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Title: A New Light of Alchymie - Taken out of the Fountaine of Nature, and Manuall Experience.  Etc.
Author: Sedziwój, Michal, Paracelsus
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A New Light of Alchymie - Taken out of the Fountaine of Nature, and Manuall Experience.  Etc." ***


Please be aware that in the centuries since this book was written,
medical science has progressed. The medical treatments and medicines
recommended in this book should only be used under guidance of a
trained medical professional. Many of the medicines suggested are now
known to be deleterious to your health or poisonous.

Archaic, obsolete and inconsistent spellings have been included as in
the original book. Obvious typos have been fixed. Details of these
changes are at the end of the book.


  Taken out of the fountaine of
  NATURE, and Manuall

  To which is added a TREATISE of

  Written by _Micheel Sandivogius_:

  _i.e._ Anagrammatically,


  Also Nine Books _Of the Nature of Things_,
  Written by _PARACELSUS_, _viz._

           { _Generations_   }{ _Renewing_      }
           {                 }{                 }
           { _Growthes_      }{ _Transmutation_ }
  _Of the_ {                 }{                 } _of Naturall things_.
           { _Conservations_ }{ _Separation_    }
           {                 }{                 }
           { _Life : Death_  }{ _Signatures_    }

  Also a Chymicall Dictionary explaining hard places
  and words met withall in the writings of _Paracelsus_,
  and other obscure Authors.

  All which are faithfully translated out of the
  _Latin_ into the _English_ tongue,

  By _J. F._ M.D.

  London, Printed by _Richard Cotes_, for _Thomas Williams_, at the
  Bible in Little-Britain, 1650.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


    _The Epistle to the Reader._
    _The Preface._

  _A New Light of Alchymie._                                     Page 1.
    _The First Treatise: Of Nature, what she is, and what her
      Searchers ought to be._                                         1.
    _The Second Treatise: Of the operation of Nature according
      to our intention in Sperm._                                     5.
    _The Third Treatise: Of the true first matter of Metalls._        9.
    _The Fourth Treatise: How Metalls are generated in the
      bowells of the Earth._                                         11.
    _The Fifth Treatise: Of the generation of all kinds of
      Stones._                                                       14.
    _The Sixth Treatise: Of the second Matter, and putrefaction
      of things._                                                    17.
    _The Seventh Treatise: Of the vertue of the second Matter._      22.
    _The Eighth Treatise: How by Art Nature works in Seed._          24.
    _The Ninth Treatise: Of the commixtion of Metalls, or the
      drawing forth their Seed._                                     26.
    _The Tenth Treatise: Of the supernaturall generation of the
      Son of the Sun._                                               28.
    _The Eleventh Treatise: Of the Praxis, and making of the
      Stone, or Tincture by Art._                                    30.
    _The Twelfth Treatise: Of the Stone, and its vertue._            36.
    _The Epilogue, or Conclusion of these Twelve Treatises._         39.
    _A Preface to the Philosophicall Ænigma, or Ridle._              47.
    _The Parable, or Philosophicall Ridle, added by way of
      conclusion, and superaddition._                                51.
    _A Dialogue between Mercury, the Alchymist, and Nature._         59.
  _A Treatise of Sulphur._                                           75.
    _The Preface._                                                   75.
    _Of Sulphur, the Second Principle._                              81.
    _Of the Element of Earth._                                       83.
    _Of the Element of Water._                                       85.
    _Of the Element of Aire._                                        95.
    _Of the Element of Fire._                                        99.
    _Of the three Principles of all things._                        111.
    _Of Sulphur._                                                   126.
    _The Conclusion._                                               143.

  _Of the Nature of Things._                                          1.
    _The First Book: Of the generations of Naturall things._          1.
    _The Second Book: Of the growth, and increase of Naturall
      things._                                                       14.
    _The Third Book: Of the preservations of Naturall things._       19.
    _The Fourth Book: Of the life of Naturall things._               29.
    _The Fifth Book: Of the Death, or ruine of all things._          35.
    _The Sixth Book: Of the Resurrection of Naturall things._        51.
    _The Seventh Book: Of the Transmutation of Naturall things._     61.
    _The Eighth Book: Of the Separation of Naturall things._         79.
      _Of the Separation of Metalls from their Mines._               85.
      _Of the Separation of Mineralls._                              90.
      _Of the Separation of Vegetables._                             92.
      _Of the Separation of Animalls._                               95.
    _The Ninth Book: Of the Signature of Naturall things._          100.
      _Of the Monstrous Signes of Men._                             104.
      _Of the Astrall Signes of Physiognomy in Man._                106.
      _Of the Astrall Signes of Chiromancy._                        118.
      _Of Minerall Signes._                                         123.
      _Of some peculiar Signes of Naturall and Supernaturall
        things._                                                    135.

  _A Chymicall Dictionary: Explaining Hard Places and Words met withall
    in the Writings of Paracelsus, and Other Obscure Authours._
    _A._  _B._  _C._  _D._  _E._  _F._  _G._  _H._
    _I._  _K._  _L._  _M._  _N._  _O._  _P._  _Q._
    _R._  _S._  _T._  _V._  _W._  _X._  _Y._  _Z._

    _Transcriber’s Note._

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

To the Reader.

_Judicious Reader_,

There is abundance of knowledge, yet but little truth known. The
generality of our knowledg is but as Castles in the aire, or
groundlesse fancies. I know but two ways that are ordained for the
getting of wisdome, _viz._ the book of God, and of Nature; and these
also, but as they are read with reason. Many look upon the former
as a thing below them, upon the latter as a ground of Atheisme, and
therefore neglect both. It is my judgement, that as to search the
Scriptures is most necessary, so without reason it is impossible.
Faith without reason is but implicite. If _I_ cannot understand by
reason how every thing is, yet _I_ wil see some reason that a thing
is so, before _I_ beleeve it to be so. I will ground my beleeving of
the Scripture upon reason, I will improve my reason by Philosophy.
How shall we convince gain-sayers of the truth of the Scriptures, but
by principles of Reason? When God made Man after his own image, How
was that? But by making him a rational creature? Men therfore that
lay aside Reason in the reading of sacred mysteries, do but un-man
themselves, and become further involved in a Labyrinth of errors. Hence
it is that their Religion is degenerated into irrationall notions.
Now to say, that pure Philosophy is true Divinity, will haply bee a
paradox, yet if any one should affirm it, he would not be heterodox.
When _Job_ had been a long time justifying himselfe against God, which
I conceive was by reason of his ignorance of God, and himselfe; God
undertakes to convince him of his errour by the principles of Nature,
and to bring him to the knowledge of both: as you may see at large,
_Job_ 38. Can any deny that _Hermes_, _Plato_, _Aristotle_ (though pure
Naturalists) were not most deep Divines? Doe not all grant that the two
first cha. of _Gen._ are true Divinity? I dare also affirm that they
are the most deep and the truest Philosophy. Yea, they are the ground,
and sum of all Divinity, and Philosophy: and if rightly understood,
will teach thee more knowledge of God, and thy selfe, then all the
books in the world besides. Now for the better understanding of them,
make use of most profound _Sandivogius_ the author of the first of the
ensuing Treatises, as the best Expositor of them: in that treatise of
his thou shalt see the mystery of the Deity, & Nature unfolded, even
to admiration: as to see what that light, and fire is which is the
throne of Gods Majesty. How he is in the heaven most gloriously, & in
the creatures providentially. How he is the life of that universall
Spirit which is diffused through the whole world. What that Spirit of
his is that moved upon the Waters. What those Waters are which are
above the Firmament, and which are under the Firmament. What that Sperm
and Seed was which God put into all creatures by which they should be
multiplyed. The true manner of Mans Creation, and his degenerating into
Mortality. The true nature of the Garden of _Eden_, or Paradise. Also
the reason why Gold, which had a Seed put into it, as well as other
creatures, whereby it should be multiplyed, doth not multiply. What the
obstruction is, and how it may bee removed, that so it may be digested
into the highest purity, and become the true Elixir, or Philosophers
stone; the possibility whereof is so plainly illustrated in this book
of _Sandivogius_, that let any judicious man read it over without all
partiality and prejudice, but three or four times, and he shall _nolens
volens_ be convinced of the truth of it, and not only of this, but of
many other mysteries as incredible as this. So that if any one should
ask me, What one book did most conduce to the knowledge of God and the
Creature, and the mysteries thereof; _I_ should speake contrary to my
judgment, if I should not, next to the sacred Writ, say _Sandivogius_.
All this I speak for thy encouragement, that thou shouldst lay aside
other frivolous bookes, and buy this, and read it over, & thou wilt (I
question not) thank mee for my advice.

And as this booke doth in generall, so the second of these Treatises
doth in particular illustrate the possibility of Nature, and the
mysteries thereof, as also the nature and manner of the Generation,
Growth, Conservation, Life, Death, Renewing, Transmutations,
Separations, and Signatures of all naturall things, in the explication
of which many rare experiments and excellent mysteries are discovered
and found out.

To these is added a Chymical Dictionary, explaining hard places, and
words met withall in obscure Authors. But this, and the other I speak
more sparingly in the commendations of, because if read they will speak
more for them selves then I can speak for them: only _I_ was willing
for the _English_ nations sake, whose spirits are much drawn forth
after knowledge, to translate them into the _English_ tongue. _I_ did
not doe it to multiply books, (for there are too many books already;
and the multitude of them is the greatest cause of our ignorance, and
in them is a great vanity) but to let thee see the light of Nature, by
which thou maist judg of truths, and the better conceive of the God of
Nature, of whom all naturall things are full, and whose goings forth in
the way of Nature are most wonderfull, even to the conviction of the
greatest Atheists.

_Courteous Reader_, thou must excuse me for not affecting elegancies in
these Translations, for if I were skilled in them, yet the matter of
the books would not bear them. If I have sometimes used uncouth words,
it was because the sense, to which _I_ kept me close, would not properly
bear any other, or at least better came not at the present into my
mind. If any _Errata’s_ have passed through the slips of my pen, or the
_Printers_ mistake, be thou candid, and mend them. If thou shalt not
approve of what _I_ have done, convince mee of my errour by doing better;
for thereby thou shalt oblige the lovers of truth, and amongst the
rest, thy friend

                                                                 _J. F._

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

The Preface.

  The Author wisheth all health to, and prays to God for a blessing
    upon all the Searchers of _Alchymie_, namely the true Sons of

_Courteous Reader_,

When I considered with my self, that many adulterated books, and false
Receipts (as they call them) of _Alchymists_, composed through the
fraud, and covetousnesse of Impostors, in which not so much as one
spark of truth appears, were in request with the Searchers of Naturall,
and mysterious Arts, by which even very many have been, and still are
deceived: I thought I could do no better service, then to communicate
that talent, committed to my trust by the Father of Lights, to the
Sons and Heirs of Wisdome. And to this end, that future ages may take
notice, that this singular Philosophicall blessing of God hath not
been denyed to some men, not only in former ages, but also in this. It
seemed good to me for some Reasons to conceal my name, whilst I doe not
seek praise to my selfe, but endeavour to be assisting to the lovers
of Wisdome. Therefore I leave that vain desire of honour to those
that had rather seem to bee, then to bee indeed. What here I write by
way of testimony to that undoubted Philosophicall truth, comprehended
in few lines, have been taken out of that Manuall experience, which
the most High hath vouchsafed to mee, that they which have laid the
principall, and reall foundations in this commendable Art, may by this
encouragement not forsake the practise of the best things, and so bee
secured from that wicked swarm of smoke-sellers, whose delight is to
cheat. They are not dreams, as the ignorant vulgar call them; neither
are they foolish inventions of idle men, as fools, and men void of
understanding (who deride the Art) conceive them to be. It is the
Philosophicall truth it selfe, which as _I_ am a lover of the truth, I
ought not, nay _I_ could not for supporting and confirming the truth
of _Alchymie_, undeservedly cryed out against, keep close, or bury in
silence. Although it may bee much afraid in these times (when vertue
and vice are esteemed alike) by reason of the unworthinesse of this
age, and ingratitude, and treachery of men (to say nothing of the
curses of Philosophers) to come forth upon the publick stage of the
world. _I_ could produce witnesses of this Chymicall truth, _viz._
sage Authors, according to the unanimous consent of divers honorable
Ancients in so many severall nations: but those things which are
manifest by ocular experiment, need no further proof. Many men both of
high, and low condition in these last years past, have to my knowledge
seen _Diana_ unvailed. And although there may be found some idle, and
ill-employed fellowes, who either out of envy, or malice, or fear of
having their own frauds discovered, cry out that the soule may bee
extracted out of Gold, and with the specious, and deceitfull delusion
of ostentation, say it may be put to another body; not without losse
and detriment of time, pains, and costs: yet let the sonnes of _Hermes_
know for certaine, that such a kind of extraction of souls (as they
call them) whether out of Gold, or out of Silver (by what vulgar way
of _Alchymie_ soever) is but a meer fancy: which thing indeed is not
beleeved by many, but at length by experience, the onely, and true
Mistris of truth is verified, and that with losse. On the contrary, hee
which (in a Philosophicall way) can without any fraud and colourable
deceit make it, that it shall really tinge the basest metall, whether
with gain, or without gain, with the colour of Gold, or Silver (abiding
all requisite tryalls whatsoever) I can justly averre hath the gates
of Nature opened to him, for the enquiring into further, and higher
secrets, and with the blessing of God to obtain them. Moreover, I
present these present Treatises, composed out of mine own experience,
to the Sonnes of Art, that whilst they are busied with all their
thoughts and intentivenesse of mind in searching into the secret
operations of Nature, they may thence know, and cleerly understand the
truth of all things, and Nature it selfe: in which thing alone the
perfection of the whole sacred Philosophicall Art consists, so that
they go on in the common high-way of Nature, which shee prescribes in
all her operations. Therefore _I_ would have the Courteous Reader be
here admonished, that he understand my Writings not so much from the
outside of my words, as from the possibility of Nature; lest afterward
he bewaile his time, pains, and costs, all spent in vain. Let him
consider that this Art is for the wise, not for the ignorant; and that
the sense, or meaning of Philosophers is of another nature then to
bee understood by vapouring _Thrasoes_ or Letter-learned scoffers, or
vicious against their owne consciences, (who whilst they cannot rise by
their vertues, attempt it by their villanies, and malicious detractings
from honest men) or ignorant Mountebanks, who most unworthily defaming
the most commendable Art of _Alchymie_, have with their Whites, and
Reds deceived almost the whole world. For it is the gift of God, and
truly it is not to be attained to, but by the alone favor of God,
enlightning the understanding together w^{th} a patient and devout
humility (or by an ocular demonstration from some experienced Master:)
wherefore God justly thrusts them far from his secrets that are
strangers to him. Finally, My only request to the Sonnes of Art is
this, that they would take in good part my endeavouring to deserve well
of them, and when they shall have made that which is occult manifest,
and through the good pleasure of God in a constant way of diligence
shall arrive to the longed for haven of the Philosophers, that they
would, according to the custome of Philosophers, debarre all unworthy
men from this Art; and not forgetting to love their poor neighbor in
the feare of God (setting aside all vain ostentation) let them sing
everlasting praises of thankfulnesse unto the great and good God, for
so speciall a gift, and use it wel with a silent and religious joy——

Simplicity or plainnesse is the seal of truth.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]



_Of Nature, what she is, and what her searchers ought to be._

Many wise, and very learned men many ages since, yea (Hermes testifying
the same) before the floud wrote many things concerning the making
the Philosophers stone; and have bequeathed so many writings unto us,
that unlesse Nature should daily worke things credible to us, scarce
any one would beleeve it as a truth that there were any nature at all:
because in former ages there were not so many devisers of things,
neither did our Ancestors regard any thing besides nature it selfe,
and the possibility of nature. And although they were contented with
the plaine way alone of nature, yet they found out those things,
which we now imployed about divers things could not with all our wits
conceive. This is because nature, and the generation of things in the
world is esteemed of us meane, and plaine. And therefore we bend our
wits not to things knowne, and familiar, but to such things, which
not at all, or very hardly can be done. Wherefore it happens that we
are more dexterous in devising curious subtilties, and such which the
Philosophers themselves did never thinke of, then to attain to the
true processe of nature, & the right meaning of Philosophers. And such
is the disposition of mens natures, as to neglect those things they
know, and to be alwaies seeking after other things; such also and
much more is that of mens wits, and fancies, to which their nature
is subjected. As for example; You see any Artificer, when he hath
attained to the highest perfection of his Art, either searcheth into
other Arts, or abuseth the same, which he already hath, or else leaves
it off quite. So also is generous nature alwaies active and doing to
its very Iliad (_i_) utmost period, and afterward ceaseth. For there
is given to nature from the beginning a certaine kinde of grant, or
permission still to attaine to things better, and better through her
whole progresse, and to come to her full rest, towards which she tends
with all her might, and rejoyceth in her end, as a Pismire doth in her
old age, at which time nature makes her wings. Even so our wits have
proceeded so farre, especially in the Phylosophicall Art, or praxis
of the stone, that now we are almost come to the Iliad it selfe. For
the Art of Chymistry hath now found out such subtilties, that scarce
greater can be invented, and differ as much from the Art of the
Ancient Philosophers as a Clock-smith doth from a plaine Black-smith:
And although both worke upon Iron, yet neither understands the others
labours, although both are masters of their Art. If Hermes himselfe,
the father of Philosophers, should now be alive, and subtil-witted
_Geber_, together with most profound _Raimundus Lullius_, they would
not be accounted by our Chymists for Philosophers, but rather for
Scholars: They would be ignorant of those so many distillations, so
many circulations, so many calcinations, and so many other innumerable
operations of Artists now adayes used, which men of this age devised,
and found out of their writings. There is one only thing wanting to
us, that is, to know that which they effected, _viz._ the Philosophers
stone, or Physicall Tincture, we, whilest we seeke that, finde out
other things: and unlesse the procreation of man were so usuall as it
is, and nature did in that thing still observe her owne law, and rules,
we should scarce not but erre. But to returne to what I intended; I
promised in this first treatise to explaine Nature, lest every idle
fancy should turne us aside from the true and plaine way. Therefore I
say Nature is but one, true, plaine, perfect, and entire in its owne
being, which God made from the beginning, placing his spirit in it:
but know that the bounds of nature is God himselfe, who also is the
originall of nature. For it is certaine, that every thing that is
begun, ends no where but in that, in which it begins. I say it is that
only alone, by which God workes all things: not that God cannot worke
without it (for truly he himselfe made nature, and is omnipotent) but
so it pleaseth him to doe. All thing proceed from this very nature
alone; neither is there any thing in the world without nature. And
although it happens sometimes that there be abortives; this is not
natures fault, but of the Artist, or place. This nature is divided into
foure places, in which she works all these things, which appeare to us
under shadowes; for truely things may be said rather to be shadowed out
to us, then really to appeare. She is changed in male, and female, and
is likened to Mercury, because she joynes her selfe to various places;
and according to the goodnesse, or the badnesse of the place she
brings forth things; although to us there seeme no bad places at all
in the earth. Now for qualities there be only foure, and these are in
all things, but agree not, for one alwaies exceeds another. Moreover,
nature is not visible, although she acts visibly; for it is a volatile
spirit, which executes its office in bodies, and is placed, and seated
in the will, and minde of God. Nature in this place serves us for no
other purpose, but to understand her places, which are more sutable,
and of nearer affinity to her; that is, to understand how to joyne one
thing to another, according to nature, that we mixe not wood and man
together, or an oxe or any other living creature, and metals together:
but let every thing act upon its owne like: and then for certaine
nature shall performe her office. The place of nature is no other then,
as I said before, what is in the will of God.

The searchers of nature ought to be such as nature her selfe is, true,
plaine, patient, constant, &c. and that which is chiefest of all,
religious, fearing God, not injurious to their neighbour. Then let them
diligently consider, whether their purpose be agreeable to nature;
whether it be possible, let them learne by cleare examples, _viz._ Out
of what things any thing may be made, how, and in what vessell nature
workes. For if thou wilt doe any thing plainly, as nature her selfe
doth doe it, follow nature; but if thou wilt attempt to doe a thing
better then nature hath done it, consider well in what, and by what
it is bettered, and let it alwaies be done in its owne like. As for
example, if thou desirest to exalt a metall in vertue (which is our
intention) further then nature hath done; thou must take a metalline
nature both in male and female, or else thou shalt effect nothing. For
if thou dost purpose to make a metall out of hearbs, thou shalt labour
in paine, as also thou shalt not bring forth wood out of a dog, or any
other beast.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the operation of Nature in our intention, and in Sperme._

I said even now that nature was true, but one, every where seene,
constant, and is knowne by the things which are brought forth, as
woods, hearbs, and the like. I said also that the searcher of nature
must be true, simple hearted, patient, constant, giving his minde but
to one thing alone, &c. Now we must begin to treat of the acting of
Nature. As nature is in the will of God, and God created her, or put
her upon every imagination; so nature made her selfe a seed, (_i_)
her will, and pleasure in the Elements. She indeed is but one, and
yet brings forth divers things; but workes nothing without a sperme:
Nature workes whatsoever the sperme pleaseth, for it is as it were
an instrument of some Artificer. The sperme therefore of every thing
is better, and more advantagious to the Artificer, then nature her
selfe. For by nature without seed, you shall doe as much as a Goldsmith
shall without fire, gold, or silver, or a husbandman without corne, or
seed. If thou hast the sperme, nature is presently at hand, whether
it be to bad, or good. She workes in sperme, as God doth in the free
will of man: and that is a great mysterie, because nature obeyes the
sperme, not by compulsion, but voluntarily; even as God suffers all
things, which man wills, not by constraint, but out of his owne free
pleasure: Therefore he gave man free will whether to bad, or to good.
The sperme therefore is the Elixir of every thing, or Quintessence, or
the most perfect decoction, or digestion of a thing, or the Balsome of
Sulphur, which is the same as the Radicall moisture in metalls. There
might truely be made a large discourse of this sperme; but we shall
onely keep to that which makes for our purpose in the Chymicall Art.
Foure Elements beget a sperme through the will, and pleasure of God,
and imagination of nature: for as the sperme of man hath its center,
or vessell of its seede in the kidnies; so the foure Elements by their
never ceasing motion (every one according to its quality) cast forth
a sperme into the Center of the earth, where it is digested, and by
motion sent abroad. Now the Center of the earth is a certaine empty
place, where nothing can rest. The foure Elements send forth their
qualities into excentrall parts of the earth, or into the circumference
of the Center. As a man sends forth his seed into the entrance of the
wombe of the woman; in which place nothing of the seed remaines, but
after the wombe hath received a due proportion, casts out the rest: so
also it comes to passe in the Center of the earth, that the magnetick
vertue of the part of any place drawes to it selfe any thing that is
convenient for its selfe, for the bringing forth of any thing; the
residue is cast forth into stones, and other excrements. For all things
have their originall from this fountaine, neither hath any thing in the
world any beginning but by this fountaine. As for example; let there
be set a vessell of water upon a smooth even table, and be placed in
the middle thereof, and round about let there be laid divers things,
and divers colours, also salt, and every one apart: then let the water
be powred forth into the middle; and you shall see that water to runne
abroad here and there, and when one streame is come to the red colour,
it is made red by it, if to the salt, it takes from it the taste of
the salt, and so of the rest. For the water doth not change the place,
but the diversity of the place changeth the water. In like manner the
seed, or sperme being by the foure Elements cast forth from the center
into the circumference, passeth through divers places; and according to
the nature of the place, it makes things: If it comes to a pure place
of earth, and water, a pure thing is made. The seed, and sperme of all
things is but one, and yet it produceth divers things, as is evident
by the following example. The seed of a man is a noble seed, and was
created, and ordained for the generation of man onely; yet nevertheless
if a man doe abuse it, as is in his free will to doe, there is borne an
abortive. For if a man contrary to Gods most expresse command should
couple with a cow, or any other beast, the beast would presently
conceive the seed of the man, because nature is but one; and then there
would not be borne a man, but a beast, and an Abortive; because the
seed did not find a place sutable to it self. By such an inhumane, &
detestable copulation of men with beasts there would be brought forth
divers beasts, like unto men. For so it is, if the sperme goes into
the center, there is made that which should be made there; but when
it is come into any other place, and hath conceived, it changeth its
forme no more. Now whilest the sperme is yet in the center, there may
as easily be brought forth a tree, as a metall from the sperme, and
as soone an hearbe, as a stone, and one more pretious then another,
according to the purity of the place: But how the Elements beget a
sperme is in the next place to be treated of, and it is done thus: The
Elements are foure: two are heavy and two are light, two dry, and two
moist, but one which is most dry, and another which is most moist, are
males, and females &c. Every one of these of it selfe is most apt to
produce things like unto it selfe in its owne sphere, and so it pleased
God it should be: These foure never are at rest, but are alwaies
acting one upon another; and every one by it selfe sendeth forth his
owns thinness, and subtlety, and they all meet in the center: now in
the center is the Archeus, the servant of nature, which mixeth those
spermes, and sends them forth. And how that is done is to be seene more
fully in the Epilogue of the 12 treatises.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the true first matter of Metalls._

The first matter of Metalls is twofold, but the one cannot make a
metall without the other. The first and principall is the humidity
of the aire mixed with heat; and this the Philosophers called
Mercury, which is governed by the beams of the Sunne, and Moon in the
Philosophicall sea: the second is the dry heat of the earth, which they
called Sulphur. But because all true Philosophers chiefly concealed
this, wee will a little more cleerly explain it; especially the weight
or poise, which being unknown, all things are spoiled. Thence it is,
that many bring forth an abortive out of that which is good; for there
bee some that take the whole body for the matter, or seed, or sperme;
and some that take a piece, and all these go beside the right way. As
for example, if any one should take the foot of a man, and the hand of
a woman, and would by mixing these two together make a man, it were not
possible to be done. For there is in every body a Center, and a place
or the point of the seed or sperme, and is alwaies the 8200^{th.} part,
yea even in every wheat corne; and this cannot bee otherwise. For not
the whole corne, or body is turned into seed, but only a spark, or
some certain small necessary part in the body, which is preserved by
its body from all excessive heat and cold. If thou hast eares, or any
sense, mark well what is here said, and thou shalt be safe, and out
of the number not only of those who are ignorant of the place of the
sperm, and endeavour to convert the whole corn into seed; but also of
them all, who are employed in the fruitlesse dissolution of metalls,
and are desirous to dissolve the whole of metalls, that afterwards by
their mutuall commixtion they may make a new metall. But these men,
if they considered the processe of Nature, should see that the case
is far otherwise; for there is no metall so pure, which hath not its
impurities, yet one more, or fewer then another. But thou, friendly
Reader, shalt observe the first point of nature, as is abovesaid, and
thou hast enough: but take this caution along with thee; that thou
dost not seek for this point in the metalls of the vulgar, in which
it is not. For these metalls, especially the gold of the vulgar, are
dead, but ours are living, full of spirit, and these wholly must be
taken: for know, that the life of metalls is fire whilst they are yet
in their mines; and their death is the fire, _viz._ of melting. Now the
first matter of metals is a certaine humidity mixed with warm aire,
and it resembles fat water, sticking to every thing pure, or impure,
but in one place more abundantly then in another, by reason the earth
is more open, and porous in one place then in another, having also an
attractive power. It comes forth into the light somtimes by it self,
with some kind of covering, especially in such places where there was
nothing that it could well stick to; it is known thus, because every
thing is compounded of 3 principles: but in reference to the matter of
metalls is but one, without any conjunction to any thing, excepting to
its covering or shadow, _viz._ sulphur, &c.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_How Metals are generated in the bowells of the earth._

Metalls are brought forth in this manner. After the foure Elements have
sent forth their vertues into the center of the earth, the Archeus by
way of distillation sends them up unto the superficies of the earth, by
vertue of the heat of its perpetuall motion: for the earth is porous,
and this wind by distilling through the pores of the earth, is resolved
into water, out of which all things are made. Therefore let the sons of
wisdome know, that the sperm of metalls doth not differ from the sperm
of all things, _viz._ the moist vapour: therefore in vain do Artists
look after the reducing of metalls into their first matter, which is
only a vapour. The Philosophers meant not such a first matter, but
only the second matter, as _Bernardus Trevisanus_ learnedly discusseth
it, though not so cleerly, because hee speaks of the foure Elements,
but yet hee did say as much, but he spake only to the sons of Art. But
_I_, that I might the more cleerly open the Theorie, would have all be
admonished here to take heed how they give way to so many solutions,
so many circulations, so many calcinations, and reiterations of the
same; for in vain is that sought for in a hard thing, when as the thing
is soft of it self, and every where to be had. Let not the first, but
the second matter only be sought after, _viz._ that, which as soon as
it is conceived, cannot be changed into another form. But if thou
inquirest how a metall may bee reduced into such a matter, in that I
keep close to the intention of the Philosophers: This thing only above
all the rest I desire, that the sons of Art would understand the sense,
and not the letter of writings, and where nature doth end, _viz._ in
metallick bodies, which in our eyes seem to be perfect, there must Art
begin. But to return to my purpose, (for my intention is not here to
speak of the stone only) let us now treate of the matter of metalls. A
little before I said, that all things were made of the liquid aire, or
the vapour, which the Elements by a perpetuall motion distill into the
bowells of the earth; and then the Archeus of Nature takes and sublimes
it through the pores, and according to its discretion distributes it to
every place (as we have declared in the foregoing treatises) so from
the variety of places proceeds the variety of things. There be some
that suppose Saturne to have one kind of seed, and Gold another, and so
all the rest of the metalls. But these are foolish fancies; there is
but one only seed, the same is found in Saturne which is in Gold, the
same in Silver which is in Iron; but the place of the earth is divers,
if thou understandest me aright, although in Silver nature sooner
hath done its work, then in Gold, and so of the rest. For when that
vapour is sublimed from the center of the earth, it passeth through
places either cold, or hot: If therefore it passeth through places
that are hot, and pure, where the fatnesse of Sulphur sticks to the
walls; I say that vapour which the Philosophers have called the Mercury
of Philosophers applyes it self to, and is joined to that fatnesse,
which then it sublimes with it self; and then becomes an unctuosity,
and leaving the name of a Vapour, is called by the name of Fatnesse;
which afterward coming by sublimation unto other places, which the
foregoing vapour hath cleansed, where the earth is subtill, pure, and
moist, fills the pores thereof, and is joined to it, and so it is made
Gold; but if that fatnesse come to impure, and cold places, it is made
Lead; but if the earth bee cold and pure, and mixed with sulphur, it
is made Copper, &c. For by how much more a place is depurated, or
clensed, by so much the more excellent it makes the metalls: for wee
must know, that that vapour goes out continually from the center to
the superficies, and cleanseth those places through which it passeth.
Thence it comes to passe, that now there may bee found Mines in those
places where a thousand yeers agoe were none; for in its passage it
alwaies subtilizeth that which is crude and impure, carrying it by
degrees with it: And this is the reiteration, and circution of nature;
it is so long sublimed in producing new things, untill the place be
very well purified; and by how much the more it is purified, by so
much the nobler things it brings forth. Now in the winter when the air
is cold, binding fast the earth, that unctuous vapour is congealed,
which afterward when the spring returns, is mixed together with earth,
and water, and so becomes a Magnesia, drawing to it self the Mercury
of air, like unto it selfe, and gives life to all things through the
concurrence of the beams of the Sun, Moon and Stars, and so it brings
forth grass, flowers, and such like things. For Nature is not one
moment of time idle. Now Metalls are thus made, the earth by long
distillation is purified, then they are generated by the accesse, or
coming thither of the fatnesse: they are brought forth no other way,
as is the foolish opinion of some that mis-interpret the writings of

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the generation of all kinds of Stones._

The matter of Stones is the same as of other things; and according
to the purity of places they are made in this manner. When the four
Elements distill their vapour into the center of the earth; and the
Archeus of nature sends forth the same, and sublimes it; this whilst it
passeth through places, and the pores of the earth, takes along with
it self all the impurity of the earth unto the very superficies, which
afterward the air congeals (for what the pure air makes, the crude
aire congeals, because aire hath ingresse into aire, and they join
themselves together, for nature is delighted in nature:) and so are
made rocks, and stony mountains, according to great and little pores.
And by how much the greater are the pores of the earth, by so much
the better is the place purified. Since therefore by such a breathing
place or vent, a greater heat, and a greater quantity of water passeth,
therefore the sooner is the earth depurated: and so afterward in
those places metalls are more easily brought forth. Even so very
experience testifies, that gold cannot be got, or found any where but
in mountains, and seldome or never in plain, and levell ground: for
most commonly such places are moist, not with the vapour, but with
Elementary water, which drawes to it self that vapour, and so they
embrace one another, as that they can hardly be separated; afterwards
the sun of the heavens digesting them, makes that fat clay which the
Potters use. But in places where there is grosse sand, and whither the
vapour doth not bring with it that fatnesse, or sulphur, it brings
forth herbs and grasse in Meadows. There be other kind of stones, which
are called precious stones, as the Diamond, Rubies, Emerald, and such
like gems as these, all which are generated after this manner. When the
vapour of Nature is sublimed by it selfe, without being joined to the
fatnesse of sulphur, and comes to a place of pure salt water, there are
made Diamonds; and this is in cold places, whither that fatnesse cannot
come, because that fatness would hinder the making of these stones.
For wee must know, that the spirit of water is sublimed easily, and
that with a small heat; but oil, and fatnesse cannot be carryed up but
with a great heat, and that also into hot places; for when it is come
from the center, if it meet with any little cold, it is congealed, and
is at a stand, but the vapour ascends to its due places, and in pure
water is congealed into stones by grains. But how colours are made in
gems; wee must know that they are made by reason of the sulphur in
this manner: if the fatnesse of the sulphur be congealed, then by that
perpetuall motion, the spirit of the water passing through, it digests
and purifies it by virtue of the salt, untill it bee coloured with a
digested heate, red or white, which colour tending toward a further
perfection, is carryed up by that spirit, because it is subtilized and
made thin by so many reiterated distillations; the spirit afterward
hath a power to enter into imperfect things, and so brings in a colour
to them, which afterward is joined to that water, being then in part
congealed, and so fills up the pores thereof, and is fixed with it,
with an inseparable fixation. For all water is congealed with heat, if
it be without spirit, & congeled with cold, if it hath a spirit; but
he that knows how to congeal water with heat, & to join a spirit with
it, shall certainly find out a thing more pretious then gold, and every
thing else. Let him therefore cause that the spirit be separated from
the water, that it may putrifie, and bee like a graine. Afterwards the
feces being cast away, let him reduce and bring back the spirit again
from the deep into water, and make them be joined together again: for
that conjunction will generate a branch of an unlike shape to its

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the second matter, and putrefaction of things._

Wee have spoken of the first matter of things, and how things are
produced by Nature without seed, that is, how Nature receives matter
from the Elements, out of which she makes seed: But now we intend
to treat of the seed it selfe, and things generated of seed. For
every thing that hath seed is multiplyed in it, but without the help
of Nature it is not done: for the seed is nothing else but the air
congealed in some body: or it is a moist vapour; and unlesse this
be resolved by a warm vapour, it is of no use. Let therefore the
searchers of the Art understand what Seed is, lest they seek after a
thing that is not: and let them know that that is threefold, which is
brought forth by the foure Elements. The first is Minerall, and is that
which we now speak of; the second is Vegetable; the third Animall.
The Minerall seed is known by Philosophers alone: the Vegetable is
common, and vulgar, as we may see in fruits: the Animall is known by
imagination. The Vegetable doth shew to us, how Nature made it of
the four Elements. For wee must know that the winter is the cause of
putrefaction, seeing it congeals the Vitall spirits in trees; and when
those by the heat of the Sun (in which there is a magnetick vertue,
attractive of al manner of moisture) are resolved; then the heat of
nature, stirred up by motion drives, or forceth the subtill Vapour of
the water to the circumference, and this vapour openeth the pores of
the tree, and makes drops distill, alwaies separating the pure from
the impure. Yet the pure sometimes goeth before the impure; the pure
stayes, and is congealed into flowers, the impure goes into leaves, the
grosse, and thick into the bark: the bark of the tree remains fast,
and firm, the leaves fall with cold, or heat, when the pores thereof
are stopt: the flowers in congealing receive their colour according
to the heat whereby the colour is made, and bring with them fruit,
and seed (as an Apple, in which there is sperm out of which a tree
is not brought forth; but in the inside of that sperme is a seed or
kernell, out of which even without the sperm is brought forth a tree,
for multiplication is not in the sperm, but in the seed.) So wee see
with our eyes, that Nature creates a seed out of the four Elements,
lest wee should labour in vain about it; for what is created already
need not a Creator. Let this by way of example bee sufficient for the
advertisement of the Reader; but now I return to my purpose concerning
the Mineralls. Nature creates the Mineral seed, or the seed of Metalls
in the bowels of the earth: wherefore it is not beleeved that there
is any such seed _in rerum naturâ_, because it is invisible. But it
is no wonder if ignorant men doubt of it, seeing they cannot perceive
that which is before their eys, much less that which is hid from their
eyes: but it is most true that that which is superiour, is but as that
which is inferior, and so on the contrary. Also that which is brought
forth above is brought forth of the same fountaine, as that beneath in
the bowells of the earth. And what prerogative should Vegetables have
before Metalls, that God should put a seed into them, and without cause
withhold it from these? Are not Metalls of as much esteem with God as
Trees? Let this be granted for a truth, that nothing grows without
seed: for where there is no seed, the thing is dead. It is necessary
therefore that four Elements should make the seed of Metalls, or bring
them forth without a seed: if they are produced without seed, then they
cannot be perfect; seeing every thing without seed is imperfect, by
the rule of composition: hee which gives no credit to this undoubted
truth, is not worthy to search into the secrets of nature; for there
is nothing made in the world, that is destitute of seed. The seed of
Metalls is truely, and really put into them: and the generation of it
is thus. The foure Elements in the first operation of Nature doe by the
help of the Archeus of Nature distill into the center of the earth a
ponderous, or heavy Vapour of water, which is the seed of Metalls, and
is called Mercury by reason of its fluxibility, and its conjunction
with every thing, not for its essence; and for its internall heat it is
likened to Sulphur, and after congealation becomes to be the radicall
moisture. And although the body of Metalls be procreated of Mercury
(which is to bee understood of the Mercury of Philosophers) yet they
are not bee hearkned to, that think the vulgar Mercury is the seed of
Metalls, and so take the body in stead of the seed, not considering
that the vulgar Mercury spoken of hath its own seed in it self. The
errors, and mistakes of all these men will be made apparent by the
following example. It is manifest that men have seed, in which they
are multiplyed: the body of man is Mercury; but the seed is hid in
the body, and in comparison to the body is but little, and light: he
therefore that will beget a man, let him not take Mercury, which is
the body, but the seed, which is the congealed Vapour of water. So in
the regeneration of Metalls, the vulgar Chymists goe preposterously to
work: They dissolve Metallick bodies, whether it be Mercury, or Gold,
or Lead, or Silver, and corrode them with sharp waters, and other
Heterogeneous things not requisite to the true Art, and afterward joine
them together again, not knowing that a man is not generated of a mans
body cut to pieces, because by this means the body is marred, and the
seed before-hand is destroyed. Every thing is multiplyed in Male and
Female, as I have already mentioned in the Treatise of the twofold
Matter: The division of the sexes causeth, or produceth nothing, but
a due joining of them together, brings forth a new forme: the seeds
therefore, or spermes, not bodies are to bee taken. Take therefore a
living Male, and a living Female; joine these together, that betwixt
them there may be conceived a sperm for the bringing forth of fruit
after its kind: There is no man living can beleeve that he can make
the first matter: The first matter of Man is earth, and no man can of
that make a man; only God knows how to doe this; but of the second
matter, which is already made, if it be put into its due place, may
easily by the operation of Nature be generated a thing of that species,
or kind, which the seed was of. The Artist here need doe nothing,
onely to separate the thin from the thick, and to put it into its
due vessell. For this is to be considered, that as a thing is begun,
so it ends: Of one are made two, of two one, and then you have done.
There is one God; of this one God the Son is begotten: One produceth
two, two have produced one holy Spirit proceeding from both: so the
world is made, and so shall be the end thereof. Consider the four
former points most exactly: thou hast in them the Father, the Father
and the Son, and lastly the holy Spirit: thou hast the four Elements:
thou hast four great Lights, two Celestiall, and two Centrall: This
is all that is, hath been, or shall be, that is made plain by this
forenamed similitude. If I might lay down all the mysteries that might
be raised from hence, they would amount to a great volume. I return
to my purpose, and I tell thee true, my son! one is not made of one
naturally, for thus to doe is proper to God alone: let it suffice thee
that thou art able out of two to make one, which wil be profitable to
thee. Know therefore that the sperm doth multiply the second matter,
and not the first: for the first matter of all things is not seen, but
is hid either in nature, or in the Elements; but the second matter
sometimes appeares to the sons of wisdome.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the vertue of the second matter._

But that thou maist the more easily conceive what this second matter
is, I will describe the vertues of it, by which thou maist know it. And
first of all know, that Nature is divided into three Kingdoms; two of
them are such that either of them can subsist of it self, if the other
two were not; there is the Minerall, Vegetable, and Animall Kingdom.
The Minerall can subsist of it self, although there were no man in
the world, nor tree, or herb. The Vegetable likewise, although there
were no Metall, nor Animall, can stand by it self: these two are of
one made by one: But the third hath life from the other two which wee
have mentioned, without which it could not subsist, and is more noble
and excellent then those two, as also it is the last of the three, and
rules over the other: because alwaies vertue, or excellency ends in
a third thing, and is multiplyed in the second. Dost thou see in the
Vegetable Kingdom? The first matter is an herb, or a tree, which thou
knowest not how to make, Nature alone makes it: In this Kingdom the
second matter is Seed, which thou seest, in this the hearb, or the tree
is multiplyed. In the Animall Kingdome the first matter is a beast, or
a man, which thou knowest not how to make; but the second matter or the
sperm, in which they are multiplyed, thou knowest. In the Minerall
thou knowest not how to make a Metall, and if thou braggest that thou
canst, thou art a foole, and a lyar, Nature makes that, and although
thou shouldst have the first matter, according to the Philosophers,
yet it would bee impossible for thee to multiply that Centrall salt
without Gold: Now the seed of Metalls is known only to the sons of Art.
In Vegetables the seed appears outwardly; the reins of its digestion
is warm aire. In Animalls the seed appears inwardly, and outwardly;
the reins of its digestion are the reins of a Male. Water in Mineralls
is the seed in the Center of their heart, and is their life: the reins
of its digestion is fire. The receptacle of the Vegetable seed is the
earth: the receptacle of the seed Animal is the womb of the female: the
receptacle of water, which is the Minerall seed, is aire. And those
are the receptacles of seeds, which are the congealations of their
bodies: that is their digestion, which is their solution: that is their
putrefaction which is their destruction. The vertue of every seed is to
join it self to every thing in its own Kingdome, because it is subtill,
and is nothing else but aire, which by fatnesse is congealed in water:
It is known thus, because it doth not mixe it self naturally to any
thing out of its own Kingdome: it is not dissolved, but congealed,
because it doth not need dissolution, but congealation. It is necessary
therefore that the pores of the body be opened, that the sperme may be
sent forth, in whose Center the seed lyes, which is aire: that when it
comes into its due matrix, is congealed, and congeals what it finds
pure, or impure mixed with what is pure. As long as the seed is in the
body, the body lives, when it is all consumed the body dies; also all
bodies after the emission of seed are weakned: experience likewise
testifies that men which give themselves over too much to venery become
feeble, as trees, that bear too much fruit, become afterwards barren.
The seed therefore, as oftentimes hath been repeated, is a thing
invisible; but the sperme is visible, and is almost a living soule;
it is not found in things that are dead: It is drawn forth two wayes,
pleasantly, and by force: But because wee are in this place to treat
of the vertue of it onely, I say that nothing is made without seed:
all things are made by vertue of seed: and let the sons of Art know,
that seed is in vain sought for in trees that are cut off, or cut down,
because it is found in them only that are green.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_How by Art Nature works in Seed._

All seed is nothing worth of it self, if it be not either by Art, or
Nature put into its proper matrix. And although seed be of it self more
noble then every creature, yet the matrix is the life of it, & makes
the sperm, or corn to putrefie, and causeth a congealation of the pure
point, and also by the heat of its body nourisheth it, and makes it
grow: and this is done in all the foresaid Kingdomes of Nature; and is
done naturally by months, years, and ages. But that is a witty Art,
that can shorten any thing in the Minerall, and Vegetable Kingdome, but
not in the Animall: in the Minerall Kingdome it perfects that, which
Nature could not, by reason of the crude air, which with its vehemency
filled the pores of every body; not onely in the bowells, but also in
the superficies of the earth. As I have already said in the foregoing
Chapters. But that this may bee the more easily understood, I will adde
hereunto, that the Elements striving amongst themselves send forth
their seed into the Center of the earth, as into their reins; but the
Center by help of motion sends it into its Matrix. Now the Matrixes are
innumerable, as many Matrixes, as places, one purer then other, and so
almost _in infinitum_. Know therefore, that a pure Matrix will afford a
pure conception in its own likenesse: As for example, in Animalls there
are Matrixes of Women, Cowes, Mares, Bitches, and the like. So in the
Minerall, and Vegetable Kingdomes, there are Metalls, Stones, Salts;
for the Salts in these two Kingdomes are to bee considered of, as also
their places, according to more or lesse.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the Commixtion of Metalls, or the drawing forth their seed._

We have spoken of Nature, of Art, of the Body, of Sperm, and of Seed,
now let us descend to Praxis, _viz._ how Metalls ought to be mixed
together, and what their correspondency, or agreement is one with
another. Know therefore that a Woman doth not vary from a Man; both are
bred of the same Seed, and in one Matrix, there was nothing besides
digestion, and that the Matrix had in it purer bloud, and salt: so
Silver is made of the same Seed as Gold is, and in the same Matrix;
but the Matrix had more water in it then digested blood, according to
the season of the Moon in the heavens. But that thou maist the more
easily imagine with thy self how Metalls couple together, that their
Seed may be sent forth, and received; behold and see the heavens, and
the spheres of the Planets: thou seest that _Saturne_ is placed the
uppermost, or highest, next to that _Iupiter_, then _Mars_, then _Sol_,
or the Sun, then _Venus_, then _Mercury_, and last of all _Luna_, or
the Moon. Consider also that the vertues of the Planets doe not ascend,
but descend: Experience teacheth as much, _viz._ that of _Venus_, or
Copper is not made _Mars_, or Iron, but of _Mars_ is made _Venus_, as
being an inferiour sphere: So also _Iupiter_, or Tin is easily changed
into _Mercury_ or Quicksilver, because _Iupiter_ is the second from
the firmament, and _Mercury_ the second from the earth: _Saturne_ is
the first from the heavens, and _Luna_ the first from the earth: _Sol_
mixeth it self with all, but is never bettered by its inferiors. Now
know that there is a great agreement betwixt _Saturne_, or Lead, and
_Luna_, or Silver, in midst of which the Sun is placed: as also betwixt
_Iupiter_ and _Mercury_, in midst of which _Sol_ is also placed: and
in the same manner betwixt _Mars_ and _Venus_, which also have _Sol_
placed in the midst of them. Chymists know how to change Iron into
Copper without Gold: they know also to make Quicksilver out of Tin: and
there are some that make Silver out of Lead: But if they knew by these
mutations to give or minister to them the nature of Gold, they would
certainly find out a thing more pretious then any treasure. Wherefore
I say we must not bee ignorant what Metalls are to be joined to each
other, whose nature is agreable one to the others. Moreover there is
granted to us one Metall, which hath a power to consume the rest, for
it is almost as their water, & mother: yet there is one thing, and
that alone, the radicall moisture, _viz._ of the Sunne, and Moon that
withstands it, and is bettered by it; but that I may disclose it to
you, it is called Chalybs, or Steel. If Gold couples eleven times with
it, it sends forth its seed, and is debilitated almost unto death; the
Chalybs conceives, and bears a son, more excellent then his father:
then when the Seed of that which is now brought forth is put into its
own Matrix, it purifies it, and makes it a thousand times more fit,
and apt to bring forth the best, and most excellent fruits. There is
another Chalybs, which is like to this, created by it selfe of Nature,
which knows how to draw forth by vertue of the sun beams (through a
wonderfull power, and vertue) that which so many men have sought after,
and is the beginning of our work.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the Supernaturall Generation of the Son of the Sun._

Wee have treated of things, which Nature makes, and which God hath
made; that the Searchers of Art might the more easily understand
the possibility of Nature. But to delay no longer, I will now enter
upon the Manner, and Art how to make the Philosophers stone. The
Philosophers stone, or tincture is nothing else, but Gold digested to
the highest degree: For vulgar Gold is like an herb without seed, when
it is ripe it brings forth seed; so Gold when it is ripe yeelds seed,
or tincture. But, will some ask, Why doth not Gold, or any other Metall
bring forth seed? the reason given is this, because it cannot bee ripe,
by reason of the crudity of the air, it hath not sufficient heat,
and it happens, that in some places there is found pure Gold, which
nature would have perfected, but was hindred by the crude aire. As for
example, wee see that Orenge trees in _Polonia_ doe indeed flourish
as other trees; in _Italie_, and elsewhere, where their naturall soil
is, they yeeld, and bring forth fruit, because they have sufficient
heat; but in these cold places they doe otherwise, for when they begin
to ripen, they are at a stand, because they are oppressed with cold;
and so in these places we never have their fruit naturally: but if at
any time Nature be sweetly, and wittily helped, then Art may perfect
that, which Nature could not. The same happens in Metalls: Gold may
yeeld fruit, and seed, in which it multiplyes it self by the industry
of the skilfull Artificer, who knows how to exalt Nature, but if he
will attempt to do it without Nature, he will be mistaken. For not
only in this art, but also in every thing else, we can doe nothing
but help Nature; and this by no other medium then fire, or heat.
But seeing this cannot be done, since in a congealed Metallick body
there appear no spirits; it is necessary that the body be loosed, or
dissolved, and the pores thereof opened, whereby Nature may work. But
what that dissolution ought to be, here I would have the Reader take
notice, that there is a twofold dissolution, although there be many
other dissolutions, but to little purpose; there is onely one that is
truely naturall, the other is violent, under which all the rest are
comprehended. The naturall is this, that the pores of the body bee
opened in our water, whereby the seed, that is digested, may bee sent
forth, and put into its proper Matrix: Now our water is heavenly, not
wetting the hands, not vulgar, but almost rain water: The body is gold,
which yeelds seed; our Lune or Silver, (not common Silver) is that
which receives the seed of the gold: afterwards it is governed by our
continual fire, for seven months, and sometimes ten, untill our water
consume three, and leave one; and that _in duplo_, or a double. Then it
is nourished with the milk of the earth, or the fatnesse thereof, which
is bred in the bowells of the earth, and is governed, or preserved from
putrefaction by the salt of Nature. And thus the infant of the second
generation is generated. Now let us passe from the Theorie to the

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the Praxis, and making of the Stone, or Tincture by Art._

Through all these foregoing Chapters, our discourse of things hath been
scattered by way of examples, that the Praxis might be the more easily
understood, which must be done by imitating Nature after this manner——

Take of our earth, through eleven degrees, eleven graines, of our Gold,
and not of the vulgar one grain, of our Lune, not the vulgar, two
grains: but be thou well advised, that thou takest not common Gold, and
Silver, for these are dead, take ours which are living: then put them
into our fire, and let there be made of them a dry liquor; first of
all the earth wil be resolved into water, which is called the Mercury
of Philosophers; and that water shall resolve those bodies of Gold,
and Silver, and shal consume them so, that there shall remain but the
tenth part with one part; and this shall be the radicall moisture of
Metalls. Then take water of salt-nitre, which comes from our earth, in
which there is a river of living water, if thou diggest the pit knee
deep, therefore take water out of that, but take that, which is cleer;
upon this, put that radicall moisture; and set it over the fire of
putrefaction, and generation, not on such a one as thou didst in the
first operation: govern all things with a great deale of discretion,
untill colours appear like a Peacocks tail; govern it by digesting
it, and be not weary, untill these colours be ended, and there appear
throughout the whole one green colour, and so of the rest; and when
thou shalt see in the bottome ashes of a fiery colour, and the water
almost red, open the vessel, dip in a pen, and smeare some Iron with
it, if it tinge, have in readinesse that water, which afterwards I
shall speak of, and put in so much of that water as the cold aire
was, which went in, boil it again with the former fire, untill it
tinge again. So far reached my experience, I can doe no more, I found
out no more. Now that water must be the menstruum of the world, out
of the sphere of the Moon, so often rectified, untill it can calcine
Gold: I have been willing here to discover to thee all things; and
if thou shalt understand my meaning sometimes, and not the letter, I
have revealed all things; especially in the first, and second work.
Now it remains that we speak next of the fire. The first fire, or of
the first operation is a fire of one degree, continuall, which goes
round the matter; the second is a naturall fire, which digests, and
fixeth the matter: I tell thee truely that I have opened to thee the
governance, or rules of the fire, if thou understandest Nature: The
vessell remains yet to be spoken of. It must be the vessel of Nature,
and two are sufficient; the vessell of the first work must be round;
but in the second a glasse, a little lesse like unto a viall, or an
egge. But in all these know, that the fire of Nature is but one, and if
it works variously, it is by reason of the difference of places. The
vessell therefore of Nature is but one; but wee for brevities sake use
a couple: the matter is one, but out of two substances. If therefore
thou wilt give thy mind to make things, consider first things that are
already made; if thou canst not reach, or understand things presented
to thy eyes, much lesse things that are to be made, and which thou
desirest to make. For know that thou canst create nothing, for that
is proper to God alone, but to make things, that are not perceived,
but lye hid in the shadow, to appear, and to take from them their
vaile, is granted to an intelligent Philosopher by God through Nature.
Consider, I beseech thee, the simple water of a cloud: who would ever
beleeve that that contains in it selfe all things in the world, hard
Stones, Salts, Aire, Earth, Fire, when as yet of it selfe it seems
to be simple? What shall I say of the Earth, which contains in it
Water, Fire, Salts, Aire, and of it self seems to be but meer earth?
O wonderfull Nature, which knows how to produce wonderfull fruits out
of Water in the earth, and from the Aire to give them life. All these
are done, and the eyes of the vulgar doe not see them; but the eyes
of the understanding, and imagination perceive them, and that with a
true sight. The eyes of the wise look upon Nature otherwise, then the
eyes of common men. As for example, the eyes of the vulgar see that the
sun is hot; but the eyes of Philosophers on the contrary see it rather
to bee cold, but its motion to be hot. The acts and effects of it are
understood through the distance of places. The fire of Nature is one
and the same with it: for as, the Sun is the Center amongst the spheres
of the Planets; and out of this Center of the heaven it scatters its
heat downward by its motion; so in the Center of the earth is the sun
of the earth, which by its perpetuall motion sends its heat, or beams
upward to the superficies of the earth. That intrinsecall heat is far
more efficacious then this Elementary fire; but it is allayed with
an Earthy water, which from day to day doth penetrate the pores of
the earth, and cooles it: So the Aire doth temper, and mitigate the
heavenly Sun, and its heat, for this aire doth day after day fly round
the world: and unlesse this were so, all things would be consumed by
so great a heat, neither would any thing be brought forth. For as that
invisible fire, or Centrall heat would consume all things, if the water
coming betwixt did not prevent it; so the heat of the Sun would destroy
all things; if the Aire did not come betwixt. But how these Elements
work one with another, I will briefly declare. In the Center of the
earth is the Centrall Sun, which by its own motion, or of its firmament
doth give a great heat, which extends it self even to the superficies
of the earth. That heate causeth aire after this manner. The Matrix of
aire is water, which bringeth forth sons of its own nature, but unlike,
and far more subtill then it selfe; for where the water is denyed
entrance, the aire enters: when therefore that Centrall heat, which is
perpetuall, doth act, it makes water distill, and be heated, and so
that water by reason of the heat is turned into aire, upon this account
it breaks forth to the superficies of the earth, because it will not
suffer it self to be shut in: then when it is cold, it is resolved into
water. In the mean time it happens also that in opposite places not
only air but water goes out; so you see it is, when black clouds are
by violence carried up into the aire: for which thing take this as a
familiar example. Make water hot in a pot, and thou shalt see that a
soft fire causeth gentle vapours, and winds; but a strong fire maketh
thick clouds appear. Just in the same manner doth the Centrall heat
worke; it lifts up the subtill water into aire, that which is thick by
reason of its salt or fatnesse, it distributes to the earth, by meanes
of which divers things are generated, that which remaines becomes
stones, and rocks. But some may object, if it were so, it would be done
constantly, but oftentimes there is no wind at all perceived. I answer,
if water be not poured violently into a distillatory vessell, there is
made no wind, for little water stirs up but little wind: you see that
thunders are not alwaies made, although there be rain, and wind; but
only when by force of the aire the swelling water is carried to the
sphere of the fire; for fire will not indure water. Thou hast before
thine eyes an example, when thou pourest cold water into a hot furnace,
from whence a thundering noise is raised. But why the water doth not
enter uniformly into those places, and cavities, the reason is, because
these sorts of vessells, and places are many; and sometimes one cavity
by blasts, or winds drives away from it self water for some dayes, and
months, untill there be a repercussion of the water again: As wee see
in the sea, whose waves are moved and carryed a thousand miles, before
they find, or meet with a repercussion to make them return back; but
to return to our purpose. I say that Fire, or Heat is the cause of the
motion of the Aire, and the life of all things; and the Earth is the
Nurse of all these things, or their receptacle. But if there were not
Water to coole our Earth, and Aire, then the Earth would be dryed, for
these two reasons, _viz._ by reason of the Motion of the Centrall Sun,
and heat of the Celestiall: Neverthelesse it happens sometimes in some
places, when the pores of the earth are obstructed, that the humidity,
or water cannot penetrate, that then by reason of the correspondency
of the Celestiall, and Centrall Sun (for they have a magnetick vertue
betwixt themselves) the earth is inflamed by the Sun: so that even
sometimes there are made great chops, or furrows in the earth. Cause
therefore that there be such an operation in our earth, that the
Centrall heat may change the Water into Aire, that it may goe forth
into the plaines of the world, and scatter the residue, as I said,
through the pores of the earth; and then contrariwise the Aire will be
turned into Water, far more subtill then the first Water was: and this
is done thus, if thou givest our old man Gold, or Silver to swallow,
that he may consume them, and then hee also dying may be burnt, and
his ashes scattered into water, and thou boil that water untill it be
enough, and thou shalt have a medicine to cure the leprosie. Mark,
and be sure that thou takest not cold for hot, or hot for cold, but
mixe natures with natures, and if there be any thing that is contrary
to nature (for Nature alone is necessary for thee) separate it, that
Nature may be like Nature. Doe this by fire, and not with thy hand: and
know that if thou dost not follow Nature, all is in vain: and here I
have spoken to thee through the help of God, what a father should speak
to his son; Hee which hath ears let him heare, and he which hath his
senses, let him set his mind upon what I say.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_Of the Stone, and its vertue._

