pitched battle, in August, 1453.
It is considered to be the beginning of the Wars of the Roses.


                     Standard, The (Scottish Wars).

Fought at Luton Moor, near Northallerton, in 1138, between the Scots,
under David, and the English, under Thurstan, Archbishop of York, and
Raoul, Bishop of Durham. The Scots were routed, and fled in disorder.
The battle derives its name from the fact that the banner of St.
Cuthbert of Durham, which was held to ensure victory, that of St. Peter
of York, and those of other saints, were carried in a waggon in the
midst of the English army.


                      Stavrichani (Ottoman Wars).

Fought August 28, 1739, between 30,000 Russians, under General Münnich,
and the Turkish army, under Veli Pasha. The Russians stormed the Turkish
entrenched camp, driving the Turks headlong into the Danube, where
thousands perished, and capturing all their guns and baggage. Münnich
followed up this success by the capture of Choczin.


                   Steinkirk (War of the Revolution).

Fought August 8, 1692, between the English, under William III, and the
French, under Marshal Luxembourg. The English attacked the French camp
at daybreak, and broke and dispersed a brigade. Luxembourg, however,
rallied his troops, and after a severe engagement, repulsed the English
attack, though William was able to withdraw his forces in good order.


               Stillwater (American War of Independence).

Fought October 7, 1777, between the British, 6,000 strong, under General
Burgoyne, and the Americans, under General Gates. The Americans occupied
a strongly entrenched position, which was attacked by Burgoyne. After a
severe encounter, the attack was repulsed at all points, and the British
driven back upon their camp at Saratoga, with heavy loss, including
General Fraser, mortally wounded. The Americans followed up their
success by an assault upon the British camp, in which they succeeded in
effecting a lodgement, and on the following day, Burgoyne withdrew, and
took up a fresh position on the heights near the Hudson. On October 15,
Burgoyne, surrounded by the Americans, and finding that no aid could
reach him, surrendered with 5,790 men, his total losses during the
campaign having amounted to 4,689.


                       Stirling (Scottish Wars).

Fought September 11, 1297, between the Scots, under Sir William Wallace,
and the English, 50,000 strong, under the Earl of Surrey. Wallace fell
upon the English army as it was crossing a narrow bridge over the Forth,
and practically annihilated it. This battle is also called the Battle of
Cambuskenneth.


               Stockack (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought 1799, between the French, under Jourdan, and the Austrians,
60,000 strong, under the Archduke Charles. The French were defeated and
driven back upon the Rhine.


                  Stoke (Lambert Simnel’s Rebellion).

Fought June 16, 1487, between the royal troops, under Henry VII, and the
rebels, under John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, who was aided by 2,000
German mercenaries, under Martin Schwarz. The King, whose force was
superior in numbers, completely defeated the rebels, Simnel and all the
rebel leaders being taken prisoners.


              Stolhoffen (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought May 22, 1707, when Marshal Villars, with 45 French battalions,
stormed and captured the lines of Stolhoffen, which were held by the
Imperialists, under the Marquis of Baireuth. The French took 50 guns.


                              Stone Creek.

_See_ Murfreesboro.


                      Stormberg (Second Boer War).

Fought December 10, 1899, when General Gatacre, with about 3,000 men,
made a night march to attack the Boer position at Stormberg. He was
misled by his guides, and came unexpectedly under a heavy Boer fire. The
position was too strong to carry, and Gatacre was forced to retire, with
a loss of 89 killed and wounded, and 633 prisoners.


                     Stralsund (Thirty Years’ War).

This place was besieged, July 5, 1628, by the Imperialists, under
Wallenstein, who had sworn to take it in three days. It was defended
mainly by the inhabitants, aided by a small garrison of Swedes and
Scots. An assault on the 8th was repulsed, and though on the 9th some of
the outworks were gained, the town still held out, and finally, after a
siege of 11 weeks, Wallenstein was compelled to withdraw his troops,
having suffered a loss of over 12,000 men.


                     Stralsund (Dano-Swedish Wars).

The town was again besieged, October 19, 1715, by an army of Prussians
and Danes, 36,000 strong, under Frederick William III of Prussia and
Frederick IV of Denmark, and was defended by a Swedish garrison, under
Charles XII. At the end of three months, the besiegers succeeded in
seizing the island of Rugen, which commanded the town, and an attempt by
Charles to retake it ended disastrously, the king escaping with
difficulty, and severely wounded, while the whole of his force was
killed or captured. On October 10, the allies captured the hornwork, and
on the 20th, the place being no longer defensible, Charles left the town
and embarked for Sweden on the only ship remaining in the harbour. The
garrison immediately afterwards surrendered.


                         Stratton (Civil War).

Fought May 16, 1643, between the Parliamentary troops, under General
Chudleigh, and the Cornish Royalists, under Sir Ralph Hopton. The
Royalists attacked the Parliamentarian position on Stratton Hill, and
after severe fighting defeated them, capturing 1,700 prisoners,
including Chudleigh, 13 guns and all their baggage and munitions of war.


                  Suero, The (Civil War of Sertorius).

Fought B.C. 75, between the rebels, under Sertorius, and the Roman army,
under Pompey. The Roman right, under Pompey, was broken and defeated,
but Afranius turned defeat into victory, capturing the Sertorian camp,
and routing and dispersing the rebel army.


                      Suddusain (Second Sikh War).

Fought July 1, 1848, when a force of Bhawalpuris and British 18,000
strong, under Lieutenant Edwardes, encountered 12,000 Sikhs, under
Malraj. The Sikhs attacked, but were beaten off, largely owing to the
superiority of the British artillery, and defeated with heavy loss.


                  Sudley Springs (American Civil War).

Fought August 29, 1862, between the Federals, under General Pope, and
the Confederates, under Jackson. Jackson, by a forced march, had
succeeded in taking up a strong position in Pope’s rear, and defied all
attempts to dislodge him, repulsing the Federal attacks with a loss of
over 8,000 men.


                  Sugar-loaf Rock (Seven Years’ War).

Fought September 20, 1753, between the British, about 3,000 strong,
under Major Laurence, and the French army which was besieging
Trichinopoly, under M. Astruc. Laurence attacked before daybreak, and
the native auxiliaries with the French army were seized with a panic and
fled, leaving the Europeans unsupported. In the end the French were
defeated, with a loss of 100 killed and 200 prisoners, including Astruc.
The British lost 40 killed and wounded.


                       Surinam (Napoleonic Wars).

This place, held by a Dutch garrison, was captured, May 5, 1804, by a
British squadron, under Commander Hood, together with 2,000 troops,
under Sir Charles Green.


               Sursuti, The (Mohammed Ghori’s Invasion).

Fought 1191, between the Afghans, under Mohammed Ghori, and the Hindus,
under the King of Delhi, with 200,000 horse and 300 elephants. The
Afghans, who were greatly outnumbered, were surrounded, and utterly
routed, Mohammed Ghori escaping with difficulty from the field.


               Sursuti, The (Mohammed Ghori’s Invasion).

Fought 1192, when Mohammed Ghori, on the field where he had suffered
defeat in the previous year, encountered the Rajputs and Delhi men,
under the Rajah of Ajmir. The Afghans, numbering 120,000, completely
routed the Rajputs, and captured the Rajah.


                        Sveaborg (Finland War).

This place was besieged by the Russians, under General Suchtelen, in
February, 1808, and was defended by a garrison of 7,000 Swedes and
Finns, under Admiral Cronstedt. The siege was conducted under
considerable difficulties, the transport of breaching guns being almost
impossible. However, lack of supplies compelled the Admiral to sign an
armistice, on April 3, by which he agreed to surrender if not relieved
by at least five ships of war on May 3. This being still unbroken at
that date, he handed over the town to the Russians, with 200 guns, and 2
frigates and 19 transports, which were ice-bound in the harbour.


                        Sveaborg (Crimean War).

The town, which had become an important Russian arsenal, was bombarded
by a British fleet, under Admiral Dundas, August 9 to 11, 1854. By the
latter date, the arsenal and storehouses had been destroyed, and Dundas
withdrew, making no further attempt to destroy the fortifications.


                                Sybota.

Fought 433 B.C., between a Corinthian fleet of 150 sail, and a Corcyrean
fleet of 110 sail, aided by 10 Athenian triremes. The Corcyrean right
wing was defeated, and would have been destroyed, but for the assistance
of the Athenians, and the arrival of a reinforcement of 20 Athenian
ships caused the Corinthians to retire. The Corcyreans offered battle on
the following day, but the Corinthians declined. Both sides claimed the
victory, but the advantage lay with the Corinthians, who captured
several ships.


               Syracuse (Athenian Expedition to Sicily).

Siege was laid to this city by the Athenians, under Alcibiades, Lamachus
and Nicias, who with a fleet of 134 galleys, took possession of the
harbour and effected a landing in the autumn of 415 B.C. Alcibiades was
soon recalled, and Lamachus killed in a skirmish, while Nicias proved
weak and incompetent. The siege works were not pressed and in the
following year, Gylippus of Sparta succeeded in getting through the
Athenian lines, and bringing a considerable force to the aid of the
Syracusans, capturing at the same time the advanced positions of the
besiegers. Early in 413, Demosthenes arrived from Athens, with a fleet
of 73 triremes, and made a desperate attempt to recover the lost ground.
He was, however, totally defeated, and in a series of sea-fights which
followed, the Athenian fleet was completely destroyed. This disaster
forced the Athenians to raise the siege, and was, in addition, a
death-blow to the naval supremacy of Athens.


                Syracuse (Second Carthaginian Invasion).

Syracuse was again besieged, B.C. 387, by about 80,000 Carthaginians,
under Himilco, aided by a powerful fleet, and defended by Dionysius,
with about an equal number of troops. A fleet of 30 Lacedæmonian
triremes arrived to the succour of the Syracusans, and meanwhile a
pestilence had carried off thousands in the besiegers’ camp. At this
juncture Dionysius decided on a joint sea and land attack upon the
Carthaginians, which was completely successful. Leptinus, with 80
galleys, surprised the Carthaginian fleet while the crews were ashore,
and completely destroyed it, while Dionysius stormed Himilco’s defences,
and utterly routed the besiegers, Himilco and his principal officers
escaping from Sicily, and leaving the army to its fate.


                      Syracuse (Second Punic War).

In 213 B.C. Syracuse, then in the hands of the pro-Carthaginian faction,
was besieged by the Romans, 25,000 strong, under M. Marcellus, and a
fleet under Appius Claudius. The city was defended by a garrison under
Hippocrates. The siege is specially notable for the presence in the city
of Archimedes, whose military engines played an important part in the
defence, especially against the fleet. During the winter, the revolt of
other Sicilian towns drew off a portion of the besiegers, and during the
spring and early summer of 212, only a partial blockade could be
maintained. Then however, taking advantage of a festival in the city,
Marcellus stormed and captured the upper portion of the town. An attempt
to force the Roman lines by a Carthaginian relieving force, under
Himilco, was repulsed, and shortly afterwards the rest of the city was
captured by assault.


                        Szigeth (Ottoman Wars).

This small place, held by a Hungarian garrison, under Count Zrinyi, was
besieged by the Turks, under Solyman the Magnificent, in 1566. The siege
was prosecuted with vigour but was fatal to the great Sultan, who died
on the night of September 4. On the following day, however, the Turks
stormed and sacked the town, and Count Zrinyi and his little garrison
perished in the flames.



                                   T


                       Tabraca (Revolt of Gildo).

Fought 398, between 5,000 picked Roman legionaries, under Mascazel, and
the revolted Africans, 70,000 strong, under Gildo. At the first
onslaught of the legionaries, all the Roman soldiers serving under Gildo
deserted, and the Africans taking to flight, Mascazel gained an almost
bloodless victory. Gildo was captured and committed suicide in prison.


                      Taçna (Peruvio-Chilian War).

Fought May 26, 1880, between the Chilians, under General Baquedano, and
the Peruvians, the Chilians gaining a signal victory. The Peruvian
losses were very heavy, including 197 officers. Following up their
victory, the Chilians captured the fortress of Ariça.


                   Tacubaya (Mexican Liberal Rising).

Fought April 11, 1859, between the Mexican Government troops, under
Marquez, and the Liberals, under Degollado. The Liberals were completely
routed, with the loss of all their artillery and munitions of war.


                      Tagina (Second Gothic War).

Fought July, 552, between the Goths, under Totila, King of Italy, and
30,000 Imperial troops, under Narses. The Romans withstood the charge of
the Goths, broke their cavalry, and then drove their infantry from the
field, with a loss of about 6,000. Totila was overtaken and slain in the
pursuit.


                 Tagliacozzo (Guelfs and Ghibellines).

Fought 1268, between the Guelf party, under Charles of Anjou, the
usurper of the throne of Naples, and the Ghibellines, under Conradin,
the rightful heir, and Frederick, Duke of Austria. The Ghibellines were
utterly routed, and their leaders, including Conradin and the Duke,
captured and beheaded.


                   Taiken Gate (Hogen Insurrection).

Fought 1157, between the Japanese rebels, under Shitoku, and the
Imperial troops, under Bifukumonia and Tadamichi. The rebels were
utterly routed. This battle is remarkable for the fratricidal nature of
the conflict, many of the greatest families of Japan having
representatives in both armies.


                              Taillebourg.

Fought 1242, between the French, under Louis IX, and the English, under
Henry III, with whom were allied the rebellious vassals of the French
crown, the Comtes de Marche and de Foix. The allies were defeated, and
Henry withdrew his forces from France.


                 Takashima (Chinese Invasion of Japan).

After the wreck of the Chinese fleet, in 1281, the survivors, under
Chang Pak, took refuge on the island of Takashima. Here they were
attacked by the troops of Kiushiu, under Shoni Kagesuke. They were
almost without exception killed or captured, only three out of the vast
host returning to China.


                     Taku Forts (Second China War).

Fought June 25, 1859, when an attempt was made by the British to carry
the forts at the mouth of the Peiho River. Eleven light-draught gunboats
crossed the bar, and tried to silence the batteries, but without
success, and at 5 p.m. an attempt was made to carry the defences by a
land attack. A force of 600 marines and blue-jackets, under Captain
Vansittart, was landed, but after severe fighting was driven back to the
boats, with a loss of 68 killed, and nearly 300 wounded. Six of the
gunboats were sunk or disabled, and their crews also suffered heavily.

On August 21, 1860, a second and successful assault was made on the
forts by a force of 11,000 British and 7,000 French troops, under Sir
Hope Grant. After a brief bombardment, the small north fort, garrisoned
by 500 Chinese, was stormed by 2,500 British, and 400 French, 400 of the
garrison falling, while the British lost 21 killed and 184 wounded. In
the course of the day the remaining forts surrendered without further
fighting.


                     Talana Hill (Second Boer War).

Fought October 20, 1899, between 4,000 Boers, under General Lucas Meyer,
and a British force of equal strength, under General Symons. The Boers
occupied a strong position on the heights of Dundee, from which they
were dislodged by the British infantry, with a loss of about 300. The
British lost 19 officers, 142 men killed and wounded, and 331 prisoners,
the latter a detachment of cavalry and mounted infantry, who were
surrounded by a superior force of Boers, and surrendered. General Symons
was mortally wounded. The action is also called the battle of Dundee.


                       Talavera (Peninsular War).

Fought July 28, 1809, between 19,000 British and 34,000 Spaniards, under
Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 50,000 French, under Marshals Jourdan and
Victor, with Joseph Buonaparte in nominal command. The British repulsed
all the attacks on their position, at a cost of 6,200 killed and
wounded. The Spanish losses were returned at 1,200, but the figures are
doubtful, as they took practically no part in the fighting. The French
lost 7,389 killed, wounded and missing, and 17 guns.


                Talkhan (Tartar Invasion of Khorassan).

This fortress was captured, 1221, by the Tartars, under Genghiz Khan,
after an obstinate defence of seven months, in which thousands perished
on both sides.


                     Talneer (Third Mahratta War).

By the treaty of January 6, 1818, this fortress was surrendered by
Holkar to the British, but on Sir Thomas Hislop, with a British force,
arriving to take possession, on February 17, the commandant refused to
hand it over. Though warned of the consequences, he fired upon the
British, whereupon Hislop opened fire, and in the afternoon of the same
day the place surrendered. By some misunderstanding, however, the Arab
garrison of 300, were drawn up at one of the gates, and on the approach
of two British officers and some Sepoys, cut them down. No quarter was
then given, the garrison being killed to a man, and the commandant
hanged.


                       Tamai (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought March 13, 1884, when 4,000 British, under General Graham,
attacked and defeated the Mahdists, under Osman Digna, destroying their
camp. The British fought in two squares, one of which was momentarily
broken by the Mahdists, who captured the naval guns. The second square,
however, moved up in support, and the Mahdists were repulsed and the
guns recovered. The British lost 10 officers and 204 men killed and
wounded; the Dervishes over 2,000 killed.


                                Tanagra.

Fought 457 B.C., between the Spartans, and their Peloponnesian allies,
and about 14,000 Athenians and others, including a body of Thessalian
cavalry. The battle was stubbornly contested, both sides losing heavily,
but the desertion during the action of the Thessalians turned the scale,
and the Spartans were victorious, though at a cost which deterred them
from their intended attack upon Athens.


                      Tanjore (Seven Years’ War).

This place was besieged, August, 1758, by the French, under
Lally-Tollendal, and was defended by a garrison, under Monacji. After
five days’ bombardment, the walls were still insufficiently breached,
and owing to lack of ammunition, Lally determined to retire. Hearing
this, Monacji made a sortie, and nearly succeeded in surprising the
French camp. He was with difficulty beaten off, and the French withdrew,
with the loss of all their siege guns and heavy baggage.


                                Tanjore.

The fortress was besieged, August 20, 1773, by a British force, under
General Joseph Smith, and defended by a garrison of 20,000 men, under
the Rajah, Laljaji, and his Vizier Monacji. On September 16, a breach
having been effected, the besiegers delivered an assault at midday, when
their garrison were taking their usual noonday rest, and meeting with
little opposition, made themselves masters of the place.


                   Tansara Saka (Satsuma Rebellion).

Fought 1876, when the rebels in a very strong position were attacked by
the Imperial troops, under Prince Taruhito, and after very severe
fighting, driven out with enormous loss. The Imperialists also suffered
severely.


                    Tarapaca (Peruvio-Chilian War).

Fought November 17, 1879, and resulted in the defeat of the Peruvians
with heavy loss.


                        Tarento (Italian Wars).

This fortress, held by a Neapolitan garrison, under the Conde di
Potenza, was besieged by about 5,000 Spaniards, under Consalvo de
Cordova, in August, 1501. Gonsalvo endeavoured to reduce the place by
blockade, but found his forces melting away by desertion, and was forced
to have recourse to more active measures. The north front of Tarento
being bounded by a lake, was unfortified, and Gonsalvo, with incredible
labour, transported overland some of the smaller vessels of the Spanish
fleet lying in the Bay of Tarento, and launched them on the lake. The
town was then at his mercy, and surrendered, being entered by the
Spaniards, March 1, 1502.


                      Tarragona (Peninsular War).

This city was besieged by the French, 40,000 strong, under General
Suchet, in May, 1811, and defended by a garrison but little inferior in
numbers. The outer defences were stormed one by one, and by June 21, the
besiegers had effected a lodgement in the lower town. On the 28th, the
upper town was taken by storm, and the survivors of the garrison, 8,000
in number, laid down their arms. The French lost about 6,000 during the
siege.


                    Tashkessen (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought December 28, 1877, between 2,000 Turks, under Valentine Baker
Pasha, and a Russian division, under General Kourloff. In order to cover
Shakir Pasha’s retirement from the Shandurnik heights, Baker’s greatly
inferior force withstood throughout the day, the determined onslaughts
of the Russians, when Baker finally withdrew, having effected his
object. He had lost 800 men, and had inflicted a loss on his assailants
of 32 officers and over 1,000 men.


                Tauris (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 47, between the Pompeian fleet, under Marcus Octavius, and
the Cæsareans, under Publius Vatinius. The Cæsarean fleet consisted of
merchant vessels, temporarily equipped with beaks, but Vatinius, though
his ships were inferior both in number and quality, boldly attacked the
Pompeians, and after severe fighting, completely defeated them,
compelling Octavius to abandon the Adriatic.


                          Taus (Hussite Wars).

Fought August 14, 1431, between the Hussites, under John Ziska, and the
Imperialists, under the Emperor Sigismund. The Hussites gained a signal
victory.


                    Tayeizan (Japanese Revolution).

Fought 1868, when the adherents of the Shogun made their last stand in
Tokyo at the Tayeizan temple in the Park of Uyeno. They were defeated
after a sharp conflict, leaving the Imperialists in undisputed
possession of the Shogun’s capital.


                        Tchernaya (Crimean War).

Fought August 16, 1855, between three Russian divisions, under General
Gortschakoff, and three French and one Sardinian division, under General
Marmora. The Russians attacked the allies’ position on the Tchernaya,
and after severe fighting, were repulsed with a loss of 5,000 killed and
wounded. The allies lost 1,200.


                        Tchesme (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July 7, 1770, between the Russian fleet of 50 sail, under Count
Alexis Orloff, and the Turkish fleet of nearly 100 sail of the line,
under Hassan Bey. With the exception of one ship, which was captured,
the whole of the Turkish fleet was destroyed.


                            Tearless Battle.

Fought B.C. 368, when a force of Arcadians endeavoured to cut off a
Spartan army, under Archidamus, in a narrow defile in Laconia. They were
repulsed with heavy loss, and not a single Spartan was killed, whence
the engagement came to be called the Tearless Battle.


                                 Tegea.

Fought B.C. 473, when the Spartans defeated the combined forces of the
Arcadian League and the Argives, under the walls of Tegea. Though
victorious, the Spartans were too much reduced in numbers to venture
upon the attack of Tegea, which had been the object of the expedition.


                        Tegyra (Bœotian War).

Fought B.C. 373, when Pelopidas, with the Sacred Band of 300 Thebans,
routed a large force of Spartans in a narrow pass near Orchomenus,
slaying 600, including their two generals.


                 Telamon (Conquest of Cisalpine Gaul).

Fought B.C. 225, when the Gauls, marching upon Rome, found themselves
caught between two Roman consular armies, and though fighting
desperately, were cut to pieces.


                   Tel-el-Kebir (Arabi’s Rebellion).

Fought September 13, 1882, when the British, 17,000 strong, under Lord
Wolseley, after a night march across the desert, attacked and stormed
Arabi’s entrenchments, which were defended by 22,000 Egyptians. The
British lost 339 killed and wounded, the Egyptian loss was very heavy.


                   Tel-el-Mahuta (Arabi’s Rebellion).

Fought August 24, 1882, when the Egyptians attempted to oppose the march
of the British advance guard, under General Graham, to Kassassin. They
made, however, but a feeble resistance, and were driven off with heavy
loss.


                    Te-li-ssu (Russo-Japanese War).

Fought June 14 and 15, 1904, between 35,000 Russians, under Baron de
Stakelberg, and about 40,000 Japanese, under General Oku. The Japanese
attacked the Russian position, but the Russians held their ground
throughout the 14th, at a cost of about 350 killed and wounded. On the
15th, however, their flank was turned, and after hard fighting in which
they suffered heavily, two batteries of artillery being absolutely cut
to pieces, they retreated in some disorder, leaving over 1,500 dead on
the field. The Japanese, who lost 1,163 in the two days, captured 300
prisoners and 14 guns. The total Russian losses were about 10,000.


                    Tellicherry (First Mysore War).

This place, held by a small British garrison, and very imperfectly
fortified, was besieged June, 1780, by a Mysore force, under Sirdar Ali
Khan. Aid was sent to the garrison from Bombay, and a most gallant
defence was made till January 18, 1782, when reinforcements arrived,
under Major Abington, who, aided by the garrison, stormed the Mysori
entrenchments, capturing all their guns, 60 in number, and 1,200
prisoners, among whom was Sirdar Ali.


                      Temesvar (Hungarian Rising).

Fought August 9, 1849, between the Austrians, under Haynau, and the
Hungarians, under Dembinski. The latter was totally routed, and his army
dispersed, this being the last stand made by the Hungarians in the war.
On the 13th, Görgey and his army surrendered to the Russians at
Villágos.


                              Tenchebrai.

Fought September 28, 1106, between the English, under Henry I, and the
Normans, under Robert of Normandy, Henry’s brother. Robert was totally
defeated and made prisoner, and Henry annexed Normandy to the crown of
England.


               Tergoes (Netherlands War of Independence).

This fortress was besieged, August 16, 1572, by the Dutch Patriots,
7,000 strong, under Jerome de ’t Zeraerts, and was defended by a small
Spanish garrison. On October 20, a force of 3,000 Spanish veterans,
under Colonel Mondragon, succeeded in crossing the “Drowned Land,” with
a loss of only 9 men drowned, and relieved the town, ’t Zeraert’s troops
refusing to face this unexpected attack.


                                Testry.

Fought 687, between the Neustrians, under Thierry III, and the
Austrasians, under Pepin d’Héristal, the Maire du Palais. The Neustrians
were routed, and Thierry captured.


                     Tettenhall (Danish Invasion).

Fought 910, between the Danish invaders, and the West Saxons, under
Edward the Elder. The Danes were defeated.


                         Tetuan (Morocco War).

Fought February 4, 1860, when 30,000 Spaniards, under Marshal O’Donnell,
stormed the Moorish entrenchments outside Tetuan, held by about 40,000
Moors. Three days later Tetuan was entered by the Spaniards.


                    Teuttingen (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought November, 1643, between the French, under the Maréchal de
Rantzau, and the Imperialists, under the Count de Merci. The
Imperialists surprised the French camp, and totally routed them,
Rantzau, being captured with most of his superior officers, and all his
artillery and baggage.


                    Tewkesbury (Wars of the Roses).

Fought May 4, 1471, when the Yorkists, under Edward IV, defeated the
Lancastrians, under Prince Edward, Somerset and others, with heavy loss.
Prince Edward and other leading Lancastrians were killed, and Margaret
of Anjou promptly surrendered.


                          Texel (Dutch Wars).

Fought June 2, 1653, between a British fleet, under Monk, and a Dutch
fleet, under Van Tromp. The action was undecided, but on the following
day, Monk having been reinforced by 18 ships, under Admiral Blake,
renewed the attack, and signally defeated Van Tromp, with a loss of 11
ships and 1,300 prisoners taken, and 6 ships sunk. The British lost 20
ships and 363 killed and wounded.


                        Thala (Numidian Revolt).

In the year 22, this fortress, defended by no more than 500 Roman
veterans, was attacked by a large force of nomads, under Tacfarinas. The
Romans sallied out, and inflicted so severe a defeat upon Tacfarinas
that his army was dispersed.


                Thapsus (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought April 6, B.C. 46, between the Cæsareans, consisting of 10
legions, under Julius Cæsar, and the Pompeians, 14 legions, in addition
to cavalry, light troops, and 100 elephants, under Metellus Scipio and
Juba.


                                Thebes.

