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Title: A History of the Twenty-Fourth Regiment of Connecticut Militia
Author: Tubbs, Charles
Language: English
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[Illustration: EARLY MAP OF WYOMING AND LACKAWANNA VALLIES.]



 The Wyoming Military Establishment.


 A HISTORY

 --OF THE--

 TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT

 --OF--

 CONNECTICUT MILITIA.


 An Address

 before

 The Tioga Point Historical Society

 delivered December 3rd, 1901, by

 Hon. CHARLES TUBBS,

 Honorary Member Tioga Point Historical Society.
 Corresponding Member Wyoming Historical & Geological Society.


 Athens, Penna.
 1903.



 LIEUTENANT LEBBEUS TUBBS,
 PRIVATE SAMUEL TUBBS,
 LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GEORGE DORRANCE.

 TO THE MEMORY OF THESE, MY ANCESTORS,
 MEMBERS OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT,
 I DEDICATE THIS STUDY
 OF COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS,
 IN WHICH THEY PERFORMED A PART.



ILLUSTRATIONS.


 Map of Wyoming Valley,      Frontispiece.

 Lazarus Stewart's Block House,      Page 16

 Forty Fort in 1778,                      22

 Pittston Fort,                           25

 Wyoming Monument,                        28

The plates from which the above illustrations were printed were kindly
loaned by the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.

[Illustration]

 Athens Gazette,
 Athens, Pa.



The Wyoming Military Establishment.


Alsace-Loraine is a conquered province. The flag of Germany floats over
it. Within the memory of most of us it was an integral part of France.
At the time of the conquest, no heart of all its people went willingly
to the side of the victor.

We are met to-day in Pennsylvania. Yet for years, in the eighteenth
century the soil beneath our feet, and five thousand square miles
of adjacent territory, inside the present limits of Pennsylvania,
was an integral part of the State of Connecticut. It was settled
by Connecticut people, was under Connecticut institutions, was
governed by Connecticut laws. It was a Connecticut town; it was a
Connecticut county; had a judge, a sheriff, other officers, and sent
representatives to the Connecticut legislature.

Pennsylvania made conquest of it. No heart of all the people of
this Connecticut town went willingly to the side of the victor. The
Alsatians were no more stunned, at being forcibly wrenched from their
allegiance to the flag they loved, than were the Connecticut people who
had settled a town of their own in the heart of Pennsylvania.

How did this cataclysm befall? I will tell you. It all came of the
ignorance or carelessness of a King. In 1620 King James I. of England
granted a Charter to the Plymouth company for the ruling of New England
in America. The charter covered North America from the fortieth to
the forty-eighth degrees of north latitude, and from the Atlantic to
the Pacific oceans. The Plymouth Company proceeded to sub-divide its
territory. In 1631 it granted a charter to the Connecticut Colony which
covered the space between the forty-first and forty-second degrees of
north latitude "and from the Narragansett river on the east to the
South Sea on the west throughout the main lands." The South Sea was
the Pacific Ocean. In 1662 King Charles II. gave a new charter to
Connecticut confirming the act of the Plymouth Company. Nineteen years
later this same King in the grant of Pennsylvania to William Penn,
included a portion of the same territory, already given by him to
Connecticut.

The ignorance or carelessness of King Charles, in due time bore a rich
harvest of strife and bloodshed. Under the Connecticut charter (which
was the older) my ancestors, and perhaps yours, came into this valley
of the Susquehanna, and sat themselves down. Under the Pennsylvania
charter (which was the younger) came sheriffs, and armed men, to drive
them off. On the tongues of men this disputed section was known as
Wyoming. In the statute book it is called Westmoreland.

Having explained how the Connecticut people under a claim of right,
built up a government within the present boundaries of Pennsylvania,
I have said all I desire to say on that subject. It explains how a
part of what is now Pennsylvania was really a part of Connecticut in
the last years of our Colonial history, and in the first years of our
history as an independent nation--from 1774 to 1783.

This Twenty-fourth regiment of Connecticut Militia was organized on
that part of the soil of Pennsylvania which was known as the Wyoming
region, and in that region it performed its deeds, and lived its
organic life.

I am aware that this explanation is quite unnecessary. I am aware
that the Society that listens to me contains many descendants of the
men who made the history I am about to relate. I am aware that the
great-grandchildren of Captains Bidlack, Franklin, Spaulding, and
Whittlesey here reside. I know that descendants of the Buck, Gore,
Mathewson, Satterlee, Stevens and Tozer families abound in this old
town. A writer who knows your community better than I do could mention
others.

I have been attracted to the history of the Twenty-fourth regiment
of Connecticut Militia because in all the histories it has received
so little attention. Mr. Chapman, in his "Sketch of the History of
Wyoming," (1830) says: "The whole body of the citizens was formed into
a militia." (p. 102). He does not say it was a regiment nor designate
it by its number. Col. Stone, in his work entitled, "Wyoming and its
History," (1841), alludes to it in the phrase, "a regiment of militia
being organized," (p. 202), but does not state its number nor give
it further attention. Charles Miner, in his "History of Wyoming in a
Series of Letters," (1845), gives many facts, but notices only six
of the ten companies of which the regiment was composed and details
only the organization of those companies as it was in 1775. George
Peck, in his "Wyoming: its history, stirring incidents, and romantic
adventures," (1858), devotes to it a passing allusion in the words,
"a regiment of militia having been established." (p. 28). Stewart
Pearce does not allude to the Twenty-fourth regiment at all in his
"Annals of Luzerne," (1866), but does mention five of its companies.
(p. 34) Steuben Jenkins, in his "Historical Address at the Monument,"
(1878), mentions its existence (p. 17), and at another place enumerates
seven of its companies. (p. 34) Horace Edwin Hayden, in his monograph
entitled, "Major John Garret; a forgotten hero of the Massacre of
Wyoming," (1895) explains the existence of the regiment, credits it
with nine companies, and gives the changes of the officers made in 1777.

In my judgment, the services of this regiment were of more importance
than have been accorded them by the historians. I shall seek to arrange
those already well known, into a comprehensive whole, to show their
relation to other events, and to add some facts not hitherto brought to
light.

The Wyoming community was isolated in its situation. It was seventy
miles from it to the settlements on the Delaware; it was sixty miles to
Fort Augusta; to the north and to the west, was a howling wilderness.
This wilderness was filled with a savage Indian population. A continual
fight was waged with the proprietaries of Pennsylvania.

The settlement, which became permanent, was begun in 1769. It was a
self-governing community. It kept a record of its official acts. In
1772 it was voted, "That each and every settler should provide himself
with a flint lock and ammunition, and continue to guard around the
threatened plantations until further notice."[1] That was the first
step--individual action, every man defend his own castle. This did not
prove effectual. Organization was needed. That was the second step in
the evolution. It took time to bring it about--perhaps a year. At a
meeting of the inhabitants held March 22, 1773, it was voted: "That
the Comtee of settlers be Desired to send to the several towns or to
their Comtee. Requiring them to Call all the Inhabitants in Each of ye
said towns to meet on Thursday Next at five a Clock in ye afternoon of
sd Day in some Convenient place in sd town, and that they then Chouse
one Person in Each of sd towns as an officer to muster them, & so that
all are oequipt according to Law with fire arms, and ammunition, and
that they Chuse two Sergants & a Clerk & that the said Chieff officer
is Hereby Commanded & Directed to Call ye Inhabitants together once
in 14 Days for ye future until this Company orders otherwise & that
in case of an allarm or ye appearance of an Enemy he is Directed
to call ye sd Inhabitants together & stand for ye Defense of ye sd
towns & Settlements without further orders."[2] In speaking of these
preparations Miner says: "If the splendid uniform, the glittering
bayonet, the evolution rapid and precise, with the imposing band of
music, did not grace their trainings, there was yet upon the ground
the strong banded old French musket, the long duck shooting piece, and
more efficient than either the close drawing rifle, little known in
New England, but becoming familiar on the banks of the Susquehanna."
Trainings once in fourteen days! They certainly believed in the
strenuous life. Those trainings were not holidays. They were serious
preparation for impending warfare.

In January. 1774, the Wyoming settlements which had grown to a
population of 1922 souls,[3] were taken official notice of by the
legislature of Connecticut which incorporated them as the town of
Westmoreland. Wyoming and Westmoreland may henceforth be regarded as
interchangeable terms.

The next step in the evolution of the military establishment had its
origin at the second town meeting after the incorporation, which was
held on the 12th day of April, 1774. The town, by a vote, applied for
the establishment of a regiment.[4] For some reason the legislature was
slow to act. It may have been for the want of a representative in the
law making body. The town, however, did not neglect to keep itself in
a state of preparedness. They kept everlastingly at it. At the fourth
town meeting held that year "Votes were passed to form themselves into
companies in a military way,"[5] each district in Westmoreland to be
a company and Zebulon Butler, Esq., Major Ezekiel Pierce and Mr. John
Jenkins were appointed a committee to repair to the several districts
and lead each company to a choice of officers.

