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Title: A Tour of Historic Richmond
Author: Williams, Frances Leight
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Tour of Historic Richmond" ***

                               _A Tour of
                           Historic Richmond_


    [Illustration: Richmond]

  _Broad Street Station_
  _Capital Square_

                  _Richmond—Her Story and Her Spirit_

Richmond—Capital of the Cavaliers—a city that is mellow and yet modern,
where the rustle of the past may still be heard amid the bustle of the

To appreciate Richmond one must, before all else, remember that this old
town has roots planted deep in the history of our country. Richmond was
founded in 1737 by William Byrd II, of Westover on the James, forefather
of two of Virginia’s illustrious sons of today, Admiral Richard Evelyn
Byrd and Senator Harry Flood Byrd. But even before Father Byrd laid off
his lots and established Richmond, this site at the falls of the James
River had held a certain degree of importance. Just a few weeks after
the Virginia settlers landed at Jamestown on May 13, 1607, to found the
first permanent English settlement in America, Captain Newport pushed
off up the James to find the route to the gold of the Indies. The
barrier of rocks, known as the falls of the James, must have been an
unwelcome sight to the eyes of that little band of intrepid explorers as
it shattered their dream of easy passage to their expected El Dorado.
Captain Newport, however, was the first of the Virginians to believe
that no hoped-for golden future should stop a man from doing the
sensible, practical things of the moment. Before very long, Captain
Francis West had established a frontier post at the point where the
falls interrupted further navigation of the river. It is hard to realize
that Richmond was once on the western frontier of our country, but such
was the case until about 1660, when settlers began that westward push
that only ended when the Pacific was reached.

Richmond has seen much of the thrilling history of our country unfold.
She was a promising village when George Washington and the son of her
founder, Colonel Byrd, successfully led Virginia’s two regiments with
the troops of her sister colonies and the British regulars in the French
and Indian war. She was hostess to that brilliant group of patriots who
gathered in St. John’s Church in 1775 to discuss what methods could be
taken to avert war with England, only to have Patrick Henry, grown sick
of futile measures which obtained no justice for the colonists, rise to
advocate the arming of the Virginia militia and utter those words which
made him the embodiment of man’s immortal will to freedom: “Give me
liberty or give me death.” She was the capital of the State from which
Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia, had to flee to prevent capture
when Benedict Arnold swooped down on Richmond in 1781 and occupied the
city for the British in America’s war for independence. Cornwallis
visited it later in the same year. She was a thriving center of commerce
in 1812 when the city was often alarmed by the news that the British
were coming again, and in 1846 when her “Grays” were accepted for
service in the Mexican War. She was the capital of the Confederate
States of America from 1861-65, the hope of the South and the despair of
the North for those four long, bloody, heart-breaking years. The best
commanders, the most immense armies the Federal government could
furnish, hammered, hammered at Richmond, while the South’s bravest
hearts and keenest minds stood with their backs often at the very walls
of the city, but would not let them pass. No city in America ever has or
ever will be again so completely the goal of the whole American people.
Those years and the ones that followed taught Richmond something that as
a city she will never forget—that courage can rise above everything. The
incredible sacrifices of Richmond people in that time knit the citizens
together with bonds that even time cannot sunder. She was again prompt
to the call of duty in 1898 when the country was challenged with outside
danger, and once more poured forth her sons and funds in World War I;
also in World War II she gave liberally of her sons and daughters and

Those wars through which Richmond has lived are but distressing
landmarks on the long trail our country has traveled. Her contribution
has been equally as great in times of peace. In fact, probably her
greatest contribution has been her way of life—a way based on the belief
that the best of the old must be kept and adapted to fit in with the
best of the new. The city has grown steadily; has been rebuilt after
three destructions by fire. Today Richmond is a commercial, industrial,
financial, medical and educational center of the South, and one of the
fastest growing industrial centers in the nation. Richmond’s industry
has been stable and resistant to wide fluctuations in business cycle.

Cities, after all, are but larger patterns of individual people. People
who have been tested by time and tribulation and yet come out smiling,
full of faith and courage, never fail to command our admiration. That
Richmond has done this, we submit as our plea for your appreciation of
our old city.

The people of Richmond have made the city and in turn been made by it.
No one can long live in the mellowness of Richmond without feeling that
here is a calm that is not dead but gay, an ease and a friendliness that
is real and not assumed, a determination to build always for the future
but never to forget the heritage of the past which is our inspiration, a
will to be of such a quality that we cannot fail to give strength to the
nation, going always forward in the spirit of those who would surmount
the obstacles of the present in order to attain goals inspired by ideals
of right and justice.