This city was captured by the Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, in
September, 335 B.C. The Thebans were blockading the Macedonian garrison,
which held the citadel, and the Cadmea; Perdiccas, one of Alexander’s
captains, without orders, broke through the earthworks outside the city.
Before the Thebans could shut the gates, Perdiccas effected an entrance
into the city, and being joined by the garrison of the Cadmea, soon
overcame the resistance of the Thebans. Six thousand of the inhabitants
were massacred, and the city was razed to the ground.


                  Thermopylæ (Third Persian Invasion).

Fought 480 B.C., when 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, under Leonidas,
defended the pass of Thermopylæ, leading southwards out of Thessaly,
against the Persian host, under Xerxes. They kept the Persians at bay
until a considerable force having passed the mountains by another part,
they were attacked in the rear. They then retired to a hillock, and
fought till the last man fell.


                    Thermopylæ (War with Antiochus).

Fought B.C. 191, between 40,000 Romans, under Glabrio, and the army of
Antiochus the Great, King of Asia. Antiochus was entrenched at
Thermopylæ, where he was attacked by the Romans, and a post held by
2,000 Ætolians being surprised, his flank was turned, and he was
disastrously defeated. Antiochus escaped from the field with barely 500
men.


                      Thetford (Danish Invasion).

Fought 870, between the Danish invaders, and the East Anglians, under
Edward. The latter were defeated and Edward killed.


                       Thorn (Russo-Swedish War).

Siege was laid to this place by the Swedes, under Charles XII, September
22, 1702. It was defended by a garrison of 5,000 Poles, under General
Robel, who made a gallant defence, but after a month’s siege, he was
compelled by famine to surrender.


                                Thurii.

Fought B.C. 282, when a Roman consular army, under Caius Fabricius,
routed the Lucanians and Bruttians, who were besieging Thurii. The siege
was raised, and the Tarentine coalition temporarily broken up.


                               Tiberias.

Fought July, 1187, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the
Christians of Jerusalem, under Guy de Lusignan. Saladin gained a signal
victory, capturing the King, the Grand Master of the Templars, and the
Marquis de Montferrat. Following up his success, Saladin recovered in
succession, Acre, Jaffa, and other important places, and in the month of
October of the same year, recaptured Jerusalem.


                      Ticinus (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 218, between 26,000 Carthaginians, under Hannibal, and
25,000 Romans, under P. Cornelius Scipio (the Elder). The Romans were
defeated with heavy loss, Scipio being severely wounded.


                    Ticonderoga (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 8, 1758, between Montcalm, with 3,600 French and Canadians,
and the British, 15,000 strong, including 6,000 regulars, under General
James Abercromby. Montcalm was strongly intrenched on a ridge in front
of Fort Ticonderoga, his position being furthered strengthened by an
abatis. Abercromby made no attempt to turn the position, but without
waiting for his guns, ordered the regulars to take the lines by storm.
Notwithstanding the gallantry of the troops, who advanced six times to
the assault, the position proved impregnable, and Abercromby was forced
to withdraw, with a loss of 1,944 killed and wounded, the French losing
377 only. The 42nd Regiment (Black Watch) showed conspicuous bravery,
losing half the rank and file, and 25 officers killed and wounded.

On July 22, 1759, a British force of 11,000 men under General Amherst,
arrived before Ticonderoga, which was held by about 3,500 French and
Canadians, under Bourlemaque. On the 23rd, Bourlemaque withdrew to the
Isle-aux-Noix, on Lake Champlain, leaving only 400 men, under Hébécourt,
with instructions to hold Amherst before the place as long as possible.
On the 26th, however, Hébécourt set fire to the magazine and retired.


              Ticonderoga (American War of Independence).

This place was invested, June 22, 1777, by the British, under General
Burgoyne, and was defended by 5,000 Americans, under General St. Clair.
After a brief siege, the Americans evacuated the Fort, July 5.


               Tiflis (Tartar Invasion of the Caucasus).

Fought 1386, between the Tartars, under Tamerlane, and the troops of the
Caucasian tribes, under the Queen of Georgia. The Queen issued from
Tiflis to offer battle to the Tartars, but her forces could not stand
against them, and were cut to pieces.


                 Tigranocerta (Third Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 69, when the Romans, 10,000 strong, under Lucullus, who was
besieging the city, were attacked by 200,000 Pontic and Armenian troops,
under Tigranes. Tigranes had failed to occupy some high ground which
commanded the position of his cavalry. This Lucullus seized, and
attacking the Pontic cavalry in rear, broke it. He then attacked and
routed the infantry, with a loss according to the Roman account of
100,000. The Romans lost 5 men only.


                         Tigris (Persian Wars).

Fought 363, when the Romans under Julian, crossed the Tigris in the face
of a large Persian army, strongly entrenched on the opposite bank. At
the first assault, though an attempt at a surprise failed, the Romans
stormed the Persian lines, and after 12 hours’ fighting, drove them from
the field. The Romans only admitted a loss of 75 men, while they claimed
that the Persians lost 6,000 killed.


                        Tippermuir (Civil War).

Fought September 1, 1644, between the Covenanters, 6,700 strong, under
Lord Elcho, and about 3,000 Scottish Royalists, under Montrose. The
Covenanters were totally defeated, with a loss variously estimated at
from 1,300 to 2,000 killed, and 800 prisoners, while the Royalist loss
was trifling. Following up his victory Montrose occupied Perth.


                      Toba (Japanese Revolution).

Fought 1868, between the troops of Aiza and Kuwana, under the Shogun
Yoshinobu, and the army of Satsuma and Choshu. The Shogun was totally
defeated, and abandoned his invasion of Satsuma, returning with his
troops to Yedo by sea, surrendering shortly afterwards to the Imperial
forces.


                       Tofrek (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought March 22, 1885, when General McNeill, with 3 battalions of
Indian, and 1½ of British troops, was surprised in his zariba, by about
5,000 Mahdists. One of the native regiments broke and fled, but the
Berkshires and Marines, made a gallant defence, though the zariba was
forced, as did the other native regiments. After twenty minutes’
fighting the attack was beaten off, the Mahdists leaving 1,500 dead on
the field. The British lost 294 combatants and 176 camp-followers,
killed, wounded and missing.


                                Tolbiac.

Fought 496, between the Franks, under Clovis, and the Alemanni. The
Franks, after a desperate conflict, began to give way, but were rallied
by Clovis, who leading a charge in person, utterly routed the Alemanni.
This victory gave the Franks undisputed possession of the territory west
of the Rhine.


                       Tolentino (Hundred Days).

Fought May 2, 1815, between 50,000 Italians, under Murat, and 60,000
Austrians, under General Bianchi. The Italians were routed and
dispersed, and Murat compelled to flee from Italy.


                         Tolenus (Social War).

Fought B.C. 90, between the Romans, under Lupus, and the revolted
Marsians. Lupus was attacked while crossing the Tolenus, and totally
routed with a loss of 8,000 men.


                  Tondeman’s Woods (Seven Years’ War).

Fought February 14, 1754, when a convoy to revictual Trichinopoly,
escorted by 180 British and 800 native troops, was attacked by 12,000
Mysore and Mahratta horse, under Hyder Ali and Morari Rao, supported by
a small French force. The Sepoys at once laid down their arms, but the
Europeans made a gallant defence, until the arrival of the French force,
when, hopelessly outnumbered, they also surrendered. The convoy and the
whole detachment were captured.


                       Torgau (Seven Years’ War).

Fought November 3, 1760, between the Prussians, under Frederick the
Great, and the Austrians, under Count Daun. The Austrians, besides being
numerically superior, occupied a strong position at Torgau. Frederick
divided his forces, and while one portion, under Ziethen, attacked in
front, he himself led the rest of his army round the position, and fell
upon the Austrian rear. Both attacks were repulsed, but during the
night, Ziethen, finding the heights badly guarded, gained them, and
seized the batteries, turning a defeat into a signal victory. The
Austrians lost 20,000, the Prussians, 13,000, and the victory gave
Frederick possession of the whole of Saxony.


                Toro (War of the Castilian Succession).

Fought March 1, 1476, between the Portuguese, and the Spanish supporters
of Joanna for the throne of Castile, 8,500 strong, under Alfonso of
Portugal, and the adherents of Isabella, about equal in numbers, under
Ferdinand the Catholic. Ferdinand, after a long march, attacked the
Portuguese at 4 p.m., and at the end of two hours’ fighting, signally
defeated them with heavy loss.


                Toulon (War of the Spanish Succession).

An attack was made upon the fortress by a combined Dutch and British
fleet, under Sir Cloudesley Shovel, July 17, 1707. The allies failed to
gain a footing in the town, but 8 French ships lying in the harbour and
130 houses were destroyed by fire.


                Toulon (War of the Austrian Succession).

Fought February 11, 1744, between a British fleet of 27 sail of the
line, and 8 frigates, under Admiral Matthews, and a combined French and
Spanish fleet of 28 line-of-battle ships. The British fleet suffered a
serious reverse, in consequence of which the Admiral and four captains
were tried by court-martial and cashiered. The British lost 274 killed
and wounded, the allies about 1,000.


                Toulon (Wars of the French Revolution).

On August 29, 1793, Toulon, which had opened its gates to the British,
and was held by a small garrison, under Lord Mulgrave, was besieged by
the French, under Dugommier. By December 18, most of the landward
defences had been carried, and the place having become untenable, Lord
Mulgrave carried off his troops by sea. This siege is chiefly memorable
as being the first important appearance of Napoleon, who commanded the
artillery.


                       Toulouse (Peninsular War).

Fought April 10, 1814, between 38,000 French, under Soult, and 24,000
British and Spaniards, under Wellington. The French entrenchments in
front of Toulouse were attacked by the British, who after severe
fighting captured some of the outworks. The victory, however, was
incomplete, and was in effect of no value, as Napoleon had on this date
already surrendered to the allies in Paris. The French lost about 3,000
killed and wounded, the allies, 4,659, of whom 2,000 were Spaniards.


               Tournay (Netherlands War of Independence).

This place was besieged, October 1, 1581, by the Royal troops, under
Alexander of Parma, and in the absence of the Governor, Prince Espinay,
was gallantly defended by the Princess, who held out until November 30,
when, by an honourable capitulation, she was allowed to march out at the
head of the garrison, with all the honours of war.


                Tournay (War of the Spanish Succession).

The town was besieged by the British, under the Duke of Marlborough,
July 8, 1709, and was defended by a French garrison under M. de
Surville. After 56 days of open trenches, the garrison surrendered,
having suffered a loss of 3,000 men.


                   Tours (Moslem Invasion of France).

Fought 732, between the Franks, under Charles Martel, and the Saracens,
under Abderrahman Ibu Abdillah. The battle lasted several days—according
to the Arab chroniclers, two, while the Christian accounts say seven—and
ended in the fall of Abderrahman, when the Saracens, discouraged by the
death of their leader, owned defeat, and fled, losing heavily in the
pursuit.


                      Towton (Wars of the Roses).

Fought March 29, 1461, when Edward IV, immediately after his
proclamation, marched against the Lancastrians, under Henry VI, and
vigorously attacked their entrenched position at Towton. Aided by a
heavy snowstorm, blowing in the faces of the defenders, Edward defeated
them all along the line, with heavy loss, among the killed being
Northumberland, Dacre and de Mauley. Henry and Margaret escaped from the
field, and fled northward.


                      Trafalgar (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought October 21, 1805, between the British fleet of 27 sail of the
line and 4 frigates, under Nelson, with Collingwood second in command,
and the combined French and Spanish fleets, numbering 33 sail of the
line and 7 frigates, under Admiral Villeneuve. Nelson attacked in two
lines, and destroying the enemy’s formation, completely defeated them,
20 ships striking their colours. Nelson fell in the moment of victory,
while the Spanish Admiral was killed, and Villeneuve captured. Most of
the prizes were lost in a heavy gale which sprang up after the battle,
but the destruction of Villeneuve’s fleet put an end to Napoleon’s
scheme for an invasion of England. The British lost 1,587 killed and
wounded, the losses of the allies being far heavier.


                     Trautenau (Seven Weeks’ War).

Fought June 27, 1866, between the First Prussian Army Corps, under
General von Bonin, and the 10th Austrian corps, under General Gablenz.
The Prussians at first drove back the Austrians, but General Gablenz
advancing in force, fell upon the Prussians, wearied with a long march,
and compelled them to retreat, with a loss of 1,277 killed and wounded.
Owing to the superiority of the needle-gun, the Austrians, though
victorious, suffered a loss of 5,732.


                    Travancore (Second Mysore War).

Fought December 28, 1789, when Tippu Sahib, with about 15,000 Mysoris,
made a night attack upon the British lines. Having thrown down a portion
of the rampart, a small advance party were hastening to open the gate,
when they were assailed by a detachment of the garrison, and hurled back
into the trench. This repulse threw the advancing troops into confusion,
and they were routed with a loss of over 2,000.


                      Trebbia (Second Punic War).

Fought December B.C. 218, between 26,000 Carthaginians, 6,000 being
cavalry, under Hannibal, and 40,000 Romans under the Consul Sempronius.
Sempronius’ colleague, Scipio, had been wounded a few days before in a
skirmish, and Sempronius, contrary to his advice, being in sole command,
crossed the Trebbia to attack the Carthaginians. The Romans fought with
determination, and the issue was for some time in doubt, but finally a
charge of the Carthaginian horse, under Mago, against their left flank,
threw the legionaries into confusion, and they were routed with enormous
loss.


                Trebbia (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought June 19 to 21, 1799, between the French, under Macdonald, and the
Russians, under Suwaroff. After a severe conflict the French were
totally defeated and driven beyond the Apennines, being obliged shortly
afterwards to evacuate Italy.


                       Trebizond (Ottoman Wars).

This city, where the last representative of the family of Comnenus had
taken refuge after the fall of Constantinople, was besieged by the
Turks, under Mohammed II, in 1461. After a brief resistance the city
surrendered, and the last vestige of the Empire of the East was swept
away.


                         Treveri (Gallic War).

Fought B.C. 55, between the Romans, 50,000 strong, under Julius Cæsar,
and 300,000 Asipetes, a German tribe, who had made a raid into Gaul. The
Germans were routed with enormous loss; indeed, the action was less a
battle than a massacre, and very few succeeded in recrossing the Rhine.


                 Tricameron (Invasion of the Vandals).

Fought November, 533, between the Romans, under Belisarius, and the
Vandals, under Gelimer and Zano. The Romans were drawn up behind a
stream, and were attacked by the Vandals, though only the wing under
Zano displayed any vigour in the assault. In the end the Vandals were
defeated with a loss of 800, the Romans losing 50 only. This defeat put
an end to the Vandal domination in Africa.


                             Trichinopoly.

This place was captured, after a three months’ siege, by the Mahrattas,
March 26, 1741. It had been provisioned for a long siege by Chunda
Sahib, but the Mahrattas retired to a distance of 250 miles, whereupon
the avarice of Chunda Sahib impelled him to sell the grain which he had
in store. The Mahrattas, who had been counting upon this, retraced their
steps, and the garrison were in a very short time starved into
submission.


                    Trincomalee (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 10, 1759, between a British squadron of 12 sail, under
Admiral Pococke, and a French fleet of 14 sail, under the Comte d’Aché.
After an engagement lasting two hours, the French were worsted, but
sailing better than the British, as usual at this period, eluded pursuit
and lost no ships.


                    Trincomalee (First Mysore War).

Fought September 3, 1767, between the British, under Colonel Smith, and
the Mysore army, under Hyder Ali. Hyder attacked the British camp, but
was beaten off with a loss of 2,000 men while the British lost 170 only.

On September 26 of the same year, a second engagement took place near
Trincomalee, when Colonel Smith, with 12,000 British and native troops,
came unexpectedly upon the united armies of Hyderabad and Mysore, 60,000
strong, under Hyder Ali, while rounding a hill which separated them. The
superior discipline of the British enabled them to take full advantage
of the surprise, and they inflicted an overwhelming defeat upon their
opponents’ disordered masses. Hyder Ali lost over 4,000 men and 64 guns,
the British loss being 150 killed and wounded.


                              Trincomalee.

A naval action was fought off this place April 12, 1782, between 11
British ships, under Sir Edward Hughes, and 12 French vessels, under
Suffren. After a sanguinary action with no decisive result, the two
fleets, both too seriously damaged to renew the conflict, separated, the
British making for Trincomalee, and the French for their base to repair
damages.

On September 3, 1782, another indecisive fight took place between the
same Admirals off Trincomalee, the British having 12 and the French 15
sail. Both squadrons were compelled after the action to return to their
respective bases to refit.


               Trinidad (Wars of the French Revolution).

This island was captured from the French, without resistance, by a naval
and military expedition under Admiral John Harvey and Sir Ralph
Abercrombie, February 17, 1797.


                     Trinkitat (Soudan Campaigns).

Fought March 29, 1884, when the British, 4,000 strong, under General
Graham, totally defeated 6,000 Mahdists, under Osman Digna, after five
hours’ severe fighting. The British casualties amounted to 189 killed
and wounded; the Mahdists lost about 2,000. This action is also known as
the Battle of El Teb.


                  Tripoli (Moslem Conquest of Africa).

Fought 647, between the invading Moslems, under Abdallah, and 120,000
Imperial troops and African levies, under the Prefect, Gregory. The
Moslems gained a signal victory, Gregory being among the slain.


                      Trivadi (Seven Years’ War).

Fought 1760, between 5,000 Mysoris, under Hyder Ali, and a British force
of 230 European and 2,700 native troops, under Major Moore.
Notwithstanding his inferior numbers, Moore attempted to prevent the
junction of Hyder Ali with the French, and was totally defeated.


                    Trout Brook (Seven Years’ War).

A small skirmish, in which the advance guard of Abercromby’s army,
marching on Ticonderoga, fell in with a French scouting column, 350
strong, under Langy, July 6, 1758. The French lost 150 killed and
wounded and 148 prisoners, and the affair would be without importance
but for the fact that Lord Howe, who was the brain of Abercromby’s
staff, was killed in the fight. His death was followed by the disaster
of Ticonderoga, and as Parkman says (_Montcalm and Wolfe_, chap. xx.):
“The death of one man was the ruin of fifteen thousand.”


                                 Troy.

The siege and destruction of this city by the Hellenes, though all the
details are legendary, may be accepted as a historical fact, and the
date may be put approximately at 1100 B.C.


                                Truceia.

Fought 593, between the Neustrians, under Queen Fredegond, and the
Austrasians, under Childebert II. The Austrasian army was totally routed
and fled from the field.


                  Tsushima (Mongol Invasion of Japan).

Fought 1419 between the Chinese and Koreans, and the ships of the Barons
of Kiushiu. The Japanese gained a signal victory, and from that time
were no more troubled by foreign invasion.


                        Tudela (Peninsular War).

Fought November 23, 1808, between 30,000 French, under Lannes, and
45,000 Spaniards, under Castaños and Palafox. The Spaniards were totally
defeated, with a loss of about 9,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 prisoners
and 30 guns. The French losses were small.


                        Tunis (First Punic War).

Fought B.C. 255 between 15,000 Romans, under Regulus, and 16,000
Carthaginians, of whom 4,000 were cavalry, with 100 elephants, under
Xanthippus, the Spartan. The Romans were broken by a cavalry charge, and
their rout was completed by the elephants, and all but 2,500 fell on the
field. Regulus was captured, and Tunis at once occupied by the
Carthaginians.


                         Tunis (Ninth Crusade).

This city was besieged by the French Crusaders, under Louis IX in 1270.
While before the walls of the place, which offered an obstinate
resistance, Louis died of a fever, and the crusaders at once raised the
siege and retired.


                     Turbigo (Franco-Austrian War).

Fought June 3, 1859, when the advance guard of Marshal Macmahon’s corps,
under the Marshal in person, was attacked by a portion of the Austrian
division of Clam-Gallas, while simultaneously 4,000 Austrians assailed
the bridge over the canal near the Ticino, which the French main body
was crossing. After severe fighting both attacks were repulsed with
considerable loss.


               Turcoing (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought 1794 between the French, under Souham, and the British, under the
Duke of York. The British were defeated and driven back upon Tournay.


                      Turin (Revolt of Maxentius).

Fought 312, between the legions of Gaul, 40,000 strong, under
Constantine, and the troops of Maxentius, considerably superior in
number. The charge of Maxentius’ heavy cavalry failed, and he was driven
back into Turin with enormous loss.


                 Turin (War of the Spanish Succession).

This place, held by an Imperialist garrison, 10,000 strong, under the
Duke of Savoy, was besieged by a French army of 68 battalions and 80
squadrons, with artillery and engineers, under the Duc de la Feuillade,
May 26, 1706. On June 17 the Duke of Savoy left the city to organise a
relief force, Count Daun taking the command. The garrison held out
stoutly till September 7, when the approach of a large relieving force
under Prince Eugene compelled the French to raise the siege. About 5,000
of the garrison perished either in action or by disease. In the action
which preceded the retirement of the French, the Imperialists lost
1,500, the French 2,000 killed and wounded and 6,000 prisoners.


              Turnhout (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought August 22, 1597, between the Dutch, under Prince Maurice of
Nassau, and the Spaniards under the Archduke Albert. The Spaniards were
totally defeated, and this victory may be said to have set the seal of
the Independence of the Netherlands.


                 Tyre (Alexander’s Asiatic Campaigns).

This strongly fortified city, built on an island separated from the
mainland by a channel 1,000 yards wide, was besieged by the Macedonians
under Alexander the Great, B.C., 332. Alexander at once commenced the
construction of a mole across the channel but was much hampered by the
Phœnician galleys, which issued from the two fortified harbours, and
destroyed his military engines. He therefore collected in Sidon a fleet
of 250 ships from the captured Phœnician cities, and holding the
Tyrian galleys in check, completed his mole. It was some time, however,
before a breach could be effected, but in August, 332, an assault was
delivered, headed by Alexander in person, and the city was stormed and
taken. Eight thousand Tyrians fell in the storm, and about 30,000 were
sold into slavery.



                                   U


                  Ucles (Mohammedan Empire in Spain).

Fought 1109, between the Spaniards, under Don Sancho of Castile, and the
Moors, under Ali. The Spaniards were defeated, with a heavy loss of the
Christian chivalry, among the killed being Don Sancho.


                            Uji (Taira War).

Fought 1180 between the adherents of the Taira clan, under Shigehira,
and the Japanese, who had risen against the domination of the Taira at
the Court of the Emperor Antoku, under Prince Yukiiye and Yorimasa. The
Taira gained a complete victory, Yukiiye being killed, while Yorimasa
committed suicide in the field.


                           Ulundi (Zulu War).

The last battle of the war, fought August, 1879, between 5,000 British,
under Lord Chelmsford, and about 20,000 Zulus. The Zulus were routed
with a loss of over 1,500, the British losing only 15 killed and 78
wounded.


                      Upsala (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1520, between the Danes, under Otho of Krumpen, and the Swedes,
under Christina Gyllenstierna, widow of the Administrator, Sten Sture.
The Danes, in superior force, were strongly entrenched at Upsala. They
were vigorously attacked, but the advantage of position and numbers
enabled them to beat off their assailants with heavy loss, though only
after severe fighting.


                      Upsala (Dano-Swedish Wars).

Fought 1521, when 3,000 Swedes, under Gustavus Vasa, defeated the troops
of the Bishop of Upsala, who was holding the city in the Danish
interest. After his victory Gustavus occupied the city.


                      Urosan (Invasion of Korea).

This place, held by a Japanese garrison under Kiyomasa, was besieged
1595 by the Chinese and Koreans, under Tik Ho. The garrison had been
reduced to such straits that they had eaten their horses, when the
approach of a relieving force, under Toyotomo Hideaki and Mori Hidemoto,
forced Tik Ho to withdraw. While retreating, however, he was attacked by
the Japanese and totally routed.


                Ushant (Wars of the French Revolution).

This action, generally known as the “Glorious First of June,” was fought
June 1, 1794, between a British fleet of 25 sail of the line, under Lord
Howe, and 26 French ships, under Villaret. After four hours’ fighting
the French were defeated, with a loss of 6 ships captured, and one, the
_Vengeur_, sunk. The sinking of this ship was elaborated by the French
into a fable, to the effect that she refused to surrender, and went down
with all hands and colours flying. She had, however, undoubtedly struck
her colours, and her captain and over 200 of her crew were rescued by
the boats of the British fleet. The French admitted a loss of 3,000 men,
besides prisoners, while the British lost 922 killed and wounded.


                 Utica (Civil War of Cæsar and Pompey).

Fought B.C. 49 between the Pompeians, under Varus, and the Cæsarians,
under Curio. Varus sallied from his entrenchments to attack the
Cæsarians, but was signally defeated, his troops fleeing in disorder,
and opening the way for the occupation of Utica by Varus.


                   Utica (Moslem Conquest of Africa).

Fought 694 between 40,000 Moslems, under Hassan, and a large force of
Greeks and Goths in the Imperial service. The Imperialists were defeated
and driven out of Africa, and Hassan followed up his victory by the
destruction of Carthage, which thenceforth ceased to exist, except as an
obscure village.


                   Utsonomiya (Japanese Revolution).

Fought 1868, between the forces of the Shogun, under Otori Keisuke, and
the Imperial troops, under Saigo Takamori. The Imperialists were
completely victorious.



                                   V


                      Vaalkranz (Second Boer War).

General Buller’s third attempt to pierce the Boer lines on the Tugela.
On February 5, 1900, he seized Vaalkranz, under cover of a feint attack
at Brakfontein towards the Boer right. The hill was held by a brigade
during the 6th and 7th, but finding further progress impossible, Buller
again recrossed the Tugela. The British losses amounted to 374 killed
and wounded.


            Valenciennes (Netherlands War of Independence).

Siege was laid to this place in December, 1566, by a force of Spaniards
and Germans, mercenaries, under Noircarmes. The operations were somewhat
indolently conducted, insomuch that he and his six lieutenants were
derided as the “Seven Sleepers,” but towards the end of February
Noircarmes began to press on his siege works, and on March 23 his
batteries opened fire, the city surrendering on the following day.


                             Valenciennes.

Defended by a Spanish garrison under Francisco de Manesses, Valenciennes
was besieged June, 1566, by the French, under Turenne and La Ferté. The
French encamped in two divisions on the opposite side of the Scheldt,
and when the city was on the point of surrendering, La Ferté’s division
was attacked by 20,000 Spaniards, under Condé, and totally routed with a
loss of 400 officers and 4,000 men, before Turenne could come to his
assistance. In consequence of this defeat, Turenne was forced to abandon
the siege and retire.


                             Val-ès-Dunes.

Fought 1047, between the Normans, under William of Normandy, with aid
from Henri I of France, and the rebel Norman Barons. The rebels were
totally defeated.


                Valetta (Wars of the French Revolution).

The capital of Malta, held by a French garrison, 60,000 strong, under
General Vaubois, was besieged September, 1798, by a force of British and
Maltese, under Sir Alexander Ball. Vaubois held out for two years, but
on September 5, 1800, was compelled by famine to surrender. The Maltese
lost during the siege 20,000 men.


