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Title: The Three Voyages of Captain Cook Round the World, Vol. III (of VII) - Being the First of the Second Voyage
Author: Forster, Georg, Cook, James
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                           Transcriber’s Note


When italics were used in the original book, the corresponding text has
been surrounded by _underscores_. Superscripted characters are preceded
by ^.

Some corrections have been made to the printed text. These are listed in
a second transcriber’s note at the end of the text.



[Illustration: _The Landing at Middleburgh, one of the Friendly Isles._]



                                  THE

                                 THREE

                                VOYAGES

                                   OF

                           CAPTAIN JAMES COOK

                            ROUND THE WORLD.


                                COMPLETE

                           In Seven Volumes.

                         ---------------------

                      _WITH MAP AND OTHER PLATES._

                         ---------------------

                               VOL. III.

                 BEING THE FIRST OF THE SECOND VOYAGE.

                      ----------------------------

                                LONDON:

                              PRINTED FOR
                 LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN,
                            PATERNOSTER-ROW.

                                 1821.



                                LONDON:
                    Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode,
                           New-Street-Square.



                                CONTENTS

                                   OF

                          _THE THIRD VOLUME_.

                         ---------------------


                              SECOND VOYAGE.

 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND VOYAGE                         Page 3


                                 BOOK I.
 From our Departure from England, to leaving the Society Isles, the first
                                  Time.


                                 CHAP. I.

 Passage from Deptford to the Cape of Good Hope, with an Account   23
   of several Incidents that happened by the Way, and Transactions
   there


                                CHAP. II.

 Departure from the Cape of Good Hope, in search of a Southern     40
   Continent


                                CHAP. III.

 Sequel of the Search for a Southern Continent, between the        62
   Meridian of the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand; with an
   Account of the Separation of the two Ships, and the Arrival of
   the Resolution in Dusky Bay


                                CHAP. IV.

 Transactions in Dusky Bay, with an Account of several Interviews  86
   with the Inhabitants


                                 CHAP. V.

 Directions for sailing in and out of Dusky Bay, with an Account   107
   of the adjacent Country, its Produce, and Inhabitants.—
   Astronomical and Nautical Observations


                                CHAP. VI.

 Passage from Dusky Bay to Queen Charlotte’s Sound, with an        117
   Account of some Water Spouts, and of our joining the Adventure


                                CHAP. VII.

 Captain Furneaux’s Narrative, from the Time the two Ships were    121
   separated, to their joining again in Queen Charlotte’s Sound,
   with some Account of Van Diemen’s Land


                               CHAP. VIII.

 Transactions in Queen Charlotte’s Sound, with some Remarks on the 134
   Inhabitants


                                CHAP. IX.

 Route from New Zealand to Otaheite, with an Account of some low   143
   Islands, supposed to be the same that were seen by M. de
   Bougainville


                                 CHAP. X.

 The Arrival of the Ships at Otaheite, with an Account of the      155
   critical Situation they were in, and of several Incidents that
   happened while they lay in Oaiti-piha Bay


                                CHAP. XI.

 An Account of several Visits to and from Otoo; of Goats being     164
   left on the Island; and many other Particulars which happened
   while the Ships lay in Matavai Bay


                                CHAP. XII.

 An Account of the Reception we met with at Huaheine, with the     171
   Incidents that happened while the Ships lay there, and of Omai,
   one of the Natives, coming away in the Adventure


                               CHAP. XIII.

 Arrival at, and Departure of the Ships from Ulietea; with an      181
   Account of what happened there, and of Oedidee, one of the
   Natives, coming away in the Resolution


                                CHAP. XIV.

 An Account of a Spanish Ship visiting Otaheite; the present State 190
   of the Islands; with some Observations on the Diseases and
   Customs of the Inhabitants, and some Mistakes concerning the
   Women corrected


                                 BOOK II.

 From our Departure from the Society Isles, to our Return to, and
   leaving them the second Time.


                                 CHAP. I.

 Passage from Ulietea to the Friendly Islands; with an Account of  198
   the Discovery of Hervey’s Island, and the Incidents that
   happened at Middleburg


                                CHAP. II.

 The Arrival of the Ships at Amsterdam; a Description of a Place   204
   of Worship; and an Account of the Incidents which happened
   while they remained at that Island


                                CHAP. III.

 A Description of the Islands and their Produce, with the          218
   Cultivation, Houses, Canoes, Navigation, Manufactures, Weapons,
   Customs, Government, Religion, and Language of the Inhabitants


                                CHAP. IV.

 Passage from Amsterdam to Queen Charlotte’s Sound; with an        231
   Account of an Interview with the Inhabitants, and the final
   Separation of the two Ships


                                 CHAP. V.

 Transactions in Queen Charlotte’s Sound; with an Account of the   240
   Inhabitants being Cannibals; and various other Incidents.—
   Departure from the Sound, and our endeavours to find the
   Adventure; with some Description of the Coast


                                CHAP. VI.

 Route of the Ship from New Zealand in Search of a Continent; with 255
   an Account of the various Obstructions met with from the Ice,
   and the Methods pursued to explore the Southern Pacific Ocean


                                CHAP. VII.

 Sequel of the Passage from New Zealand to Easter Island, and      278
   Transactions there; with an Account of an Expedition to
   discover the Inland Part of the Country, and a Description of
   some of the surprising gigantic Statues found in the Island


                               CHAP. VIII.

 A Description of the Island, its Produce, Situation, and          288
   Inhabitants; their Manners and Customs; Conjectures concerning
   their Government, Religion, and other Subjects; with a more
   particular Account of their gigantic Statues


                                CHAP. IX.

 The Passage from Easter Island to the Marquesas Islands.—         297
   Transactions and Incidents which happened while the Ship lay in
   Madre de Dios, or Resolution Bay, in the Island of St.
   Christina


                                 CHAP. X.

 Departure from the Marquesas; a Description of the Situation,     305
   Extent, Figure, and Appearance of the several Islands; with
   some Account of the Inhabitants, their Customs, Dress,
   Habitations, Food, Weapons, and Canoes


                                CHAP. XI.

 A Description of several Islands discovered, or seen in the       312
   Passage from the Marquesas to Otaheite; with an Account of a
   Naval Review


                                CHAP. XII.

 Some Account of a Visit from Otoo, Towha, and several other       323
   Chiefs; also of a Robbery committed by one of the Natives, and
   its Consequences, with general Observations on the Subject


                               CHAP. XIII.

 Preparations to leave the Island. Another Naval Review, and       337
   various other Incidents; with some Account of the Island, its
   Naval Force, and Number of Inhabitants


                                CHAP. XIV.

 The Arrival of the Ship at the Island of Huaheine; with an        351
   Account of an Expedition into the Island, and several other
   Incidents which happened while she lay there


                                CHAP. XV.

 Arrival at Ulietea, with an Account of the Reception we met with  360
   there, and the several Incidents which happened during our
   Stay.—A Report of two Ships being at Huaheine. Preparations to
   leave the Island, and the Regret the Inhabitants shewed on the
   occasion.—The Character of Oedidee, with some general
   Observations on the Island



                                   A

                        VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD,

                              PERFORMED IN

      His Britannic Majesty’s Ships the RESOLUTION and ADVENTURE,
                in the Years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775.

                                WRITTEN

              By JAMES COOK, Commander of the RESOLUTION,
                       and GEORGE FORSTER, F.R.S.



                          GENERAL INTRODUCTION

                                   TO

                          _THE SECOND VOYAGE_.


Whether the unexplored part of the _Southern Hemisphere_ be only an
immense mass of water, or contain another continent, as speculative
geography seemed to suggest, was a question which had long engaged the
attention, not only of learned men, but of most of the maritime powers
of Europe.

To put an end to all diversity of opinion about a matter so curious and
important, was his Majesty’s principal motive in directing this voyage
to be undertaken, the history of which is now submitted to the public.

But, in order to give the reader a clear idea of what has been done in
it, and to enable him to judge more accurately how far the great object
that was proposed has been obtained, it will be necessary to prefix a
short account of the several voyages which have been made on discoveries
to the Southern Hemisphere prior to that which I had lately the honour
to conduct, and which I am now going to relate.

The first who crossed the vast Pacific Ocean was Ferdinand Magalhaens, a
Portuguese, who, in the service of Spain, sailed from Seville, with five
ships, on the 10th of April, 1519. He discovered the Straits which bear
his name; and having passed through them on the 27th of November, 1520,
entered the South Pacific Ocean.

In this sea he discovered two uninhabited islands, whose situations are
not well known. He afterwards crossed the Line; discovered the Ladrone
islands; and then proceeded to the Philippines, in one of which he was
killed in a skirmish with the natives.

His ship, called the Victory, was the first that circumnavigated the
globe; and the only one of his squadron that surmounted the dangers and
distresses which attended his heroic enterprise.

The Spaniards, after Magalhaens had showed them the way, made several
voyages from America to the westward, previous to that of Alvaro Mendana
De Neyra in 1595, which is the first that can be traced step by step.
For the antecedent expeditions are not handed down to us with much
precision.

We know, however, in general, that in them New Guinea, the islands
called Solomon’s, and several others, were discovered.

Geographers differ greatly concerning the situation of the Solomon
islands. The most probable opinion is, that they are the cluster which
comprizes what has since been called New Britain, New Ireland, &c.

On the 9th of April, 1595, Mendana, with intention to settle these
islands, sailed from Callao, with four ships; and his discoveries in his
route to the West, were the Marquesas, in the latitude of 10° South;—the
island of St. Bernardo, which I take to be the same that Commodore Byron
calls the Island of Danger;—after that, Solitary island, in the latitude
10° 40ʹ South, longitude 178° West;—and, lastly, Santa Cruz, which is,
undoubtedly, the same that Captain Carteret calls Egmont Island.

In this last island, Mendana, with many of his companions, died; and the
shattered remains of the squadron were conducted to Manilla, by Pedro
Fernandez de Quiros, the chief pilot.

This same Quiros was the first sent out, with the sole view of
discovering a Southern Continent; and, indeed, he seems to have been the
first who had any idea of the existence of one.

He sailed from Callao the 21st of December, 1605, as pilot of the fleet,
commanded by Luis Paz de Torres, consisting of two ships and a tender;
and steering to the W. S. W. on the 26th of January, 1606, being then,
by their reckoning, a thousand Spanish leagues from the coast of
America, they discovered a small low island in latitude 25° South.—Two
days after, they discovered another that was high, with a plain on the
top. This is, probably, the same that Captain Carteret calls Pitcairn’s
Island.

After leaving these islands, Quiros seems to have directed his course to
the W. N. W. and N. W. to 10° or 11° South latitude, and then westward,
till he arrived at the Bay of St. Philip and Jago, in the island of
Tierra del Espiritu Santo. In this route he discovered several islands;
probably, some of those that have been seen by later navigators.

On leaving the Bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, the two ships were
separated. Quiros, with the Capitana, stood to the north, and returned
to New Spain, after having suffered greatly for want of provisions and
water.—Torres, with the Almiranta and the tender, steered to the west,
and seems to have been the first who sailed between New Holland and New
Guinea.

The next attempt to make discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean was
conducted by Le Maire and Schouten.—They sailed from the Texel on the
14th of June, 1615, with the ships Concord and Horn. The latter was
burnt by accident in Port Desire. With the other, they discovered the
Strait that bears the name of Le Maire, and were the first who ever
entered the Pacific Ocean, by the way of Cape Horn.

They discovered the island of Dogs, in latitude 15° 15ʹ South, longitude
136° 30ʹ West;—Sondre Grondt in 15° South latitude, and 143° 10ʹ West
longitude;—Waterland, in 14° 46ʹ South, and 144° 10ʹ West;—and,
twenty-five leagues westward of this, Fly island, in latitude 15° 20ʹ;—
Traitor’s and Cocos islands, in latitude 15° 43ʹ S. longitude 173° 13ʹ
W.—Two degrees more to the westward, the Isle of Hope;—and, in the
latitude of 14° 56ʹ South, longitude 179° 30ʹ East, Horn island.

They next coasted the north side of New Britain and New Guinea, and
arrived at Batavia in October, 1616.

Except some discoveries on the western and northern coasts of New
Holland, no important voyage to the Pacific Ocean was undertaken till
1642, when Captain Tasman sailed from Batavia, with two ships belonging
to the Dutch East India Company, and discovered Van Diemen’s Land;—a
small part of the western coast of New Zealand;—the Friendly Isles;—and
those called Prince William’s.

Thus far I have thought it best not to interrupt the progress of
discovery in the South Pacific Ocean, otherwise I should before have
mentioned, that Sir Richard Hawkins in 1594, being about fifty leagues
to the eastward of the river Plate, was driven by a storm to the
eastward of his intended course, and when the weather grew moderate,
steering towards the Straits of Magalhaens, he unexpectedly fell in with
land; about sixty leagues of which he coasted, and has very particularly
described. This he named Hawkins’s Maiden Land, in honour of his royal
mistress, Queen Elizabeth, and says it lies some threescore leagues from
the nearest part of South America.

This land was afterwards discovered to be two large islands by Captain
John Strong, of the Farewell, from London, who, in 1689, passed through
the Strait which divides the eastern from the western of those islands.
To this Strait he gave the name of Falkland’s Sound, in honour of his
patron, Lord Falkland; and the name has since been extended, through
inadvertency, to the two islands it separates.

Having mentioned these islands, I will add, that future navigators will
mispend their time, if they look for Pepys’s island in 47° South; it
being now certain, that Pepys’s island is no other than these islands of
Falkland.

In April, 1675, Anthony la Roche, an English merchant, in his return
from the South Pacific Ocean, where he had been on a trading voyage,
being carried, by the winds and currents, far to the East of Strait La
Maire, fell in with a coast, which may possibly be the same with that
which I visited during this voyage, and have called the Island of
Georgia.

Leaving this land, and sailing to the north, La Roche, in the latitude
of 45° South, discovered a large island, with a good port, towards the
eastern part, where he found wood, water, and fish.

In 1699, that celebrated astronomer Dr. Edmund Halley was appointed to
the command of his Majesty’s ship the Paramour Pink, on an expedition
for improving the knowledge of the longitude, and of the variation of
the compass; and for discovering the unknown lands supposed to lie in
the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. In this voyage he determined
the longitude of several places; and after his return, constructed his
Variation Chart, and proposed a method of observing the longitude at
sea, by means of the appulses, and occultations of the fixed stars. But,
though he so successfully attended to the two first articles of his
instructions, he did not find any unknown southern land.

The Dutch, in 1721, fitted out three ships to make discoveries in the
South Pacific Ocean, under the command of Admiral Roggewein. He left the
Texel on the 21st of August, and arriving in that ocean, by going round
Cape Horn, discovered Easter island; probably seen before, though not
visited by Davis[1];—then, between 14° 41ʹ and 15° 47ʹ South latitude,
and between the longitude of 142° and 150° West, fell in with several
other islands, which I take to be some of those seen by the late English
navigators.—He next discovered two islands in latitude 15° South,
longitude 170° West, which he called Baumen’s islands;—and, lastly,
Single island, in latitude 13° 41ʹ South, longitude 171° 30ʹ West.—These
three islands are, undoubtedly, the same that Bougainville calls the
Isles of Navigators.

In 1738, the French East India Company sent Lozier Bouvet with two
ships, the Eagle and Mary, to make discoveries in the South Atlantic
Ocean. He sailed from Port L’Orient on the 19th of July, in that year;
touched at the island of St. Catharine; and from thence shaped his
course towards the S. E.

On the 1st of January, 1739, he discovered land, or what he judged to be
land, in the latitude 54° South, longitude 11° East. It will appear in
the course of the following narrative, that we made several attempts to
find this land without success. It is, therefore, very probable, that
what Bouvet saw was nothing more than a large ice-island. From hence he
stood to the East, in 51° of latitude, to 35° of East longitude: after
which the two ships separated; one going to the island of Mauritius, and
the other returning to France.

After this voyage of Bouvet, the spirit of discovery ceased, till his
present Majesty formed a design of making discoveries, and exploring the
Southern Hemisphere; and, in the year 1764, directed it to be put in
execution.

Accordingly, Commodore Byron, having under his command the Dolphin and
Tamer, sailed from the Downs on the 21st of June the same year; and
having visited the Falkland islands, passed through the Straits of
Magalhaens into the Pacific Ocean, where he discovered the islands of
Disappointment;—George’s;—Prince of Wales’s;—the isles of Danger;—York
island;—and Byron island.

He returned to England the 9th of May, 1766; and, in the month of August
following, the Dolphin was again sent out, under the command of Captain
Wallis, with the Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret.

They proceeded together, till they came to the west end of the Straits
of Magalhaens, and the Great South Sea in sight, where they were
separated.

Captain Wallis directed his course more westerly than any navigator had
done before him in so high a latitude; but met with no land till he got
within the tropic, where he discovered the islands Whitsunday;—Queen
Charlotte;—Egmont;—Duke of Gloucester;—Duke of Cumberland;—Maitea;—
Otaheite;—Eimeo;—Tapamanou;—How;—Scilly;—Boscawen;—Keppel;—and Wallis;
and returned to England in May, 1768.

His companion Captain Carteret kept a different route; in which he
discovered the islands Osnaburg;—Gloucester;—Queen Charlotte’s isles;—
Carteret’s;—Gower’s;—and the Strait between New Britain and New Ireland;
and returned to England in March, 1769.

In November, 1766, Commodore Bougainville sailed from France, in the
frigate La Boudeuse, with the store-ship L’Etoile. After spending some
time on the coast of Brazil, and at Falkland islands, he got into the
Pacific Sea, by the Straits of Magalhaens, in January, 1768.

In this ocean he discovered the Four Facardines;—the Isle of Lanciers;—
and Harpe island, which I take to be the same that I afterwards named
Lagoon;—Thrum Cap, and Bow island. About twenty leagues farther to the
west, he discovered four other islands;—afterwards fell in with Maitea;—
Otaheite;—Isles of Navigators;—and Forlorn Hope; which to him were new
discoveries. He then passed through between the Hebrides;—discovered the
Shoal of Diana; and some others;—the land of Cape Deliverance;—several
islands more to the north;—passed to the north of New Ireland; touched
at Batavia; and arrived in France in March, 1769.

This year was rendered remarkable by the transit of the planet Venus
over the sun’s disc; a phænomenon of great importance to astronomy; and
which every where engaged the attention of the learned in that science.

In the beginning of the year 1768, the Royal Society presented a
memorial to his Majesty, setting forth the advantages to be derived from
accurate observations of this transit in different parts of the world;
particularly from a set of such observations made in a southern
latitude, between the 140th and 180th degrees of longitude, west from
the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; and that vessels, properly equipped,
would be necessary to convey the observers to their destined stations;
but that the Society were in no condition to defray the expence of such
an undertaking.

In consequence of this memorial, the Admiralty were directed by his
Majesty to provide proper vessels for this purpose. Accordingly, the
Endeavour bark, which had been built for the coal-trade, was purchased
and fitted out for the southern voyage; and I was honoured with the
command of her. The Royal Society, soon after appointed me, in
conjunction with Mr. Charles Green the astronomer, to make the requisite
observations on the transit.

It was at first intended to perform this great and now a principal
business of our voyage, either at the Marquesas, or else at one of those
islands which Tasman had called Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Middleburg,
now better known under the name of the Friendly Islands. But while the
Endeavour was getting ready for the expedition, Captain Wallis returned
from his voyage round the world, in the course of which he had
discovered several islands in the South Sea; and amongst others,
Otaheite. This island was preferred to any of those before mentioned, on
account of the conveniences it afforded; and because its place had been
well ascertained, and found to be extremely well suited to our purpose.

I was therefore ordered to proceed directly to Otaheite; and, after the
astronomical observations should be completed, to prosecute the design
of making discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, by proceeding to the
south as far as the latitude of 40°; then, if I found no land, to
proceed to the west between 40° and 35°, till I fell in with New
Zealand, which I was to explore; and thence to return to England, by
such route as I should think proper.

In the prosecution of these instructions, I sailed from Deptford the
30th of July, 1768; from Plymouth the 26th of August; touched at
Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, and Straits Le Maire; and entered the South
Pacific Ocean by Cape Horn, in January the following year.

I endeavoured to make a direct course to Otaheite, and in part
succeeded; but I made no discovery till I got within the tropic, where I
fell in with Lagoon island;—Two Groups;—Bird island;—Chain island;—and
on the 13th of April arrived at Otaheite, where I remained three months,
during which time the observations on the transit were made.

I then left it; discovered, and visited the Society isles, and Oheteroa;
thence proceeded to the south till I arrived in the latitude of 40° 22ʹ,
longitude 147° 29ʹ West; and on the 6th of October fell in with the east
side of New Zealand.

I continued exploring the coast of this country till the 31st of March,
1770, when I quitted it, and proceeded to New Holland; and having
surveyed the eastern coast of that vast country, which part had not
before been visited, I passed between its northern extremity and New
Guinea; landed on the latter; touched at the island of Savu, Batavia,
the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena[2]; and arrived in England on the
12th of July, 1771.

In this voyage I was accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander; the
first a gentleman of ample fortune; the other an accomplished disciple
of Linnæus, and one of the librarians of the British Museum: both of
them distinguished in the learned world for their extensive and accurate
knowledge of natural history. These gentlemen, animated by the love of
science, and by a desire to pursue their enquiries in the remote regions
I was preparing to visit, desired permission to make the voyage with me.
The Admiralty readily complied with a request that promised such
advantage to the republic of letters. They accordingly embarked with me,
and participated in all the dangers and sufferings of our tedious and
fatiguing navigation.

To illustrate this short abstract of the several discoveries made in the
Southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, before my departure on
this second voyage, now laid before the public, I have delineated on the
general chart hereunto annexed the tracks of most of the navigators,
without which the abstract could not be so easily understood.

The voyages of Messrs. de Surville, Kerguelen, and Marion, of which some
account is given in the following work, did not come to my knowledge
time enough to afford me any advantage; and as they have not been
communicated to the world in a public way, I can say little about them,
or about two other voyages which, I am told, have been made by the
Spaniards; one to Easter island in the year 1769, and the other to
Otaheite in 1773.

Before I begin my narrative of the expedition intrusted to my care, it
will be necessary to add here some account of its equipment, and of some
other matters, equally interesting, connected with my subject.

Soon after my return home in the Endeavour, it was resolved to equip two
ships, to complete the discovery of the Southern Hemisphere. The nature
of this voyage required ships of a particular construction, and the
Endeavour being gone to Falkland Isles as a store-ship, the Navy-board
was directed to purchase two such ships as were most suitable for this
service.

At this time various opinions were espoused by different people,
touching the size and kind of vessels most proper for such a voyage.
Some were for having large ships; and proposed those of forty guns, or
East India Company’s ships. Others preferred large good sailing
frigates, or three-decked ships, employed in the Jamaica trade, fitted
with round-houses. But of all that was said and offered to the
Admiralty’s consideration on this subject, as far as has come to my
knowledge, what, in my opinion, was most to the purpose, was suggested
by the Navy-board.

As the kind of ships most proper to be employed on discoveries is a very
interesting consideration to the adventurers in such undertakings, it
may possibly be of use to those who, in future, may be so employed, to
give here the purport of the sentiments of the Navy-board theron, with
whom, after the experience of two voyages of three years each, I
perfectly agree.

The success of such undertakings as making discoveries in distant parts
of the world will principally depend on the preparations being well
adapted to what ought to be the first considerations, namely, the
preservation of the adventurers and ships; and this will ever chiefly
depend on the kind, the size, and the properties of the ships chosen for
the service.

These primary considerations will not admit of any other that may
interfere with the necessary properties of the ships. Therefore, in
choosing the ships, should any of the most advantageous properties be
wanting, and the necessary room in them be in any degree diminished, for
less important purposes, such a step would be laying a foundation for
rendering the undertaking abortive in the first instance.

As the greatest danger to be apprehended and provided against on a
voyage of discovery, especially to the most distant parts of the globe,
is that of the ship’s being liable to be run aground on an unknown
desert, or, perhaps, savage coast, so no consideration should be set in
competition with that of her being of a construction of the safest kind,
in which the officers may, with the least hazard, venture upon a strange
coast. A ship of this kind must not be of a great draught of water, yet
of a sufficient burden and capacity to carry a proper quantity of
provisions and necessaries for her complement of men, and for the time
requisite to perform the voyage.

She must also be of a construction that will bear to take the ground;
and of a size which, in case of necessity, may be safely and
conveniently laid on shore, to repair any accidental damage or defects.
These properties are not to be found in ships of war of forty guns, nor
in frigates, nor in East India Company’s ships, nor in large
three-decked West India ships, nor indeed in any other but
north-country-built ships, or such as are built for the coal-trade,
which are peculiarly adapted to this purpose.

In such a vessel an able sea-officer will be most venturesome, and
better enabled to fulfil his instructions, than he possibly can (or
indeed than would be prudent for him to attempt) in one of any other
_sort_ or _size_.

Upon the whole, I am firmly of opinion, that no ships are so proper for
discoveries in distant unknown parts as those constructed as was the
Endeavour, in which I performed my former voyage. For no ships of any
other kind can contain stores and provisions sufficient (in proportion
to the necessary number of men), considering the length of time it will
be necessary they should last. And, even if another kind of ships could
stow a sufficiency, yet, on arriving at the parts for discovery, they
would still, from the nature of their construction and size, be _less
fit_ for the purpose.

Hence, it may be concluded, so little progress had been hitherto made in
discoveries in the southern hemisphere. For all ships which attempted it
before the Endeavour were unfit for it, although the officers employed
in them had done the utmost in their power.

It was upon these considerations that the Endeavour was chosen for that
voyage. It was to these properties in her that those on board owed their
preservation; and hence we were enabled to prosecute discoveries in
those seas so much longer than any other ship ever did or could do. And,
although discovery was not the first object of that voyage, I could
venture to traverse a far greater space of sea, till then unnavigated,
to discover greater tracks of country in high and low south latitudes,
and to persevere longer in exploring and surveying more correctly the
extensive coasts of those new-discovered countries, than any former
navigator, perhaps, had done during one voyage.

In short, these properties in the ships, with perseverance and
resolution in their commanders, will enable them to execute their
orders; to go beyond former discoverers; and continue to Britain the
reputation of taking the lead of all nations in exploring the globe.

These considerations concurring with Lord Sandwich’s opinion on the same
subject, the Admiralty determined to have two such ships as are here
recommended. Accordingly, two were purchased of Captain William Hammond
of Hull. They were both built at Whitby, by the same person who built
the Endeavour, being about fourteen or sixteen months old at the time
they were purchased, and were, in my opinion, as well adapted to the
intended service as if they had been built for the purpose. The largest
of the two was four hundred and sixty-two tons burthen. She was named
Resolution, and sent to Deptford to be equipped. The other was three
hundred and thirty-six tons burthen. She was named Adventure, and sent
to be equipped at Woolwich.

It was first proposed to sheath them with copper; but, on considering
that copper corrodes the iron work, especially about the rudder, this
intention was laid aside, and the old method of sheathing and fitting
pursued, as being the most secure; for, although it is usual to make the
rudder-bands of the same composition, it is not, however, so durable as
iron, nor would it, I am well assured, last out such a voyage as the
Resolution performed.

Therefore, till a remedy is found to prevent the effect of copper upon
the iron work, it would not be advisable to use it on a voyage of this
kind, as the principal fastenings of the ship being iron, they may be
destroyed.

On the 28th of November, 1771, I was appointed to the command of the
Resolution; and Tobias Furneaux (who had been second lieutenant with
Captain Wallis) was promoted, on this occasion, to the command of the
Adventure.

Our complements of officers and men were fixed, as in the following
table:—

 +-------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------+
 |                   |        RESOLUTION.        |      ADVENTURE.       |
 |   OFFICERS and    +----+----------------------+----+------------------+
 |       MEN.        |N^o.|   Officers’ Names.   |N^o.| Officers’ Names. |
 +-------------------+----+----------------------+----+------------------+
 | Captain           |  1 | James Cook.          |  1 | Tobias Furneaux. |
 | Lieutenants       |  3 | Robert P. Cooper.    |  2 | Joseph Shank.    |
 |                   |    | Charles Clarke.      |    | Arthur Kempe.    |
 |                   |    | Richard Pickersgill. |    |                  |
 | Master            |  1 | Joseph Gilbert.      |  1 | Peter Fannin.    |
 | Boatswain         |  1 | James Gray.          |  1 | Edward Johns.    |
 | Carpenter         |  1 | James Wallis.        |  1 | William Offord.  |
 | Gunner            |  1 | Robert Anderson.     |  1 | Andrew Gloag.    |
 | Surgeon           |  1 | James Patten.        |  1 | Thomas Andrews.  |
 | Master’s Mates    |  3 |                      |  2 |                  |
 | Midshipmen        |  6 |                      |  4 |                  |
 | Surgeon’s Mates   |  2 |                      |  2 |                  |
 | Captain’s Clerk   |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Master at Arms    |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Corporal          |  1 |                      |    |                  |
 | Armourer          |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Ditto Mate        |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Sail Maker        |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Ditto Mate        |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Boatswain’s Mates |  3 |                      |  2 |                  |
 | Carpenter’s Ditto |  3 |                      |  2 |                  |
 | Gunner’s Ditto    |  2 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Carpenter’s Crew  |  4 |                      |  4 |                  |
 | Cook              |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Ditto Mate        |  1 |                      |    |                  |
 | Quarter Masters   |  6 |                      |  4 |                  |
 | Able Seamen       | 45 |                      | 33 |                  |
 |                   |    |     Marines.         |    |                  |
 | Lieutenant        |  1 | John Edgcumbe.       |  1 | James Scott.     |
 | Serjeant          |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Corporals         |  2 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Drummer           |  1 |                      |  1 |                  |
 | Privates          | 15 |                      |  8 |                  |
 |                   +----+                      +----+                  |
 | Total             |112 |                      | 81 |                  |
 +-------------------+----+----------------------+----+------------------+

I had all the reason in the world to be perfectly satisfied with the
choice of the officers. The second and third lieutenants, the lieutenant
of marines, two of the warrant officers, and several of the petty
officers, had been with me during the former voyage. The others were men
of known abilities; and all of them, on every occasion, showed their
zeal for the service in which they were employed, during the whole
voyage.

In the equipping of these ships, they were not confined to ordinary
establishments, but were fitted in the most complete manner, and
supplied with every extra article that was suggested to be necessary.

Lord Sandwich paid an extraordinary attention to this equipment, by
visiting the ships from time to time, to satisfy himself that the whole
was completed to his wish, and to the satisfaction of those who were to
embark in them.

Nor were the Navy and Victualling Boards wanting in providing them with
the very best of stores and provisions, and whatever else was necessary
for so long a voyage. Some alterations were adopted in the species of
provisions usually made use of in the navy. That is, we were supplied
with wheat in lieu of so much oatmeal, and sugar in lieu of so much oil;
and when completed, each ship had two years and a half provisions on
board, of all species.

We had, besides, many extra articles, such as _malt_, _sour-krout_,
_salted cabbage_, _portable broth_, _saloup_, _mustard_, _marmalade of
carrots_, and _inspissated juice of wort and beer_. Some of these
articles had before been found to be highly antiscorbutic; and others
were now sent out on trial, or by way of experiment;—the inspissated
juice of beer and wort, and marmalade of carrots especially.—As several
of these antiscorbutic articles are not generally known, a more
particular account of them may not be amiss.

Of _malt_ is made _sweet wort_, which is given to such persons as have
got the scurvy, or whose habit of body threatens them with it, from one
to five or six pints a day, as the surgeon sees necessary.

_Sour-krout_, is cabbage cut small, to which is put a little salt,
juniper-berries, and annis-seeds; it is then fermented, and afterwards
close packed in casks: in which state it will keep good a long time.
This is a wholesome vegetable food, and a great antiscorbutic. The
allowance to each man is two pounds a week, but I increased or
diminished their allowance as I thought proper.

_Salted cabbage_ is cabbage cut to pieces, and salted down in casks,
which will preserve it a long time.

_Portable broth_ is so well known, that it needs no description. We were
supplied with it both for the sick and well, and it was exceedingly
beneficial.

_Saloup_, and _rob of lemons_ and _oranges_, were for the sick and
scorbutic only, and wholly under the surgeon’s care.

_Marmalade of carrots_ is the juice of yellow carrots inspissated till
it is of the thickness of fluid honey, or treacle, which last it
resembles both in taste and colour. It was recommended by Baron Storsch,
of Berlin, as a very great antiscorbutic; but we did not find that it
had much of this quality.

For the _inspissated juice of wort_, and _beer_, we were indebted to Mr.
Pelham, secretary to the commissioners of the Victualling Office. This
gentleman, some years ago, considered that if the juice of malt, either
as beer or wort, was inspissated by evaporation, it was probable this
inspissated juice would keep good at sea; and, if so, a supply of beer
might be had at any time, by mixing it with water. Mr. Pelham made
several experiments, which succeeded so well, that the commissioners
caused thirty-one half-barrels of this juice to be prepared, and sent
out with our ships for trial; nineteen on board the Resolution, and the
remainder on board the Adventure. The success of the experiments will be
mentioned in the narrative, in the order they were made.

The frame of a small vessel, twenty tons burthen, was properly prepared,
and put on board each of the ships, to be set up, (if found necessary,)
to serve as tenders upon any emergency, or to transport the crew in case
the ship was lost.

We were also well provided with fishing-nets, lines, and hooks of every
kind for catching of fish. And, in order to enable us to procure
refreshments in such inhabited parts of the world as we might touch at,
where money was of no value, the Admiralty caused to be put on board
both the ships, several articles of merchandize; as well to trade with
the natives for provisions, as to make them presents to gain their
friendship and esteem.

Their Lordships also caused a number of medals to be struck, the one
side representing His Majesty, and the other the two ships. These medals
were to be given to the natives of new-discovered countries, and left
there, as testimonies of our being the first discoverers.

Some additional clothing, adapted to a cold climate, was put on board;
to be given to the seamen whenever it was thought necessary. In short,
nothing was wanting that could tend to promote the success of the
undertaking, or contribute to the conveniencies and health of those who
embarked in it.

The Admiralty showed no less attention to science in general, by
engaging Mr. William Hodges, a landscape painter, to embark in this
voyage, in order to make drawings and paintings of such places, in the
countries we should touch at, as might be proper to give a more perfect
idea thereof than could be formed from written descriptions only.

And it being thought of public utility, that some person skilled in
natural history should be engaged to accompany me in this voyage, the
parliament granted an ample sum for that purpose, and Mr. John Reinhold
Forster, with his son, were pitched upon for this employment.

The Board of Longitude agreed with Mr. William Wales, and Mr. William
Bayley, to make astronomical observations; the former on board the
Resolution, the latter on board the Adventure. The great improvements
which astronomy and navigation have met with from the many interesting
observations they have made, would have done honour to any person whose
reputation for mathematical knowledge was not so well known as theirs.

The same Board furnished them with the best of instruments, for making
both astronomical and nautical observations and experiments; and
likewise with four time-pieces, or watch machines; three made by Mr.
Arnold, and one made by Mr. Kendall on Mr. Harrison’s principles. A
particular account of the going of these watches, as also the
astronomical and nautical observations made by the astronomers, will be
laid before the public by order of the Board of Longitude, under the
inspection of Mr. Wales.

Besides the obligations I was under to this gentleman for communicating
to me the observations he made, from time to time, during the voyage, I
have since been indebted to him for the perusal of his journal, with
leave to take from it whatever I thought might contribute to the
improvement of this work.

For the convenience of the generality of readers, I have reduced the
time from the nautical to the civil computation, so that whenever the
terms A. M. and P. M. are used, the former signifies the forenoon, and
the latter the afternoon of the same day.

In all the courses, bearings, &c. the variation of the compass is
allowed, unless the contrary is expressed.

And now it may be necessary to say, that, as I am on the point of
sailing on a third expedition, I leave this account of my last voyage in
the hands of some friends, who in my absence have kindly accepted the
office of correcting the press for me; who are pleased to think, that
what I have here to relate is better to be given in my own words, than
in the words of another person, especially as it is a work designed for
information, and not merely for amusement; in which it is their opinion,
that candour and fidelity will counterbalance the want of ornament.

I shall, therefore, conclude this introductory discourse with desiring
the reader to excuse the inaccuracies of style, which doubtless he will
frequently meet with in the following narrative; and that, when such
occur, he will recollect that it is the production of a man, who has not
had the advantage of much school education, but who has been constantly
at sea from his youth; and though, with the assistance of a few good
friends, he has passed through all the stations belonging to a seaman,
from an apprentice boy in the coal trade, to a post captain in the Royal
Navy, he has had no opportunity of cultivating letters. After this
account of myself, the public must not expect from me the elegance of a
fine writer, or the plausibility of a professed book-maker; but will, I
hope, consider me as a plain man, zealously exerting himself in the
service of his country, and determined to give the best account he is
able of his proceedings.

  _Plymouth Sound,
    July 7. 1776._



                                   A

                                 VOYAGE

                                TOWARDS

                            THE SOUTH POLE,

                                  AND

                            ROUND THE WORLD,

                     IN 1772, 1773, 1774, AND 1775.



                                BOOK I.

FROM OUR DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND, TO LEAVING THE SOCIETY ISLES, THE FIRST
                                 TIME.



                                CHAP. I.

   PASSAGE FROM DEPTFORD TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF
  SEVERAL INCIDENTS THAT HAPPENED BY THE WAY, AND TRANSACTIONS THERE.


I sailed from Deptford, April 9th, 1772, but got no farther than
Woolwich; where I was detained by easterly winds till the 22d, when the
ship fell down to Long Reach, and the next day was joined by the
Adventure. Here both ships received on board their powder, guns,
gunner’s-stores, and marines.

On the 10th of May we left Long Reach with orders to touch at Plymouth;
but in plying down the river, the Resolution was found to be very crank,
which made it necessary to put into Sheerness, in order to remove this
evil, by making some alterations in her upper works. These the officers
of the yard were ordered to take in hand immediately; and Lord Sandwich
and Sir Hugh Palliser came down to see them executed in such a manner as
might effectually answer the purpose intended.

On the 22d of June the ship was again completed for sea, when I sailed
from Sheerness; and on the 3d of July, joined the Adventure in Plymouth
Sound. The evening before, we met, off the Sound, Lord Sandwich, in the
Augusta yacht, (who was on his return from visiting the several
dock-yards,) with the Glory frigate and Hazard sloop. We saluted his
Lordship with seventeen guns; and soon after he and Sir Hugh Palliser
gave us the last mark of the very great attention they had paid to this
equipment, by coming on board, to satisfy themselves that every thing
was done to my wish, and that the ship was found to answer to my
satisfaction.

At Plymouth I received my instructions, dated the 25th of June,
directing me to take under my command the Adventure; to make the best of
my way to the island of Madeira, there to take in a supply of wine, and
then proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, where I was to refresh the ships’
companies, and take on board such provisions and necessaries as I might
stand in need of. After leaving the Cape of Good Hope, I was to proceed
to the southward, and endeavour to fall in with Cape Circumcision, which
was said by Monsieur Bouvet to lie in the latitude of 54° south, and in
about 11° 20ʹ east longitude from Greenwich. If I discovered this Cape,
I was to satisfy myself whether it was a part of the continent, which
had so much engaged the attention of geographers and former navigators,
or a part of an island. If it proved to be the former, I was to employ
myself diligently in exploring as great an extent of it as I could; and
to make such notations thereon, and observations of every kind, as might
be useful either to navigation or commerce, or tend to the promotion of
natural knowledge. I was also directed to observe the genius, temper,
disposition, and number, of the inhabitants, if there were any, and
endeavour, by all proper means, to cultivate a friendship and alliance
with them; making them presents of such things as they might value;
inviting them to traffic, and showing them every kind of civility and
regard. I was to continue to employ myself on this service, and making
discoveries, either to the eastward or westward, as my situation might
render most eligible; keeping in as high a latitude as I could, and
prosecuting my discoveries as near to the South Pole as possible, so
long as the condition of the ships, the health of their crews, and the
state of their provisions, would admit of; taking care to reserve as
much of the latter as would enable me to reach some known port, where I
was to procure a sufficiency to bring me home to England. But if Cape
Circumcision should prove to be part of an island only, or if I should
not be able to find the said Cape, I was, in the first case, to make the
necessary survey of the island, and then to stand on to the southward,
so long as I judged there was a likelihood of falling in with the
continent; which I was also to do in the latter case; and then to
proceed to the eastward, in further search of the said continent, as
well as to make discoveries of such islands as might be situated in that
unexplored part of the southern hemisphere; keeping in high latitudes,
and prosecuting my discoveries as above-mentioned, as near the Pole as
possible, until I had circumnavigated the globe; after which I was to
proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence to Spithead.

In the prosecution of these discoveries, whenever the season of the year
rendered it unsafe for me to continue in high latitudes, I was to retire
to some known place to the northward, to refresh my people, and refit
the ships; and to return again to the southward, as soon as the season
of the year would admit of it. In all unforeseen cases, I was authorised
to proceed according to my own discretion; and in case the Resolution
should be lost or disabled, I was to prosecute the voyage on board the
Adventure.

I gave a copy of these instructions to Captain Furneaux, with an order
directing him to carry them into execution; and in case he was separated
from me, appointed the island of Madeira for the first place of
rendezvous, Port Praya in the island of St. Jago for the second, Cape of
Good Hope for the third, and New Zealand for the fourth.

During our stay at Plymouth, Messieurs Wales and Bayley, the two
astronomers, made observations on Drake’s Island, in order to ascertain
the latitude, longitude, and true time for putting the time-pieces or
watches in motion. The latitude was found to be 50° 21ʹ 30ʺ north; and
the longitude 4° 20ʹ west of Greenwich, which, in this voyage, is every
where to be understood as the first meridian, and from which the
longitude is reckoned east and west to 180° each way. On the 10th of
July, the watches were set a-going in the presence of the two
astronomers, Captain Furneaux, the first lieutenants of the ships, and
myself, and put on board. The two on board the Adventure were made by
Mr. Arnold, and also one of those on board the Resolution; but the other
was made by Mr. Kendal, upon the same principle, in every respect, as
Mr. Harrison’s time-piece. The commander, first lieutenant, and
astronomer, on board each of the ships, kept each of them keys of the
boxes which contained the watches, and were always to be present at the
winding them up, and comparing the one with the other; or some other
officer, if, at any time, through indisposition, or absence upon any
other necessary duties, any of them could not conveniently attend. The
same day, according to the custom of the navy, the companies of both
ships were paid two months’ wages in advance; and as a further
encouragement for their going this extraordinary voyage, they were also
paid the wages due to them to the 28th of the preceding May. This
enabled them to provide necessaries for the voyage.

On the 13th, at six o’clock in the morning, I sailed from Plymouth
Sound, with the Adventure in company; and on the evening of the 29th,
anchored in Funchiale Road, in the island of Madeira. The next morning I
saluted the garrison with eleven guns; which compliment was immediately
returned. Soon after, I went on shore, accompanied by Captain Furneaux,
the two Mr. Foresters, and Mr. Wales. At our landing, we were received
by a gentleman from the Vice-Consul, Mr. Sills, who conducted us to the
house of Mr. Loughnans, the most considerable English merchant in the
place. This gentleman not only obtained leave for Mr. Forster to search
the island for plants, but procured us every other thing we wanted, and
insisted on our accommodating ourselves at his house during our stay.

The town of Funchiale, which is the capital of the island, is situated
about the middle of the south side, in the bottom of the bay of the same
name, in latitude 32° 33ʹ 34ʺ north, longitude 17° 12-1/8ʹ west. The
longitude was deduced from lunar observations made by Mr. Wales, and
reduced to the town by Mr. Kendal’s watch, which made the longitude 17°
10ʹ 14ʺ west. During our stay here, the crews of both ships were
supplied with fresh beef and onions; and a quantity of the latter was
distributed amongst them for a sea store.

Having got on board a supply of water, wine, and other necessaries, we
left Madeira on the 1st of August, and stood to the southward, with a
fine gale at N. E. On the 4th we passed _Palma_, one of the Canary
isles. It is of a height to be seen twelve or fourteen leagues, and lies
in the latitude 28° 38ʹ north, longitude 17° 58ʹ west. The next day we
saw the isle of Ferro, and passed it at the distance of fourteen
leagues. I judged it to lie in the latitude 27° 42ʹ north, and longitude
18° 9ʹ west.

I now made three puncheons of beer, of the inspissated juice of malt.
The proportion I made use of was about ten of water to one of juice.
Fifteen of the nineteen half-barrels of the inspissated juice which we
had on board were produced from wort that was hopped before inspissated.
The other four were made of beer that had been both hopped and fermented
before inspissated. This last requires no other preparation to make it
fit for use, than to mix it with cold water, from one part in eight, to
one part in twelve of water, (or in such other proportion as might be
liked,) then stop it down; and in a few days it will be brisk, and
drinkable. But the other sort, after being mixed with water in the same
manner, will require to be fermented with _yeast_, in the usual way of
making beer; at least it was so thought. However, experience taught us
that this will not always be necessary. For by the heat of the weather
and the agitation of the ship, both sorts were at this time in the
highest state of fermentation, and had hitherto evaded all our
endeavours to stop it. If this juice could be kept from fermenting, it
certainly would be a most valuable article at sea.

On finding that our stock of water would not last us to the Cape of Good
Hope, without putting the people to a scanty allowance, I resolved to
stop at St. Jago for a supply. On the 9th, at nine o’clock in the
morning, we made the island of Bonavista, bearing S. W. The next day, we
passed the island of Mayo on our right; and the same evening anchored in
Port Praya, in the island of St. Jago, in eighteen fathom water. The
east point of the bay bore east; the west point S. W. 1/2 S. and the
fort N. W. I immediately dispatched an officer to ask leave to water,
and purchase refreshments; which was granted. On the return of the
officer I saluted the fort with eleven guns, on a promise of its being
returned with an equal number. But by a mistake, as they pretended, the
salute was returned with only nine; for which the governor made an
excuse the next day. The 14th, in the evening, having completed our
water, and got on board a supply of refreshments; such as hogs, goats,
fowls, and fruit; we put to sea, and proceeded on our voyage.

_Port Praya_ is a small bay, situated about the middle of the south side
of the island of St. Jago, in the latitude of 14° 53ʹ 30ʺ north,
longitude 23° 30ʹ west. It may be known, especially in coming from the
east, by the southermost hill on the island; which is round, and peaked
at top; and lies a little way inland, in the direction of west from the
port. This mark is the more necessary, as there is a small cove about a
league to the eastward, with a sandy beach in the bottom of it, a valley
and cocoa-nut trees behind, which strangers may mistake for Port Praya,
as we ourselves did. The two points which form the entrance of Port
Praya Bay, are rather low, and in the direction of W. S. W. and E. N. E.
half a league from each other. Close to the west point are sunken rocks,
on which the sea continually breaks. The bay lies in N. W. near half a
league; and the depth of water is from fourteen to four fathoms. Large
ships ought not to anchor in less than eight, in which depth the south
end of the Green island (a small island lying under the west shore) will
bear west. You water at a well that is behind the beach at the head of
the bay. The water is tolerable, but scarce; and bad getting off, on
account of a great surf on the beach. The refreshments to be got here
are, bullocks, hogs, goats, sheep, poultry, and fruits. The goats are of
the antelope kind, so extraordinary lean, that hardly any thing can
equal them; and the bullocks, hogs, and sheep are not much better.
Bullocks must be purchased with money; the price is twelve Spanish
dollars a head, weighing between 250 and 300 pounds. Other articles may
be got from the natives in exchange for old clothes, &c. But the sale of
bullocks is confined to a company of merchants; to whom this privilege
is granted, and who keep an agent residing upon the spot. The fort
above-mentioned seems wholly designed for the protection of the bay, and
is well situated for that purpose, being built on an elevation, which
rises directly from the sea on the right, at the head of the bay.

We had no sooner got clear of Port Praya, than we got a fresh gale at
N. N. E. which blew in squalls, attended with showers of rain. But the
next day the wind and showers abated, and veered to the south. It was,
however, variable and unsettled for several days, accompanied with dark,
gloomy weather, and showers of rain.

On the 19th, in the afternoon, one of the carpenter’s-mates fell over
board, and was drowned. He was over the side, fitting in one of the
scuttles; from whence, it was supposed, he had fallen: for he was not
seen till the very instant he sunk under the ship’s stern, when our
endeavours to save him were too late. This loss was sensibly felt during
the voyage, as he was a sober man and a good workman. About noon the
next day, the rain poured down upon us not in drops, but in streams. The
wind, at the same time, was variable, and squally; which obliged the
people to attend the decks, so that few in the ships escaped a good
soaking. We, however, benefited by it, as it gave us an opportunity of
filling all our empty water casks. This heavy rain at last brought on a
dead calm, which continued twenty-four hours, when it was succeeded by a
breeze from S. W. Betwixt this point and south it continued for several
days; and blew, at times, in squalls, attended with rain and hot sultry
weather. The mercury in the thermometers at noon, kept generally from 79
to 82.

On the 27th, spake with Captain Furneaux, who informed us that one of
his petty officers was dead. At this time we had not one sick on board;
although we had every thing of this kind to fear from the rain we had
had, which is a great promoter of sickness in hot climates. To prevent
this, and agreeable to some hints I had from Sir Hugh Palliser, and from
Captain Campbell, I took every necessary precaution, by airing and
drying the ship with fires made betwixt decks, smoaking, &c. and by
obliging the people to air their bedding, wash and dry their clothes,
whenever there was an opportunity. A neglect of these things causeth a
disagreeable smell below, affects the air, and seldom fails to bring on
sickness; but more especially in hot and wet weather.

We now began to see some of those birds which are said never to fly far
from land; that is, man of war, and tropic birds, gannets, &c. No land,
however, that we knew of, could be nearer than eighty leagues.

On the 30th, at noon, being in the latitude of 2° 35ʹ north, longitude
7° 30ʹ west, and the wind having veered to the east of south, we tacked
and stretched to the S. W. In the latitude of 0° 52ʹ north, longitude 9°
25ʹ west, we had one calm day, which gave us an opportunity of trying
the current in a boat. We found it set to the north one-third of a mile
an hour. We had reason to expect this from the difference we frequently
found between the observed latitude, and that given by the log: and Mr.
Kendal’s watch showed us, that it set to the East also. This was fully
confirmed by the lunar observations; when it appeared, that we were 3°
more to the east than the common reckoning. At the time of trying the
current, the mercury in the thermometer in the open air stood at 75-1/2;
and when immerged in the surface of the sea, at 74; but when immerged
eighty fathoms deep (where it remained fifteen minutes) when it came up,
the mercury stood at 66. At the same time we sounded, without finding
bottom with a line of two hundred and fifty fathoms.

The calm was succeeded by a light breeze at S. W. which kept veering by
little and little to the south, and at last to the eastward of south,
attended with clear serene weather. At length, on the 8th of September,
we crossed the line in the longitude of 8° west; after which the
ceremony of ducking, &c. generally practised on this occasion, was not
omitted.

The wind now veering more and more to the east, and blowing a gentle
top-gallant gale, in eight days it carried us into the latitude of 9°
30ʹ south, longitude 18° west. The weather was pleasant; and we daily
saw some of those birds which are looked upon as signs of the vicinity
of land; such as boobies, men of war, tropic birds, and gannets. We
supposed they came from the isle of St. Matthew, or Ascension; which
isles we must have passed at no great distance.

On the 27th, in the latitude of 25° 29ʹ, longitude 24° 54ʹ, we
discovered a sail to the west, standing after us. She was a snow; and
the colours she showed either a Portuguese or St. George’s Ensign, the
distance being too great to distinguish the one from the other; and I
did not choose to wait to get nearer, or to speak with her.

The wind now began to be variable. It first veered to the north, where
it remained two days with fair weather. Afterwards it came round by the
west to the south, where it remained two days longer, and after a few
hours’ calm sprang up at S. W. But here it remained not long before it
veered to S. E. E., and to the north of east; blew fresh, and by
squalls, with showers of rain.

With these winds we advanced but slowly, and without meeting with any
thing remarkable till the 11th of October, when at 6^h 24^m 12^s, by Mr.
Kendal’s watch, the moon rose about four digits eclipsed; and soon after
we prepared to observe the end of the eclipse, as follows, viz.

                      h.  m.  s.

 By me at             6  53  51       with a common refractor.
 By Mr. Forster       6  55  23
 By Mr. Wales         6  54  57       quadrant telescope.
 By Mr. Pickersgill   6  55  30       three feet refractor.
 By Mr. Gilbert       6  53  24       naked eye.
 By Mr. Hervey        6  55  34       quadrant telescope.
                      ---------

   Mean               6  54  46-1/2   by the watch.

   Watch slow of}
   apparent time}     0   3  59
                      ---------

   Apparent time      6  58  45-1/2   end of the eclipse.
   Ditto              7  25   0       at Greenwich.
                      ---------

   Dif. of longitude  0  26  14-1/2 =       6° 33ʹ 30ʺ

   The longitude observed by Mr. Wales was:
   By the ☽ and α Aquilæ     5° 51ʹ}  Mean  6  13  0
   By the ☽ and Aldebaran    6  35 }
   By Mr. Kendal’s watch                    6° 53ʹ-7/8

The next morning, having but little wind, we hoisted a boat out, to try
if there was any current, but found none. From this time to the 16th, we
had the wind between the north and east, a gentle gale. We had for some
time ceased to see any of the birds before mentioned; and were now
accompanied by albatrosses, pintadoes, sheerwaters, &c. and a small grey
peterel, less than a pigeon. It has a whitish belly, and grey back, with
a black stroke across from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other.
These birds sometimes visited us in great flights. They are, as well as
the pintadoes, southern birds; and are, I believe, never seen within the
tropics, or north of the line.

On the 17th, we saw a sail to the N. W. standing to the eastward, which
hoisted Dutch colours. She kept us company for two days, but the third
we outsailed her.

On the 21st, at 7^h 30^m 20^s A. M. our longitude, by the mean of two
observed distances of the sun and moon, was 8° 4ʹ 30ʺ east; Mr. Kendal’s
watch at the same time gave 7° 22ʹ. Our latitude was 35° 20ʹ south. The
wind was now easterly, and continued so till the 23d, when it veered to
N. and N. W. after some hours calm; in which we put a boat in the water,
and Mr. Forster shot some albatrosses and other birds, on which we
feasted the next day, and found them exceedingly good. At the same time
we saw a seal, or, as some thought, a sea-lion, which probably might be
an inhabitant of one of the isles of Tristian de Cunha, being now nearly
in their latitude, and about 5° east of them.

The wind continued but two days at N. W. and S. W.; then veered to the
S. E., where it remained two days longer; then fixed at N. W., which
carried us to our intended port. As we approached the land, the
sea-fowl, which had accompanied us hitherto, began to leave us; at least
they did not come in such numbers; nor did we see gannets, or the black
bird commonly called the Cape hen, till we were nearly within sight of
the Cape; nor did we strike sounding till Penguin Island bore N. N. E.
distant two or three leagues, where we had fifty fathom water. Not but
that the soundings may extend farther off. However, I am very sure that
they do not extend very far west from the Cape; for we could not find
ground with a line of 210 fathoms, 25 leagues west of Table Bay; the
same at 35 leagues, and at 64 leagues. I sounded these three times, in
order to find a bank, which, I had been told, lies to the west of the
Cape; but how far I never could learn.

I was told, before I left England, by some gentlemen who were well
enough acquainted with the navigation between England and the Cape of
Good Hope, that I sailed at an improper season of the year; and that I
should meet with much calm weather near and under the line. This
probably may be the case some years; it is, however, not general; on the
contrary, we hardly met with any calms; but a brisk S. W. wind in those
very latitudes where the calms are expected. Nor did we meet with any of
those tornadoes, so much spoken of by other navigators. However, what
they have said of the current setting towards the coast of Guinea, as
you approach that shore, is true; for, from the time of our leaving St.
Jago to our arrival into the latitude of 1-1/2° north, which was eleven
days, we were carried by the current 3° of longitude more east than our
reckoning. On the other hand, after we had crossed the line, and got the
S. E. trade wind, we always found by observation, that the ship
outstripped the reckoning, which we judged to be owing to a current
setting between the south and west. But, upon the whole, the currents in
this run seemed to balance each other; for, upon our arrival at the
Cape, the difference of longitude by dead reckoning kept from England,
without once being corrected, was only three quarters of a degree less
than that by observation.

At two in the afternoon, on the 29th, we made the land of the Cape of
Good Hope. The Table Mountain, which is over the Cape Town, bore
E. S. E. distance 12 or 14 leagues. At this time it was a good deal
obscured by clouds, otherwise it might, from its height, have been seen
at a much greater distance. We now crowded all the sail we could,
thinking to get into the bay before dark. But when we found this could
not be accomplished, we shortened sail, and spent the night standing off
and on. Between eight and nine o’clock, the whole sea, within the
compass of our sight, became at once, as it were, illuminated; or, what
the seamen call, all on fire. This appearance of the sea, in some
degree, is very common; but the cause is not so generally known. Mr.
Banks and Dr. Solander had satisfied me that it was occasioned by sea
insects. Mr. Forster, however, seemed not to favour this opinion. I
therefore had some buckets of water drawn up from along-side the ship,
which we found full of an innumerable quantity of small globular
insects, about the size of a common pin’s head, and quite transparent.
There was no doubt of their being living animals, when in their own
proper element, though we could not perceive any life in them: Mr.
Forster, whose province it is more minutely to describe things of this
nature, was now well satisfied with the cause of the sea’s illumination.

At length day-light came, and brought us fair weather; and having stood
into Table Bay, with the Adventure in company, we anchored in five
fathom water. We afterwards moored N. E. and S. W.; Green Point, on the
west point of the bay, bearing N. W. by W.; and the church, in one with
the valley between the Table Mountain and the Sugar-Loaf or Lion’s Head,
bearing S. W. by S., and distant from the landing-place near the fort,
one mile.

We had no sooner anchored than we were visited by the Captain of the
port, or Master Attendant, some other officers belonging to the company,
and Mr. Brandt. This last gentleman brought us off such things as could
not fail of being acceptable to persons coming from sea. The purport of
the Master Attendant’s visit was, according to custom, to take an
account of the ships; to inquire into the health of the crews; and, in
particular, if the small-pox was on board; a thing they dread, above all
others, at the Cape, and for these purposes a surgeon is always one of
the visitants.

My first step, after anchoring, was to send an officer to wait on Baron
Plettenberg, the governor, to acquaint him with our arrival, and the
reasons which induced me to put in there. To this the officer received a
very polite answer; and, upon his return, we saluted the garrison with
eleven guns, which compliment was returned. Soon after, I went on shore
myself, and waited upon the governor, accompanied by Captain Furneaux,
and the two Mr. Forsters. He received us with great politeness, and
promised me every assistance the place could afford. From him I learned
that two French ships from the Mauritius, about eight months before, had
discovered land, in the latitude of 48° south, and in the meridian of
that island, along which they sailed forty miles, till they came to a
bay into which they were about to enter, when they were driven off and
separated in a hard gale of wind, after having lost some of their boats
and people, which they had sent to sound the bay. One of the ships, viz.
the La Fortune, soon after arrived at the Mauritius, the captain of
which was sent home to France with an account of the discovery. The
governor also informed me, that in March last two other French ships
from the island of Mauritius touched at the Cape in their way to the
South Pacific Ocean; where they were going to make discoveries, under
the command of M. Marion. Aotourou, the man M. de Bougainville brought
from Otaheite, was to have returned with M. Marion, had he been living.

After having visited the governor and some other principal persons of
the place, we fixed ourselves at Mr. Brandt’s, the usual residence of
most officers belonging to English ships. This gentleman spares neither
trouble nor expence to make his house agreeable to those who favour him
with their company, and to accommodate them with every thing they want.
With him I concerted measures for supplying the ships with provisions,
and all other necessaries they wanted; which he set about procuring
without delay, while the seamen on board were employed in overhauling
the rigging; and the carpenters in caulking the ship’s sides and decks,
&c.

Messrs. Wales and Bayley got all their instruments on shore, in order to
make astronomical observations for ascertaining the going of the
watches, and other purposes. The result of some of these observations
shewed, that Mr. Kendal’s watch had answered beyond all expectation, by
pointing out the longitude of this place to within one minute of time to
what it was observed by Messrs. Mason and Dixon in 1761.

Three or four days after us, two Dutch Indiamen arrived here from
Holland, after a passage of between four and five months, in which one
lost, by the scurvy and other putrid diseases, 150 men; and the other
41. They sent, on their arrival, great numbers to the hospital in very
dreadful circumstances. It is remarkable, that one of these ships
touched at Port Praya, and left it a month before we arrived there; and
yet we got here three days before her. The Dutch at the Cape, having
found their hospital too small for the reception of their sick, were
going to build a new one at the east part of the town; the foundation of
which was laid with great ceremony while we were there.

By the healthy condition of the crews of both ships at our arrival, I
thought to have made my stay at the Cape very short. But, as the bread
we wanted was unbaked, and the spirit, which I found scarce, to be
collected from different parts out of the country, it was the 18th of
November before we had got every thing on board, and the 22d before we
could put to sea. During this stay the crews of both ships were served
every day with fresh beef or mutton, new baked bread, and as much greens
as they could eat. The ships were caulked and painted; and, in every
respect, put in as good a condition as when they left England. Some
alterations in the officers took place in the Adventure. Mr. Shank, the
first lieutenant, having been in an ill state of health ever since we
sailed from Plymouth, and not finding himself recover here, desired my
leave to quit, in order to return home for the re-establishment of his
health. As his request appeared to be well-founded, I granted him leave
accordingly, and appointed Mr. Kemp first lieutenant in his room; and
Mr. Burney, one of my midshipmen, second, in the room of Mr. Kemp.

Mr. Forster, whose whole time was taken up in the pursuit of Natural
History and Botany, met with a Swedish gentleman, one Mr. Sparrman, who
understood something of these sciences, having studied under Dr.
Linnæus. He being willing to embark with us, Mr. Forster strongly
importuned me to take him on board; thinking that he would be of great
assistance to him in the course of the voyage. I at last consented, and
he embarked with us accordingly, as an assistant to Mr. Forster; who
bore his expences on board, and allowed him a yearly stipend besides.

Mr. Hodges employed himself here in drawing a view of the Cape, town,
and parts adjacent, in oil colours; which was properly packed up, with
some others, and left with Mr. Brandt, in order to be forwarded to the
Admiralty by the first ship that should sail for England.



                               CHAP. II.

DEPARTURE FROM THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, IN SEARCH OF A SOUTHERN CONTINENT.


Having at length finished my business at the Cape, and taken leave of
the governor and some others of the chief officers, who, with very
obliging readiness, had given me all the assistance I could desire, on
the 22d November we repaired on board, and at three o’clock in the
afternoon weighed, and came to sail with the wind at N. by W. As soon as
the anchor was up, we saluted the fort with fifteen guns, which was
immediately returned; and after making a few trips, got out of the bay
by seven o’clock, at which time the town bore S. E., distant four miles.
After this we stood to the westward all night, in order to get clear of
the land; having the wind at N. N. W. and N. W., blowing in squalls,
attended with rain, which obliged us to reef our topsails. The sea was
again illuminated for some time, in the same manner as it was the night
before we arrived in Table Bay.

Having got clear of the land, I directed my course for Cape
Circumcision. The wind continued at N. W. a moderate gale, until the
24th; when it veered round to the eastward. On the noon of this day, we
were in the latitude of 35° 25ʹ south, and 29ʹ west of the Cape; and had
abundance of albatrosses about us, several of which were caught with
hook and line; and were very well relished by many of the people,
notwithstanding they were at this time served with fresh mutton. Judging
that we should soon come into cold weather, I ordered slops to be served
to such as were in want; and gave to each man the fearnought jacket and
trowsers allowed them by the Admiralty.

The wind continued easterly for two days, and blew a moderate gale,
which brought us into the latitude of 39° 4ʹ, and 2° of longitude west
of the Cape; thermometer 52-1/2. The wind now came to W. and S. W., and
on the 29th fixed at W. N. W. and increased to a storm, which continued,
with some few intervals of moderate weather, till the 6th of December;
when we were in the latitude of 48° 41ʹ south, and longitude 18° 24ʹ
east. This gale, which was attended with rain and hail, blew at times
with such violence that we could carry no sails; by which means we were
driven far to the eastward of our intended course, and no hopes were
left me of reaching Cape Circumcision. But the greatest misfortune that
attended us, was the loss of great part of our live stock; which we had
brought from the Cape; and which consisted of sheep, hogs, and geese.
Indeed this sudden transition from warm mild weather, to extreme cold
and wet, made every man in the ship feel its effects. For by this time
the mercury in the thermometer had fallen to 38; whereas at the Cape it
was generally at 67 and upwards. I now made some addition to the
people’s allowance of spirit, by giving them a dram whenever I thought
it necessary, and ordered Captain Furneaux to do the same. The night
proved clear and serene, and the only one that was so since we left the
Cape; and the next morning the rising sun gave us such flattering hopes
of a fine day, that we were induced to let all the reefs out of the
top-sails, and to get top-gallant-yards across, in order to make the
most of a fresh gale at north. Our hopes, however, soon vanished; for
before eight o’clock, the serenity of the sky was changed into a thick
haze, accompanied with rain. The gale increasing obliged us to hand the
main-sail, close-reef our top-sails, and to strike top-gallant-yards.
The barometer at this time was unusually low, which foreboded an
approaching storm; and this happened accordingly; for, by one o’clock
P. M., the wind, which was at N. W., blew with such strength as obliged
us to take in all our sails, to strike top-gallant-masts, and to get the
spritsail-yard in. And I thought proper to wear, and lie to, under a
mizzen-stay-sail, with the ships’ heads to the N. E., as they would bow
the sea, which ran prodigiously high, better on this tack.

At eight o’clock next morning, being the 8th, we wore, and lay on the
other tack; the gale was a little abated, but the sea ran too high to
make sail, any more than the fore-top-mast stay-sail. In the evening,
being in the latitude of 49° 40ʹ south, and 1-1/2° east of the Cape, we
saw two penguins, and some sea or rock weed, which occasioned us to
sound, without finding ground at 100 fathoms. At eight, P. M. we wore,
and lay with our heads to the N. E. till three o’clock in the morning of
the 9th, then wore again to the southward, the wind blowing in squalls,
attended with showers of snow. At eight, being something more moderate,
I made the Adventure signal to make sail, and soon after made sail
ourselves under the courses, and close-reefed top-sails. In the evening,
took in the top-sails and main-sail, and brought to, under fore-sail and
mizzen; thermometer at 36°. The wind, still at N. W., blew a fresh gale,
accompanied with a very high sea. In the night, had a pretty smart frost
with snow.

In the morning of the 10th, we made sail under courses and top-sails
close-reefed; and made the signal for the Adventure to make sail and
lead. At eight o’clock, saw an island of ice to the westward of us,
being then in the latitude of 50° 40ʹ south, and longitude 2° 0ʹ east of
the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after, the wind moderated, and we let all
the reefs out of the top-sails, got the spritsail-yard out, and
top-gallant-mast up. The weather coming hazy, I called the Adventure by
signal under my stern; which was no sooner done, than the haze increased
so much, with snow and sleet, that we did not see an island of ice,
which we were steering directly for, till we were less than a mile from
it. I judged it to be about 50 feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It
was flat at top, and its sides rose in a perpendicular direction,
against which the sea broke exceedingly high. Captain Furneaux at first
took this ice for land, and hauled off from it, until called back by
signal. As the weather was foggy, it was necessary to proceed with
caution. We therefore reefed our topsails, and at the same time sounded,
but found no ground with 150 fathoms. We kept on to the southward with
the wind at north till night, which we spent in making short trips,
first one way and then another, under an easy sail; thermometer this 24
hours from 36-1/2 to 31.

At day-light in the morning of the 11th, we made sail to the southward
with the wind at west, having a fresh gale, attended with sleet and
snow. At noon we were in the latitude of 51° 50ʹ S., and longitude 21°
3ʹ E., where we saw some white birds about the size of pigeons, with
blackish bills and feet. I never saw any such before; and Mr. Forster
had no knowledge of them. I believe them to be of the peterel tribe, and
natives of these icy seas. At this time we passed between two ice
islands, which lay at a little distance from each other.

In the night, the wind veered to N. W., which enabled us to steer S. W.
On the 12th, we had still thick hazy weather, with sleet and snow; so
that we were obliged to proceed with great caution on account of the ice
islands: six of these we passed this day; some of them near two miles in
circuit, and 60 feet high. And yet, such was the force and height of the
waves, that the sea broke quite over them. This exhibited a view, which
for a few moments was pleasing to the eye; but when we reflected on the
danger, the mind was filled with horror; for, were a ship to get against
the weather-side of one of these islands when the sea runs high, she
would be dashed to pieces in a moment. Upon our getting among the ice
islands, the albatrosses left us; that is, we saw but one now and then;
nor did our other companions, the pintadoes, sheer-waters, small grey
birds, fulmars, &c. appear in such numbers; on the other hand, penguins
began to make their appearance. Two of these birds were seen to-day.

The wind in the night veered to west, and at last fixed at S. W., a
fresh gale, with sleet and snow, which froze on our sails and rigging as
it fell, so that they were all hung with icicles. We kept on to the
southward, passed no less than eighteen ice islands, and saw more
penguins. At noon on the 13th, we were in the latitude of 54° south,
which is the latitude of Cape Circumcision, discovered by M. Bouvet in
1739; but we were ten degrees of longitude east of it; that is, near 118
leagues in this latitude. We stood on to the S. S. E. till eight o’clock
in the evening, the weather still continuing thick and hazy, with sleet
and snow. From noon till this time, twenty ice islands, of various
extent both for height and circuit, presented themselves to our view. At
eight o’clock we sounded, but found no ground with 150 fathom of line.

