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Title: The Armies of Europe
Author: Köppen, Fedor von
Language: English
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[Illustration: England. I.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]



Translated and Revised by Count Gleichen,
Grenadier Guards,

From the German of FEDOR VON KÖPPEN.

Illustrated by Richard Knötel.

William Clowes & Sons, Limited,
13, Charing Cross, S.W.

Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Limited,
Stamford Street and Charing Cross.



  CONTENTS                                                iii

  PREFACE                                                   v

  TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE                                    vii

  ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE                                1

  THE GERMAN ARMY                                          20

  AUSTRIA-HUNGARY                                          36

  ITALY                                                    42

  FRANCE                                                   46

  RUSSIA                                                   53

  DENMARK                                                  59

  SWEDEN AND NORWAY                                        61

  SPAIN AND PORTUGAL                                       64

  SWITZERLAND                                              67

  HOLLAND AND BELGIUM                                      69


  APPENDIX (NAVIES)                                        79


                     “Si vis pacem, para bellum!”

“Let him who is desirous of peace prepare himself for war.” Thus runs
the proverb which sums up the experiences and history of the most
powerful Empire of old. If this maxim held good in the old Roman days,
how much more applicable is it to the present time, when war-clouds are
darkening the horizon, and threaten to burst in ruin and devastation on
all nations who have not heeded the warning! There are, however, few
who have not heeded it, and the governments of all nations have been
for some time, and are still, reorganising their Armies and bringing
them to a high state of efficiency in accordance with the experience
taught them by the great wars of the last thirty years.

It is therefore necessary for all who take an interest in military
matters, or in foreign politics, to become acquainted with the strength
and organisation of the armed forces of the different European Powers,
for it is only by a study of these Armies that we get to know the
relative value of our own.

                         TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.

The matter contained in the following pages has been corrected up
to date. The _Corrigenda_ at the end of Germany, France, Italy, and
Russia, refer to the alterations that have taken place during the
progress of this work through the press.

A few words of the original text, such as “Landwehr” and “Ersatz,” have
been retained in the translation, although applied to other than German
countries. For their meaning, _v._ “The German Army,” p. 21, etc. There
are no corresponding English words.

  _November_, 1890.

[Illustration: England. II.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

                    ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.[1]

The British Army is constructed on a purely original system. It is like
no other army in the world, and for this very good reason, that there
is no empire in the world like the British Empire.

[Sidenote: +The British Empire.+]

Great Britain and Ireland alone do not constitute the Empire. India,
Australia, Canada, the Cape, and shoals of other colonies in every
quarter of the globe, all help to build it up, and for its defence we
must have an Imperial Army constructed to fit it. Let us see what we
have got.

The first thing that strikes us about the Army is that, although of
a decent size, it is not by any means too large—in fact, some people
say that it is nothing like large enough. That, however, is a question
which chiefly concerns the British taxpayer and his pocket, and
with which we have nothing to do at this moment, so we will confine
ourselves to contemplating its actual size.

[Sidenote: +Strength of Imperial Army.+]

The Empire contains, roughly, over 9,000,000 of square miles, and over
326,000,000 of inhabitants. To defend these we have an Army which
numbers roughly as follows:—

  Regular Forces                 202,000
  1st and 2nd Class Reserves      57,000
  Militia and Militia Reserve    134,000
  Yeomanry                        11,000
  Volunteers                     224,000
  Colonial Forces                 84,000
  Indian Native Army             152,000

altogether, 864,000 men at the outside. This apparently large number,
however, includes every single able-bodied man, British or Native,
who has been trained to bear arms: the Regular Army forms not quite
a quarter of it. Taken altogether, this gives an average of about 1
combatant to 350 non-combatants—not a large proportion. Germany’s
proportion is 1 to 99. This is a large proportion, it is true, but
then she is threatened by powerful enemies on her eastern and western
frontiers, whereas we are an island, and look to our Navy as the first
line of defence. This being so, we can do with a moderately small Army,
and need not (yet) have recourse to the system of all other European
countries—namely, universal conscription.

It is absolutely necessary, however, that we should follow the
principle which underlies the military systems of all countries,
whether their armies are composed of conscripts or not. This principle
is that of keeping a small number of troops under arms in peace-time,
with a large reserve of trained men ready to be called out in case
of war. In our case, the small number under arms in peace-time is
represented by the Active Army, both British, Indian, and Colonial,[2]
and the large reserve by the 1st and 2nd Class Army Reserves, the
Militia, the Militia Reserve, the Yeomanry, and the Volunteers.

Before starting on the details of these different forces, it would be
as well to give the mode of enlistment and terms of service of the
British soldier, with a slight sketch of his history.

[Illustration: Mounted Infantry.

(Tropical Field Kit.)]