From this it is clear that the officers were chosen by a vote of the
men in each company. The subsequent "establishment" of the rank of
officers by the Connecticut Assembly was but a ratification of what had
already been done by vote of the men.

It was more than a year after the action of the town meeting asking
for the legal organization of a regiment before the legislature acted
upon the subject. At May session, 1775, it enacted "That the town of
Westmoreland shall be one entire regiment distinguished and called by
the name of the Twenty-fourth regiment and shall be under the same
rules and orders, and have the same powers, privileges and advantages
as other regiments of this Colony by law have."[6]

One of these advantages was the promise of six pence for half day
training and twelve pence for whole day training, and this to be paid
out of the Colony treasury.

The regiment was assigned to the sixth brigade, Connecticut State
Militia, commanded by Brig. Gen. Oliver Wolcott. The organization was
begun by the "establishment" of the regimental officers at the same
session. Zebulon Butler was made Colonel; Nathan Denison, Lieutenant
Colonel; William Judd, Major.[7]

Zebulon Butler, the newly elected colonel, born at Lynne. Conn., 1731,
was no novice in the military service. In the French and Indian war he
was Ensign in Captain Andrew Ward's 2 company of the 4 Conn. Regt. in
1755-6-7. He was Lieutenant in Captain Timothy Mather's company of the
3 Regt. in 1758. He was Captain in the 4th and 1st regiments in 1759,
1760 and 1761.[8] He had served seven enlistments. The territorial
range of his service extended from Crown Point on the north to Havana
on the south. When elected Colonel his home was in Wilkes-Barre.

Nathan Denison, the newly elected Lieutenant Colonel, born in Conn.,
1741, had seen service in the French and Indian war as a private in
Col. Eleazar Fitch's 3d Conn. Regt. His services extended from May to
November, 1758. His home was in Kingston.

Speaking of these two men Miner says: "Nature never formed two
excellent men in more distinct contrast. Butler polished in manner,
quick in perception, vehement and rapid in execution: Denison, plain
though courteous, slow to speak, as careful to consider, cool and
firm, if not alert in action. They were the two great and acknowledged
leaders in Westmoreland."[9]

William Judd, the newly elected Major, does not seem to have had any
military experience outside of the militia.

The accessible records are silent about the progress made with the
regiment during the summer of 1775, but it is fair to assume that
the newly commissioned field officers did not neglect their duty in
perfecting their organization and in training their men.

At the October session of the Connecticut legislature the election
of the officers of nine of the companies were ratified. They were as
follows:[10]

First (Lower Wilkes-Barre) Company, Stephen Fuller, Captain; John
Garret, Lieutenant; Christopher Avery, Ensign.

Second (Kingston) Company, Nathaniel Landon, Captain; George Dorrance,
Lieutenant; Asahel Buck, Ensign.

Third (Plymouth) Company, Samuel Ransom, Captain; Perrin Ross,
Lieutenant; Asaph Whittlesey, Ensign.

Fourth (Pittston) Company, Solomon Strong, Captain; Jonathan Parker,
Lieutenant; Timothy Keyes, Ensign.

Fifth (Hanover) Company, William McKarachan, Captain; Lazarus Stewart,
Jr., Lieutenant; Silas Gore, Ensign.

Sixth (Upper Wilkes-Barre) Company, Rezin Geer, Captain; Daniel Gore,
Lieutenant; Matthias Hollenback, Ensign.

Seventh (Exeter) Company, Stephen Harding, Captain; Elisha Scovill,
Lieutenant; John Jenkins, Jr., Ensign.

Eighth (Lackaway) Company, Eliab Farnham, Captain; John Shaw,
Lieutenant; Elijah Winters, Ensign.

Ninth (Up the River) Company, James Secord, Captain; John De Pui,
Lieutenant; Rudolph Fox, Ensign.

Some of these officers had seen service as soldiers in the French and
Indian War.[11] Captain Eliab Farnham, of the Lackaway Company, had
done a tour of duty lasting twenty-five weeks in 1758 in Capt. Nathan
Whiting's Company, 2d Conn. Regt. Lieut. Elisha Scovill had served
32 weeks in 1759 in Capt. Amos Hitchcock's Company in the seventh
Connecticut regiment.

Lieutenant Jonathan Parker had served 34 weeks in 1761 in the third
company of the First Conn. Regt. commanded by Major David Baldwin.

The citizen liable to serve in the Connecticut militia was a man,
between 16 and 50 years of age, but for specified reason many were
exempt from the service.[12]

There was an almost immediate call for all the skill and ability of the
newly commissioned officers not only in the training field, but in the
arena of actual war. The Governor of Pennsylvania had made up his mind
to completely destroy the Connecticut settlement at Wyoming. Wyoming
was within the Pennsylvania county of Northumberland of which William
Cook was Sheriff. William Cook, under pretense of serving sundry writs
at Wyoming, took with him an armed force of 700 men under the command
of Colonel William Plunket. He called it a "posse."

This force left Northumberland early in December, 1775, marching up the
west side of the river over the almost impassable roads. The supplies
for the expedition were loaded into boats. Progress was slow, as the
boats had to be propelled against the current, encumbered as it often
was at that season of the year by floating ice. December 20th, Col.
Plunket was at Nescopeck Creek, nineteen miles below the south eastern
extremity of the valley. His progress now was closely watched by
scouts. On Saturday, the 23d he arrived at Harvey's landing, one-fourth
of a mile below the mouth of Harvey's Creek, where he landed, unloaded
his boats, and encamped for the night.

What preparation had been made to receive the invader? On this same
Saturday Col. Zebulon Butler mustered the newly formed Twenty-fourth
regiment. He also collected all the old men and boys who did not belong
to the ranks of the regiment and armed them the best he could. In
number, his force thus made up, was about four hundred. The two armies
spent the night within a half mile of each other. From this point Col.
Butler sent out a flag to Col. Plunket, in charge of Lieutenant Garret,
inquiring the object of the invasion. Col. Plunket's reply was that he
came on a peaceful errand, simply to serve some Pennsylvania writs at
Wyoming.

On Sunday morning. Col. Butler left Ensign Mason F. Alden[13] with
18 men on the ground where he had spent the night. At the same time
he sent Capt. Lazarus Stewart[14] of the Hanover Company, with 20
men across the river to the east side above the Nanticoke Falls to
prevent the enemy from landing, should they attempt to do so. He
then, with the main body of his force, retreated about one mile up
the river to a place where a natural defence existed. This consisted
of a ridge of rocks projecting about one-half a mile south easterly
from the Shawanese mountain to the river. Near the river it was 1 or
2 feet high, but as it ran back toward the mountain it was of great
height. Wherever there were breaks in this natural rampart, Butler's
men filled in the space with logs and stones. Behind this breastwork
the Twenty-fourth regiment and its co-operating forces were stationed.
About 11 o'clock Alden and his men became conscious that the enemy was
moving, and they withdrew. They announced the approach of the enemy to
Col. Butler and joined him behind the fortification. When the enemy
advanced it was met with a fusilade of shots along the whole line,
killing one man, wounding others and throwing the whole force into the
utmost confusion. Without firing a shot Col. Plunket withdrew to the
camp at Harvey's Creek.

Late in the afternoon the enemy brought two of its boats by land from
Harvey's landing above the Nanticoke Falls. At night fall they were
loaded with soldiers and rowed across the river. When they attempted to
land they were fired upon by Captain Stewart and his men, who lay in
ambush upon the bank, killing one man, and wounding others. The attempt
to land was given up and the boats and their cargoes floated down
through the rapids and were safely moored at Harvey's landing. Thus
ended the events of the day.