In the foregoing Treatises it hath been sufficiently spoken concerning
the production of Naturall things, concerning the Elements, the First
matter, and Second matter, Bodies, Seeds, and concerning the Use and
Vertue of them: I wrote also the Praxis of making the Philosophers
Stone. Now I will discover so much of the vertue of it, as Nature hath
granted to me, and experience taught me. But to comprehend the argument
of all these Treatises briefly, and in few words, that the Reader which
fears God may understand my mind and meaning, the thing is this. If
any man doubt of the truth of the Art, let him read the voluminous
writings of ancient Philosophers, verified by reason, and experience;
whom wee may deservedly give credit to in their own Art: but if any
will not give credit to them, then we know not how to dispute with
them, as denying principles: for deaf, and dumbe men cannot speak.
What prerogative should all things in this world have before Metalls?
Why should these alone by having seed without cause denyed to them, be
excluded from Gods universall blessing of multiplication, which holy
writ affirms was put in, and bestowed on all created things presently
after the world was made? Now if they have Seed, who is so sottish
to think that they cannot bee multiplyed in their Seed? The Art of
Alchymie in its kind is true, Nature also is true, but the Artificer is
seldome true: there is one Nature, one Art, but many Artificers. Now
what things Nature makes out of the Elements, she generates them by the
will of God out of the first matter, which God onely knowes: Nature
makes and multiplies those things of the second matter, which the
Philosophers know. Nothing is done in the world without the pleasure
of God, and Nature. Every Element is in its own sphere; but one cannot
be without the other; one lives by vertue of the other, and yet being
joined together they doe not agree; but Water is of more worth then all
the Elements, because it is the mother of all things: upon this swims
the spirit of Fire. By reason of Fire Water is the first matter, _viz._
by the striving together of Fire, and Water, and so are generated
Winds, and Vapours apt, and easy to bee congealed with the earth, by
the help of the crude aire, which from the beginning was separated
from it. And this is done without cessation, by a perpetuall motion;
because fire, or heat is stirred up no otherwise then by motion, which
thing you may easily conceive by a Smith filing Iron, which through
vehement motion waxeth hot in that manner, as if it were heated in
the Fire. Motion therefore causeth heat, heat moves the water, the
motion of the water causeth aire, the life of all living things.
Things therefore grow after this manner (as I said before) _viz._
out of water; for out of the subtill Vapour of it, subtil and light
things proceed; out of the oylinesse of it, things that are heavy,
and of greater price; but of the salt things far more excellent then
the former. Now because Nature is sometimes hindred, that it cannot
produce pure things; seeing the Vapour, Fatnesse, and Salt are fouled
or stained, and mixe themselves with the places of the earth: Moreover,
experience teacheth us to separate the pure from the impure. Therefore
if thou wilt have Nature be bettered, or mended in her actings,
dissolve what body you please, and that which was added or joined to
Nature, as heterogeneous, separate, cleanse, joine pure things with
pure, ripe to ripe, crude to crude, according to the poise of Nature,
and not of Matter. And know that the Centrall salt Nitre doth not
receive more of the Earth then it hath need of, whether it be pure or
impure: but the fatnesse of the water is otherwise, for it is never to
be had pure; art purifies it by a twofold heat, and then conjoins it.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]



I wrote the Twelve foregoing Treatises in love to the sonnes of
Art, that before they set their hand to the worke they may know the
operation of Nature, _viz._ how she produceth things by her working;
lest they should attempt to enter in at the gate without keyes, or to
draw water in a sieve: for he laboureth in vain, that putteth forth
his hands to labour without the knowledge of Nature, in this sacred
and most true Art, he lies in nocturnal darknesse to whom the sun doth
not shine, and he is in thick darknesse, to whom after it is night
the Moon doth not appeare. Nature hath her proper light, which is not
obvious to our eyes; the shadow of Nature is a body before our eyes:
but if the light of Nature doth enlighten any one, presently the cloud
is taken away from before his eyes, and without any let he can behold
the point of our loadstone, answering to each Center of the beams,
_viz._ of the Sun and Earth: for so farre doth the light of Nature
penetrate, and discovers inward things; of which thing take this for
an example. Let a boy that is twelve yeares old, and a girle of the
same age, be cloathed with garments of the same fashion, and be set
one by the other, no body can know which is the male, or which is the
female; our eyes cannot penetrate so far, therefore our sight deceiveth
us, and takes false things for true: But when their garments are taken
off, and they are naked, that so it may appear what Nature made them,
they are easily distinguished by their sexes. Just after the same
manner doth our intellect make a shadow of the shadow of Nature; for
the naked body of Man is the shadow of the seed of Nature: As therefore
mans body is covered with a garment, so also mans nature is covered
with the body, which God reserves to himself to cover, or uncover. I
could here discourse largely, and Philosophically of the dignity of
Man, his Creation and Generation: but seeing they are impertinent to
this place, I will passe them over in silence; only I will treat a
little concerning the Life of Man. Man was created of the Earth, and
lives by vertue of the Aire; for there is in the Aire a secret food of
life, which in the night wee call dew; and in the day rarified water,
whose invisible, congealed spirit is better then the whole Earth. O
holy, and wonderfull Nature, who dost not suffer the sons of Wisdome
to erre, as thou dost manifest in the life of man daily! Moreover
in these twelve Treatises I have produced so many naturall reasons,
that he which is desirous of the art, and feares God, may the more
easily understand all things, which through Gods blessing, with my
eyes I have seen, with mine own hands have made without any deceit of
sophistication: for without the light, and knowledge of Nature, it
is impossible to attain to this Art, unlesse it come to any by Gods
speciall revelation, or some speciall friend doth privately shew it.
It is a thing of little account, yet most pretious, which being divers
times described, I doe now again repeat. Take 10 parts of aire, 1 part
of living gold, or living silver; put all these into thy vessel; boyle
this aire first untill it be water, and then no water. If thou art
ignorant of this, and knowst not how to boyl aire, without all doubt
thou shalt erre; seeing this is the matter of the ancient Philosophers.
For thou must take that, which is, and is not seen, untill it be the
Artificers pleasure; it is the water of our dew, out of which is
extracted the Salt Petre of Philosophers, by which all things grow, and
are nourished: the matrix of it is the Center of the Sun, and Moon,
both celestiall, and terrestiall: and to speak more plainly, it is our
Loadstone, which in the foregoing Treatises I called Chalybs, or Steel:
The Aire generates this Loadstone, and the Loadstone generates, or
makes our Air to appear, and come forth. I have here entirely shewed
thee the truth; Begge of God that hee would prosper thine undertakings:
And so in this place thou shalt have the true, and right explication
of _Hermes_, when he saith, that the father of it is the Sun, and its
mother the Moon, and that which the wind carryed in its belly, _viz._
_Sal Alkali_, which the Philosophers have called _Sal Armoniacum_, and
vegetable, hid in the belly of the _Magnesia_. The operation of it is
this, to dissolve the congealed aire, in which thou shall dissolve
the tenth part of Gold; seale this up, and work with our fire, untill
the air be turned into powders; and there appear (the salt of the
world being first had) divers colours. I would have set down the whole
processe in these Treatises; but because that, together with the
multiplication, is sufficiently set down in the books of _Lullius_,
and other old Philosophers; it therefore sufficed me to treat only of
the first, and second matter; which is done faithfully, neither do
thou ever think that any man living hath done it more cleerly, then I
have done it; since I have done it not out of many books but by the
labour of my hands, and mine own experience. If therefore thou dost
not understand, or beleeve the truth, doe not blame me, but thy self;
and perswade thy selfe that God was unwilling to reveal this secret
to thee: Be therefore earnest with him by prayer, and with serious
meditation read over this book oftentimes, especially the Epilogue of
these twelve Treatises: alwaies considering the possibility of Nature,
and the actions of the Elements, and which of them is the chiefest in
those actions, and especially in the rarefaction of water, or aire,
for so the heavens are created, as also the whole world. This I was
willing to signifie to thee, as a father to his son. Doe not wonder
that I have wrote so many Treatises, for I did not make them for my
own sake, seeing I lack not books, but that I might advertise many,
that work in fruitlesse things, that they should not spend their
costs in vain. All things indeed might have been comprehended in
few lines, yea in few words: but I was willing to guide thee to the
knowledge of Nature by Reasons, and Examples; that thou mightest in
the first place know, what the thing is thou seekest after, whether
the first, or second matter, also that thou mightest have Nature, her
light, & shadow discovered to thee. Be not displeased if thou meetest
sometimes with contradictions in my Treatises, it being the custome of
Philosophers to use them; thou hast need of them, if thou understandest
them, thou shall not find a rose without prickles. Weigh diligently
what I have said before, _viz._ how four Elements distill into the
Center of the earth a radicall moisture, and how the Centrall Sun of
the earth, by its motion bringeth it forth, and sublimeth it to the
superficies of the earth. I have said also that the Celestiall Sun hath
a correspondency with the Centrall Sun: for the Celestiall Sun, and the
Moon have a peculiar power, and vertue of distilling into the earth
by vertue of their beams: for heat is easily joined to heat, and salt
to salt. And as the Centrall Sun hath its sea, and crude water, that
is perceptible; so the Celestiall Sun hath its sea, and subtill water
that is not perceptible. In the superficies the beams of the one, are
joined to the beams of the other, and produce flowers, and all things.
Therefore when there is raine made, it receives from the aire that
power of life, and joins it with the salt-nitre of the earth (because
the salt-nitre of the earth is like calcined Tartar, drawing to it self
by reason of its drynesse the aire, which in it is resolved into water:
such attractive power hath the salt-nitre of the earth, which also was
aire, and is joined to the fatnesse of the earth) and by how much the
more abundantly the beams of the Sun beat upon it, the greater quantity
of salt-nitre is made, and by consequence the greater plenty of Corn
grows, and is increased, and this is done daily. Thus much I thought
good to signifie to the ignorant of the correspondency, or agreement
of things amongst themselves, and the efficacy of the Sun, and Moon,
and Stars; for the wise need not this instruction. Our subject is
presented to the eyes of the whole world, and it is not known. O our
Heaven! O our Water! O our Mercury! O our Salt-nitre abiding in the
sea of the world! O our Vegetable! O our Sulphur fixed, and volatill!
O our _Caput Mortuum_, or dead head, or feces of our Sea! Our Water
that wets not our hands, without which no mortall can live, and without
which nothing grows, or is generated in the whole world! And these are
the Epithites of _Hermes_ his bird, which never is at rest. It is of
very small account, yet no body can bee without it: and so thou hast a
thing discovered to thee more pretious then the whole world, which I
plainly tell thee is nothing else but our Sea water, which is congealed
in Silver, and Gold, and extracted out of Gold, and Silver by the help
of our Chalybs, by the Art of Philosophers in a wonderfull manner, by
a prudent son of Art. It was not my purpose for some reasons before
mentioned in the Preface, to publish this book, but a desire to deserve
well of those that are studiously given to liberall, and Philosophical
Arts, prevailed with me, that I might hold forth to them, that I
bear an honest mind; also that I might declare my self to them, that
understand the Art, to be their equal and fellow, and to have attained
their knowledge. I doubt not but many men of good consciences, and
affections do enjoy this gift of God secretly; these being warned by
my example, and dangers are made more cautious, and wise, having that
commendable silence of _Harpocrates_. For as often as I would discover
my selfe to great men, it alwaies turned to my losse and danger. By
this my writing I make my self known to the adopted sons of _Hermes_,
I instruct the ignorant, and them that are misled, and bring them back
into the right way. And let the heirs of wisdome know, that they shall
never have a better way, then that, which is here demonstrated to them;
for I have spoken all things cleerly: Only I have not so cleerly shewed
the extraction of our Salt Armoniacke, or the Mercury of Philosophers,
out of our Sea water, and the use thereof, because I had from the
Master of Nature no leave to speake any further, and this only God must
reveale, who knows the hearts, and minds of men. He will haply upon
thy constant, and earnest prayers, and the frequent reading over of
this booke, open the eyes of thy understanding. The vessell, as I said
before, is but one from the beginning to the end, or at most two are
sufficient: the fire is continuall in both operations; for the sake
of which let the ignorant read the tenth, and eleventh Treatise. If
thou shalt operate in a third matter, thou shalt effect nothing: they
medle with this, whoever work not in our Salt, which is Mercury, but
in Herbs, Animals, Stones, and all Minerals, excepting our Gold, and
Silver covered over with the sphere of _Saturne_. And whosoever desires
to attaine to his desired end, let him understand the conversion of the
Elements to make light things heavy, and to make spirits no spirits;
then hee shall not worke in a strange thing. The Fire is the Rule,
whatsoever is done, is done by Fire; as sufficiently before, so here we
have spoken enough by way of Conclusion. Farewell friendly Reader! and
long maist thou enjoy these labours of mine, (made good, or verified by
mine owne experience,) to the glory of God, the welfare of thine owne
soule, and good of thy neighbour.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


A Preface To the Philosophicall _ÆNIGMA_, Or _RIDLE_.


I have now opened to you all things from the very first rising of the
universall fountaine, that there is no more left to be discovered. For
in the foregoing Treatises I have sufficiently explained Nature by way
of example: I have shewed the Theorie and Praxis, as plainely as it was
lawfull. But lest any should complain of my briefnesse, that by reason
of it I have omitted something, I will yet further describe to thee
the whole Art by way of Ridle, or Ænigmaticall speech; that thou maist
see how farre through Gods guidance I am come. The bookes that treat
of this Art are infinite; yet thou shalt not find in any of them the
truth so much, as it is in this of mine, made known, or discovered unto
thee. The reason that encouraged mee to make it so plain, was this,
_viz._ Because, when I had discoursed with many men, that thought they
understood the writings of Philosophers very well; I perceived that
they did explaine those writings far more subtilly then Nature, which
is simple and plain, did require: yea all my true sayings did seem to
them being profoundly wise, or savouring of high things, to bee of no
value and incredible. It hapned sometimes that I would intimate the
Art to some from word to word, but they could by no meanes understand
mee, not beleeving there was any water in our Sea, and yet they would
be accounted Philosophers. Since therefore they could not understand
my words, which I delivered by word of mouth, I doe not fear (as other
Philosophers were afraid) that any one can so easily understand what
I have wrote; It is the gift, I say, of God. It is true indeed, if in
the study of Alchymie there were required subtilnesse, and quicknesse
of wit, and things were of that Nature as to be perceived by the eyes
of the vulgar, I saw that their fancies, or wits were apt enough to
find out such things: but I say to you, bee simple, or plaine, and not
too wise untill you have found out the secret, which when you have, it
will of necessity require wisdome enough to use, and keep it; then it
will be easy for you to write many books; because it is easier for him,
that is in the Center, and sees the thing, then for him that walks in
the Circumference, and only heares of it. You have the second matter
of all things most cleerly described unto you: but let mee give you
this Caution, that if you would attaine to this secret, know that first
of all God is to bee prayed to, then your neighbour is to bee loved:
and lastly, doe not fancy to your selves things that are subtill,
which Nature knew nothing of; but abide, I say, abide in the plain way
of Nature; because you may sooner feel the thing in plainnesse, or
simplicity, then see it in subtilty. In reading therefore my writings
doe not stick in the letter of them, but in reading of them consider
Nature, and the possibility thereof. Now before you set your selves to
work, consider diligently what it is you seek, and what the scope, and
end of your intention is: for it is much better to learn by the brain,
and imagination, then with labour, and charges. And this I say to you,
that you must seek for some hidden thing, out of which is made (after
a wonderfull manner) such a moisture, or humidity, which doth dissolve
Gold without violence, or noise, yea so sweetly, and naturally, as ice
doth melt in warme water: if you find out this, you have that thing,
out of which Gold is produced by Nature: and although all Metalls, and
all things have their originall from hence, yet nothing is so friendly
to it as Gold; for to other things there sticks fast some impurity,
but to Gold none, besides it is like a Mother unto it. And so finally
I conclude; if you will not be wise, and wary by these my writings,
and admonitions, yet excuse mee who desire to deserve well of you: I
have dealt as faithfully as it was lawfull for mee, and as becomes a
man of a good conscience to doe. If you ask who I am, I am one that can
live any where: if you know mee, and desire to shew your selves good
and honest men, you shall hold your tongue: if you know mee not, doe
not enquire after mee, for I will reveale to no mortall man, whilest
I live, more then I have done in this publick writing. Beleeve mee, if
I were not a man of that ranke and condition as I am, nothing would be
more pleasant to mee then a solitary life, or with _Diogenes_ to lie
hid under a tub: for I see all things that are to be but vanity, and
that deceit, and covetousnesse are altogether in use, where all things
are to be sold, and that vice doth excell vertue. I see the better
things of the life to come before mine eys. I rejoice in these. Now
I doe not wonder, as before I did, why Philosophers, when they have
attained to this Medicine, have not cared to have their dayes shortned;
because every Philosopher hath the life to come set so cleerly before
his eyes, as thy face is seen in a glasse. And if God shall graunt thee
thy desired end, then thou shalt beleeve mee, and not reveal thy self
to the world.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


Added by way of Conclusion, and Superaddition.

It fell out upon a time, when I had sailed almost all my life from
the Artick pole, to the Antarticke, that by the singular providence
of God I was cast upon the shore of a certain great sea, and although
I well knew and understood the passages, and properties of the sea
of that Coast, yet I knew not whether in those Coasts was bred that
little fish, which was called _Remora_, which so many men of great and
small fortunes have hitherto so studiously sought after. But whilst I
was beholding the sweet singing Mermaides swimming up and down with
the Nymphs, and being weary with my foregoing labors, and oppressed
with divers thoughts, I was with the noise of waters overtaken with
sleep; and whilest I was in a sweet sleep, there appear’d to me in
my sleep a wonderfull vision, which is this. I saw _Neptune_ a man
of an honorable old age, going forth out of our sea with his three
toothed instrument, called _Tridens_, who after a friendly salute led
mee into a most pleasant Iland. This goodly Iland was situated towards
the South, being replenished with all things respecting the necessity,
and delight of man: _Virgils Elisian_ field might scarce compare with
it. All the banks were round about beset with green Mirtles, Cypresse
trees, and Rosemary. The green meadowes were covered all over with
flowers of all sorts, both fair, and sweet. The hills were set forth
with Vines, Olive trees, and Cedar-trees in a most wonderfull manner.
The woods were filled with Orenge, and Lemon-trees. The high wayes were
planted on both sides with Bay-trees, and Pomegranate-trees, woven most
artificially one within the other, and affording a most pleasant shadow
to Travellers. And to bee short, whatsoever is in the whole world was
seen there. As I was walking, there was shewed to me by the foresaid
_Neptune_ two Mines of that Iland lying under a certain rock, the one
was of Gold, the other of Chalybs, or Steel. Not far from thence I was
brought to a Meadow in which was a peculiar Orchard with divers sorts
of trees most goodly to behold, and amongst the rest, being very many
hee shewed to mee seven Trees marked out by speciall names; and amongst
these I observed two as chiefest, more eminent then the rest, one of
which did beare fruit like the Sun most bright, and shining, and the
leaves thereof were like Gold. The other brought forth fruit that was
most white, yea, whiter then the Lillies, and the leaves therof were
as fine Silver: Now these trees were called by _Neptune_, the one
the tree of the Sun, the other the tree of the Moon. And although in
this Iland all things were at ones pleasure, and command, yet there
was one thing, and but one wanting: there was no water to be had, but
with great difficulty. There were indeed many that partly endeavoured
to bring it thither by pipes, and partly drew it out of divers things:
but their endeavours were in vain, because in those places it could
not bee had by any means or medium; and if it were at any time had,
yet it was unprofitable, and poisonous, unlesse they fetched it (as
few could doe) from the beams of the Sun, and Moone; and he which was
fortunate in so doing could never get above ten parts; and that water
was most wonderfull: and beleeve mee, for I saw it with mine eyes,
and felt it, that that water was as white as the snow; and whilest I
was contemplating upon the water, I was in a great wonder. Wherefore
_Neptune_ being in the mean while wearied vanished away from before
mine eyes, and there appeared to me a great man, upon whose forehead
was written the name of _Saturne_. This man taking the vessell drew ten
parts of water; and tooke presently of the tree of the Sun, and put it
in; and I saw the fruit of the tree consumed, and resolved like ice in
warm water. I demanded of him; Sir, I see a wonderfull thing, water
to bee as it were of nothing; I see the fruit of the tree consumed in
it with a most sweet, and kindly heat, and wherefore is all this? But
he answered mee most lovingly. My Son, it is true this is a thing to
be wondered at; but doe not thou wonder at it, for so it must be. For
this water is the Water of life, having power to better the fruit of
this tree so, that afterward neither by planting, or graffing, but
only by its own odour it may convert the other six trees into its own
likenesse. Moreover this water is to this fruit as it were a woman,
the fruit of this tree can be putrefied in nothing but in this water,
and although the fruit of it be of it self most wonderful, & a thing
of great price; yet if it be putrefied in this water, it begets by
this putrefaction a _Salamander_, abiding in the fire, whose blood is
more pretious then any kind of treasure or riches in the world, being
able to make those six trees, which here thou seest, fruitfull, and to
bring forth their fruit sweeter then the honey. But I asked, Sir, How
is that done? I told thee (saith hee) that the fruit of that tree is
living, and sweet; but whereas one is now sufficed with it, when it
is boyled in this water, a thousand may then bee satisfied with it. I
demanded moreover, Sir, is it boiled with a strong fire, and how long
is it in boyling? But said he, that water hath an intrinsecall fire,
and if it be helped with a continuall heat, it burns three parts of
its body with this body of the fruit, and there wil remain but a very
smal part, which is scarce imaginable, but of wonderful vertue; it is
boiled by the skilfull wit of the Artificer, first 7 months, then 10,
but in the mean time there appeared divers things, and alwaies in the
fiftieth day, or thereabouts. I demanded again, Sir, cannot this fruit
be boiled in other waters, or something be put to it? Hee answered,
there is but this one water that is usefull in this Country, or Island;
and there is no other water can penetrate the pores of this apple, but
this: and know also that the Tree of the Sun hath its originall from
this water, which is extracted out of the beams of the Sun, and Moone
by a magnetick vertue: Besides they have a great correspondency betwixt
themselves, but if any strange thing be added to it, it cannot performe
that which it can do of it self. It must therefore be left by it self,
and nothing added to it but this apple: This fruit after boiling
becomes to bee immortall, having life, and blood, which blood makes
all the trees bring forth fruit of the same nature with the Apple. I
asked him further, Sir, is this Water drawn any other way, or to be
had every where? And he said, it is in every place, and no man can
live without it; it is drawn divers ways, but that is the best, which
is extracted by vertue of our Chalybs, which is found in the belly of
_Aries_. I said, to what use is it? He answered, before its due boiling
it is the greatest poison, but after a convenient boiling it is the
greatest medicine, and yeelds nine and twenty graines of blood; and
every grain will yeeld to thee the fruit of the Tree of the Sun in
864 fold. I asked, Can it not be made yet better? The Philosophicall
Scripture being witnesse (saith hee) it may bee exalted first to ten,
then to a hundred, then to a thousand, and ten thousand. I required
again of him, Sir, Doe many know that Water, and hath it any proper
name? He cryed out saying, Few know it, but all have seen it, and doe
see it, and love it: it hath many and various names, but its proper
name is the Water of our Sea, the Water of life not wetting the hands.
I asked yet further, Doe any use it to any other things? Every creature
(saith he) doth use it, but invisibly. Then I asked, Doth any thing
grow in it? but he said, Of it are made all things in the world, and
in it they live: but in it nothing properly is, but it is that thing
which mixeth it self to every thing. I asked againe, Is it usefull for
any thing without the fruit of this tree? To this he said, Not in this
work; because it is not bettered, but in the fruit of the Tree of the
Sun alone. I began to intreat him, Sir I pray, name it to mee by such a
manifest name, that I may have no further doubt about it. But he cryed
with a loud voice, so as that he awakened me from sleep; Therefore I
could ask him no further, neither would hee tell mee any more, neither
can I tell any more. Be satisfied with these, and beleeve mee, that it
is not possible to speak more cleerly. For if thou dost not understand
these things, thou wilt never be able to comprehend the books of other
Philosophers. After _Saturn_’s unexpected and sudden departure a new
sleep came upon mee, and then appeared to mee _Neptune_ in a visible
shape: He congratulated my present happinesse in the gardens of the
_Hesperides_, shewing to me a Looking-glasse, in which I saw all Nature
discovered. After the changing of divers words betwixt us, I gave him
thanks for his courtesies shewed to me; because I not only entred into
this garden, but also came into _Saturn_’s most desired discourse. But
because by reason of _Saturn_’s unexpected departure some difficulties
did yet remain to be inquired after, and searched into, I earnestly
besought him, that by means of this happy opportunity hee would resolve
mee my doubts. Now I importuned him with these words, Sir _I_ have read
the books of Philosophers, and they say, that all generation is done by
Male, and Female, yet I saw in my dream _Saturne_ put the fruit alone
of the Tree of the Sun into our Mercury; I beleeve also thee as the
Master of this Sea, that thou knowest these things; answer my Question
I pray thee. But he said, It is true, my son, all generation is done
in Male, and Female, but by reason of the distinguishing of the three
Kingdomes of Nature, a foure footed Animall is brought forth one way,
and a worme another: Although wormes have eyes, sight, hearing, and
other senses, yet they are brought forth by putrefaction, and their
place, or earth, in which they are putrefied, is the Female. So in
this Philosophicall work the mother of this thing is that Water of
thine so often repeated, & whatsoever is produced of that, is produced
as worms by putrefaction. Therfore the Philosophers have created a
Phenix, & Salamander. For if it were done by the conception of two
bodies, it would be a thing subject to death; but because it revives
it self alone, the former body being destroyed, it riseth up another
body incorruptible. Seeing the death of things is nothing else but the
separation of the one from the other. And so it is in this Phenix,
because the life separates it self by its self from a corruptible
body. Moreover, I asked him, Sir, are there divers things, or is there
a composition of things in this work? But he said, there is only one
thing, with which there is mixed nothing else but the Philosophicall
Water shewed to thee oftentimes in thy sleep, of which there must be
ten parts to one of the body. And strongly, and undoubtedly beleeve, My
son, that those things which are by me and _Saturn_ shewed thee by way
of dreams, according to the custom, in this Iland, are not dreams, but
the very truth, which Experience the only Mistris of things will by the
assistance of God discover to thee. I yet further demanded some things
of him, but hee without any answer, after he had took his leave of mee,
departing set me, being raised from sleep, into my desired region of
_Europe_. And so friendly Reader, let this suffice thee, which hath by
mee thus farre been fully declared.

                                    _To God alone be praise and glory._

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


Vpon a time there were assembled divers _Alchymists_ together, and held
a counsel how they should make, & prepare the Philosophers stone, and
they concluded that every one should declare his opinion with a vow.
And that meeting was in the open aire, in a certaine meadow, on a faire
cleer day. And many agreed that Mercury was the first matter thereof,
others that Sulphur was, and others other things. But the chiefest
opinion was of Mercury, and that especially because of the sayings of
Philosophers, because they hold, that Mercury is the first true matter
of the Stone, also of Metalls: For Philosophers cry out, and say, OUR
MERCURY, &c. And so whilest they did contend amongst themselves for
divers operations (every one gladly expecting a conclusion) there
arose in the mean time a very great tempest, with stormes, showers
of rain, and an unheard of wind, which dispersed that assembly into
divers Provinces, every one apart without a conclusion. Yet every one
of them fancied to himselfe what the conclusion of that dispute should
have been. Every one therefore set upon his work as before, one in
this thing, another in that thing seeking the Philosophers Stone, and
this is done till this day without any giving over. Now one of them
remembring the disputation, that the Philosophers Stone is necessarily
to be sought after in Mercury, said to himself: Although there was no
conclusion made, yet I wil work in Mercury, and will make a conclusion
my self in making the blessed Stone; for he was a man that was alwaies
wont to talk to himselfe, as indeed all _Alchymists_ usually doe. Hee
therefore began to read the books of Philosophers, and fell upon a
booke of _Alanus_, which treats of Mercury; and so that Alchymist is
made a Philosopher, but without any conclusion: And taking Mercury
he began to work; hee put it into a glass, and put fire to it, the
Mercury as it is wont to do, vapoured away, the poor silly Alchymist
not knowing the nature of it, beat his wife, saying: No body could
come hither besides thee, thou tookest the Mercury out of the glass.
His wife crying excuseth her self, and speaks softly to her husband:
Thou wilt make a sir-reverence of these. The Alchymist tooke Mercury
again, and put it again into his vessell, and lest his wife should
take it away, watched it. But the Mercury, as its manner is, vapoured
away again. The Alchymist remembring that the first matter of the
Philosophers Stone must be volatile, rejoiced exceedingly, altogether
perswading himselfe that he could not now be deceived, having the
first matter: Hee began now to work upon Mercury boldly, he learned
afterwards to sublime it, and to calcine it divers ways, as with Salt,
Sulphur, and Metalls, Mineralls, Bloud, Haire, Corrosive waters, Herbs,
Urine, Vineger, but could find nothing for his purpose; hee left
nothing unassayed in the whole world, with which hee did not work upon
good Mercury withall. But when he could doe no good at all with this,
hee fell upon this saying——_that it is found in the dung-hill_. He
began to worke upon Mercury with divers sorts of dung, together, and
asunder: And when hee was weary, and full of thoughts he fell into a
sleep. And in his sleep there appeared to him a vision: there came
to him an old man, who saluted him, and said; Friend, Why art thou
sad? Hee answered, I would willingly make the Philosophers Stone.
Then said he, Friend, Of what wilt thou make the Philosophers Stone?
_Alchymista._ Of Mercury, Sir. _Senex._ Of what Mercury? _Alch._ There
is but one Mercury. _Sen._ It is true, there is but one Mercury, but
altered variously, according to the variety of places; one is purer
then another. _Alch._ O Sir, I know how to purifie it very well with
vineger and salt, with nitre and vitriall. _Sen._ I tell thee this
is not the true purifying of it, neither is this, thus purifyed, the
true Mercury: Wise men have another Mercury, and another manner of
purifying of it, and so he vanished away. The Alchymist being raised
from sleep thought with himselfe what vision this should be, as also
what this Mercury of Philosophers should be: hee could bethinke
himselfe of no other but the vulgar Mercury. But yet hee desired much
that hee might have had a longer discourse with the old man: but yet
hee worked continually, sometimes in the dung of living creatures,
as boyes dung, and sometimes in his own. And every day hee went to
the place, where hee saw the vision, that he might speak with the old
man again: sometimes hee counterfeited a sleep, and lay with his eyes
shut expecting the old man. But when he would not come he thought he
was afraid of him, and would not beleeve that he was asleep, he swore
therefore saying, My good old Master be not afraid, for truly I am
asleep; look upon my eyes, see if I be not: And the poor Alchymist
after so many labours, and the spending of all his goods, now at last
fel mad, by alwaies thinking of the old man. And when hee was in that
strong imagination, there appeared to him in his sleep a false vision,
in the likenesse of the old man, and said to him, Doe not despaire, my
friend, thy Mercury is good, and thy matter, but if it will not obey
thee, conjure it, that it bee not volatile; Serpents are used to be
conjured, and then why not Mercury? and so the old man would leave him.
But the Alchymist asked of him, saying, Sir, expect, &c. And by reason
of a noise this poore Alchymist was raised from sleep, yet not without
great comfort. He took then a vessell full of Mercury, and began to
conjure it divers wayes, as his dream taught him. And hee remembred the
words of the old man, in that hee said, _Serpents are conjured_, and
Mercury is painted with Serpents, hee thought, so it must bee conjured
as the Serpents. And taking a vessell with Mercury hee began to say,
_Ux, Vx, Ostas, &c._ And where the name of the Serpent should be put,
he put the name of Mercury, saying: And thou wicked beast Mercury, &c.
At which words Mercury began to laugh, and to speak unto him saying,
What wilt thou have, that thou thus troublest mee my Master Alchymist?
_Alch._ O ho, now thou callest me Master, when I touch thee to the
quick, now I have found where thy bridle is, wait a little, and by and
by thou shalt sing my song, and he began to speak to him, as it were
angerly, Art thou that Mercury of Philosophers? _Merc._ (as if he were
afraid answered) I am Mercury, my Master. _Alch._ Why therefore wilt
not thou obey mee? and why could not I fix thee? _Merc._ O my noble
Master, I beseech thee pardon mee, wretch that I am, I did not know
that thou wast so great a Philosopher. _Alch._ Didst not thou perceive
this by my operations, seeing I proceeded so Philosophically with thee?
_Merc._ So it is, my noble Master, although I would hide my selfe, yet
I see I cannot from so honourable a Master as thou art. _Alch._ Now
therefore dost thou know a Philosopher? _Merc._ Yea, my Master, I see
that your worship is a most excellent Philosopher. _Alch._ (being glad
at his heart saith) truly now I have found what I sought for. (Again
he spake to Mercury with a most terrible voice:) Now go to, be now
therefore obedient, or else it shall be the worse for thee. _Merc._
Willingly, my Master, if I am able, for now I am very weake. _Alch._
Why dost thou now excuse thy selfe? _Merc._ I doe not, my Master, but
I am faint and feeble. _Alch._ What hurts thee? _Merc._ The Alchymist
hurts mee. _Alch._ What, dost thou still deride mee? _Merc._ O Master,
no, I speak of the Alchymist, but thou art a Philosopher. _Alch._ O
wel, well, that is true, but what hath the Alchymist done? _Merc._ O
my Master, hee hath done many evill things to mee, for hee hath mixed
mee, poor wretch as I am, with things contrary to mee: from whence I
shall never bee able to recover my strength, and I am almost dead,
for I am tormented almost unto death. _Alch._ O thou deservest those
things, for thou art disobedient. _Merc._ I was never disobedient to
any Philosopher, but it is naturall to mee to deride fools. _Alch._
And what dost thou think of mee? _Merc._ O Sir, you are a great man,
a very great Philosopher, yea greater then _Hermes_ himselfe. _Alch._
Truly so it is, I am a learned man, but I will not commend my selfe,
but my Wife also said to mee, that I am a very learned Philosopher, she
knew so much by me. _Merc._ I am apt to beleeve thee, for Philosophers
must be so, who by reason of too much wisdome, and pains fall mad.
_Alch._ Goe to then, tell me therefore what I shall doe with thee;
how I shall make the Philosophers Stone of thee. _Merc._ O my Master
Philosopher, I know not, Thou art a Philosopher, I am a servant of the
Philosophers, they make of me what they please, I obey them as much as
I am able. _Alch._ Thou must tell mee how I must proceed with thee,
and how I may make of thee the Philosophers Stone. _Merc._ If thou
knowest, thou shall make it, but if thou knowest not, thou shalt doe
nothing, thou shalt know nothing by mee, if thou knowest not already
my Master Philosopher. _Alch._ Thou speakest to mee as to some simple
man, perhaps thou dost not know that I have worked with Princes, and
was accounted a Philosopher with them. _Merc._ I am apt to beleeve thee
my Master, for I know all this very wel, I am yet foul, and unclean
by reason of those mixtures that thou hast used. _Alch._ Therefore
tell mee, art thou the Mercury of Philosophers? _Merc._ I am Mercury,
but whether or no the Philosophers, that belongs to thee to know.
_Alch._ Do but tell me if thou art the true Mercury, or if there be
another. _Merc._ I am Mercury, but there is another, and so he vanished
away. The Alchymist cries out and speaks, but no body answers him.
And bethinking himselfe saith: Surely I am an excellent man, Mercury
hath been pleased to talke with mee, surely hee loves mee: and then
he began to sublime Mercury, distil, calcine, make Turbith of him,
precipitate, and dissolve him divers wayes, and with divers waters,
but as hee laboured in vain before, so now also he hath spent his
time, and costs to no purpose. Wherefore at last hee begins to curse
Mercury, and revile Nature because shee made him. Now Nature when she
heard these things called Mercury to her, and said to him: What hast
thou done to this man? Why doth he curse and revile me for thy sake?
Why dost not thou doe what thou oughtest to doe? But Mercury modestly
excuseth himself. Yet Nature commands him to be obedient to the sons
of Wisdome, that seek after him. Mercury promiseth that he will, and
saith: Mother Nature, but who can satisfie fools? Nature went away
smiling: but Mercury being angry with the Alchymist goes also unto his
own place. After a few days it came into the Alchymists mind, that
he omitted something in his operations, and again hee hath recourse
to Mercury, and now resolves to mix him with hogs dung; but Mercury
being angry that he had falsly accused him before his mother Nature,
saith to the Alchymist, What wilt thou have of me thou foole? Why
hast thou thus accused mee? _Alch._ Art thou he that _I_ have longed
to see? _Merc._ _I_ am, but no man that is blind can see mee. _Alch._
_I_ am not blind. _Merc._ Thou art very blind, for thou canst not see
thy selfe, how then canst thou see mee? _Alch._ O now thou art proud,
_I_ speak civilly to thee, and thou contemnest mee: thou dost not know
perhaps that I have worked with many Princes, and was esteemed as a
Philosopher amongst them. _Merc._ Fools flock to Princes Courts, for
there they are honoured, and fare better then others. Wast thou also
at the Court? _Alch._ O thou art a devill, and not a good Mercury, if
thou wilt speak thus to Philosophers: for before thou didst also seduce
me thus. _Mer._ Dost thou know Philosophers? _Alch._ I my self am a
Philosopher. _Merc._ Behold our Philosopher (smiling said: and began
to talke further with him saying) My Philosopher, tell mee therefore
what thou seekest after, and what thou wilt have, what dost thou desire
to make? _Alch._ The Philosophers stone. _Merc._ Out of what matter
therefore wilt thou make it? _Alch._ Of our Mercury. _Merc._ O my
Philosopher, now I wil leave you, for I am not yours. _Alch._ O thou
art but a devill, and wilt seduce mee. _Merc._ Truly my Philosopher
thou art a devill to mee, not I to thee: for thou dost deale most
sordidly with mee, after a devillish manner. _Alch._ O what doe I hear?
this certainly is a devill indeed, for I do all things according to the
writings of Philosophers, and know very well how to work. _Merc._ Thou
knowest very well, for thou dost more then thou knowest, or readst of:
for the Philosophers said, that Nature is to be mixed with Natures;
and they command nothing to bee done without Nature; but thou dost mix
mee with almost all the sordidst things that bee, as dung. _Alch._ I
doe nothing besides Nature; but I sow seed into its own earth, as the
Philosophers have said. _Merc._ Thou sowest mee in dung, and in time
of harvest I do vanish away, and thou art wont to reap dung. _Alc._
Yet so the Philosophers have wrote, that in the dunghill their matter
is to be sought for. _Merc._ It is true what they have written; but
thou understandest their letter, and not their sense, and meaning.
_Alch._ Now happily I see that thou art Mercury; but thou wilt not obey
mee. And he began to conjure him again, saying, _Vx Vx_. But Mercury
laughing answered, Thou shalt doe no good, my friend. _Alch._ They do
not speak without ground, when they say thou art of a strange nature,
inconstant, and volatile. _Merc._ Dost thou say, that I am inconstant,
I resolve thee thus, I am constant unto a constant Artificer; fixed
to him, that is of a fixed mind, but thou, and such as thou art, are
inconstant, running from one thing unto another, from one matter unto
another. _Alch._ Tell me therefore if thou art that Mercury, which the
Philosophers wrote of, which they said was, together with sulphur,
and salt the principall of all things, or must I seek after another?
_Mer._ Truly the fruit doth not fal far from the tree, but I seek not
mine own praise, I am the same as I was, but my years are differing.
From the beginning I was young, so long as I was alone, but now I am
older, yet the same as I was before. _Alch._ Now thou pleasest me,
because now thou art older: for I alwaies sought after such a one,
that was more ripe, and fixed, that I might so much the more easily
accord with him. _Merc._ Thou dost in vain look after mee in my old
age, who didst not know mee in my youth. _Alch._ Did not I know thee,
who have worked with thee divers wayes, as thou thy selfe hast said?
and yet I will not leave off till I have made the Philosophers Stone.
_Merc._ O what a miserable case am I in? What shall I do? I must now be
mixed again with dung, and be tormented. O wretch that I am! I beseech
thee good Master Philosopher, doe not mix me so much with hogs dung;
for otherwise I shall be undone, for by reason of this stink I am
constrained to change my shape. And what wilt thou have mee doe more?
Am not I tormented sufficiently by thee? Doe not I obey thee? Doe not
I mixe my self with those things thou wilt have me? Am I not sublimed?
Am I not precipitated? Am I not made turbith? An Amalgama? A Past? Now
what canst thou desire more of me? My body is so scourged, so spit
upon, that the very stone would pity me: By vertue of me thou hast
milk, flesh, bloud, butter, oyl, water, and which of all the metalls,
or mineral can do that which I do alone? and is there no mercy to be
had towards me? O what a wretch am I! _Alc._ O ho, it doth not hurt
thee, thou art wicked, although thou turnest thy self inside out, yet
thou dost not change thy selfe, thou dost but frame to thy selfe a new
shape, thou dost alwaies return into thy first forme again. _Merc._
I doe as thou wilt have me, if thou wilt have me be a body, I am a
body: if thou will have me be dust, I am dust, I know not how I should
abase my self more, then when I am dust, and a shadow. _Alch._ Tell
mee therefore what thou art in thy Center, and I will torment thee no
more. _Merc._ Now I am constrained to tell from the very foundation.
If thou wilt thou maist understand mee: thou seest my shape, and of
this thou needest not know further. But because thou askest mee of the
Center, my Center is the most fixed heart of all things, immortall,
and penetrating: in that my Master rests, but I my selfe am the way,
and the passenger, I am a stranger, and yet live at home, I am most
faithfull to all my companions, I leave not those that doe accompany
mee; I abide with them, I perish with them. I am an immortall body: I
die indeed when I am slaine, but I rise againe to judgement before a
wise Judge. _Alch._ Art thou therefore the Philosophers Stone? _Merc._
My mother is such a one, of her is born artificially one certain
thing, but my brother who dwells in the fort, hath in his will what
the Philosophers desire. _Alch._ Art thou old? _Merc._ My mother begat
mee, but I am older then my mother. _Alch._ What devill can understand
thee, when thou dost not answer to the purpose? thou alwaies speakest
Riddles. Tell mee if thou art that fountain of which _Bernard_ Lord
_Trevisan_ writ? _Merc._ I am not the fountaine, but I am the water,
the fountaine compasseth mee about. _Alch._ Is gold dissolved in thee,
when thou art water? _Merc._ Whatsoever is with mee I love as a friend;
and whatsoever is brought forth with mee, to that I give nourishment,
and whatsoever is naked, I cover with my wings. _Alch._ I see it is
to no purpose to speak to thee, I ask one thing, and thou answerest
another thing: if thou wilt not answer to my question, truly I will goe
to work with thee again. _Merc._ O master, I beseech thee be good to
me, now I will willingly doe what I know. _Alch._ Tell mee therefore
if thou art afraid of the fire. _Merc._ I am fire my selfe. _Alch._
And why then dost thou fly from the fire? _Merc._ My spirit, and the
spirit of the fire love one another, and whither one goes, the other
goes if it can. _Alch._ And whither dost thou goe, when thou ascendest
with the fire? _Merc._ Know that every stranger bends towards his own
countrey, and when he is returned from whence he came, hee is at rest,
and alwaies returnes wiser, then he was when he came forth. _Alch._
Dost thou come back again sometimes? _Merc._ I doe, but in another
forme. _Alch._ I do not understand what this is, nor any thing of the
fire. _Merc._ If any one knew the fire of my heart, hee hath seen that
fire (a due heat) is my meat: and by how much the longer the spirit
of my heart feeds upon fire, it will be so much the fatter, whose
death is afterward the life of all things, whatsoever they bee in this
Kingdome where I am. _Alch._ Art thou great? _Merc._ I am thus for
example, of a thousand drops I shall be one, out of one I give many
thousand drops: and as my body is in thy sight, if thou knowest how to
sport with mee, thou maist divide me into as much as thou wilt, and I
shall be one again: What then is my spirit (my heart) intrinsecally,
which alwaies can bring forth many thousands out of the least part?
_Alch._ And how therefore must one deale with thee that thou maist be
so? _Merc._ I am fire within, fire is my meat, but the life of the
fire is aire, without aire the fire is extinguished; the fire prevails
over the aire, wherefore I am not at rest, neither can the crude aire
constringe, or bind mee: adde aire to aire, that both may be one, and
hold weight, join it to warme fire, and give it time. _Alch._ What
shall bee after that? _Merc._ The superfluous shall be taken away, the
residue thou shalt burn with fire, put it into water, boyl it, after
it is boyled thou shalt give it to the sick by way of physick. _Alch._
Thou saist nothing to my questions. I see that thou wilt only delude
mee with Riddles. Wife, bring hither the hogs dung, I will handle that
Mercury some new wayes, untill hee tell mee how the Philosophers Stone
is to bee made of him. Mercury hearing this begins to lament over the
Alchymist, and goes unto his mother Nature: accuseth the ungratefull
operator. Nature beleeves her son Mercury, who tells true, and being
moved with anger comes to the Alchymist, and calls him; Ho thou, Where
art thou? _Alchym._ Who is that, thus calls mee? _Natura._ What dost
thou with my son, thou fool thou? Why dost thou thus injure him? Why
dost thou torment him? who is willing to doe thee any good, if thou
couldst understand so much. _Alch._ What devill reprehends me, so
great a man, and Philosopher? _Nat._ O fool ful of pride, the dung of
Philosophers, I know all Philosophers, and wise men, and I love them,
for they love me, and doe all things for me at my pleasure, and whither
I cannot goe they help me. But you Alchymists, of whose order thou also
art one, without my knowledg, and consent, doe all things contrary unto
me; wherefore it falls out contrary to your expectation. You think that
you deal with my sons rationally, but you perfect nothing; and if you
will consider rightly, you do not handle them, but they handle you: for
you can make nothing of them, neither know you how to do it, but they
of you when they please, make fooles. _Alch._ It is not true: I also am
a Philosopher, and know well how to worke, I have been with more then
one Prince, and was esteemed a Philosopher amongst them, my wife also
knows the same, and now also I have a manuscript, which was hid some
hundreds of years in an old wall, now I certainly know I shall make
the Philosophers Stone, as also within these few dayes it was revealed
to mee in a dreame. O I am wont to have true dreams; Wife thou knowest
it! _Natur._ Thou shalt doe as the rest of thy fellowes have done, who
in the beginning know all things, and thinke they are very knowing,
but in conclusion know nothing. _Alch._ Yet others have made it of
thee (if thou art the true Nature.) _Nat._ It is true, but only they
that knew me, and they are very few. But hee which knowes mee doth not
torment my Sons; nor disturbe mee, but doth to mee what hee pleaseth,
and increaseth my goods, and heals the bodies of my sons. _Alch._
Even so do I. _Natur._ Thou dost all things contrary to mee, and dost
proceed with my Sonnes contrary to my will: when thou shouldst revive,
thou killest; when fix, thou sublimest; when calcine, thou distillest;
especially my most observant Sonne Mercury, whom thou tormentest with
so many corrosive waters, and so many poisonous things. _Alch._ Then I
will proceed with him sweetly by digestion only. _Natur._ It is well
if thou knowest how to doe it, but if not, thou shalt not hurt him,
but thy selfe, and expose thy selfe to charges, for it is all one with
him, as with a gem, which is mixed with dung, that is alwaies good,
and the dung doth not diminish it, although it be cast upon it, for
when it is washed, it is the same gemme as it was before. _Alch._ But
I would willingly know how to make the Philosophers Stone. _Natur._
Therefore doe not handle my Son in that fashion: for know, that I
have many Sonnes, and many Daughters, and I am ready at hand to them
that seek mee, if they bee worthy of mee. _Alch._ Tell me therefore
who that Mercury is? _Nat._ Know that I have but one such Sonne, and
hee is one of seven, and hee is the first; and hee is all things, who
was but one; hee is nothing, and his number is entire; in him are the
foure Elements, and yet himselfe is no Element; he is a spirit, and
yet hath a body; he is a man, and yet acts the part of a woman; hee
is a child, and yet bears the armes of a man; hee is a beast, and yet
hath the wings of a bird; hee is poison, yet cureth the leprosie; he
is life, yet kills all things; hee is a King, yet another possesseth
his Kingdome; hee flyeth from the fire, yet fire is made of him; hee
is water, yet wets not; hee is earth, yet hee is sowed; hee is aire,
yet lives in water. _Alch._ Now I see that I know nothing, but I dare
not say so, for then I should lose my reputation, and my neighbors
will lay out no more money upon mee, if they should know that I know
nothing: yet I will say that I doe certainly know, or else no body
will give mee so much as bread: for many of them hope for much good
from mee. _Natur._ Although thou shouldst put them off a great while,
yet what will become of thee at last? and especially if thy neighbours
should demand their charges of thee again? _Alch._ I will feed all of
them with hope, as much as possibly I can. _Natur._ And then what wilt
thou doe at last? _Alch._ I will try many ways privately: if either
of them succeed, I will pay them; if not, I will goe into some other
far Country, and doe the like there. _Natur._ And what will become of
thee afterward? _Alch._ Ha, ha, ha, there bee many countryes, also many
covetous men, to whom I will promise great store of Gold, and that in a
short time, and so the time shall passe away, till at last either I, or
they must die Kings, or Asses. _Natur._ Such Philosophers deserve the
halter: fie upon thee, make hast and be hanged, and put an end to thy
self, and thy Philosophy; for by this meanes thou shalt neither deceive
mee, thy neighbour, or thy self.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


_The Preface._


Seeing I might not write more cleerly, then other ancient Philosophers
have wrote; haply thou mayst not bee satisfied with my writings:
especially since thou hast so many other bookes of Philosophers already
in thy hands: but beleeve me, neither have I any need to write books,
because I seek neither profit, nor vain glory by them; therefore I doe
not publish who I am. Those things which I have now publisht for thy
profit, and advantage, seem to mee to be more then enough; I purpose
that other things, which remain, shall bee referred to the book of
Harmony, where I have largely treated of naturall things: yet by the
perswasion of some friends I must needs also write this Treatise of
Sulphur; in which whether it be needfull to adde any thing to what
is written before, I know not. Yea, neither shall this satisfie thee,
if the writings of so many Philosophers cannot satisfie thee: And
especially, if the daily operation of Nature bee not a sufficient
example, no other examples shall doe thee good. For if thou wouldst
consider with a mature judgement, how Nature works, thou wouldst not
have need of so many volumes of Philosophers: because in my judgement
it is better to learn of Nature the Mistris, then of her scholars.
Thou hast enough in the Preface of the book of the Twelve Treatises,
as also in the First Treatise it self, because in this Art there be
so many, and so great books to bee found, that they rather hinder,
then help those that are studious of this Art: and so indeed it seems
to be, because the Writings of Philosophers are out of that little
Schedule of _Hermes_ grown up unto so great, and erroneous a Labyrinth,
and daily doe decline into obscurity: And this I beleeve is done only
by envious Philosophers, when as the ignorant doe not well know what
ought to be added, or left out, if haply the Authours hand cannot
well be read. If in any Science, or Art it doth much help, or hurt
to have one word lacking, or added, then much more in this: As for
example: It is written in one place: _Then mix these waters together_,
another addes _Not_, hee indeed added but a little, and yet by this he
turned the whole Chapter quite contrary: yet let the diligent Student
know, that a Bee doth gather honey out of poisonous hearbs. But if he
judgeth what hee reads, according to the possibility of Nature, hee
will easily get beyond all the Sophistry of Philosophers: yet let him
not give over reading, because one booke explaines another. And by
this meanes I understood that the bookes of _Geber_ the Philosopher
(and who could know it, but they that read other Authours?) are so
wonderfully enchanted, that they cannot possibly be understood, unlesse
they be read over a thousand times, and this also by a witty Reader;
fooles must bee utterly excluded from reading of them. There bee indeed
many that undertake to interpret him as they doe other Authors; but
I see their explication is more difficult then the text: My advice
is, that thou dost persist in the text, and whatsoever thou readest
apply to the possibility of Nature; and in the first place enquire
diligently what Nature is. All indeed write, that shee is a thing of
small account, easy, common; and indeed it is true, but it should have
been added, that shee is so unto wise men. The wise man knows her to
be amongst dung, and the ignorant man doth not beleeve her to bee in
gold. And all these men, which have made such hard bookes, if they
were now ignorant of the Art, but must find it out of such bookes
(which books indeed are very true) would with more difficulty find it
out, then men, that in these days search into the art, doe. I will not
commend mine owne Writings, hee shall judge of them that shall apply
them to the possibility, and course of Nature; and if by my Writings,
Counsell, Examples, hee shall not know the operation of Nature, and her
ministring vitall spirits constringing the aire, as also the subject
of the first matter, hee will scarce understand them by _Raimundus
Lullius_. It is a hard thing to beleeve that spirits have such a power
and force in the belly of the wind. This Wood I also am constrained
to goe through, and also I have helped to multiply it, yet in such a
manner as my plants shall be signes, a light, and guides to the true
Sons of Art, and Students in this sacred Science, that are willing to
goe through this Wood; for my plants are as it were corporeall. Those
times are now past, when fidelity amongst friends flourished, and this
Art was communicated by word of mouth; but now it is not obtained but
by the inspiration of the most high God alone. Therefore let not him
that searcheth diligently, and fears God despaire. If he seeks after
it, hee shall find it. Because it is more easily obtained from God,
then from man: for hee is a God of infinite compassion, and knowes
not how to forsake him that puts his trust in him; with him there is
no respect of persons; the contrite and humble heart hee will not
despise, and hee hath taken compassion upon mee, the most unworthy of
his creatures; whose power, goodness, unspeakable compassion which
he hath vouchsafed to shew to mee, I am not able to expresse: but if
I am able to give no better thankes, yet I shall not cease with my
pen to set forth his praise for ever. Bee of good courage therefore,
Courteous Reader, and hee will also not deny this favour to thee, if
thou puttest thy whole trust in him, worship him, and call upon him,
hee will open to thee the gate of Nature; then thou shalt see how most
plainly Nature works. Know for certain that Nature is most plain, and
simple, and delights in nothing so much as in plainnesse; and beleeve
mee, whatsoever in Nature is more noble, by so much also the more easy,
and plain it is, because all truth is plain, and simple: God the most
High Creator of all things put nothing that is hard, or difficult in
Nature. If thou wilt therefore imitate Nature, let mee perswade thee
to abide in the simple way of Nature; and thou shalt find all good
things. But if neither my writings, nor advise pleaseth thee, then go
to other authors. Wherefore I write not great Volumes that thou maist
not lay out too much money, or time upon them, but maist read them over
quickly, and bee at the more leisure to have recourse to other authors:
and cease not to seek, for to him that knocks, it shall bee opened.
Now those times are coming, in which many secrets of Nature shall bee
revealed. Now that fourth Monarchy of the North is about to begin:
Now the times are at hand; the Mother of Sciences will come: greater
things shall bee discovered then hath been done in these three last
past Monarchies. Because this Monarchy (as the Ancients have foretold)
God will plant by one of his Princes, being enriched with all manner
of vertues, whom haply times have already brought forth. For wee have
in this Northerne part a most wise Prince, and most warlike, whom none
of the Monarchs doth goe beyond in victories, or excell in humanity,
and piety. In this Northerne Monarchy God the maker of all things, will
without doubt bring to light greater secrets in Nature, then in those
times, when Pagan, and Tyrant Princes reigned. But the Philosophers
reckon these Monarchies, not according to the powerfulnesse of them,
but according to the corners of the world: the first was Easterne, the
next Southerne; this which they now possesse is Westerne: the last
which they expect in this Northerne part is Northerne: but of these
further in my booke of Harmony. In this Northern Monarchy, where the
attractive pole is (as the _Psalmist_ speaks) Mercy and Truth are met
together; Peace, and Justice shall kisse each other; Truth shall rise
out of the earth, and Justice shall looke from heaven. One sheepfold,
and one Shepheard. Many Arts without envy: All which I doe earnestly
expect. Doe thou also, Courteous Reader, call upon, love, feare God,
read over my Writings diligently, and then thou maist foretell to thy
selfe good things. And if thou shalt, through the favour of God, and
the help of Nature (whom thou must imitate) arrive to the desired haven
of this Monarchie; then thou shalt see, and say that all things that I
have said to thee, are good, and true.