[Sidenote: +Recruitment.+]

The system of recruitment throughout the Army is that of voluntary
enlistment. As mentioned above, we are the _only_ country in Europe
whose soldiers are thus enlisted. The subjects of all other European
countries are liable to be enrolled in the army whether they like it
or not, and, as a rule, they do not like it. This voluntary enlistment
is a great advantage for us in one way, in that only those need be
soldiers who want to be; but, on the other hand, the strength of our
Army is chiefly dependent on the number of men who happen to fancy
soldiering, and this is hardly a matter for congratulation. Up till
now, the system has sufficed: let us hope we shall never have to change

It is not generally known that there exists an Act[3] which has to be
suspended annually by Parliament (or else it would now be in force),
by which the Crown is empowered to raise by ballot as many men as may
be necessary for the Army. In other words, the country _is_ liable
to conscription, as far as may be determined by the Crown’s advisers.
This Act has, however, not been enforced since 1815. N.B.—This mode
of raising troops must not be confounded with the “Embodiment of the
Militia,” of which more hereafter.

[Illustration: Cavalry.

(Tropical Field Kit.)]

Recruiting is carried out by paid recruiters (non-commissioned
officers) in the different districts. Formerly, the recruiting-sergeant
used to clinch the bargain with the would-be recruit by presenting him
with a shilling, on which the recruit usually got drunk. The “Queen’s
Shilling” has, however, been done away with, and the recruit has now to
get drunk at his own expense.

After going through certain formalities and answering certain questions
before a magistrate, the recruit signs his “attestation-paper,” and is
then considered as enlisted.

[Illustration: Officers of Highland Light Infantry and Argyll and
Sutherland Highlanders.]

The terms of service are, as a rule, seven years with the colours and
five years thereafter in the Reserve. There are a few exceptions to
this; men joining the Household Cavalry, Colonial Corps,[4] and one
or two other smaller branches of the Service, enlist for twelve years
with the colours; men for the Royal Engineers or Foot Guards have the
alternative of the usual term, or three years with the colours and nine
years in the Reserve; whilst the Army Service Corps and Medical Staff
Corps men and a few others serve for only three years with the colours
and a varying term of years in the Reserve.

[Illustration: Officer, 5th (Northumberland) Fusiliers.]

Recruits, at the date of their enlistment, must have the physical
equivalent of 19 years of age, must be at least 5 ft. 4 in. high, and
must have a minimum chest-measurement of 33 inches.[5]

Re-engagements up to seven or twelve years with the colours are
permitted in most, and up to twenty-one years in special, cases.

[Sidenote: +Sketch of the History of Our Army.+]

At a very early period of English history every able-bodied man was
bound to take up arms in the event of a civil war or invasion. He was,
however, only liable to serve in his own county. This force thus formed
was called the General Levy.

During the Middle Ages the feudal system was in force, _i.e._, the
retainers, tenants, and vassals of every knight were required to
attend their master if he went to fight abroad. The knights in their
turn were bound to attend the king when _he_ went to fight abroad,
and thus a very respectable army was formed for the time being. This
army, _i.e._, the knights and their followers, was called the Feudal
Levy. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, members of the General
Levy were told off for the service and defence of the Crown. They were
trained and exercised in the profession of arms, and received the name
of Trained Bands. The Honourable Artillery Company, a similar force,
was raised about this time. The Sovereign could, if necessary, hire
additional mercenary soldiers to assist him in war, and these were paid
by Parliament. The Civil War, however, in Charles I.’s reign, upset the
general military system, and for some time there was no National Army.

On the Restoration, in 1660, considerable changes and improvements
took place. The Feudal Levy was abolished, the General Levy became the
Militia, and the foundations were laid of the present Standing Army.

It may be news to some people that the “raising or keeping a standing
army within the kingdom in time of peace is against law,” but such is
the fact. Parliament has every year to specially notify its consent to
a standing army; otherwise the Army would cease to exist.

Since Charles II.’s time, the Standing Army has gradually been
increasing and improving. Voluntary enlistment dates from his reign,
but it apparently has not always been sufficiently productive of men,
for we find in the last century that debtors and criminals were obliged
to serve in the ranks, in order to keep the Army up to strength. The
pressgang was also in force till 1780. It is hardly astonishing then
that some, nay, a great many, ill-educated people have been taught,
by means of traditions handed down from their great-grandfathers, to
look upon the Army as a sink of iniquity, and that they still hold
extraordinary and utterly unreasonable views on the subject. They
need be under no apprehension about letting their sons and relations
enlist. The Army is now composed of a very good class of men, drawn
chiefly from the labouring and _not_ from the criminal classes (as some
people seem to imagine). The proportion of educated recruits is rapidly
increasing, a better class of men is now enlisting, and the military
crime of to-day is absurdly small as compared with that of twenty years
ago, and is still decreasing.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Active Army is divided into—

  1. The Regular Army;
  2. The Native Indian Army; and
  3. The Colonial Forces.

1. The Regular Army consists of Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers, and
Infantry; besides these are the non-combatant branches, consisting of
the Army Service Corps, the Ordnance Store Corps, the Medical Staff
Corps, the Pay, Medical, Chaplains, and Veterinary Departments, and a
few more.