                      A Tour of Historic Richmond

Happily, Richmond has preserved much of her charm of a bygone day,
despite the fact that she has kept step with the times. Innumerable
shrines remain to remind the visitor of the dramatic part played by the
city in the making of the nation. In virtually every quarter of the town
will be found reminders of the past—public buildings, homes and gardens,
memorials to her sons and daughters; in short, showplaces of wide
interest to those who would acquaint themselves with the history of a
section visited by Englishmen soon after the establishment of a
settlement at Jamestown.

The tour has been planned on a geographic basis to permit as much as
possible to be seen. It is almost impossible to sightsee chronologically
in Richmond, as our forefathers built where they wished and not
according to a city plan. The result is that the old buildings of
Richmond are scattered quite widely. Leaving the heart of the city, we
drive to the intersection of Third and Main streets and proceed south on
Third to the end of the street, where we come to Gamble’s Hill Park.

Gamble’s Hill Park

Below you rolls “the mighty James,” the father of Virginia’s history,
along the banks of which Richmond had her beginning. In 1645 Fort
Charles was erected here at the falls of the James to protect the
Tidewater settlers from the incursions of the Indians. The cross,
planted on rugged boulders or river-jacks from the James, was erected
here by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities in
memory of the valiant little group of explorers, who landed on an island
below this point on May 24, 1607.

Across the ravine on the extreme right is the State penitentiary, ably
run along modern lines.

Bringing your eyes along the crest of the same hill sloping down towards
the river, you will see Hollywood Cemetery, where lie buried two
Presidents of the United States, James Monroe and John Tyler; the
President of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis; General
J. E. B. Stuart, Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury, “the pathfinder of
the seas;” Fitzhugh Lee (General R. E. Lee is buried in Lexington,
Virginia); George E. Pickett and some 18,000 Confederate soldiers,
including the Virginians who fell in Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg.

Immediately beneath Gamble’s Hill curve are the remains of the once
vital Kanawha Canal, Virginia’s earliest great westward transportation
system, of which George Washington was the first president in 1785.

Across the canal is the Tredegar Company, iron manufacturers, which has
rounded out more than a century of service, having furnished munitions
in the country’s last four wars. Here was rolled the armor-plate for the
“Merrimac,” which, with the “Monitor,” made history in Hampton Roads in
the first battle between iron-clads.

Leaving the park we pass on our left a remarkable structure, known as
Pratt’s castle, constructed in the 1850’s. ¶ _Proceed on Fourth Street
to Canal, right on Canal to Fifth, left on Fifth to Main._

Old Homes

Here on Fifth Street, between Cary and Main, are several examples of the
stately houses which made life in Richmond in the nineteenth century the
gracious thing that it was. On your right are two old homes which have
passed from the hands of the families that built and loved them. At the
southeast corner of Main and Fifth Streets used to stand the Allan home
where Edgar Allan Poe lived to young manhood with his foster parents. On
the northwest corner of Fifth and Main Streets is an interesting
octagonal house, built prior to 1814 by an early mayor of Richmond. ¶
_Proceed on Fifth to Franklin, right on Franklin to 707 East Franklin._

General Lee’s Home

This upright house, typical of many built by the wealthier Richmonders
in the early nineteenth century, was lent to General Robert E. Lee as a
home for himself when he could be in Richmond and for his family during
the latter years of the War Between the States. It is now the home of
the Virginia Historical Society, which has built a fireproof structure
in the rear for its priceless collection of papers. Many interesting
things on view here merit a visit. ¶ _Proceed east on Franklin to Ninth

Federal Reserve Bank

On your left, from Eighth to Ninth on Franklin Street, is situated the
Federal Reserve Bank for the Fifth District, which embraces Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and
part of West Virginia. ¶ _Intersection of Franklin and Ninth._

Old Bell Tower

    [Illustration: _Old Bell Tower_]

Here you get your first view of the State Capitol and its grounds, but
at this time confine your interest to the quaint structure directly
ahead. It is the old Bell Tower, built in 1824 to replace the wooden
tower from which had pealed forth the call to colors for regular and
volunteer troops to defend Richmond from expected attacks. ¶ _Right on
Ninth to Main Street._

Financial District

You are now in the heart of Richmond’s financial district. Many banking
houses, however, are situated in other parts of the city.