We now tacked, and make a trip to the northward till midnight, when we
stood again to the southward; and at half-an-hour past six o’clock in
the morning of the 14th, we were stopped by an immense field of low ice;
to which we could see no end, either to the east, west, or south. In
different parts of this field, were islands, or hills of ice, like those
we found floating in the sea; and some on board thought they saw land
also over the ice, bearing S. W. by S. I even thought so myself; but
changed my opinion upon more narrowly examining these ice hills, and the
various appearances they made when seen through the haze; for at this
time it was both hazy and cloudy in the horizon, so that a distant
object could not be seen distinct. Being now in the latitude of 54° 50ʹ
south, and longitude 21° 34ʹ east, and having the wind at N. W., we bore
away along the edge of the ice, steering S. S. E. and S. E., according
to the direction of the north side of it, where we saw many whales,
penguins, some white birds, pintadoes, &c.

At eight o’clock, we brought to under a point of the ice, where we had
smooth water: and I sent on board for Captain Furneaux. After we had
fixed on rendezvouses in case of separation, and some other matters for
the better keeping company, he returned on board, and we made sail again
along the ice. Some pieces we took up along-side, which yielded fresh
water. At noon we had a good observation, and found ourselves in
latitude 54° 55ʹ south.

We continued a S. E. course along the edge of the ice till one o’clock,
when we came to a point round which we hauled S. S. W., the sea
appearing to be clear of ice in that direction. But after running four
leagues upon this course, with the ice on our starboard side, we found
ourselves quite embayed; the ice extending from N. N. E. round by the
west and south, to east, in one compact body. The weather was
indifferently clear; and yet we could see no end to it. At five o’clock,
we hauled up east, wind at north, a gentle gale, in order to clear the
ice. The extreme east point of it, at eight o’clock, bore E. by S., over
which appeared a clear sea. We however spent the night in making short
boards, under an easy sail. Thermometer, these 24 hours, from 32 to 30.

Next day, the 15th, we had the wind at N. W., a small gale, thick foggy
weather, with much snow; thermometer from 32 to 27; so that our sails
and rigging were all hung with icicles. The fog was so thick, at times,
that we could not see the length of the ship; and we had much difficulty
to avoid the many islands of ice that surrounded us. About noon, having
but little wind, we hoisted out a boat to try the current, which we
found set S. E. near 3/4 of a mile an hour. At the same time, a
thermometer, which in the open air was at 32°, in the surface of the sea
was at 30°; and, after being immerged 100 fathoms deep for about 15 or
20 minutes, came up at 34°, which is only 2° above freezing. Our
latitude at this time was 55° 8ʹ.

The thick fog continued till two o’clock in the afternoon of the next
day, when it cleared away a little, and we made sail to the southward,
wind still at N. W., a gentle gale. We had not run long to the southward
before we fell in with the main field of ice, extending from S. S. W. to
E. We now bore away to east along the edge of it; but at night hauled
off north, with the wind at W. N. W., a gentle gale attended with snow.

At four in the morning on the 17th, stood again to the south; but was
again obliged to bear up on account of the ice, along the side of which
we steered betwixt E. and S. S. W., hauling into every bay or opening,
in hopes of finding a passage to the south. But we found every where the
ice closed. We had a gentle gale at N. W. with showers of snow. At noon
we were, by observation, in the latitude of 55° 16ʹ south. In the
evening, the weather was clear and serene. In the course of this day, we
saw many whales, one seal, penguins, some of the white birds, another
sort of peterel, which is brown and white, and not much unlike a
pintado; and some other sorts already known. We found the skirts of the
loose ice to be more broken than usual; and it extended some distance
beyond the main field, insomuch that we sailed amongst it the most part
of the day; and the high ice islands without us were innumerable. At
eight o’clock we sounded, but found no ground with 250 fathoms of line.
After this we hauled close upon a wind to the northward, as we could see
the field of ice extend as far as N. E. But this happened not to be the
northern point; for at eleven o’clock, we were obliged to tack to avoid
it.

At two o’clock the next morning, we stood again to the northward, with
the wind at N. W. by W., thinking to weather the ice upon this tack; on
which we stood but two hours, before we found ourselves quite imbayed,
being then in latitude 55° 8ʹ, longitude 24° 3ʹ. The wind veering more
to the north, we tacked, and stood to the westward under all the sail we
could carry, having a fresh breeze and clear weather, which last was of
short duration. For at six o’clock, it became hazy, and soon after there
was thick fog; the wind veered to the N. E., freshened, and brought with
it snow and sleet, which froze on the rigging as it fell. We were now
enabled to get clear of the field of ice; but at the same time we were
carried in amongst the ice islands, in a manner equally dangerous, and
which, with much difficulty, we kept clear of.

Dangerous as it is to sail among these floating rocks (if I may be
allowed to call them so) in a thick fog, this, however, is preferable to
being entangled with immense fields of ice under the same circumstances.
The great danger to be apprehended in this latter case, is the getting
fast in the ice; a situation which would be exceedingly alarming. I had
two men on board that had been in the Greenland trade; the one of them
in a ship that lay nine weeks, and the other in one that lay six weeks,
fast in this kind of ice; which they called packed ice. What _they_ call
field ice is thicker; and the whole field, be it ever so large, consists
of one piece. Whereas this which _I_ call field ice, from its immense
extent, consists of many pieces of various sizes, both in thickness and
surface, from 30 or 40 feet square to 3 or 4; packed close together; and
in places heaped one upon another. This, I am of opinion, would be found
too hard for a ship’s side, that is not properly armed against it. How
long it may have lain, or will lie here, is a point not easily
determined. Such ice is found in the Greenland seas all the summer long;
and I think it cannot be colder there in the summer, than it is here. Be
this as it may, we certainly had no thaw; on the contrary, the mercury
in Fahrenheit’s thermometer kept generally below the freezing point,
although it was the middle of summer.

It is a general opinion, that the ice I have been speaking of is formed
in bays and rivers. Under this supposition, we were led to believe that
land was not far distant; and that it even lay to the southward behind
the ice, which alone hindered us from approaching to it. Therefore, as
we had now sailed above 30 leagues along the edge of the ice, without
finding a passage to the south, I determined to run 30 or 40 leagues to
the east, afterwards endeavour to get to the southwards, and, if I met
with no land, or other impediment, to get behind the ice, and put the
matter out of all manner of dispute. With this view, we kept standing to
the N. W. with the wind at N. E. and N., thick foggy weather, with sleet
and snow, till six in the evening, when the wind veered to N. W. and we
tacked and stood to the eastward, meeting with many islands of ice of
different magnitudes, and some loose pieces: the thermometer from 30 to
34; weather very hazy, with sleet and snow, and more sensibly colder
than the thermometer seemed to point out, in so much that the whole crew
complained. In order to enable them to support this weather the better,
I caused the sleeves of their jackets (which were so short as to expose
their arms) to be lengthened with baize; and had a cap made for each man
of the same stuff, together with canvass; which proved of great service
to them.

Some of our people beginning to have symptoms of the scurvy, the
surgeons began to give them fresh wort every day, made from the malt we
had on board for that purpose. One man in particular was highly
scorbutic; and yet he had been taking of the rob of lemon and orange for
some time, without being benefited thereby. On the other hand, Captain
Furneaux told me, that he had two men who, though far gone in this
disease, were now in a manner entirely cured of it.

We continued standing to the eastward till eight o’clock in the morning
of the 21st; when, being in the latitude of 53° 50ʹ, and longitude 29°
24ʹ east, we hauled to the south with the wind at west, a fresh gale and
hazy, with snow. In the evening the wind fell, and the weather cleared
up, so as that we could see a few leagues round us; being in the
latitude of 54° 43ʹ south, longitude 29° 30ʹ east.

At ten o’clock, seeing many islands of ice ahead, and the weather coming
on foggy, with snow, we wore and stood to the northward, till three in
the morning, when we stood again to the south. At eight, the weather
cleared up, and the wind came to W. S. W. with which we made all the
sail we could to the south; having never less than ten or twelve islands
of ice in sight.

Next day we had the wind at S. W. and S. S. W. a gentle gale, with now
and then showers of snow and hail. In the morning, being in the latitude
of 55° 20ʹ south, and longitude 31° 30ʹ east, we hoisted out a boat to
see if there was any current; but found none. Mr. Forster, who went in
the boat, shot some of the small grey birds before mentioned, which were
of the peterel tribe, and about the size of a small pigeon. Their back,
and upper side of their wings, their feet and bills, are of a blue grey
colour. Their bellies, and under side of their wings, are white, a
little tinged with blue. The upper side of their quill feathers is a
dark blue tinged with black. A streak is formed by feathers nearly of
this colour along the upper parts of the wings, and crossing the back a
little above the tail. The end of the tail feathers is also of the same
colour. Their bills are much broader than any I have seen of the same
tribe; and their tongues are remarkably broad. These blue peterels, as I
shall call them, are seen no where but in the southern hemisphere, from
about the latitude of 28°, and upwards. Thermometer at 33° in the open
air, at 32 in the sea at the surface, and at 34-1/2 when drawn, and
6-1/2 minutes in drawing up from 100 fathoms below it, where it had been
16 minutes.

On the 24th, the wind blew from N. W. to N. E. a gentle gale, fair and
cloudy. At noon we were by observation in the latitude of 56° 31ʹ south,
and longitude 31° 19ʹ east, the thermometer at 35. And being near an
island of ice which was about 50 feet high, and 400 fathoms in circuit,
I sent the master in the jolly-boat to see if any water run from it. He
soon returned with an account, that there was not one drop, or any other
appearances of thaw. In the evening, we sailed through several floats or
fields of loose ice, lying in the direction of S. E. and N. W., at the
same time we had continually several islands of the same composition in
sight.

On the 25th, the wind veering round from the N. E. by the east to south,
it blew a gentle gale; with which we stood to the W. S. W. and at noon
were in the latitude of 57° 50ʹ south, and longitude 29° 32ʹ east. The
weather was fair and cloudy; the air sharp and cold, attended with a
hard frost. And, although this was the middle of summer with us, I much
question if the day was colder in any part of England. The wind
continued at south, blew a fresh gale, fair and cloudy weather, till
near noon the next day, when we had clear sunshine, and found ourselves,
by observation, in the latitude of 58° 31ʹ south longitude, 26° 57ʹ
east.

In the course of the last twenty-four hours, we passed through several
fields of broken loose ice. They were in general narrow, but of a
considerable length, in the direction of N. W. and S. E. The ice was so
close in one, that it would hardly admit the ship through it. The pieces
were flat, from four to six or eight inches thick, and appeared of that
sort of ice which is generally formed in bays or rivers. Others again
were different; the pieces forming various honey-combed branches,
exactly like coral rocks, and exhibiting such a variety of figures as
can hardly be conceived.

We supposed this ice to have broke from the main field we had lately
left; and which I was determined to get to the south of, or behind, if
possible, in order to satisfy myself, whether or no it joined to any
land, as had been conjectured. With this view, I kept on to the
westward, with a gentle gale at south and S. S. W., and soon after six
o’clock in the evening, we saw some penguins, which occasioned us to
sound; but we found no ground with 150 fathoms.

In the morning of the 27th, we saw more loose ice, but not many islands;
and those we did see were but small. The day being calm and pleasant,
and the sea smooth, we hoisted out a boat; from which Mr. Forster shot a
penguin and some peterels. These penguins differ not from those seen in
other parts of the world, except in some minute particulars
distinguishable only by naturalists. Some of the peterels were of the
blue sort; but differed from those before mentioned, in not having a
broad bill; and the ends of their tail feathers were tipped with white
instead of dark blue. But whether these were only the distinctions
between the male and female, was a matter disputed by our naturalists.
We were now in the latitude of 58° 19ʹ south, longitude 24° 39ʹ east,
and took the opportunity of the calm to sound; but found no ground with
a line of 220 fathoms. The calm continued till six in the evening, when
it was succeeded by a light breeze from the east, which afterwards
increased to a fresh gale.

In the morning of the 28th, I made the signal to the Adventure to spread
four miles on my starboard beam; and in this position we continued
sailing W. S. W. until four o’clock in the afternoon, when the hazy
weather, attended with snow showers, made it necessary for us to join.
Soon after we reefed our top-sails, being surrounded on all sides with
islands of ice. In the morning of the 29th, we let them out again, and
set top-gallant sails, still continuing our course to the westward, and
meeting with several penguins. At noon we were, by observation, in the
latitude of 59° 12ʹ, longitude 19° 1ʹ east; which is 3° more to the west
than we were when we first fell in with the field ice; so that it is
pretty clear that it joined to no land, as was conjectured.

Having come to a resolution to run as far west as the meridian of Cape
Circumcision, provided we met with no impediment, as the distance was
not more than 80 leagues, the wind favourable, and the sea seemed to be
pretty clear of ice, I sent on board for Captain Furneaux, to make him
acquainted therewith; and after dinner he returned to his ship. At one
o’clock we steered for an island of ice, thinking, if there were any
loose ice round it, to take some on board, and convert it into fresh
water. At four we brought to, close under the lee of the island; where
we did not find what we wanted, but saw upon it eighty-six penguins.
This piece of ice was about half a mile in circuit, and one hundred feet
high and upwards; for we lay for some minutes with every sail becalmed
under it. The side on which the penguins were, rose sloping from the
sea, so as to admit them to creep up it.

It is a received opinion, that penguins never go far from land, and that
the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. This opinion may
hold good where there are no ice islands; but where such are, these
birds, as well as many others which usually keep near the shores,
finding a roosting-place upon these islands, may be brought by them a
great distance from any land. It will however be said, that they must go
on shore to breed; that probably the females were there, and that these
were only the males which we saw. Be this as it may, I shall continue to
take notice of these birds whenever we see them, and leave every one to
judge for himself.

We continued our course to the westward, with a gentle gale at E. N. E.
the weather being sometimes tolerably clear, and at other times thick
and hazy, with snow. The thermometer for a few days past was from 31 to
36. At nine o’clock the next morning, being the 30th, we shot one of the
white birds; upon which we lowered a boat into the water to take it up,
and by that means killed a penguin which weighed 11-1/2 pounds. The
white bird was of the peterel tribe; the bill, which is rather short, is
of a colour between black and dark blue, and their legs and feet are
blue. I believe them to be the same sort of birds that Bouvet mentions
to have seen, when he was off Cape Circumcision.

We continued our westerly course till eight o’clock in the evening, when
we steered N. W., the point on which I reckoned the above mentioned Cape
to bear.

At mid-night we fell in with loose ice, which soon after obliged us to
tack, and stretch to the southward. At half an hour past two o’clock in
the morning of the 31st, we stood for it again, thinking to take some on
board; but this was found impracticable. For the wind, which had been at
N. E., now veered to S. E., and increasing to a fresh gale, brought with
it such a sea as made it very dangerous for the ships to remain among
the ice. The danger was yet farther increased, by discovering an immense
field to the north, extending from N. E. by E. to S. W. by W. farther
than the eye could reach. As we were not above two or three miles from
this, and surrounded by loose ice, there was no time to deliberate. We
presently wore, got our tacks on board, hauled to the south, and soon
got clear, but not before we had received several hard knocks from the
loose pieces, which were of the largest sort, and among which we saw a
seal. In the afternoon, the wind increased in such a manner, as to
oblige us to hand the top-sails, and strike top-gallant-yards. At eight
o’clock we tacked, and stood to the east till mid-night, when, being in
the latitude of 60° 21ʹ south, longitude 13° 32ʹ east, we stood again to
the west.

Next day towards noon, the gale abated; so that we could carry
close-reefed top-sails. But the weather continued thick and hazy, with
sleet and snow, which froze on the rigging as it fell, and ornamented
the whole with icicles; the mercury in the thermometer being generally
below the freezing point. This weather continued till near noon the next
day; at which time we were in the latitude of 59° 12ʹ south, longitude
9° 45ʹ east, and here we saw some penguins.

The wind had now veered to the west, and was so moderate, that we could
bear two reefs out of the top-sails. In the afternoon, we were favoured
with a sight of the moon, whose face we had seen but once since we left
the Cape of Good Hope. By this a judgment may be formed of the sort of
weather we had had since we left that place. We did not fail to seize
the opportunity to make several observations of the sun and moon. The
longitude deduced from them was 9° 34ʹ 30ʺ east. Mr. Kendal’s watch, at
the same time, giving 10° 6ʹ east, and the latitude was 58° 53ʹ 30ʺ
south.

This longitude is nearly the same that is assigned to Cape Circumcision,
and at the going down of the sun, we were about ninety-five leagues to
the south of the latitude it is said to lie in. At this time the weather
was so clear, that we might have seen land at fourteen or fifteen
leagues distance. It is therefore very probable, that what Bouvet took
for land, was nothing but mountains of ice, surrounded by loose or field
ice. We ourselves were undoubtedly deceived by the ice hills, the day we
first fell in with the field ice. Nor was it an improbable conjecture,
that that ice joined to land. The probability was however now greatly
lessened, if not entirely set aside. For the space between the northern
edge of the ice, along which we sailed, and our route to the west, when
south of it, nowhere exceeded 100 leagues; and in some places not 60.
But a view of the chart will best explain this. The clear weather
continued no longer than three o’clock the next morning, when it was
succeeded by a thick fog, sleet, and snow. The wind also veered to N. E.
and blew a fresh gale, with which we stood to S. E. It increased in such
a manner, that before noon we were brought under close-reefed top-sails.
The wind continued to veer to the north, at last fixed at N. W. and was
attended with intervals of clear weather.

Our course was east, 3/4 north, till noon the next day, when we were in
the latitude of 59° 2ʹ south, and nearly under the same meridian as we
were when we fell in with the last field of ice, five days before; so
that had it remained in the same situation, we must now have been in the
middle of it. Whereas we did not so much as see any. We cannot suppose
that so large a float of ice as this was, could be destroyed in so short
a time. It therefore must have drifted to the northward, and this makes
it probable that there is no land under this meridian, between the
latitude of 55° and 59°, where we had supposed some to lie, as mentioned
above.

As we were now only sailing over a part of the sea where we had been
before, I directed the course E. S. E. in order to get more to the
south. We had the advantage of a fresh gale, and the disadvantage of a
thick fog, much snow and sleet, which, as usual, froze on our rigging as
it fell, so that every rope was covered with the finest transparent ice
I ever saw. This afforded an agreeable sight enough to the eye, but
conveyed to the mind an idea of coldness, much greater than it really
was; for the weather was rather milder than it had been for some time
past, and the sea less encumbered with ice. But the worst was, the ice
so clogged the rigging, sails, and blocks, as to make them exceedingly
bad to handle. Our people however surmounted those difficulties with a
steady perseverance, and withstood this intense cold much better than I
expected.

We continued to steer to the E. S. E. with a fresh gale at N. W.
attended with snow and sleet, till the 8th, when we were in the latitude
of 61° 12ʹ south, longitude 31° 47ʹ east. In the afternoon we passed
more ice islands than we had seen for several days. Indeed they were now
so familiar to us, that they were often passed unnoticed, but more
generally unseen on account of the thick weather. At nine o’clock in the
evening, we came to one which had a quantity of loose ice about it. As
the wind was moderate, and the weather tolerably fair, we shortened
sail, and stood on and off, with a view of taking some on board on the
return of light; but at four o’clock in the morning, finding ourselves
to leeward of this ice, we bore down to an island to leeward of us,
there being about it some loose ice, part of which we saw break off.
There we brought to, hoisted out three boats, and in about five or six
hours, took up as much ice as yielded fifteen tons of good fresh water.
The pieces we took up were hard, and solid as a rock, some of them were
so large, that we were obliged to break them with pick-axes, before they
could be taken into the boats.

The salt water which adhered to the ice, was so trifling as not to be
tasted, and after it had lain on deck a short time, entirely drained
off; and the water which the ice yielded, was perfectly sweet and
well-tasted. Part of the ice we broke in pieces, and put into casks,
some we melted in the coppers, and filled up the casks with the water,
and some we kept on deck for present use. The melting and stowing away
the ice is a little tedious, and takes up some time, otherwise this is
the most expeditious way of watering I ever met with.

Having got on board this supply of water, and the Adventure about
two-thirds as much (of which we stood in great need), as we had once
broke the ice, I did not doubt of getting more whenever we were in want.
I therefore, without hesitation, directed our course more to the south,
with a gentle gale at N. W. attended, as usual, with snow showers. In
the morning of the 11th, being then in the latitude of 62° 44ʹ south,
longitude 37° east, the variation of the compass was 24° 10ʹ west, and
the following morning in the latitude of 64° 12ʹ south, longitude 38°
14ʹ east, by the mean of three compasses, it was no more than 23° 52ʹ
west. In this situation we saw some penguins, and being near an island
of ice, from which several pieces had broken, we hoisted out two boats,
and took on board as much as filled all our empty casks; and the
Adventure did the same. While this was doing, Mr. Forster shot an
albatross, whose plumage was of a colour between brown and dark grey,
the head and upper side of the wings rather inclining to black, and it
had white eye-brows. We began to see these birds about the time of our
first falling in with the ice islands, and some had accompanied us ever
since. These, and the dark-brown sort with a yellow bill, were the only
albatrosses that had not now forsaken us.

At four o’clock P. M. we hoisted in the boats, and made sail to the
S. E. with a gentle breeze at S. by W. attended with showers of snow.

On the 13th, at two o’clock A. M. it fell calm. Of this we took the
opportunity to hoist out a boat, to try the current, which we found to
set N. W. near one third of a mile an hour. At the time of trying the
current, a Fahrenheit’s thermometer was immerged in the sea 100 fathoms
below its surface, where it remained twenty minutes. When it came up,
the mercury stood at 32, which is the freezing point. Some little time
after, being exposed to the surface of the sea, it rose to 33-1/2, and
in the open air to 36. The calm continued till five o’clock in the
evening, when it was succeeded by a light breeze from the south and
S. E. with which we stood to the N. E. with all our sails set.

Though the weather continued fair, the sky, as usual, was clouded.
However, at nine o’clock the next morning, it was clear, and we were
enabled to observe several distances between the sun and moon. The mean
result of which gave 39° 30ʹ 30ʺ east longitude. Mr. Kendal’s watch, at
the same time, gave 38° 27ʹ 45ʺ, which is 1° 2ʹ 45ʺ west of the
observations; whereas, on the 3d instant, it was half a degree east of
them.

 In the evening I found the variation, by }
   the mean of Azimuths taken with        } 28° 14ʹ  0
   Gregory’s compass, to be               }

 By the mean of six Azimuths by one       } 28  32   0
   of Dr. Knight’s                        }

 And by another of Dr. Knight’s             28  34   0

Our latitude at this time was 63° 57ʹ, longitude 39° 38-1/2ʹ east.

The succeeding morning, the 15th, being then in latitude 63° 33ʹ south,
the longitude was observed by the following persons, viz.

 Myself, being the mean of six distances  } 40°  1ʹ 45ʺ E.
   of the sun and moon                    }
 Mr. Wales, ditto                           39  29  45
 Ditto, ditto                               39  56  45
 Lieutenant Clerke, ditto                   39  38   0
 Mr. Gilbert, ditto                         39  48  45
 Mr. Smith, ditto                           39  18  15
                                            ----------
 Mean                                       39  42  12
                                            ----------
 Mr. Kendal’s watch made                    38  41  30

Which is nearly the same difference as the day before. But Mr. Wales and
I took each of us six distances of the sun and moon, with the telescopes
fixed to our sextants, which brought out the longitude nearly the same
as the watch. The results were as follows:—By Mr. Wales 38° 35ʹ 30ʺ, and
by me 38° 36ʹ 45ʺ.

It is impossible for me to say whether these or the former are the
nearest the truth, nor can I assign any probable reason for so great a
disagreement. We certainly can observe with greater accuracy through the
telescope, than with the common sight, when the ship is sufficiently
steady. The use of the telescope is found difficult at first, but a
little practice will make it familiar. By the assistance of the watch,
we shall be able to discover the greatest error this method of observing
the longitude at sea is liable to; which, at the greatest, does not
exceed a degree and a half, and in general will be found to be much
less. Such is the improvement navigation has received by the astronomers
and mathematical instrument-makers of this age; by the former from the
valuable tables they have communicated to the public, under the
direction of the Board of Longitude, and contained in the astronomical
ephemeris; and by the latter, from the great accuracy they observe in
making instruments, without which the tables would, in a great measure,
lose their effect. The preceding observations were made by four
different sextants, of different workmen; mine was made by Mr. Bird; one
of Mr. Wales’s by Mr. Dollond; the other, and Mr. Clerke’s, by Mr.
Ramsden; as also Mr. Gilbert’s and Smith’s, who observed with the same
instrument.

Five tolerable fine days had now succeeded one another. This, besides
giving us an opportunity to make the preceding observations, was very
serviceable to us on many other accounts, and came at a very seasonable
time. For having on board a good quantity of fresh water or ice, which
was the same thing, the people were enabled to wash and dry their
clothes and linen; a care that can never be enough attended to in all
long voyages. The winds during this time blew in gentle gales, and the
weather was mild. Yet the mercury in the thermometer never rose above
36, and was frequently as low as the freezing point.

In the afternoon, having but little wind, I brought to under an island
of ice, and sent a boat to take up some. In the evening the wind
freshened at east, and was attended with snow showers and thick hazy
weather, which continued great part of the 16th. As we met with little
ice, I stood to the south, close hauled; and at six o’clock in the
evening, being in the latitude of 64° 56ʹ south, longitude 39° 35ʹ east,
I found the variation by Gregory’s compass to be 26° 41ʹ west. At this
time, the motion of the ship was so great, that I could by no means
observe with any of Dr. Knight’s compasses.

As the wind remained invariably fixed at east, and E. by S. I continued
to stand to the south; and on the 17th, between eleven and twelve
o’clock, we crossed the Antarctic circle in the longitude of 39° 35ʹ
east; for at noon we were by observation in the latitude of 66° 36ʹ 30ʺ
south. The weather was now become tolerably clear, so that we could see
several leagues round us; and yet we had only seen one island of ice
since the morning. But about four P. M. as we were steering to the
south, we observed the whole sea in a manner covered with ice, from the
direction of S. E. round by the south to west.

In this space, thirty-eight ice islands, great and small, were seen,
besides loose ice in abundance, so that we were obliged to luff for one
piece, and bear up for another, and as we continued to advance to the
south, it increased in such a manner, that at 3/4 past six o’clock,
being then in the latitude of 67° 15ʹ south, we could proceed no
farther; the ice being entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent
from east to W. S. W., without the least appearance of any opening. This
immense field was composed of different kinds of ice, such as high ills,
loose or broken pieces packed close together, and what, I think,
Greenlandmen call field-ice. A float of this kind of ice lay to the
S. E. of us, of such extent that I could see no end to it, from the
mast-head. It was sixteen or eighteen feet high at least; and appeared
of a pretty equal height and surface. Here we saw many whales playing
about the ice, and for two days before had seen several flocks of the
brown and white pintadoes, which we named Antarctic peterels, because
they seem to be natives of that region. They are undoubtedly of the
peterel tribe; are in every respect shaped like the pintadoes, differing
only from them in colour. The head and fore-part of the body of these
are brown; and the hind-part of the body, tail and ends of the wings,
are white. The white peterel also appeared in greater numbers than
before; some few dark grey albatrosses, and our constant companion the
blue peterel. But the common pintadoes had quite disappeared, as well as
many other sorts, which are common in lower latitudes.



                               CHAP. III.

 SEQUEL OF THE SEARCH FOR A SOUTHERN CONTINENT BETWEEN THE MERIDIAN OF
THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND NEW ZEALAND; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE SEPARATION
   OF THE TWO SHIPS, AND THE ARRIVAL OF THE RESOLUTION IN DUSKY BAY.


After meeting with this ice, I did not think it was at all prudent to
persevere in getting farther to the south, especially as the summer was
already half spent, and it would have taken up some time to have got
round the ice, even supposing it to have been practicable, which,
however, is doubtful. I therefore came to a resolution to proceed
directly in search of the land lately discovered by the French. And as
the winds still continued at E. by S., I was obliged to return to the
north, over some part of the sea I had already made myself acquainted
with, and for that reason wished to have avoided. But this was not to be
done; as our course, made good, was little better than north. In the
night, the wind increased to a strong gale, attended with sleet and
snow, and obliged us to double-reef our top-sails. About noon the next
day, the gale abated; so that we could bear all our reefs out; but the
wind still remained in its old quarter.

In the evening, being in the latitude of 64° 12ʹ south, longitude 40°
15ʹ east, a bird called by us, in my former voyage, Port Egmont hen, (on
account of the great plenty of them at Port Egmont, in Falkland isles,)
came hovering several times over the ship, and then left us in the
direction of N. E. They are a short thick bird about the size of a large
crow, of a dark brown or chocolate colour, with a whitish streak under
each wing in the shape of a half-moon. I have been told that these birds
are found in great plenty at the Fero isles, north of Scotland; and that
they never go far from land. Certain it is, I never before saw them
above forty leagues off; but I do not remember ever seeing fewer than
two together, whereas, here was but one, which, with the islands of ice,
may have come a good way from land.

At nine o’clock, the wind veering to E. N. E. we tacked and stood to the
S. S. E., but at four in the morning of the 20th, it returned back to
its old point, and we resumed our northerly course. One of the above
birds was seen this morning; probably the same we saw the night before,
as our situation was not much altered. As the day advanced, the gale
increased, attended with thick hazy weather, sleet and snow, and at last
obliged us to close-reef our top-sails, and strike top-gallant-yards.
But in the evening, the wind abated so as to admit us to carry whole
top-sails and top-gallant-yards aloft. Hazy weather, with snow and sleet
continued.

In the afternoon of the 21st, being in the latitude of 62° 24ʹ south,
longitude 42° 19ʹ east, we saw a white albatross with black-tipped
wings, and a pintadoe bird. The wind was now at south and S. W. a fresh
gale. With this we steered N. E. against a very high sea, which did not
indicate the vicinity of land in that quarter; and yet it was there we
were to expect it. The next day we had intervals of fair weather; the
wind was moderate, and we carried our studding sails. In the morning of
the 23rd, we were in latitude 60° 27ʹ south, longitude 45° 33ʹ east.
Snow showers continued, and the weather was so cold, that the water in
our water vessels on deck had been frozen for several preceding nights.

Having clear weather at intervals, I spread the ships a-breast four
miles from each other, in order the better to discover any thing that
might lie in our way. We continued to sail in this manner till six
o’clock in the evening, when hazy weather, and snow showers, made it
necessary for us to join.

We kept our course to the N. E. till eight o’clock in the morning of the
25th, when the wind having veered round to N. E. by E. by the west and
north, we tacked, and stood to N. W. The wind was fresh, and yet we made
but little way against a high northerly sea. We now began to see some of
that sort of peterels so well known to sailors by the name of
sheerwaters, latitude 58° 10ʹ, longitude 50° 54ʹ east. In the afternoon
the wind veered to the southward of east, and at eight o’clock in the
evening, it increased to a storm, attended with thick hazy weather,
sleet and snow.

During night we went under our fore-sail and main-top-sail close-reefed;
at day light the next morning, added to them the fore and mizzen
top-sails. At four o’clock it fell calm; but a prodigious high sea from
the N. E. and a complication of the worst of weather, viz. snow, sleet,
and rain, continued, together with the calm, till nine o’clock in the
evening. Then the weather cleared up, and we got a breeze at S. E. by S.
With this we steered N. by E. till eight o’clock the next morning, being
the 27th, when I spread the ships and steered N. N. E. all sails set,
having a fresh breeze at S. by W. and clear weather.

At noon we were, by observation, in the latitude of 56° 28ʹ south, and
about three o’clock in the afternoon, the sun and moon appearing at
intervals, their distances were observed by the following persons, and
the longitude resulting therefrom was—

    By Mr. Wales, (mean of two sets)                   50° 59ʹ east
    Lieutenant Clerke                                  51  11
    Mr. Gilbert                                        50  14
    Mr. Smith                                          50  50
    Mr. Kendall’s watch                                50  50

At six o’clock in the evening, being in latitude 56° 9ʹ S., I now made
signal to the Adventure to come under my stern; and at eight o’clock the
next morning, sent her to look out on my starboard beam, having at this
time a fresh gale at west, and pretty clear weather. But this was not of
long duration, for at two in the afternoon, the sky became cloudy and
hazy; the wind increased to a fresh gale; blew in squalls attended with
snow, sleet, and drizzling rain. I now made signal to the Adventure to
come under my stern, and took another reef in each top-sail. At eight
o’clock I hauled up the main-sail, and run all night under the
fore-sail, and two top-sails; our course being N. N. E. and N. E. by N.
with a strong gale at N. W.

The 29th, at noon, we observed in latitude 52° 29ʹ south, the weather
being fair and tolerably clear. But in the afternoon, it again became
very thick and hazy, with rain; and the gale increased in such a manner
as to oblige us to strike top-gallant yards, close reef and hand the
top-sails. We spent part of the night, which was very dark and stormy,
in making a tack to the S. W., and in the morning of the 30th, stood
again to the N. E., wind at N. W. and north, a very fresh gale; which
split several of our small sails. This day no ice was seen; probably
owing to the thick hazy weather. At eight o’clock in the evening we
tacked and stood to the westward, under our courses; but as the sea ran
high we made our course no better than S. S. W.

At four o’clock the next morning, the gale had a little abated; and the
wind had backed to W. by S. We again stood to the northward, under
courses and double-reefed top-sails, having a very high sea from the
N. N. W., which gave us but little hopes of finding the land we were in
search of. At noon, we were in the latitude of 50° 50ʹ S. longitude 56°
48ʹ east, and presently after we saw two islands of ice. One of these we
passed very near, and found that it was breaking or falling to pieces,
by the cracking noise it made; which was equal to the report of a
four-pounder. There was a good deal of loose ice about it; and had the
weather been favourable, I should have brought to, and taken some up.
After passing this, we saw no more, till we returned again to the south.

Hazy, gloomy weather continued, and the wind remained invariably fixed
at N. W., so that we could make our course no better than N. E. by N.,
and this course we held till four o’clock in the afternoon of the 1st of
February. Being then in the latitude of 48° 30ʹ, and longitude 58° 7ʹ
east, nearly in the meridian of the island of Mauritius, and where we
were to expect to find the land said to be discovered by the French, of
which at this time we saw not the least signs, we bore away east.

I now made the signal to the Adventure to keep at the distance of four
miles on my starboard beam. At half an hour past six Captain Furneaux
made the signal to speak with me; and upon his coming under my stern, he
informed me that he had just seen a large float of sea or rock-weed, and
about it several birds (divers). These were certainly signs of the
vicinity of land; but whether it lay to the east or west was not
possible for us to know. My intention was to have got into this latitude
four or five degrees of longitude to the west of the meridian we were
now in, and then to have carried on my researches to the east. But the
W. and N. W. winds we had had the five preceding days prevented me from
putting this in execution.

The continual high sea we had lately had from the N. E., N. N. W. and
west, left me no reason to believe that land of any extent lay to the
west. We therefore continued to steer to the E., only lying to a few
hours in the night, and in the morning resumed our course again, four
miles north and south from each other; the hazy weather not permitting
us to spread farther. We passed two or three small pieces of rock-weed,
and saw two or three birds known by the name of egg-birds; but saw no
other signs of land. At noon we observed, in latitude 48° 36ʹ south,
longitude 59° 35ʹ east. As we could only see a few miles farther to the
south, and as it was not impossible that there might be land not far off
in that direction, I gave orders to steer S. 1/2 E., and made the signal
for the Adventure to follow, she being, by this movement, thrown
a-stern. The weather continuing hazy till half an hour past six o’clock
in the evening, when it cleared up so as to enable us to see about five
leagues round us.

Being now in the latitude of 49° 13ʹ south, without having the least
signs of land, I wore and stood again to the eastward, and soon after
spoke with Captain Furneaux. He told me that he thought the land was to
the N. W. of us; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth
when the wind blew in that direction. Although this was not conformable
to the remarks _we_ had made on the sea, I resolved to clear up the
point, if the wind would admit of my getting to the west in any
reasonable time.

At eight o’clock in the morning of the 3d, being in the latitude of 48°
56ʹ South, longitude 6° 47ʹ East, and upwards of 3° to the east of the
meridian of Mauritius, I began to despair of finding land to the east;
and as the wind had now veered to the northward, resolved to search for
it to the west. I accordingly tacked and stood to the west with a fresh
gale. This increased in such a manner, that before night we were reduced
to our two courses; and at last, obliged to lie to under the fore-sails,
having a prodigious high sea from W. N. W., notwithstanding the height
of the gale was from N. by W. At three o’clock the next morning, the
gale abating, we made sail, and continued to ply to the west till ten
o’clock in the morning of the sixth.

At this time being in the latitude of 48° 6ʹ South, longitude 58° 22ʹ
East, the wind seemingly fixed at W. N. W., and seeing no signs of
meeting with land, I gave over plying, and bore away east a little
southerly: being satisfied, that if there is any land hereabout, it can
only be an isle of no great extent. And it was just as probable I might
have found it to the east as west.

While we were plying about here, we took every opportunity to observe
the variation of the compass, and found it to be from 27° 50ʹ, to 30°
26ʹ West. Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29° 4ʹ is the
nearest the truth, as it nearly agrees with the variation observed on
board the Adventure. In making these observations, we found that, when
the sun was on the starboard side of the ship, the variation was the
least; and when on the larboard side, the greatest. This was not the
first time we had made this observation, without being able to account
for it. At four o’clock in the morning of the 7th, I made the
Adventure’s signal to keep at the distance of four miles on my starboard
beam; and continued to steer E. S. E. This being a fine day, I had all
our men’s bedding and cloaths spread on deck to air, and the ship
cleaned and smoked betwixt decks. At noon I steered a point more to the
south, being then in the latitude of 48° 49ʹ south, longitude 61° 48ʹ
east. At six o’clock in the evening, I called in the Adventure; and at
the same time took several azimuths, which gave the variation 31° 28ʹ
west. These observations could not be taken with the greatest accuracy,
on account of the rolling of the ship, occasioned by a very high
westerly swell.

The preceding evening, three Port Egmont hens were seen; this morning
another appeared. In the evening, and several times in the night,
penguins were heard; and at day-light, in the morning of the 8th,
several of these were seen; and divers of two sorts, seemingly such as
are usually met with on the coast of England. This occasioned us to
sound; but we found no ground with a line of 210 fathoms. Our latitude
now was 49° 53ʹ South, and longitude 63° 39ʹ east. This was at eight
o’clock. By this time the wind had veered round by the N. E. to E., blew
a brisk gale, and was attended with hazy weather, which soon after
turned to a thick fog; and at the same time, the wind shifted to N. E.

I continued to keep the wind on the larboard tack, and to fire a gun
every hour till noon; when I made the signal to tack, and tacked
accordingly. But as neither this signal, nor any of the former, was
answered by the Adventure, we had but too much reason to think that a
separation had taken place; though we were at a loss to tell how it had
been effected. I had directed Captain Furneaux, in case he was separated
from me, to cruise three days in the place where he last saw me. I
therefore continued making short boards, and firing half-hour guns, till
the 9th in the afternoon, when the weather having cleared up, we could
see several leagues round us, and found that the Adventure was not
within the limits of our horizon. At this time, we were about two or
three leagues to the eastward of the situation we were in when we last
saw her, and were standing to the westward with a very strong gale at
N. N. W., accompanied with a great sea from the same direction. This,
together with an increase of wind, obliged us to lie to, till eight
o’clock the next morning; during which time we saw nothing of the
Adventure, notwithstanding the weather was pretty clear, and we had kept
firing guns, and burning false fires, all night. I therefore gave over
looking for her, made sail, and steered S. E. with a very fresh gale at
W. by N., accompanied with a high sea from the same direction.

While we were beating about here, we frequently saw penguins and divers,
which made us conjecture that land was not far off; but in what
direction, it was not possible for us to tell. As we advanced to the
south, we lost the penguins, and most of the divers, and as usual, met
with abundance of albatrosses, blue peterels, sheer-waters, &c.

The 11th at noon, and in the latitude of 51° 15ʹ south, longitude 67°
20ʹ east, we again met with penguins; and saw an egg-bird, which we also
look upon to be a sign of the vicinity of land. I continued to steer to
the S. E., with a fresh gale in the N. W. quarter, attended with a long
hollow swell, and frequent showers of rain, hail, and snow. The 12th, in
the morning, being in the latitude of 52° 32ʹ south, longitude 69° 47ʹ
east, the variation was 31° 38ʹ West. In the evening, in the latitude of
53° 7ʹ south, longitude 70° 50ʹ east, it was 32° 33ʹ: and the next
morning, in the latitude of 53° 37ʹ south, longitude 72° 10ʹ, it was 33°
8ʹ west. Thus far we had continually a great number of penguins about
the ship, which seemed to be different from those we had seen near the
ice; being smaller, with reddish bills and brownish heads. The meeting
with so many of these birds, gave us some hopes of finding land, and
occasioned various conjectures about its situation. The great westerly
swell, which still continued, made it improbable that land of any
considerable extent lay to the west. Nor was it very probable that any
lay to the north; as we were only about 160 leagues to the south of
Tasman’s Track in 1642; and I conjectured that Captain Furneaux would
explore this place; which accordingly happened. In the evening we saw a
Port Egmont hen, which flew away in the direction of N. E. by E., and
the next morning, a seal was seen; but no penguins. In the evening,
being in the latitude of 55° 49ʹ south, longitude 75° 52ʹ east, the
variation was 34° 48ʹ west; and in the evening of the 15th, in latitude
57° 2ʹ south, longitude 79° 56ʹ east, it was 38° west. Five seals were
seen this day, and a few penguins; which occasioned us to sound, without
finding any bottom, with a line of 150 fathoms.

At day-light in the morning of the 16th, we saw an island of ice to the
northward; for which we steered, in order to take some on board; but the
wind shifting to that direction, hindered us from putting this in
execution. At this time we were in the latitude of 57° 8ʹ south,
longitude 80° 59ʹ east, and had two islands of ice in sight. This
morning we saw one penguin, which appeared to be of the same sort which
we had formerly seen near the ice. But we had now been so often deceived
by these birds, that we could no longer look upon them, nor indeed upon
any other oceanic birds, which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of
the vicinity of land.

The wind continued not long at north, but veered to E. by N. E., and
blew a gentle gale, with which we stood to the southward; having
frequent showers of sleet and snow. But in the night we had fair
weather, and a clear serene sky; and between midnight and three o’clock
in the morning, lights were seen in the heavens, similar to those in the
northern hemisphere, known by the name of Aurora Borealis, or northern
lights; but I never heard of the Aurora Australis being seen before. The
officer of the watch observed, that it sometimes broke out in spiral
rays, and in a circular form; then its light was very strong, and its
appearance beautiful. He could not perceive it had any particular
direction; for it appeared, at various times, in different parts of the
heavens, and diffused its light throughout the whole atmosphere.

At nine in the morning, we bore down to an island of ice, which we
reached by noon. It was full half a mile in circuit, and two hundred
feet high at least; though very little loose ice about it. But while we
were considering whether or no we should hoist out our boats to take
some up, a great quantity broke from the island. Upon this we hoisted
out our boats, and went to work to get some on board. The pieces of ice,
both great and small, which broke from the island, I observed, drifted
fast to the westward; that is, they left the island in that direction,
and were, in a few hours, spread over a large space of sea. This, I have
no doubt, was caused by a current setting in that direction; for the
wind could have but little effect upon the ice; especially as there was
a large hollow swell from the west. This circumstance greatly retarded
our taking up ice. We, however, made a shift to get on board about nine
or ten tons before eight o’clock, when we hoisted in the boats, and made
sail to east, inclining to the south, with a fresh gale at south; which
soon after veered to S. S. W. and S. W., with fair but cloudy weather.
This course brought us among many ice isles; so that it was necessary to
proceed with great caution. In the night the mercury in the thermometer
fell two degrees below the freezing point; and the water in the scuttle
casks on deck was frozen. As I have not taken notice of the thermometer
of late, I shall now observe that, as we advanced to the north, the
mercury gradually rose to 45, and fell again, as we advanced to the
south, to what is above mentioned; nor did it rise, in the middle of the
day, to above 34 or 35.

In the morning of the 18th, being in the latitude of 57° 54ʹ south,
longitude 83° 14ʹ east, the variation was 39° 33ʹ west. In the evening,
in latitude 58° 2ʹ south, longitude 84° 35ʹ east, it was only 37° 8ʹ
west; which induced me to believe it was decreasing. But in the evening
of the 20th, in the latitude of 58° 47ʹ south, longitude 90° 56ʹ east, I
took nine azimuths, with Dr. Knight’s compass, which gave the variation
40° 7ʹ; and nine others, with Gregory’s, which gave 40° 15ʹ west.

This day, at noon, being nearly in the latitude and longitude just
mentioned, we thought we saw land to the S. W. The appearance was so
strong, that we doubted not it was there in reality, and tacked to work
up to it accordingly; having a light breeze at south, and clear weather.
We were, however, soon undeceived, by finding that it was only clouds;
which, in the evening, entirely disappeared, and left us a clear
horizon, so that we could see a considerable way round us; in which
space nothing was to be seen but ice islands.

In the night, the Aurora Australis made a very brilliant and luminous
appearance. It was seen first in the east, a little above the horizon;
and, in a short time, spread over the whole heavens.

The 21st, in the morning, having little wind and a smooth sea, two
favourable circumstances for taking up ice, I steered for the largest
ice-island before us, which we reached by noon. At this time, we were in
the latitude of 59° south, longitude 92° 30ʹ east; having, about two
hours before, seen three or four penguins. Finding here a good quantity
of loose ice, I ordered two boats out, and sent them to take some on
board. While this was doing, the island, which was not less than half a
mile in circuit, and three or four hundred feet high above the surface
of the sea, turned nearly bottom up. Its height, by this circumstance,
was neither increased nor diminished, apparently. As soon as we had got
on board as much ice as we could dispose of, we hoisted in the boats,
and made sail to the S. E., with a gentle breeze at N. by E., attended
with showers of snow, and dark gloomy weather. At this time, we had but
few ice-islands in sight; but the next day, seldom less than twenty or
thirty were seen at once.

The wind gradually veered to the east, and, at last, fixing at E. by S.,
blew a fresh gale. With this, we stood to the south, till eight o’clock
in the evening of the 23d; at which time we were in the latitude 61° 52ʹ
south, longitude 95° 2ʹ east. We now tacked, and spent the night, which
was exceedingly stormy, thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, in making
short boards. Surrounded on every side with danger, it was natural for
us to wish for day-light: this, when it came, served only to increase
our apprehensions, by exhibiting to our view those huge mountains of ice
which, in the night, we had passed without seeing.

These unfavourable circumstances, together with dark nights, at this
advanced season of the year, quite discouraged me from putting in
execution a resolution I had taken of crossing the Antarctic circle once
more. Accordingly, at four o’clock in the morning, we stood to the
north, with a very hard gale at E. S. E., accompanied with snow and
sleet, and a very high sea, from the same point, which made great
destruction among the ice islands. This circumstance, far from being of
any advantage to us, greatly increased the number of pieces we had to
avoid. The large pieces which break from the ice islands, are much more
dangerous than the islands themselves; the latter are so high out of
water, that we can generally see them, unless the weather be very thick
and dark, before we are very near them; whereas the others cannot be
seen in the night, till they are under the ship’s bows. These dangers
were, however, now become so familiar to us, that the apprehensions they
caused, were never of long duration; and were, in some measure,
compensated, both by the seasonable supplies of fresh water these ice
islands afforded us, (without which we must have been greatly
distressed,) and also, by their very romantic appearance, greatly
heightened by the foaming and dashing of the waves into the curious
holes and caverns which are formed in many of them; the whole exhibiting
a view which at once filled the mind with admiration and horror, and can
only be described by the hand of an able painter. Towards the evening,
the gale abated; and in the night we had two or three hours calm. This
was succeeded by a light breeze at west; with which we steered east,
under all the sail we could set, meeting with many ice-islands.

This night we saw a Port Egmont hen; and next morning, being the 25th,
another. We had lately seen but few birds; and those were albatrosses,
sheer-waters, and blue peterels. It is remarkable, that we did not see
one of either the white, or Antarctic peterels, since we came last
amongst the ice. Notwithstanding the wind kept at W. and N. W. all day,
we had a very high sea from the east; by which we concluded that no land
could be near in that direction. In the evening, being in the latitude
60° 51ʹ, longitude 95° 41ʹ east, the variation was 43° 6ʹ west; and the
next morning, being the 26th, having advanced about a degree and a half
more to the east, it was 41° 30ʹ; both being determined by several
azimuths.

We had fair weather all the afternoon; but the wind was unsettled,
veering round by the north to the east. With this, we stood to the S. E.
and E. till three o’clock in the afternoon; when, being in the latitude
of 61° 21ʹ south, longitude 97° 7ʹ, we tacked, and stood to the
northward and eastward, as the wind kept veering to the south. This, in
the evening, increased to a strong gale, blew in squalls, attended with
snow and sleet, and thick hazy weather, which soon brought us under our
close-reefed top-sails.

Between eight in the morning of the 26th and noon the next day, we fell
in among several islands of ice; from whence such vast quantities had
broken, as to cover the sea all round us, and render sailing rather
dangerous. However, by noon, we were clear of it all. In the evening the
wind abated, and veered to S. W., but the weather did not clear up till
the next morning; when we were able to carry all our sails, and met with
but very few islands of ice to impede us. Probably the late gale had
destroyed a great number of them. Such a very large hollow sea had
continued to accompany the wind, as it veered from E. to S. W., that I
was certain no land of considerable extent could lie within 100 or 150
leagues of our situation between these two points.

The mean height of the thermometer at noon, for some days past, was
about 35; which is something higher than it usually was, in the same
latitude, about a month or five weeks before, consequently the air was
something warmer. While the weather was really _warm_, the gales were
not only stronger, but more frequent; with almost continual misty,
dirty, wet weather. The very animals we had on board felt its effects. A
sow having in the morning farrowed nine pigs, every one of them was
killed by the cold, before four o’clock in the afternoon,
notwithstanding all the care we could take of them. From the same cause,
myself, as well as several of my people, had fingers and toes
chilblained. Such is the summer weather we enjoyed.

The wind continued unsettled, veering from the south to the west, and
blew a fresh gale till the evening. Then it fell little wind; and, soon
after, a breeze sprung up at north; which quickly veered to N. E. and
N. E. by E., attended with a thick fog, snow, sleet, and rain. With this
wind and weather, we kept on to the S. E. till four o’clock in the
afternoon of the next day, being the 1st of March, when it fell calm;
which continued for near twenty-four hours. We were now in the latitude
of 60° 36ʹ south, longitude 107° 54ʹ; and had a prodigious high swell
from the S. W., and, at the same time, another from the S. or S. S. E.
The dashing of the one wave against the other, made the ship both roll
and pitch exceedingly; but, at length, the N. W. swell prevailed. The
calm continued till noon the next day, when it was succeeded by a gentle
breeze from S. E., which afterwards increased, and veered to S. W. With
this we steered N. E. by E., and E. by N., under all the sail we could
set.

In the afternoon of the 3d, being in latitude 60° 13ʹ, longitude 110°
18ʹ, the variation was 39° 4ʹ, west. But the observations by which this
was determined, were none of the best; being obliged to make use of such
as we could get, during the very few and short intervals when the sun
appeared. A few penguins were seen this day, but not so many islands of
ice as usual. The weather was also milder; though very changeable;
thermometer from 36 to 38. We continued to have a N. W. swell, although
the wind was unsettled, veering to N. E. by the west and north, attended
with hazy, sleet, and drizzling rain.

We prosecuted our course to the east, inclining to the south, till three
o’clock in the afternoon of the 4th, when (being in the latitude of 60°
37ʹ, longitude 113° 24ʹ) the wind shifting at once to S. W. and S. W. by
S., I gave orders to steer E. by N. 1/2 N. But in the night we steered
E. 1/2 S. in order to have the wind, which was at S. S. W., more upon
the beam; the better to enable us to stand back, in case we fell in with
any danger in the dark. For we had not so much time to spare, to allow
us to lie to.

In the morning of the 5th, we steered E. by N. under all the sail we
could set, passing one ice-island and many small pieces, and at nine
o’clock the wind, which of late had not remained long upon any one
point, shifted all at once to east, and blew a gentle gale. With this we
stood to the north, at which time we were in the latitude of 60° 44ʹ
south, and longitude 116° 50ʹ east. The latitude was determined by the
meridian altitude of the sun, which appeared, now and then, for a few
minutes, till three in the afternoon. Indeed the sky was, in general, so
cloudy, and the weather so thick and hazy, that we had very little
benefit of sun or moon; very seldom seeing the face of either the one or
the other. And yet, even under these circumstances, the weather for some
days past could not be called very cold. It, however, had not the least
pretension to be called summer weather, according to my ideas of summer
in the northern hemisphere, as far as 60° of latitude; which is nearly
as far north as I have been.

In the evening we had three islands of ice in sight, all of them large;
especially one, which was larger than any we had yet seen. The side
opposed to us seemed to be a mile in extent; if so, it could not be less
than three in circuit. As we passed it in the night, a continual
cracking was heard, occasioned, no doubt, by pieces breaking from it.
For, in the morning of the 6th, the sea, for some distance round it, was
covered with large and small pieces; and the island itself did not
appear so large as it had done the evening before. It could not be less
than 100 feet high; yet such was the impetuous force and height of the
waves, which were broken against it, by meeting with such a sudden
resistance, that they rose considerably higher. In the evening, we were
in the latitude 59° 58ʹ south, longitude 118° 39ʹ east. The 7th, the
wind was variable in the N. E. and S. E. quarters, attended with snow
and sleet, till the evening. Then the weather became fair, the sky
cleared up, and the night was remarkably pleasant, as well as the
morning of the next day; which, for the brightness of the sky, and
serenity and mildness of the weather, gave place to none we had seen
since we left the Cape of Good Hope. It was such as is little known in
this sea; and, to make it still more agreeable, we had not one island of
ice in sight. The mercury in the thermometer rose to 40. Mr. Wales and
the master made some observations of the moon and stars, which satisfied
us that, when our latitude was 59° 44ʹ, our longitude was 121° 9ʹ. At
three o’clock in the afternoon, the calm was succeeded by a breeze at
S. E. The sky, at the same time, was suddenly obscured, and seemed to
presage an approaching storm, which accordingly happened; for, in the
evening, the wind shifted to south, blew in squalls, attended with sleet
and rain, and a prodigious high sea. Having nothing to take care of but
ourselves, we kept two or three points from the wind, and ran at a good
rate to the E. N. E. under our two courses, and close-reefed top-sails.

The gale continued till the evening of the 10th; then it abated; the
wind shifted to the westward; and we had fair weather, and but little
wind, during the night, attended with a sharp frost. The next morning,
being in the latitude of 57° 56ʹ, longitude 130°, the wind shifted to
N. E. and blew a fresh gale, with which we stood S. E., having frequent
showers of snow and sleet, and a long hollow swell from S. S. E. and
S. E. by S. This swell did not go down till two days after the wind
which raised it had not only ceased to blow, but had shifted, and blown
fresh at opposite points, good part of the time. Whoever attentively
considers this, must conclude, that there can be no land to the south,
but what must be at a great distance.

Notwithstanding so little was to be expected in that quarter, we
continued to stand to the south till three o’clock in the morning of the
12th, when we were stopped by a calm; being then in the latitude of 58°
56ʹ south, longitude 131° 26ʹ east. After a few hours’ calm, a breeze
sprung up at west, with which we steered east. The S. S. E. swell having
gone down, was succeeded by another from N. W. by W. The weather
continued mild all this day, and the mercury rose to 39-1/2. In the
evening it fell calm, and continued so till three o’clock in the morning
of the 13th, when we got the wind at E. and S. E., a fresh breeze,
attended with snow and sleet. In the afternoon it became fair, and the
wind veered to S. and S. S. W. In the evening, being then in the
latitude of 58° 59ʹ, longitude 134°, the weather was so clear in the
horizon, that we could see many leagues round us. We had but little wind
during the night, some showers of snow, and a very sharp frost. As the
day broke, the wind freshened at S. E. and S. S. E., and soon after, the
sky cleared up, and the weather became clear and serene; but the air
continued cold, and the mercury in the thermometer rose only one degree
above the freezing point.

The clear weather gave Mr. Wales an opportunity to get some observations
of the sun and moon. Their results reduced to noon, when the latitude
was 58° 22ʹ south, gave us 136° 22ʹ east longitude. Mr. Kendal’s watch,
at the same time, gave 134° 42ʹ; and that of Mr. Arnold, the same. This
was the first and only time they pointed out the same longitude, since
we left England. The greatest difference, however, between them, since
we left the cape, had not much exceeded two degrees.

The moderate, and I might almost say the pleasant weather we had, at
times, for the last two or three days, made me wish I had been a few
degrees of latitude farther south; and even tempted me to incline our
course that way. But we soon had weather which convinced us that we were
full far enough; and that the time was approaching, when these seas were
not to be navigated without enduring intense cold; which, by the bye, we
were pretty well used to. In the afternoon, the serenity of the sky was
presently obscured; the wind veered round by the S. W. to W., and blew
in hard squalls, attended with thick and heavy showers of hail and snow,
which continually covered our decks, sails, and rigging, till five
o’clock in the evening of the 15th. At this time the wind abated and
shifted to S. E., the sky cleared up; and the evening was so serene and
clear, that we could see many leagues round us; the horizon being the
only boundary to our sight.

We were now in the latitude of 59° 17ʹ south, longitude 140° 12ʹ east,
and had such a large hollow swell from W. S. W. as assured us that we
had left no land behind us in that direction. I was also well assured
that no land lay to the south on this side 60° of latitude. We had a
smart frost during the night, which was curiously illuminated with the
southern lights.

At ten o’clock in the morning of the 16th, (which was as soon as the sun
appeared,) in the latitude of 58° 51ʹ south, our longitude was 143° 10ʹ
east. This good weather was, as usual, of short duration. In the
afternoon of this day, we had again thick snow showers; but at intervals
it was tolerably clear; and in the evening, being in the latitude of 58°
58ʹ south, longitude 144° 37ʹ east, I found the variation by several
azimuths, to be 31ʹ east.

I was not a little pleased with being able to determine with so much
precision, this point of the line, in which the compass has no
variation. For I look upon half a degree as next to nothing; so that the
intersection of the latitude and longitude just mentioned, may be
reckoned the point, without any sensible error. At any rate the line can
only pass a very small matter west of it.

I continued to steer to the east, inclining to the south, with a fresh
gale at S. W. till five o’clock the next morning, when, being in the
latitude of 59° 7ʹ S. longitude 146° 53ʹ E. I bore away N. E. and at
noon north, having come to a resolution to quit the high southern
latitudes, and to proceed to New Zealand, to look for the Adventure, and
to refresh my people. I had also some thoughts, and even a desire, to
visit the east coast of Van Diemen’s Land, in order to satisfy myself if
it joined the coast of New South Wales.

In the night of the 17th, the wind shifted to N. W. and blew in squalls,
attended with thick hazy weather and rain. This continued all the 18th,
in the evening of which day, being in the latitude of 56° 15ʹ S.
longitude 150°, the sky cleared up, and we found the variation by
several azimuths to be 13° 30ʹ E. Soon after, we hauled up with the log
a piece of rock-weed, which was in a state of decay, and covered with
barnacles. In the night the southern lights were very bright.

The next morning we saw a seal, and towards noon some penguins, and more
rock-weed, being at this time in the latitude of 55° 1ʹ, longitude 152°
1ʹ E. In the latitude of 54° 4ʹ, we also saw a Port-Egmont hen, and some
weed. Navigators have generally looked upon all these to be certain
signs of the vicinity of land; I cannot, however, support this opinion.
At this time we knew of no land, nor is it even probable that there is
any, nearer than New Holland, or Van Diemen’s Land, from which we were
distant 260 leagues. We had, at the same time, several porpuses playing
about us; into one of which Mr. Cooper struck a harpoon; but, as the
ship was running seven knots, it broke its hold, after towing it some
minutes, and before we could deaden the ship’s way.

As the wind, which continued between the north and the west, would not
permit me to touch at Van Diemen’s Land, I shaped my course to New
Zealand; and, being under no apprehensions of meeting with any danger, I
was not backward in carrying sail, as well by night as day, having the
advantage of a very strong gale, which was attended with hazy rainy
weather, and a very large swell from the W. and W. S. W. We continued to
meet with, now and then, a seal, Port-Egmont hens, and sea-weed.

On the morning of the 22d, the wind shifted to south, and brought with
it fair weather. At noon, we found ourselves in the latitude of 49° 55ʹ,
longitude 159° 28ʹ, having a very large swell out of the S. W. For the
three days past the mercury in the thermometer had risen to 46, and the
weather was quite mild. Seven or eight degrees of latitude had made a
surprising difference in the temperature of the air, which we felt with
an agreeable satisfaction.

We continued to advance to the N. E. at a good rate, having a brisk gale
between the south and east; meeting with seals, Port-Egmont hens,
egg-birds, sea-weed, &c. and having constantly a very large swell from
the S. W. At ten o’clock in the morning of the 25th, the land of New
Zealand was seen from the mast head; and, at noon, from the deck;
extending from N. E. by E. to east, distant ten leagues. As I intended
to put into Dusky Bay, or any other port I could find, on the southern
part of TAVAI POENAMMOO, we steered in for the land, under all the sail
we could carry, having the advantage of a fresh gale at west, and
tolerably clear weather. This last was not of long duration; for, at
half an hour after four o’clock, the land, which was not above four
miles distant, was in a manner wholly obscured in a thick haze. At this
time, we were before the entrance of a bay, which I had mistaken for
Dusky Bay, being deceived by some islands that lay in the mouth of it.

Fearing to run, in thick weather, into a place to which we were all
strangers, and seeing some breakers and broken ground a-head, I tacked
in twenty-five fathom water, and stood out to sea with the wind at N. W.
This bay lies on the S. E. side of Cape West, and may be known by a
white cliff on one of the isles which lies in the entrance of the bay.
This part of the coast I did not see but at a great distance, in my
former voyage; and we now saw it under so many disadvantageous
circumstances, that the less I say about it, the fewer mistakes I shall
make. We stood out to sea, under close-reefed top-sails and courses,
till eleven o’clock at night; when we wore and stood to the northward,
having a very high and irregular sea. At five o’clock next morning, the
gale abated, and we bore up for the land; at eight o’clock, the West
Cape bore E. by N. 1/2 N. for which we steered, and entered Dusky Bay
about noon. In the entrance of it, we found 44 fathoms water, a sandy
bottom, the West Cape bearing S. S. E. and Five Fingers Point, or the
north point of the bay, north. Here we had a great swell rolling in from
S. W. The depth of water decreased to 40 fathoms; afterwards we had no
ground with 60. We were, however, too far advanced to return; and
therefore stood on, not doubting but that we should find anchorage. For
in this bay we were all strangers; in my former voyage, having done no
more than discover, and name it.

After running about two leagues up the bay, and passing several of the
isles which lay in it, I brought to, and hoisted out two boats; one of
which I sent away with an officer round a point on the larboard hand, to
look for anchorage. This he found, and signified the same by signal. We
then followed with the ship, and anchored in 50 fathoms water, so near
the shore as to reach it with an hawser. This was on Friday the 26th of
March, at three in the afternoon, after having been 117 days at sea; in
which time we had sailed 3660 leagues, without having once sight of
land.

After such a long continuance at sea, in a high southern latitude, it is
but reasonable to think that many of my people must be ill of the
scurvy. The contrary, however, happened. Mention hath already been made
of sweet wort being given to such as were scorbutic. This had so far the
desired effect, that we had only one man on board that could be called
very ill of this disease; occasioned, chiefly, by a bad habit of body,
and a complication of other disorders. We did not attribute the general
good state of health in the crew, wholly to the sweet wort, but to the
frequent airing and sweetening the ship by fires, &c. We must also allow
portable broth, and sour krout to have had some share in it. This last
can never be enough recommended.

My first care, after the ship was moored, was to send a boat and people
a fishing; in the mean time, some of the gentlemen killed a seal (out of
many that were upon a rock), which made us a fresh meal.



                               CHAP. IV.

 TRANSACTIONS IN DUSKY BAY, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF SEVERAL INTERVIEWS WITH
                            THE INHABITANTS.


As I did not like the place we had anchored in, I sent Lieutenant
Pickersgill over to the S. E. side of the bay, to search for a better;
and I went myself to the other side, for the same purpose, where I met
with an exceedingly snug harbour, but nothing else worthy of notice. Mr.
Pickersgill reported, upon his return, that he had found a good harbour,
with every conveniency. As I liked the situation of this, better than
the other of my own finding, I determined to go there in the morning.
The fishing-boat was very successful; returning with fish sufficient for
all hands for supper, and, in a few hours in the morning, caught as many
as served for dinner. This gave us certain hopes of being plentifully
supplied with this article. Nor did the shores and woods appear less
destitute of wild fowl; so that we hoped to enjoy with ease, what in our
situation might be called the luxuries of life. This determined me to
stay some time in this bay, in order to examine it thoroughly; as no one
had ever landed before, on any of the southern parts of this country.

On the 27th, at nine o’clock in the morning, we got under sail with a
light breeze at S. W. and working over to Pickersgill Harbour, entered
it by a channel scarcely twice the width of the ship; and, in a small
creek, moored head and stern, so near the shore as to reach it with a
brow or stage, which nature had in a manner prepared for us in a large
tree, whose end or top reached our gunwale. Wood, for fuel and other
purposes, was here so convenient, that our yards were locked in the
branches of the trees; and, about 100 yards from our stern, was a fine
stream of fresh water. Thus situated, we began to clear places in the
woods, in order to set up the astronomer’s observatory, the forge to
repair our iron work, tents for the sail-makers and coopers to repair
the sails and casks in; to land our empty casks, to fill water, and to
cut down wood for fuel; all of which were absolutely necessary
occupations. We also began to brew beer from the branches or leaves of a
tree, which much resembles the American black spruce. From the knowledge
I had of this tree, and the similarity it bore to the spruce, I judged
that with the addition of inspissated juice of wort and molasses, it
would make a very wholesome beer, and supply the want of vegetables,
which this place did not afford; and the event proved that I was not
mistaken.

Now I have mentioned the inspissated juice of wort, it will not be
amiss, in this place, to inform the reader that I had made several
trials of it since I left the Cape of Good Hope, and found it to answer
in a cold climate, beyond all expectation. The juice, diluted in warm
water, in the proportion of twelve parts water to one part juice, made a
very good and well-tasted small beer. Some juice which I had of Mr.
Pelham’s own preparing, would bear sixteen parts water. By making use of
warm water, (which I think ought always to be done,) and keeping it in a
warm place, if the weather be cold, no difficulty will be found in
fermenting it. A little grounds of either small or strong beer will
answer as well as yeast.

The few sheep and goats we had left, were not likely to fare quite so
well as ourselves; there being no grass here, but what was coarse and
harsh. It was, however, not so bad, but that we expected they would
devour it with great greediness, and were the more surprised to find
that they would not taste it; nor did they seem over-fond of the leaves
of more tender plants. Upon examination, we found their teeth loose; and
that many of them had every other symptom of an inveterate sea-scurvy.
Out of four ewes and two rams which I brought from the Cape, with an
intent to put ashore in this country, I had only been able to preserve
one of each; and even these were in so bad a state, that it was doubtful
if they could recover; notwithstanding all the care possible had been
taken of them.

Some of the officers, on the 28th, went up the bay in a small boat on a
shooting party; but discovering inhabitants, they returned before noon,
to acquaint me therewith; for hitherto we had not seen the least vestige
of any. They had but just got aboard, when a canoe appeared off a point
about a mile from us, and soon after, returned behind the point out of
sight, probably owing to a shower of rain which then fell: for it was no
sooner over, than the canoe again appeared, and came within musket-shot
of the ship. There were in it seven or eight people. They remained
looking at us for some time, and then returned; all the signs of
friendship we could make, did not prevail on them to come nearer. After
dinner I took two boats and went in search of them, in the cove where
they were first seen, accompanied by several of the officers and
gentlemen. We found the canoe (at least a canoe) hauled upon the shore
near to two small huts, where were several fire-places, some fishing
nets, a few fish lying on the shore, and some in the canoe. But we saw
no people; they, probably, had retired into the woods. After a short
stay, and leaving in the canoe some medals, looking-glasses, beads, &c.,
we embarked and rowed to the head of the cove, where we found nothing
remarkable. In returning back we put ashore at the same place as before;
but still saw no people. However, they could not be far off, as we
smelled the smoke of fire, though we did not see it. But I did not care
to search farther, or to force an interview which they seemed to avoid;
well knowing that the way to obtain this, was to leave the time and
place to themselves. It did not appear that any thing I had left had
been touched; however, I now added a hatchet, and with the night
returned on board.

On the 29th, were showers till the afternoon; when a party of the
officers made an excursion up the bay; and Mr. Forster and his party
were out botanizing. Both parties returned in the evening without
meeting with any thing worthy of notice; and the two following days,
every one was confined to the ship on account of rainy stormy weather.

In the afternoon of the 1st of April, accompanied by several of the
gentlemen, I went to see if any of the articles I had left for the
Indians were taken away. We found every thing remaining in the canoe;
nor did it appear that any body had been there since. After shooting
some birds, one of which was a duck, with a blue-grey plumage and soft
bill, we, in the evening, returned on board.