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry consists of 31 regiments, including—

   2 Regiments of Life Guards (Household Cavalry).
   1 Regiment of Royal Horse Guards (Blues) (Household Cavalry).
   7 Regiments of Dragoon Guards (1st to 7th).
   3 Regiments of Dragoons (1st, 2nd, and 6th).
   5 Regiments of Lancers (5th, 9th, 12th, 16th, and 17th).
  13 Regiments of Hussars (3rd, 4th, 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th,
     13th to 15th, and 18th to 21st inclusive).

The British Cavalry is the smartest in the world. In the Cavalry of
nearly all foreign armies, Germany for instance, and France, the horses
are trained to a degree that is unheard of in the English arm; thus
their men require but little skill in riding, and may be described as
good soldiers on horseback. Ours, on the contrary, are born horsemen,
and do not need to have their horses so thoroughly trained. The
consequence is that when our men find themselves in a predicament not
provided for by the Regulations, their natural qualities stand them in
good stead, and by their brilliant riding and dash they turn to good
account a situation which might otherwise offer serious difficulties.
The British Cavalry is divided into Heavy, Medium, and Light, according
to the size and weight of the men. The Household Cavalry, 1st and 2nd
Dragoons, are heavy, and are never quartered abroad, the Hussars are
light, and all the rest are medium Cavalry.

The Life Guards, Dragoon Guards (except the 6th), Dragoons, and 16th
Lancers wear scarlet, the remainder of the Cavalry dark blue, tunics.

The Life Guards and Blues are the only regiments who wear cuirasses,
and these they would probably leave behind on active service. They, the
Dragoon Guards and the Dragoons (except the 2nd Scots Greys, who wear
bearskins), wear steel or brass helmets, with plumes varying in colour
according to the regiment. The Lancers wear the well-known Lancer cap,
with the scarlet[6] “plastron” in front of their tunics. The Hussars
wear the busby, with busby-bag and plume of different colours according
to the regiment; and they have also six rows of yellow braid across the
front of the tunic. All the Cavalry wear dark blue pantaloons[7] or
overalls, with red, white, or yellow stripes, and the Household Cavalry
has in addition white leather breeches and jackboots for full dress.
The Cavalry forage-cap is a small round one, and always worn over the
right ear.

Their arms are sword and carbine throughout; the Lancer regiments in
addition carry the lance of male bamboo, and with a red and white
pennon. The Cavalry carbine is of the Martini-Henry pattern, with a
bore of ·450 in.; it is sighted up to 1,000 yds., and is a first-rate
little weapon.

The establishment of a Cavalry Squadron (2 troops) in the field is:—

    6 officers,
   16 non-commissioned officers, and
  122 rank and file, of whom 26 are dismounted, and
  144 horses, including draught-horses.

A Regiment (4 squadrons) is composed of:—

    1 lieutenant-colonel,
    3 majors,
    6 captains,
   16 subalterns, and 6 other officers, including adjutant,
      quartermaster, surgeon, paymaster, and 2 “vets.”
   75 N. C. O.’s,
  666 rank and file, and
  614 horses.

A Cavalry Brigade numbers 3 regiments, and details altogether 114
officers, 2,280 men, and 2,200 horses.

A Cavalry Division numbers 2 brigades (6 regiments), 2 batteries Horse
Artillery, 1 battalion Mounted Infantry, and details altogether 325
officers, 6,600 men, and 6,500 horses.

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

The Artillery forms one “Royal Regiment,” consisting of:—

  20 Batteries of Royal Horse Artillery,
  80     ”      ” Field Artillery,
  10 Mountain Batteries, and
  96 Garrison Batteries,

with several depôts and 3 depôt batteries for their maintenance and
supply. The Horse and Field Batteries are formed into groups of 2 or 3
batteries, chiefly for tactical reasons, called Brigade Divisions, each
under a lieutenant-colonel.

A Horse Artillery Battery consists of 1 major, 1 captain, 3
subalterns, 21 N. C. O.’s, and 160 men (of which 73 are drivers), 193
horses, 6 guns, 6 ammunition wagons, and 7 other wagons.

A Field Artillery Battery of much the same, but with 9 men and 52
horses less.