                 Valmy (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought September 20, 1792, between the French, 70,000 strong, under
Dumouriez, and the Prussians, under the Duke of Brunswick. The battle
consisted in the main of an artillery duel, in which the French had the
upper hand, and after nightfall the Prussians retired, recrossing the
frontier two days later.


                              Valparaiso.

This city, entirely open and undefended, was bombarded March 31, 1866,
by the Spanish fleet under Mendez Nuñez. By this disgraceful action
Valparaiso was reduced to ashes.


                    Valutinagora (Moscow Campaign).

Fought August 19, 1812, between Ney’s corps, about 30,000 strong, and a
strong rear-guard of Barclay de Tolly’s army, about 40,000 strong, under
Barclay de Tolly in person. The Russians were strongly posted in marshy
ground, protected by a small stream. The French, attacking resolutely,
carried the Russian position in the face of enormous natural
difficulties. Each side lost about 7,000 men.


                               Varaville.

Fought 1058, between the Normans, under William of Normandy, and the
French and Angevins, under Henri I of France. The Normans gained a
complete victory, and the French king shortly afterwards made peace.


                    Varese (Italian Rising of 1858).

Fought May 25, 1859, between 3,000 Garibaldians, under Garibaldi, and
5,000 Austrians, under General Urban. The Austrians were repulsed after
hard fighting, and suffered considerable loss. This action is also known
as the Battle of Malnate.


              Varmas (South-American War of Independence).

Fought 1813 between the Colombian Patriots, under Bolivar, and the
Spanish Royalists. The latter were defeated.


                         Varna (Ottoman Wars).

Fought November 10, 1444, between the Turks, under Amurath II, and the
Hungarians, under King Ladislaus. The Hungarians attacked the Turkish
camp, but were beaten off with heavy loss, the King being killed. On the
following day Amurath stormed the Hungarian entrenchments, practically
the whole of the defenders being put to the sword.


                         Varna (Ottoman Wars).

This fortress, held by a Turkish garrison of 20,000 men, was besieged
July, 1828, by the Russians, under Prince Mentschikoff, and though a
feeble attempt to relieve it was made by Omar Vrione Pasha, the place
was taken by storm on October 11.


                   Varus. Defeat of (Germanic Wars).

The site of this famous battle is supposed to be between the rivers Ems
and Lippe, not far from the modern Detmoldt. In A.D. 9 the Roman army,
under Quintilius Varus, was attacked while on the march and encumbered
by a heavy baggage-train, by the Germans, under Arminius or Hermann. The
country was thickly wooded and marshy, and the Romans could make but
little defence, with the result that they were almost annihilated. Varus
committed suicide on the field to avoid falling into the hands of the
victors.


                         Vasaq (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1442, between 80,000 Turks, under Shiabeddin Pasha, and 15,000
Hungarians, under John Huniades. The Turks were utterly routed, with a
loss of 20,000 killed and wounded, and 5,000 prisoners, including the
Pasha.


                               Vauchamps.

_See_ Champ-Aubert.


                                 Veii.

This city was besieged B.C. 400 by the Romans, the siege being carried
on in a desultory fashion for seven years. At the end of this period the
citizens of Capua and Valerii made an attack upon the Roman camp, and
inflicted a signal defeat upon the besiegers. M. Furius Camillus was
then appointed dictator, and a determined attempt was made to end the
siege, with the result that Veii fell B.C. 393. Rome’s greatest rival in
Italy was thus destroyed.


                      Veleneze (Hungarian Rising).

Fought September 29, 1848, between the Hungarians, under General Móga,
and the Croats, under the Ban, Jellachich. The battle was indecisive,
and was followed by a three days’ armistice.


                    Velestinos (Greco-Turkish War).

Fought May 5, 1897, between a Turkish division under Hakki Pasha, and
the Greeks, 9,000, under Colonel Smolenski. The Greeks occupied a strong
position at Velestinos, where they were attacked by the Turks, but held
their own throughout the day. After nightfall, however his line of
retreat being threatened, Colonel Smolenski withdrew to Volo, where he
embarked his troops on the 7th.


                   Velletri (Italian Rising of 1848).

Fought May 19, 1849, between 10,000 Garibaldians, under Roselli, and the
Neapolitans, 10,000 strong, under Ferdinand, King of Naples. The advance
guard, under Garibaldi, attacked the town of Velletri, which made a poor
defence, and was evacuated during the night. The losses of the
Garibaldians were small.


                        Vercellæ (Cimbric War).

Fought July 30, 101 B.C., between 50,000 Romans, under Marius, and the
Cimbri, under Boiorix. The Cimbri were almost annihilated, and their
king slain.


                     Verneuil (Hundred Years’ War).

Fought August 18, 1424, between 3,000 English, under the Duke of
Bedford, and 18,000 French and Scots, under the Constable Buchan and the
Earl of Douglas. The men-at-arms on both sides fought dismounted, but
the French could make no impression upon the English archers, who were
protected by a barricade of stakes, and in the end were utterly routed,
leaving over 4,000 dead on the field, among them Buchan and Douglas. The
Duc d’Alencon was taken prisoner.


                     Verona (Revolt of Maxentius).

This place was besieged 312 by Constantine, with the legions of Gaul,
and was defended by a body of rebels, under Pompeianus. After a sortie
had been repulsed, Pompeianus escaped through Constantine’s lines, and
raised a force for the relief of the city. He was, however, met and
defeated by Constantine, many thousands of the Italians, including their
leader, falling, and Verona at once surrendered.


                          Veseris (Latin War).

Fought near Mount Vesuvius, B.C. 339, between the Romans, under Manlius
Torquatus and Decius Mus, and the Latin army. The Roman left was
repulsed, but Decius Mus, sacrificing himself for the army, sprang into
the midst of the enemy and was slain, and his soldiers following him,
renewed the conflict. Manlius now brought up his veteran reserve, and
the Romans breaking the Latin line, slew or captured nearly
three-fourths of their opponents. The Roman loss, however, was so heavy,
that they were unable to pursue.


                                Viborg.

Fought 1157, between the adherents of Sweyn III of Denmark, and those of
his successor Waldemar. Sweyn was totally defeated and fled, but falling
into a morass in his flight was overtaken and slain.


                    Vicksburg (American Civil War).

This city, held by a Confederate garrison, was invested June 24, 1862,
by a fleet of 13 Federal gunboats, under Admiral Farragut, aided by a
land force of 4,000 men, under General Williams. After a bombardment
which made no impression on the defences, Farragut reimbarked the
troops, and withdrew, July 24. In the course of the siege Captain Brown
with the _Arkansas_, a small river steamer, coated with iron, and
carrying eight guns, attacked the Federal flotilla, which mounted 200
guns, and ran the gauntlet successfully, losing 14 men killed and
wounded. The Federals lost 82.

On January 9, 1863, the city was again invested by two Federal corps,
under General M’Clernand, aided by a flotilla of gunboats, under Admiral
Porter. It was defended by a garrison of 3,000 Confederates, under
General Churchill. On the 11th an attack by the combined forces
overpowered the garrison of the fort, but the town defences still held
out, and the siege was not pressed. On May 18, the siege was renewed by
three army corps of General Grant’s army, the garrison being now
commanded by General Pemberton. On the 22nd an unsuccessful assault cost
the Federals 2,500, and a regular siege commenced, with the result that
on July 4, Pemberton surrendered with 25,000 men and 90 guns.


                         Vienna (Ottoman Wars).

This city, held by a garrison of 16,000 men, under Count de Salm, was
besieged by Solyman the Magnificent, at the head of 120,000 Turks, in
September, 1529. From the 27th of that month till October 14, the
garrison withstood a series of assaults, culminating in an attempt to
storm the breach, which were repulsed with heavy loss. Solyman thereupon
raised the siege and withdrew.


                         Vienna (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 12, 1683, between 300,000 Turks, under Kara Mustapha
Pasha, and 70,000 Christians, under John Sobieski. The Turks were
besieging Vienna, and Sobieski marched to its relief, with 30,000,
bringing up the available forces to 70,000, of which he was given the
command. With this army he attacked the Turkish lines, and after a
sanguinary engagement, lasting throughout the day, routed the Turks with
enormous loss. Six Pashas were killed, and Mustapha only escaped capture
by a precipitate flight.


               Vigo Bay (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought October 12, 1702, when the combined fleet of 30 British and 20
Dutch ships, under Sir George Rooke, forced the boom at the entrance to
Vigo Harbour and destroyed the French and Spanish fleet anchored
therein. Of the men-of-war, 11 were burnt and 10 captured, while 11
Spanish galleons, with treasure, were taken. This action is generally
called the affair of the Spanish Galleons.


                        Villach (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1492, between the Turks, under Ali Pasha, and a Christian army,
under Rudolph de Khevenhuller. During the battle 15,000 Christian
prisoners in the Turkish camp broke out, and fell upon the rear of the
Turks, who were in consequence totally defeated. The Christians lost
7,000 killed, the Turks 10,000 killed and 7,000 prisoners, including
Ali.


             Villa Viciosa (War of the Spanish Succession).

Fought December 10, 1710, when 13,000 Imperialists, under Staremberg,
retreating into Catalonia, after the defeat of Stanhope at Brihnega,
were attacked by 20,000 French, under Philip of Anjou and Marshal
Vendôme. Staremberg’s left wing was cut to pieces, but his right and
centre more than held their own, driving back the French with
considerable loss, and capturing some guns. Staremberg was, however, too
weak to take advantage of this partial success, and continued his
retreat after the action.


                       Villeta (Paraguayan War).

Fought December 11, 1868, between the Paraguayans, under Lopez, and the
armies of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Overwhelmed by vastly superior
numbers, Lopez was forced to withdraw his forces to the entrenched camp
at Angostura.


                     Villiers (Franco-German War).

A determined sortie from Paris, under General Ducrot, on November 30,
1870, directed against the Wurtembergers. The operations lasted till
December 3. The French, who had at first gained some successes, were
finally repulsed, with a loss of 424 officers and 9,053 men. The Germans
lost 156 officers and 3,373 men.


                               Vindalium.

Fought B.C. 121, between the Romans, under Q. Fabius Maximus, and the
Arverni. The Arverni were completely defeated, and compelled to sue for
peace.


                    Vinegar Hill (Irish Rebellion).

Fought June 20, 1798, when the British regulars, under General Lake,
attacked the camp of the Irish rebels, 16,000 strong, under Father
Murphy. Little resistance was made, and the rebels were driven out of
their camp with a loss of 4,000 killed and wounded, and 13 guns.


                       Vimiera (Peninsular War).

Fought August 21, 1808, between 18,000 British and Portuguese, under Sir
Arthur Wellesley, and 14,000 French, under Junot. The French were
signally defeated, losing 2,000 men and 13 guns, but the victory was not
followed up by Sir Harry Burrard, who was in supreme command, and the
French were allowed to evacuate Portugal unmolested, under the
Convention of Cintra. The British lost 720 killed and wounded.


                                 Viney.

Fought 717, between the Austrasians, under Charles Martel and the
Neustrians, under Chilperic II. The Neustrians were defeated.


                               Vionville.

_See_ Mars La Tour.


                       Vittoria (Peninsular War).

Fought June 21, 1813, between 80,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish
troops, under Wellington, and about 70,000 French, under Joseph
Buonaparte. After severe fighting the French were defeated at all points
and made a somewhat disorderly retreat, losing 6,000 killed, wounded,
and prisoners, 143 guns, and almost all their baggage and treasure. The
allies lost 5,000. This battle finally closed the era of French
domination in Spain, and opened to Wellington the road to the Pyrenees.


                   Vögelinseck (Appenzel Rebellion).

Fought May 15, 1402, between 5,000 troops, of the Swiss Imperial towns,
and 900 rebels of Appenzel and Schwyz. After a brief engagement, the
rebels were driven from the field, with a loss of 250 men.


                               Volconda.

Fought April, 1751, between Mohammed Ali’s army, 5,600 strong, under
Abdul Wahab Khan, aided by 1,600 British, under Captain Gingen, and
Chunda Sahib’s troops, 17,000 strong, together with a battalion of
Frenchmen. Captain Gingen, though greatly outnumbered, insisted on
attacking, but was repulsed, his Europeans not showing their usual
steadiness, and forced to retreat with considerable loss.


                    Volturno (Unification of Italy).

Fought October 1, 1860, between 20,000 Italians, under Garibaldi, and
40,000 Neapolitans, under Afan de Riva. Garibaldi’s position in front of
Capua was attacked by the Neapolitans, who, after hard fighting, were
repulsed all along the line, with heavy loss. The Garibaldian casualties
were 2,023 killed and wounded. The Neapolitans lost 2,070 prisoners, but
their losses in killed and wounded are unknown. In consequence of this
victory, Garibaldi almost immediately captured Capua.


                                Vouillé.

Fought 507, between the Franks, under Clovis, and the Visigoths, under
Alaric II. Alaric was endeavouring to effect a junction with Theodoric,
King of the Ostrogoths, when he was attacked by Clovis, and totally
defeated. Alaric fell in the battle.



                                   W


                      Wagram (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought July 6, 1809, between 150,000 French, under Napoleon, and 140,000
Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. Napoleon crossed the lesser arm
of the Danube from the Island of Lobau, on the night of the 4th and 5th
July, and driving the Austrian advanced posts before him, prepared to
attack their main position. An attack upon them on the evening of the
5th was repulsed. On the 6th the Austrians attacked the French right,
under Davoust, but were unsuccessful; later, however, the French centre
and left were compelled to give ground, but Napoleon bringing up the
artillery of the Guard and Macdonald’s corps, checked the Austrian
advance, while Davoust carried the heights on the Austrian left,
outflanking them, and rendering their position untenable. By three
o’clock they were in full retreat, having lost about 24,000 killed and
wounded, 9,000 prisoners, including 12 generals, and 20 guns. The French
lost 18,000 killed and wounded.


                       Waizan (Hungarian Rising).

Fought April 10, 1849, between the 3rd Hungarian corps, under Damjanics,
about 7,000 strong, and two Austrian brigades, under Götz and
Jablonowski. Damjanics attacked the Austrians and drove them out of
Waizan with heavy loss, among those who fell being General Götz.


                    Wakamatsu (Japanese Revolution).

The last stand of the Shogun’s followers was made at the Castle of
Wakamatsu, which was stormed by the Imperialists, September 22, 1868,
The resistance to the new régime was thus completely broken.


                     Wakefield (Wars of the Roses).

Fought December 30, 1460, between the Lancastrians, under Somerset, and
the Yorkists, under Richard, Duke of York. The Lancastrians advanced
from Pontefract and offered battle to Richard, who, though weakened by
the absence of foraging parties, accepted the challenge. Somerset
prepared an ambush, into which the Duke fell as he marched out of
Wakefield, and the Yorkists were defeated with heavy loss. The Duke and
many other nobles were killed, and Salisbury captured and beheaded.


                  Waltersdorf (Campaign of Friedland).

Fought February 5, 1807, between the French, under Ney, and the Prussian
corps of Lestocq. The Prussians were defeated with a loss of about 3,000
killed, wounded and missing.


                     Wandewash (Seven Years’ War).

Fought January 22, 1760, between the British, with 1,900 European and
3,350 native troops, under Colonel Coote, and the French, 2,250
Europeans and 1,300 natives, under Lally-Tollendal. The French army was
accompanied by 3,000 Mahratta horse, who took no part in the action.
After severe fighting Lally was defeated, with a loss of 600 Europeans,
besides natives, the British losing 190 only.


                     Wandewash (First Mysore War).

This fort, defended by a small native garrison, under Lieutenant Flint,
who had only one other European with him, was besieged, December, 1780,
by the Mysoris, under Hyder Ali. Flint held out with the utmost
gallantry till January 22, 1781, when the approach of Sir Eyre Coote
forced Hyder Ali to raise the siege. The garrison had then only one
day’s ammunition left.


                      Warburg (Seven Years’ War).

Fought July 31, 1759, between the French, 35,000 strong, under the
Chevalier de May, and a largely superior force of Prussians and British,
under Prince Ferdinand. The French were in danger of their flanks being
turned, and after a brief engagement, retired, having lost 1,500 killed
and wounded and 1,500 prisoners.


                     Warsaw (Second Polish Rising).

This city, which was held by a garrison of 30,000 Poles, under General
Dembinski, was attacked by the Russians, 60,000 strong, under General
Paskiewitsch. The first onslaught on the Polish entrenchments was made
on the 6th September, 1831, and the Poles were driven from their first
line. On the 7th a further assault was made, notable for the defence of
the Wola redoubt, where, when it was finally captured by the Russians,
only eleven men remained alive out of a garrison of 3,000. On the 8th
the last defences were overcome, and the city capitulated. The Poles had
9,000 killed in the defence. The Russians admitted a loss of 63 officers
and 3,000 men killed, and 445 officers and 7,000 men wounded.


                   Wartemberg (Campaign of Leipsic).

Fought October 3, 1813, when Blucher, with 60,000 Prussians, defeated
16,000 French, under Bertrand, posted in a very strong position,
protected by a dyke and a swamp. Aided by the ground, the French
withstood the Prussian attack for over four hours, but finally Blucher
turned their right flank and drove them from their position. The
Prussians lost about 5,000. The French admit a loss of 500 only.


               Wartzburg (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought 1796, between the French, under Jourdan, and the Austrians, under
the Archduke Charles. The Archduke interposed between the armies of
Jourdan and Moreau, who were endeavouring to effect a junction, and
inflicted a severe defeat upon Jourdan, forcing him to retire to the
Rhine.


                        Waterloo (Hundred Days).

Fought June 18, 1815, between 24,000 British, and 43,500 Dutch, Belgians
and Nassauers, in all 67,655 men, with 156 guns, under the Duke of
Wellington, and the French, 71,947 strong, with 246 guns, under
Napoleon. Wellington posted his troops along the line of heights
covering the road to Brussels, with advanced posts at the farms of
Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. Napoleon attacked this position with the
utmost resolution, but the British squares held their ground against the
French cavalry and artillery throughout the day, and though the French
captured La Haye Sainte, and obtained a footing in Hougoumont, the
arrival of Blucher, with the Prussian army, on the French right, enabled
Wellington at last to assume the offensive, and drive the enemy headlong
from the field, utterly routed. The British lost about 15,000, the
Prussians 7,000 in the battle. The losses of the Dutch and Belgians were
very small, as they left the field early in the day. The French loss was
never officially stated, but it was doubtless enormous, and the army
practically ceased to exist as an organized force.


                      Watigaon (First Burmah War).

Fought November 15, 1825, when Brigadier-General M’Donell, with four
native regiments, advanced in three columns, against a large force of
Burmans, under Maha Nemyo. The columns failed to keep touch, and were
repulsed in detail, with a loss of 200 men, including the Brigadier.


              Watrelots (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought January, 1567, between 1,200 Flemish Protestants, under Teriel,
and 600 Spaniards, under the Seigneur de Rassinghem. The Protestants
were defeated and 600 took refuge in an old graveyard, where they held
out till the last man had fallen.


              Wattignies (Wars of the French Revolution).

Fought October, 1793, when the French, under Jourdan, attacked the
Austrians, under the Duke of Coburg, and drove him from his position,
forcing him to raise the siege of Manbeuge.


                         Wavre (Hundred Days).

Fought June 18, 1815, between the French, under Grouchy, and the
Prussians, 27,000 strong, under Thielmann, who had been entrusted by
Blucher with the task of containing Grouchy, while the main Prussian
army marched on Waterloo. Grouchy, who was anxiously expected at
Waterloo, mistook his instructions, and wasted the day in attacking
Thielmann, whom he defeated, but uselessly.


                     Wednesfield (Danish Invasion).

Fought in 911, between the Danes and the West Saxons, under Edward the
Elder. The Danes were defeated.


                   Wei-hai-Wei (Chino-Japanese War).

On February 4, 1895, the boom protecting Wei-hai-Wei harbour was cut,
and the Chinese fleet attacked by 10 Japanese torpedo-boats, who
succeeded in sinking one battleship, at the cost of two torpedo-boats.
On the following night the attack was renewed by four boats, and three
Chinese ships were sunk. On the 9th another battleship was sunk by the
Japanese land batteries, whereupon Admiral Ting, the Chinese commander,
surrendered, and he and his principal officers committed suicide.


                    Weissenburg (Franco-German War).

The opening engagement of the campaign, fought August 4, 1870, between
the advance-guard of the Third German Army, under the Crown Prince of
Prussia, and a portion of Marshal Macmahon’s army, under General Abel
Donay, who fell in the battle. The Germans carried the French position,
and captured the town of Weissenburg, at a cost of 91 officers and 1,460
men. The French lost 2,300 killed, wounded and prisoners.


                       Wepener (Second Boer War).

This place was invested by a strong force of Boers, under De Wet, April
9, 1900, and was defended by 1,700 men of the Colonial Division, under
Colonel Dalgety. Notwithstanding the Boer’s great preponderance in
artillery, and a succession of bold assaults on the trenches, the
garrison held out gallantly till April 25, when they were relieved by
General Rundle, having lost 300 killed and wounded in the course of the
operations.


                      Werben (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought July 22, 1631, between the Swedes, 16,000 strong, under Gustavus
Adolphus, and 26,000 Imperialists, under Count Tilly. Tilly attacked
Gustavus’ entrenchments in front of Werben, but his troops could not
face the fire of the Swedish batteries, and being thrown into disorder,
were then charged by the cavalry, under Baudissen, and repulsed. The
attack was renewed a few days later with a similar result, and Tilly
then drew off his forces, having suffered a loss of 6,000 men.


                  Wertingen (Campaign of Austerlitz).

Fought October, 1805, between the cavalry of Murat’s corps, and nine
Austrian battalions, strongly posted in and round Wertingen. The
Austrians were defeated, losing 2,000 prisoners and several guns, and
had the French infantry been nearer at hand, it is probable that the
whole force would have been captured.


                            White Oak Swamp.

_See_ Seven Days’ Battles.


                       Wiazma (Moscow Campaign).

Fought November 3, 1812, when the corps of Eugène Beauharnais and
Davoust were attacked during the retreat from Moscow, by the Russians,
under Kutusoff, and suffered a loss of 4,000 men.


                 Wilderness, The (American Civil War).

Fought May 5 to 8, 1864, between the Army of the Potomac, 150,000
strong, under General Grant, and 53,000 Confederates, under General Lee.
Lee’s object was to intercept Grant’s advance on Richmond, and early on
the morning of the 5th he attacked the approaching Federal columns, and
after a hard-fought day, succeeded in arresting the progress of Grant’s
right wing. On the 6th, Lee almost succeeded in breaking Grant’s centre,
but at the critical moment, Longstreet, who was to lead the attack, was
fired upon and dangerously wounded by his own troops. The Federal right
wing, however, was driven back in confusion, and Lee on his side lost no
ground. The two following days minor skirmishes took place, leading up
to the great battle of Spottsylvania. The Confederates lost about 8,000
in the two days’ fighting. The Federal losses were far heavier,
amounting to 15,000 in the second day alone.


                   Williamsburg (American Civil War).

Fought May 5, 1862, between the Confederates, under General Magruder,
and the Federals, under General M’Clellan. Magruder occupied a very
strong position and held the Federals at bay throughout the day, but
being greatly outnumbered, withdrew during the night. The Federals lost
2,228 killed, wounded and missing, the Confederate loss being much
smaller.


                  Wilson’s Creek (American Civil War).

Fought August 6, 1861, between 6,000 Federals, under General Lyon, and
16,000 Confederates, under General M’Culloch. General Lyon divided his
force into two columns, for the attack on M’Culloch’s position, and that
led by himself surprised the Southerners, and gained a partial success.
They rallied, however, and beat him off, Lyon falling, the other column
being also repulsed. The Federals lost 1,236, and the Confederates 1,095
killed, wounded and missing.


                      Wimpfen (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought April 26, 1622, between 14,000 Palatinate troops, under the
Margrave of Baden, and the Imperialists, under Count Tilly and Gonsalvo
de Cordova. Tilly attacked the Margrave’s camp, which was not
entrenched, and though a brilliant cavalry charge captured his guns, it
was not supported by the Palatine infantry, and the Imperialists
rallying, drove off the cavalry in disorder, recovered the guns, and
then routed the infantry, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and
all their artillery, baggage and camp equipment.


                    Winchester (American Civil War).

Fought June 14, 1863, when 7,000 Federals, under General Milroy, were
defeated by three Confederate divisions, under General Ewell, and forced
to retreat with heavy loss, including 3,700 prisoners and 30 guns.


                       Winkovo (Moscow Campaign).

Fought October 18, 1812, when Murat, with 30,000 men, forming the
advance-guard of the retiring French army, was attacked by the Russians,
under Count Orloff Dennizoff, and driven from his position, with a loss
of 2,000 killed, 1,500 prisoners, and all his baggage and artillery.


                       Wisby (Dano-Swedish Wars).

A three days’ battle, fought 1613, between the fleet of Gustavus
Adolphus of Sweden, and that of Christian IV, of Denmark. The action was
very obstinately contested, and finally the fleets separated without any
decisive result.


                      Wisloch (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought April 16, 1622, between the troops of the Count Palatine, under
the Count von Mansfeldt, and the Imperialists, under Count Tilly. Tilly
attacked and drove in the Palatinate rearguard, but failing to check the
pursuit, was confronted by the main body, and defeated with a loss of
3,000 killed and wounded, and all his guns. This victory enabled
Mansfeldt to effect a junction with the army of the Margrave of Baden.


                         Worcester (Civil War).

Fought September 3, 1651, between 12,000 Royalists, under Charles II,
and about 30,000 Parliamentarians, under Cromwell. Charles attacked
Cromwell’s wing, and was repulsed and driven into Worcester, where he
was met by the other wing of the Parliamentary army, under Fleetwood.
The Royalists were utterly routed and dispersed, losing 3,000 killed,
among whom was the Duke of Hamilton, and a large number of prisoners,
including Lords Derby, Lauderdale and Kenmure, and five generals.
Charles himself escaped with difficulty. This was the last pitched
battle of the Civil War.


                       Worth (Franco-German War).

Fought August 6, 1870, between the Third German Army, under the Crown
Prince of Prussia, and the French, under Marshal Macmahon. After a
closely contested engagement, the French were driven from all their
positions, and made a hasty retreat beyond the Vosges. The Cuirassier
division of General Bonnemain was completely cut to pieces in charging
the German infantry, near Elsasshausen. The German losses amounted to
489 officers, and 10,153 men, while the French lost 10,000 killed and
wounded, 6,000 prisoners, 28 guns and 5 mitrailleuses.


                 Wrotham Heath (Wyatt’s Insurrection).

Fought January, 1554, when the Kentish insurgents, under Sir Henry
Isley, were totally defeated by the Royal troops, under Lord
Abergavenny.


                     Wargaom (First Mahratta War).

Fought January 12, 1779, when a British force, 2,600 strong, under
Colonel Cockburn, retreating from Poonah, was attacked by the Mahratta
army, under Mahadaji Sindhia, and Hari Pant. The British succeeded in
beating off the attack, and making good their position in the village of
Wargaom, but at a loss of 352, including 15 officers, and ultimately a
convention was signed by Sindhia, under which the British retired
unmolested.