The 2d, being a pleasant morning, Lieutenants Clerke and Edgcumbe, and
the two Mr. Forsters, went in a boat up the bay to search for the
productions of nature; and myself, Lieutenant Pickersgill, and Mr.
Hodges, went to take a view of the N. W. side. In our way, we touched at
the seal rock, and killed three seals, one of which afforded us much
sport. After passing several isles, we at length came to the most
northern and western arms of the bay; the same as is formed by the land
of Five Fingers Point. In the bottom of this arm or cove we found many
ducks, wood-hens, and other wild fowl, some of which we killed, and
returned on board at ten o’clock in the evening; where the other party
had arrived several hours before us, after having had but indifferent
sport. They took with them a black dog we had got at the Cape, who, at
the first musket they fired, ran into the woods, from whence he would
not return. The three following days were rainy, so that no excursions
were made.

Early in the morning on the 6th, a shooting party, made up of the
officers, went to Goose Cove, the place where I was the 2d; and myself,
accompanied by the two Mr. Forsters and Mr. Hodges, set out to continue
the survey of the bay. My attention was directed to the north side,
where I discovered a fine capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a
fresh water river; on the west side several beautiful small cascades;
and the shores are so steep that a ship might lie near enough to convey
the water into her by a hose. In this cove we shot fourteen ducks,
beside other birds, which occasioned my calling it Duck Cove.

As we returned in the evening, we had a short interview with three of
the natives, one man and two women. They were the first that discovered
themselves on the N. E. point of Indian Island, named so on this
occasion. We should have passed without seeing them, had not the man
hallooed to us. He stood with his club in his hand upon the point of a
rock, and behind him, at the skirts of the wood, stood the two women,
with each of them a spear. The man could not help discovering great
signs of fear when we approached the rock with our boat. He, however,
stood firm; nor did he move to take up some things we threw him ashore.
At length I landed, went up, and embraced him; and presented him with
such articles as I had about me, which at once dissipated his fears.
Presently after, we were joined by the two women, the gentlemen that
were with me, and some of the seamen. After this, we spent about half an
hour in chit-chat, little understood on either side, in which the
youngest of the two women bore by far the greatest share. This
occasioned one of the seamen to say, that women did not want tongue in
any part of the world. We presented them with fish and fowl which we had
in our boat; but these they threw into the boat again, giving us to
understand that such things they wanted not. Night approaching, obliged
us to take leave of them; when the youngest of the two women, whose
volubility of tongue exceeded every thing I ever met with, gave us a
dance; but the man viewed us with great attention. Some hours after we
got on board, the other party returned, having had but indifferent
sport.

Next morning, I made the natives another visit, accompanied by Mr.
Forster and Mr. Hodges, carrying with me various articles which I
presented them with, and which they received with a great deal of
indifference, except hatchets and spike-nails; these they most esteemed.
This interview was at the same place as last night; and now we saw the
whole family. It consisted of the man, his two wives (as we supposed),
the young woman before mentioned, a boy about fourteen years old, and
three small children, the youngest of which was at the breast. They were
all well-looking, except one woman, who had a large wen on her upper
lip, which made her look disagreeable; and she seemed, on that account,
to be in a great measure neglected by the man. They conducted us to
their habitation, which was but a little way within the skirts of the
wood, and consisted of two mean huts made of the bark of trees. Their
canoe, which was a small double one, just large enough to transport the
whole family from place to place, lay in a small creek near the huts.
During our stay, Mr. Hodges made drawings of most of them; this
occasioned them to give him the name of _Toe-toe_, which word, we
supposed, signifies marking or painting. When we took leave, the chief
presented me with a piece of cloth or garment of their own
manufacturing, and some other trifles. I at first thought it was meant
as a return for the presents I had made him; but he soon undeceived me,
by expressing a desire for one of our boat cloaks. I took the hint, and
ordered one to be made for him of red baize, as soon as I got aboard;
where rainy weather detained me the following day.

The 9th, being fair weather, we paid the natives another visit, and made
known our approach by hallooing to them; but they neither answered us,
nor met us at the shore as usual. The reason of this we soon saw; for we
found them at their habitations, all dressed and dressing, in their very
best, with their hair combed and oiled, tied up upon the crowns of their
heads, and stuck with white feathers. Some wore a fillet of feathers
round their heads; and all of them had bunches of white feathers stuck
in their ears: thus dressed, and all standing, they received us with
great courtesy. I presented the chief with the cloak I had got made for
him, with which he seemed so well pleased, that he took his pattapattou
from his girdle, and gave it me. After a short stay, we took leave; and
having spent the remainder of the day in continuing my survey of the
bay, with the night returned on board.

Very heavy rains falling on the two following days, no work was done;
but the 12th proved clear and serene, and afforded us an opportunity to
dry our sails and linen, two things very much wanted, not having had
fair weather enough for this purpose since we put into this bay. Mr.
Forster and his party also profited by the day in botanizing.

About ten o’clock the family of the natives paid us a visit. Seeing that
they approached the ship with great caution, I met them in a boat, which
I quitted when I got to them, and went into their canoe. Yet, after all,
I could not prevail on them to put along-side the ship, and at last was
obliged to leave them to follow their own inclination. At length they
put ashore in a little creek hard by us, and afterwards came and sat
down on the shore abreast of the ship, near enough to speak with us. I
now caused the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to beat. The two
first they did not regard, but the latter caused some little attention
in them; nothing, however, could induce them to come on board. But they
entered, with great familiarity, into conversation (little understood)
with such of the officers and seamen as went to them, paying much
greater regard to some than to others, and these we had reason to
believe they took for women. To one man, in particular, the young woman
showed an extraordinary fondness until she discovered his sex, after
which she would not suffer him to come near her. Whether it was that she
before took him for one of her own sex; or that the man, in order to
discover himself, had taken some liberties with her which she thus
resented, I know not.

In the afternoon, I took Mr. Hodges to a large cascade, which falls from
a high mountain on the south-side of the bay, about a league above the
place where we lay. He took a drawing of it on paper, and afterwards
painted it in oil-colours; which exhibits, at once, a better description
of it than any I can give. Huge heaps of stones lay at the foot of this
cascade, which had been broken off and brought by the stream from the
adjacent mountains. These stones were of different sorts; none, however,
according to Mr. Forster’s opinion (who I believe to be a judge),
contains either minerals or metals. Nevertheless I brought away
specimens of every sort, as the whole country, that is, the rocky part
of it, seemed to consist of those stones and no other. This cascade is
at the east point of a cove, lying in S. W. two miles, which I named
Cascade Cove. In it is good anchorage and other necessaries. At the
entrance, lies an island, on each side of which is a passage; that on
the east side is much the widest. A little above the isle, and near the
S. E. shore, are two rocks, which are covered at high water. It was in
this cove we first saw the natives.

When I returned aboard in the evening I found our friends the natives
had taken up their quarters about 100 yards from our watering-place; a
very great mark of the confidence they placed in us. This evening a
shooting party of the officers went over to the north side of the bay,
having with them a small cutter to convey them from place to place.

Next morning, accompanied by Mr. Forster, I went in the pinnace to
survey the isles and rocks which lie in the mouth of the bay. I began
first with those which lie on the S. E. side of Anchor Isle. I found
here a very snug cove sheltered from all winds, which we called Luncheon
Cove, because here we dined on cray-fish, on the side of a pleasant
brook, shaded by the trees from both wind and sun. After dinner we
proceeded, by rowing, out to the outermost isles, where we saw many
seals, fourteen of which we killed and brought away with us; and might
have got many more, would the surf have permitted us to land with
safety, on all the rocks. The next morning, I went out again to continue
the survey, accompanied by Mr. Forster. I intended to have landed again
on the seal isles; but there ran such a high sea that I could not come
near them. With some difficulty we rowed out to sea, and round the S. W.
point of Anchor Isle. It happened very fortunately that chance directed
me to take this course, in which we found the sportsmen’s boat adrift,
and laid hold of her the very moment she would have been dashed against
the rocks. I was not long at a loss to guess how she came there, nor was
I under any apprehensions for the gentlemen that had been in her; and,
after refreshing ourselves with such as we had to eat and drink, and
securing the boat in a small creek, we proceeded to the place where we
supposed them to be. This we reached about seven or eight o’clock in the
evening, and found them upon a small isle in Goose Cove, where, as it
was low water, we could not come with our boat until the return of the
tide. As this did not happen till three o’clock in the morning, we
landed on a naked beach, not knowing where to find a better place, and,
after some time, having got a fire and broiled some fish, we made a
hearty supper, having for sauce a good appetite. This done, we lay down
to sleep, having a stony beach for a bed, and the canopy of heaven for a
covering. At length the tide permitted us to take off the sportsmen; and
with them we embarked, and proceeded for the place where we had left
their boat, which we soon reached, having a fresh breeze of wind in our
favour, attended with rain. When we came to the creek, which was on the
N. W. side of Anchor Isle, we found there an immense number of blue
peterels, some on the wing, others in the woods, in holes in the ground,
under the roots of trees, and in the crevices of rocks, where there was
no getting them, and where we supposed their young were deposited. As
not one was to be seen in the day, the old ones were probably, at that
time out at sea searching for food, which in the evening they bring to
their young. The noise they made was like the croaking of many frogs.
They were, I believe, of the broad bill kind, which are not so commonly
seen at sea as the others. Here, however, they are in great numbers; and
flying much about in the night, some of our gentlemen at first took them
for bats. After restoring the sportsmen to their boat, we all proceeded
for the ship, which we reached by seven o’clock in the morning, not a
little fatigued with our expedition. I now learned that our friends the
natives returned to their habitation at night, probably foreseeing that
rain was at hand; which sort of weather continued the whole of this day.

On the morning of the 15th, the weather having cleared up and become
fair, I set out with two boats to continue the survey of the N. W. side
of the bay, accompanied by the two Mr. Forsters and several of the
officers, whom I detached in one boat to Goose Cove, where we intended
to lodge the night, while I proceeded in the other, examining the
harbours and isles which lay in my way. In the doing of this, I picked
up about a score of wild fowl, and caught fish sufficient to serve the
whole party; and, reaching the place of rendezvous a little before dark,
I found all the gentlemen out duck-shooting. They, however, soon
returned, not overloaded with game. By this time, the cooks had done
their parts, in which little art was required; and after a hearty repast
on what the day had produced, we lay down to rest; but took care to rise
early the next morning, in order to have the other bout among the ducks,
before we left the cove.

Accordingly, at day-light, we prepared for the attack. Those who had
reconnoitered the place before, chose their stations accordingly; whilst
myself and another remained in the boat, and rowed to the head of the
cove to start the game; which we did so effectually, that, out of some
scores of ducks, we only detained one to ourselves, sending all the rest
down to those stationed below. After this, I landed at the head of the
cove and walked cross the narrow isthmus that disjoins it from the sea,
or rather from another cove which runs in from the sea about one mile,
and lies open to the north winds. It, however, had all the appearance of
a good harbour and safe anchorage. At the head is a fine sandy beach,
where I found an immense number of wood-hens, and brought away ten
couple of them, which recompensed me for the trouble of crossing the
isthmus, through the wet woods, up to the middle in water. About nine
o’clock, we all got collected together, when the success of every one
was known; which was by no means answerable to our expectations. The
morning, indeed, was very unfavourable for shooting, being rainy the
most of the time we were out. After breakfast, we set out on our return
to the ship, which we reached by seven o’clock in the evening; with
about seven dozen of wild-fowl, and two seals; the most of them shot
while I was rowing about, exploring the harbours and coves which I found
in my way; every place affording something; especially to us, to whom
nothing came amiss.

It rained all the 17th; but the 18th bringing fair and clear weather, in
the evening, our friends the natives before mentioned paid us another
visit; and the next morning, the chief and his daughter were induced to
come on board, while the others went out in the canoe fishing. Before
they came on board I showed them our goats and sheep that were on shore;
which they viewed, for a moment, with a kind of stupid insensibility.
After this, I conducted them to the brow; but before the chief set his
foot upon it to come into the ship, he took a small green branch in his
hand, with which he struck the ship’s side several times, repeating a
speech or prayer. When this was over, he threw the branch into the main
chains, and came on board. This custom and manner of making peace, as it
were, is practised by all the nations in the South Seas that I have
seen.

I took them both down into the cabin, where we were to breakfast. They
sat at table with us, but would not taste any of our victuals. The chief
wanted to know where we slept, and indeed to pry into every corner of
the cabin, every part of which he viewed with some surprise. But it was
not possible to fix his attention to any one thing a single moment. The
works of art appeared to him in the same light as those of nature, and
were as far removed beyond his comprehension. What seemed to strike them
most was the number and strength of our decks, and other parts of the
ship. The chief, before he came aboard, presented me with a piece of
cloth and a green talk hatchet; to Mr. Forster he also gave a piece of
cloth; and the girl gave another to Mr. Hodges. This custom of making
presents, before they receive any, is common with the natives of the
South Sea isles; but I never saw it practised in New Zealand before. Of
all the various articles I gave my guest, hatchets and spike-nails were
the most valuable in his eyes. These he never would suffer to go out of
his hands after he had once laid hold of them; whereas many other
articles he would lay carelessly down any where, and at last leave them
behind him.

As soon as I could get quit of them, they were conducted into the
gun-room, where I left them, and set out with two boats to examine the
head of the bay; myself in one, accompanied by Mr. Forster and Mr.
Hodges; and Lieutenant Cooper in the other. We proceeded up the south
side; and, without meeting with any thing remarkable, got to the head of
the bay by sun-set; where we took up our lodging for the night at the
first place we could land upon; for the flats hindered us from getting
quite to the head.

At day-light in the morning, I took two men in the small boat, and, with
Mr. Forster, went to take a view of the flat land at the head of the
bay, near to where we spent the night. We landed on one side, and
ordered the boat to meet us on the other side; but had not been long on
shore before we saw some ducks, which, by their creeping through the
bushes, we got a shot at, and killed one. The moment we had fired, the
natives, whom we had not discovered before, set up a most hideous noise
in two or three places close by us. We hallooed in our turn; and, at the
same time, retired to our boat, which was full half a mile off. The
natives kept up their clamouring noise, but did not follow us. Indeed we
found, afterwards, that they could not, because of a branch of the river
between us and them; nor did we find their numbers answerable to the
noise they made. As soon as we got to our boat, and found that there was
a river that would admit us, I rowed in, and was soon after joined by
Mr. Cooper, in the other boat. With this reinforcement I proceeded up
the river, shooting wild ducks, of which there were great numbers; as we
went along, now and then, hearing the natives in the woods. At length
two appeared on the banks of the river, a man and a woman; and the
latter kept waving something white in her hand, as a sign of friendship.
Mr. Cooper being near them, I called to him to land, as I wanted to take
the advantage of the tide to get as high up as possible, which did not
much exceed half a mile, when I was stopped by the strength of the
stream and great stones which lay in the bed of the river.

On my return, I found that, as Mr. Cooper did not land when the natives
expected him, they had retired into the woods; but two others now
appeared on the opposite bank. I endeavoured to have an interview with
them; but this I could not effect. For, as I approached the shore, they
always retired farther into the woods, which were so thick as to cover
them from our sight. The falling tide obliged me to retire out of the
river, to the place where we had spent the night. There we breakfasted,
and afterwards embarked, in order to return on board; but, just as we
were going, we saw two men, on the opposite shore, hallooing to us,
which induced me to row over to them. I landed, with two others,
unarmed; the two natives standing about 100 yards from the water side,
with each a spear in his hand. When we three advanced, they retired; but
stood when I advanced alone.

It was some little time before I could prevail upon them to lay down
their spears: this, at last, one of them did, and met me with a grass
plant in his hand, one end of which he gave me to hold, while he held
the other: standing in this manner, he began a speech, not one word of
which I understood; and made some long pauses; waiting, as I thought,
for me to answer; for when I spoke, he proceeded. As soon as this
ceremony was over, which was not long, we saluted each other. He then
took his hahou, or coat, from off his own back, and put it upon mine;
after which, peace seemed firmly established. More people joining us did
not in the least alarm them; on the contrary, they saluted every one as
he came up.

I gave to each a hatchet and a knife, having nothing else with me:
perhaps these were the most valuable things I could give them; at least
they were the most useful. They wanted us to go to their habitation,
telling us they would give us something to eat; and I was sorry that the
tide, and other circumstances, would not permit me to accept of their
invitation. More people were seen in the skirts of the wood, but none of
them joined us; probably these were their wives and children. When we
took leave they followed us to our boat, and seeing the muskets lying
across the stern, they made signs for them to be taken away; which being
done, they came along side, and assisted us to launch her. At this time,
it was necessary for us to look well after them, for they wanted to take
away every thing they could lay their hands upon, except the muskets;
these they took care not to touch, being taught by the slaughter they
had seen us make among the wild fowl, to look upon them as instruments
of death.

We saw no canoes or other boats with them; two or three logs of wood
tied together served the same purpose; and were indeed sufficient for
the navigation of the river, on the banks of which they lived. There
fish and fowl were in such plenty, that they had no occasion to go far
for food; and they have but few neighbours to disturb them. The whole
number at this place, I believe, does not exceed three families.

It was noon when we took leave of these two men, and proceeded down the
north side of the bay; which I explored in my way, and the isles that
lie in the middle; night, however, overtook us, and obliged me to leave
one arm unlooked into, and hasten to the ship, which we reached by eight
o’clock. I then learnt that the man and his daughter stayed on board the
day before till noon; and that, having understood from our people what
things were left in Cascade Cove, the place where they were first seen,
he sent and took them away. He and his family remained near us till
to-day, when they all went away, and we saw them no more; which was the
more extraordinary, as he never left us empty-handed. From one or
another he did not get less than nine or ten hatchets, three or four
times that number of large spike nails, besides many other articles. So
far as these things may be counted riches in New Zealand, he exceeds
every man there; being at this time possessed of more hatchets and axes
than are in the whole country besides.

In the afternoon of the 21st, I went with a party out to the isles on
seal-hunting. The surf ran so high that we could only land in one place,
where we killed ten. These animals served us for three purposes; the
skins we made use of for our rigging; the fat gave oil for our lamps;
and the flesh we ate. Their harslets are equal to that of a hog, and the
flesh of some of them eats little inferior to beef steaks. The following
day nothing worthy of notice was done.

In the morning of the 23d, Mr. Pickersgill, Mr. Gilbert, and two others,
went to the Cascade Cove, in order to ascend one of the mountains, the
summit of which they reached by two o’clock in the afternoon, as we
could see by the fire they made. In the evening they returned on board,
and reported, that inland nothing was to be seen but barren mountains,
with huge craggy precipices, disjoined by valleys, or rather chasms,
frightful to behold. On the S. E. side of Cape West, four miles out at
sea, they discovered a ridge of rocks, on which the waves broke very
high. I believe these rocks to be the same we saw the evening we first
fell in with the land.

Having five geese left out of those we brought from the Cape of Good
Hope, I went with them next morning to Goose Cove (named so on this
account), where I left them. I chose this place for two reasons; first,
here are no inhabitants to disturb them; and secondly, here being the
most food. I make no doubt but that they will breed, and may in time
spread over the whole country, and fully answer my intention in leaving
them. We spent the day shooting in and about the Cove, and returned
aboard about ten o’clock in the evening. One of the party shot a white
hern, which agreed exactly with Mr. Pennant’s description, in his
British Zoology, of the white herns that either now are, or were
formerly, in England.

The 25th was the eighth fair day we had had successively; a
circumstance, I believe, very uncommon in this place, especially at this
season of the year. This fair weather gave us an opportunity to complete
our wood and water, to overhaul the rigging, calk the ship, and put her
in a condition for sea. Fair weather was, however, now at an end; for it
began to rain this evening, and continued, without intermission, till
noon the next day, when we cast off the shore fasts, hove the ship out
of the creek to her anchor, and steadied her with an hawser to the
shore.

On the 27th, hazy weather, with showers of rain. In the morning I set
out, accompanied by Mr. Pickersgill and the two Mr. Forsters, to explore
the arm or inlet I discovered the day I returned from the head of the
bay. After rowing about two leagues up it, or rather down, I found it to
communicate with the sea, and to afford a better outlet for ships bound
to the north, than the one I came in by. After making this discovery,
and refreshing ourselves on broiled fish and wild fowl, we set out for
the ship, and got on board at eleven o’clock at night; leaving two arms
we had discovered, and which run in the east, unexplored. In this
expedition we shot forty-four birds, sea-pies, ducks, &c., without going
one foot out of our way, or causing any other delay than picking them
up.

Having got the tents and every other article on board on the 28th, we
only now waited for a wind to carry us out of the harbour, and through
New Passage, the way I proposed to go to sea. Every thing being removed
from the shore, I set fire to the top-wood, &c., in order to dry a piece
of the ground we had occupied, which, next morning, I dug up, and sowed
with several sorts of garden seeds. The soil was such as did not promise
success to the planter; it was, however, the best we could find. At two
o’clock in the afternoon, we weighed with a light breeze, at S. W., and
stood up the bay for the new passage. Soon after we had got through,
between the east end of Indian Island and the west end of Long Island,
it fell calm, which obliged us to anchor in forty-three fathom water,
under the north side of the latter island.

In the morning of the 30th we weighed again with a light breeze at west,
which, together with all our boats a-head towing, was hardly sufficient
to stem the current; for, after struggling till six o’clock in the
evening, and not getting more than five miles from our last anchoring
place, we anchored under the north side of Long Island, not more than
one hundred yards from the shore, to which we fastened a hawser.

At day-light next morning, May 1st, we got again under sail, and
attempted to work to windward, having a light breeze down the bay. At
first we gained ground; but at last the breeze died away; when we soon
lost more than we had got, and were obliged to bear up for a cove on the
north side of Long Island, where we anchored in nineteen fathom water, a
muddy bottom; in this cove we found two huts not long since inhabited;
and near them two very large fire-places or ovens, such as they have in
the Society Isles. In this cove we were detained by calms, attended with
continual rain, till the 4th, in the afternoon, when, with the
assistance of a small breeze at S. W., we got the length of the reach or
passage leading to sea. The breeze then left us, and we anchored under
the east point, before a sandy beach, in thirty fathoms’ water; but this
anchoring place hath nothing to recommend it like the one we came from,
which hath every thing in its favour.

In the night we had some very heavy squalls of wind, attended with rain,
hail, and snow, and some thunder. Day-light exhibited to our view all
the hills and mountains covered with snow. At two o’clock in the
afternoon, a light breeze sprung up at S. S. W., which, with the help of
our boats, carried us down the passage to our intended anchoring place,
where, at eight o’clock, we anchored in sixteen fathoms’ water, and
moored, with a hawser to the shore, under the first point on the
starboard side, as you come in from sea; from which we were covered by
the point.

In the morning of the 6th, I sent Lieutenant Pickersgill, accompanied by
the two Mr. Forsters, to explore the second arm which turns into the
east, myself being confined on board by a cold. At the same time, I had
every thing got up from between decks, the decks well cleaned and well
aired with fires; a thing that ought never to be long neglected in wet
moist weather. The fair weather which had continued all this day, was
succeeded in the night by a storm from N. W., which blew in hard
squalls, attended with rain, and obliged us to strike top-gallant and
lower yards, and to carry out another hawser to the shore. The bad
weather continued the whole day and the succeeding night, after which it
fell calm with fair weather.

At seven in the morning, on the 8th, Mr. Pickersgill returned, together
with his companions, in no very good plight; having been at the head of
the arm he was sent to explore, which he judged to extend into the
eastward about eight miles; in it is a good anchoring-place, wood, fresh
water, wild fowl, and fish. At nine o’clock I set out to explore the
other inlet, or the one next the sea; and ordered Mr. Gilbert, the
master, to go and examine the passage out to sea, while those on board
were getting every thing in readiness to depart. I proceeded up the
inlet till five o’clock in the afternoon, when bad weather obliged me to
return, before I had seen the end of it. As this inlet lay nearly
parallel with the sea-coast, I was of opinion that it might communicate
with Doubtful Harbour, or some other inlet to the northward; appearances
were, however, against this opinion, and the bad weather hindered me
from determining the point, although a few hours would have done it: I
was about ten miles up, and thought I saw the end of it: I found on the
north side three coves, in which, as also on the south side, between the
main and the isles that lie about four miles up the inlet, is good
anchorage, wood, water, and what else can be expected, such as fish and
wild fowl; of the latter we killed, in this excursion, three dozen.
After a very hard row, against both wind and rain, we got on board about
nine o’clock at night, without a dry thread on our backs.

This bad weather continued no longer than till the next morning, when it
became fair, and the sky cleared up; but as we had not wind to carry us
to sea, we made up two shooting parties; myself, accompanied by the two
Mr. Forsters and some others, went to the arm I was in the day before;
and the other party to the coves and isles Mr. Gilbert had discovered,
when he was out, and where he found many wild fowl. We had a pleasant
day, and the evening brought us all on board; myself and party met with
good sport; but the other party found little.

All the forenoon of the 10th, we had strong gales from the west,
attended with heavy showers of rain, and blowing in such flurries over
high land, as made it unsafe for us to get under sail. The afternoon was
more moderate, and became fair; when myself, Mr. Cooper, and some
others, went out in the boats to the rocks, which lie at this entrance
of the bay, to kill seals: the weather was rather unfavourable for this
sport, and the sea ran high, so as to make landing difficult; we,
however, killed ten; but could only wait to bring away five, with which
we returned on board.

In the morning of the 11th, while we were getting under sail, I sent a
boat for the other five seals. At nine o’clock we weighed, with a light
breeze at S. E., and stood out to sea, taking up the boat in our way. It
was noon before we got clear of the land; at which time we observed in
45° 34ʹ 30ʺ south; the entrance of the bay bore S. E. by E., and
Break-sea isles (the outermost isles that lie at the south point of the
entrance of the bay) bore S. S. E. distant three miles; the southernmost
point, or that of Five Fingers’ Point, bore south 42° west; and the
northernmost land N. N. E.; in this situation we had a prodigious swell
from S. W., which broke with great violence on all the shores that were
exposed to it.



                                CHAP. V.

 DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING IN AND OUT OF DUSKY BAY, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
    ADJACENT COUNTRY, ITS PRODUCE, AND INHABITANTS: ASTRONOMICAL AND
                         NAUTICAL OBSERVATIONS.


As there are few places where I have been in New Zealand that afford the
necessary refreshments in such plenty as Dusky Bay, a short description
of it, and of the adjacent country, may prove of use to some future
navigators, as well as acceptable to the curious reader. For although
this country be far remote from the present trading part of the world,
we can by no means tell what use future ages may make of the discoveries
made in the present. The reader of this journal must already know that
there are two entrances to this bay. The south entrance is situated on
the north side of Cape West, in latitude 45° 48ʹ south. It is formed by
the land of the Cape to the south, and Five Fingers’ Point to the north.
This point is made remarkable by several pointed rocks lying off it,
which when viewed from certain situations, have some resemblance to the
five fingers of a man’s hand; from whence it takes its name. The land of
this point is still more remarkable by the little similarity it bears to
any other of the lands adjacent; being a narrow peninsula lying north
and south, of a moderate and equal height, and all covered with wood.

To sail into the bay by this entrance is by no means difficult, as I
know of no danger but what shows itself. The worst that attends it, is
the depth of water, which is too great to admit of anchorage, except in
the coves and harbours, and very near the shores; and even, in many
places, this last cannot be done. The anchoring-places are, however,
numerous enough, and equally safe and commodious. Pickersgill Harbour,
where we lay, is not inferior to any other bay, for two or three ships;
it is situated on the south shore abreast of the west end of Indian
Island; which island may be known from the others by its greater
proximity to that shore. There is a passage into the harbour on both
sides of the isle, which lies before it. The most room is on the upper
or east side, having regard to a sunken rock near the main, abreast this
end of the isle. Keep the isle close aboard, and you will not only avoid
the rock, but keep in anchoring ground. The next place, on this side, is
Cascade Cove; where there is room for a fleet of ships, and also a
passage in on either side of the isle which lies in the entrance; taking
care to avoid a sunken rock which lies near the S. E. shore, a little
above the isle. This rock, as well as the one in Pickersgill Harbour,
may be seen at half ebb.

It must be needless to enumerate all the anchoring-places in this
capacious bay; one or two, on each side, will be quite sufficient. Those
who want to be acquainted with more, need only consult the annexed
chart; which they may depend upon as being without any material error.
To such as put into this bay, and are afterwards bound to the south, I
would recommend Facile Harbour. To sail into this harbour, keep the
inside of the land of Five Fingers’ Point aboard, until you are the
length of the isles, which lie abreast the middle of that land. Haul
round the north point of these isles, and you will have the harbour
before you bearing east. But the chart will be a sufficient guide, not
only to sail into this, but into all the other anchoring places, as well
as to sail quite through, from the south to the north entrance. However,
I shall give some directions for this navigation. In coming in at the
south entrance keep the south shore aboard, until you approach the west
end of Indian Island, which you will know not only by its apparent, but
real nearness to the shore. From this situation, it will appear as a
point dividing the bay into two arms. Leave this isle on your starboard
side, and continue your course up the bay, which is E. by N. 1/2 N.
without turning either to the right or left. When you are abreast, or
above the east end of this isle, you will find the bay of a considerable
breadth; and, higher up, to be contracted by two projecting points.
Three miles above the one, on the north side, and abreast of two small
isles, is the passage out to sea, or to the north entrance; and this
lies nearly in the direction of N. by W. and S. by E.

The north entrance lies in the latitude of 45° 38ʹ south, and five
leagues to the north of Five Fingers’ Point. To make this entrance
plain, it will be necessary to approach the shore within a few miles; as
all the land within, and on each side, is of considerable height. Its
situation may, however, be known at a greater distance; as it lies under
the first craggy mountains which rise to the north of the land of Five
Fingers’ Point. The southernmost of these mountains is remarkable;
having at its summit two small hillocks. When this mountain bears
S. S. E. you will be before the entrance, on the south side of which are
several isles. The westernmost and outermost is the most considerable,
both for height and circuit; and this I have called Break-sea Isle,
because it effectually covers this entrance from the violence of the
S. W. swell, which the other entrance is so much exposed to. In sailing
in you leave this isle, as well as all the others, to the south. The
best anchorage is in the first or north arm, which is on the larboard
hand going in, either in one of the coves, or behind the isles that lie
under the S. E. shore.

The country is exceedingly mountainous; not only about Dusky Bay, but
through all the southern part of this western coast of Tavia Poenammoo.
A prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with; for inland
appears nothing but the summits of mountains of a stupendous height, and
consisting of rocks that are totally barren and naked, except where they
are covered with snow. But the land bordering on the sea coast, and all
the islands, are thickly clothed with wood, almost down to the water’s
edge. The trees are of various kinds, such as are common to other parts
of this country, and are fit for the shipwright, house-carpenter,
cabinet-maker, and many other uses. Except in the river Thames I have
not seen finer timber in all New Zealand: both here and in that river,
the most considerable for size is the spruce tree, as we called it, from
the similarity of its foliage to the American spruce, though the wood is
more ponderous and bears a greater resemblance to the pitch pine. Many
of these trees are from six to eight, and ten feet in girt, and from
sixty to eighty or one hundred feet in length; large enough to make a
main-mast for a fifty-gun ship.

Here are, as well as in all other parts of New Zealand, a great number
of aromatic trees and shrubs, most of the myrtle kind; but amidst all
this variety we met with none which bore fruit fit to eat.

In many parts the woods are so over-run with supple-jacks, that it is
scarcely possible to force one’s way amongst them. I have seen several
which were fifty or sixty fathoms long.

The soil is a deep black mould, evidently composed of decayed
vegetables, and so loose that it sinks under you at every step; and this
may be the reason why we meet with so many large trees as we do, blown
down by the wind, even in the thickest part of the woods. All the ground
amongst the trees is covered with moss and fern, of both which there is
great variety; but except the flax or hemp plant, and a few other
plants, there is very little herbage of any sort, and none that was
eatable that we found, except about a handful of water-cresses, and
about the same quantity of cellery. What Dusky Bay most abounds with is
fish: a boat with six or eight men with hooks and lines, caught daily
sufficient to serve the whole ship’s company: of this article the
variety is almost equal to the plenty; and of such kinds as are common
to the more northern coast; but some are superior; and in particular the
cole fish, as we called it, which is both larger and finer flavoured
than any I had seen before, and was, in the opinion of most on board,
the highest luxury the sea afforded us. The shell-fish are muscles,
cockles, scallops, cray-fish, and many other sorts; all such as are to
be found in every other part of the coast. The only amphibious animals
are seals; these are to be found in great numbers about this bay, on the
small rocks and isles near the sea coast.

We found here five different kinds of ducks, some of which I do not
recollect to have any where seen before; the largest are as big as a
Muscovy duck, with a very beautiful variegated plumage, on which account
we called it the painted duck: both male and female have a large white
spot on each wing; the head and neck of the latter is white, but all the
other feathers, as well as those on the head and neck of the drake, are
of a dark variegated colour. The second sort have a brown plumage, with
bright green feathers in their wings, and are about the size of an
English tame duck. The third sort is the blue-grey duck before
mentioned, or the whistling duck, as some called them, from the
whistling noise they made. What is most remarkable in these is, that the
end of their beaks is soft, and of a skinny, or more properly,
cartilaginous substance. The fourth sort is something bigger than teal,
and all black except the drake, which has some white feathers in his
wing. There are but few of this sort; and we saw them no where but in
the river at the head of the bay. The last sort is a good deal like a
teal, and very common I am told in England. The other fowls, whether
belonging to the sea or land, are the same that are to be found in
common in other parts of this country, except the blue peterel, before
mentioned, and the water or wood hens: these last, although they are
numerous enough here, are so scarce in other parts, that I never saw but
one. The reason may be, that, as they cannot fly, they inhabit the
skirts of the woods, and feed on the sea beach; and are so very tame or
foolish, as to stand and stare at us till we knocked them down with a
stick. The natives may have in a manner wholly destroyed them; they are
a sort of rail, about the size, and a good deal like a common dunghill
hen; most of them are of a dirty black or dark brown colour, and eat
very well in a pie or fricassee. Amongst the small birds I must not omit
to particularise the wattle-bird, poy-bird, and fan-tail, on account of
their singularity, especially as I find they are not mentioned in the
narrative of my former voyage.

The wattle-bird, so called because it has two wattles under its beak, as
large as those of a small dunghill cock, is larger, particularly in
length, than an English black-bird; its bill is short and thick, and its
feathers of a dark lead colour; the colour of its wattles is a dull
yellow, almost an orange colour.

The poy-bird is less than the wattle-bird; the feathers of a fine
mazarine blue, except those of its neck, which are of a most beautiful
silver-grey, and two or three short white ones, which are on the
pinion-joint of the wing; under its throat hang two little tufts of
curled snow-white feathers, called its _poies_, which being the
Otaheitean word for ear-rings, occasioned our giving that name to the
bird; which is not more remarkable for the beauty of its plumage than
for the sweetness of its note; the flesh is also most delicious, and was
the greatest luxury the woods afforded us.

Of the fan-tail, there are different sorts, but the body of the most
remarkable one is scarcely larger than a good filbert, yet it spreads a
tail of most beautiful plumage, full three-quarters of a semicircle, of
at least four or five inches radius.

For three or four days after we arrived in Pickersgill Harbour, and as
we were clearing the woods to set up our tents, &c., a four-footed
animal was seen by three or four of our people; but as no two gave the
same description of it, I cannot say of what kind it is; all, however,
agreed, that it was about the size of a cat, with short legs, and of
mouse colour: one of the seamen, and he who had the best view of it,
said it had a bushy tail, and was the most like a jackall of any animal
he knew. The most probable conjecture is, that it is of a new species;
be this as it may, we are now certain, that this country is not so
destitute of quadrupeds as was once thought.

The most mischievous animals here, are the small black sand flies, which
are very numerous, and so troublesome, that they exceed every thing of
the kind I ever met with; wherever they bite they cause a swelling, and
such an intolerable itching, that it is not possible to refrain from
scratching, which at last brings on ulcers like the small-pox.

The almost continual rains may be reckoned another evil attending this
bay; though, perhaps, this may only happen at this season of the year.
Nevertheless, the situation of the country, the vast height, and
nearness of the mountains, seem to subject it to much rain at all times.
Our people, who were daily exposed to the rain, felt no ill effects from
it; on the contrary, such as were sick and ailing when we came in,
recovered daily, and the whole crew soon became strong and vigorous;
which can only be attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the
fresh provisions it afforded. The beer certainly contributed not a
little: as I have already observed, we at first made it of a decoction
of the spruce leaves; but finding that this alone made the beer too
astringent, we afterwards mixed with it an equal quantity of the tea
plant (a name it obtained in my former voyage, from our using it as tea
then, as we also did now,) which partly destroyed the astringency of the
other, and made the beer exceedingly palatable, and esteemed by every
one on board. We brewed it in the same manner as spruce beer, and the
process is as follows: first make a strong decoction of the small
branches of the spruce and tea plants, by boiling them three or four
hours, or until the bark will strip with ease from off the branches;
then take them out of the copper, and put in the proper quantity of
melasses; ten gallons of which is sufficient to make a ton or two
hundred and forty gallons of beer; let this mixture just boil; then put
it into the casks; and, to it, add an equal quantity of cold water, more
or less according to the strength of the decoction, or your taste: when
the whole is milk-warm, put in a little grounds of beer, or yeast, if
you have it, or any thing else that will cause fermentation, and in a
few days the beer will be fit to drink. After the casks have been brewed
in two or three times, the beer will generally ferment itself,
especially if the weather is warm. As I had inspissated juice of wort on
board, and could not apply it to a better purpose, we used it together
with melasses or sugar, to make these two articles go farther; for of
the former I had but one cask, and of the latter little to spare for
this brewing. Had I known how well this beer would have succeeded, and
the great use it was of to the people, I should have come better
provided; indeed I was partly discouraged by an experiment made during
my former voyage; which did not succeed, then, owing, as I now believe,
to some mismanagement.

Any one who is in the least acquainted with spruce pines, will find the
tree which I have distinguished by that name. There are three sorts of
it; that which has the smallest leaves and deepest colour, is the sort
we brewed with, but doubtless all three might safely serve that purpose.
The tea plant is a small tree or shrub, with five white petals, or
flower-leaves, shaped like those of a rose, having smaller ones of the
same figure in the intermediate spaces, and twenty or more filaments or
threads. The tree sometimes grows to a moderate height, and is generally
bare on the lower part, with a number of small branches growing close
together towards the top. The leaves are small and pointed, like those
of the myrtle; it bears a dry roundish seed-case, and grows commonly in
dry places near the shores. The leaves, as I have already observed, were
used by many of us as tea, which has a very agreeable bitter and
flavour, when they are recent, but loses some of both when they are
dried. When the infusion was made strong, it proved emetic to some, in
the same manner as green tea.

The inhabitants of this bay are of the same race of people with those in
the other parts of this country, speak the same language, and observe
nearly the same customs. These, indeed, seem to have a custom of making
presents before they receive any, in which they come nearer to the
Otaheiteans than the rest of their countrymen. What could induce three
or four families (for I believe there are not more) to separate
themselves so far from the society of the rest of their
fellow-creatures, is not easy to guess. By our meeting with inhabitants
in this place, it seems probable, that there are people scattered over
all this southern island. But the many vestiges of them in different
parts of this bay, compared with the number that we actually saw,
indicates that they live a wandering life; and, if one may judge from
appearances and circumstances, few as they are, they live not in perfect
amity one family with another. For, if they did, why do they not form
themselves into some society? a thing not only natural to man, but
observed even by the brute creation.

I shall conclude this account of Dusky Bay with some observations made
and communicated to me by Mr. Wales. He found, by a great variety of
observations, that the latitude of his observatory at Pickersgill
Harbour, was 45° 47ʹ 26-1/2ʺ south; and by the mean of several distances
of the moon from the sun, that its longitude was 166° 18ʹ east; which is
about half a degree less than it is laid down in my chart constructed in
my former voyage. He found the variation of the needle or compass by the
mean of three different needles, to be 13° 49ʹ east, and the dip of the
south end 70° 5-3/4ʹ. The times of high water on the full and change
days, he found to be at 10^h 57ʹ, and the tide to rise and fall at the
former eight feet, at the latter five feet eight inches. This difference
in the rise of the tides between the new and full moon is a little
extraordinary, and was probably occasioned, at this time, by some
accidental cause, such as winds, &c. but be it as it will, I am well
assured there was no error in the observations.

Supposing the longitude of the observatory to be as above, the error of
Mr. Kendal’s watch, in longitude, will be 1° 48ʹ, minus, and that of Mr.
Arnold’s 39° 25ʺ. The former was found to be gaining 6ʺ, 461 a-day, on
mean time, and the latter losing 99ʺ, 361. Agreeably to these rates, the
longitude by them was not to be determined until an opportunity of
trying them again.

I must observe, that in finding the longitude by Mr. Kendal’s watch, we
supposed it to have gone mean time from the Cape of Good Hope. Had its
Cape rate been allowed, the error would not have been so great.



                               CHAP. VI.

 PASSAGE FROM DUSKY BAY TO QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF
          SOME WATER-SPOUTS, AND OF OUR JOINING THE ADVENTURE.


After leaving Dusky Bay, as hath been already mentioned, I directed my
course along shore for Queen Charlotte’s Sound, where I expected to find
the Adventure. In this passage we met with nothing remarkable or worthy
of notice till the 17th, at four o’clock in the afternoon. Being then
about three leagues to the westward of Cape Stephens, having a gentle
gale at west by south, and clear weather, the wind at once flattened to
a calm, the sky became suddenly obscured by dark, dense clouds, and
seemed to forebode much wind. This occasioned us to clew up all our
sails, and presently after six water-spouts were seen. Four rose and
spent themselves between us and the land; that is to the S. W. of us;
the fifth was without us; the sixth first appeared in the S. W. at the
distance of two or three miles at least from us. Its progressive motion
was to the N. E. not in a strait, but in a crooked line, and passed
within fifty yards of our stern, without our feeling any of its effects.
The diameter of the base of this spout I judged to be about fifty or
sixty feet; that is, the sea within this space was much agitated, and
foamed up to a great height. From this a tube or round body was formed,
by which the water or air, or both, was carried in a spiral stream up to
the clouds. Some of our people said they saw a bird in the one near us;
which was whirled round like the fly of a jack as it was carried
upwards. During the time these spouts lasted, we had, now and then,
light puffs of wind from all points of the compass; with some few slight
showers of rain, which generally fell in large drops; and the weather
continued thick and hazy, for some hours after, with variable light
breezes of wind. At length the wind fixed in its old point, and the sky
resumed its former serenity. Some of these spouts appeared, at times, to
be stationary; and, at other times, to have a quick, but very unequal,
progressive motion, and always in a crooked line, sometimes one way, and
sometimes another; so that, once or twice, we observed them to cross one
another. From the ascending motion of the bird, and several other
circumstances, it was very plain to us that these spouts were caused by
whirlwinds, and that the water in them was violently hurried upwards,
and did not descend from the clouds, as I have heard some assert. The
first appearance of them is by the violent agitation and rising up of
the water; and, presently after, you see a round column or tube forming
from the clouds above, which apparently descends till it joins the
agitated water below. I say apparently, because I believe it not to be
so in reality, but that the tube is already formed from the agitated
water below, and ascends, though at first it is either too small or too
thin to be seen. When the tube is formed, or becomes visible, its
apparent diameter increaseth, until it is pretty large; after that, it
decreaseth, and, at last, it breaks or becomes invisible towards the
lower part. Soon after the sea below resumes its natural state, and the
tube is drawn, by little and little, up to the clouds, where it is
dissipated. The same tube would sometimes have a vertical, and sometimes
a crooked or inclined direction. The most rational account I have read
of water-spouts is in Mr. Falconer’s Marine Dictionary, which is chiefly
collected from the philosophical writings of the ingenious Dr. Franklin.
I have been told that the firing of a gun will dissipate them, and I am
very sorry I did not try the experiment, as we were near enough, and had
a gun ready for the purpose; but, as soon as the danger was past, I
thought no more about it, being too attentive in viewing these
extraordinary meteors. At the time this happened the barometer stood at
29, 75, and the thermometer at 56.

In coming from Cape Farewell to Cape Stephens, I had a better view of
the coast than I had when I passed in my former voyage, and observed
that, about six leagues to the east of the first-mentioned cape, is a
spacious bay, which is covered from the sea by a low point of land. This
is, I believe, the same that Captain Tasman anchored in on the 18th of
December 1642, and by him called Murderer’s Bay, by reason of some of
his men being killed by the natives. Blind Bay, so named by me in my
former voyage, lies to the S. E. of this, and seems to run a long way
in-land to the south; the sight in this direction, not being bounded by
any land. The wind having returned to the west, as already mentioned, we
resumed our course to the east; and at day-light the next morning,
(being the 18th) we appeared off Queen Charlotte’s Sound, where we
discovered our consort the Adventure, by the signals which she made to
us; an event which every one felt with an agreeable satisfaction. The
fresh westerly wind now died away, and was succeeded by light airs from
the south and S. W. so that we had to work in, with our boats a-head
towing. In the doing of this, we discovered a rock, which we did not see
in my former voyage. It lies in the direction of S. by E. 1/2 E. distant
four miles from the outermost of the Two Brothers, and in a line with
the White Rocks, on with the middle of Long Island. It is just even with
the surface of the sea, and hath deep water all round it. At noon,
Lieutenant Kempe of the Adventure came on board; from whom I learnt that
their ship had been here about six weeks. With the assistance of a light
breeze, our boats, and the tides, we, at six o’clock in the evening, got
to an anchor in Ship Cove near the Adventure; when Captain Furneaux came
on board, and gave me the following account of his proceedings, from the
time we parted, to my arrival here.



                               CHAP. VII.

     CAPTAIN FURNEAUX’S NARRATIVE, FROM THE TIME THE TWO SHIPS WERE
SEPARATED, TO THEIR JOINING AGAIN IN QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND, WITH SOME
                     ACCOUNT OF VAN DIEMEN’S LAND.


On the 7th of February, 1773, in the morning, the Resolution being then
about two miles a head, the wind shifting then to the westward, brought
on a very thick fog, so that we lost sight of her. We soon after heard a
gun, the report of which we imagined to be on the larboard beam; we then
hauled up S. E. and kept firing a four pounder every half hour; but had
no answer, nor further sight of her; then we kept the course we steered
on before the fog came on. In the evening it began to blow hard, and
was, at intervals, more clear; but could see nothing of her, which gave
us much uneasiness. We then tacked and stood to the westward, to cruize
in the place where we last saw her, according to agreement in case of
separation; but, next day, came on a very heavy gale of wind and thick
weather, that obliged us to bring to, and thereby prevented us reaching
the intended spot. However, the wind coming more moderate, and the fog
in some measure clearing away, we cruized as near the place as we could
get, for three days; when giving over all hopes of joining company
again, we bore away for winter quarters, distant fourteen hundred
leagues, through a sea entirely unknown, and reduced the allowance of
water to one quart per day.

We kept between the latitude of 52 and 53 south; had much westerly wind,
hard gales with squalls, snow and sleet, with a long hollow sea from the
S. W. so that we judged there is no land in that quarter. After we
reached the longitude of 95° east, we found the variation decrease very
fast; but for a more perfect account, I refer you to the table at the
end of this book.

On the 26th at night, we saw a meteor of uncommon brightness in the
N. N. W. It directed its course to the S. W. with a very great light in
the southern sky, such as is known to the northward by the name of
Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights. We saw the light for several nights
running; and, what is remarkable, we saw but one ice island after we
parted company with the Resolution, till our making land, though we were
most of the time two or three degrees to the southward of the latitude
we first saw it in. We were daily attended by great numbers of sea
birds, and frequently saw porpoises curiously spotted white and black.

On the first of March we were alarmed with the cry of land by the man at
the mast head, on the larboard beam; which gave us great joy. We
immediately hauled our wind and stood for it, but to our mortification
were disappointed in a few hours; for what we took to be land, proved no
more than clouds, which disappeared as we sailed towards them. We then
bore away and directed our course toward the land laid down in the
charts by the name of Van Diemen’s Land, discovered by Tasman in 1642,
and laid down in the latitude 44° south, and longitude 140° east, and
supposed to join to New Holland.

On the 9th of March, having little wind and pleasant weather, about nine
A. M. being then in the latitude 43° 37ʹ south longitude, by lunar
observation, 145° 36ʹ east, and by account, 143° 10ʹ east, from
Greenwich, we saw the land bearing N. N. E. about eight or nine leagues
distance. It appeared moderately high, and uneven near the sea; the
hills further back formed a double land and much higher. There seemed to
be several islands, or broken land, to the N. W. as the shore trenched;
but by reason of clouds that hung over them, we could not be certain
whether they did not join to the main. We hauled immediately up for it,
and by noon were within three or four leagues of it. A point, much like
the Ramhead, off Plymouth, which I take to be the same that Tasman calls
South Cape, bore north four leagues off us. The land from this cape runs
directly to the eastward; about four leagues along shore are three
islands about two miles long, and several rocks, resembling the Mewstone
(particularly one which we so named) about four or five leagues E. S. E.
1/2 E. off the above Cape, which Tasman has not mentioned, or laid down
in his drafts. After you pass these islands the land lies E. by N. and
W. by S. by the compass nearly. It is a bold shore, and seems to afford
several bays or anchoring places, but believe deep water. From the S. W.
cape, which is in the latitude of 43° 39ʹ south, and longitude 145° 50ʹ
east, to the S. E. cape, in the latitude 43° 36ʹ south, longitude 147°
east, is nearly sixteen leagues, and sounding from forty-eight to
seventy fathoms, sand and broken shells, three or four leagues off
shore. Here the country is hilly and full of trees, the shore rocky and
difficult landing, occasioned by the wind blowing here continually from
the westward, which occasions such a surf that the sand cannot lie on
the shore. We saw no inhabitants here.

The morning on the 10th of March being calm, the ship then about four
miles from the land, sent the great cutter on shore with the second
lieutenant, to find if there was any harbour or good bay. Soon after, it
beginning to blow very hard, made the signal for the boat to return
several times, but they did not see or hear any thing of it; the ship
then three or four leagues off, that we could not see any thing of the
boat, which gave us great uneasiness, as there was a very great sea. At
half past one P. M. to our great satisfaction, the boat returned on
board safe. They landed, but with much difficulty, and saw several
places where the Indians had been, and one they lately had left, where
they had a fire, with a great number of pearl scallop shells round it,
which shells they brought on board, with some burnt sticks and green
boughs. There was a path from this place, through the woods, which in
all probability leads to their habitations; but, by reason of the
weather, had not time to pursue it. The soil seems to be very rich; the
country well clothed with wood, particularly on the lee side of the
hills; plenty of water, which falls from the rocks in beautiful cascades
for two or three hundred feet perpendicular into the sea; but they did
not see the least sign of any place to anchor in with safety. Hoisted in
the boat, and made sail for Frederick Henry Bay. From noon to three
P. M. running along shore E. by N. at which time we were abreast of the
westernmost point of a very deep bay, called by Tasman, Stormy Bay. From
the west to the east point of this bay, there are several small islands,
and black rocks which we called the Fryars. While crossing this bay we
had very heavy squalls and thick weather; at times, when it cleared up,
I saw several fires in the bottom of the bay, which is near two or three
leagues deep, and has, I doubt not, good places for anchoring, but the
weather being so bad, did not think it safe to stand into it. From the
Fryars the land trenches away about N. by E. four leagues. We had smooth
water, and kept in shore, having regular soundings from twenty to
fifteen fathoms’ water. At half past six we hauled round a high bluff
point, the rocks whereof were like so many fluted pillars, and had ten
fathoms water, fine sand, within half a mile of the shore. At seven,
being abreast of a fine bay, and having little wind, we came to, with
the small bower, in twenty-four fathoms, sandy bottom. Just after we
anchored, being a fine clear evening, had a good observation of the star
Antares and the moon, which gave the longitude of 147° 34ʹ east, being
in the latitude of 43° 20ʹ south. We first took this bay to be that
which Tasman called Frederick Henry Bay; but afterwards found that his
is laid down five leagues to the northward of this.

At day-break the next morning, I sent the master in shore to sound the
bay, and to find out a watering place; at eight he returned, having
found a most excellent harbour, clear ground from side to side, from
eighteen to five fathom water all over the bay, gradually decreasing as
you go in shore. We weighed and turned up into the bay; the wind being
westerly, and very little of it, which baffled us much in getting in. At
seven o’clock in the evening, we anchored in seven fathoms water, with
the small bower, and moored with the coasting anchor to the westward,
the north point of the bay N. N. E. 1/2 E. (which we take to be Tasman’s
Head,) and the easternmost point (which we named Penguin Island, from a
curious one we caught there) N. E. by E. 3/4 E. the watering place W.
1/2 N. about one mile from the shore on each side; Maria’s Island, which
is about five or six leagues off, shut in with both points; so that you
are quite land-locked in a most spacious harbour.

We lay here five days, which time was employed in wooding and watering
(which is easily got), and overhauling the rigging. We found the country
very pleasant; the soil a black, rich, though thin one; the sides of the
hills covered with large trees, and very thick, growing to a great
height before they branch off. They are, all of them, of the Evergreen
kind, different from any I ever saw; the wood is very brittle and easily
split; there is very little variety of sorts, having seen but two. The
leaves of one are long and narrow; and the seed (of which I got a few)
is in the shape of a button, and has a very agreeable smell. The leaves
of the other are like the bay, and it has a seed like the white thorn,
with an agreeable spicy taste and smell. Out of the trees we cut down
for fire-wood, there issued some gum, which the surgeon called gumlac.
The trees are mostly burnt, or scorched near the ground, occasioned by
the natives setting fire to the under-wood in the most frequented
places; and by these means they have rendered it easy walking. The land
birds we saw, are a bird like a raven; some of the crow kind, black,
with the tips of the feathers of the tail and wings white, their bill
long and very sharp; some paroquets; and several kinds of small birds.
The sea-fowl are ducks, teal, and the sheldrake. I forgot to mention a
large white bird, that one of the gentlemen shot, about the size of a
large kite of the eagle kind. As for beasts, we saw but one, which was
an _opossum_; but we observed the dung of some, which we judged to be of
the deer kind. The fish in the bay are scarce; those we caught were
mostly sharks, dog fish, and a fish called by the seamen nurses, like
the dog fish, only full of small white spots; and some small fish not
unlike sprats. The lagoons (which are brackish) abound with trout, and
several other sorts of fish, of which we caught a few with lines, but
being much encumbered with stumps of trees, we could not haul the seine.

While we lay here, we saw several smokes and large fires, about eight or
ten miles in shore to the northward, but did not see any of the natives;
though they frequently come into this bay, as there were several wigwams
or huts, where we found some bags and nets made of grass, in which I
imagine they carry their provisions and other necessaries. In one of
them there was the stone they strike fire with, and tinder made of bark,
but of what tree could not be distinguished. We found in one of their
huts, one of their spears, which was made sharp at one end, I suppose,
with a shell or stone. Those things we brought away, leaving in the room
of them, medals, gun-flints, a few nails, and an old empty barrel with
the iron hoops on it. They seem to be quite ignorant of every sort of
metal. The boughs, of which their huts are made, are either broken or
split, and tied together with grass in a circular form, the largest end
stuck in the ground, and the smaller parts meeting in a point at the
top, and covered with fern and bark; so poorly done that they will
hardly keep out a shower of rain. In the middle is the fire-place,
surrounded with heaps of muscle, pearl scallop, and cray-fish shells;
which I believe to be their chief food, though we could not find any of
them. They lie on the ground, on dried grass, round the fire; and, I
believe, they have no settled place of habitation (as their houses
seemed built only for a few days), but wander about in small parties
from place to place in search of food, and are actuated by no other
motive. We never found more than three or four huts in a place, capable
of containing three or four persons each only; and what is remarkable,
we never saw the least marks either of canoe or boat, and it is
generally thought they have none; being altogether, from what we could
judge, a very ignorant and wretched set of people, though natives of a
country capable of producing every necessary of life, and a climate the
finest in the world. We found not the least signs of any minerals or
metals.

Having completed our wood and water, we sailed from Adventure Bay,
intending to coast it up along shore, till we should fall in with the
land seen by Captain Cook, and discover whether Van Diemen’s Land joins
with New Holland. On the 16th we passed Maria’s Islands, so named by
Tasman; they appear to be the same as the main land. On the 17th, having
passed Schouten’s Islands, we hauled in for the main land, and stood
along shore at the distance of two or three leagues off. The country
here appears to be very thickly inhabited, as there was a continual fire
along shore as we sailed. The land hereabouts is much pleasanter, low
and even; but no signs of a harbour or bay, where a ship might anchor
with safety. The weather being bad, and blowing hard at S. S. E., we
could not send a boat on shore to have any intercourse with the
inhabitants. In the latitude of 40° 50ʹ south, the land trenches away to
the westward, which I believe forms a deep bay, as we saw from the deck
several smokes arising a-back of the islands that lay before it, when we
could not see the least signs of land from the mast head.

From the latitude of 40° 50ʹ south, to the latitude of 39° 50ʹ south, is
nothing but islands and shoals; the land high, rocky, and barren. On the
19th, in the latitude of 40° 30ʹ south, observing breakers about half a
mile within shore of us, we sounded, and finding but eight fathoms,
immediately hauled off, deepened our water to fifteen fathoms, then bore
away, and kept along shore again. From the latitude of 39° 50ʹ to 39° S.
we saw no land, but had regular soundings from fifteen to thirty
fathoms. As we stood on to the northward, we made land again in about
39°; after which we discontinued our northerly course, as we found the
ground very uneven, and shoal water some distance off. I think it a very
dangerous shore to fall in with.

The coast, from Adventure Bay to the place where we stood away for New
Zealand, lies in the direction S. 1/2 W. and N. 1/2 E. about
seventy-five leagues; and it is my opinion that there is no straits
between New Holland and Van Diemen’s Land, but a very deep bay. I should
have stood farther to the northward, but the wind blowing strong at
S. S. E., and looking likely to haul round to the eastward, which would
have blown right on the land, I therefore thought it more proper to
leave the coast, and steer for New Zealand.

After we left Van Diemen’s Land, we had very uncertain weather, with
rain and very heavy gusts of wind. On the 24th, we were surprised with a
very severe squall, that reduced us from top-gallant sails to reefed
courses, in the space of an hour. The sea rising equally quick, we
shipped many waves, one of which stove the large cutter, and drove the
small one from her lashing into the waist; and with much difficulty we
saved her from being washed over-board. This gale lasted twelve hours,
after which we had more moderate weather, intermixed with calms. We
frequently hoisted out the boats to try the currents, and in general
found a small drift to the W. S. W. We shot many birds; and had upon the
whole good weather; but as we got near to the land, it came on thick and
dirty for several days, till we made the coast of New Zealand in 40° 30ʹ
S. having made twenty-four degrees of longitude, from Adventure Bay,
after a passage of fifteen days.

We had the winds much southerly in this passage, and I was under some
apprehensions of not being able to fetch the Straits, which would have
obliged us to steer away for George’s Island; I would therefore advise
any who sail to this part, to keep to the southward; particularly in the
fall of the year, when the S. and S. E. winds prevail.

The land, when we first made it, appeared high, and formed a confused
jumble of hills and mountains. We steered along shore to the northward,
but were much retarded in our course by reason of the swell from the
N. E. At noon on the 3d of April, Cape Farewell, which is the south
point of the entrance of the west side of the Straits, bore E. by N. 1/2
N. by the compass, three or four leagues distant. About eight o’clock we
entered the Straits, and steered N. E. till midnight; then brought to
till day-light, and had soundings from forty-five to fifty-eight
fathoms, sand and broken shells. At day-light, made sail and steered
S. E. by E.; had light airs; Mount Egmont N. N. E. eleven or twelve
leagues, and Point Stephens S. E. 1/2 E. seven leagues. At noon, Mount
Egmont N. by E. twelve leagues; Stephens’ Island S. E. five leagues. In
the afternoon we put the dredge over-board in sixty-five fathoms; but
caught nothing except a few small scallops, two or three oysters, and
broken shells.

Standing to the eastward for Charlotte’s Sound, with a light breeze at
N. W. in the morning on the 5th, Stephens’ Island bearing S. W. by W.
four leagues, we were taken a-back with a strong easterly gale, which
obliged us to haul our wind to the S. E. and work to windward up under
Point Jackson. The course from Stephens’ Island to Point Jackson is
nearly S. E. by the compass, eleven leagues distant, depth of water from
forty to thirty-two fathoms, sandy ground. As we stood off and on, we
fired several guns, but saw no signs of any inhabitants. In the
afternoon, at half past two o’clock, finding the tide set the ship to
the westward, we anchored with the coasting anchor in thirty-nine
fathoms’ water, muddy ground; Point Jackson S. E. 1/2 E. three leagues;
the east point of an inlet (about four leagues to the westward of Point
Jackson, and which appears to be a good harbour) S. W. by W. 1/2 W. At
eight P. M. the tide slackening, we weighed and made sail (having while
at anchor caught several fish with hook and line), and found the tide to
run to the westward at the rate of two and a half knots per hour.
Standing to the east, we found no ground at seventy fathoms, off Point
Jackson N. N. W. two leagues. At eight the next morning, had the sound
open, but the wind being down it, obliged us to work up under the
western shore, as the tide sets up strong there, when it runs down in
mid channel. At ten, the tide being done, was obliged to come to with
the best bower in thirty-eight fathoms, close to some white rocks, Point
Jackson bearing N. W. 1/2 N. the northermost of the Brothers E. by S.
and the middle of Entry Island, (which lies on the north side of the
Straits,) N. E. We made 15° 30ʹ E. variation in the Straits. As we
sailed up the sound, we saw the tops of high mountains covered with
snow, which remains all the year. When the tide slackened, we weighed
and sailed up the sound; and about five o’clock on the 7th, anchored in
Ship Cove, in ten fathoms’ water, muddy ground, and moored the best
bower to the N. N. E. and small to S. S. W. In the night, we heard the
howling of dogs, and people hallooing on the east shore.

The two following days were employed in clearing a place on Motuara
Island for erecting our tents for the sick (having then several on board
much afflicted with the scurvy), the sailmakers and coopers. On the top
of the island was a post, erected by the Endeavour’s people, with her
name and time of departure on it.

On the 9th, we were visited by three canoes with about sixteen of the
natives: and to induce them to bring us fish and other provisions, we
gave them several things, with which they seemed highly pleased. One of
our young gentlemen seeing something wrapt up in a better manner than
common, had the curiosity to examine what it was; and to his great
surprise found it to be the head of a man lately killed. They were very
apprehensive of its being forced from them; and particularly the man who
seemed most interested in it, whose very flesh crept on his bones, for
fear of being punished by us, as Captain Cook had expressed his great
abhorrence of this unnatural act. They used every method to conceal the
head, by shifting it from one to another; and by signs endeavouring to
convince us, that there was no such thing amongst them, though we had
seen it but a few minutes before. They then took their leave of us, and
went on shore.

They frequently mentioned Tupia, which was the name of the native of
George’s Island (or Otaheite,) brought here by the Endeavour, and who
died at Batavia; and when we told them he was dead, some of them seemed
to be very much concerned, and as well as we could understand them,
wanted to know whether we killed him, or if he died a natural death. By
these questions, they are the same tribe Captain Cook saw. In the
afternoon, they returned again with fish and fern roots, which they sold
for nails and other trifles; though the nails are what they set the most
value on. The man and woman who had the head, did not come off again.
Having a catalogue of words in their language, we called several things
by name, which surprised them greatly. They wanted it much, and offered
a great quantity of fish for it.

Next morning they returned again, to the number of fifty or sixty, with
their chief at their head, as we supposed, in five double canoes. They
gave us their implements of war, stone hatchets, and clothes, &c. for
nails and old bottles, which they put a great value on. A number of the
head men came on board us, and it was with some difficulty we got them
out of the ship by fair means; but on the appearance of a musket with a
fixed bayonet, they all went into their canoes very quickly. We were
daily visited by more or less, who brought us fish in great plenty for
nails, beads, and other trifles, and behaved very peaceably.

We settled the astronomer with his instruments, and a sufficient guard,
on a small island, that is joined to Motuara at low water, called the
Hippa, where there was an old fortified town that the natives had
forsaken. Their houses served our people to live in; and by sinking them
about a foot inside, we made them very comfortable. Having done this, we
struck our tents on the Motuara, and having removed the ship farther
into the cove, on the west shore, moored her for the winter. We then
erected our tents near the river or watering place, and sent ashore all
the spars and lumber off the decks, that they might be calked; and gave
her a winter coat to preserve the hull and rigging. On the 11th of May,
we felt two severe shocks of an earthquake, but received no kind of
damage. On the 17th we were surprised by the people firing guns on the
Hippa, and having sent the boat, as soon as she opened the sound, had
the pleasure of seeing the Resolution off the mouth of it. We
immediately sent out the boats to her assistance to tow her in, it being
calm. In the evening she anchored about a mile without us; and next
morning weighed and warped within us. Both ships felt an uncommon joy at
our meeting, after an absence of fourteen weeks.



                              CHAP. VIII.

   TRANSACTIONS IN QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND, WITH SOME REMARKS ON THE
                              INHABITANTS.


Knowing that scurvy-grass, celery, and other vegetables were to be found
in this sound, I went myself the morning after my arrival, at day-break,
to look for some, and returned on board at breakfast with a boat load.
Being now satisfied, that enough was to be got for the crews of both
ships, I gave orders that they should be boiled, with wheat and portable
broth, every morning for breakfast; and with pease and broth for dinner;
knowing from experience, that these vegetables, thus dressed, are
extremely beneficial in removing all manner of scorbutic complaints.

I have already mentioned a desire I had of visiting Van Diemen’s Land,
in order to inform myself if it made a part of New Holland; and I
certainly should have done this, had the winds proved favourable. But as
Captain Furneaux had now, in a great measure, cleared up that point, I
could have no business there: and therefore came to a resolution to
continue our researches to the east between the latitudes of 41° and
46°. I acquainted Captain Furneaux therewith, and ordered him to get his
ship in readiness to put to sea as soon as possible.

In the morning of the 20th, I sent ashore to the watering-place, near
the Adventure’s tent, the only ewe and ram remaining of those which I
brought from the Cape of Good Hope, with an intent to leave in this
country. Soon after I visited the several gardens Captain Furneaux had
caused to be made and planted with various articles; all of which were
in a flourishing state, and, if attended to by the natives, may prove of
great utility to them. The next day I set some men to work to make a
garden on Long Island, which I planted with garden seeds, roots, &c.

On the 23d in the morning, the ewe and ram I had with so much care and
trouble brought to this place, were both found dead; occasioned, as was
supposed, by eating some poisonous plant. Thus my hopes of stocking this
country with a breed of sheep were blasted in a moment. About noon, we
were visited, for the first time since I arrived, by some of the
natives, who dined with us; and it was not a little they devoured. In
the evening, they were dismissed with presents.

Early in the morning of the 24th, I sent Mr. Gilbert the master to sound
about the rock we had discovered in the entrance of the sound. Myself,
accompanied by Captain Furneaux and Mr. Forster, went in a boat to the
west bay on a shooting-party. In our way, we met a large canoe, in which
were fourteen or fifteen people. One of the first questions they asked
was for Tupia, the person I brought from Otaheite on my former voyage;
and they seemed to express some concern, when we told them he was dead.
These people made the same enquiry of Captain Furneaux when he first
arrived; and, on my return to the ship in the evening, I was told that a
canoe had been along-side, the people in which seemed to be strangers,
and who also enquired for Tupia. Late in the evening Mr. Gilbert
returned, having sounded all round the rock, which he found to be very
small and steep.

Nothing worthy of notice happened till the 29th, when several of the
natives made us a visit, and brought with them a quantity of fish, which
they exchanged for nails, &c. One of these people I took over to
Motuara, and showed him some potatoes planted there by Mr. Fannen,
master of the Adventure. There seemed to be no doubt of their
succeeding; and the man was so well pleased with them, that he, of his
own accord, began to hoe the earth up about the plants. We next took him
to the other gardens, and showed him the turnips, carrots, and parsnips;
roots which, together with the potatoes, will be of more real use to
them than all the other articles we had planted. It was easy to give
them an idea of these roots, by comparing them with such as they knew.

Two or three families of these people now took up their abode near us,
employing themselves daily in fishing, and supplying us with the fruits
of their labour; the good effects of which we soon felt. For we were by
no means such expert fishers as they are; nor were any of our methods of
fishing equal to theirs.

On the 2d of June, the ships being nearly ready to put to sea, I sent on
shore, on the east side of the sound, two goats, male and female. The
former was something more than a year old; but the latter was much
older. She had two fine kids, some time before we arrived in Dusky Bay,
which were killed by cold, as hath been already mentioned. Captain
Furneaux also put on shore, in Cannibal Cove, a boar and two breeding
sows; so that we have reason to hope this country will, in time, be
stocked with these animals, if they are not destroyed by the natives
before they become wild; for, afterwards, they will be in no danger. But
as the natives knew nothing of their being left behind, it may be some
time before they are discovered.

In our excursion to the east, we met with the largest seal I had ever
seen. It was swimming on the surface of the water, and suffered us to
come near enough to fire at it, but without effect; for, after a chase
of near an hour, we were obliged to leave it. By the size of this
animal, it probably was a sea lioness. It certainly bore much
resemblance to the drawing in Lord Anson’s voyage; our seeing a sea lion
when we entered this sound, in my former voyage, increaseth the
probability; and I am of opinion, they have their abode on some of the
rocks, which lie in the strait, or off Admiralty Bay.