On Christmas Day Col. Plunket renewed the attack on the breastwork.
He divided his forces into two divisions. One division assailed the
fortification in front, while the other attempted a flanking movement
on Col. Butler's right. This was promptly met and repelled. The battle
lasted nearly all day, but the enemy, baffled at all points, finally
withdrew. The invasion known by Col. Plunket's name was at an end.
Eight or ten men on each side were killed and many wounded.[15]

The battle with Plunket had made the officers and men of the regiment
painfully conscious of their lack of equipment. Powder! How could they
get powder? Offer a reward for it? That was what they did at a town
meeting, March 10, 1776--two and a half months after the battle.
"Voted that the first man that shall make fifty weight of good salt
peter, in this town, shall be entitled to ten pounds lawful money, to
be paid out of the town treasury."[16]

Patriotism and this bounty no doubt produced an effect, as witness the
following: "Mrs. Bethiah Jenkins says. The women took up their floors,
dug out the earth, put it in casks, and ran water through it. Then took
ashes in another cask and made lye--mixed the water from the earth with
weak lye, boiled it, set it out to cool, and the salt peter rose to the
top. Charcoal and sulphur were then used, and powder produced."[17]

In May, 1776, John Jenkins, representative to the legislature, obtained
leave for the selectmen to erect a powder mill in Westmoreland, but I
can not learn that any mill was ever built.[18]

In July of the same year the Council of Safety at Hartford "Voted that
the Selectmen of Westmoreland may receive at Messrs. Elderkin & Wales
mill, not exceeding 200 pounds of gun powder: they to account to the
Colony therefor at the price of 5s, 4d per lb."[19]

Col. Butler, in a letter to Roger Sherman, dated August 6, 1776, speaks
of being in want of arms, "as those 80 guns taken from our people at
Warrior Run have not been returned."[20]

The Continental Congress the next year undertook to aid in supplying
these wants, as witness the following action April 11: "Resolved, that
175 fire arms, either musquets or rifles, 200 wt. powder, 800 wt. lead,
and 500 flints be sent to the town of Westmoreland, on the east branch
of the Susquehanna river, to the care of Colonel Nathan Denison, to
be used by the malitia there, for the defense of the said town, if
necessary: the arms to be returned when the service there will admit of
it."[21]

I am telling the story of a regiment whose fortunes were profoundly
affected by the Revolutionary War. The men of which it was composed
were intense rebels against the authority of England. Therefore when
the Congress on the 23d of August, "Resolved, That two companies on the
Continental Establishment be raised in the town of Westmoreland"[22]
it responded with an enlistment of 82 men in each company. Captain
Samuel Ransom, Lieutenant Perrin Ross, Ensigns Asahel Buck and Matthias
Hollenbeck, with others, were elected as officers. I mention these
because they were officers in the Twenty-fourth regiment. The men were
all taken from the ranks of the Twenty-fourth regiment. Twenty other
men in the summer of 1776 also enlisted under Lieutenant Obadiah Gore,
to serve in a New York State regiment under Colonel Weisner, as well as
ten more men to serve under Captain Strong. Our regiment thus lost of
its most robust men, 194 in the Summer of 1776, who enlisted into the
Continental Army.

While this depletion was going on the town assigned additional duties
to the field officers at a meeting held August 28. "Voted ye field
officers of ye regiment of this town be appointed a committee to view
the most suitable places to build forts for ye defense of sd town,
and determine on some particular spot or place in each district for
the purpose, and mark out the same."[23] Think for a moment of the
work imposed on this Committee! Think of the large territory to be
gone over, the consideration of reasons for or against any particular
location. Think of the work imposed on the men who were to build the
forts.

[Illustration: STEWART'S BLOCK HOUSE.]

There were some old forts like Forty Fort in Kingston, and Fort Brown
in Pittston, that were repaired and enlarged, but in other districts
there were no suitable works of the kind and accordingly new sites
were selected, and the proposed works laid out on the ground. Such was
the case in Wilkes-Barre, Plymouth and Exeter. In Lower Pittston and
Hanover, block houses were recommended and built. The work of repairing
and building the forts ran through the years 1776, 1777 and was not
completed until 1778.

Before closing the regimental history for 1776 I wish to mention the
advent of the tenth company into its ranks, representing the train
bands of the Districts of Huntington and Salem, of which Frethias Wall
was elected Lieutenant and John Franklin, Jr., Ensign, at the October
session of the legislature.[24] I have not seen this company assigned
its proper place in the regiment in any of the histories. Of this
company John Franklin, Jr., was ultimately to become the Captain and
Stoddart Bowen the Lieutenant.

In December, 1776, a supplement to the militia law was enacted by the
Connecticut legislature, by which the age limit of those liable to
serve was extended to persons from 50 to 60 years of age, and many
theretofore exempt were brought into the service. These persons were to
be formed into companies to be called the "Alarm List," to elect their
own officers and to be attached to already existing regiments.[25]

Under this act two companies were formed in Wyoming in 1777--one on
the east side of the river, of which William Hooker Smith was elected
Captain, one on the west side of the river of which James Bidlack,
Sr., was elected Captain. These became attached to the Twenty-fourth
regiment.

In popular speech these old men and exempts were called "Reformadoes."
Under this Act the Colonels of regiments were given authority "to
assemble in martial array and put in warlike posture," the men under
their command in case of invasion.

In the Spring of 1777 the regiment took up a new duty. It was the duty
of sending out scouting parties.[26] The Indians and Tories up the
river were showing activity by occasionally capturing some one, and
making a prisoner of him. Lieut. Asa Stevens, of the Kingston Company,
went on a scouting expedition and brought in five suspected persons.
Ensign John Jenkins, Jr., of the Exeter Company, led a scouting party
up as far as Wyalusing, and was himself captured and three other men.
Captain Asaph Whittlesey, of the Plymouth Company, led a scouting party
up as far as Standing Stone. In January, 1778, Capt. Eliab Farnham, of
the Lackaway Company, captured 18 tories[27] that had been disturbing
his vicinage and sent them to Hartford under the escort of Lieut.
Jonathan Haskell. The legislature declared that these persons should
be treated as prisoners of war. This action was necessary, because
the frontiersmen held that the prisoners ought to be hanged as cattle
thieves. In May, 1778, Nathan Denison memorialized the legislature to
be reimbursed as Colonel of the Twenty-fourth regiment, in sending out
detachments as scouts and for guards during 1776, 1777 and 1778. The
prayer of his memorial was granted.[28]

I must refer in this place to a further nominal depletion of the
regiment. By act of Congress March 16, 1778, it was resolved to raise
another Company of Continental troops at Westmoreland. The efforts to
do this was at least partially successful and Dethic Hewit was elected
Captain of the new company. In the same resolution it was provided that
the new organization should be under the command of the field officers
of the Twenty-fourth regiment.[29]

The enlistment of this company reduced the strength of the regiment.
It transferred the service of the men from the state to the service of
the United States. It did not, however, withdraw them from the Wyoming
Valley.

I will here explain the changes in the officers of the regiment. Under
the militia laws of Connecticut there were two general muster days in
the year--first Monday of May, first Monday of October. On either new
officers could be elected to fill vacancies or for other reasons. Able
and ambitious men coveted and strove to become officers of the regiment
and of the companies. In the larger and stronger companies the rivalry
was great and the officers were in a continual state of flux. In this
way there were a large number of ex-officers. The ex-officers retained
their titles by courtesy. Once a captain, always a captain. In the
Wyoming histories, and upon the monument erected on the battlefield,
confusion results, from giving the courtesy titles of ex-officers as
much prominence as is given the titles of men who were in commission,
and exercised actual command. In view of these and similar facts I
have been to much pains to make the roster of those in actual command
accurate as it was in the last formation of the regiment.[30]

I will first call attention to the changes in the regimental officers.
Colonel Zebulon Butler resigned to enter the Continental service
January 1, 1777. Lt. Col. Nathan Denison was promoted to be colonel.
This occasioned a vacancy in the office of lieutenant-colonel, which
was filled by the election of Lazarus Stewart, the famous Captain of
the Paxtang Rangers, who declined to accept, and thereupon Major George
Dorrance was promoted to that office in Oct., 1777. Major William Judd
resigned to enter the Continental service, and his place was filled
in May, 1777, by the promotion of Lieut. George Dorrance and on his
elevation to the Lt. Colonelcy, Captain John Garret was elected Major
in Oct., 1777.[31]

I have given a list of the Company officers as "established" at the
organization of the regiment. They underwent many changes as heretofore
indicated. I will give them as they existed in May, 1778, when the last
changes were made of which there is a record.[32] This is a list of the
Captains beginning with the first Company and thus on through to the
tenth. They were as follows: James Bidlack, Jr., Aholiab Buck, Asaph
Whittlesey, Jeremiah Blanchard, William McKarachan, Rezin Geer, Stephen
Harding, Eliab Farnham, Robert Carr and John Franklin, Jr.

The Lieutenants were Lebbeus Tubbs, Elijah Shoemaker, Aaron Gaylord,
Timothy Keyes, Roswell Franklin, Daniel Gore, Elisha Scovil, John Shaw,
Nathan Kingsbury and Stoddart Bowen.

The Ensigns were: John Comstock, Asa Gore, William White, Jeremiah
Bigford, Titus Hinman, John Hagerman, John Jenkins, Jr., Elijah
Winters, Rudolph Fox and Nathaniel Goss. John Jenkins, Jr., of the
Exeter company, probably should not be included as he had recently been
elected a lieutenant in the Continental Service. This company had no
Ensign in commission.