Post Office

One block to your left, on Main Street is the Federal building in which
are located the United States Post Office and customs house. A part of
this building was erected before the War Between the States and housed
the executive offices of President Jefferson Davis and several members
of his cabinet. Next to it is the city’s parcel post building. ¶
_Proceed south on Ninth Street across Main to Canal, left on Canal to
Fourteenth, right on Fourteenth to Bridge, halt._

Site of John Smith Landing

Before you stretches one of the four bridges connecting Richmond’s north
and south sides of the James River. Beyond the bridge, near the huge
grain elevator, is where Capt. John Smith first landed in Richmond. The
land was originally purchased from Chief Powhatan. ¶ _Back (north) on
Fourteenth to Main and right on Main to Fifteenth._

Southern Literary Messenger

The southeast corner on your right is the site of the _Southern Literary
Messenger_ Building, where Edgar Allan Poe edited that magazine to
enduring fame. Across the street is the site of Bell Tavern, one of the
famous places of rendezvous in early Richmond and recruiting station
during the War of 1812. ¶ _Continue east on Main to Seventeenth._

Old First Market

Passing the Main Street Station (C. & O. and Seaboard) on the left, you
come to the Old Market. On this site, from the earliest days, the
farmers would gather to sell their produce to the city folk. To the left
of the market, Negro washerwomen used to spread their wash on the grassy
bank of Shockoe Creek, the frequent floods of which were the chief
excitement of the old town. The women chatted and lightened their work
by singing. The darkies’ melodious voices, blending with the cries of
the food hawkers, must have made the market the gayest spot in Richmond.
¶ _Continue on Main, halting three-fourths of the way between Nineteenth
and Twentieth._

Poe Shrine

On your left is the oldest house in Richmond, erected about 1686. On the
front wall may be seen the letters “J.R.,” supposed to signify “Jacobus
Rex,” James II, who was then King of England. The building is now a part
of the Edgar Allan Poe Foundation, which includes also the small
buildings on the left and right, in the three of which are housed much
Poe material and many articles relating to his residence in Richmond. In
the rear is an “enchanted garden” which leads to a classical loggia,
built chiefly of material from the former _Southern Literary Messenger_
building. ¶ _Turn right on Twentieth to Cary._

    [Illustration: _Poe Shrine_]

Libby Prison

On the southeast corner of Cary stood Libby Prison, where thousands of
Federal prisoners were confined during the War Between the States. The
old warehouse-prison building was torn down and taken to Chicago to be
rebuilt for the World’s Fair of 1893.

You are now in the heart of the tobacco district of Richmond. For blocks
may be seen Richmond’s famous “Tobacco Row.” ¶ _Turn left on Cary to
Twenty-first, left on Twenty-first to Main, left on Main to Eighteenth
Street; right on Eighteenth one block to Franklin._

Oldest Masonic Hall

The wooden building on the right is the oldest Masonic hall in
continuous use in the United States which was built originally for
Masonic purposes. Governor Edmund Randolph was among the many prominent
Virginia Masons who participated in the corner-stone laying in 1785.
Lafayette was given a reception here in 1824 on his triumphal return
visit to the scenes where he had served in the American Revolution. ¶
_Proceed east on Franklin, halting briefly between Twenty-first and

At the top of the hill to your left, you can see a typical old galleried
home of early Richmond, now incorporated in the buildings of Monte Maria
Roman Catholic Convent. ¶ _Turn right on Franklin at Twenty-third, go to
Main, turn right, then proceed to Twenty-first Street, turn right and
continue north to Broad, turn right on Broad, continue to

You are now entering Church Hill, Richmond’s oldest residential section.
¶ _Stop at Twenty-fourth and Broad, location of St. John’s Church._

St. John’s Church (_Front Cover_)

St. John’s Episcopal Church, built in 1741, the oldest in the city, will
forever be famous as the place where Patrick Henry uttered his ringing
challenge for “Liberty or Death” to the American colonists. The second
Virginia convention met in St. John’s, because it was the largest hall
in Richmond, in March, 1775, and even at that, the original was not half
the size of the enlarged present-day structure. It is worth your while
to get out here and let the sexton show you the church and tell you
briefly of its story. On the left, as you face the church, you will see
the grave of Elizabeth Arnold Poe, the tiny actress-mother of America’s
great imaginative writer. Young Edgar Poe is said to have been found
more than once lying sobbing on his mother’s grave. ¶ _Proceed east on
Broad to Twenty-eighth; right on Twenty-eighth two blocks to Franklin._

Soldiers and Sailors Monument

Here, at Libby Hill Park, is the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, erected
in 1894 as a memorial to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederacy.
The figure on the top is by William L. Sheppard. ¶ _Return to Broad
Street; turn left on Broad, halting between Thirteenth and Twelfth._

Monumental Church

This unusual-looking Episcopal church structure was built in 1812 as a
memorial to more than seventy persons, including the Governor of
Virginia, who lost their lives in a fire which destroyed a theatre on
this site on December 26, 1811. In this theatre Edgar Allan Poe’s mother
had acted a few short months before, and in this same theatre the
Virginia Convention of 1788 had ratified the Federal Constitution. ¶
_Proceed west on Broad (Passing Medical College of Virginia Hospital
Building) to Twelfth, turn right on Twelfth to Marshall, turn right on
Marshall to center of block._