[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  _The second Principle._

Sulphur is not the last amongst the Principles, because it is a part
of the Metall; yea and the principall part of the Philosophers Stone:
and many wise men have left in writing divers, and very true things
of Sulphur. Yea _Geber_ himself in his first book of the highest
perfection, _cha._ 28. saith: Through the most High God it illuminates
every body: because it is light from light, and Tincture. But before
wee treate of it, it seems good to us to first describe the originall
of the Principles; especially since of old, Sulphur hath been accounted
the chiefest of the Principles. Now very few have hitherto shewed
whence the Principles arise, and it is a hard thing to judge of any of
the Principles, or anything else, whose originall, and generation is
unknowne: what can a blind man judg of a colour? What our predecessors
have omitted, that have wee purposed in this Treatise to supply.

Now the Principles of things, especially of Metalls, according to the
ancient Philosophers are two, Sulphur; and Mercury: but according
to the latter Philosophers, three, Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury. Now
the originall of these Principles are the foure Elements; with the
originall of which also wee will first begin. Therefore let them that
are Students in this sacred science know, that there are four Elements,
and that every one of these foure hath in its Center another Element,
by which it is elementated: and these are the four statues of the
world, separated from the Chaos in the creation of the world by divine
wisdome; and these uphold the fabrick of the world by their contrary
acting, in equality, and proportion, and also by the inclination of
celestiall vertues, bring forth all things, that are within, and upon
the earth: but of these in their places: here we will returne to our
purpose; and first of the Element that is neerest, _viz._ the Earth.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  The ELEMENT of the

The Earth is of great worth in its quality, and dignity: in this
Element, the other three, especially the fire, rest. It is the most
excellent Element to conceale, and discover those things which are
intrusted to it: it is grosse, and porous, heavy in respect of its
smallnesse, but light in respect of its Nature; it is also the Center
of the world, as also of the other Elements; through its Center passeth
the axell tree of the world, and of both poles. It is porous, as wee
said, as a spunge, and brings forth nothing of it selfe, but all things
whatsoever the other three distil, and project into it, it receives,
keeps all things that are to be kept, brings to light all things that
are to be brought to light. It brings forth (as wee said before)
nothing of it selfe, but it is the receptacle of other things, and it
is that, in which every thing that is brought forth, doth abide, and
by heat of motion is putrefied in it, and is multiplied by the same,
the pure being separated from the impure: That which is heavy in it is
hid, and the heat drives that which is light unto its superficies. It
is the nurse, and matrix of all seed, and commixtion. It can indeed
doe nothing else, then preserve the seed, and what is made of it, till
it be ripe. It is cold, dry, tempered with water; visible without,
and fixed; but within invisible, and volatile. It is a virgin, and
the _Caput Mortuum_ left after the creation of the world, which shall
hereafter at divine pleasure bee calcined, after extraction of its
moisture, that of it a new Crystalline Earth may be created. Also this
Element is divided into a pure part, and an impure. The water makes
use of the pure to bring forth things, but the impure remains in its
globe. This Element is the hiding place, and mansion of all treasure.
In its Center is the fire of hell, preserving this fabrick of the world
in its being; and this by the expression of water into the aire. That
fire is caused, and kindled by the _primum Mobile_, and the influences
of the Stars: the heat of the Sunne tempered with the aire meets with
this heat for the ripening, and drawing up of those things, which are
already conceived in its Center. Moreover the Earth partakes of fire,
which is the intrinsecall part of it, neither is it purified but in
the fire: and so every Element is purified with its intrinsecall part.
Now the Intrinsecall part, or inside of the Earth, or its Center is
the highest purity mixed with fire, where nothing can rest: It is as
it were an empty place, into which all the other Elements doe project
their vertues, as hath been spoken in the book of the Twelve Treatises.
And thus much of the Element of Earth, which wee have called a Spunge,
and the receptacle of other things, which serveth for our purpose.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  The ELEMENT of

Water is the heaviest Element, full of unctuous flegme, and it is an
Element more worthy in its quality then the Earth, without, volatile,
but within fixed, it is cold, and moist, and tempered with the aire:
it is the sperm of the world, in which the seed of all things is
kept: it is the keeper of the seed of every thing. Yet wee must know,
that the Seed is one thing, and the Sperme another: the Earth is the
receptacle of the Sperme, but Water is the receptacle of the Seed.
Whatsoever the Aire doth distill into the Water, by means of the fire,
the same doth the water convey to the Earth. Sometimes the sperme
lackes sufficiency of seed, for want of heat which should digest it;
for there is alwayes plenty of Sperm, expecting Seed, which by the
imagination of fire through the motion of the Aire it carryes into its
matrix: and sometimes there being lack of Seed, the Sperme enters,
but it goeth forth againe without fruit: but of this more at large
hereafter in the third Treatise of Principles, _viz._ in that of Salt.
It happens sometimes in Nature, that the Sperme enters into the matrix
with a sufficiency of Seed; but the matrix being indisposed, by reason
of being filled with offensive, sulphureous, & flegmatick vapors, doth
not conceive, neither doth that come to passe that should. Also nothing
is properly in this Element, but only as it is wont to bee in the
Sperm. It is delighted chiefly in its own motion, which is made by the
Aire, and it is apt to mixe with things by reason of its superficiall,
volatile body. It is, as wee said before, the receptacle of all manner
of Seed: in it the Earth is easily purified, and resolved; and the
Aire is congealed in it, and is joined with it radically. It is the
menstruum of the world, which penetrating the Aire, by means of heat,
drawes along with it selfe a warm vapour, which causeth a naturall
generation of those things, which the Earth, as a matrix is impregnated
withall, and when the matrix receives a due proportion of Seed, of what
kind soever, it proceeds, and Nature workes without intermission to
the end; but the remaining moisture, or Sperme falls to the side, and
by vertue of the heat in the Earth is putrefied (that which is cast to
the side) and of that afterwards are generated other things, as small
vermine, and wormes. The Artificer of a quicke wit may indeed see in
this Element, as it were out of Sperme, divers wonders of Nature; but
it will be needfull to take that Sperm, in which the Astrall Seed in a
certaine proportion is already imagined, or conceived; because Nature
makes, and produceth pure things by the first putrefaction, but by the
second farre more pure, worthy, and noble; as thou hast an example in
wood, which is vegetable, where in the first composition Nature maketh
wood, but when that is after maturity corrupted, it is putrefied, and
of it worms are bred, and such kind of vermine as they are, which have
both life, and sight: for it is manifest, that a sensible thing is
alwaies more worthy then a vegetable: for to the organs of sensible
things much more subtile, and purer matter is required: But to return
to our purpose.

This Element is the Menstruum of the world, and is divided into three
sorts, _viz._ pure, purer, and most pure. Of the most pure substance
of it the Heavens are created, the purer is resolved into Aire, but
the pure, plaine, and grosse remains in its sphere, and by divine
appointment, and operation of Nature doth preserve and keep every thing
that is subtile. It makes one globe together with the Earth: it hath
also its Center in the heart of the Sea: it hath one axell tree and
pole with the earth, by which all courses, and fountaines of water
issue forth, which afterward increase, and grow up into great rivers.
By these issuing forth of waters the Earth is preserved from burnings,
and with this moistning the universall Seed is carryed forth through
the pores of the whole Earth, which thing is caused through heat, and
motion. Now it is manifest that all courses of Waters return into the
heart of the Sea; but whither afterward they run is not known to every
body. There be some that think that all rivers, water, and springs
which have their course into the sea, do proceed from the stars, who,
when they know no other reason why the sea should not increase, and bee
fuller, by reason of them, say that these Waters are consumed in the
heart of the sea. But this Nature will not admit of, as wee have shewed
when we spake of the Rain. The stars indeed cause, but doe not generate
Water; seeing nothing is generated but in its owne like of the same
species: Now the Stars consist of Fire, and Aire; how then should they
generate Waters? And if it were so, that some Starre should generate
Waters, then necessarily also must others generate Earth, and also
others other Elements: because this fabrick of the world is so upheld
by the four Elements, that one may not exceed another in the least
particle, but they strive one with the other in an equall ballance;
for otherwise if one should exceed the other, destruction would ensue.
Yet let every one persevere in what opinion hee please, it is thus
shewed to us by the light of Nature, that this fabrick of the world is
preserved by these four Elements, their equality being proportioned
by the great God, and one doth not exceed the other in its operation.
But the Waters upon the basis of the Earth are contained as it were in
some vessell from the motion of the Aire, and towards the Articke pole
are by it constringed, because there is no _vacuum_, or vacuity in the
world: for this cause is there in the Center of the Earth the fire of
hell, which the Archeus of Nature doth govern.

For in the beginning of the Creation of the world, the great and
good God out of the confused Chaos, in the first place exalted the
quintessence of the Elements, & that is made the utmost bound of all
things: then he lifted up the most pure substance of fire above all
things, to place his most Sacred Majesty in, and set and established
it in its bound. In the Center of the chaos (by the good pleasure
of Gods infinite wisdom) that Fire was kindled, which afterward did
distil those most pure waters. But because now that most pure fire
hath obtained the place of the Firmament, together with the throne of
the most high God, the waters are condensed under that Fire: and that
they might be the more strongly fortified, & setled, the fire that is
grosser then the former, was then raised (this by means of the Centrall
Fire) and remained in the sphere of Fire under the Waters: and so the
Waters are congealed, and shut up betwixt two Fires in the heavens. But
that Centrall Fire never ceaseth, but distilling more Waters, and those
lesse pure, did resolve them into Aire, which also abides under the
sphere of Fire in its proper sphere, and is enclosed by the Element of
Fire, as with a sure, and strong foundation; and as the Waters of the
Heavens, cannot goe beyond that supercelestiall Fire, so the Element
of Fire cannot go beyond the Waters of the Heavens, neither can the
Aire go beyond, or be exalted above the Element of Fire. As for the
Water, and the Earth, they remained in one globe, because they have
no place in the Aire, except that part of the Water, which the Fire
doth resolve into Aire, for the daily fortifying of this fabricke of
the world. For if there had been a vacuity in the Aire, then all the
Waters had distilled, and been resolved into Aire: but now the sphere
of the Aire is full, and is alwaies filled through the distilling
Waters, by the continuall Centrall heat, so that the rest of the
Waters are by the compression of the Aire rolled round the Earth, and
with the Earth make up the Center of the world; and this operation is
performed dayly, and so also this world is fortified daily, and shall
for ever bee naturally preserved from corruption, unlesse it bee the
good pleasure of the most High Creator (whose will is absolute) that
it shall be otherwise. Because that Centrall Fire never ceaseth to
bee kindled by the universall motion, and influence of the heavenly
vertues, and so to warm the Waters; neither shall the Waters cease to
bee resolved into Aire; neither shall the Aire cease to compresse, and
keep down the residue of the Waters with the Earth, and so to contain
them in the Center, that they may not bee moved out of their Center:
thus even in a naturall manner this world is made, and continued
through the mighty wisdome of God; and so according to the example
of this it is necessary that all things in the world bee naturally
made. We are willing to discover to thee further this creation of this
fabricke of the world, that thou maist know that the foure Elements
have a naturall sympathy with the superior, because they were made
out of one and the same Chaos: but they are governed by the superior,
as the more worthy; and from thence came this obedience into this
sublunary place. But know that all those things were naturally found
out by the Philosopher, as shal be shewed in its own place. Now to our
purpose concerning the Courses of Waters, and the ebbing & flowing of
the Sea, how by the polarie Axell tree they are carryed from one pole
to another. There are two Poles, the one is Artick, and in that part
that is superior, and Northerne, but the other Antarticke under the
Earth, and in the Southerne part. The Articke pole hath a magneticke
vertue of attracting, but the Antarticke pole hath a magneticke vertue
of expelling, or driving from: and this Nature holds forth to us in the
example of the Loadstone. The Articke pole therefore drawes Waters by
the Axell-tree, which after they are entred in, break forth again by
the Axell tree of the Antarticke pole: and because the Aire doth not
suffer an inequality, they are constrained to return to the Articke
pole, their Center, and so continually to observe this Course. In which
Course from the Articke pole, to the Antarticke pole by the midle,
or Axell-tree of the world, they are dispersed through the pores of
the Earth, and so according to more or lesse do springs arise, and
afterward meeting together increase, and become to be rivers, and
are again returned thither, from whence they came out; and this is
uncessantly done through the universall motion. Some (as I said before)
being ignorant of the universall motion, and the operations of the
poles say that these Waters are consumed in the heart of the sea, and
generated by the stars, which produce, and generate no materiall thing,
impressing only vertues, and spirituall influences, which cannot give
any weight to things. Waters therefore are not generated; but know
that they come forth from the Center of the Sea, through the pores
of the Earth into the whole world. From these naturall Conclusions,
or Principles Philosophers have found out divers instruments, and
conveyances of Waters, as also fountaines, since it is known, that
Waters cannot naturally ascend higher then that place is, from whence
they come; and unlesse it were so in Nature, Art could never doe it,
because Art imitates Nature; and that which is not in Nature cannot
succeed by Art; for Water, as I said before, doth not ascend higher
then the place from whence it was taken: thou hast for an example that
instrument, with which Wine is drained out of a barrell.

To conclude therefore, know that Springs, or breakings forth of Water
are not generated of Stars, but that they come from the Center of the
Sea, whither they return, and that thus they observe a continuall
motion. For if this were not so, nothing at all either in the earth,
or upon the earth could be generated, yea the ruine of the world would
of necessity follow. But lest it may bee objected, that in the Sea all
Waters are salt, and that the Waters of Springs are sweet: Know, that
this is the reason, because that Water distills through the pores of
the Earth, and passing many miles through narrow places, and through
sands, the saltnesse being lost, is made sweet: After the example of
which Cisterns are found out. There are also in some places greater
and larger pores, and passages, through which salt Water breaks
through, where afterwards are made salt pits, and fountains, as at
_Halla_ in _Germany_. Also in some places the Waters are constringed
with heat, and the salt is left in the sands, but the Water sweats
through other pores, as in _Polonia_, at _Wielicia_, and _Bochia_: So
also when Waters passe through places, that are hot, sulphureous, and
continually burning, they are made hot, from whence Bathes arise: for
there are in the bowells of the Earth places, in which Nature distills,
and separates a sulphureous Mine, where, by the Centrall Fire it is
kindled. The Water running through these burning places, according to
the neernesse or remotenesse are more or lesse hot, and so breaks forth
into the superficies of the Earth, and retains the tast of Sulphur,
as all broth doth of the flesh, that is boiled in it. After the same
manner it is, when Water passing through places where are Mineralls,
as Copper, Allum, doth acquire the savour of them. Such therefore
is the Distiller, the Maker of all things, in whose hands is this
Distillatory, according to the example of which all distillations have
been invented by Philosophers; which thing the most High God himself
out of pity, without doubt, hath inspired into the sons of men: and he
can, when it is his holy will, either extinguish the Centrall Fire, or
break the vessell, and then there will be an end of all. But since his
goodnesse doth intend the bettering of all things, hee will at length
exalt his most sacred Majesty, and raise up higher the purest Fire of
all, which is higher then the Waters of the Heavens which are above the
Firmament, and will give it a stronger degree of heat then the Centrall
Fire, that all the Waters may bee exhaled up into the Aire, and the
Earth be calcined, and so the Fire, all the impurity being consumed,
will make the Waters of the purified Earth, being circulated in the
Aire, to be more subtile, and will (if wee may thus speak in a way of
Philosophy) make a world much more excellent.

Therefore let all the Searchers of this Art know, that the Earth, and
Water make one globe, and being together make all things, because they
are tangible Elements, in which the other two being hid doe work.
The Fire preserves the Earth, that it bee not drowned, or dissolved:
the Aire preserves the Fire that it bee not extinguished: the Water
preserves the Earth that it bee not burnt. It seemed good to us to
describe these things, as conducing to our purpose, that the studious
may know, in what things the foundations of the Elements consist, and
how Philosophers have observed their contrary actings; joining Fire
with Earth, and Aire with Water: although when they would doe any
excellent thing, they have boiled Fire in Water, considering that one
blood is purer then another, as a tear is purer then urine. Let that
therefore suffice which we have spoken, _viz._ that the Element of
Water is the Sperm, and Menstruum of the world, as also the receptacle
of the Seed.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  The ELEMENT of

The Aire is an entire Element, most worthy of the three in its quality,
without, light, and invisible, but within, heavy, visible, and fixed,
it is hot, and moist, and tempered with Fire, and more worthy then
Earth, & Water. It is volatil, but may be fixed; and when it is fixed,
it makes every body penetrable. Of its most pure substance the vitall
spirits of living Creatures are made; that which is lesse pure is taken
up into its proper sphere of the Aire; but the residue, _viz._ the
grosser part abides in the Water, and is circulated with the Water, as
Fire with Earth, because they are friendly the one to the other. It is
most worthy, as wee have said; and it is the true place of the Seed of
all things: in it Seed is imagined, as in man, which afterward by the
circulating motion is cast into its own Sperm. This Element hath the
form of entirenesse to distribute the Seed into Matrixes by the Sperm,
and Menstruum of the world. In it also is the vitall spirit of every
Creature, living in all things, penetrating, and constringing the seed
in other Elements, as Males doe in Females. It nourisheth them, makes
them conceive, and preserveth them; and this daily experience teacheth,
that in this Element not only Mineralls, Animalls, or Vegetables live
but also other Elements. For wee see that all Waters become putrefied,
and filthy if they have not fresh Aire: The Fire also is extinguished,
if the Aire be taken from it: (Thence Chymists come to know how to
dispose of their Fire into severall degrees by means of the Aire, and
to order their registers according to the measure of the Air:) The
pores also of the Earth are preserved by Aire: In briefe, the whole
structure of the world is preserved by Aire. Also in Animalls, Man dies
if you take Aire from him, &c. Nothing would grow in the world, if
there were not a power of the Aire, penetrating, and altering, bringing
with it selfe nutriment that multiplies. In this Element by vertue of
the Fire is that imagined Seed, which constringeth the Menstruum of the
world by its occult power, as in trees, and herbs, when through the
pores of the Earth, by the acting of the spirituall heat, there goeth
forth a Sperm with the Seed, and the vertue of the Aire in a proportion
constringeth, and congeals it by drops; and so trees by growing day
after day, drop after drop, are at length raised to be great trees; as
wee have treated in the book of the Twelve Treatises. In this Element
are all things entire through the imagination of Fire; and it is full
of divine vertue: for in it is included the Spirit of the most High,
which before the Creation was carryed upon the Waters, as saith the
Scripture, _And did fly upon the wings of the Wind_. If therefore it
bee so, as indeed it is, that the Spirit of the Lord is carryed in it,
why needs thou question but that he hath left his divine vertue in it?
For this Monarch is wont to adorn his dwelling places; hee hath adorned
this Element with the vitall spirit of every Creature: for in it is the
seed of all things, dispersed, in which presently after the Creation
was (as wee said before) by the great Maker of all things included
that magneticke vertue which if it had not, it could not attract any
nourishment, but so the Seed must be left in a small quantity, neither
would increase, or bee multiplyed; but as the Loadstone drawes to it
self hard Iron (after the manner of the Articke pole, drawing waters
to it selfe, as we have shewed in the Element of Water) so the Aire by
a Vegetable magnetick power, which is in the Seed, draws to it selfe
the nourishment of the Menstruum of the world, _i.e._ Water. All these
things are made by Aire, for that is the leader of the Waters, and the
occult vertue thereof is included in all Seed for the attracting of
radicall moisture, and this vertue is, as wee said before, alwaies the
280^{th.} part in all Seed, as wee have shewed thee in the third of the
Twelve Treatises. If therefore any one would successefully plant trees,
let him bee carefull that hee turne the attractive point towards the
Northern part; so hee shall never lose his labour: for as the Articke
pole drawes to it selfe the Waters, so the verticle point draws to it
self Seed; and every attractive point doth answer to them. Thou hast an
example in all manner of Wood, whose attractive point doth naturally
tend to the verticle point, and is drawne by it. For let a bowle of
Wood, if thou wilt know which is the superior point, be put into water,
and let it sink (so that the water exceed the length of the Wood) thou
shalt alwaies see that point rise up before the opposite part; for
Nature knows not how to erre in her office: but of these we shall treat
further in our book called _Harmonia_, where wee shall speak more of
the magneticke vertue (although he shall bee easily able to understand
the Loadstone, to whom the nature of Metalls is knowne). Let this
suffice that wee have said, that this Element is the most worthy of the
three in which is Seed, and vitall spirit, or dwelling place of the
soule of every Creature.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  The ELEMENT of

Fire is the purest, and most worthy Element of all, full of unctuous
corrosivenesse adhering to it, penetrating, digesting, corroding, and
wonderfully adhering, without, visible, but within invisible, and
most fixed; it is hot, dry, and tempered with Aire. Its substance is
the purest of all, and its essence was first of all elevated in the
Creation with the throne of divine Majesty, when the Waters of the
Heavens were established, as we have said in the Element of Water: out
of the lesse pure part of its substance the Angells were created; out
of that which was lesse pure then that, being mixed with the purest
Aire, were the Sun, Moon and Stars created. That which is lesse pure
then that is raised up to terminate, and hold up the Heavens: but the
impure, and unctuous part of it is left, and included in the Center of
the Earth by the wise, and great Creator, for to continue the operation
of motion, and this wee call Hell. All these Fires are indeed divided,
but they have a Naturall sympathy one towards another.

This Element is of all the most quiet, and like unto a charriot, when
it is drawed, it runs, when it is not drawed, it stands still. It is
also in all things undiscernibly. In it are the reasons of life, and
understanding, which are distributed in the first infusion of Mans
life, and these are called the rational soule, by which alone Man
differs from other Creatures, and is like to God. This soule is of that
most pure Elementary Fire, infused by God into the vitall spirit, by
reason of which Man after the Creation of all things was created into
a particular World, or Microcosme. In this subject God the Creator of
all things put his seal, and Majesty, as in the purest, and quietest
subject, which is governed by the will, and infinite wisdome of God
alone. Wherefore God abhors all impurity, nothing that is filthy
compounded, or blemished may come neer him, therefore no mortall man
can see God, nor come to him naturally: for that Fire which is in
the circumference of the Divinity, in which is carryed the Seale and
Majesty of the Most High, is so intense, that no eye can penetrate
it: for Fire will not suffer any thing that is compounded to come
neer to it: for Fire is the death, and separation of any thing that
is compounded. Wee have said that it is the most quiet subject (for
so it is) or else it would follow (which so much as to thinke were
absurd) that God could not rest; for it is of most quiet silence,
more then any mans mind can imagine. Thou hast an example of this in
the Flint, in which there is Fire, and yet is not perceived, neither
doth appear, untill it be stirred up by motion, and kindled in it that
it may appear: so the Fire in which is placed the sacred Majesty of
our Creator, is not moved, unlesse it be stirred up by the proper will
of the most High, and so is carryed where his holy Will is. There is
made by the Will of the supream Maker of all things a most vehement,
and terrible motion. Thou hast an Example of this, when any Monarch of
this world sits in his pompe, What a quietnesse there is about him?
What silence? and although some one of his Court doth more, the motion
is only of some one, or other particular man, which is not regarded.
But when the Lord himself moves, there is an universall stirre, and
motion, then all that attend on him, move with him. What then? when
that supream Monarch, the King of Kings, and Maker of all things
(after whose example the Princes of the world are established in the
earth) doth move in his own person of Majesty? What a stirre? What
trembling, when the whole guard of his heavenly Army move about him?
But some one may ask, How doe wee know these things, since heavenly
things are hid from Mans understanding? To whom wee answer, that they
are manifest to all Philosophers; yea the incomprehensible wisdome of
God hath inspired into them, that all things are created after the
example of Nature, and that Nature hath its bounds from those secret
things, and accordingly works; and that nothing is done on the earth,
but according to the example of the heavenly Monarchy, which is managed
by the divers offices of Angells. So also there is nothing brought
forth, or generated, but what is done naturally. All humane inventions,
yea and Arts, which either are, or shall bee, proceed not otherwise
then from Naturall principles. The most High Creator was willing to
manifest all Naturall things unto man, wherefore hee shewed to us
that Celestiall things themselves were naturally made, by which his
absolute, and incomprehensible power, and wisdome might be so much the
better known; all which things the Philosophers in the light of Nature,
as in a Looking-glasse, have the cleer sight of. For which cause they
esteemed highly of this Art, _viz._ not so much out of covetousnesse
for Gold, or Silver, but for knowledge sake, not only of all Naturall
things, but also of the power of the Creator, and they were willing to
speak of these things sparingly, and only figuratively, lest divine
mysteries by which Nature is illustrated, should be discovered to the
unworthy, which thou, if thou knowest how to know thy selfe, and art
not of a stiffe neck, maist easily comprehend; who art created after
the likenesse of the great world, yea after the image of God. Thou hast
in thy body the Anatomy of the whole world, thou hast in stead of the
Firmament the quintessence of the foure Elements, extracted out of the
Chaos of Sperms, into a matrix, and into a skin, which doth compasse
it round, thou hast most pure blood in stead of Fire, in the vitall
spirit whereof is placed the seat of the soule (which is in stead of
the King;) thou hast a heart in stead of the earth; where the Centrall
Fire continually works; and preserves the fabrick of this Microcosm in
its being; thou hast thy mouth in stead of the Articke pole; and thy
belly in stead of the Antarticke, and all thy members answer to some
Celestialls: of which in our booke of Harmony wee shall treat more
fully, _viz._ in the Chapter of Astronomy, where we have wrote how that
Astronomy is easy, naturall, how the aspects of Planets, and Stars
are efficacious, and why Prognostication is given of Raine, and other
events, which would bee too tedious to reckon up here, and all these
are linked together, and performed in a naturall manner, onely God doth
some things extraordinary. Because the Ancients omitted it, we are
willing to shew it to him that is diligently studious of this secret,
that the incomprehensible power of the most High God, may so much the
more cleerly come home to his heart, and that hee may love, and adore
him the more zealously. Let therefore the Searcher of this sacred
science know, that the soule in a man the lesser world, or Microcosme
substituting the place of its Center, is the King, and is placed in the
vitall spirit, in the purest bloud. That governes the mind, and the
mind the body: when the soule conceives any thing, the mind knows all
things, and all the members understand the mind, and obey the mind, and
are desirous to fulfill the will thereof. For the body knows nothing,
whatsoever strength, or motion is in the body, is caused by the mind;
the body is to the mind, as instruments are to the Artificer; Now the
soule, by which man differs from other Animalls, operates in the body,
but it hath a greater operation out of the body, because out of the
body it absolutely reigns, and by these things it differs from other
Animalls, who have only the mind, not the soule of the Deity. So also
God, the Maker of all things, our Lord, and our God, works in this
world those things, which are necessary for the world; and in these hee
is included in the world; whence wee beleeve that God is every where.
But hee is excluded the body of the world by his infinite wisdome, by
which hee workes out of the world, and imagines much higher things,
then the body of the world is able to conceive, and those things are
beyond Nature, being the secrets of God alone. You have the soul for an
example, which out of the body imagines many most profound things, and
in this it is like unto God, who out of the world works beyond Nature;
although the soule to God bee as it were a candle lighted to the light
at Noonday: for the soul imagines, but executes not but in the mind;
but God doth effect all things the same moment when hee imagines them;
as the soul imagines any thing to be done at _Rome_, or elsewhere in
the twinckling of an eye, but only in the mind; but God doth all such
things essentially, who is omnipotent. God therefore is not included
in the world, but as the soul in the body; he hath his absolute power
separated from the world, so also the soul of any body hath its
absolute power separated from the body, to doe other things then the
body can conceive; it hath a very great power therefore upon the body,
if it pleaseth, or otherwise our Philosophy were in vain. By these
therefore learn to know God, and thou shalt know in which the Creator
differs from the Creature. Thou thy selfe shalt be able to conceive
greater things, when as now thou hast the gate opened by us. But lest
this Treatise should grow too big, let us returne to our purpose.

Wee said before that the Element of Fire is the most quiet of all, and
that it is stirred up by motion, which stirring up wise men knew. It
is necessary that a Philosopher know the generation, and corruption of
all things, to whom not only the Creation of the Heavens is manifest,
but also the composition, and mixture of all things: but although they
know all things, yet they cannot doe all things. We know indeed the
composition of Man in all respects, yet wee cannot infuse the soule;
because this mystery belongs only unto God: & he exceeds all things by
these kind of infinite mysteries. Seeing these are out of the corse of
Nature, they are not as yet in the disposition of Nature: Nature doth
not work before there be matter given unto her to work upon. The first
matter is given to her by God, the second by the Philosopher. Now in
the operation of the Philosophers Nature hath a power to stir up the
fire, which by the Creator is secretly included in the Center of every
thing: This stirring up of the fire is done by the will of Nature,
sometimes by the will of the skilfull Artificer disposing of Nature.
For naturally all impurities, and pollutions of things are purged by
Fire: All things that are compounded, are dissolved by Fire: as water
washeth, and purgeth all things imperfect, which are not fixed; so the
Fire purgeth all things that are fixed, and by Fire they are perfected:
As Water doth conjoine all things that are dissolved; so fire separates
all things that are conjoined; and what is naturall, and of affinity
with it, it doth very wel purge, and augment it, not in quantity but
in vertue. This element doth severall ways secretly work upon other
Elements, and all things else: For as the Animall soul is of the
purest of this Element, so the Vegetable is of the Elementary part of
it, which is governed by Nature. This Element doth act upon the Center
of every thing in this manner: Nature causeth Motion, Motion stirs up
Aire, the Aire the Fire; Now Fire separates, cleanseth, digesteth,
coloureth, and maketh all seed to ripen, and being ripe expells it by
the sperm into places, and matrixes, into places pure or impure, more
or lesse hot, dry or moist; and according to the disposition of the
matrix, or places, divers things are brought forth in the earth, as in
the booke of the Twelve Treatises concerning Matrixes mention hath been
made, that there are as many Matrixes, as places. So the Builder of all
things, the most High God hath determined, and ordained all things,
that one shall be contrary unto the other, yet so that the death of
the one be the life of the other: that which produceth one, consumeth
another, and another thing from this is naturally produced, and such a
thing which is more noble then the former: and by this means there is
preserved an equality of the Elements, and so also of the compositum.
Separation is of all things, especially of living things the naturall
death: Wherefore man must naturally die because hee is compounded of
four Elements, hee is subject to separation, seing every thing that
is compounded is separated naturally. But this separation of Mans
composition must needs have been done in the day of judgement, _i.e._
the first judgement, when the sentence of a naturall death was passed
upon him: for in Paradise Man was immortall. Which all Divines, as also
Sacred Writ doth testifie; but a sufficient reason of this immortality
no Philosopher hitherto hath shewed; which it is convenient for the
Searcher of this sacred Science to know, that he may see how all these
things are done naturally, and bee most easily understood. But it
is most true, that every compound thing in this world is subject to
corruption, and separation; which separation in the Animall Kingdome
is called death: And man seeing hee is created and compounded of foure
Elements, how can hee bee immortall? It is hard to beleeve that this
is done naturally; but that there is something above Nature in it.
Yet God hath inspired it into Philosophers that were good men many
ages since, that this is so naturally. Which take to be thus. Paradise
was, and is such a place, which was created by the great Maker of all
things, of true Elements, not elementated, but most pure, temperate,
equally proportioned in the highest perfection; and all things that
were in Paradise were created of the same Elements, and incorrupt;
there also was Man created and framed of the same incorrupted Elements,
proportioned in equality, that he could in no wise be corrupted,
therefore he was consecrated to immortality: for without all doubt
God created this Paradise for men only, of which and where it is wee
have largely treated in our book of Harmony. But when afterwards Man
by his sinne of disobedience had transgressed the comandement of the
most High God, hee was driven forth to beasts into the corruptible
world elementated, which God created only for beasts: who of necessity,
seeing he cannot live without nutriment, must from corrupt elementated
Elements receive nutriment. By which nutriment those pure Elements
of which he was created, were infected; and so by little and little
declined into corruption, untill one quality exceeded another, and
destruction, infirmity, and last of all separation, and death of the
whole compound followed. So that now they are neer unto corruption and
death, who are procreated in corrupt Elements, of corrupt Seed, and
not in Paradise; for Seed produced out of corrupt nutriments cannot be
durable; and by how much the longer it is since the driving forth of
man out of Paradise, so much the neerer men are to corruption; and by
consequence their lives are so much shorter, and it will come to this
passe, that even generation it selfe by reason of the shortnesse of
life shall cease. Yet there are some places, where the Aire is more
favourable, and the Starres more propitious, and there their Natures
are not so soon corrupted, because also they live more temperately:
Our Countrey-men by reason of gluttony, and inordinate living make
quick hast to corruption. This experience teacheth, that they that
are born of the seed of infirme Parents doe not live long. But if
man had continued in Paradise, a place sutable to his Nature, where
all the Elements were as incorrupt, and pure as a virgin, hee had
been immortall for ever. For it is certain that when pure Elements
are joined together equally in their vertues, such a subject must be
incorrupted, and such must the Philosophers Stone bee: To this Creation
of Man the ancient Philosophers have likened this Stone, but Modern
Philosophers understanding all things according to the letter doe apply
it to the corrupt generation of this age.

This Immortality was the chief cause that Philosophers exercised their
wits to find out this Stone, for they knew that man was created of
such Elements which were sound and pure. They therefore meditated upon
that Creation, which, when they knew to bee naturall, began to search
further into it, whether such uncorrupted Elements could bee had,
or if they could be joined together, and infused into any subject.
Now to these the most High God, and Maker of all things revealed,
that a composition of such Elements was in Gold: For in Animalls it
could not be had, seing they must preserve their lives by corrupt
Elements; in Vegetables also it is not, because in them is found an
inequality of the Elements. And seeing all created things are inclined
to multiplication, the Philosophers propounded to themselves that
they would make tryall of the possibility of Nature in this Minerall
Kingdome; which being discovered, they saw that there were innumerable
other secrets in Nature, of which, as of Divine secrets, they have
wrote sparingly. So now thou seest how corrupt Elements come to bee
in a subject, and how they are separated; when one exceeds the other,
and because then putrefaction is made by the first separation, and
by putrefaction is made a separation of the pure from the impure, if
then there be a new conjunction of them by vertue of Fire, it doth
acquire a form much more noble then the first was. For in its first
state, corruption was by reason of grosse matter mixed with it, which
is not purged away but by putrefaction, the subject thereby being
bettered; and this could not be but by the vertues of the foure
Elements, which are in every compound thing, being joined together:
for when a Compositum must perish, it perisheth by the Element of
Water; and whilest they lie thus confusedly, the Fire together with
the Earth, and Aire which it is in potentially, agree together, and
by their united forces do afterward overcome the Water, which they
digest, boile, and lastly congeal; and after this manner Nature helps
Nature. For if the hidden Central Fire, which is the life of all things
overcomes, and works upon that which is neerer to it, and purer, as
it selfe is most pure, and is joined with it: so it overcomes its
contrary, and separates the pure from the impure, and there is a new
form generated, and if it bee yet a little helped, much more excellent
then the former. Sometimes by the wit of a skilfull Artificer there
are made things immortall, especially in the Minerall Kingdome. So all
things are done by Fire alone, and the government of Fire, and are
brought forth into a being, if thou hast understood mee.

Here now thou hast the originall of the Elements, their Natures, and
operations described unto thee very briefly, which is sufficient
for our purpose in this place. For otherwise if every Element were
described as it is, it would require a great volume not necessary for
our purpose. All those things, as wee said before, wee refer to our
book of Harmony, where God willing, if wee live so long, wee shall
write more largely of Naturall things.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of all things.

These four Elements being described, we will now descend unto the
Principles of things. But how they are produced of the foure Elements,
take it thus. After Nature had received from the most high Creator of
all things the priviledge of being Princesse over this Monarchy of
the world, shee began to distribute places, and Provinces to every
thing, according to its dignity; and in the first place shee made the
Elements the Princes of the world; and that the will of the most High
(in whose will Nature was placed) might be fulfilled, she ordained that
one should continually act upon the other. The Fire therefore began
to act upon the Aire, and produced Sulphur, the Air also began to act
upon the Water, & brought forth Mercury, the Water also began to act
upon the Earth, and brought forth Salt. But the Earth, since it had
nothing to work upon, brought forth nothing, but that which was brought
forth continued, and abided in it: Wherefore there became only three
Principles, and the Earth was made the Nurse, and Mother of the rest.
There were, as wee said, three Principles brought forth; which the
ancient Philosophers did not so strictly consider, but described only
two actings of the Elements (or if they were willingly silent in it,
who shall censure them, seeing they dedicated their writing only to
the Sons of Art?) and named them Sulphur, and Mercury, which also may
suffice us, to be the matter of Metals, as also of the Philosophers

Whosoever therefore will bee a true Searcher of this sacred Science
must of necessity know the Accidents, and an Accident it self, that hee
may learn to what subject, or Element hee purposeth to come to, that
through mediums hee may apply himselfe to that, if otherwise hee desire
to fill up the number of four. For as these three Principles were
produced of four, so also by diminution must these three produce two,
Male, and Female; and two produce one incorruptible thing, in which
those foure shall being equally perfect, be purified, and digested to
the utmost; and so a quadrangle shall answer a quadrangle. And this
is that quintessence, which is very necessary for every Artificer,
being separated from many contraries. And so thou hast in these three
Principles, in what naturall composition soever, a body, a spirit, and
an occult soule; which three, if thou shalt joine them together being
separated, and well purified, as wee said before, without doubt will
by imitating Nature yeeld most pure fruit. For although the soule be
taken from a most noble place, yet it cannot come whither it tends but
by a spirit, which is the place, and mansion of the soule; which if
thou wilt reduce to its due place, it is necessary that it be washed
from all its faults; and that the place be purified, that the soule may
be glorified in it, and never more be separated from it. Now therefore
thou hast the originall of the three Principles, out of which it is
thy part, by imitating Nature, to produce the Mercury of Philosophers,
and their first matter, and to bring those Principles of things,
especially of Metalls to thy purpose: seeing without those Principles
it is impossible for thee to perfect any thing by Art, since also
Nature her selfe can doe nor produce nothing without them. These three
are in all things, and without them there is nothing in the world, or
ever shall bee naturally. But because wee said before, that the ancient
Philosophers named only two Principles, lest the Searcher of the Art
should erre, hee must know, that although they did not describe any
other but Sulphur, and Mercury, yet without salt they could never have
attained to this work, since that is the key, and beginning of this
sacred Science: it is that, which openeth the gates of Justice; it is
that which hath the keyes to the infernall prisons, where Sulphur lies
bound, as hereafter shal be more fully shewed in the third Treatise of
the Principles, of Salt.

Now to our purpose, which is that these 3 principles are altogether
necessary, because they are the neer matter. For the matter of Metalls
is twofold. Neer, and remote. The neer is Sulphur, and Mercury. The
remote are the four Elements: out of which God alone is able to create
things. Leave therefore the Elements, because of them thou shalt doe
nothing; neither canst thou out of them produce any thing but these
three Principles, seeing Nature her selfe can produce nothing else out
of them. If therefore thou canst out of the Elements produce nothing
but these three Principles, wherefore then is that vaine labour of
thine to seeke after, or to endeavour to make that which Nature hath
already made to thy hands? Is it not better to goe three mile then
four? Let it suffice thee then to have three Principles, out of which
Nature doth produce all things in the earth, and upon the earth; which
three we find to be entirely in every thing. By the due separation, and
conjunction of these, Nature produceth as well Metalls, as Stones, in
the Minerall Kingdome; but in the Vegetable Kingdome Trees, Herbs, and
all such things; also in the Animall Kingdome the Body, Spirit, and
Soule, which especially doth resemble the work of the Philosophers. The
Body is Earth, the Spirit is Water, the Soule is Fire, or the Sulphur
of Gold: The Spirit augmenteth the quantity of the Body, but the Fire
augmenteth the vertue thereof. But because there is more of the Spirit
in weight, then is of the Fire; the Spirit is raised, and oppresseth
the Fire, and drawes it to it selfe: and so every one of them,
encreaseth in vertue, and the Earth, which is the midle betwixt them
encreaseth in weight. Let therefore every searcher of this Art conclude
in his mind what he seeks for out of these three, and let him assist
it in the overcomeing of its contrary; and then let him adde to the
weight of Nature his weight, that the defect of Nature may be made up
by Art, that shee may overcome what is contrary to her. We said in the
Element of Earth, that the Earth was nothing else but the receptacle
of other Elements, _i.e._ the subject in which those two, Fire and
Water, do strive, the Aire mediating; if the Water be predominant,
it brings forth things that are corruptible, and continue but for a
time; but if the Fire overcome, it produceth things that are lasting, &
incorruptible. Consider therefore what is necessary for thee. Moreover
know, that Fire, and Water are in every thing, but neither Fire, nor
Water makes any thing, because they only strive together, and contend
concerning swiftnesse, and vertue, and this not of themselves, but
by the excitation of the intrinsecall heat, which by the motion of
the heavenly vertues is kindled in the Center of the Earth; without
which those two could never doe any thing, but would both stand still
in their own bound, and weight: but Nature afterward joined them two
together proportionably, and then stirres them up by an intrinsecall
heat, and so they begin to contend one with the other, and each of them
will call to its help its like, and so they ascend and encrease, untill
the Earth can ascend no higher with them; in the mean time those two
by this retaining of the Earth are subtilized; (for in that subject
of the Earth the Fire, and Water ascend incessantly, and act through
the pores which are reserved, and which the Aire prepares) and out of
their subtiliation proceed flowers, and fruit, in which they become
friends, as you may see in Trees; for by how much the better they are
subtilized, and purified by ascending, so much the better fruit doe
they bring forth, especially if they end with their vertues equally
joined together.

Now then the things being purged, and cleansed, cause that the Fire,
and Water bee made friends, which will easily bee done in their own
earth, which did ascend with them; and then thou shalt in a shorter
time perfect it, then Nature could, if thou shalt joine them well
together, according to the weight of Nature, not as it was before,
but as Nature requires, and as is needfull: Because Nature in all
compositions puts more of the other Elements then of Fire: alwaies
the least part is Fire, but Nature according as shee pleaseth, addes
an extrinsecall Fire to stir up that intrinsecall according to more,
or lesse, in much, or little time; and according to this if the Fire
exceed, or be exceeded, things perfect, or imperfect are made, as well
in Mineralls, as in Vegetables. The extrinsecall Fire indeed doth
not enter into the depth of the composition essentially, but only in
vertue; for the intrinsecall materiall Fire is sufficient for it selfe,
if only it hath nourishment, and the extrinsecall Fire is nourishment
to it, and as it were Wood in respect of Elementary Fire, and according
to such a nourishment it increaseth, and is multiplyed. Yet wee must
take heed that there bee not too much extrinsecall Fire, for if any one
eats more then hee is able, hee is choaked: a great flame devours a
little Fire: the extrinsecall Fire must be multiplicative, nourishing,
not devouring, so things are perfected. Decoction therefore in every
thing is the perfection: so Nature addes vertue, and weight, and
makes perfect. But because it is hard to adde to a compound, since
it requires a long labour, wee advise that thou take away so much of
that which is superfluous, as is needfull, and as Nature requires: The
superfluities being removed mix them, then Nature will shew thee, what
thou hast sought after. Thou also shalt know, if Nature hath joined
the Elements well, or ill together, seeing all Elements consist in
conjunction. But many practitioners sow Straw, for Wheat; and some
both: and many cast away that, which the Philosophers love: some begin,
and end, because of their inconstancy; they seek for a difficult Art,
and an easy labour; they cast away the best things, & sow the worst;
but as this Art is concealed in the Preface, so also is the matter cast
away in the beginning. Now wee say, that this Art is nothing else, but
the vertues of the Elements equally mixed: it is a naturall equality of
hot, dry, cold, moist; A joining together of Male, and Female, which
the same Female begot, _i.e._ a conjunction of Fire, and the radicall
moisture of Metalls. By considering that the Mercury of Philosophers
hath in it selfe its owne good Sulphur, more or lesse, depurated, and
decocted by Nature, thou maist perfect all things out of Mercury: but
if thou shalt know to adde thy weights to the weights of Nature, to
double Mercury, and triple Sulphur, it will quickly be terminated in
good, then in better, untill into best of all: although there be but
one appearing Sulphur, and two Mercuries, but of one root; not crude,
nor too much boiled, yet purged, and dissolved, if thou hast understood

It is not needfull to describe the matter of the Mercury of
Philosophers, and the matter of their Sulphur: no mortall man ever
could, or ever hereafter shall bee able to describe it more openly,
and cleerly then it hath already been described, and named by the
Ancient Philosophers, unlesse he will bee an Anathema of the Art. For
is so commonly named, that truly it is not esteemed of, therefore doe
Students of this Art bend their minds rather to other subtilties, then
abide in the simplicity of Nature. We doe not yet say, that Mercury of
Philosophers is a common thing, and openly named, but the matter of
which Philosophers doe make their Sulphur, and Mercury: for the Mercury
of Philosophers is not to be had of it selfe upon the Earth, but it is
brought forth by Art out of Sulphur, and Mercury joined together; it
doth not come forth into light, for it is naked, but yet is covered
by Nature in a wonderful manner. To conclude, we say with repeating
Sulphur, and Mercury to be the Mine of our Quicksilver (but being
joined together) that Quicksilver can dissolve Metalls, kill them, and
make them alive, which power it receiveth from that sharp Sulphur,
which is of its own nature. But that thou maist yet better conceive
it, hearken to me whilst I tell thee the difference which is betwixt
our Quicksilver, and common Quicksilver, or Mercury. Common Mercury
doth not dissolve Gold, and Silver so, that it cannot be separated
from them; but our Argent vive doth dissolve Gold, and Silver, and is
never separated from them, but is as Water mixed with Water. Common
Mercury hath combustible evill Sulphur, with which it is made black:
but our Argent vive hath in it incombustible Sulphur, fixed, good,
white, and red. Common Mercury is cold, and moist, our Mercury is hot,
and moist. Common Mercury makes bodies black, and stains them: our
Argent vive makes bodies as white as Crystall. Common Mercury is turned
by precipitation into a Citrine powder, and an evill Sulphur: our
argent vive by vertue of heat, into most white Sulphur, good, fixed,
and fluxible. Common Mercury by how much the more it is decocted, the
more fluxible it is: our Argent vive, by how much the more it is
decocted, the more it is thickned. By these circumstances therefore
thou maist consider how the Common Mercury differs from the Mercury of
Philosophers. If thou dost not yet understand, do not expect it, for no
mortall man will ever speake more plainly, and cleerly, then wee have
done: but now of the vertues of it. Our Argent vive is of such vertue,
that it is of it self sufficient for thee, and for it self without any
addition of any extraneous thing, it is dissolved, and congealed by a
naturall decoction only: but Philosophers for brevities sake adde to it
its own Sulphur well digested, and ripened, and so they work.

Wee could cite the Writings of Philosophers to confirm what we have
said; but because we have wrote clearer things then are in their
Writings, they need not any confirmation, he shall understand who looks
into other mens writings. If therefore thou wilt follow our advice,
Wee advise thee, that before thou settest thy self to this Art, in
the first place thou learn to hold thy tongue, and that thou inquire
into the Nature of Mines, and Metalls, as also of Vegetables, for
thou shalt find our Mercury in every subject, and from all things the
Mercury of Philosophers may bee extracted, although it be neerer in
one subject, then in another. Know also for certain, that this Art is
not placed in fortune, or casuall invention, but in a reall Science,
and that there is but this one matter in the world, by which, and of
which the Philosophers Stone is made. It is indeed in all things, but
in extracting of it a mans life would fail, and not be sufficient. Yet
without the knowledge of naturall things, especially in the Minerall
Kingdome, thou shalt be like a blind man that walketh by use. Truly
such a one seeks after the Art but casually; and although, as it
oftentimes falls out, that a man may by chance fall upon the matter
of our Argent vive, yet then he ends the worke when hee should begin;
and so as hee found it out casually, hee loseth it casually, because
hee knows not upon what hee should ground his intention. Therefore
this Art is the gift of the most high God: and unlesse God reveales
it by means of a good wit, or friend, it is hardly known: for wee
cannot bee all as _Geber_, nor as _Lullius_: And although _Lullius_
was a man of a subtill wit, yet if hee had not received the Art from
_Arnoldus_, certainly hee had been like unto those which find the Art
with difficulty: So also _Arnoldus_ confesseth that hee received it
of a friend. For it is easy to write what Nature dictates: It is a
Proverb, _It is easy to adde to things already found out_. Every Art,
and Science is easy to the Master, but to a young Scholar not so: and
to find out this Art there is a long time required, many vessells,
great expence, and continuall labour, with much meditation, although to
him that knows it already all things are easy, and light. To conclude
therefore wee say, that this Art is the gift of God alone, which being
known, he must also bee prayed to that he would give his blessing to
the Art; for without this divine blessing it would be of no use, and
unprofitable, which wee our selves have had experience of, seeing wee
have by reason of this Art undergone great dangers, yea wee have had
more mischief, and misfortune by it, then advantage: but there is a
time when men are wise too late.

The judgements of the Lord are a great depth. Yet I admired at divine
providence in these my misfortunes: for I alwaies had the protection
of our great Creator alwaies at hand, that no enemie could bee too
hard for me, or represse mee. The Angell of the Lord of this Treasury
hath alwaies been my Keeper, into which Treasury the most High Creator
hath shut close this treasure only, which hee will alwaies defend, and
secure. For I have heard that my Enemies have fell into that snare
which they laid for mee. They which would have taken away my life have
lost their own; and some of them which would have taken away my goods
have lost Kingdomes: Moreover, I know many that would have detracted
from my good name, have perished with disgrace. So great preservation
have I alwaies had from the great Creator of all things, who presently
took mee from my Mothers wombe, put mee under the shadow of his wings,
and infused the Spirit of understanding all naturall things, to whom
be praise, and glory, for ever, and ever. So great blessings have I
received from the most High God our Creator, that it is impossible not
only for my pen, but my mind to comprehend. God scarce ever conferred
upon any mortall man greater things, yea scarce so great. I wish I had
so much affections, so much spirit, eloquence, and wisdome, that I
might render meet thankes to him; for I know wee have not deserved so
great things, only this I beleeve my selfe to bee, that in him alone I
have alwaies trusted, doe trust, and shall trust. For I know that there
is no mortall man is able to help mee, only this God, and our Creator;
for it is a vain thing to trust in Princes, because they are men (as
saith the _Psalmist_) and that all these have their breath of life from
God, and this being taken away they are dust; but it is a safe, and
secure thing to trust in the Lord God, from whom as from the fountain
of goodnesse all good things doe most abundantly flow. Thou therefore
that desirest to attaine to this Art, in the first place put thy
whole trust in God thy Creator, and urge him by thy prayers, and then
assuredly beleeve that hee will not forsake thee: for if God shall know
that thy heart is sincere, and thy whole trust is put in him, hee will
by one means or another shew thee a way, and assist thee in it, that
thou shalt obtain thy desire. The fear of the Lord is the beginning
of wisdome. Pray, but yet worke: God indeed gives understanding, but
thou must know how, and when to use it: for as a good understanding,
and a good opportunity are the gifts of God, so also is the punishment
of sinne, when a good opportunity is omitted. But to return to our
purpose; wee say, that Argent vive is the first matter of that work,
and truly nothing else; whatsoever is added to it, ariseth from it.
Wee have said oftentimes that all things in the world are made, and
generated of the three Principles; but wee purge some things from their
accidents, and being purged, joine them together againe; and by adding
what is to be added, wee supply what is defective, and by imitating
Nature, wee boile them to the highest degree of perfection, which
Nature could by reason of Accidents never doe, and so ended where Art
must begin. Moreover, if thou desirest to imitate Nature, imitate her
in those things, in which shee workes. And let it not trouble thee that
our Writings seem to contradict one another in some places; for so
it must bee, lest the Art be too plainly disclosed: But do thou make
choice of those things which agree with Nature, take the roses, and
leave the prickles. If thou dost intend to make a Metall, let a Metall
be thy ground work, because of a Dog is generated nothing but a Dog,
and of Metall, nothing but a Metall: for know for certain, if thou
shalt not take out of Metall the radicall moisture, well separated,
thou shalt never doe any thing; without grains of Wheat thou shalt
till thy ground in vain: there is but one thing, but one Art, but one
operation. If therefore thou wilt produce a Metall, thou shalt ferment
with a Metall; and if thou wilt produce a Tree, let the seed of the
Tree be thy ferment. There is as we said, but one operation, and beside
it there is none other that is true. All they therefore are mistaken
that say, that any particular thing, besides this one way, and naturall
matter is true; for a bough is not to bee had, but from the trunk of a
Tree: It is an impossible, and senselesse thing to go about to produce
a bough; it is easier to make the Elixir it selfe, then any particular
thing, although most simple, that will bee advantageous, and abide a
naturall examination, and tryall. Yet there bee many that boast they
can fix Silver, but it were better for them if they could fix Lead,
or Tinne, seeing in my judgement it is all one labour, because they
doe not resist the tryall of the fire, whilest they abide in their
own nature; but Silver is in its nature fixed enough, and needs not
any Sophisticall fixation. But seeing there are as many opinions, as
men, wee will leave every one to his own opinion: Let him that will
not follow our counsell, and imitate Nature, continue in his errour.
Indeed particulars may easily bee made, if you have a Tree, whose
young twigs may bee graffed into divers trees; as if you have one
water, divers kinds of flesh may be boiled in it, and according to the
diversity of the flesh the broth hath its tast, and this from the same
foundation. Wee conclude therefore that there is but one Nature, as
well in Metalls as in other things, but her operation is various; also
there is one universall matter according to _Hermes_. _So from this one
thing all things proceed._ Yet there bee many Artificers, who follow
every one his own fancy. They seek a new Nature, and new matter; and in
conclusion they find a new nothing, because they interpret the Writings
of Philosophers not according to the possibility of Nature, but the
letter. But all these are of that Assembly, of which mention hath
been made in the Dialogue of Mercury with the Alchymist, who return
home without any Conclusion; they looke after the end, without any
medium, or indeed beginning; and the reason of this is, because they
endeavour not to attain to the Art out of the Principles, and grounds
of Philosophers, and reading of the books of Philosophers, but from
reports, and receipts of Mountebankes: (although now indeed the books
of Philosophers are perhaps destroyed by the envious, by adding in
some places, and detracting in others) afterwards when things doe not
succeed, they betake themselves to Sophistications, and assay divers
vaine operations, by making whites, by making reds, by fixing Silver,
and extracting out the soul of Gold; which in the Preface of the booke
of the Twelve Treatises hath been sufficiently denyed. We doe not deny,
yea, we doe say that it is altogether necessary, that the Metallick
soule bee extracted, but not for any Sophisticall operation, but for
the Philosophicall work, which being extracted, and purged, must againe
bee restored to its owne body, that there may bee a true resurrection
of a glorified body. This was never our purpose, to be able to multiply
Wheat without the seed of Wheate, but that that extracted soul bee able
in a Sophisticall way to tinge another Metall, know that it is a thing
most false, and that all those that boast of doing of it, are Cheaters:
but of that more fully in the third Principle of Salt, since here is
not place for any further Discourse.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


The Philosophers have not undeservedly placed Sulphur in the first
place amongst the three Principles, as being the most worthy Principle,
in the knowledge of which the whole Art consists. Now there is a
threefold Sulphur, and that is to be chosen above the rest: a Sulphur
tinging, or colouring: a Sulphur congealing Mercury: the third is
essentiall, and ripening. Of which we ought to treat seriously, but
because we have set forth one of the Principles by way of Dialogue, so
also wee shall conclude the rest, lest we should seem to be partiall,
and detract from either of them. Sulphur is more mature then any of
the other Principles, and Mercury is not coagulated but by Sulphur:
therefore our whole operation in this Art is nothing else but to know
how to draw forth that Sulphur out of Metalls, by which our Argent vive
in the bowels of the Earth is congealed into Gold, and Silver: which
Sulphur indeed is in this work in stead of the Male, but the Mercury in
stead of the Female. Of the composition, and acting of these two are
generated the Mercuries of Philosophers.