The guns in use are at present of four different patterns:—

      | Weight of | Calibre. |   Sighted  | Are Armed with it.
      |   Shell.  |          |    up to.  |
  _a_ | 12 lbs.   | 3 in.    | 5,000 yds. | { 14 R. H. A. and 29
      |           |          |            | {   F. A. batteries.
  _b_ | 13  ”     | 3 in.    | 4,800  ”   | { 1 R. H. A. and 12
      |           |          |            | {   F. A. batteries.
  _c_ | 16  ”     | 3·6 in.  | 4,000  ”   |   2 F. A. batteries.
  _d_ |  9  ”     | 3 in.    | 3,500  ”   | { 5 R. H. A. and 37
      |           |          |            | {   F. A. batteries.

Of these patterns, the 12-pounder alone is a breech-loader; the others
are muzzle-loaders.

The 12-pounder is being issued as fast as possible to all R. H. A.
batteries. The F. A. will be divided into Light and Heavy Field
Artillery, the former of which will receive the 12-pounder B.-L. gun,
and the latter a new pattern 20-pounder B.-L. gun, with 8 horses to
a team. When this is done, the R. H. A. will probably receive a new
10-pounder B.-L. gun.

2 guns and wagons together are called a Section; 1 gun and wagon, a

A Garrison Battery is variously constituted, according to its locality.
The men of the battery have to work guns of all sorts and sizes in the
different forts where they are quartered, and, as a rule, have no guns
of their own.

Of the 96 Garrison Batteries, 4 are Siege-train batteries, quartered in
the United Kingdom, and armed with heavy guns for battering purposes,
and 4 more are “Heavy” batteries, quartered in India, the guns of
which are drawn by elephants and the wagons by bullocks.

[Illustration: Sergeant-Drummer, Coldstream Guards.]

The Garrison Artillery is grouped in 3 divisions: the Eastern (29
batteries), Southern (42), and Western (25). Although these divisions
are by way of corresponding with the different points of the compass
in Great Britain, the batteries composing them are scattered in every
quarter of the globe, and the Militia Brigades attached are not
necessarily Eastern, Southern, and Western ones.

The Mountain Artillery is armed with 2½-inch 7-pounder jointed guns,
each gun and gun-carriage being carried in pieces on 5 mules. One
battery is in England (Newport), one in South Africa, and the rest in

The Royal Malta Artillery is for the defence of that island, and is
composed of Maltese officers and men.

Men of the Horse Artillery are dressed in dark-blue Hussar-like
jackets, and busbies with a white plume and scarlet busby-bag; the
remainder of the Artillery in dark-blue tunics with red facings, and
black felt helmets with a brass ball instead of a spike. They are
armed with Martini-Henry carbines, and either sword or sword-bayonet,
according to their branch of the arm. The forage-cap is a small, round,
brimless one, with a band of orange braid.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

The corps of Royal Engineers is divided into a number of battalions,
depôts, and other units, which are given below as far as possible. As
will be seen, their duties, and especially those of the officers, are
extremely various.

[Illustration: Officer, 6th Dragoon Guards (Carbineers).]

The officers are employed sometimes with their men and sometimes apart
from them. A large number of R. E. officers (between 350 and 400)
serve in India, in connection with Native Engineer troops; others
are employed either at home or in a colony on staff work, public
works, Military Schools, the Ordnance Survey, military telegraphy and
railways, Engineer Militia and Volunteers, and a host of other duties
too numerous to mention. In fact, the Engineers form the Scientific
Corps of the Army. The officers are trained in the R. M. Academy at
Woolwich, and the rank and file are nearly all well-educated men,
skilled mechanics and trained workmen forming the bulk of them. That
their work does not interfere with their worth as soldiers has been
shown on many a field, and individual instances of their gallantry are

Formerly the Corps was composed of a large number (about 40) of
independent companies, split up and quartered throughout the Empire.
Now they have been collated together and formed into different
battalions and other units, according to their work.

The Corps is now composed as follows:—

(a.) A Bridging Battalion, consisting of 2 pontoon troops, each troop
numbering 5 officers, 28 N. C. O.’s, and 183 men, with 20 pontoon- and
8 other wagons, and 190 horses. Each troop carries the material for 120
yards of pontoon-bridge.

(b.) 2 Field Battalions, each of 4 companies. The companies however
still preserve their independence to a great extent, being quartered in
widely divergent localities, according to requirements.

The 1st Battalion consists of the former Nos. 7, 11, 17, and 23
independent companies, and the 2nd of Nos. 12, 26, 37, and 38.

A Field Company consists of 7 officers, 26 N. C. O.’s, 184 sappers,
etc., 70 horses, and 13 vehicles.

A proportion of the company, from one-fifth to one-third, is mounted.

These companies, as their name implies, are employed in digging,
sapping, making field-works, and blowing up places, on active service.

(c.) A Telegraph Battalion of 2 divisions (in war, of 4 sections), the
whole consisting of 6 officers, 15 N. C. O.’s, 224 men, 171 horses, and
22 vehicles. Their duties consist in laying lines of field telegraphs,
and making themselves generally useful in their branch of science
wherever they may happen to be.