Some of these new officers had seen service in the old French war.
Lieutenant Lebbeus Tubbs had served two enlistments--one of 26 weeks
in 1755, in Capt. Nicholas Bishop's company of the first Conn,
regiment--another in 1759 of 27 weeks in Capt. John Pitkin's company of
the Fourth Conn. Regt.[33]

In the latter year he was in the expedition sent out for the reduction
of Crown Point. Ensign William White served 35 weeks in 1756 in Capt.
Samuel Champlin's Company in the First Conn, regiment. Ensign Titus
Hinman in 1755 served 32 weeks in Capt. Benjamin Hinman's company in
the Second Conn. regiment.

The Twenty-fourth regiment availed itself of other means of becoming
efficient. Two deserters from the British army--Abraham Pike and
Sergeant Boyd--were employed as drill masters, and spent much time in
putting the men through their evolutions.[34]

It had need of the skill of all its officers, of the efficiency of all
its men. While I have been talking about officers, important events
have been hastening toward a conclusion, on the northern border.
They now claim attention. Up to this time (1778) no murders had been
committed by the Indians. They now became frequent. Scouting parties of
the regiment were continually going out and coming in. They heralded
the approach of an invading army. Premonitory signs of its coming had
not been wanting.

It consisted of about 1,100 British soldiers, Indians and Tories, under
the command of Major John Butler.[35] This force had been gathered at
Kanadaseago and other points in Western New York. The time was the
month of June, when nature puts on her best apparel. It approached
Wyoming in boats. I can imagine the wild and weird flotilla, tricked
out in barbaric splendor, as it rounded Tioga Point, and swept out into
the broad waters of the Susquehanna, receiving welcome reinforcements
to its numbers as it passed Queen Esther's flats and the meadows of
Sheshequin. It landed above Wyoming in Keeler's Eddy. It marched about
twenty miles by land and was ready to do its work.

What was the situation at Wyoming? What the preparation to receive it?
We have detailed the building of the forts; the establishment of the
regiment and its depletion from time to time to recruit the Continental
service. The forts were there--and the regiment--what there was of it.

We left the enemy at the head of the valley. It signified its approach
by killing six men in Exeter on the 30th of June, 1778. On the first
day of July it seized Fort Wintermoot. This fort was occupied by
Elisha Scovil, lieutenant of the Exeter (7th) company and a few
patriotic men. The Wintermoots and other non-combatants in the fort
were Tories[36] and after making the best show of resistance he could,
Scovil capitulated. At Fort Jenkins, one mile above Fort Wintermoot,
were eight men, including Stephen Harding, Captain of the 7th (Exeter)
company. Resistance against such odds was useless and it surrendered
on the second of July, although the articles of capitulation were
dated on the first.[37] This disposes of one of the companies of the
Twenty-fourth regiment.

To the valley below a vague knowledge of what was happening was
communicated by scouts and by persons who had escaped when the Hardings
and Hadsells were killed on the 30th of June. Some information was
obtained by a reconnoisance in force on the first of July.

In consequence the population gathered into the several forts on the
first and second days of July.

[Illustration: FORTY FORT IN 1778.]

Of these, Forty Fort in Kingston was the largest and the strongest.
In it Col. Nathan Denison established his headquarters. He endeavored
to concentrate his regiment at this point. There were many obstacles
in the way. Captain Robert Carr's (9th) Up River company could not be
reached because of the proximity of the enemy. According to Hollister,
this Company was at Capouse Meadows (Scranton).[38] Captain Eliab
Farnham's (8th) Lackaway company was 70 miles away and could not be
reached on account of the distance. This company did not learn of
the invasion until it was over.[39] Thus these two companies were
unavailable. So far as adding to the force of lighting men was
concerned, they did not do it. Denison sent a messenger express to
Captain Franklin in Huntington, who dispatched Lieutenant Stoddart
Bowen with the first of his men who could be gotten together. He sent
another messenger to Wilkes-Barre. Zebulon Butler, Lt. Col. of the
third regiment of the Connecticut line was then at Wilkes-Barre on
furlough. Denison asked him to come to Forty Fort. When there, by
common consent, he assumed command of all the forces.

Early in the afternoon of Friday, July 3d, the two Wilkes-Barre, the
Hanover, Plymouth, Kingston and part of the Huntington companies were
at the rendezvous mustering not more than 200 men. In addition to these
were Captain Hewit's company of Continental Soldiers, some old men,
young boys, and refugees from all sides, who were willing to risk their
lives, but did not belong to any military organization. Perhaps 400
would be a fair estimate to put on the whole number of fighting men. On
the 2d and again on the 3d day of July the enemy demanded the surrender
of the Forts and all the military forces in the Valley.

What shall be done? Great uncertainty existed, as to the strength and
intention of the enemy. Shall the force now in hand await the coming
of promised reinforcements?--the more complete concentration of the
regiment, the advance of the enemy? or shall they march out and give
battle? A council of war was held in which the pros and cons were
warmly debated. It was decided to give battle.

"About three o'clock in the afternoon they marched from the fort, in
martial array, with the stars and stripes at their head, to the tune of
Saint Patrick's Day in the Morning, played on the fife by a true son
of Erin, and with drums beating."[40] They proceeded about three miles
in column when they formed a line of battle of about 500 yards front.
Capt. Dethic Hewit with his so-called regulars, was on the extreme
right, with Captain Bidlack next to him, and he joined by Captain
Geer. On the extreme left was Capt. Whittlesey and the Salem detachment
under Lieut. Bowen. Next to them was the Hanover company under Captain
Stewart (McKaracan having that day resigned), and he was joined by
Captain Buck, of Kingston. This was the order in which the advance was
made. It was made over a plain that was grown up with brush--yellow
pines, pitch pines and scrub oak. These bushes could be seen over by a
man, but were high enough to conceal a skulking foe. The right rested
on a rise of ground near the river, and was led by Lieut. Col. Zebulon
Butler, aided by Major John Garret. The left was commanded by Col.
Nathan Denison, assisted by Lieut. Col. George Dorrance.

The enemy in front had the Tories in the center under Captains Pawling
and Hopkins and the British regulars on their extreme left under
Captain William Caldwell and Lieutenant Turney. On the enemy's right
were the Indians, under cover of the alders in a swamp led by a Seneca
Chief named Sayenqueraghta.[41]

The Americans advanced with spirit, the enemy purposely falling back
under fire for the distance of about a mile, until they came to a
cleared field. On the opposite side of this field was a log fence which
the British used as a breastwork, and from it poured in such a severe
fire that it checked the advance. Just at this point the Indians with
brandishing spears and demoniac yells, rushed out of the swamp on the
left, in which most of them lay concealed, enveloped the left wing by
superior numbers, and turned it in upon the right. In the melee that
ensued an effort was made to re-form it, so that it would present a
front to the enemy, but in the confusion occasioned by the fierce onset
of the enemy the orders were misunderstood and the day was lost.

The men retreated in squads at first, firing as they gave ground, but
borne down by overwhelming numbers, the retreat became a rout, and
every man did the best he could to save himself. It was four miles
back to the fort. On the way some of the squads were captured, some
in pairs, some singly. The slaughter of captured men by the Indians
constitutes what is known in history as the Wyoming Massacre. Some
of the fugitives reached Forty Fort; some Wilkes-Barre. Lieut. Col.
Zebulon Butler escaped with his life. He and the remnant of Hewit's
regulars left the valley. They did not surrender.

[Illustration: PITTSTON FORT.]

What of the Twenty-fourth Regiment? Col. Denison reached Forty Fort
alive. Lieut. Col. George Dorrance was mortally wounded. Major John
Garret was killed. The Captain of every company fell upon the field, as
also did three Lieutenants and three Ensigns. How many men the regiment
lost it is impossible to say, but from 200 to 300 of those engaged on
the American side were slain. The loss of the enemy was from 40 to 80
men.

Early the next day, July 4, the British commander sent a detachment
across the river and demanded the surrender of Fort Brown, in which
the Pittston people assembled, under the command of Captain Jeremiah
Blanchard. The demand was complied with.[42] It is said that this
company failed to report at Forty Fort because the enemy captured all
the water craft along the river in its vicinity. This disposes of one
more of the companies of the Twenty-fourth Regiment.

The same day the surrender of Forty Fort was demanded on terms deemed
reasonable under the circumstances. No means for further resistance
were at hand. After some negotiation articles of capitulation were
drawn up and signed.[43] Protection was promised to persons and
property. The fort was surrendered. Captain Franklin had come up
from Huntington, while the battle was in progress on Abraham's
Plains, with the remainder of his company and they were included in
the surrender[44], thus making six complete companies. I have now
accounted for the ten original companies of the regiment. Captain
William Hooker Smith's company of the "Alarm List" was in the fort
with the women and children at Wilkes-Barre, and Capt. James Bidlack,
Sr.'s company was in the fort on Garrison Hill in Plymouth. These
"Reformadoes" belonged to Col. Denison's command.