On the 3d, I sent a boat with the carpenter over to the east side of the
sound, to cut down some spars, which we were in want of. As she was
returning, she was chased by a large double canoe full of people; but
with what intent, is not known. Early the next morning some of our
friends brought us a large supply of fish. One of them agreed to go away
with us; but, afterwards, that is when it came to the point, he changed
his mind; as did some others who had promised to go with the Adventure.

It was even said, that some of them offered their children to sale. I
however found that this was a mistake. The report first took its rise on
board the Adventure, where they were utter strangers to their language
and customs. It was very common for these people to bring their children
with them, and present them to us, in expectation that we would make
them presents; this happened to me the preceding morning. A man brought
his son, a boy about nine or ten years of age, and presented him to me.
As the report of selling their children was then current, I thought at
first that he wanted me to buy the boy. But at last I found that he
wanted me to give him a white shirt, which I accordingly did. The boy
was so fond of his new dress that he went all over the ship presenting
himself before every one that came in his way. This freedom used by him,
offended Old Will, the ram goat, who gave him a butt with his horns, and
knocked him backward on the deck. Will would have repeated his blow, had
not some of the people come to the boy’s assistance. The misfortune,
however, seemed to him irreparable. The shirt was dirtied, and he was
afraid to appear in the cabin before his father, until brought in by Mr.
Forster; when he told a very lamentable story against Goury, the great
dog, (for so they call all the quadrupeds we had aboard), nor could he
be reconciled, till his shirt was washed and dried. This story, though
extremely trifling in itself, will show how liable we are to mistake
these people’s meaning, and to ascribe to them customs which they never
knew even in thought.

About nine o’clock, a large double canoe, in which were twenty or thirty
people, appeared in sight. Our friends on board seemed much alarmed,
telling us that these were their enemies: two of them, the one with a
spear, and the other with a stone hatchet in his hand, mounted the
arm-chests on the poop, and there, in a kind of bravado, bid those
enemies defiance; while the others, who were on board, took to their
canoe and went ashore, probably to secure the women and children.

All I could do, could not prevail on the two that remained to call these
strangers along-side; on the contrary, they were displeased at my doing
it, and wanted me to fire upon them. The people in the canoe seemed to
pay very little regard to those on board, but kept advancing slowly
towards the ship; and, after performing the usual ceremonies, put
along-side: after this the chief was easily prevailed upon to come on
board, followed by many others, and peace was immediately established on
all sides; indeed, it did not appear to me that these people had any
intention to make war upon their brethren; at least, if they had, they
were sensible enough to know that this was neither the time nor place
for them to commit hostilities.

One of the first questions these strangers asked, was for Tupia; and
when I told them he was dead, one or two expressed their sorrow by a
kind of lamentation, which to me appeared more formal than real. A trade
soon commenced between our people and them. It was not possible to
hinder the former from selling the clothes from off their backs for the
merest trifles, things that were neither useful nor curious. This caused
me to dismiss the strangers sooner than I would have done. When they
departed, they went over to Motuara, where, by the help of our glasses,
we discovered four or five canoes, and several people on the shore: this
induced me to go over in my boat, accompanied by Mr. Forster and one of
the officers. We were well received by the chief and the whole tribe,
which consisted of between ninety and a hundred persons, men, women, and
children, having with them six canoes, and all their utensils; which
made it probable that they were come to reside in this sound; but this
is only conjecture; for it is very common for them, when they even go
but a little way, to carry their whole property with them; every place
being alike, if it affords them the necessary subsistence; so that it
can hardly be said they are ever from home. Thus we may easily account
for the emigration of those few families we found in Dusky Bay.

Living thus dispersed in small parties, knowing no head but the chief of
the family or tribe, whose authority may be very little, they feel many
inconveniences, to which well regulated societies, united under one head
or any other form of government, are not subject. These form laws and
regulations for their general good; they are not alarmed at the
appearance of every stranger; and if attacked or invaded by a public
enemy, have strong holds to retire to, where they can, with advantage,
defend themselves, their property, and their country. This seems to be
the state of most of the inhabitants of Eahei-nomauwe; whereas, those of
Tavai-poenammoo, by living a wandering life in small parties, are
destitute of most of these advantages, which subjects them to perpetual
alarms. We generally found them upon their guard, travelling and
working, as it were, with their arms in their hands. Even the women are
not exempted from bearing arms, as appeared by the first interview I had
with the family in Dusky Bay; where each of the two women was armed with
a spear not less than eighteen feet in length.

I was led into these reflections, by not being able to recollect the
face of any one person I had seen here three years ago; nor did it once
appear, that any one of them had the least knowledge of me, or of any
person with me that was here at that time; it is, therefore, highly
probable, that the greatest part of the people which inhabited this
sound in the beginning of the year 1770, have been since driven out of
it, or have, of their own accord, removed somewhere else: certain it is,
that not one-third of the inhabitants were here now, that were then.
Their strong hold on the point of Motuara hath been long deserted; and
we found many forsaken habitations in all parts of the sound; we are
not, however, wholly to infer from this, that this place hath been once
very populous; for each family may, for their own convenience, when they
move from place to place, have more huts than one or two.

It may be asked, if these people had never seen the Endeavour, nor any
of her crew, how could they become acquainted with the name of Tupia, or
have in their possession (which many of them had) such articles, as they
could only have got from that ship? To this it may be answered, that the
name of Tupia was so popular among them when the Endeavour was here,
that it would be no wonder if, at this time, it was known over great
part of New Zealand, and as familiar to those who never saw him, as to
those who did. Had ships of any other nation whatever arrived here, they
would have equally enquired of them for Tupia. By the same way of
reasoning, many of the articles left here by the Endeavour, may be now
in possession of those who never saw her. I got from one of the people,
now present, an ear-ornament, made of glass, very well formed and
polished; the glass they must have got from the Endeavour.

After passing about an hour on Motuara with these people, and having
distributed among them some presents, and showed to the chief the
gardens we had made, I returned on board, and spent the remainder of our
royal master’s birth-day in festivity; having the company of Captain
Furneaux and all his officers. Double allowance enabled the seamen to
share in the general joy.

Both ships being now ready for sea, I gave Captain Furneaux an account
in writing of the route I intended to take; which was to proceed to the
east, between the latitudes of 41° and 46° south, until I arrived in the
longitude of 140° or 135° west; then, provided no land was discovered,
to proceed to Otaheite; from thence back to this place by the shortest
route; and after taking in wood and water, to proceed to the south, and
explore all the unknown parts of the sea between the meridian of New
Zealand and Cape Horn; therefore, in case of separation before we
reached Otaheite, I appointed that island for the place of rendezvous,
where he was to wait till the 20th of August: if not joined by me before
that time, he was then to make the best of his way back to Queen
Charlotte’s Sound, where he was to wait until the 20th of November;
after which (if not joined by me) he was to put to sea, and carry into
execution their lordships’ instructions.

Some may think it an extraordinary step in me to proceed on discoveries
as far south as 46 degrees of latitude, in the very depth of winter. But
though it must be owned, that winter is by no means favourable for
discoveries, it nevertheless appeared to me necessary that something
should be done in it, in order to lessen the work I was upon, lest I
should not be able to finish the discovery of the southern part of the
South Pacific Ocean the ensuing summer. Besides, if I should discover
any land in my route to the east, I should be ready to begin, with the
summer, to explore it. Setting aside all these considerations, I had
little to fear; having two good ships well provided, and healthy crews.
Where then could I spend my time better? If I did nothing more, I was at
least in hopes of being able to point out to posterity, that these seas
may be navigated, and that it is practicable to go on discoveries, even
in the very depth of winter.

During our stay in the sound, I had observed that this second visit made
to this country, had not mended the morals of the natives of either sex.
I had always looked upon the females of New Zealand to be more chaste
than the generality of Indian women. Whatever favours a few of them
might have granted to the people in the Endeavour, it was generally done
in a private manner, and the men did not seem to interest themselves
much in it; but now I was told they were the chief promoters of a
shameful traffic, and that, for a spike nail, or any other thing they
value, they would oblige the women to prostitute themselves, whether
they would or no; and even without any regard to that privacy which
decency required.

During our stay here Mr. Wales lost no opportunity to observe equal
altitudes of the sun, for obtaining the rates of the watches. The result
of his labours proved that Mr. Kendal’s was gaining 9ʺ, 5 per day, and
Mr. Arnold’s losing 94ʺ, 158 per day, on mean time.



                               CHAP. IX.

ROUTE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO OTAHEITE, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF SOME LOW ISLANDS,
     SUPPOSED TO BE THE SAME THAT WERE SEEN BY M. DE BOUGAINVILLE.


On the 7th of June, at four in the morning, the wind being more
favourable, we unmoored, and at seven weighed and put to sea, with the
Adventure in company. We had no sooner got out of the sound, than we
found the wind at south; so that we had to ply through the Straits.
About noon the tide of ebb setting out in our favour, made our boards
advantageous; so that, at five o’clock in the evening, Cape Palliser, on
the Island of Eahei-nomauwe, bore S. S. E. 1/2 S. and Cape Koamaroo, or
the S. E. point of the sound, N. by W. 3/4 W. presently after it fell
calm, and the tide of flood now making against us, carried us, at a
great rate, back to the north. A little before high-water, the calm was
succeeded by a breeze from the north, which soon increased to a brisk
gale. This, together with the ebb, carried us, by eight o’clock the next
morning, quite through the Strait. Cape Palliser, at this time, bore
E. N. E. and at noon N. by W. distant seven leagues.

This day at noon, when we attended the winding up of the watches, the
fusee of Mr. Arnold’s would not turn round; so that, after several
unsuccessful trials, we were obliged to let it go down.

After getting clear of the Straits, I directed my course S. E. by E.
having a gentle gale, but variable, between the north and west. The late
S. E. winds having caused a swell from the same quarter, which did not
go down for some days, we had little hopes of meeting with land in that
direction. We, however, continued to steer to the S. E. and on the 11th,
crossed the meridian of 180°, and got into the west longitude, according
to my way of reckoning.

On the 16th, at seven in the morning, the wind having veered round to
S. E. we tacked and stretched to N. E. being, at this time, in the
latitude of 47° 7ʹ longitude 173° west. In this situation we had a great
swell from N. E.

The wind continued at S. E., and S. S. E. blew fresh at intervals; and
was attended with sometimes fair, and at other times rainy weather, till
the 20th; on which day, being in the latitude of 44° 30ʹ, longitude 165°
45ʹ west, the wind shifted to the west, blew a gentle gale, and was
attended with fair weather. With this we steered E. by N., E. by S., and
E. till the 23d at noon, when, being in the latitude of 44° 38ʹ south,
longitude 161° 27ʹ west, we had a few hours’ calm. The calm was
succeeded by a wind at east, with which we stood to the north. The wind
increased and blew in squalls, attended with rain, which at last brought
us under our courses; and at two o’clock in the afternoon of the next
day, we were obliged to lie to, under the foresail; having a very hard
gale from E. N. E. and a great sea from the same direction.

At seven o’clock in the morning of the 25th, the gale being more
moderate, we made sail under the courses, and in the afternoon set the
top-sails close-reefed. At midnight, the wind having veered more to the
north, we tacked and stretched to the S. E., being at this time in the
latitude of 42° 53ʹ south, longitude 163° 20ʹ west.

We continued to stretch to the S. E. with a fresh gale and fair weather,
till four o’clock in the afternoon the next day, when we stood again to
the N. E. till midnight between the 27th and 28th. Then we had a few
hours’ calm; which was succeeded by faint breezes from the west. At this
time we were in the latitude of 42° 32ʹ, longitude 161° 15ʹ west. The
wind remained not long at west, before it veered back to the east by the
north, and kept between the S. E. and N. E. but never blew strong.

On July 2d, being in the latitude of 43° 3ʹ, longitude 156° 17ʹ west, we
had again a calm, which brought the wind back to the west; but it was of
no longer continuance than before, for the next day it returned to the
E. and S. E., blew fresh at times, and by squalls, with rain.

On the 7th, being in the latitude of 41° 22ʹ, longitude 150° 12ʹ west,
we had two hours’ calm; in which time Mr. Wales went on board the
Adventure to compare the watches; and they were found to agree, allowing
for the difference of their rates of going; a probable, if not a certain
proof, that they had gone well since we had been in this sea.

The calm was succeeded by a wind from the south, between which point and
the N. W. it continued for the six succeeding days, but never blew
strong; it was, however, attended with a great hollow swell from S. W.
and W., a sure indication that no large land was near in those
directions. We now steered east, inclining to the south, and on the
10th, in the latitude of 43° 39ʹ, longitude 144° 43ʹ west, the variation
was found, by several azimuths, to be no more than 3° east; but the next
morning, it was found to be 4° 5ʹ 30ʺ, and in the afternoon, 5° 56ʹ
east. The same day, at noon, we were in the latitude of 43° 44ʹ,
longitude 141° 56ʹ west.

At nine o’clock in the morning of the 12th, the longitude was observed
as follows, viz.

 Self           1st set      139° 47ʹ 15ʺ
 Ditto          2d  set      140   7  30
 Mr. Wales      1st set      141  22  15
 Ditto          2d  set      140  10   0
 Mr. Clerke                  140  56  45
 Mr. Gilbert                 140   2   0
                             -----------
 Mean                        140  24  17-1/2 west.

This differed from my reckoning only 2-1/2°. The next morning, in the
latitude of 43° 3ʹ, longitude 139° 20ʹ west, we had several lunar
observations, which were consonant to those made the day before,
allowing for the ship’s run in the time. In the afternoon, we had, for a
few hours, variable light airs next to a calm; after which we got a wind
from the N. E. blowing fresh and in squalls, attended with dark gloomy
weather, and some rain.

We stretched to the S. E. till five o’clock in the afternoon on the
14th; at which time, being in the latitude of 43° 15ʹ, longitude 137°
39ʹ west, we tacked and stood to the north under our courses, having a
very hard gale with heavy squalls, attended with rain, till near noon
the next day, when it ended in a calm. At this time we were in the
latitude of 42° 39ʹ, longitude 137° 58ʹ west. In the evening, the calm
was succeeded by a breeze from S. W., which soon after increased to a
fresh gale; and fixing at S. S. W., with it we steered N. E. 1/2 E. In
the latitude of 41° 25ʹ, longitude 135° 58ʹ west, we saw floating in the
sea a billet of wood, which seemed to be covered with barnacles, so that
there was no judging, how long it might have been there, or from whence
or how far it had come.

We continued to steer N. E. 1/2 E. before a very strong gale, which blew
in squalls, attended with showers of rain and hail, and a very high sea
from the same quarter, till noon, on the 17th. Being then in the
latitude of 39° 44ʹ, longitude 133° 32ʹ west, which was a degree and a
half farther east than I had intended to run; nearly in the middle
between my track to the north in 1769, and the return to the south in
the same year, (as will appear by the chart) and seeing no signs of
land, I steered north-easterly, with a view of exploring that part of
the sea lying between the two tracts just mentioned, down as low as the
latitude of 27°, a space that had not been visited by any preceding
navigator that I knew of.

On the 19th, being in the latitude of 36° 34ʹ, longitude 133° 7ʹ west,
we steered N. 1/2 west, having still the advantage of a hard gale at
south, which the next day veered to S. E. and E. blew hard and by
squalls, attended with rain and thick hazy weather; this continued till
the evening of the 21st, when the gale abated, the weather cleared up,
and the wind backed to the S. and S. E.

We were now in the latitude of 32° 30ʹ, longitude 133° 40ʹ west; from
this situation we steered N. N. W. till noon the next day, when we
steered a point more to the west; being at this time in the latitude of
31° 6ʹ, longitude 134° 12ʹ west. The weather was now so warm, that it
was necessary to put on lighter clothes: the mercury in the thermometer
at noon rose to 63; it had never been lower than 46, and seldom higher
than 54, at the same time of the day, since we left New Zealand.

This day was remarkable by our not seeing a single bird; not one had
passed since we left the land without seeing some of the following
birds, viz. albatrosses, sheer-waters, pintadoes, blue peterels, and
Port Egmont hens; but these frequent every part of the Southern Ocean in
the higher latitudes; not a bird, nor any other thing was seen, that
could induce us to think that we had ever been in the neighbourhood of
any land.

The wind kept veering round from the south by the west to N. N. W., with
which we stretched north till noon the next day, when, being in the
latitude of 29° 22ʹ, we tacked and stretched to the westward. The wind
soon increased to a very hard gale, attended with rain, and blew in such
heavy squalls, as to split the most of our sails. This weather continued
till the morning of the 25th, when the wind became more moderate, and
veered to N. W. and W. N. W., with which we steered and stretched to
N. E., being, at that time, in the latitude of 29° 51ʹ, longitude 136°
28ʹ west. In the afternoon, the sky cleared up, and the weather became
fair and settled. We now met the first tropic bird we had seen in this
sea.

On the 26th, in the afternoon, being in the latitude of 28° 44ʹ, we had
several observations of the sun and moon, which gave the longitude 135°
30ʹ west. My reckoning at the same time was 135° 27ʹ, and I had no
occasion to correct it since I left the land. We continued to stretch to
the north, with light breezes from the westward, till noon the next day,
when we were stopped by a calm; our latitude at this time being 27° 53ʹ,
longitude 135° 17ʹ west. In the evening, the calm was succeeded by a
breeze from the N. and N. W., with which we plied to the north.

On the 29th, I sent on board the Adventure to enquire into the state of
her crew, having heard that they were sickly, and this I now found was
but too true; her cook was dead, and about twenty of her best men were
down in the scurvy and flux. At this time, _we_ had only three men on
the sick list, and only one of them attacked with the scurvy; several
more, however, began to show symptoms of it, and were accordingly put
upon the wort, marmalade of carrots, rob of lemons and oranges.

I know not how to account for the scurvy raging more in the one ship
than the other, unless it was owing to the crew of the Adventure being
more scorbutic when they arrived in New Zealand than we were, and to
their eating few or no vegetables while they lay in Queen Charlotte’s
Sound, partly for want of knowing the right sorts, and partly because it
was a new diet, which alone was sufficient for seamen to reject it. To
introduce any new article of food among seamen, let it be ever so much
for their good, requires both the example and authority of a commander;
without both of which, it will be dropped before the people are sensible
of the benefits resulting from it: were it necessary, I could name fifty
instances in support of this remark. Many of my people, officers as well
as seamen, at first disliked celery, scurvy-grass, &c., being boiled in
the peas and wheat; and some refused to eat it; but as this had no
effect on my conduct, this obstinate kind of prejudice, by little and
little, wore off; they began to like it as well as the others, and now,
I believe, there was hardly a man in the ship that did not attribute our
being so free from the scurvy, to the beer and vegetables we made use of
at New Zealand; after this, I seldom found it necessary to order any of
my people to gather vegetables, whenever we came where any were to be
got, and if scarce, happy was he who could lay hold on them first. I
appointed one of my seamen to be cook of the Adventure, and wrote to
Captain Furneaux, desiring him to make use of every method in his power
to stop the spreading of the disease amongst his people, and proposing
such as I thought might tend towards it; but I afterwards found all this
unnecessary, as every method had been used they could think of.

The wind continued in the N. W. quarter, and blew fresh, at times,
attended with rain; with which we stood to the N. E. On the 1st of
August, at noon, we were in the latitude of 25° 1ʹ, longitude 134° 6ʹ
west, and had a great hollow swell from N. W. The situation we were now
in, was nearly the same that Captain Cartaret assigns for Pitcairn’s
Island, discovered by him in 1767. We therefore looked well out for it;
but saw nothing. According to the longitude in which he has placed it,
we must have passed about fifteen leagues to the west of it. But as this
was uncertain, I did not think it prudent, considering the situation of
the Adventure’s people, to lose any time in looking for it. A sight of
it would, however, have been of use in verifying or correcting, not only
the longitude of this isle, but of the others that Captain Cartaret
discovered in this neighbourhood; his longitude not being confirmed, I
think, by astronomical observations, and therefore liable to errors,
which he could have no method to correct.

As we had now got to the northward of Captain Cartaret’s tracks, all
hopes of discovering a continent vanished. Islands were all we were to
expect to find, until we returned again to the south. I had now, that is
on this and my former voyage, crossed this ocean in the latitude of 40°
and upwards, without meeting any thing that did, in the least, induce me
to think I should find what I was in search after. On the contrary,
every thing conspired to make me believe there is no southern continent,
between the meridian of America and New Zealand; at least, this passage
did not produce any indubitable signs of any, as will appear by the
following remarks. After leaving the coasts of New Zealand, we daily
saw, floating in the sea, rock-weed, for the space of 18° of longitude.
In my passage to New Zealand in 1769, we also saw of this weed, for the
space of 12° or 14° of longitude, before we made the land. The weed is,
undoubtedly, the produce of New Zealand; because, the nearer the coast,
the greater quantity you see. At the greatest distance from the coast,
we saw it only in small pieces, generally more rotten, and covered with
barnacles; an indubitable sign that it had been long at sea. Were it not
for this, one might be led to conjecture that some other large land lay
in the neighbourhood; for it cannot be a small extent of coast to
produce such a quantity of weed, as to cover so large a space of sea. It
hath been already mentioned, that we were no sooner clear of the
Straits, than we met with a large hollow swell from the S. E. which
continued till we arrived in the longitude of 177° west, and latitude
46°. There we had large billows from the north and N. E. for five days
successively, and until we got 5° of longitude more to the east,
although the wind, great part of the time, blew from different
directions. This was a strong indication that there was no land between
us and my track to the west in 1769. After this, we had, as is usual in
all great oceans, large billows from every direction in which the wind
blew a fresh gale, but more especially from the S. W. These billows
never ceased with the cause that first put them in motion; a sure
indication, that we were not near any large land, and that there is no
continent to the south, unless in a very high latitude. But this was too
important a point to be left to opinions and conjectures. Facts were to
determine it; and these could only be obtained by visiting the southern
parts, which was to be the work of the ensuing summer, agreeably to the
plan I had laid down.

As the winds continued to blow from the N. W. and west, we had no other
choice but to stand to the north, inclining more or less every day to
the east. In the latitude of 21°, we saw flying fish, gannets and
egg-birds. On the sixth, I hoisted a boat out and sent for Captain
Furneaux to dinner; from whom I learnt that his people were much better,
the flux having left them; and the scurvy was at a stand. Some cyder
which he happened to have, and which he gave to the scorbutic people,
contributed not a little to this happy change. The weather to-day was
cloudy, and the wind very unsettled. This seemed to announce the
approach of the so much-wished-for trade wind; which, at eight o’clock
in the evening, after two hours’ calm and some heavy showers of rain, we
actually got at S. E. We were, at this time, in the latitude of 19° 36ʹ
south, longitude 131° 32ʹ west. The not meeting with the S. E.
trade-wind sooner, is no new thing in this sea. As we had now got it, I
directed my course to the W. N. W. as well to keep in the strength of
it, as to get to the north of the islands discovered in my former
voyage; that, if any other islands lay in the way, I might have a chance
to discover them. During the day-time we made all the sail we could; but
in the night, either run an easy sail, or lay to. We daily saw flying
fish, albacores, dolphins, &c. but neither by striking, nor with hook
and line, could we catch any of them. This required some art which none
of my people were masters of.

On the 11th at day-break, land was seen to the south. This, upon a
nearer approach, we found to be an island of about two leagues in
extent, in the direction of N. W. and S. E. and cloathed with wood,
above which the cocoa-nut trees showed their lofty heads. I judged it to
be one of those isles discovered by Mr. Bougainville. It lies in the
latitude of 17° 24ʹ, longitude 141° 39ʹ west; and I called it after the
name of the ship, Resolution Island. The sickly state of the Adventure’s
crew made it necessary for me to make the best of my way to Otaheite,
where I was sure of finding refreshments. Consequently, I did not wait
to examine this island, which appeared too small to supply our wants,
but continued our course to the west; and at six o’clock in the evening,
land was seen from the mast-head, bearing west by south. Probably this
was another of Bougainville’s discoveries. I named it Doubtful Island;
and it lies in the latitude of 17° 20ʹ, longitude 141° 38ʹ W. I was
sorry I could not spare time to haul to the north of Mr. Bougainville’s
track; but the getting to a place where we could procure refreshments
was more an object at this time than discovery.

During the night we steered W. by N. in order to pass the north of the
island above-mentioned. At day-break the next morning, we discovered
land right ahead, distant about two miles; so that day-light advised us
of our danger but just in time. This proved another of these low or
half-drowned islands, or rather a large coral shoal of about
twenty-leagues in circuit. A very small part of it was land, which
consisted of little islets ranged along the north-side, and connected by
sand-banks and breakers. These islets were clothed with wood, among
which the cocoa-nut trees were only distinguishable. We ranged the south
side of this isle or shoal at the distance of one or two miles from the
coral bank, against which the sea broke in a dreadful surf. In the
middle is a large lake or inland sea, in which was a canoe under sail.

This island, which I named after Captain Furneaux, lies in the latitude
17° 5ʹ, longitude 143° 16ʹ west. The situation is nearly the same that
is assigned for one of those discovered by Bougainville. I must here
observe, that amongst these low and half-drowned isles (which are
numerous in this part of the ocean) Mr. Bougainville’s discoveries
cannot be known to that degree of accuracy which is necessary to
distinguish them from others. We were obliged to have recourse to his
chart for the latitudes and longitudes of the isles he discovered, as
neither the one nor the other is mentioned in his narrative. Without
waiting to examine this island, we continued to steer to the west, all
sails set, till six o’clock in the evening, when we shortened sail to
three topsails, and at nine brought to.

The next morning at four A. M. we made sail, and at day-break saw
another of these low islands, situated in the latitude of 17° 4ʹ,
longitude 144° 30ʹ west, which obtained the name of Adventure Island. M.
de Bougainville very properly calls this cluster of low overflowed isles
the Dangerous Archipelago. The smoothness of the sea sufficiently
convinced us that we were surrounded by them, and how necessary it was
to proceed with the utmost caution, especially in the night.

At five o’clock P. M. we again saw land, bearing S. W. by S. which we
afterwards found to be Chain Island, discovered in my former voyage. But
as I was not sure of it at this time, and being desirous of avoiding the
delay which lying by in the night occasioned, I hoisted out the cutter
and manned her with an officer and seven men with orders to keep as far
a-head of the ships, with a light at her mast-head, as a signal could be
distinguished, which she was to make in case she met with any danger. In
this manner we continued to run all night; and at six o’clock the next
morning, I called her on board and hoisted her in. For it did not appear
she would be wanted again for this purpose, as we had now a large swell
from the south, a sure sign that we were clear of the low islands;
therefore I steered for Otaheite without being apprehensive of meeting
with any danger.



                                CHAP. X.

 THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHIPS AT OTAHEITE, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE CRITICAL
  SITUATION THEY WERE IN, AND OF SEVERAL INCIDENTS THAT HAPPENED WHILE
                      THEY LAY IN OAITI-PIHA BAY.


On the 15th, at five o’clock in the morning, we saw Osnaburg Island or
Maitea, discovered by Captain Wallis, bearing S. by W. 1/2 W. Soon after
I brought to, and waited for the Adventure to come up with us, to
acquaint Captain Furneaux, that it was my intention to put into
Oaiti-piha Bay, near the S. E. end of Otaheite, in order to get what
refreshments we could from that part of the island, before we went down
to Matavai. This done, we made sail, and at six in the evening saw the
island bearing west. We continued to stand on till midnight, when we
brought to, till four o’clock in the morning; and then made sail in for
the land with a fine breeze at east.

At day-break we found ourselves not more than half a league from the
reef. The breeze now began to fail us, and at last fell to a calm. This
made it necessary to hoist out our boats to tow the ships off; but all
their efforts were not sufficient to keep them from being carried near
the reef. A number of the inhabitants came off in canoes from different
parts, bringing with them a little fish, a few cocoa-nuts, and other
fruits, which they exchanged for nails, beads, etc. The most of them
knew me again; and many enquired for Mr. Banks and others who were with
me before; but not one asked for Tupia. As the calm continued, our
situation became still more dangerous. We were, however, not without
hopes of getting round the western point of the reef and into the bay,
till about two o’clock in the afternoon, when we came before an opening
or break in the reef, through which I hoped to get with the ships. But
on sending to examine it, I found there was not a sufficient depth of
water; though it caused such an indraught of the tide of flood through
it, as was very near proving fatal to the Resolution; for as soon as the
ships got into this stream, they were carried with great impetuosity
towards the reef. The moment I perceived this, I ordered one of the
warping machines, which we had in readiness, to be carried out with
about four hundred fathoms of rope; but it had not the least effect. The
horrors of shipwreck now stared us in the face. We were not more than
two cables’ length from the breakers; and yet we could find no bottom to
anchor, the only probable means we had left to save the ships. We
however dropt an anchor; but, before it took hold, and brought us up,
the ship was in less than three fathoms water, and struck at every fall
of the sea, which broke close under our stern in a dreadful surf, and
threatened us every moment with shipwreck. The Adventure, very luckily,
brought up close upon our bow without striking.

We presently carried out two kedge anchors, with hawsers to each. These
found ground a little without the bower, but in what depth we never
knew. By heaving upon them, and cutting away the bower anchor, we got
the ship a-float, where we lay some time in the greatest anxiety,
expecting every minute that either the kedges would come home, or the
hawsers be cut in two by the rocks. At length the tide ceased to act in
the same direction. I ordered all the boats to try to tow off the
Resolution; and when I saw this was practicable, we hove up the two
kedges. At that moment, a light air came off from the land, which so
much assisted the boats, that we soon got clear of all danger. Then I
ordered all the boats to assist the Adventure; but before they reached
her, she was under sail with the land breeze, and soon after joined us,
leaving behind her three anchors, her coasting cable, and two hawsers,
which were never recovered. Thus we were once more safe at sea, after
narrowly escaping being wrecked on the very island we, but a few days
before, so ardently wished to be at. The calm, after bringing us into
this dangerous situation, very fortunately continued; for had the sea
breeze, as is usual, set in, the Resolution must inevitably have been
lost, and probably the Adventure too.

During the time we were in this critical situation, a number of the
natives were on board and about the ships; they seemed to be insensible
of our danger, showing not the least surprise, joy, or fear, when we
were striking, and left us little before sun-set, quite unconcerned.

We spent the night, which proved squally and rainy, making short boards;
and the next morning, being the 17th, we anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay in
twelve fathoms’ water, about two cables’ length from the shore; both
ships being by this time crowded with a great number of the natives, who
brought with them cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, apples, yams, and
other roots, which they exchanged for nails and beads. To several who
called themselves chiefs, I made presents of shirts, axes, and several
other articles; and in return, they promised to bring me hogs and fowls;
a promise they never did, nor ever intended to perform.

In the afternoon I landed, in company with Captain Furneaux, in order to
view the watering-place, and to sound the disposition of the natives. I
also sent a boat to get some water for present use, having scarcely any
left on board. We found this article as convenient as could be expected,
and the natives to behave with great civility.

Early in the morning I sent the two launches, and the Resolution’s
cutter, under the command of Mr. Gilbert, to endeavour to recover the
anchors we had left behind us. They returned about noon with the
Resolution’s bower anchor; but could not recover any of the Adventure’s.
The natives came off again with fruit, as the day before, but in no
great quantity. I also had a party on shore, trading under the
protection of a guard; nothing, however, was brought to market but fruit
and roots, though many hogs were seen (I was told) about the houses of
the natives. The cry was that they belonged to Waheatoua the _Earee de
hi_, or king; and him we had not yet seen, nor, I believe, any other
chief of note; many, however, who called themselves _Earees_, came on
board, partly with a view of getting presents, and partly to pilfer
whatever came in their way.

One of this sort of _Earees_ I had, most of the day, in the cabin, and
made presents to him and all his friends, which were not a few. At
length he was caught taking things which did not belong to him, and
handing them out of the quarter-gallery. Many complaints of the like
nature were made to me against those on deck; which occasioned my
turning them all out of the ship. My cabin guest made good haste to be
gone. I was so much exasperated at his behaviour, that after he had got
some distance from the ship, I fired two muskets over his head, which
made him quit the canoe, and take to the water. I then sent a boat to
take up the canoe; but as she came near the shore, the people from
thence began to pelt her with stones. Being in some pain for her safety,
as she was unarmed, I went myself in another boat to protect her, and
ordered a great gun, loaded with ball, to be fired along the coast,
which made them all retire from the shore, and I was suffered to bring
away two canoes without the least show of opposition. In one of the
canoes was a little boy, who was much frightened; but I soon dissipated
his fears, by giving him beads, and putting him on shore. A few hours
after we were all good friends again; and the canoes were returned to
the first person who came for them.

It was not till the evening of this day that any one enquired after
Tupia, and then but two or three. As soon as they learnt the cause of
his death, they were quite satisfied; indeed, it did not appear to me,
that it would have caused a moment’s uneasiness in the breast of any
one, had his death been occasioned by any other means than by sickness.
As little enquiry was made after Aotourou, the man who went away with M.
de Bougainville; but they were continually asking for Mr. Banks, and
several others who were with me in my former voyage.

These people informed us, that Toutaha, the regent of the greater
peninsula of Otaheite, had been killed in a battle, which was fought
between the two kingdoms about five months before; and that _Otoo_ was
the reigning prince. Tubourai Tamaide, and several more of our principal
friends about Matavai, fell in this battle, as also a great number of
common people; but at present, a peace subsisted between the two
kingdoms.

On the 19th we had gentle breezes easterly, with some smart showers of
rain. Early in the morning, the boats were again sent to recover the
Adventure’s anchors, but returned with the same ill success as the day
before; so that we ceased to look for them any longer, thinking
ourselves very happy in having come off so well, considering the
situation we had been in. In an excursion which Captain Furneaux and I
made along the coast, we met with a chief who entertained us with
excellent fish, fruit, &c. In return for his hospitality, I made him a
present of an axe and other things; and he afterwards accompanied us
back to the ships, where he made but a short stay.

Nothing worthy of note happened on the 20th, till the dusk of the
evening, when one of the natives made off with a musket belonging to the
guard on shore. I was present when this happened, and sent some of our
people after him, which would have been to little purpose, had not some
of the natives, of their own accord, pursued the thief: they knocked him
down, took from him the musket, and brought it to us. Fear, on this
occasion, certainly operated more with them than principle: they,
however, deserve to be applauded for this act of justice; for, if they
had not given their immediate assistance, it would hardly have been in
my power to have recovered the musket by any gentle means whatever; and
by making use of any other, I was sure to lose more than ten times its
value.

The 21st, the wind was at north a fresh breeze. This morning a chief
made me a visit, and presented me with a quantity of fruit, among which
were a number of cocoa-nuts we had drawn the water from, and afterwards
thrown over board. These he had picked up, and tied in bundles so
artfully, that we did not at first perceive the cheat. When he was told
of it, without betraying the least emotion, and as if he knew nothing of
the matter, he opened two or three of them himself, signified to us that
he was satisfied that it was so, and then went on shore and sent off a
quantity of plantains and bananas. Having got on board a supply of
water, fruit, and roots, I determined to sail in the morning to Matavai,
as I found it was not likely that I should get an interview with
Waheatoua; without which it was very improbable we should get any hogs.
Two of the natives who knew my intention, slept on board, with a view of
going with us to Matavai; but in the morning the wind blew fresh at
N. W., and as we could not sail, I sent the trading party on shore as
usual.

In the evening I was informed that Waheatoua was come into the
neighbourhood and wanted to see me. In consequence of this information,
I determined to wait one day longer in order to have an interview with
this prince. Accordingly, early the next morning, I set out in company
with Captain Furneaux, Mr. Forster, and several of the natives. We met
the chief about a mile from the landing-place, towards which he was
advancing to meet us; but as soon as he saw us he stopt, with his
numerous train in the open air. I found him seated upon a stool, with a
circle of people round him, and knew him at first sight and he me;
having seen each other several times in 1769. At that time he was but a
boy, and went by the name of Tearee, but upon the death of his father
Waheatoua, he took upon him that name.

After the first salutation was over, having seated me on the same stool
with himself, and the other gentlemen on the ground by us, he began to
enquire after several by name who were with me on my former voyage. He
next inquired how long I would stay; and when I told him no longer than
next day, he seemed sorry, asked me to stay some months, and at last
came down to five days; promising that, in that time, I should have hogs
in plenty. But as I had been here already a week, without so much as
getting one, I could not put any faith in this promise. And yet, I
believe, if I had stayed, we should have fared much better than at
Matavai. The present I made him consisted of a shirt, a sheet, a broad
axe, spike nails, knives, looking-glasses, medals, beads, &c. In return,
he ordered a pretty good hog to be carried to our boat. We stayed with
him all the morning, during which time he never suffered me to go from
his side, where he was seated. I was also seated on the same stool,
which was carried from place to place by one of his attendants, whom we
called stool-bearer. At length we took leave, in order to return on
board to dinner; after which we visited him again, and made him more
presents; and he in return gave Captain Furneaux and me each of us an
hog. Some others were got by exchanges at the trading places: so that we
got, in the whole to-day, as much fresh pork as gave the crews of both
ships a meal; and this in consequence of our having this interview with
the chief.

The 24th, early in the morning, we put to sea with a light land-breeze.
Soon after we were out, we got the wind at west, which blew in squalls,
attended with heavy showers of rain. Many canoes accompanied us out to
sea with cocoa-nuts, and other fruits; and did not leave us till they
had disposed of their cargoes.

The fruits we got here greatly contributed towards the recovery of the
Adventure’s sick people. Many of them who had been so ill as not to be
able to move without assistance, were, in this short time, so far
recovered, that they could walk about of themselves. When we put in
here, the Resolution had but one scorbutic man on board, and a marine,
who had been long sick, and who died, the second day after our arrival,
of a complication of disorders without the least mixture of the scurvy.
I left Lieutenant Pickersgill with the cutter behind in the bay, to
purchase hogs; as several had promised to bring some down to-day, and I
was not willing to lose them.

On the 25th, about noon, Mr. Pickersgill returned with eight pigs, which
he got at Oaitipiha. He spent the night at Ohedea, and was well
entertained by Ereti, the chief of that district. It was remarkable that
this chief never once asked after Aotourou; nor did he take the least
notice, when Mr. Pickersgill mentioned his name. And yet Mr. de
Bougainville tells us, this is the very chief who presented Aotourou to
him; which makes it the more extraordinary that he should neither
inquire after him now, nor when he was with us at Matavai; especially as
they believed that we and Mr. Bougainville came from the same country;
that is, from _Pretane_, for so they called our country. They had not
the least knowledge of any other European nation; nor probably will
they, unless some of those men should return who had lately gone from
the isle; of which mention shall be made bye-and-by. We told several of
them, that M. de Bougainville came from _France_, a name they could by
no means pronounce, nor could they pronounce that of _Paris_ much
better; so that it is not likely that they will remember either the one
or the other long. Whereas _Pretane_ is in every child’s mouth, and will
hardly ever be forgotten. It was not till the evening of this day that
we arrived in Matavai bay.



                               CHAP. XI.

 AN ACCOUNT OF SEVERAL VISITS TO AND FROM OTOO; OF GOATS BEING LEFT ON
 THE ISLAND; AND MANY OTHER PARTICULARS WHICH HAPPENED WHILE THE SHIPS
                          LAY IN MATAVAI BAY.


Before we got to an anchor, our decks were crowded with the natives;
many of whom I knew, and almost all of them knew me. A great crowd were
gotten together upon the shore; amongst whom was Otoo their king. I was
just going to pay him a visit, when I was told he was _mataow’d_, and
gone to Oparree. I could not conceive the reason of his going off in a
fright, as every one seemed pleased to see me. A chief whose name was
Maritata, was at this time on board, and advised me to put off my visit
till the next morning, when he would accompany me; which I accordingly
did.

After having given directions to pitch tents for the reception of the
sick, coopers, sail-makers, and the guard, I set out on the 26th for
Oparree; accompanied by Captain Furneaux, Mr. Forster, and others,
Maritata and his wife. As soon as we landed, we were conducted to Otoo,
whom we found seated on the ground, under the shade of a tree, with an
immense crowd round him. After the first compliments were over, I
presented him with such articles as I guessed were most valuable in his
eyes; well knowing that it was my interest to gain the friendship of
this man. I also made presents to several of his attendants; and, in
return, they offered me cloth, which I refused to accept; telling them
that what I had given was for _tiyo_ (friendship). The king inquired for
Tupia, and all the gentlemen that were with me in my former voyage, by
name; although I do not remember that he was personally acquainted with
any of us. He promised that I should have some hogs the next day; but I
had much ado to obtain a promise from him to visit on board. He said he
was _mataou no to poupoue_, that is, afraid of the guns. Indeed, all his
actions showed him to be a timorous prince. He was about thirty years of
age, six feet high, and a fine, personable, well made man as one can
see. All his subjects appeared uncovered before him, his father not
excepted. What is meant by uncovering, is the making bare the head and
shoulders, or wearing no sort of cloathing above the breast.

When I returned from Oparree, I found the tents, and the astronomer’s
observatories, set up, on the same spot where we observed the transit of
Venus in 1769. In the afternoon I had the sick landed; twenty from the
Adventure all ill of the scurvy; and one from the Resolution. I also
landed some marines for a guard, and left the command to Lieutenant
Edgcumbe of the marines.

On the 27th, early in the morning, Otoo, attended by a numerous train,
paid me a visit. He first sent into the ship a large quantity of cloth,
fruits, a hog, and two large fish; and, after some persuasion, came
aboard himself, with his sister, a younger brother, and several more of
his attendants. To all of them I made presents; and, after breakfast,
took the king, his sister, and as many more as I had room for, into my
boat, and carried them home to Oparree. I had no sooner landed than I
was met by a venerable old lady, the mother of the late Toutaha. She
seized me by both hands, and burst into a flood of tears, saying,
_Toutaha Tiyo no Toutee matty Toutaha_—(Toutaha, your friend, or the
friend of Cook, is dead). I was so much affected with her behaviour,
that it would have been impossible for me to have refrained mingling my
tears with hers, had not Otoo come and taken me from her. I, with some
difficulty, prevailed on him to let me see her again, when I gave her an
axe and some other things. Captain Furneaux, who was with me, presented
the king with two fine goats, male and female, which, if taken care of,
or rather if no care at all is taken of them, will no doubt multiply.
After a short stay we took leave and returned on board.

Very early in the morning on the 28th, I sent Mr. Pickersgill, with the
cutter, as far as Ottahourou, to endeavour to procure hogs. A little
after sun-rise, I had another visit from Otoo, who brought me more
cloth, a pig, and some fruit. His sister, who was with him, and some of
his attendants, came on board; but he and others went to the Adventure,
with the like present to Captain Furneaux. It was not long before he
returned with Captain Furneaux on board the Resolution, when I made him
a handsome return for the present he had brought me, and dressed his
sister out in the best manner I could. She, the king’s brother, and one
or two more, were covered before him to-day. When Otoo came into the
cabin, Ereti and some of his friends were sitting there. The moment they
saw the king enter, they stripped themselves in great haste, being
covered before. Seeing I took notice of it, they said _Earee, Earee_;
giving me to understand that it was on account of Otoo being present.
This was all the respect they paid him; for they never rose from their
seats, nor made him any other obeisance. When the king thought proper to
depart, I carried him again to Oparree in my boat; where I entertained
him, and his people, with the bag-pipes (of which music they are very
fond), and dancing by the seamen. He, in return, ordered some of his
people to dance also, which consisted chiefly of contortions. There
were, however, some who could imitate the seamen tolerably well, both in
country-dances and hornpipes. While we were here, I had a present of
cloth from the late Toutaha’s mother. This good old lady could not look
upon me without shedding tears; however, she was far more composed than
before. When we took leave, the king promised to visit me again the next
day; but said that I must first come to him. In the evening Mr.
Pickersgill came back empty; but with a promise of having some hogs, if
he would return in a few days.

Next morning, after breakfast, I took a trip to Oparree, to visit Otoo,
as he had requested, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and some of the
officers. We made him up a present of such things as he had not seen
before. One article was a broad sword; at the very sight of which he was
so intimidated, that I had much ado to persuade him to accept of it, and
to have it buckled upon him; where it remained but a short time, before
he desired leave to take it off and send it out of his sight.

Soon after we were conducted to the theatre; where we were entertained
with a dramatic _heava_, or _play_, in which were both dancing and
comedy. The performers were five men, and one woman, who was no less a
person than the king’s sister. The music consisted of three drums only;
it lasted about an hour and an half, or two hours; and, upon the whole,
was well conducted. It was not possible for us to find out the meaning
of the play. Some part seemed adapted to the present time, as my name
was frequently mentioned. Other parts were certainly wholly unconnected
with us. It apparently differed in nothing, that is in the manner of
acting it, from those we saw at Ulietea in my former voyage. The
dancing-dress of the lady was more elegant than any I saw there, by
being decorated with long tassels, made of feathers, hanging from the
waist downward. As soon as all was over, the king himself desired me to
depart; and sent into the boat different kinds of fruit and fish, ready
dressed. With this we returned on board; and the next morning he sent me
more fruit, and several small parcels of fish.

Nothing farther remarkable happened till ten o’clock in the evening,
when we were alarmed with the cry of murder, and a great noise, on
shore, near the bottom of the bay, at some distance from our encampment.
I suspected that it was occasioned by some of our own people; and
immediately armed a boat, and sent on shore, to know the occasion of
this disturbance, and to bring off such of our people as should be found
there. I also sent to the Adventure, and to the post on shore, to know
who were missing; for none were absent from the Resolution, but those
who were upon duty. The boat soon returned with three marines, and a
seaman. Some others, belonging to the Adventure, were also taken, and
being all put under confinement, the next morning I ordered them to be
punished according to their deserts. I did not find that any mischief
was done, and our people would confess nothing. I believe this
disturbance was occasioned by their making too free with the women. Be
this as it will, the natives were so much alarmed, that they fled from
their habitations in the dead of the night, and the alarm spread many
miles along the coast. For when I went to visit Otoo, in the morning, by
appointment, I found him removed, or rather fled, many miles from the
place of his abode. Even there I was obliged to wait some hours, before
I could see him at all; and when I did, he complained of the last
night’s riot.

As this was intended to be my last visit, I had taken with me a present
suitable to the occasion. Among other things were three Cape sheep,
which he had seen before and asked for; for these people never lose a
thing by not asking for it. He was much pleased with them; though he
could be but little benefited, as they were all weathers; a thing he was
made acquainted with. The presents he got at this interview entirely
removed his fears, and opened his heart so much, that he sent for three
hogs; one for me, one for Captain Furneaux, and one for Mr. Forster.
This last was small, of which we complained, calling it _ete, ete_.
Presently after a man came into the circle, and spoke to the king with
some warmth, and in a very peremptory manner; saying something or other
about hogs. We, at first, thought he was angry with the king for giving
us so many, especially as he took the little pig away with him. The
contrary, however, appeared to be the true cause of his displeasure;
for, presently after he was gone, a hog, larger than either of the other
two, was brought us in lieu of the little one. When we took leave, I
acquainted him that I should sail from the island the next day; at which
he seemed much moved, and embraced me several times. We embarked to
return on board, and he, with his numerous train, directed their march
back to Oparree.

The sick being all pretty well recovered, our water-casks repaired, and
water completed, as well as the necessary repairs of the ships, I
determined to put to sea without farther delay. Accordingly on the 1st
of September, I ordered every thing to be got off from the shore, and
the ships to be unmoored. On this work we were employed the most of the
day. In the afternoon Mr. Pickersgill returned from Attahourou; to which
place I had sent him, two days before, for the hogs he had been
promised. My old friend Pottatou, the chief of that district, his wife,
or mistress (I know not which), and some more of his friends, came along
with Mr. Pickersgill, in order to visit me. They brought me a present of
two hogs, and some fish; and Mr. Pickersgill got two more hogs, by
exchange, from Oamo: for he went in the boat as far as Paparra, where he
saw old Oberea. She seemed much altered for the worse, poor, and of
little consequence. The first words she said to Mr. Pickersgill were,
_Earee mataou ina boa_, Earee is frightened, you can have no hogs. By
this it appeared that she had little or no property, and was herself
subject to the Earee; which I believe was not the case when I was here
before. The wind, which had blown westerly all day, having shifted at
once to the east, we put to sea; and I was obliged to dismiss my friends
sooner than they wished to go; but well satisfied with the reception
they had met with.

Some hours before we got under sail, a young man, whose name was Poreo,
came and desired I would take him with me. I consented, thinking he
might be of service to us on some occasion. Many more offered
themselves, but I refused to take them. This youth asked me for an axe
and a spike nail for his father, who was then on board. He had them
accordingly, and they parted just as we were getting under sail, more
like two strangers than father and son. This raised a doubt in me
whether it was so; which was farther confirmed by a canoe, conducted by
two men, coming along-side, as we were standing out of the bay, and
demanding the young man in the name of Otoo. I now saw that the whole
was a trick to get something from me; well knowing that Otoo was not in
the neighbourhood, and could know nothing of the matter. Poreo seemed,
however, at first undetermined whether he should go or stay; but he soon
inclined to the former. I told them to return me the axe and nails, and
then he should go (and so he really should), but they said they were
ashore, and so departed. Though the youth seemed pretty well satisfied,
he could not refrain from weeping, when he viewed the land astern.



                               CHAP. XII.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE RECEPTION WE MET WITH AT HUAHEINE, WITH THE INCIDENTS
    THAT HAPPENED WHILE THE SHIPS LAY THERE, AND OF OMAI, ONE OF THE
                 NATIVES, COMING AWAY IN THE ADVENTURE.


As soon as we were clear of the bay, and our boats in, I directed my
course for the Island of Huaheine, where I intended to touch. We made it
the next day, and spent the night, making short boards under the north
end of the island. At day-light in the morning of the 3d, we made sail
for the harbour of Owharre; in which the Resolution anchored, about nine
o’clock, in twenty-four fathoms’ water. As the wind blew out of the
harbour, I chose to turn in by the southern channel, it being the
widest. The Resolution turned in very well, but the Adventure, missing
stays, got ashore on the north side of the channel. I had the
Resolution’s launch in the water ready, in case of an accident of this
kind, and sent her immediately to the Adventure. By this timely
assistance, she was got off again, without receiving any damage. Several
of the natives, by this time, had come off to us, bringing with them
some of the productions of the island; and, as soon as the ships were
both in safety, I landed with Captain Furneaux, and was received by the
natives with the utmost cordiality. I distributed some presents among
them; and presently after, they brought down hogs, fowls, dogs, and
fruits, which they willingly exchanged for hatchets, nails, beads, &c.
The like trade was soon opened on board the ships; so that we had a fair
prospect of being plentifully supplied with fresh pork and fowls; and,
to people in our situation, this was no unwelcome thing. I learnt that
my old friend Oree, chief of the isle, was still living, and that he was
hastening to this part to see me.

Early next morning, Lieutenant Pickersgill sailed with the cutter, on a
trading party, toward the south end of the isle. I also sent another
trading party on shore near the ships, with which I went myself, to see
that it was properly conducted at the first setting out, a very
necessary point to be attended to. Every thing being settled to my mind,
I went, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and Mr. Forster, to pay my first
visit to Oree, who, I was told, was waiting for me. We were conducted to
the place by one of the natives; but were not permitted to go out of our
boat, till we had gone through some part of the following ceremony,
usually performed at this isle, on such like occasions. The boat, in
which we were desired to remain, being landed before the chief’s house,
that stood close to the shore, five young plantain trees, which are
their emblems of peace, were brought on board separately, and with some
ceremony. Three young pigs, with their ears ornamented with cocoa-nut
fibres, accompanied the first three; and a dog, the fourth. Each had its
particular name and purpose, rather too mysterious for us to understand.
Lastly, the chief sent to me the inscription engraved on a small piece
of pewter, which I left with him in July, 1769. It was in the same bag I
had made for it, together with a piece of counterfeit English coin, and
a few beads, put in at the same time; which shows how well he had taken
care of the whole. When they had made an end of putting into the boat
the things just mentioned, our guide, who still remained with us,
desired us to decorate three young plantain trees with looking-glasses,
nails, medals, beads, &c. &c. This being accordingly done, we landed
with these in our hands, and were conducted towards the chief, through
the multitude; they making a lane, as it were, for us to pass through.
We were made to sit down a few paces short of the chief, and our
plaintains were then taken from us, and, one by one, laid before him, as
the others had been laid before us. One was for _Eatoua_ (or God), the
second for the _Earee_ (or king), and the third for _Tiyo_ (or
friendship). This being done, I wanted to go to the king, but was told
that he would come to me, which he accordingly did, fell upon my neck
and embraced me. This was by no means ceremonious; the tears, which
trickled plentifully down his venerable old cheeks, sufficiently bespoke
the language of his heart. The whole ceremony being over, all his
friends were introduced to us, to whom we made presents. Mine to the
chief consisted of the most valuable articles I had; for I had regarded
this man as a father. In return he gave me a hog and a quantity of
cloth, promising that all our wants should be supplied; and it will soon
appear how well he kept his word. At length we took leave, and returned
on board; and some time after Mr. Pickersgill returned also with
fourteen hogs. Many more were got by exchanges on shore, and along-side
the ships, besides fowls and fruit in abundance.

This good old chief made me a visit early in the morning on the 5th,
together with some of his friends, bringing me a hog and some fruit, for
which I made him a suitable return. He carried his kindness so far, as
not to fail to send me every day, for my table, the very best of
ready-dressed fruit, and roots, and in great plenty. Lieutenant
Pickersgill being again sent with the two boats, in search of hogs,
returned in the evening with twenty-eight; and about four times that
number were purchased on shore, and along-side the ships.

Next morning the trading party, consisting of only two or three people,
were sent on shore as usual; and after breakfast, I went to the place
myself, when I learnt that one of the inhabitants had been very
troublesome and insolent. This man, being pointed out to me, completely
equipped in the war habit with a club in each hand, as he seemed bent on
mischief, I took these from him, broke them before his eyes, and, with
some difficulty forced him to retire from the place. As they told me
that he was a chief, this made me the more suspicious of him, and
occasioned me to send for a guard, which till now I had thought
unnecessary. About this time, Mr. Sparrman, having imprudently gone out
alone, botanizing, was set upon by two men, who stripped him of every
thing he had about him, except his trowsers, struck him several times
with his own hanger, but happily did him no harm. As soon as they had
accomplished their end, they made off; after which another of the
natives brought a piece of cloth to cover him, and conducted him to the
trading place, where were a great number of the inhabitants. The very
instant Mr. Sparrman appeared in the condition I have just mentioned,
they fled to a man with the utmost precipitation. My first conjectures
were, that they had stolen something; but we were soon undeceived, when
we saw Mr. Sparrman, and the affair was related to us. As soon as I
could recall a few of the natives, and had made them sensible that I
should take no step to injure those who were innocent, I went to Oree to
complain of this outrage, taking with us the man who came back with Mr.
Sparrman, to confirm the complaint. As soon as the chief heard the whole
affair related, he wept aloud, as did many others. After the first
transports of his grief were over, he began to expostulate with his
people, telling them, (as far we could understand) how well I had
treated them, both in this and my former voyage, and how base it was in
them to commit such actions. He then took a very minute account of the
things Mr. Sparrman had been robbed of, promised to do all in his power
to recover them, and rising up, desired me to follow him to my boat.
When the people saw this, being, as I supposed, apprehensive of his
safety, they used every argument to dissuade him from what they, no
doubt, thought a rash step. He hastened into the boat, notwithstanding
all they could do or say. As soon as they saw their beloved chief wholly
in my power, they set up a great outcry. The grief they showed was
inexpressible; every face was bedewed with tears; they prayed,
entreated, nay, attempted to pull him out of the boat. I even joined my
entreaties to theirs, for I could not bear to see them in such distress.
All that could be said or done, availed nothing; he insisted on my
coming into the boat, which was no sooner done than he ordered it to be
put off. His sister, with a spirit equal to that of her royal brother,
was the only person who did not oppose his going. As his intention in
coming into our boat was to go with us in search of the robbers, we
proceeded accordingly as far as it was convenient by water, then landed,
entered the country, and travelled some miles inland, the chief leading
the way, enquiring of every one he saw. At length he stepped into a
house by the road side, ordered some cocoa-nuts for us, and after we
were a little refreshed, wanted to proceed still farther; but this I
opposed, thinking that we might be carried to the very farthest end of
the island, after things, the most of which, before they came into our
hands again, might not be worth the bringing home. The chief used many
arguments to persuade me to proceed, telling me that I might send my
boat round to meet us, or that he would get a canoe to bring us home, if
I thought it too far to travel. But I was resolved to return, and he was
obliged to comply and return with me, when he saw I would follow him no
farther. I only desired he would send somebody for the things; for I
found that the thieves had got so much start of us that we might follow
them to the remotest parts of the isle, without so much as seeing them;
besides, as I intended to sail the next morning, this occasioned a great
loss to us, by putting a stop to all manner of trade; for the natives
were so much alarmed, that none came near us, but those that were about
the chief; it, therefore, became the more necessary for me to return, to
restore things to their former state. When we got back to our boat, we
there found Oree’s sister, and several more persons, who had travelled
by land to the place. We immediately stept into the boat in order to
return on board, without so much as asking the chief to accompany us.
He, however, insisted on going also; and followed us into the boat in
spite of the opposition and entreaties of those about him; his sister
followed his example, and the tears and prayers of her daughter, who was
about sixteen or eighteen years of age, had no weight with her on this
occasion. The chief sat at table with us, and made a hearty dinner; his
sister, according to custom, ate nothing. After dinner, I sufficiently
rewarded them for the confidence they had put in me, and soon after
carried them both on shore, where some hundreds of people waited to
receive them, many of whom embraced their chief with tears of joy. All
was now joy and peace: the people crowded in from every part, with hogs,
fowls, and fruit, so that we presently filled two boats; Oree himself
presented me with a large hog and a quantity of fruit. The hanger (the
only thing of value Mr. Sparrman had lost) with part of his coat, were
brought us; and we were told, we should have the others the next day.
Some of the officers, who were out on a shooting party, had some things
stolen from them, which were returned in like manner.

Thus ended the troublesome transactions of this day, which I have been
the more particular in relating, because it shows what great confidence
this brave old chief put in us; it also, in some degree, shows that
friendship is sacred with them. Oree and I were professed friends in all
the forms customary among them; and he seemed to think that this could
not be broken by the act of any other persons. Indeed this seemed to be
the great argument he made use of to his people, when they opposed his
going into my boat. His words were to this effect:—“Oree (meaning me,
for so I was always called) and I are friends; I have done nothing to
forfeit his friendship; why, then, should I not go with him?” We,
however, may never find another chief who will act in the same manner
under similar circumstances. It may be asked, What had he to fear? to
which I answer, Nothing; for it was not my intention to hurt a hair of
his head, or to detain him a moment longer than he desired. But how was
he or the people to know this? They were not ignorant, that, if he was
once in my power, the whole force of the island could not take him from
me, and that, let my demands for his ransom have been ever so high, they
must have complied with them. Thus far their fears, both for his and
their own safety, were founded in reason.

On the 7th, early in the morning, while the ships were unmooring, I went
to pay my farewell visit to Oree, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and
Mr. Forster. We took with us, for a present, such things as were not
only valuable but useful. I also left with him the inscription-plate he
had before in keeping, and another small copper-plate, on which were
engraved these words, “Anchored here, his Britannic Majesty’s ships
Resolution and Adventure, September, 1773,” together with some medals,
all put up in a bag; of which the chief promised to take care, and to
produce, to the first ship or ships that should arrive at the island. He
then gave me a hog; and, after trading for six or eight more, and
loading the boat with fruit, we took leave, when the good old chief
embraced me with tears in his eyes. At this interview, nothing was said
about the remainder of Mr. Sparrman’s clothes. I judged they were not
brought in; and, for that reason, did not mention them, lest I should
give the chief pain about things I did not give him time to recover; for
this was early in the morning.

When we returned to the ships, we found them crowded round with canoes
full of hogs, fowls, and fruit, as at our first arrival. I had not been
long on board, before Oree himself came, to inform me, as we understood,
that the robbers were taken, and to desire us to go on shore, either to
punish, or to see them punished; but this could not be done, as the
Resolution was just under sail, and the Adventure already out of the
harbour. The chief stayed on board till we were a full half league out
at sea, then took a most affectionate leave of me, and went away in a
canoe, conducted by one man and himself, all the others having gone long
before. I was sorry that it was not convenient for me to go on shore
with him, to see in what manner these people would have been punished;
for I am satisfied, this was what brought him on board.

During our short stay at the small but fertile isle of Huaheine, we
procured to both ships not less than three hundred hogs, beside fowls
and fruits; and, had we stayed longer, might have got many more; for
none of these articles of refreshment were seemingly diminished, but
appeared every where in as great abundance as ever.

Before we quitted this island Captain Furneaux agreed to receive on
board his ship a young man named Omai, a native of Ulietea, where he had
had some property, of which he had been dispossessed by the people of
Bolabola. I at first rather wondered that Captain Furneaux would
encumber himself with this man, who, in my opinion, was not a proper
sample of the inhabitants of these happy islands, not having any
advantage of birth, or acquired rank, nor being eminent in shape,
figure, or complexion. For their people of the first rank are much
fairer, and usually better behaved, and more intelligent, than the
middling class of people, among whom Omai is to be ranked. I have,
however, since my arrival in England, been convinced of my error: for,
excepting his complexion, (which is undoubtedly of a deeper hue than
that of the _earees_ or gentry, who, as in other countries, live a more
luxurious life, and are less exposed to the heat of the sun,) I much
doubt whether any other of the natives would have given more general
satisfaction by his behaviour among us. Omai has most certainly a very
good understanding, quick parts, and honest principles; he has a natural
good behaviour, which rendered him acceptable to the best company, and a
proper degree of pride, which taught him to avoid the society of persons
of inferior rank. He has passions of the same kind as other young men,
but has judgment enough not to indulge them in an improper excess. I do
not imagine that he has any dislike to liquor; and if he had fallen into
company where the person who drank the most met with the most
approbation, I have no doubt but that he would have endeavoured to gain
the applause of those with whom he associated; but, fortunately for him,
he perceived that drinking was very little in use but among inferior
people, and as he was very watchful into the manners and conduct of the
persons of rank who honoured him with their protection, he was sober and
modest; and I never heard that, during the whole time of his stay in
England, which was two years, he ever once was disguised with wine, or
ever showed an inclination to go beyond the strictest rules of
moderation.

Soon after his arrival in London, the Earl of Sandwich, the first lord
of the admiralty, introduced him to his Majesty at Kew, when he met with
a most gracious reception, and imbibed the strongest impression of duty
and gratitude to that great and amiable prince, which I am persuaded he
will preserve to the latest moment of his life. During his stay among us
he was caressed by many of the principal nobility, and did nothing to
forfeit the esteem of any one of them; but his principal patrons were
the Earl of Sandwich, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander: the former probably
thought it a duty of his office to protect and countenance an inhabitant
of that hospitable country, where the wants and distresses of those in
his department had been alleviated and supplied in the most ample
manner; the others, as a testimony of their gratitude for the generous
reception they had met with during their residence in his country. It is
to be observed, that though Omai lived in the midst of amusements during
his residence in England, his return to his native country was always in
his thoughts, and though he was not impatient to go, he expressed a
satisfaction as the time of his return approached. He embarked with me
in the Resolution, when she was fitted out for another voyage, loaded
with presents from his several friends, and full of gratitude for the
kind reception and treatment he had experienced among us.



                              CHAP. XIII.

ARRIVAL AT, AND DEPARTURE OF THE SHIPS FROM, ULIETEA; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF
WHAT HAPPENED THERE, AND OF OEDIDEE, ONE OF THE NATIVES, COMING AWAY IN
                            THE RESOLUTION.


The chief was no sooner gone, than we made sail for Ulietea (where I
intended to stop a few days). Arriving off the harbour of Ohamaneno at
the close of the day, we spent the night making short boards. It was
dark, but we were sufficiently guided by the fishers’ lights on the
reefs and shores of the isles. The next morning, after making a few
trips, we gained the entrance of the harbour; and, as the wind blew
directly out, I sent a boat to lie in soundings, that we might know when
to anchor. As soon as the signal was made by her, we borrowed close to
the south point of the channel; and, with our sails set, shooting within
the boat, we anchored in seventeen fathoms water. We then carried out
anchors and hawsers to warp in by; and, as soon as the Resolution was
out of the way, the Adventure came up in like manner, and warped in by
the Resolution. The warping in, and mooring the ships, took up the whole
day.

We were no sooner at anchor at the entrance of the harbour, than the
natives crowded round us in their canoes with hogs and fruit. The latter
they exchanged for nails and beads; the former we refused as yet, having
already as many on board as we could manage. Several we were, however,
obliged to take, as many of the principal people brought off little
pigs, pepper, or eavoa-root, and young plantain trees, and handed them
into the ship, or put them into the boats along-side, whether we would
or no; for if we refused to take them on board, they would throw them
into the boats. In this manner did these good people welcome us to their
country.

I had forgot to mention, that Tupia was much inquired after at Huaheine;
but at this place every one asked about him, and the occasion of his
death; and, like true philosophers, were perfectly satisfied with the
answers we gave them. Indeed, as we had nothing but the truth to tell,
the story was the same, by whomsoever told.

Next morning we paid a formal visit to Oreo, the chief of this part of
the isle, carrying with us the necessary presents. We went through no
sort of ceremony at landing, but were, at once, conducted to him. He was
seated in his own house, which stood near the water-side, where he and
his friends received us with great cordiality. He expressed much
satisfaction at seeing me again, and desired that we might exchange
names, which I accordingly agreed to. I believe this is the strongest
mark of friendship they can show to a stranger. He enquired after Tupia
and all the gentlemen, by name, who were with me when I first visited
the island. After we had made the chief and his friends the necessary
presents, we went on board with a hog and some fruit, received from him
in return; and in the afternoon he gave me another hog, still larger,
without asking for the least acknowledgment. Exchanges for fruit, &c.
were mostly carried on along-side the ships. I attempted to trade for
these articles on shore; but did not succeed, as the most of them were
brought in canoes from distant parts, and carried directly to the ships.

After breakfast, on the 10th, Captain Furneaux and I paid the chief a
visit; and we were entertained by him with such a comedy, or dramatic
_heava_, as is generally acted in these isles. The music consisted of
three drums; the actors were seven men, and one woman, the chief’s
daughter. The only entertaining part in the drama was a theft committed
by a man and his accomplice, in such a masterly manner, as sufficiently
displayed the genius of the people in this vice.—The theft is discovered
before the thief has time to carry off his prize; then a scuffle ensues
with those set to guard it, who, though four to two, are beat off the
stage, and the thief and his accomplices bear away their plunder in
triumph. I was very attentive to the whole of this part, being in full
expectation that it would have ended very differently. For I had before
been informed that _Teto_ (that is, the Thief) was to be acted, and had
understood that the theft was to be punished with death, or a good
_tiparrahying_ (or beating), a punishment, we are told, they inflict on
such as are guilty of this crime. Be this as it may, strangers are
certainly excluded from the protection of this law; them they rob, with
impunity, on every occasion that offers. After the play was over, we
returned on board to dinner; and in the cool of the evening took a walk
on shore, where we learnt from one of the natives, that nine small
islands, two of which were uninhabited, lay to the westward, at no great
distance from hence.

On the 11th, early in the morning, I had a visit from Oreo and his son,
a youth about twelve years of age. The latter brought me a hog, and some
fruit; for which I made him a present of an axe, and dressed him in a
shirt, and other things, which made him not a little proud of himself.
Having stayed some hours, they went on shore; as I also did soon after,
but to another part. The chief hearing I was on shore, came to the place
where he found the boat, into which he put a hog, and a quantity of
fruit, without saying a word to any body; and, with some of his friends,
came on board and dined with us. After dinner I had a visit from
Oo-oorou, the principal chief of the isle. He was introduced to us by
Oreo, and brought with him, as a present, a large hog, for which I made
him a handsome return. Oreo employed himself in buying hogs for me (for
we now began to take of them), and he made such bargains as I had reason
to be satisfied with. At length they all took leave, after making me
promise to visit them next morning; which I accordingly did, in company
with several of the officers and gentlemen. Oreo ordered an _heava_ to
be acted for our entertainment, in which two very pretty young women
were the actresses. This _heava_ was somewhat different from the one I
saw before, and not so entertaining. Oreo, after it was over,
accompanied us on board, together with two of his friends.

The following day was spent in much the same manner; and early in the
morning of the 14th, I sent Mr. Pickersgill, with the Resolution’s
launch, and Adventure’s cutter, to Otaha, to procure an additional
supply of bananas, and plantains, for a sea-store; for we could get
little more of these articles at Ulietea than were sufficient for
present consumption. Oreo, and some of his friends, paid me a pretty
early visit this morning. I acquainted the chief that I would dine with
him, and desired he would order two pigs to be dressed after their
manner, which he accordingly did; and about one o’clock I and the
officers and gentlemen of both ships went to partake of them. When we
came to the chief’s house, we found the cloth laid; that is green leaves
were strewed thick on the floor. Round them we seated ourselves:
presently one of the pigs came over my head souse upon the leaves, and
immediately after the other; both so hot as hardly to be touched. The
table was garnished round with hot bread-fruit and plantains, and a
quantity of cocoa-nuts brought for drink. Each man being ready, with his
knife in his hand, we turned to without ceremony; and it must be owned,
in favour of their cookery, that victuals were never cleaner, nor better
dressed. For though the pigs were served up whole, and the one weighed
between fifty and sixty pounds, and the other about half as much, yet
all the parts were equally well done and ate much sweeter than if
dressed in any of our methods. The chief and his son, and some other of
his male friends, ate with us, and pieces were handed to others who sat
behind: for we had a vast crowd about us; so that it might be truly said
we dined in public. The chief never failed to drink his glass of Madeira
whenever it came to his turn, not only now, but at all other times when
he dined with us, without ever being once affected by it. As soon as we
had dined, the boat’s crew took the remainder; and by them, and those
about them, the whole was consumed. When we rose up, many of the common
people rushed in, to pick up the crumbs which had fallen, and for which
they searched the leaves very narrowly. This leads me to believe that,
though there is plenty of pork at these isles, but little falls to their
share. Some of our gentlemen being present when these pigs were killed
and dressed, observed the chief to divide the entrails, lard, &c. into
ten or twelve equal parts, and serve it out to certain people. Several
daily attended the ships, and assisted the butchers, for the sake of the
entrails of the hogs we killed. Probably little else falls to the share
of the common people. It, however, must be owned, that they are
exceedingly careful of every kind of provision, and waste nothing that
can be eaten by man; flesh and fish especially.