(d.) A Submarine Mining Battalion, consisting of one depôt and 11
service companies (the old Nos. 4, 21, 22, 27, 28, 30, 33, 34, 35,
39, and 40), numbering about 760 of all ranks. Their strength varies
according to the locality in which they are employed.

(e.) A Coast Battalion of 3 divisions, altogether about 240 of all
ranks, employed in defensive works on the sea-coast.

(f.) 4 Survey Companies (Nos. 13, 14, 16, and 19), 330 men in all,
engaged in the Ordnance and other official Surveys.

(g.) 17 Fortress Companies, of varying strengths (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6,
9, 15, 18, 20, 24, 25, 29, 31, 32, 36, 41, and 42), which are employed
in the repair and keeping up of fortresses. In war-time they would
design and execute siege-batteries, parallels, and all work connected
with either the attack or defence of fortresses. In peace-time they
number altogether about 1600 men.

(h.) 8 Depôt Companies, which are employed in the training and drilling
of recruits, and in work relating to the Corps. They number 820 men.

(i.) 2 Railway Companies (Nos. 8 and 10), which number 140 men
together, and would be employed in the laying and repairing of railway
lines on service.

(k.) A Supernumerary Staff of nearly 400 men, which is employed in a
great variety of duties too numerous to mention.

420 more men are distributed in different parts of the world and in
military schools of different sorts.

The grand total of Royal Engineers in peace-time is therefore about
7,300 men.

Officers and men are dressed, armed, and equipped very similarly
to the Infantry of the Line (q. v.). They may, however, be readily
distinguished by the broad red stripe on their trousers, and by the
Royal Arms in front of the helmet. The forage-caps of the rank-and-file
are small round ones with a broad yellow band and no brim, worn on the
top of the head. Officers wear a black and gold pouch belt instead of a
sash. The facings are of dark-blue velvet, with yellow edging.

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

The British Infantry is composed of—

  The Brigade of Guards (3 regiments).
  69 Regiments of Infantry of the Line.
  1 West India Regiment.

Napoleon the Great said of the British Infantry: “It is the best
infantry in the world; luckily, there is not much of it.” It has
certainly not deteriorated since his day; but, unfortunately, it is not
much more numerous now than it was then.

Two years ago a distinguished Russian general said to an English
Guardsman: “Are your men as fine a lot as they were in ’54?” and on
receiving an answer in the affirmative, said: “I am sorry for it, if we
ever have to fight you again. I had more than enough of them in the
Crimea.” And Moltke said of the late Nile Expedition in 1885: “No one
but English soldiers could have done what they did.”

Such remarks speak for themselves.

The Brigade of Guards consists of three regiments—

  The Grenadier Guards, of which there are 3 battalions.
  The Coldstream Guards, of which there are 2 battalions.
  The Scots Guards, of which there are 2 battalions.

These three regiments form the Sovereign’s Body-Guard, and do not
usually serve out of Europe. The late campaigns in Egypt, however (1882
and 1885), and the prospective campaign in Canada in 1864, in all of
which two or more battalions of Guards took part, go to prove that
every rule has its exceptions.

At home, usually five battalions are quartered in London, and the other
two in Windsor and Dublin respectively.

The uniform of the Guards differs from that of the Infantry of the Line
chiefly in the shape of the facings and in the head-gear, the latter
being the well-known bearskin, with white or red plumes for Grenadiers
or Coldstream respectively. The forage-cap is round, with bands of red,
white, and dice for the three regiments respectively. The armament and
equipment is precisely that of the Infantry of the Line.

Of the 69 Regiments of the Line, one (Cameron Highlanders) consists
of 1 battalion; two (60th King’s Royal Rifle Corps and Rifle Brigade)
of 4 battalions; and the remainder of 2 battalions each. Total 141

The regiments are now called after their “Territorial Districts,” which
are the districts whence their recruits are drawn, and in which their
depôt is situated. Up to 1881, the Infantry of the Line consisted of
109 regiments, mostly of 1 battalion each, and numbered up to 109. In
that year, however, the system was changed, and a regiment is now known
by the county or part of the country it recruits in, with occasionally
the addition of a few other titles, such as “Borderers,” “King’s Own,”
“Loyal,” etc., etc.

Of the 69 regiments we have—

   9 Regiments of Fusiliers.
   4     ”     ”  Rifles.
   5     ”     ”  Highlanders.
   7     ”     ”  Light Infantry.
  44     ”     ”  Infantry (pure and simple).

The Infantry, with the exception of the four Rifle regiments, is, of
course, clothed in scarlet tunics, with facings of dark blue, white,
yellow, or green, according as whether the regiment is a “Royal,”
English, Scottish, or Irish one.

The head-dress of the Fusiliers is a busby of rough sealskin, shaped
similarly to the Guards’ bearskin, but much smaller. The (5th)
Northumberland Fusiliers wear a red and white plume, the remainder none.