Wee told you in the Dialogue of Mercury with the Alchymist, of an
Assembly of Alchymists that were met together to consult out of what
matter, and how the Philosophers Stone is to be made, and how that by
the misfortune of a tempest they were without any conclusion dispersed
almost through the whole world. For there arose a strong tempest,
and very great wind, which dispersed them all abroad, and so blowed
through some of their heads, that till this time they cannot yet
recover themselves, by meanes of which divers sort of worms are bred
in their brains. Now there were amongst them men of divers opinions,
and conditions, and among the rest there was this Alchymist, which in
this Treatise I shall discourse of: hee was otherwise a good man, but
without a Conclusion, or unresolved, also of the number of those, who
propound to themselves to find out the Philosophers Stone casually, and
he was companion to that Philosopher, who disputed with Mercury. Now
this man said, if it had been my fortune to have spoke with Mercury,
I should have fished him dry in few words; that other, saith hee, was
a foole, hee knew not how to proceed with him. Mercury indeed never
pleased mee, neither indeed do I think there is any good in it; but
I approve of Sulphur, because at that meeting wee discoursed most
excellently of it: if that tempest had not disturbed us, wee had
concluded that that had been the first matter, for I am not wont to
trouble my selfe with light, and triviall matters, my head is full of
profound imaginations. And so being full of confidence hee resolves
to work in Sulphur, hee began therefore to distill it, to sublime,
calcine, to fix it, to make oyle _per Campanam_ of it, sometimes by
itselfe, and sometimes with Crystals, and Egge-shels, and hee tryed
divers other operations about it: and when hee had spent much time and
costs, and could find nothing to his purpose, he was sad, and being
in a miserable perplexity passed over many nights without sleep; also
oftentimes hee went forth out of the City, to behold things, that hee
might the more conveniently devise something that was certain in his
operation: Now it fell out upon a time, as he was walking up and down,
hee fell into an extasy with beholding of things, and came unto a
certain green Wood, very full of all manner of things; in which were
Mines of all Mineralls, and Metalls, and all kinds of beasts, and
birds, and abundance of Trees, Herbs, and fruit: there also were divers
conduits of water, for in those places there was no water to be had,
but what was brought thither by divers instruments, and pipes, and
this by divers Artificers from divers places: that was the chiefest,
and clearer then the rest, which was drawne by the beams of the Moon;
and this was procured only for the Nymph of the Wood. There also did
feed Bulls, and Rams, and the Shepheards were two young men, whom the
Alchymist asking, said, Whose Wood is this? whom they answered saying,
This is the Wood, and Garden of our Nymph _Venus_. The Alchymist walks
up, and down in it: and the place pleased him well, but yet hee did
still think of his Sulphur; and so being weary of walking, and in a
sad condition sate by the side of the channel, under a certain tree;
and began to lament most miserably, bewailing his time, and charges,
which he spent in vain with operating (he could not els have deceived
others, but have damnified himself only) and said, What is this,
all men say it is a thing common, of small esteem, easy, and I am a
learned man, & I cannot find out this wretched Stone. And so in his
lamentation he began to curse Sulphur, because he had spent so much
cost, and labour in vain upon him: and Sulphur also was in that Wood,
but this was unknown to the Alchymist. Whilst he was thus lamenting,
he heard this voice as it were of some old man: Friend, Why dost thou
curse Sulphur? The Alchymist looked every way round about him, and
seeing no body, was afraid. But that voice said to him again, Friend
why art thou so sad? The Alchymist taking courage, said, Sir, The
hungry man is alwaies thinking upon bread, so doe I alwaies upon the
Philosophers Stone. _Vox_, And why dost thou curse Sulphur? _Alch._
Sir, I beleeved that that was the first matter of the Philosophers
Stone, and therefore in working upon it many years, I spent much, and
could not find that Stone. _Vox._ Friend, truly I know that Sulphur is
the true, and principall subject of the Philosophers Stone, but I know
not thee, nor any thing of thy labour, and intention: thou dost without
cause curse Sulphur; because he is in cruell prisons, and cannot be at
hand to every body; seeing hee is put bound in a most dark dungeon,
and goes not forth, but whither his Keepers carry him. _Alch._ And
why is he imprisoned? _Vox._ Because hee would bee obedient to every
Alchymist, and doe what they would have him, contrary to his Mothers
will, who forbad him to obey any, but such as knew her, wherefore shee
put him into prison, and commanded that his feet should be bound, and
set Keepers over him, that without their knowledg, and pleasure hee
should goe no whither. _Alch._ O wretch! for this reason hee could not
come to mee: truly his Mother doth him great wrong: and when shall
hee bee let out of those prisons? _Vox_, O friend! The Sulphur of
Philosophers cannot goe forth hence but in a long time, and with a
great deale of labour. _Alch._ Sir! And who be his Keepers that keep
him? _Vox_, Friend! His Keepers are of the same stocke, but Tyrants.
_Alch._ And who art thou, and how art thou called? _Vox_, I am Judge,
and Governour of the prisons, and my name is _Saturne_. _Alch._ Then
Sulphur is kept in thy prisons. _Vox_, Sulphur indeed is kept in my
prisons, but hee hath other Keepers. _Alch._ And what doth hee doe
in the prisons? _Vox_, He doth whatsoever his Keepers will have him.
_Alch._ And what can hee doe? _Vox_, Hee is the maker of a thousand
things, and is the heart of all things; hee knows how to make Metalls
better, and corrects Mineralls, teacheth Animalls understanding,
knowes how to make all kind of Flowers in Hearbs, and Trees, and is
chief over them, corrupts the Aire, which hee amends again: hee is
the Maker of all Odours, and Painter of all Colours. _Alch._ Out of
what matter doth hee make Flowers? _Vox_, His Keepers afford matter,
and vessells, but Sulphur digests the matter, and according to the
variety of his digestion, and weight, various Flowers, and Odours are
produced. _Alch._ Is hee old? _Vox_, Friend, Know that Sulphur is the
vertue of all things, and is the second by birth, but yet older then
all things, stronger, and more worthy, yet an obedient child. _Alch._
Sir, How is hee known? _Vox_, Divers wayes, but best by the State of
the Vitalls in Animalls, by the colour in Metalls, by the odour in
Vegetables: without him his Mother works nothing. _Alch._ Is hee the
sole heir, or hath hee brethren? _Vox_, His Mother hath but only one
son like him, his other brethren are associated with evil things, hee
hath a sister which he loves, and is againe beloved by her, for shee is
as it were a Mother to him. _Alch._ Sir, is hee every where uniform?
_Vox_, According to his Nature, but hee is changed in the prisons;
yet his heart is alwaies pure, but his garments are stained. _Alch._
Sir, Was hee ever at liberty? _Vox_, Yea, especially in those times
when there were such wise men, betwixt whom, and his Mother there was
great familiarity, and friendship. _Alch._ And who were they? _Vox_,
There were very many: There was _Hermes_, who was as it were one with
his Mother: After him were many Kings, and Princes, as also many other
wise men, in ages since, as _Aristotle_, _Avicen_, &c. who set him at
liberty: These knew how to unloose his bonds. _Alch._ Sir, What did hee
give them for setting of him at liberty? _Vox_, Hee gave them three
Kingdomes: for when any doth unbind him, and releaseth him, then he
overcomes his Keepers, which before did govern in his Kingdome, and
delivers them being bound to him that released him, for to bee his
subjects, and gives him their Kingdomes to possesse: but that, which is
more; in his Kingdome is a Looking-glasse, in which is seen the whole
world. Whosoever lookes in this Glasse may see, and learn in it three
parts of the wisdome of the whole world, and so shall become very wise
in these three Kingdomes, such were _Aristotle_, _Avicen_, and many
others, who as well as they before them, saw in this glasse how the
world was made: By this they learned what were the influences of the
Celestiall vertues upon inferiour bodies, and how Nature by the weight
of Fire compounds things; as also the motion of the Sun, and Moon:
especially that universall motion, by which his Mother is governed:
by this they knew the degrees of heat, cold, moisture, drynesse, and
the vertues of hearbs, and indeed of all things, whence they became
most excellent Physitians. And truly, unlesse a Physitian be such a
one as knows, why this hearb, or that, is hot, dry, or moist in this
degree, not out of the books of _Galen_, or _Avicen_, but out of the
originall of Nature, from whence they also understood these things, hee
cannot bee a well grounded Physitian. All these things they diligently
considered, and bequeathed their Writings to their successors, that
men might bee stirred up to studies of a higher Nature, and learn how
to set Sulphur at liberty, and unloose his bonds: but men of this age
take their Writings for a sufficient ground, and authority, and seek
no further; and it sufficeth them if they know how to say, So saith
_Aristotle_, or; Thus saith _Galen_. _Alch._ And what say you, Sir, Can
an herb bee known without an Herball? _Vox_, Those ancient Philosophers
wrote their Receipts out of the very Fountain of Nature. _Alch._ How
Sir? _Vox_, Know that all things in the earth, and upon the earth, are
generated, and produced of three Principles; sometimes of two, to which
the third is joined: he therefore that knows these three Principles;
and the weight of them, how Nature joins them together, may be easily
able by decoction to understand the degree of Fire in the subject,
whether well, or ill, or indifferently decocted, and that according
to more or lesse: For all Vegetable things are known by those, who
know the three Principles. _Alch._ And how is this done? _Vox_, By
sight, tast, and smell; in, and from these three senses are gathered
the three Principles of things, and the degrees of their digestions.
_Alch._ Sir, They say that Sulphur is a Medicine. _Vox_, Yea, and the
Physitian himselfe, and to them that set him free from prison, by way
of thankfulnesse hee gives his blood for a Medicine. _Alch._ Sir, the
universall Medicine being had, how long may a man preserve himselfe
from death? _Vox_, Even to the term of death: but this Medicine must
bee taken cautiously, for many wise men have been destroyed by it
before their time. _Alch._ And what say you Sir, Is it poison? _Vox_,
Hast not thou heard that a great flame of fire destroyes a little one?
There were many Philosophers, which received the Art from other mens
experience, which did not so throughly search into the vertue of the
Medicine; yea, by how much the more powerfull, subtiler the Medicine
was, it seemed to them to bee the more wholsome; and if one grain of
it can passe through many thousands of Metalls, much more Mans body.
_Alch._ Sir, How then must it be used? _Vox_, It must bee so used, that
it may strengthen the Naturall heat, but not overcome it. _Alch._ Sir,
I know how to make such a Medicine. _Vox_, Thou art happy if thou dost
know. For the blood of that Sulphur is that intrinsecall vertue, and
siccity that turnes, and congeals Quicksilver, and all Metalls into
Gold, and Mens bodies into health. _Alch._ Sir, I know how to make oyle
of Sulphur, which is prepared with calcined Crystalls; I know also
another, which is done by a Bell. _Vox_, Certainly then thou art a
Philosopher of that Assembly; for thou dost understand, and expound my
words aright, as also, unlesse I am deceived, of all the Philosophers.
_Alch._ Sir, Is not this oyle the blood of Sulphur? _Vox_, O Friend!
the blood of Sulphur is not given to any but to those, who know how
to set him free from prison. _Alch._ Sir, doth Sulphur know any thing
in the Metalls? _Vox_, I told thee, that hee knows all things, and
especially in Metalls, but his Keepers know that there he could bee
easily set at liberty, wherefore they keep him there bound fast in most
strong prisons, so that hee cannot breath, and they are afraid lest hee
should come into the Kings palace. _Alch._ Is hee imprisoned so in all
Metalls? _Vox_, In all; but not alike, in some not so strictly. _Alch._
Sir, And why in Metalls in such a tyrannicall manner? _Vox_, Because
hee would stand in awe of them no longer, when hee shall once come to
his Kingly palaces, for then hee can be seen, and looke freely out of
the windows; because there he is in his proper Kingdome, although not
yet as hee desires. _Alch._ Sir, and what doth hee eat? _Vox_, His meat
is wind, when hee is at liberty, it is decocted; but in prison hee is
constrained to eat it raw. _Alch._ Sir, Can those enmities betwixt him
and his Keepers bee reconciled? _Vox_, Yes, if any one were so wise.
_Alch._ Why doth not he treat with them concerning a pacification?
_Vox_, That hee cannot doe by himselfe, because presently hee waxeth
hot with anger, and rage. _Alch._ Let him doe it by a Commissioner.
_Vox_, Certainly hee would bee the most happy man in the world, and
worthy of eternall memory, who could tell how to make peace betwixt
them; but this no man can doe but hee that is very wise, and can agree
with his Mother, and have co-intelligence with her: for if they were
friends, one would not hinder the other, but joining their forces
together would make things immortall. Truely hee that would reconcile
them together would bee a man worthy to be consecrated to eternity.
_Alch._ Sir, I will compose those differences betwixt them, and free
him, I am in other matters a man very learned, and wise: Besides, I
am very good at operations. _Vox_, Friend, I see truly that thou art
big enough, and thou hast a great head, but I know not whether thou
canst doe those things or no. _Alch._ Sir, Perhaps thou art ignorant
of what the Alchymists know, in matter of treaty they have alwaies
the better of it, and truly I am not the last, so that his enemies
will but treat with mee, if they will treat, assure your selfe that
they will have the worst. Sir, beleeve mee, the Alchymists know how to
treat, if they only will but treat with mee, Sulphur shall presently
be at liberty. _Vox_, I like your judgement well, I hear that you are
approved of. _Alch._ Sir, Tell mee if this bee the true Sulphur of the
Philosophers? _Vox_, This truely is Sulphur, but whether it be the
Philosopher, that belongs to thee to know. I have said enough to thee
concerning Sulphur. _Alch._ Sir, If I can find his prisons, shall I bee
able to set him at liberty? _Vox_, If thou knowest well, thou shalt;
for it is easier to free him then find them. _Alch._ Sir, I beseech
thee tell mee but this, if I find him, shal I make the Philosophers
stone of him? _Vox_, O Friend! It is not for mee to judge, doe thou
look to that, yet if thou knowest his Mother, and followest her,
Sulphur being at liberty, the Stone is at hand. _Alch._ Sir, in what
subject is this Sulphur? _Vo._ Know for certain that this Sulphur is
of great vertue, his Mine are all things in the world, for hee is in
Metalls, Hearbs, Trees, Animalls, Stones, and Mineralls. _Alch._ And
what Devill is able to find him out lying hid amongst so many things,
and subjects? Tell mee the matter out of which the Philosophers take
him. _Vo._ Friend, thou comest too neer, yet that I may satisfie
thee, know that Sulphur is every where, but shee hath some certaine
palaces, where shee is wont to give audience to the Philosophers; but
the Philosophers adore him swimming in his owne sea, and playing with
Vulcan; when the Philosophers goe to him unknown in his vile garments.
_Alch._ Sir, in the sea, why then is hee not mine, since hee is hid
here so neer? _Vo._ I told thee that his Keepers put him into most
dark prisons, lest thou shouldst see him, for hee is in one subject
alone, but if thou hast not found him at home, thou wilt scarce find
him in the Woods. But doe not thou despaire in finding of him out: I
tell thee of a truth, that hee is in Gold, and Silver most perfect,
but in Argent vive most easy. _Alch._ Sir, I would very willingly make
the Philosophers Stone. _Vo._ Thou desirest a good thing, Sulphur also
would willingly bee out of bonds. And so _Saturn_ departed. Now a deep
sleep seased upon the Alchymist, being weary, and there appeared to
him this Vision, Hee saw in that Wood a fountain full of water, about
which walked Sal, and Sulphur, contending one with the other, untill
at last they began to fight; and Sal gave Sulphur an incurable wound,
out of which wound, in stead of blood, there came out water, as it were
most white milk, and it became to be a great river. Then out of that
Wood came forth _Diana_ a most beautifull Virgin, who began to wash
her self in that river: whom a certain Prince, a most stout man (and
greater then his servants) passing by, and seeing, began to admire at
her beauty; and because shee was of a like nature with him, hee became
enamoured with her, which when she perceived, shee was inflamed with
love towards him. Wherefore as it were falling into a swoun she began
to be drowned: which that Prince seeing, commanded his servants to help
her; but they were all afraid to goe to the river; to whom the Prince
said, Why doe you not help _Diana_ that Virgin? To whom they replyed,
Sir, this river is indeed little, and as it were dryed up, but most
dangerous: Once upon a time wee were willing to go into it without thy
knowledge, and wee hardly escaped the danger of eternall death; Wee
know also that others that were our predecessors perished in it. Then
the Prince himselfe laying aside his thick mantle, even as hee was
armed, leaped into the river, and to help faire _Diana_ hee stretched
forth his hand to her; who being willing to save her selfe, drew also
the Prince himselfe to her, and so were both drowned. A little after
their souls came out of the river, flying above the river, and said,
It was well done of us, for else wee could not have been freed from
those bodies which are polluted, and stained. _Alch._ But doe you ever
return into those bodies againe? _Anime_, Not into such filthy bodies,
but when they be purged, and this river shall bee throughly dryed up
by the heat of the sunne, and this Province shall bee often tryed by
the Aire. _Alch._ What shall you doe in the mean time. _Anim._ Here wee
shall fly upon the river till those clouds, and tempests shall cease.
In the mean time the Alchymist fell into a more desired dream of his
Sulphur; and behold there appeared to him many Alchymists coming to
that place to seek after Sulphur, and when they found the carkasse of
that Sulphur that was slain by Sal by the fountain, they divided it
amongst themselves: which when the Alchymist saw hee also took a part
with them; and so every one of them returned home, and began to work in
that Sulphur, and till this day they doe not give over. But _Saturne_
meets this Alchymist, and saith to him, Friend, how is it with thee?
_Alch._ O Sir, I have seen many wonderfull things, my wife would scarce
beleeve them; now also I have found Sulphur, I beseech you Sir help,
let us make the Philosophers Stone. _Saturnus._ With all my heart,
my friend, make ready then Argent-vive, and Sulphur, and give hither
a glasse. _Alch._ Sir, have nothing to doe with Mercury, for he is
naught, he hath deluded my companion, and many others. _Sat._ Without
Argent-vive, in whose Kingdome Sulphur is the King, the Philosophers
have done nothing, neither doe I know what to doe without it. _Alch._
Sir, Let us make it of Sulphur alone. _Sat._ Well then, my friend, but
it will succeed accordingly. Then they took that Sulphur, which the
Alchymist found, and they did what the Alchymist would have done,
they began to work divers ways, and to make experiments of Sulphur
in divers strange kind of furnaces, which the Alchymist had: but in
the conclusion of every operation there was brought forth nothing but
Matches, such as old women usually sell to light candles withall. Then
they began a new work, and sublimed, and calcined Sulphur according
to the Alchymists pleasure; but in what way soever they worked it, it
succeeded as before, for still they made nothing but Matches; then said
the Alchymist to Saturn, Truly Sir, I see it will not succeed according
to my fancy, I beseech thee doe thou work alone, what thou knowest.
Then Saturn said, See then, and learn. Hee then took two Mercuries of a
differing substance, but of one originall, which Saturn washed in his
owne urine, and called them Sulphurs of Sulphurs, and mixed the fixed
with the volatile, and the composition being made, hee put it into its
proper vessell, and lest the Sulphur should fly away, hee set a keeper
over him, and then put him into a bath of a most gentle heat, according
as the matter required, and hee made all things very well. Then they
made the Philosophers Stone, because of the true matter a true thing
must needs bee made. The Alchymist being very glad took the Stone with
the glasse, and beholding the colour thereof, which was like burnt
blood, hee was amazed, and by reason of too much joy hee began to leap,
in which leaping the glasse fell out of his hands upon the ground,
and was broken. And so Saturn vanished away. The Alchymist also being
awaked out of his dream, found nothing in his hands but Matches which
hee made of brimstone: but the Stone flew away, and doth still fly;
whence it is called Volatile: and so that miserable Alchymist learned
nothing else by that Vision but how to make Matches: who afterwards
laying aside the Stone, became to be a Physitian; by searching after
the stone of the Philosophers hee got the stone of the Kidneys. Last of
all hee led such a life, as such kind of Alchymists are wont to doe,
who for the most part become Physitians, or Quacksalvers, which thing
will happen to all, who betake themselves to the Art casually without
any foundation, but only by hearesay, or by meanes of Receipts.

Some of them, when things succeed not, say: We are wise men, wee hear
that the grasse grows, if the Art were true wee should have had it
before other men: And so having brazen faces, lest wee should bee
accounted undeserving men (as indeed they are, and also perverse)
contemne, and undervalue the Art. This Science hates such men, and
alwaies shews them the beginning in the end. Now we grant unto the
unworthy, that this Art is nothing, but to the Lovers of vertue, and
the true Searchers, and Sons of Wisdome, wee doe most highly commend
it, and doe affirme it not only to be true, but altogether the truest:
which, sometimes wee have really made good before men worthy of such a
fight, I say before men of high, and low condition: (yet this Medicine
was not made by us, but received from a friend, and yet most true)
for the searching out of which wee have sufficiently instructed the
Searchers thereof; whom if our Writings doe not please, let them read
those of other Authors, which are easier, but with this Caution, That
whatsoever they shall read, they shall alwaies compare it with the
possibility of Nature, lest they assay any thing contrary to Nature.
Neither let them beleeve, although it were written in the bookes of
Philosophers, that Fire burns not, because this is contrary to Nature:
but if it bee writ, that Fire hath a drying, and heating faculty, this
is to bee beleeved, because it is according to Nature: For Nature doth
alwaies agree with a sound judgment, and in Nature there is nothing
difficult, all truth is plain. Then also let them learne, what things
in Nature are of affinity with each other, which wee conceive may be
easier done by our Writings, then any other, seeing wee think wee have
wrote sufficiently, untill some other shall come, who shall set downe
the whole Receipt so plaine, as to make cheese of Milke, which is not
lawfull for us to doe.

But that I may not direct all things I say to the new beginner only,
wee shall say something to you also who now have passed over these
painfull labours. Have you seen that Countrey, where a man marryed a
wife, whose nuptialls were celebrated in the house of Nature? Have
you understood how the vulgar with you have seen this Sulphur? If
therefore you will that old women should practise your Philosophy,
shew the dealbation of your Sulphurs; say unto the vulgar, Come and
see, for now the water is divided, and Sulphur is come out; hee will
return white, and congeale the Waters. Burn therefore Sulphur from
incombustible Sulphur, then wash it, make it white, and red, untill
Sulphur become Mercury, and Mercury bee made Sulphur, which afterwards
you shall beautifie with the soule of Gold: For if you doe not sublime
Sulphur, from Sulphur, and Mercury from Mercury, you have not yet found
out the Water, which out of Sulphur, and Mercury is created by way of
distillation; hee doth not ascend, that doth not descend. Whatsoever
in this Art is remarkable, by many is lost in the preparation, for
our Mercury is quickened with Sulphur, else it would bee of no use. A
Prince without a people is unhappy; so is an Alchymist without Sulphur,
and Mercury. If thou hast understood mee, I have said enough.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]


Every searcher of this Art must in the first place with a mature
judgement examine the creation, operation, and vertues of the four
Elements together with their actings: for if hee be ignorant of the
originall, and Nature of these, hee shall not come to the knowledge
of the Principles, neither shall hee know the true matter of the
Stone, much lesse attain to any good conclusion; because every end
is terminated upon its beginning. Hee that well knowes what hee
begins, shall well know what shall bee the end. For the originall of
the Elements is the Chaos, out of which God the Maker of all things
created, and separated the Elements, which belongs to God alone: but
out of the Elements Nature produceth the Principles of things, and this
is Natures worke, through the will of God alone: Out of the Principles
Nature afterwards produceth Mineralls, and all things: out of which
the Artist also by imitating Nature can doe many wonderfull things.
Because Nature out of these Principles, which are Salt, Sulphur, and
Mercury, doth produce Mineralls, and Metalls, and all kinds of things;
and it doth not simply produce Metalls out of the Elements, but by
Principles, which are the medium betwixt the Elements, and Metalls:
Therefore if Nature doth not make those things, much lesse shall Art.
And not only in this example, but also in every naturall processe a
middle disposition is to bee observed. Wherefore here in this Treatise
wee have sufficiently described the Elements, their actings, and
operations, as also the originall of the Principles (because hitherto
no Philosopher hath discovered things more cleerly) that the well
minded searcher might the more easily consider in what degree the
Stone differs from Metalls, and Metalls from Elements. For there is
a difference betwixt Gold, and Water, but lesse betwixt Water, and
Mercury; and least of all betwixt Mercury, and Gold. For the house of
Gold is Mercury, and the house of Mercury is Water: but Sulphur is that
which coagulates Mercury; which Sulphur indeed is most difficultly
prepared, but more difficultly found out. For in the Sulphur of
Philosophers this secret consists, which also is contained in the
inward rooms of Mercury, of whose preparation, without which it is
unprofitable, wee shall discourse hereafter in the third Principle of
Salt, seeing here wee treat of the vertue, and originall, not Praxis,
of Sulphur.

Wherefore now wee have not writ this Treatise that wee would disprove
any of the ancient Philosophers, but rather confirm their Writings, and
supply those things, which they have omitted: seeing that Philosophers
themselves were but men, they could not be accurate in all things,
neither is one man sufficient for all things. Miracles also have
seduced some men from the right way of Nature, as wee read happened
in _Albertus Magnus_ a most witty Philosopher; who writ, that in his
times there were grains of Gold found betwixt the teeth of a dead man
in his grave. Hee could not find out this Miracle, but judged it to be
by reason of the Minerall vertue in man being confirmed in his opinion
by that saying of _Morien_: _And this Matter, O King, is extracted from
thee_: but this is erroneous, for _Morien_ was pleased to understand
those things Philosophically. For the Minerall vertue is placed in its
own Kingdome, as the Animall is in its Kingdome, as in the book of the
Twelve Treatises wee have distinguished those Kingdomes, and divided
them into three Kingdomes; because every one of these without the
ingresse of any other thing stands in it self, and is multiplyed. It
is true indeed that in the Animall Kingdome, Mercury is as the matter,
and Sulphur as the vertue, but the Animall is not Minerall. The vertue
of the Animall Sulphur if it were not in Man, it could not congeal
the bloud Mercury into flesh, and bones: so also if there were not a
vertue of the Vegetable Sulphur in the Vegetable Kingdome, it could
not coagulate Water, or the Vegetable Mercury into Herbs, and Trees.
So also it is to bee understood in the Minerall Kingdome. These three
Mercuries doe not indeed differ in vertue, nor the three Sulphurs,
because every Sulphur hath a power to coagulate its own Mercury;
and every Mercury hath a power to bee coagulated by its owne proper
Sulphur; and by no other that is a stranger to it. Now the reason why
Gold was found, and generated betwixt the teeth of the dead man is
this, because in his life time Mercury was by some Physitian conveyed
into his infirme body, either by unction, or by Turbith, or some other
way, as the custome, and manner was, and it was the nature of Mercury
to goe up to the mouth, and through the sores thereof to be evacuated
with the flegme. If therefore in time of such a cure the sick man dyed,
that Mercury not finding any egresse, remained in his mouth betwixt his
teeth, and that carkasse became the naturall vessell of Mercury, so
being shut up fast for a long time was congealed into Gold by its own
proper Sulphur, being purified by the naturall heat of putrefaction,
caused by the corrosive phlegme of the Mans body. But if Minerall
Mercury had not been brought in thither, there could Gold never have
been produced. And this is a most true example, that Nature in the
bowells of the earth, doth of Mercury alone produce Gold, and Silver,
and other Metalls, according to the disposition of the place, or
matrix; for Mercury hath in its self its own proper Sulphur, with which
it is coagulated into Gold, unlesse it bee hindred by some accident,
or hath not a requisite heat, or a close place. The vertue therefore
of Animall Sulphur doth not congeal Mercury into Gold, but into Flesh:
for if there were such a vertue in Man, it would happen to be so in all
bodies; which it doth not. Many such miracles, and accidents fall out,
which being not well considered by the Writers, occasion the Readers to
fall into errors: yet the honest searcher must apply all things to the
possibility of Nature; if they doe not agree with Nature, they must be
let alone, and waved.

It sufficeth the diligent Student, that he hath here heard what is
the Originall of the Principles (since the beginning being unknown,
the end is alwaies doubtfull) of which wee have in this Treatise not
Ænigmatically, but as cleerly as we could, and as it was lawfull for
us, spoken unto the searcher thereof: by means of which, if God shall
enlighten any ones mind, hee shall know what a successor owes to his
predecessors, seeing this Art is alwaies acquired by the same kind
of wits, and dispositions. Which Art wee after this kind of clear
manifestation of it, lay up into the bosome of God the most high
Creator, and our Lord, and commend our selvs together with all honest
hearted Readers to his grace, and infinite mercy. To whom be praise,
and glory, for ever, and ever.


[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the generations of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: The generation of naturall things is twofold.]

[Sidenote: All things proceed from putrefaction.]

[Sidenote: The cause of putrefaction is a moist heat.]

[Sidenote: The power and nature of putrefaction.]

[Sidenote: What putrefaction is.]

The generation of all natural things is twofold: Naturall, and without
Art; and Artificiall, _viz._ by Alchymie. Although in generall it may
bee said that all things are naturally generated of the Earth by means
of putrefaction. For Putrefaction is the chiefe degree, and first step
to Generation. Now Putrefaction is occasioned by a moist heat. For a
continuall moist heat causeth putrefaction, and changeth all naturall
things from their first form, and essence, as also their vertues,
and efficacy, into another thing. For as putrefaction in the stomach
changeth, and reduceth all meats into dung; so also putrefaction out
of the stomach in a glasse, changeth all things from one form into
another, from one essence into another, from one colour into another,
from one smell into another, from one vertue into another, from one
power into another, from one property into another, and generally
from one quality into another. For it is evident, and proved by daily
experience, that many good things, which are wholsome, and medicinable,
become after putrefaction naught, unwholsome, and meer poison. So on
the contrary, there are many bad, unwholsome, poisonous, and hurtfull
things, which after their putrefaction become good, lose all their
unwholsomnesse, and become wonderfull medicinable: because putrefaction
produceth great matters, as of this wee have a most famous example in
the holy Gospel, where Christ saith: Unlesse a grain of Wheat bee cast
into the Earth, and be putrefied, it cannot bring forth fruit in a
hundred fold. Hence also we must know, that many things are multiplyed
in putrefaction so as to bring forth excellent fruit. For putrefaction
is the change, and death of all things, and destruction of the first
essence of all Naturall things; whence there ariseth a regeneration,
and new generation a thousand times better, &c.

[Sidenote: Putrefaction is the first degree to generation.]

[Sidenote: Putrefaction is manifold.]

Seeing therefore putrefaction is the first degree, and step to
generation; it is very necessary that wee know putrefaction well. Now
there are many kinds of putrefactions, and one produceth its generation
in another manner, then doth another. One also sooner then another.
Wee said also that moisture, and heat were the first degree, and step
to putrefaction, which produceth all things, as a Hen doth her egs.
Wherefore through, and in putrefaction, all mucilaginous flegme, and
matter is made living, whatsoever it prove to be at last.

[Sidenote: An artificiall hatching of Chickens.]

An example of this you have in egs, in which there is a mucilaginous
humour, which by any kind of moderate continuall heat is putrefied, and
turned into a living Chicke, not only by the heat of the Hen, but any
such kind of heat. For in such a degree of Fire egs may be brought to
maturity in a glasse, and ashes, and become living birds: yea any man
may ripen an egge in his arm-hole, and hatch a Chicke, as well as the

[Sidenote: The raising of a dead bird to life.]

And here wee must take notice of something that is greater, and more
then this: _viz._ if that living Chicke be in a vessell of glasse
like a gourd, and sealed up, burnt to powder, or ashes in the third
degree of Fire, and afterward so closed in, be putrefied with the
exactest putrefaction of Horse-dung, into a mucilaginous flegm, then
that flegm may be brought to maturity, and become a renewed, and new
made Chicke: to wit, if that flegm bee againe inclosed in its former
shell, or receptacle. This is to revive the dead by regeneration, and
clarification, which indeed is a great, and profound miracle of Nature.
According to this processe may all Birds bee killed, and made alive
againe, and made new: and this is the highest, and greatest miracle,
and mystery of God, which hee ever discovered to mortall man.

[Sidenote: The Artificiall generation of Man.]

Wee must also know that after this manner men may bee generated without
naturall Father, or Mother, _i.e._ not of a Woman in a naturall way:
but by the Art, and industry of a skilfull Alchymist may a Man bee
borne, and grow, as afterwards shall bee shewed.

[Sidenote: The generation of men by brutes.]

[Sidenote: As the seed is, so is the fruit.]

It is possible also that men may be born of beasts, according to
naturall causes, but yet this cannot bee done without much impiety, and
heresie; to wit, if a man should couple with a beast, and that beast
should, as a woman doth, receive the Sperm of the man, with desire and
lust into her matrix, and conceive: then the sperm doth of necessity
putrefie, and by the continual heat of the body, a man, and not a beast
is thence produced. For alwaies as the seed is that is sown, so also
is the fruit that is brought forth; and unlesse it should be so, it
would be contrary to the light of Nature, and to Philosophy. Wherefore
as is the seed, such is the hearb that springs from thence. So of the
Seed of an Onyon is brought forth an Onyon, not a Rose, nor a Nut, not
a Lettuce. So of Corne, Corn is brought forth, of Barley, Barley; of
Oats, Oats: and so it is with all other fruits, which have seed, and
are sown, &c.

[Sidenote: The force of womens imagination.]

In like manner also it is possible, and not contrary to Nature, that
an irrationall bruit should bee produced by a woman, and a man.
Neither are wee to judge of, or censure the woman, as the man, (as
in the former case) shee therefore is not to bee accounted impious,
or hereticall, as if shee acted contrary to Nature, but it is to be
imputed to her imagination. For her imagination is alwaies the cause of
it. And the imagination of a breeding woman is so powerful, that in
conceiving the seed into her body, shee may change her infant divers
wayes: because her inward starres are so strongly bent upon the infant,
that they beget an impression, and influence upon it. Wherefore the
infant in the Mothers wombe in its forming is put into the hand, and
will of its Mother, as clay in the hand of the Potter, who thence
frames, and makes what his will, and pleasure is: so the Woman that is
breeding, forms the fruit in her body, according to her imagination,
and her starres. Therefore it often falls out, that of the seed of a
man, Cattle, and other horrid Monsters are begot, according as the
imagination of the Mother is strongly directed upon the Embryo, &c.

Now as you have heard, that by putrefaction many, and various things
are generated, and made alive, so also you must know, that of many
hearbs, by putrefaction divers living creatures are bred, which they
that are skilled in these things know.

[Sidenote: All animals that are bred meerly of putrefaction are

Here also wee must know, that all such Animalls, which are bred, and
made of putrefaction, containe some poison, and are poisonous, yet
one far more strong then another, and one after another manner then
another: as you see in Serpents, Vipers, Toads, Frogs, Scorpions,
Basiliskes, Spiders, Wood-bees, Pismires, and many sorts of Wormes,
as Cankers, Maggots, Locusts, &c. All which are bred in, and through
putrefaction. Also amongst Animalls there are bred divers Monsters;
And there are Monsters also which are not bred of putrefaction of
themselves, but are made by Art in a glasse, as hath been said; because
they oftentimes appear in a very wonderfull shape, and form, fearful
to behold, as oftentimes with many feet, many tailes, many colours,
oftentimes many heads, worms with the tailes of Fishes, or feathers,
and other unusuall forms, that the like have not been seen.

[Sidenote: What Monsters are.]

Wherefore not only all Animalls, which have not proper Parents, and are
not borne of things like to themselves are Monsters, but also those
which are bred of other things.

[Sidenote: The secret poison of the Basilisk.]

So you see it is concerning a Basiliske, which also is a Monster, and
indeed a Monster above all Monsters, and then which none is to bee
more dreaded, because hee can kill any man with his meer looks, and
sight: and because his poison is above all poisons, to which nothing in
the world is to bee compared. Hee carries his poison in a most secret
manner in his eyes, and it is a conceived poison, not much unlike a
menstruous woman, who also carrieth a secret poison in her eyes, so
that only by her looks a Looking-glasse is fouled, and tainted. So
also if shee looke upon a wound, or an ulcer, shee infects that in the
like manner, and hinders the cure thereof: so also with her breath,
as well as sight, shee infects divers things, corrupts, and weakens
them; and so also with her touch. For you see if shee medle with wine
in time of her menstrues, that it is suddainly changed and made thick;
The Vineger also that she medles withall, becomes dead, and uselesse:
so also Hot-waters lose their strength: In like manner Civet, Amber
Gryse, Musk, and such like perfumes, lose their odour by such a womans
carrying, or handling of them. So also Gold, and Coralls lose their
colour, also many Gemmes, and Looking-glasses are soiled therewith,
&c. But to return to what I proposed concerning the Basiliske, by what
reason, and in what manner hee carries poison in his looks, and eyes;
you must know that hee hath that property, and poison from menstruous
women, as is aforesaid. For the Basiliske is bred of, and proceeds from
the greatest impurity of a Woman, _viz._ her Menstrues, and from the
blood of the Sperm, if it bee put into a gourd glasse, and putrefied in
Horse-dung, in which putrefaction a Basiliske is brought forth. But who
is so couragious, and bold to make, take him out, and kill him again,
unlesse hee cover, and fortifie himselfe well first with glasses: I
should perswade none to doe it, nay, I would advise them to take heed
of it.

[Sidenote: Monsters doe not live long.]

[Sidenote: Monsters come from the Devill.]

But that I may proceed in treating of Monsters, Know that Monsters
amongst brutes, which are brought forth of other things, and not of
their like, seldome live long, especially if they shall live neer,
or amongst other brutes, because of an imbred disposition, and Gods
disposing, all Monsters are odious unto brutes that are genuinely
brought forth, and so also Monsters of men, which are generated by man,
seldome live long. And by how much the more wonderfull, and remarkable
they are, so much the sooner they dye, so that none exceed the third
day amongst men, unlesse they bee presently carryed into some secret
place, and kept apart from all men. Moreover you must know that God
abhors these kind of Monsters, and that they are displeasing to him,
and that none of them can be saved, seeing they bear not the image
of God: whence wee can conjecture nothing else, but that they are so
formed by the Devil, and are made for the Devills service, rather then
Gods, because no good work was ever done by any Monster, but rather
all manner of evill, wickednesse, and devillish deceits. For as an
Executioner marketh his sons in cutting off their ears, putting out
their eyes, burning their cheeks, fingers, hands, and cutting off their
heads: so doth the Devil mark his sons through the imagination of their
Mothers, which in their conceiving they drew from evill desires, lusts,
and cogitations.

[Sidenote: Monsters are to be shunned.]

Also all men are to be shunned, which abound with, or want any member,
or have a double member. For that is a presage of the Devills, and
a most certaine signe of some occult wickednesse, and deceit, which
follows upon it. Wherefore they seldome dye without the Executioner, or
at least from some marke made by him.

[Sidenote: The artificiall generation of Men.]

But wee must by no means forget the generation of Artificiall men. For
there is some truth in this thing, although it hath been a long time
concealed, and there have been no small Doubts, and Questions, raised
by some of the ancient Philosophers, Whether it were possible for
Nature, or Art to beget a Man out of the body of a Woman, and naturall
matrix? To this I answer, that it is no way repugnant to the Art of
Alchymie, and Nature; yea it is very possible: But to effect it, we
must proceed thus.

Let the Sperm of a man by it selfe be putrefied in a gourd glasse,
sealed up, with the highest degree of putrefaction in Horse dung, for
the space of forty days, or so long untill it begin to bee alive,
move, and stir, which may easily be seen. After this time it will bee
something like a Man, yet transparent, and without a body. Now after
this, if it bee every day warily, and prudently nourished and fed with
the _Arcanum_ of Mans blood, and bee for the space of forty weeks kept
in a constant, equall heat of Horse-dung, it will become a true, and
living infant, having all the members of an infant, which is born of
a woman, but it will bee far lesse. This wee call _Homunculus_, or
Artificiall. And this is afterwards to be brought up with as great
care, and diligence as any other infant, untill it come to riper years
of understanding. Now this is one of the greatest secrets, that God
ever made known to mortall, sinfull man. For this is a miracle, and
one of the great wonders of God, and secret above all secrets, and
deservedly it ought to bee kept amongst the secrets until the last
times, when nothing shall be hid, but all things be made manifest.

[Sidenote: Fairies, Nymphs, Gyants, &c. are made of artificiall men.]

And although hitherto it hath not been known to men, yet it hath been
known to Fairies of the Woods, Nymphs, and Gyants many ages since,
because they come from them. For of such Artificiall men, when they
come to Mans age, are made Pygmies, Gyants, and other great and
monstrous men, who are instruments of great matters, who obtaine great
victories against their Enemies, and know all secrets, and mysteries:
because by Art they receive their lives, by Art they receive their
bodies, flesh, bones, and blood: by Art they are borne; wherefore Art
is now incorporated with, and imbred in them, and they need not learn
of any, but others are constrained to learn of them, for by Art they
have their originall and present existency, as a rose, or flower in
a garden, and they are called the children of Fairies, and Nymphs,
by reason that in power, and vertue they are like not to Men, but
Spirits, &c.

[Sidenote: Of 3 principles Mercury the Spirit, sulphur is the soul,
Salt the body.]

Here it is necessary that wee speak something of the generation of
Metalls; but because we have wrote sufficiently of that in our book of
the generation of Metals, wee shall very briefly treat of it here, only
briefly adding what was omitted in that book. Know that all the seven
Metalls are brought forth after this manner, out of a threefold matter,
_viz._ Mercury, Sulphur, & Salt, yet in distinct, and peculiar colours.
For this reason _Hermes_ did not speak amisse, when he said, that of
three substances are all the seven Metalls produced, and compounded, as
also the Tinctures, and Philosophers Stone. Those 3 substances he calls
the Spirit, Soul, and Body: but hee did not shew how this is to bee
understood, or what hee did mean by this, although haply hee might know
the three Principles, but did not make mention of them. Wherefore we do
not say, that he was here in an error, but only was silent now, that
those 3 distinct substances may be rightly understood, _viz._ Spirit,
Soul, and Body, we must know, that they signifie nothing else but the
three Principles, _i.e._ Mercury, Sulphur, Salt, of which all the seven
Metalls are generated. For Mercury is the Spirit, Sulphur the Soule,
and Salt the Body, but a Metall is the Soul betwixt the Spirit, and
the Body (as _Hermes_ saith) which Soule indeed is Sulphur; and unites
these two contraries, the Body, and Spirit, and changeth them into one
essence, &c.

[Sidenote: Whether metalls can be made artificially by fire.]

Now this is not to bee understood so as that of every Mercury, every
Sulphur, or of every Salt, the seven Metalls may be generated, or
the Tincture, or the Philosophers Stone by the Art of Alchymie, or
industry, with the help of Fire; but all the seven Metalls must be
generated in the mountains by the Archeius of the Earth. For the
Alchymist shall sooner transmute Metalls, then generate, or make them.

[Sidenote: Living ☿ is the mother of metalls.]

Yet neverthelesse living Mercury is the Mother of all the seven
Metalls, and deservedly it may be called the Mother of the Metalls.
For it is an open Metall, and as it contains all colours, which it
manifests in the Fire, so also occultly it contains all Metalls in it
selfe, but without Fire it cannot shew them, &c.

[Sidenote: The regeneration of metalls into tinctures.]

But generation, and renovation of Metalls is made thus: As a man may
return into the womb of his Mother, _i.e._ into the Earth, out of which
hee was first made a man, and shall again bee raised at the last day:
so also all Metalls may returne into living ☿ againe, and become ☿, and
by Fire bee regenerated, and purified, if for the space of forty weeks,
they bee kept in a continuall heat, as an infant is in his Mothers
wombe. So that now there are brought forth not common Metalls, but
Tinging Metalls. For if Silver bee regenerated (after the manner as wee
have spoken) it will afterward tinge all other Metalls into Silver, so
will Gold into Gold, and the like is to bee understood of all the other

[Sidenote: The Soul is that medium wherewith the soule is united to the

Now forasmuch as _Hermes_ said, that the soule alone is that medium
which joines the spirit to the body, it was not without cause hee
said so. For seeing Sulphur is that soule, and doth like Fire ripen,
and digest all things; it can also bind the soule with the body,
incorporating, and uniting them together, so that from thence may bee
produced a most excellent body. Now the common combustible Sulphur is
not to bee taken for the soule of metalls, for the soule is another
manner of thing then a combustible, and corruptible body.

[Sidenote: What the soule of metalls is.]

Wherefore it can bee destroyed by no Fire, seeing indeed it is all
Fire it selfe: and indeed it is nothing else but the quintessence of
Sulphur, which is extracted out of reverberated Sulphur by the spirit
of wine, being of a red colour, and as transparent as a Rubie: and
which indeed is a great, and excellent _Arcanum_, for the transmuting
of white metalls, and to coagulate living ☿ into fixt, and true
Gold. Esteeme this as an enriching treasure, and thou maist bee well
contented with this, onely secret in the Transmutation of Metalls.

[Sidenote: Where is the generation of metalls and mineralls.]

Concerning the generation of mineralls, and halfe metalls nothing else
need bee known then what was at first said concerning metalls, _viz._
that they are in like manner produced of the three Principles, _viz._
Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, although not as metalls of perfect, but of
the more imperfect, and baser Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, and yet with
their distinct colours.

[Sidenote: Whence the generation of Gemmes.]

The generation of Gemmes is from the subtilty of the Earth, of
transparent and crystalline Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, even according
to their distinct colours.

[Sidenote: Also of Common Stones.]

But the generation of common Stones is of the subtilty of Water, of
mucilaginous Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt. For of the mucilaginousnesse
of Water are produced all stones, as also sand, and gravell are thence
coagulated into Stones, as wee often see.

[Sidenote: An artificiall generation of Stones.]

For any stone put in the Water, doth suddenly contract a
mucilaginousnesse to itself. Now if that mucilaginous matter bee taken
from this Stone, and coagulated in a glasse, it becomes such a Stone,
as was in that Water, but it would require a long time before it would
be coagulated of it selfe.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the growth, and increase of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: Heat and Moisture the cause of the growth of things.]

It is sufficiently manifest, and knowne to every one, that all
naturall things grow, and are ripened through heat, and moisture, which
is sufficiently demonstrated by rain, and the heat of the sun. For no
man can deny that rain doth make the Earth fruitfull, and it is granted
by all, that all fruits are ripened by the sun.

[Sidenote: An artificiall ripening of things.]

[Sidenote: God hath subjected all things to man.]

[Sidenote: The artificiall generation of fruit.]

Seeing therefore this is by divine ordination naturally possible, who
can gain-say, or not beleeve that a man is able, through the wise, and
skilfull Art of Alchymie, to make that which is barren, fruitfull,
and that which is crude, to ripen, and all things to grow, and to be
increased. For the Scripture saith, that God subjected all creatures to
man, and put them into his hands as being his own, that hee might use
them for his necessity, and rule over the fish of the sea, fowles of
the aire, and all things upon the Earth, nothing excepted. Wherefore
man might well rejoice that God should so endow him with the excellency
of Nature, that all the creatures of God should be forced to obey, and
be subject to him, especially the whole Earth, and all things which
are bred, live, and move in, and upon it. Since therefore wee see with
our eyes, and are taught by daily experience, that by how much the
oftner, & more abundantly the rain doth moisten the earth, and the sun
doth again with its heat and warmth dry it, so much the sooner doe
the fruits of the Earth come forth and are ripened, yea all fruits
doe cleerly grow, and increase, what time of the yeer soever it be;
Let no man henceforth wonder, that the Alchymist also by a manifold
imbibition, and distillation should not doe the same. For what else
is rain but the imbibition of the Earth? and the heat of the Sun, but
the distillation of the Sun, which drawes up those humidities again?
Wherefore I say it is possible by such a kind of Art, even in the midle
of Winter to bring forth green Herbs, Flowers, and other fruit, through
Earth, and Water, out of the seed, and root: If then this can bee done
in all Herbs, and flowers, it may also bee done in many other like
things, as in all mineralls, whose imperfect metalls by vertue of a
minerall water may bee brought to maturity through the industry, and
Art of a skilfull Alchymist.

[Sidenote: The ripening of mineralls.]

In like manner may all _Marcasites_, _Granati_, _Zineta_, _Arsenica_,
_Talka_, _Cachymie_, _Bisemuta_, _Antimonies_, &c. (all which carry
with them crude Gold, and Silver,) bee so ripened, that they may bee
equalized to the most rich veins of Gold, and Silver, only by this Art.
So also the Elixir, and tinctures of metals are brought to maturity,
and perfected.

[Sidenote: What the growing of the beard of a dead man signifies.]

Seeing therefore, as it hath been said, moisture, and heat doe ripen
all things, and make them grow, Let none wonder, that the beard, haire,
or nailes of a malefactor hanging on a Gibbet, or Wheel do for a long
time grow, neither let it be accounted for a sign of his innocency,
as the ignorant beleeve, for this is naturall, and from naturall
causes. For whilest that any moisture remains in him, his beard, haire,
and nailes grow, even till the second year, or till hee bee wholly
putrefied, &c.

[Sidenote: The augmentation of ☉.]

Wee must also know, that there are many things that grow for ever,
and are increased in bignesse, weight, and vertue, in the Water, and
Earth, in which they continue good, and efficacious, as are Metalls,
Marcasites, Cachymie, Talka, Granuty, Antimony, Bisemuta, Gemmes,
Pearles, Corals, all Stones, and Clay. So also it may be ordered, that
Gold may grow, and bee increased in weight, and body, if only it bee
buryed in the Earth looking towards the _East_, and bee alwaies soiled
with the fresh urine of a man, and pigeons dung.

[Sidenote: How Gold may be generated in a glasse.]

It is possible also that Gold, through industry, and skill of an expert
Alchymist may bee so far exalted, that it may grow in a glasse like a
tree, with many wonderfull boughs, and leaves, which indeed is pleasant
to behold, and most wonderful.

[Sidenote: How the Philosophicall Tree is made.]

The processe is this. Let Gold bee calcined with _Aqua Regis_, till
it becomes a kind of chalke, which put into a gourd glasse, and poure
upon it good new _Aqua Regis_, so that it may cover it foure fingers
breadth, then again draw it off, with the third degree of fire, untill
no more ascend. The water that is distilled off, poure on againe, then
distill it off againe. This doe so long untill thou seest the Gold to
rise in the glasse, and grow after the manner of a tree, having many
boughes, and leaves: and so there is made of Gold a wonderful, and
pleasant shrub, which the Alchymists call their Golden hearb, and the
Philosophers Tree. In like manner you may proceed with Silver, and
other Metalls, yet so that their calcination bee made after another
manner, by another _Aqua fortis_, which I leave to thine experience. If
thou art skilled in Alchymie, thou shalt not erre in these things.

[Sidenote: To make an artificiall stone of any forme.]

Know also that any flint taken out of River water, (and put into a
gourd glasse, having River water poured upon it, that the glasse may
bee filled, which Water is againe to bee distilled off as long as a
drop will arise, and the Stone dryed, and the Glasse againe filled with
this Water, and againe distilled off, and this done so long till the
Glasse bee filled with this Stone) may in a few dayes by the Art of
Alchymie bee made very great, which the Archeius of the Waters could
scarce doe in many yeers.

If then thou breake the Glasse, thou shalt have a Flint in the forme of
the Glasse, as if it had been put into the Glasse, and although this
bee not for profit, yet it is a thing that is strange, and wonderfull.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the preservations of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: The enemies of things are to be knowne.]

[Sidenote: Death is the enemie of things.]

[Sidenote: There is a Contrariety found in all things.]

That things may bee preserved, and kept from harm, it is necessary in
the first place to know what is an enemie to them, that so they may
be preserved from that, & not be hurt, or corrupted by it either in
substance, vertue, power, or any way whatsoever. Much therefore in this
case depends upon the knowing of the Enemie of all Naturall things.
For who can take heed of danger when hee doth not know what can hurt
him? Truly no body; Wherefore it is necessary to know ones Enemie, For
there are many sorts of Enemies. Wherefore it is as necessary to know
evill things, as good things: for who can know what is good, without
the knowing of what is evill? Truly no body. So no man can know what a
blessing health is, that was never sick. Who knows what joy is, that
was never heavy, or sad? And who can rightly understand what God is,
who knew nothing of the Devil? Wherefore when God made known to us the
Enemie of our Soul, _viz._ the Devill, he also signified to us the
Enemie of our life, _viz._ Death, which is the Enemie of our body, of
our health, and the Enemie of Medicinall, and all naturall things: also
he made known to us how, and by which means it may be shunned. For as
there is no disease against which there is not created, and found some
remedy, which should cure, and expell it: so also there is alwaies one
thing ordained against another, one Water against another, one Stone
against another, one Minerall against another, one Poison against
another, one Metall against another: and so in many more things, all
which it is not requisite here to recite.

Now how, and by what means every thing is to bee preserved, and kept
from hurt, wee must know, that many things are to bee preserved in the
Earth, and especially all rootes doe for a long time remaine in the
Earth without losing their vertue, or being corrupted: in like manner
herbs, flowers, and all fruites continue in the water incorrupted, and
green: there are also many fruits, and apples that may be preserved in
water from all manner of putrefaction, untill new fruit come againe.

[Sidenote: How to preserve flesh and blood.]

So also flesh, and blood, which indeed are putrefied, and grow
unsavoury quickly, are preserved in cold fountain-water, and not only
so, but by the addition of new and fresh fountaine-water, may be turned
into a quintessence, and bee forever preserved from putrefaction, and
an ill savour, without any balsome. And this doth not only preserve
the flesh, and blood of dead things, but also of the living, wherefore
Mans body may bee preserved from all manner of putrefaction, and divers
diseases that proceed from putrefaction, better then common Mummie. Now
that blood may be preserved of it self from putrefaction, and stinking,
and not as a quintessence, & so as it may preserve the blood of the
living (as we now said) thou must follow this processe.

[Sidenote: How the Arcanum of mans blood is to be prepared.]

Let the blood bee separated from its flegm, which is separated of its
selfe, and is driven to the upper part. This water poure gently out
of the vessell, and in stead of it put as much of the water of the
salt of blood, which water wee teach to make in our Chirurgerie: That
water doth presently mixe with the blood, and preserves it so, that it
will never bee putrefied, or grow unsavory, but continue many years
as fresh, and very red as it was the first day: and this indeed is a
great wonder. But if thou dost not know how to make this water, or hast
it not in readiness, then poure upon it so much of the best, and most
excellent balsome, and this will doe the same. Now, this blood is the
balsome of balsomes, and is called the _Arcanum_ of blood, and it is
so wonderful, and of such great vertue, that it is incredible to be
spoken; wherefore thou shalt conceale it as a great secret in Physick.