    [Illustration: _The Egyptian Building · Medical College of

Medical College of Virginia

You are now in the center of the buildings of the Medical College of
Virginia which cover several city blocks. Particularly notable is the
concrete building on your right at the end of the block which is stated
to be “the most perfect example of Egyptian architecture in America.”
Erected in 1845, it is the earliest in the Medical College group. This
is one of the oldest medical schools in the South and the only one to
remain open during the War Between the States. The buildings now
composing the Medical College group afford not only an imposing sight
but with their facilities contribute greatly to the importance of
Richmond as one of the leading medical centers of the country. ¶ _Circle
block to right, returning to Twelfth. Proceed north on Twelfth two
blocks to Clay, turn right on Clay._

Confederate Museum

    [Illustration: _Confederate Museum (White House of the

This building, now the Confederate Museum, was the White House of the
Confederacy from 1861-65. Here lived President Jefferson Davis. Here
came the generals to confer, the couriers bearing news of the various
battles. Most fittingly, the women of the South have made this a
treasure-house of things Confederate. In the museum you may now see the
uniforms, swords, camp chest and multitudinous relics of Generals Robert
E. Lee, Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson, Joseph E. Johnston, J. E. B.
Stuart and most of the other Confederate heroes. The student of that
phase of our history finds here invaluable historical papers and files.
¶ _Make a U-turn and proceed west on Clay to Eleventh._

Valentine Museum

This Museum of the Life and History of Richmond, founded by Mann S.
Valentine and opened in 1898, now includes four 19th century buildings.
The Wickham-Valentine House, designed by Robert Mills in 1812, is a
notable example of late Georgian architecture, with furnishings of that
period and of 1853, and with a walled garden that is restful and
beautiful in all seasons. The adjoining Museum building contains a
growing collection of permanent Richmond exhibits and the largest
costume department in the south. The Indian collection emphasizes
archaeological material from Virginia and North Carolina. Changing
exhibitions illustrate past and present city activities and interests.
Facing the garden is the Studio of the sculptor, Edward V. Valentine.
The Bransford-Cecil Memorial House, in the Greek Revival style of the
1840’s, contains a gallery-lecture room; a Research Library, with
extensive pictorial material illustrating Richmond’s history; and the
School Services’ office and workrooms, where two staff members carry on
an organized statewide program of lectures, loans, and special projects
for children. ¶ _Proceed west on Clay to Eighth, turn left Eighth to
Marshall, turn left on Marshall._

    [Illustration: _Wickham-Valentine House_]

John Marshall House

On the northwest corner of Ninth and Marshall is John Marshall House.
This house, severely simple on the exterior, boasts a classic dignity
inside which proves that John Marshall, as well as his politically
different cousin, Thomas Jefferson, could design homes. The eminent
jurist himself designed this home. The house is now the property of the
Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, the first of
such societies in America. It is furnished with some of Marshall’s
original furniture. You may see here the robe which Marshall wore as
Chief Justice of the United States. The large structure to the rear of
the house is John Marshall High School, one of Richmond’s two public
high schools. ¶ _Continue on Marshall to Tenth, turn right on Tenth.
Continue on Tenth to Broad._

    [Illustration: _John Marshall House_]

City Hall

The large gray stone structure on the southeast corner of Broad Street
is the City Hall. Dedicated in 1894, it was built on the site of the old
City Hall, erected in 1816 and condemned in 1874. This building contains
the offices of the Mayor, the City Manager and various municipal
departments. ¶ _Cross Broad and continue on Tenth to Capitol Street.
Turn right on Capitol one block to Ninth. Turn left on Ninth to entrance
of Capitol Square._

Capitol Square

Commanding the driveway stands the equestrian statue of Washington,
executed by Thomas Crawford and cast in Munich at a cost of $100,000.
Chief Justice John Marshall headed the committee to raise the
subscriptions, beginning the work in 1817 when the city boasted less
than 6,000 white inhabitants. The monument was unveiled in 1858. Around
the central figure of Washington are statues of some of Virginia’s
famous sons, builders of the nation as well as of their state: Patrick
Henry, George Mason, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Nelson, John Marshall, and
Andrew Lewis. It was at the base of this statue that the second
inauguration of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States
of America took place, February 22, 1862.

    [Illustration: _Washington Monument_]

Capitol Building

The central part of the Capitol was designed after the Maison Carrée at
Nimes by Thomas Jefferson while minister to France from the United
States. The original part was commenced in 1785 and finished about 1792,
and the wings were added, to give the legislators much-needed space, in
1905. In the rotunda in the old central part, you will see the most
celebrated work of the great French sculptor, Houdon—the life-size
statue of Washington, the only one posed from life which is in existence
today. It was placed here in 1788. Here also is a head of Lafayette by
Houdon. Virginia has made this rotunda her Hall of Presidents by placing
here busts of her other seven native sons who have become chief
executives of the United States.