                      Wynandael (Napoleonic Wars).

Fought September 28, 1808, between the British, under General Webb, and
the French under the Comte de la Motte. The French, with 40 battalions
and 40 squadrons, attempted to intercept a convoy of supplies for the
army besieging Lille, and were totally defeated, by a far inferior
force, with a loss of 7,000 men.


                              $1h2 nobreak

X


                    Xeres (Moslem Empire in Spain).

Fought July 19 to 26, 711, between 90,000 Spaniards, under Roderic, and
12,000 Moslems, with a numerous force of African auxiliaries, under
Tarik. On the fourth day the Moslems suffered a severe repulse, leaving
16,000 dead on the field, but the defection of Count Julian, with a
large part of the King’s forces, revived their courage, and finally the
Christians were routed and dispersed. Roderic fled from the field, but
was drowned in crossing the Guadalquivir. This victory marks the fall of
the Gothic monarchy, and the beginning of the Moorish domination in
Spain.



                                   Y


                       Yalu (Chino-Japanese War).

Fought September 17, 1894, between the Chinese fleet of 2 battleships
and 8 cruisers, under Admiral Ting, and the Japanese fleet of 10
cruisers, and 2 gunboats, under Admiral Ito. The two fleets met at the
mouth of the Yalu, the Chinese steaming out in line abreast. Ito
attacked in line ahead, using his superior speed to circle round the
enemy’s ships. Two of the Chinese vessels hauled out of the line and
fled without coming into action, while two more were set on fire, and
made for the shore. The remaining 6 ships fought well, and a little
before sundown Ito retired, leaving the crippled Chinese fleet to make
its way to Port Arthur. The Japanese lost 294 killed and wounded, of
whom 107 fell on the flagship, the _Matsushima_, while the _Chiyada_,
which was the next ship in the line, had not a man touched. The Chinese
losses are unknown.


                                 Yalu.

_See_ Kiu-lien-cheng.


                               Yamazaki.

Fought 1582, between the adherents of the Ota family, then predominant
in Japan, and the followers of the rebel Mitsuhide. Mitsuhide sustained
a crushing defeat.


                          Yashima (Taira War).

Fought 1184, between the adherents of the Taira family, and the rebels,
under Yoshitsune. The Taira forces were defeated.


           Yawata (War of the Northern and Southern Empires).

Fought January, 1353, between the armies of the Northern and Southern
Emperors of Japan. The army of the latter, led by Moroushi, gained a
signal victory.


                   Yenikale, Gulf of (Ottoman Wars).

Fought July, 1790, between the Turkish fleet, and the Russians, under
Admiral Onschakoff. The battle was fiercely contested, but eventually
both fleets drew off without any decisive result.


                   Yermuk (Moslem Invasion of Syria).

Fought November, 636, between 140,000 Imperial troops, under Manuel, the
General of Heraclius, and 50,000 Moslems, under Khaled. The Moslem
attack was thrice repulsed, but they returned to the charge, and after a
long and sanguinary engagement, drove their opponents from the field
with enormous loss. The Moslems lost 4,030 killed.


                Yorktown (American War of Independence).

The entrenched position of Lord Cornwallis, with 6,000 British troops at
this place, was invested by Washington, with 7,000 French and 12,000
Americans, in September, 1781. The British held out until October 19,
when, surrounded and outnumbered, Cornwallis surrendered, having lost
during the operations, 12 officers and 469 rank and file, killed and
wounded.


                     Yorktown (American Civil War).

This small village gives its name to the entrenched position occupied by
General Magruder with 11,000 Confederates, which was invested by 105,000
Federal troops, with 103 siege guns, April 5, 1862. On the 16th, an
unsuccessful attack was made upon Magruder’s lines, and both sides
having been reinforced, M’Clellan set about the erection of batteries.
On May 4, the Federals were about to open fire, when it was found that
the Confederates had abandoned the position and retired.


                    Youghiogany (Seven Years’ War).

A skirmish of no importance in itself, but notable as being “the shot
fired in America which gave the signal that set Europe in a blaze”
(_Voltaire_, _Louis XV_), and was in a sense the cause of the Seven
Years’ War. On May 27, 1754, Washington, with 40 Virginians, surprised a
small French detachment, under Coulon de Jumonville, despatched probably
as a reconnaissance by Contrecœur from Fort Duquesne. The detachment,
with one exception, was killed or captured.


                                   Z


                      Zab, The (Bahram’s Revolt).

Fought 590, between the troops of the Persian usurper Bahram, and the
army of the Emperor Maurice, under Narses. The usurper’s forces were
totally routed, and Chosroes II restored to the throne of Persia.


                   Zalaka (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought October 26, 1086, between 40,000 Moors, under Almoravid, and
300,000 Christians, under Alfonso VI of Castile. The Spaniards were
utterly routed, with enormous loss. Alfonso, at the head of 500 horse,
cut his way out, and with difficulty escaped.


                        Zama (Second Punic War).

Fought B.C. 202, between the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, and the
Romans, under Scipio Africanus. The Carthaginians began to attack with
their elephants, 80 in number, but some of these became unmanageable,
and fell back upon the cavalry, throwing them into disorder, while the
legionaries opened out and allowed the others to pass down the lanes
between their ranks. The infantry then closed, and after severe
fighting, the Romans gained a complete victory, 20,000 Carthaginians
falling, while as many more were made prisoners. Hannibal escaped from
the field at the end of the day.


                   Zamora (Moorish Empire in Spain).

Fought 901, between the Spaniards, under Alfonso the Great, King of the
Asturias, and the Moors, under Abdallah, King of Cordova. The Moors were
utterly routed, with heavy loss, Alfonso thereby extending his dominions
as far as the Guadiana.


                       Zeim (Russo-Turkish War).

Fought April 20, 1877, between the Russians, under Loris Melikoff, and
the Turks, under Mukhtar Pasha. Melikoff attacked the Turks in a
strongly entrenched position, but was repulsed with considerable loss.


              Zendecan (Turkish Invasion of Afghanistan).

Fought 1039, between the Seljuks, under Moghrul Beg, and the Afghans,
under Musrud, Sultan of Ghuzni. The Afghans were defeated, and Musrud
compelled to retire on his capital.


                       Zeugminum (Hungarian War).

Fought 1168, between the Greeks, under Manuel I, Emperor of
Constantinople, and the Hungarian invaders. The Hungarians were signally
defeated, and the war, which had lasted for five years, came to an end.


                         Zeuta (Ottoman Wars).

Fought September 11, 1679, between the Austrians, under Prince Eugene,
and the Turks, under Elwas Mohammed, the Grand Vizier. Eugene attacked
the Turkish army as it was crossing a temporary bridge over the Theiss,
and the cavalry being already across, cut it in two, and completely
routed the infantry, driving them into the river. The Turks lost 29,000
men. The Austrians 500 only.


                     Ziela (Third Mithridatic War).

Fought B.C. 67, between the Romans, under Triarius, and the Pontic army,
under Mithridates. The King attacked the Roman camp, and practically
annihilated them, though himself dangerously wounded in the assault.


                                 Ziela.

Fought August 2, B.C. 47, between 7 Roman legions, with some Asiatic
auxiliaries, under Julius Cæsar, and the Bosporans, under Pharnaces.
Pharnaces attacked the Romans while they were pitching camp, but the
legionaries quickly formed up, and utterly routed their assailants. This
is the occasion of Cæsar’s famous despatch, “Veni, vidi, vici.”


                       Ziezicksee (Flemish War).

Fought 1302, when the Genoese galleys, in the service of Philip IV of
France, under Grimaldi and Filipo di Rieti, utterly destroyed the
Flemish fleet.


                        Zlotsow (Ottoman Wars).

Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski, and 20,000 Turks
and Tartars, under Mohammed IV. The Turks were signally defeated.


                      Znaim (Campaign of Wagram).

Fought July 14, 1809, when Masséna, with 8,000 French, attacked 30,000
Austrians, under the Prince of Reuss, and drove them into Znaim with
considerable loss, including 800 prisoners.


                      Zorndorf (Seven Years’ War).

Fought August 25, 1758, between the Prussians, 25,000 strong, under
Frederick the Great, and a Russian army, under Fermor, which was
besieging Custria. Frederick attacked the Russian entrenchments, and
drove them out, with a loss of 19,000 forcing them to relinquish the
siege. The Prussians lost about 11,000.


                   Zummerhausen (Thirty Years’ War).

Fought 1647, when the French and Swedes, under Turenne and Wrangel,
inflicted a decisive defeat upon the Imperialists.


                         Zurakow (Ottoman War).

In 1676, John Sobieski, with 10,000 Poles, was besieged by 200,000 Turks
and Tartars, under Ibrahim Pasha (Shaitan). Having 63 guns, Sobieski
made a sturdy defence, and by constant sorties inflicted enormous loss
on the besiegers. At last, being unable to make any impression on the
defence, and finding his army wasting away, Ibrahim consented to treat,
and withdrew his forces from Polish territory. The Turks lost enormous
numbers during the siege; the Poles lost 3,000.


               Zutphen (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought September 22, 1586, between the Spaniards, under Prince Alexander
of Parma, and the English, under the Earl of Leicester. The Spaniards
endeavoured to throw a convoy of provisions into Zutphen, which
Leicester was besieging. He attempted to intercept it, but without
success, and was forced to retire after suffering considerable loss.
Among those who fell on the English side was Sir Philip Sydney.


             Zuyder Zee (Netherlands War of Independence).

Fought October 11, 1573, between 30 Spanish ships, under Bossu, and 25
Dutch ships, under Admiral Dirkzoon. The Spanish fleet fled, after
losing 5 ships, only Bossu standing his ground. His ship, however, was
eventually captured, after losing three-fourths of her crew.



                                 INDEX


          A

 Abbas II, 121
 Abbé, 155
 Abdallah, 100, 143, 169, 255
 — of Cordova, 272
 Abd-el-Kader, 116
 — Rahman, 10
 Abderrahman Ibn Abdillah, 252
 Abdul Wahab Khan, 263
 Abercrombie, Sir Ralph, 1, 9, 254
 Abercromby, Gen. James, 116, 249, 255
 Aberdeen, Provost of, 106
 Abergavenny, Lord, 269
 Abington, Major, 246
 Aboukir Bay, 177
 Aboyne, Lord, 41
 Abu Hamed, 219
 — ’l Hasan, 10, 24, 219
 — Obeidah, 8, 118
 — Sophian, 30, 155, 181, 231
 Abyssinia, Italian Invasion of, 4
 Acha, Gen., 183
 Achmet Hefzi Pasha, 99
 — Koprili Pasha, 188, 217
 Acre, 3, 167
 Adams, Major, 56, 97, 166, 182
 Adda, The, 141
 Adherbal, 79
 Adil Pasha, 142
 Adour, The, 178
 Æmilius, Consul, 48
 — Paulus, 203
 Æthelfrith, 72
 Æthelred, 21, 86, 207
 Æthelstan, 42
 Aetius, 55
 Afan de Riva, 264
 Afghan Wars, 6, 34, 56, 97, 117, 119, 121, 123, 124, 148, 190
 Afranius, 239
 Africa, Count of, 111
 Agesilaus, 66
 Agis, 151, 156
 Agnes, Countess of March, 81
 Agostina, 222
 Agra, 220
 Agricola, 101
 Agrippa, 170, 172
 Ahmed Ali, 5
 — Bey, 206
 — Pasha, 45, 58
 Aidan, 72
 Aiza, 94, 250
 Ajmir, Rajah of, 240
 Akbar, 60, 158, 187
 — Khan, 117
 Alaf Khan, 131
 Alaric, 197, 211
 — II, 197, 264
 Ala-ud-Din, 60, 74, 131
 Albemarle, Duke of, 9, 75, 99, 179
 — Sound, 210
 Albert, Archduke, 70, 117, 176, 183, 256
 — Margrave, 231
 Albigenses, 169
 Albinus, Clodius, 145
 Alboin, 189
 Albuquerque, 100, 148
 Alcibiades, 72, 179, 240
 Alcidas, 170
 Alemanni, 18, 55
 Alexander of Bulgaria, 194, 232
 — Despot of Pheræ, 71
 — of Epirus, 186
 — of Parma, 146, 252, 273
 — the Great, 17, 54, 95, 101, 113, 116, 248, 256
 Alexander’s Asiatic Campaigns, 95, 101, 113, 116, 256
 Alexius the Usurper, 64
 Alfonso IV, of Portugal, 219, 251
 — VI, 113, 272
 — VIII, of Castile, 7
 — XI, of Castile, 219
 — the Great, 272
 — the Infante, 181
 Alfred the Great, 21, 87, 158, 207
 Algeciras, 220
 Algiers, Dey of, 138
 Ali, 28, 113, 231, 257
 — Adil Shah, 100
 — Atar, 142, 143
 — Khan, 246
 — Hussein, 46
 — Moldovani Pasha, 79
 — Pasha, 210, 262
 Alle, River, 108
 Allemande, Adm., 131
 Allersheim, 178
 Allied Invasion of France, 41, 55, 67, 131, 133, 135, 166, 188, 208
 Almady, 65
 Almagro, 71, 135
 Almohacen, Heights of, 142
 Almoravid, 272
 Alonzo-di-Aguila, 162
 Alub Khan, 220
 Alumbagh, 144
 Alsusieff, 56
 Alvarez Mariano, 97
 Alviani, Gen., 5
 Alvinzi, 17, 18, 46, 200
 Amandus, 108
 Amanien, 36
 Ambiorix, 4
 Ambrosio Bercenegra, Don, 135
 American Civil War, 15, 26, 42, 43, 53, 54, 57, 58, 66, 69, 87, 89, 92,
    97, 105, 125, 139, 151, 157, 159, 169, 172, 180, 189, 191, 192, 200,
    201, 202, 209, 210, 225, 230, 235, 261, 268, 269, 271
 — Spanish War, 150
 — War of Independence, 32, 34, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 54, 56, 59, 63,
    86, 97, 102, 103, 139, 190, 202, 237, 249, 271
 — Wars, 26, 35, 36, 43, 57, 59, 61, 131, 144, 175, 205, 229
 Americo-Mexican War, 15, 42, 163, 186
 Amherst, Gen., 143, 164, 209
 Amiens, Peace of, 154
 Aminias, 219
 Amir Daood, 131
 Ammatas, 51
 Amphictyonic War, 54
 Amron, 9, 157
 Amurath II, 64, 130, 165, 259
 Andrés, 235
 Andronicus the Younger, 190
 Angelus, Isaac, 64
 Angostura, 263
 Angus, 14, 223
 Anjou, Duc d’, 145, 162
 Anlaf the Dane, 42
 Anson, Adm., 48
 Anstruther, Col., 41
 Antigonus, 44, 65, 86, 115, 187, 191
 Antigonus Soter, 222
 Antiochus the Great, 19, 21, 147, 167, 170, 207, 248
 Antipater, 156
 Antoku, 257
 Antonius, Caius, 70
 — Primus, 68
 Antony, Mark, 3, 169, 193
 Anwar-ud-Din, 13
 Appenzel Rebellion, 263
 Appius Claudius, 241
 Appleton, Commodore, 136
 Apraxine, 7, 102
 Arabi Pasha, 122
 Arabi’s Rebellion, 9, 122, 246
 Aratus, 156
 Arbogastes, 17
 Arbuthnot, Adm., 49
 Archelaus, 55, 183
 Archidamus, 150, 195, 246
 Archimedes, 241
 Ardoch, Moor of, 101
 Aredondo, 42
 Aremberg, Count, 107, 108
 Argive War, 227
 Argyle, Duke of, 98, 115, 229
 Ariça, 242
 Ariovistus, 3, 168
 Ashanti Wars, 2, 14, 77
 Arista, 186
 Aristœus, 201
 Aristagorus, 86
 Aristomenes, 156
 “Arkansas,” The, 261
 Armagnac War, 206, 218
 Arminius, 114, 260
 Arnulph of Germany, 83
 Arona, 165
 Arsaces III, 19
 Artaphernes, 86
 Artaxerxes, 70
 Arundel’s Rebellion, 88, 218, 220
 Arverni, The, 263
 Asipetes, The, 253
 Aston, Sir Arthur, 80
 Astruc, Mons., 228, 239
 Atahualpa, 13, 205
 Athens, Duke of, 54
 Athol, Earl of, 81
 Athole, Marquis of, 82
 Atlanta, 189
 Attalus, 59, 211
 Attila, 55
 Attilius, C., 140, 141
 Attilius Regulus, 83
 Auchmuty, Sir Samuel, 28, 163
 Audley, Lord, 35
 Auerstadt, 118
 Augereau, 28, 53, 159, 163
 Aulus Postumius, 132
 Aurelian, 186, 189, 194
 Aurelian’s Expedition to Palmyra, 15, 85
 Aurep, Gen., 45, 58
 Aurungzebe, 45, 98, 121, 220
 Austrasians, The, 247, 255, 263
 Ayesha, 28
 Ayub Khan, 121, 148

          B

 Baber, 187
 Baden, Margrave of, 269
 Baden-Powell, Gen., 145
 Bagenal, Harvey, 175
 Bagnall, Sir Henry, 36
 Bagration, 112, 161, 233
 Baghasian, 16
 Secg, 21
 Bahadur Shah, 60, 77
 Bahram’s Revolt, 271
 Baillie, 124
 — Col., 9, 191
 Baird, Gen., 36, 228
 Baireuth, Marquis of, 238
 Bajazet I, 176
 — II, 15, 116
 Baji Rao, 21, 125, 127
 Baj Singh, 60
 Baker, Major Henry, 142
 — Valentine, Pasha, 85, 245
 Baldwin I, 4
 — II, 64
 Balfour of Burleigh, 80
 Ball, Sir Alex., 259
 Balliol, 82, 105
 Ballivian, 114
 Balmaceda, 134
 Balmacedists, 133
 Banks, Gen., 151, 200
 Baquedano, Gen., 61, 160, 242
 Bar, Duke of, 5
 Baraguay d’Hilliers, 149, 234
 Baratieri, Gen., 4
 Barbarossa, Fredk., 136
 Barbosa, Gen., 63, 133
 Barnard, Sir Henry, 25, 75
 Barons, Wars, 87, 139
 Barreiro, Col., 39
 Barrington, Adm., 50
 Basin Rao, 20
 Basques, 213
 Bassano, Don Alfonso, 24
 Bassas, 212
 Bastard of Orleans, 110
 Bates, 95
 “Battle of Giants,” 153
 “Battle of the Spurs,” 103
 Baudissen, 267
 Baum, Col., 32
 Bavaria, Elector of, 36
 Bayard, Chevalier de, 94, 208
 Bazaine, Marshal, 31, 63, 101, 134, 153, 158, 178
 Bazalitch, Gen., 52
 Beatrix of Castile, 11
 Beauharnais, Eugene 150, 205, 216, 268
 Beaulieu, Gen., 37, 141, 157
 Beauregard, Gen., 42, 192
 Beavers Dam Creek, 228
 Beckwith, Gen., 154
 Bedford, 226
 — Duke of, 183, 261
 “Beggars,” The, 107, 203
 Belgium, Liberation of, 16
 Belisarius, 51, 156, 212, 253
 Bellasis, Col. John, 226
 Bellecombe, Mons., 198
 Bellegarde, 8
 Belleville, 188
 “Bell-the-Cat,” 223
 Belza, Gen., 133
 Bem, Gen., 226
 Benedek, Marshal, 125
 Benham, Gen., 225
 Bennigsen, Gen., 87, 93, 108, 203
 Beorwulf, 85
 Bercenegra, Don Ambrosio, 135
 Beresford, Lord Charles, 9, 123
 — Marshal, 7, 42
 Berkshire Regt., 250
 Bermuda Hundred, 192
 Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 208, 209
 Bernadotte, 137, 162
 Berthier, Gen., 141
 Bertie, Adm., 116
 Bertrand, Gen., 76, 266
 Berwick, 105
 Berwick, Duke of, 193
 — Marshal, 8, 12
 Bessières, Marshal, 210
 Betuitdus, 115
 Bevern, Prince of, 40
 Bezetha, 118
 Bhagerat Rao Scindhia, 147
 Bianchi, Gen., 89, 250
 Biddulphsberg, 227
 Bifukumonia | 242
 Bijapore, Rajah of, 100
 Bizet, Gen., 33
 Black Agnes of Dunbar, 81
 Black Prince, The, 173, 197
 “Black Watch,” The, 249
 Blake, Adm., 79, 200, 247
 — Gen., 86, 216
 Blakeney, Gen., 160
 Blasco Nunez, 14
 Blois, Comte de, 4
 “Bloody Battery,” 196
 Blucher, Marshal, 28, 41, 55, 68, 123, 133, 135, 137, 140, 143, 145,
    265, 266, 267
 Boadicea, 37
 Bœotian War, 66, 137, 151, 246
 Boer Wars, 31, 41, 63, 72, 77, 80, 84, 88, 101, 114, 122, 124, 130,
    133, 141, 146, 147, 148, 161, 184, 193, 208, 209, 221, 227, 228,
    236, 243, 258, 267
 Bogdan, 28, 180
 Bohemond, 79
 Boiorix, 17, 261
 Boisot, Adm., 139, 213
 Bolivar, 27, 34, 39, 50, 177, 201, 259
 Boniface, Count of Africa, 111
 Bonnemain, Gen., 269
 Bonnet, Gen., 219
 Bonnivet, 208
 Borysthenes, The, 203
 Boscawen, Adm., 143, 198
 Bosco, Gen., 159
 Bossu, 104, 215, 273
 Botha, 77
 Botta, Gen., 96
 Bover, 86
 Boucicaut, Marshal, 5
 Bouillon, Duc de, 185
 Boulatoff, Gen., 208
 Bourbon, Constable of, 208, 212
 — Francisco de, 54
 Bourlamaque, 249
 Bourquin, 75
 Bouxhoevden, Gen., 231
 Bowyer, Gen., 146, 217, 219
 Boyd, Gen., 61
 Boyle, Mr., 20
 Brabant, 211
 — Duke of, 5
 Braddock, Gen., 162
 Bradstreet, Col., 91
 Bragg, Gen., 57, 58, 169, 191
 Braithwaite, Col., 173
 Brakfontein, 258
 Brand, Martin, 104
 Braun, Marshal, 201
 Breckenridge, Gen., 174
 Brennus, 11, 211
 Brentford, Earl of, 12
 Brian Boru 62
 Bridgwater, 133
 Bridport, Lord, 31
 Brihtnoth, 149
 British Invasion of Egypt, 1, 9
 Britt, Don Jorge, 138
 Broadwood, Col., 221
 Brock, Gen., 205
 Broglie, Duc de, 33, 125, 205, 225
 Broke, Capt., 229
 Bromhead, Lieut., 213
 Brown, Capt., 261
 — Gen. Jacob, 59, 144
 — Marshal, 143
 Bruce, Capt., 104
 — Robert, 26, 81, 115, 142, 158
 Brude, 173
 Brueys, Adm., 177
 Brune, 11
 Brunehilde, Queen, 87
 Brunswick, Christian, of, 90
 — Duke of, 118, 259
 — Ferdinand of, 33
 — Prince of, 47, 111
 Brutus, 41, 193
 Brydon, Dr., 119
 Buccaneers, 186, 200, 203
 Buccelin, 52
 Buchan, Constable, 68, 261
 — Earl of, 115
 Buchanan, Capt., 105
 Buckingham, Duke of, 135, 208
 Buda-Pesth, 161
 Buell, Gen., 191
 Buenzas, 204
 Buerens, Gen., 110
 Buffalo, 36
 Bugeaud, Marshal, 116
 Bugha, 229
 Bukht-Khan, 179
 Bulbuddur, Singh, 120
 Bulgaria, Prince of, 156
 Buller, Capt., 231
 — Sir Redvers, 63, 72, 114, 131, 193, 236, 258
 Burgoyne, Gen., 237, 249
 Burgundian Wars, 100, 109, 136, 165
 Burgundy, Duke of, 184
 Burleigh, Lord, 1
 Burmah, Wars, 78, 120, 123, 127, 185, 266
 Burnaby, Col. Fred., 2
 Burnside, Gen., 92, 211
 Burr, Col., 125
 Burrard, Sir Harry, 263
 Burrows, Gen., 148
 Butler, Gen., 192
 Byng, Adm., 160
 — Gen., 213
 — Sir Geo., 10, 49
 Byron, Adm., 102