[Sidenote: How metalls may be preserved.]

[Sidenote: What are the enemies of metalls.]

In preserving of Metalls, their Enemies are first to bee known, that so
much the better they may bee preserved from harme. The chiefest Enemies
of Metalls are all sharp corroding Waters, all Corrosive things, all
Salts, crude Sulphur, Antimony, and Mercury. But that you may know
particularly how they show their enmity, it is thus. Sharp Waters, and
such things as are Corrosive, and Salts shew their enmity, in that
they mortifie, dissolve, calcine, corrupt Metalls, and reduce them to

[Sidenote: How the fume of Sulphur doth discolour metalls.]

Crude Sulphur shews its enmity in the fume thereof: for by its fume it
takes away from Copper its colour, and rednesse, and makes it white.
From white Metalls, as Silver, Tinne, Lead, and Iron it takes away the
whitenesse, and makes them red, and yellowish. From Gold it takes away
that faire amiable yellownesse, and golden colour, and makes it black,
and so foule, that nothing can bee more foule.

[Sidenote: How Antimony spoiles and discolours metalls.]

Antimony shews its enmity in this, in that all Metalls with which it is
melted, or mixed, it spoiles, carryeth away, and preys upon, and also
not unlike to Sulphur, by its fume it takes away from Metalls their
true, and naturall colour, and brings in another.

[Sidenote: Quicksilver distroyes metalls, and how.]

[Sidenote: How the loadstone may be spoyled.]

Quicksilver doth destroy Metalls upon this accompt, in that it enters
into Metalls, with which it is joined, and dissolves them, so that
it makes an Amalgama of them: Wherefore the fume thereof, which wee
call common Mercury, makes all Metalls brittle, that they cannot bee
malleated, and calcines them, also it makes all red Metalls of a golden
colour, to bee white: but it is the greatest enemie of all to Iron,
and Steel; for if common Mercury doe but touch a barre of Iron, or
Steel, or that be but smeared over with Mercuriall oile, that bar will
afterward be broken like glasse, and be bowed; which indeed is a great
secret, and deserves to be kept exceeding close. In like manner must
the Loadstone be kept from Mercury, for the like enmity it shews to
that as to Iron. For any Loadstone that Mercury hath but touched, or
which hath been smeered with Mercuriall oyle, or only put into Mercury,
will never draw Iron more. Let no man wonder at this, for there is a
naturall cause for it, and it is this, _viz._ because Mercury extracts
the spirit of Iron, which was hid in the Loadstone, which spirit draws
the spirit of Iron to it: and this is not only in the Loadstone, but in
all naturall things else, so that alwaies a strange spirit in a body
which is not of the same Nature with it selfe, drawes to it self a body
which is of the same Nature: and this wee must know to bee so, not only
in the Loadstone, but also in all other naturall things, as Mineralls,
Stones, Hearbs, Roots, Men, and Brutes.

[Sidenote: What antipathy there is betwixt metalls themselves.]

That Metalls have an enmity, and hate one the other naturally, as you
see in Lead, which is naturally a very great enemy to Gold. For it
breaks asunder all parts of Gold, it makes it foule, weak, spoiles, and
destroyes it even to death, more then any other Metall.

Tin also hates, and is an enemy to all Metalls: for it makes them base,
immalleable, hard, unprofitable, if it bee mixed with them in the fire,
or in melting.

Since therefore you have now heard of the Enemies of Metalls, you must
next know their preservatives, which keep them from all manner of hurt,
or corruption, also strengthen them in their Nature, and vertue, and
exalt their colour.

[Sidenote: Gold is preserved in boyes urine.]

First therefore concerning Gold, you must know, that it cannot bee
preserved better, and fairer then in boyes urine, in which Salt
Armoniack is dissolved, or in water alone of Salt Armoniack. In them in
time the colour is so highly exalted that it can bee exalted no higher.

[Sidenote: How silver is preserved.]

[Sidenote: How Iron and Steel may be preserved.]

[Sidenote: How Copper is preserved.]

Silver cannot be better preserved then if it be boiled in common Water,
or Vineger, in which Tartar or Salt have been dissolved. So any old
Silver, that is made black, and fouled, is renewed by being boiled in
these waters. The best preservative for Iron and Steel is the lard of
a Barrow-hog not salted, which indeed preserves Iron, and Steel from
rust, if once every moneth they be smeered over with it. Also if Iron
bee melted with fixt Arsenicke, it will be so renewed and fixt, that it
will like Silver never contract rust. Copper may be preserved, if it
bee only mixed with sublimed Mercury, or bee smeered over with the oyle
of Salt; and so it will never any more be grown over with verdegrease.

[Sidenote: How Lead is preserved.]

[Sidenote: How the Loadstone is preserved.]

Lead can no wayes bee better preserved then in cold Earth, and in
a moist place, according to the Nature thereof. The Loadstone is
preserved best of all with the filings of Iron, and Steel, for by this
meanes it is never weakened, but daily strengthened.

[Sidenote: The preservation of Salts.]

Now concerning the preservation of Salts, and all things, that are of
a saltish Nature, and may be comprehended under the name of Salt (of
which there are more then an hundred sorts) you must know that they
are to bee preserved in a hot dry place, and in woodden vessells, not
in Glasse, Stone, or Metalls: for in those they are dissolved and
become a Water, and an Amalgama which cannot be in Wood.

[Sidenote: The preservation of liquors with oils.]

Moreover you must know how some kind of Waters, and Liquors pressed
out of hearbs, roots, and all other fruits, and Vegetables, which doe
easily contract filth, and slime as if a skin were spread over them,
may be preserved. These Waters therefore, and Liquors must bee put up
into glasses that are narrow towards the top, and wide below, and the
glasses be filled to the top, then adde a few drops of oyl Olive, that
all the Water, or Liquor may bee covered: so the Oyl will swim on the
top, and preserve the Liquor, or Water a long time from filth or slime.
For there is no Water, or liquor if it bee covered with oyl, that will
bee musty, or of an ill savour.

By this means also may two sorts of Water, of Liquors of Wine bee
kept apart in one vessell, that they may not bee mixed: and not only
two sorts, but three, four, five, and more, if only the oyle bee put
betwixt: For they are severed by the Oyle, as by a wall, which wil not
suffer them to be joined together, and united, for oyle and water are
two contraries, and neither can be mixed with the other: For as the
Oyle will not suffer the Waters to be united, so on the contrary, the
Water will not suffer the Oyls to be mixed.

[Sidenote: How clothes are preserved.]

Now to preserve Cloath, and Garments from moths, there is no better
way then with Mastick, Camphire, Amber Gryse, and Muske, and Civet,
which indeed is the best of all, which doth not only preserve them from
moths, but also, drives away moths, and all other vermine, as Fleas,
Lice, &c.

[Sidenote: How all sorts of Wood may be preserved.]

[Sidenote: Fixed oyle of sulphur.]

Also all manner of Woods, as in Houses, Bridges, Ships, or wheresoever
they be, may bee preserved so that they will never bee putrefied,
either in waters, or under waters, or out of water in the earth, under
the earth or above the earth, whether they be set in the rain, or
wind, aire, snow, or ice, in winter, or summer; also that they be not
worm-eaten, nor that any worms may breed in them whensoever they bee
cut. Now this preservative is a great _Arcanum_ against all kinds of
putrefactions, yea so excellent a secret that none may bee compared to
it. And it is nothing else but Oyle of Sulphur, the processe whereof
is this. Let common yellow Sulphur bee powdered, and put into a Gourd
glasse, upon which let there be poured so much of the strongest _Aqua
fortis_, that may cover it three fingers breadth: then draw it oft by
distillation, three, or four times; and last of all, till it be dry.
Let the Sulphur that remaines in the bottome being of a black, sad red
colour, be put upon marble, or in a glasse, and it will easily bee
dissolved into Oyle, which is a great secret in preserving of Wood from
putrefaction, and wormes. For this Oyle doth so tinge the wood that
is nointed with it, that it can never bee washed out of it againe.
Many more things may bee preserved with this Oil of Sulphur; from
putrefaction, as ropes, cords in ships, and masts of ships, in carts,
fishing-nets, and gins which Fowlers, and Hunters use, and such like,
which are oftentimes used in waters, or raine, and are otherwise easily
rotted, and broken, so also linnen clothes, and many other such like

[Sidenote: Which are potable things, and how they are preserved.]

[Sidenote: Which is an enemie to them.]

Also you must know how potable things are to be preserved, by which
wee understand Wine, Beer, Meade, Vineger, and Milke. Now if we
would preserve these from harm, and in their full vertue, it is very
necessary that you know well what is an Enemie to them, and that is
menstruous women: for if they doe handle the foresaid things, or have
any thing to doe about them, or looke, or breath upon them, they
corrupt them. For Wine is thereby changed, and become thick, Beer, and
Mead grow sowre, Vineger grows dead, and loseth its sharpnesse; and
Milke grows sowre, and curded.

This therefore you must well know, before you come to preserve each of
these in particular.

[Sidenote: How Wine is preserved by Sulphur.]

Wine is preserved chiefly by Sulphur, and the Oyle of Sulphur, by which
all Wine may bee preserved a long time, so that it be neither thick,
nor any other way changed.

[Sidenote: Beere is preserved with oyle of Cloves.]

Beere is preserved with Oyle of Cloves, if some drops thereof bee put
into it, to every Gallon two or three drops, or, which is better, with
the Oyl of the root of _Avens_, which doth preserve Beer from sowring.

[Sidenote: Mead is preserved with oyle of Sugar.]

Meade is preserved with Oyl of Sugar, which must bee used as the Oyle
of Cloves abovesaid.

[Sidenote: How Vineger is preserved.]

Vineger is preserved with Oyle of Ginger, which must be used as the
Oyle of Cloves abovesaid.

[Sidenote: How Milke is preserved.]

Milke is preserved with Oyle of Almonds made by expression, which must
bee used as the Oyle of Cloves abovesaid.

[Sidenote: Cheese is preserved with St. Johns wort.]

Cheese is preserved with St. _Iohns_ wort from worms, for if it doth
but touch it, no worme will breed in it: and if there bee any in
before, it will kill them, and make them fall out of the Cheese.

[Sidenote: How Honey is to be preserved.]

[Sidenote: What its chief enemie is.]

Honey hath no peculiar preservative, onely that it may bee kept from
its Enemie. Now its chief Enemie is bread: for if a little bread made
of Corne bee but put, or faln into it, all the Honey is turned into
Emmots, and spoiled.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the life of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: What use the Aire is for as to the life of things.]

[Sidenote: What the life of things is.]

[Sidenote: What things have life.]

No man can deny that Aire gives life to all things, bodies, and
substances, that are produced, and generated of the Earth. Now you
must know what, and what manner of thing the life of every thing in
particular is; and it is nothing else then a spirituall essence,
a thing that is invisible, impalpable, a spirit, and spirituall.
Wherefore there is no corporeall thing, which hath not a spirit lying
hid in it, as also a life, which, as I said before, is nothing but a
spirituall thing. For not only that hath life which moves, and stirres,
as Men, Animalls, Vermine of the earth, Birds in the Aire, Fish in the
sea, but also all corporeall, and substantiall things. For here wee
must know that God in the beginning of the Creation of all things,
created no body at all without its spirit, which it secretly contains
in it.

[Sidenote: What is the difference betwixt the Spirit and the Body.]

For what is the body without a spirit? Nothing at all. Wherefore the
spirit contains in it secretly the vertue, and power of the thing,
and not the body. For in the body there is death, and the body is the
subject of death, neither is any else to be sought for in the body, but

[Sidenote: The Spirit never dyes.]

For that may severall wayes bee destroyed, and corrupted, but the
spirit cannot. For the living spirit remains for ever, and also is the
subject of life: and preserves the body alive; but in the ruine of the
body it is separated from it, and leaves behind it a dead body, and
returnes to its place, from whence it came, _viz._ into the Chaos, and
the Aire of the upper and lower Firmament. Hence it appears that there
are divers spirits, as well as divers bodies.

[Sidenote: The division of the Spirit according to the variety of

[Sidenote: The Spirit is the life of all Corporeall things.]

For there are spirits Celestiall, Infernall, Humane, Metalline,
Minerall, of Salts, of Gemmes, of Marcasites, of Arsenicks, of Potable
things, of Rootes, of Juices, of Flesh, of Blood, of Bones, &c.
Wherefore also know that the spirit is most truly the life, and balsome
of all Corporeall things. But now wee will proceed to the species, and
briefly describe to you in this place the life of every naturall thing
in particular.

[Sidenote: What the life of man is.]

The life therefore of all men is nothing else but an Astrall balsome,
a Balsamick impression, and a celestiall invisible Fire, an included
Aire, and a tinging spirit of Salt. I cannot name it more plainly,
although it bee set out by many names. And seeing wee have declared
the best, and chiefest, wee shall bee silent in these which are lesse

[Sidenote: What the life of Metalls is.]

The life of Metalls is a secret fatnesse, which they have received
from Sulphur, which is manifest by their flowing, for every thing that
flowes in the fire, flowes by reason of that secret fatnesse that is in
it: unlesse that were in it, no Metall could flow, as wee see in Iron,
and Steel, which have lesse Sulphur, and fatnesse then all the other
Metalls, wherefore they are of a dryer Nature then all the rest.

[Sidenote: What the life of Mercury is. Mercury is like to a garment of

The life of Mercury is nothing else but the internall heat, and
externall coldnesse, _i.e._ it makes the internall part of its body
hot, and the outward part cold, and therefore might well bee compared
to a garment made of skins, which doth even as Mercury make hot, and
cold. For if a man wears such a garment it makes him warme, and keeps
him from the cold: but if the smooth part of those skins bee put upon
his naked body, it makes him cold, and is good against too much heat;
wherefore it was a custome in ancient time, and still is in some
places, to weare skins as well in Summer, as in Winter, as against
cold in the one, so against heat in the other: in Summer they turn the
smooth side inward, and the hairy side outward; and in Winter the hairy
side inward, and the smooth side outward. As therefore you have heard
of the garment of skins, so also it may bee said of Mercury.

[Sidenote: What the life of Sulphur is.]

The life of Sulphur is a combustible, stinking fatnesse, for whilst it
burns, and stinks, it may be said to be alive.

[Sidenote: What the life of Salts is.]

Now the life of all Salts is nothing else but the spirit of _Aquæ
fortis_: for that water being drawne from them, that which remains in
the bottome, is called Dead earth.

[Sidenote: What the life of Gemmes and Coralls is.]

The life of Gemmes, and Coralls is only their colour, which with spirit
of Wine may be taken from them.

[Sidenote: What the life of Pearls is.]

The life of Pearls is nothing else but their splendor, which they lose
in calcination.

[Sidenote: What the life of the Loadstone is.]

The life of the Loadstone is the spirit of Iron, which may bee
extracted, and taken away with spirit of Wine.

[Sidenote: The life of Flints what.]

The life of Flintes is a mucilaginous matter.

[Sidenote: The life of Marcasites what.]

The life of Marcasites, Cachymia, Talcum, Cobaltum, Zimri, Granata,
Wismat, and of Antimony is a tinging Metalline spirit.

[Sidenote: The life of Arsenicks.]

The life of Arsenickes, Auripigment, Operment, Realgar, and such like
matters, is a Minerall, and coagulated poison.

[Sidenote: The life of Excrements]

The life of Excrements, _i.e._ of mans dung, or beast dung is their
stinking smell, for this being lost they are dead.

[Sidenote: The life of aromaticall things.]

The life of Aromaticall things, _viz._ of Muske, Amber Gryse, Civet,
and whatsoever yeelds a strong, good, and sweet smell is nothing else
but that gratefull odour: for if they lose this they are dead and of no

[Sidenote: The life of sweet things.]

The life of sweet things, as of Sugar, Honey, Manna, Cassia, and
such like is in their tinging, and subtile sweetnesse, for if that
sweetnesse bee taken from them by distilling, or subliming they are
dead, unprofitable, and nothing worth.

[Sidenote: The life of Rozzens.]

The life of all Rozzens, as Amber, Turpentine, Gumme, is the
muciliginous shining fatnesse, which gives that excellent vernish to
them all: for when they will yeeld no more vernish, and lose their
shining, they are dead.

[Sidenote: The life of Plants.]

The life of Hearbs, Roots, Apples, and other such like fruit, is
nothing else but the liquor of the Earth, which they lose of their own
accord, if they do but want water, and Earth.

[Sidenote: The life of Wood.]

The life of Wood is a certaine Rozzen, for any wood if it want Rozzen
can live no longer.

[Sidenote: The life of Bones.]

The life of Bones is the liquor of Mummie.

[Sidenote: The life of flesh.]

The life of flesh, and blood is nothing else but the spirit of Salt,
which preserves them from stinking, and putrefaction, and is of it
selfe as water separated from them.

[Sidenote: The life of every Element.]

Now concerning the life of Elements, you must know that the life of
Water is its running. For when by the coldnesse of the Firmament it is
congealed into ice, it is dead, and its mischievousnesse is taken from
it, that nobody can bee drowned in it.

[Sidenote: What the life of Fire is.]

The life of Fire is Aire, for Aire makes fire burne with greater
vehemency, and heate: Also there cometh forth from all Fire a kind of
Aire, which will blow out a candle, and drives up a feather, as you may
dayly see before your eyes. Wherefore the flame of Fire is choaked if
it bee so stopt up, that it can neither receive in Aire, and let out
its own Aire.

[Sidenote: What the life of Aire is.]

The Aire lives by, and of it selfe, and gives life to all other things.

[Sidenote: What the life of Earth is.]

The earth of it selfe is dead, but the Element of it is an invisible,
and secret life.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the Death, or ruine of all things._

[Sidenote: What Death is.]

[Sidenote: The preparation of Mercury Sulphur and Antimony.]

The death of all naturall things is nothing else but an alteration
and destruction of their powers, and vertues, a predominancy of that
which is evill, and an overcoming of what is good, an abolishing of
the former nature, and generation of a new, and another nature. For
you must know that there are many things that, whilst they are alive,
have in them severall vertues, but when they are dead retaine little
or nothing of their vertue, but become unsavory, and unprofitable.
So on the contrary many things, whilest they live, are bad, but after
they are dead, and corrupted, manifest a manifold power, and vertue,
and are very usefull. Wee could bring many examples to confirme this,
but that doth not belong to our purpose. But that I may not seem to
write according to mine own opinion only, but out of my experience,
it will bee necessary that I produce one example, with which I shall
silence those Sophisters, who say, that wee can receive nothing from
dead things, neither must we seek, or expect to find any thing in them.
The reason is, because they do esteem nothing of the preparations of
Alchymists, by which many such like great secrets are found out. For
looke upon Mercury, crude Sulphur, and crude Antimony, as they are
taken out of their Mines, _i.e._ whilest they are living, and see
what little vertue there is in them, how slowly they put forth their
vertues, yea they do more hurt, then good, and are rather poison, then
a Medicine. But if through the industry of a skilfull Alchymist, they
bee corrupted in their first substance, and wisely prepared (_viz._ if
Mercury be coagulated, precipitated, sublimed, dissolved, and turned
into an oyle, if Sulphur bee sublimed, calcined, reverberated, and
turned into an oyle; also if Antimony bee sublimed, calcined, and
reverberated and turned into oyle) you shall see how usefull they are,
how much strength, and vertue they have, and how quickly they put
forth, and shew their efficacy, which no man is able to speak enough
in the commendation of, or to describe. For many are their vertues,
yea more then will ever bee found out by any man. Wherefore let every
faithfull Alchymist, and Physitian spend their whole lives in searching
into these three: For they will abundantly recompense him for all his
labour, study, and costs.

[Sidenote: What the Death of man is.]

But to come to particulars, and to write particularly of the death,
and destruction of every naturall thing, and what the death of every
thing is, and after what manner every thing is destroyed; you must
know therefore in the first place, that the death of man is without
doubt nothing else, but an end of his daily work, the taking away of
the Aire, the decaying of the Naturall balsome, the extinguishing of
the naturall light, and the great separation of the three substances,
_viz._ the body, soule, and spirit, and their return from whence they
came. For because a naturall man is of the earth, the Earth also
is his Mother, into which hee must return, and there must lose his
natural earthly flesh, and so be regenerated at the last day in a new
celestiall, and purified flesh, as Christ said to _Nicodemus_ when
hee came to him by night. For thus must these words bee understood of

[Sidenote: What the destruction of Metalls is.]

The death, and destruction of Metalls is the disjoining of their
bodies, and sulphureous fatnesse, which may bee done severall ways,
as by calcination, reverberation, dissolution, cementation, and

[Sidenote: Calcination of Metalls is manifold.]

But the calcination of Metalls is not of one sort: for one is made with
Salt, another with Sulphur, another with _Aqua fortis_, and another
with common Sublimate, and another with Quicksilver.

[Sidenote: What Calcination with Salt is.]

Calcination with Salt is that the Metall be made into very thin
plates, and strowed with Salt, and cemented.

[Sidenote: Calcination with Sulphur.]

Calcination with Sulphur is, that the Metall bee made into thin plates,
and strowed with Sulphur, and reverberated.

[Sidenote: Calcination with Aqua fortis.]

Calcination with _Aqua fortis_, is that the Metall bee made very small,
and dissolved in _Aqua fortis_, and precipitated in it.

[Sidenote: Calcination with Sublimate.]

Calcination with sublimed Mercury is this, that the Metall bee made
into thin plates, and that the Mercury bee put into an earthen vessell
narrow towards the top, and wide at the bottome; and then let it be set
into a gentle fire made with coales, which must bee blowed a little
untill the Mercury begin to fume, and a white cloud goe forth of the
mouth of the vessel, then let the Plate of the Metall bee put into
the top of the vessel, and so the sublimed Mercury wil penetrate the
Metall, and make it as brittle as a stone of coal.

[Sidenote: Calcination with Quicksilver.]

Calcination with Quicksilver, is that the Metall bee made very small,
and thin, and be amalgamated with Quicksilver, and afterward the
Quicksilver bee strained through Leather, and the Metall remain in the
Leather like chalke, or sand.

[Sidenote: Divers other sorts of mortification of metalls.]

Now besides these mortifications of Metalls, and destructions of their
lives, know also that there are yet more. For rust is the death of all
Iron, and Steel, and all vitriall, burnt brasse is mortified Copper:
all precipitated, sublimated, calcined Cinnabar is mortified Mercury,
all Ceruse, and Minium of Lead is mortified Lead; all Lazure is
mortified Silver: also all Gold from which its tincture, Quintessence,
Rozzen, Crocus, Vitriall, or Sulphur is extracted, is dead, because it
hath no more the form of Gold, but is a white Metall like fixed Silver.

[Sidenote: A two fold preparation of Crocus Martis.]

But let us proceed to shew how Metalls may bee yet further mortified.
First therefore of Iron, know that that is mortified, and reduced into
Crocus this way. Make Steel into very thin plates: Make these plates
red hot, and quench them in the best Wine-Vineger, doe this so often
til the Vineger hath contracted a considerable rednesse, then distil of
the Vineger, til there bee nothing but a dry powder remaining. This is
a most excellent Crocus Martis.

There is also another way of making Crocus Martis, which doth partly
exceed the former, and is made with farre lesse costs, and pains, and
it is this.

Strow upon the plates of Steel, Sulphur, and Tartar, being both in
a like quantity; then reverberate them, and this wil produce a most
excellent Crocus, which must bee taken off from the plates.

Also you must know, that every plate of Iron, or Steel, if it bee
melted with _Aqua fortis_; will also make a very fair Crocus; so also
it is made with oyle of Vitriall, spirit of Salt, Allum water, the
water of Salt Armoniacke, and of Salt Nitre; as also with sublimated
Mercury, all which mortifie Iron, and bring it into a Crocus; but none
of these latter wayes is to bee compared to the two former, for they
are only used in Alchymie, and not at all in Physicke; wherefore in
this, use only the two former, and let alone the rest.

[Sidenote: The mortification of Copper.]

[Sidenote: The Vitriall of Copper is made two wayes.]

The mortification of Copper, _viz._ that it may be reduced into
Vitriall, Verdegrease, may bee done many wayes, and there are more
processes in it, yet one far better then another, and one more
profitable then another. Wherefore it is most convenient here to set
down the best, and most profitable, and to bee silent in the rest. The
best therefore, the most easy, and exactest way of reducing Copper into
Vitriall is this.

Let plates of Copper bee dipt in spirit of Salt, or Salt-Petre, and let
them bee hanged in the Aire until they begin to be green, which indeed
wil quickly be, wash off this greennesse with cleer fountaine-water,
dry the plates with some cloath, and wet them again with the spirit of
Salt, and Salt Nitre, and do again as before, so long until the water
bee apparently green, or much Vitriall swim on the top: then poure away
the water, or evaporate it, and thou hast a most excellent Vitriall for
medicine. In Alchymie there is not a fairer, more excellent, and better
Vitriall then what is made by _Aqua fortis_, or _Aqua regis_, or spirit
of Salt Armoniacke. And the processe is this.

Let plates of Copper be melted with one of the aforesaid waters, &
as soon as the greeness is extracted, and the plates dryed, let the
greeness be taken off with the foot of a Hare, or some other way as you
please, as Ceruse is taken off from the plates of Lead: let them bee
again wetted as before, until the plates bee wholly consumed, thereby
is made a most glorious Vitriall, that thou canst not choose but wonder
at it.

[Sidenote: How water of Salt-petre and Salt-armoniack is made.]

The water of Salt Petre is made thus. Purifie, and powder it;
afterwards dissolve it of it selfe in a bladder, put in boyling water.
So thou shalt have the water of Salt Petre.

The water of Salt Armoniacke is made thus: Calcine Salt Armoniack,
and dissolve it in a Cellar upon a Marble, and this is water of Salt

[Sidenote: Verdegrease may be made two wayes.]

But to make Verdegrease out of Copper, there are divers wayes which
it is not needful here to recite. Wee shall describe only two, but
with a double preparation, _viz._ The one for Physicke, the other for
Alchymie. The processe therefore of Verdegrease to be used in Physick
is this.

[Sidenote: How verdegrease to be used in physick is to be prepared.]

[Sidenote: The Balsom of Copper.]

Take plates of Copper, which wet over with the following matter. Take
Honey, and Vineger, of each a like quantity, of Salt as much as wil
serve to make them up into a thick past. Mixe them well together, then
put them into a reverberatory, or Potters furnace so long as the Potter
is burning his pots, and thou shalt see the matter that stickes to the
plates to bee very black, but let not that trouble thee. For if thou
settest those plates in the Aire, all the black matter wil in a few
days become green, and become a most excellent Verdegrease, which may
bee called the Balsome of Copper, and is commended by all Physitians.
But neverthelesse do not thou wonder that this Verdegrease becomes
green in the Aire, and that the Aire can change the black colour into
so fair a green.

[Sidenote: Aire changeth the Colours of things burnt.]

For here thou must know that daily experience in Alchymie doth shew,
that any dead earth, or _Caput Mortuum_, as soon as it comes out of
the Fire into the Aire, doth quickly get another colour, and leaves
its own colour which it got in the fire. For the changes of those
colours are various. For as the matter is, so are the colours that
are made, although for the most part they flow from the blacknesse
of the dead earth. For you that are skilful in Alchymie see that the
dead earth of _Aqua fortis_ comes black from the Fire, and by how many
more ingredients there bee in it, by so much the more variously doe
the colours shew themselves in the Aire: sometimes they seem red, as
Vitriall makes them: sometimes yellow, white, green, blew: sometimes
mixt, as in the Rainbow, or Peacocks taile. All those colours shew
themselves after the death, and by the death of the matter. For in the
death of all naturall things here are seen other colours, which are
changed from the first colour into other colours, every one according
to its nature, and property.

[Sidenote: The preparation of Verdegrease to be used in Alchymie.]

Now we wil speak of that Verdegrease which is to bee used in Alchymie.
The preparation, and processe of that is this.

Make very thin plates of Copper, strow upon them Salt, Sulphur, and
Tartar ground, and mixed together, of each a like quantity in a great
calcining pot. Then reverberate them twenty foure houres with a strong
Fire, but so that the plates of Copper do not melt, then take them
out, and break the pot, and set the plates with the matter that sticks
to them into the Aire for a few dayes, and the matter upon the plates
wil bee turned into a faire Verdegrease, which in all sharp Corroding
waters, waters of Exaltation, and in Cements, and in colouring of Gold,
doth tinge Gold, and Silver with a most deep colour.

[Sidenote: How Æs vstum, or Crocus of Copper is to be made.]

Now to turne Copper into _Æs ustum_, which is called the _Crocus_ of
Copper, the processe is this:

Let Copper be made into thin plates, and be smeered over with Salt
made into a past with the best Vineger, then let it be put into a
great Crucible, and set in a wind furnace, and be burnt in a strong
Fire for a quarter of an houre, but so that the plates melt not: let
these plates being red hot bee quenched in Vineger, in which Salt
Armoniack is dissolved, alwaies half an ounce in a pint of Vineger; let
the plates bee made red hot again, and quenched in Vineger as before,
alwaies scraping, or knocking off the scales which stick to the plates
after quenching, into the Vineger. Do this so long, until the plates
of Copper bee in good part consumed by this means: then distil off the
Vineger, or let it vapour away in an open vessel, and bee coagulated
into a most hard stone. So thou hast the best _Crocus_ of Copper, the
use whereof is in Alchymie. Many make _Crocus_ of Copper by extracting
of it with the spirit of Wine, or Vineger, as they do _Crocus Martis_:
But I commend this way far above it.

[Sidenote: The sublimation of Quicksilver.]

Now the mortification of Quicksilver that it may bee sublimed, is made
with Vitriall, and Salt, with which it is mixed, and then sublimed, so
it becomes as hard as Crystall, and as white as snow: but to bring it
to a Precipitate, the processe is this:

[Sidenote: How to make a fixt Precipitat Diaphoreticall.]

Let it first be calcined with the best _Aqua fortis_, then distil off
the _Aqua fortis_, and do this about five times, until the Precipitate
become to bee of a faire red colour: Dulcifie this precipitate as much
as thou canst: And lastly poure upon it the best rectified spirit of
Wine you can get, distil it off from it eight, or nine times, or so
often until it be red hot in the fire, and doe not fly: then thou hast
a Diaphoretical precipitated Mercury.

[Sidenote: How to make a sweet Precipitate.]

[Sidenote: And the use of it.]

Moreover, you must take notice of a great secret concerning
precipitated Mercury, _viz._ if after it is coloured, it bee dulcified
with water of salt of Tartar, pouring it upon it, and distilling
of it off so often, until the water riseth no more sharp from the
Precipitate, but bee manifestly sweet; then thou hast a precipitate as
sweet as sugar, or honey, which in all wounds, Ulcers, and Venereal
Disease is so excellent a secret, that no Physitian need desire a

Besides it is a great comfort to despairing Alchymists. For it doth
augment Gold, and hath ingresse into Gold, and with it Gold remaines
stable, and good. Although there is much pains, and sweat required
to this Precipitate, yet it wil sufficiently recompense thee for thy
pains, and costs; and wil yeeld thee more gain, then can bee got by any
Art or Trade whatsoever: Thou maist wel therefore rejoice in this, and
give God, and mee thanks for it.

[Sidenote: How Quicksilver may be Coagulated.]

[Sidenote: How Quicksilver may be turned to Cinnabar.]

Now that Quicksilver may bee coagulated, I said that that must bee done
in sharp _Aqua fortis_, which must bee drawn off by Distillation, and
then the Precipitate is made. But that Quicksilver may bee brought into
a Cinnabar; you must first mortifie, and melt it with Salt, and yellow
Sulphur, and bring it into a white powder, then put it in a gourd, and
put upon it Aludel, or head, and sublime it in the greatest flux you
can, as the manner is, so the Cinnabar will ascend into the Aludel, and
stick as hard as the stone _Hæmatites_.

[Sidenote: There are two kinds of Ceruse.]

[Sidenote: The preparation of them.]

The mortification of Lead to bring it to a Ceruse, is twofold; the one
for Medicine, the other for Alchymie. The preparation of Ceruse for
Medicine is this:

Hang plates of Lead in a glazed pot over strong Wine-vinegar, the pot
being well stopt that the spirits doe not exhale: put this pot into
warm ashes, or in the Winter into a furnace, then alwaies after ten
or fourteen dayes, thou shalt find very good Ceruse sticking to the
plates, which strike off with the foot of a Hare: then put the plates
over the Vineger again, untill thou hast enough Ceruse.

Now the other preparation of Ceruse for Alchymie is like the former,
only that in the Vineger must bee dissolved a good quantity of the
best, and fairest Salt Armoniack, for by this means thou shalt purchase
a most faire, and beautifull Ceruse, for the purging of Tinne, and
Lead, and the whitening of Copper.

[Sidenote: The preparation of Minium out of Lead.]

But if wee would make Minium of Lead, we must first calcine it with
Salt into Calx, and then burn it in a glazed vessel, alwaies stirring
it with an Iron rod, till it be red. This is the best, and chiefest
Minium, and it is to be used as wel in Physick as Alchymie: but the
other which Mercers sell in their shops is nothing worth. It is made
only of the ashes, which remaine of the Lead in the melting of it,
which also Potters use to glaze their vessels, and such Minium is used
for Painting, but not for Physicke, or Alchymie.

[Sidenote: The Crocus of Lead.]

Now that Lead may bee brought into yellownesse, the preparation of
it is not unlike to the preparation of Minium. For Lead must here be
calcined with Salt, and brought to a Calx, and afterwards be stirred
with an Iron rod in a Broad bason, such as tryers of Mineralls use,
in a gentle Fire of Coales, diligently taking heed, that there be not
too much heat, nor a neglect in stirring, for else it will flow, and
become a yellow glasse. And so thou hast a fair, yellow _Crocus_ of

[Sidenote: How the Azure Colour is made of silver.]

The mortification of Silver, that of it may be made the Azure colour,
or something like to it, is thus:

Take plates of Silver, and mix them with Quicksilver, and hang them
in a glazed pot over the best Vineger, in which Gilt-heads have been
first boiled, and afterward Salt Armoniack, and calcined Tartar have
been dissolved; in all the rest doe as hath been said of Ceruse, then
alwaies after fourteen days thou shalt have a most excellent, and faire
Azure colour sticking to the plates of Silver, which must be wiped off
with a Hares foot.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Gold.]

The Mortification of Gold that it may be brought into its Arcana, as
into a Tincture, Quintessence, Resine, Crocus, Vitriall, and Sulphur,
and many other excellent Arcana, which preparations indeed are many.
But because for the most part wee have sufficiently treated of such
Arcana in other bookes, as the extraction of the Tincture of Gold, the
Quintessence of Gold, the Mercury of Gold, the Oile of Gold, Potable
Gold, the Resine of Gold, the Crocus of Gold, and in the Archidoxis,
and elsewhere, wee conceive it needlesse here to repeat them. But what
Arcana were there omitted, wee shall here set down, As the Vitriall of
Gold, Sulphur of Gold, which indeed are not the least, and ought very
much to cheer up every Physitian.

[Sidenote: How the sulphur, and the Vitriall of Gold are made.]

But to extract Vitriall out of Gold, the processe is this:

Take of pure Gold two, or three pound, which beat into thin plates,
and hanging them over Boyes urine, mixt with the stones of grapes, in
a large gourd glasse, well closed, which bury in a hot heap of stones
of Grapes, as they come from the presse; when it hath stood fourteen
dayes, or three weeks, then open it, and thou shalt find a most
subtil colour, which is the Vitriall of Gold sticking to the plates
of Gold, which take off with the foot of a Hare, as thou hast heard
concerning other Metalls; as of the plates of Iron, Crocus Martis,
of the plates of Copper, the Vitriall of Copper and Verdegrease, of
the plates of Lead, Ceruse, of the plates of Silver the Azure colour,
&c. comprehended under one processe, but not with one manner of
preparation. When thou hast enough of the Vitriall of Gold; boyle it
well in Rain-water distilled, alwaies stirring it with a spatle, then
the sulphur of the gold is driven up to the superficies of the water,
as fat, which take off with a spoon: Thus also doe with more Vitriall.
Now after all the Sulphur is taken off, evaporate that raine water
til it bee all dry, and there will remain the Vitriall of Gold in the
bottome, which thou maist easily dissolve of it selfe upon a marble in
a moist place. In these two Arcana’s, _viz._ the Vitriall of Gold, and
the Sulphur of Gold lies the Diaphoreticall vertue. I shal not here set
down their vertues; for in the book of Metallick Diseases, and also in
other bookes wee have set them down at large.

The mortification of Sulphur, that the combustible and stinking
fatnesse may bee taken away, and it brought into a fixed substance, is

[Sidenote: The mortification and fixation of Sulphur.]

Take common yellow Sulphur finely powdered, and draw from it by
distillation _Aqua fortis_, that is very sharp, and this doe three
times, then the Sulphur which is in the bottome of a black colour
dulcifie with distilled water, until the water come from it sweet, and
it retains no more the stink of Sulphur. Then reverberate this Sulphur
in a close reverberatory as you doe Antimony, then it will first be
white, then yellow, and lastly as red as Cinnabar. And when it is so,
then thou maist rejoice: For it is the beginning of thy riches: This
reverberated Sulphur tingeth Silver most deeply into most excellent
Gold, and the body of Man into most perfect health. This reverberated,
and fixed Sulphur is of more vertue then it is lawfull to speak.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Salts.]

The mortification of all Salts, and whatsoever is saltish, is the
taking away, and distilling off the aquosity, and oylinesse, and of the
spirit of them. For if these be taken away, they are afterwards called
the dead Earth, or _Caput Mortuum_.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Gemmes.]

The mortification of Gemmes, and Coralls, is to calcine, sublime, and
dissolve them into a liquor, as Crystall. The mortification of Pearls
is to calcine them, and dissolve them in sharp Vineger into the form of

[Sidenote: The Mortification of the Loadstone.]

The mortification of the Loadstone, is to anoint it with the oyle of
Mercury, or to put it into Quicksilver, for afterward it will not draw
Iron at all to it.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of flints and stones.]

The mortification of Flints, and Stones, is to calcine them.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Marcasites.]

The mortification of Marcasites, Cachyma’s, Talke, Cobaltus, Zinri,
Granuti, Zunitter (_see Transcriber’s Note_), Unismut, and of Antimony
is their Sublimation, _i.e._ that they bee sublimed with Salt, and
Vitriall, then their life which is a Metallick spirit, together with
the spirit of Salt, ascends. And let whatsoever remains in the bottome
of the Sublimatory, bee washed, that the Salt may bee dissolved from
it, and then thou hast a dead Earth, in which there is no vertue.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Realgar.]

The mortification of Arsenickes, Auripigment, Operment, Realgar, &c.
is, that they flow with Salt Nitre, and bee turned into an Oyl, or
Liquor upon a Marble, and be fixed.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of excrements.]

The mortification of Excrements, is the coagulation of Aire.

[Sidenote: The Mortification of Aromatical things.]

The mortification of Aromaticall things is the taking away of their
good smell.

[Sidenote: Of Sweet things.]

The mortification of sweet things, is to sublime and distill them with
corrosive things.

[Sidenote: Of Resines.]

The mortification of Ambers, Resines, Turpentine, Gumme, and such like,
is to turn them into Oyle, and Vernish.

[Sidenote: Of Hearbs and Roots.]

The mortification of Hearbs, Roots, and such like, is to distil off
from them their oyle, and water, and presse out their liquor with a
presse, and also to make their Alcali.

[Sidenote: Of Wood.]

The mortification of Wood, is to turne it into Coales, and Ashes.

[Sidenote: Of Bones.]

The mortification of Bones, is their Calcination.

[Sidenote: Of Flesh.]

The mortification of Flesh, and Blood, is the taking away of the spirit
of Salt.

[Sidenote: Of Water.]

The mortification of Water is by Fire, for all heat dries up, and
consumes water.

[Sidenote: Of Fire.]

The mortification of Fire is by Water, for all Water, quencheth Fire,
and takes from it its power, and force.

So now you are sufficiently instructed in few words how death lyes
hid in all naturall things, and how they may be mortified, and bee
brought into another form, and nature, and what vertues flow from them.
Whatsoever should have been said further, we put in the following book,
of the Resurrection of Naturall things.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the Resurrection of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: The raising again of Naturall things.]

The Resurrection, and renewing of Naturall things, is not the least,
but a profound, and great secret in the Nature of things, and rather
Divine, and Angelicall, then Humane, and Naturall.

[Sidenote: Death is twofold.]

[Sidenote: What things may be raised againe.]

I desire to bee here understood with great distinction, and no
otherwise then my opinion is, and Nature doth daily, and manifestly
shew, and experience make good, lest I should bee exposed to the lies,
and slanders of Mountebankes, my enemies (which doe construe all
that I doe in the worst sense) as if I would usurp the Divine power,
and attribute this to Nature, which shee was never able to performe:
Wherefore wee must cautiously consider that there is a twofold Death,
_viz._ violent, and voluntary. The one can raise a thing again, the
other not. Wherefore, doe not beleeve those Sophisters that say,
that a thing that is once dead, or mortified, can never bee raised
again, and that make no account of resuscitation, and restauration of
things, which error indeed of theirs is not the least. And indeed it
is true, that whatsoever dyeth, or perisheth with a naturall death,
and what Nature mortifies by reason of her predestination, God alone
can raise again, or must of necessity bee done by his command: so
whatsoever Nature destroyes, Man cannot restore again. But whatsoever
Man destroyes hee can restore again, and being restored spoil again,
and Man hath no further power of himselfe, and if hee should attempt to
doe any thing more, hee would arrogate the power of God to himselfe,
and yet hee would labour in vain, and be confounded, unlesse God did
assist him, or hee had so much faith as to remove mountains: Even to
such a man, this is possible, and greater things then this. Because
the Scripture saith, and Christ himselfe spake it. If thou hast faith
as a grain of Mustard-seed, and saist unto this Mountaine, Goe and bee
removed thither, and it shall bee removed, and all things bee possible
to thee, and nothing impossible.

[Sidenote: What things can not be raised againe.]

But to return to our purpose, what difference then there is betwixt
dying, and being mortified, and which of these may be raised again,
so these are to bee understood. Whatsoever naturally dies hath its
end by predestination, and so the will and ordination of God permits.
Yet it happens that this is also done by divers diseases, and various
casualties, and this can never be raised again, neither is there any
preservative to bee used against predestination, and the naturall term
of life. But that which is mortified, may bee both raised again, and
revived, which may bee proved by divers arguments, which wee shall set
down in the end of this book.

[Sidenote: It is one thing to Dye, and other thing to be Mortified.]

Wherefore there is a great difference betwixt dying, and being
mortified, neither must they bee taken for one, and the same things,
under the same name. For in the very example they are far different.
For look upon a man that dies a naturall, and predestinated death, what
further good, or profit is there in him? Nothing, hee is only cast into
the earth to worms. For hee is a stinking carkasse, and due to the

But the same is not to be understood of a man that is slain with a
sword, or dies by some such like violent death. For his whole body is
profitable, and good, and may bee prepared into a most pretious Mummie.
For although the spirit of life went out of such a body, yet the
balsome in which lies the life remains, which indeed doth as balsome
preserve other mens bodies.

So you may see in Metalls, when a Metall is about to die, it begins to
bee overcome with rust, and as much as is thus overcome, is dead: and
when all the Metall is devoured with rust, it is all dead, and such a
rust can never bee reduced into true Metall againe, but it becomes
only drosse, and not a Metall. For it is dead, and death is in it,
neither hath it any more balsome of life, but is quite destroyed in it

[Sidenote: The difference betwixt the Calx of Metalls, and their ashes.]

Now the Calx of Metalls, and their ashes are two things: And there is a
great difference betwixt these two, for one may be revived, and brought
back again into a Metall, but the other not: the one is volatile, the
other fixed, the one died, the other mortified.

[Sidenote: What the Ashes of Metalls is.]

The Ashes is volatile, and cannot be brought back into a Metall, only
into glasse, and drosse: but the Calx of Metals is fixed, and maybe be
brought back into its own Metall.

[Sidenote: What the Calx of Metalls is.]

But to understand the difference, and the cause, know, that in the
Ashes there is lesse fatnesse, and more drynesse then in the Calx,
which indeed makes it fluxil: but the Calx is fatter, and moister,
then the Ashes, and doth still retain its refine, and fluxibleness,
and especially the Salt, which naturally is fluxil, and makes Metalls
flow, and reduceth them. Hence now it follows, that the Salt must bee
extracted out of the Ashes of Metals, that they may not be brought back
into a Metal, then they are perfectly volatile; and this difference,
and this clause is chiefly to bee taken notice of, for much depends
upon it.

[Sidenote: The errours of Mountebankes concerning Gold.]

For amongst Mountebankes this is no small error, who in stead of
Potable Gold, the Quintessence of Gold, Tincture of Gold, &c. have
given to men an impure Calx of Gold, not considering the difference,
and evill that follows upon it. For there are two remarkable, and
necessary things to be taken notice of here, _viz._

First, that Gold calcined, or powdered, if it be given to Men, is
gathered into one heap in the stomach, or goeth forth again with the
dung, and so it is taken in vain, without doing any good: or that
which is reduced by the great inward heat in mans body, it gilds over,
and makes hard in a crust, both the bowells, and stomach, by reason
of which the concoction of the stomach is hindred, whence many, and
various sicknesses follow, and at length death it selfe.

[Sidenote: When Metallike Arcana are to be taken inwardly.]

As you have heard of Gold, so also must it bee understood of all the
other Metalls, _viz._ that you take not any Metallick _Arcanum_, or
Medicine into your body, unlesse it bee first made volatile, and it be
reduced into no Metall.

[Sidenote: How to make Metalls Potable and Irreducible.]

Wherefore the first degree, and beginning to prepare Potable Gold is
this: so may such a Volatile bee afterwards dissolved in spirit of
Wine, that both may ascend together, bee made volatil, inseparable. And
as you prepare Gold, so may you also prepare potable ☽ ♀ ♂ ♃ ♄ and ☿.

[Sidenote: The raising againe of things is proved by the Whelpes of a

[Sidenote: How Lyons are made alive againe.]

But to return to our purpose, let us prove by examples, and sufficient
reasons, that things mortified are not dead, and forced to abide in
death, but may bee reduced, raised again, and revived, and this truly
by man, and according to the course of Nature. You see Lions how all
of them are brought forth dead, and first of all are made alive by the
horrible roaring of their Parents, as one that is asleep is raised with
a noise, so also are Lions raised, not that they are thus asleep. (For
they which sleep a naturall sleep must of necessity rise again, which
the Lions of themselves doe not.) For if they were not raised by this
roaring, they would remain dead, and life would never bee perceived in
them. Wherefore it is apparent, that by this roaring they receive their

[Sidenote: The reviving of dead Flies.]

So also you see in all Animalls which are not ingendered, but proceed
from putrefaction, as Flies, which if they bee drowned in water, that
no life at all is perceived in them, and if they were so left, they
would continue dead, and never return to life of themselves any more.
But if you cast salt upon them, and put them in the warme Sunne, or
behind a warme furnace, they will recover their former life, and this
truly is a raising of them up againe. For if this were not done, they
would continue dead for ever.

[Sidenote: The generation of many Serpents of one.]

So also you see in a Serpent, if hee be cut into pieces, and these
pieces put into a gourd glasse, and bee putrefied in Horse-dung, the
whole Serpent will become living againe in the glasse, in the form
either of Worms, or spawn of Fishes. And if those Wormes bee in a
fitting manner brought out of putrefaction, and nourished, many hundred
Serpents will be bred out of one Serpent, whereof every one will be as
big as the first, which is done only by putrefaction. And as it is said
of the Serpent, so also many other Animalls may be raised, and restored

[Sidenote: _Hermes_, and _Virgils_ endeavour to raise themselves after

According to this processe _Hermes_, and _Virgil_ have attempted (by
the assistance of Negromancy) to renew, and raise themselves after
death, and to bee born again as infants, but it succeeded not according
to their purpose.

[Sidenote: The Resuscitation of Metalls is twofold.]

But to omit examples, and fall upon the Praxis of Resurrection, and
Restauration, it is necessary, and most convenient to begin with
Metalls, forasmuch as Metalline bodies do oftentimes resemble Mens

[Sidenote: The reducing of Metalls into Quickesilver.]

Wee must know therefore, that the Resurrection, and Restauration of
Metalls is twofold. The one which doth reduce calcined Metalls into
their first Metallick body: the other which doth reduce Metalls into
their first matter, _i.e._ into Quicksilver.

The processe of the latter is this: Calcine a Metall with common
Quicksilver, put this Calx, and as much Quicksilver into a Sublimatory,
and let them stand so long till both be coagulated into an Amalgama;
then sublime the Mercury from the Calx, then grind it again with the
Metallick Calx, and sublime it as before, this do so often, till the
Metallick Calx shal over a candle melt like wax, or ice, and then it is
well done. Put this Metall in digestion for a time, and it wil all be
turned into Quicksilver, _i.e._ into its first matter, which Mercury
of Metalls is indeed called the Mercury of Philosophers, which many
Alchymists have sought after, but few have found. Now after this manner
may Quicksilver bee prepared out of all Metalls, _viz._ ☿ _auri_, ☽
♀ ♂ ♃ ♄.

[Sidenote: The reduction of Sublimate, and the highest purging of it.]

Now the raising again, or restoring of coagulated Mercury is done by
distillation in a retort: for Quicksilver alone ascends into cold
water, the Ashes of ♄ ♀ or Sulphur being left behind.

Now the raising again, or restauration of Mercury sublimed is done in
seething hot water: but it must first be ground very small, so the
hot water wil seperates it from it the spirit of Salt, and Vitriall,
which it carries up with it, the quicksilver running in the bottome of
the water. Now if this Quicksilver shall be again sublimed with Salt,
and Vitriall, and revived againe in Hot water, and this done seven, or
eight times, it can never bee better purged, and renewed.

And this may bee kept for a great secret in Alchymie, and Physick, and
be much rejoiced in. For by this means all the impurity, blacknesse,
and poisonousnesse is taken away.

[Sidenote: The reduction of calcined and Precipitated Mercury.]

Mercury calcined can never bee restored againe without sublimation; for
unlesse it be sublimed after calcination, it will never bee revived,
wherefore thou shalt first sublime it, and then reduce it as other

The resuscitation of Azure Cinnabar, _Aurum vitæ_, also of Precipitate,
that they may bee reduced into Quicksilver is thus:

Take either of these, grind it small upon a marble, make it up into
a past with the white of an egge, and sope, then make pills of the
bigness of Filbeards, which put into a strong earthen gourd, upon the
mouth of it put a plate of Iron, with many little holes in it, and lute
it on, and distill it _per descensum_ with a strong fire, so that it
may fall into cold water, and thou shalt have the Quicksilver again.

[Sidenote: The renewing of Wood that is burnt.]

Now the resuscitation, and restoring of Wood is hard, and difficult,
yet possible to Nature, but without much skilfulness, and industry it
can never bee done: But to revive it, the processe is this:

Take Wood which must first bee a Coale, then Ashes, which put into a
gourd together with the Resine, Liquor, and Oyle of that tree, of each
a like weight, mingle them, and melt them with a soft heat, and there
will bee a mucilaginous matter, and so thou hast the three Principles,
of which all things are produced, and generated, _viz._ flegm,
fatnesse, and Ashes.

[Sidenote: The flegme of Wood is its Mercury, the fat its sulphur, the
ashes its salt.]

The Flegm is Mercury, the Fat is Sulphur, the Ashes is Salt. For
whatsoever fumes, and evaporates in the Fire is Mercury: whatsoever
flames, and is burnt is Sulphur, and all Ashes is Salt.

Now seeing thou hast these three Principles together, put them in
Horse-dung, and putrefie them for a time. If afterward that matter
bee put in, and buried in fat ground, thou shalt see it live again,
and a little tree spring from thence, which truly in vertue is farre
more excellent then the former. This Tree or Wood is, and is called
Regenerated Wood, renewed, and restored, which from the beginning was
Wood, but mortified, destroyed, and brought into coales, ashes, and
almost to nothing, and yet out of that nothing is made, and renewed.
This truly in the light of Nature is a great mystery, _viz._ that a
thing, which had utterly lost its form, and was reduced to nothing,
should recover its form, and of nothing bee made something, which
afterward becomes much more excellent in vertue, and efficacy then it
was at first.

[Sidenote: A generall rule for raising of things againe.]

But to speake generally of the Resurrection, and Restauration of
Naturall things, you must know, that the chiefest foundation here,
is, that that bee restored to every thing, and made to agree with
it, which was taken from it in mortification, and separated from it,
which is hard to bee here specifically explained. Wherefore wee shall
conclude this book, and shall speak of these things more at large in
the next book, Concerning the transmutations of naturall things.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the Transmutation of Naturall things._

If wee write of the Transmutation of all Naturall things, it is fit,
and necessary that in the first place wee shew what Transmutation is.
Secondly, what bee the degrees to it. Thirdly, by what Medium’s, and
how it is done.

[Sidenote: What Transmutation is.]

Transmutation therefore is, when a thing loseth its form, and is so
altered, that it is altogether unlike to its former substance, and
form, but assumes another form, another essence, another colour,
another vertue, another nature, or property, as if a Metall bee made
glasse, or stone: if a stone bee made a coale: if wood be made a coal:
clay be made a stone, or a brick: a skin bee made glew: cloth bee made
paper, and many such like things. All these are Transmutations of
Naturall things.

[Sidenote: There are seven principal degrees of transmutation.]

After this, it is very necessary also to know the degrees to
Transmutation, and how many they be. And they are no more then seven.
For although many doe reckon more, yet there are no more but seven,
which are principall, and the rest may bee reckoned betwixt the
degrees, being comprehended under those seven: And they are these,

  _Calcination, Sublimation, Solution, Putrefaction, Distillation,
  Coagulation, Tincture._

If any one will climbe that Ladder, he shall come into a most
wonderfull place, that hee shall see, and have experience of many
secrets in the Transmutation of Naturall things.

[Sidenote: What Calcination is, and its kinds are.]

The first degree therefore is Calcination, under which also are
comprehended Reverberation, and Cementation. For betwixt these there
is but little difference as for matter of Calcination: Wherefore it is
here the chiefest degree. For by Reverberation, and Cementation, many
corporeall things are calcined, and brought into Ashes, and especially
Metalls. Now what is calcined is not any further reverberated, or

By Calcination therefore all Metalls, Mineralls, Stones, Glasse, &c.
and all corporeall things are made a Coal, and Ashes, and this is done
by a naked strong Fire with blowing, by which all tenacious, soft, and
fat earth is hardened into a stone, Also all stones are brought into a
Calx, as wee see in a Potters furnace of lime, and brickes.

[Sidenote: What Sublimation is, and its kinds.]

Sublimation is the second degree, and one of the most principall
for the Transmutation of many Naturall things: under which is
contained Exaltation, Elevation, and Fixation; and it is not much
unlike Distillation. For as in Distillation the water ascends from
all flegmatick, and watery things, and is separated from its body;
so in Sublimation, that which is spirituall is raised from what is
corporeall, and is subtilized, volatile from fixed, and that in dry
things, as are all Mineralls, and the pure is separated from the impure.

Besides Sublimation, many good vertues, and wonderfull things are found
out in Mineralls, and many things are made fixed, and become constant,
so as to abide in the Fire, and that in this manner.

Let that which is sublimed be ground, and mixed with its feces, and bee
againe sublimed as before, which must bee done so long, till it will no
longer sublime, but all will remaine together in the bottom, and bee

[Sidenote: The fixation of Mineralls into a stone.]

So there will bee afterward a stone, and oyle when and as oft as thou
pleasest, _viz._ if thou puttest it into a cold place, or in the aire
in a Glass. For there it will presently bee dissolved into an Oyle. And
if thou puttest it againe into the fire, it will againe bee coagulated
into a Stone of wonderfull, and great vertue. Keep this as a great
secret, and mystery of Nature, neither discover it to Sophisters.
Moreover, as in Sublimation many Corrosive things are made sweet in the
conjunction of two matters, so on the contrary, many sweet things are
made Corrosive: many sweet things are made sowre, harsh, or bitter; and
on the contrary, many bitter things as sweet as Sugar.

[Sidenote: Rules concerning Salt Armoniack.]

Here also wee must take notice, that every Metal which is brought
into Sublimation by Salt Armoniack, may afterward in the cold, or in
the aire bee brought into an oyle, and againe bee coagulated into a
stone in the Fire, which indeed is one of the chiefest, and greatest
Transmutations in all naturall things, _viz._ to transmute Metall into
a Stone.