The Rifle regiments are clothed in a very dark green, almost black,
uniform. The Rifle Brigade facings are black, those of the 60th K. R.
R. red, and those of the other two, Scottish and Irish Rifles, dark
and light green respectively. The first two mentioned are historically
connected with Hussar regiments,[8] and consequently the officers
wear round forage-caps, trailing swords, and a few other Cavalry-like
details; and the late head-gear used to be a Hussar-like black busby.
The helmet of all Rifle regiments is at present black, but it will
shortly be exchanged for a black Astrakhan fatigue-cap, with plume for
full dress.

The five Highland regiments are the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders),
the Seaforth, the Gordon, the Cameron, and the Argyll-and-Sutherland
Highlanders. They wear the feather-bonnet and well-known Highland
dress—plaid, kilt, hose, white gaiters, and shoes. The tartan, sporran,
hose, and a few other details differ in the various regiments.

The remainder of the Infantry, whether Light Infantry or not, wear[9]
black felt helmets with brass spike and fixings, the scarlet tunic
aforesaid, and blue-black trousers. Their forage-cap is the “Glengarry.”

The West India Regiment consists of two battalions of negroes,
officered by Englishmen. The battalions are quartered, turn and turn
about, in the West Indies and in our possessions on the West Coast
of Africa. The men are dressed in white jackets, with a red vest
over them, loose blue Zouave knickerbockers, and yellow gaiters. The
head-dress is a turban.

The Infantry, whose weapon for the last seventeen years has been the
Martini-Henry rifle, will very shortly be all armed with the new
magazine rifle, which has already been issued to a considerable
number. The action is on the breech-loading bolt system; by it
cartridges may be fired either singly or by means of the magazine,
which is a black tin box, holding eight cartridges, and suspended
immediately in front of the trigger-guard. The bore is extremely
small, being only ·303 inches. The bullet is coated with a hard metal
composition, for if it were of lead, it would “strip” in the grooves
of the barrel, and by degrees choke it up. The powder is as yet not
definitely fixed on, though numerous varieties have been tried with
great success. It shoots point blank up to 300 yards, and is sighted on
the back sight up to 2,000 yards. By a hanging foresight arrangement,
it can be sighted up to 3,500 yards—nearly two miles! The cartridges
are so small and light that more than twice the amount of ammunition
can now be carried than was possible in the case of the late weapon.

The new bayonet is a much shorter implement than the late one, looking
more like a large knife than a bayonet. The name of the new rifle is
the Burton-Lee.

The equipment consists of a valise and canteen, suspended by leather
braces to the belt, a havresack, wooden water-bottle, and bayonet-frog.
Inside the valise is carried the great-coat (under the valise flap),
and such articles as are necessary for the time being, such as boots,
shirt, socks, hold-all, etc.

A new equipment, slightly different from the above, is now being issued.

Two pouches are attached to the belt in front, holding twenty rounds
Martini-Henry ammunition each. Thirty more rounds are carried in the
valise and havresack, making seventy in all. With the new rifle
cartridges, however, and new pouches, it is expected that each man will
be able to carry 150 rounds.

A battalion of Infantry is composed of 8 companies, each company
numbering 3 officers, 10 N. C. O.’s, and 111 men on a field
establishment. In peace-time, the company rarely numbers above 90 men
all told, except in India. The battalion consists therefore of—

   30 officers (1 lieut.-colonel, 4 majors, 5 captains,
     16 subalterns, etc., etc.),
   91 N. C. O.’s,
  975 men,
   70 horses,
   16 carts.

These horses and carts belong for the most part to the Regimental
Transport, which has been issued to each battalion forming part of the
1st Army Corps (of which more hereafter).

An Infantry Brigade consists of four battalions and details, and
numbers in war-time 130 officers, 4,350 men, and 530 horses.

An Infantry Division consists of 2 brigades, 3 batteries Field
Artillery, 1 squadron of Cavalry and details—total, 327 officers,
10,060 men, and 2000 horses.

An Army Corps is to consist of 3 Divisions of Infantry, 3 Horse
Artillery, and 2 Field Artillery batteries, Royal Engineers, Cavalry
squadron and details—total, 1,158 officers, 35,000 men, and 10,000

[Sidenote: +Medical Staff Corps.+]

The Medical Staff Corps consists of 17 Divisions, distributed
throughout Great Britain and Ireland, and numbering altogether about
400 medical officers and 2,000 N. C. O.’s and men. The depôt and
training-school is at Aldershot, and the Army Medical School at
Netley. This Corps does not include the Indian Medical Staff Corps.

[Sidenote: +Army Service Corps.+]

The Army Service Corps corresponds to the former Commissariat and
Transport Corps, and deals with the issue of rations and general
transport duty. It is divided into 37 companies, distributed throughout
Great Britain and Ireland, and numbering 230 officers, 3,363 N. C. O.’s
and men, and 1,300 horses and mules.