          C

 Cabra, Comte de, 143
 Cabrera, Gen., 61, 165
 Caceres, Gen., 160
 Cade, 229, 235
 Cadiz, Marquis of, 10, 24
 Cadmea, 248
 Cadwallon, 107
 Cæcilius Metellus, 20
 Cæcina, 47, 68
 Cæsar, Julius, 8, 24, 29, 35, 83, 96, 168, 192, 199, 215, 253, 273
 Cæsar’s Camp, 130
 Cairo, 157, 204
 Caius Mœnius, 62
 Calabria, 148
 Calder, Sir Robert, 49
 Caliph Omar, 157
 Callicratidas, 18, 170
 Callinicus, Seleucus, 15
 Calo-John, 4
 Calvert, Capt., 13
 Calvinus, Domitius, 176
 Calvinus, T. Veturius, 53
 Camalogenus, 5
 Cambray, 20
 Cambuskenneth, Battle of, 238
 Cambyses, 190
 Camera, Gen., 16, 220
 Cameron, Gen., 95
 Camillus, M. Furius, 260
 Campaign of Austerlitz, 84, 267
 —— Friedland, 33, 72, 73, 87, 93, 108, 162, 203, 265
 —— Jena, 215
 —— Leipsic, 73, 76, 79, 102, 106, 123, 126, 129, 137, 143, 145
 —— Moscow, 100, 184, 233
 —— the Danube, 14, 23, 82, 103, 106, 112, 153, 159
 —— Wagram, 1, 22, 83, 205, 207
 Campbell, Capt., 60
 — Col., 13, 150
 — of Auchinbrech, 115
 — Sir Archibald, 78, 120, 123, 127, 185
 — Sir Colin, 53, 144, 206, 225
 Cananore, 100
 Candorcanqui, Battle of, 24
 Canmore, Malcolm, 12, 82
 Cannon, Col., 81
 Canto d’Irles, Gen., 151
 Caplan, Pasha, 128
 Caprara, Gen., 232
 Capua, 167, 260, 264
 Caractacus, 47, 183
 Cardigan, Lord, 25
 Carew, Sir Peter, 99
 Carigat, 19
 Carinus, 153
 Carlist Wars, 35, 110, 113, 115, 165, 190, 203, 220
 Carmagnola, 145
 Carrington, Gen., 84
 Carthaginian Invasions, 2, 44, 53, 69, 110, 111, 226, 241
 Caxias, Gen., #220_21#
 Cassius, 193
 Castañeta, Don Antonio, 49
 Castaños, 255
 Castijon, Don Petro de, 10
 Castor, 132
 Castruccio Castracane, 12
 Cathcart, Gen., 32, 65
 Catinat, Marshal, 51, 237
 Catulus, C. Lutatius, 4
 Cauterac, Gen., 119
 Cawnpore, 143, 147, 186
 Ceawlin, 76, 89
 Cifuentes, Count di, 162
 Censorinus, L., 51
 Cephalonia, 217
 Cerialis, Petilius, 35
 Cerro de Guadalupe, 134
 Cervera, Adm., 221
 Cervoni, 163
 Cetewayo, 120
 Chabrias, 59, 173
 Chagre, The, 186
 Champagne, Comte Thibaut de, 64
 Chandos, Sir John, 23
 Chang Pak, 74, 242
 Chanzy, Gen., 137
 Chard, Lieut., 213
 Chares, 59, 85
 Charlemagne, 213
 Charles I, 69, 84, 172, 174
 — II, 269
 — V, 132, 168, 212
 — VI, 214
 — VIII, 91
 — XI, 37, 89, 132, 144, 207
 — XII, 62, 82, 93, 113, 138, 171, 202, 233, 239, 248
 — Albert of Savoy, 99
 — Archduke, 1, 22, 34, 36, 83, 207, 222, 238, 264, 266
 — James, the Young Pretender, 202
 — Martel, 252, 263
 — of Anjou, 31, 100, 158, 242
 — of Athens, 54
 — of Blois, 23
 — of Lorraine, 40, 61, 72, 109, 112, 139, 201, 211, 234
 — the Bold, 101, 165
 — the Regent, 141
 Chasseurs d’Afrique, 225
 Chatham, Lord, 90
 Chand Bibi, 6
 Chelmsford, Lord, 257
 Chenab, River, 206, 216
 Cherusii, 141
 “Chesapeake,” The, 229
 Chevy Chace, 184
 Chickahominy, River, 228
 Childebert II, 255
 Chilian Civil War, 63, 133
 Chilian Revolution, 134
 Chilperic II, 263
 China Wars, 242
 Chinese Invasion of Japan, 74, 242
 Chino-Japanese War, 119, 194, 199, 267, 270
 Chippewa, 144
 Chitchagoff, Adm., 208
 Chitral Campaign, 60, 149
 “Chiyada,” The, 270
 Choczin, 237
 Chodkiewicz, 128
 Choniski, 126
 Choshiu, Daimyo of, 74
 Choshu, 94, 250
 Chosroes, 157
 — II, 177, 271
 Chotzewitz, 127
 Christian IV, 144, 269
 — V, 144
 — Duke of Brunswick, 111, 237
 Christina Gyllenstierna, 257
 Cristomenes, 49
 Chrzanowski, 179
 Chudleigh, Gen., 239
 Chunda Sahib, 13, 18, 254, 264
 Chnodomar, 18
 Churchill, Gen., 261
 Cialdini, Gen., 14, 52, 95, 186
 Cimbric War, 16, 261
 Cimon, 87
 Cintra, Convention of, 263
 Civil War, 1, 4, 9, 12, 39, 40, 41, 50, 55, 58, 69, 80, 81, 84, 114,
    115, 133, 154, 172, 174, 193, 202, 214, 239, 250, 269
 — of Cæsar and Pompey, 70, 83, 172, 192, 215, 245, 258
 — of Marius and Sulla, 63, 68, 216
 — of Sertorius, 239
 Clam-Gallas, 98, 168, 197, 256
 Clanwilliam, Earl of, 107
 Clarence, Duke of, 29
 Clarifait, Gen., 167
 Claudius, 47
 — Appius, 49
 — Gothicus, 171
 — Nero, 158
 — Publius, 140
 Clauleu, 57
 Clausel, Marshal, 63
 Clauset, 213
 Claverhouse, 80
 Cleland, Col., 81
 Clement III, 212
 Cleombrotus, 139
 Cleomenes, 156, 227
 Cleon, 14, 204
 Cleopatra, 3
 Clermont, Comte de, 68, 91
 Clifford, Lord, 89
 Clive, 18, 20, 56, 59, 67, 76, 195
 Closter-Seven, Convention of, 107
 Clothaire II, 79, 87
 Clovis, 197, 234, 250, 264
 Clytus, 44
 Cnœus Domitius, 147
 — Fulvius, 109
 — Pompeius, 168
 Cnemas, 65, 172
 Cniva, 92, 193
 Coa, River, 215
 Coburg, Duke of, 90, 210, 266
 — Prince of, 154, 173
 Cochrane, Sir A. J., 26, 146, 154, 217, 219
 — Lord, 46
 Cockburn, Col., 270
 Codrington, Adm., 172
 Cœpio, 17
 Colborne, Sir John, 217
 Coligny, 80
 Colley, Sir Geo., 133, 148
 Colli, Gen., 114, 159
 Collier, Sir George, 190
 Collingwood, Adm., 252
 Colorados, 164
 Columbine, Capt., 227
 Colville, Gen., 220
 Combermere, Lord, 34
 Comnenus, 253
 — Alexius, 82
 Comonfort, Gen., 134
 Conan the Athenian, 62
 Condé, 20, 56, 80, 81, 93, 117, 138, 178, 200, 211, 217, 227, 258
 Conflans, 154, 205, 206
 Congeen, Commodore, 218
 Congressists, 134
 Conon, 4, 170
 Conquest of Algeria, 63
 —— Dacia, 153
 —— Ireland, 23
 —— Mexico, 159
 —— of Peru, 13, 14, 22, 71, 135, 205
 Conradin, 242
 Constantine, 44, 61, 104, 108, 152, 223, 261
 — III, 42
 — of Alban, 78
 — Palæologus, 65
 Constantius, 167, 169, 232
 Contades, Marquis de, 159
 Conti, Prince Louis de, 47, 145
 Contrecœur, 271
 Convent of Santa Cruz, 134
 Conway, Lord, 174
 Cooke, Gen., 33
 Coote, Sir Eyre, 20, 197, 198, 201, 230, 265
 Cope, Sir John, 202
 Copratus, The, 65
 Corinthian War, 66
 Cornaille, Pierre, 133
 Cornwallis, Lord, 19, 26, 47, 103, 223, 227, 271
 Cortes, 159, 184
 Cossack Rising, 122
 Cotton, Gen., 78
 Coulon de Jumonville, 271
 — de Villiers, 102
 Courbet, Adm., 235
 Covenanters’ Rising, 38, 80, 215
 Coxon, John, 186
 Cragova, 58
 Crassus, 232
 — P. Licinius, 134
 — Publius, 51
 Craufurd, Earl of, 40, 62
 Crimean War, 11, 25, 45, 58, 115, 122, 149, 181, 183, 208, 231, 232,
    240, 245
 Crispus, 108
 Critolaus, 223
 Crittenden, Gen., 159
 Cromwell, Oliver, 80, 81, 154, 172, 202, 269
 Cronje, 124, 146, 147, 161, 184
 Cronstedt, Adm., 240
 Cronstrun, 33
 Crouzat, Gen., 30
 Crown Prince of Prussia, 126
 Crusaders, 2, 16, 20, 21, 64, 79, 118, 157, 176, 256
 Ctesiphon, 119
 Cuddalore, 201
 Cuesta, 155, 200
 Cumberland, Duke of, 70, 90, 107, 136
 “Cumberland,” The, 106
 Cureton, Gen., 206
 Curio, 25, 258
 Curry, Sir Pierce, 134
 Curtis, Gen., 189
 Custer, Gen., 141, 182
 Custria, 273
 Cutha, 89
 Cyprus War, 88, 138
 Cyrus the, Younger, 70
 Czarnieçki, 197
 Czernitcheff, 137

          D

 d’Albergotti, Gen., 79
 d’Aché, Comte, 51, 91, 254
 Dacia, 152
 Dacre, 95, 252
 — Thomas, 234
 Dagisteus, 192
 d’Aguila, 125
 d’Albret, Constable, 5
 d’Alençon, Duc, 5, 261
 Dalgety, Col., 267
 Dalziel, Gen., 215
 Dalmatia, 152
 Damietta, 157
 Damjanics, 127, 264
 Damrémont, Gen., 64
 Danish Invasions, 42, 78, 86, 87, 109, 144, 158, 166, 180, 207, 230,
    247, 248, 267
 Dano-Spanish Wars, 108
 — Swedish Wars, 37, 61, 86, 93, 94, 113, 125, 128, 132, 144, 214, 239,
    257, 269
 Danube, The, 232
 Dara, 220
 Darando, Gen., 166
 d’Argentian, 163
 Darius, Codomannus, 17
 — King of Persia, 116
 — Hystaspes, 152
 d’Armagnac, 155
 Darnad Ali Pasha, 192
 Darozhinsky, Gen., 224
 d’Artois, Robert, 67
 d’Aspré, Gen., 165
 Datis, 152
 D’Aubigny, 226
 d’Aubusson, Pierre, 209
 Daun, Marshal, 111, 127, 139, 140, 155, 181, 251, 256
 d’Aurelle de Paladines, Gen., 67, 142
 d’Auteil, Mons., 13
 David II, 174
 — of Scotland, 82, 237
 Davidowich, 18, 214
 d’Avila, Don Sancho, 16, 165
 Davis, Capt., 203
 — Commodore, 157
 Davoust, 87, 118, 128, 153, 161, 264, 268
 de Aguila, 162
 Deane, Adm., 200
 de Ataida, Luis, 100
 — Beaumont, Robert, 91
 — Bermingham, Richard, 23
 — — John, 81
 — Burgh, William, 23
 — Bouillon, Godefroi, 118
 — Bouflers, Mons., 140
 — Castries, Gen., 47
 — Castro, Juan, 77
 — Catinat, Marshal, 153
 Decebalus, 153
 de Charolais, Comte, 164
 — Conflans, Adm., 31
 Decius, 92, 193
 — Mus., 261
 — Publius, 227
 de Coigny, Marshal, 188
 — Coligny, Marshal, 103
 — Drucour, Chevalier, 143
 — Failly, Gen., 29
 Defenders, 76
 de Fersen, Baron, 154
 Degollado, 242
 de Gonzaga, Francisco, 91, 94
 — Grasse, 78
 — Kalb, 47
 — Kray, 85, 86, 111, 116
 — la Barre?, 218
 — la Feuillade, Duc, 256
 — la Gardie, James, 126
 — la Marck, 41
 — la Meilleraic, Marshal, 185
 — la Motte Count, 270
 — la Noue, François, 215
 — la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, 237
 — la Rochefoucauld, 185
 — Lauria, Roger, 158
 Del Canto, Gen., 63, 133
 de Levis, Chevalier, 205, 217
 Delhi, King of, 240
 de Ligneris, Mons., 101
 — Lorraine, Chevalier, 218
 de Lucy, Richard, 91
 — Lusignan, Guy, 118, 249
 Delzons, Gen., 150
 de Marche, Count, 242
 — Mauley, 252
 Dembinski, Gen., 121, 247, 265
 de Medari, Gen., 52
 — Melac, Mons., 132
 — Mercy, Gen., 188
 Demetrius, 212
 — Poliorcetes, 115
 de Montfort, John, 23
 —— Simon, 139
 Demosthenes, 181, 204, 241
 de Namur, Guy, 67
 Dentatus, M. Carius, 31
 Derby, Lord, 44, 206, 269
 de Rantzau, 247
 — Rassinghem, 266
 — Rieux, Marshal, 217
 — Rigny, Adm., 172
 — Ros, 57
 — Ruyter, 79, 99, 179, 200, 229, 234
 Desaix, 152
 d’Estaing, Count, 50, 102, 182
 Destigerd, 177
 d’Estrées, Count, 107, 234
 de Suffren, 199, 201
 — Tavannes, Marshal, 162
 — Thermes, Marshal, 101
 — Tourville, Adm., 29, 131
 — Trastamare, Henry, 173
 d’Eu, Comte, 50
 de Winter, Adm., 48
 — Vandemont, Prince, 68
 — Vere, Duke of Ireland, 206
 — Villiers, Commandant, 130
 —— Coulon, 102
 Devizes, 214
 De Wert, Jean, 208, 209
 — Wet, 80, 220
 Dewey, Adm., 151
 de Witt, 79
 Dexippus, 2
 de Letendeur, Adm., 49
 Diacus, 138
 Diebitsch, Gen., 102, 129
 Dieskau, Baron, 132, 136
 di Lezze, Antonio, 224
 Dingaan, 77
 Diocles, 111, 226
 Diocletian, 153
 Dionysius, 44, 69, 85, 166, 241
 Diophantus, 44
 di Potenza, Condé, 244
 Dirkzoon, Adm., 273
 Djezzar, 3
 Doblado, 219
 Doctoroff, Gen., 150
 Dolabella, 70
 Dolabella, P. Cornelius, 132
 Dolgorouky, Gen., 171
 Domitius, Cnæus, 147
 Dom Miguel’s Rebellion, 220
 Donald, Bree, 99
 — Lord of the Isles, 106
 Don Carlos, 110, 113
 Don Francisco de Toledo, 104
 — John of Austria, 81, 95, 138, 215
 — Sancho of Castile, 257
 — Sebastian, 110, 113
 Doria, 59, 64, 197
 Dost Mohammed, 121
 Douay, Gen. Abel, 267
 Douglas, 231
 — Archibald, 19
 — Arch., Earl of, 105, 112
 — Earl of, 184, 261
 — James, Earl of, 19
 — Rebellion, 40
 Doveton, Gen., 21
 Dragomiroff, 231
 Drake, 19, 44
 — Mr., 45
 Drepanum, 140
 Dresden, 129
 Drummond, Sir Geo., 144
 Drusus, 141, 148
 Dublin, 207
 Duchambon de Vergor, 30
 Ducrot, Gen., 263
 Duff, Sir James, 97
 Dufour Gen., 98
 du Gast, 54
 Dugommier, 251
 du Guesclin, 23, 57, 60, 62, 164, 173, 199
 Duilius, Caius, 170
 du Lude, Seigneur, 191
 Dumouriez, 117, 173, 259
 Duncan, Adm., 48
 Dundas, Adm., 240
 Dundee, 124
 — Battle of, 209, 243
 Dunkeld, 144
 — Bishop of, 115
 Dunkirk, 112
 Dunois, 183
 Dupleix, 198
 Dupont, Adm., 29, 57
 — Gen., 106
 Durand, Col., 50
 Durham, Bishop of, 237
 Durnford, Col., 115
 Dutch Wars, 77, 79, 99, 179, 200, 229, 234, 235, 247
 d’York, Gen., 56

          E

 Earle, Gen., 125
 Early, Gen., 54, 89, 182
 Ecgfrith, 173
 Edhem Pasha, 78, 193
 Edmund Ironsides, 22, 191, 228
 Edward, 248
 — I, 55, 81, 87, 88, 139
 — II, 3, 26, 38, 105
 — III, 4, 5, 60, 68, 69
 — IV, 27, 84, 85, 110, 166, 247, 252
 — the Elder, 247, 267
 — the Black Prince, 173, 197
 Edwardes, Lieut., 124, 168, 239
 Edwin, 107
 — Earl, 94
 Egbert, 85, 109
 Egerton, Sir Charles, 119
 Egmont, Count, 101, 218
 — Philip, 96
 Egremont, Lord, 179, 237
 Ehrenskiöld, Adm., 94
 Eighty-Seventh, Regt., 168
 Elbe, River, 107
 Elcho, Lord, 250
 El Hadj Mohammed Pasha, 129
 Elias Khan, 161
 Eliot, Gen., 98
 Eloff, Sarel, 146
 Elphinstone, Gen., 34, 119, 124
 — Sir Keith, 220
 Elsasshausen, 269
 El Teb, Battle of, 255
 Elwas Mohammed, 272
 Emin, Malek, 109
 Emir Hamada, 89
 Enniskillen, 175
 Enotake, 120
 Enslin, Battle of, 101
 Entzheim, Battle of, 232
 Epaminondas, 139, 151
 Epidamnus, 105
 Eporedorix, 3
 Equatius Gellius, 47, 227
 Erinschild, Adm., 7
 Ernest of Styria, Duke, 206
 Errol, Earl of, 99
 Esk, River, 194
 Escobedo, 221
 Espartero, 35, 110, 165, 190
 Espinay, Prince, 252
 Essex, Earl of, 84, 174
 Etampes, 188
 Ethelwulf, 180
 Etruscan War, 20
 Eudamus, 21
 Eudes, 164
 Eugene, Prince, 30, 36, 50, 52, 58, 68, 75, 79, 132, 140, 145, 150,
    192, 193, 205, 222, 272
 —— of Wurtemberg, 163
 Eugenius, 17
 Eumenes, 65, 187, 191, 222
 Eurylocus, 181
 Eurymedon, 204
 Euthydemus, 19
 Evans, Gen., 26, 110, 115, 221
 —— (Am.), 225
 — Sir Ralph, 15
 Evetzen, 200
 Ewell, Gen., 69, 269
 Exeter, 218
 — Earl of, 216
 Exmouth, Lord, 10
 Eyre, Major Vincent, 20

          F

 Fabricius, Caius, 8, 24
 Fabius Maximus, Q., 116, 136, 227, 263
 Faidherbe, Gen., 27, 105, 218
 Fairfax, Sir Thos., 4, 133, 154, 172, 226
 Falkenberg, 146
 Falkenstein, Gen., 125
 Farokshin, 5
 Farragut, Adm., 175, 261
 Fastolfe, Sir John, 110, 188
 Faure, Gen., 14
 Faversham, Earl of, 225
 Feidlim, 23
 Feliciano, 121
 Ferdinand, Archduke, 106, 207
 — King of Naples, 185, 210, 226, 260
 — of Brunswick, 68, 160
 — of Hungary, 178
 — Prince, 125
 — the Catholic, 100, 142, 149, 251
 Fermor, 273
 Ferrars, Lord, 38
 Fersen, Baron de, 154
 Fife, Earl of, 115
 Filipo de Rieti, 273
 Finck, Gen., 155
 Finland War, 208, 240
 Finnegan, Gen., 180
 Firth, Lord, 58
 Fischbuch, Gen., 58
 Fitzalan, Richard, 233
 Fitzwalter, Lord, 89
 Flaminius, 19, 24, 71
 Flammock’s Rebellion, 35
 Flavius Fimbria, 158
 — Cnæus, 109
 Fleetwood, 269
 Flemish War, 67, 162, 273
 Flics, Gen., 132
 Flint, Lieut., 265
 Floing, 225
 Flores, Gen., 69, 70, 164
 Floyd, Gen., 149
 Foix, Comte de, 242
 Fontana, Benedict, 47
 Forbach, Battle of, 236
 Forde, Col., 113, 154, 206
 Forey, Gen., 134, 163
 Forgacz, Count, 188
 Forster, Gen., 202
 Fort Duquesne, 101, 271
 — Lyman, 132
 — Necessity, 102
 Fournier, Gen., 102
 Fraga, 139
 Francis I, 153, 189
 — II of Naples, 95
 — Joseph, Emperor, 234
 Francisco de Manesses, 258
 —— Melo, 211
 —— Toledo, Don, 104
 — Pizarro, 135
 Franco-Austrian War, 147, 149, 163, 234, 256
 — German War, 14, 27, 29, 31, 43, 58, 63, 105, 137, 142, 153, 158, 178,
    188, 218, 235, 263
 — Mexican War, 3, 134
 Fraser, Gen., 74, 238
 Frauenberg, The, 158
 Fredegond, Queen, 255
 Frederic II, 66, 100
 — IV, of Denmark, 239
 — Augustus, 62
 — Barbarossa, 136
 — Charles, Prince, 82, 98, 126, 137, 158, 168, 178, 197
 — Duke of Austria, 168, 242
 — Elector of Saxony, 168
 — of Bohemia, 201
 — the Great, 60, 72, 109, 111, 112, 126, 129, 139, 140, 143, 162, 181,
    201, 234, 273
 — William III, 239
 ——Elector, 89, 207, 236
 French, Gen., 84, 124
 — Canadian Rising, 217
 — Civil Wars, 67
 — Invasion of Egypt, 1, 3, 108, 177, 204
 Fresnel, 105
 Freyre, 59
 Freytag, 112
 Fritigern, 105, 152
 Frossard, Gen., 235
 Fullali, The, 113
 Fulvius, Cn., 32
 — Q., 49
 Futteh Mohammed Khan, 124

          G

 Gablenz, Gen., 253
 Gage, Gen., 43, 139, 202
 Gaines’ Mill, 228
 Galba, 199
 Galgacus, 100
 Gallic Invasion of the East, 86, 105
 — Revolt, 35
 — Tribal Wars, 3
 — Wars, 4, 5, 8, 24, 29, 35, 41, 96, 168, 199, 253
 Gallitzin, Prince, 60, 79, 122
 Gallus, Cestius, 34
 Galway, Lord, 8, 12
 Gamarra, 114
 Ganetzki, Gen., 196
 Garcilasso de la Vega, 183
 Gardiner, Col., 12
 Gardner, Gen., 200
 Garibaldi, 22, 45, 157, 159, 164, 165, 185, 212, 260, 264
 Garnett, Gen., 209
 Gaston de Foix, 207
 Gatacre, Gen. Sir W., 238
 Gate Pah, 95
 Gates, Gen., 47, 236
 Gauchos, 163
 Gazer Khan, 184
 Gek Horn, Battle of, 190
 Gelimer, 51, 254
 Gellius Statius, 39
 Gelon, 108, 110
 Genghiz Khan, 26, 97, 114, 121, 122, 123, 184, 190, 220, 244
 Genseric, 48, 111
 George II, 76
 — King of Hanover, 152
 Georgia, Queen of, 249
 Gergue, 190
 German Invasion of Italy, 90
 Germanic Wars, 114, 141, 148, 260
 Getes, 161
 Ghuzni, 97, 234
 Gildo, 242
 Gillespie, Gen., 120
 Gingen, Capt., 264
 Ginkel, 5
 Girard, Col., 137
 Girod, 217
 Giulay, Marshal, 47
 Glabrio, 248
 Glarus, 171
 Goddard, Gen., 6, 28
 Godefroi de Bouillon, 21, 176
 Goignies, Gen., 95
 Gokameyama, 161
 Gokla, 21
 Göldli, Geo., 121
 Golitshin, Adm., 102
 Gomurakami, 129, 161
 Gonsalvo de Cordova, 54, 94, 183, 217, 226, 244
 Gonzaga, 95
 Gonzalo Pizarro, 14, 71
 Gore, Col., 217
 Gordon, Gen., 123
 “Gordon Highlanders,” 74
 Görgey, 3, 116, 127, 171, 181, 191, 223, 247
 Goring, Lord, 133
 Gortschakoff, 245
 Gothic Invasion of France, 197
 —— Italy, 132, 211
 —— Thrace, 152
 — Wars, 87, 92, 67, 171, 193, 197, 212, 242
 Gothicus, Claudius, 171
 Götz, Gen., 264
 Gough, Lord, 59, 89, 103, 147, 165, 203, 206, 216
 — Matthew, 235
 Gourko, Gen., 78, 99, 193
 Gracchus, Tiberius, 32
 Graham, Gen., 27, 106, 221
 — Gen. Sir G., 122, 244, 246, 255
 Grammont, Duc de, 76
 Gran, The, 171
 Granson, Sir Thomas, 199
 Grant, Gen., 57, 58, 192, 209, 230, 236, 262
 — Sir Hope, 243
 — Major, 107
 Gratiani, 117
 Graves, Adm., 145
 Gravitza Redoubt, 196
 Greece, Crown Prince of, 78
 Greek War of Independence, 160, 172
 Green, Sir Chas., 240
 Greene, Gen., 86, 103
 Gregory, 255
 — II, 207
 Grenville, Sir Richard, 24
 Grey, Adm., 111
 Grey Gen., 203
 — Sir Geo., 154
 — de Ruthyn, Lord, 178
 — de Wilton, Lord, 179
 Grimaldi, 273
 Grouchy, 267
 Græco-Turkish War, 78, 193, 260
 Guelfs and Ghibellines, 12, 47, 66, 162, 242
 “Guglers,” 92
 Guilleminot, Gen., 102
 Guiscard, Robert, 62, 82
 Guise, Duc de, 45, 80
 Guiton, 135
 Gurkha War, 12, 119, 120, 168
 Gustavus Adolphus, 12, 61, 73, 92, 136, 137, 146, 195, 210, 269
 — Vasa, 257
 Guthmund, 149
 Guthrum, 87
 Guy de Lusignan, 118, 249
 Guyeaux, 52
 Gwalior Campaign, 147, 203
 Gylippus of Sparta, 240

          H

 Haco, 134
 Hadji, Ahmed, 63
 Hadrianus, Fabius, 44
 Haidar Khan, 97
 Hakki Pasha, 260
 Halfdene, 21
 Halil Pasha, 120, 202
 Humayun, 61, 121
 Hamet Zeli, 149
 Hamilcar, 68, 69, 110, 111
 Hampden, 55
 Hampton, Gen, 57
 — Thos., 60
 Hancock, Gen., 236
 Hannibal, 2, 21, 48, 49, 109, 111, 170, 226, 249, 272
 Hanno, 4, 32, 83, 84
 Hanover, King of, 132
 Hans Waldmann, 165
 Harclay, Sir Andrew, 38
 Harcourt, 51
 Hari Pant, 130, 270
 Harman, Sir John, 218
 Harold, 107, 236
 — Hardrada, 94, 178, 236
 Haroun-al-Raschid, 167
 Harper’s Ferry, 235
 Harris, Gen., 149, 228
 Hart, Gen., 194
 Hartley, Col., 28, 46
 Harvey, Adm. John, 254
 — Bagenal, 175
 Hasdrubal, 51, 69, 158, 187
 Hassan, 258
 — Bey, 245
 Hasselaer, Kenau, 104
 Hauben, Marshal, 30
 Havelock, Sir Henry, 16, 35, 94, 143, 147, 182, 186
 Hawke, Adm. Sir E., 6, 30, 49, 205
 Hawkins, 19
 Hawley, Gen., 88
 Haynau, Gen., 40, 247
 — The, 143
 Hazlerigg, 214
 Hébécourt, 249
 Heiden, Adm., 172
 Hellenes, The, 255
 Heloris, 85
 Hemu, 187
 Hengist, 24, 68
 Henri I, 259
 — IV, 30, 67, 117
 — le Béarnais, 162
 Henry I, 40, 247
 — II, 91
 — III, 139, 242
 — IV, 231
 — V, 5, 214, 231
 — VI, 36, 178, 216, 252
 — VII, 35, 38, 238
 — VIII, 38, 103
 — of Castile, 181
 — III, of Germany, 212
 — of Nassau, Count, 165
 — the Fowler, 158
 Hentzi, Gen., 181
 Heraclides, 130
 Heraclius, 169, 177, 271
 Hereford, 38
 Hermann, 33
 Herron, Gen., 202
 Hesse, Landgrave of, 168
 — Prince of, 52, 236
 Hicks Pasha, 122
 Hideyori, 226
 Hideyoshi, 180
 Hierax, 15
 Hiero, 71
 Hiketas, 104
 Hill, Gen., 228, 235
 — Gen. A. P., 97
 Hillinger, Gen., 46
 Himartekin, 123
 Himilco, 2, 241
 Himilcon, 140
 Hindman, Gen., 202
 Hippocrates, 75, 108, 138, 241
 Hirotsuke, 116, 117
 Hirschberg, Gen., 137
 Hirtius, 160, 170
 Hislop, Sir Thos., 148, 243
 Hlangwane Hill, 193
 Hoche, 174
 Hodgson, Gen., 31
 Hogen Insurrection, 242
 Hohenlo, Count Philip, 105
 Hohenlohe, Prince of, 118
 Hojo Rebellion, 180
 Holkar, 148, 243
 Holles, Denzil, 40
 Holmes, Adm., 204
 Holstein, Duke of, 62
 Honorius, Emperor, 211
 Hood, Adm., 78
 — Commander, 240
 — Gen., 92, 172, 189
 Hooker, 56
 Hopton, Sir Ralph, 12, 39, 133, 239
 Hore, Gen., 84
 Horn, Adm., 125, 214
 — Field Marshal, 178, 236
 Horsa, 24
 Hotham, Adm., 96
 Hotspur, 184, 231
 Houchard, 112
 Hougoumont, 266
 Houston, Gen., 220
 Howard, Lord Edward, 41
 — Lord Thomas, 24
 — of Effingham, Lord, 19
 Howe, Gen., 39
 — Lord, 255, 257
 — Sir William, 42, 97
 Huascar, 13, 205
 Hudson River, 238
 Hughes, Sir Ed., 70, 173, 199, 254
 Hugues, Quiéret, 233
 Hundred Days’ War, 89, 140, 204, 250, 266
 — Years’ War, 5, 6, 29, 36, 44, 45, 53, 57, 60, 68, 69, 91, 136, 162,
    183, 188, 214, 226, 261
 Hungarian Rising, 116, 121, 171, 181, 191, 224, 226, 247, 260, 264
 — War, 272
 Huguenot Rebellion, 135
 Huniades, John, 110, 128, 130, 165, 260
 Hunsdon, Lord, 95
 Huntley, Earl of, 40, 66, 98, 194
 Huntly’s Rebellion, 40, 66
 Hunyady, John, 30
 Hurry, Sir John,23
 Hussein Pasha, 122, 128
 Hussites, 23, 76, 245
 Huzrat Mahal, 169
 Hwan Buako, 74
 Hyde, Adm., 65
 — Parker, Adm., 77
 Hyderabad, Nizam of, 130
 Hyder Ali, 13, 20, 182, 197, 201, 230, 251, 254, 255, 265