In the afternoon we were entertained with a play. Plays, indeed, had
been acted almost every day since we had been here, either to entertain
_us_, or for their own amusement, or perhaps both.

Next morning produced some circumstances which fully prove the timorous
disposition of these people. We were surprised to find that none of them
came off to the ships as usual. Two men belonging to the Adventure
having stayed on shore all night, contrary to orders, my first
conjectures were, that the natives had stripped them, and were now
afraid to come near us, lest we should take some step to revenge the
insult; but in order to be better satisfied, Captain Furneaux and I went
ashore to Oreo’s house, which we found quite empty; he and all his
family gone, and the whole neighbourhood, in a manner, quite deserted.
The two men belonging to the Adventure made their appearance, and
informed us that they had been very civilly treated by the natives, but
could give no account of the cause of their precipitate flight. All that
we could learn, from the very few who durst come near us, was, that
several were killed, others wounded by our guns, pointing out to us
where the balls went in and out of the body, &c. This relation gave me a
good deal of uneasiness for the safety of our people gone to Otaha,
fearing that some disturbance had happened at that island: however, in
order to be better informed, I determined, if possible, to see the chief
himself. Accordingly we embarked in our boat, having one of the natives
with us, and rowed along-shore to the northward, the way we were told he
was gone. We soon came in sight of the canoe in which he was; but before
we could come up with her he had got on shore. We landed presently
after, and found he was gone still farther. An immense crowd, however,
waited our landing, who entreated me to follow him. One man offered to
carry me on his back; but the whole story appearing rather more
mysterious than ever, and being all unarmed, I did not choose to
separate myself from the boat, but embarked again, and rowed after him.
We soon came before the place where our guide told us he was, and put in
the boat accordingly. It grounded at some distance from the shore, where
we were met by a venerable old lady, wife to the chief. She threw
herself into my arms and wept bitterly, insomuch that it was not
possible to get one plain word from her. With this old lady in my hand I
went ashore, contrary to the advice of my young man from Otaheite, who
seemed more afraid than any of us, probably believing every word the
people had told us. I found the chief seated under the shade of a house,
before which was a large area, and surrounded by a vast number of
people. As soon as I came to him, he threw his arms about me, and burst
into tears; in which he was accompanied by all the women and some of the
men, so that the lamentation became general. Astonishment alone kept me
from joining with them. It was some time before I could get a word from
any one; at last all my enquiries gave me no other information than that
they were alarmed on account of our boats being absent; thinking that
the people in them had deserted from us, and that I should take some
violent means to recover them; for when we assured them that the boats
would return back, they seemed cheerful and satisfied, and, to a man,
denied that any one was hurt, either of their own or our people; and so
it afterwards proved. Nor did it appear that there was the least
foundation for these alarms; nor could we ever find out by what means
this general consternation first took its rise. After a stay of about an
hour, I returned on board; three of the natives coming along with us,
who proclaimed the peace as we rowed along-shore to all they saw.

Thus matters were again restored to their former footing; and the next
morning they came off to the ships as usual. After breakfast Captain
Furneaux and I paid the chief a visit. We found him at his own house
perfectly easy; insomuch that he, and some of his friends, came on
board, and dined with us. I was now told that my Otaheitean young man,
Poreo, had taken a resolution to leave me. I have just mentioned
_before_, his being with us when I followed Oreo, and his advising me
not to go on shore. He was so much afraid at that time, that he remained
in the boat till he heard all matters were reconciled; then he came out,
and presently after met with a young woman for whom he had contracted a
friendship. Having my powder-horn in keeping, he came and gave it to one
of my people who was by me, and then went away with her, and I saw him
no more.

In the afternoon our boats returned from Otaha, pretty well laden with
plantains; an article we were most in want of. They made the circuit of
the island, conducted by one of the earees, whose name was Boba, and
were hospitably entertained by the people, who provided them with
victuals and lodging. The first night they were entertained with a play;
the second night their repose was disturbed by the natives stealing
their military chest: this put them on making reprisals, by which means
they recovered the most of what they had lost.

Having now got on board a large supply of refreshments, I determined to
put to sea the next morning, and made the same known to the chief, who
promised to see me again before we departed. At four o’clock we began to
unmoor; and, as soon as it was light, Oreo, his son, and some of his
friends, came on board. Many canoes also came off with fruit and hogs;
the latter they even begged of us to take from them, calling out _Tiyo
boa atoi_, I am your friend, take my hog, and give me an axe; but our
decks were already so full of them that we could hardly move, having on
board both ships between three and four hundred. By the increase of our
stock, together with what we had salted and consumed, I judge that we
got at this island four hundred or upwards: many, indeed, were only
roasters; others again weighed one hundred pounds, or upwards; but the
general run was from forty to sixty. It is not easy to say how many we
might have got, could we have found room for all that were offered us.

The chief and his friends did not leave me till we were under sail; and,
before he went away, pressed me much to know if I would not return, and
when? Questions which were daily put to me by many of these islanders.
My Otaheitean youth’s leaving me proved of no consequence, as many young
men of this island voluntarily offered to come away with us. I thought
proper to take on board one, who was about seventeen or eighteen years
of age, named Oedidee, a native of Bolabola, and a near relation of the
great Opoony, chief of that island. Soon after we were out of the
harbour, and had made sail, we observed a canoe following us, conducted
by two men. Whereupon I brought to, and they presently came along-side,
having brought me a present of roasted fruit, and roots, from Oreo. I
made them a proper return before I dismissed them, and then set sail to
the west, with the Adventure in company.



                               CHAP. XIV.

AN ACCOUNT OF A SPANISH SHIP VISITING OTAHEITE; THE PRESENT STATE OF THE
   ISLANDS; WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE DISEASES AND CUSTOMS OF THE
     INHABITANTS, AND SOME MISTAKES CONCERNING THE WOMEN CORRECTED.


I shall now give some farther account of these islands; for, although I
have been pretty minute in relating the daily transactions, some things,
which are rather interesting, have been omitted.

Soon after our arrival at Otaheite, we were informed that a ship, about
the size of the Resolution, had been in at Owhaiurua harbour near the
S. E. end of the island, where she remained about three weeks; and had
been gone about three months before we arrived. We were told that four
of the natives were gone away in her, whose names were Debedebea,
Paoodou, Tanadooee, and Opahiah. At this time we conjectured this was a
French ship; but on our arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, we learnt she
was a Spaniard, which had been sent out from America. The Otaheiteans
complained of a disease communicated to them by the people in this ship,
which they said affected the head, throat, and stomach, and at length
killed them. They seemed to dread it much, and were continually
enquiring if we had it. This ship they distinguished by the name of
_Pahai no Pep-pe_ (ship of Peppe), and called the disease _Apa no
Pep-pe_, just as they call the venereal disease _Apa no Pretane_
(English disease), though they, to a man, say it was brought to the isle
by M. de Bougainville; but I have already observed that they thought M.
Bougainville came from _Pretane_, as well as every other ship which has
touched at the isle.

Were it not for this assertion of the natives, and none of Captain
Wallis’s people being affected with the venereal disease, either while
they were at Otaheite, or after they left it, I should have concluded
that, long before these islanders were visited by Europeans, this, or
some disease which is near akin to it, had existed amongst them; for I
have heard them speak of people dying of a disorder which we interpreted
to be the pox, before that period; but be this as it will, it is now far
less common amongst them than it was in the year 1769, when I first
visited these isles. They say they can cure it, and so it fully appears;
for, notwithstanding most of my people made pretty free with the women,
very few of them were afterwards affected with the disorder; and those
who were had it in so slight a manner that it was easily removed; but
amongst the natives, whenever it turns to a pox, they tell us it is
incurable. Some of our people pretend to have seen some of them who had
this last disorder in a high degree; but the surgeon, who made it his
business to enquire, could never satisfy himself in this point. These
people are, and were before the Europeans visited them, very subject to
scrophulous diseases; so that a seaman might easily mistake one disorder
for another.

The island of Otaheite which, in the years 1767 and 1768, as it were,
swarmed with hogs and fowls, was now so ill supplied with these animals,
that hardly any thing could induce the owners to part with them. The few
they had at this time among them, seemed to be at the disposal of the
kings; for while we lay at Oaitipiha Bay, in the kingdom of Tiarrabou,
or lesser Peninsula, every hog or fowl we saw, we were told, belonged to
Waheatooa; and all we saw in the kingdom of Opoureonu, or the greater
Peninsula, belonged to Otoo. During the seventeen days we were at this
island, we got but twenty-four hogs; the half of which came from the two
kings themselves; and, I believe, the other half was sold us by their
permission or order: we were, however, abundantly supplied with all the
fruits the island produces, except bread-fruit, which was not in season
either at this or the other isles. Cocoa-nuts and plantains were what we
got the most of; the latter, together with a few yams and other roots,
were to us a succedaneum for bread. At Otaheite we got great plenty of
apples, and a fruit like a nectarine, called by them _Aheeya_. This
fruit was common to all the isles; but apples we got only at Otaheite,
and found them of infinite use to the scorbutic people. Of all the seeds
that have been brought to these islands by Europeans, none have
succeeded but pumpkins, and these they do not like; which is not to be
wondered at.

The scarcity of hogs at Otaheite may be owing to two causes; first, the
number which have been consumed and carried off by the shipping which
have touched here of late years; and, secondly, to the frequent wars
between the two kingdoms. We know of two since the year 1767: at present
a peace subsists between them, though they do not seem to entertain much
friendship for each other. I never could learn the cause of the late
war, nor who got the better in the conflict. In the battle, which put an
end to the dispute, many were killed on both sides. On the part of
Opoureonu, fell Toutaha, and several other chiefs, who were mentioned to
me by name. Toutaha lies interred in the family _marai_ at Oparree; and
his mother, and several other women who were of his household, are now
taken care of by Otoo the reigning prince; a man who, at first, did not
appear to us to much advantage. I know but little of Waheatooa of
Tiarrabou. This prince, who is not above twenty years of age, appeared
with all the gravity of a man of fifty. His subjects do not uncover
before him, or pay him any outward obeisance, as is done to Otoo;
nevertheless, they seem to show him full as much respect, and he
appeared in rather more state. He was attended by a few middle-aged or
elderly men, who seemed to be his counsellors. This is what appeared to
me to be the then state of Otaheite. The other islands, that is,
Huaheine, Ulietea, and Otaha, were in a more flourishing state than they
were when I was there before. Since that time, they had enjoyed the
blessing of peace; the people seemed to be as happy as any under heaven;
and well they may, for they possess not only the necessaries, but many
of the luxuries of life in the greatest profusion; and my young man told
me that hogs, fowls, and fruits are in equal plenty at Bola-bola, a
thing which Tupia would never allow. To clear up this seeming
contradiction, I must observe, that the one was prejudiced against, and
the other in favour of, this isle.

The produce of the islands, the manners and customs of the natives, &c.
having been treated at large in the narrative of my former voyage, it
will be unnecessary to take notice of these subjects in this, unless
where I can add new matter, or clear up any mistakes which may have been
committed.

As I had some reason to believe, that amongst their religious customs,
human sacrifices were sometimes considered as necessary, I went one day
to a _Marai_ in Matavai, in company with Captain Furneaux; having with
us, as I had upon all other occasions, one of my men who spoke their
language tolerably well, and several of the natives, one of whom
appeared to be an intelligent, sensible man. In the _Marai_ was a
_Tupapow_, on which lay a corpse and some viands; so that every thing
promised success to my inquiries. I began with asking questions relating
to the several objects before me, if the plantains, &c. were for the
_Eatua_? If they sacrificed to the _Eatua_, hogs, dogs, fowls, &c. to
all of which he answered in the affirmative. I then asked, if they
sacrificed men to the _Eatua_? he answered, _Taata eno_; that is, bad
men they did, first _Tiparrahy_, or beating them till they were dead. I
then asked him, If good men were put to death in this manner? his answer
was, No, only _Taata eno_. I asked him, If any _Earees_ were? he said,
they had hogs to give to the _Eatua_, and again repeated _Taata eno_. I
next asked him, If _Towtows_, that is, servants or slaves, who had no
hogs, dogs, or fowls, but yet were good men, if they were sacrificed to
the _Eatua_? His answer was, No, only bad men. I asked him several more
questions, and all his answers seemed to tend to this one point, that
men for certain crimes were condemned to be sacrificed to the gods,
provided they had not wherewithal to redeem themselves. This, I think,
implies that, on some occasions, human sacrifices are considered as
necessary; particularly when they take such men as have, by the laws of
the country, forfeited their lives, and have nothing to redeem them; and
such will generally be found among the lower class of people.

The man of whom I made these inquiries, as well as some others, took
some pains to explain the whole of this custom to us; but we were not
masters enough of their language to understand them. I have since learnt
from Omai, that they offer human sacrifices to the Supreme Being.
According to his account, what men shall be so sacrificed, depends on
the caprice of the high priest, who, when they are assembled on any
solemn occasion, retires alone into the house of God, and stays there
some time. When he comes out he informs them, that he has seen and
conversed with their great God (the high priest alone having that
privilege), and that he has asked for a human sacrifice, and tells them
that he has desired such a person, naming a man present, whom most
probably the priest has an antipathy against. He is immediately killed,
and so falls a victim to the priest’s resentment, who, no doubt, (if
necessary) has address enough to persuade the people that he was a bad
man. If I except their funeral ceremonies, all the knowledge that has
been obtained of their religion, has been from information; and as their
language is but imperfectly understood, even by those who pretend to the
greatest knowledge of it, very little on this head is yet known with
certainty.

The liquor which they make from the plant called _Ava ava_, is expressed
from the root, and not from the leaves, as mentioned in the narrative of
my former voyage. The manner of preparing this liquor is as simple as it
is disgusting to an European. It is thus: several people take some of
the root and chew it till it is soft and pulpy; then they spit it out
into a platter or other vessel, every one into the same; when a
sufficient quantity is chewed, more or less water is put to it,
according as it is to be strong or weak; the juice thus diluted is
strained through some fibrous stuff like fine shavings; after which it
is fit for drinking, and this is always done immediately. It has a
pepperish taste, drinks flat, and rather insipid. But though it is
intoxicating, I saw only one instance where it had that effect; as they
generally drink it with great moderation, and but little at a time.
Sometimes they chew this root in their mouths, as Europeans do tobacco,
and swallow their spittle; and sometimes I have seen them eat it wholly.

At Ulietea they cultivate great quantities of this plant. At Otaheite
but very little. I believe there are but few islands in this sea, that
do not produce more or less of it; and the natives apply it to the same
use, as appears by Le Mair’s account of Horn Island, wherein he speaks
of the natives making a liquor from a plant in the same manner as above
mentioned.

Great injustice has been done to the women of Otaheite, and the Society
Isles, by those who have represented them, without exception, as ready
to grant the last favour to any man who will come up to their price. But
this is by no means the case: the favours of married women, and also the
unmarried of the better sort, are as difficult to be obtained here, as
in any other country whatever. Neither can the charge be understood
indiscriminately of the unmarried of the lower class, for many of these
admit of no such familiarities. That there are prostitutes here, as well
as in other countries, is very true, perhaps more in proportion, and
such were those who came on board the ships to our people, and
frequented the post we had on shore. By seeing these mix
indiscriminately with those of a different turn, even of the first rank,
one is, at first, inclined to think that they are all disposed the same
way, and that the only difference is in the price. But the truth is, the
woman who becomes a prostitute, does not seem, in their opinion, to have
committed a crime of so deep a dye as to exclude her from the esteem and
society of the community in general. On the whole, a stranger who visits
England might with equal justice, draw the characters of the women
there, from those which he might meet with on board the ships in one of
the naval ports, or in the purlieus of Covent Garden and Drury Lane. I
must, however, allow that they are all completely versed in the art of
coquetry, and that very few of them fix any bounds to their
conversation. It is, therefore, no wonder that they have obtained the
character of libertines.

To what hath been said of the geography of these isles, in the narrative
of my former voyage, I shall now only add, that we found the latitude of
Oaiti-piha bay, in Otaheite, to be 17° 46ʹ 28ʺ south, and the longitude
0° 21ʹ 25-1/2ʺ east from Point Venus; or 149° 13ʹ 24ʺ west from
Greenwich. The difference both of latitude and longitude, between Point
Venus and Oaiti-piha, is greater than I supposed it to be, when I made
the circuit of the island in 1769, by two miles, and 4-3/4 miles
respectively. It is, therefore, highly probable that the whole island is
of a greater extent than I, at that time, estimated it to be. The
astronomers set up their observatory and made their observations on
Point Venus, the latitude of which they found to be 17° 29ʹ 13ʺ south.
This differs but two seconds from that which Mr. Green and I found; and
its longitude, viz. 149° 34ʹ 49-1/2ʺ west, for any thing that is yet
known to the contrary, is as exact.

Mr. Kendal’s watch was found to be gaining on mean time 8ʺ 163 per day,
which is only 0ʺ 142 less than at Queen Charlotte’s Sound, consequently
its error in longitude was trifling.



                                BOOK II.

FROM OUR DEPARTURE FROM THE SOCIETY ISLES, TO OUR RETURN TO, AND LEAVING
                         THEM THE SECOND TIME.



                                CHAP. I.

  PASSAGE FROM ULIETEA TO THE FRIENDLY ISLANDS; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
    DISCOVERY OF HERVEY’S ISLAND, AND THE INCIDENTS THAT HAPPENED AT
                              MIDDLEBURG.


After leaving Ulietea, as before mentioned, I steered to the west,
inclining to the south; to get clear of the tracks of former navigators,
and to get into the latitude of the islands of Middleburg and Amsterdam:
for I intended to run as far west as these islands, and to touch there
if I found it convenient, before I hauled up for New Zealand. I
generally lay to every night, lest we might pass any land in the dark.
Part of the 21st and 22d the wind blew from N. W., attended with
thunder, lightning, and rain; having a large swell from S. S. E. and S.,
which kept up for several days. An indication that no land was near us
in that direction.

On the 23d, at ten o’clock in the morning, land was seen from the
top-mast head, and at noon from the deck, extending from S. by W. to
S. W. by S. We hauled up for it with the wind at S. E., and found it to
consist of two or three small islots, connected together by breakers
like most of the low isles in the sea, lying in a triangular form, and
about six leagues in circuit. They were clothed with wood, among which
were many cocoa-nut trees. We saw no people, or signs of inhabitants;
and had reason to think there were none. The situation of this isle,
which is in the latitude of 19° 18ʹ south, longitude 158° 54ʹ west, is
not very different from that assigned by Mr. Dalrymple to La Dezena. But
as this is a point not easily determined, I named it Hervey’s Island, in
honour of the Honourable Captain Hervey of the Navy, one of the Lords of
the Admiralty, and now Earl of Bristol.

As the landing on this isle, if practicable, would have caused a delay
which I could ill spare at this time, we resumed our course to the west;
and on the 25th we again began to use our sea-biscuit, the fruit, which
had served as a succedaneum, being all consumed; but our stock of fresh
pork still continued, each man having as much every day as was needful.
In our route to the west, we now and then saw men-of-war, and tropic
birds, and a small sea bird, which is seldom seen but near the shores of
the isles; we therefore conjectured that we had passed some land at no
great distance. As we advanced to the west, the variation of the compass
gradually increased, so that on the 29th, being in the latitude of 21°
26ʹ south, longitude 170° 40ʹ west, it was 10° 45ʹ east.

At two o’clock P. M. on the 1st of October, we made the island of
Middleburg, bearing W. S. W., at six o’clock it extended from S. W. by
W. to N. W., distant four leagues, at which time another land was seen
in the direction of N. N. W. The wind being at S. S. E., I hauled to the
S., in order to get round the south end of the island before the
morning; but at eight o’clock a small island was seen lying off it, and
not knowing but they might be connected by a reef, the extent of which
we must be ignorant of, I resolved to spend the night where we were. At
day-break the next morning, we bore up for the S. W. side of Middleburg,
passing between it and the little isle above mentioned, where we found a
clear channel two miles broad.

After ranging the S. W. side of the greater isle, to about two-thirds of
its length, at the distance of half a mile from the shore, without
seeing the least prospect of either anchorage or landing-place, we bore
away for Amsterdam, which we had in sight. We had scarcely turned our
sails before we observed the shores of Middleburg to assume another
aspect, seeming to offer both anchorage and landing. Upon this we hauled
the wind, and plied in under the island. In the mean time, two canoes,
each conducted by two or three men, came boldly along-side; and some of
them entered the ship without hesitation. This mark of confidence gave
me a good opinion of these islanders, and determined me to visit them if
possible. After making a few trips, we found good anchorage, and came to
in twenty-five fathoms’ water, and gravel bottom, at three cables length
from the shore. The highest land on the island bore S. E. by E., the
north point N. E. 1/2 E., and the west S. by W. 1/2 W., and the island
of Amsterdam extending from N. by W. 1/2 W. to N. W. 1/2 W. We had
scarcely got to an anchor before we were surrounded by a great number of
canoes full of people, who had brought with them cloth, and other
curiosities, which they exchanged for nails, &c. Several came on board;
among whom was one, who, by the authority he seemed to have over the
others, I found was a chief, and accordingly made him a present of a
hatchet, spike-nails, and several other articles, with which he was
highly pleased. Thus I obtained the friendship of this chief, whose name
was Tioony.

Soon after, a party of us embarked in two boats, in company with Tioony;
who conducted us to a little creek formed by the rocks, right a-breast
of the ships, where landing was extremely easy, and the boats secure
against the surf. Here we found an immense crowd of people, who welcomed
us on shore with loud acclamations. Not one of them had so much as a
stick, or any other weapon in their hands; an indubitable sign of their
pacific intentions. They thronged so thick round the boats with cloth,
matting, &c. to exchange for nails, that it was some time before we
could get room to land. They seemed to be more desirous to give than
receive; for many who could not get near the boats, threw into them,
over the others’ heads, whole bales of cloth, and then retired, without
either asking, or waiting to get any thing in return. At length the
chief caused them to open to the right and left, and make room for us to
land. He then conducted us up to his house, which was situated about
three hundred yards from the sea, at the head of a fine lawn, and under
the shade of some shaddock trees. The situation was most delightful. In
front was the sea, and the ships at anchor; behind, and on each side,
were plantations, in which were some of the richest productions of
nature. The floor was laid with mats, on which we were seated, and the
people seated themselves in a circle round us on the outside. Having the
bagpipes with us, I ordered them to be played; and, in return the chief
directed three young women to sing a song, which they did with a very
good grace; and having made each of them a present, this immediately set
all the women in the circle a singing. Their songs were musical and
harmonious, and noways harsh or disagreeable. After sitting here some
time, we were, at our own request, conducted into one of the adjoining
plantations, where the chief had another house, into which we were
introduced. Bananoes and cocoa-nuts, were set before us to eat, and a
bowl of liquor prepared in our presence of the juice of _eava_ for us to
drink. Pieces of the root were first offered to us to chew; but as we
excused ourselves from assisting in the operation, this was performed by
others. When sufficiently chewed, it was put into a large wooden bowl;
then mixed with water, in the manner already related; and as soon as it
was properly strained for drinking, they made cups by folding of green
leaves, which held near half a pint, and presented to each of us one of
these filled with the liquor. But I was the only one who tasted it; the
manner of brewing it having quenched the thirst of every one else. The
bowl was, however, soon emptied of its contents, of which both men and
women partook. I observed that they never filled the same cup twice; nor
did two persons drink out of the same; each had a fresh cup and fresh
liquor.

This house was situated at one corner of the plantation, and had an area
before it, on which we were seated. The whole was planted round with
fruit and other trees, whose spreading branches afforded an agreeable
shade, and whose fragrance diffused a pleasing odour through the air.

Before we had well viewed the plantation it was noon, and we returned on
board to dinner, with the chief in our company. He sat at table, but ate
nothing, which, as we had fresh pork roasted, was a little
extraordinary. After dinner we landed again, and were received by the
crowd as before. Mr. Forster, with his botanical party, and some of the
officers and gentlemen, walked into the country. Captain Furneaux and
myself were conducted to the chief’s house, where fruit and some greens,
which had been strewed, were set before us to eat. As we had but just
dined, it cannot be supposed we ate much; but Oedidee, and Omai, the man
on board the Adventure, did honour to the feast. After this we signified
our desire of seeing the country. Tioony very readily assented, and
conducted us through several plantations, which were laid out with great
judgment, and inclosed with very neat fences made of reeds. They were
all in very good order, and well planted with various fruit-trees,
roots, &c. The chief took some pains to let us know the most of them
belonged to himself. Near some of the houses, and in the lanes that
divided the plantations, were running about some hogs and very large
fowls, which were the only domestic animals we saw; and these they did
not seem willing to part with. Nor did any one, during the whole day,
offer in exchange any fruit, or roots, worth mentioning; which
determined me to leave this island, and to visit that of Amsterdam.

The evening brought every one on board, highly delighted with the
country, and the very obliging behaviour of the inhabitants; who seemed
to vie with each other in doing what they thought would give us
pleasure. The ships were crowded with people the whole day, trafficking
with those on board, in which the greatest good order was observed; and
I was sorry that the season of the year would not admit of my making a
longer stay with them. Early the next morning, while the ships were
getting under sail, I went ashore with Captain Furneaux and Mr. Forster,
to take leave of the chief. He met us at the landing-place, and would
have conducted us to his house, had we not excused ourselves. We
therefore were seated on the grass, where we spent about half an hour in
the midst of a vast crowd of people. After making the chief a present,
consisting of various articles, and an assortment of garden seeds, I
gave him to understand that we were going away, at which he seemed not
at all moved. He, and two or three more, came into our boat, in order to
accompany us on board; but seeing the Resolution under sail, he called
to a canoe to put along-side, into which he and his friends went, and
returned on shore. While he remained in our boat, he continued to
exchange fish-hooks for nails, and engrossed the trade in a manner
wholly to himself; but when on shore, I never saw him make the least
exchange.



                               CHAP. II.

   THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHIPS AT AMSTERDAM; A DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE OF
   WORSHIP; AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE INCIDENTS WHICH HAPPENED WHILE THEY
                        REMAINED AT THAT ISLAND.


As soon as I was on board, we made sail down to Amsterdam. The people of
this isle were so little afraid of us, that some met us in three canoes
about midway between the two isles. They used their utmost efforts to
get on board, but without effect, as we did not shorten sail for them,
and the rope which we gave them broke. They then attempted to board the
Adventure, and met with the same disappointment. We ran along the S. W.
coast of Amsterdam at half a mile from shore, on which the sea broke in
a great surf. We had an opportunity, by the help of our glasses, to view
the face of the island, every part of which seemed to be laid out in
plantations. We observed the natives running along the shore, displaying
small white flags, which we took for ensigns of peace, and answered them
by hoisting a St. George’s ensign. Three men belonging to Middleburg,
who, by some means or other, had been left on board the Adventure, now
left her, and swam to the shore; not knowing that we intended to stop at
this isle, and having no inclination, as may be supposed, to go away
with us.

As soon as we opened the west side of the isle, we were met by several
canoes, each conducted by three or four men. They came boldly alongside,
presented us with some _Eava_ root, and then came on board, without
farther ceremony, inviting us, by all the friendly signs they could
make, to go to their island, and pointing to the place where we should
anchor; at least so we understood them. After a few boards, we anchored
in Van Diemen’s Road, in eighteen fathoms’ water, little more than a
cable’s length from the breakers which line the coast. We carried out
the coasting anchor and cable to seaward, to keep the ship from tailing
on the rocks, in case of a shift of wind or a calm. This last anchor lay
in forty-seven fathoms’ water; so steep was the bank on which we
anchored. By this time we were crowded with people; some came off in
canoes, and others swam; but, like those of the other isle, brought
nothing with them but cloth, matting, &c., for which the seamen only
bartered away their cloaths. As it was probable they would soon feel the
effects of this kind of traffic, with a view to put a stop to it, and to
obtain the necessary refreshments, I gave orders that no sort of
curiosities should be purchased by any person whatever.

The good effect of this order was found in the morning. For when the
natives saw we would purchase nothing but eatables, they brought off
bananoes and cocoa-nuts in abundance, some fowls and pigs; all of which
they exchanged for small nails and pieces of cloth: even old rags of any
sort was enough for a pig or a fowl.

Matters being thus established, and proper persons appointed to trade
under the direction of the officers to prevent disputes, after breakfast
I landed, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, Mr. Forster, and several of
the officers; having alone with us a chief, or person of some note,
whose name was Attago, who had attached himself to me, from the first
moment of his coming on board, which was before we anchored. I know not
how he came to discover that I was the commander; but, certain it is, he
was not long on deck before he singled me out from all the other
gentlemen, making me a present of some cloth, and other things he had
about him: and, as a greater testimony of friendship, we now exchanged
names; a custom which is practised at Otaheite, and the Society isles.
We were lucky, or rather we may thank the natives, for having anchored
before a narrow creek in the rocks which line the shore. To this creek
we were conducted by my friend Attago; and there we landed dry on the
beach, and within the breakers, in the face of a vast crowd of people,
who received us in the same friendly manner that those of Middleburg had
done.

As soon as we were landed, all the gentlemen set out into the country,
accompanied by some of the natives. But the most of them remained with
Captain Furneaux and me, who amused ourselves some time in distributing
presents amongst them; especially to such as Attago pointed out; which
were not many, but who, I afterwards found, were of superior rank to
himself. At this time, however, he seemed to be the principal person,
and to be obeyed as such. After we had spent some time on the beach, as
we complained of the heat, Attago immediately conducted and seated us
under the shade of a tree, ordering the people to form a circle round
us. This they did, and never once attempted to push themselves upon us
like the Otaheiteans.

After sitting here some time, and distributing some presents to those
about us, we signified our desire to see the country. The chief
immediately took the hint, and conducted us along a lane that led to an
open green, on the one side of which was a house of worship built on a
mount that had been raised by the hand of man, about sixteen or eighteen
feet above the common level. It had an oblong figure, and was inclosed
by a wall or parapet of stone, about three feet in height. From this
wall the mount rose with a gentle slope, and was covered with a green
turf. On the top of it stood the house, which had the same figure as the
mount, about twenty feet in length and fourteen or sixteen broad. As
soon as we came before the place, every one seated himself on the green,
about fifty or sixty yards from the front of the house. Presently came
three elderly men; who seated themselves between us and it, and began a
speech, which I understood to be a prayer, it being wholly directed to
the house. This lasted about ten minutes; and then the priests, for such
I took them to be, came and sat down along with us, when we made them
presents of such things as were about us. Having then made signs to them
that we wanted to view the premises, my friend Attago immediately got
up, and going with us, without showing the least backwardness, gave us
full liberty to examine every part of it.

In the front were two stone steps leading to the top of the wall; from
this the ascent to the house was easy, round which was a fine gravel
walk. The house was built, in all respects, like to their common
dwelling-houses; that is, with posts and rafters, and covered with palm
thatch. The eaves came down within about three feet of the ground, which
space was filled up with strong matting made of palm leaves as a wall.
The floor of the house was laid with fine gravel, except in the middle,
where there was an oblong square of blue pebbles, raised about six
inches higher than the floor. At one corner of the house stood an image
rudely carved in wood, and on one side lay another; each about two feet
in length. I, who had no intention to offend either them or their gods,
did not so much as touch them, but asked Attago, as well as I could, if
they were _Eatuas_ or gods. Whether he understood me or no I cannot say;
but he immediately turned them over and over, in as rough a manner as he
would have done any other log of wood, which convinced me that they were
not there as representatives of the Divinity. I was curious to know if
the dead were interred there, and asked Attago several questions
relative thereto; but I was not sure that he understood me; at least I
did not understand the answers he made, well enough to satisfy my
inquiries. For the reader must know that, at our first coming among
these people, we hardly could understand a word they said: even my
Otaheitean youth, and the man on board the Adventure, were equally at a
loss: but more of this bye and by. Before we quitted the house, we
thought it necessary to make an offering at the altar. Accordingly we
laid down upon the blue pebbles, some medals, nails, and several other
things; which we had no sooner done than my friend Attago took them up,
and put them in his pocket. The stones with which the walls were made
that enclosed this mount, were some of them nine or ten feet by four,
and about six inches thick. It is difficult to conceive how they can cut
such stones out of the coral rocks.

This mount stood in a kind of grove open only on the side which fronted
the high road, and the green on which the people were seated. At this
green or open place, was a junction of five roads, two or three of which
appeared to be very public ones. The groves were composed of several
sorts of trees. Among others was the _Etoa_ tree, as it is called at
Otaheite, of which are made clubs, &c., and a kind of low palm, which is
very common in the northern parts of New Holland.

After we had done examining this place of worship, which in their
language is called A-fia-touca, we desired to return; but, instead of
conducting us to the water-side, as we expected, they struck into a road
leading into the country. This road which was about sixteen feet broad,
and as level as a bowling-green, seemed to be a very public one; there
being many other roads from different parts, leading into it, all
enclosed on each side, with neat fences made of reeds, and shaded from
the scorching sun by fruit trees. I thought I was transported into the
most fertile plains in Europe. There was not an inch of waste ground;
the roads occupied no more space than was absolutely necessary; the
fences did not take up above four inches each; and even this was not
wholly lost, for in many were planted some useful trees or plants. It
was every where the same; change of place altered not the scene. Nature,
assisted by a little art, no where appears in more splendor than at this
isle. In these delightful walks, we met numbers of people; some
travelling down to the ships with their burdens of fruit; others
returning back empty. They all gave us the road by turning either to the
right or left, and sitting down, or standing, with their backs to the
fences, till we had passed.

At several of the cross roads, or at the meeting of two or more roads,
were generally _Afiatoucas_, such as already described; with this
difference, the mounts were pallisadoed round, instead of a stone wall.
At length, after walking several miles, we came to one larger than
common; near to which was a large house belonging to an old chief in our
company. At this house we were desired to stop, which we accordingly
did, and were treated with fruit, &c.

We were no sooner seated in the house, than the eldest of the priests
began a speech or prayer, which was first directed to the _Afiatouca_,
and then to me, and alternately. When he addressed me, he paused at
every sentence, till I gave a nod of approbation. I, however, did not
understand one single word he said. At times, the old gentleman seemed
to be at a loss what to say; or perhaps his memory failed him; for,
every now and then, he was prompted by one of the other priests who sat
by him. Both during this prayer and the former one, the people were
silent, but not attentive. At this last place we made but a short stay.
Our guides conducted us down to our boat, and we returned with Attago to
our ship to dinner. We had no sooner got on board, than an old gentleman
came along-side, who, I understood from Attago, was some king or great
man. He was, accordingly, ushered on board; when I presented him with
such things as he most valued (being the only method to make him my
friend), and seated him at table to dinner. We now saw that he was a man
of consequence; for Attago would not sit down and eat before him, but
got to the other end of the table; and, as the old chief was almost
blind, he sat there, and eat with his back towards him. After the old
man had eaten a bit of fish and drank two glasses of wine, he returned
ashore. As soon as Attago had seen him out of the ship, he came and took
his place at table, finished his dinner, and drank two glasses of wine.
When dinner was over, we all went ashore, where we found the old chief,
who presented me with a hog; and he and some others, took a walk with us
into the country.

Before we set out, I happened to go down with Attago to the landing
place, and there found Mr. Wales in a laughable, though distressed,
situation. The boats which brought us on shore, not being able to get
near the landing place for want of a sufficient depth of water; he
pulled off his shoes and stockings to walk through, and as soon as he
got on dry land, he put them down betwixt his legs to put on again, but
they were instantly snatched away by a person behind him, who
immediately mixed with the crowd. It was impossible for him to follow
the man bare-footed over the sharp coral rocks, which compose the shore,
without having his feet cut to pieces. The boat was put back to the
ship, his companions had each made his way through the crowd, and he
left in this condition alone. Attago soon found out the thief, recovered
his shoes and stockings, and set him at liberty. Our route into the
country was by the first mentioned _Afiatouca_, before which we again
seated ourselves, but had no prayers, although the old priest was with
us. Our stay here was but short. The old chief, probably thinking that
we might want water on board, conducted us to a plantation hard by, and
shewed us a pool of fresh water, though we had not made the least
enquiry after any. I believe this to be the same that Tasman calls the
_washing-place_ for the king and his nobles.

From hence we were conducted down to the shore of Maria bay, or N. E.
side of the isle; where, in a boat-house, was shewn to us a fine large
double canoe not yet launched. The old chief did not fail to make us
sensible it belonged to himself. Night now approaching, we took leave of
him and returned on board, being conducted by Attago down to the water
side.

Mr. Forster and his party spent the day in the country botanising; and
several of the officers were out shooting. All of them were very civilly
treated by the natives. We had also a brisk trade for bananoes,
cocoa-nuts, yams, pigs, and fowls; all of which were procured for nails,
and pieces of cloth. A boat from each ship was employed trading ashore,
and bringing off their cargoes as soon as they were laden, which was
generally in a short time. By this method we got cheaper, and with less
trouble, a good quantity of fruit, as well as other refreshments, from
people who had no canoes to carry them off to the ships.

Pretty early in the morning on the 5th, my friend brought me a hog and
some fruit; for which I gave him a hatchet, a sheet, and some red cloth.
The pinnace was sent ashore to trade as usual; but soon returned. The
officer informed me that the natives were for taking every thing out of
the boat, and, in other respects, were very troublesome. The day before,
they stole the grappling at the time the boat was riding by it, and
carried it off undiscovered. I now judged it necessary to have a guard
on shore, to protect the boats and people whose business required their
being there; and accordingly sent the marines, under the command of
Lieutenant Edgcumbe. Soon after, I went myself, with my friend Attago,
Captain Furneaux, and several of the gentlemen. At landing, we found the
old chief, who presented me with a pig. After this, Captain Furneaux and
I took a walk into the country with Mr. Hodges, to make drawings of such
places and things as were most interesting. When this was done, we
returned on board to dinner, with my friend and two other chiefs; one of
which sent a hog on board the Adventure for Captain Furneaux, some hours
before, without stipulating for any return; the only instance of this
kind.—My friend took care to put me in mind of the pig the old king gave
me in the morning; for which I now gave a chequed shirt and a piece of
red cloth. I had tied them up for him to carry ashore; but with this he
was not satisfied. He wanted to have them put on him; which was no
sooner done, than he went on deck, and shewed himself to all his
countrymen. He had done the same thing in the morning with the sheet I
gave him. In the evening we all went on shore again, where we found the
old king, who took to himself every thing my friend and the others had
got.

The different trading parties were so successful to-day as to procure
for both ships a tolerably good supply of refreshments. In consequence
of which, I, the next morning, gave every one leave to purchase what
curiosities and other things they pleased. After this, it was
astonishing to see with what eagerness every one caught at every thing
he saw. It even went so far as to become the ridicule of the natives,
who offered pieces of sticks and stones to exchange. One waggish boy
took a piece of human excrement on the end of a stick, and held it out
to every one he met with.

This day a man got into the master’s cabin, through the outside scuttle,
and took out some books and other things. He was discovered just as he
was getting out into his canoe, and pursued by one of our boats, which
obliged him to quit the canoe and take to the water. The people in the
boat made several attempts to lay hold on him; but he as often dived
under the boat, and at last, having unshipped the rudder, which rendered
her ungovernable, by this means he got clear off. Some other very daring
thefts were committed at the landing place. One fellow took a seaman’s
jacket out of the boat, and carried it off, in spite of all that our
people in her could do. Till he was both pursued and fired at by them,
he would not part with it; nor would he have done it then, had not his
landing been intercepted by some of us, who were on shore. The rest of
the natives, who were very numerous, took very little notice of the
whole transaction; nor were they the least alarmed when the man was
fired at.

My friend Attago having visited me again next morning, as usual brought
with him a hog, and assisted me in purchasing several more. Afterwards
we went a-shore; visited the old king, with whom we staid till noon;
then returned on board to dinner, with Attago, who never once left me.
Intending to sail the next morning, I made up a present for the old
king, and carried it on shore in the evening. As soon as I landed, I was
told by the officers who were on shore, that a far greater man than any
we had yet seen was come to pay us a visit. Mr. Pickersgill informed me
that he had seen him in the country, and found that he was a man of some
consequence, by the extraordinary respect paid him by the people. Some,
when they approached him, fell on their faces, and put their heads
between their feet; and no one durst pass him without permission. Mr.
Pickersgill, and another of the gentlemen, took hold of his arms, and
conducted him down to the landing-place, where I found him seated with
so much sullen and stupid gravity, that notwithstanding what had been
told me, I really took him for an idiot, whom the people, from some
superstitious notions, were ready to worship. I saluted and spoke to
him; but he neither answered, nor took the least notice of me; nor did
he alter a single feature in his countenance. This confirmed me in my
opinion, and I was just going to leave him, when one of the natives, an
intelligent youth, undertook to undeceive me; which he did in such a
manner as left me no room to doubt that he was the king, or principal
man on the island. Accordingly I made him the present I intended for the
old chief, which consisted of a shirt, an ax, a piece of red cloth, a
looking-glass, some nails, medals, and beads. He received these things,
or rather suffered them to be put upon him, and laid down by him,
without losing a bit of his gravity, speaking one word, or turning his
head either to the right or left; sitting the whole time like a statue;
in which situation I left him, to return on board; and he soon after
retired. I had not been long on board before word was brought me that a
quantity of provisions had came from this chief. A boat was sent to
bring it from the shore; and it consisted of about twenty baskets of
roasted bananoes, sour bread and yams, and a roasted pig of about twenty
pounds weight. Mr. Edgcumbe and his party were just reimbarking, when
these were brought to the water-side, and the bearers said it was a
present from the _Areeke_, that is the king of the island, to the
_Areeke_ of the ship. After this I was no longer to doubt the dignity of
this sullen chief.

Early in the morning of the 7th, while the ships were unmooring, I went
ashore with Captain Furneaux and Mr. Forster, in order to make some
return to the king for his last night’s present. We no sooner landed
than we found Attago, of whom we enquired for the king, whose name was
Kohaghee-too-Fallangou. He accordingly undertook to conduct us to him;
but whether he mistook the man we wanted, or was ignorant where he was,
I know not. Certain it is, that he took us a wrong road, in which he had
not gone far before he stopped; and after some little conversation
between him and another man, we returned back, and presently after, the
king appeared with very few attendants. As soon as Attago saw him
coming, he sat down under a tree, and desired us to do the same. The
king seated himself on a rising ground, about twelve or fifteen yards
from us: here we sat facing one another for some minutes. I waited for
Attago to shew us the way; but seeing he did not rise, Captain Furneaux
and I got up, went and saluted the king, and sat down by him. We then
presented him with a white shirt (which we put on his back), a few yards
of red cloth, a brass kettle, a saw, two large spikes, three looking
glasses, a dozen of medals, and some strings of beads. All this time he
sat with the same sullen stupid gravity as the day before: he even did
not seem to see or know what we were about; his arms appeared immoveable
at his sides; he did not so much as raise them when we put on the shirt.
I told him, both by words and signs, that we were going to leave his
island; he scarcely made the least answer to this, or any other thing,
we either said or did. We, therefore, got up and took leave; but I yet
remained near him, to observe his actions. Soon after, he entered into
conversation with Attago and an old woman, whom we took to be his
mother. I did not understand any part of the conversation; it however
made him laugh, in spite of his assumed gravity. I say assumed, because
it exceeded every thing of the kind I ever saw; and therefore think it
could not be his real disposition (unless he was an idiot indeed), as
these islanders, like all the others we had lately visited, have a great
deal of levity; and he was in the prime of life. At last, he rose up,
and retired with his mother and two or three more.

Attago conducted us to another circle, where were seated the aged chief
and several respectable old persons of both sexes; among whom was the
priest, who was generally in company with this chief. We observed that
this reverend father could walk very well in a morning; but, in an
evening, was obliged to be led home by two people. By this we concluded,
that the juice of the pepper-root had the same effect upon him, that
wine and other strong liquors have on Europeans who drink a large
portion of them. It is very certain, that these old people seldom sat
down without preparing a bowl of this liquor; which is done in the same
manner as at Ulietea. We, however, must do them the justice to believe,
that it was meant to treat us: nevertheless, the greatest part, if not
the whole, generally fell to their share. I was not well prepared to
take leave of this chief, having exhausted almost all our store on the
other. However, after rummaging our pockets, and treasury bag, which was
always carried with me wherever I went, we made up a tolerable present,
both for him and his friends. This old chief had an air of dignity about
him that commanded respect, which the other had not. He was grave, but
not sullen; would crack a joke, talk on indifferent subjects, and
endeavour to understand us and be understood himself. During this visit,
the old priest repeated a short prayer or speech, the purport of which
we did not understand. Indeed he would frequently, at other times, break
out in prayer; but I never saw any attention paid to him by any one
present. After a stay of near two hours, we took leave, and returned on
board, with Attago and two or three more friends, who staid and
breakfasted with us; after which they were dismissed, loaded with
presents.

Attago was very importunate with me to return again to this isle, and to
bring with me cloth, axes, nails, &c. &c., telling me that I should have
hogs, fowls, fruit, and roots, in abundance. He particularly desired me,
more than once, to bring him such a suit of clothes as I had on, which
was my uniform. This good-natured islander was very serviceable to me,
on many occasions, during our short stay. He constantly came on board
every morning soon after it was light, and never quitted us till the
evening. He was always ready, either on board or on shore, to do me all
the service in his power: his fidelity was rewarded at a small expence;
and I found my account in having such a friend.

In heaving in the coasting cable, it parted in the middle of its length,
being chaffed by the rocks. By this accident we lost the other half,
together with the anchor, which lay in forty fathoms water, without any
buoy to it. The best bower cable suffered also by the rocks; by which a
judgment may be formed of this anchorage. At ten o’clock we got under
sail; but as our decks were much encumbered with fruit, &c. we kept
plying under the land till they were cleared. The supplies we got at
this isle were about one hundred and fifty pigs, twice that number of
fowls, as many bananoes and cocoa-nuts as we could find room for, with a
few yams; and had our stay been longer, we, no doubt, might have got a
great deal more. This, in some degree, shews the fertility of the
island, of which, together with the neighbouring one of Middleburg, I
shall now give a more particular account.



                               CHAP. III.

 A DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLANDS AND THEIR PRODUCE, WITH THE CULTIVATION,
HOUSES, CANOES, NAVIGATION, MANUFACTURES, WEAPONS, CUSTOMS, GOVERNMENT,
               RELIGION, AND LANGUAGE OF THE INHABITANTS.


These islands were first discovered by Captain Tasman in January 1642-3;
and, by him, called Amsterdam and Middleburg. But the former is called
by the natives Ton-ga-ta-bu, and the latter Ea-oo-we. They are situated
between the latitude of 21° 29ʹ and 21° 3ʹ south, and between the
longitude of 174° 40ʹ and 175° 15ʹ west, deduced from observations made
on the spot.

Middleburg, or Eaoowe, which is the southernmost, is about ten leagues
in circuit, and of a height sufficient to be seen twelve leagues. The
skirts of this isle are mostly taken up in the plantations; the S. W.
and N. W. sides especially. The interior parts are but little
cultivated, though very fit for cultivation. However, the want of it
added greatly to the beauty of the isle; for here are, agreeably
dispersed, groves of cocoa-nut and other trees, lawns covered with thick
grass, here and there plantations, and paths leading to every part of
the island in such beautiful disorder, as greatly enlivens the prospect.

The anchorage, which I named English Road, (being the first who anchored
there), is on the N. W. side, in latitude 21° 20ʹ 30ʺ south. The bearing
we took when at anchor, already mentioned, together with the chart, will
be more than sufficient to find this anchorage. The bank is a coarse
sand; it extends two miles from the land, and on it there is from twenty
to forty fathoms water. The small creek before it affords convenient
landing for boats at all times of the tide; which here, as well as at
the other islands, rises about four or five feet, and is high water on
the full and change days about seven o’clock. The island of Tongatabu is
shaped something like an isosceles triangle, the longest sides whereof
are seven leagues each, and the shortest four. It lies nearly in the
direction of E. S. E. and W. N. W. is nearly all of an equal height,
rather low, not exceeding sixty or eighty feet above the level of the
sea. This island, and also that of Eaoowe, is guarded from the sea by a
reef of coral rocks extending out from the shore one hundred fathoms
more or less. On this reef the force of the sea is spent before it
reaches the land or shore. Indeed, this is, in some measure, the
situation of all the Tropical Isles in this sea that I have seen; and
thus nature has effectually secured them from the encroachments of the
sea, though many of them are mere points when compared to this vast
ocean. Van Diemen’s Road, where we anchored, is under the north-west
part of the island, between the most northern and western points. There
lies a reef of rocks without it, bearing N. W. by W. over which the sea
breaks continually. The bank does not extend more than three cables
lengths from the shore; without that, is an unfathomable depth. The loss
of an anchor, and the damage our cables sustained, are sufficient proofs
that the bottom is none of the best.

On the east side of the north point of the island (as Mr. Gilbert, whom
I sent to survey the parts, informed me,) is a very snug harbour, of one
mile or more in extent, wherein is seven, eight, and ten fathoms water,
with a clean sandy bottom. The channel, by which he went in and out,
lies close to the point, and has only three fathoms water; but he
believes that farther to the N. E. is a channel with a much greater
depth, which he had not time to examine. Indeed, it would have taken up
far more time than I could spare to have surveyed these parts minutely;
as there lie a number of small islets and reefs of rocks along the N. E.
side of the island, which seemed to extend to the N. E. farther than the
eye could reach. The island of Amsterdam or Tongatabu is wholly laid out
in plantations, in which are planted some of the richest productions of
nature; such as bread-fruit, cocoa-nut trees, plantains, bananoes,
shaddocks, yams, and some other roots, sugar cane, and a fruit like a
nectarine, called by them _Fighega_, and at Otaheite _Ahuya_: in short,
here are most of the articles which the Society Islands produce, besides
some which they have not. Mr. Forster tells me, that he not only found
the same plants here that are at Otaheite, and the neighbouring isles,
but several others which are not to be met with there. And I probably
have added to their stock of vegetables, by leaving with them an
assortment of garden seeds, pulse, &c. Bread-fruit here, as well as at
all the other isles, was not in season; nor was this the time for roots
and shaddocks. We got the latter only at Middleburg.

The produce and cultivation of this isle is the same as at Amsterdam;
with this difference, that a part only of the former is cultivated,
whereas the whole of the latter is. The lanes or roads necessary for
travelling, are laid out in so judicious a manner as to open a free and
easy communication from one part of the island to the other. Here are no
towns or villages, most of the houses are built in the plantations, with
no other order than what conveniency requires; they are neatly
constructed; but do not exceed those in the other isles. The materials
of which they are built are the same; and some little variation in the
disposition of the framing is all the difference in their construction.
The floor is a little raised, and covered with thick strong mats; the
same sort of matting serves to inclose them on the windward side, the
other being open. They have little areas before the most of them, which
are generally planted round with trees, or shrubs of ornament, whose
fragrancy perfumes the very air in which they breathe. Their household
furniture consists of a few wooden platters, cocoa-nut shells, and some
neat wooden-pillows shaped like four-footed stools or forms. Their
common clothing, with the addition of a mat, serves them for bedding. We
got from them two or three earthen vessels, which were all we saw among
them. One was in the shape of a bomb-shell, with two holes in it
opposite each other; the others were like pipkins, containing about five
or six pints, and had been in use on the fire. I am of opinion they are
the manufacture of some other isle; for, if they were of their own, we
ought to have seen more of them. Nor am I to suppose they came from
Tasman’s ships; the time is too long for brittle vessels like these to
be preserved.

We saw no other domestic animals amongst them, but hogs and fowls. The
former are of the same sort as at the other isles in this sea; but the
latter are far superior, being as large as any we have in Europe, and
their flesh equally good, if not better. We saw no dogs, and believe
they have none, as they were exceedingly desirous of those we had on
board. My friend Attago was complimented with a dog and a bitch, the one
from New Zealand, the other from Ulietea. The name of a dog with them is
_kooree_ or _gooree_, the same as at New Zealand, which shews that they
are not wholly strangers to them. We saw no rats in these isles, nor any
other wild quadrupeds, except small lizards. The land birds are pigeons,
turtle-doves, parrots, parroquets, owls, bald couts with a blue plumage,
a variety of small birds, and large bats in abundance. The produce of
the sea we know but little of; it is reasonable to suppose that the same
sorts of fish are found here as at the other isles. Their fishing
instruments are the same; that is, hooks made of mother of pearl, gigs
with two, three, or more prongs, and nets made of a very fine thread,
with the meshes wrought exactly like ours. But nothing can be a more
demonstrative evidence of their ingenuity than the construction and make
of their canoes, which, in point of neatness and workmanship, exceed
every thing of this kind we saw in this sea. They are built of several
pieces sewed together with bandage, in so neat a manner, that on the
outside it is difficult to see the joints. All the fastenings are on the
inside, and pass through kants or ridges, which are wrought on the edges
and ends of the several boards which compose the vessel, for that
purpose. They are of two kinds, viz. double and single. The single ones
are from twenty to thirty feet long, and about twenty or twenty-two
inches broad in the middle; the stern terminates in a point, and the
head something like the point of a wedge. At each end is a kind of deck,
for about one third part of the whole length, and open in the middle. In
some the middle of the deck is decorated with a row of white shells,
stuck on little pegs wrought out of the same piece which composes it.
These single canoes have all out-riggers, and are sometimes navigated
with sails, but more generally with paddles, the blades of which are
short, and broadest in the middle. The two vessels which compose the
double canoe are each about sixty or seventy feet long, and four or five
broad in the middle; and each end terminates nearly in a point; so that
the body or hull differs a little in construction from the single canoe;
but is put together exactly in the same manner; these having a rising in
the middle round the open part, in the form of a long trough, which is
made of boards, closely fitted together, and well secured to the body of
the vessel. Two such vessels are fastened to, and parallel to each
other, about six or seven feet asunder, by strong cross beams, secured
by bandages to the upper part of the risings above mentioned. Over these
beams and others, which are supported by stanchions fixed on the bodies
of the canoes, is laid a boarded platform. All the parts which compose
the double canoe, are made as strong and light as the nature of the work
will admit, and may be immerged in water to the very platform, without
being in danger of filling. Nor is it possible, under any circumstance
whatever, for them to sink, so long as they hold together. Thus they are
not only made vessels of burden, but fit for distant navigation. They
are rigged with one mast, which steps upon the platform, and can easily
be raised or taken down; and are sailed with a latteen-sail, or
triangular one, extended by a long yard, which is a little bent or
crooked. The sail is made of mats; the rope they make use of is laid
exactly like ours, and some of it is four or five inch. On the platform
is built a little shed or hut, which screens the crew from the sun and
weather, and serves for other purposes. They also carry a moveable
fire-hearth, which is a square, but shallow, trough of wood, filled with
stones. The way into the hold of the canoe is from off the platform,
down a sort of uncovered hatchway, in which they stand to bail out the
water. I think these vessels are navigated either end foremost, and
that, in changing tacks, they have only occasion to shift or jib round
the sail; but of this I was not certain, as I had not then seen any
under sail, or with the mast and sail an end, but what were a
considerable distance from us.

[Illustration: _Boats of the Friendly Isles._]

Their working tools are made of stone, bone, shells, &c. as at the other
islands. When we view the work which is performed with these tools, we
are struck with admiration at the ingenuity and patience of the workman.
Their knowledge of the utility of iron was no more than sufficient to
teach them to prefer nails to beads, and such trifles; some, but very
few, would exchange a pig for a large nail, or a hatchet. Old jackets,
shirts, cloth, and even rags, were in more esteem than the best
edge-tool we could give them; consequently they got but few axes from us
but what were given as presents. But if we include the nails which were
given by the officers and crews of both ships for curiosities, &c. with
those given for refreshments, they cannot have got less than five
hundred weight, great and small. The only piece of iron we saw among
them was a small broad awl, which had been made of a nail.

Both men and women are of a common size with Europeans; and their colour
is that of a lightish copper, and more uniformly so than amongst the
inhabitants of Otaheite and the Society Isles. Some of our gentlemen
were of opinion these were a much handsomer race; others maintained a
contrary opinion, of which number I was one. Be this as it may, they
have a good shape, and regular features, and are active, brisk, and
lively. The women, in particular, are the merriest creatures I ever met
with, and will keep chattering by one’s side, without the least
invitation, or considering whether they are understood, provided one
does but seem pleased with them. In general they appeared to be modest;
although there was no want of those of a different stamp; and as we had
yet some venereal complaints on board, I took all possible care to
prevent the disorder being communicated to them. Upon most occasions
they shewed a strong propensity to pilfering; in which they were full as
expert as the Otaheiteans.

Their hair in general is black, but more especially that of the women.
Different colours were found among the men, sometimes on the same head,
caused by something they put upon it, which stains it white, red, and
blue. Both sexes wear it short; I saw but two exceptions to this custom,
and the most of them combed it upwards. Many of the boys had it cut very
close, except a single lock on the top of the head, and a small quantity
on each side. The men cut or shave their beards quite close, which
operation is performed with two shells. They have fine eyes, and in
general good teeth, even to an advanced age. The custom of _tattowing_
or puncturing the skin prevails. The men are _tattowed_ from the middle
of the thigh to above the hips. The women have it only on their arms and
fingers; and there but very slightly.

The dress of both sexes consists of a piece of cloth, or matting,
wrapped round the waist, and hanging down below the knees. From the
waist, upwards, they are generally naked; and it seemed to be a custom
to anoint these parts every morning. My friend Attago never failed to do
it; but whether out of respect to his friend, or from custom, I will not
pretend to say; though I rather think from the latter, as he was not
singular in the practice.

Their ornaments are, amulets, necklaces, and bracelets of bones, shells,
and beads of mother of pearl, tortoise-shell, &c., which are worn by
both sexes. The women also wear on their fingers neat rings made of
tortoise-shell, and pieces in their ears about the size of a small
quill; but ear-ornaments are not commonly worn, though all have their
ears pierced. They have also a curious apron made of the outside fibres
of the cocoa-nut shell, and composed of a number of small pieces sewed
together in such a manner as to form stars, half-moons, little squares,
&c. It is studded with beads of shells, and covered with red feathers,
so as to have a pleasing effect. They make the same kind of cloth, and
of the same materials, as at Otaheite; though they have not such a
variety, nor do they make any so fine; but as they have a method of
glazing it, it is more durable, and will resist rain for some time,
which Otaheite cloth will not. Their colours are black, brown, purple,
yellow, and red; all made from vegetables. They make various sorts of
matting; some of a very fine texture, which is generally used for
clothing; and the thick and stronger sort serves to sleep on, and to
make sails for their canoes, &c. Among other useful utensils, they have
various sorts of baskets; some made of the same materials as their mats;
and others of the twisted fibres of cocoa-nuts. These are not only
durable, but beautiful; being generally composed of different colours,
and studded with beads made of shells or bones. They have many little
nick-nacks amongst them; which shows that they neither want taste to
design, nor skill to execute whatever they take in hand.

How these people amuse themselves in their leisure hours, I cannot say,
as we are but little acquainted with their diversions. The women
frequently entertained us with songs, in a manner which was agreeable
enough. They accompany the music by snapping their fingers, so as to
keep time to it. Not only their voices but their music was very
harmonious; and they have a considerable compass in their notes. I saw
but two musical instruments amongst them. One was a large flute made of
a piece of bamboo, which they fill with their noses as at Otaheite; but
these have four holes or stops, whereas those of Otaheite have only two.
The other was composed of ten or eleven small reeds of unequal lengths,
bound together side by side, as the Doric pipe of the ancients is said
to have been; and the open ends of the reeds into which they blow with
their mouths are of equal height, or in a line. They have also a drum,
which, without any impropriety, may be compared to an hollow log of
wood. The one I saw was five feet six inches long, and thirty inches in
girt, and had a slit in it, from the one end to the other, about three
inches wide, by means of which it had been hollowed out. They beat on
the side of this log with two drum-sticks, and produce an hollow sound,
not quite so musical as that of an empty cask.

The common method of saluting one another is by touching or meeting
noses, as is done in New Zealand; and their sign of peace to strangers
is the displaying a white flag or flags; at least such were displayed to
us, when we first drew near the shore. But the people who came first on
board brought with them some of the pepper-plant, and sent it before
them into the ship; a stronger sign of friendship than which one could
not wish for. From their unsuspicious manner of coming on board, and of
receiving us at first on shore, I am of opinion, they are seldom
disturbed by either foreign or domestic troubles. They are, however, not
unprovided with very formidable weapons; such as clubs and spears, made
of hard wood, also bows and arrows. The clubs are from three to five
feet in length, and of various shapes; their bows and arrows are but
indifferent: the former being very slight, and the latter only made of a
slender reed pointed with hard wood. Some of their spears have many
barbs, and must be very dangerous weapons where they take effect. On the
inside of the bow is a groove in which is put the arrow; from which it
should seem that they use but one.

They have a singular custom of putting every thing you give them to
their heads, by way of thanks, as we conjectured. This manner of paying
a compliment is taught them from their very infancy; for when we gave
things to little children, the mother lifted up the child’s hand to its
head. They also used this custom in their exchanges with us: whatever we
gave them for their goods, was always applied to the head, just as if it
had been given them for nothing. Sometimes they would look at our goods,
and, if not approved, return them back; but whenever they applied them
to the head, the bargain was infallibly struck. When I had made a
present to the chief of any thing curious, I frequently saw it handed
from one to another; and every one, into whose hands it came, put it to
the head. Very often the women would take hold of my hand, kiss it, and
lift it to their heads. From all this it should seem, that this custom,
which, they call _fagafatie_, has various significations according as it
is applied; all however complimentary.

It must be observed that the sullen chief or king did not pay me any of
these compliments for the presents I made him.

A still more singular custom prevails in these isles: we observed that
the greater part of the people, both men and women, had lost one or both
their little fingers.[3] We endeavoured, but in vain, to find out the
reason of this mutilation; for no one would take any pains to inform us.
It was neither peculiar to rank, age, or sex; nor is it done at any
certain age, as I saw those of all ages on whom the amputation had been
just made; and, except some young children, we found few who had both
hands perfect. As it was more common among the aged than the young, some
of us were of opinion that it was occasioned by the death of their
parents, or some other near relation. But Mr. Wales one day met with a
man, whose hands were both perfect, of such an advanced age, that it was
hardly possible his parents could be living. They also burn or make
incisions in their cheeks, near the cheek-bone. The reason of this was
equally unknown to us. In some, the wounds were quite fresh; in others,
they could only be known by the scars, or colour of the skin. I saw
neither sick nor lame amongst them: all appeared healthy, strong, and
vigorous; a proof of the goodness of the climate in which they live.

I have frequently mentioned a king, which implies the government being
in a single person, without knowing for certain whether it is so or not.
Such an one was, however, pointed out to us; and we had no reason to
doubt it. From this, and other circumstances, I am of opinion that the
government is much like that of Otaheite; that is, in a king or great
chief, who is here called Areeke, with other chiefs under him, who are
lords of certain districts, and perhaps sole proprieters, to whom the
people seem to pay great obedience. I also observed a third rank, who
had not a little authority over the common people: my friend Attago was
one of these. I am of opinion that all the land on _Tongatabu_ is
private property, and that there are here, as at Otaheite, a set of
people, who are servants or slaves, and have no property in land. It is
unreasonable to suppose every thing in common in a country so highly
cultivated as this. Interest being the greatest spring which animates
the hand of industry, few would toil in cultivating and planting the
land, if they did not expect to reap the fruit of their labour: were it
otherwise, the industrious man would be in a worse state than the idle
sluggard. I frequently saw parties of six, eight, or ten people, bring
down to the landing-place fruit and other things to dispose of, where
one person, a man or woman, superintended the sale of the whole; no
exchanges were made but with his or her consent; and, whatever we gave
in exchange, was always given them, which, I think, plainly showed them
to be the owners of the goods, and the others no more than servants.
Though benevolent nature has been very bountiful to these isles, it
cannot be said that the inhabitants are wholly exempt from the curse of
our forefathers: part of their bread must be earned with the sweat of
their brows. The high state of cultivation their lands are in must have
cost them immense labour. This is now amply rewarded by the great
produce, of which every one seems to partake. No one wants the common
necessaries of life: joy and contentment are painted in every face.
Indeed, it can hardly be otherwise: an easy freedom prevails among all
ranks of people: they feel no wants which they do not enjoy the means of
gratifying; and they live in a clime where the painful extremes of heat
and cold are equally unknown. If nature has been wanting in any thing,
it is in the article of fresh water, which, as it is shut up in the
bowels of the earth, they are obliged to dig for. A running stream was
not seen, and but one well, at Amsterdam. At Middleburg, we saw no water
but what the natives had in vessels; but as it was sweet and cool, I had
no doubt of its being taken up upon the island, and, probably, not far
from the spot where I saw it.

So little do we know of their religion, that I hardly dare mention it.
The buildings called _Afiatoucas_, before mentioned, are undoubtedly set
apart for this purpose. Some of our gentlemen were of opinion, that they
were merely burying-places. I can only say, from my own knowledge, that
they are places to which particular persons directed set speeches, which
I understood to be prayers, as hath been already related. Joining my
opinion with that of others, I was inclined to think that they are set
apart to be both temples and burying-places, as at Otaheite, or even in
Europe. But I have no idea of the images being idols; not only from what
I saw myself, but from Mr. Wales’s informing me that they set one of
them up, for him and others to shoot at.

One circumstance showed that these _Afiatoucas_ were frequently resorted
to, for one purpose or other; the areas, or open places, before them,
being covered with a green sod, the grass on which was very short. This
did not appear to have been cut, or reduced by the hand of man, but to
have been prevented in its growth by being often trod, or sat upon.

It cannot be supposed that we could know much, either of their civil or
religious policy, in so short a time as four or five days, especially as
we understood but little of their language: even the two islanders we
had on board could not at first understand them; and yet as we became
the more acquainted with them, we found their language was nearly the
same spoken at Otaheite and the Society Isles. The difference not being
greater than what we find betwixt the most northern and western parts of
England, as will more fully appear by the vocabulary.



                               CHAP. IV.

PASSAGE FROM AMSTERDAM TO QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF AN
  INTERVIEW WITH THE INHABITANTS, AND THE FINAL SEPARATION OF THE TWO
                                 SHIPS.


About the time we were in a condition to make sail, a canoe, conducted
by four men, came along-side, with one of those drums already mentioned,
on which one man kept continually beating; thinking, no doubt, the music
would charm us. I gave them a piece of cloth, and a nail, for the drum;
and took the opportunity to send to my friend Attago some wheat, peas,
and beans, which I had forgot to give him when he had the other seeds.
As soon as this canoe was gone, we made sail to the southward, having a
gentle gale at S. E. by E., it being my intention to proceed directly to
Queen Charlotte’s Sound in New Zealand, there to take in wood and water,
and then to go on farther discoveries to the south and east.

In the afternoon on the 8th, we made the island of Pilstart, bearing
S. W. by W. 1/2 W., distant seven or eight leagues. This island, which
was also discovered by Tasman, is situated in the latitude of 22° 26ʹ
south, longitude 175° 59ʹ west, and lies in the direction of S. 52°
west, distant thirty-two leagues from the south end of Middleburg. It is
more conspicuous in height than circuit; having in it two considerable
hills, seemingly disjoined from each other by a low valley. After a few
hours’ calm, the wind came to S. W., with which we stretched to the
S. E., but, on the 10th, it veered round by the south to the S. E. and
E. S. E., and then we resumed our course to the S. S. W.

At five o’clock in the morning of the 21st, we made the land of New
Zealand extending from N. W. by N. to W. S. W.: at noon, Table Cape bore
west, distant eight or ten leagues. I was very desirous of having some
intercourse with the natives of this country as far to the north as
possible; that is, about Poverty or Tolaga Bays, where I apprehended
they were more civilized than at Queen Charlotte’s Sound; in order to
give them some hogs, fowls, seeds, roots, &c. which I had provided for
the purpose. The wind veering to the N. W. and north, enabled us to
fetch in with the land a little to the north of Portland, and we stood
as near the shore as we could with safety. We observed several people
upon it, but none attempted to come off to us. Seeing this, we bore away
under Portland, where we lay to some time, as well to give time for the
natives to come off, as to wait for the Adventure. There were several
people on Portland, but none seemed inclined to come to us; indeed the
wind, at this time, blew rather too fresh for them to make the attempt.
Therefore as soon as the Adventure was up with us, we made sail for Cape
Kidnappers, which we passed at five o’clock in the morning, and
continued our course along-shore till nine, when, being about three
leagues short of Black Head, we saw some canoes put off from the shore.
Upon this I brought to, in order to give them time to come on board; but
ordered the Adventure, by signal, to stand on, as I was willing to lose
as little time as possible.