[Sidenote: +Chaplains’ Department.+]

The Chaplains’ Department consists of about 80 chaplains, divided into
four classes. There are four official denominations allowed, Church of
England, Roman Catholic, Presbyterians, and Wesleyans. Men belonging to
any other of the numerous sects of religion prevalent in England are
officially entered as “Church of England.”

The organisation of the remaining departments, _i.e._, Ordnance Store,
Veterinary, and Pay, is uninteresting, and need not be detailed here.

[Sidenote: +Military Districts.+]

Of the Regular Forces, 21 regiments of Cavalry, 91 batteries of
Artillery, most of the Engineers, and 73 battalions of Infantry are
quartered in Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain is divided into
11, Ireland into 3, and the Channel Islands into 2, Districts, each
under the command of a major-general. These districts are sub-divided
into Regimental Districts, each of these latter comprising the
recruiting ground, depôt, and Volunteer battalions of a Territorial
(_i.e._, Line Infantry) Regiment of two Regular and two or more Militia
battalions. The Artillery and Engineers, both Regular, Militia, and
Volunteer, are also apportioned to each district. The Regular Corps
of all arms rarely remain more than two years in the same quarters,
changing from station to station in accordance with different rosters
and requirements.

[Sidenote: +Foreign Service.+]

The whole of the Regular Forces, with the exception of the five Heavy
Cavalry regiments and Brigade of Guards, take their turn at foreign
service in India and the Colonies. As a rule, one battalion of each
regiment of the Line is abroad for sixteen years, and is “fed” with men
from the other battalion at home. This system, by which all the best
and soundest men of a regiment are sent abroad, can hardly be called a
good one, but it is difficult to suggest another. For foreign service
it is no use having the youngest and unmatured soldiers—they would
probably only fall sick in a hot climate. It is, therefore, necessary
to keep and train the men till they know their duty thoroughly, and
then send them out as full-grown men. It is for this reason that
complaints are so often seen in the newspapers that certain regiments
are apparently composed of “beardless boys.” This may be so with the
home battalion, but if the complaint-makers were to journey to the
Colonies and see the other battalion, they would soon alter their

It sometimes occurs that both battalions are abroad together, in which
case the depôt of the regiment is largely increased; in order to feed
the two.

Cavalry regiments stay abroad from twelve to fifteen years, and are fed
by their depôt.

This foreign service is one of the main impediments in the way of
recruiting by conscription.

Of the Regular Forces abroad, 9 Cavalry regiments, 88 batteries of
Artillery, 3 companies R. E., and 53 battalions of Infantry are in
India; and 1 Cavalry regiment, 27 batteries Artillery, 13 companies R.
E., and 20 battalions of Infantry are in the Colonies.

[Sidenote: +Marines.+]

The Royal Marines, although not coming strictly under the head of the
Army, are yet soldiers in the widest sense of the word, for they have
been engaged by land and sea in every single campaign since their
formation in 1755. They consist of two divisions, _i.e._ Artillery
(16 companies) and Light Infantry (48 companies), in all nearly
14,000 men. They enlist for twelve years’ service, and may re-engage
for nine years more. In garrison they perform the same duties as the
Regular army, and on board ship work of a military character, such as
guard mounting, working big guns, forming part of armed force on boat
service, or fighting on shore under all sorts of conditions and in all
climates. The latest development of the Marine is not a Horse-, but a
Camel-Marine, a force of Marines having served up the Nile with the
Camel Corps.

The Marines have done well wherever they have been, and still form,
chiefly no doubt owing to their long service, some of our steadiest
troops on service.

Their uniform and equipment is very similar to those of the
corresponding branches of the Regular Army. A Marine may always be told
from a Linesman by the badge on his helmet and shoulder-straps—a globe
with the thoroughly apposite motto of “Per Mare, per Terram.”

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +Native Indian Army.+]

The Native Indian Army is composed of Native Cavalry, Artillery,
Engineers, Infantry, Medical Corps, etc., etc., partly officered by
Englishmen, and numbering altogether about 152,000 men, including
13,000 Volunteers.

It is divided into the Armies of the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay
Presidencies. The English officers are drawn from the three Staff
Corps of those Presidencies, which they have entered after serving for
at least one year with their English regiments.

The Army of Bengal numbers—

  19 Regiments of Bengal Cavalry, including 7 Lancer regiments.
  4 Regiments Punjab Cavalry.
  Central India Horse.
  2 Bengal Mountain Batteries.
  5 Punjab Mountain Batteries.
  Corps of Bengal Sappers.
  Corps of Guides, Cavalry (6 troops), and Infantry (8 companies).
  45 Regiments Bengal Infantry.
  5 Regiments Goorkha Light Infantry.
  4 Regiments Sikh Infantry.
  6 Regiments Punjab Infantry.
  Hyderabad Contingent, 4 batteries F. Artillery, 4 regiments Cavalry,
    and 6 regiments Infantry.
  Several Irregular Corps, and a Medical Department,
    chiefly Englishmen.