          I

 Ibrahim, 160, 177, 187
 — Bey, 108
 — Pasha, 30, 34, 127, 273
 Idzumi, Daimio of, 161
 Ikkelman Pugatcheff, 122, 123
 Imeretinsky, Prince, 142
 Inaros, 157
 Inca Rising, 235
 Indian Mutiny, 6, 16, 20, 24, 25, 26, 34, 53, 75, 94, 95, 118, 128,
    147, 169, 179, 182, 187, 225
 Indulph, 26
 Ingelram von Coucy, Baron, 92
 Invasion of Britain, 47
 —— Korea, 108, 257
 —— the Alemanni, 189, 194
 —— the Huns, 55
 —— the Vandals, 48, 51, 253
 Invasions of the Gauls, 11, 211
 Ionian War, 86, 130
 Iphicrates, 85
 Irish Rebellions, 31, 81, 97, 175, 263
 “Ironsides,” 154
 Irribarreu, Gen., 113
 Isabella, 251
 Isley, Sir Henry, 269
 Isle-aux-Noix, 249
 Isle of Wight, Action off, 200
 Ismael, Shah, 229
 Italian Invasion of Abyssinia, 4
 — Risings, 40, 95, 165, 166, 179, 185, 212, 259, 260
 — Wars, 31, 91, 94, 100, 145, 153, 183, 189, 226, 244
 Ivan the Terrible, 22

          J

 Jaafar, 169
 Jablonowski, 264
 Jackson, Gen., 43, 54, 56, 69, 106, 201, 228, 235, 239
 —— 175
 Jacobite Rising, 81, 124
 Jaffa, 249
 Jagmal, 60
 Jaipal, Rajah of Lahore, 191
 James II, 39, 142, 215
 — III, of Scotland, 223
 — IV, of Scotland, 90
 — VI, 98
 — River, 229
 Jan Koch, 37
 Janssens, Col., 41
 Japanese Revolution, 94, 177, 250, 258, 264
 Jaxartes, The, 126
 Jean, Joel, 62
 Jehandar Shah, 5
 Jellachich, 116, 260
 Jellalabad, 124
 Jellalladin, 35, 114, 121
 Jennings, Sir John, 10
 Jervis, Sir John, 49, 103, 154, 218
 Jerome de ’t Zeraerts, 247
 Jerusalem, 249
 Jeswunt Rao, 21, 74, 75, 94, 199
 Jewish War, 34, 118, 119
 Jhansi, Ranee of, 104
 Joan of Arc, 183, 188
 Joanna, 251
 John I, 11
 — II, 28, 32
 — Archduke, 112, 205, 216
 — Duke of Normandy, 6
 — of Castile, 100
 — of Denmark, 156
 — King of France, 197
 — Regent, 11
 Johnson, Gen., 125, 230, 236
 — Sir W., 131, 175
 Johnston, Gen., 87
 Johnstone, Col., 41
 — Comm., 201
 — Gen., 175
 Jones, Col., 207
 — Col. Michael, 81
 Jonquière, Adm. de la, 48
 Joseph Buonaparte, 180, 188, 263
 Josephus, 119
 Joubert, 41, 88, 130, 148
 — Marshal, 179
 Jourdan, Marshal, 34, 90, 238, 243
 Jovian, 119
 Jovinus, 55
 Joyeuse, Duc de, 67
 Juan d’Aguila, 125
 Juan Pizarro, 71
 Juarez, 2, 46
 Juba, 25, 248
 Judacilius I, 21
 Juel, Adm., 125, 214
 Jugurtha, 169
 Julian, 18, 119, 152, 191, 250
 — Count, 270
 Junot, 52, 263
 Jussuf, 48
 Justinian, 166
 Jutes, 24
 Jutish Invasion, 68

          K

 Kabul, 148
 Kaffir Wars, 13, 32, 43
 Kalkreuth, Marshal, 73
 Kaminiec, 197, 233
 Kambaksh, 98
 Kandahar, 124, 148
 Kanzler, Gen., 157
 Kat, 81
 Katuku, 35
 Keane, Gen., 175
 Keatinge, Col., 17, 39
 Keith, Lord, 96
 — Marshal, 111
 Kekewich, Col., 124
 Kelly, Col., 60
 Kemal Reis, 222
 Kenau Hasselaer, 104
 Kenmure, Lord, 269
 Kenneth III, 144
 Keppel, Adm., 31, 182
 Khaled, 7, 8, 38, 72, 169, 271
 Khalifa, The, 181
 Khan, Elias, 161
 Khojah Zofar, 77
 Khoord Kabul Pass, 117
 Khyber Pass, 117
 Kiburg, Count of, 136
 Kilidj Arslan, 21
 Kirboga, 16
 Kirby Smith, Gen., 209
 Kirke, Col., 142
 Kirkjean, Mons., 25
 Kismegyer, 205
 Kiushiu, 242
 Kitchener, Lord, 23, 84, 89, 181, 184
 Kiyomasa, 257
 Klapka, 116, 127
 Kléber, 108, 167
 Kleist, 80
 Klingspoor, Gen., 208, 231
 Knowles, Adm., 107
 Knut, 22, 191, 230
 Kobad, 13
 Kobayagawa Takakage, 108
 Koch, Gen., 84
 — Jan, 37
 Kohandil Khan, 121
 Kolocz, Bishop of, 161
 Köningsegg, Count, 225
 Konishi Yakinaga, 108
 Konownitzyn, Gen., 184
 Kosciusko, 154
 Kotah, Rajah of, 128
 Kourloff, Gen., 245
 Krüdener, Gen., 176, 195, 196
 Kruze, Adm., 228
 Kublai Khan, 74, 105
 Kumal Khan, 100
 Kuroda, Gen., 129
 Kuroki, Marshal, 125
 Kur Singh, 20, 24
 Kusunoki Masatsura, 230
 Kuttugh Khan, 74
 Kutusoff, 23, 38, 112, 128, 155, 268
 Kuwana, 94, 250
 Kyrielle, 91

          L

 La Belle Alliance, 176
 Labienus, 5, 168, 215
 Labomirski, 128
 Laborde, Gen., 213
 Labourdonnais, Adm., 145, 173
 Laches, 151
 Ladislaus, 259
 Ladysmith, 193
 Lævinus, P. Laverius, 109
 La Ferté, 258
 — Harpe, 159
 — Haye Sainte, 266
 Lake Ascanius, 176
 — Champlain, 249
 — City, 180
 — Gen., 5, 10, 34, 75, 135, 263
 — Lord, 74, 94
 — Zug, 98
 Lakhsman Singh, 60
 Laljaji, 244
 Lally Tollendal, 91, 146, 198, 244, 265
 Lal Singh, 89
 Lamachus, 240
 Lamar, 119
 La Marmora, Gen., 70
 Lambert Simnel, 238
 Lambton, Capt. Hedworth, 88
 La Moricière, Gen., 14, 52
 Lamothe-Houdancourt, 138
 Lancaster, 38
 Landen, Battle of, 173
 Landi, Gen., 45
 Landon, Gen., 30, 130, 140, 181
 Langdale, Sir Marmaduke, 202, 214
 Langy, 255
 Lannes, Marshall, 14, 22, 93, 112, 159, 163 203, 215, 255
 Lannoy, 189
 Lanza, Gen., 185
 La Peña, Gen., 27
 Leptines, 53
 Laserna, 24
 Latin War, 261
 La Torre, 50
 — Tremouille, 179, 217
 Lauderdale, Lord, 269
 Laurel Hill, 209
 Lavalette, 150
 Lavater, Rudolph, 121
 Lawrence, Capt. John, 229
 — Major, 25, 76, 99, 146, 228, 239
 Layard, Sir Ed., 24
 Lazar, 127
 Lazareff, 122
 Leake, Sir John, 148
 Lee, Gen., 15, 55, 58, 92, 97, 192, 209, 228, 235, 236, 268
 Lecourbe, 166
 Lefebvre, Marshal, 73, 222
 Leganez, 138
 Lehwaldt, Marshall, 102
 Leicester, Earl of, 273
 Leo IX, Pope, 62
 — the Iconoclast, 207
 Leonidas, 248
 Leontini, 104
 Leopold, Archduke, 40, 138, 165
 — Duke, 227
 Leotychides, 170
 Leptinus, 241
 Le Quesnay, 227
 Leslie, David, 81, 193
 Lestocq, 87, 265
 Letzi, The, 171
 Leval, 33
 Leven, 154
 Levenhaupt, Gen., 138
 Lewis, King, 161
 Lexington Military School, 175
 Liberation of Belgium, 16
 Li Chin, 108
 Lichtenstein, 221
 Licinius, 41, 61, 104, 108, 109, 152
 — Crassus, P., 134
 Ligneris, 176
 “Ligue du bien public,” 164
 Ligonier, Sir John, 136
 Lille, 270
 Lima, 182
 Lincoln, Earl of, 238
 Liniers, Gen., 42
 Lin Fok Heng, 105
 Linnels, 110
 Linois, Adm., 9
 Lin Yung Ku, 235
 Livius, Caius, 71, 170
 — Marcus, 158
 Loch Linnhe, 115
 Lomakine, Gen., 96
 Lombard League, 136
 London Bridge, 235
 Longstreet, Gen., 228, 235, 268
 “Loose-coat-field,” Battle of, 85
 Lopez, 16, 50, 70, 113, 188, 220, 263
 Lorencez, 3, 134
 “L’Orient,” The, 177
 Lorraine, Duke of, 232
 Lorrices, 202
 Louis III, 223
 — VI, 40
 — IX, 157, 242, 256
 — XI, 164
 — XII, 58
 — XIII, 52
 — Dauphin, 140
 — di Conti, Prince, 145
 — of Nassau, Count, 107, 165
 — Prince of Prussia, 215
 — the Bavarian, 168
 Loup II, 213
 Low, Gen., 149
 Lowendahl, 33
 Lucca, Castruccio Castracane of, 12
 Lucilianus, 177
 Lucius Mummius, 138
 Lucknow, 225
 Lucullus, 44, 72, 249
 Lüders, Gen., 226
 Lupicinus, 152
 Lupus, 250
 Lusitanian War, 179
 Luton Moor, 237
 Lutter, Castle of, 144
 Luxembourg, Marshal, 90, 173, 237
 Luy de Béarn, 183
 Lynch, Eliza, 66
 Lyon, Gen., 268
 Lyons, Sir Edmund, 225
 Lysander, 4, 105, 179
 Lysimachus, 67

          M

 Macbeth, 82
 Maccarthy, 175
 Macdonald, Gen. Sir, H., 181
 — Marshal, 123, 220, 253, 264
 Macedonia, 152
 Macedonian Wars, 24, 71, 134, 203
 Magruder, Gen., 268, 271
 Machanidas, 151
 Mack, Gen., 159
 Mackay, Gen., 124
 Mackinnon, Gen., 62
 Macleod, Col., 198
 Macmahon, Marshal, 147, 225, 256, 267, 269
 Macrinus, 114
 Madhao Rao II, 130
 Magnentius, 167, 169
 Mago, 44, 179, 253
 Maha Bandoola, 78, 127
 Maha Nemyo, 266
 Mahadaji Sindhia, 270
 Mahmud, 23, 191, 234
 Mahmud’s Invasions of India, 191, 234
 Mahmud Tughlak, 74
 Mahomed IV, 161, 233, 273
 Mahomet Koprili, 126
 Mahon, Col., 146
 Mahratta Wars, 5, 6, 10, 22, 28, 34, 56, 74, 75, 94, 103, 125, 127,
    135, 148, 199, 230, 232, 243, 270
 Maillebois, Marshal, 214, 221
 Main, The, 111
 Mainfroy, 31
 Makaroff, Adm., 199
 Malakoff, 149, 208, 225
 Malatesta, 145
 Malcolm II, 124, 166
 — Sir John, 21
 “Male Journée,” The, 36.
 Malek-al-Aschraf, 3
 Malmoe, 144
 Malnate, Battle of, 259
 Malraj, 168, 239
 Malvern Hill, 229
 Malwar, Rajah of, 158
 Mamilius, 132
 Manchester, 154, 174
 Mancius, 179
 Manco Capac, 22
 Manfred of Sicily, 100, 162
 Manius Manilius, 51
 Manlius, L., 140
 — Torquatus, 261
 Manny, Sir Walter, 6
 Mansfeldt, Count von, 76, 90, 111, 269
 Mansur, 189
 Mantua, 131, 155
 Manson, Gen, 209
 Manteuffel, Gen., 14, 105
 Manuel I, 64, 271, 272
 Maori War, 95
 Mar, Earl of, 106, 229
 Marad, 20
 Maransin, 155
 Marcantonio Bragadino, 88
 Marcellus, M., 138, 241
 Marcus Livius, 158
 Mardonius, 195
 Margaret of Anjou, 107, 216, 247, 252
 Margueritte, Gen., 225
 Marhof, Gen., 162
 Mariano, Alvarez, 97
 Marines, The, 250
 Marius, 16, 216, 261
 Mark Antony, 193
 — Antony’s Rebellion, 169
 Marlborough, Duke of, 36, 78, 150, 206, 252
 Marmora, Gen., 245
 Marmont, Marshal, 106, 131, 133, 137, 188, 219
 Marquez, 242
 Marsin, 36
 Marston, Capt., 105
 Martin, Capt., R.N., 150
 Mary Queen of Scots, 133
 Mascarenhas, 77
 Mascazel, 241
 Massena, 43, 45, 83, 93, 96, 141, 159, 163, 210, 273
 Mathias, Col., 74
 Matsudaira Nobutsuna, 13
 “Matsushima,” The, 270
 Matthews, Adm., 251
 Matyana, 115
 Maubeuge, 266
 Maurice, Elector of Saxony, 231
 — Emperor, 271
 — Prince, 214
 — Prince of Nassau, 256
 — Prince of Orange, 176
 Mavrocordatos, 160
 Maxentius, 223, 256
 Maximilian I, 47, 103
 — Archduke, 123
 — Emperor, 221
 — of Bavaria, 201
 Maximinus, 109
 Maxwell, Col., 19
 Maya, 204
 Mayenne, 20
 — Duc de, 117
 McCarthy, Sir Charles, 2
 McCall, Gen., 228
 McCaskill, Gen., 165
 McClellan, Gen., 15, 87, 209, 228, 235, 268, 271
 McClernand, Gen., 261
 McCulloch, Gen., 189, 268
 McDonnell, Brig.-Gen., 266
 McDowell, Gen., 42
 McNeil, Gen., 250
 McPherson, Gen., 56, 189
 Meade, Gen., 97
 Meadows, Gen., 50
 Mecklenburg, Grand Duke of, 29, 142
 Medina, Gen., 164
 Medina-Sidonia, Duke of, 19
 Medway, The, 229
 Megabyzus, 157
 Megaravicus, 179
 Mehemet Ali, 3, 160, 177
 — Ali’s Rising, 34, 127
 Mehrab Khan, 123
 Mejid Bey, 110
 Melas, 96, 152, 163
 Melchior, 146
 Melgarejo, Col., 133
 Melikoff, Gen., Loris, 7, 84, 122, 126, 272
 Memnon of Rhodes, 101
 Menaldo Guerri, 183
 Mendez Nunez, 259
 Mendizabal, 95
 Menou, Gen., 9
 Mentschikoff, Prince, 11, 25, 115, 120, 224, 260
 Mercer, Col., 184
 Merci, Comte de, 153, 215, 247
 Mercy, Count, 93
 — Gen., 178
 “Merrimac,” The, 105
 Meshid, Pasha, 209
 Messenian Wars, 4, 21, 22, 49, 53, 156
 Metaurus, The, 158
 Metellus, 88, 225
 — L. Cæcilius, 187
 — Numidicus, 169
 Methuen, Lord, 31, 101, 147, 161
 Metz, 178, 235
 Mexican Liberal Rising, 2, 46, 219, 242
 Meyer, Gen. Lucas, 243
 Meyerfeld, Gen., 120
 Michael, Grand Duke, 196
 Michelberg, 106, 159
 Michelson, Gen., 123
 Middleton, Gen., 28, 89
 Milan, King, 194, 232
 Miletus, 130
 Milroy, Gen., 269
 Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, 114
 Minas, Marques das, 12
 Minchin, Capt., 45
 Mindarus, Adm., 71, 72
 Minucius, Titus, 39
 Miramon, 46, 219, 221
 Miranda, 7
 Mir Cossim, 97, 166, 182
 Mirsky, Gen., 224
 Mirza Khan, 6
 Mise of Lewes, 139
 Mischtchenko, Gen., 61
 Mithridates, 176, 272
 Mithridatic Wars, 44, 55, 72, 159, 176, 183, 249, 272
 Mitre, 54, 113, 185
 Mitre’s Rebellion, 42
 Mitsuhide, 270
 Mitsunari, 226
 Mitsuyaki, 161
 Moawiyeh, 64, 231
 Moga, Gen., 224, 260
 Mogrul Bey, 272
 Mogul, The Great, 158, 187
 Mohammed, 30, 112, 155, 181
 — II, 30, 65, 224, 253
 — III, 123
 — Ali, 25, 263
 — al Nasin, 135
 — Emin Pasha, 60
 — Ghori, 240
 — Shah, Emperor, 50
 — Shah of Persia, 109
 — Sultan of Morocco, 148
 — Zain I, 1
 Mohammed’s Wars, 155, 181
 Moldau, The, 201
 Monakji, 99, 144
 Moncenigo, Luigi, 48
 Moncey, 222
 Monckton, Col., 30
 Mondragon, Col., 95, 159, 247
 Mongol Invasions, 74
 — Invasion of the Deccan, 6, 98
 —— of India, 156
 —— of Japan, 255
 “Monitor,” The, 105
 Monk, 81, 200, 247
 Monmouth, Duke of, 38
 — James, Duke of, 226
 Monro, Gen., 31, 43, 91, 230
 — Sir Hector, 198
 Mons, 150
 Monson, Col., 10, 198
 Montague, Lord, 107, 110
 Montecucculi, 92, 217
 Monte-Lezino, Battle of, 159
 Montcalm, 91, 164, 184, 194, 204, 205, 249
 Montferrat, Marquis de, 249
 Montgomery, Commodore, 157
 Montmartre, 188
 Montmorenci, Constable, 80, 217, 218
 — Duc de, 52
 Montreal, 217
 Montresor, Col., 231
 Montrose, 1, 9, 23, 41, 50, 115, 193, 250
 Moore, Sir John, 66
 — Major, 255
 Moorish Insurrection, 162
 Morari Rao, 182, 251
 Morcar, Earl, 94
 Moreau, 8, 34, 37, 85, 111, 112, 166, 167, 179, 207, 266
 Morgan, Capt., R.N., 186, 201
 Mori Hidemoto, 275
 Morillo, 202
 Moriones, 203
 Morley, Sir Robert, 233
 Moro, Castle, 107
 Morocco Wars, 53, 103, 247
 Morosini, 48
 Moroushi, 129, 271
 Morrison, Col., 61
 Mortemar, 35, 47
 Mortier, 82, 106, 131
 Moscow Campaign, 38, 100, 128, 150, 161, 198, 259, 268, 269
 Moshesh, 32
 Moskowa, Battle of, 38
 Moslem Conquest of Africa, 255, 258
 — Empire in Spain, 10, 65, 100, 113, 135, 157, 219, 270, 272
 — Invasion of Asia Minor, 14
 —— Egypt, 9, 157
 —— Europe, 64
 —— France, 252
 —— Persia, 44, 117
 —— Syria, 7, 8, 38, 72, 118, 169, 271
 Moslemeh, 64
 Mosquera, 69
 Motassem, Caliph, 14
 Mountjoy, Earl of, 125
 Mousson Oglou, 42
 Mourzoufle, 64
 Mowbray, Sir John, 115
 Mukhlis Khan, 13
 Mukhtar Pasha, 7, 84, 126, 272
 Mulgrave, Lord, 251
 Mummius, Lucius, 138
 Munemori, 73
 Münnich, Gen., 180, 237
 Münzer, Thomas, 92
 Murad I, 127
 Murad II, 128
 — Bey, 205
 Murat, 14, 80, 89, 184, 250, 267, 269
 Murdach Stewart, 112
 Murphy, Father, 19, 26, 263
 Murray, Earl, 184
 — Gen., 160, 205, 217
 — Sir John, 52
 — Regent, 133
 Murviedro, 216
 Musa, 157
 Musgrave, John, 234
 Musrud, 272
 Mustapha Pasha, 1, 88, 150
 Muzuffer Jung, 13
 Mygdonius, 177
 Myronides, 180
 Mysore Wars, 19, 20, 26, 46, 149, 150, 191, 197, 198, 201, 227, 228,
    230, 231, 246, 253, 254, 265

          N

 Nabis, 19, 27
 Nadasdy, Thos., 210
 Nadir Shah, 50
 Nagpur, Rajah of, 56
 Nairne, 124
 Najara, Battle of, 173
 Nana Sahib, 53, 147, 187
 Napier, Sir Charles, 81, 113, 156
 Napoleon, 1, 3, 17, 23, 27, 28, 32, 38, 41, 46, 52, 53, 55, 65, 68, 72,
    79, 80, 82, 87, 93, 106, 118, 123, 129, 135, 137, 140, 143, 145,
    150, 151, 152, 155, 163, 167, 202, 204, 208, 210, 214, 233, 251,
    252, 266
 Napoleon III, 225, 234
 Napoleonic Wars, 1, 9, 22, 27, 28, 32, 36, 37, 42, 46, 49, 52, 65, 96,
    108, 114, 116, 131, 146, 148, 151, 152, 163, 202, 210, 214, 217,
    218, 227, 239, 252, 270, 273
 Nappa Sahib, 232
 Narses, 52, 167, 212, 242, 271
 Nasmyth, Lieut., 231
 Nassau, Prince of, 256
 Navarro, 182
 Neapolitan Rising, 210
 — War, 54
 Negreti, Gen., 134
 Neipperg, Count, 102, 129
 Nelson, Lord, 65, 177, 252
 Nemours, Duc de, 54
 Nero, Claudius, 158
 Netherlands War of Independence, 11, 16, 41, 95, 104, 106, 107, 133,
    139, 146, 159, 165, 183, 213, 215, 247, 252, 256, 258, 266, 273
 Neuperg, Marshal, 162
 Neustrians, 223, 255
 Nevers, Duc de, 176
 Neville of Lancaster, 83
 — Ralph, 174
 — Sir Thomas, 237
 Newcastle, 4, 174
 Ney, Marshal, 28, 43, 68, 76, 84, 103, 126, 133, 159, 184, 204, 259,
    265
 Nicephorus I, 167
 Nicholas, Grand Duke, 231
 Nicholas, Trevisani, 189
 Nicholson, John, 75, 178
 Nicias, 240
 Nicolls, Col., 12
 Nicostratus, 151
 Nidau, Count, 136
 Niel, Marshal, 234
 Nile, The, 157, 204
 Nine Years’ War, 127
 Kiuchau Bay, 171
 Nizam-ul-Mulk, 50
 Noailles, Duc de, 76
 “Noche Triste,” 159
 Nodzu, Gen., 194
 Nogi, Gen., 119
 Noircarmes, 133, 258
 Norbanus, 88, 167
 Norfolk, Duke of, 38
 Norigoris, 114
 Noriyori, 73, 228
 Norman Conquest, 107
 — Invasion of Italy, 62, 82
 Norse Invasion, 94
 —— of France, 223
 —— of Ireland, 62
 —— of Scotland, 134
 Northallerton, 237
 Northumberland, 252
 — Earl of, 216
 Northumberland’s Rebellion, 39
 Nott, Gen., 97, 124, 148
 Noyau, 91
 Nudo, Rutilius, 55
 Numidian Revolt, 248