Opening off the rotunda is the old hall of the House of Delegates, where
Aaron Burr, in 1807, was tried for treason before Chief Justice
Marshall. In this hall occurred a great tragedy in 1870, when the
balcony gave way because too large a crowd of people had packed every
inch to hear a trial of deep local interest. Sixty-three were killed and
two hundred and sixty injured. The hall has been restored to its
original appearance. Where his statue now stands, Robert E. Lee, on
April 23, 1861, accepted the command of Virginia’s forces. Here met the
Confederate House of Representatives from 1861-65. The present Virginia
Senate and House of Delegates meet in modern chambers in the two wings.

    [Illustration: _State Capitol Building_]

State Buildings

Leaving the Capitol by the main door, you see on the left the modern
State office building and the Finance Building on the terrace. In the
basement at the South end of the Finance Building is an interesting
museum containing exhibits of Virginia’s natural resources, agricultural
products and wild life.

Governor’s Mansion

Swinging around the Capitol, you come to the Federal-style Governor’s
Mansion, erected in 1811-13. From 1788 to 1811 the governors of Virginia
had to live in a two-story wooden structure, ironically called “The
Palace,” located on the same site as the present building. Just outside
the Capitol Square, to the north, you will see the new State Library and
Supreme Court of Appeals building. ¶ _Leave Capitol Square by same gate
through which you entered, stopping on Grace just across Ninth._

    [Illustration: _Governor’s Mansion_]

St. Paul’s Church

Situated here at Ninth and Grace is St. Paul’s Episcopal Church. General
Robert E. Lee worshipped here whenever he was in Richmond during the War
Between the States, as did President Jefferson Davis regularly. Up an
aisle to this church on Sunday, April 2, 1865, strode a messenger to
President Davis’ pew. Davis quietly left the church. The message told
him that Petersburg had fallen, that Richmond must be evacuated. The
church is filled with memorials of many kinds, and is referred to by
some as “The Westminster of Richmond.” ¶ _Proceed westward on Grace to
Seventh Street._

    [Illustration: _St. Paul’s Church_]

Grace Street, for several blocks west, is one of Richmond’s newest
downtown retail shopping centers. Once a residential section, it now
takes its place with Broad Street (one block to the right) as a major
business thoroughfare. ¶ _Turn right on Seventh three blocks to Clay.
Turn left on Clay to Sixth._

Sixth Street Market

Country produce and Negro flower-sellers combine to make this a colorful
sight in the vicinity of Marshall and Sixth Streets. ¶ _Continue on
Sixth three blocks to Grace. Turn right at Grace. Proceed west on Grace
to end of 1100 block and turn left on Lombardy one block to Monument
Avenue. Turn right; halt._

Monument Avenue

Here begins Monument Avenue, the continuation of Franklin Street, the
newer section of the thoroughfare that has long been a main residential
street of the city. This avenue takes its name from monuments to
Confederate leaders.

J. E. B. Stuart Monument

This statue by Fred Moynihan shows General Stuart, the great cavalry
leader, in a typically dashing pose. Stuart was one of the most colorful
men in the Confederacy, once riding his men eighty miles in 27 hours,
another time riding around McClellan’s whole army—always courageous,
always gay. ¶ _Proceed westward one block on Monument to Allen Avenue._

Lee Monument

Only three letters mark this monument—Lee. The South felt no more were
needed. This marvelous likeness of General Lee on “Traveller” was
sculptured by the French artist, Jean Antoine Mercie, and was unveiled
by Lee’s West Point classmate and friend, General Joseph E. Johnston, on
May 30, 1890. Arrived in Richmond, the statue was drawn to its location
by schoolchildren. ¶ _Proceed westward on Monument four blocks to Davis

    [Illustration: _Lee Monument_]

Davis Monument

The monument to Jefferson Davis, sculptured by E. V. Valentine, shows
the President of the Confederacy in the posture of oratory. Around the
monument are excerpts from this most notable speeches. ¶ _Proceed
westward on Monument three blocks to the Boulevard._

    [Illustration: _Jefferson Davis Monument_]

First Baptist Church

On your left, at Monument Avenue and the Boulevard, is First Baptist
Church, one of Richmond’s numerous large churches.