[Sidenote: What Solution is, and its kinds.]

The third degree is Solution, under which are to bee understood
Dissolution, and Resolution, and this degree doth most commonly follow
Sublimation, and Distillation, _viz._ that the matter be resolved which
remaines in the bottome.

Now Solution is twofold: the one of Cold, the other of Heat; the one
without Fire, the other in Fire.

A cold dissolution dissolves all Salts, all Corrosive things, & all
calcined things. Whatsoever is of a Salt, and Corrosive quality, is by
it dissolved into Oyle, Liquor, or Water. And this is in a moist, cold
cellar, or else in the Aire on a marble, or in a glasse. For whatsoever
is dissolved in the cold, contains an Airy spirit of Salt, which
oftentimes it gets, and assumes in Sublimation, or Distillation. And
whatsoever is dissolved in the cold, or in the Aire, may again by the
heat of the Fire bee coagulated into powder, or a stone.

[Sidenote: What things a hot Solution dissolves.]

But a hot Solution dissolves all fat, and sulphureous things. And
whatsoever the heat of the Fire dissolves, the same doth coldnesse
congeal into a Masse.

[Sidenote: A double Solution _viz._ of Heat and Cold.]

And whatsoever heat coagulates, is again dissolved by cold, or in the
Aire. Here also we must know that whatsoever Aire, or the Cellar doth
resolve, is of a very great drynesse, and hath a secret corrosive Fire
hid in it: so whatsoever is dissolved in Fire, or in the heat thereof,
hath a sweetish frigidity out of the Fire. Thus, and no otherwise is
Solution to be understood.

[Sidenote: Putrefaction what it is, and its kind.]

Putrefaction is the fourth degree, under which is comprehended
Digestion, and Circulation.

Now then Putrefaction is one of the principall degrees, which indeed
might deservedly have been the first of all, but that it would be
against the true order, and mystery, which is here hid, and known to
few: For those degrees must, as hath been already said, so follow one
the other, as links in a chain, or steps in a ladder.

[Sidenote: The aforesaid order of Degrees is to be observed in making

For if one of the linkes should bee taken away, the chain is
discontinued, and broken, and the prisoners would bee at liberty, and
runne away. So in a ladder, if one step bee taken away in the middle,
and bee put in the upper, or lower part, the ladder would be broken,
and many would fall down headlong by it with the hazard of their
bodies, and lives.

So you must understand the matter here, that those degrees follow one
the other in a just order, or else the whole work of our mystery would
be mar’d, and our labour, and pains would bee in vain, and fruitlesse.

[Sidenote: The force of putrefaction.]

Now putrefaction is of such efficacy, that it abolisheth the old
Nature, and brings in a new one. All living things are killed in it,
all dead things putrefied in it, and all dead things recover life in it.

Putrefaction takes from all Corrosive spirits, the sharpnesse of
the Salt, and makes them mild, and sweet, changeth the colours, and
separates the pure from the impure, it places the pure above, and the
impure beneath.

[Sidenote: What Distillation is, and its kinds are.]

Distillation is the first degree to the Transmutation of all naturall
things. Under it are understood Ascension, Lavation, and Fixation.

By Distillation all Waters, Liquors, and Oyles are subtilized out of
all fat things. Oyle is extracted, out of all Liquors, Water, and out
of all Flegmaticke things Water, and Oyle are separated.

[Sidenote: Cohobation.]

[Sidenote: Fixation by Destillation.]

Besides there are many things in Distillation fixed by Cohobation,
and especially if the things to bee fixed containe in them Water, as
Vitriall doth, which if it bee fixed is called _Colcothar_.

Allum, if it bee fixed with its proper Water, is called the Sugar of
Allum, which also is resolved into a Liquor, which Liquor if it bee
putrefied a moneth, produceth a Water of the sweetnesse of Sugar, which
is of great vertue, and an excellent secret in Physicke, to extinguish
any Metalline heate in Man, as wee have wrote more at large in our
Booke of Metalline Diseases.

And as you have heard of Vitriall, and Allum, so also Salt nitre, and
other Watery Mineralls may bee fixed by Cohobation.

[Sidenote: What Cohobation is.]

Now Cohobation is, that the dead head be oftentimes imbibed with its
own water, and that again bee drawn off by Distillation.

[Sidenote: The force of Distillation in things to be Transmuted.]

Moreover, in Distillation many bitter, harsh, and sharp things become
as sweet as Honey, Sugar, or Manna; and on the contrary, many sweet
things, as Sugar, Honey, or Manna, may bee made as harsh as Oyle of
Vitriall, or Vineger, or as bitter as Gall, or Gentian, as Eager, as a

Many Excrementitious things lose their great stink in Distillation,
which indeed goeth forth in the water.

Many Aromaticall things lose their good savour.

And as Sublimation alters things in their Quality, and Nature, so also
doth Distillation.

[Sidenote: What Coagulation is, and its kinds.]

Coagulation is the sixt degree: Now there is a twofold Coagulation, the
one by Cold, the other by Heat, _i.e._ one of the Aire, the other of
the Fire: and each of these again is twofold, so that there are foure
sorts of Coagulations, two of Cold, and two of Fire.

The Coagulations of Fire are fixed, the other of Cold are not.

The one is done only by common Aire, or without Fire. The other by the
superiour Firmament of Winter starres, all which coagulate Waters into
snow, and ice.

But the Coagulation of Fire, which alone is here to bee taken notice
of, is made by an Artificiall, and Graduall Fire of the Alchymists, and
it is fixed, and permanent. For whatsoever such a Fire doth coagulate,
the same abides so.

The other Coagulation is done by the Ætnean, and Minerall Fire in
Mountains, which indeed the Archeius of the Earth governs, and
graduates not unlike to the Alchymists, and whatsoever is coagulated by
such a Fire, is also fixed, and constant; as you see in Mineralls, and
Metalls, which indeed at the beginning are a mucilaginous matter, and
are coagulated into Metalls, Stones, Flints, Salts, and other bodies,
by the Ætnean fire in Mountaines, through the Archeius of Earth, and
operator of Nature.

[Sidenote: What things cannot be Coagulated.]

Also wee must know that Fire can coagulate no water, or moisture, but
only the Liquors and Juices of all Naturall things.

Besides also there can no flegm bee coagulated, unlesse in the
beginning it was a corporeall matter, into which by the industry of a
skilfull Alchymist it may return.

So also any mucilaginous, matter, or spermaticke slimynesse may by the
heat of Fire be coagulated into a body and corporeall matter, but never
bee resolved into water again.

And as you have heard of Coagulation, so also know concerning Solution,
_viz._ that no corporeall matter can bee dissolved into Water, unlesse
at the beginning it was water: and so it is in all Mineralls.

[Sidenote: What Tincture is, and its kinds.]

Tincture is the seventh, and last degree, which concludes the whole
worke of our mystery for Transmutation, making all imperfect things
perfect, and transmuting them into a most excellent essence, and into a
most perfect soundnesse, and alters them into another colour.

_Tincture therefore is a most excellent matter, wherewith all Minerall,
and Humane bodies are tinged, and are changed into a better, and more
noble essence, and into the highest perfection, and purity._

For Tincture colours all things according to its own nature, and colour.

[Sidenote: All things that are to be tinged must be fluid.]

Now there are many Tinctures, and not only for Metalline, but Humane
bodies, because every thing which penetrates another matter, or tingeth
it with another colour, or essence, so that it bee no more like the
former, may bee called a Tincture.

Wherefore there are many, and various sorts of Tinctures, _viz._ of
Metalls, Mineralls, Mens bodies, Waters, Liquors, Oyls, Salts, all fat
things, and indeed of all things which may bee brought to flux, out of
the Fire, or in the Fire.

For if a Tincture must tinge, it is necessary that the body, or matter
which is to bee tinged, bee opened, and continue in flux, and unless
this should bee so, the Tincture could not operate. But it would bee,
as if any one should cast saffron, or any colour upon coagulated Water,
or Ice: for so it would not so suddenly tinge the Ice with its colour,
as if it were cast into other water. And although it should tinge, yet
it would at the same time resolve the Ice into Water. Wherefore those
Metalls that wee would tinge, must first bee melted in the Fire, and
bee freed from Coagulation.

And here wee must know, that by how much the stronger fire is requisite
for their melting, so much the sooner the Tincture runs through them,
as Leaven penetrates, and infects the whole masse with sowreness; and
by how much better the masse is covered, and kept warm, so much the
better is it fermented, and makes the better bread: for ferment is the
Tincture of Dowe, and Bread.

[Sidenote: Feces are of a more fixt nature then their Flegme.]

Wee must also note, that all feces are of a more fixed substance then
the liquor of it is, also of a sharper, and more penetrating nature:
as you see in the spirit of Wine which is made of the feces of Wine,
and of _Aqua vitæ_, which is distilled out of the grounds of Beer, and
burns like spirit of Wine, and is inflamed as Sulphur.

[Sidenote: The preparation, and Nature of distilled Vineger.]

Also if of the feces of Vineger another Vineger bee distilled, as
commonly spirit of Wine is distilled, there will bee thereby made a
Vineger of so fiery, and sharp a nature, that it consumes all Metalls,
Stones, and other things, as _Aqua fortis_.

[Sidenote: How the Tinctures of Metalls must be made.]

Moreover, it is necessary, that Tinctures be of a fixt, fluxil, and
incombustible nature, so that if a little of a plate of any Metall red
hot bee cast into them, they will presently flow like wax, without any
manner of fume at all, and they penetrate the Metalls, as oyle doth
paper, or water a sponge, and tinge all Metalls into white, and red,
that is, into Silver or Gold.

Now these are the Tinctures of Metalls, which it is necessary must bee
turned into an Alcool, by the first degree of Calcination, then by the
second degree of Sublimation, must get an easy, and light flux. And
lastly, by the degree of Putrefaction, and Distillation are made a
fixt, and incombustible Tincture, and of an unchangeable colour.

[Sidenote: The Tinctures of Men.]

Now the Tinctures of Mens bodies are, that they bee tinged into the
highest perfection of health, and all Diseases bee expelled from them,
that their lost strength, and colour bee restored, and renewed, and
they are these, _viz._ Gold, Pearles, Antimony, Sulphur, Vitriall, and
such like, whose preparation wee have diversly taught in other books;
wherefore it doth not seem to us necessary here to repeat them.

[Sidenote: Of Dying and Painting.]

Wee shall write no more of Tinctures, seeing every extracted colour may
bee called a Tincture, which doth indeed tinge things with a permanent
colour, which doe not go into the Fire, or preserve colours fixed in
the Fire.

All these are in the hand, and power of the Dyer, and Painter, who
prepares them according to his pleasure.

[Sidenote: How many degrees of the Alchymists fire there be.]

It is very necessary in this book to know the degrees of Fire, which
many wayes may bee graduated, and intended, and every degree hath a
peculiar operation, and one produceth the same effect, as another, as
every expert Alchymist, by the daily experience, and exercise of the
Art knows.

For one is as living, and flaming Fire, which reverberates, and
Calcines all bodies: Another is the Fire of a Candle, or Lamp, which
fixeth all volatile bodies: Another is a Fire of coals, which cements,
colours, and purgeth Metalls from their dross, exalts Gold and Silver
to a higher purity, whitens Copper, and in brief renews all Metalls.

Another Fire is of an Iron plate made red hot, in which the Tinctures
of Metalls are proved, which also is profitable for other things.

The Filings of Iron heat after one fashion, Sand after another, Ashes
after another, a _Balneum Mariæ_ after another, in which manifold
Distillations, Sublimations, and Coagulations are done.

_Balneum roris_ after another, in which there are made many Solutions
of corporeall things.

Horse-dung after another, in which the chiefest putrefactions, and
digestions are made.

[Sidenote: The Celestiall fire.]

And after another fashion works the invisible Fire, by which wee
understand the rayes of the Sun, and that which is manifested by a
glasse, or Crystall, and shews its operations and effects, of which
Fire the Ancients wrote nothing at all; and by this fire the three
Principles of every corporeall thing may bee separated.

This Fire is of such wonderfull force, that by it Metalls may bee
melted, and all fat, and fluxible things, may upon the table without
any Fire bee together with all combustible things, reduced into coales,
and ashes.

Therefore after I have proposed, and opened to you the degrees of the
Art of Alchymie, and the degrees of the Alchymists Fire: I will yet
further shew, and declare to you in generall, various Transmutations of
naturall things: of Metalls first, secondly of Stones, and thirdly of
divers things in generall. The transmutation of Metalls therefore is a
great secret in Nature, and it can hardly bee done by reason of many
impediments, and repugnancies. Yet it is not against Nature, nor Gods
ordination, as many falsly affirm.

[Sidenote: The Transmutation of Metalls into Silver and Gold.]

But that the five lesser, and impurer Metalls, _viz._ ♀ ♃ ♄ ♂ and ☿
may be transmuted into the greater, purest, and most perfect Metalls,
_viz._ into ☉ and ☽, it cannot be done without the Tincture, or
Philosophers stone.

Now seeing we have before sufficiently opened the secrets of Tinctures
in the seven degrees, and described them there, it is not necessary
that wee spend any further labour in this, but rather bee satisfied
with those things, which we have wrote in other books concerning the
Transmutations of Metalls.

[Sidenote: The Transmutation of Iron into Copper.]

Now there are other Transmutations of imperfect, and impure Metals, as
the transmutation of ♂ into ♀, which may bee done divers wayes.

If plates of Iron bee boiled in water of Vitriall, or bee cemented with
calcined Vitriall, or being red hot be quenched in oyl of Vitriall.

These three ways Iron may be transmuted into very good, and ponderous
Copper, which indeed flows well, and hath its weight as well as any
naturall Copper.

[Sidenote: The Transmutation of Iron into Lead.]

Plates of Iron may bee as it were reduced, and transmuted into Lead, so
that it bee as soft as naturall Lead, but doth not flow so easily: and
the processe is this:

Take Filings of ♂, and so much of the powder of Borax, mingle them well
together, put them in a crucible, and into a wind furnace, let there
bee made a strong Fire, but so that the ♂ doe not flow, but stand as it
were in a Cement for a whole houre, then encrease the Fire, that it may
bee red hot, and flow: then let the crucible cool of it selfe, and thou
shalt find the regulus of Lead in the bottome of the crucible, soft,
and malleable, as naturall Lead can be.

[Sidenote: The Transmutation of Copper into Lead.]

But to transmute ♀ into ♄ the processe is this:

First of all bring Copper with ☿ sublimate, and fixt Arsenick to bee
white, yea as white as ☽, then beat it small. Take this, and the powder
of Borax, of each a like quantity, and first cement it, then let it bee
melted into a regulus, and thou hast a true regulus of Lead.

[Sidenote: The Transmutation of Lead into Copper.]

Now on the contrary, it is easy to transmute Lead into Copper, neither
doth it require much pains, and it is done thus:

Take plates of Lead, strow them over with calcined Vitriall, or Crocus
of Venus, cement them, and then melt them, and thou shalt see naturall
Lead, transmuted into good, ponderous, and malleable Copper.

[Sidenote: A Metalline mixture like Gold.]

Now if this Copper, or any other Copper be beaten into plates, and
strowed over with _Tutia_, or _Capri Celaminaris_, and be cemented,
and lastly melted, it will bee transmuted into an excellent reddish
_Electrum_ like to Gold.

[Sidenote: To make English Tin out of Lead.]

If thou wilt turne ♄ into ♃ make plates of ♄, strow them with Salt
Armoniack, cement, and melt them, as abovesaid, so will all the
blacknesse, and darknesse bee taken away from the Lead, and it will be
in whitenesse like fair English Tin.

Now as you have in briefe heard of some Mutations of Metalls, so
also know, that there are Transmutations of Gemmes, which indeed are
various, and in no wise like.

[Sidenote: Oyl of Sulphur transmutes Gemmes.]

For you see how great Transmutations of Gemmes there lies in oyle of
Sulphur. For any Crystall may bee tinged, and Transmuted in it, and
in time bee exalted with divers colours, as to bee made like to the
Hyacinth, Granat, or Rubie.

[Sidenote: To Transmute the Loadstone into great strength.]

Know also that the Loadstone may be transmuted into a tenfold greater
power, and vertue, and it is done thus:

Take the Loadstone, and heat it very hot in coales, but so that it bee
not fired, which presently quench in the Oyle of _Crocus Martis_, made
of the best Carinthian Steel, that it may imbibe as much as it can.

Thou shalt by this meanes make the Loadstone so powerfull, that
thou maist pull out Nailes out of a wall with it, and doe such like
wonderfull things with it, that the common Loadstone can never doe.

Moreover, in Transmutation of Gemmes you must know that the world is
placed in two degrees of Tincture, and Coagulation.

[Sidenote: To transmute the white of an Egge into Amber of any Colour.]

For as the white of an Egge may bee tinged with Saffron, and then bee
coagulated into a faire yellow Amber: with the smoke of a Pine-tree
into blacke Amber: with Verdegrease into green, like _Lapis Armenius_:
with green juice into Amber, like the Emerald: and with the Azure
stone, into blew Amber, like a Saphir: with the Wood called red Wood,
into red, like a Granat, or Rubie: with a purple colour, like to an
Amethyst: with Ceruse, like to Alabaster.

So all Liquors, especially Metalls, and Mineralls, may bee tinged with
fixed colours, and afterwards bee coagulated, and transmuted into

[Sidenote: How counterfeit Pearls are made.]

So also may Pearles be made like true Pearles in form, so that for
splendor, and beauty they can hardly bee discerned from the true: And
they are made thus:

Cleanse the white of Egges through a spunge, as purely as may bee, then
mingle with it the fairest white Talke, or Mother of Pearle, or Mercury
coagulated with Tinne, and brought into an Alcool, then grinde them all
together on a Marble, so that they become a thick Amalgama, which must
bee dryed in the Sunne, or behind a furnace so long, untill it bee like
Cheese, or a Liver.

Then of this masse make Pearles as big as thou wilt, which hang upon
the bristles of a Hog, and being thus boared through, dry them as
Amber, and then thou hast finished them.

If they are not beautifull enough, anoint them over with the white of
an Egge, and dry them again, and they will bee most goodly pearls, in
form like the naturall, but not in vertue.

In the like manner are Coralls made, with which men endeavour to
deceive one the other as with Pearle. The processe is this:

[Sidenote: How counterfeit Coralls may be made.]

Take Cinnabar, grinde it on a Marble, with the white of an Egge, for
the space of an houre, then dry it, as Potters doe their Earth, then
make it into what forme thou pleasest: Afterwards dry them as much as
may bee, and noint them over with the white of an Egge, as thou didst
Pearle, and dry them by themselves again.

So thou shalt have Corall like to the naturall in form, but not in

[Sidenote: A Golden or Silver varnish.]

Thou must also know, That the white of an Egge may bee of it selfe
coagulated into most cleer Vernish, in the coagulation of which Silver,
or Gold may bee strewed.

There are also many other, and various Transmutations of Naturall
things: Whereof those which I know, and have had experience of, I will
by the way set down, and briefly declare to you.

[Sidenote: How wood is made a stone.]

And first of all know, That any Wood, if it bee put for a certaine time
into the water of Salt Gemme, is turned with much admiration into a

[Sidenote: Coales of stones.]

Also Stones in the Ætnean fire are transmuted into Coales, which are
called stony Coals.

[Sidenote: Glew of skins.]

Also Glew is boiled out of Skinnes.

[Sidenote: Paper of Linnen-cloath.]

Of Linnen cloth is made Paper.

[Sidenote: Silke of Flax.]

Of Flax boiled in sharp Lie made of the Ashes of Wood is Silke made.

[Sidenote: Feathers may bee Spun.]

Also the feathery parts pulled off from quills, and boiled in that
Lie, may bee spun, and weaved like Cotton.

Any Oyle or Spermatick mucilage may bee coagulated into Vernish.

Any Liquor into Gumme, &c.

All these are Transmutations of Naturall things, of which Science wee
have spoken enough, and there wee shall here make an end.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the Separation of Naturall things._

[Sidenote: The Chaos the Matter of the World.]

In the Creation of the world, the first separation began from the foure
Elements, seeing the first matter of the world was one Chaos.

Of this Chaos God made the greater world, being divided into four
distinct Elements, _viz._ Fire, Aire, Water, and Earth. Fire is the hot
part, Aire the moist, Water the cold, and Earth the dry part of the
greater world.

[Sidenote: What separation shall be here spoken of.]

But that you may in brief understand the reason of our purpose in this
8^{th.} book, you must know, that we doe not purpose to treat here
of the Elements of all Naturall things, seeing wee have sufficiently
discoursed of those Arcana in the Archidoxis of the separation of
Naturall things: whereby every one of them is apart, and distinctly
separated, and divided materially, and substantially, _viz._ seeing
that two, three, or foure, or more things are mixed into one body, and
yet there is seen but one matter. Where it often falls out, that the
corporeall matter of that thing cannot bee known by any, or signified
by any expresse name, untill there bee a separation made. Then
sometimes two, three, four, five or more things come forth out of one
matter: as is manifest by daily experience, in the Art of Alchymie.

[Sidenote: What Electrum is.]

As for example, you have an _Electrum_, which of it selfe is no Metall,
but yet it hides all Metalls in one Metall. That if it be anatomized by
the industry of Alchymie, and separated: all the seven Metalls, _viz._
_Gold_, _Silver_, _Copper_, _Tinne_, _Lead_, _Iron_, and _Quicksilver_
come out of it, and that pure, and perfect.

[Sidenote: What Separation is.]

But that you may understand what Separation is, note, that it is
nothing else then the severing of one thing from another, whether of
two, three, four, or more things mixed together: I say a separation
of the three Principles, as of Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, and
the extraction of pure out of the impure, or the pure, excellent
spirit, and quintessence, from a grosse, and elementary body; and
the preparation of two, three, four, or more out of one: or the
dissolution, and setting at liberty things that are bound, and compact,
which are of a contrary nature, acting one against the other, untill
they destroy one the other.

[Sidenote: How many kinds of Separation.]

Now there are many kinds of separation, many of which are unknown to
us; those, which wee have experienced out of elementary, dissoluble
naturall things, shall in this place, according to their kinds, be

[Sidenote: The separation of the Microcosme.]

The first separation of which wee speake, must begin from man, because
hee is the Microcosme, or little world, for whose sake the Macrocosme
or greater world was made, _viz._ that hee might be the separator of it.

[Sidenote: The body of man after death is twofold.]

Now the separation of the Microcosme begins at his death. For in death
the two bodies of Man are separated the one from the other, _viz._ his
Celestial and Terrestial body; _i.e._ Sacramental, and Elementary: one
of which ascends on high like an Eagle; the other falls downward to the
earth like lead.

[Sidenote: What the Elementary Body is.]

The Elementary is putrefied, consumed, and becomes a putrid stinking
carkase, which being buryed in the earth, never comes forth, or
appeares more.

[Sidenote: What a Sacramentall Body is.]

But the Sacramentall, _i.e._ Syderiall, or Celestiall, is never
putrefied, or buried, neither doth it possesse any place. This body
appears to Men, and also after death is seen.

Hence _Ghosts_, _Visions_, and _Supernaturall Apparitions_.

[Sidenote: Whence the Cabalisticall art.]

Hence by the ancient Magicians, the _Cabalisticall Art_ took its
beginning, of which we shall treat more at large in the books of

After this separation is made, then after the death of the Man three
substances, _viz._ _Body_, _Soule_, and _Spirit_ are divided the one
from the other, every one going to its own place, _viz._ its own
fountaine, from whence it had its originall, _viz._ the body to the
Earth, to the first matter of the Elements: the soul into the first
matter of Sacraments, and lastly, the spirit into the first matter of
the Airy Chaos.

[Sidenote: The separation of the Macrocosme.]

[Sidenote: Three parts of the World.]

What now hath been spoken of the separation of the Macrocosme, the same
also may bee understood in the greater world which the great Ocean hath
divided into three parts, so that the universall world is severed into
three parts, _viz._ _Europe_, _Asia_, and _Africa_, which separation is
a certain representation of three Principles, which can be separated
from any Terrene, or Elementary thing. These three Principles are
Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, of which three the world was made, and

[Sidenote: The separation of Metalls.]

The next thing to bee known is the separation of Metalls from their
Mountains, _i.e._ the separation of Metalls, and Mineralls.

By vertue of this separation many things come forth out of one matter,
as you see out of Mineralls come forth, _The drosse of Metalls_,
_Glasse_, _Sand_, _Piipitis_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_), _Marcasite_,
_Granatus_, _Cobaltum_, _Talke_, _Cachinna_, _Zinetum_, _Bisemutum_,
_Antimony_, _Litharge_, _Sulphur_, _Vitriall_, _Verdegrease_,
_Chrysocolla_, _the Azure Stone_, _Auripigmentum_, _Arsenicke_,
_Realgar_, _Cinnabar_, _Clay of Iron_, _Spathus_, _Gyphus_, _Ocree_,
and many more like to these, as also the _Waters_, _Oyles_, _Resines_,
_Calxes_, _Mercury_, _Sulphur_, and _Salt_, &c.

[Sidenote: Of Vegetables.]

Vegetables in their separation yeeld, _Waters_, _Oyles_, _Iuices_,
_Resines_, _Gums_, _Electuaries_, _Powders_, _Ashes_, _Mercury_,
_Sulphur_, and _Salt_.

[Sidenote: Of Animalls.]

Animalls in their separation yeeld, _Water_, _Bloud_, _Flesh_, _Fat_,
_Bones_, _Skin_, _Body_, _Hairs_, _Mercury_, _Sulphur_, and _Salt_.

[Sidenote: What a good separator ought to be.]

Hee therefore that boasts himselfe to bee able to separate all naturall
things after this manner, must of necessity have long experience, and
perfect knowledge of all naturall things.

Moreover, hee must bee a skilfull, and well practised Alchymist, that
hee may know what is combustible, and what not; what is fixt, and what
not; what wil flow, and what not; and what things are more ponderous
one then another: also he must be experienced in the naturall colour,
smell, acidity, harshnesse, sowrenesse, bitternesse, sweetnesse, the
degree, complexion, and quality of every thing.

[Sidenote: The degrees of Separation. What and how many there be.]

Also hee must know the degrees of Separation, as of Distillation,
Resolution, Putrefaction, Extraction, Calcination, Reverberation,
Sublimation, Reduction, Coagulation, Powdering, and Washing.

[Sidenote: What distillation separates.]

By Distillation is separated Water, Oyle from all corporeall things.

[Sidenote: What resolution.]

By Resolution are separated Metals from Minerals, and one Metall from
another, and Salt from the other Principles, and fat, and that which is
light, from that which is heavy.

[Sidenote: Putrefaction.]

By Putrefaction is separated fat from lean, pure from impure, putrid
from not putrid.

[Sidenote: Extraction.]

By Extraction is separated pure from impure, and spirit, and
quintessence from body, and thinne from thick.

[Sidenote: Calcination.]

By Calcination is separated watery moisture, fat, naturall heat, odour,
and whatsoever else is combustible.

[Sidenote: Reverberation.]

By Reverberation is separated colour, odour, what is combustible, all
humidity, aquosity, fat, and whatsoever is inconstant, or fluxil, in
any thing, &c.

[Sidenote: Sublimation.]

By Sublimation is separated the fixed from the volatile, spirituall
from the corporeall, pure from impure, Sulphur from Salt, Mercury from
Salt, &c.

[Sidenote: Reduction.]

By Reduction is separated what is fluxil, from what is solid, a Metall
from its Minerall, and one Metall from another, a Metall from its
drosse, fat from what is not fat.

[Sidenote: Coagulation.]

By Coagulation is separated waterishnes from humidity, water from Earth.

[Sidenote: Powdering.]

By Powdering are separated powder, and sand, ashes, and Calx, Minerall,
Vegetable, and Animall one from the other, and all powders, which are
of an unequall weight are separated, and by winnowing, as chaffe from

[Sidenote: Washing.]

By washing are separated ashes, and sand, a Minerall from its Metall,
that which is heavy from what is light, a Vegetable, and Animall from
what is Minerall, Sulphur from Mercury, and Salt, Salt from Mercury.

[Sidenote: The Preparation of Metall is manifold.]

But passing by the Theorie, we will now fall upon the practise, and
come to particulars.

You must therefore note, that the Separation of Metalls is the first
by right, and wee shall therefore treat of it after this method, and

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Separation of Metalls from their Mines._

[Sidenote: By fluxing powders.]

The separation of Metalls from their Mines is done divers ways, _viz._
by boiling, and melting with fluxing powders, such as are salt Alcali,
Litharge, salt fluxile, the drosse of Glasse, Salt Gemme, Salt Petre,
&c. Let them bee put in a Crucible, and melted in a furnace; so will
the Metall, or regulus fall to the bottome of the Crucible; but the
other matter will swim above, and become drosse. Thou shall boil this
Metalline _regulus_ in a reverberating furnace so long, till all the
Metall become pure, and freed from all its drosse; by this means the
metall is well digested, and as I may say refined from all its drosse.

Many times one mine contains more then one Metall, as Copper and
Silver, Copper and Gold, Lead and Silver, Tinne and Silver, you shall
know it by this, if the Metalline Regulus after Reverberation in a
melting pot bee sufficiently after the true manner dissolved. For in
it are all imperfect Metalls separated, as are Iron, Copper, Tin, and
Lead, and so with a double quantity of Lead to the Regulus being put to
it, they all goe into a fume, and only fine Silver, or Gold are left
behind in the pot.

[Sidenote: By Aqua fortis.]

[Sidenote: By Sulphur.]

[Sidenote: A wonderfull power of Sulphur in separation.]

Also two or three Metalls mixed together may bee separated in _Aqua
fortis_, and extracted the one from the other. If two Metalls or one
bee resolved, the other will fall to the bottome like sand, and be
precipitated: and be after this manner separated. Also Metalls may be
separated by flowing after this process: Make metals flow, and when
they are in flux, cast into them the best flower of Sulphur as you can
get, _viz._ an ounce to every pound of the metall, and let it burn,
and by that means it wil draw up the lightest metall to the top, the
heavy falling to the bottome. Then let them stand together till they
be cold. And so in one Regulus two metalls are found, not as before
mutually mixed, but one separated from the other by the Sulphur, as by
a partition, as Oyle divides two Waters, that they cannot bee joined
together or mixed: Sulphur therefore is a singular Arcanum worthy of
great commendations.

[Sidenote: By Quicksilver.]

Fixt metalls, as Gold and Silver, because they cannot wel bee extracted
with Fire or _Aqua fortis_, must bee amalgamated with Quicksilver, and
so separated and extracted, the Quicksilver being afterwards extracted
and separated by a certaine degree of Distillation from the Calx of the
metals, _viz._ Gold, & Silver.

After this manner also may other metalls, not only Gold, and Silver,
but Copper, Iron, Tin, Lead, &c. as also whatsoever are prepared out of
them, as red Electrum, the white Magnesia, Aurichalcum, calcined Lead,
Laton, Brasse of Cauldrons, and whatsoever metalls of this kind are
transmuted, bee with Quicksilver, but first being powdered, abstracted,
and separated from what is heterogeneous. For the nature, and condition
of Quicksilver is this, that it wil bee united, and amalgamed with
metalls, but yet with one sooner then with another, according as the
metall is of greater or lesse affinity to it.

In this consideration fine Gold is the chiefest, then fine Silver, then
Lead, then Tinne, then Copper, and lastly Iron.

So amongst transmuted metalls, the first is part with part, then Ash
coloured Lead, then Laton, then Brasse of Caldrons, then red, and the
newest white. Although for the first course Mercury may take no more
then one metall, with which it is amalgamated: yet that Amalgama is to
be strained hard through Leather, or Cotton cloath. For by this means
nothing but the Quicksilver will passe through the Leather, or Cloath:
and that metall which it did attract remains in the leather, or cloth
like Calx, which afterwards thou maist with salt Alcali, or some other
salt reduce into a metalline body by melting.

Now by this Art Quicksilver is much sooner separated from all manner of
metalls, then by Distillation, &c.

By this processe with Mercury all metalls may after calcination, and
powdering be by a skilfull, and industrious Alchymist extracted, and
separated one from the other.

In the same manner, and that easily, may Tinne, and Lead bee separated
from Copper, or Copper vessels, from Iron, and Steel overlaid with Tin
without any fire, or water, by the Amalgama of Quicksilver alone.

Also Beaten Gold, or Leafe Gold, or Silver, as also any other metall
beaten, or ground, being written, or laid over with a pencill, or quill
upon cloth, parchment, paper, leather, wood, stones, or any thing else,
may bee resolved by Quicksilver, and so, that the Quicksilver may bee
afterward separated again from those metalls.

[Sidenote: By Corrosive waters.]

Now the separation of metalls in _Aqua fortis_, _Aqua Regis_, and like
corrosive waters, is after this manner.

Let a metall that is mixed, and joined with another, be taken, and
beaten into thin plates, or brought into powder. Put it into a
separating vessel, and poure upon it common _Aqua fortis_ as much as
is sufficient, let them stand and bee macerated, until all the metall
bee resolved into a clear water. If it be Silver, and contain any Gold
in it, all the Silver wil bee resolved into water, and the Gold wil
also bee calcined, and settle in the bottome like black sand. And after
this manner Gold, and Silver are separated. If now thou wilt separate
the Silver from the _Aqua fortis_ without Distillation, put a plate
of Copper into the water, and the Silver will presently settle in the
bottome of the water like snow, and the Copper plate will begin to be
consumed by little, and little.

The seperation of Silver, and Copper by common _Aqua fortis_ is done
after this manner. Let the Copper which contains Silver, or the Silver
which contains Copper be brought to thin plates or powder, and put into
a glass vessel, upon which poure as much common _Aqua fortis_ as is
sufficient: and by this means the silver will bee calcined, and settle
to the bottome like white chalk: but the copper wil be dissolved, and
turned into a clear water. If this water, together with the dissolved
copper, be by a Glasse funnel separated from the silver calx into
another Glasse: then the Copper that is dissolved in the water, may bee
so precipitated with common water, or rain water, or any other water,
that it wil settle to the bottom of the Glass like sand.

Now the separation of hid Gold, from any metall, is by the degree of
Extraction in _Aqua Regis_. For this kind of water will attempt to
dissolve no metall, but only pure, fine Gold, &c.

The same _Aqua Regis_ doth separate also fine gold from gilded plate.
For if that be washed over with it, the Gold will be separated from it,

[Sidenote: By the degree of Reverberation.]

Moreover also with cement by the degree of Reverberation two Metalls
mixed together may be separated the one from the other, but especially
if they are not in the like degree of Fixation, as Iron and Copper. For
that Metall, which is but little fixed, as Tin, and Lead, is all of it
consumed by the degree of Reverberation in cement. For by how much the
more a Metall is fixed, so much the lesse is it consumed by cement.

You must know therefore that fine Gold is the most fixt, and perfect
Metall, which can bee destroyed, or consumed by no cement. Next to this
is fine Silver. If then Gold, and Silver be mixed together in one body,
which is wont to bee called part with part, or if Silver contain Gold,
or Gold Silver: I say these being thus mixt if they bee reverberated
into cement, then the Gold remains entire, and not at all injured, but
the Silver is consumed by the cement, and so is extracted from fine
Gold: so also is Copper from Silver, and Iron, and Tinne from Copper,
and Iron, or Lead from Tinne, and so forth.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Separation of Mineralls._

After that wee have explained (as hitherto wee have done) the
separation of Metalls from their Earth, and matter, as also of one
Metall from another, and how it is done having passed through it with
as much brevity as might be: it will in the next place bee necessary
that wee treat also of those things out of which Metalls grow, and
are generated, as are the three Principles. Mercury, Sulphur, and
Salt, as also all Mineralls, in which the first being of Metalls,
_i.e._ the spirit of Metalls is found, as is manifest in Marcasites,
Granats, Cachymies, red Talke, the Azure stone, and the like, in which
the first being of Gold is found by the degree of Sublimation. So in
white Marcasite, white Talke, Auripigmentum, Arsenick, Litharge, &c.
the first being of Silver is found: In Cobaltus, Zinetus, &c. the
first being of Iron: In Zinetus, Vitriall, Verdegrease, &c. the first
being of Copper: In Zinetus, Bisemutus, &c. the first being of Tin: In
Antimony, Minium, &c. the first being of Lead: In Cinnabar, the first
being of Quicksilver is found.

Concerning this first beginning you must know, that it is a volatile
spirit, as yet consisting in volatility, as an infant lies in the wombe
of its Mother, which sometimes is made like to Liquor, sometimes to

Whosoever therefore desires to busie himselfe about the getting of the
first being of any such body, or to separate it, must of necessity have
much experience, and knowledge in the Art of Alchymie.

For if hee shall not diligently and skilfully work in Alchymie, hee
shal attempt many things in vain, and accomplish nothing.

But after what manner the first being is to be separated out of any
Minerall, is sufficiently explained in the booke called _Archidoxis_,
and need not here tediously bee repeated.

But as concerning the separation of Mineralls, you must note, that many
of them are to bee separated by the degree of Sublimation as fixed
from those which are not fixed, spirituall and volatile bodies from
fixt bodies, and so accordingly of all the members, as is declared
concerning Metalls. For of all Mineralls there is one, and the like
processe through all degrees, as the Art of Alchymie teacheth, &c.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Separation of Vegetables._

[Sidenote: How Vegetables are separated.]

The separation of those things, which grow out of the Earth, and are
combustible, as fruits, hearbs, flowers, leaves, grasse, roots, woods,
&c. is made many wayes.

For first by Distillation the Flegm is separated from them, then the
Mercury, then the Oyle, then the Refine, then the Sulphur, and lastly
the Salt.

All these Separations being made according to the Spagiricall Art many
notable, and excellent medicines come from thence, which are to be used
as well within, as without the body.

But now seeing idlenesse is so much in request amongst Physitians,
and all labour and study is turned only to insolency; truly I do not
wonder, that all such preparations are every where neglected, and
coales sold at so low a price, that if Smiths could be so easily
without coales in forging, and working their Metalls, as Physitians are
in preparing their Medicines, certainly Colliers would long since have
been brought to extream want.

[Sidenote: A reprehension of Physitians.]

In the mean time I will give to Spagiricall Physitians their due
praise. For they are not given to idlenesse, and sloth, nor goe in a
proud habit, or plush and velvet garments, often shewing their rings
upon their fingers, or wearing swords with silver hilts by their sides,
or fine and gay gloves upon their hands, but diligently follow their
labours, sweating whole nights, and dayes by their furnaces.

[Sidenote: The commendation of Chymists, and how they differ from other

These doe not spend their time abroad for recreation, but take delight
in their laboratory. They wear Leather garments with a pouch, and
Apron wherewith they wipe their hands. They put their fingers amongst
coales, into clay, and dung, not into gold rings. They are sooty, and
black, like Smithes, or Colliers, and doe not pride themselves with
cleane, and beautifull faces. They are not talkative when they come to
the sick, neither doe they extoll their Medicines: seeing they well
know that the Artificer must not commend his work, but the work the
Artificer, and that the sick cannot be cured with fine words.

[Sidenote: How many degrees of Alchymie there be.]

Therefore laying aside all these kinds of vanities, they delight
to bee busied about the fire, and to learn the degrees of the
science of Alchymie: Of this order are _Distillation_, _Resolution_,
_Putrefaction_, _Extraction_, _Calcination_, _Reverberation_,
_Sublimation_, _Fixation_, _Separation_, _Reduction_, _Coagulation_,
_Tincture_, &c.

But how these separations may bee done by the help of distinct degrees
according to the Art of Alchymie, hath been in generall spoken of
already. Wherefore it is needlesse here to make repetition.

But to proceed to particulars, and briefly to explaine the practise,
you must know that _Water_, _Spirit_, _Liquor_, _Oyle_, &c. cannot
bee separated after one and the same processe, out of Flowers,
Hearbes, Seeds, Leaves, Roots, Trees, Fruits, Woods, by the degree of

For Hearbs require one processe, Flowers another, Seeds another, Leaves
another, Roots another, Trees another, the Stalkes another, the Fruite
another, Woods another.

[Sidenote: The degrees of fire in Distillation.]

And in this degree of Distillation, there are also foure distinct
degrees of Fire to bee considered.

The first degree of Fire in Distillation is _Balneum Mariæ_, this
Distillation is made in Water.

Another degree of Fire is Distillation made in Ashes.

The third in Sand.

The fourth in a naked Fire: as also Distillation may bee made by _Aqua
fortis_, and other sharp Waters.

[Sidenote: With what degrees of fire every Vegetable is to be

To the first degree of Fire belong, Hearbs, Flowers, Seeds, and such

To the second, Leaves, Fruits, &c.

To the third, Roots, and Boughes of trees, &c.

To the fourth, Wood, and such like.

Note, that every one of these must bee beaten small, and bruised before
they bee put into the Still.

And thus much bee spoken concerning the Distillation of Waters out of
the Vegetable substances.

As concerning the Seperation and Distillation of Oyls, the processe is
the same as that of Water, only some of them are to bee distilled _per
descensum_, and cannot ascend as Waters, the processe of these in this
case is to bee changed.

But Liquors are not separated in Distillation as Waters, or Oyles, but
are expressed from their corporeall substances with a presse.

And here wee must know, that there are some Oyles that are pressed out,
and separated after the same manner, by a Presse as liquors are, and
that for this reason, because they should not contract an ill odour
from the Fire, as otherwise they would doe.

Of this Order is the Oyle of Almonds, Nuts, hard egges, and the like.

Also wee must note, that all Oyles, if they be prepared, and coagulated
according to the Spagiricall Art, yeeld a kind of Vernish, Gumme,
Amber, or Resine, which may bee also called Sulphur, and that which
remaines in the bottome of the Still may bee calcined, and brought
to ashes, and from it may bee with warme water alone, the Alcali
extracted, and separated from it.

The Ashes which is left behind is called the Dead Earth, out of which
never any else can bee extracted.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Separation of Animalls._

It is necessary, that Anatomie goe before the separation of Animalls,
that the bloud may bee apart, the flesh apart, the bones apart, the
skinne apart, the bowels apart, the tendons apart, &c. and after this
must every one of these bee separated by it selfe by the help of the
Spagiricall Art.

Therefore the separations in this place are chiefly 4.

[Sidenote: Foure degrees of the separation of Animalls.]

[Sidenote: Mummie, &c.]

The first draws forth a waterie, and flegmatick humidity from the
bloud. For from the bloud being after this manner, according to the
processe shewed in the book of Conservations, prepared, there comes
forth a most excellent Mummie, and so excellent a _Specificum_, that
any fresh wound may bee cured, and consolidated in the space of twenty
four hours, only with one binding up.

[Sidenote: Balsome, &c.]

The second is the separation of fat from flesh; for that being
separated from Mans flesh is a most excellent balsome allaying the
pains of the Gout, and Cramp, and such like pains, if any part affected
bee anointed with it warm. It helps also the tendons of the hands, or
feet, being drawn together, if they bee daily anointed with it. It
cures also the scab, and all kinds of Leprosy.

Therefore it is the chiefest Chirurgical specificum, and in all cases,
as in wounds and the like most profitable, &c.

The third is the separation of waterie, and flegmatick moisture,
together with the fat extracted out of bones. For if these two bee
carefully by the Art of Alchymie separated from Mens bones by the
degree of Distillation, and the bones bee reduced, or burnt into most
white ashes by the degree of Calcination; and then these three bee
again after a right manner joined together, so that they resemble
butter, they become a most wonderfull specificall _Arcanum_, with which
thou maist soundly cure any fracture of bones without any pain at three
bindings up, so that thou dost handle, and set the fracture according
to the rules of Chirurgery, and then apply that specificum by way of
plaister, &c.

This also doth most speedily cure the wounds of the skull, and any
other contusion of bones whatsoever.

The fourth, and the last is the separation of Resines, and Gummes
from the Skin, Bowels, and tendons. For this Resine being extracted,
and separated out of them by the degree of Extraction, according to
the Spagiricall Art, and coagulated by the beams of the Sun, become
a cleer transparent Glew. Out of this glew being prepared, extracted
and separated out of Mans body, as is prescribed, a most excellent
_Arcanum_, and specificall stiptick comes forth, wherewith Wounds,
and Ulcers may speedily bee consolidated, and their lips bee brought
together: (even as two boards are glewed together with glew put betwixt
them) so that you put two or three drops of it being resolved into the
wound. This also is a singular _Arcanum_ for Burns, Falling of the
nails, Scabs, &c. if the place affected bee nointed with it. For the
skin will presently bee brought over the raw flesh.

There might many other separations of these and other things bee
reckoned up. But seeing wee have mentioned them in other places, it
would bee but lost labour here to repeat them. It wil bee necessary
that wee speak of those things here, of which wee have made no mention

[Sidenote: The last Separation is the last Iudgment.]

[Sidenote: The Manner of the last Iudgement.]

And lastly in the end of all things shall bee the last separation, in
the third generation, the great day when the Son of God shall come in
majesty, and glory, before whom shall be carried not swords, garlands,
diadems, scepters, &c. and Kingly jewels, with which Princes, Kings,
Cesars, &c. doe pompously set forth themselves, but his Crosse, his
crown of thorns, and nails thrust through his hands, and feet, and
spear with which his side was pierced, and the reed, and spunge in
which they gave him vineger to drinke, and the whips wherewith hee
was scourged, and beaten. He comes not accompanyed with troopes of
Horse, and beating of Drums, but foure Trumpets shall bee sounded by
the Angells towards the foure parts of the world, killing all that are
then alive with their horrible noise, in one moment, and then presently
raising these again, together with them that are dead, and buryed.

[Sidenote: Matth. 25.]

For the voice shall bee heard: _Arise yee dead, and come to judgment._
Then shal the twelve Apostles sit down, their seats being prepared
in the clouds, and shal judge the twelve Tribes of _Israel_. In that
place the holy Angels shall separate the bad from the good, the cursed
from the blessed, the goats from the sheep. Then the cursed shall like
stones, and lead be thrown downward: but the blessed shall like eagles
fly on high. Then from the tribunall of God shal go forth this voice to
them that stand on his left hand: _Goe yee Cursed into everlasting fire
prepared for the Devill, and his Angells from all eternity: For I was
an hungry, and yee fed me not; thirsty, and you gave no drink; sick,
in prison, and naked, and you visited me not, freed mee not, cloathed
me not, and you shewed no pity towards me, therefore shalt you expect
no pity from me._ On the contrary, hee shal speak to them on his right
hand: _Come yee blessed; and chosen into my Fathers Kingdome, which
hath been prepared for you, and his Angells from the foundation of the
world. For I was hungry, and you gave me meat; thirsty, and you gave me
drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; naked and you covered me;
sick, and you visited me; in prison, and you came unto me. Therefore
I will receive you into my Fathers Kingdom, where are provided many
mansions for the Saints. You took pity on me, therefore will I take
pity on you._

All these being finished, and dispatched, all Elementary things wil
returne to the first matter of the Elements, and bee tormented to
eternity, and never bee consumed, &c. and on the contrary, all holy
things shall return to the first matter of Sacraments: _i.e._ shall be
purified, and in eternall joy glorifie God their Creator, and worship
him from age to age, from eternity, to eternity, Amen.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Of Things.


_Of the Signature of Naturall things._

In this Booke it is convenient for us speaking of the Signature of
things in the first place, to declare by whom things are signed, and
who the Signator is, and how many things there be that are signed. You
must therefore know, that things that are signed are of 3 sorts. The
first sort of them Man signs: the second, the Archeius: the third, the
stars of supernaturall things. Therefore upon this account there are
three Signators: Man, the Archeius, and Stars.

Moreover, you must note, that impressions signed by men do bring with
them a perfect knowledge, and judgement of hid things, and impart the
knowledg of their hid vertues, and faculties.

The markes of the Stars cause Prophecies, and Presages, and declare the
supernaturall vertues of things, and take out the true judgements, and
signes, in Geomancy, Chiromancy, Physiognomy, Hydromancy, Pyromancy,
Necromancy, Astronomy, the Berillisticall art, and other Astrall

But that wee may explain briefly, and truly all the signes, or markes,
it wil be necessary in the first place, that wee speak of those signes
of which Man is the Signer. Those being understood; you may the more
rightly understand the rest, whether naturall, or supernaturall. It is
therefore known, that the _Iews_ carry about them, upon their cloak, or
coat a yellow sign. And this is nothing else but that mark, by which
they would have you, when you meet them, to know that they are _Iews_.
So a Serjeant is known by his divers coloured coat, or sleeve. So every
Magistrate apparells his servants with his own colours, and liveries.

Every Mechanick marks his work with a certaine signe, that every one
may know whose work it is.

For which end Carriers wear the liverie of their master, or city, that
it may be known whom they serve and from whence they travell, that
thereby they may goe the safer.

So every Souldier wears a marke, or badge, as colours, black, white,
yellow, green, blew, or red, &c. that he may be distinguished from the
enemie. Hence it may bee known that this is _Cesars_ souldier, that the
_Kings_, this an _Italian_, this a _French_ souldier, &c.

These are signes which belong to order, or office, of which many more
may bee reckoned up. But yet because wee have intended to describe the
signes of naturall, and supernaturall things, wee shal not fill up this
booke with other signes.

As concerning those signes, which Man makes, which doe not only respect
order, office, or name, but conduce to the knowing of his knowledge,
age, dignity, degree, &c. You must know concerning Money, that every
kind thereof hath its peculiar triall, and marke, by which it is known,
how much it is valued at, who is the Master of it, and in what place it
is usually currant. Hence is that _German_ Proverb, Money is no where
more in request then where it was coined.

The same also is to bee understood of things that are looked upon and
examined by men sworn and appointed for that purpose, before they bee
signed: as Cloth which is marked with peculiar marks, by which it may
be known, that in examining they were found good, and proved. Why is a
seal put upon Letters, but that there is a certain bond, which it is
lawfull for no man to violate? For a seal is a confirmation of Letters,
whence they are of all men accounted ratified. Without a seale an
Acquitance is void, and of no force.

After the same manner many things are marked with few letters, names,
or words, as books, which being writ upon the outside but with one
word, doe presently shew what is contained within.

The same rule also there is for glasses and boxes in Apothecaries
shops, all which are discerned by peculiar names, or papers put upon
them. Unlesse that were done, who could discern so many Waters,
Liquors, Syrups, Oyles, Powders, Seeds, Unguents, &c. and all simples?
After the same manner doth the Alchymist in his Elabatorie mark with
names, and papers all Waters, Liquors, Spirits, Oyles, Flegms, Crocus,
Alcali, and all species, that thereby hee may when there is occasion
make use of any of them, and know them: without the help of which his
memory could never bear them.

So also may all houses and buildings bee marked with numbers or
figures, that the age of every one of them by the first sight of the
number may presently be known.

These and other things that are marked I was willing to shew to you,
that these being comprehended, I might bee the better understood by you
in the rest, and so the signification of every thing might bee the more
plain, and clear.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Monstrous Signes of Men._

[Sidenote: Divers monstrous signes or Markes.]

[Sidenote: What monstrous signes shew.]

Many men are brought forth deformed with monstrous marks, or signes: so
one abounds with one finger, or Toe, another wants one. The fingers of
some grow all together in the mothers womb. Another hath a wry foot,
arm, or neck, &c. and brings it with him out of the womb. Another hath
a bunch in his back: so also, are Hermaphrodites born, _i.e._ they
which are both Male, and Female, and have the members both of Man,
and Woman, or else want both. I have observed many of these monstrous
signs, as well in Males, as in Females, all which are to bee accounted
for monstrous signes of secret evil ascendents. Whence that proverb is
made good; The more crooked, the more wicked: Lame members, lame deeds.
For they are signes of vices, seldome signifying any good.

As the Executioner marks his sons with infamous markes: so the evil
Ascendents impresse upon their yong, supernatural mischievous marks,
that they may bee the better taken heed of, which shew some marks in
their forehead, cheeks, ears, fingers, hands, eyes, tongues, &c. being
short, or cutted. Every one of these infamous signes denotes a peculiar
vice. So a mark burnt upon the face of a Woman, or the cutting off her
ears, for the most part signifies theft: the cutting off the fingers,
cheating Dicers: the cutting off the hand, breakers of the peace:
the cutting off two of the fingers perjured: the pulling out of the
eye, cunning, and subtile villains: the cutting out of the tongue,
blasphemers, slanderers, &c. So also you may know them that deny the
Christian Religion by a crosse burnt in the soles of their feet,
because _viz._ they have denyed their Redeemer.

But that passing by these we may proceed to the monstrous signs of
Malignants ascending, you must know, that all monstrous signes do not
arise from an Ascendent only, but oftentimes also from the stars of
Mens minds, which continually and every moment ascend, and descend
with the fancy, estimation, or imagination, no otherwise then in the
superiour firmament. Hence either from fear, or terrour of breeding;
Women, many monsters, or children marked with monstrous signes in the
womb, are borne. The primary cause of these is fear, terror, appetite
from which is raised the imagination. If a woman with child begin to
imagine, then her heaven by its motion is carryed round, no otherwise
then the superiour firmament every moment, with Ascendents, or risings,
or Settings. For according to the example of the greater firmament, the
stars of the Microcosme also are moved by Imagination, untill there be
an assault, whereby the stars of the Imagination convey an influence,
and impression upon the Woman that is breeding, just as if anyone
should impresse a seale, or stamp money. Whence these signes, and
geniall marks are called Impressions of inferiour stars, of which many
Philosophers have wrote many things, and men have endeavoured much to
give a full, and rationall account of, which could never yet bee done.
Yet they doe adhere, and are impressed on the infants, as the stars of
the Mother, whether frequent or violent, doe rest upon the Infants, or
the Mothers longing is not satisfied: For if the Mother long for this,
or that meat, and cannot have it, the starres are suffocated as it were
in themselves, and dye: And that longing doth follow the infant all its
life time, that it can never bee well satisfied. The like reason is
there of other things, of which we shall not hear Discourse any further.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Astrall Signes of Physiognomy in Man._

[Sidenote: The Originall of Physiognomie.]

The signes of Physiognomy receive their original from the superior
stars; this art of Physiognomy was greatly esteemed of by our
Ancestors, and especially by Heathens, Tartars, and Turks, &c. and
other people, amongst whom it was the custome to sel men for slaves,
and it is not yet altogether laid aside amongst Christians. Yet
together with it many errors crept in, not yet taken notice of by any,
whilest every blockish ignorant fellow would take upon him without
any manner of judgement to judge of any one. Where it is worthy of
admiration that those erours should never bee taken notice of from the
workes, deeds, and abilities of the men.

Now if any one shall in this place argue against us, saying, that the
signes of Physiognomy are from the stars, and that the stars have no
power to compell any one or stir him up; he indeed doth not speak
amisse: but yet there is some difference in it which must be taken
notice of, because the stars compell some, and others they doe not

[Sidenote: Man is the Lord of all other Creatures.]

[Sidenote: How a man may withdrawe him selfe from one star, and bring
him selfe under another.]

For here we must know, who can rule or constrain the stars, and who can
be governed by them. Therefore for this you must note, that a wise man
can rule the stars, and not be subject to them. The stars are subject
to a wise man, and are forced to obey him, and not he the stars. But
the stars compell an Animall man, that whither they lead him hee must
follow, just as a thief doth the gallows, and a high-way robber the
wheel, the fisher the fishes, the fowler the birds, the hunter the wild
beasts. And what here is the cause of this, but that such a kind of
man doth neither know himself, nor his own strength, never considers,
or thinks that he is the lesser world, and that he hath the universall
Firmament with the powers thereof hid in him? Wherefore he is called
an Animall, an ignorant man, and a slave to any base service, and all
earthly matters; yet whereas he received that priviledge from God in
Paradise, that hee should rule, and reign over all other creatures
of the Universe, and should not bee obedient to them; therefore God
created him last of all, all the rest being made before him. This
priviledg man afterwards lost by his fall: but yet the wisdome of man
was not made servile, nor did hee let that liberty goe out of his
hands. Whence it is requisite that the starres should follow him, and
obey him, and not he the stars. And although hee indeed be the son of
Saturne, and Saturn his Ascendent; yet hee can remove himselfe from
him, and so overcome him, that he can be the off-spring of the Sun;
and bring himselfe under any other planet, and make himselfe its Son.
And it is the same case here as with a Digger, who for a time hath
spent his pains with the Master of the Mines, and with the hazard of
his life hath performed his service faithfully, at length reasons, and
discourseth with himselfe thus.