The victors planned a spectacular entrance into Forty Fort. Massed in
columns of four upon the left, approached Major John Butler at the head
of his Rangers and Royal Greens; on the right came the Seneca Chiefs,
leading their warriors, streaked with paint, adorned with feathers, and
other picturesque barbaric ornaments. They were preceded with waving
banners, the screech of fife, and the roll of drums. At a signal the
gates were opened: in at the north gate entered the Tories and British
Provincials; at the south gate the savages.[45]

This scene as it came down to me when a child, from the reported words
of a great grandmother who witnessed it, most profoundly impressed my
youthful imagination.

What occurred after the capitulation? By the terms of the surrender
protection was promised to persons and property. Regardless of the
terms, the Indians plundered individuals of the clothing on their
persons, pillaged the farm steads of everything movable, drove away the
live stock, destroyed the growing crops and burned the buildings of the
distressed inhabitants to the ground. Their commander could not, or
would not restrain them.

The result was that on the night following the battle, and on the two
or three succeeding days and nights, the 3,000 inhabitants of the
Wyoming Valley fled, some by boats and rafts down the river, but by
far the greater number through the wilderness, and over the mountains
to the settlements beyond. It was not a planned and orderly hegira, in
which provision was made for necessary wants, but a hurried, hasty,
precipitate flight, urged on to desperation by every element of real
and imaginary danger. Their houses, furniture, household utensils,
crops, flocks, farming implements, provisions, papers, clothing,
horses, wagons,--all left behind. And it was all utterly destroyed or
carried off. Of the delicate women and tender children, not less than
200 perished by the way. In the battle, the massacre, and the flight
it is probable that 500 persons lost their lives. In a memorial to
the Connecticut legislature, the survivors stated that their property
losses amounted to 38,308 pounds, 13s.[46]

In the Articles of Capitulation signed at Forty Fort was this: "Art.
7. That the inhabitants Col. Denison capitulates for, together with
himself, do not take up arms during the present contest." Some
undoubtedly considered themselves bound by this article. Colonel
Denison for one is no longer heard of in our military annals,
although Westmoreland remained more than four years longer under
the jurisdiction of Connecticut. The Twenty-fourth regiment was
never reorganized. It was overwhelmed on the field of battle; it was
surrendered in sections, by the terms of four military conventions.[47]
Of this sort of glory it had a monopoly. As a regiment its story is
told.

On the other hand many of the men considered themselves absolved from
the terms above recited. The party that imposed the conditions, did
not themselves observe them. Lieut. Col. Zebulon Butler, one month
from the day of surrender, returned to the valley at the head of some
Continental soldiers and 40 militiamen and went into garrison at
Wilkes-Barrie. A muster roll of these men is extant. Many of them were
men who had been surrendered. Captain John Franklin, with a company of
Wyoming militia, went out in Hartley's expedition the same year, and in
Sullivan's expedition the next year, and on other occasions.

In an upper chamber of this building is an original pay roll of one of
these companies. Many of its names are identical with those who served
in the Twenty-fourth regiment.

After the flight of the people from the valley the dead lay unburied on
the plain where they fell for nearly four months. On the twenty second
day of October a detail of thirty men was sent from the garrison at
Wilkes-Barre as a guard to protect those of the inhabitants that had
returned, in performing that solemn duty.[48]

A granite monument suitably inscribed now marks the place of sepulchre.
Engraved upon it is a very inaccurate list of those "slain in battle"
and of "survivors."

In this temple, dedicated to the Muse of the backward look, it may be
appropriate to inquire, What relation, if any, had these events to
the history of the times? The drama of the American Revolution held
the center of the stage. Did our regiment enact a part? An important
part. It triumphed mightily in its death. The tales of the butchery of
these captured citizen soldiers, the cries of those mothers and little
children, driven from their burning homes to the wilds of the forest,
were heard all over the civilized world. The execration of mankind was
visited upon a King, and a country, that employed savage allies and
paid them ten dollars apiece, in gold, for the scalps of human beings.

It produced another effect. It called the attention of Washington and
the Congress to the imperative necessity of dealing a death blow, to
the Six Nation Confederacy of Indian barbarians. A year passed by.
The avengers of Wyoming darkened the waters that wash the shores of
your beautiful peninsula-they swarmed over the lands where we are
assembled to-night, they went forward, they did the work assigned them;
Wyoming was avenged.

[Illustration: WYOMING MONUMENT.]

Permit me a word of review.

The Connecticut controversy! with all its bitterness and contention, it
is sunk in oblivion.

The town of Westmoreland! it is sponged from the map.

The Twenty-fourth regiment! it served three years--one for the colony,
two for the state. It builded forts, it fought battles, it went down
to defeat and death, amidst a wild saturnalia of blood, rapine, and
murder. It is forgotten.

 "Time rolls its ceaseless course; the race of yore.
   Who danced our infancy upon their knee.
 And told our marvelling boyhood legends store
   Of their strange ventures happ'd by land or sea,
   How are they blotted from the things that be!"


Appendix A.

ROSTER OF THE OFFICERS OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT CONNECTICUT MILITIA

From Date of Its Organization to Day of Its Destruction. Date of
Commission Follows Each Name.


 -----------------+----------------------------
   Colonel.       | Zebulon Butler   May,  1775
      "           | Nathan Denison   May,  1777
 -----------------+----------------------------
  Lieut.-Colonel. | Nathan Denison   May,  1775
    "       "     | Lazarus Stewart  May,  1777
    "       "     | George Dorrance  Oct., 1777
 -----------------+----------------------------
      Major.      | William Judd     May,  1775
        "         | George Dorrance  May,  1777
        "         | John Garret      Oct., 1777
 -----------------+----------------------------

                +---------------------------------+
                |           Captains.             |
----------------+---------------------------------+
First, or       | Stephen Fuller       Oct., 1775 |
Lower           | John Garret          Oct., 1776 |
Wilkes-Barre    | Elisha Swift         May,  1777 |
Comp'y.         | James Bidlack, Jr.   Oct., 1777 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Second, or      | Nathaniel Landon     Oct., 1775 |
Kingston        | Wm. Hooker Smith     May,  1777 |
Company.        | Dethic Hewit         Oct., 1777 |
                | Aholiab Buck         May,  1778 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Third, or       | Samuel Ransom        Oct., 1775 |
Plymouth        | Asaph Whittlesey     May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Fourth, or      | Solomon Strong       Oct., 1775 |
Pittston        | Jeremiah Blanchard   May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                 |_
----------------+---------------------------------+
Fifth, or       | Wm. McKarrican       Oct., 1775 |
Hanover         |                                 |
Company.        |                                 |_
----------------+---------------------------------+
Sixth, or Upper | Rezin Geer           Oct., 1775 |
Wilkes-Barre    |                                 |
Comp'y.         |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Seventh, or     | Stephen Harding      Oct., 1775 |
Exeter Company. |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Eighth, or      | Eliab Farnham        Oct., 1775 |
Lackaway        |                                 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Ninth, or Up    | James Seacord        Oct., 1775 |
River Company.  | Robert Carr          May,  1776 |
----------------+---------------------------------|
Tenth, or       | John Franklin        May,  1778 |
Huntington-Salem|                                 |
Co.             |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+


                +---------------------------------+
                |          Lieutenants.           |
----------------+ --------------------------------+
First, or       | John Garret          Oct., 1775 |
Lower           | Asa Stevens          Oct., 1776 |
Wilkes-Barre    | James Bidlack, Jr.   May,  1777 |
Comp'y.         | Lebbeus Tubbs        Oct., 1777 |
----------------+ --------------------------------+
Second, or      | George Dorrance      Oct., 1775 |
Kingston        | Flavius Waterman     May,  1777 |
Company.        | Aholiab Buck         Oct., 1777 |
                | Elijah Shoemaker     May,  1778 |
----------------+ --------------------------------+
Third, or       | Perrin Ross          Oct., 1775 |
Plymouth        | Aaron Gaylord        May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+ --------------------------------+
Fourth, or      | Jonathan Parker      Oct., 1775 |
Pittston        | Timothy  Keyes       May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Fifth, or       | Lazarus Stewart, Jr. Oct., 1775 |
Hanover         | Roswell Franklin     May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Sixth, or Upper | Daniel Gore          Oct., 1775 |
Wilkes-Barre    |                                 |
Comp'y.         |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Seventh, or     | Elisha Scovil        Oct., 1775 |
Exeter Company. |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Eighth, or      | John Shaw            Oct., 1775 |
Lackaway        |                                 |
Company.        |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Ninth, or Up    | John Depue           Oct., 1775 |
River Company.  | Nathan Kingsley      May,  1776 |
----------------+---------------------------------+
Tenth, or       | Frethias Wall        Oct., 1776 |
Huntington-Salem| Stoddart Bowen       May,  1778 |
Co.             |                                 |
----------------+---------------------------------+