Jackson Monument

This monument to Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson, the sculpture for
which is the work of F. William Sievers, shows him mounted on “Sorrel,”
facing north, because he so resolutely opposed the Northern army.
Jackson, whose brilliant strategy is studied today by soldiers the world
over, was a stern, Cromwellian type of commander in strange contrast to
the dashing Stuart. Lee called him his “right arm,” and no one has ever
been able to estimate the severity of the blow his death dealt the
Southern cause. ¶ _Continue westward on Monument to Belmont._

Maury Monument

Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury (F. William Sievers was the sculptor
for this monument), is not as well known to the average citizen as he
deserves to be, but sailors on all the seas know his work and are
grateful for it. He is known as “The Pathfinder of the Seas” because he
charted the oceans with such accuracy that even today the Pilot Charts
issued by the Hydrographic Office of the Navy Department are founded on
his researches. In the house which still stands close to the present
Valentine Museum, Maury, seeking ways that would enable his pathetically
small Confederate Navy to be effective against the Union gunboats,
invented the submarine electrical torpedo. ¶ _U-turn around the
monument; proceed eastward on Monument one block to Sheppard; right on
Sheppard three blocks to Kensington; proceed left on Kensington to the
Boulevard; turn right._

    [Illustration: _Battle Abbey, Confederate Memorial Institute_]

Battle Abbey

The Battle Abbey, or Confederate Memorial Institute, houses a large
collection of portraits of Confederate officers, and collections of
Confederate battle flags, arms and equipment, but is chiefly
distinguished for its very beautiful series of mural paintings of
Confederate scenes by the French artist, Charles Hoffbauer. The artist
had done much of his preliminary work when he was called back to fight
for France in 1914. When he returned to Richmond after the war,
Hoffbauer painted out all he had previously done and painted war as only
one who had been through it could. Since 1946 the Abbey has been the
property of the Virginia Historical Society. ¶ _Proceed on the Boulevard
to Grove._

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

    [Illustration: _Virginia Museum of Fine Arts_]

This State institution, opened in January, 1936, houses the famous John
Barton Payne collections of paintings and prints; the T. Catesby Jones
collection of twentieth century European paintings, the Glasgow
collection of European Renaissance art, and the fabulous Lillian Thomas
Pratt collection of Russian jewelry. The Museum and collections are
valued at more than $5,000,000. In addition to its collections, it
conducts a regular program of specially assembled exhibitions, lectures
and concerts. The museum is the largest art museum in the South and has
gained a national reputation because of its biennial exhibitions of
contemporary American paintings as well as many other special
exhibitions. ¶ _Proceed on the Boulevard two blocks to Ellwood Avenue,
turn right on Ellwood six blocks to Nansemond. Turn left on Nansemond
one block to Cary Street. Turn right on Cary to central entrance of
Windsor Farms residential area. (Street is marked Windsor Way). Proceed
through Windsor Farms to Virginia House on Sulgrave Road at Wakefield

Virginia House

    [Illustration: _Virginia House_]

Virginia House, home of the late Ambassador and Mrs. Alexander W.
Weddell, is built of materials they brought from Warwick Priory,
Warwick, England, in 1925. The central section is a reproduction of the
Tudor portion of Warwick Priory, founded by the first Earl of Warwick;
the right-hand section is an exact replica of the only portion of
Sulgrave Manor which remains as it was at the time Lawrence Washington
occupied it as his manor house. The royal coat of arms may be seen over
a second-story window to your right. The arms were conferred to show
that the house had given shelter to Queen Elizabeth in 1572. The house
is now the property of the Virginia Historical Society. ¶ _Pull up about
100 yards._

Agecroft Hall

Agecroft was originally built in Lancashire, England, about 1393,
brought to Richmond and faithfully rebuilt here in 1925. The old plaster
and timber house was the seat of the Langleys, a branch of the royal
Plantagenets. Some of its most beautiful features are an oriel window
and the great hall with gallery for minstrels, paneled with oak and
lighted by stained glass windows. The house is eventually to go to the
city as a generously endowed art museum. ¶ _Return to Cary Street Road,
turn left, proceed westward to Wilton Road, turn left, proceed to
entrance to Wilton (marked) at end of thoroughfare._

    [Illustration: _Country Club of Virginia_]


This stately house was built in 1753 for William Randolph III on a site
overlooking the James about six miles below Richmond. The Colonial Dames
of America in the State of Virginia bought it several years ago to save
the beautiful paneling from being sold out of Virginia, and had it
faithfully rebuilt here on another site overlooking the James. ¶ _Return
to Cary Street Road, turn left and proceed westward to intersection of
Cary Street Road and Three Chopt Road._

Country Club of Virginia

This is Richmond’s largest country club, although there are other
private clubs and public golf courses. The Country Club of Virginia
boasts one eighteen-hole golf course and one short course at this club,
and a very fine eighteen-hole course up the James River, where the Club
has another smaller clubhouse, skeet shooting traps and river sports. ¶
_Continue out Three Chopt Road to Towana Road, which leads to the
University of Richmond._