What will become of thee at last, if thou spendest all thy life under
the earth, and by thy continuall labours dost also bring thy body, and
life into danger? I will get a release from my Master, and I will serve
another Master, where my life may be made sweeter, where I may have
plenty of meat, and drink, where I may wear better clothes, have little
work and much wages, where there shall bee no danger of the mountain
hanging over mee, and ready to fall upon me, &c. After this manner hee
would bee at liberty, when as otherwise hee must remaine a Mercenary
servant, and slave, pining away with much labour, and low feeding, &c.

Now you see how a wise man commands the stars, and can remove himselfe
from any malignant planet, and bring himselfe under another better,
how he can bring himselfe out of slavery into liberty, and can free
himselfe out of the prison of an ill planet.

So also an Animall man, who is the son of the Sun, of _Iupiter_,
_Venus_, and _Mercury_, may remove himself from a benigne planet, and
subject himself to _Saturne_, or _Mars_: such a man is like to a man,
who runs from a religious Colledge, and being impatient of an easy life
becomes a Souldier, or else a man of no repute, who afterwards spends
all his life in sorrow, and misery.

Such an one also is a rich man, who being given to levity, spends,
and wasts all his goods, in Dicing, Feasting, Whoring, &c. which hee
gives himselfe to so long untill all bee spent, then hee comes to want,
and being miserably afflicted with infamous want, becomes deservedly
a laughter and scorn to all men, yea even to the very boyes in the
streets, whom you may hear saying: Behold a beggerly man worth nothing,
who when hee was a Master disdained his Mastership, and had rather be a
slave, a begger, a slave to servants; seeing he can never come to his
priviledg again.

And hither doth a Malignant star, or Ascendent drive him. Unlesse he
had been a foole, and dishonest, he had not left so certain a Dominion,
which hee had over the stars, but had strove against it: And although
of himselfe hee knew not how to resist the stars; yet hee might have
bent his mind to the examples of others; thinking thus with himselfe:
See how rich that man was, but foolishly, and shamefully hath brought
himself to poverty. Also he lived gallantly, without much labour, had
so much meat, such wages, that he could not live better. Now he lives
sparingly, and sordidly, and in stead of Wine hee must drinke Water,
his labours daily increase, his wages decrease.

Now how often doth such a kind of Man talke after this manner with
himselfe. What have I done? Whither am I running headlong, so basely
spending my goods that I got, who will repaire my estate? If ever I
shall receive what hath been thus spent, I will take a far other course
of life, and will by my harms learne to bee wise, and will make amends
for my evill deeds.

[Sidenote: No man is wise by his own harmes, but by anothers.]

But it is convenient to know, that no man can bee wise by his owne
harme. For it is a foolish, and senselesse thing to bee wise by ones
owne harme. Let him that will be wise, be wise by another mans example,
not by his owne. For hee that hath once spent his estate, would spend
it againe if hee should have it, and he that once perisheth, perisheth
for ever. Hee which once hath cast a Dice, casts it again. Hee which
once stole, and escaped the gallowes, will endeavour to steal the
second time also. For hee thinkes thus with himselfe. My enterprizes
have succeeded once, and again, and why not the third, or fourth time?
If God should once restore what I have lost, hee would restore it the
second, and third time, &c. If hee did not forsake mee in my first
misery, hee will not in the second, or third, &c.

All these doth an Animall man doe, the servant, and slave of the stars,
who is turned every where, and moved by the stars, as a Reed in water.

And this is the reason why his life is spent in misery, and he dies in

Who therefore will sustain such servitude, and not deliver himselfe
from such a nasty prison? For any one may by his owne wisdome, together
with the help of his star, deliver, and free himselfe from thence.
Consider the matter thus:

A Fowler by his prudence, and help of his star, overcoming another
starre, needs not goe after birds, for they will come after him flying
to unusuall places, contrary to their nature.

So a Fisherman can by making use of the wisdome which God hath given
him make fishes swim to him of their own accord, so that he may take
them up with his hands.

A Hunter improving his wisdome, doth by his star so compell the wild
beasts, that hee need not follow them, but they will follow him without
any impulse of nature. So also of the rest of living creatures.

[Sidenote: Stars are twofold.]

Now for the better understanding of these things, you must know, that
Stars are twofold; terrestriall, and celestiall, these of wisdome, the
other of folly.

And as there are two worlds, the greater, and the lesser, and the
greater governs the lesser: so also the starres of the Microcosme doe
rule, and overcome the celestiall.

[Sidenote: The end of the Starrs is to serve, not command man.]

Neither did God create the planets, and other stars of the heaven,
that they should rule over man, but that they, as all other creatures,
should obey, and serve him. And although the superiour stars doe
incline men, and signe them as also all other terrestiall bodies, with
naturall signes, according to the manner of their generation; yet that
is no power, or soveraignty, but only a predestinated command, and
office, whereby nothing may remaine hid, or concealed, but the inward
force, and power may bee brought forth by exteriour signes.

[Sidenote: Signes are twofold.]

But to return to our purpose of the Physiognomicall signes of Men, you
must know, that they are twofold, in externall shape indeed alike, but
in power, and effect unlike.

Some are from supernaturall stars of the heaven, the other, from the
inferiour starres, _viz._ of the Microcosme.

[Sidenote: What are Physiognomicall signes.]

Whatsoever the superiour star signes according to generation, even to
the midle age, that thing signed is predestinated, not wanting peculiar
powers. For it doth testifie of the nature, and condition of Man.
Whatsoever therefore the inferiour star of the Microcosme doth sign in
generation, hath its originall from the Father, and Mother, _viz._ as
oft as the Mother by her imagination, or appetite, feare, or terror
hath by contact affected her infant in her womb with supernaturall
signes, which are called the Mothers marks, or the Womb marks, of
which since wee have spoke already, wee shall now save the labour of
iteration; seeing our purpose is only to treat of Physiognomicall
signes, where wee shall speak only of the predestinated signes of the
stars, under which wee understand those signes of Men, which neither
their Father, or Mother had any likenesse of in their body.

Of this sort are black, gray, little, or great eyes, long, crooked,
sharp, nose, pits in their cheeks, the cheek-bone being raised up, a
flat, or broad nose, small, or great ears, long neck, long face, wide,
or little mouth, thick or small, many or few, black, yellow, and red
haires, &c.

If one, or more of these signes appear in Man, you must know, that they
doe not want their signification.

But it is necessary that you consider them according to the
Physiognomicall art, and that you have certain knowledge of the Art
of Signatures, whereby you may know through the externall signes the
internall man.

[Sidenote: What Black Eyes signifie.]

But to proceed to the practise of what we intended, and to reckon up
some of the signes of Men, and their signification in part.

You must know, that black eyes besides a healthful constitution, also
many times signifie a constant mind, not wavering, or fearfull, but
lusty, hearty, true and loving vertue.

[Sidenote: What Gray.]

Gray eyes are a signe of a deceitfull, and changeable man.

[Sidenote: Weake Eyes.]

Weak eyes signifie good judgement, witty, and profound deliberation.

[Sidenote: Purblind.]

Purblind eyes, and such as turne upward, and downward, and to both
sides, signifie a false man, and crafty, that cannot easily be
deceived, treacherous, hating labour, slothfull, getting his living
slothfully, by Dice, Usury, Whoring, Robbery, &c.

[Sidenote: Small and deep.]

Small and deep eyes doe for the most part signifie weak, and feeble
eyes, and blindnesse ensuing in old age, as also strong men, warlike,
bold, deceitfull, nimble, factious, patiently undergoing their
condition, yet the end of whose life is for the most part tragicall, &c.

[Sidenote: Great.]

Great eyes, a covetous, ravenous man, especially if they hang out of
the head.

[Sidenote: Alwayes Winking.]

Eyes that are alwaies winking, declare a weak sight, and a man to be
fearefull, and solicitous.

[Sidenote: Rolling.]

Rolling Eyes shew an amorous affection, and a prudent man, and a man of
quicke intention.

[Sidenote: Continually dejected.]

Eyes continually dejected shew a bashfull, modest man, &c.

[Sidenote: Red.]

Eyes that are red, signifie a bold, and strong man, &c.

[Sidenote: Cleare.]

Clear eyes, and not easily moveable, shew an heroick, magnanimous,
strong, chearfull, and a man formidable to his enemies, &c.

[Sidenote: Eares great.]

Great eares shew a good hearing, a good memory, attention, diligence, a
sound brain, and head, &c.

Low eares are an ill omen. For, for the most part they signifie a man
to be malitious, fraudulent, unjust, and a bad hearing, a bad memory, a
bold man, and easily exposing himselfe to dangers.

[Sidenote: A long Nose.]

A long nose, and crooked downwards is a good sign, it signifies a man
to bee valiant, prudent, close, rigorous, and yet just, &c.

[Sidenote: A flat Nose.]

A flat nose signifies a man to be malicious, lustfull, given to lying,
inconstant, &c.

[Sidenote: Sharp.]

A sharp nose, a man to bee a turne-coate, a mocker, &c.

[Sidenote: Long.]

A long nose, a man to be slow in all his actions, and to be of a very
quick smell.

[Sidenote: Hollow cheeks.]

The cheekes with pits in them signifie a man to bee talkative, a
Scorner, contentious, &c.

[Sidenote: A long Chin.]

A long chin, with a long face, signifie a man to be given to anger, and
slow to labour, &c.

[Sidenote: A divided Chin.]

A divided chin signifies a man to bee faithfull, officious, subtile,
and various in his words, speaking one thing, and meaning another,
angry, yet sorry for his anger, ingenious, and given to inventions.

[Sidenote: A great Mouth.]

A great and large mouth signifies a man to bee a great devourer, silly,
foolish, imprudent, dareing, &c. A little mouth signifies the contrary.

[Sidenote: Lips drawn to.]

Lips drawne to, where the upper is greater then the lower, signifie a
man to bee angry, warlike, couragious, yet for the most part of rude,
and uncivil behaviour, and manners like to a swine.

[Sidenote: Lips great beneath.]

Lips great beneath, signifie a man to be dull, foolish, and blockish,

[Sidenote: Haire signifies nothing by Art.]

Judgement by the haires either of the head, or beard, is not very
certain, because use teacheth that they can be divers wayes varyed, as
to bee made black, or yellow, or red, or white, and hoary, or curled,
soft, or hard, as any one desires to have them.

Hence it will come to passe, that many who are otherwise skilfull
enough in the Art of Physiognomy would be most shamefully deceived,
whilst they should rashly judge by the hairs, imputing that to the
stars, which should rather be ascribed to men themselves.

Yet it cannot bee denyed, but that haires firmly fastened on the head,
doe signifie a good health of the head, as also of the whole body.

And this is the reason, why they that buy Horses pull their tails,
that by this means they may judge of their soundnesse.

So Hogges are tryed by their bristles, Fish by their shells, and
scales, a Bird by his feathers, &c.

[Sidenote: Long Necks.]

The necke, if it be too long, signifies a man to bee sollicitous,
prudent, and attent, &c.

[Sidenote: Broad Shoulders and backs.]

Broad shoulders, and backe, signifie a man to bee strong, and able for
carrying or removing, &c.

[Sidenote: Musculous Armes.]

Armes that are musculous, signifie a man to be strong and able for any
exercise, as beating, pounding, shooting, &c.

[Sidenote: Hard hands.]

Hands that bee hard signifie a man to bee laborious, and a hireling,
&c. Soft hands, the contrary.

[Sidenote: A short Body.]

A short body, and long legs signifie a man to be a good runner, to bee
easily satisfied with meat, and drinke, and for the most part to bee of
a short life.

Great and clear veines under the middle age of man signifie a man to be
full of bloud and juice, but above the midle of his age to be commonly
sick, yet long lived.

[Sidenote: Nothing can be judged by the manners, and behaviour of Men.]

As much as concerns the manners, gestures of men, nothing can be so
easily known, and judged by them.

For experience teacheth that these can every moment bee changed, as
to deceive the Signator, and make him erroneous in his judgement:
And because it hath not been observed hitherto so accurately by all
Astronomers; It is therefore the Signators part not alwayes to look to
the manners and actions of men, but rather to other signs of the body,
which are fixed, and can by no Art be counterfeited or changed.

For if red hairs, moving the forehead, and eyelids, a cheerfull,
raised, and unmoveable countenance, a frequent agitation of the mouth,
a stout mused walking, and a light mind, should necessarily declare a
man to be a gallant souldier and stout, every one could by his industry
and art make himselfe seem to be such an one; that hee might by his
lookes bee the better approved of, and obtaine greater pay.

The like also may be judged of other kinds of behaviour, which pretend
to wisdom, folly, truth, lying, fortune, victory, &c.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of the Astrall Signes of Chiromancy._

Concerning the Signes of Chiromancy, we must hold that they doe arise
from the superiour stars of the seven planets; and that wee must know
and judge of them by the seven planets.

[Sidenote: What Chiromancy is.]

Now Chiromancy is an Art, which doth not only look into the hands of
men, and make judgement by their lines and wrinkles, but also considers
all hearbs, woods, hard stones, earthes, and rivers, and whatsoever
hath lines, veins, or wrinkles.

Neither doth this Art want its errours, which those Astronomers were
guilty of.

For they assigned the fingers of both hands to the planets, and
chiefest stars, whereas there are but five fingers in one hand, and in
both ten, yet the planets are reckoned but seven.

How then can these things agree amongst themselves?

Now if there were seven fingers on each hand, it then might bee
granted, that every finger might bee ascribed to severall planets.

[Sidenote: Whether the fingers be assigned to the Planets.]

But yet it falls out many times, that some men may have but seven
fingers on both hands, the rest being casually cut off: but seing that
they were cut off, and just seven were not at their birth, this matter
cannot be related hither.

And if it should be so, that a man should bee borne with seven fingers,
whether on one hand, or on both: yet that were monstrous, and beside
the usuall order of Nature, and not subject to the stars. Therefore
this also cannot belong to this place.

But if there must be but five fingers on each hand, and seven planets,
and these mutually bee compared amongst themselves, it would then be
convenient that the lots of the planets should be put into a box, to
know which two planets must give place, and bee left out.

Yet because this cannot bee, and the planets have neither dice, nor
lots in the Firmament; It would be worth wondering at, if any one
should usurp this power to himself, as to allot by the name of the
planet, and signe, the thumb to _Venus_, the fore-finger to _Iupiter_,
the midle-finger to _Saturne_, the ring-finger to the _Sun_, and the
little-finger to _Mercury_, in the meane time casting out _Mars_, and
the _Moon_, as it were out of their tribe and liberty.

Which things being so; who can wonder that _Mars_ doth stir up his
sons with just indignation to kill that caster of lots, or to beare
a perpetuall hatred against him? Who can wonder why the Moon should
enfeeble the brain of that player, or take away his reason?

And this is their first errour, which, as wee have said, they have
committed in Chiromancy.

The second errour in it is this:

It oftentimes happens that the originall, and naturall lines of the
hands are changed by hurts, and casualties, or are made greater, or
lesser, or doe appear in other places.

For as if there be a high-way obstructed by any thing or be stopt up
by the fall of a mountain, or be spoiled by the overflowing of waters,
men go about in another way neer to it: so it happens in the old lines
of the hands, that sometimes after the curing of wounds, or ulcers,
together with new flesh, also new lines doe grow out, and the old are
quite abolished.

In the same manner also by reason of hard labours the lines are
defaced, or they which were originall grow great; as it is in trees:
For if a young tree send forth many branches on all sides, these being
cut off, the tree it selfe becomes bigger.

But that wee may at length proceed to the practise of the Art of
Chiromancy, and briefly declare our opinion; I would have you know,
that I will indeed change nothing of what concerns the hands, but
acquiesce, and be satisfied with the observations, and descriptions of
the Ancients. Yet I purpose in this practise of Chiromancy to write of
those things, of which the Ancients have made no mention of, as of the
Chiromancy of Hearbs, Woods, Stones, and the like.

[Sidenote: The Chiromancy of Hearbs and Woods.]

And it must first be noted, that all Hearbs, which are of one kind must
be of one, and the same Chiromancy.

[Sidenote: What use is of them.]

But if their lines bee unlike, and appeare greater, or lesser in some
of them: that is, by reason of their age. Wee doe therefore clearly
professe, that the Chiromancy of Hearbs, conduceth to nothing else but
to know, and understand the age of any Hearb, or Root.

But by way of arguing any may here object, that there is no hearb as
long as it growes is older then another, four or five monthes at the
most, if the supputation begins from May till Autumne, at which time
hearbs die, and fall from their root.

[Sidenote: The condition of the spirit of the Hearb.]

To this I answer, that from God there is but one vertue in a root,
which is the first being and spirit of the hearb, by reason of which
the hearb grows, and is supported untill the predestinated time, and
untill it bee exalted to the production of seed. And this is a sign,
and a mark, that the vertue returns back to the root, and so the hearb
is dryed. As long as that spirit which is the chiefest vertue of the
hearb remaines in the root, the hearb every yeer is renewed: unlesse it
be, that that spirit together with the hearb be taken way, and decayes.
Then the hearb is not renewed. For the root is dead, and hath no more
life remaining in it.

But after what manner that spirit together with the hearb is taken from
the root, or with the root from the earth, that the vertue thereof
cannot goe backe into the root, or from the root into the earth, is
not to be considered in this place. For that is a sublime mystery
of Nature, and not to be openly discovered by reason of ignorant
Physitians, who doe not only scoffe at but contemne such secrets.
Therefore what here wee have omitted, wee shall set downe in our

Moreover, by how much the younger hearbs are, so much the more doe they
excell in power and vertue.

As by age a man is weakned, and fails in strength, so also doe hearbs.

But to know what the Chiromancy, and age of hearbs, and such like
things, is, daily experience is required, seeing the number of their
years is not written upon them, but it must be divined, as I have said,
by Chiromancy only.

Now Chiromancy doth not consider numbers, letters, or characters, but
lines, veins, and wrinkles only, &c. according to the age of any thing.
For by how much the older a thing is, so much the greater, and easier
to be seen are the lines, and the vertue, and operation of the thing so
much the duller.

[Sidenote: Young hearbs must be applyed to old diseases, and so on the

For as a disease of one moneth or yeare, is more easily cured then that
which is of two, three, four, or five moneths, and years: So an hearb
doth sooner cure a disease of one moneth, or year, then that which is
of two, three, or four moneths, or years. And for this cause young
hearbs must bee applyed to old griefs; and old hearbs or medicines to
young or new diseases. For if an old hearb should be applyed to an old
disease, the blind would lead the blind, and both would fall into the

This is the reason why many medicines doe not work, but are taken into
the body, and possesse the members, as dirt sticks to the shooes,
whence diseases are afterward doubled, &c.

Now ignorant Physitians never considered this, but by their ignorance
have destroyed more then ever they cured.

In the first place therefore, you that are Physitians must know, that
the medicine must be younger then the disease, that it may bee stronger
to expelle it. For if the medicine be more powerfull then the disease,
the disease will be overcome as fire is quenched with water. But if the
disease bee stronger then the medicine, it turnes the medicine into
poison, whence diseases are afterward doubled, and increased.

So if a disease bee like Iron, it must be cured with a Chalybeat
medicine. For Steel cannot be overcome by Iron. The more powerful doth
alwaies overcome, and the weaker is overcome.

Although therefore it was not our purpose in the beginning to write
in this place of Physick, yet for the sake of true, and genuine
Physitians, I could not pass over these things in silence.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of Minerall Signes._

[Sidenote: How Mineralls differ.]

Mineralls also, and Metalls before they come to the fire have their
true signes, and significations, which they have received from the
Archeius, and the superiour stars, every one of them resembling some
kind of them by distinct colours, and differences of the earth. For the
Minerall of Gold, is distinct from the Minerall of Silver: so also is
the Minerall of Silver from that of Copper: and the Minerall of Copper
from that of Iron: so the Minerall of Iron from that of Tinne, and
Lead, and so of the rest.

No man can deny, but that the Minerall, and all Metallick bodies of
Mines, which lie hid in the earth, may be known by art of Chiromancy
by their exteriour signes. That is, the Chiromancy of Mines, Veines,
and Conduits, &c. by which not only those things, which being hid
within them, are brought forth, but also a certaine depth, and
richnesse of the Mine, and plenty of Metall is manifested. And in this
Chiromancy three things are necessary to be known, _viz._ the age,
depth, and breadth of the veins, as hath been said a little before of
hearbs. For by how much the older the veins are, by so much the richer,
and more augmented are the Mines.

Concerning this we must know thus much, that all Metalls, which as yet
lie hid in their matrix doe constantly grow.

[Sidenote: There are Three chiefe heads of all things.]

Whence also it is manifest, that every thing that growes, although it
be placed out of its matrix cannot be made lesse, but forthwith grows,
(_i.e._) is multiplyed, and according to its substance, measure, and
weight, grows untill the predestinated time. Now this predestinated
time is the third part, of the appointed age of all Mineralls,
Vegetables, and Animalls, which are the three chief heads of all
earthly things.

Now whatsoever doth yet remaine in its matrix, doth grow so long untill
the matrix dies. For the matrix hath its appointed time to live, and
die, especially if it be subject to externall Elements.

[Sidenote: What is the tearme of Elements.]

That which is not subject to them, hath no other time, or term then the
Elements themselves have, with which it also shall die and perish in
the day of Renovation (which is their term.)

Hence it follows, that all things which are within the earth are not
subjected to the externall Elements, neither are they sensible of
cold, or moisture, or drynesse, or wind, or aire, by which they may
bee destroyed. Such kind of bodies therefore cannot bee putrefied, or
contract any filthinesse, or stink, or die, as long as they continue
within the earth, in their Chaos.

So much be spoken of Metalls, and as of them, so also it may bee said
of many men, who in the caves of mountaines live some hundreds of
years, as if they were gyants, or pygmies, of which we have wrote a
particular book.

But to descend to the practise of the Chiromancy of Mines, which wee
shall give you to understand in few words; you must know that the
veines by how much the deeper, and broader they are, so much the older.
For where the course of the veins is a great way extended, and at
length decay, and are not hidden, it is a bad signe. For as the courses
of the veins doe decay, so also doe the Mines themselves decay, which
they signifie by their depth. Although sometimes there are good Mines
found, yet by how much the deeper they goe, they doe more, and more
decay, so that it is not worth while to worke in them. But when the
veins are enlarged with other additions, or oftentimes cut off, it is
a good signe, shewing that the Mines are good not only in the top, but
that the same also are increased, and multiplyed in depth, and length
for the most part, the Mines being made more rich, afford pure gold,
and so a most large treasure.

It is without ground, that many Miners commend those veins only which
go directly downward, and incline from the East to the West. For the
nature of the Mines and experience teacheth, that veins oftentimes
which bend from the West to the East, or from the South to the North,
and so contrarily from the North to the South, are not lesse rich then
others are. Therefore there is no vein to be esteemed before another.
But we think it convenient to discourse of this no longer.

[Sidenote: By what signes Mines are discovered.]

Now concerning the other signes of the internall earth, as also the
colours of Mineralls, we shall briefly discourse of them thus.

As oft as Miners fall upon a fat earth, which doth signifie a vein of
a pure, and new metall, that is a very good signe assuring that, that
Metall, of which it is a vein, is not far off.

So also if the earth that is digged have no Metall in it, but be fat,
of a white colour, or black, or like clay or green, or blue, &c. then
that also is a good signe of some good Metall that is hid under it.
Therefore you must continue digging, and not give over.

Miners in the first place have respect to the excellent, beautiful,
and chiefest colours, as are green earth, or Chrysocoll, Verdegrease,
Azure, Cinnabar, Sandaracha, Auripigmentum, Litharge of Gold, and
Silver, &c. every one of these almost doe for the most part signifie a
peculiar Metall, or Minerall.

So Verdegrease, Chrysocolla, green earth, for most part signifie Copper.

So Azure, or white Arsenick, or Litharge of Silver signifie the Metall
of Copper.

So Cinnabar, and Sandaracha do sometimes signifie Gold, sometimes
Silver, and sometimes a mixture of both.

So Auripigmentum, red Sulphur, and Litharge of Gold, for the most part
signifie Gold.

So when Chrysocoll is found mixt with the Azure, or the Azure with
Chrysocoll, and Auripigment, for the most part they signifie an
excellent and rich Minerall.

Where stones, or earth are found of an Iron colour, they doe certainly
betoken an Iron Mine.

You must note, that sometimes it comes to passe, that the Archeius of
the earth doth by some secret passage cast up some Metall from the more
inward part of the earth. And that is a good signe.

Miners therefore must not bee discouraged when they see such certaine
signes, and hope of some excellent Mine lying under. And if thin leaves
of Metalls, like Talke, do adhere to rocks, or stones, that is a most
sure sign.

[Sidenote: What Coruscations signifie in Mines.]

Now concerning Coruscations they must bee diligently, and studiously
observed, for, they are most certain signes of Metalls lying hid under
them, as also of the same extent, and same kind. Where yet wee must
note, that those Metalls are not yet come to perfection, but are as yet
in their first being. And whither soever the Coruscation reacheth, so
far also reacheth the course of Metalls, &c.

[Sidenote: Coruscations are of three colours.]

Moreover you must know, that Coruscation is of a threefold colour, as
White, Yellow, and Red, whereby all Metalls are discovered to us. For
a white Coruscation signifies white Metalls, as Tinne, Lead, Silver,
&c. a red Coruscation signifies red Metalls, as Copper, and Iron, &c. a
yellow Coruscation signifies golden Metalls.

Add moreover, that a thin, and subtil Coruscation is the best signe.

For as you see it is in trees, that by how much the fewer flowers there
are, so much the better, greater, and more savory are the fruit: so
also small and subtile Coruscations signifie subtile and excellent
Metalls, as the contrary doe the contrary.

Moreover you must know, that as long as those Coruscations appear,
whether they be great, or small, or of this or that colour, the Metalls
in those Mines have not yet attained to perfection, but are yet in
their first being as the sperm of a man in the matrix of a woman.

[Sidenote: What Coruscation is.]

But now what Coruscation is, wee must consider in this place: and we
must know that it appears in the Mines by night like a sparkling fire,
no otherwise then gunpowder that is laid in a long train, and being
kindled at one end makes a long flashing.

After the same manner is Coruscation carried along, from the East to
the West, or from the West to the East, from the South to the North, or

All these Coruscations, how ever they appear, are a certain signe of
Courses of Metalls, that by them they may be known, and Metalls as
certain gifts of God may be brought forth out of the earth. For what
God created for mans use, hee put that nature into it that it should
not be hid: and although it were hid, yet he made peculiar externall
signes which conduce to the finding of it out, by which the wonderful
predestination of it may be known.

In the same manner if men hide treasures they marke the place with some
certain marks, and bury them by some bound, statue, or fountaine, or
any other thing, that when there is occasion they may find, and dig
them up again.

[Sidenote: How Chaldeans and Grecians hide their treasure.]

The ancient _Chaldeans_ and _Grecians_, if in times of war fearing to
be driven away, or banished, they would hide their treasure, would
marke the place no otherwise, then propose to themselves a certain day,
hour, and minute of the year, and did observe in what place the Sun,
or Moon should cast their shadow, and there did bury, and hide their

[Sidenote: What Sciomancy is.]

This Art they call _Sciomancy_, _i.e._ the Art of Shadowing. By these
shadowings many Arts have had their ground, and many hid things have
been revealed, and all Spirits, and Astrall bodies are known.

These are Cabalisticall signes, that cannot deceive, and therefore
diligently to bee taken notice of.

[Sidenote: Divining Rods uncertaine.]

You must therefore take heed, that you suffer not your selves to be
seduced by the divinations of uncertain Arts; for they are vain, and
fruitlesse, especially Divining rods, which have deceived many Miners.
For if they shew a thing truly once, they faile ten times.

Also wee must not trust other fraudulent signes of the devill, which
are made, and appeare in the night, and at some inconvenient times
preternaturally, such as are ghosts, & visions. For I would have you
know, that the devill can shew, and cause signes, but out of meer
fraud, and deceit.

So there is no Church built, but the devill hath his Chappell there.
There is no Chappell built, but hee sets up his Altar. There is no
good seed, but hee sows amongst it his tares. The same is the nature
of Visions, and supernaturall Apparitions, in Crystalls, Berills,
Looking-glasses, and Waters, as they are by Ceremoniall Negromancers
contrary to Gods command, and the power of the light of Nature basely

Visions indeed are not absolutely to be rejected; for they have their
place, but then they must bee done after another processe. For now wee
are not any longer in the first generation, but the second. Ceremonies
therefore, and Conjurations are not any longer to be used by us
Christians in the regeneration, as the Ancients in the old Testament,
who lived in the first generation used them. For those prefigurations
were for us who were to live in the New Testament.

Whatsoever things therefore the Ancients that were under the Old
Testament, and in the first Generation did doe by Ceremonies,
Conjurations, &c. wee Christians of the second Generation, and in the
New Testament must doe by prayer, knocking, and seeking, and procure by

[Sidenote: In what chiefe points the foundations of Magick and Cabalie

In these 3 chief points consists all the foundation of the Magicall,
and Cabalisticall Art, by which wee may obtain whatsoever we desire, so
that to us Christians nothing is impossible.

But wee shall desist to treat here of more things concerning these
and other monuments of Cabalie, spoken of sufficiently in the book
of _Visions_. I refer you thither, that you may see how wonderfully
Christ the Son of God works by his Angells in us Christians, and the
faithfull, and how brotherly he is conversant with us. Whence we are
the true Angels, and members of Christ, as hee is our head, as hee is
in us, so we live in him, as is taught in the booke of the Lords Supper.

[Sidenote: What is the vertue of the Tincture of Philosophers.]

But to returne to our purpose concerning Minerall signes, and
especially concerning the Coruscation of Metalline veins, we must know,
that as Metalls, which are yet in their first being, send forth their
Coruscation, _i.e._ Signes, so also the _Tincture of Philosophers_,
which changeth all imperfect Metalls into Silver, and Gold (or White
Metalls into Silver, and Red into Gold) puts forth its proper signs
like unto Coruscation, if it be Astrally perfected, and prepared. For
as soon as a small quantity of it is cast upon a fluxil metall, so that
they mixe together in the fire; there ariseth a naturall Coruscation,
and brigthnesse, like to that of fine Gold, or Silver in a test, which
then is a signe that that Gold, or Silver, is freed and purged without
all manner of addition of other Metalls.

[Sidenote: How the Tincture of Philosophers is made astrall.]

But how the Tincture of Philosophers is made Astrall, you must conceive
it after this manner:

First of all you must know, that every Metall, as long as it lies hid
in its first being, hath its certaine peculiar stars.

So Gold hath the stars of the Sun, Silver the stars of the Moon, Copper
the stars of Venus, Iron the stars of Mars, Tinne the stars of Jupiter,
Lead the stars of Saturne, Quicksilver the starres of Mercury.

But as soon as they come to their perfection, and are coagulated into a
fixt Metalline body, their stars fall off from them, and leave them, as
a dead body.

Hence it follows, that all such bodies are afterwards dead, and
inefficacious, and that the unconquered star of Metalls doth overcome
them all, and converts them into its nature, and makes them all Astrall.

[Sidenote: Gold that is made by the Tincture is better then naturall.]

For which cause also our Gold, and Silver, which is tinged, and
prepared with our tincture, is much more excellent, and better for the
preparation of Medicinall secrets, then that which is naturall, which
Nature generates in the Mines, and afterwards is separated from other

So also the Mercury of a body, is made Astrally of another body, and
is much more noble, and fixt then common Mercury. And so of the other

I say therefore, that every Alchymist, which hath that star of Gold,
can turne all Red Metalls into Gold by tinging of them.

So by the star of Silver all White Metalls are changed into Silver: by
the star of Copper into Copper: by the star of Quicksilver into Mercury
of the body; and so of the rest.

But now how all these stars are prepared according to the Spagiricall
Art, it is not our purpose at this time to declare: but the explication
of them belongs to our bookes of the Transmutation of Metalls.

[Sidenote: The nature of the red Tincture.]

But as for that which concerns their signes, I would have you know,
that our Red tincture, which contains the stars of Gold to bee of a
most fixt substance, of most quick penetration, and of a most intense
redness, in powder resembling the colour of Saffron, but in its whole
body the colour of a Rubie; I say it is a Tincture as fluxil as Wax,
as transparent as Crystall, as brittle as Glasse, and for weight most

[Sidenote: The nature of the white.]

The white tincture, which containes the star of the Moon is after
the same manner of a fixt substance, of an unchangeable quantity, of
wonderfull whitenesse, as fluid as Resine, as transparent as Crystall,
as brittle as Glasse, and for weight like to a Diamond.

[Sidenote: The star of Copper.]

The star of Copper is of a wonderfull citrine colour, like to an
Emrald, as fluxill as Resine, much heavier then its Metall.

[Sidenote: The star of white Tin.]

The starre of white Tinne is as fluid as Resine, of a darke colour with
some mixture of yellow.

[Sidenote: The star of Iron.]

The star of Iron is very red, as transparent as a Granate, as fluxil as
Resine, as brittle as Glasse, of a fixt substance, much heavier then
its Metall.

[Sidenote: The star of Lead.]

The star of Lead is like Cobaltum, black, yet transparent, as fluxile
as Resine, as brittle as Glasse, equall to Gold for weight, heavier
then other Lead.

[Sidenote: The star of Quicksilver.]

The star of Quicksilver is of a wonderfull white, sparkling colour,
like to snow, in the extreamest cold weather, very subtile, of a
penetrating, corrosive acrimony, as transparent as Crystall, flowing as
easily as Resine, very cold to the tast, but very hot within, as if it
were fire, but of a very volatil substance in the fire.

By this description the stars of the Metalls are to be known, and

Also you must understand, that for the preparation of both tinctures,
_viz._ of the Red and White, you must not in the beginning take of
your work the body of Gold, or Silver, but the first being of Gold, and
Silver. For if in the beginning there be an errour committed all your
pains, and labour will be in vain.

So also you must understand of Metalls, that every one of them receives
a peculiar signe in the fire, by which it is known.

Of this kind are sparks, flames, glisterings, the colour, smell, taste
of fire, &c.

So the true signe of Gold, or Silver in the test is glistering.

That appearing, it is certain that Lead, and other Metalls that were
mixed are fumed away, and that the Gold, and Silver is fully purged.

The signes of Iron being red hot in the furnace, are cleer transparent
sparks flying upward. Those appearing, the Iron unlesse it be taken
from the fire is burnt like straw, &c.

[Sidenote: To know how Metalls have more or less of the three

After the same manner any earthly body shews its peculiar, and distinct
signes in the fire, whether it have more of Mercury, Sulphur, or Salt,
and which of the three principles it hath most of. For if it fume
before it flame, it is a signe that it containes more Mercury then

But if it presently burn with a flame, and without any fume, it is a
signe that it contains much Sulphur, and little or no Mercury.

This you see in fat substances, as Tallow, Oyle, Resine, and the like:
but if without any flame it goes all into fume, it is a signe that
there is in it much Mercury, and little or no Sulphur.

This you see happens in hearbs, and flowers, &c. and other Vegetable
substances, and volatile bodies, as are Mineralls, and Metalls,
remaining yet in their first being, and are not mixed with any
sulphureous body, which send forth a fume, and no flame.

Mineralls, and Metalls, which send forth neither fume nor flame, doe
shew an equall mixtion of Mercury, and Sulphur, and a perfect fixation.

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

_Of some peculiar Signes of Naturall and Supernaturall things._

Wee must yet further speak of some peculiar signes, of which hitherto
we have said nothing.

In which Treatise it will be very necessary for you, that boast your
selves to have skill in the Art of Signatures, and desire to be called
Signators, that you rightly understand mee. For wee shall not in this
place write theoretically, but practically, and shall declare our
opinion in few words.

[Sidenote: What the art of signing is.]

And first know, that the Art of signing doth teach how true, and
sutable names are to bee put upon all things, all which _Adam_ truly
knew. For presently after the Creation hee gave to every thing its
proper name, as to Animalls, so to Trees, Hearbs, Rootes, Stones,
Mineralls, Metalls, Waters, &c. And to all the fruits of the earth,
Water, Air, Fire, &c. And what names he put upon them all, were
ratified, and approved of by God. For from the true, and intrinsecall
foundation he tooke them all; not from opinion, or from a predestinated
science, _viz._ the Art of Signing.

[Sidenote: Adam the first signator.]

_Adam_ therefore was the first Signator. And it cannot be denyed, that
also from the _Hebrew_ tongue true and proper names doe flow, and are
put upon every thing according to its nature, and condition.

[Sidenote: The nature of the Hebrew tongue.]

For what names are put upon them from the _Hebrew_ tongue, doe with the
same labour signifie their vertue, power, and property.

So when wee say, this is a Hog, a Horse, a Cow, a Beare, a Dog, a Fox,
a Sheep.

[Sidenote: The signification of a Hog, Horse, Cow, Beare, Fox, Dog,
sheep, in the Hebrew tongue.]

The name of a Hog signifies together with it a filthy and unclean
Animall: so a Horse signifies a strong and patient Animall: a Cow, a
devouring, and insatiable beast: a Bear, a strong, victorious, and an
untamed brute: a Fox, a shifting, and crafty beast: a Dog, an animall
false to those of his own kind: a Sheep, a mild and profitable beast,
and hurtful to none.

Hence it is that a man is called a Hog, for his sordid and swinish life.

And a Horse for his bearing, for which hee is eminent.

And a Cow, because shee is unsatiable with meat, and drink, and knows
no measure of her belly.

And a Bear, because he is mishapen, and stronger then other men.

A Fox, because he is a turn-coat, and deceitfull, accommodating
himselfe to all, and offending none.

A Dog, because he is faithfull to none, but his own mouth, is false,
and inofficious to all.

And a Sheep, because hee hurts no body but himselfe, and is usefull to
all, rather then to himself, &c.

[Sidenote: In what hearbs there is a signature.]

After this manner also many Hearbs, and Rootes have got their name.

So Eye-bright is so called, because it cures weak, and sore eyes.

So the Root Bloudwort is so called, because it stops bloud better then
any other.

So the Hearb Pile-wort is so called, because it cures the piles better
then other hearbs.

The same also may be said of divers other hearbs, of which sort I could
reckon a great number, all which were so called from their vertue, and
faculty, as shall more largely be declared in our Herball.

Moreover, there bee many Hearbs, and Rootes, which are denominated not
only from their imbred vertue, and faculty, but also from their figure,
forme, and representation: As, Devills-bit, Five-leaved grasse, or
Cinquefoile, Hounds-tongue, Adders-tongue, Horse-taile, Liver-wort,
Ox-tongue, Lungwort, the hearb Chameleon, St. Johns-wort, or the hearb
boared through, the hearb Dog-stone, Tongue-laurell, Thorow-leafe,
Turne-sole, and many others which shall not here, but in the Herball
bee severally considered.

[Sidenote: What signature there is in Animalls.]

The same also holds concerning the signes of Animalls; for by the
bloud, and its circle, and by the urine and its circle all diseases
that lie hid in Man may be known.

By the liver of a slain beast the flesh is known whether it be wholsome
to be eaten or no. For unlesse the liver be clear, and of a red colour,
but blew, or yellow, or rough, or full of holes, the beast is diseased,
and therefore his flesh unwholsome.

[Sidenote: The Liver the originall of Bloud.]

And it is no wonder that the liver can shew that by naturall signes.
For the originall of the bloud is in the liver, and hence through the
veins it is diffused into the whole body, and is coagulated into flesh.

Therefore from a diseased, and ill affected liver, no sound or fresh
bloud can be produced, as of bad bloud no wholsome flesh can be

Also without inspection into the liver, flesh and bloud may be known.
For if both be sound, they have their true, and naturall colour, which
is red, and clear, mixed with no other strange colour, as yellow, or
blew. For those strange colours do signifie diseases, and sicknesses.

[Sidenote: What the knots in the Navell of the Infant signifie.]

Also there are other signes worthy of admiration, _viz._ when the
Archeius is the Signator, and signes the navell in the infant with
little knots, by which it may bee conjectured, what the Mother of the
infant did bring forth, or shall bring forth.

[Sidenote: The branches of a Harts horn signifie his age.]

The same Signator signs the horns of a Hart with branches, by which his
age is known. For as many branches as the horn hath, so many years old
is the Hart. And seeing he hath every year a new horn, the age of the
Hart may be known to twenty, or thirty years.

[Sidenote: The circles of the hornes of a Cow what.]

So the Signator of a Cow markes her hornes with circles, by which it
may be known how many Calves shee hath brought forth. For every Circle
signifies a Calfe.

[Sidenote: The teeth of a Horse.]

The same Signator puts forth the first teeth of a Horse, that the first
seven yeers his age may be known by his teeth. For at first a Horse
is brought forth, with fourteen teeth, of which every yeer hee loseth
two, and so in the space of seven yeares hee loseth all. So that after
seven yeares his age can hardly be known, unlesse by one that is very

[Sidenote: The bills and claws of Birds.]

The same Signator doth signe the bills and claws of Birds with peculiar
signes, that the skilfull Fowler may know their age by them.

[Sidenote: The tongues of Hogs.]

The same Signator doth marke the tongues of diseased Hogs with little
pushes, by which their impurity is known, and as their tongue is
impure, so is their whole body.

[Sidenote: Colours of Clouds.]

The same Signator doth signe clouds with divers colours, by which the
seasons of the heaven may bee foreknown.

[Sidenote: Colours of the circle of the Moon.]

So also he signs the circle of the moon with distinct colours, of which
every one is of peculiar interpretation. So redness signifies that
there wil be wind; greennesse, and blacknesse, raine, these two mixed
together wind and rain, the same in the sea is a signe of great storms,
and tempests; clearnesse, and a bright whitenesse is a good sign,
especially in the ocean. For, for the most part it signifies a quiet,
faire season.

Whatsoever the Moon portends by her signs, shall come to passe the next

And so much for Naturall signes. Now for Supernaturall signes, they are
things of a particular science, as of Magical Astronomy, &c. and the
like. It is therefore necessary that you be skilled in them.

[Sidenote: The kinds of Magicall Astronomie.]

Hence also many other Arts proceed, as Geomancy, Pyromancy, Hydromancy,
Chaomancy, and Necromancy, whereof every one hath its peculiar stars,
which stars doe so signe them after a supernaturall manner. And you
must know, that the starres of Geomancy impresse their signs upon the
earthy bodies of the whole Universe, and that divers wayes. For they
change the earth, and cause earthquakes, and gapings, they produce
hills, and valleys, and bring many new Vegetables, they produce also
Gamaheaus (_see Transcriber’s Note_) with naked figures, and images,
having wonderfull vertues, and powers, which indeed they receive from
the seven planets, as the But or mark receives the arrow from the

But how those signs, and images of Gamaheaus may be known apart, and
what they signifie magically; there is required a great experience,
and knowledg of the nature of things, which can by no meanes bee here
perfectly taught.

Here you must well note, that the stone, or every Gamaheaus, cannot
excell in the property, and vertue but of one star, and so be qualified
but by one planet.

And although there bee two or more planets in earthly bodies, as they
are joined together in the superiour firmament: yet one is repressed
by the other. For as one house cannot bear two Masters, but the one
thrusts out the other: so also it is here; the one rules, the other
serves: Or as one that overcomes him that keeps any house, casts him
out by force; and sets himself, as master of the house, disposing of
all things according to his pleasure, and making the other his servant.

So also one starre expells another, one planet another, one Ascendant
another, one influence another, one impression another, one Element
another; For as water quencheth the fire; so one planet destroyes the
property of another, and brings in its owne.

The same is after the same manner to be understood of their signes,
which are manifold, and not only characters, as many conceive, but
all those, which are found in the whole map of the planets, _i.e._
whatsoever are of affinity with, or subject to the planets.

[Sidenote: What things are subject to the Sun.]

But that you may the better understand mee by adding an example: I
would have you know, that unto the planet of the Sun are subjected a
crowne, a scepter, a throne, and all kingly power, majesty, and rule,
and all riches, treasures, ornaments, and furniture of this world.

[Sidenote: What to the Moone.]

Unto the planet of the Moon are subjected all husbandry, navigation,
travelling, and travellers, and such things as belong to these.

[Sidenote: What to Mars.]

Unto the planet of _Mars_ are subjected all fortifications, armour,
coats for defence, Ordnance of War, spears, and all weapons, and
whatsoever belongs to war.

[Sidenote: What to Mercury.]

Unto the planet of Mercury are subjected all Artists, all Mechanick
instruments, and whatsoever is required to Arts.

[Sidenote: What to Iupiter.]

Unto the planet of Jupiter are subjected all judgments, and rights,
the whole Leviticall order, all Ministers of Churches, ornaments of
Temples, all jewells, and such like.

[Sidenote: What to Venus.]

Unto the planet of Venus are subjected whatsoever things belong to
Musick, as Musicall instruments, venereall exercises, loves, whorings,

[Sidenote: What to Saturn.]

Unto Saturne are subjected whosoever work in and beneath the earth, as
Miners, Pioners, Bearers of the dead, Diggers of Wells, as also all
instruments serving to either of these, &c.

[Sidenote: What be the signes of Pyromancy.]

Pyromancy draws forth its signes by the stars of the fire, in common
fire by particular sparkes, flames, or noise, &c. in the mines
by Coruscations: in the Firmament by stars, comets, flashing, and
lightning, and Nostock, and the like: in Visions by Salamandrine, and
fiery spirits.

[Sidenote: What the signes of Hydromancy are.]

Hydromancy gives its signes by the stars of the Water, by their
overflowings, their scarcity, discolourings, commotions, new streames,
the washings away of earthy things: in Magick, and Necromancy by
Nymphs, visions and supernaturall Monsters in the waters, and sea.

[Sidenote: What are the signes of Chaomancy.]

Chaomancy shews its signes by the stars of the Aire, and Wind, by the
discolouring, destroying of all tender, and subtill things, to which
the Wind is an enemie, by beating off the flowers, leaves, boughes, and
branches. If the stars of Chaomancy are moved, spirits fall from the
superiour Aire, and voices, and answers are often heard: Also Trees
are pulled up by the rootes, and Houses are thrown down. There are
seen Hobgoblins, Houshold Gods, airy spirits, and Woodmen, &c. also a
heavenly dew, and manna falls upon Trees, and Hearbs.

[Sidenote: The signes of Necromancy.]

Necromancy draws forth its signs by the stars of Death, which we call
_Evestra_, which are prophetical spirits, signing the body of the sick,
and dying man with red, blue, and purple spots, which are certaine
signs of death, in the third day of their rising. They sign also the
hands, and fingers of men with a clay colour, which are certain signs
of change, either good or bad. When therfore the stars of Necromancy
are moved, then the dead shew some wonderful sign, as Bleeding, and
voices are heard out of the graves: tumults, & tremblings arise in
the places where bones are laid, and dead men appear in the form, and
habit of living men, and are seen in Visions, in Looking-glasses, in
Berills, in Stones, and Waters, and divers shapes. _Evestra_, _i.e._
spirits give their signs by beating, striking, knocking, falling,
casting, &c. where there is a great hurly burly and noise only heard,
but nothing seen, all which are certain signes of death, presaging it
to him, in whose habit they appear, or to some in what place they are

Besides, these signatures many more may be reckoned up. But seeing
they bring with them, evill, hurtfull and dangerous fancies, and
imaginations, and superstitions, which may be an occasion not onely of
some misfortune, but also death, I shall passe them over in silence.
They are prohibited from being revealed to us, seeing they belong to
the schoole of secrets, and divine power. Therefore now I shall put an
end to this book.


[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  Hard Places and Words
  met withall in the Writings of
  _Paracelsus_, and other obscure

[Illustration: *decorative divider*]

  _London_, Printed by _Richard Cotes_, for _Thomas
  Williams_ at the Bible in Little-Britain, 1650.


_Acetum Philosophorum_ is a Mercuriall water, or otherwise is called
Virgins milke, wherein they say Metalls are dissolved.

_Acetum radicale_ is Vineger distilled out of its owne roote, and
matrix, and is called the Dissolving Water.

_Adamita_ is a certain kind of Tartar.

_Adech_ is our interiour, and invisible man, which represents the
formes of all things in our mind, which afterward our outward man doth
frame, and imitate with its own hands; both of them work according to
their nature.

_Aerdadi_ are corporeall spirits living in the air.

_Æs_ doth not alwaies signifie Copper, but sometimes Gold, or Silver,
or any other Metall that is pure, and generated by it self, without the
mixtion of any other Metall, or Stone; out of some such kind of Metall,
they formerly made and coined money.

_Æstphara_ is the burning of flesh, or the substance of the body into

_Æthna_ is called Subterranean fire, invisible, and sulphureous, which
burnes stones into coales, like Jeat in the mountains, which are full
of Resine, and Bitumen.

_Æthnici_ are called fiery spirits, or spirituall men burning in the
fire, which appear in divers forms, and shapes, as fiery flames,
firebrands, round balls of coals, and that especially in Sulphur

_Alandahal_, or _Alhandal_ is _Coloquintida_.

_Alcaest_, or _Altaest_, is said to be prepared Mercury, some will have
it to bee Tartar, but the mind of the Authour is more easily understood
by the description of the preparation of it.

_Alcali_ is called all manner of Salt, which is extracted out of ashes,
or calx of any matter by boiling in lie.

_Alchymia_ is the separation of that which is impure from a purer

_Alcofol_, or (as some will have it _Alcosol_) is _stibium_, or

_Alcol_, _Alcool_, or _Alcohol_ is a most subtil powder of any thing.

_Alcool vini_ is the spirit of Wine rectified.

_Alcubrith_, or _Alcur_, or _Alazar_ is the same that Sulphur is.

_Alembrot_ purified is salt of Tartar, and the Magistery of it.

_Alembroth_ is salt of Mercury, or salt of Philosophers.

_Almizadir_ is Verdegrease.

_Altey plumbi_ is the sweet matter of Lead.

_Alusar_ is Manna.

_Amalgama_ is the making of Gold, Silver, or any other Metall into a
past with Quicksilver.

_Amianthus_ is a stone like to _Alumen plumosum_ in nature, and
condition; it is not burnt in the fire, wherefore it is also called the

_Amidum_, or _Amilum_ is the whitest flowre made into bread in the Sun.

_Amnis alcalisatus_ is water passing through the chalk of the earth,
out of which _Alcali_ is taken.

_Amygdale_, with Chirurgions is called the superfluous flesh which
growes at the roote of the tongue.

_Anachmus_ is an incorporeall spirit.

_Anathron_, or _Anachthron_ is a kind of Salt growing upon rocks like
white, and stony mosse, some call it salt nitre. The ancients falsly
thought it to bee the gall of glasse, seeing it is rather the gall of

_Anatomia Essata_ is the mother of diseases.

_Anatrum_ is glasse melted into divers colours, which they call
_smaltum_, or _terra Sarasenica_.

_Andena_ is Steel brought from the orientall countries, which melts in
the fire like other Metall, and is cast into severall forms.

_Anthos_ in Vegetables signifies Rosemary flowers, and in Metalls it
signifies the Elixir or quintessence of Gold.

_Anticar_ is _Borax_.

_Anatris_, or _Antaris_ is Mercury.

_Aniada_ are the fruits, and vertues of paradise, and heaven, also
the sacraments of Christians, in naturall Philosophy it signifies the
Astrall vertues, and celestiall, as they conduce by their influence
unto long life.

_Aniaday_ signifies an eternall spring, a new world to come, or

_Aniadum_ is a celestiall body planted in us Christians by the
Holy-ghost, by the holy sacraments, or it is the spirituall man
regenerated in us.

_Aniadus_ is the efficacy of things.

_Anima_ is our Mercury.

_Anima Saturni_ is the sweetnesse of Lead.

_Annora_ is the ashes of Egs, or Quick-lime.

_Annus Aniadin_ is a long life.

_Annus Platonicus_ is a common moneth, or an age.

_Anodus_ is that which is separated from the nutriment by the kidnies.

_Anodyna_ are Medicines procuring sleep.

_Anontagius_ is the Philosophers stone.

_Anotasier_, _Aliocab_ or _Alemzadar_ is Salt Armoniack.

_Antera_ is a Medicine extracted out of hyacinths, also that yellow
which growes in the middle of Lillies, and the like.

_Anterit_ is Mercury.

_Anthonor_, or _Athonar_ is a furnace.

_Aphorismus_ is a generall rule in Physick, taken for granted.

_Aqua celestina_ is Mercuriall water.

_Aqua Celestis_ is rectified Wine, being in some sort made like to the
heaven for subtilty, and purenesse.

_Aqua corrodens_ is Vineger, and all Corrosive Liquor.

_Aqua fecum vini_, is that which is made of the ashes of the lees of
Wine, dissolved upon a marble like oyle of Tartar.

_Aqua lubricata_ is made of mucilaginous things, as Sugar, Juleps, and
the like.

_Aqua permanens_ is that which is made of two most perfect Metalline
bodies by a Philosophicall solution.

_Aqua Saturnia_ is that which retains in it selfe the nature of the
three Principles, as are Bath-waters, which are naturally medicinable.

_Aqua solvens_ is distilled Vineger.

_Aquaster_ is a vision representing something to our eyes, sometimes
which truly is not, but only in appearance.

_Aquila_ is the Queen of birds, and it is used for salt Armoniack by
reason of its lightnesse in sublimation. But _Paracelsus_ will have it
in many places to be taken for Mercury precipitated with gold.

_Aquila Philosophorum_ is the Mercury of Metalls _i.e._ Metall reduced
into its first matter.

_Arbor Maris_ is Corall, which grows like a shrub in the sea.

_Arcanum_ in generall as it signifies any thing that is hid, so in
_Paracelsus_ it signifies any secret incorporeall vertue in naturall
things, partaking of a perpetuall, and immortal life, derived upon it
from heaven, which also may bee multiplyed by the Spagiricall art above
its former condition.

_Archaltes_, is in _Paracelsus_ the foundation of the earth, or a
pillar, which seems not to be upheld by its fellows, but as it were by
a wonderfull providence of God.

_Archeius_ is the highest, exalted, and invisible spirit, which is
separated from bodies, is exalted, and ascends, the universall occult
nature, operator, and Physitian in all things. So Archiatrus is the
supream Physitian of Nature, which distributes to every thing and every
member their peculiar Archeius occultly by Ares. Also Archeius is the
first in Nature, the most secret vertue, producing all things out of
Iliaste, being supported by a divine power. Ares is the dispenser of
Nature hid in all the three principles, whence every thing hath its
being, and which disposeth to all things in a particular form, shape,
and substance, that it may put on its own proper specifical nature,
& not anothers. But you must note, the difference betwixt these 3 in
nature, to speak after the manner of schools. Iliastes is the substance
of the highest genus, or kind consisting in the first universall matter
of all things, which it doth first dispose into three kinds, _viz._
into Sulphur, Mercury, and salt. The Archeius is the first dispenser of
Nature, and then it produceth all things into its next genera or kinds.
Then comes Ares another dispenser of Nature, which produceth from
kinds, or genera, forms, and species into individualls.

_Ardentia_ are such things which having received no food, are by their
owne nature subject to burnings, as Amber, Turpentine, Jeat, and such

_Aridura_ is the totall consumption of the body, and parts thereof.

_Arles crudum_ is drops falling in the moneth of _Iune_, like _May_ dew.

_Aromata_, are all such things, which yeeld a sweet, and gratefull

_Aroph_ is Mandrake.

_Arsaneck_ is sublimed Arsenick.

_Arsenicum_ is the flashing of Metalls, or the salt of them, or of
Saturne, which in some places is called _Artanek_, or _Artanech_.

_Artetiscus_ is he that wants any member.

_Arthoicum_ is red oyle, artificially extracted out of the rootes of
Hearbs digested with bread in dung.

_Asaphatum_ is an itch bred betwixt the skin, and the flesh, like
worms: and if the skinne bee crushed, long threds with black heads come

_Ascendentia signa_ are called either the stars of the Firmament of
heaven, or the sydereall spirits.

_Asphaltum_ is a Bitumen extracted from the mudde of the earth, and
water, and is like pitch.

_Assala_ is called a Nutmeg.

_Assaliæ vermes_ are those wormes which breed in wood, or betwixt two
boards, and they are called _Teredones_.

_Asthma_ is a disease of the lungs causing difficulty of breathing.

_Astrum_ is in this place called the vertue and power got by the
preparations of things as the star of Sulphur is its inflaming which is
turned into most excellent oyle: so the star of salt is its resolution
into water, or oyle, which thereby receives more vertues then it had
before. The star of Mercury is its sublimation, by which it acquires
a wonderfull power, and vertue, greater, and more subtile then its

_Astrum ex igne_, is a burning Fire of great impression.