                +--------------------------------+
                |           Ensigns.             |
----------------+--------------------------------+
First, or       | Charles Avery       Oct., 1775 |
Lower           | David Downing       Oct., 1776 |
Wilkes-Barre    | Lebbeus Tubbs       May,  1777 |
Comp'y.         | John Comstock       Oct., 1777 |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Second, or      | Asahel Buck         Oct., 1775 |
Kingston        | Dethic Hewit        Oct., 1776 |
Company.        | Elisha Blackman     May,  1777 |
                | Asa Gore            Oct., 1777 |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Third, or       | Asaph Whittlesey    Oct., 1775 |
Plymouth        | William White       May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Fourth, or      | Timothy Keyes       Oct., 1775 |
Pittston        | William Shays       May,  1777 |
Company.        | Jeremiah Bigford    May,  1778 |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Fifth, or       | Silas Gore          Oct., 1775 |
Hanover         | Titus Hinman        May,  1777 |
Company.        |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Sixth, or Upper | John Hagerman       Oct., 1775 |
Wilkes-Barre    |                                |
Comp'y.         |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Seventh, or     | John Jenkins, Jr.   Oct., 1775 |
Exeter Company. |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Eighth, or      | Elijah Winters      Oct., 1775 |
Lackaway        |                                |
Company.        |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Ninth, or Up    | Rudolph Fox         Oct., 1775 |
River Company.  |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+
Tenth, or       | John Franklin       Oct., 1776 |
Huntington-Salem| Nathaniel Goss      May,  1778 |
Co.             |                                |
----------------+--------------------------------+


APPENDIX B.

A bill of Losses sustained by the Inhabitants of Westmoreland from the
3d day of July, 1778, to May, 1780, taken and carefully examined by the
Selectmen of sd Town pursuant to a Resolve of the Assembly of the state
of Connecticut holden at Hartford the second Thursday of May, 1780.

And is as followeth:
                               £    s.

 Sam'l Andross,                26    15
 Isaac Adams,                 103    14
 Richardson Avery,            155    00
 Alice Abbot,                 173     6
 Prince Alden,                 83    17
 Mason F. Alden,                5    13
 Noah Adams,                   83     5
 Cornelius Atherton,          103     0
 Samuel Ayers,                100    10
 James Atherton,              120     0
 Richardson Avery, Jr.,       137    13
 Eber Adros,                  120     9
 Col. Zebulon Butler,         429     4
 Zerah Beach,                  67    13
 Ishmael Bennet,               96    17
 Isaac Bennet,                 61     7
 Asa Bennet,                  199    12
 Henry Burney,                 71    15
 Moses Brown,                  13     8
 Andrew Blanchard,             49    15
 John Blanchard,               23     8
 Joseph Blanchard,             54     9
 Margaret Blanchard,           79     2
 Lucretia Buck,                90    14
 James Benedict,              228    13
 Jeremiah Blanchard,          215    14
 Benjamin Bailey,             134    17
 Asahel Burnham,               35     6
 Isaac Benjamin,                9     0
 Thomas Brown,                 61     0
 Thomas Bennet,               507     0
 James Brown,                 165     4
 Capt. James Bidlack,          65    19
 Sarah Brockway,              205     7
 Joseph Baker,                124    13
 Elisha Blackman,             137     1
 Elizabeth Benedict,          144    13
 Bertha Bixby,                 36    13
 James Bagley,                 95    15
 Mary Bixby,                   74     8
 Capt. Caleb Bates,           285     4
 Wm. Buck,                    245     5
 Elijah Buck,                 103    18
 Abigail Bidlack,              63    10
 David Brown,                  28    16
 Richard Brockway,            163    17
 Mehitable Bigford,           202     1
 Uriah Chapman, Esq.,          58    10
 Samuel Cummings,             151     5
 John Cray,                    93    10
 Wm. Churchill,               178    10
 Anne Campbell,               100     5
 Nathan Cary,                 160     4
 Benjamin Cole, Jr.,          165     0
 James Cole,                  207     3
 Peleg Comstock,               40    13
 Mary Crooker,                 51     1
 John Comstock,               219     7
 Jonathan Cory,               173    11
 Jinks Cory,                   83     0
 Thos McCluer,                 66     4
 Barnabas Cary,                88    17
 Samuel Cole,                  89     6
 Preserved Cooley,             95    19
 Col. Nathan Denison,         209    15
 Samuel Downer,                22    19
 Daniel Downing,              107     0
 David Darling,                13     0
 Sarah Durkee,                240    18
 Amos Draper,                  68    18
 Samuel Dart,                 124     4
 Anderson Dana, Esq.,         194    15
 Frederick Eveland,            90     6
 Samuel Ensign,                38    10
 Joseph Elliott,               33    17
 Henry Elliott,                44    14
 Benjamin Eaton,              369    10
 Nathaniel Evans,              61    19
 Capt. Stephen Fuller,        288     4
 Roswell Franklin,            104     0
 Charles Forsythe,             15     3
 Capt. John Franklin,          21     4
 Benj. Follet,                118    17
 Jabez Fish,                  223     0
 John Ferre, Jr.,              61    11
 Hugh Foresman,               193    11
 Sarah Fuller,                101    13
 Esther Follet,               221     7
 James Finn,                  221    11
 Richard Fitz Jarold,         245     2
 Elizabeth Follet,            212     3
 Jonathan Forsythe,           138    16
 Jonathan Fitch,               46    10
 Capt. Eliab. Farnham,         27    11
 Joanna Fish,                  30    17
 Major John Garret,           309    11
 Hannah Gore,
 John Garret, Jr.,             59    16
 Daniel Gore,                 273    13
 Cornelius Gale,                7    14
 William Gallop,              200     0
 Solomon Goss,                 31    11
 Justin Gaylord,              134    14
 Keziah Gore,                  89     0
 Obadiah Gore, Esq.,          306     1
 Elisha Garret,                29     0
 Catherine Gaylord,           158     4
 Joseph Gaylord,               69     6
 Stephen Gardner,             176    18
 Nathaniel Gates,              66    14
 James Gardner,               180     0
 Elizabeth Gore,              240     0
 Wait Garret,                 108     6
 Bezaleel Gurney,              59     6
 John Hurlburt, Esq.,          85     7
 Peter Harris,                149    16
 Richard Hoisted,             177     6
 Lebbeus Hammond,              84    18
 Joseph Hagaman,               19     0
 Henry Harding,                55    12
 Matthew Hollenback,          671     3
 Dr. Joseph Hamilton,         284    17
 James Hopkins,                90     6
 Capt. Robt. Hopkins,          28    18
 Samuel Huchinson,            163     9
 Simon Hide,                  117    17
 Widow Hasen and son,         182    10
 Samuel Howard,                27    15
 Mary Howard,                  50     1
 Benjamin Hervy,              186     0
 Mary Hatch,                   12     7
 John Hutchins,                57     1
 Capt. Stephen Harding,       181    19
 Stukely Harding,              73     6
 James Headsall,              210     0
 Thos. Heath,                 190     0
 Cyprian Hybert,              119    13
 Daniel Ingersol,             208     2
 Sarah Inman,                 161    10
 Richard Inman,                41    17
 Edward Inman,                 84     6
 Rev. Jacob Johnson,          459     1
 John Jenneson,                88    11
 Crocker Jones,                 9     0
 Wm. Jacobson,                106     1
 Robert Jamison,              183    16
 Capt. Wm. Judd,               19     2
 John Jenkins, Esq.,          598     1
 Josiah Kellogg,              146    12
 Michael Kelly,                21    11
 Benj. Kilburn,                92    16
 Hanna Keys,                  178    14
 Alexander M. Kay,            277     4
 Sarah Lee,                   236     6
 Thomas Levenworth,           122    11
 Sarah Leonard,                75     0
 Rufus Lawrence,              189    11
 Daniel Lawrence,              37     0
 George Liquors,              136    18
 Abigail Leech,                82     0
 Joseph Leonard,               79    19
 John Lashley,                 53     2
 David Lindsey,                78     7
 Edward Lester,               109    11
 Samuel Morgan,               153     8
 John Murphy,                  86     3
 Benj. Murry,                  78     2
 Ebenezer Murry,              118    12
 Uzania Manvill,               46    17
 Thomas Neil,                   4     0
 James Nesbit,                 74    19
 Phinehas Nash,                70     0
 John O'Neil,                  18     2
 David Owen,                   24     0
 Amos Ormsby,                   7     1
 Anning Owen,                 174    12
 Josiah Pell,                  73    10
 Lucy Pettibone,               79     9
 Hannah Parish,                44    12
 Thomas Picket,               111    11
 Hannah Pierce,               151     6
 Thos. Picket, Jr.,            66     0
 Ichabod Phelps,               93     2
 Thos. Porter,                200     0
 Josiah Parks,                 49    19
 Noah Pettibone,              216     1
 Jonathan Pritchard,           30    15
 Jonathan Parker,              54    12
 Silas Parks, Esq.,            91    10
 Elijah Phelps,               550    10
 Sarah Pixley,                 26    19
 John Ryon                     18     3
 Wm. Ross,                    326     0
 John Ross,                    65    17
 Susannah Reynolds,            28    10
 Peran Ross,                  233     9
 Abigail Richards,            135     3
 David Reynolds,               94     2
 Capt. Samuel Ransom,         259     0
 Capt. Daniel Rosencrans,     175    10
 James Roberts,                83    18
 Jonah Rogers,                168    17
 Amasa Roberts,                92    10
 Timothy Rose,                118    11
 Caleb Spencer,               182    17
 Margaret Smith,              155    10
 James Stark,                 547    15
 Lazarus Stuart, Jr.,         172    12
 Isaac Smith,                  67    10
 Joseph Staples,              223     0
 Esther Spencer,              135     0
 David Sanford,               193    12
 Elizabeth St. John,          162     0
 Elisha Scovil,               712     4
 Jonathan Scovil,              72     0
 Ebenezer Skinner,             89     4
 Wm. Shay,                    114    15
 Josiah Smith,                 83    19
 Obadiah Scott,                72    15
 Jedediah Stevens,            285     0
 Joshua Stevens,              119    11
 Zacharias Squire,             66    16
 James Sutton,                176    17
 David Shoemaker,              50     0
 Daniel Sherwood,              40     4
 Edward Spencer, Jr.,          85     7
 Thomas Stoddard,             200     8
 David Smith,                 202    15
 Jane Shoemaker,              329    12
 Benj. Skiff,                  98     7
 Wm. Hooker Smith,            168     7
 Wm. Stuart,                   57    17
 Giles Slocum,                205    19
 Asa Stevens,                 185    11
 John Scott,                  217     3
 James Staples,                80    19
 Martha Stuart,               481    12
 Jabez Sill,                  351    19
 John Staples,                224    12
 John Stafford,                36     6
 Josiah Stanberry,            603    14
 Luke Sweatland,              200     0
 Joseph Thomas,               120    18
 Mary Thomas,                  25     0
 Ephraim Tyler,                14    10
 Parshall Terry,              216    12
 Mary Thompson,                30    10
 Job Tripp,                   113     1
 Isaac Tripp,                  74    10
 Lebbeus Tubbs,               130     3
 John Taylor,                  61    14
 Preserved Taylor,             18     2
 Mehitable Truks,             159     4
 Moses Thomas,                 68     3
 Bezaleel Tyler,               35    17
 Elizabeth Tuttle,             67    10
 James Towser,                 36     0
 Isaac Van Orman,             122     0
 John Van Titbury,             84     3
 Rev. Noah Wadhams,           193     6
 Amy Wilcox,                  116    12
 Elizabeth Wilcox,             87    15
 Enos Woddard,                 30    19
 Enos Woddard, Jr.,            16     7
 Eleazer West,                 53    10
 Nathaniel Williams,           30     0
 Abigail Weeks,               129    16
 Mary Walker,                  42     5
 Eunice Whiton,                26     7
 Daniel Willing,               44    17
 Thomas Wigton,               175     6
 Isabel Wigton,               130     1
 Wm. Warner,                   68    16
 Wm. Williams,                148    18
 Jonathan Weeks,              239    11
 Flavius Waterman,             90     0
 Elihu Williams,              197    10
 Richard West,                 65    17
 Amy Williams,                130     0
 Daniel Whitney,              363    14
 Abraham Westbrook,           380     2
 James Wells,                  92    12
 Lucretia York,               221    13
 Jemima Yale,                 130     3
 Jacob Zaratt,                 42    11