University of Richmond

    [Illustration: _Social Center and Gymnasium · University of

The University of Richmond includes Richmond College, a college of
liberal arts and sciences for men; Westhampton College, offering the
same courses to women; the T. C. Williams School of Law for professional
study; and the Evening School of Business Administration. We pass
through the men’s college, and across the lake to the women’s college. ¶
_Proceed on out of Westhampton College to River Road, turn left on River
Road back to Cary Street Road, right on Cary back to Boulevard, right on
Boulevard to Columbus Monument, Byrd Park._

Columbus Monument

This monument was erected by the Italians of Richmond. The park includes
tennis courts, playgrounds, acres of woodland, and a small boating lake
to your left. Southeast of this point lies Shields Lake, the mecca of
Richmond swimmers in the summer, and beyond that “Maymont,” the city’s
most beautiful park. ¶ _Turn right, proceed around reservoir._

World War I Memorial

This carillon is Virginia’s memorial to her dead of World War I. The
bells were imported from England. A museum containing relics of that
costly European struggle is located in a room at the base of the tower.
¶ _Return north on Boulevard to Monument Avenue, turn right on Monument,
which becomes Franklin Street upon reaching Stuart Circle. Continue east
to Laurel Street._

    [Illustration: _World War I Memorial · The Carillon_]

Monroe Park

    [Illustration: _Richmond’s Civic Center (The Mosque)_]

On the right is one of the many municipal parks, most of which are
located outside the heavily built-up part of the city. Looking through
the park you can see Richmond’s Civic Center, The Mosque, where
conventions, exhibitions, concerts and other events are held. It
contains an auditorium seating 5,000 persons. ¶ _Proceed eastward on
Franklin, halting between Madison and Henry Streets._

Commonwealth Club

Here at “The Commonwealth,” the mid-town men’s club of the city, the
Richmond German Club gives the “Germans,” which are the most formal and
unusual features of Richmond’s social life, somewhat comparable to the
Philadelphia Assemblies and Charleston’s St. Cecilias. ¶ _Continue
eastward on Franklin to First Street._

City Library

The modern building on the southeast corner is the main City Library, a
gift to the city, of the late James H. Dooley. It was built in 1930 on
the site of the birthplace of James Branch Cabell, Virginia author. The
library has nearly 200,000 catalogued volumes, pamphlets, periodicals,
recordings and sheet music. ¶ _Continue eastward on Franklin, halting
briefly between Second and Third Streets._

    [Illustration: _City Library_]

Woman’s Club

The Woman’s Club has preserved this comfortable nineteenth century home
by adding a larger auditorium at the back and making it their clubhouse,
where are heard many of the distinguished lecturers and artists of

                             * * * * * * *

Richmond Battlefield Parks

It is interesting to tour Richmond’s Battlefield Park, which embraces
the fields covered during the Seven Days’ Campaign (June 26-July 2,
1862) and at Second Cold Harbor, May 31-June 3, 1864. The battlefields
of Fort Harrison, Malvern Hill, Frayser’s Farm, Savage Station, Fair
Oaks, Seven Pines, Cold Harbor, Gaines’ Mill, and Mechanicsville may be
toured. Fort Harrison, six miles east of the city is Park Headquarters.
An interesting museum is located there.

                     Richmond Ideal for Conventions

Historical shrines of world-wide interest, excellent transportation
service, splendid modern hotels, and every facility available for
successful meetings have made Richmond one of the outstanding convention
centers of America. Delegates attending conventions here have a wide
choice of selecting their entertainment programs. Some enjoy trips to
Williamsburg, Jamestown, Yorktown, historic Hampton Roads and Fort
Monroe, the beautiful Skyline Drive, the battlefields surrounding the
city and the many diversified industrial plants, while others
participate in their favorite sport or seek diversions in the many forms
of entertainment to be had.

Proximity to the centers of the population, coupled with other numerous
advantages, has resulted in record-breaking attendance at meetings here.

In Richmond, Capital of the Old South, an industrial, commercial,
educational and financial center of the new, nothing is left undone to
make every convention meeting in this city successful and enjoyable.

                             * * * * * * *

                            RICHMOND TODAY!

_POPULATION_ of approximately 360,000 in the metropolitan area with an
average increase 7,000 per year since 1940.

_INDUSTRIAL RANK_ of 5th in the nation in relative gain in net value of
manufactured products from 1929 to 1947.

_CIGARETTE CAPITAL_ of the Nation, with annual output of more than 110
billion cigarettes—enough to reach the moon and back 10 times, or
encircle the earth 180 times.

_PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES_ in order of employment rank: cigarettes and other
tobacco products, chemical products including rayon and cellophane, food
and kindred products, furniture and wood products, metals and metal
products, apparel and textile products, paper and paper products,
printing and publishing.