_Athanor_, or _Athanar_ is a furnace in the spagirical Art, but
especially a reverberatory, sometimes of other use as the artificer

_Attractiva_ are called magnetick medicaments, which have a power to
draw to them such things as are compounded of the like attractives.

_Attramentum_ signifies divers things according to the adjective that
is put to it: as that which Shoomakers use, is Copperis, such as is red
within: that which Writers use, is called inke, sooty, and it is called
blacking, also all kinds of Copperis.

_Augurista_ is called a superstitious Artist who practiseth his Art in
Looking-glasses, Chrystalls, and in Waters, especially in the singing,
and flying of birds, that he may presage by them; he also observes
other rites for the same cause.

_Aurum planatum_ is that which they call Leafe Gold, or malleated Gold.

_Aurum potabile_ is liquor of Gold, without any Corrosive, which very
few know, yea of those who daily prepare it rather to the destruction,
then health of men.

_Aurum vitæ_ is precipitated Gold, and reverberated into the highest
degree of rednesse, like ground Cinnabar. That is the best which is
made, and precipitated with its proper Mercury.

_Aurum vivum_ is sometimes taken for Quicksilver.

_Austromantia_ is a certain kind of superstition invented, concerning
the observation of Winds, as when the stars of the Winds break forth
into great vehemency, contrary to their custome, whence men that are
more idle then rationall, pronounce a presage of something to come.

_Avis Hermetis_ is the Mercury of Philosophers, which ascends, and then
descends for nourishment.

_Axungia de Mumia_, or _Mumia de Medullis_ is the marrow of Bones.

_Azemasor_ is Minnium, or Cinnabar.

_Azoth_ is Quicksilver extracted out of any body, and it is properly
called the Mercury of the body, but in _Paracelsus_ it is the
universall medicine of things.


_Balneum Mariæ_, or _Maris_, as many call it, is a furnace for
distillation containing water, in which being warm Chymicall vessells
are put for the putrefaction of the matter which they contain, as also
for their separation, and for the performing the operations of that
kind of moist ascensions.

_Balneum roris_ is a furnace, in which the vessells of Distillation are
put over the vapour of the water only, that the vapour doe not touch
the body: also it is called a vaporous furnace.

_Balsamum_ is a substance of bodies preserving things from
putrefaction. It is internall, and externall. Internall in man is
a certain temperate substance, not bitter, nor sweet, nor soure,
not Minerall salt, but the salt of liquor, which preserves the body
strongly from putrefaction. Externall is Turpentine, which hath never
come to the fire, but is digested.

_Balsamum de Mumiis_ is that which is extracted from flesh.

_Balsamum Elementorum externum_ is a liquor of externall Mercury,
_i.e._ the Mummie of externall elements, one of the three principles,
the firmamentall essence of things.

_Baul_ is urine.

_Baurac_ is any kind of brine.

_Berillistica_ is an art of observing visions in those kinds of glasses.

_Berillus_ is a Crystalline Looking-glasse superstitiously consecrated
by the Augurs.

_Bismutum_ is the lightest, whitest, and basest kind of Lead.

_Bitumen_ is a certaine kind of slimie mud extracted out of water, and
is like to pitch, and is as it were the pitch of the earth.

_Bothor_ are wheales, or pustles.

_Botin_ is Turpentine.

_Brassadella_, or _Brassatella_ is Adders-tongue.

_Brunus_ is St. Anthony’s fire.

_Bruta_ is an influence of a Celestiall vertue, which by Brutes is
manifested to men, as in the Sallendine by the Swallow, in Salt the use
of a Glyster by the Storke, and many more of that kind.

_Butyrum Saturni_ is that which above is called _Altey_, and it is the
sweetnesse of Lead.


_Cabela_, or _Cabalia_ is a most secret science, which is said to be
delivered by divine inspiration, together with the law of _Moses_, the
_Hebrew Rabbies_ asserting the same. The _Persians_ were most diligent
seekers of this Art, being also professors of the same, as appears by
their calling of their wise men. They call their Priests wise men, and
most skilfull of all secrets, such as were those three that came to
Christ out of the East to worship him, and not Kings, as the ignorant
vulgar think them to be. It was not set down in writing, but delivered
by word of mouth. Now after a while superstitious men, a kind of apes,
began to spatter it with their pen, so that at last it is degenerated
into monstrous superstition; by which means also Magick, which is the
true wisdome that is received by divine inspiration, is accounted in
these times Necromancy, and Nigromancy, so that it is an offence to
be a wise man, and hee that professeth it openly shall cast himselfe
into danger. But to teach the foolishnesse of Infidels publickly is
commendable, and a gift of singular wisdome, and no man is judged wise,
but hee that is the greatest foole.

_Caballi_, or _Cabales_ are ghosts, and Astrall stars of men that dyed
before their time.

_Calcedonium tartarum_ is an offensive matter in mans body, which comes
by reason of the defect of the expulsive faculty in not expelling what
is separated.

_Cafa_ is Champhir.

_Calcanthum_ is Vitriall.

_Calcinatum majus_ is called all that which is made sweet by the
Spagiricall art, which of its own nature was not so, as the sweetnesse
of Mercury, of Lead, of Salt or the like, which also is called their
soul, and doth quickly consolidate any wound.

_Calcinatum minus_ is all that which is natural sweet, and is very
healing, as Sugar, Manna, Honey of the Wood, Nostock and the like.

_Calcitis_ is a stone out of which brasse is boiled.

_Caleruth_ is a signe of a desire to the first _perpetuum_, as when any
thing desires to return into its first matter from whence it had its

_Callena_ is a kind of Saltpetre.

_Calliette_ are yellow mushromes upon Juniper trees.

_Calx Iovis_ is spirit of Tin.

_Calx lignorum_ is the ashes of Wood.

_Calx Luna_ is the Azure flower of Silver.

_Calx Martis_ is Crocus of Steel or Iron.

_Calx Mercurii_ is precipitated Mercury.

_Calx Solis_ is calcined Gold.

_Calx peregrinorum_ is Tartar.

_Calx permanens_ or _fixa_, is an incombustible matter.

_Calx Saturni_ is Minium.

_Calx Veneris_ is Verdegrease.

_Cambuca_ is an aposteme, or ulcer in the groin.

_Caput corvi_ is Antimony.

_Caput mortuum_ is the feces remaining after distillation, and

_Carbones cœli_ are the stars.

_Carbunculus_ is an aposteme, or pestilent ulcer.

_Cardonium_ is a medicinable Wine made of Hearbs.

_Carena_ is the twentyeth part of a drop.

_Caseus præparatus_ is the viscous residency remaining in the bottome
of the milke that runnes out of the cheese.

_Cassatum_ is weak, and dead bloud in the veins obstructing the motion
of the good blood.

_Cathimia_ is the spume of Silver.

_Cauda vulpis rubicundi_ is Minium of Lead.

_Cautela_ in Spagiricall art is a certaine kind of industry gotten by a
habit, whereby the professors of the art doe more easily undergoe their
labors, and perfect their operations.

_Cauterium_ is a chirurgicall instrument, which opens the skin with
burning; also it is a medicine that effects the same, but without pain.

_Cedurini_ are dull wits.

_Cementum_ is a dry Corrosion, when any Metalline body is calcined with
salts, or such like drying things.

_Cenigdam_, or _Ceningotam_ is a Chirurgicall instrument wherewith the
_Cranium_ is opened in fits of the Epilepsie.

_Ceniotemium_ is Mercury prepared for the Venereal disease.

_Cerviculæ_ is the spirit made out of the bone which is in the heart of
a Hart.

_Chaomancy_ is an art of presaging by the aire.

_Chaos_, besides the confused, and unshaped matter of all things, is
in _Paracelsus_ taken for the Aire; it is also taken for Illiaste, or

_Character veneris_ is love, which is in stead of a shield in keeping
off danger.

_Cheiri_ in _Paracelsus_ if it be put absolutely without any adjection,
and if it be spoken of Mineralls, it signifies Quicksilver, if of
Vegetables, Vegetable flowers. But when it is found with an adjection
after this manner, _flos Cheiri_, it signifies the white Elixir made of
silver, as _Flos Anthos_ signifies the red Elixir.

_Cherio_ is the occult accidentall vertue of the externall Elements,
and not the qualities of heat, and cold, and the like.

_Cherionium_ is that in which Nature cannot be altered, as Crystal,
which is so hardened by nature, that it cannot bee melted as that which
is made by Art.

_Cherubin_ is a celestiall vertue, and influence, domination, and power
above all dominations, and powers, proceeding from God, and descending
upon the earth, and upon all men. Of this divine glory _Paracelsus_
speaks largely in the expositions of the Psalms of _David_.

_Cherva_ is _Cataputia_, _i.e._ the Hearb Spurge.

_Chifir Minerale_ is of some interpreted Gold, but I judg it by what
goes before to bee the Sulphur of any Metall.

_Chiromancy_ according to _Paracelsus_ doth not treat of the lineaments
of the hands only, but also of the whole body, and not only of men, but
all naturall things besides.

_Chybur_, or _Cibur_ is Sulphur.

_Chymia_ is the art of Separating pure from impure, and of making

_Chrysocolla_ is a kind of green earth like Verdegrease.

_Chrysos_ is Gold.

_Chymus_ is Feces.

_Cineritium_ is Ciment of Gold, or Silver, which some call _Regale_.

_Cinificatum_ is the same as _Calcinatum_, _i.e._ burnt to ashes.

_Cist_, or _Kist_, is the quantity of two Gallons of Wine.

_Citrinula_ is a blistering Hearb called Crow-foot.

_Citrinulum_ is a transparent salt, made out of calcined vitriall.

_Citrinulus_ is pale Crystall.

_Claretta_ is the white of Egs.

_Clissus_ is the occult vertue of things returning from whence they
came, as the vertue of an hearb into the root in Autumne.

_Coagulatio_ is the making of a thin thing thick.

_Cœli planetarum_ are the proper orbs, and their spheres.

_Cœlum Philosophorum_ is any quintessence, or universall medicine,
especially the Philosophers stone.

_Cœlum Spagiricum_ is the upper part of a Philosophicall vessell.

_Cohobatio_ is the often drawing off a liquor from its body, being oft
put upon it.

_Cohopb_, or _Cohop_ is the same as _Cohobation_.

_Cohos_ is whatsoever the skin contains in the whole body.

_Colcothar_ is calcined Vitriall, or the _caput Mortuum_ of oyle of

_Coleritium_ is a Liquor compounded of the corrosive materialls of

_Colica_ is Tartar resolved in the bowells, or a fixt disease in the
Colon gut.

_Collatenna_ is an hearb called Lyons-foot, or a certain stiptick

_Colliquation_ is melting, as Metalls are melted.

_Cometz_ is half a drop.

_Complexio_ is the nature of any part, or the quality of heat, and
cold, and the like.

_Compositum_ put absolutely is a body not separated.

_Confirmamentum_ is the body of a star in man, or an Astrall body.

_Confortativa_, or _Confortantia_ are medicines which comfort the
heart, and strengthen Nature.

_Congelativa_ are medicines which stop any flux.

_Congluten_ is that, which by putrefaction is turned into a viscous

_Conservativa_ are medicaments which preserve Nature from putrefaction,
being such things as are full of Astrall vertue.

_Consolidativa_ are externall medicines which Chirurgions use in
healing, and drying wounds, and ulcers.

_Constellatio_ is the impression of superiour stars, or their vertues
upon inferiour bodies.

_Constrictiva_ are stiptick medicaments which Chirurgions use.

_Contorsio_ is a torment of the bowells.

_Contractio_ is a weaknesse of the members, and drawing of them

_Coostrum_ is the middle part of the Diaphragma.

_Cor_ amongst Metalls is called Gold.

_Corbatum_ is Copper.

_Cornu cervi_ is amongst the Chymists the nose of a still, amongst
_Paracelsus_ a vulnerary hearb.

_Corpora cœlestia Spagyrorum_ are Astrall vertues in their matter.

_Corpora supercœlestia_ are such bodies that are not known by sense,
but by reason.

_Corpus_ is the subject in which the vertues of things lie hid.

_Corpus invisibile_ is the soul, which is corporeall in respect of its
sustentation, and invisible by reason of its spirituality.

_Corrosiva_ are medicines that Chirurgions use to eat off superfluous

_Cortex Maris_ is the Vineger of Philosophers.

_Coruscus_ is mouse-eare.

_Cotoronium_ is a Liquor.

_Cruor salis_ is salt separated from the first salt by fault of the
second digestion.

_Cucurbita_ is a vessell like a gourd.

_Cycima_ is Litharge.

_Cydar_ is _Iupiter_.

_Cyphantum_ is a distillatory vessell, or the Art it selfe.


_Dardo_ is a successive generation by propagation.

_Daura_ is _Hellebor_.

_Deliquium_ is a cold descension, when coagulated bodies are dissolved
into a liquor in any cold place.

_Demotinus lapsus_ is suddain death.

_Derses_ is an occult vapour of the earth, by reason of which all kind
of Wood grows, and increaseth.

_Descensorium_ is a Chymicall furnace in which the liquor falls
downward from the grosse matter.

_Diaceltatesson_ is a speciall remedy against feavers.

_Diameter Spagiricus_ is a temperament.

_Diapensia_ is _Alchamilla_, _i.e._ Ladies mantle.

_Diaphanum_ is that which is transparent.

_Diaphoreticum_ is a sweating medicine.

_Diasatyrion_ is a confection provoking lust.

_Diatessadelton_ is precipitated Mercury.

_Dienez_ are spirits that dwell amongst hard stones.

_Digestio_ is a Chymicall operation, alluding to the digestion of a
Mans stomach, in which, and by which the matter is decocted into a
separation of pure from impure.

_Diota_ is a circulating vessell.

_Discus solis_ is Quicksilver made out of Gold.

_Divertalium_, or _Divertellum_ is a generation made by Elements.

_Divinatio_ is prophecying, or foretelling.

_Dracunculus_ is _Brassatella_, _i.e._ Adders tongue.

_Dubelech_ is the cavity of an imposteme.

_Duelech_ is a kind of Tartar in Mans body, or the stone in the
bladder, or any other part which is spongious, and dangerous.

_Duenech_ is Antimony.

_Dulcedo Saturni_, is _Altey_, or Ceruse.

_Durdales_ are corporeall spirits inhabiting trees.


_Edelphus_ is any one that prognosticates by the Nature of the Elements.

_Edir_ is steel or Iron.

_Electrum_ is sometimes taken for Amber, but in _Paracelsus_ it is a
mixture of a compound metall made by melting all the seven planets into
one body.

_Elementum_ in _Paracelsus_ is the corruptible, and transient essence
of the world, and of all things, which are subject to change.

_Elephas_ is _Aqua fortis_.

_Elevation_ is making a thing subtile.

_Elixir_ is properly a ferment, the least part of which turnes the
whole masse of any thing into its owne kind: also it is the essence of
any thing.

_Emunctorium_ is the place of expulsion of any excrement.

_Enochdianum_ is that which hath long life.

_Entali_ is flaked Allum, and sometimes it is made spagirically of salt

_Enur_ is an occult vapour of the water, by which stones are bred.

_Erodinium_ is the sign of any thing to come.

_Escara_, or _Estphara_ is black and dead flesh caused by a caustick,
and is commonly called the Escar.

_Essaræ_ are Wheales.

_Essatum essentiale_, is the essentiall, and power that is in
Vegetables, and Mineralls.

_Essatum vinum_ is rectified spirit of Wine.

_Essentia quinta_ according to _Paracelsus_ his definition, is a
certain matter extracted from things purified from all manner of
impurity, and corruption, whereby it is made incorruptible.

_Essila_ is a tincture made by the heat of the sun in the face, or any
other part of the body.

_Essodinum_ is a certain presage of things to come by their marks.

_Esthionemus_ is a most corrupt imposteme feeding upon the whole
member, as a Wolfe.

_Evestrum_ is a propheticall spirit, which presageth by signs, or
something going before.

_Exaltatio_ is the subtilizing of any thing.

_Excrementa_ are all superfluous things ejected by Nature.

_Exitura_ is any aposteme which casts out matter.

_Exorcista_ is a superstitious artist which calls up spirits.

_Extractum_ is that which is extracted out of corporeall concretion,
the grossenesse being left behind.

_Ezezich_ is Salt.


_Faba_ is the third part of a scruple.

_Fabiola_ is the flower of Beans.

_Fædula_ is a kind of mushrome.

_Fel Draconis_ is Quicksilver out of Tin.

_Fel vitri_ is the spume of glasse.

_Fermentum_ is a fixt matter, which reduceth a matter to its own
nature, and fixednesse.

_Ficus cutis_ is a wart growing to the skinne upon Horses legs, and it
is a medicine to help diseases of the matrix.

_Fida_ is Silver, and sometimes Gold.

_Fido_ is called Quicksilver, and sometimes Gold.

_Filius unius Diei_ is the Philosophers stone.

_Filtratio_ is straining a thing through a woollen cloth, or paper, &c.

_Filum arsenicale_ is the Philosophers stone.

_Fimus equinus_ is a digestion made any way, either by Horse-dung, or
warm ashes, or water.

_Fixatio_ is making that which flies in the fire to endure the fire.

_Flagæ_ are spirits which know the occult secrets of men.

_Flos cheiri_ is the essence of Gold.

_Flos sectarum Croe_ is the flower of Nutmeg, or as some will, of

_Folia daure_ are leaves of Gold.

_Fons philosophorum_ is _Balneum Maris_.

_Formæ rerum_ are called the influences of celestiall bodies, which
inferiour bodies receive from them, or they are the vertues of any

_Formicæ_ are little impostemes like warts.

_Fugile_ is an aposteme in the eares.

_Fuligo Metallorum_ is sometimes called Arsenicke, and sometimes it is
taken for Mercury.

_Fulmen_ is purified Silver.

_Fumigatio_ is calcining any thing with a sharp corroding fume.

_Fusio_ is melting, or making any thing flow in the fire.


_Gamahei_ are images impressed by a supercelestiall influence.

_Gamathei_ are stones in which celestiall vertues, and supernaturall
constellations are impressed, being marked with wonderfull characters,
and images.

_Gamonynum_ is that one only Anatomie of all things.

_Glacies dura_ is Crystall.

_Gladialis_ is an Art whereby according to the course of the firmament
of the stars swords are so forged, that anvills cannot resist them,
whence it otherwise called _incusma_.

_Gelion_ is a Leafe.

_Geluta_ is the hearb called Chameleon.

_Gemma tartarea_ is called the stone that is generated of diaphanous,
and perspicuous tartar.

_Genula_ is a plant degenerating by transplanting of a parsnip.

_Geomancy_ is the most known Art of the earth, but in this place it is
taken for the stars of the earth, manifesting themselves to men, so
that thereby they may take some ground for presaging.

_Gibar_ is a Metallick medicine.

_Gigantes_ are men exceeding the bounds of Nature.

_Gluta_ is the efficacy of tenacious pitch.

_Gluten_ is any viscous matter in the body, from whence proceed many
obstinate diseases.

_Glutinis tenacitas_ is the Minerall Resine.

_Gnomi_ are called _homunciones_, or rather corporeall spirits, living
under the earth, or else Pygmies of a cubit long.

_Græca Magia_ is a superstitious Art invented by the _Grecians_, by
which they made things appear, which really were not.

_Gravus_ is the stone _Porphyrites_, the use of which is as of a marble
to dissolve things in the cold.

_Grilla_, or _Grillus_, is vitriall dissolved of its owne accord into

_Guarini_ are men living by the influence of the heaven.

_Guma_ is Quicksilver.

_Gumicula_ is Valerian.

_Gutta rosacea_ is a rednesse especially in the face like that tincture
which is in the beginning of a Leprosie.


_Hadid_ is Iron.

_Hal_ is Salt.

_Harmel_ is the seed of wild rue.

_Haro_ is a kind of Ferne.

_Hel_ is Honey.

_Hellebria_ is a kind of black Hellebore bearing red flowers.

_Heliotropium_ is _Paracelsus_ his balme.

_Helismidan_ is a balsamicall Mummie.

_Henricus rubeus_ is the Colcathar of Vitriall.

_Hinicula_, _genicula_, or _gumicula_ is Valerian.

_Homunculus_ in _Paracelsus_ is a man made artificially, the processe
whereof you may see at large in the foregoing treatise the eight page,
and sometimes they are taken for superstitious images.

_Horion_ is the Mercury of Gold.

_Humor vitæ_ is the radicall moisture.

_Hydri_ are juices or fruits.

_Hydromancy_ is an Art taken from the stars of the water, when they
manifest themselves to men, as from unusuall inundations, and the like.

_Hydropiper_ is Arsmart tinged with red specks, or spots.


_Iassa_ is the hearb of the Trinity.

_Icteritia rubea_ is an _Erisipelas_.

_Idea_, is a figure of a thing conceived in the imagination as a
perpetuall being, or a pattern of all things of that nature.

_Idiotæ_ are contemners of true arts, although they are skilfull
professors of the false.

_Iesahach_ is supernaturall.

_Ignis leonis_ is the Element it selfe of fire.

_Ignis Persicus_ is a hot burning ulcer.

_Ignis pruinus adeptus_ is the quintessence of vitriall rectified with

_Ilech crudum_ is a composition of the first matter of the three first

_Ilech magnum_ is an Ascendent or a star of a medicine, which together
is taken with it, in which also it is hid; and as the superiour stars
are in the firmament, so also are the inferiour in man.

_Ilech primum_ is the first Principle.

_Ilech supernaturale_ is a conjunction of the supernaturall, and
firmamentall stars, with the inferiour stars of terrestiall things, and
with wine.

_Ileidus_ is the Elementary aire: but in men it is the spirit which
passeth through all his members.

_Iliaster_, or _Iliastes_, or _Iliadum_, is the first matter of all
things, consisting of Sulphur, Mercury, and Salt; and it is fourefold
according to the number of the Elements. The first is the chaos of the
Earth, the second is the chaos of the Water, the third is the chaos
of the Aire, the fourth the chaos of the Fire. Also there are four
_Iliastri_ of men respecting long life.

_Iliaster_ in generall is called the occult vertue of Nature, by which
all things are increased, nourished, multiplyed, and flourish; of which
you shall read more at large in the book of _Paracelsus_ concerning the
generations of Meteors.

_Iliaster primus_ is the tearm of life, or the life it selfe, or the
balsome of life in man.

_Iliaster secundus_ is the term of the balsome, and the life which we
have by Elements, and things elementated.

_Iliaster tertius_ the term of the balsome, or life which we have by
the quintessence of things.

_Iliaster magnus_, or _quartus_ is of the mind, or soule caught up into
another world, as _Enoch_, and _Eliah_ were.

_Imaginatio_ is a star in man, a celestiall and supercelestiall body.

_Imagines_ are Metallick figures, or effigies, in which the celestiall
powers operate.

_Impressiones_ are fruits as of stars in inferior things.

_Impurum alcali_, is spume which is taken from it in purging of it.

_Inanimati_ are Pigmies.

_Inclinatio_ is a power of Nature which is manifested in man as he is
prone to this or that thing.

_Incarnativa_ are Chirurgeons medicaments breeding flesh and skinne in
the wounds or ulcers.

_Incubus_ is a nocturnall spirit deceiving Women in their sleep, as if
they coupled with them.

_Influentia_ is the acting of superiour bodies upon inferiours.

_Innaturalia_ are supernaturall bodies.

_Ios_ is poison.

_Iumnizum_ is Leaven, or Ferment.

_Iupiter_ is Tin.


_Kachimia_, or _Kahimia_ is the unripe Mine of any Metall, as it is in
its first being.

_Kald_ is Vineger.

_Kali_ is Sope ashes.

_Kamir_ is Ferment.

_Kaprili_ is Sulphur.

_Karena_ is the twentyeth part of a drop.

_Karlina_ is wild dill.

_Kibrith_ is Sulphur.

_Kimit elevatum_ is white Cinnabar sublimed.

_Kist_, or _Cist_, is half a gallon, or four pints.

_Kobalt_, or _Cobaltum_, or _Cobletum_, is a metallick matter blacker
then Lead, or Iron, without a Metallick splendor, yet will be melted,
and malleated.

_Kymenna_ is a buble.

_Kyram_ is Snow.


_Labor Sophiæ_ is Paradise, or another world.

_Lac Virginis_ is Mercuriall water.

_Lapis_ is taken for any fixt thing.

_Lapis Philosophorum_ is the highest vertue of all terrene things,
giving tincture.

_Lapsus Demotinus_ is a suddaine death, more dangerous then an Apoplexy.

_Laterium_ are capitall lees which Sope-boilers use, of which
Chirurgions make their causticke called _Lapis infernalis_.

_Lato_ is copper tinged with _lapis calaminaris_ into a golden colour.

_Laudanum_ is a compound medicine made of Gold, Corall, Pearle, &c. by

_Laudina_ is _Angelica_.

_Laxa Chimolea_ is salt growing to stones.

_Laxativa_ are medicines working upwards, and downwards.

_Leffa_ is called the predestination of hearbs.

_Leffas_ is an occult boiling vapour of the earth, by which hearbs and
plants grow.

_Lemures_ are spirits of the Element of Aire, which Heathen think to
bee ghosts of men departed.

_Lephante_, or _Lephantes_ is the first kind of Tartar, or Bole,
holding the midle betwixt stones, & clay.

_Lethargyrium_ in _Paracelsus_ is the spume of Mercury, or of Silver,
or of Lead, which is separated in their purifying, and purging.

_Lethargius_ is the finder of Mines.

_Limbus_ in _Paracelsus_ is the great and universall world, the seed,
and first matter of man.

_Liquidum de resoluto_, is that which is liquid of its own nature.

_Liquor_ is many times taken for oyle, when the name of the thing of
which it is a Liquor, is put to it.

_Liquor Aquilegius_ is destilled Wine.

_Liquor essentialis_ is that humour which is turned into flesh, and

_Liquor herbarum_ is made of hearbs pounded and pressed, and digested.

_Liquor Mercurii_ is the balsome of things, in which the vertue of
curing or healing consists.

_Liquor Mumiæ_ is the fat of a Man.

_Liquor Mumiæ de gummi_ is oyle of Gumme.

_Liquor salis_ is the balsome of Nature, by which the body is preserved
from putrefaction.

_Locus vitæ_ is the seat of the mind or soul.

_Locustæ_ are tops of boughs of trees, as yet tender and green.

_Lorindt_ is the commotion of waters, or a harmony made by them.

_Ludus_ is a medicine that cures the stone by dissolving of it.

_Lumbrici Nitri_ are worms found in the earth, or mud, so called for
their slipperinesse.

_Luna_ is Silver.

_Luna compacta_ is Quicksilver.

_Lunaria_ is the Sulphur of Nature.

_Lustrum_ is the creame of Milk.


_Macha_ is a flying worm.

_Magia_ in generall is wisdome, and it is twofold. Naturall, which is
lawfull, and is the ground of all true Physick, and the occult wisdome
of Nature, without which all mans reason or knowledge is ignorance.
The other is Diabolicall, superstitious, and unlawful, and is called
Necromancy, whereby men attaine to the knowledge of things by the
assistance of evill spirits.

_Magia Metaphysica_ is an art lawfull for Christians to use, by which
any occult secrets are discovered.

_Magisterium_ is in _Paracelsus_ any secret extracted out of naturall
things without any Elementary separation, with which other things are
wont to bee prepared; yet with the addition only of other things from
which that which is extracted is separated.

_Magnalia_ are peculiar works of God.

_Magnesia_ is commonly taken for a Marcasite, but that which is
artificiall is melted Tinne into which is put Quicksilver, and both
mixt into a brittle matter, and white masse.

_Magneticus tartarus_ is a stone, in a man as hard as a Loadstone, and

_Magoreum_ is a Magick medicament, or secret.

_Maius noster_ is our dew, and the philosophicall Loadstone.

_Malek_ is Salt.

_Mandella_ is the seed of black Hellebor.

_Mandibularum liquor_ is oyle of jaw bones.

_Mangonaria_ is an art used in weights, whereby that which is made
heavy is easily made light.

_Manna_ is not only called a dew faln from heaven, which is a kind of
balsome or fruit of the aire, but also it is taken for any sweet matter
extracted out of any thing.

_Marcasita_ is an unripe matter of Metalls, and it is of as many kinds
as there be Metalls.

_Marmoreus tartarus_, is a stone in man as hard as a marble.

_Martath_, or _Martach_ is Letharge.

_Mater metallorum_ is Quicksilver.

_Materia saphirea_ is an homogeneal liquor, in which there is no
offending matter.

_Matrices rerum_ are Elements.

_Maturativa_ are medicines that Chirurgeons use to ripen any aposteme.

_Mechanopeotica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an invention of
water-workes to carry waters by pipes into high places, or the like.

_Melaones_, or _Meloes_ are Beetles that fly, and are of a golden
colour, and being rubbed make a sweet smell; they are commonly found in
Meadows in the moneth of _May_.

_Melibæum_ is Copper.

_Melissa_ is in Alchymie taken for Manna extracted out of the best

_Mensis Philosophicus_ is the full time of Digestion, _viz._ forty

_Mercurius à naturâ coagulatus_ is a solid Metal.

_Mercurius Corallinus_, is that which by yelkes of egges, and other
waters, is brought into a rednesse like Corall.

_Mercurius Crudus_ is that which is not yet separated from its Mine.

_Mercurius Crystallinus_, is that which by often sublimations is
brought into a cleernesse like Crystall.

_Mercurius laxus_ is Turbith Mineral.

_Mercurius metallorum præcipitatus_ is Mercury extracted out of Metalls
and precipitated.

_Mercurius mineralium_ is an oylinesse extracted out of the Mines of
Gold, and Silver.

_Mercurius regeneratus_ is the first being of Mercury.

_Mercurialis seva_ is the water of Allum.

_Menstruum_ is a liquor wherein any thing is dissolved, or digested.

_Metallum currens_ is Quicksilver.

_Microcosmus_ is a little world, or man.

_Minium_ is the Mercury, or rather Crocus of Lead precipitated.

_Missadam_ is Quicksilver.

_Mitigativa_ are Chirurgicall medicines which allay paine.

_Monstra_ are Animalls which either have not proper parents, and are
not born of things like to themselves, or have some defect, or excesse
in Nature: but of this see more in the first book of the foregoing

_Morus_ is an aposteme like to a Mulberry.

_Mulæ_ are pustles arising from heat, or cold.

_Mumia_ is not only mans flesh seasoned with balsom, but any other
flesh thus prepared.

_Mumia Elementorum_ is the balsome of externall Elements.

_Mumia transmarina_ in _Paracelsus_ is _Manna_.

_Mumia versa_ is the liquor of mummie.

_Muria_ is brine.

_Muscilago_ is a viscous liquor.

_Mundificativa_ are cleansing medicines.

_Mustus_ is the white Calx in urine.

_Myssadar_ is Mercury.

_Mysterium magnum_ is the first matter of all things.


_Nacta_ is an aposteme of the breast.

_Narcotica_ are medicines causing sleep.

_Nasda_ or _Natta_ is a bunch in the back.

_Neboch_ is an instrument used in Necromancy.

_Nebulgea_ is salt of the moisture of a cloud falling upon stones in
meadowes, and hardened with the heat of the sun.

_Necrolica_ are medicaments expelling death, and preserving life.

_Necromancy_ is an unlawfull art, which did in time of old worke with
the dead, as when the stars were manifested with the dead. And he is
truly called a Necromancer, who can make the dead appeare, and can draw
words and answers from them.

_Nenufareni_, are spirits dwelling in the aire.

_Neutha_, or _Neuta_, is a little skin growing to the eares, or eyes of
infants, and sometimes covering the whole body.

_Nigromancy_ is a wicked, and execrable art, whereby devils, and wicked
spirits suffer themselves to bee commanded by man, and obey them, but
only to their hurt.

_Nitriales_ are all burning things which conduce to calcination.

_Nitrum_ is Salt-petre.

_Nodi_ are hard tumours of the joints.

_Nostoch_ is that which we call a falling star, a kind of gelly or
slime found oftentimes in the summer in fields, and meadowes.

_Nuba_ is a kind of red Manna which falls in _Ireland_.

_Nymphæ_, or _Nymphidicæ_, are spirituall men, or women, or corporeall
spirits dwelling in waters, such a one was _Melusina_.

_Nymphidica_ are metaphorically spirits of dissolving waters in the
spagiricall art.

_Nysadir_ is salt Armoniack.


_Obrizum_ is pure gold calcined by art into a light red colour.

_Ocob_ is salt Armoniack.

_Odorifera_ are medicines, which by their odour, whether good or bad,
expell diseases.

_Oleitas rerum_ is the sulphur in all things.

_Oleum ardens_ is oyle of Tartar corrected to the highest degree.

_Oleum Calcotharinum_ is red oyle of Vitriall.

_Oleum squaminum_ is oyle of Tartar.

_Oleum Vitrioli aurificatum_, is that which is dulcified with gold

_Olympicus spiritus_ is a star in man, that makes him to yeeld a shadow
of himself.

_Operimethiolim_ is the spirit of Mineralls.

_Oppilativa_ are medicines which stop fluxes.

_Oppodeltoch_ in _Paracelsus_ is an ointment.

_Opopyron Laudani_ is _Paracelsus_ his medicine to stop feavers.

_Ordoleum_ is a little aposteme like a barley corne.

_Orexis_ is a heat caused by tartarous matter.

_Organopeotica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an Art finding out
warlike instruments.

_Orizonæternitatis_ is the supercelestiall vertue of things.

_Orizeum_ is Gold.

_Orizeum foliatum_ is Leaf-gold.

_Orizeum præcipitatum_ is Gold brought into a Crocus, by the help of
the Crocus of Mercury.

_Orobo_ is the glasse of Metalls.

_Ossa paraleli_ are a universall medicine in the Gout.

_Ovum Philosophicum_ is a glasse of the form of an egge which
Philosophers use in their operations.

_Ozo_ is Arsenick.


_Pandalitium_, _Paneritium_, or _Passa_, is an aposteme in the ends of
the fingers, called a white flaw.

_Panna_ is a naturall spot.

_Pars cum parte_ is a mass consisting of equal parts of Gold, and

_Pauladadum_ is a kind of _terra sigillata_ growing in _Italy_.

_Pelicanus_ is a circulatory, or circulating vessell.

_Penates_ are spirits of the Element of Fire, called Familiars.

_Pentacula_ are signs, or delineaments engraven with wonderfull and
strange letters, and images, which being hanged about the neck, are
said to be preservatives against evill spirits, and witcheries.

_Percipiolum_ is any medicine that is approved.

_Perdetæ_ are rapes small and yellow.

_Perdomium_ is wine made out of hearbs.

_Periodus_ is the term of life.

_Peucedamum_ is English Angelica.

_Phantasmata_ are spirits of the wood, or the desert, which live in any
obscure place.

_Phiala_ is a viall, or glasse bottle.

_Pionitides_ are naturall enemies which persecute one the other to
death, as the Storke, and Frogs, &c.

_Phenix_ is the quintessence of Fire; also the Philosophers stone.

_Physiognomy_ is an Art whereby mens natures, and conditions are
perceived by their faces.

_Plumbum Philosophorum_ is that which is extracted out of Antimony.

_Porosa_ is S. Johns-wort.

_Præsagium_ is some notable sign of something to come.

_Preservativa_ are medicines preserving bodies from corruption.

_Primales_ called fallacious bodies which are by the stars put before
our eyes.

_Pruinum_ is the first kind of Tartar.

_Pruina_ is _Ignis Persicus_.

_Pulpezia_ is a suddain astonishment or change in a mans body by reason
of the stars.

_Pusta_ is the digestion of corrupt matter.

_Pygmeæ_ are called artificiall men, and sometimes subterraneall

_Pyramis_ is a vessell made like a _Pyramis_.

_Pyromancy_ is an art presaging by fire.


_Qualitas_ is called a complexion, whether hot or cold, dry or moist,
according to the predominancy of any Element.

_Quartatio_, or _Quartura_ is the highest tryall of Gold, and that this
way, _viz._ that nine parts of Silver bee mixed with one part of Gold
in melting by the fire. Then let them both bee dissolved with _Aqua
fortis_: All the Silver is turned into water, and the Gold settles to
the bottome like a dark powder.

_Quintessentia_ is called a certaine spirituall matter extracted
corporeally out of hearbs, plants, and all things that have life, and
the exalting of it to the highest degree of purity, by separating all

_Quintum esse cujuslibet Elementi per se solum_, is an animall produced
out of that alone.


_Ragadiæ_ are apostemes of the privities.

_Rana_ is an aposteme under the tongue.

_Realgar_ is the fume of Mineralls being properly taken, but being
metaphorically it is any vitious matter in mans body, of which grow
apostemes, ulcers, or the like.

_Rebis_ is the excrement of the belly.

_Rebisola_ is a secret urine against the jaundise.

_Rebona_ is the same as Mummie.

_Rebus_ is the last matter of things.

_Redue_ is a powder whereby calcined Metalls, and Mineralls are melted.

_Regale_ is a Ciment whereby Gold is purged.

_Regulus_ is the purest metalline part of any metall, or the purest
part of a minerall, the feces being separated.

_Relloleum_ is a vertue from the complexion, as in St. Johns-wort, the
first vertue is in heat, and is healing, the other is accidentall, and
occult, and is a preservative against worms, and corruption.

_Repercussiva_ are medicines which drive back any flux.

_Resina auri_ is a Crocus extracted out of Gold.

_Resina terræ_ is Sulphur.

_Resina terræ potabilis_ is sublimed Sulphur, brought into a liquor,
balsome, or oyl.

_Reverberatorium_ is a furnace in which the matter is calcined by a

_Rillus_ is an instrument which Goldsmiths use to poure their melted
metalls into long forms, and it is called a Jngat.

_Rosea_ is the same as _Erisipelas_.

_Rubella_ is a spirituall essence extracting by its dissolving power,
the tincture out of bodies.


_Sagani_ are spirits of the four Elements.

_Sal aluminosum_ is salt which is extracted out of _alumen plumosum_.

_Sal anathron_ is salt extracted out of the stony mosse.

_Sal crystallinum_ is salt made out of mans urine.

_Sal Calcotharinum_ is salt which is made out of the Colcothar of

_Sal congelatum_ is salt which grows in baths.

_Sal enixum_ is salt dissolved.

_Sal Mercurii_ is the spirit of the wine which causeth drunkennesse.

_Sal petre_ is that which grows in cold places upon stones, congealed
by the cold aire.

_Sal nitrum_ is salt which is boiled out of the earth, especially fat
earth, as in stables, or any place of excrements.

_Sal practicum_ is a mixture made of equall parts, of Salt-petre, and
Salt Armoniack.

_Sal scissum_, and _alumen scissum_ are all one.

_Sal taberzet_, is whitest Tartar of all.

_Salamandri_ are spirits dwelling in the fire, or fiery men.

_Saldini_ the same as _Salamandri_.

_Sallena_ is the a kind of Salt-petre.

_Saltabari_ is _sal Alembrot_.

_Saltz_, _sultz_, _Selenipum_, is brine.

_Samech_ is Tartar.

_Sandaracha_ is _Auripigmentum_.

_Sanguis calcetus_ is that which is of as quick a tast as Calx, and as

_Saphirea materia_ is a liquor, in which there is no impurity, or
corruption, the pure being separated from the impure.

_Sapo sapientiæ_ is common salt prepared.

_Saxifraga_ are all such things which break the stone, or gravell.

_Saxifragus_ is pale Crystall.

_Scacurcula_ is the spirit of a bone in the heart of a Hart.

_Scaiolæ_ are the spirituall powers, and faculties of the mind, and are
four, according to the number of the Elements.

_Scirona_ is the dew of Autumne.

_Scuma_ is the same as _squama_.

_Sedativa_ are medicines that allay pain.

_Semen veneris_ are called _squama aris_.

_Senio maximus_ is the Author of long life.

_Sephirus_ is a hard, and dry aposteme.

_Seraphin_ is an unutterable vertue, an infinite power of the heaven,
and especially the assembly of Angels.

_Serpheta_ is a medicine melting a stone.

_Sibar_ is Quicksilver.

_Silo_ is earth.

_Similitudines_ are called celestiall appearances.

_Simus_ is Gilla.

_Sinonia_ is white glew of the joints.

_Sirones_ are pustles or wheals, in the hands especially.

_Sirza_ is _eschara_.

_Sol in homine_ is the invisible fire flowing from the celestiall Sun,
preserving and nourishing that naturall fire in man.

_Soladini_ are corporeall spirits dwelling in the invisible fire.

_Somnia_ are operations which are made in man by the stars when hee is

_Sonath_ is _Anthos_.

_Sophia herba_ is the best kind of bone-wort.

_Sophistæ_ are sometimes taken for Masters of any art, or the wisest in
any art; or sometimes for sophisters, _i.e._ Deceivers, or Mountebankes.

_Sortilegium_, is a presage by spirits.

_Spagiria_ is commonly taken for Alchymie.

_Spagirus_, or _spagiricus_ is he which knows to distinguish betwixt
good, and bad, to separate pure from impure, or a Chymist, or Alchymist.

_Spara_ is the Minerall vertue out of the first being of metalls.

_Sperma aquæ fortis_ is its feculency.

_Sperniolum_ is a mucilaginous liquor of frogs.

_Spiritus Animalis_ is a power of the soul whereby it becomes like to
the heavens.

_Stannar_ is called the mother of metalls, an occult fume out of which
Elements are generated.

_Staraphaxat_ is a restringing or repercussive vertue.

_Stellio adustus_ is Cinnabar.

_Stibium_ is Antimony.

_Stiptica_ are drying medicines.

_Struma_ is _Butium_.

_Sublimatio_ is when any dry matter is forced upward by the heat of

_Succubus_ is a nocturnall spirit, whereby men are deceived, thinking
they are coupling with women.

_Sulphur vitriolatum_ is sulphur extracted out of vitriall by common
water swiming on the top of it.

_Sulphur rerum_ is many times taken for their quintessence.

_Supermonicum_ is Ænigmaticall.

_Sylo_ is the whole world.

_Sylphes_ are Pigmies.

_Sylvestres_, or _sylvani_ are aiery men, and aiery spirits, sometimes
they are taken for woodmen that are strong giganticall men.

_Syphita prava_ is a disease called _S. Vitus_ his dance.

_Syphita stricta_ is a phantastick spirit of them that walke in their


_Talk_, or _Talcum_ is a clear shining matter, like to pearls in
colour, compacted with thinne leaves or flakes, whereof there bee foure
kinds, _viz._ white, yellow, red, and blacke.

_Tassus_ is a worme.

_Tartarum_ is a hard saltish dregs that sticks to the sides of Wine
vessels; also it is often taken for stones or gravell in mens bodies.

_Telon_ is as it were a dart of fire.

_Temperatum_ is that which exceeds not in any quality.

_Tenacitas glutinis_ is minerall refine.

_Tereniabin_ is the fatnesse of manna, or wood-hony, which is found in
good quantity in the moneths of _Iune_, _Iuly_, _August_.

_Terra argenti_ is Litharge of silver.

_Terra auri_ is Litharge of Gold.

_Terra fidelis_ is silver.

_Terra Hispanica_ is Vitriall.

_Terrelati_ are corporeall spirits living in the earth.

_Testa_ is the skin of mans body.

_Thamatica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an art of inventing engines
which are moved by aire, and water.

_Thaphneus_ is a clean purified medicine.

_Thisma_ is minerall veins.

_Tinkar_ is Borax.

_Tinctura_ is that which tingeth any body with its colour.

_Toruscula_ is a drop.

_Tracksat_ is a metall, as yet in its mine.

_Trarames_ are actions of spirits not seen, but heard.

_Trifertes_ are called spirits dwelling in the fire.

_Trigonum_ is a fourefold transmutation of the spirits of the stars
according to the number of the four Elements.

_Tronus_, or _Tronossa_ is called the celestiall dew made of the air,
or the sweetest kind of Manna.

_Truphat_ is an occult vertue of Mineralls, by which they act toward
that end for which they were ordaind.

_Turba magna_ is an innumerable multitude of the celestiall stars, and
is a presage made by any of them.

_Turbith minerale_ is Mercury precipitated into a sweetnesse without
any corrosive.


_Vegetabilia_ are things that grow by having a root fixt in the earth,
and having stock, branches in the aire, as hearbes, plants, and trees,

_Veneris gradus_ is a mild and sweet nature.

_Verto_ is the fourth part of a pound.

_Viltrum philosophorum_ is an Alembick, but being taken absolutely is a

_Vinum correctum_ is the Alcool of Wine.

_Vinum essatum_ is Wine impregnated with the vertues of hearbs or any
thing else.

_Viriditas salis_ is the green oyle of salt.

_Virgulta fossorum_ are certain rods which Miners use to discover mines

_Viscaleus_ is _Misleto_.

_Viscus_ is properly pitch boiled out of the tender tops of trees.

_Viscus secundæ generationis_ is bloud dropping from salts.

_Visio_ is a supernatural apparition of spirits after a manner seen by

_Vitriolatum_ is Vitriall which is liquid, and never can be coagulated.

_Vitriolum Novum_ is white Vitriall.

_Vlcus æstiomenum_ is a cancerous aposteme that feeds upon the place.

_Vmbragines_ are Pigmies.

_Vmbratiles_ are astrall bodies.

_Vndæ_, or _Vndenæ_ are aiery, and earthy spirits.

_Vndosa_ are called the excrements of any Animalls.

_Vnitas Trithemii_ is the reduction of the number of Three into a
unity by casting away the number of Two, and it is supernaturall, and

_Vniones_ are pretious pearls, or gemmes.

_Volans_, or _Vnquasi_ is Quicksilver.

_Volatile_ is in generall any light matter which is carryed upward.

_Vrina vini_ is Vineger, and sometimes it is used for the urine of a
man that alwaies drinks wine.

_Vulcanii_, or _Vulcanici_ are such as alwaies worke about the fire.

_Vulcanus_ is fire.

_Vzifur_ is Cinnabar.


_Warnus_ is the Vineger of Philosophers.

_Wismodt_ is Tin that is foule and immalleable, and cannot be wrought


_Xenectum_ is any outward medicine hanged about the body as a
preservative against the Plague.

_Xeninephidei_ are spirits which delight to discover the secret or
occult properties of nature unto men, the power of which is granted to

_Xisinum_ is Vineger.


_Yrcus_ is a Male Goat, whose blood is said to soften glasse, and
flints, &c.

_Ysopus_ is the art of Alchymy to separate pure from impure.


_Zaidar_ is Mercury.

_Zaidir_ is Copper or Verdegrease.

_Zarfa_ is Tin.

_Zelotum_ is stony Mercury.

_Zerus_ is Gold.

_Zoraba_ is Vitriall.

_Zinck_ is a metallick marcasite, and a certain naturall mixture of
four immature metalls, whereof Copper is most apparent.

_Ziniar_ is Verdegrease.

_Zuitter_, or _Zitter_, is a Marcasite.

_Zymar_, or _Zysar_ is Verdegrease.



Please be aware that in the centuries since this book was written,
medical science has progressed. The medical treatments and medicines
recommended in this book should only be used under guidance of a
trained medical professional. Many of the medicines suggested are now
known to be deleterious to your health or poisonous.

Archaic, obsolete and inconsistent spellings have been included as
in the original book. When this book was written, English was just
beginning to distinguish between I and J, and U and V. There are many
words where these letters will appear to be transposed.

Most of the archaic and obsolete spellings are homophones for the
spelling used today, however there were some notable exceptions:

  Word in book  Current spelling
  Filbeards     Filberts
  flowre        flour
  Jeat          Jet
  Jngat         Ingot
  malitious     malicious
  pretious      precious

Research indicates that “Archeus” and “Archeius” are inconsistent
spellings of the same word.

The words “cachymie”, “cachymia” and “cachyma” do not appear in any
of the usual sources for English words. They appear to be attempts to
Anglicize the Latin word “Cachymia” (pl. “Cachymiæ”), which Paracelsus
used to mean an “imperfect metallic body”.

In the original book, the first letter of some words was in italics,
while the rest of the word was in normal font. This has been maintained
in the HTML and e-book formats, however these specific italics were
dropped in the text version of the book.

In the original book, in the sub-book _On the Nature of Things_, the
page numbering went from 104 to 107, with no 105 and 106 intervening.
The catch-word on page 104 matched the first word of 107 and the text
appeared to continue on 107 from the gist on 104. This and other
sources indicate that 105 and 106 were skipped. In this e-book, the
pages in _On the Nature of Things_ have been renumbered from 107 to the
end of the sub-book to make the page numbering continuous.

The Table of Contents was moved to the front of the book and expanded
to cover the entire book. It was originally located between _A Treatise
of Sulphur_ and _On the Nature of Things_, and only covered the twelve
treatises of _A New Light of Alchymie_ and _A Treatise of Sulphur_.

The Chymicall Dictionary was re-alphabetized in order to make it easier
to use. Also in the Chymicall Dictionary, in the original book, there
were no drop-caps for “W” and “Y”.

Typos which could be identified have been fixed, details follow. The
word or words in the square brackets are the correction which appears
in this book.

Title Page.

  _i.e._ Anagram matically[Anagrammatically],

_The Epistle to the Reader._

  search the Sciptures[Scriptures] is most necessary, so

The Twelve Treatises of _A New Light of Alchymie_.

P. 12 have declared in the foregoingt reatises[foregoing treatises])

P. 19 of Philosphers[Philosophers]) yet they are not bee hearkned to,

P. 23-4 when it is all consumed consumed[2x] the body dies;

P. 24 because wee are in this place to treat of the verte [vertue]

P. 36-7 let him read the voluminous writings of ancicient[ancient]

_A Treatise of Sulphur._

P. 91 and spirituall influencies[influences], which cannot give

P. 106 or lesse hot, dry or moist; and acccording[according] to the

P. 109 one exceeds the other, and because then putrection[putrefaction]

P. 110 immortall, especially in the the[2x] Minerall Kingdome

P. 124 Indeed prrticulars[particulars] may easily bee made, if you have

P. 128 of it, sometimes by itselfe, and somemes[sometimes]

P. 131 many: There was _Hermes_, who was at[as] it were one

P. 142 come Mercury, and Mercury bee made Suphur[Sulphur],

P. 144 in the third Princple[Principle] of Salt, seeing here wee

P. 145 is not Minerall. The vettue[vertue] of the Animall Sulphur

_Of the Nature of Things._

P. 8 Sidenote: Monsters come fom[from] the Devill.

P. 14 and are ripned[ripened] through heat, and moisture,
    “Ripned” was an accepted spelling when this book was originally
    written, however it appeared to me that there was some
    ambiguity between the root word being “rip” or “ripe”.

P. 15 distillation of the un[Sun], which drawes up those humidities

P. 21 new aud[and] fresh fountaine-water, may be turned into

P. 22 preserrved[preserved] from harme. The chiefest Enemies of

P. 25 not suffer the Watres[Waters] to be united, so on the contrary,

P. 26 putrefacton[putrefaction], and wormes. For this Oyle doth so

P. 28 but put, or falnin[faln] into it, all the Honey is turned

P. 29 Sidenote: What nse[use] the Aire is for as

P. 32 Sidenote: The life of Excremeuts[Excrements]

P. 38 Calcinaion[Calcination] with _Aqua fortis_, is that the Metall

P. 40 until they begin to be green, which indeed wil quickty[quickly]

P. 42 or Peacocks taile. All those cololours[colours] shew

P. 46 The Mortification of Gold that it may he[be] brought

P. 46 snfficiently[sufficiently] treated of such Arcana in other

P. 48 Granuti, Zunitter (_see Transcriber’s Note_), Unismut, and of
    “Zwitter” was probably intended rather than “Zunitter”, as “Zwitter”
    appears in other translations of this work. The meaning of either
    word is obscure or unknown to this transcriber.

P. 54 it it[2x] is dead, and death is in it, neither hath it any

P. 55 are thus asleep. (for[For] they which sleep a naturall sleep

P. 56 would never bee perceived in them. Wheerefore[Wherefore] it

P. 59 Sidenote: The flegme of of[2x] Wood is its Mercury, the

P. 63 as oft as thou pleasest, _viz._ if thou puttest it a-into[into]

P. 64 to to[2x] bee understood Dissolution, and Resolution,

P. 66 sharpnesse of of[2x] the Salt, and makes them mild, and

P. 68 and Minerall Fire in in[2x] Mountains, which indeed the

P. 70 stonrger[stronger] fire is requisite for their melting, so much

P. 71 Wee shalll[shall] write no more of Tinctures, seeing every

P. 72 shews it[its] operations and effects, of which Fire the Ancients

P. 72 the degrees of the Alchmyists[Alchymists] Fire: I will yet

P. 73 secrets of Tinctures in the seven degres[degrees], and described

P. 81 little world, for whose sake the Microcosme[Macrocosme], or

P. 82 _Glasse_, _Sand_, _Piipitis_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_),
    “Piipitis” is probably a typo, possibly for “Pebbles”, however this
    transcriber is not confident enough to make the replacement.

P. 88 be taken, and beaten intto[into] thin plates, or brought into

P. 88 in the water, may bee so precipiated[precipitated] with

P. 90 Cachymiies[Cachymies], red Talke, the Azure stone, and the like,

P. 101 divers coloured coat, or sleeve. So every Magigrate[Magistrate]

P. 109 and sordidly, and in stead of Wine hee mnst[must] drinke

P. 112 Sidenote: What are Physignomicall[Physiognomicall] signes.

P. 114 Sidenote: Roling[Rolling].
    “Roling” was an acceptable spelling when this was originally
    written, however I wanted to make clear that the root word was
    “roll”, not “role”.

P. 114 and easily explosing[exposing] himselfe to dangers.

P. 115 otherwise skilfull enough in the Art of Physiogmony[Physiognomy]

P. 116 Sidenote: Nothing can be judged by by[2x] the manners,

P. 124 and accordiug[according] to its substance, measure, and

P. 127 or the Azure with Chrysocoll, and Anripigment[Auripigment],

P. 130 it his tares. The same is the nature of Visisions[Visions],

P. 134 But if it presenlly[presently] burn with a flame, and without

P. 140 produce also Gamaheaus (_see Transcriber’s Note_) with naked
    “Gamaheaus” appears to be a word made up by Paracelsus.

P. 140 Gamaheaus, cannot excell in the prperty[property], and vertue

P. 140 casts him out by force; and and[2x] sets himself, as master

_A Chymicall Dictionary._

  _Williams_ at the Bible in Little-brittain[Britain], 1650.

  _Aniadum_ is a a[2x] celestiall body planted in us Christians

  Then comes Ares Ares[2x] another dispenser of Nature,

  _Arthoicnm_[Arthoicum] is red oyle, artificially extracted

  concerning the observation of of[2x] Winds, as when

  _Cherionium_ is that in which Natture[Nature] cannot be altered,

  and supernaturll[supernaturall] constellations are

  stars of terrrestial[terrestial] things, and with wine.

  _Mechanopeotica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an invention of
    “Mechanopeotica” was undoubtedly originally a typo for
    “Mechanopoetica”, however, but it seems to have taken on a life of
    its own. “Mechanopoetica” is a Greek word meaning “the making of

  loud[cloud] falling upon stones in meadowes, and hardened

  _Opopopyron[Opopyron] Laudani_ is _Paracelsus_ his medicine to

  _Orizeum præcipitatum_ is Gold brought into a Cros[Crocus],

  _Organopeotica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an Art finding out
    “Organopeotica” was undoubtedly originally a typo for
    “Organopoetica”, however, but it seems to have taken on a life of
    its own. “Organopoetica” is a Greek word meaning “the making of

  _Relloleum_ is a vertue from the complexionn[complexion], as in

  _Saltz_, _saltz_[_sultz_], _Selenipum_, is brine.

  _Staraphaxat_ is a resinging[restringing] or
    “Resinging” is an obsolete spelling for “resigning”. However, more
    likely, the intended word might be “restringing”, from the root word
    “stringe”, meaning “to close or block up”.

  _Thamatica_ (_see Transcriber’s Note_) is an art of inventing engines
    “Thamatica” was undoubtedly originally a typo for “Thaumatica”,
    however, but it seems to have taken on a life of its own.
    “Thaumatica” is a Greek word meaning “wonders”.

  _Wismodt_ in[is] Tin that is foule and immalleable,

And finally, while not a typo, in the Chymicall Dictionary, there was
an entry:

  _Aliocab_  } are Salt Armoniack.

which was changed to:

  _Anotasier_, _Aliocab_ or _Alemzadar_ is Salt Armoniack.

to be consistent in format with the rest of the dictionary.

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