          O

 O’Connors, The, 23
 Octavius, 193
 — Marcus, 3, 70, 245
 O’Donnell, Marshal, 103, 247
 Oktai, 184
 Oku, Gen., 171, 246
 Olaf Triggvason, 149
 Olaneta, 201
 Clearchus, 70
 Ollo, 203
 Olney, Peace of, 191
 Omar Brionis Pasha, 160
 — Caliph, 44, 118, 157, 174
 — Pasha, 181, 183
 — Tabrija Redoubt, 196
 — Vrione Pasha, 260
 O’Neil, Owen Roe, 80
 — Sir Hugh, 31, 36, 125
 Onomarchus, 185
 Ono-no-Atsuma, 117
 Onschakoff, Adm., 121, 271
 Opdam, Adm., 235
 Orange, Prince of, 139, 217, 227
 Orchomenus, 246
 O’Reilly, Count, 10
 Areizaga, 180
 Oribe, 20, 164, 180
 Orkhan, 190
 Orleans, 110
 — Bastard of, 110
 — Duke of, 5
 Orloff, Count Alexis, 245
 Ormonde, 207
 Orsova, 129
 Ortega, Gen., 134
 Ortiga, Juan de, 10
 Oshikatsa, 160
 Osman II, 128
 — Digna, 85, 106, 255
 — Pasha, 154 195
 Osorio, Gen., 63, 155
 Osterman, Count, 184
 Ostorius Scapula, 183
 Oswald, 154
 — of Northumbria, 107
 Otho, 30, 47
 — II, 69
 — IV, 39
 — of Krumpen, 257
 Otori Keisuke, 177, 258
 Ott, Gen., 96, 163
 Ottoman Conquest of Asia Minor, 190
 — Invasion of Europe, 64
 — Wars, 8, 26, 30, 31, 42, 44, 46, 60, 77, 79, 90, 102, 110, 116, 117,
    120, 121, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 161, 165, 176, 188, 192, 202,
    206, 217, 219, 222, 224, 229, 233, 237, 241, 245, 253, 260, 262,
    271, 272, 273
 Ochterlony, Sir David, 168
 Oudinot, Gen., 102, 212
 Outram, Sir James, 143, 169
 Owen of Cumberland, 42
 Oxford, Earl of, 5

          P

 Paches, 170
 Pagondas, 75
 Pahlen, Count de, 166
 Pakenham, Sir Ed., 175
 Palœologus, Constantine, 65
 — George, 82
 — Michael, 64
 Palafox, 222, 255
 Pallavicini, 22
 Panin, Count, 31
 Pannonia, 145, 152
 Pansa, Vibius, 169
 Papal Zouaves, 157
 Pappenberg, 145
 Pappenheim, 137, 144
 Paraguayan War, 15, 16, 50, 66, 70, 113, 188, 209, 220, 263
 Parana, River, 180
 Parchwitz, 140
 Pareiras, 182
 Park of Uyeno, 245
 Parker, Adm., 65
 Parthian War, 51, 232
 Paskiewitsch, Gen., 21, 265
 Paulinus Suetonius, 47
 Pausanias, 193
 Paz, 164, 233
 Peasants’ War, 92
 Pedro II, of Aragon, 169
 — IV, 9
 — Regent, 100
 “Peep o’ Day Boys,” 76
 Peiho, River, 242
 Pelissier, Marshal, 25, 149
 Pelopidas, 71, 246
 Peloponnesian War, 14, 65, 71, 72, 74, 151, 170, 172, 179, 181, 195,
    204
 Pelucones, 134
 Pemberton, Gen., 262
 Pembroke, Earl of, 83, 140, 166
 — Regent, 142
 Penda, 107, 154
 Peninsular War, 7, 25, 27, 29, 43, 52, 66, 79, 86, 93, 95, 97, 155,
    162, 178, 180, 182, 183, 204, 210, 213, 215, 216, 219, 221, 222,
    243, 245, 252, 255, 263
 Penn, Adm., 117
 Pepe, Gen., 210
 Pepin d’Héristal, 247
 Pepperel, 142
 Perche, Count de la, 140
 Percy, Henry, 174
 — Sir Ralph, 107
 Percy’s Rebellion, 231
 Perczel, Gen., 223
 Perdiccas, 190, 248
 Perez, Gen., 183
 Pergamus, 59
 Perpignan, 138
 Perry, Commodore, 131
 Persano, Adm., 14, 141
 Perseus, 203
 Persian Conquest of Egypt, 190
 — Invasion of India, 50
 — Invasions, 152, 170, 195, 248
 — Wars, 13, 83, 87, 152, 157, 177, 191, 192, 232, 250
 Perso-Afghan Wars, 121
 Pertab Singh, 76
 Pertinax, 145
 Peruvio-Chilian War, 61, 160, 242, 244
 Peter the Great, 7, 94, 138, 203
 Peterborough, Earl of, 27
 “Petropavlovsk,” The, 199
 Peyri, Gen., 126
 Peyton, Capt., 173
 Pharnabazus, 62
 Pharnaces, 176, 273
 Philip I, 96
 — IV, 68, 162
 Philip V, 12, 27
 — Augustus, 93
 — Don, of Spain, 145
 — of Anjou, 262
 — of Macedon, 24, 54, 59, 71, 185
 Phillipon, 25
 Philomelus, 75, 174
 Philopœmen, 27, 151
 Phormio, 65, 172
 Piale, 138, 150
 “Picciotti,” 185
 Piccolomini, 40
 Pigott, Maj.-Gen., 150
 Piloni, 185
 Pinarus, The, 116
 Pirna, 143
 Pirot, 194
 Pisander, 62
 Pisani, 197
 — Vittorio, 16, 59, 64
 Piycála Pasha, 77
 Pizarro, 22
 Pizarro Francesco, 135
 — Gonzalo, 71
 — Juan, 71
 Placentia, 214
 “Pobieda,” The, 199
 Pococke, Adm., 51, 107, 254
 Poland, King of, 141
 Poliorcetes, Demetrius, 95
 Polish Risings, 102, 154, 265
 Pollio, 173
 Pollux, 132
 Pollock, Gen., 117
 Polyxenides, 71, 170
 Pompeianus, 261
 Pompeius, Cnæus, 168
 Pompey, 25, 83, 176, 192, 239
 Poniatowski, 137, 207
 Pontius, 63
 Pontius, 53
 Pope, Gen., 43, 54, 239
 Popham, Capt., 103
 — Sir Home, 42
 Popilius Lænas, 179
 Poradim, 190
 Porta San Pancrazio, 212
 Porto Alegre, 188
 Porus, 113
 Postumus, Spurius, 53
 Postumius, Aulus, 132
 Potemkin, 180
 Pouchot, Capt., 175
 Poyntz, Col., 214
 Pretender, The Young, 50, 70, 88
 Priarius, 18
 Price, Gen., 139
 Prideaux, Gen., 175
 Prieto, Gen., 134
 Prim, Gen., 53
 Pritzen, Gen., 230
 Probus, 186
 Proctor, Gen., 45
 Provera, 131
 Prussia, Crown Prince of, 267, 269
 — King of, 188, 225
 — King William of, 101, 145
 Psammeticus, 190
 Ptolemy, Energetes, 15
 — Lagus, 190
 — Philopator, 206
 — Soter, 95, 219
 Publius Claudius, 79
 Pugatcheff, 122
 Punic Wars, 4, 32, 48, 49, 51, 79, 83, 84, 141, 158, 170, 187, 241,
    253, 255, 272
 Purdon, Col., 77
 Pyrrhus, 31, 109
 Pyrrhus’ Invasion of Italy, 109

          Q

 Quadrilateral Alliance, 3
 “Q” Battery, 221
 Quetta, 124
 Quintanella, 59
 Quintilius Varus, 260

R

 Raab, The, 217
 Radagaisus, 90
 Radetski, Gen., 99, 166, 179, 224
 Radziwill, Prince Michael, 102
 Raghunath Rao, 17
 Raglan, Lord, 11, 25, 224
 Ragotski, II, George, 126
 Rainier, Adm. Peter, 26, 63
 Rajah Ram, 98
 — Sahib, 67
 Ramiro II, 10
 Ramming, Gen., 170
 Rami Khan, 77
 Ramming, Gen., 232
 Raoul, Bishop of Durham, 237
 Rapp, Gen., 73
 Rassinghem, Seigneur de, 266
 Rauhberg, The, 171
 Ravenna, 212
 Raymond of Toulouse, 79
 Rebellion of Aurungzebe, 220
 —— Brutus, 193
 —— Fifteen, 202, 229
 —— Forty-five, 50, 70, 88, 202
 —— Hideyori, 226
 —— Ricimer, 210
 —— Riel, 28, 89
 —— the Marches, 28
 Reding, 162
 “Red Shirts,” 22
 Regulus, 255, 256
 Reinschild, 92
 Renaud de Châtillon, 206
 Repnin, Prince, 155
 Reschid Pasha, 127, 129
 Reuss, Prince of, 273
 Revolt of Maxentius, 223, 256, 261
 —— the Christians, 13
 —— Legions of Aquitaine, 55
 —— Vitellius, 47, 68
 Rey, Gen., 221
 Reynier, Gen., 43, 100, 102, 148, 215
 Rhazates, 177
 Rhodes, 59
 Riall, Gen., 35, 59
 Ribas, 86
 Ribera, 20
 Richard Cœur de Lion, 2, 20, 93
 — Duke of York, 264
 Richelieu, Duc de, 135, 160
 Richmond, 192, 229
 Rich Mountain, 209
 Ricimer, Count, 210
 Riel, 28
 “Rifle Brigade,” 163
 Rio Grande Rising, 221
 Ripperda, 104
 Robel, Gen., 248
 Robert of Normandy, 96, 247
 Roberts, Gen., 128
 — Earl, 56, 72, 77, 80, 121, 185, 190
 Roche, Father, 175
 Roderic, 270
 Rodney, Adm., 78
 Rohan, Duc de, 209
 Rokeby, Sir Thomas, 39
 Roland, 213
 Roman Invasion of Scotland, 100
 — Occupation of Britain, 37
 Romanus, 38
 Romanzoff, Gen., 42, 202
 Romero, Julian, 213
 Roncesvalles, 204
 Roncray St. Denis, 110
 Rooke, Sir Geo., 98, 131, 149, 262
 Rosas, President, 163
 Rose, Sir Hugh, 34, 95, 104, 118, 120
 Rosecrans, Gen., 58, 66, 169
 Roselli, 260
 Ross, Gen., 26, 36
 Rote Berg, Storming of the, 235
 Rotterdam, 139
 Roumiantsoff, 120
 Rousillon, 138, 191
 Roveredo, 155
 Rowley, Commodore, 39
 Rudolph de Khevenhuller, 262
 — von Erlach, 136
 Rundle, Gen., Sir L., 227, 267
 Rung Ram, 124
 Runjur Singh, 11, 233
 Rupert, Prince, 40, 55, 84, 154, 172, 179
 Russell, Adm., 108, 131
 — Col., 114
 — Lord, 88, 218, 220
 Russia, Emperor of, 145
 Russian Conquest of Central Asia, 96
 Russo-Japanese War, 58, 61, 171, 199, 246
 — Polish Wars, 38, 197
 — Swedish Wars, 7, 92, 94, 102, 111, 138, 171, 195, 203, 208, 228, 233,
    248
 — Turkish Wars, 7, 78, 84, 142, 176, 195, 231, 245, 272
 Rustam, 44
 Ruthven, 39
 Rymna, The, 154

          S

 Sabinius Titurius, 4
 Saburra, 25
 Sachen, 56
 Sacred War, 75, 174, 185
 Sadatoki, 127
 Said, 44, 117
 — Othman, 100
 — Ullah, 121
 Saigo, 129
 — Takamori, 120, 177, 230, 258
 Saiki-no-Sanya, 160
 Sainte Suzanne, 86
 Saint Priest, 208
 Saladin, 20, 118, 206, 249
 Sale, Sir Robert, 117, 165
 Salinas, Marquis de, 98
 Salis-Soglio, Col., 98
 Salisbury, Earl of, 36, 68, 73, 81, 265
 Salm, Count de, 262
 Saluzzo, Marquis of, 94
 Samarcand, 98
 Samnite Wars, 39, 47, 53, 62, 136, 167, 227
 Sampson, Adm., 222
 Sanchez, Vice-President, 16
 Sancho, Count of Castile, 65
 Sandilli, 13, 43
 Sandbag Battery, 115
 Sankun, 97
 San Lorenzo, 186
 — Martin, 34, 63, 155
 — Xavier, Fort of, 134
 Santa Anna, Gen., 2, 7, 15, 42, 220
 Santarem, 204
 Sapor I, 83
 — II, 13, 119, 177, 232
 Saracens, 20
 Saragossa, Maid of, 222
 Saratoga, 238
 Sardinia, King of, 145
 Sarmiento, 42
 Sassulitch, Gen., 126
 Satsuma, 94, 250
 — Rebellion, 121, 129, 230, 244
 Saumarez, Sir James, 9
 Savage’s Station, 128
 Savoy, Duke of, 58, 153, 218
 Saxe, Marshal, 90, 136, 211
 — Coburg, Prince of, 7, 90
 Saxony, Crown Prince of, 29
 Schakofsky, 196
 Schalemberg, 53
 Schaumberg, 92
 Schleswig-Holstein War, 12, 82
 Schenck, Martin, 106
 Schiedam, 139
 Schilder-Schuldener, 195
 Schlick, Marshal, 107, 121
 Schofield, Gen., 92
 Scholick, Gen., 234
 Schomberg, Duke of, 39, 153, 208
 Schomberg the Younger, 39
 Schulemberg, 92
 Schwartz, Martin, 238
 Schwartzemberg, 17, 80, 100, 129, 137, 188
 Schwerin, 222
 Schwyz, 165
 Scinde Campaign, 81, 156
 — Conquest of, 113
 Scipio Æmilianus, 179
 — Africanus, 84, 179, 242
 — Lucius, 47
 — Metellus, 248
 — P. Cornelius, 249, 253
 Scopas, 167
 Scottish Invasion of Ireland, 81
 — Wars, 12, 15, 26, 81, 88, 90, 105, 112, 115, 142, 158, 174, 194, 215,
    234, 237
 Scott, Gen., 15
 Sedashao Rao Bhao, 187
 Seidlitz, 130, 213
 Seleucus, 67, 95, 115
 Selim I, 8, 44, 239
 Semendaia, 129
 Sempronius, 253
 Senlac, Battle of, 107
 Serjabil, 38
 Sertorius, 239
 Servo-Bulgarian War, 194, 232
 Seven Pines, Battle of, 88
 — Weeks’ War, 70, 98, 126, 132, 141, 170, 197, 232, 253
 — Year’s War, 6, 25, 30, 31, 40, 47, 51, 56, 59, 67, 68, 91, 99, 101,
    102, 107, 111, 127, 130, 131, 139, 140, 143, 146, 154, 155, 159,
    160, 164, 168, 181, 194, 195, 198, 201, 204, 205, 206, 213, 217,
    228, 239, 244, 249, 250, 254, 255, 265, 273
 Sextus, Pompeius, 170, 172
 Seymour, Adm., Sir Beauchamp, 9
 — Gen., 57, 180
 Shafter, Gen., 84
 Shah Allum, 43
 — Jehan, 121, 220
 — Mansur, 189
 — Sujah, 121
 Shakir Pasha, 193, 245
 “Shannon,” The, 229
 Sharf-ud-Din Hussein, 158
 Shelton, Brig.-Gen., 34
 Shems-ud-Din, 97, 109, 148
 Shere Afzal, 60
 Shere Singh, 59
 Sheridan, Gen., 54, 89, 182
 Sherman, Gen., 124, 189
 Shiabeddin Pasha, 260
 Shidasker, 122
 Shields, Gen., 69, 201
 Shigehira, 257
 Shir-Khan-Sur, 61
 — Mohammed, 81, 113
 — Singh, 103, 206
 Shirogama, 120
 Shitoku, 242
 Shogun, The, 245
 Shommu, Emperor, 116
 Shoni Kagesuke, 74, 242
 Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, 25
 Shrewsbury, Earl of, 179
 Shuja, 45
 Sigel, 174
 Sigismund I, 38
 — III, 141
 — Emperor, 23, 76, 245
 Sigismund Prince of Transylvania, 123
 Sikh Wars, 11, 59, 89, 103, 124, 165, 168, 206, 216, 233, 239
 Sillaces, 51
 Silpia, Battle of, 85
 Simon de Montfort, 139
 Sinclair, Col., Geo., 128
 — Oliver, 234
 — William, Bishop of Dunkeld, 115
 Sindhia, 18, 22, 135, 199
 Sioux Rising, 141
 Sistova, 231
 Sitting Bull, 141
 Siward, Earl of Northumberland, 82
 Skobeleff, Gen., 96, 196, 232
 Slade, 107
 Smith, Col., 254
 — Gen., 21, 127
 — Gen., Joseph, 244
 — Sir Harry, 11, 37
 —— Sydney, 3
 Snyman, 146
 Sobieski, John, 128, 196, 233, 262, 273
 Social War, 59, 85, 250
 Soissons, Count de, 132
 Soliman, 176
 Soltykoff, 130
 Solyman I, 77
 — Caliph, 64
 — Pasha of Egypt, 77
 — the Magnificent, 161, 241, 262
 Somali Expedition, 119
 Somerset, Col., 13
 — Earl of, 110, 216, 247, 265
 — Protector, 194
 Sophian, 64
 Sophronius, 118
 Soubise, Marshal, 124, 213
 Soudan Campaigns, 1, 2, 5, 22, 85, 89, 106, 122, 123, 181, 244, 250,
    255
 Souham, 123, 167, 256
 Soult, Marshal, 7, 33, 66, 79, 95, 108, 178, 182, 183, 204, 213, 216,
    223, 252
 South American War of Independence, 120, 155, 177, 201, 202, 259
 Spanish-American War, 84
 Spinola, 89, 183
 Spiritoff, Adm., 223
 Spragge, Col., 141
 Spurs, Battle of, 67, 103
 Strachan, Col., 50
 St. Angelo, Castle of, 212
 — Arnaud, Marshal, 11, 224
 — Augustine, 111
 — Clair, Gen., 249
 — Cuthbert, 237
 — Cyr, Gen., 86, 162, 198
 — Elmo, 150
 — Heliers, 118
 — Hilaire, Gen., 22
 — Martin, 208
 — Paul, Gate of, 212
 — Peter, 237
 — Pierre, 178
 — Privat, 101
 — Ruth, 5
 Stadion, Gen., 163, 186
 Stafford, Sir Humphrey, 229
 Stakelberg, Baron, 246
 Stanhope, Gen., 12, 41, 262
 Stanley, Lord, 38, 90
 Staremberg, 262
 Stark, Adm., 199
 — Gen., 32
 Staunton, Capt., 127
 Steinbock, Gen., 94, 108
 Steinmetz, Gen., 170, 232
 Stephen of Moldavia, 128
 Stewart, Gen., 6, 69, 86, 155
 — Murdach, 112
 — Sir Herbert, 2
 —— John, 68
 Stilicho, 90, 197
 Stjernsköld, Adm., 73
 Stoessel, Gen., 171
 Stopford, Sir R., 3
 Stone, Gen., 26
 Strabo, 21
 Strategopulus, Alexius, 64
 Strigau, 112
 Stuart, Col., 63, 99
 — Gen., 231
 — Sir John, 148
 Suabian Wars, 47, 92
 Suchet, Gen., 52, 245
 Suchtelen, Gen., 240
 Sucre, 24, 119, 120
 Sudermanland, Duke of, 111, 208, 228
 Suetonius, 37
 Suffren, Adm., 70, 173, 254
 Sulaiman, 65
 Suleiman Pasha, 128
 —— 224
 Sulla, 55, 167, 183, 216
 Sultan Soliman, 79
 Sulpicius Saverrio, 21
 Surabjah Daulah, 3, 4, 45, 195
 Surrey, Earl of, 90, 238
 Suwaroff, 90, 116, 154, 179, 210, 220, 253
 Sveaborg, 111
 Swatoslaus, Duke, 80
 Sweden, Crown Prince of, 76, 102
 Swedish Invasion of Brandenburg, 89
 Swedo-Polish War, 62, 82
 Sweyn, 166
 — II, 178
 — III, 261
 — of Denmark, 124
 Swiss-Austrian War, 165
 Sydney, Sir Philip, 273
 Symons, Gen., 243
 Syagrius, Count of Soissons, 234
 Szabadhegy, 205

T

 Taborites, 23
 Tacfarinas, 248
 Tadamichi, 242
 Tadayoshi, 230
 Tagina, 212
 Taira-no-Kiyomori, 125
 —— Kore, 230
 — War, 73, 114, 125, 257, 270
 Taj Singh, 165
 Takaugi, 230
 Talbot, 188
 — Earl of Shrewsbury, 53
 Tallard, Marshal, 36, 78, 236
 Tamerlane, 8, 15, 73, 74, 98, 132, 156, 161, 189, 249
 Tampon, 163
 Tani Tateki, Gen., 129
 Tantia Topi, 34, 95
 Tarik, 270
 Tarnowski, 180
 Tarquinius, 132
 Tartar Invasion of China, 190
 —— Japan, 105
 —— Kharismia, 35, 37, 114, 122, 123, 126, 184, 220, 229
 —— Khorassan, 189, 243
 —— Russia, 132
 —— Syria, 8, 73
 —— the Caucasus, 249
 Taruhito, Prince, 120, 230, 244
 Tayeizan Temple, 245
 Taylor, Gen., 42, 151, 163, 186
 Taxiles, 44
 Tchesme, Bay of, 224
 Tebienari, 113
 Tegethoff, Adm., 141
 Teias, 167
 Telha, 28
 Teriel, 266
 Terouënne, 103
 Teutobod, 16
 Tetricus, 55
 Texan Rising, 7, 220
 Thackwell, Sir Joseph, 26
 Theagenes, 54
 Thenouënel, Jean de, 41
 Theodobert, 79
 Theodoric, 55, 264
 Theodosius, 17
 Theophiliscus, 59
 Theophilus, 14
 Thielmann, 267
 Thierry, 79, 247
 Thirty Years’ War, 12, 40, 73, 76, 89, 92, 93, 111, 136, 144, 146, 153,
    178, 201, 209, 210, 247, 267, 268, 269
 Thomas, Gen., 92, 159, 172
 Thomond, Earl of, 125
 Thorneycroft, Col., 236
 Thornton, 36
 Thorstem, 78
 Thoulouse, Count of, 149, 169
 “Thousand Volunteers,” 185
 Thrasyllus, 18, 71
 Thrasymelidas, 204
 Thurstan, Archbp., of York, 237
 Tiberius, 157
 Tichborne, Sir Henry, 80
 Tiflis, 249
 Tigranes, 249
 Tik-Ho, 257
 Tilly, Count, 111, 136, 137, 138, 144, 146, 201, 237, 267, 268, 269
 Tilsit, Treaty of, 65
 Timar Malek, 126
 Timoleon, 69, 104
 Ting, Adm., 267, 270
 Tippu Sahib, 19, 26, 149, 150, 191, 198, 227, 228, 231, 253
 Tirah Campaign, 74
 Tishe, 174
 Titus, 118
 Tockenburg, 171
 Todleben, Gen., 196, 224
 Togo, Adm., 199
 Tokatmich, 132
 Tokiushi, 129
 Tokugawa Tyeyasa, 226
 Tokyo, 245
 Toledo, Archbp. of, 181
 — Don Francesco de, 11
 Tolenus, The, 250
 Tolmides, 66
 Tolstoy, Count, 72
 Tomore, 161
 Tongking War, 234
 Tooman Beg, 8, 44
 Tormazoff, Gen., 100
 Torrington, 29
 Torstenson, 40
 Tostig, 237
 Totila, 87, 212, 242
 Tournay, 150
 Toyotomo Hideaki, 257
 Trajan, 153
 Traum, Count, 47
 Travis, Col., 7
 Tremont, 69
 Treslong, 41
 Trent, 214
 Triarius, 272
 Trivulzio, Marshal, 5, 153
 Trochu, Gen., 45, 188
 Tronjolly, Mons., 198
 Tuamba Wangyee, 120
 Tuchi Khan, 126
 Tucker, Gen., 122
 Tuli Khan, 109, 121, 229
 Turenne, Marshal, 20, 81, 93, 200, 232, 273
 Turkish Invasion of Afghanistan, 109, 121, 272
 Tutor, 35
 Twenty-second Regt., 113
 Tyrtacus, 49

          U

 Udai, Singh, 60
 Ulm, 111
 Umrar, Khan, 60
 Ung Khan, 97
 Unification of Italy, 14, 45, 52, 159, 185, 264
 Urban, Gen., 259
 Uriu, Adm., 58
 Urquiza, 54
 Urquiza’s Rising, 163
 Uruguayan War of Independence, 164, 180

          V

 Vadomair, 55
 Valdemar II, 37
 Valens, 30, 47, 105
 Valerian, 83
 Valerius Corvus, 167
 Valée, Gen., 64
 Van Arteveldt, Philip, 214
 — Capellan, 10
 Vandamme, 33 129
 Van der Does, Jan, 139
 — Dorn, 66, 189
 Van Gelen, Adm., 136
 — Reusselaer, 205
 Vansittart, Capt., 243
 Van Tromp, Adm., 79, 86, 99, 179, 200, 247
 Varro, 48, 168
 Varus, 258
 — Quintilius, 260
 Vatinius, Publius, 245
 Vauban, Mons. du Puy, 33
 Vaubois, 259
 Vaudreuil, 164
 Veli Pasha, 237
 Venables, Gen., 117
 Vendôme, Duc de, 41, 52, 184, 222
 “Vengeur,” The, 258
 Vercingetorix, 8, 24, 96
 Verdier, Gen., 97
 Vernon, Sir Ed., 51, 198, 201
 Vespasian, 119
 Vessil Pasha, 224
 Victor Amadeus, 237
 — Emanuel, 166, 234
 — Marshal, 68, 114, 152, 155, 166
 Vid, The, 196
 Villaret, Adm., 257
 Villars, Marshal, 75, 150
 Villeneuve, Adm., 49, 252
 Villeroy, Marshal, 68, 206
 Vincennes, 188
 Vinoy, Gen., 58
 Visconti, Gen., 222
 Vitiges, 212
 Vladislas IV, 102
 Von Alvensleben, Gen., 154, 235
 — Bonin, Gen., 253
 — Bredow, Gen., 154
 — der Tann, Gen., 67
 — Francois, Gen., 236
 — Goeben, Gen., 218
 — Meerfeld, 153
 — Moltke, 177, 188
 — Steinmetz, 63
 — Stenau, Marshal, 82, 202
 — Tümpling, 58
 Vortigern, 24, 68