Those in the first canoe, which came along-side, were fishers, and
exchanged some fish for pieces of cloth and nails. In the next, were two
men, whom, by their dress and behaviour, I took to be chiefs. These two
were easily prevailed on to come on board, when they were presented with
nails, and other articles. They were so fond of nails, as to seize on
all they could find, and with such eagerness, as plainly showed they
were the most valuable things we could give them. To the principal of
these two men I gave the pigs, fowls, seeds, and roots. I believe, at
first, he did not think I meant to give them to him; for he took but
little notice of them, till he was satisfied they were for himself. Nor
was he then in such a rapture as when I gave him a spike-nail half the
length of his arm. However, at his going away, I took notice, that he
very well remembered how many pigs and fowls had been given him, as he
took care to have them all collected together, and kept a watchful eye
over them, lest any should be taken away. He made me a promise not to
kill any; and if he keeps his word, and proper care is taken of them,
there were enough to stock the whole island in due time; being two
boars, two sows, four hens, two cocks. The seeds were such as are most
useful, viz. wheat, French and kidney beans, pease, cabbage, turnips,
onions, carrots, parsnips, and yams, &c. With these articles they were
dismissed. It was evident these people had not forgot the Endeavour
being on their coast; for the first words they spoke to us were, _Mataou
no te pow pow_ (we are afraid of the guns). As they could be no
strangers to the affair which happened off Cape Kidnapper in my former
voyage, experience had taught them to have some regard to these
instruments of death.

As soon as they were gone, we stretched off to the southward, the wind
having now veered to the W. S. W. In the afternoon it increased to a
fresh gale, and blew in squalls; in one of which we lost our
fore-top-gallant mast, having carried the sail a little too long. The
fear of losing the land induced me to carry as much sail as possible. At
seven in the morning, we tacked and stretched in shore, Cape Turnagain,
at this time, bore about N. W. 1/2 N., distant six or seven leagues. The
Adventure, being a good way to leeward, we supposed, did not observe the
signal, but stood on; consequently was separated from us. During the
night (which was spent in plying) the wind increased in such a manner as
to bring us under our courses; it also veered to S. W. and S. S. W., and
was attended with rain.

At nine in the morning on the 23d, the sky began to clear up, and the
gale to abate, so that we could carry close-reefed top-sails. At eleven
o’clock we were close in with Cape Turnagain, when we tacked and stood
off; at noon the said Cape bore west a little northerly, distant six or
seven miles. Latitude observed 41° 30ʹ south. Soon after, the wind
falling almost to a calm, and flattering ourselves that it would be
succeeded by one more favourable, we got up another top-gallant mast,
rigged top-gallant yards, and loosed all the reefs out of the top-sails.
The event was not equal to our wishes. The wind, indeed, came something
more favourable, that is, at W. by N., with which we stretched along
shore to the southward; but it soon increased in such a manner, as to
undo what we had but just done, and at last stripped us to our courses,
and two close-reefed top-sails, under which sails we continued all
night. About day-light the next morning, the gale abating, we were again
tempted to loose out the reefs, and rig top-gallant yards, which proved
all lost labour; for, by nine o’clock, we were reduced to the same sail
as before. Soon after, the Adventure joined us; and at noon Cape
Palliser bore west, distant eight or nine leagues. This Cape is the
northern point of Eahei-nomauwe. We continued to stretch to the
southward till midnight, when the wind abated and shifted to S. E. Three
hours after, it fell calm, during which we loosed the reefs out, with
the vain hopes that the next wind which came would be favourable. We
were mistaken; the wind only took this short repose, in order to gain
strength, and fall the heavier upon us. For at five o’clock in the
morning, being the 25th, a gale sprung up at N. W., with which we
stretched to S. W.: Cape Palliser, at this time, bore N. N. W., distant
eight or nine leagues. The wind increased in such a manner, as obliged
us to take in one reef after another; and, at last, it came on with such
fury, as made it necessary to take in all our sails with the utmost
expedition, and to lie to under bare poles. The sea rose in proportion
with the wind; so that we had a terrible gale, and a mountainous sea to
encounter. Thus, after beating up against a hard gale for two days, and
arriving just in sight of our port, we had the mortification to be
driven off from the land by a furious storm. Two favourable
circumstances attended it, which gave us some consolation; it was fair
over head, and we were not apprehensive of a lee-shore.

The storm continued all the day without the least intermission. In the
evening we bore down to look for the Adventure, she being out of sight
to leeward, and after running the distance we supposed her to be off,
brought to again without seeing; it being so very hazy and thick in the
horizon, that we could not see a mile round us, occasioned by the spray
of the sea being lifted up to a great height by the force of the wind.
At midnight the gale abated; soon after fell little wind; and at last
shifted to S. W., when we wore, set the courses and top-sails
close-reefed, and stood in for the land. Soon after the wind freshened
and fixed at south; but as the Adventure was some distance a-stern, we
lay by for her till eight o’clock, when we both made all sail, and
steered N. by W. 1/2 W. for the strait. At noon observed in 42° 27ʹ
south, Cape Palliser, by judgment, bore north, distant seventeen
leagues. This favourable wind was not of sufficient duration; in the
afternoon it fell, by little and little, and at length to a calm; this
at ten o’clock was succeeded by a fresh breeze from the north, with
which we stretched to the westward.

At three o’clock next morning we were pretty well in with Cape Campbell
on the west side of the Strait, when we tacked, and stretched over for
Cape Palliser, under courses and close-reefed top-sails, having the wind
at N. W. a very strong gale, and fair weather. At noon, we tacked and
stretched to the S. W. with the last-mentioned cape bearing west,
distant four or five leagues. In the afternoon, the gale increased in
such a manner as brought us under our courses. We continued to stretch
to the S. W. till midnight, when we wore, and set close-reefed
top-sails.

On the 28th, at eight o’clock in the morning, we wore, and stood again
to the S. W. till noon, when we were obliged to lie to under the
fore-sail. At this time the high land over Cape Campbell bore west,
distant ten or twelve leagues. The Adventure four or five miles to
leeward. In the afternoon the fury of the gale began to abate; when we
set the main-sail, close-reefed main-top-sail, and stood to the
northward with the wind at W. N. W. and W. by N., a strong gale,
attended with heavy squalls.

In the morning of the 29th, the wind abated and shifted to S. W., a
gentle gale. Of this we took immediate advantage, set all our sails, and
stood for Cape Palliser, which at noon bore W. by N. 1/2 N., distant
about six leagues. The wind continued between the S. W. and south till
five in the evening, when it fell calm. At this time we were about three
leagues from the Cape. At seven o’clock the calm was succeeded by a
gentle breeze from N. N. E. as fair as we could wish; so that we began
to reckon what time we should reach the Sound the next day; but at nine
the wind shifted to its old quarter N. W. and blew a fresh gale, with
which we stretched to the S. W. under single-reefed top-sails and
courses, with the Adventure in company. She was seen until midnight, at
which time she was two or three miles astern, and presently after she
disappeared; nor was she to be seen at daylight. We supposed she had
tacked and stood to the N. E., by which manœuvre we lost sight of her.

We continued to stretch to the westward with the wind at N. N. W., which
increased in such a manner as to bring us under our two courses, after
splitting a new main-top-sail. At noon, Cape Campbell bore W. by N.,
distant seven or eight leagues. At three in the afternoon, the gale
began to abate, and to veer, more to the north, so that we fetched in
with the land, under the Snowy mountains, about four or five leagues to
windward of the Lookers-on, where there was the appearance of a large
bay. I now regretted the loss of the Adventure; for had she been with
me, I should have given up all thoughts of going to Queen Charlotte’s
Sound to wood and water, and have sought for a place to get these
articles farther south, as the wind was now favourable for ranging along
the coast. But our separation made it necessary for me to repair to the
Sound, that being the place of rendezvous.

As we approached the land we saw smoke in several places along the
shore; a sure sign that the coast was inhabited. Our soundings were from
forty-seven to twenty-five fathoms; that is, at the distance of three
miles from the shore, forty-seven fathoms; and twenty-five fathoms at
the distance of one mile, where we tacked, and stood to the eastward,
under the two courses and close-reefed top-sails; but the latter we
could not carry long before we were obliged to hand them. We continued
to stand to the eastward all night, in hopes of meeting with the
Adventure in the morning.

Seeing nothing of her then, we wore and brought to, under the fore-sail
and mizzen-stay-sail, the wind having increased to a perfect storm; but
we had not been long in this situation before it abated, so as to permit
us to carry the two courses, under which we stood to the west; and at
noon the Snowy mountains bore W. N. W., distant twelve or fourteen
leagues. At six o’clock in the evening the wind quite ceased; but this
proved only a momentary repose; for, presently after, it began to blow
with redoubled fury, and obliged us to lie to under the
mizzen-stay-sail; in which situation we continued till midnight, when
the storm lessened; and two hours after it fell calm.

On the 1st of November, at four o’clock in the morning, the calm was
succeeded by a breeze from the south. This soon after increased to a
fresh gale, attended with hazy rainy weather, which gave us hopes that
the N. W. winds were done; for it must be observed, that they were
attended with clear and fair weather. We were not wanting in taking
immediate advantage of this favourable wind, by setting all our sails,
and steering for Cape Campbell, which at noon bore north, distant three
or four leagues.

At two o’clock we passed the Cape, and entered the Strait with a brisk
gale a-stern, and so likely to continue that we thought of nothing less
than reaching our port the next morning. Once more we were to be
deceived: at six o’clock, being off Cloudy Bay, our favourable wind was
succeeded by one from the north, which soon after veered to N. W. and
increased to a fresh gale. We spent the night plying; our tacks proved
disadvantageous; and we lost more on the ebb than we gained on the
flood. Next morning, we stretched over for the shore of Eaheinomauwe. At
sunrise the horizon being extraordinarily clear to leeward, we looked
well out for the Adventure; but as we saw nothing of her, judged she had
got into the Sound. As we approached the above-mentioned shore, we
discovered on the east side of Cape Teerawhitte a new inlet I had never
observed before. Being tired with beating against the N. W. winds, I
resolved to put into this place, if I found it practicable, or to anchor
in the bay which lies before it. The flood being in our favour, after
making a stretch off, we fetched under the Cape, and stretched into the
bay along by the western shore, having from thirty-five to twelve
fathoms, the bottom every where good anchorage. At one o’clock we
reached the entrance of the inlet, just as the tide of ebb was making
out; the wind being likewise against us, we anchored in twelve fathoms
water, the bottom a fine sand. The easternmost of the Black Rocks, which
lie on the larboard side of the entrance of the inlet, bore N. by E.,
one mile distant; Cape Teerawhitte, or the west point of the bay, west,
distant about two leagues; and the east point of the bay N. by E., four
or five miles.

Soon after we had anchored, several of the natives came off in their
canoes; two from one shore, and one from the other. It required but
little address to get three or four of them on board. These people were
extravagantly fond of nails above every other thing. To one man I gave
two cocks and two hens, which he received with so much indifference, as
gave me little hopes he would take proper care of them.

We had not been at anchor here above two hours, before the wind veered
to N. E., with which we weighed; but the anchor was hardly at the bows
before it shifted to south. With this we could but just lead out of the
bay, and then bore away for the Sound under all the sail we could set;
having the advantage, or rather disadvantage, of an increasing gale,
which already blew too hard. We hauled up into the Sound just at dark,
after making two boards, in which most of our sails were split; and
anchored in eighteen fathoms’ water, between the White Rocks and the
N. W. shore.

The next morning the gale abated, and was succeeded by a few hours’
calm; after that a breeze sprung up at N. W., with which we weighed and
ran up into Ship Cove, where we did not find the Adventure as was
expected.



                                CHAP. V.

    TRANSACTIONS IN QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
INHABITANTS BEING CANNIBALS, AND VARIOUS OTHER INCIDENTS.—DEPARTURE FROM
     THE SOUND AND OUR ENDEAVOURS TO FIND THE ADVENTURE, WITH SOME
                       DESCRIPTION OF THE COAST.


The first thing we did, after mooring the ship, was to unbend all the
sails, there not being one but what wanted repair. Indeed, both our
sails and rigging had sustained much damage in beating off the Strait’s
mouth.

We had no sooner anchored than we were visited by the natives, several
of whom I remembered to have seen when I was here in the Endeavour,
particularly an old man named Goubiah. In the afternoon I gave orders
for all the empty water-casks to be landed, in order to be repaired,
cleaned, and filled; tents to be set up for the sail-makers, coopers,
and others, whose business made it necessary for them to be on shore.
The next day we began to caulk the ship’s sides and decks, to overhaul
her rigging, repair the sails, cut wood for fuel, and set up the smith’s
forge to repair the iron-work; all of which were absolutely necessary.
We also made some hauls with the seine, but caught no fish, which
deficiency the natives in some measure made up, by bringing us a good
quantity, and exchanging them for pieces of Otaheitean cloth, &c.

On the 5th, the most part of our bread being in casks, I ordered some to
be opened, when, to our mortification, we found a good deal of it
damaged. To repair this loss in the best manner we could, all the casks
were opened, the bread was picked, and the copper oven set up, to bake
such parcels of it as by that means could be recovered. Some time this
morning, the natives stole out of one of the tents a bag of clothes
belonging to one of the seamen. As soon as I was informed of it, I went
to them in an adjoining cove, demanded the clothes again, and, after
some time spent in friendly application, recovered them. Since we were
among thieves, and had come off so well, I was not sorry for what had
happened, as it taught our people to keep a better look-out for the
future.

With these people I saw the youngest of the two sows Captain Furneaux
had put on shore in Cannibal Cove, when we were last here: it was lame
of one of its hind legs; otherwise in good case, and very tame. If we
understood these people right, the boar and other sow were also taken
away and separated, but not killed. We were likewise told that the two
goats I had put on shore up the Sound had been killed by that old rascal
Goubiah. Thus all our endeavours to stock this country with useful
animals were likely to be frustrated by the very people we meant to
serve. Our gardens had fared somewhat better. Every thing in them,
except the potatoes, they had left entirely to nature, who had acted her
part so well, that we found most articles in a flourishing state; a
proof that the winter must have been mild. The potatoes had most of them
been dug up; some, however, still remained, and were growing, though I
think it is probable they will never be got out of the ground.

Next morning I sent over to the cove, where the natives reside, to haul
the seine, and took with me a boar and a young sow, two cocks and two
hens, we had brought from the isles. These I gave to the natives, being
persuaded they would take proper care of them, by their keeping Captain
Furneaux’s sow near five months; for I am to suppose it was caught soon
after we sailed. We had no better success with the seine than before;
nevertheless, we did not return on board quite empty, having purchased a
large quantity from the natives. When we were upon this traffic, they
showed a great inclination to pick my pockets, and to take away the fish
with one hand which they had just given me with the other. This evil one
of the chiefs undertook to remove, and with fury in his eyes made a show
of keeping the people at a proper distance. I applauded his conduct, but
at the same time kept so good a look-out, as to detect him in picking my
pocket of a handkerchief, which I suffered him to put in his bosom
before I seemed to know any thing of the matter, and then told him what
I had lost. He seemed quite ignorant and innocent, till I took it from
him; and then he put it off with a laugh, acting his part with so much
address, that it was hardly possible for me to be angry with him; so
that we remained good friends, and he accompanied me on board to dinner.
About that time we were visited by several strangers, in four or five
canoes, who brought with them fish and other articles, which they
exchanged for cloth, &c. These new comers took up their quarters in a
cove near us; but very early the next morning moved off with six of our
small water casks, and with them all the people we found here on our
arrival. This precipitate retreat of these last we supposed was owing to
the theft the others had committed. They left behind them some of their
dogs, and the boar I had given them the day before, which I now took
back again, as I had not another. Our casks were the least loss we felt
by these people leaving us; while they remained, we were generally well
supplied with fish, at a small expence.

We had fair weather, with the wind at north-east, on the 9th, which gave
us some hopes of seeing the Adventure; but these hopes vanished in the
afternoon, when the wind shifted to the westward.

The next morning our friends the natives returned again, and brought
with them a quantity of fish, which they exchanged for two hatchets.

Fair weather on the 12th enabled us to finish picking, airing, and
baking our biscuit; four thousand two hundred and ninety-two pounds of
which we found totally unfit to eat; and about three thousand pounds
more could only be eaten by people in our situation.

On the 13th, clear and pleasant weather. Early in the morning the
natives brought us a quantity of fish, which they exchanged as usual.
But their greatest branch of trade was the green talc or stone, called
by them _Poenammoo_, a thing of no great value; nevertheless, it was so
much sought after by our people, that there was hardly a thing they
would not give for a piece of it.

The 15th, being a pleasant morning, a party of us went over to the East
Bay, and climbed one of the hills which overlooked the eastern part of
the strait, in order to look for the Adventure. We had a fatiguing walk
to little purpose; for when we came to the summit, we found the eastern
horizon so foggy, that we could not see above two miles. Mr. Forster,
who was one of the party, profited by this excursion, in collecting some
new plants. I now began to despair of seeing the Adventure any more, but
was totally at a loss to conceive what was become of her. Till now, I
thought she had put into some port in the strait, when the wind came to
north-west the day we anchored in the cove, and waited to complete her
water. This conjecture was reasonable enough at first, but it was now
hardly probable she could be twelve days in our neighbourhood, without
our either hearing or seeing something of her.

The hill we now mounted is the same that I was upon in 1770, when I had
the second view of the strait: we then built a tower with the stones we
found there, which we now saw had been levelled to the ground, no doubt
by the natives, with a view of finding something hid in it. When we
returned from the hill, we found a number of them collected round our
boat. After some exchanges, and making them some presents, we embarked,
in order to return on board, and in our way visited others of the
inhabitants, by whom we were kindly received.

Our friends the natives employed themselves on the 17th in fishing in
our neighbourhood, and, as fast as they caught the fish, came and
disposed of them to us, insomuch that we had more than we could make use
of. From this day to the 22d nothing remarkable happened, and we were
occupied in getting every thing in readiness to put to sea, being
resolved to wait no longer than the assigned time for the Adventure.

The winds were between the south and west, stormy with rain till the
22d, when the weather became settled, clear, and pleasant. Very early in
the morning we were visited by a number of the natives, in four or five
canoes, very few of whom we had seen before. They brought with them
various articles (curiosities) which they exchanged for Otaheitean
cloth, &c. At first the exchanges were very much in our favour, till an
old man, who was no stranger to us, came and assisted his countrymen
with his advice, which in a moment turned the trade above a thousand
_per cent._ against us.

After these people were gone, I took four hogs (that is three sows and
one boar), two cocks and two hens, which I landed in the bottom of the
West Bay, carrying them a little way into the woods, where we left them
with as much food as would serve them ten or twelve days. This was done
with a view of keeping them in the woods, lest they should come down to
the shore in search of food and be discovered by the natives; which,
however, seemed not probable, as this place had never been frequented by
them, nor were any traces of them to be seen near it. We also left some
cocks and hens in the woods in Ship Cove, but these will have a chance
of falling into the hands of the natives, whose wandering way of life
will hinder them from breeding, even suppose they should be taken proper
care of. Indeed they took rather too much care of those which I had
already given them, by keeping them continually confined, for fear of
losing them in the woods. The sow pig we had not seen since the day they
had her from me; but we were now told she was still living, as also the
old boar and sow given them by Captain Furneaux; so that there is reason
to hope they may succeed. It will be unfortunate, indeed, if every
method I have taken to provide this country with useful animals should
be frustrated. We were likewise told that the two goats were still alive
and running about, but I gave more credit to the first story than this.
I should have replaced them, by leaving the only two I had left, but had
the misfortune to lose the ram soon after our arrival here in a manner
we could hardly account for. They were both put ashore at the tents,
where they seemed to thrive very well: at last the ram was taken with
fits bordering on madness. We were at a loss to tell whether it was
occasioned by any thing he had eaten, or by being stung with nettles,
which were in plenty about the place, but supposed it to be the latter,
and therefore did not take the care of him we ought to have done. One
night while he was lying by the sentinel, he was seized with one of
these fits, and ran headlong into the sea, but soon came out again and
seemed quite easy. Presently after, he was seized with another fit, and
ran along the beach, with the she-goat after him. Some time after she
returned, but the other was never seen more. Diligent search was made
for him in the woods to no purpose; we, therefore, supposed he had run
into the sea a second time and had been drowned. After this accident, it
would have been in vain to leave the she-goat as she was not with kid,
having kidded but a few days before we arrived, and the kids dead. Thus
the reader will see how every method I have taken to stock this country
with sheep and goats has proved ineffectual.

When I returned on board in the evening, I found our good friends the
natives had brought us a large supply of fish. Some of the officers
visiting them at their habitations, saw among them some human
thigh-bones, from which the flesh had been but lately picked. This and
other circumstances led us to believe that the people whom we took for
strangers this morning, were of the same tribe; that they had been out
on some war expedition; and that those things they sold us were the
spoils of their enemies. Indeed, we had some information of this sort
the day before; for a number of women and children came off to us in a
canoe, from whom we learnt that a party of men were then out, for whose
safety they were under some apprehension; but this report found little
credit with us, as we soon after saw some canoes come in from fishing,
which we judged to be them.

Having now got the ship in a condition for sea, and to encounter the
southern latitudes, I ordered the tents to be struck and every thing to
be got on board.

The boatswain, with a party of men, being in the woods cutting broom,
some of them found a private hut of the natives, in which was deposited
most of the treasure they had received from us, as well as some other
articles of their own. It is very probable some were set to watch this
hut; as, soon after it was discovered, they came and took all away. But
missing some things, they told our people they had stolen them, and in
the evening came and made their complaint to me, pitching upon one of
the party as the person who had committed the theft. Having ordered this
man to be punished before them, they went away seemingly satisfied,
although they did not recover any of the things they had lost, nor could
I by any means find out what had become of them; though nothing was more
certain than that something had been stolen by some of the party, if not
by the very man the natives had pitched upon. It was ever a maxim with
me to punish the least crimes any of my people committed against these
uncivilized nations. Their robbing us with impunity, is by no means a
sufficient reason why we should treat them in the same manner, a conduct
we see they themselves cannot justify. They found themselves injured,
and sought for redress in a legal way. The best method, in my opinion,
to preserve a good understanding with such people, is, first, by showing
them the use of fire-arms, to convince them of the superiority they give
you over them, and then to be always upon your guard. When once they are
sensible of these things, a regard for their own safety will deter them
from disturbing you, or from being unanimous in forming any plan to
attack you, and strict honesty and gentle treatment on your part will
make it their interest not to do it.

Calm or light airs from the north all day on the 23d, hindered us from
putting to sea as intended. In the afternoon, some of the officers went
on shore to amuse themselves among the natives, where they saw the head
and bowels of a youth, who had lately been killed, lying on the beach,
and the heart stuck on a forked stick which was fixed to the head of one
of the largest canoes. One of the gentlemen bought the head and brought
it on board, where a piece of the flesh was broiled and eaten by one of
the natives, before all the officers and most of the men. I was on shore
at this time, but soon after returning on board, was informed of the
above circumstances, and found the quarter-deck crowded with the
natives, and the mangled head, or rather part of it (for the under jaw
and lip were wanting), lying on the tafferal. The skull had been broken
on the left side just above the temples, and the remains of the face had
all the appearance of a youth under twenty.

The sight of the head, and the relation of the above circumstances,
struck me with horror, and filled my mind with indignation against these
cannibals. Curiosity, however, got the better of my indignation,
especially when I considered that it would avail but little, and being
desirous of becoming an eye-witness of a fact which many doubted, I
ordered a piece of the flesh to be broiled and brought to the
quarter-deck, where one of these cannibals ate it with surprising
avidity. This had such an effect on some of our people as to make them
sick. Oedidee (who came on board with me), was so affected with the
sight as to become perfectly motionless, and seemed as if metamorphosed
into the statue of horror. It is utterly impossible for art to describe
that passion with half the force that it appeared in his countenance.
When roused from this state by some of us, he burst into tears;
continued to weep and scold by turns; told them they were vile men; and
that he neither was nor would be any longer their friend. He even would
not suffer them to touch him; he used the same language to one of the
gentlemen who cut off the flesh, and refused to accept or even touch the
knife with which it was done. Such was Oedidee’s indignation against the
vile custom, and worthy of imitation by every rational being.

I was not able to find out the reason for their undertaking this
expedition. All I could understand for certain was, that they went from
hence into Admiralty Bay (the next inlet to the west) and there fought
with their enemies, many of whom they killed. They counted to me fifty,
a number which exceeded probability, as they were not more if so many
themselves. I think I understood them clearly, that this youth was
killed there; and not brought away prisoner and afterwards killed. Nor
could I learn that they had brought away any more than this one; which
increased the improbability of their having killed so many. We had also
reason to think that they did not come off without loss; for a young
woman was seen more than once to cut herself, as is the custom when they
lose a friend or relation.

That the New Zealanders are cannibals can now no longer be doubted. The
account given of this in my former voyage, being partly founded on
circumstances, was, as I afterwards understood, discredited by many
persons. Few consider what a savage man is in his natural state, and
even after he is in some degree civilized. The New Zealanders are
certainly in some state of civilization; their behaviour to us was manly
and mild, showing on all occasions a readiness to oblige. They have some
arts among them which they execute with great judgment, and unwearied
patience; they are far less addicted to thieving than the other
islanders of the South Sea; and I believe those in the same tribe, or
such as are at peace one with another, are strictly honest among
themselves. This custom of eating their enemies slain in battle (for I
firmly believe they eat the flesh of no others) has, undoubtedly, been
handed down to them from the earliest times; and we know it is not an
easy matter to wean a nation from their ancient customs, let them be
ever so inhuman and savage; especially if that nation has no manner of
connexion or commerce with strangers. For it is by this that the
greatest part of the human race has been civilized; an advantage which
the New Zealanders from their situation never had. An intercourse with
foreigners would reform their manners, and polish their savage minds.
Or, were they more united under a settled form of government, they would
have fewer enemies; consequently, this custom would be less in use, and
might in time be in a manner forgotten. At present, they have but little
idea of treating others as themselves would _wish_ to be treated, but
treat them as they _expect_ to be treated. If I remember right, one of
the arguments they made use of to Tupia, who frequently expostulated
with them against this custom, was, that there could be no harm in
killing and eating the man who would do the same by them, if it was in
his power. For, said they, “Can there be any harm in eating our enemies,
whom we have killed in battle? Would not those very enemies have done
the same to us?” I have often seen them listen to Tupia with great
attention; but I never found his arguments have any weight with them, or
that, with all his rhetoric, he could persuade any one of them that this
custom was wrong; and when Oedidee, and several of our people showed
their abhorrence of it, they only laughed at them.

Among many reasons which I have heard assigned for the prevalence of
this horrid custom, the want of animal food has been one; but how far
this is deducible either from facts or circumstances, I shall leave
those to find out who advanced it. In every part of New Zealand where I
have been, fish was in such plenty, that the natives generally caught as
much as served both themselves and us. They have also plenty of dogs;
nor is there any want of wild-fowl, which they know very well how to
kill. So that neither this, nor the want of food of any kind, can in my
opinion be the reason. But whatever it may be, I think it was but too
evident that they have a great liking for this kind of food.

I must here observe that Oedidee soon learnt to converse with these
people, as I am persuaded he would have done with the people of
Amsterdam, had he been a little longer with them; for he did not
understand the New Zealanders at first any more than, or not so much, as
he understood the people of Amsterdam.

At four o’clock in the morning, on the 24th, we unmoored with an intent
to put to sea; but the wind being at north and north-east without, and
blowing strong puffs into the cove, made it necessary for us to lie
fast. While we were unmooring, some of our old friends came on board to
take their leave of us, and afterwards left the cove with all their
effects; but those who had been out on the late expedition remained; and
some of the gentlemen having visited them, found the heart still
sticking on the canoe, and the intestines lying on the beach; but the
liver and lungs were now wanting. Probably they had eaten them after the
carcase was all gone.

On the 25th, early in the morning, we weighed, with a small breeze, out
of the cove which carried us no farther than between Motuara and Long
Island, where we were obliged to anchor; but presently after a breeze
springing up at north, we weighed again, turned out of the Sound, and
stood over for Cape Teerawhitte.

During our stay in the Sound we were plentifully supplied with fish,
procured from the natives at a very easy rate; and besides the
vegetables our own gardens afforded, we found every where plenty of
scurvy-grass and celery, which I caused to be dressed every day for all
the hands. By this means they had been mostly on a fresh diet for the
three preceding months; and at this time we had neither a sick nor
scorbutic man on board. It is necessary to mention, for the information
of others, that we had now some pork on board, salted at Ulietea, and as
good as any I ever ate. The manner in which we cured it was thus: In the
cool of the evening, the hogs were killed, dressed, cut up, the bones
cut out, and the flesh salted while it was yet hot. The next morning we
gave it a second salting, packed it into a cask, and put to it a
sufficient quantity of strong pickle. Great care is to be taken that the
meat be well covered with pickle, otherwise it will soon spoil.

The morning before we sailed I wrote a memorandum, setting forth the
time we last arrived, the day we sailed, the route I intended to take,
and such other information as I thought necessary for Captain Furneaux,
in case he should put into the sound; and buried it in a bottle under
the root of a tree in the garden, which is in the bottom of the cove; in
such a manner as must be found by him or any European who might put into
the cove. I, however, had little reason to hope it would fall into the
hands of the person for whom it was intended, thinking it hardly
possible that the Adventure could be in any port in New Zealand, as we
had not heard of her in all this time. Nevertheless, I was resolved not
to leave the coast without looking for her, where I thought it most
likely for her to be. It was with this view that I stood over for Cape
Teerawhitte, and afterward runs along shore, from point to point, to
Cape Palliser, firing guns every half hour; but all to no effect. At
eight o’clock we brought to for the night, Cape Palliser bearing
south-east by east distant three leagues, in which situation we had
fifty fathoms’ water.

I had now an opportunity of making the following remarks on the coast
between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser. The bay which lies on the
west side of the last cape, does not appear to run so far inland to the
northward as I at first thought, the deception being caused by the land
in the bottom of it being low; it is, however, at least five leagues
deep, and full as wide at the entrance. Though it seems to be exposed to
southernly and south-west winds, it is probable there may be places in
the bottom of it sheltered even from these. The bay or inlet on the east
side of Cape Teerawhitte, before which we anchored, lies in north
inclining to the west, and seemed to be sheltered from all winds. The
middle cape or point of land that disjoins these two bays, rises to a
considerable height especially inland; for close to the sea is a skirt
of low land, off which lie some pointed rocks, but so near to the shore
as to be no ways dangerous. Indeed, the navigation of this side of the
strait, seems much safer than the other, because the tides here are not
near so strong. Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser lie in the direction
of N. 69° W. and S. 69° E. from each other, distant ten leagues. The
cape which disjoins the two bays above mentioned, lies within or north
of this direction. All the land near the coast, between and about these
capes, is exceedingly barren; probably owing to its being so much
exposed to the cold southernly winds. From Cape Teerawhitte to the Two
Brothers which lie off Cape Koamaroo, the course is nearly north-west by
north, distant sixteen miles. North of Cape Teerawhitte, between it and
Entry Island, is an island lying pretty near the shore. I judged this to
be an island when I saw it in my former voyage, but not being certain,
left it undetermined in my chart of the strait, which is the reason of
my taking notice of it now, as also of the bays, &c. above-mentioned.

At day-light in the morning on the 26th, we made sail round Cape
Palliser, firing guns as usual as we ran along the shore. In this manner
we proceeded till we were three or four leagues to the north-east of the
cape, when the wind shifting to north-east, we bore away to Cape
Campbell, on the other side of the strait. Soon after seeing a smoke
ascend, at some distance inland away to the north-east we hauled the
wind, and continued to ply till six o’clock in the evening; which was
several hours after the smoke disappeared, and left us not the least
signs of people.

Every one being unanimously of opinion that the Adventure could neither
be stranded on the coast, nor be in any of the harbours thereof, I gave
up looking for her, and all thoughts of seeing her any more during the
voyage; as no rendezvous was absolutely fixed upon after leaving New
Zealand. Nevertheless, this did not discourage me from fully exploring
the southern parts of the Pacific Ocean, in the doing of which I
intended to employ the whole of the ensuing season.

On our quitting the coast, and, consequently, all hopes of being joined
by our consort, I had the satisfaction to find that not a man was
dejected, or thought the dangers we had yet to go through were in the
least increased by being alone; but as cheerfully proceeding to the
south, or wherever I might think proper to lead them, as if the
Adventure, or even more ships, had been in our company.



                               CHAP. VI.

  ROUTE OF THE SHIP FROM NEW ZEALAND IN SEARCH OF A CONTINENT.—WITH AN
   ACCOUNT OF THE VARIOUS OBSTRUCTIONS MET WITH FROM THE ICE, AND THE
         METHODS PURSUED TO EXPLORE THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC OCEAN.


At eight o’clock in the evening of the 26th, we took our departure from
Cape Palliser, and steered to the south, inclining to the east, having a
favourable gale from the north-west and south-west, we daily saw some
rock-weed, seals, Port-Egmont hens, albatrosses, pintadoes, and other
peterels; and on the 2d of December, being in the latitude of 48° 23ʹ
S., longitude 179° 16ʹ W. we saw a number of red-billed penguins, which
remained about us for several days. On the 5th, being in the latitude
50° 17ʹ S. longitude 179° 40ʹ E., the variation was 18° 25ʹ E. At half
an hour past eight o’clock the next evening, we reckoned ourselves
antipodes to our friends in London; consequently, as far removed from
them as possible.

On the 8th, being in latitude 55° 39ʹ, longitude 178° 53ʹ W. we ceased
to see penguins and seals, and concluded that those we had seen retired
to the southern parts of New Zealand, whenever it was necessary for them
to be at land. We had now a strong gale at north-west and a great swell
from south-west. This swell we got as soon as the south point of New
Zealand came in that direction; and as we had had no wind from that
quarter the six preceding days, but, on the contrary, it had been at
east, north, and north-west, I conclude there can be no land to the
southward, under the meridian of New Zealand, but what must lie very far
to the south. The two following days we had very stormy weather, sleet
and snow, winds between the north and south-west.

The 11th the storm abated, and the weather clearing up, we found the
latitude to be 61° 15ʹ S. longitude 173° 4ʹ W. This fine weather was of
short duration: in the evening the wind increased to a strong gale at
south-west, blew in squalls, attended with thick snow showers, hail, and
sleet. The mercury in the thermometer fell to thirty-two; consequently
the weather was very cold, and seemed to indicate that ice was not far
off.

At four o’clock the next morning, being in the latitude of 62° 10ʹ S.
longitude 172° W. we saw the first ice island, 11-1/2° farther S. than
the first ice we saw the preceding year after leaving the Cape of Good
Hope. At the time we saw this ice we also saw an antarctic peterel, some
grey albatrosses, and our old companions, pintadoes and blue peterels.
The wind kept veering from south-west by the north-west to
north-north-east, for the most part a fresh gale, attended with a thick
haze and snow; on which account we steered to the south-east and east,
keeping the wind always on the beam, that it might be in our power to
return back nearly on the same track, should our course have been
interrupted by any danger whatever. For some days we had a great sea
from the north-west and south-west, so that it is not probable there can
be any land near between these two points.

We fell in with several large islands on the 14th, and, about noon, with
a quantity of loose ice, through which we sailed. Latitude 64° 55ʹ S.,
longitude 163° 20ʹ W. Grey albatrosses, blue peterels, pintadoes, and
fulmers were seen. As we advanced to the south-east by east, with a
fresh gale at west, we found the number of ice islands increase fast
upon us. Between noon and eight in the evening we saw but two, but
before four o’clock in the morning of the 15th, we had passed seventeen,
besides a quantity of loose ice which we ran through. At six o’clock we
were obliged to haul to the north-east, in order to clear an immense
field which lay to the south and south-east. The ice in most part of it
lay close packed together; in other places there appeared partitions in
the field, and a clear sea beyond it. However, I did not think it safe
to venture through, as the wind would not permit us to return the same
way that we must go in. Besides, as it blew strong, and the weather at
times was exceedingly foggy, it was the more necessary for us to get
clear of this loose ice, which is rather more dangerous than the great
islands. It was not such ice as is usually found in bays or rivers, and
near shore, but such as breaks off from the islands, and may not
improperly be called parings of the large pieces, or the rubbish or
fragments which fall off when the great islands break loose from the
place where they are formed.

We had not stood long to the north-east before we found ourselves
embayed by the ice, and were obliged to tack and stretch to the
south-west, having the field or loose ice to the south, and many huge
islands to the north. After standing two hours on this tack, the wind
very luckily veering to the westward, we tacked, stretched to the north,
and soon got clear of all the loose ice, but not before we had received
several hard knocks from the larger pieces, which, with all our care, we
could not avoid. After clearing one danger we still had another to
encounter; the weather remained foggy, and many large islands lay in our
way; so that we had to luff for one, and bear up for another. One we
were very near falling aboard of; and if it had happened, this
circumstance would never have been related. These difficulties, together
with the improbability of finding land farther south, and the
impossibility of exploring it on account of the ice, if we should find
any, determined me to get more to the north. At the time we last tacked,
we were in the longitude of 159° 20ʹ W. and in the latitude of 66° 0ʹ S.
Several penguins were seen on some of the ice islands, and a few
antarctic peterels on the wing.

We continued to stand to the north, with a fresh gale at west, attended
with thick snow showers till eight o’clock in the evening, when the wind
abated, the sky began to clear up, and, at six o’clock in the morning of
the 16th, it fell calm. Four hours after, it was succeeded by a breeze
at north-east, with which we stretched to the south-east, having thick
hazy weather, with snow showers, and all our rigging coated with ice. In
the evening, we attempted to take some out of the sea, but were obliged
to desist, the sea running too high, and the pieces being so large, that
it was dangerous for the boat to come near them.

The next morning, being the 17th, we succeeded better; for falling in
with a quantity of loose ice, we hoisted out two boats, and by noon got
on board as much as we could manage. We then made sail for the east,
with a gentle breeze northerly, attended with snow and sleet, which
froze to the rigging as it fell. At this time we were in the latitude of
64° 41ʹ S. longitude 155° 44ʹ W. The ice we took up proved to be none of
the best, being chiefly composed of frozen snow, on which account it was
porous, and had imbibed a good deal of salt water; but this drained off
after lying a while on deck, and the water then yielded was fresh. We
continued to stretch to the east, with a piercing cold northerly wind,
attended with a thick fog, snow, and sleet, that decorated all our
rigging with icicles. We were hourly meeting with some of the large ice
islands, which in these high latitudes render navigation so very
dangerous: at seven in the evening, falling in with a cluster of them,
we narrowly escaped running aboard of one, and with difficulty wore
clear of the others. We stood back to the west till ten o’clock, at
which time the fog cleared away, and we resumed our course to the east.
At noon the next day, we were in the latitude of 64° 49ʹ S., longitude
149° 19ʹ W. Some time after our longitude, by observed distance of the
sun and moon, was 149° 19ʹ W.; by Mr. Kendal’s watch, 148° 36ʹ; and by
my reckoning, 148° 43ʹ, latitude 64° 48ʹ S.

The clear weather and the wind veering to north-west tempted me to steer
south, which course we continued till seven in the morning of the 20th,
when the wind changing to north-east, and the sky becoming clouded, we
hauled up south-east. In the afternoon the wind increased to a strong
gale, attended with a thick fog, snow, sleet, and rain, which
constitutes the very worst of weather. Our rigging at this time was so
loaded with ice that we had enough to do to get our top-sails down to
double the reef. At seven o’clock in the evening, in the longitude of
147° 46ʹ, we came the second time within the antarctic or polar circle,
continuing our course to the south-east till six o’clock the next
morning. At that time, being in the latitude of 67° 5ʹ S., all at once
we got in among a cluster of very large ice islands, and a vast quantity
of loose pieces; and, as the fog was exceedingly thick, it was with the
utmost difficulty we wore clear of them. This done, we stood to the
north-west till noon, when the fog being somewhat dissipated, we resumed
our course again to the south-east. The ice islands we met with in the
morning were very high and rugged, forming at their tops many peaks,
whereas the most of those we had seen before were flat at top, and not
so high, though many of them were between two and three hundred feet in
height, and between two and three miles in circuit, with perpendicular
cliffs or sides, astonishing to behold. Most of our winged companions
had now left us, the grey albatrosses only remained, and instead of the
other birds we were visited by a few antarctic peterels.

The 22d we steered east-south-east with a fresh gale at north, blowing
in squalls, one of which took hold of the mizzen top-sail, tore it all
to rags, and rendered it for ever after useless. At six o’clock in the
morning, the wind veering toward the west, our course was
east-northerly. At this time we were in the latitude of 67° 31ʹ, the
highest we had yet been in, longitude 142° 54ʹ west.

We continued our course to the east by north till noon the 23d, when,
being in the latitude of 67° 12ʹ, longitude 138° 0ʹ, we steered
south-east, having then twenty-three ice islands in sight from off the
deck, and twice that number from the mast-head, and yet we could not see
above two or three miles round us. At four o’clock in the afternoon, in
the latitude of 67° 20ʹ, longitude 137° 12ʹ, we fell in with such a
quantity of field or loose ice, as covered the sea in the whole extent
from south to east, and was so thick and close as wholly to obstruct our
passage. At this time, the wind being pretty moderate, and the sea
smooth, we brought to at the outer edge of the ice, hoisted out two
boats, and sent them to take some up. In the mean time, we laid hold of
several large pieces alongside, and got them on board with our tackle.
The taking up ice proved such cold work, that it was eight o’clock by
the time the boats had made two trips; when we hoisted them in, and made
sail to the west, under double-reefed top-sails and courses, with a
strong gale at north, attended with snow and sleet, which froze to the
rigging as it fell, making the ropes like wires, and the sails like
boards or plates of metal. The sheaves also were frozen so fast in the
blocks, that it required our utmost efforts to get a top-sail down and
up; the cold so intense as hardly to be endured; the whole sea, in a
manner, covered with ice; a hard gale, and a thick fog.

Under all these unfavourable circumstances, it was natural for me to
think of returning more to the north, seeing no probability of finding
any land here, nor a possibility of getting farther south; and to have
proceeded to the east, in this latitude, must have been wrong, not only
on account of the ice, but because we must have left a vast space of sea
to the north unexplored; a space of 24° of latitude, in which a large
track of land might have lain. Whether such a supposition was
well-grounded, could only be determined by visiting those parts.

While we were taking up ice, we got two of the antarctic peterels so
often mentioned, by which our conjectures were confirmed of their being
of the peterel tribe. They are about the size of a large pigeon; the
feathers of the head, back, and part of the upper side of the wings, are
of a light-brown; the belly and under side of the wings, white; the
tail-feathers are also white, but tipped with brown: at the same time,
we got another new peterel, smaller than the former, and all of a
dark-grey plumage. We remarked that these birds were fuller of feathers
than any we had hitherto seen; such care has nature taken to clothe them
suitably to the climate in which they live. At the same time we saw a
few chocolate-coloured albatrosses; these, as well as the peterels above
mentioned, we no where saw but among the ice; hence one may, with
reason, conjecture that there is land to the south. If not, I must ask
where these birds breed? A question which perhaps will never be
determined; for hitherto we have found these lands, if any, quite
inaccessible. Besides these birds, we saw a very large seal, which kept
playing about us some time. One of our people who had been at Greenland
called it a sea-horse; but every one else who saw it took it for what I
have said. Since our first falling in with the ice, the mercury in the
thermometer had been from 33 to 31 at noon-day.

On the 24th, the wind abated, veering to the north-west, and the sky
cleared up, in the latitude of 67° 0ʹ, longitude 138° 15ʹ. As we
advanced to the north-east, with a gentle gale at north-west, the ice
islands increased so fast upon us, that this day at noon we could see
near 100 round us, besides an immense number of small pieces. Perceiving
that it was likely to be calm, I got the ship into as clear a birth as I
could, where she drifted along with the ice; and by taking the advantage
of every light air of wind, was kept from falling aboard any of these
floating isles. Here it was we spent Christmas-day, much in the same
manner as we did the preceding one. We were fortunate in having
continual day-light and clear weather; for had it been as foggy as on
some of the preceding days, nothing less than a miracle could have saved
us from being dashed to pieces.

In the morning of the 26th, the whole sea was in a manner covered with
ice, 200 large islands and upwards being seen within the compass of four
or five miles, which was the limits of our horizon, besides smaller
pieces innumerable. Our latitude at noon was 66° 15ʹ longitude 134° 22ʹ.
By observation we found that the ship had drifted, or gone about 20
miles to the north-east or east-north-east, whereas by the ice islands
it appeared that she had gone little or nothing; from which we concluded
that the ice drifted nearly in the same direction, and at the same rate.
At four o’clock a breeze sprung up at west-south-west, and enabled us to
steer north, the most probable course to extricate ourselves from these
dangers.

We continued our course to the north with a gentle breeze at west,
attended with clear weather, till four o’clock the next morning, when,
meeting with a quantity of loose ice, we brought to, and took on board
as much as filled all our empty casks, and for several days present
expence. This done, we made sail, and steered north-west, with a gentle
breeze at north-east, clear frosty weather. Our latitude at this time
was 65° 53ʹ S., longitude 133° 42ʹ W.; islands of ice not half so
numerous as before.

At four in the morning of the 28th, the wind having veered more to the
east and south-east, increased to a fresh gale, and was attended with
snow showers. Our course was north till noon the next day. Being then in
the latitude of 62° 24ʹ, longitude 134° 37ʹ, we steered north-west by
north. Some hours after the sky cleared up, and the wind abating, veered
more to the south.

On the 30th, had little wind westerly; dark gloomy weather, with snow
and sleet at times; several whales seen playing about the ship, but very
few birds; islands of ice in plenty, and a swell from west-north-west.

On the 31st, little wind from the westward; fair and clear weather,
which afforded an opportunity to air the spare sails, and to clean and
smoke the ship betwixt decks. At noon our latitude was 59° 40ʹ S.,
longitude 135° 11ʹ W. Our observation to-day gave us reason to
conjecture that we had a southerly current. Indeed, this was no more
than what might reasonably be supposed, to account for such huge masses
of ice being brought from the south. In the afternoon, had a few hours’
calm, succeeded by a breeze from the east, which enabled us to resume
our north-west by north course.

January 1st, the wind remained not long at east; but veered round by the
south to west; blew fresh; attended with snow showers. In the evening,
being in the latitude of 58° 39ʹ S. we passed two islands of ice; after
which we saw no more till we stood again to the south.

At five o’clock in the morning on the 2d, it fell calm: being at this
time in the latitude of 58° 2ʹ, longitude 137° 12ʹ. The calm being
succeeded by a breeze at east, we steered N. W. by W. My reason for
steering this course was to explore part of the great space of sea
between us and our track to the south.

On the 3d, at noon, being in latitude 56° 46ʹ, longitude 139° 45ʹ, the
weather became fair, and the wind veered to south-west. About this time
we saw a few small divers (as we call them) of the peterel tribe, which
we judged to be such as are usually seen near land, especially in the
bays, and on the coast of New Zealand. I cannot tell what to think of
these birds. Had there been more of them, I should have been ready
enough to believe that we were at this time not very far from land, as I
never saw one so far from known land before. Probably these few had been
drawn thus far by some shoal of fish, for such were certainly about us,
by the vast number of blue peterels, albatrosses, and such other birds
as are usually seen in the great ocean; all or most of whom left us
before night. Two or three pieces of sea-weed were also seen; but these
appeared old and decayed.

At eight o’clock in the evening, being in the latitude of 56° S.
longitude 140° 31ʹ west, the wind fixing in the western board, obliged
us to steer north-easterly, and laid me under the necessity of leaving
unexplored a space of the sea to the west, containing near 40° of
longitude and half that in latitude. Had the wind continued favourable,
I intended to have run 15 or 20 degrees of longitude more to the west,
in the latitude we were then in, and back again to the east in the
latitude of 50°. This route would have so intersected the space
above-mentioned, as hardly to have left room for the bare supposition of
any land lying there. Indeed, as it was, we have little reason to
believe that there is; but rather the contrary, from the great hollow
swell we had had for several days, from the W. and N. W., though the
wind had blown from a contrary direction great part of the time; which
is a great sign we had not been covered by any land between these two
points.

While we were in the high latitudes, many of our people were attacked
with a slight fever, occasioned by colds. It happily yielded to the
simplest remedies; was generally removed in a few days; and at this time
we had not above one or two on the sick list.

We proceeded N. E. by N. till the 6th, at noon. Being then in the
latitude 52° 0ʹ S., longitude 135° 32ʹ W., and about 200 leagues from
our track to Otaheite, in which space it was not probable, all
circumstances considered, there is any extensive land; and it being
still less probable any lay to the west, from the great mountainous
billows we had had, and still continued to have from that quarter, I
therefore steered N. E. with a fresh gale at W. S. W.

At eight o’clock in the morning on the 7th, being in the latitude of 50°
49ʹ south, we observed several distances of the sun and moon, which gave
the longitude as follows, viz.

         By Mr. Wales,   133° 24ʹ west.
                Gilbert, 133  10
                Clerke,  133   0
                Smith,   133  37  25ʺ
                Myself,  133  37
                         -------------
                Mean,    133  21  43
         By the watch,   133  44 west.
         My reckoning,   133  39
                        -------------
 Variation of the compass    6   2 east.
     Thermometer,           50   0

The next morning we observed again; and the results were agreeable to
the preceding observations, allowing for the ship’s run. I must here
take notice that our longitude can never be erroneous, while we have so
good a guide as Mr. Kendal’s watch. This day at noon we steered E. N. E.
1/2 E. being then in the latitude of 49° 7ʹ S., longitude 131° 2ʹ W.

On the 9th, in the latitude of 48° 17ʹ S. longitude 127° 10ʹ W., we
steered east with a fine fresh gale at west, attended with clear
pleasant weather, and a great swell from the same direction as the wind.

In the morning of the 10th, having but little wind, we put a boat in the
water, in which some of the officers went and shot several birds. These
afforded us a fresh meal. They were of the peterel tribe, and such as
are usually seen at any distance from land. Indeed, neither birds nor
any other thing was to be seen that could give us the least hopes of
finding any; and therefore at noon the next day, being then in the
latitude of 47° 51ʹ S., longitude 122° 12ʹ W., and a little more than
200 leagues from my track to Otaheite in 1769, I altered the course, and
steered south east with a fresh gale at S. W. by W. In the evening when
our latitude was 48° 22ʹ S., longitude 121° 29ʹ W., we found the
variation to be 2° 34ʹ E.; which is the least variation we had found
without the tropic. In the evening of the next day we found it to be 4°
30ʹ E.; our latitude at that time was 50° 5ʹ S., longitude 119-1/2° W.

Our course was now more southerly, till the evening of the 13th, when we
were in the latitude of 53° 0ʹ S., longitude 118° 3ʹ W. The wind being
then at north-west, a strong gale with a thick fog and rain, which made
it unsafe to steer large, I hauled up south-west, and continued this
course till noon the next day, when our latitude was 56° 4ʹ S.,
longitude 122° 1ʹ W. The wind having veered to the north, and the fog
continuing, I hauled to the east, under courses and close-reefed
top-sails. But this sail we could not carry long; for before eight
o’clock in the evening, the wind increased to a perfect storm, and
obliged us to lie to, under the mizzen stay-sail, till the morning of
the 16th, when the wind having a good deal abated and veered to west, we
set the courses, reefed top-sails, and stood to the south. Soon after,
the weather cleared up; and in the evening we found the latitude to be
56° 48ʹ S., longitude 119° 8ʹ W.

We continued to steer to the south, inclining to the east, till the
18th, when we stood to the south-west with the wind at south-east, being
at this time in the latitude of 61° 9ʹ S., longitude 116° 7ʹ W. At ten
o’clock in the evening, it fell calm, which continued till two the next
morning, when a breeze sprung up at north, which soon after increased to
a fresh gale and fixed at N. E. With this we steered south till noon, on
the 20th, when, being now in the latitude of 62° 34ʹ S., longitude 116°
24ʹ W., we were again becalmed.

In this situation we had two ice islands in sight, one of which seemed
to be as large as any we had seen. It could not be less than two hundred
feet in height, and terminated in a peak not unlike the cupola of St.
Paul’s church. At this time, we had a great westerly swell, which made
it improbable that any land should lie between us and the meridian of
133-1/2°, which was our longitude under the latitude we were now in,
when we stood to the north. In all this route, we had not seen the least
thing that could induce us to think we were ever in the neighbourhood of
any land. We had, indeed, frequently seen pieces of sea-weed; but this,
I am well assured, is no sign of the vicinity of land; for weed is seen
in every part of the ocean. After a few hours’ calm, we got a wind from
S. E., but it was very unsettled, and attended with thick snow showers;
at length it fixed at S. by E., and we stretched to the east. The wind
blew fresh, was piercing cold, and attended with snow and sleet.

On the 22d, being in the latitude of 62° 5ʹ S., longitude 112° 24ʹ W.,
we saw an ice-island, an antarctic peterel, several blue peterels, and
some other known birds; but no one thing that gave us the least hopes of
finding land.

On the 23d, at noon, we were in the latitude of 62° 22ʹ S., longitude
110° 24ʹ. In the afternoon, we passed an ice-island. The wind, which
blew fresh, continued to veer to the west; and at eight o’clock the next
morning, it was to the north of west, when I steered S. by W. and
S. S. W. At this time we were in the latitude of 63° 20ʹ S., longitude
108° 7ʹ W. and had a great sea from S. W. We continued this course till
noon the next day, the 25th, when we steered due south. Our latitude, at
this time, was 65° 24ʹ S., longitude 109° 31ʹ W.; the wind was at north;
the weather mild and not unpleasant; and not a bit of ice in view. This
we thought a little extraordinary; as it was but a month before, and not
quite two hundred leagues to the east, that we were, in a manner,
blocked up with large islands of ice, in this very latitude. Saw a
single pintadoe peterel, some blue peterels, and a few brown
albatrosses. In the evening, being under the same meridian, and in the
latitude of 65° 44ʹ S., the variation was 19° 27ʹ E.; but the next
morning, in the latitude of 66° 20ʹ S., longitude the same as before, it
was only 18° 20ʹ E.: probably the mean between the two, is the nearest
the truth. At this time, we had nine small islands in sight; and soon
after, we came, the third time, within the antarctic polar circle, in
the longitude of 109° 31ʹ W. About noon, seeing the appearance of land
to the S. E., we immediately trimmed our sails and stood towards it.
Soon after it disappeared, but we did not give it up till eight o’clock
the next morning, when we were well assured that it was nothing but
clouds, or a fog-bank; and then we resumed our course to the south, with
a gentle breeze at N. E. attended with a thick fog, snow, and sleet.

We now began to meet with ice islands more frequently than before; and,
in the latitude of 69° 38ʹ S., longitude 108° 12ʹ W., we fell in with a
field of loose ice. As we began to be in want of water, I hoisted out
two boats and took up as much as yielded about ten tons. This was cold
work; but it was now familiar to us. As soon as we had done, we hoisted
in the boats, and afterwards made short boards over that part of the sea
we had, in some measure, made ourselves acquainted with. For we had now
so thick a fog that we could not see two hundred yards round us; and as
we knew not the extent of the loose ice, I durst not steer to the south
till we had clear weather. Thus we spent the night, or rather that part
of the twenty-four hours which answered to night; for we had no darkness
but what was occasioned by fogs.

At four o’clock in the morning of the 29th, the fog began to clear away;
and the day becoming clear and serene, we again steered to the south
with a gentle gale at N. E. and N. N. E. The variation was found to be
22° 41ʹ E. This was in the latitude of 69° 45ʹ S., longitude 108° 5ʹ W.;
and, in the afternoon, being in the same longitude, and in the latitude
of 70° 23ʹ S., it was 24° 81ʹ E. Soon after, the sky became clouded, and
the air very cold. We continued our course to the south, and passed a
piece of weed covered with barnacles, which a brown albatross was
picking off. At ten o’clock, we passed a very large ice-island; it was
not less than three or four miles in circuit. Several more being seen
ahead, and the weather becoming foggy, we hauled the wind to the
northward; but in less than two hours, the weather cleared up, and we
again stood south.

On the 30th, at four o’clock in the morning, we perceived the clouds,
over the horizon to the south, to be of an unusual snow-white
brightness, which we knew denounced our approach to field-ice. Soon
after, it was seen from the top-mast head; and at eight o’clock, we were
close to its edge. It extended east and west, far beyond the reach of
our sight. In the situation we were in, just the southern half of our
horizon was illuminated, by the rays of light reflected from the ice, to
a considerable height. Ninety-seven ice-hills were distinctly seen
within the field, besides those on the outside; many of them very large,
and looking like a ridge of mountains, rising one above another till
they were lost in the clouds. The outer, or northern edge of this
immense field, was composed of loose or broken ice close packed
together; so that it was not possible for any thing to enter it. This
was about a mile broad; within which was solid ice in one continued
compact body. It was rather low and flat, (except the hills,) but seemed
to increase in height, as you traced it to the south; in which direction
it extended beyond our sight. Such mountains of ice as these, were, I
believe, never seen in the Greenland seas; at least, not that I ever
heard or read of; so that we cannot draw a comparison between the ice
here, and there. It must be allowed that these prodigious ice-mountains
must add such additional weight to the ice-fields which inclose them, as
cannot but make a great difference between the navigating this icy sea
and that of Greenland.

I will not say it was impossible any where to get farther to the south;
but the attempting it would have been a dangerous and rash enterprise;
and what, I believe, no man in my situation would have thought of. It
was, indeed, _my_ opinion, as well as the opinion of most on board, that
this ice extended quite to the pole, or, perhaps, joined to some land,
to which it had been fixed from the earliest time; and that it is here,
that is to the south of this parallel, where all the ice we find
scattered up and down to the north, is first formed, and afterwards
broken off by gales of wind, or other causes, and brought to the north
by the currents, which we always found to set in that direction in the
high latitudes. As we drew near this ice, some penguins were heard, but
none seen; and but few other birds, or any other thing, that could
induce us to think any land was near. And yet I think there must be some
to the south behind this ice; but if there is, it can afford no better
retreat for birds, or any other animals, than the ice itself, with which
it must be wholly covered. I, who had ambition not only to go farther
than any one had been before, but as far as it was possible for man to
go, was not sorry at meeting with this interruption; as it, in some
measure, relieved us; at least shortened the dangers and hardships
inseparable from the navigation of the southern polar regions. Since,
therefore, we could not proceed one inch farther to the south, no other
reason need be assigned for my tacking, and standing back to the north;
being at this time in the latitude of 71° 10ʹ S., longitude, 106° 54ʹ W.

It was happy for us that the weather was clear when we fell in with this
ice, and that we discovered it so soon as we did; for we had no sooner
tacked than we were involved in a thick fog. The wind was at east, and
blew a fresh breeze; so that we were able to return back over that space
we had already made ourselves acquainted with. At noon, the mercury in
the thermometer stood at 32-1/2°, and we found the air exceedingly cold.
The thick fog continuing with showers of snow, gave a coat of ice to our
rigging of near an inch thick. In the afternoon of the next day, the fog
cleared away at intervals; but the weather was cloudy and gloomy, and
the air excessively cold; however, the sea within our horizon was clear
of ice.

We continued to stand to the north with the wind easterly till the
afternoon, on the 1st of February, when, falling in with some loose ice
which had broken from an island to windward, we hoisted out two boats,
and having taken some on board, resumed our course to the north and
north-east with gentle breezes from the south-east, attended sometimes
with fair weather, and at other times with snow and sleet. On the 4th we
were in the latitude of 65° 42ʹ S., longitude 99° 44ʹ. The next day the
wind was very unsettled both in strength and position, and attended with
snow and sleet. At length on the 6th, after a few hours’ calm, we got a
breeze at south, which soon after freshened, fixed at west south-west,
and was attended with snow and sleet.

I now came to a resolution to proceed to the north, and to spend the
ensuing winter within the tropic, if I met with no employment before I
came there. I was now well satisfied no continent was to be found in
this ocean, but what must lie so far to the south as to be wholly
inaccessible on account of ice; and that if one should be found in the
Southern Atlantic Ocean, it would be necessary to have the whole summer
before us to explore it. On the other hand, upon a supposition that
there is no land there, we undoubtedly might have reached the Cape of
Good Hope by April, and so have put an end to the expedition, so far as
it related to the finding a continent; which indeed was the first object
of the voyage. But for me at this time to have quitted this Southern
Pacific Ocean, with a good ship expressly sent out on discoveries, a
healthy crew, and not in want either of stores or of provisions, would
have been betraying not only a want of perseverance, but of judgment, in
supposing the South Pacific Ocean to have been so well explored, that
nothing remained to be done in it. This, however, was not my opinion;
for, although I had proved there was no continent but what must lie far
to the south, there remained, nevertheless, room for very large islands
in places wholly unexamined: and many of those which were formerly
discovered, are but imperfectly explored, and their situations as
imperfectly known. I was besides of opinion, that my remaining in this
sea some time longer, would be productive of improvements in navigation
and geography, as well as other sciences. I had several times
communicated my thoughts on this subject to Captain Furneaux; but as it
then wholly depended on what we might meet with to the south, I could
not give it in orders without running the risk of drawing us from the
main object.

Since now nothing had happened to prevent me from carrying these views
into execution, my intention was first to go in search of the land, said
to have been discovered by Juan Fernandez, above a century ago, in about
the latitude of 38°; if I should fail in finding this land, then to go
in search of Easter Island or Davis’s Land, whose situation was known
with so little certainty that the attempts lately made to find it had
miscarried. I next intended to get within the tropic, and then proceed
to the west, touching at, and settling the situations of such islands as
we might meet with till we arrived at Otaheite, where it was necessary I
should stop to look for the Adventure. I had also thoughts of running as
far west as the Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, discovered by Quiros,
and which M. de Bougainville calls the Great Cyclades. Quiros speaks of
this land as being large, or lying in the neighbourhood of large lands;
and as this was a point which Bougainville had neither confirmed nor
refuted, I thought it was worth clearing up. From this land my design
was to steer to the south, and so back to the east, between the
latitudes of 50° and 60°; intending if possible to be the length of Cape
Horn in November next, when we should have the best part of the summer
before us to explore the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Great as
this design appeared to be, I, however, thought it possible to be
executed; and when I came to communicate it to the officers, I had the
satisfaction to find, that they all heartily concurred in it. I should
not do these gentlemen justice if I did not take some opportunity to
declare, that they always showed the utmost readiness to carry into
execution, in the most effectual manner, every measure I thought proper
to take. Under such circumstances, it is hardly necessary to say that
the seamen were always obedient and alert; and, on this occasion, they
were so far from wishing the voyage at an end, that they rejoiced at the
prospect of its being prolonged another year, and of soon enjoying the
benefits of a milder climate.

I now steered north inclining to the east, and in the evening we were
overtaken by a furious storm at west south-west, attended with snow and
sleet. It came so suddenly upon us, that before we could take in our
sails, two old top-sails, which we had bent to the yards, were blown to
pieces, and the other sails much damaged. The gale lasted without the
least intermission till the next morning, when it began to abate; it,
however, continued to blow very fresh till noon on the 12th, when it
ended in a calm.

At this time we were in the latitude of 50° 14ʹ S., longitude 95° 18ʹ W.
Some birds being about the ship, we took the advantage of the calm to
put a boat in the water, and shot several birds on which we feasted the
next day. One of these birds was of that sort which has been so often
mentioned in this journal, under the name of Port-Egmont hens. They are
of the gull kind, about the size of a raven, with a dark brown plumage,
except the under side of each wing, where there are some white feathers.
The rest of the birds were albatrosses and sheer-waters.

After a few hours’ calm, having got a breeze at north-west, we made a
stretch to the south-west for twenty-four hours; in which route we saw a
piece of wood, a bunch of weed, and a diving peterel. The wind having
veered more to the west, made us tack and stretch to the north till noon
on the 14th, at which time we were in the latitude of 49° 32ʹ S.,
longitude 95° 11ʹ W. We had now calms and light breezes succeeding each
other, till the next morning, when the wind freshened at
west-north-west, and was attended with a thick fog and drizzling rain
the three following days, during which time we stretched to the north,
inclining to the east, and crossed my track to Otaheite in 1769. I did
intend to have kept more to the west, but the strong winds from that
direction put it out of my power.

On the 18th, the wind veered to south-west, and blew very fresh, but was
attended with clear weather, which gave us an opportunity to ascertain
our longitude by several lunar observations made by Messrs. Wales,
Clerke, Gilbert, and Smith. The mean result of all was 94° 19ʹ 30ʺ W.;
Mr. Kendal’s watch, at the same time, gave 94° 46ʹ W.; our latitude was
43° 53ʹ S. The wind continued not long at south-west, before it veered
back to west and west-north-west.

As we advanced to the north, we felt a most sensible change in the
weather. The 20th, at noon, we were in the latitude of 39° 58ʹ S.,
longitude 94° 37ʹ W. The day was clear and pleasant; and, I may say, the
only summer’s day we had had since we left New Zealand. The mercury in
the thermometer rose to 66.

We still continued to steer to the north, as the wind remained in the
old quarter; and the next day, at noon, we were in the latitude 37° 54ʹ
S., which was the same that Juan Fernandez’s discovery is said to lie
in. We, however, had not the least signs of any land lying in our
neighbourhood.

The next day, at noon, we were in latitude 36° 10ʹ S., longitude 94° 56ʹ
W. Soon after, the wind veered to south-south-east, and enabled us to
steer west-south-west, which I thought the most probable direction to
find the land of which we were in search; and yet I had no hopes of
succeeding, as we had a large hollow swell from the same point. We,
however, continued this course till the 25th, when, the wind having
veered again round to the westward, I gave it up, and stood away to the
north, in order to get into the latitude of Easter Island; our latitude
at this time was 37° 52ʹ, longitude 101° 10ʹ W.

I was now well assured that the discovery of Juan Fernandez, if any such
was ever made, can be nothing but a small island; there being hardly
room for a large land, as will fully appear by the tracks of Captain
Wallis, Bougainville, of the Endeavour, and this of the Resolution.
Whoever wants to see an account of the discovery in question, will meet
with it in Mr. Dalrymple’s Collection of Voyages to the South Seas. This
gentleman places it under the meridian of 90°, where I think it cannot
be; for M. de Bougainville seems to have run down under that meridian,
and we had now examined the latitude in which it is said to lie, from
the meridian of 94° to 101°. It is not probable it can lie to the east
of 90°; because if it did, it must have been seen at one time or other
by ships bound from the northern to the southern parts of America. Mr.
Pengré, in a little treatise concerning the transit of Venus published
in 1768, gives some account of land having been discovered by the
Spaniards in 1714, in the latitude of 38°, and 550 leagues from the
coast of Chili, which is in the longitude of 110° or 111° W., and within
a degree or two of my track in the Endeavour; so that this can hardly be
its situation. In short, the only probable situation it can have must be
about the meridian of 106° or 108° W.; and then it can only be a small
isle, as I have already observed.

I was now taken ill of the bilious colic, which was so violent as to
confine me to my bed; so that the management of the ship was left to Mr.
Cooper, the first officer, who conducted her very much to my
satisfaction. It was several days before the most dangerous symptoms of
my disorder were removed; during which time Mr. Patten, the surgeon, was
to me not only a skilful physician, but an affectionate nurse; and I
should ill deserve the care he bestowed on me, if I did not make this
public acknowledgment. When I began to recover, a favourite dog,
belonging to Mr. Forster, fell a sacrifice to my tender stomach. We had
no other fresh meat whatever on board; and I could eat of this flesh, as
well as broth made of it, when I could taste nothing else. Thus I
received nourishment and strength from food which would have made most
people in Europe sick; so true it is, that necessity is governed by no
law.

On the 28th, in the latitude of 33° 7ʹ S., longitude 102° 33ʹ W., we
began to see flying-fish, egg-birds, and nodies, which are said not to
go above sixty or eighty leagues from land; but of this we have no
certainty. No one yet knows to what distance any of the oceanic birds go
to sea; for my own part, I do not believe there is one in the whole
tribe that can be relied on, in pointing out the vicinity of land.

In the latitude of 30° 30ʹ S., longitude 101° 45ʹ W., we began to see
men-of-war birds. In the latitude of 29° 44ʹ, longitude 100° 45ʹ W., we
had a calm for near two days together, during which time the heat was
intolerable; but what ought to be remarked, was a very great swell from
the south-west.

On the 6th of March, the calm was succeeded by an easterly wind, with
which we steered north-west till noon the 8th, when, being in the
latitude of 27° 4ʹ S., longitude 103° 58ʹ W., we steered west, meeting
every day with great numbers of birds, such as men-of-war, tropic, and
egg-birds, nodies, sheer-waters, &c., and once we passed several pieces
of sponge, and a small dried leaf not unlike a bay one. Soon after, we
saw a sea-snake, in every respect like those we had before seen at the
tropical islands. We also saw plenty of fish; but were such bad fishers,
that we caught only four albacores, which were very acceptable, to me
especially, who was just recovering from my late illness.



                               CHAP. VII.

      SEQUEL OF THE PASSAGE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO EASTER ISLAND, AND
  TRANSACTIONS THERE, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF AN EXPEDITION TO DISCOVER THE
INLAND PART OF THE COUNTRY, AND A DESCRIPTION OF SOME OF THE SURPRISING
                 GIGANTIC STATUES FOUND IN THE ISLAND.