            Total amount, £38,308    13

The foregoing Bill was carefully examined in each single account and
estimated in lawful money equal to money in 1774.

 Westmoreland, Oct. 2, 1781.

In the Lower House, Ordered that this Report be Lodged on file in the
Secretary's Office.

 Teste--Jed'h Strong, Clerk.

Concur'd in the Upper House.

 Teste--George Wyllys, Sect'y.

[Illustration]


APPENDIX C.

  Copies of Documents Relative to the Expedition Against Wyoming, in
  1778, Now in His Majesty's State Paper Office, London, in a Volume
  Entitled, "Military, 1778.--No. 122."


I.

  Copy of Articles of Capitulation, for Wintermoot's Fort, July 1, 1778.

Art. 1st. That Lieut. Elisha Scovell surrender the Fort, with the
Stores, arms and ammunition, that are in said fort, as well public as
private, to Major John Butler.

2d. That the garrison shall not bear arms during the present contest;
and Major Butler promises that the men, women and children shall not be
hurt, either by Indians or Rangers.


II.

 Fort Jenkins Fort, July 1st, 1778.

  Between Major John Butler, on behalf of His Majesty King George the
  Third, and John Jenkins.

Art. 1st. That the Fort with all the stores, arms and ammunition, be
delivered up immediately.

2d. That Major John Butler shall preserve to them, intire, the lives of
the men, women and children.


III.

  Articles of Capitulation for three Forts at Lackuwanack, 4th July,
  1778.

Art. 1st. That the different Commanders of the said Forts, do
immediately deliver them up, with all the arms, ammunition and stores
in the said forts.

2d. Major Butler promises that the lives of the men, women and children
shall be preserved intire.


IV.

 Westmoreland, July 4th, 1778.

  Capitulation made and completed between Major John Butler, on behalf
  of His Majesty King George the Third, and Col. Nathan Denniston, of
  the United States of America.

Art. 1. That the inhabitants of the settlement lay down their arms, and
the garrisons be demolished.

2d. That the inhabitants are to occupy their farms peaceably, and the
lives of the inhabitants preserved intire and unhurt.

3d. That the Continental Stores be delivered up.

4th. That Major Butler will use his utmost influence that the private
property of the inhabitants shall be preserved intire to them.

5th. That the prisoners in Forty Fort, be delivered up, and that Samuel
Finch, now in Major Butler's possession, be delivered up also.

6th. That the property taken from the people called Tories, up the
river, be made good; and they to remain in peaceable possession of
their farms, unmolested in a free trade, in and throughout this State,
as far as lies in my power.

7th. That the inhabitants, that Colonel Denniston now capitulates for,
together with himself, do not take up arms during the present contest.

 [Signed]

 Nathan Denniston.
 John Butler.

 Zarah Beech,
 John Johnson,
 Samuel Gustin,
 Wm. Caldwell.



BIBLIOGRAPHY.


Below will be found a list of the books, pamphlets, and manuscripts
consulted in the preparation of this address. By means of an
alphabetical arrangement, usually as to author's names, an authority
cited in the text may here be found with the title of the work, and the
date, and place of publication.

  Chapman, Isaac A.--A sketch of the History of Wyoming. Wilkes-Barre.
  1830.

  Conover, George S.--Sayenqueraghta, King of the Senecas. Waterloo.
  1885.

  Supplement to the same. 1886.

  Connecticut--The Public Records of the Colony of.--From October,
  1772, to April, 1775, inclusive. Vol. XIV. Hartford. 1887.

  Connecticut--The Public Records of the Colony of.--From May, 1775, to
  June, 1776, inclusive. Vol. XV. Hartford. 1890.

  Connecticut--The Public Records of the State of.--From October, 1776,
  to February, 1778, inclusive. Vol. I. Hartford. 1894.

  Connecticut--The Public Records of the State of. From May, 1778, to
  April, 1780, inclusive. Vol. II. Hartford. 1895.

  Connecticut.--Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the War of the
  Revolution. Quarto, pp. 777. Hartford. 1889.

  Craft, Rev. David.--Historical Address at the Centennial Celebration
  of the Battle of Newtown. Printed in Journals of the Sullivan
  Expedition.

  Craft, Rev. David.--Colonel John Franklin and the Wild Yankees. An
  Address delivered June 9, 1896, at the Old Academy, Athens, Pa. 1896.

  Egle, Wm. H., M. D.--A History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
  Civil, Political and Military, from its earliest settlement to the
  present time. Harrisburg. 1876.

  Hubbard, John N., A. B.--Sketches of Border Adventures in the Life
  and Times of Major Moses VanCampen, a Surviving Soldier of the
  Revolution. By his Grandson. Bath, N. Y. 1842.

  Hayden, Rev. Horace Edwin, M. A.--Major John Garret, slain July 3,
  1778. A Forgotten Hero of the Massacre of Wyoming, Pa. Wilkes-Barre,
  Pa. 1895.