_TRADE CENTER_ of the South Atlantic region, ranking 35th in retail
sales, 29th in wholesale sales, among principal cities of the Nation.

_FINANCIAL CENTER_ and headquarters of the 5th Federal Reserve District;
11 other banks and trust companies; home office of 32 insurance

_TRANSPORTATION GATEWAY_ with 6 trunk-line railroads, 5 air lines, 6
inter-city bus lines, 50 motor freight carriers, and water freight
service on the James River.

_BALANCED ECONOMY_ with employment widely diversified and strong
consumer goods industries result in unusual economic stability and
resistance to fluctuations in the national business cycle.

_RECREATIONAL:_ 1 public and 5 private golf courses, 30 theatres, a
stadium for athletics, municipal swimming pool, a Civic Center for
opera, large conventions, etc., seating 5,000; 18 parks and 43

_CLIMATE:_ Equable climate with average temperature, 57.9 degrees F.;
mean annual rainfall, 42.02 inches.

_EDUCATIONAL:_ University of Richmond, Medical College of Virginia,
Richmond Professional Institute of College of William and Mary, Union
Theological Seminary, Presbyterian Training School, Virginia Union
University (Colored), 16 private and 14 parochial schools, 4 business
colleges, 52 public school buildings, state and municipal libraries,
numerous museums, etc.

_MEDICAL CENTER:_ Institutions and specialists of wide renown. Medical
College of Virginia—with schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and
nursing; 17 hospitals with 3,527 beds.

The Williamsburg-Yorktown-Jamestown Area

    [Illustration: _The Governor’s Palace at Williamsburg_]

Only an hour’s drive southeast of Richmond on Route 60 is the most
historic area to be found anywhere in America.

Here is Williamsburg, the former center of English culture in the new
world, almost completely restored to its eighteenth century appearance.
Here you will see the historic Colonial Capitol, The Governor’s Palace
and its beautiful grounds, the famous Raleigh Tavern, the Public Gaol,
the famed Sir Christopher Wren Building of the College of William and
Mary and many other colonial structures restored through the beneficence
of Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

Seven miles from Williamsburg is Jamestown Island where in 1607 the
first permanent settlement of English speaking people in the New World
was established. A ruined tower of an early Colonial church still stands
here, and many interesting relics are on display in the grounds which
are under the supervision of the Association for the Preservation of
Virginia Antiquities.

Yorktown is only fifteen miles from Williamsburg. This famous little
town which saw a great nation come into being bears a great heritage. It
was here that proud Lord Cornwallis was forced to surrender to General
George Washington and his continental forces in 1781. The original
fortifications erected during the great siege of Yorktown have been
restored. Historic buildings and relics of the Revolution make Yorktown
a spot which every American citizen should visit.

Less than an hour’s drive from the Colonial Williamsburg area is Hampton
Roads, an important channel through which the waters of three rivers
pass into the Chesapeake Bay. Fort Monroe, on Old Point Comfort, and
Fort Wool, on an island in the channel, defend the entrance from the
Bay. It was in Hampton Roads that the first battle between iron-clad
vessels, the _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_, took place on March 9, 1862.
President Lincoln, Secretary Seward and Confederate commissioners held
their “Hampton Roads Conference” on a steamer near Fort Monroe on
February 3, 1865.

Be sure to visit Williamsburg, Jamestown, Yorktown and the Hampton Roads
area during your visit to Richmond, for nowhere else may you cover as
much historic and hallowed ground in a single day. This famous area may
be reached quickly and conveniently. Ask for information which will
facilitate your trip there.

    [Illustration: _Jamestown Tower_]

                             THE JEFFERSON

    [Illustration: The Jefferson]

Whether you’re traveling on business or pleasure, you’ll enjoy every
minute of your stay at the Hotel Jefferson in Richmond. Long a center of
social and cultural life in Virginia, this famous recently-restored
hotel merges the traditions of the past with present-day beauty,
convenience and hospitality.

Among the things which will make your visit enjoyable are the
Jefferson’s world-famous Lobby ... the luxurious Empire Room ...
Jefferson Court with its renowned statue of Thomas Jefferson ... the new
Fountain Room and the efficient, beautifully-appointed Coffee Shop ...
the handsome, spacious Auditorium and Banquet Rooms ... the lovely Guest
Rooms and the Jefferson’s traditional hospitality and service.

The Jefferson is located just outside the noisy section of the city, yet
within easy walking distance of theatres, shopping district and
financial section. It is convenient to all forms of transportation. Free
parking space is provided. Rates range from $3.50.

               _For further information communicate with_
                          THE HOTEL JEFFERSON
                       JAMES M. POWELL, _Manager_
                           Richmond, Virginia

                          Transcriber’s Notes

—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by

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