At eight o’clock in the morning on the 11th, land was seen, from the
mast-head, bearing west, and at noon from the deck, extending from W.
3/4 N. to W. by S. about twelve leagues distant. I made no doubt that
this was Davis’s Land, or Easter Island, as its appearance from this
situation corresponded very well with Wafer’s account; and we expected
to have seen the low sandy isle that Davis fell in with, which would
have been a confirmation; but in this we were disappointed. At seven
o’clock in the evening, the island bore from N. 62° W. to N. 87° W.,
about five leagues distant; in which situation we sounded, without
finding ground, with a line of an hundred and forty fathoms. Here we
spent the night, having alternately light airs and calms, till ten
o’clock the next morning, when a breeze sprung up at west-south-west.
With this we stretched in for the land; and, by the help of our glass,
discovered people, and some of those colossian statues or idols
mentioned by the authors of Roggewin’s Voyage.[4] At four o’clock in the
afternoon, we were half a league south-south-east, and north-north-west
of the north-east point of the island; and, on sounding, found
thirty-five fathoms, a dark sandy bottom. I now tacked and endeavoured
to get into what appeared to be a bay, on the west side of the point, or
south-east side of the island; but before this could be accomplished,
night came upon us, and we stood on and off under the land till the next
morning, having soundings from seventy-five to an hundred and ten
fathoms, the same bottom as before.

On the 13th, about eight o’clock in the morning, the wind, which had
been variable most part of the night, fixed at south-east and blew in
squalls, accompanied with rain, but it was not long before the weather
became fair. As the wind now blew right on the south-east shore, which
does not afford that shelter I at first thought, I resolved to look for
anchorage on the west and north-west sides of the island. With this
view, I bore up round the south point, off which lie two small islots,
the one nearest the point high and peaked, and the other low and
flattish. After getting round the point, and coming before a sandy
beach, we found soundings, thirty and forty fathoms, sandy ground, and
about one mile from the shore. Here a canoe conducted by two men came
off to us. They brought with them a bunch of plantains, which they sent
into the ship by a rope, and then they returned ashore. This gave us a
good opinion of the islanders, and inspired us with hopes of getting
some refreshments, which we were in great want of.

I continued to range along the coast till we opened the northern point
of the isle without seeing a better anchoring-place than the one we had
passed. We therefore tacked, and plied back to it; and, in the mean
time, sent away the master in a boat to sound the coast. He returned
about five o’clock in the evening, and soon after we came to an anchor,
in thirty-six fathoms’ water, before the sandy beach above-mentioned. As
the master drew near the shore with the boat, one of the natives swam
off to her, and insisted on coming aboard the ship, where he remained
two nights and a day. The first thing he did after coming aboard, was to
measure the length of the ship, by fathoming her from the tafferel to
the stern; and as he counted the fathoms, we observed that he called the
numbers by the same names that they do at Otaheite; nevertheless, his
language was in a manner wholly unintelligible to all of us.

Having anchored too near the edge of the bank, a fresh breeze from the
land, about three o’clock the next morning, drove us off it; on which
the anchor was heaved up, and sail made to regain the bank again. While
the ship was plying in, I went ashore, accompanied by some of the
gentlemen, to see what the island was likely to afford us. We landed at
the sandy beach, where some hundreds of the natives were assembled, and
who were so impatient to see us, that many of them swam off to meet the
boats. Not one of them had so much as a stick or weapon of any sort in
their hands. After distributing a few trinkets amongst them, we made
signs for something to eat; on which they brought down a few potatoes,
plantains, and sugar-canes, and exchanged them for nails,
looking-glasses, and pieces of cloth.

We presently discovered that they were as expert thieves, and as
tricking in their exchanges, as any people we had yet met with. It was
with some difficulty we could keep the hats on our heads, but hardly
possible to keep any thing in our pockets, not even what themselves had
sold us; for they would watch every opportunity to snatch it from us, so
that we sometimes bought the same thing two or three times over, and
after all did not get it.

Before I sailed from England, I was informed that a Spanish ship had
visited this isle in 1769. Some signs of it were seen among the people
now about us; one man had a pretty good broad-brimmed European hat on,
another had a grego jacket, and another a red silk handkerchief. They
also seemed to know the use of a musket, and to stand in much awe of it;
but this they probably learnt from Roggewin, who, if we are to believe
the authors of that voyage, left them sufficient tokens.

Near the place where we landed, were some of those statues
before-mentioned, which I shall describe in another place. The country
appeared barren and without wood; there were, nevertheless, several
plantations of potatoes, plantains, and sugar-canes; we also saw some
fowls, and found a well of brackish water. As these were articles we
were in want of, and as the natives seemed not unwilling to part with
them, I resolved to stay a day or two. With this view, I repaired on
board, and brought the ship to an anchor in thirty-two fathoms’ water;
the bottom a fine dark sand. Our station was about a mile from the
nearest shore, the south point of a small bay, in the bottom of which is
the sandy beach before mentioned, being east south-east distant one mile
and an half. The two rocky islots lying off the south point of the
island were just shut behind a point to the north of them; they bore S.
3/4 W. four miles distant, and the other extreme of the island bore N.
25° E. distant about six miles. But the best mark for this
anchoring-place is the beach; because it is the only one on this side
the island. In the afternoon we got on board a few casks of water, and
opened a trade with the natives for such things as they had to dispose
of. Some of the gentlemen also made an excursion into the country to see
what it produced, and returned again in the evening, with the loss only
of a hat, which one of the natives snatched off the head of one of the
party.

Early next morning, I sent Lieutenants Pickersgill and Edgcumbe with a
party of men, accompanied by several of the gentlemen, to examine the
country. As I was not sufficiently recovered from my late illness to
make one of the party, I was obliged to content myself with remaining at
the landing-place among the natives. We had at one time a pretty brisk
trade with them for potatoes, which we observed they dug up out of an
adjoining plantation; but this traffic, which was very advantageous to
us, was soon put a stop to by the owner (as we supposed) of the
plantation coming down, and driving all the people out of it. By this we
concluded, that he had been robbed of his property, and that they were
not less scrupulous of stealing from one another than from us, on whom
they practised every little fraud they could think on, and generally
with success; for we no sooner detected them in one, than they found out
another. About seven o’clock in the evening, the party I had sent into
the country returned, after having been over the greatest part of the
island.

They left the beach about nine o’clock in the morning, and took a path
which led across to the south-east side of the island, followed by a
great crowd of the natives, who pressed much upon them. But they had not
proceeded far, before a middle-aged man, punctured from head to foot,
and his face painted with a sort of white pigment, appeared with a spear
in his hand, and walked alongside of them, making signs to his
countrymen to keep at a distance, and not to molest our people. When he
had pretty well effected this, he hoisted a piece of white cloth on his
spear, placed himself in the front, and led the way with his ensign of
peace, as they understood it to be. For the greatest part of the
distance across the ground had but a barren appearance, being a dry hard
clay, and every where covered with stones; but, notwithstanding this,
there were several large tracks planted with potatoes, and some plantain
walks, but they saw no fruit on any of the trees. Towards the highest
part of the south end of the island, the soil, which was a fine red
earth, seemed much better, bore a longer grass, and was not covered with
stones as in the other parts; but here they saw neither house nor
plantation.

On the east side, near the sea, they met with three platforms of
stone-work, or rather the ruins of them. On each had stood four of those
large statues; but they were all fallen down from two of them, and also
one from the third; all except one were broken by the fall, or in some
measure defaced. Mr. Wales measured this one, and found it to be fifteen
feet in length, and six feet broad over the shoulders. Each statue had
on its head a large cylindric stone of a red colour, wrought perfectly
round. The one they measured, which was not by far the largest, was
fifty-two inches high, and sixty-six in diameter. In some, the upper
corner of the cylinder was taken off in a sort of concave quarter-round,
but in others the cylinder was entire.

From this place they followed the direction of the coast to the
north-east, the man with the flag still leading the way. For about three
miles they found the country very barren, and in some places stript of
the soil to the bare rock, which seemed to be a poor sort of iron ore.
Beyond this they came to the most fertile part of the island they saw,
it being interspersed with plantations of potatoes, sugar-canes and
plantain trees, and these not so much encumbered with stones as those
which they had seen before; but they could find no water except what the
natives twice or thrice brought them, which, though brackish and
stinking, was rendered acceptable by the extremity of their thirst. They
also passed some huts, the owners of which met them with roasted
potatoes and sugar-canes, and placing themselves ahead of the foremost
of the party, (for they marched in a line in order to have the benefit
of the path,) gave one to each man as he passed by. They observed the
same method in distributing the water which they brought; and were
particularly careful that the foremost did not drink too much, least
none should be left for the hindmost. But at the very time these were
relieving the thirsty and hungry, there were not wanting others who
endeavoured to steal from them the very things which had been given
them. At last, to prevent worse consequences, they were obliged to fire
a load of small shot at one who was so audacious as to snatch from one
of the men the bag which contained every thing they carried with them.
The shot hit him on the back; on which he dropped the bag, ran a little
way, and then fell; but he afterwards got up and walked; and what became
of him they knew not, nor whether he was much wounded. As this affair
occasioned some delay, and drew the natives together, they presently saw
the man who had hitherto led the way, and one or two more coming running
towards them; but instead of stopping when they came up, they continued
to run round them, repeating in a kind manner, a few words, until our
people set forwards again. Then their old guide hoisted his flag,
leading the way as before, and none ever attempted to steal from them
the whole day afterwards.

As they passed along, they observed on a hill a number of people
collected together, some of whom had spears in their hands; but, on
being called to by their countryman, they dispersed; except a few,
amongst whom was one seemingly of some note. He was a stout well-made
man, with a fine open countenance; his face was painted, his body
punctured, and he wore a better _Ha hou_, or cloth than the rest. He
saluted them as he came up, by stretching out his arms with both hands
clenched, lifting them over his head, opening them wide, and then
letting them fall gradually down to his sides. To this man, whom they
understood to be the chief of the island, their other friend gave his
white flag; and he gave it to another, who carried it before them the
remainder of the day.

Towards the eastern end of the island, they met with a well whose water
was perfectly fresh, being considerably above the level of the sea; but
it was dirty, owing to the filthiness or cleanliness (call it which you
will) of the natives, who never go to drink without washing themselves
all over as soon as they have done; and if ever so many of them are
together, the first leaps right into the middle of the hole, drinks, and
washes himself without the least ceremony; after which another takes his
place and does the same.

They observed that this side of the island was full of those gigantic
statues so often mentioned; some placed in groups on platforms of
masonry; others single, fixed only in the earth, and that not deep; and
these latter are in general much larger than the others. Having measured
one which had fallen down, they found it very near twenty-seven feet
long, and upwards of eight feet over the breast or shoulders; and yet
this appeared considerably short of the size of one they saw standing;
its shade, a little past two o’clock, being sufficient to shelter all
the party, consisting of near thirty persons, from the rays of the sun.
Here they stopped to dine; after which they repaired to a hill, from
whence they saw all the east and north shores of the isle, on which they
could not see either bay or creek fit even for a boat to land in; nor
the least signs of fresh water. What the natives brought them here was
real salt water; but they observed that some of them drank pretty
plentifully of it; so far will necessity and custom get the better of
nature! On this account, they were obliged to return to the
last-mentioned well; where, after having quenched their thirst, they
directed their route across the island towards the ship, as it was now
four o’clock.

In a small hollow on the highest part of the island, they met with
several such cylinders as are placed on the heads of the statues. Some
of these appeared larger than any they had seen before; but it was now
too late to stop to measure any of them. Mr. Wales, from whom I had this
information, is of opinion that there had been a quarry here, whence
these stones had formerly been dug; and that it would have been no
difficult matter to roll them down the hill after they were formed. I
think this a very reasonable conjecture; and have no doubt that it has
been so.

On the declivity of the mountain, towards the west, they met with
another well; but the water was a very strong mineral, had a thick green
scum on the top, and stunk intolerably. Necessity, however, obliged some
to drink of it; but it soon made them so sick, that they threw it up the
same way it went down.

In all this excursion, as well as the one made the preceding day, only
two or three shrubs were seen. The leaf and seed of one (called by the
natives _Torromedo_) were not much unlike those of the common vetch; but
the pod was more like that of a tamarind in its size and shape. The
seeds have a disagreeable bitter taste; and the natives, when they saw
our people chew them, made signs to spit them out; from whence it was
concluded that they think them poisonous. The wood is of a reddish
colour, and pretty hard and heavy; but very crooked, small, and short,
not exceeding six or seven feet in height. At the south-west corner of
the island, they found another small shrub, whose wood was white and
brittle, and in some measure, as also its leaf, resembling the ash. They
also saw in several places the Otaheitean cloth plant; but it was poor
and weak, and not above two and a half feet high at most.

They saw not an animal of any sort, and but very few birds; nor indeed
any thing which can induce ships that are not in the utmost distress, to
touch at this island.

This account of the excursion I had from Mr. Pickersgill and Mr. Wales,
men on whose veracity I could depend; and, therefore, I determined to
leave the island the next morning, since nothing was to be obtained that
could make it worth my while to stay longer; for the water which we had
sent on board, was not much better than if it had been taken up out of
the sea.

We had a calm till ten o’clock in the morning of the 16th, when a breeze
sprung up at west, accompanied with heavy showers of rain, which lasted
about an hour. The weather then clearing up, we got under sail, stood to
sea, and kept plying to and fro, while an officer was sent on shore with
two boats, to purchase such refreshments as the natives might have
brought down; for I judged this would be the case, as they knew nothing
of our sailing. The event proved that I was not mistaken; for the boats
made two trips before night; when we hoisted them in, and made sail to
the north-west with a light breeze at north north-east.



                              CHAP. VIII.

 A DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND, ITS PRODUCE, SITUATION, AND INHABITANTS;
  THEIR MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.—CONJECTURES CONCERNING THEIR GOVERNMENT,
  RELIGION, AND OTHER SUBJECTS; WITH A MORE PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE
                           GIGANTIC STATUES.


I shall now give some farther account of this island, which is
undoubtedly the same that Admiral Roggewin touched at in April 1722,
although the description given of it by the authors of that voyage does
by no means agree with it now. It may also be the same that was seen by
Captain Davis in 1686; for when seen from the east, it answers very well
to Wafer’s description, as I have before observed. In short, if this is
not the land, his discovery cannot lie far from the coast of America, as
this latitude has been well explored from the meridian of 80° to 110°.
Captain Carteret carried it much farther, but his track seems to have
been a little too far south. Had I found fresh water, I intended
spending some days looking for the low sandy isle Davis fell in with,
which would have determined the point; but as I did not find water, and
had a long run to make before I was assured of getting any, and being in
want of refreshments, I declined the search, as a small delay might have
been attended with bad consequences to the crew, many of them beginning
to be more or less affected with the scurvy.

No nation need contend for the honour of the discovery of this island,
as there can be few places which afford less convenience for shipping
than it does. Here is no safe anchorage, no wood for fuel, nor any fresh
water worth taking on board. Nature has been exceedingly sparing of her
favours to this spot. As every thing must be raised by dint of labour,
it cannot be supposed the inhabitants plant much more than is sufficient
for themselves; and as they are but few in number, they cannot have much
to spare to supply the wants of visitant strangers. The produce is sweet
potatoes, yams, taraoreddy-root, plantains, and sugar-canes, all pretty
good, the potatoes especially, which are the best of the kind I ever
tasted. Gourds they have also; but so very few, that a coca-nut shell
was the most valuable thing we could give them. They have a few tame
fowls, such as cocks and hens, small but well tasted. They have also
rats, which it seems they eat; for I saw a man with some dead ones in
his hand, and he seemed unwilling to part with them, giving me to
understand they were for food. Land birds there were hardly any, and sea
birds but few; these were, men-of-war, tropic, and egg-birds, nodies,
tern, &c. The coast seemed not to abound with fish; at least we could
catch none with hook and line, and it was but very little we saw amongst
the natives.

Such is the produce of Easter Island, or Davis’s Land, which is situated
in the latitude of 27° 5ʹ 30ʺ S., longitude 109° 46ʹ 20ʺ W. It is about
ten or twelve leagues in circuit, hath a hilly and stony surface, and an
iron-bound shore. The hills are of such an height as to be seen fifteen
or sixteen leagues. Off the south end, are two rocky islots lying near
the shore. The north and east points of the island rise directly from
the sea to a considerable height; between them, on the south-east side,
the shore forms an open bay, in which I believe the Dutch anchored. We
anchored, as hath been already mentioned, on the west side of the
island, three miles to the north of the south point, with the sandy
beach bearing east-south-east. This is a very good road with easterly
winds, but a dangerous one with westerly, as the other on the south-east
side must be with easterly winds.

For this and other bad accommodations already mentioned, nothing but
necessity will induce any one to touch at this isle, unless it can be
done without going much out of the way; in which case touching here may
be advantageous, as the people willingly and readily part with such
refreshments as they have, and at an easy rate. We certainly received
great benefit from the little we got; but few ships can come here
without being in want of water, and this want cannot be here supplied.
The little we took on board, could not be made use of; it being only
salt water which had filtrated through a stony beach into a stone well.
This the natives had made for the purpose, a little to the southward of
the sandy beach so often mentioned, and the water ebbed and flowed into
it with the tide.

The inhabitants of this island do not seem to exceed six or seven
hundred souls; and above two-thirds of those we saw were males. They
either have but few females among them, or else many were restrained
from making their appearance during our stay; for though we saw nothing
to induce us to believe the men were of a jealous disposition, or the
women afraid to appear in public, something of this kind was probably
the case.

In colour, features, and language, they bear such affinity to the people
of the more western isles, that no one will doubt that they have had the
same origin. It is extraordinary that the same nation should have spread
themselves over all the isles in this vast ocean, from New Zealand to
this island, which is almost one-fourth part of the circumference of the
globe. Many of them have now no other knowledge of each other than what
is preserved by antiquated tradition; and they have by length of time
become, as it were, different nations, each having adopted some peculiar
custom or habit, &c. Nevertheless, a careful observer will soon see the
affinity each has to the other.

In general, the people of this isle are a slender race. I did not see a
man that would measure six feet; so far are they from being giants, as
one of the authors of Roggewin’s voyage asserts. They are brisk and
active, have good features, and not disagreeable countenances; are
friendly and hospitable to strangers, but as much addicted to pilfering
as any of their neighbours.

_Tatooing_, or puncturing the skin, is much used here. The men are
marked from head to foot, with figures all nearly alike; only some give
them one direction, and some another, as fancy leads. The women are but
little punctured; red and white paint is an ornament with _them_, as
also with the men; the former is made of tamarick; but what composes the
latter I know not.

Their clothing is a piece or two of quilted cloth about six feet by
four, or a mat. One piece wrapped round their loins, and another over
their shoulders, make a complete dress. But the men, for the most part,
are in a manner naked, wearing nothing but a slip of cloth betwixt their
legs, each end of which is fastened to a cord or belt they wear round
the waist. Their cloth is made of the same materials as at Otaheite,
viz. of the bark of the cloth-plant; but as they have but little of it,
our Otaheitean cloth, or indeed any sort of it, came here to a good
market.

Their hair, in general, is black; the women wear it long, and sometimes
tied up on the crown of the head; but the men wear it and their beards
cropped short. Their head-dress is a round fillet adorned with feathers,
and a straw bonnet something like a Scotch one; the former, I believe,
being chiefly worn by the men, and the latter by the women. Both men and
women have very large holes, or rather slits, in their ears, extended to
near three inches in length. They sometimes turn this slit over the
upper part, and then the ear looks as if the flap was cut off. The chief
ear ornaments are the white down of feathers, and rings, which they wear
in the inside of the hole, made of some elastic substance, rolled up
like a watch-spring. I judged this was to keep the hole at its utmost
extension. I do not remember seeing them wear any other ornaments,
excepting amulets made of bone or shells.

As harmless and friendly as these people seem to be, they are not
without offensive weapons, such as short wooden clubs and spears; which
latter are crooked sticks about six feet long, armed at one end with
pieces of flint. They have also a weapon made of wood, like the _Patoo
patoo_ of New Zealand.

Their houses are low miserable huts, constructed by setting sticks
upright in the ground, at six or eight feet distance, then bending them
towards each other, and tying them together at the top, forming thereby
a kind of Gothic arch. The longest sticks are placed in the middle, and
shorter ones each way, and at less distance asunder; by which means the
building is highest and broadest in the middle, and lower and narrower
towards each end. To these are tied others horizontally, and the whole
is thatched over with leaves of sugar-cane. The door-way is in the
middle of one side, formed like a porch, and so low and narrow as just
to admit a man to enter upon all fours. The largest house I saw was
about sixty feet long, eight or nine feet high in the middle, and three
or four at each end; its breadth at these parts was nearly equal to its
height. Some have a kind of vaulted houses built with stone, and partly
under ground; but I never was in one of these.

I saw no household utensils amongst them except gourds, and of these but
very few. They were extravagantly fond of cocoa-nut shells; more so than
of any thing we could give them. They dress their victuals in the same
manner as at Otaheite; that is, with hot stones in an oven or hole in
the ground. The straw or tops of sugar-cane, plantain heads, &c. serve
them for fuel to heat the stones. Plantains, which require but little
dressing, they roast under fires of straw, dried grass, &c., and whole
races of them are ripened or roasted in this manner. We frequently saw
ten or a dozen, or more, such fires in one place, and most commonly in
the mornings and evenings.

Not more than three or four canoes were seen on the whole island; and
these very mean, and built of many pieces sewed together with small
line. They are about eighteen or twenty feet long, head and stern carved
or raised a little, are very narrow, and fitted with out-riggers. They
do not seem capable of carrying above four persons, and are by no means
fit for any distant navigation. As small and as mean as these canoes
were, it was a matter of wonder to us, where they got the wood to build
them with; for in one of them was a board six or eight feet long,
fourteen inches broad at one end, and eight at the other; whereas we did
not see a stick on the island which would have made a board half this
size; nor, indeed, was there another piece in the whole canoe half so
big.

There are two ways by which it is possible they may have got this large
wood; it might have been left here by the Spaniards; or it might have
been driven on the shore of the island from some distant land. It is
even possible that there may be some land in the neighbourhood, from
whence they might have got it. We, however, saw no signs of any; nor
could we get the least information on this head from the natives,
although we tried every method we could think of to obtain it. We were
almost as unfortunate in our inquiries for the proper or native name of
the island. For, on comparing notes, I found we had got three different
names for it, viz. Tamareki, Whyhu, and Teapy. Without pretending to say
which, or whether any of them, is right, I shall only observe, that the
last was obtained by Oedidee, who understood their language much better
than any of us; though even he understood it but very imperfectly.

It appears by the account of Roggewin’s voyage, that these people had no
better vessels than when he first visited them. The want of materials,
and not of genius, seems to be the reason why they have made no
improvement in this art. Some pieces of carving were found amongst them,
both well designed and executed. Their plantations are prettily laid out
by line, but not inclosed by any fence; indeed, they have nothing for
this purpose but stones.

I have no doubt that all these plantations are private property, and
that there are here, as at Otaheite, chiefs (which they call _Areekes_)
to whom these plantations belong. But of the power or authority of these
chiefs, or of the government of these people, I confess myself quite
ignorant.

Nor are we better acquainted with their religion. The gigantic statues
so often mentioned, are not, in my opinion, looked upon as idols by the
present inhabitants, whatever they might have been in the days of the
Dutch; at least, I saw nothing that could induce me to think so. On the
contrary, I rather suppose that they are burying-places for certain
tribes or families. I, as well as some others, saw a human skeleton
lying in one of the platforms, just covered with stones. Some of these
platforms of masonry, are thirty or forty feet long, twelve or sixteen
broad, and from three to twelve in height; which last in some measure
depends on the nature of the ground. For they are generally at the brink
of the bank facing the sea, so that this face may be ten or twelve feet
or more high, and the other may not be above three or four. They are
built, or rather faced, with hewn stones of a very large size; and the
workmanship is not inferior to the best plain piece of masonry we have
in England. They use no sort of cement; yet the joints are exceedingly
close, and the stones morticed and tenanted one into another, in a very
artful manner. The side walls are not perpendicular, but inclining a
little inwards, in the same manner that breast-works, &c., are built in
Europe: yet had not all this care, pains, and sagacity been able to
preserve these curious structures from the ravages of all-devouring
time.

The statues, or at least many of them, are erected on these platforms
which serve as foundations. They are, as near as we could judge, about
half length, ending in a sort of stump at the bottom, on which they
stand. The workmanship is rude, but not bad; nor are the features of the
face ill formed, the nose and chin in particular; but the ears are long
beyond proportion; and, as to the bodies, there is hardly any thing like
a human figure about them.

I had an opportunity of examining only two or three of these statues,
which are near the landing-place; and they were of a grey stone,
seemingly of the same sort as that with which the platforms were built.
But some of the gentlemen who travelled over the island, and examined
many of them, were of opinion that the stone of which they were made was
different from any other they saw on the island, and had much the
appearance of being factitious. We could hardly conceive how these
islanders, wholly unacquainted with any mechanical power, could raise
such stupendous figures, and afterwards place the large cylindric
stones, before mentioned, upon their heads. The only method I can
conceive, is by raising the upper end by little and little, supporting
it by stones as it is raised, and building about it till they got it
erect; thus a sort of mount, or scaffolding, would be made, upon which
they might roll the cylinder, and place it upon the head of the statue,
and then the stones might be removed from about it. But if the stones
are factitious, the statues might have been put together on the place in
their present position, and the cylinder put on by building a mount
round them as above-mentioned. But, let them have been made and set up,
by this or any other method, they must have been a work of immense time,
and sufficiently show the ingenuity and perseverance of the islanders in
the age in which they were built; for the present inhabitants have most
certainly had no hand in them, as they do not even repair the
foundations of those which are going to decay. They give different names
to them, such as Gotomoara, Marapate, Kanaro, Gowaytoo-goo, Matta Matta,
&c. &c. to which they sometimes prefix the word Moi, and sometimes annex
Areekee. The latter signifies chief, and the former, burying, or
sleeping-place, as well as we could understand.

Besides the monuments of antiquity, which were pretty numerous, and no
where but on or near the sea-coast, there were many little heaps of
stones, piled up in different places, along the coast. Two or three of
the uppermost stones in each pile were generally white; perhaps always
so, when the pile is complete. It will hardly be doubted that these
piles of stone had a meaning. Probably they might mark the place where
people had been buried, and serve instead of the large statues.

The working-tools of these people are but very mean, and, like those of
all the other islanders, we have visited in this ocean, made of stone,
bone, shells, &c. They set but little value on iron or iron tools, which
is the more extraordinary as they know their use; but the reason may be
their having but little occasion for them.



                               CHAP. IX.

 THE PASSAGE FROM EASTER ISLAND TO THE MARQUESAS ISLANDS.—TRANSACTIONS
  AND INCIDENTS WHICH HAPPENED WHILE THE SHIP LAY IN MADRE DE DIOS, OR
            RESOLUTION BAY, IN THE ISLAND OF ST. CHRISTINA.


After leaving Easter Island, I steered north-west by north, and
north-north-west, with a fine easterly gale, intending to touch at the
Marquesas, if I met with nothing before I got there. We had not been
long at sea, before the bilious disorder made another attack upon me,
but not so violent as the former. I believe this second visit was owing
to my exposing and fatiguing myself too much at Easter Island.

On the 22d, being in the latitude of 19° 20ʹ S., longitude 114° 49ʹ W.,
steered north-west. Since leaving Easter Island, the variation had not
been more than 3° 4ʹ, nor less than 2° 32ʹ E.; but on the 26th, in
latitude 15° 7ʹ S., longitude 119° 45ʹ W., it was no more than 1° 1ʹ E.,
after which it began to increase.

On the 29th, being in latitude 10° 20ʹ, longitude 123° 58ʹ W., altered
the course to west north-west, and the next day to west, being then in
latitude 9° 24ʹ, which I judged to be the parallel of the Marquesas;
where, as I have before observed, I intended to touch in order to settle
their situation, which I find different in different charts. Having now
a steady settled trade-wind, and pleasant weather, I ordered the forge
to be set up, to repair and make various necessary articles in the iron
way, and the calkers had already been some time at work calking the
decks, weather-works, &c.

As we advanced to the west, we found the variation to increase but
slowly; for, on the 3d of April, it was only 4° 40ʹ E., being then in
the latitude 9° 32ʹ, longitude 132° 45ʹ, by observation made at the same
time.

I continued to steer to the west till the 6th, at four in the afternoon,
at which time, being in the latitude of 9° 20ʹ, longitude 138° 14ʹ W.,
we discovered an island, bearing west by south, distant about nine
leagues. Two hours after we saw another bearing south-west by south,
which appeared more extensive than the former. I hauled up for this
island, and ran under an easy sail all night, having squally unsettled
rainy weather, which is not very uncommon in this sea when near high
land. At six o’clock the next morning, the first island bore north-west,
the second south-west 1/2 west, and a third west. I gave orders to steer
for the separation between the two last, and soon after a fourth was
seen, still more to the west. By this time we were well assured that
these were the Marquesas, discovered by Mendana in 1595. The first isle
was a new discovery, which I named Hood’s Island, after the young
gentleman who first saw it; the second was that of Saint Pedro; the
third La Dominica; and the fourth St. Christina. We ranged the
south-east coast of La Dominica without seeing the least signs of
anchorage, till we came to the channel that divides it from St.
Christina, through which we passed, hauled over for the last-mentioned
island, and ran along the coast to the south-west in search of Mendana’s
Port. We passed several coves in which there seemed to be anchorage; but
a great surf broke on all the shores. Some canoes put off from these
places, and followed us down the coast.

[Illustration: _Resolution Bay in the Marquesas._]

At length, having come before the port we were in search of, we
attempted to turn into it, the wind being right out; but as it blew in
violent squalls from this high land, one of these took us just after we
had put in stays, payed the ship off again, and before she wore round,
she was within a few yards of being driven against the rocks to leeward.
This obliged us to stand out to sea, and to make a stretch to windward;
after which we stood in again, and, without attempting to turn, anchored
in the entrance of the bay in thirty-four fathoms’ water, a fine sandy
bottom. This was no sooner done, than about thirty or forty of the
natives came off to us in ten or twelve canoes; but it required some
address to get them alongside. At last, a hatchet and some spike-nails
induced the people in one canoe to come under the quarter-gallery; after
which all the others put along-side, and having exchanged some
bread-fruit, and fish, for small nails, &c. retired ashore, the sun
being already set. We observed a heap of stones in the bow of each
canoe, and every man to have a sling tied round his hand.

Very early next morning, the natives visited us again in much greater
numbers than before; bringing with them bread-fruit, plantains, and one
pig, all of which they exchanged for nails, &c. But, in this traffic,
they would frequently keep our goods and make no return; till at last I
was obliged to fire a musket-ball over one man who had several times
served us in this manner; after which they dealt more fairly, and soon
after several of them came on board. At this time, we were preparing to
warp farther into the bay; and I was going in a boat, to look for the
most convenient place to moor the ship in. Observing too many of the
natives on board, I said to the officers, “You must look well after
these people, or they will certainly carry off something or other.” I
had hardly got into the boat, before I was told they had stolen one of
the iron stanchions from the opposite gang-way, and were making off with
it. I ordered them to fire over the canoe till I could get round in the
boat, but not to kill any one. But the natives made too much noise for
me to be heard; and the unhappy thief was killed at the third shot. Two
others in the same canoe leaped overboard; but got in again just as I
came to them. The stanchion they had thrown overboard. One of them, a
man grown, sat bailing the blood and water out of the canoe, in a kind
of hysteric laugh. The other, a youth about fourteen or fifteen years of
age, looked on the deceased with a serious and dejected countenance: we
had afterwards reason to believe he was his son.

At this unhappy accident, all the natives retired with precipitation. I
followed them into the bay, and prevailed upon the people in one canoe
to come along-side the boat, and receive some nails, and other things,
which I gave them. This, in some measure, allayed their fears. Having
taken a view of the bay, and found that fresh water, which we most
wanted, was to be had, I returned on board, and carried out a
kedge-anchor with three hawsers upon an end, to warp the ship in by, and
hove short on the bower. One would have thought, that the natives, by
this time, would have been so sensible of the effect of our fire-arms,
as not to have provoked us to fire upon them any more; but the event
proved otherwise. For the boat had no sooner left the kedge-anchor, than
two men in a canoe put off from the shore, took hold of the buoy-rope,
and attempted to drag it ashore, little considering what was fast to it.
Lest, after discovering their mistake, they should take away the buoy, I
ordered a musket to be fired at them. The ball fell short, and they took
not the least notice of it; but a second having passed over them, they
let go the buoy, and made for the shore. This was the last shot we had
occasion to fire at any of them while we lay at this place. It probably
had more effect than killing the man, by showing them that they were not
safe at any distance; at least we had reason to think so, for they
afterwards stood in great dread of the musket. Nevertheless, they would
very often be exercising their talent of thieving upon us, which I
thought proper to put up with, as our stay was not likely to be long
amongst them. The trouble these people gave us retarded us so long,
that, before we were ready to heave the anchor, the wind began to
increase, and blew in squalls out of the bay; so that we were obliged to
lie fast. It was not long before the natives ventured off to us again.
In the first canoe which came, was a man who seemed to be of some
consequence. He advanced slowly, with a pig on his shoulder, and
speaking something which we did not understand. As soon as he got
alongside, I made him a present of a hatchet; and several other
articles. In return he sent in his pig; and was, at last, prevailed upon
to come himself up into the gang-way, where he made but a short stay,
before he went away. The reception this man met with, induced the people
in all the other canoes to put alongside; and exchanges were presently
re-established.

Matters being thus settled on board, I went on shore with a party of
men, to see what was to be done there. We were received by the natives
with great courtesy; and, as if nothing had happened, trafficked with
them for some fruit and a few small pigs; and, after loading the launch
with water, returned aboard. After dinner I sent the boats, under the
protection of a guard, ashore for water. On their landing, the natives
all fled but one man, and he seemed much frightened; afterwards one or
two more came down; and these were all that were seen this afternoon. We
could not conceive the reason of this sudden fright.

Early in the morning of the 9th, the boats were sent as usual for water;
and, just as they were coming off, but not before, some of the natives
made their appearance. After breakfast, I landed some little time before
the guard, when the natives crowded round me in great numbers; but as
soon as the guard landed, I had enough to do to keep them from running
off. At length their fears vanished, and a trade was opened for fruit
and pigs. I believe the reason of the natives flying from our people the
day before, was their not seeing me at the head of them; for they
certainly would have done the same to-day had I not been present. About
noon, a chief of some consequence, attended by a great number of people,
came down to the landing-place. I presented him with such articles as I
had with me; and, in return, he gave me some of his ornaments. After
these mutual exchanges, a good understanding seemed to be established
between us; so that we got by exchanges as much fruit as loaded two
boats, with which we returned on board to dinner; but could not prevail
on the chief to accompany us.

In the afternoon, the watering and trading parties were sent on shore;
though the latter got but little, as most of the natives had retired
into the country. A party of us went to the other, or southern cove of
the bay, where I procured five pigs, and came to the house, which, we
were told, did belong to the man we had killed. He must have been a
person of some note, as there were six pigs in and about his house,
which, we were told, belonged to his son, who fled on our approach. I
wanted much to have seen him, to make him a present, and by other kind
treatment to convince him and the others, that it was not from any bad
design against the nation, that we had killed his father. It would have
been to little purpose, if I had left any thing in the house, as it
certainly would have been taken by others; especially as I could not
sufficiently explain to them my meaning. Strict honesty was seldom
observed when the property of our things came to be disputed. I saw a
striking instance of this in the morning, when I was going ashore. A man
in a canoe offered me a small pig for a six-inch spike, and another man
being employed to convey it, I gave him the spike, which he kept for
himself, and, instead of it, gave to the man who owned the pig a
sixpenny nail. Words of course arose, and I waited to see how it would
end; but as the man who had possession of the spike seemed resolved to
keep it, I left them before it was decided. In the evening, we returned
on board with what refreshments we had collected, and thought we had
made a good day’s work.

On the 10th, early in the morning, some people from more distant parts
came in canoes along side, and sold us some pigs; so that we had now
sufficient to give the crew a fresh meal. They were in general so small
that forty or fifty were hardly sufficient for this purpose. The trade
on shore for fruit was as brisk as ever. After dinner I made a little
expedition in my boat along the coast to the southward, accompanied by
some of the gentlemen; at the different places we touched at, we
collected eighteen pigs; and, I believe, might have gotten more. The
people were exceedingly obliging wherever we landed, and readily brought
down whatever we desired.

Next morning I went down to the same place where we had been the
preceding evening; but, instead of getting pigs as I expected, found the
scene quite changed. The nails and other things they were mad after but
the evening before they now despised; and instead of them wanted they
did not know what; so that I was obliged to return with three or four
little pigs, which cost more than a dozen did the day before. When I got
on board I found the same change had happened there, as also at the
trading place on shore. The reason was, several of the young gentlemen
having landed the preceding day, had given away in exchange various
articles which the people had not seen before, and which took with them
more than nails or more useful iron tools. But what ruined our market
the most was, one of them giving for a pig a very large quantity of red
feathers he had got at Amsterdam. None of us knew, at this time, that
this article was in such estimation here; and if I had known it, I could
not have supported the trade, in the manner it was begun, one day. Thus
was our fine prospect of getting a plentiful supply of refreshments from
these people frustrated; which will ever be the case so long as every
one is allowed to make exchanges for what he pleases; and in what manner
he pleases. When I found this island was not likely to supply us, on any
conditions, with sufficient refreshments, such as we might expect to
find at the Society Isles, nor very convenient for taking in wood and
water, nor for giving the ship the necessary repairs she wanted, I
resolved forthwith to leave it, and proceed to some other place where
our wants might be effectually relieved. For, after having been nineteen
weeks at sea, and living all the time upon salt diet, we could not but
want some refreshments; although I must own, and that with pleasure,
that on our arrival here, it could hardly be said we had one sick man;
and but a few who had the least complaint. This was undoubtedly owing to
the many antiscorbutic articles we had on board, and to the great
attention of the surgeon, who was remarkably careful to apply them in
time.



                                CHAP. X.

 DEPARTURE FROM THE MARQUESAS.—A DESCRIPTION OF THE SITUATION, EXTENT,
FIGURE, AND APPEARANCE OF THE SEVERAL ISLANDS; WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE
   INHABITANTS, THEIR CUSTOMS, DRESS, HABITATIONS, FOOD, WEAPONS, AND
                                CANOES.


At three o’clock in the afternoon we weighed, and stood over from St.
Christina for La Dominica, in order to take a view of the west side of
that isle; but, as it was dark before we reached it, the night was spent
in plying between the two isles. The next morning we had a full view of
the south-west point, from which the coast trended north-east, so that
it was not probable we should find good anchorage on that side, as being
exposed to the easterly winds. We had now but little wind, and that very
variable, with showers of rain. At length we got a breeze at east
north-east, with which we steered to the south. At five o’clock in the
afternoon, Resolution Bay bore E. N. E. 1/2 E. distant five leagues, and
the island Magdalena south-east about nine leagues, distant. This was
the only sight we had of this isle. From hence I steered S. S. W. 1/2 W.
for Otaheite, with a view of falling in with some of those isles
discovered by former navigators, especially those discovered by the
Dutch, whose situations are not well determined.

But it will be necessary to return to the Marquesas; which were, as I
have already observed, first discovered by Mendana, a Spaniard, and from
him obtained the general name they now bear, as well as those of the
different isles. The nautical account of them, in Mr. Dalrymple’s
Collection of Voyages to the South Seas[5], is deficient in nothing but
situation. This was my chief reason for touching at them: the settling
this point is the more useful, as it will, in a great measure, fix the
situations of Mendana’s other discoveries.

The Marquesas are five in number, viz. La Magdalena, St. Pedro, La
Dominica, Santa Christina, and Hood’s island, which is the northernmost,
situated in latitude 9° 26ʹ S., and N. 13° W., five leagues and a half
distant, from the east point of La Dominica, which is the largest of all
the isles, extending east and west six leagues. It hath an unequal
breadth, and is about fifteen or sixteen leagues in circuit. It is full
of rugged hills rising in ridges directly from the sea; these ridges are
disjoined by deep valleys, which are clothed with wood, as are the sides
of some of the hills; the aspect is, however, barren; but it is,
nevertheless, inhabited, latitude 9° 44ʹ 30ʺ S. St. Pedro, which is
about three leagues in circuit, and of a good height, lies south, four
leagues and an half from the east end of La Dominica: we know not if it
be inhabited. Nature has not been very bountiful to it. St. Christina
lies under the same parallel, three or four leagues more to the west.
This island stretches north and south, is nine miles long in that
direction, and about seven leagues in circuit. A narrow ridge of hills
of considerable height extends the whole length of the island. There are
other ridges, which, rising from the sea, and, with an equal ascent,
join the main ridge. These are disjoined by deep narrow valleys, which
are fertile, adorned with fruit and other trees, and watered by fine
streams of excellent water. La Magdalena, we only saw at a distance. Its
situation must be nearly in the latitude of 10° 25ʹ, longitude 138° 50ʹ.
So that these isles occupy one degree in latitude, and near half a
degree in longitude, viz. from 138° 47ʹ to 139° 13ʹ W. which is the
longitude of the west end of La Dominica.

The port of Madre de Dios, which I named Resolution Bay, is situated
near the middle of the west side of St. Christina, and under the highest
land in the island, in latitude 9° 55ʹ 30ʺ, longitude 139° 8ʹ 40ʺ W.;
and N. 15ʹ W. from the west end of La Dominica. The south point of the
bay is a steep rock of considerable height, terminating at the top in a
peaked hill, above which you will see a path-way leading up a narrow
ridge to the summits of the hills. The north point is not so high, and
rises with a more gentle slope. They are a mile from each other, in the
direction of north by east, and south by west. In the bay, which is near
three-quarters of a mile deep, and has from thirty-four to twelve
fathoms’ water, with a clean sandy bottom, are two sandy coves, divided
from each other by a rocky point. In each is a rivulet of excellent
water. The northern cove is the most commodious for wooding and
watering. Here is the little waterfall mentioned by Quiros, Mendana’s
pilot; but the town or village is in the other cove. There are several
other coves or bays on this side of the island, and some of them,
especially to the northward, may be mistaken for this; therefore, the
best direction is the bearing of the west end of La Dominica.

The trees, plants, and other productions of these isles, so far as we
know, are nearly the same as at Otaheite and the Society Isles. The
refreshments to be got are hogs, fowls, plantains, yams, and some other
roots; likewise bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts, but of these not many. At
first these articles were purchased with nails. Beads, looking-glasses,
and such trifles, which are so highly valued at the Society Isles, are
in no esteem here; and even nails at last lost their value for other
articles far less useful.

The inhabitants of these islands, collectively, are, without exception,
the finest race of people in this sea. For fine shape and regular
features, they perhaps surpass all other nations. Nevertheless, the
affinity of their language to that spoken in Otaheite and the Society
Isles, shows that they are of the same nation. Oedidee could converse
with them tolerably well, though _we_ could not; but it was easy to see
that their language was nearly the same.

The men are punctured, or curiously _tattooed_ from head to foot. The
figures are various, and seem to be directed more by fancy than custom.
These punctuations make them look dark; but the women, who are but
little punctured, youths, and young children who are not at all, are as
fair as some Europeans. The men are in general tall; that is, about five
feet ten inches or six feet; but I saw none that were fat and lusty like
the _Earees_ of Otaheite; nor did I see any that could be called meagre.
Their teeth are not so good, nor are their eyes so full and lively as
those of many other nations. Their hair, like ours, is of many colours,
except red, of which I saw none. Some have it long; but the most general
custom is to wear it short, except a bunch on each side of the crown,
which they tie in a knot. They observe different modes in trimming the
beard, which is in general long. Some part it, and tie it in two bunches
under the chin; others plat it; some wear it loose, and others quite
short.

Their clothing is the same as at Otaheite, and made of the same
materials; but they have it not in such plenty, nor is it so good. The
men, for the most part, have nothing to cover their nakedness, except
the _Marra_, as it is called at Otaheite, which is a slip of cloth
passed round the waist and betwixt the legs. This simple dress is quite
sufficient for the climate, and answers every purpose modesty requires.
The dress of the women is a piece of cloth, wrapped round the loins like
a petticoat, which reaches down below the middle of the leg, and a loose
mantle over their shoulders. Their principal head-dress, and what
appears to be their chief ornament, is a sort of broad fillet, curiously
made of the fibres of the husk of cocoa-nuts. In the front is fixed a
mother-of-pearl shell wrought round to the size of a tea-saucer. Before
that another, smaller, of very fine tortoise-shell, perforated into
curious figures. Also before, and in the centre of that, is another
round piece of mother-of-pearl, about the size of half-a-crown; and
before this another piece of perforated tortoise-shell, the size of a
shilling. Besides this decoration in front, some have it also on each
side, but in smaller pieces; and all have fixed to them the
tail-feathers of cocks or tropic-birds, which, when the fillet is tied
on, stand upright; so that the whole together makes a very sightly
ornament. They wear round the neck a kind of ruff or necklace, call it
which you please, made of light wood, the out and upper side covered
with small red peas, which are fixed on with gum. They also wear small
bunches of human hair, fastened to a string, and tied round the legs and
arms. Sometimes, instead of hair, they make use of short feathers; but
all the above-mentioned ornaments are seldom seen on the same person.

I saw only the chief, who came to visit us, completely dressed in this
manner. Their ordinary ornaments are necklaces and amulets made of
shells, &c. I did not see any with ear-rings, and yet all of them had
their ears pierced.

Their dwellings are in the valleys, and on the sides of the hills, near
their plantations. They are built after the same manner as at Otaheite;
but are much meaner, and only covered with the leaves of the bread-tree.
The most of them are built on a square or oblong pavement of stone,
raised some height above the level of the ground. They likewise have
such pavements near their houses, on which they sit to eat and amuse
themselves.

In the article of eating, these people are by no means so cleanly as the
Otaheiteans. They are likewise dirty in their cookery. Pork and fowls
are dressed in an oven of hot stones as at Otaheite; but fruit and roots
they roast on the fire, and, after taking off the rind or skin, put them
into a platter or trough with water, out of which I have seen both men
and hogs eat at the same time. I once saw them make a batter of fruit
and roots diluted with water, in a vessel that was loaded with dirt, and
out of which the hogs had been but that moment eating, without giving it
the least washing, or even washing their hands, which were equally
dirty; and when I expressed a dislike, was laughed at. I know not if all
are so. The actions of a few individuals are not sufficient to fix a
custom on a whole nation. Nor can I say if it is the custom for men and
women to have separate messes. I saw nothing to the contrary; indeed I
saw but few women upon the whole.

They seemed to have dwellings, or strong-holds, on the summits of the
highest hills. These we only saw by the help of our glasses; for I did
not permit any of our people to go there, as we were not sufficiently
acquainted with the disposition of the natives, which I believe is
humane and pacific.

Their weapons are clubs and spears, resembling those of Otaheite, but
somewhat neater. They have also slings, with which they throw stones
with great velocity, and to a great distance, but not with a good aim.

Their canoes are made of wood and pieces of the bark of a soft tree,
which grows near the sea in great plenty, and is very tough and proper
for the purpose. They are from sixteen to twenty feet long, and about
fifteen inches broad; the head and stern are made of two solid pieces of
wood; the stern rises or curves a little, but in an irregular direction,
and ends in a point; the head projects out horizontally, and is carved
into some faint and very rude resemblance of a human face. They are
rowed by paddles, and some have a sort of latteen sail made of matting.

Hogs were the only quadrupeds we saw; and cocks and hens the only tame
fowls. However, the woods seemed to abound with small birds of a very
beautiful plumage, and fine notes; but the fear of alarming the natives
hindered us from shooting so many of them as might otherwise have been
done.



                               CHAP. XI.

A DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL ISLANDS DISCOVERED OR SEEN IN THE PASSAGE FROM
     THE MARQUESAS TO OTAHEITE, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF A NAVAL REVIEW.


With a fine easterly wind I steered south-west; south-west by west, and
west by south till the 17th, at ten o’clock in the morning, when land
was seen bearing W. 1/2 N., which, upon a nearer approach, we found to
be a string of low islots connected together by a reef of coral rocks.
We ranged the north-west coast, at the distance of one mile from shore,
to three-quarters of its length, which in the whole is near four
leagues, when we came to a creek or inlet that seemed to open a
communication into the lake in the middle of the isle. As I wanted to
obtain some knowledge of the produce of these half-drowned isles, we
brought to, hoisted out a boat, and sent the master in to sound, there
being no soundings without.

As we ran along the coast, the natives appeared in several places armed
with long spears and clubs; and some were got together on one side of
the creek. When the master returned, he reported that there was no
passage into the lake by the creek, which was fifty fathoms wide at the
entrance, and thirty deep; farther in, thirty wide and twelve deep; that
the bottom was every where rocky, and the sides bounded by a wall of
coral rocks. We were under no necessity to put the ship into such a
place as this; but as the natives had shown some signs of a friendly
disposition, by coming peaceably to the boat, and taking such things as
were given them, I sent two boats well armed ashore, under the command
of Lieutenant Cooper, with a view of having some intercourse with them,
and to give Mr. Forster an opportunity of collecting something in his
way. We saw our people land without the least opposition being made by a
few natives who were on the shores. Some little time after, observing
forty or fifty more, all armed, coming to join them, we stood close in
shore in order to be ready to support our people in case of an attack.
But nothing of this kind happened; and soon after our boats returned
aboard, when Mr. Cooper informed me that, on his landing, only a few of
the natives met him on the beach, but there were many in the skirts of
the woods with spears in their hands. The presents he made them were
received with great coolness, which plainly showed we were unwelcome
visitors. When their reinforcement arrived, he thought proper to embark,
as the day was already far spent, and I had given orders to avoid an
attack by all possible means. When his men got into the boats, some were
for pushing them off, others for detaining them; but, at last, they
suffered them to depart at their leisure. They brought on board five
dogs, which seemed to be in plenty there. They saw no fruit but
cocoa-nuts, of which they got, by exchanges, two dozen. One of our
people got a dog for a single plantain, which led us to conjecture they
had none of this fruit.

This island, which is called by the inhabitants Tiookea, was discovered
and visited by Commodore Byron. It has something of an oval shape, is
about ten leagues in circuit, lying in the direction of east south-east,
and west north-west, and situated in the latitude of 14° 27ʹ 30ʺ S.,
longitude 144° 56ʹ W. The inhabitants of this island, and perhaps of all
the low ones, are of a much darker colour than those of the higher
islands, and seem to be of a more ferine disposition. This may be owing
to their situation. Nature not having bestowed her favours to these low
islands with that profusion she has done to some of the others, the
inhabitants are chiefly beholden to the sea for their subsistence;
consequently, are much exposed to the sun and weather, and by that means
become more dark in colour, and more hardy and robust; for there is no
doubt of their being of the same nation. Our people observed that they
were stout, well made men, and had marked on their bodies the figure of
a fish; a very good emblem of their profession.

On the 18th, at day-break, after having spent the night making short
boards, we wore down to another isle we had in sight to the westward,
which we reached by eight o’clock, and ranged the south-east side at one
mile from shore. We found it to be just such another as that we had
left, extending north-east and south-west near four leagues, and from
five to three miles broad. It lies south-west by west, two leagues
distant from the west end of Tiookea, and the middle is situated in the
latitude of 14° 37ʹ S., longitude 145° 10ʹ W. These must be the same
islands to which Commodore Byron gave the name of George’s Islands.
Their situation in longitude, which was determined by lunar observations
made near the shores, and still farther correct by the difference of
longitude carried on by the watch to Otaheite, is 3° 54ʹ more east than
he says they lie. This correction, I apprehend, may be applied to all
the islands he discovered.

After leaving these isles, we steered south-south-west, half west, and
south-west by south, with a fine easterly gale, having signs of the
vicinity of land, particularly a smooth sea; and, on the 19th, at seven
in the morning, land was seen to the westward, which we bore down to,
and reached the south-east end by nine o’clock. It proved to be another
of these half-overflowed or drowned islands, which are so common to this
part of the ocean; that is, a number of little isles ranged in a
circular form, connected together by a reef or wall of coral rock. The
sea is, in general, every where on their outside, unfathomable; all
their interior parts are covered with water, abounding, I have been
told, with fish and turtle, on which the inhabitants subsist, and
sometimes exchange the latter with the high islanders for cloth, &c.
These inland seas would be excellent harbours, were they not shut up
from the access of shipping, which is the case with most of them, if we
can believe the report of the inhabitants of the other isles. Indeed few
of them have been well searched by Europeans; the little prospect of
meeting with fresh water having generally discouraged every attempt of
this kind. I, who have seen a great many, have not yet seen an inlet
into one.

This island is situated in the latitude of 15° 26ʹ, longitude 146° 20ʹ.
It is five leagues long in the direction of north-north-east and
south-south-west, and about three leagues broad. As we drew near the
south end, we saw from the mast-head, another of these low isles bearing
south-east, distant about four or five leagues, but being to windward we
could not fetch it. Soon after a third appeared, bearing south-west by
south, for which we steered, and, at two o’clock P. M. reached the east
end, which is situated in latitude 15° 47ʹ S., longitude 146° 30ʹ W.
This island extends west-north-west and east-south-east, and is seven
leagues long in that direction; but its breadth is not above two. It is
in all respects like the rest; only here are fewer islots, and less firm
land on the reef which incloseth the lake. As we ranged the north coast,
at the distance of half a mile, we saw people, huts, canoes, and places
built, seemingly for drying of fish. They seemed to be the same sort of
people as on Tiookea, and were armed with long spikes like them. Drawing
near the west end, we discovered another or fourth island, bearing
north-north-east. It seemed to be low like the others, and lies west
from the first isle, distant six leagues. These four isles I called
Palliser’s Isles, in honour of my worthy friend Sir Hugh Palliser, at
this time comptroller of the navy.

Not choosing to run farther in the dark, we spent the night making short
boards under the top-sail, and on the 20th at day-break, hauled round
the west end of the third isle, which was no sooner done than we found a
great swell rolling in from the south; a sure sign that we were clear of
these low islands; and as we saw no more land, I steered S. W. 1/2 S.
for Otaheite; having the advantage of a stout gale at east, attended
with showers of rain. It cannot be determined with any degree of
certainty whether the group of isles we had lately seen, be any of those
discovered by the Dutch navigators or no; the situation of their
discoveries not being handed down to us with sufficient accuracy. It is,
however, necessary to observe, that this part of the ocean, that is from
the latitude of 20° down to 14° or 12°, and from the meridian of 138° to
148° or 150° W., is so strewed with these low isles, that a navigator
cannot proceed with too much caution.

We made the high land of Otaheite on the 21st, and at noon were about
thirteen leagues east of Point Venus, for which we steered, and got
pretty well in with it by sun-set, when we shortened sail; and, having
spent the night, which was squally, with rain, standing on and off, at
eight o’clock the next morning anchored in Matavai Bay in seven fathoms’
water. This was no sooner known to the natives than many of them made us
a visit, and expressed not a little joy at seeing us again.

As my chief reason for putting in at this place was to give Mr. Wales an
opportunity to know the error of the watch by the known longitude, and
to determine anew her rate of going, the first thing we did was to land
his instruments, and to erect tents for the reception of a guard and
such other people as it was necessary to have on shore. Sick we had
none; the refreshments we got at the Marquesas had removed every
complaint of that kind.

On the 23d, showery weather. Our very good friends the natives supplied
us with fruit and fish sufficient for the whole crew.

On the 24th, Otoo the king, and several other chiefs, with a train of
attendants, paid us a visit, and brought as presents ten or a dozen
large hogs, besides fruits, which made them exceedingly welcome. I was
advertised of the king’s coming, and looked upon it as a good omen.
Knowing how much it was my interest to make this man my friend, I met
him at the tents, and conducted him and his friends on board, in my
boat, where they staid dinner; after which they were dismissed with
suitable presents, and highly pleased with the reception they had met
with.

Next day we had much thunder, lightning, and rain. This did not hinder
the king from making me another visit, and a present of a large quantity
of refreshments. It hath been already mentioned, that when we were at
the island of Amsterdam we had collected, amongst other curiosities,
some red parrot feathers. When this was known here, all the principal
people of both sexes endeavoured to ingratiate themselves into our
favour by bringing us hogs, fruit, and every other thing the island
afforded, in order to obtain these valuable jewels. Our having these
feathers was a fortunate circumstance; for as they were valuable to the
natives, they became so to us; but more especially as my stock of trade
was, by this time, greatly exhausted; so that, if it had not been for
the feathers, I should have found it difficult to have supplied the ship
with the necessary refreshments.

When I put in at this island, I intended to stay no longer than till Mr.
Wales had made the necessary observations for the purposes already
mentioned; thinking we should meet with no better success than we did
the last time we were here. But the reception we had already met with,
and the few excursions we had made, which did not exceed the plains of
Matavai and Oparree, convinced us of our error. We found at these two
places, built and building a great number of large canoes, and houses of
every kind; people living in spacious habitations, who had not a place
to shelter themselves in eight months before; several large hogs about
every house; and every other sign of a rising state.

Judging from these favourable circumstances that we should not mend
ourselves by removing to another island, I resolved to make a longer
stay, and to begin with the repairs of the ship and stores, &c.
Accordingly I ordered the empty casks and sails to be got ashore to be
repaired; the ship to be calked; and the rigging to be overhauled; all
of which the high southern latitudes had made indispensably necessary.

[Illustration: _The Fleet of Otaheite assembled at Opárre_]

In the morning of the 26th, I went down to Oparree, accompanied by some
of the officers and gentlemen, to pay Otoo a visit by appointment. As we
drew near we observed a number of large canoes in motion; but were
surprized, when we arrived, to see upwards of three hundred ranged in
order, for some distance, along the shore, all completely equipped and
manned, besides a vast number of armed men upon the shore. So unexpected
an armament collected together in our neighbourhood, in the space of one
night, gave rise to various conjectures. We landed however in the midst
of them, and were received by a vast multitude, many of them under arms,
and many not. The cry of the latter was _Tiyo no Otoo_, and that of the
former _Tiyo no Towha_. This chief, we afterwards learned, was admiral
or commander of the fleet and troops present. The moment we landed, I
was met by a chief whose name was Tee, uncle to the king, and one of his
prime ministers, of whom I inquired for Otoo. Presently after we were
met by Towha, who received me with great courtesy. He took me by the one
hand, and Tee by the other; and, without my knowing where they intended
to carry me, dragged me as it were through the crowd that was divided
into two parties, both of which professed themselves my friends by
crying out _Tiyo no Tootee_. One party wanted me to go to Otoo, and the
other to remain with Towha. Coming to the usual place of audience, a mat
was spread for me to sit down upon, and Tee left me to go and bring the
king. Towha was unwilling I should sit down, partly insisting on my
going with him; but, as I knew nothing of this chief, I refused to
comply. Presently Tee returned, and wanted to conduct me to the king,
taking hold of my hand for that purpose. This Towha opposed; so that
between the one party and the other, I was like to have been torn in
pieces; and was obliged to desire Tee to desist, and to leave me to the
admiral and his party, who conducted me down to the fleet. As soon as we
came before the admiral’s vessel, we found two lines of armed men drawn
up before her, to keep off the crowd, as I supposed, and to clear the
way for me to go in. But, as I was determined not to go, I made the
water, which was between me and her, an excuse. This did not answer; for
a man immediately squatted himself down at my feet, offering to carry
me; and then I declared I would not go. That very moment Towha quitted
me, without my seeing which way he went, nor would any one inform me.
Turning myself round I saw Tee, who, I believe, had never lost sight of
me. Inquiring of him for the king, he told me he was gone into the
country _Mataou_, and advised me to go to my boat; which we accordingly
did, as soon as we could get collected together; for Mr. Edgcumbe was
the only person that could keep with me; the others being jostled about
in the crowd in the same manner we had been.

When we got into our boat, we took our time to view this grand fleet.
The vessels of war consisted of an hundred and sixty large double canoes
very well equipped, manned, and armed. But I am not sure that they had
their full complement of men or rowers; I rather think not. The chiefs,
and all those on the fighting stages, were dressed in their war habits;
that is, in a vast quantity of cloth, turbans, breast-plates, and
helmets. Some of the latter were of such a length as greatly to encumber
the wearer. Indeed, their whole dress seemed to be ill calculated for
the day of battle, and to be designed more for show than use. Be this as
it may, it certainly added grandeur to the prospect, as they were so
complaisant as to show themselves to the best advantage. The vessels
were decorated with flags, streamers, &c. so that the whole made a grand
and noble appearance, such as we had never seen before in this sea, and
what no one would have expected. Their instruments of war were clubs,
spears, and stones. The vessels were ranged close alongside of each
other, with their heads ashore, and their stern to the sea; the
admiral’s vessel being nearly in the centre. Besides the vessels of war,
there were an hundred and seventy sail of smaller double canoes, all
with a little house upon them, and rigged with mast and sail, which the
war canoes had not. These, we judged, were designed for transports,
victuallers, &c.; for in the war canoes was no sort of provisions
whatever. In these three hundred and thirty vessels, I guessed there
were no less than seven thousand seven hundred and sixty men; a number
which appears incredible, especially as we were told they all belonged
to the districts of Attahourou and Ahopatea. In this computation, I
allow to each war canoe forty men, troops and rowers, and to each of the
small canoes eight. Most of the gentlemen who were with me, thought the
number of men belonging to the war canoes exceeded this. It is certain
that the most of them were fitted to row with more paddles than I have
allowed them men; but at this time I think they were not complete. Tupia
informed us, when I was first here, that the whole island raised only
between six and seven thousand men, but we now saw two districts only
raise that number; so that he must have taken his account from some old
establishment, or else he only meant _Tatatous_, that is, warriors, or
men trained from their infancy to arms, and did not include the rowers,
and those necessary to navigate the other vessels. I should think he
only spoke of this number as the standing troops or militia of the
island, and not their whole force. This point I shall leave to be
discussed in another place, and return to the subject.

After we had well viewed this fleet, I wanted much to have seen the
admiral, to have gone with him on board the war canoes. We inquired for
him as we rowed past the fleet to no purpose. We put ashore and
inquired, but the noise and crowd was so great, that no one attended to
what we said. At last Tee came and whispered us in the ear, that Otoo
was gone to Matavai, advising us to return thither, and not to land
where we were. We accordingly proceeded for the ship, and this
intelligence and advice received from Tee gave rise to new conjectures.
In short, we concluded that this Towha was some powerful disaffected
chief, who was upon the point of making war against his sovereign; for
we could not imagine Otoo had any other reason for leaving Oparree in
the manner he did.

We had not been long gone from Oparree before the whole fleet was in
motion, to the westward from whence it came. When we got to Matavai, our
friends there told us, that this fleet was part of the armament intended
to go against Eimeo, whose chief had thrown off the yoke of Otaheite,
and assumed an independency. We were likewise informed that Otoo neither
was nor had been at Matavai; so that we were still at a loss to know why
he fled from Oparree. This occasioned another trip thither in the
afternoon, where we found him, and now understood that the reason of his
not seeing me in the morning was, that some of his people having stolen
a quantity of my clothes which were on shore washing, he was afraid I
should demand restitution. He repeatedly asked me if I was not angry;
and when I assured him that I was not, and that they might keep what
they had got, he was satisfied. Towha was alarmed partly on the same
account. He thought I was displeased when I refused to go aboard his
vessel; and I was jealous of seeing such a force in our neighbourhood
without being able to know any thing of its design. Thus by mistaking
one another, I lost the opportunity of examining more narrowly into part
of the naval force of this isle, and making myself better acquainted
with its manœuvres. Such an opportunity may never occur; as it was
commanded by a brave, sensible, and intelligent chief, who would have
satisfied us in all the questions we had thought proper to ask; and, as
the objects were before us, we could not well have misunderstood each
other. It happened unluckily that Oedidee was not with us in the
morning; for Tee, who was the only man we could depend on, served only
to perplex us. Matters being thus cleared up, and mutual presents having
passed between Otoo and me, we took leave and returned on board.



                               CHAP. XII.

SOME ACCOUNT OF A VISIT FROM OTOO, TOWHA, AND SEVERAL OTHER CHIEFS; ALSO
OF A ROBBERY COMMITTED BY ONE OF THE NATIVES, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES, WITH
                  GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUBJECT.


In the morning of the 27th, I received a present from Towha, consisting
of two large hogs and some fruit, sent by two of his servants, who had
orders not to receive any thing in return; nor would they, when offered
them. Soon after, I went down to Oparree in my boat, where, having found
both this chief and the king, after a short stay, I brought them both on
board to dinner, together with Tarevatoo, the king’s younger brother,
and Tee. As soon as we drew near the ship, the admiral, who had never
seen one before, began to express much surprise at so new a sight. He
was conducted all over the ship, every part of which he viewed with
great attention. On this occasion Otoo was the principal show-man; for,
by this time, he was well acquainted with the different parts of the
ship. After dinner Towha put a hog on board and retired, without my
knowing any thing of the matter, or having made him any return either
for this or the present I had in the morning. Soon after, the king and
his attendants went away also. Otoo not only seemed to pay this chief
much respect, but was desirous I should do the same; and yet he was
jealous of him, but on what account we knew not. It was but the day
before that he frankly told us, Towha was not his friend. Both these
chiefs when on board solicited me to assist them against Tiarabou,
notwithstanding a peace at this time subsisted between the two kingdoms,
and we were told that their joint force was to go against Eimeo. Whether
this was done with a view of breaking with their neighbours and allies,
if I had promised them assistance, or only to sound my disposition, I
know not. Probably they would have been ready enough to have embraced an
opportunity which would have enabled them to conquer that kingdom, and
annex it to their own as it was formerly. Be this as it may, I heard no
more of it; indeed, I gave them no encouragement.

Next day we had a present of a hog sent by Wahea-toua, king of Tiarabou.
For this, in return, he desired a few red feathers, which were, together
with other things, sent him accordingly. Mr. Forster and his party set
out for the mountains, with an intent to stay out all night. I did not
go out of the ship this day.

Early on the morning of the 29th, Otoo, Towha, and several other
grandees, came on board, and brought with them as presents, not only
provisions, but some of the most valuable curiosities of the island. I
made them returns, with which they were well pleased. I likewise took
this opportunity to repay the civilities I had received from Towha.

The night before, one of the natives attempting to steal a water-cask
from the watering-place, he was caught in the act, sent on board, and
put in irons; in which situation Otoo and the other chiefs saw him.
Having made known his crime to them, Otoo begged he might be set at
liberty. This I refused, telling him, that since I punished my people,
when they committed the least offence against his, it was but just this
man should be punished also; and, as I knew he would not do it, I was
resolved to do it myself. Accordingly, I ordered the man to be carried
on shore to the tents, and having followed myself with Otoo, Towha, and
others, I ordered the guard out under arms, and the man to be tied up to
a post. Otoo, his sister, and some others begged hard for him; Towha
said not one word, but was very attentive to every thing going forward.
I expostulated with Otoo on the conduct of this man, and of his people
in general; telling him, that neither I, nor any of my people, took any
thing from them, without first paying for it; enumerating the articles
we gave in exchange for such and such things, and urging that it was
wrong in them to steal from us who were their friends. I, moreover, told
him, that the punishing this man would be the means of saving the lives
of others of his people, by deterring them from committing crimes of
this nature, in which some would certainly be shot dead, one time or
another. With these and other arguments, which I believe he pretty well
understood, he seemed satisfied, and only desired the man might not be
_Matterou_ (or killed). I then ordered the crowd, which was very great,
to be kept at a proper distance, and, in the presence of them all,
ordered the fellow two dozen of lashes with a cat-of-nine-tails, which
he bore with great firmness, and was then set at liberty. After this,
the natives were going away; but Towha stepped forth, called them back,
and harangued them for near half an hour. His speech consisted of short
sentences, very little of which I understood; but, from what we could
gather, he recapitulated part of what I had said to Otoo; named several
advantages they had received from us; condemned their present conduct,
and recommended a different one for the future. The gracefulness of his
action, and the attention with which he was heard, bespoke him a great
orator.

Otoo said not one word. As soon as Towha had ended his speech, I ordered
the marines to go through their exercise, and to load and fire in
volleys with ball; and as they were very quick in their manœuvres, it is
easier to conceive than to describe the amazement the natives were under
the whole time, especially those who had not seen any thing of the kind
before.

This being over, the chiefs took leave and retired with all their
attendants, scarcely more pleased than frightened at what they had seen.
In the evening, Mr. Forster and his party returned from the mountains,
where he had spent the night, having found some new plants, and some
others which grew in New Zealand. He saw Huaheine, which lies forty
leagues to the westward; by which a judgment may be formed of the height
of the mountains in Otaheite.

Next morning I had an opportunity to see the people of ten war-canoes go
through part of their paddling exercise. They had put off from the shore
before I was apprized of it; so that I was only present at their
landing. They were properly equipped for war, the warriors with their
arms, and dressed in their war habits, &c. In landing, I observed that
the moment the canoe touched the ground, all the rowers leaped out, and,
with the assistance of a few people on the shore, dragged the canoe on
dry land to her proper place; which being done, every one walked off
with his paddle, &c. All this was executed with such expedition, that,
in five minutes’ time after putting ashore, you could not tell that any
thing of the kind had been going forward. I thought these vessels were
thinly manned with rowers; the most being not above thirty, and the
least sixteen or eighteen. I observed the warriors on the stage
encouraged the rowers to exert themselves. Some youths sat high up in
the curved stern, above the steersmen, with white wands in their hands.
I know not what they were placed there for; unless it was to look out,
and direct, or give notice of what they saw, as they were elevated above
every one else. Tarevatoo, the king’s brother, gave me the first notice
of these canoes being at sea; and, knowing that Mr. Hodges made drawings
of every thing curious, desired, of his own accord, that he might be
sent for. I being at this time on shore with Tarevatoo, Mr. Hodges was,
therefore, with me, and had an opportunity to collect some materials for
a large drawing or picture of the fleet assembled at Oparree, which will
convey a far better idea of it than can be expressed by words. Being
present when the warriors undressed, I was surprised at the quantity and
weight of cloth they had upon them, not conceiving how it was possible
for them to stand under it in time of battle. Not a little was wrapped
round their heads as a turban, and made into a cap. This indeed might be
necessary in preventing a broken head. Many had fixed to one of this
sort of caps, dried branches of small shrubs covered over with white
feathers; which, however, could only be for ornament.