  Hayden, Rev. Horace Edwin, M. A.--The Massacre of Wyoming.
  Wilkes-Barre. 1895.

  Hollister, Horace.--History of the Lackawana Valley, Fifth Edition.
  Philadelphia. 1885.

  Hoyt, Henry M.--A Brief of the Title in the Seventeen Townships
  in the County of Luzerne: A Syllabus of the Controversy between
  Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Harrisburg. 1879.

  Hinman, Royal R.--A Historical Collection from Official Records,
  Files, etc., of the part sustained by Connecticut during the War of
  the Revolution. Hartford. 1842.

  Harvey, Oscar Jewell.--The Harvey Book, giving genealogies of Harvey,
  Nesbitt, Dixon and Jamison Families. Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 1899.

  Jenkins, Steuben.--Historical Address at the Wyoming Monument July 3,
  1878, on the 100th Anniversary of the Battle and Massacre of Wyoming.
  Wilkes-Barre. 1878.

  Jenkins, Steuben.--Wyoming, Connecticut, Pennsylvania. Historical
  Register. Vol. II. Harrisburg. 1884.

  Johnson, Frederick C., M. D.-The Pioneer Women of Wyoming. An Address
  before the Wyoming Valley Chapter D. A. R. Wilkes-Barre. 1901.

  Meginness, John F.--Biography of Frances Slocum, the lost Sister of
  Wyoming. A complete Narrative of her wanderings among the Indians.
  Williamsport, Pa. 1891.

  Miner, Charles.--History of Wyoming in a Series of Letters.
  Philadelphia. 1845.

  Military Expedition of General John Sullivan, Journals of. Auburn.
  1887.

  Peck, George, D. D.--Wyoming; its History, Stirring Incidents and
  Romantic Adventures. New York. 1858.

  Pearce, Stewart.--Annals of Luzerne County. Second Edition.
  Philadelphia. 1866.

  Pennsylvania--Minutes of the Provincial Council of.--From the
  organization to the termination of the Proprietary Government. Vols.
  IX to XI. Harrisburg. 1853.

  Pennsylvania--Minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of.--From its
  organization to the termination of the Revolution. Vols. XI to XVI.
  Harrisburg. 1853.

  Pennsylvania Archives.--Selected and arranged from Original Documents
  in the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth. First Series.
  Vols. IV. to XII. Harrisburg. 1855-8. Second Series. Vol. XVIII.
  Harrisburg. 1897. Fourth Series. Vols. III. and IV. Harrisburg. 1900.

  Perkins, Mrs. George A.--Early Times on the Susquehanna. Binghamton.
  1870.

  Plumb, Henry Blackman.--History of Hanover Township and Wyoming
  Valley, Luzerne County, Pa. Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 1885.


  Reynolds, Sheldon, M. A.--The Frontier Forts within the Wyoming
  Valley, Pa. Wilkes-Barre. 1896. Also in Frontier Forts of Pa. Vol. I,
  pp. 419-466. Harrisburg. 1896.

  Stone, William L.--The Poetry and History of Wyoming. New York and
  London. 1841.

  Stone, William L.--Life of Joseph Brant--Thayendanegea, including the
  Indian Wars of the American Revolution. Vol. I. Cooperstown, N. Y.
  1844.

  United States.--Journals of Congress. Containing their Proceedings
  from Sept. 5, 1774, to November 3, 1788. 13 volumes. Philadelphia.
  1800-1.

  Wright, Hendrick B.--Historical Sketches of Plymouth, Luzerne County,
  Pa. Philadelphia. 1873.

  Wyoming Valley--The Historical Record of. A periodical publication.
  Dr. F. C. Johnson, Editor. 9 volumes. Wilkes-Barre. 1886-1901.

  Wyoming Historical and Geological Society--Proceedings and
  Collections. Vols. 1-7. Wilkes-Barre. 1858-1902.

  Wyoming Commemorative Association--Proceedings. 12 volumes.
  Wilkes-Barre. 1878-1902.


MANUSCRIPTS.

The subjoined list embraces material not in printed form:

  Craft, Rev. David.--Collection of MSS. deposited by him in the Rooms
  of the Tioga Point Historical Society, Athens, Pa.

  Connecticut State Library.--Manuscript Pay and Muster Rolls of
  Soldiers in the French and Indian War, 1754-1763. Hartford, Conn.

  Appendix "B" is Document No. 147 in a manuscript volume entitled
  "Susquehanna Settlers," Vol. I.

  Jenkins, Hon. Steuben.--Documents, Letters, Surveys, Account Books,
  Agreements, Diaries, etc. etc. Wyoming, Pa. Examined in lifetime of
  late owner.

  Tioga Point Historical Society.--Pay Roll of Capt. John Franklin's
  Company, dated May, 1780. Athens, Pa.

[Illustration]


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Westmoreland Records as per Hollister 5th ed. p. 139.]

[Footnote 2: Westmoreland Records as per Hollister 5th ed. p. 140.]

[Footnote 3: Colonial Records of Conn. Vol. XIV p. ----.]

[Footnote 4: Miner p. 157.]

[Footnote 5: Miner p. 158.]

[Footnote 6: Colonial Records of Conn. Vol. XV p. 12.]

[Footnote 7: Colonial Records of Conn. Vol. XV p. 43.]

[Footnote 8: Manuscript Pay Rolls Conn. State Library.]

[Footnote 9: Miner p. 154.]

[Footnote 10: Colonial Records of Conn. Vol. XV p. 152 et seq.]

[Footnote 11: Manuscript Pay and Muster Rolls Conn. State Lib.]

[Footnote 12: Hinman's Connecticut in the War of the Revolution, (1842)
p. 10.]

[Footnote 13: Mason F. Alden is employed to perform a responsible
duty and is called Ensign. However, his name does not appear among
the Ensigns of the Twenty-fourth regiment, at that time but recently
elected. Perhaps it was a courtesy title derived from some previous
service.]

[Footnote 14: Lazarus Stewart was also employed to perform a
responsible duty and is called Captain. He served during the French
and Indian War; was in Braddock's defeat; was Captain of the "Paxtang
Boys," but was not at this time a Captain in the Twenty-fourth
regiment. He was a cousin of Lazarus Stewart, Jr., a Lieutenant in the
Hanover company.]

[Footnote 15: Miner, p. 172 et seq.; The Harvey Book, p. 628 et seq.]

[Footnote 16: Miner, p. 189.]

[Footnote 17: Westmoreland Records as per Jenkins' Address p. 11.]

[Footnote 18: Miner p. 212.]

[Footnote 19: Colonial Records of Conn. Vol. XV p. 470.]

[Footnote 20: Miner p. 187.]

[Footnote 21: Journals of Continental Congress Vol. III p. 104.]

[Footnote 22: Journals of Continental Congress Vol. II p. 307.]

[Footnote 23: Frontier Forts of Pa. Vol. I p. 434.]

[Footnote 24: Records of the State of Conn. Vol. I p. 31.]

[Footnote 25: Records of the State of Conn. Vol. I p. 91 et seq.]

[Footnote 26: Miner p. 200.]

[Footnote 27: Names of fifteen of these Tories are given in Records of
State of Conn. Vol. I p. 539.]

[Footnote 28: Records State of Conn. Vol. II p. 58.]

[Footnote 29: Journals of Continental Congress Vol. IV p. 113.]

[Footnote 30: See Appendix A.]

[Footnote 31: Records of the State of Conn. Vol. I, pp. 264, 430.]

[Footnote 32: Records of the State of Conn. Vol. I, pp. 270, 422; Vol.
II, p. 30.]

[Footnote 33: Manuscript Pay and Muster Rolls Conn. State Lib.]

[Footnote 34: Miner, p. 215.]

[Footnote 35: Miner, p. 216.]

[Footnote 36: Miner, p. 218.]

[Footnote 37: For Articles of Capitulation see Miner p. 255, and
Appendix C.]

[Footnote 38: Hollister 5th ed., p. 163, 194.]

[Footnote 39: Miner p. 470.]

[Footnote 40: Address of Hon. Steuben Jenkins, p. 38.]

[Footnote 41: The Wyoming Massacre, by Horace Edwin Hayden, (1895) p.
xviii et seq.]

[Footnote 42: Articles of Capitulation given by Miner p. 255.]

[Footnote 43: Articles of Capitulation given by Miner p. 255.]

[Footnote 44: Col. John Franklin and the Wild Yankees, by Rev. David
Craft, p. 7.]

[Footnote 45: Miner p. 232.]

[Footnote 46: See Appendix B.]

[Footnote 47: See Appendix C.]

[Footnote 48: Orderly Book of Col. Z. Butler in Proc. Wyo. Hist. Soc.
Vol. VII p. 124.]





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