          W

 Waggon Hill, 130
 Wakamatsu, 177
 Walcheren Expedition, 90
 Waldeck, Prince of, 90
 Waldemar, 261
 Wallace, Col., 215
 — Sir William, 88, 238
 Wallenstein, 12, 76, 238
 Waller, 12, 58, 69, 133, 174, 214
 Wallis, Count, 129
 Walpole, Col., 26
 War of Chiozza, 16, 58, 199
 — of Granada, 10, 100, 142, 143, 149
 — of Kiburg, 171
 — of the Austrian Succession, 33, 47, 48, 51, 61, 72, 76, 109, 112,
    132, 145, 162, 201, 211, 214, 221, 233, 251
 — of the Holy League, 41, 207
 — of the League Above the Lake, 40
 — of the Polish Succession, 25, 188, 193, 205, 225
 — of the Quadruple Alliance, 49
 — of the Revolution, 5, 39, 131, 142, 173, 175, 237
 — of the Sonderbund, 98
 — of the Spanish Succession, 98, 140, 145, 149, 150, 215, 222, 236,
    251, 252, 256, 262
 — of the Two Empires, 44, 61, 104, 108, 152
 Warren, Commodore, 142
 — Sir Charles, 237
 Wars of Alexander’s Successors, 65, 67, 95, 115, 187, 190, 191, 219,
    222
 — of Charles V, 54, 189, 208, 212
 — of Louis XIV, 51, 81, 153, 178, 227, 232
 — of Philip Augustus, 39, 73
 — of the Achæan League, 135, 138, 222
 — of the French Revolution, 7, 8, 11, 31, 33, 34, 37, 48, 49, 63, 85,
    86, 90, 96, 103, 111, 112, 117, 154, 167, 173, 174, 179, 218, 220,
    238, 251, 253, 254, 256, 259, 266
 — of the Fronde, 56, 185, 200
 — of the Roses, 27, 36, 38, 83, 89, 107, 110, 166, 178, 216, 237, 247,
    252, 265
 Warwick, Earl of, 27, 81, 178
 — Lord, 153
 Warzburg, 34
 Washington, George, 3, 9, 97, 102, 271
 Watson, Adm., 56
 Wauchope, Gen., 147
 Webb, Gen., 270
 Weimar, 118, 178
 Wellington, Duke of, 18, 22, 25, 43, 62, 79, 93, 178, 183, 204, 213,
    215, 219, 223, 243, 263, 266
 Wells’ Rebellion, 85
 Wells, Sir Robert, 85
 Werdan, 7, 72
 Werneck, 174
 Wessels, Commandant, 124
 Weser, The, 107
 Wetherall, Col., 221
 Whish, Gen., 163
 White, Sir Geo., 88, 130, 209
 Whitelocke, Gen., 42
 White Oak Swamp, 228
 William III, 39, 173, 237
 — of Normandy, 96, 107, 259
 Williams, Gen., 122, 261
 Wills, Gen., 202
 Willshire, Gen., 123
 Wilson, Commodore, 112
 Wimpffen, Gen., 234
 Winder, Gen., 26, 36
 Windham, Gen., 187
 Windischgrätz, Prince, 3, 121, 191, 224
 Winkelried, 227
 Winter, Sir William, 118
 Wise, Gen., 211
 Wittgenstein, Count, 28, 32, 80, 145, 198
 Wolleb, Heinrich, 92
 Wolfe, Gen., 164, 204
 Wolseley, Col., 174
 — Lord, 14, 246
 Wood, Gen., 119
 — Sir Evelyn, 120
 Woodgate, Gen., 237
 Worcester, Earl of, 231
 Wrangel, 273
 Wrede, Gen., 106
 Wurmser, 27, 52, 151, 155, 202
 Würtemberg, Prince of, 73, 103
 Wyatt’s Insurrection, 269
 Wyld, Col., 117
 Wylde, Col., 221

          X

 Xanthippus, 255
 Xenil, The, 143
 Xerxes, 248
 Ximenes, 182

          Y

 Yar Mohammed, 109
 Yeatman Biggs, Gen., 74
 Yezdegerd, 117
 Yorimasa, 257
 Yoritomo, 73, 228
 Yoriyoshi, 127
 York, Duke of, 11, 33, 37, 256
 —— 5
 —— 216
 —— 235
 Yoshinaka, 228, 230
 Yoshino, 230
 Yoshinobu, 94
 Yoshinori, 129, 161
 Yoshitsune, 73, 114
 Youkinna, 8
 Yukiiye, 257
 Yule, Col., 209
 Yussuf Pasha, 90, 155
 Yssel, The, 139

          Z

 Zabergan, Prince of Bulgaria, 156
 Zagatai, 184
 Zaid, 169
 Zano, 254
 Zaragoça, Gen., 3, 134
 Zastera, Gen., 134
 Zay-ya-Thayan, 185
 Zenobia, 15, 85, 186
 Ziethen, 251
 Zisca, John, 23, 76, 245
 Zobin, 28
 Zoller, Gen., 125
 Zotoff, Gen., 90
 Zoutman, Adm., 77
 Zrinyi, Count, 241
 Zulfikar Khan, 5, 98
 Zulu War, 114, 115, 257

                             --------------

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                                   BY

                      COLONEL PHILIP HUGH DALBIAC

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                  LONDON: SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. LTD.
                    NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           Transcriber’s Note

Errors deemed most likely to be the printer’s have been corrected, and
are noted here. The references are to the page, and line in the
original. The following issues should be noted, along with the
resolutions.

The phrase ‘line-of-battle ships’ is sometimes printed without
hyphenation, and occasionally as ‘line-of-battleships’. Where ‘line-of’
is not employed, the word is always ‘battleships’. To assist searches,
the hyphenated version ‘line-of-battle ships’ is applied here.

End-of-line hyphens are sometimes missing. It is presumed they have not
survived in the text, and were handled as though present.

Proper place names are sometimes consistently misspelled and were left
as printed: ‘Guil[d]ford Court House’, ‘Spot[t]sylvania’.

The entry for the 1039 battle of Zendecan contains references to
‘Moghrul Beg’ of the Seljuks, and ‘Masrud’, sultan of Ghuzni. The index
refers to the former as ‘Mogrul Bey’, ‘Bey’ being a variant of ‘Beg’.
However, separate historical texts consistently have the Seljuk ruler as
‘Toghrul’. The text has been retained, but the issue noted.

On p. 143, the title of the article for ‘Lunceña’ is an obvious error
for ‘Lucena’, which is supported by other sources and also falls
correctly in the alphabetic order of the Dictionary.

  3L.22    sallies of the bes[ei/ie]ged                   Transposed.
  6L.9     on the 18th the garrison surrendered[.]        Added.
  20L.40   into the beleagu[e]red city.                   Inserted.
  24R.17   which is also know[n] as                       Added.
  27R.31   the Colombian patr[i]ots                       Inserted.
  32L.37   under General Bizo[u/n]et                      Inverted.
  33R.35   the bridge of B[u/e]rgfried                    Replaced.
  36L.20   had taken up a posit[i]on                      Inserted.
  39L.22   Bovianum (S[ce/ec]ond Samnite War).            Transposed.
  40R.24   by assault by Genera[l] Haynau                 Added.
  45L.2    inhabitants being mass[e/a]cred                Replaced.
  46R.4    under Colonel Hartl[e]y                        Inserted.
  47L.5    16 line[-]of[-]battle ships                    Inserted.
  56L.1    under Cla[u/n]leu.                             Inverted.
  59R.12   was surrounded and overpowered, Chabrias       Added.
           falling[.]
  62L.34   (Norman Invasion of Italy[)].                  Inserted.
  65L.4    sallies [Amurath,/, Amurath] was called away   Comma moved.
  65L.30   Danish fleet of 10 line[-]of[-]battle[ ]ships  Inserted.
  67L.15   Seleuc[n/u]s, though 81 years of age, defeated Inverted.
  67R.28   (Seven Years’ War)[.]                          Added.
  71R.22   The Macedonians lost 13,000 killed and         Added,
           wounded[.]
  74L.32   endeavoured to effect a landing at             Added.
           Dazaifu[,/.]
  75L.10   Scindiah’s army under Bour[g/q]uin             Replaced.
  80L.21   10,000 killed and wounded[./,]                 Replaced.
  80L.22   15,000 prisoners, and 40 guns[,/.]             Replaced.
  81R.11   30 of his k[in/ni]ghts,                        Transposed.
  83L.10   (Civil War of [Car an d/Cæsar and] Pompey).    Corrupted.
  83L.31   when Mass[e/é]na’s] corps                      Replaced.
  86L.10   E[n/u]taw Springs (American War of             Replaced.
           Independence).
  89R.29   near Fish Creek[,/.]                           Replaced.
  92L.5    and the Goths under C[u/n]iva                  Transposed.
  93R.39   Fuentes d’O[n/ñ]oro                            Replaced.
  95R.29   the royal troops under Lord Hunsdon[.]         Added.
  97R.1    though at a heavy cost[.]                      Added.
  99R.4    and de Ruyter[,/.]                             Replaced.
  102L.30  but was unsucce[fss/ssf]ul                     Transposed.
  104R.47  he was totally defeated[,/.]                   Replaced.
  104R.30  and totally routed[,/.]                        Replaced.
  106L.39  under Martin Schenck[,/.]                      Replaced.
  108R.21  and the Syracusans[,\.]                        Replaced.
  108R.26  Helsingborg (Dano-[Spanish/Swedish] Wars).     Corrected.
  112R.35  and with heavy loss[.]                         Added.
  114R.11  [B.C./A.D.] 1221,                              Replaced.
  115L.33  [I]nverkeithing                                Restored.
  116L.31  The British lost 167 killed[,] wounded         Added.
  116R.44  Fought October, 740, between[,] the Japanese   Removed.
           rebels
  121R.12  only 248 killed and wounded[.]                 Added.
  124L.14  compelled to retire to Quetta[h].              Removed.
  128L.36  in the K[a/u]levtcha defile                    Replaced.
  132L.23  Fought [B.C.] 497, the first authentic date    Added.
  135L.41  100,000 Prussians[sians], Russians,            Removed.
  135L.46  when B[l]ucher captured the village            Inserted.
  138L.29  Fought October 17, 1571, betwe[e]n             Inserted.
  138L.42  The Dey of Algiers succeeded [i]n extricating  Restored.
  143L.6   a fleet of[ of] 41 ships of war                Removed.
  143R.7   Lu[nceñ/cen]a (War of Granada).                Replaced.
  144L.42  Drummo[u]nd occupied high ground               Removed.
  145L.33  The Imperialists lost [27,000] killed and      _sic_:
           wounded.                                       2,700?
  149R.29  and Bri[th/ht]noth slain.                      Transposed.
  151L.40  La[r]ches and Nicostratus both fell            Removed.
  156L.32  when a Persian army, under Megabyzus[,]        Added.
           defeated
  158R.7   Metaur[a/u]s (Second Punic War).               Replaced.
  160R.18  The Per[vu/uv]ians were totally defeated       Transposed.
  161R.34  by the discontented sold[i]ery                 Inserted.
  163L.7   being ignoran[t] of the fall of Genoa          Added.
  163L.46  (Napoleon’s Italian Campa[i]gns).              Inserted.
  164L.28  and forced to capitu[al/la]te.                 Transposed.
  164L.33  and the[,] Blancos,                            Removed.
  165R.16  under General d’Aspr[e/é]                      Replaced.
  165R.19  with[rd/dr]ew his force from the town          Transposed.
  165R.41  Fought November 16, 1315[,/.]                  Replaced.
  167R.19  Kl[e/é]ber’s division                          Replaced.
  169R.4   Huzrat Mah[u/a]l, Begum of Oude                Replaced.
  172L.39  from the field in confu[fu]sion                Removed.
  174R.3   Fa[r]ragut forced the passage                  Inserted.
  176L.36  fought by Mith[d]ridates                       Removed.
  179L.27  with a loss of 15 ships[.]                     Added.
  180L.18  combined French and British squa[rd/dr]ons     Transposed.
  190L.25  after a long and obs[int/tin]ate defence       Transposed.
  202R.45  a[u/n]d the Spanish Royalists                  Inverted.
  203L.38  Pultusk [(]Campaign of Friedland).             Added.
  205L.35  about 5,000 Americans, under Van               Inverted.
           Re[u/n]sselaer
  208L.14  under General Bo[n/u]latoff                    Replaced.
  208L.19  Bo[n/u]latoff fell fighting                    Replaced.
  215R.26  under the walls of Saalf[i]eld                 Removed.
  223R.7   about 4,000 strong[,].                         Removed.
  223R.37  under M[a/e]tellus                             Replaced.
  223R.29  but cros[s]ing the Tiber into Rome             Inserted.
  229L.5   the further advance of the Confederates[,/.]   Replaced.
  229L.43  and opened the gates[.]                        Added.
  238L.32  the Battle of Cambuskenneth[.]                 Added.
  240L.7   between the A[f]ghans                          Inserted.
  240R.40  and Lamach[a/u]s killed                        Replaced.
  246L.28  including their two generals[.]                Added.
  248R.14  Antiochus the Great, King of Asia[,/.]         Replaced.
  249R.8   under Bourl[a]maque                            Removed.
  249L.44  with a loss of [19,44/1,944] killed and        Comma moved.
           wounded
  250L.4   attacking the Pontic cavalry in rear, broke    Replaced.
           it[,/.]
  253L.38  between 26,000 Ca[r]thaginians,                Inserted.
  254L.30  a British squa[rd/dr]on of 12 sail             Transposed.
  256R.9   left the city to orga[in/ni]se a relief force  Transposed.
  264R.40  (Japanese Revolu[lu]tion).                     Removed.
  265R.29  and the Poles[,] were driven                   Removed.
  272R.6   under [Moghrul] Beg                            _Sic_
                                                          Toghrul
  273R.33  after suffering con[si]derable loss            Inserted.

The Index was prepared by Harbottle’s editorial successor, P.H. Dalbiac.
The poor quality of the result is acknowledged in Mr Dalbiac’s preface.
We can assume that he was forced to send his work to the printers as-is.

More often than not, Harbottle’s spelling of names and places agrees
with other sources. Therefore, the benefit of the doubt, when resolving
discrepancies, has been ceded to Mr. Harbottle.

For this volume, we have sacrificed faithful adherence to the text to
usefulness for the reader. Without correction, the usefulness of the
Index, especially in the text-only version of this volume, is severely
compromised. Where the Index disagrees with the text, it is assumed to
have been an editorial error and corrected.

Where these corrections disturb the alphabetic order of the Index, the
items have not been repositioned, with a few exceptions noted below.

Several index entries (‘Sandbag Battery’, ‘Stopford’, ‘Hans Waldmann’),
violated the alphabetic order or were otherwise misplaced. They were
retained as printed. Other entries were corrected (e.g.
Olearchus/Clearchus, Oreizaga/Areizaga, Ouchterlony/Ochterlony) in such
a way as to place them out of order. The original position is retained.

More strangely, on p. 287, there are entries for ‘Ley’ and ‘Licias’,
both of which seem to be intended as references to ‘Ney’ and ‘Nicias’.
The entry for ‘Licias’ on p. 240 is duplicated later for ‘Nicias’ and
was removed. The page reference (p. 68) for ‘Ley’ has been transferred
to the list for Marshall Ney, where he is mentioned, and the entry for
‘Ley’ deleted.

No attempt was made to test each page reference for accuracy. However,
two references to the non-existent page 274, were determined to be
errors. The article for ‘David II’ of Scotland appears on p. 174. An
article mentioning ‘Prince Mentschikoff’ appears on p. 224, and has been
inserted in the proper order.

The index item for ‘Cacina’ refers the reader to p. 47, where a mention
of ‘Cæcina’ occurs. There is a separate item for ‘Cæcina’, referring to
a different article on p. 68. The two items have been combined.

The index entry for ‘Claulen’ is doubly problematic. The name appears in
the text as ‘Clauleu’. (The n/u misprint is a common one. In this case,
however, there seem to be two.) Neither the index or the text agrees
with the historical ‘marquis de Clanleu’. Both have been amended.

On p. 290, the entry for Muzuffa Jung refers to ‘Muzuffer Jung’ in the
text. Other sources have ‘Muzuffar’ or ‘Muzuffer’ Jung, no doubt a
transliteration issue. Following Harbottle's text seemed the preferrable
correction.

In the text, there are four references to a Samnite commander ‘Pontius’.
The index has two items ‘Pontius, 62, 63’ and ‘Pontras, 53’. The name in
the second item is an error. These refer to three battles: Caudine Forks
B.C. 321 (p. 53), Ciuna B.C. 315 (p. 62), and Colline Gate B.C. 82 (p.
63). Gaius Pontius was the commander for the earlier battles, and the
later battle involved a different commander, Pontius Telesinus. These
errors were resolved by transferring the reference to p.63 to the
earlier Pontius (and correcting his name). A fourth battle, also fought
by Gaius Pontius at Lautulæ B.C. 316 (p. 136) was missed.

On p. 294, the reference to ‘Schalemberg’ on p. 53 cannot be found. The
later item for ‘Schulemberg’ refers to ‘Schulemburg’ on p. 92.
Schulemburg is also mentioned on p. 33, but is not indexed. It is
possible that the Schalemberg reference is a corrupted attempt at that.

On p. 296, the reference to ‘Tishe’ on p. 174 cannot be found. It may be
a corruption of ‘Hoche’.

Also on p. 296, ‘Tytacus’ is an error for ‘Tyrtacus’ on p.49. The
Spartan commander, from other sources was ‘Tyrtaeus’. Harbottle’s
version was retained.

On p. 298, the item for ‘Yositomo’ referring to p. 73, is a
misspelling of ‘Yoritomo’ (p. 228). There is a separate item for
‘Minamoto-no-Yoritomo’ (p. 114). The item ‘Yositomo’ was eliminated
and the page reference transferred to ‘Yoritomo’.

The reference to Commodore Congeen in the Index seems spurious. There is
no mention of him on the referenced page (p. 218), or anywhere else. Nor
are there any approximations.

The author inconsistently used the apostrophe in names beginning with
‘Mc’, e.g. McClelland or M’Clelland. The Index consistently employs the
former. No changes were made to the Index.

The following are corrections were made to the Index:

   275L.22  Aby[sinn/ssin]ia, Italian Invasion of, 4 Replaced.
   276L.17  Amb[o]iorix, 4                           Removed.
   276R.11  Ari[c/ç]a, 242                           Replaced.
   276R.23  Ars[au/ace]s III, 19                     Replaced.
   276R.59  Bag Sec[q/g], 21                         Replaced.
   277R.21  Bifuk[o/u]monia, 242                     Replaced.
   277R.37  Bogd[o/a]n, 28, 180                      Replaced.
   277R.53  Boucicau[l]t, Marshal, 5                 Removed.
   278R.12  Cacina, 47                               Item removed.
   278R.18  Cæcina, [47 ,] 68                        Transferred.
   278R.26  Callicratid[e/a]s, 18, 170               Replaced.
   278R.30  Calvin[a/u]s, Domitius, 176              Replaced.
   279L.9   Ca[sc/x]ias, Gen., 22[0/1]               Replaced.
   279L.13  Casti[g/j]on, Don Petro de, 10           Replaced.
   279L.20  Catulus, C. L[a/u]tatius, 4              Replaced.
   279L.24  C[e/i]fuentes, Count di, 162             Replaced.
   279L.25  Censo[siau/rinu]s Censorinus, L., 51     Replaced.
   279L.28  Cerro de Guadal[o]upe, 134               Removed.
   279L.31  Cet[a/e]wayo, 120                        Replaced.
   279L.64  Cha[u/n]d Bibi, 6                        Replaced.
   279R.11  Chitcha[k/g]off, Adm., 208               Replaced.
   279R.17  Choshi[a/u], Daimyo of, 74               Replaced.
   279R.26  C[h]ristomenes, 49                       Removed.
   279R.27  Chr[y/z]anowski, 179                     Replaced.
   279R.30  Ch[u/n]odomar, 18                        Inverted.
   279R.49  Claule[n/u], 57                          Replaced.
   280L.10  Cob[o]urg, Duke of, 90, 210, 266         Removed.
   280L.62  Coulon de Jum[o]nville, 271              Inserted.
   280R.6   Crauf[o/u]rd, Earl of, 40, 62            Replaced.
   280R.32  Czarnie[c/ç]ki, 197                      Replaced.
   280R.33  Czernitch[i]eff, 137                     Removed.
   280R.35  d’A[l]bergotti, Gen, 79                  Inserted.
   281L.4   — Hy[s]taspes, 152                       Inserted.
   281L.31  — Bo[n/u]flers, Mons., 140               Inverted.
   281L.52  — la [Bresse] , 218                      _sic_ Barre?
   281L.56  — la Meillera[i]c, Marshal, 185          Inserted.
   281R.7   de Meda[r/v]i , Gen., 52                 Replaced.
   281R.15  de Nam[a/u]r, Guy, 67                    Replaced.
   281R.19  — Rassingh[a/e]m, 266                    Replaced.
   281R.35  — Va[n/u]demont, Prince, 68              Replaced.
   281R.45  [Z/L]etende[n/ur], Adm., 49              Probably.
   281R.61  Dol[l]abella, P. Cornelius, 132          Removed.
   282R.48  Eury[o]loc[h]us, 181                     Removed. Added.
   283L.23  Ferr[a/e]rs, Lord, 38                    Replaced.
   283L.3   Fairfax, Sir[.] Thos.,                   Removed.
   283L.31  Fischb[a/u]ch, Gen., 58                  Replaced.
   283R.39  Gallus, Cest[i]us, 34                    Inserted.
   283R.56  Gellius Stati[a/u]s, 39                  Replaced.
   284L.21  Goig[u/ni]s Goignies, Gen., 95           Replaced.
   284R.3   — de Ruth[i/y]n, Lord, 178               Replaced.
   284R.8   Guel[ph/f]s and Ghibellines              Replaced.
   284R.18  Guthru[n/m], 87                          Replaced.
   284R.31  Ham[a/u]yun, 61, 121                     Replaced.
   284R.41  Hans Waldman[n], 165                     Added. (Entry
                                                     also misplaced.)
   285R.22  Huasca[r], 13, 205                       Added.
   285R.33  Hunsd[e/o]n, Lord, 95                    Replaced.
   285R.56  Ingelram von  Co[n/u]cy, Baron, 92       Replaced.
   286L.28  —— 175                                   _sic_:—— Fort?
   286L.46  Jellal[l]adin, 35, 114, 121              Inserted.
   286R.38  Kan[had/dah]ar, 124, 148                 Transposed.
   286R.60  Kihd[i]j Arslan, 21                      Inserted.
   287L.2   Kismeg[e]yer, 205                        Removed.
   287L.7   Kl[e/é]ber, 108, 167                     Replaced.
   287L.19  Kon[o/i]shi Y[a/u]kinaga, 108            Replaced.
   287L.20  Konownitz[u/yn], Gen., 184               Replaced.
   287L.18  K[on/ö]ningsegg, Count, 225              Replaced.
   287L.25  Kru[g/z]e, Adm., 228                     Replaced.
   287L.31  Kus[i/u]noki, Ma[tsa/sat]sura, 230       Replaced.
                                                     Transposed.
   287R.14  L[a/e]ptines, 53                         Replaced.
   287R.21  Lava[l]lette, 150                        Removed.
   288L.7   Loch Linnh[é/e], 115                     Replaced.
   288L.31  Lowenda[h]l, 33                          Inserted.
   288L.57  Ma[c]gruder, Gen., 268, 271              Removed.
   288R.24  Malek-al-Aschr[e/a]f, 3                  Replaced.
   288R.25  Malmo[ë/e], 144                          Replaced.
   288R.35  Manius Manil[il]ius, 51                  Removed.
   289L.15  Maube[r/u]ge, 266                        Replaced.
   289L.44  Mecklenburg[h], Grand Duke of, 29, 142   Removed.
   289L.55  Me[l]chior, 146                          Inserted.
   289L.62  Meno[n/u], Gen., 9                       Inverted.
   289R.20  Mil[i/e]tus, 130                         Replaced.
   289R.26  Min[o/u]cius, 39                         Replaced
   289R.40  Mitsuy[u/a]ki, 161                       Replaced.
   289R.43  [Mogrul] Bey, 272                        _sic_ Toghrul
   290L.56  Mou[r/s]son Oglou, 42                    Replaced.
   290L.57  Mourzou[p/f]le, 64                       Replaced.
   290R.15  Muzuff[a/er] Jung, 13                    Replaced.
   290R.24  Nairn[e], 124                            Added.
   291L.13  [N/K]iuch[i]au Bay, 171                  Replaced.
                                                     Removed.
   290L.47  [O/C]learchus, 70                        Replaced.
   291R.2   [O/A]reizaga, 180                        Replaced.
   291R.31  O[u]chterlony, Sir David, 168            Removed.
   291R.46  Pani[m/n], Count, 31                     Replaced.
   291R.55  Pareir[u/a]s, 182                        Replaced.
   292L.24  Pepin d’H[e/é]ristal, 247                Replaced.
   292R.6   Pig[g]ott, Maj.-Gen., 150                Removed.
   292R.14  Pi[zala,/ycála] Pasha, 77                Replaced.
   292R.23  Poliorce[r]tes, Demetrius, 95            Removed.
   292R.30  Pompei[a/u]s, Cnæus, 168                 Replaced.
   292R.33  Pontius, [62,] 63                        Transferred.
   292R.34  Pont[ra/iu]s, 53 [,62]                   Replaced.
                                                     Transferred.
   292R.40  Porta [s/S] Pancrazio, 212               Replaced.
   292R.62  Ptolemy, E[u/n]ergetes, 15               Inverted.
   292R.63  — L[o/a]gus, 190                         Replaced.
   293L.24  Rammi[ng], Gen., 170                     Added.
   293L.29  Rassingh[a/e]m, Seigneur de, 266         Replaced.
   293L.46  Renaud de Ch[a/â]tillon, 206             Replaced.
   293L.55  Rha[g/z]ates, 177                        Replaced.
   293R.32  Rose[tt/ll]i, 260                        Replaced.
   293R.55  Rusta[n/m], 44                           Replaced.
   294L.24  Sandil[l]i, 13, 43                       Inserted.
   294L.26  Sanku[m/n], 97                           Replaced.
   294L.32  S[ä/a]por I, 83                          Replaced.
   294L.48  Schako[v/f]sky, 196                      Replaced.
   294L.60  Schulemb[e/u]rg, 92                      Replaced.
   294R.27  Shah All[uen/um], 43                     Replaced.
   295R.17  Stjernsk[o/ö]ld, Adm., 73                Replaced.
   295R.23  Striga[n/u], 112                         Replaced.
   295R.41  Surabjah D[ow/au]lah, 3, ...             Replaced.
   295R.43  Suwar[r]off, 90, ...                     Removed.
   295R.57  Sy[r]agius, Count of Soissons, 234       Removed.
   296L.5   Taka[n/u]gi, 230                         Replaced.
   296L.33  Terou[e/ë]nne, 103                       Replaced.
   296L.39  Thenou[e/ë]nel, Jean de, 41              Replaced.
   296L.43  Theophilis[e/c]us, 59                    Replaced.
   296R.8   Tishe, 174                               _sic_ no
                                                     referrent
   296R.10  Tockenb[e/u]rg, 171                      Replaced.
   296R.15  Tokugaw[u/a] Tyeyasa, 226                Replaced.
   296R.31  Toyotom[i/o] Hideaki, 257                Replaced.
   296R.50  Ty[r]tacus, 49                           Inserted.
   297L.10  Val[lé/ée], Gen., 64                     Replaced.
   298L.4   Whitelock[e], Gen., 42                   Added.
   298L.15  Windis[c]hgr[a/ä]tz, Prince, 3, ...      Inserted.
                                                     Replaced.
   298L.20  Wol[l]eb, Heinrich, 92                   Inserted.
   298L.31  W[u/ü]rtemberg, Prince of, 73, 103       Replaced.
   298R.6   Yoritomo, [73,] 228]                     Transferred.
   298R.17  Yositomo, 73                             Item removed.
   298R.19  Yuk[ü/ii]ye, 257                         Replaced.
   298R.29  Zaster[n/a], Gen., 134                   Replaced.
   298R.39  Zulfik[e/a]r Khan, 5, 98                 Replaced.





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