I had a very great supply of provisions, sent and brought by different
chiefs on the 1st of May; and the next day received a present from
Towha, sent by his servants, consisting of a hog, and a boat load of
various sorts of fruit and roots. The like present I also had from Otoo,
brought by Tarevatoo, who stayed dinner; after which I went down to
Oparree, paid a visit to Otoo, and returned on board in the evening.

On the 3d, in looking into the condition of our sea provisions, we found
that the biscuit was in a state of decay, and that the airing and
picking we had given it at New Zealand, had not been of that service we
expected and intended; so that we were obliged to take it all on shore
here, where it underwent another airing and cleaning, in which a good
deal was found wholly rotten and unfit to be eaten. We could not well
account for this decay in our bread, especially as it was packed in good
casks, and stowed in a dry part of the hold. We judged it was owing to
the ice we so frequently took in when to the southward, which made the
hold damp and cold, and to the great heat which succeeded when to the
north. Be it this, or any other cause, the loss was equal to us: it put
us to scanty allowance of this article; and we had bad bread to eat too.

On the 4th, nothing worthy of note.

On the 5th, the king and several other great men paid us a visit, and
brought with them, as usual, some hogs and fruit. In the afternoon, the
botanists set out for the mountains, and returned the following evening,
having made some new discoveries in their way.

Ongoing ashore in the morning of the 7th, I found Otoo at the tents, and
took the opportunity to ask his leave to cut down some trees for fuel.
He not well understanding me, I took him to some growing near the
sea-shore, where I presently made him comprehend what I wanted, and he
as readily gave his consent. I told him, at the same time, that I should
cut down no trees that bore any fruit. He was pleased with this
declaration, and told it aloud, several times, to the people about us.
In the afternoon, he and the whole royal family, viz. his father,
brother, and three sisters, paid us a visit on board. This was properly
his father’s visit of ceremony. He brought me, as a present, a complete
mourning dress, a curiosity we most valued. In return, I gave him
whatever he desired, which was not a little; and having distributed red
feathers to all the others, conducted them ashore in my boat. Otoo was
so well pleased with the reception he and his friends met with, that he
told me at parting, I might cut down as many trees as I pleased, and
what sort I pleased.

During the night, between the 7th and 8th, some time in the middle
watch, all our friendly connections received an interruption, through
the negligence of one of the centinels on shore. He, having either slept
or quitted his post, gave one of the natives an opportunity to carry off
his musket. The first news I heard of it was from Tee, whom Otoo had
sent on board for that purpose, and to desire that I would go to him,
for that he was _mataoued_. We were not well enough acquainted with
their language to understand all Tee’s story; but we understood enough
to know that something had happened, which had alarmed the king. In
order, therefore, to be fully informed, I went ashore with Tee and
Tarevatoo, who had slept aboard all night. As soon as we landed, I was
informed of the whole by the serjeant who commanded the party. I found
the natives all alarmed, and the most of them fled. Tarevatoo slipped
from me in a moment, and hardly any remained by me but Tee. With him I
went to look for Otoo; and, as we advanced, I endeavoured to allay the
fears of the people, but at the same time insisted on the musket being
restored. After travelling some distance into the country, inquiring of
every one we saw for Otoo, Tee stopped all at once, and advised me to
return, saying that Otoo was gone to the mountains, and he would proceed
and tell him that I was still his friend; a question which had been
asked me fifty times by different people, and if I was angry, &c. Tee
also promised that he would use his endeavours to recover the musket. I
was now satisfied it was to no purpose to go farther; for, although I
was alone and unarmed, Otoo’s fears were such, that he durst not see me;
and, therefore, I took Tee’s advice, and returned aboard. After this I
sent Oedidee to Otoo to let him know that his fears were ill-grounded;
for that I only required the return of the musket, which I knew was in
his power.

Soon after Oedidee was gone, we observed six large canoes coming round
Point Venus. Some people whom I had sent out, to watch the conduct of
the neighbouring inhabitants, informed me they were laden with baggage,
fruit, hogs, &c. There being room for suspecting that some person
belonging to these canoes had committed the theft, I presently came to a
resolution to intercept them; and having put off in a boat for that
purpose, gave orders for another to follow. One of the canoes, which was
some distance ahead of the rest, came directly for the ship. I went
alongside this, and found two or three women in her whom I knew. They
told me they were going on board the ship with something for me; and on
my inquiring of them for Otoo, was told he was then at the tents.
Pleased with this news, I contradicted the orders I had given for
intercepting the other canoes, thinking they might be coming on board
also, as well as this one, which I left within a few yards of the ship,
and rowed ashore to speak with Otoo. But when I landed I was told that
he had not been there, nor knew they any thing of him. On my looking
behind me, I saw all the canoes making off in the greatest haste; even
the one I had left alongside the ship had evaded going on board, and was
making her escape. Vexed at being thus outwitted, I resolved to pursue
them, and as I passed the ship, gave orders to send another boat for the
same purpose. Five out of six we took, and brought alongside; but the
first, which acted the finesse so well, got clear off. When we got on
board with our prizes, I learnt that the people who had deceived me,
used no endeavours to lay hold of the ship on the side they were upon,
but let their canoe drop past as if they meant to come under the stern,
or on the other side; and that the moment they were past, they paddled
off with all speed. Thus the canoe, in which were only a few women, was
to have amused us with false stories, as they actually did, while the
others, in which were most of the effects, got off.

In one of the canoes we had taken, was a chief, a friend of Mr.
Forster’s, who had hitherto called himself an _Earee_, and would have
been much offended if any one had called his title in question; also
three women, his wife and daughter, and the mother of the late Toutaha.
These, together with the canoes, I resolved to detain, and to send the
chief to Otoo, thinking he would have weight enough with him to obtain
the return of the musket, as his own property was at stake. He was,
however, very unwilling to go on this embassy, and made various excuses,
one of which was his being of too low a rank for this honourable
employment; saying he was no _Earee_, but a _Manahouna_, and, therefore,
was not a fit person to be sent; that an _Earee_ ought to be sent to
speak to an _Earee_; and as there were no _Earees_ but Otoo and myself,
it would be much more proper for me to go. All his arguments would have
availed him little, if Tee and Oedidee had not, at this time, come on
board and given a new turn to the affair, by declaring that the man who
stole the musket was from Tiarabou, and had gone with it to that
kingdom, so that it was not in the power of Otoo to recover it. I very
much doubted their veracity, till they asked me to send a boat to
Waheatoua, the king of Tiarabou, and offered to go themselves in her,
and get it. I asked why this could not be done without my sending a
boat? They said it would not otherwise be given to them.

This story of theirs, although it did not quite satisfy me, nevertheless
carried with it the probability of truth; for which reason I thought it
better to drop the affair altogether, rather than to punish a nation for
a crime I was not sure any of its members had committed. I, therefore,
suffered my new ambassador to depart with his two canoes without
executing his commission. The other three canoes belonged to Maritata, a
Tiarabou chief, who had been some days about the tents; and there was
good reason to believe it was one of his people that carried off the
musket. I intended to have detained them; but as Tee and Oedidee both
assured me that Maritata and his people were quite innocent, I suffered
them to be taken away also, and desired Tee to tell Otoo, that I should
give myself no farther concern about the musket, since I was satisfied
none of his people had stolen it. Indeed, I thought it was irrecoverably
lost; but, in the dusk of the evening, it was brought to the tents,
together with some other things we had lost, which we knew nothing of,
by three men who had pursued the thief and taken them from him. I know
not, if they took this trouble of their own accord, or by order of Otoo.
I rewarded them, and made no farther inquiry about it. These men, as
well as some others present, assured me that it was one of Maritata’s
people who had committed this theft; which vexed me that I had let his
canoes so easily slip through my fingers. Here, I believe, both Tee and
Oedidee designedly deceived me.

When the musket and other things were brought in, every one then
present, or who came after, pretended to have had some hand in
recovering them, and claimed a reward accordingly. But there was no one
who acted this farce so well as Nuno, a man of some note, and well known
to us when I was here in 1769. This man came, with all the savage fury
imaginable in his countenance, and a large club in his hand, with which
he beat about him, in order to show us how he alone had killed the
thief; when, at the same time, we all knew that he had not been out of
his house the whole time.

Thus ended this troublesome day; and next morning early, Tee, Otoo’s
faithful ambassador, came again on board, to acquaint me that Otoo was
gone to Oparree, and desired I would send a person (one of the natives,
as I understood) to tell him that I was still his _Tiyo_. I asked him
why he did not do this himself, as I had desired. He made some excuse;
but I believe the truth was, he had not seen him. In short, I found it
was necessary for me to go myself; for while we thus spent our time in
messages, we remained without fruit, a stop being put to all exchanges
of this nature; that is, the natives brought nothing to market.
Accordingly, a party of us set out, with Tee in our company, and
proceeded to the very utmost limits of Oparree, where, after waiting
some considerable time, and several messages having passed, the king at
last made his appearance. After we were seated under the shade of some
trees as usual, and the first salutations were over, he desired me to
_parou_ (that is, to speak). Accordingly, I began with blaming him for
being frightened and alarmed at what had happened, since I had always
professed myself his friend, and I was not angry with him or any of his
people, but with those of Tiarabou, who were the thieves. I was then
asked, how I came to fire at the canoes? Chance, on this occasion,
furnished me with a good excuse. I told them, that they belonged to
Maritata, a Tiarabou man, one of whose people had stolen the musket, and
occasioned all this disturbance, and if I had them in my power, I would
destroy them, or any other belonging to Tiarabou. This declaration
pleased them, as I expected, from the natural aversion the one kingdom
has to the other. What I said was enforced by presents, which perhaps
had the greatest weight with them. Thus were things once more restored
to their former state; and Otoo promised, on his part, that the next day
we should be supplied with fruit, &c. as usual.

We then returned with him to his proper residence at Oparree, and there
took a view of some of his dock-yards (for such they well deserved to be
called) and large canoes; some lately built, and others building; two of
which were the largest I had ever seen in this sea, or indeed any where
else, under that name. This done, we returned on board, with Tee in our
company, who, after he had dined with us, went to inform old Happi, the
king’s father, that all matters were accommodated.

This old chief was at this time in the neighbourhood of Matavai, and it
should seem, from what followed, that he was not pleased with the
conditions; for that same evening, all the women, which were not a few,
were sent for out of the ship, and people stationed on different parts
of the shore to prevent any from coming off; and the next morning, no
supplies whatever being brought, on my inquiring into the reason, I was
told Happi was _mataoued_. Chagrined at this disappointment as I was, I
forbore taking any step, from a supposition that Tee had not seen him,
or that Otoo’s orders had not yet reached Matavai. A supply of fruit
sent us from Oparree, and some brought us by our friends, served us for
the present, and made us less anxious about it. Thus matters stood till
the afternoon, when Otoo himself came to the tents with a large supply.
Thither I went, and expostulated with him for not permitting the people
in our neighbourhood to bring us fruit as usual, insisting on his giving
immediate orders about it, which he either did, or had done before; for,
presently after, more was brought us than we could well manage. This was
not to be wondered at; for the people had every thing in readiness to
bring the moment they were permitted, and, I believe, thought themselves
as much injured by the restriction as we did.

Otoo desiring to see some of the great guns fire from the ship, I
ordered twelve to be shotted, and fired towards the sea. As he had never
seen a cannon fired before, the sight gave him as much pain as pleasure.
In the evening, we entertained him with fire-works, which gave him great
satisfaction.

Thus ended all our differences, on which I beg leave to suggest the
following remarks. I have had occasion, in this journal before, to
observe, that these people were continually watching opportunities to
rob us. This their governors either encouraged, or had not power to
prevent; but most probably the former, because the offender was always
screened. That they should commit such daring thefts was the more
extraordinary, as they frequently run the risk of being shot in the
attempt; and if the article that they stole was of any consequence, they
knew they should be obliged to make restitution. The moment a theft of
this kind was committed, it spread like the wind over the whole
neighbourhood. They judged of the consequences from what they had got.
If it were a trifle, and such an article as we usually gave them, little
or no notice was taken of it; but if the contrary, every one took the
alarm, and moved off with his moveables in all haste. The chief then was
_mataoued_, giving orders to bring us no supplies, and flying to some
distant part. All this was sometimes done so suddenly, that we obtained,
by these appearances, the first intelligence of our being robbed.
Whether we obliged them to make restitution or no, the chief must be
reconciled before any of the people were permitted to bring in any
refreshments. They knew very well we could not do without them; and,
therefore, never failed strictly to observe this rule, without ever
considering, that all their war canoes, on which the strength of their
nation depends, their houses, and even the very fruit they refused to
supply us with, were entirely in our power. It is hard to say how they
would act, were one to destroy any of these things. Except the detaining
some of their canoes for a while, I never touched the least article of
their property. Of the two extremes, I always chose that which appeared
the most equitable and mild. A trifling present to the chief always
succeeded to my wish, and very often put things upon a better footing
than they had been before. That they were the first aggressors, had very
little influence on my conduct in this respect, because no difference
happened but when it was so. My people very rarely or never broke
through the rules I thought it necessary to prescribe. Had I observed a
different conduct, I must have been the loser by it in the end; and all
I could expect, after destroying some part of their property, would have
been the empty honour of obliging them to make the first overture
towards an accommodation. But who knows if this would have been the
event? Three things made them our fast friends. Their own good nature
and benevolent disposition; gentle treatment on our part; and the dread
of our fire-arms. By our ceasing to observe the second, the first would
have worn out of course; and the too frequent use of the latter would
have excited a spirit of revenge, and perhaps have taught them that
fire-arms were not such terrible things as they had imagined. They were
very sensible of the superiority of their numbers; and no one knows what
an enraged multitude might do.



                              CHAP. XIII.

  PREPARATIONS TO LEAVE THE ISLAND.—ANOTHER NAVAL REVIEW, AND VARIOUS
 OTHER INCIDENTS; WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND, ITS NAVAL FORCE, AND
                         NUMBER OF INHABITANTS.


In the morning of the 11th, a very large supply of fruit was brought to
us from all parts. Some of it came from Towha, the admiral, sent as
usual by his servants, with orders to receive nothing in return. But he
desired I would go and see him at Attahourou, as he was ill and could
not come to me. As I could not well undertake this journey, I sent
Oedidee, along with Towha’s servants, with a present suitable to that
which I had, in so genteel a manner, received from him. As the most
essential repairs of the ship were nearly finished, I resolved to leave
Otaheite in a few days, and accordingly ordered every thing to be got
off from the shore, that the natives might see we were about to depart.

On the 12th, old Oberea, the woman, who, when the Dolphin was here in
1767, was thought to be queen of the island, and whom I had not seen
since 1769, paid us a visit, and brought us a present of hogs and fruit.
Soon after came Otoo with a great retinue, and a large quantity of
provisions. I was pretty liberal in my returns, thinking it might be the
last time I should see these good people, who had so liberally relieved
our wants; and, in the evening, entertained them with fire-works.

On the 13th, winds easterly, fair weather. Nevertheless, we were not
ready to sail, as Otoo had made me promise to see him again, and I had a
present to make him, which I reserved to the last. Oedidee was not yet
come back from Attahourou; various reports arose concerning him; some
said he had returned to Matavai; others that he would not return; and
some would have it that he was at Oparree. In order to know more of the
truth, a party of us in the evening went down to Oparree, where we found
him, and likewise Towha, who, notwithstanding his illness, had resolved
to see me before I sailed, and had gotten thus far on his journey. He
was afflicted with a swelling in his feet and legs, which had entirely
taken away the use of them. As the day was far spent, we were obliged to
shorten our stay; and, after seeing Otoo, we returned with Oedidee on
board.

This youth, I found, was desirous of remaining at this isle, having
before told him, as likewise many others, that we should not return. I
now mentioned to him that he was at liberty to remain here, or to quit
us at Ulietea, or to go with us to England, frankly owning that if he
chose the latter, it was very probable he would never return to his
country; in which case I would take care of him, and he must afterwards
look upon me as his father. He threw his arms about me, and wept much,
saying many people persuaded him to remain at Otaheite. I told him to go
ashore and speak to his friends, and then come to me in the morning. He
was well beloved in the ship, so that every one was persuading him to go
with us, telling him what great things he would see in England, and the
immense riches (according to his idea of riches) he would return with.
But I thought proper to undeceive him, as knowing that the only
inducement to his going, was the expectation of returning, and I could
see no prospect of an opportunity of that kind happening, unless a ship
should be expressly sent out for that purpose; which neither I, nor any
one else, had a right to expect. I thought it an act of the highest
injustice to take a person from these isles, under any promise which was
not in my power to perform. At this time, indeed, it was quite
unnecessary, for many youths voluntarily offered themselves to go, and
even to remain and die in _Pretanee_; as they call our country. Otoo
importuned me much to take one or two, to collect red feathers for him
at Amsterdam, willing to risque the chance of their returning. Some of
the gentlemen on board were likewise desirous of taking some as
servants; but I refused every solicitation of this kind, knowing, from
experience, they would be of no use to us in the course of the voyage;
and farther my views were not extended. What had the greatest weight
with me, was the thinking myself bound to see they were afterwards
properly taken care of, as they could not be carried from their native
spot without consent.

Next morning early, Oedidee came on board with a resolution to remain at
the island; but Mr. Forster prevailed upon him to go with us to Ulietea.
Soon after, Towha, Poatatou, Oamo, Happi, Oberea, and several more of
our friends, came on board with fruit, &c. Towha was hoisted in and
placed on a chair on the quarter-deck; his wife was with him. Amongst
the various articles which I gave this chief, was an English pendant,
which pleased him more than all the rest, especially after he had been
instructed in the use of it.

We had no sooner dispatched our friends than we saw a number of war
canoes coming round the point of Oparree. Being desirous of having a
nearer view of them, accompanied by some of the officers and gentlemen,
I hastened down to Oparree, which we reached before all the canoes were
landed, and had an opportunity of seeing in what manner they approached
the shore. When they got before the place where they intended to land,
they formed themselves into divisions, consisting of three or four, or
perhaps more, lashed square and close along-side of each other; and then
each division, one after the other, paddled in for the shore with all
their might, and conducted in so judicious a manner, that they formed
and closed a line along the shore to an inch. The rowers were encouraged
to exert their strength by their leaders on the stages, and directed by
a man who stood with a wand in his hand in the fore-part of the
middlemost vessel. This man, by words and actions, directed the paddlers
when all should paddle, when either the one side or the other should
cease, &c., for the steering paddles alone were not sufficient to direct
them. All these motions they observed with such quickness, as clearly
showed them to be expert in their business. After Mr. Hodges had made a
drawing of them, as they lay ranged along the shore, we landed, and took
a nearer view of them by going on board several. This fleet consisted of
forty sail, equipped in the same manner as those we had seen before,
belonged to the little district of Tettaha, and were come to Oparree to
be reviewed before the king, as the former fleet had been. There were
attending on this fleet some small double canoes, which they called
_Marais_, having on their fore-part a kind of double bed-place laid over
with green leaves, each just sufficient to hold one man. These they told
us, were to lay their dead upon; their chiefs I suppose they meant,
otherwise their slain must be few. Otoo, who was present, caused, at my
request, some of the troops to go through their exercise on shore. Two
parties first began with clubs, but this was over almost as soon as
begun, so that I had no time to make my observations upon it. They then
went to single combat, and exhibited the various methods of fighting
with great alertness, parrying off the blows and pushes which each
combatant aimed at the other with great dexterity. Their arms were clubs
and spears, the latter they also used as darts. In fighting with the
club, all blows intended to be given the legs, were evaded by leaping
over it; and those intended for the head, by crouching a little and
leaping on one side; thus the blow would fall to the ground. The spear
or dart was parried, by fixing the point of a spear in the ground right
before them, holding it in an inclined position, more or less elevated,
according to the part of the body they saw their antagonist intended to
make a push, or throw his dart at, and by moving the hand a little to
the right or left, either the one or the other was easily turned off
with great ease. I thought that when one combatant had parried off the
blows, &c. of the other, he did not use the advantage which seemed to me
to accrue. As, for instance; after he had parried off a dart, he still
stood on the defensive, and suffered his antagonist to take up another,
when I thought there was time to run him through the body. These
combatants had no superfluous dress upon them; an unnecessary piece of
cloth or two which they had on when they began, were presently torn off
by the bystanders, and given to some of our gentlemen present. This
being over, the fleet departed; not in any order, but as fast as they
could be got afloat; and we went with Otoo to one of his dock-yards,
where the two large _pahies_ or canoes were building, each of which was
an hundred and eight feet long, they were almost ready to launch, and
were intended to make one joint double _pahie_ or canoe. The king begged
of me a grappling and rope, to which I added an English jack and pendant
(with the use of which he was well acquainted), and desired the _pahie_
might be called Britannia. This he very readily agreed to; and she was
named accordingly. After this he gave me a hog, and a turtle of about
sixty pounds weight, which was put privately into our boat; the giving
it away not being agreeable to some of the great lords about him, who
were thus deprived of a feast. He likewise would have given me a large
shark they had prisoner in a creek (some his fins being cut off so that
he could not make his escape), but the fine pork and fish we had got at
this isle, had spoiled our palates for such food. The king, and his
prime minister Tee, accompanied us on board to dinner, and after it was
over, took a most affectionate farewell. He hardly ever ceased
soliciting me, this day, to return to Otaheite; and, just before he went
out of the ship, took a youth by the hand, and presented him to me,
desiring I would keep him on board to go to Amsterdam to collect red
feathers. I told him I could not, since I knew he would never return;
but that, if any ship should happen to come from Britain to this isle, I
would either bring or send him red feathers in abundance. This, in some
measure, satisfied him; but the youth was exceedingly desirous of going;
and, if I had not come to a resolution to carry no one from the isles
(except Oedidee if he chose to go), and but just refused Mr. Forster the
liberty of taking a boy, I believe I should have consented. Otoo
remained along-side in his canoe till we were under sail, when he put
off, and was saluted with three guns.

Our treatment at this isle was such as had induced one of our gunner’s
mates to form a plan to remain at it. He knew he could not execute it
with success while we lay in the bay, therefore took the opportunity, as
soon as we were out, the boats in, and sails set, to slip overboard,
being a good swimmer. But he was discovered before he got clear of the
ship; and we presently hoisted a boat out and took him up. A canoe was
observed, about half-way between us and the shore, seemingly coming
after us. She was intended to take him up; but as soon as the people in
her saw our boat they kept at a distance. This was a preconcerted plan
between the man and them, which Otoo was acquainted with, and had
encouraged. When I considered this man’s situation in life, I did not
think him so culpable, nor the resolution he had taken of staying here
so extraordinary as it may at first appear. He was an Irishman by birth,
and had sailed in the Dutch service. I picked him up at Batavia on my
return from my former voyage, and he had been with me ever since. I
never learnt that he had either friends or connexions to confine him to
any particular part of the world. All nations were alike to him. Where
then could such a man be more happy than at one of these isles? Where,
in one of the finest climates in the world, he could enjoy not only the
necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in ease and plenty. I know not if
he might not have obtained my consent, if he had applied for it in
proper time. As soon as we had got him on board, and the boat in, I
steered for Huaheine, in order to pay a visit to our friends there. But
before we leave Otaheite, it will be necessary to give some account of
the present state of that island; especially as it differs very much
from what it was eight months before.

I have already mentioned the improvements we found in the plains of
Oparree and Matavai. The same was observed in every other part into
which we came. It seemed to us almost incredible that so many large
canoes and houses could be built in so short a space as eight months.
The iron tools which they had got from the English, and other nations
who have lately touched at the isle, had, no doubt, greatly accelerated
the work; and they have no want of hands, as I shall soon make appear.

The number of hogs was another thing that excited our wonder. Probably
they were not so scarce when we were here before as we imagined, and,
not choosing to part with any, they had conveyed them out of our sight.
Be this as it may, we now not only got as many as we could consume
during our stay, but some to take to sea with us.

When I was last here, I conceived but an unfavourable opinion of Otoo’s
talents. The improvements since made in the island convinced me of my
mistake; and that he must be a man of good parts. He has, indeed, some
judicious sensible men about him; who, I believe, have a great share in
the government. In truth, we know not how far his power extends as king,
nor how far he can command the assistance of the other chiefs, or is
controllable by them. It should however seem, that all have contributed
towards bringing the isle to its present flourishing state. We cannot
doubt that there are divisions amongst the great men of this state, as
well as of most others; or else why did the king tell us that Towha, the
admiral, and Poatatou, were not his friends? They were two leading
chiefs; and he must be jealous of them on account of their great power;
for on every occasion he seemed to court their interest. We had reason
to believe that they had raised by far the greatest number of vessels
and men to go against Eimeo, and were to be two of the commanders in the
expedition, which we were told was to take place five days after our
departure. Waheatoua, king of Tiarabou, was to send a fleet to join that
of Otoo, to assist him in reducing to obedience the chief of Eimeo. I
think we were told that young prince was one of the commanders. One
would suppose that so small an island as Eimeo would hardly have
attempted to make head against the united force of these two kingdoms,
but have endeavoured to settle matters by negociation. Yet we heard of
no such thing; on the contrary, every one spoke of nothing but fighting.
Towha told us more than once that he should die there; which, in some
measure, shows that he thought of it. Oedidee told me the battle would
be fought at sea; in which case the other must have a fleet nearly
equal, if not quite, to the one going against them; which I think was
not probable. It was therefore more likely they would remain ashore upon
the defensive, as we were told they did, about five or six years ago,
when attacked by the people of Tiarabou whom they repulsed. Five general
officers were to command in this expedition; of which number Otoo was
one; and, if they named them in order according to the posts they held,
Otoo was only the third in command. This seems probable enough, as being
but a young man he could not have sufficient experience to command such
an expedition, where the greatest skill and judgment seemed to be
necessary.

I confess I would willingly have staid five days longer, had I been sure
the expedition would have then taken place; but it rather seemed that
they wanted us to be gone first. We had been all along told it would be
ten moons before it took place; and it was not till the evening before
we sailed, that Otoo and Towha told us it was to be in five days after
we were gone, as if it were necessary to have that time to put every
thing in order; for while we lay there, great part of their time and
attention was taken up with us. I had observed that, for several days
before we sailed, Otoo and the other chiefs had ceased to solicit my
assistance, as they were continually doing at first, till I assured Otoo
that, if they got their fleet ready in time, I would sail with them down
to Eimea: after this I heard no more of it. They probably had taken it
into consideration, and concluded themselves safer without me, well
knowing it would be in my power to give the victory to whom I pleased,
and that, at the best, I might thwart some favourite custom, or run away
with the spoils. But be their reasons what they might, they certainly
wanted us to be gone, before they undertook any thing. Thus we were
deprived of seeing the whole fleet equipped on this occasion, and
perhaps of being spectators of a sea-fight, and by that means, gaining
some knowledge of their manœuvres.

I never could learn what number of vessels were to go on this
expedition. We knew of no more than two hundred and ten, besides smaller
canoes to serve as transports, &c. and the fleet of Tiarabou, the
strength of which we never learnt. Nor could I ever learn the number of
men necessary to man this fleet; and whenever I asked the question, the
answer was, _Warou, warou, warou te Tata_, that is, many, many, many
men, as if the number far exceeded their arithmetic. If we allow forty
men to each war canoe, and four to each of the others, which is thought
a moderate computation, the number will amount to nine thousand. An
astonishing number to be raised in four districts; and one of them,
_viz._ Matavai, did not equip a fourth part of its fleet. The fleet of
Tiarabou is not included in this account; and many other districts might
be arming which we knew nothing of. I, however, believe that the whole
isle did not arm on this occasion, for we saw not the least preparations
making in Oparree. From what we saw and could learn, I am clearly of
opinion that the chief, or chiefs, of each district superintended the
equipping of the fleet belonging to that district; but, after they are
equipped, they must pass in review before the king, and be approved of
by him. By this means he knows the state of the whole, before they
assemble to go on service.

It hath been already observed, that the number of war canoes belonging
to Attahourou and Ahopata was an hundred and sixty, to Tettaha forty,
and to Matavai ten, and that this district did not equip one-fourth part
of their number. If we suppose every district in the island, of which
there are forty-three, to raise and equip the same number of war-canoes
as Tettaha, we shall find, by this estimate, that the whole island can
raise and equip one thousand seven hundred and twenty war canoes, and
sixty-eight thousand able men, allowing forty men to each canoe. And, as
these cannot amount to above one-third part of the number of both sexes,
children included, the whole island cannot contain less than two hundred
and four thousand inhabitants; a number which, at first sight, exceeded
my belief. But, when I came to reflect on the vast swarms which appeared
wherever we came, I was convinced that this estimate was not much, if at
all, too great. There cannot be a greater proof of the richness and
fertility of Otaheite, (not forty leagues in circuit,) than its
supporting such a number of inhabitants.

This island made formerly but one kingdom; how long it has been divided
into two, I cannot pretend to say; but I believe not long. The kings of
Tiarabou are a branch of the family of those of Opoureonu; at present,
the two are nearly related; and, I think, the former is, in some
measure, dependent on the latter. Otoo is stiled _Earee de hie_ of the
whole island; and we have been told that Waheatoua, the king of
Tiarabou, must uncover before him, in the same manner as the meanest of
his subjects. This homage is due to Otoo as _Earee de hie_ of the isle,
to Tarevatou, his brother, and his second sister; to the one as heir,
and to the other as heir apparent; his eldest sister being married, is
not entitled to this homage.

The _Eowas_ and _Whannos_ we have sometimes seen covered before the
king, but whether by courtesy, or by virtue of their office, we never
could learn. These men, who are the principal persons about the king,
and form his court, are generally, if not always, his relations. Tee,
whom I have so often mentioned, was one of them. We have been told, that
the _Eowas_, who have the first rank, attend in their turns, a certain
number each day, which occasioned us to call them lords in waiting; but
whether this was really so, I cannot say. We seldom found Tee absent;
indeed his attendance was necessary, as being best able to negociate
matters between us and them, on which service he was always employed;
and he executed it, I have reason to believe, to the satisfaction of
both parties.

It is to be regretted, that we know little more of this government than
the general out-line; for, of its subdivisions, classes, or orders of
the constituent parts, how disposed, or in what manner connected, so as
to form one body politic, we know but little. We, however, are sure that
it is of the feudal kind; and, if we may judge from what we have seen,
it has sufficient stability, and is by no means badly constructed.

The _Eowas_ and _Whannos_ always eat with the king; indeed I do not know
if any one is excluded from this privilege but the _Toutous_. For, as to
the women they are out of the question, as they never eat with the men,
let their rank be ever so much elevated.

Notwithstanding this kind of kingly establishment, there was very little
about Otoo’s person or court, by which a stranger could distinguish the
king from the subject. I seldom saw him dressed in any thing but a
common piece of cloth wrapped round his loins; so that he seemed to
avoid all unnecessary pomp, and even to demean himself more than any
other of the _Earees_. I have seen him work at a paddle, in coming to
and going from the ship, in common with the other paddlers; and even
when some of his _Toutous_ sat looking on. All have free access to him,
and speak to him wherever they see him, without the least ceremony: such
is the easy freedom which every individual of this happy isle enjoys. I
have observed that the chiefs of these isles are more beloved, by the
bulk of the people, than feared. May we not from hence conclude, that
the government is mild and equitable?

We have mentioned that Waheatoua of Tiabarou is related to Otoo. The
same may be said of the chiefs of Eimeo, Tapamannoo, Huaheine, Ulietea,
Otaha, and Bolabola; for they are all related to the royal family of
Otaheite. It is a maxim with the _Earees_, and others of superior rank,
never to intermarry with the _Toutous_, or others of inferior rank.
Probably this custom is one great inducement to the establishment of
these societies called _Eareeoies_. It is certain that these societies
greatly prevent the increase of the superior classes of people, of which
they are composed, and do not at all interfere with the inferiors or
_Toutous_; for I never heard of one of these being an _Earreoy_. Nor did
I ever hear that a _Toutou_ could rise in life above the rank in which
he was born.

I have occasionally mentioned the extraordinary fondness the people of
Otaheite showed for red feathers. These they call _Oora_, and they are
as valuable here as jewels are in Europe, especially those which they
call _Oravine_, and grow on the head of the green paroquet; all red
feathers are, indeed, esteemed, but none equally with these; and they
are such good judges as to know very well how to distinguish one sort
from another. Many of our people attempted to deceive them, by dying
other feathers; but I never heard that any one succeeded. These feathers
they make up in little bunches, consisting of eight or ten, and fix them
to the end of a small cord about three or four inches long, which is
made of the strong outside fibres of the cocoa-nut, twisted so hard,
that it is like a wire, and serves as a handle to the bunch. Thus
prepared, they are used as symbols of the _Eatuas_, or divinities, in
all their religious ceremonies. I have often seen them hold one of these
bunches, and sometimes only two or three feathers, between the
fore-finger and thumb, and say a prayer, not one word of which I could
ever understand. Whoever comes to this island will do well to provide
himself with red feathers, the finest and smallest that are to be got.
He must also have a good stock of axes, and hatchets, spike-nails,
files, knives, looking-glasses, beads, &c. Sheets and shirts are much
sought after, especially by the ladies; as many of our gentlemen found
by experience.

The two goats, which Captain Furneaux gave to Otoo when we were last
here, seemed to promise fair for answering the end for which they were
put on shore. The ewe soon after had two female kids, which were now so
far grown as to be nearly ready to propagate; and the old ewe was again
with kid. The people seemed to be very fond of them, and they to like
their situation as well; for they were in excellent condition. From this
circumstance, we may hope that, in a few years, they will have some to
spare to their neighbours; and, by that means, they may in time spread
over all the isles in this ocean. The sheep which we left, died soon
after, excepting one, which we understood was yet alive. We have also
furnished them with a stock of cats; no less than twenty having been
given away at this isle, besides what were left at Ulietea and Huaheine.



                               CHAP. XIV.

THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHIP AT THE ISLAND OF HUAHEINE; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF AN
 EXPEDITION INTO THE ISLAND, AND SEVERAL OTHER INCIDENTS WHICH HAPPENED
                          WHILE SHE LAY THERE.


At one o’clock in the afternoon on the 15th, we anchored in the north
entrance of O’Wharre harbour, in the island of Huaheine; hoisted out the
boats, warped into a proper birth, and moored with the bower and kedge
anchor, not quite a cable’s length from the shore. While this was doing,
several of the natives made us a visit, amongst whom was old Oree, the
chief, who brought a hog, and some other articles, which he presented to
me, with the usual ceremony.

Next morning, the natives began to bring us fruit. I returned Oree’s
visit, and made my present to him; one article of which was red
feathers. Two or three of these the chief took in his right hand,
holding them up between the finger and thumb, and said a prayer, as I
understood, which was little noticed by any present. Two hogs were, soon
after, put into my boat; and he, and several of his friends, came on
board, and dined with us. After dinner, Oree gave me to understand what
articles would be most acceptable to him and his friends; which were
chiefly axes and nails. Accordingly I gave him what he asked, and
desired he would distribute them to the others, which he did, seemingly
to the satisfaction of every one. A youth about ten or twelve years of
age, either his son or grandson, seemed to be the person of most note,
and had the greatest share.

After the distribution was over, they all returned ashore. Mr. Forster
and his party being out in the country botanizing, his servant, a feeble
man, was beset by five or six fellows, who would have stripped him, if,
that moment, one of the party had not come to his assistance; after
which they made off with a hatchet they had got from him.

On the 17th I went ashore to look for the chief, in order to complain of
the outrage committed as above; but he was not in the neighbourhood.
Being ashore in the afternoon, a person came and told me Oree wanted to
see me. I went with the man, and was conducted to a large house, where
the chief, and several other persons of note, were assembled, in
council, as well as I could understand. After I was seated, and some
conversation had passed among them, Oree made a speech, and was answered
by another. I understood no more of either, than just to know it
regarded the robbery committed the day before. The chief then began to
assure me, that neither he, nor any one present (which were the
principal chiefs in the neighbourhood) had any hand in it; and desired
me to kill, with the guns, all those which had. I assured him that I was
satisfied that neither he, nor those present, were at all concerned in
the affair; and that I should do with the fellows as he desired, or any
others who were guilty of the like crimes. Having asked where the
fellows were, and desired they would bring them to me that I might do
with them as he had said; his answer was, they were gone to the
mountains, and he could not get them. Whether this was the case or not,
I will not pretend to say. I knew fair means would never make them
deliver them up; and I had no intention to try others. So the affair
dropt, and the council broke up.

In the evening, some of the gentlemen went to a dramatic entertainment.
The piece represented a girl as running away with us from Otaheite;
which was in some degree true; as a young woman had taken a passage with
us down to Ulietea, and happened now to be present at the representation
of her own adventures; which had such an effect upon her, that it was
with great difficulty our gentlemen could prevail upon her to see the
play out, or to refrain from tears while it was acting. The piece
concluded with the reception she was supposed to meet with from her
friends at her return; which was not a very favourable one. These people
can add little extempore pieces to their entertainments when they see
occasion. Is it not then reasonable to suppose that this was intended as
a satire against this girl, and to discourage others from following her
steps?

In the morning of the 18th Oree came on board with a present of fruit,
stayed dinner, and in the afternoon desired to see some great guns
fired, shotted, which I complied with. The reason of his making this
request was his hearing, from Oedidee and our Otaheitean passengers,
that we had so done at their island. The chief would have had us fire at
the hills; but I did not approve of that, lest the shot should fall
short, and do some mischief. Besides the effect was better seen in the
water. Some of the petty officers, who had leave to go into the country
for their amusement, took two of the natives with them to be their
guides, and to carry their bags, containing nails, hatchets, &c., the
current cash we traded with here; which the fellows made off with in the
following artful manner. The gentlemen had with them two musquets for
shooting birds. After a shower of rain, their guides pointed out some
for them to shoot. One of the musquets having missed fire several times,
and the other having gone off, the instant the fellows saw themselves
secure from both, they ran away, leaving the gentlemen gazing after them
with so much surprise, that no one had presence of mind to pursue them.

The 19th, showery morning; fair afternoon; nothing happened worthy of
note.

Early in the morning of the 20th, three of the officers set out on a
shooting party, rather contrary to my inclination; as I found the
natives, at least some of them, were continually watching every
opportunity to rob straggling parties, and were daily growing more
daring. About three o’clock in the afternoon, I got intelligence that
they were seized and stripped of every thing they had about them. Upon
this I immediately went on shore with a boat’s crew, accompanied by Mr.
Forster, and took possession of a large house with all its effects, and
two chiefs, whom I found in it; but this we did in such a manner that
they hardly knew what we were about, being unwilling to alarm the
neighbourhood. In this situation I remained till I heard the officers
had got back safe, and had all their things restored to them: then I
quitted the house; and presently after every thing in it was carried
off. When I got on board I was informed of the whole affair by the
officers themselves. Some little insult on their part induced the
natives to seize their guns, on which a scuffle ensued, some chiefs
interfered, took the officers out of the crowd, and caused every thing
which had been taken from them to be restored. This was at a place where
we had before been told, that a set of fellows had formed themselves
into a gang, with a resolution to rob every one who should go that way.
It should seem, from what followed, that the chief could not prevent
this, or put a stop to these repeated outrages. I did not see him this
evening, as he was not come into the neighbourhood when I went on board;
but I learnt from Oedidee that he came soon after, and was so concerned
at what had happened that he wept.

Day-light no sooner broke upon us on the 21st, than we saw upwards of
sixty canoes under sail going out of the harbour, and steering over for
Ulietea. On our inquiring the reason, we were told that the people in
them were _Eareeoies_, and were going to visit their brethren in the
neighbouring isles. One may almost compare these men to freemasons; they
tell us they assist each other when need requires; they seem to have
customs among them which they either will not, or cannot explain.
Oedidee told us he was one; Tupia was one; and yet I have not been able
to get any tolerable idea of this set of men, from either of them.
Oedidee denies that the children they have by their mistresses are put
to death, as we understood from Tupia and others. I have had some
conversation with Omai on this subject, and find that he confirms every
thing that is said upon it in the narrative of my former voyage.

Oedidee, who generally slept on shore, came off with a message from
Oree, desiring I would land with twenty-two men, to go with him, to
chastise the robbers. The messenger brought with him by way of assisting
his memory, twenty-two pieces of leaves, a method customary amongst
them. On my receiving this extraordinary message, I went to the chief
for better information; and all I could learn of him was, that these
fellows were a sort of banditti, who had formed themselves into a body
with a resolution of seizing and robbing our people wherever they found
them, and were now armed for that purpose: for which reason he wanted me
to go along with him to chastise them. I told him, if I went, they would
fly to the mountains; but he said they were resolved to fight us, and
therefore desired I would destroy both them and their house; but begged
I would spare those in the neighbourhood, as also the canoes and the
_Whenooa_. By way of securing these, he presented me with a pig as a
peace-offering for the _Whenooa_. It was too small to be meant for any
thing but a ceremony of this kind. This sensible old chief could see
(what, perhaps, none of the others ever thought of) that every thing in
the neighbourhood was at our mercy, and therefore took care to secure
them by this method, which I suppose to be of weight with them. When I
returned on board, I considered of the chief’s request, which, upon the
whole, appeared an extraordinary one. I, however, resolved to go, lest
these fellows should be (by our refusal) encouraged to commit greater
acts of violence; and, as their proceeding would soon reach Ulietea,
where I intended to go next, the people there might be induced to treat
us in the same manner, or worse, they being more numerous. Accordingly,
I landed with forty-eight men, including officers, Mr. Forster, and some
others of the gentlemen. The chief joined us with a few people, and we
began to march, in search of the banditti, in good order. As we
proceeded, the chief’s party increased like a snow-ball. Oedidee, who
was with us, began to be alarmed, observing, that many of the people in
our company were of the very party we were going against, and at last
telling us that they were only leading us to some place where they could
attack us to advantage. Whether there was any truth in this, or it was
only Oedidee’s fears, I will not pretend to say. He, however, was the
only person we could confide in, and we regulated our motions according
to the information he had given us. After marching some miles we got
intelligence that the men we were going after had fled to the mountains;
but I think this was not till I had declared to the chief I would
proceed no farther. For we were then about crossing a deep valley,
bounded on each side by steep rocks, where a few men, with stones only,
might have made our retreat difficult, if their intentions were what
Oedidee had suggested, and which he still persisted in. Having come to a
resolution to return, we marched back in the same order as we went, and
saw, in several places, people, who had been following us, coming down
from the sides of the hills with their arms in their hands, which they
instantly quitted and hid in the bushes, when they saw they were
discovered by us. This seemed to prove that there must have been some
foundation for what Oedidee had said; but I cannot believe the chief had
any such design, whatever the people might have. In our return we halted
at a convenient place to refresh ourselves. I ordered the people to
bring us some cocoa-nuts, which they did immediately. Indeed, by this
time, I believe many of them wished us on board out of the way; for
although no one step was taken that could give them the least alarm,
they certainly were in terror. Two chiefs brought each of them a pig, a
dog, and some young plantain trees, the usual peace-offerings, and, with
due ceremony, presented them singly to me. Another brought a very large
hog, with which he followed us to the ship. After this we continued our
course to the landing place, where I caused several vollies to be fired,
to convince the natives that we could support a continual fire. This
being done, we all embarked and went on board; and soon after the chief
following, brought with him a quantity of fruit, and sat down with us to
dinner. We had scarce dined before more fruit was brought us by others,
and two hogs; so that we were likely to make more by this little
excursion than by all the presents we had made them. It certainly gave
them some alarm to see so strong a party of men march into their
country; and probably gave them a better opinion of fire-arms than they
had before. For I believe they had but an indifferent, or rather
contemptible idea of musquets in general, having never seen any fired
but at birds, &c. by such of our people as used to straggle about the
country, the most of them but indifferent marksmen, losing generally two
shots out of three, their pieces often missing fire, and being slow in
charging. Of all this they had taken great notice, and concluded, as
well they might, that fire-arms were not so terrible things as they had
been taught to believe.

When the chiefs took leave in the evening, they promised to bring us the
next day a very large supply of provisions. In the article of fruit they
were as good as their word, but of hogs, which we most wanted, they
brought far less than we expected. Going ashore in the afternoon, I
found the chief just sitting down to dinner. I cannot say what was the
occasion of his dining so late. As soon as he was seated, several people
began chewing the pepper-root; about a pint of the juice of which,
without any mixture, was the first dish, and was dispatched in a moment.
A cup of it was presented to me; but the manner of brewing it was at
this time sufficient. Oedidee was not so nice, but took what I refused.
After this the chief washed his mouth with cocoa-nut-water; then he eat
of repe, plantain, and mahee, of each not a little; and lastly finished
his repast by eating, or rather drinking, about three pints of _popoie_;
which is made of bread-fruit, plantains, mahee, &c. beat together and
diluted with water till it is of the consistence of a custard. This was
at the outside of his house in the open air; for at this time, a play
was acting within, as was done almost every day in the neighbourhood;
but they were such poor performances that I never attended. I observed
that, after the juice had been squeezed out of the chewed pepper-root
for the chief, the fibres were carefully picked up and taken away by one
of his servants. On my asking what he intended to do with it, I was told
he would put water to it, and strain it again. Thus he would make what I
will call small beer.

The 23d, wind easterly, as it had been ever since we left Otaheite.
Early in the morning, we unmoored, and at eight weighed and put to sea.
The good old chief was the last man who went out of the ship. At parting
I told him we should see each other no more; at which he wept, and said,
“Let your sons come, we will treat them well.” Oree is a good man, in
the utmost sense of the word; but many of the people are far from being
of that disposition, and seem to take advantage of his old age;
Teraderre his grandson and heir being yet but a youth. The gentle
treatment the people of this isle ever met with from me, and the
careless and imprudent manner in which many of our people had rambled
about in the country, from a vain opinion that fire-arms rendered them
invincible, encouraged many at Huaheine, to commit acts of violence,
which no man at Otaheite ever durst attempt.

During our stay here we got bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, &c. more than we
could well consume, but not hogs enough, by far to supply our daily
expence; and yet it did not appear that they were scarce in the isle. It
must, however, be allowed, that the number we took away, when last here,
must have thinned them greatly, and at the same time, stocked the isle
with our articles. Besides, we now wanted a proper assortment of trade;
what we had being nearly exhausted, and the few remaining red feathers
being here but of little value, when compared to the estimation they
stand in at Otaheite. This obliged me to set the smiths to work to make
different sorts of iron tools, nails, &c. In order to enable me to
procure refreshments at the other isles, and to support my credit and
influence among the natives.


                               CHAP. XV.

ARRIVAL AT ULIETEA, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE RECEPTION WE MET WITH THERE,
 AND THE SEVERAL INCIDENTS WHICH HAPPENED DURING OUR STAY. A REPORT OF
 TWO SHIPS BEING AT HUAHEINE. PREPARATIONS TO LEAVE THE ISLAND, AND THE
REGRET THE INHABITANTS SHEWED ON THE OCCASION. THE CHARACTER OF OEDIDEE,
             WITH SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE ISLANDS.


As soon as we were clear of the harbour, we made sail, and stood over
for the south end of Ulietea. Oree took the opportunity to send a man
with a message to Opoony. Being little wind all the latter part of the
day, it was dark before we reached the west side of the isle, where we
spent the night. The same light variable wind continued till ten o’clock
next morning, when the trade-wind at East prevailed, and we ventured to
ply up to the harbour, first sending a boat to lie in anchorage in the
entrance. After making a few trips, we got before the channel, and with
all our sails set, and the head-way the ship had acquired, shut her in
as far as she would go; then dropped the anchor, and took in the sails.
This is the method of getting into most of the harbours which are on the
lee-side of these isles; for the channels, in general, are too narrow to
ply in. We were now anchored between the two points of the reef which
form the entrance; each not more than two-thirds the length of a cable
from us, and on which the sea broke with such height and violence, as,
to people less acquainted with the place, would have been terrible.
Having all our boats out with anchors and warps in them, which were
presently run out, the ship warped into safety, where we dropped anchor
for the night. While this work was going forward, my old friend Oreo the
chief, and several more, came to see us. The chief came not empty.

Next day we warped the ship into, and moored her in, a proper birth, so
as to command all the shores around us. In the mean time a party of us
went ashore to pay the chief a visit, and to make the customary present.
At our first entering his house, we were met by four or five old women,
weeping and lamenting, as it were, most bitterly, and at the same
cutting their heads, with instruments made of sharks teeth, till the
blood ran plentifully down their faces and on their shoulders. What was
still worse, we were obliged to submit to the embraces of these old
hags, and by that means were all besmeared with blood. This ceremony
(for it was merely such) being over, they went out, washed themselves,
and immediately after appeared as cheerful as any of the company. Having
made some little stay, and given my present to the chief and his
friends, he put a hog and some fruit into my boat, and came on board
with us to dinner. In the afternoon, we had a vast number of people and
canoes about us, from different parts of the island. They all took up
their quarters in our neighbourhood, where they remained feasting for
some days. We understood the most of them were _Eareoys_.

The 26th afforded nothing remarkable, excepting that Mr. Forster, in his
botanical excursions, saw a burying-place for dogs, which they called
_Marai no te Oore_. But, I think, we ought not to look upon this as one
of their customs; because few dogs die a natural death, being generally,
if not always, killed and eaten, or else given as an offering to the
gods. Probably this might be a _Marai_ or altar, where this sort of
offering was made; or it might have been the whim of some person to have
buried his favourite dog in this manner. But be it as it will, I cannot
think it is a general custom in the nation; and, for my own part, I
neither saw nor heard of such a thing before.

Early in the morning of the 27th, Oreo, his wife, son, daughter, and
several more of his friends, made us a visit and brought with them a
good quantity of all manner of refreshments; little having as yet been
got from any body else. They staid dinner; after which a party of us
accompanied them on shore, where we were entertained with a play, called
_Mididdij Harramy_, which signifies the _Child is coming_. It concluded
with the representation of a woman in labour, acted by a set of great
brawny fellows, one of whom at last brought forth a strapping boy, about
six feet high, who ran about the stage, dragging after him a large wisp
of straw which hung by a string from his middle. I had an opportunity of
seeing this acted another time, when I observed, that the moment they
had got hold of the fellow who represented the child, they flattened or
pressed his nose. From this I judged, that they do so by their children
when born, which may be the reason why all in general have flat noses.
This part of the play, from its newness, and the ludicrous manner in
which it was performed, gave us, the first time we saw it, some
entertainment, and caused a loud laugh, which might be the reason why
they acted it so often afterwards. But this, like all their other
pieces, could entertain us no more than once; especially as we could
gather little from them, for want of knowing more of their language.

The 28th was spent by me in much the same manner as the preceding day,
viz. in entertaining my friends, and being entertained by them. Mr.
Forster and his party in the country botanizing.

Next morning, we found several articles had been stolen out of our boats
lying at the buoy, about sixty or seventy yards from the ship. As soon
as I was informed of it, I went to the chief to acquaint him therewith.
I found that he not only knew they were stolen, but by whom, and where
they were; and he went immediately with me in my boat in pursuit of
them. After proceeding a good way along shore, towards the south end of
the island, the chief ordered us to land near some houses, where we did
not wait long before all the articles were brought to us, except the
pinnace’s iron tiller, which I was told was still farther off. But, when
I wanted to go after it, I found the chief unwilling to proceed; and he
actually gave me the slip, and retired into the country. Without him I
knew I could do nothing. The people began to be alarmed when they saw I
was for going farther; by which I concluded that the tiller was out of
their reach also. I therefore sent one of them to the chief to desire
him to return. He returned accordingly; when we sat down, and had some
victuals set before us; thinking perhaps that, as I had not breakfasted,
I must be hungry, and not in a good-humour. Thus I was amused till two
hogs were produced, which they intreated me to accept. This I did, and
then their fears vanished; and I thought myself not ill off in having
gotten two good hogs for a thing which seemed to be quite out of my
reach. Matters being thus settled, we returned on board, and had the
company of the chief and his son to dinner. After that we all went
ashore, where a play was acted for the entertainment of such as would
spend their time in looking at it. Besides these plays, which the chief
caused frequently to be acted, there were a set of strolling players in
the neighbourhood, who performed every day. But their pieces seemed to
be so much alike, that we soon grew tired of them; especially as we
could not collect any interesting circumstances from them. We, our ship,
and our country, were frequently brought on the stage; but on what
account I know not. It can hardly be doubted, that this was designed as
a compliment to us, and probably not acted but when some of us were
present. I generally appeared at Oreo’s theatre towards the close of the
play, and twice at the other, in order to give my mite to the actors.
The only actress at Oreo’s theatre was his daughter, a pretty brown
girl, at whose shrine, on these occasions, many offerings were made by
her numerous votaries. This, I believe, was one great inducement to her
father’s giving us these entertainments so often.

Early in the morning of the 30th, I set out with the two boats,
accompanied by the two Mr. Forsters, Oedidee, the chief, his wife, son,
and daughter, for an estate which Oedidee called his, situated at the
north end of the island. There I was promised to have hogs and fruit in
abundance; but when we came there we found that poor Oedidee could not
command one single thing, whatever right he might have to the _Whenooa_,
which was now in possession of his brother, who soon after we landed,
presented to me, with the usual ceremony, two pigs. I made him a very
handsome present in return, and Oedidee gave him every thing he had left
of what he had collected the time he was with us.

After this ceremony was over, I ordered one of the pigs to be killed and
dressed for dinner, and attended myself to the whole operation, which
was as follows: They first strangled the hog, which was done by three
men; the hog being placed on his back, two of them laid a pretty strong
stick across his throat, and pressed with all their weight on each end;
the third man held his hind legs, kept him on his back, and plugged up
his fundament with grass, I suppose to prevent any air from passing or
repassing that way. In this manner they held him for about ten minutes
before he was quite dead. In the mean time, some hands were employed in
making a fire, to heat the oven, which was close by. As soon as the hog
was quite dead, they laid him on the fire, and burnt or singed the hair,
so that it came off with almost the same ease as if it had been scalded.
As the hair was got off one part, another was applied to the fire till
they had got off the whole, yet not so clean but that another operation
was necessary; which was to carry it to the sea-side, and there give it
a good scrubbing with sandy stones, and sand. This brought off all the
scurf, &c. which the fire had left on. After well washing off the sand
and dirt, the carcase was brought again to the former place, and laid on
clean green leaves, in order to be opened. They first ripped up the skin
of the belly, and took out the fat or lard from between the skin and the
flesh, which they laid on a large green leaf. The belly was then ripped
open, and the entrails taken out and carried away in a basket, so that I
know not what became of them; but am certain they were not thrown away.
The blood was next taken out and put into a large leaf, and then the
lard, which was put to the other fat. The hog was now washed clean, both
inside and out, with fresh water, and several hot stones put into his
belly, which were shaken in under the breast, and green leaves crammed
in upon them. By this time the oven was sufficiently heated; what fire
remained was taken away, together with some of the hot stones; the rest
made a kind of pavement in the bottom of the hole or oven, and were
covered with leaves on which the hog was placed on his belly. The lard
and fat, after being washed with water, were put into a vessel, made
just then of the green bark of a plantain tree, together with two or
three hot stones, and placed on one side the hog. A hot stone was put to
the blood, which was tied up in the leaf, and put into the oven; as also
bread-fruits and plantains. Then the whole was covered with green
leaves, on which were laid the remainder of the hot stones; over them
were leaves; then any sort of rubbish they could lay their hands on;
finishing the operation by well covering the whole with earth. While the
victuals were baking, a table was spread with green leaves on the floor,
at one end of a large boat-house. At the close of two hours and ten
minutes, the oven was opened, and all the victuals taken out. Those of
the natives who dined with us, sat down by themselves, at one end of the
table, and we at the other. The hog was placed before us, and the fat
and blood before them, on which they chiefly dined, and said it was
_Mamity_, very good victuals; and we not only said, but thought the same
of the pork. The hog weighed about fifty pounds. Some parts about the
ribs I thought rather overdone; but the more fleshy parts were
excellent; and the skin, which by our way of dressing can hardly be
eaten, had, by this method, a taste and flavour superior to any thing I
ever met with of the kind. I have now only to add, that during the whole
of the various operations, they exhibited a cleanliness well worthy of
imitation. I have been the more particular in this account, because I do
not remember that any one of us had seen the whole process before; nor
is it well described in the narrative of my former voyage.

While dinner was preparing, I took a view of this _Whenooa_ of Oedidee.
It was small, but a pleasant spot; and the houses were so disposed as to
form a very pretty village, which is very rarely the case at these
isles. Soon after we had dined, we set out for the ship, with the other
pig, and a few races of plantains, which proved to be the sum total of
our great expectations.

In our return to the ship, we put ashore at a place where, in the corner
of a house, we saw four wooden images, each two feet long, standing on a
shelf, having a piece of cloth round their middle, and a kind of turban
on their heads, in which were stuck long cocks feathers. A person in the
house told us they were, _Eatua no te Toutou_, gods of the servants or
slaves. I doubt if this be sufficient to conclude that they pay them
divine worship, and that the servants or slaves are not allowed the same
gods as men of more elevated rank. I never heard that Tupia made any
such distinction, or that they worshipped any visible thing whatever.
Besides, these were the first wooden gods we had seen in any of the
isles; and all the authority we had for their being such, was the bare
word of perhaps a superstitious person, and whom we were likewise liable
to misunderstand. It must be allowed that the people of this isle are,
in general, more superstitious than at Otaheite. At the first visit I
made the chief after our arrival, he desired I would not suffer any of
my people to shoot herons and wood-peckers; birds as sacred with them as
robin-red breasts, swallows, &c. are with many old women in England.
Tupia, who was a priest, and well acquainted with their religion,
customs, traditions, &c., paid little or no regard to these birds. I
mention this because some amongst us were of opinion that these birds
are their _Eatuas_, or gods. We, indeed, fell into this opinion when I
was here in 1769, and into some others still more absurd, which we had
undoubtedly adopted if Tupia had not undeceived us. A man of his
knowledge and understanding we have not since met with, and consequently
have added nothing to his account of their religion, but superstitious
notions.

The people knowing that we should sail soon, began, on the 31st, to
bring on board more fruit than usual. Amongst those who came was a young
man who measured six feet four inches and six-tenths; and his sister,
younger than him, measured five feet ten inches and an half. A brisk
trade for hogs and fruit continued on the 1st of June. On the 2d, in the
afternoon, we got intelligence that, three days before, two ships had
arrived at Huaheine. The same report said the one was commanded by Mr.
Banks, and the other by Captain Furneaux. The man, who brought the
account, said he was made drunk on board one of them, and described the
persons of Mr. Banks and Captain Furneaux so well, that I had not the
least doubt of the truth, and began to consider about sending a boat
over that very evening, with orders to Captain Furneaux, when a man, a
friend of Mr. Forster, happened to come on board, and denied the whole,
saying it was _wa warre_, a lie. The man from whom we had the
intelligence was now gone, so that I could not confront them, and there
were none else present who knew any thing about it but by report; so
that I laid aside sending over a boat till I should be better informed.
This evening we entertained the people with fire-works, on one of the
little isles near the entrance of the harbour.

I had fixed on the next day for sailing, but the intelligence from
Huaheine put a stop to it. The chief had promised to bring the man on
board who first brought the account; but he was either not to be found,
or would not appear. In the morning, the people were divided in their
opinions; but in the afternoon all said it was a false report. I had
sent Mr. Clerke, in the morning, to the farthest part of the island, to
make inquiries there: he returned without learning any thing
satisfactory. In short, the report appeared now too ill-founded, to
authorise me to send a boat over, or to wait any longer here; and,
therefore, early in the morning of the 4th, I got every thing in
readiness to sail. Oreo, the chief, and his whole family, came on board,
to take their last farewell, accompanied by Oo-oo-rou, the _Earee de
hi_, and Boba the _Earee_ of Otaha, and several of their friends. None
of them came empty; but Oo-oo-rou brought a pretty large present, this
being his first and only visit. I distributed amongst them almost every
thing I had left. The very hospitable manner in which I had ever been
received by these people, had endeared them to me, and given them a just
title to every thing in my power to grant. I questioned them again about
the ships at Huaheine; and they all, to a man, denied that any were
there. During the time these people remained on board, they were
continually importuning me to return. The chief, his wife, and daughter,
but especially the two latter, scarcely ever ceased weeping. I will not
pretend to say whether it was real or feigned grief they shewed on this
occasion. Perhaps there was a mixture of both; but were I to abide by my
own opinion only, I should believe it was real. At last, when we were
about to weigh, they took a most affectionate leave. Oreo’s last request
was for me to return; when he saw he could not obtain that promise, he
asked the name of my _Marai_ (burying-place.) As strange a question as
this was, I hesitated not a moment to tell him Stepney; the parish in
which I live, when in London. I was made to repeat it several times over
till they could pronounce it: then, Stepney, _Marai no Toote_, was
echoed through an hundred mouths at once. I afterwards found the same
question had been put to Mr. Forster by a man on shore; but he gave a
different, and, indeed, more proper answer, by saying, no man, who used
the sea, could say where he should be buried. It is the custom at these
isles for all the great families to have burial-places of their own,
where their remains are interred. These go with the estate to the next
heir. The _Marai_ at Oparree at Otaheite, when Tootaha swayed the
sceptre, was called _Marai no Tootaha_; but now it is called _Marai no
Otoo_. What greater proof could we have of these people esteeming us as
friends, than their wishing to remember us, even beyond the period of
our lives? They had been repeatedly told that we should see them no
more; they then wanted to know where we were to mingle with our parent
dust.

As I could not promise, or even suppose, that more English ships would
be sent to those isles, our faithful companion Oedidee chose to remain
in his native country. But he left us with a regret fully demonstrative
of the esteem he bore to us; nor could any thing, but the fear of never
returning, have torn him from us. When the chief teased me so much about
returning, I sometimes gave such answers as left them hopes. Oedidee
would instantly catch at this, take me on one side, and ask me over
again. In short, I have not words to describe the anguish which appeared
in this young man’s breast, when he went away. He looked up at the ship,
burst into tears, and then sunk down into the canoe. The maxim that a
prophet has no honour in his own country, was never more fully verified
than in this youth. At Otaheite he might have had any thing that was in
their power to bestow; whereas here he was not in the least noticed. He
was a youth of good parts, and, like most of his countrymen, of a
docile, gentle, and humane disposition; but, in a manner, wholly
ignorant of their religion, government, manners, customs, and
traditions; consequently, no material knowledge could have been gathered
from him, had I brought him away. Indeed, he would have been a better
specimen of the nation, in every respect, than Omai. Just as Oedidee was
going out of the ship, he asked me to _Tatou_ some _Parou_ for him, in
order to show the commanders of any other ships which might stop here. I
complied with his request, gave him a certificate of the time he had
been with us, and recommended him to the notice of those who might touch
at the island after me.

We did not get clear of our friends till eleven o’clock, when we
weighed, and put to sea; but Oedidee did not leave us till we were
almost out of the harbour. He stayed in order to fire some guns; for it
being His Majesty’s birth-day, we fired the salute at going away.

When I first came to these islands, I had some thought of visiting
Tupia’s famous Bolabola. But as I had now got on board a plentiful
supply of all manner of refreshments, and the route I had in view
allowing me no time to spare, I laid this design aside, and directed my
course to the west; taking our final leave of these happy isles, on
which benevolent nature has spread her luxuriant sweets with a lavish
hand. The natives, copying the bounty of nature, are equally liberal;
contributing plentifully and cheerfully to the wants of navigators.
During the six weeks we had remained at them, we had fresh pork, and all
the fruits which were in season, in the utmost profusion; besides fish
at Otaheite, and fowls at the other isles. All these articles we got in
exchange for axes, hatchets, nails, chissels, cloth, red feathers,
beads, knives, scissars, looking-glasses, &c. articles which will ever
be valuable here. I ought not to omit shirts as a very capital article
in making presents; especially with those who have any connexions with
the fair sex. A shirt here is full as necessary as a piece of gold in
England. The ladies at Otaheite, after they had pretty well stripped
their lovers of shirts, found a method of clothing themselves with their
own cloth. It was their custom to go on shore every morning, and to
return on board in the evening, generally clad in rags. This furnished a
pretence to importune the lover for better clothes; and when he had no
more of his own, he was to dress them in new cloth of the country, which
they always left ashore; and appearing again in rags, they must again be
clothed. So that the same suit might pass through twenty different
hands, and be as often sold, bought, and given away.

Before I finish this account of these islands, it is necessary to
mention all I know concerning the government of Ulietea and Otaha. Oreo,
so often mentioned, is a native of Bolabola; but is possessed of
_Whenooas_ or lands at Ulietea; which, I suppose, he, as well as many of
his countrymen, got at the conquest. He resides here as Opoony’s
lieutenant; seeming to be vested with regal authority, and to be the
supreme magistrate in the island. Oo-oo-rou, who is the _Earee_ by
hereditary right, seems to have little more left him than the bare
title, and his own _Whenooa_ or district, in which, I think, he is
sovereign. I have always seen Oreo pay him the respect due to his rank;
and he was pleased when he saw me distinguish him from others.

Otaha, so far as I can find, is upon the very same footing. Boba and Ota
are the two chiefs; the latter I have not seen; Boba is a stout,
well-made young man; and we are told, is, after Opoony’s death, to marry
his daughter, by which marriage he will be vested with the same regal
authority as Opoony has now; so that, it should seem, though a woman may
be vested with regal dignity, she cannot have regal power. I cannot find
that Opoony has got any thing to himself by the conquest of these isles,
any farther than providing for his nobles, who have seized on best part
of the lands. He seems to have no demand on them for any of the many
articles they have had from us. Oedidee has several times enumerated to
me all the axes, nails, &c. which Opoony is possessed of, which hardly
amount to as many as he had from me when I saw him in 1769. Old as this
famous man is, he seems not to spend his last days in indolence. When we
first arrived here, he was at Maurana; soon after, he returned to
Bolabola; and we were now told, he was gone to Tubi.

I shall conclude this account of these islands, with some observations
on the watch which Mr. Wales hath communicated to me. At our arrival in
Matavai Bay in Otaheite, the longitude pointed out by the watch was 2°
8ʹ 38-1/2ʺ too far to the west; that is, it had gained, since our
leaving Queen Charlotte’s Sound, of its then rate of going, 8ʹ 34-1/2ʺ.
This was in about five months, or rather more, during which time it had
passed through the extremes of cold and heat. It was judged that half
this error arose after we left Easter Island; by which it appeared that
it went better in the cold than in the hot climates.


                        END OF THE THIRD VOLUME.


                                LONDON:
                    Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode,
                           New-Street-Square.



                               Footnotes

Footnote 1:

  See Wafer’s Description of the Isthmus of Darien.

Footnote 2:

  In the account given of St. Helena in the narrative of my former
  voyage I find two mistakes. Its inhabitants are far from exercising a
  wanton cruelty over their slaves; and they have had wheel-carriages
  and porters’ knots for many years.

Footnote 3:

  This custom is not peculiar to the inhabitants of the Friendly Isles.
  See Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, tom. ii. p. 253, &c.

Footnote 4:

  See Dalrymple’s Collection of Voyages, vol. ii.

Footnote 5:

  Vol. I. p. 61. to 73.



                           Transcriber’s Note


This book uses inconsistent spelling and hyphenation, which were
retained in the ebook version. Some corrections have been made to the
text, including normalizing punctuation. Further corrections are noted
below:

 p. 9: Commodore Bougainvill -> Commodeore Bougainville
 p. 16: purhased -> purchased
 p. 32: and and soon after -> and soon after
 p. 38: Mr. Sparman -> Mr. Sparrman
 p. 45: under an easy sale -> under an easy sail
 p. 47: with much difficuly -> with much difficulty
 p. 70 which accordingly hapened -> which accordingly happened
 p. 71: similar so those -> similar to those
 p. 89: Lieutenants Clerke and Edgcumb -> Lieutenants Clerke and Edgcumbe
 p. 123: with much diffiulty -> with much difficulty
 p. 146-147: lon-longitude -> longitude
 p. 159: our principal freinds -> our principal friends
 p. 174: I went to Oree to to -> I went to Oree to
 p. 205: should be purchasesd -> should be purchased
 p. 219: many of them are meer points -> many of them are mere points
 p. 232: Queen Charlotte’s Souud -> Queen Charlotte’s Sound
 p. 249: a readiness to to oblige -> a readiness to oblige
 p. 255: having a favourble gale -> having a favourable gale
 p. 267: antartic peterel -> antarctic peterel
 p. 268: in the latiude of -> in the latitude of
 p. 268: the the third time -> the third time
 p. 268: within the antartic polar circle -> within the antarctic polar
    circle
 p. 281: Lieutenants Pickersgill and Edgecumbe -> Lieutenants Pickersgill
    and Edgcumbe
 p. 293: built of of many pieces -> built of many pieces
 p. 298: between the the two last -> between the two last
 p. 308: the affiinity of their language -> the affinity of their
    language
 p. 312: A DESCRIPTION OE -> A DESCRIPTION OF
 p. 327: picture of the the fleet -> picture of the fleet
 p. 331: nevertheless carrried with it -> nevertheless carried with it
 p. 340: by couching a little -> by crouching a little
 p. 350: given away at at this isle -> given away at this isle
 p. 353: went down to Oparee -> went down to Oparree
 p. 367: liable to misundertand -> liable to misunderstand
 p. 383: their last farewel -> their last farewell





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