The Army of Madras numbers—

  4 Regiments Cavalry, 2 of which are Lancer regiments.
  Corps of Madras Sappers.
  33 Regiments Madras Infantry, and a Madras Medical Department, etc.

The Army of Bombay numbers—

  7 Regiments Cavalry, 2 of which are Lancer regiments.
  2 Mountain Batteries.
  Corps of Bombay Sappers.
  30 Regiments Bombay Infantry, and a Bombay Medical Department, etc.

Natives enlist for any period of service, from three years to thirty.
Most of the troops enlist for nine or fifteen years. They must be
physically fit and physically equivalent to a full-grown man. They are
for the most part very keen soldiers, especially those that come from
the North-West Provinces and Punjab. In many regiments the men have to
find everything except firearms—even horses, accoutrements, and food,
on their pay of about eighteenpence a day; and yet in some popular
regiments there are several hundred candidates waiting for admission.

The Infantry is armed and equipped similarly to the British Infantry.
Their rifle is of the Snider pattern, and is being exchanged for
the Martini-Henry rifle. The uniforms of the Indian Army are very
variegated, ranging from scarlet to yellow, and drab to green. The
usual head-dress is the turban, but the other details of costume vary
too much for description. The English officers wear in some regiments
the native uniform, in others an English one.

A Native Cavalry regiment consists of 4 squadrons of 2 troops each,
with an establishment of 10 English officers, Native officers, N. C.
O.’s, and about 540 privates.

A Native Infantry Regiment consists of 1 battalion of 8 companies,
with an establishment of 9 English officers, Native officers, N. C.
O.’s, and about 820 privates. Each Infantry regiment is linked with two
others, one of them supplying the other two with men, etc., in time of

The establishment of the Mountain Batteries varies according to

A Native Reserve is being formed, but is not yet completely organised.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +Colonial Forces.+]

The Colonial Forces consist of those raised by each Colony of the
British Empire for its own protection. With the exception of a few of
the smaller islands in the West Indies and Pacific, it may be said that
every one of our Colonies has trained a certain number of men for home

The system of enlistment and service varies in almost every colony,
according to requirements. In very few of them are there permanent
forces under arms. They mostly correspond to our Militia, and are
called out for an annual training only.

The native forces of _Canada_ are—

  Cavalry, 4 regiments of Dragoons.
           5     ”     of Hussars.
           4 Independent troops.
  Artillery, 19 batteries Field Artillery.
              5 Brigades and 13 batteries Garrison Artillery.
              ½ battery Mountain Artillery.
  Engineers, 2 companies.
  Infantry, 74 battalions of Infantry.
            21     ”      of Rifles.
  5 Independent companies.
  Medical Staff Corps.
  Total strength 38,500.

Of the above troops, a very small number are permanent troops; the
remainder consist of Militia, called out for about twelve days’
training in the year. There is universal liability to service in the
Militia Reserve for all men between 18 and 60, so that in case of war
the armed levy of the country would amount to over 600,000 men! Not
more than 45,000 of these however are regularly trained. The country is
divided into twelve Military Districts, and these again into Brigade
and Regimental Divisions.

Besides this force, there is a Royal Military College, and Royal
Schools of Instruction for Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery.

_Cape Colony_ has a force of about 4,500 men, consisting of Corps of—

  Cape Mounted Riflemen (practically a Police Force),
  Volunteer Artillery,
      ”     Engineers,
      ”     Mounted Infantry,
      ”     Infantry, and a
      ”     Corps of Cadets.

_Ceylon_ possesses a force of about 900 Volunteer Light Infantry.

_Hong Kong_ possesses a force of Volunteer Artillery and Military
Police (370).

_Jamaica_ possesses a force of Volunteer Militia, Mounted Rifles, and
Garrison Artillery (1,300).

_Natal_ possesses a paid Volunteer Cavalry, Field Artillery, and
Rifles, 1,500 altogether.

_Singapore_ possesses a paid Volunteer Artillery and Military Police

_New Zealand_ possesses a Corps of paid Light Horse Volunteers, 13
batteries Volunteer Artillery, Engineer Corps, Force of Militia
Infantry, and 7 or more Rifle battalions. A total of 7,400 men.

_New South Wales_ has a force of 6,350 men, consisting of—

  Regular Artillery}
                   } 940 of all ranks.
  Volunteer   ”    }
  Engineers, 200 of all ranks.
  Mounted Infantry 160 of all ranks.
  4 Regiments Infantry, 2,100 of all ranks.

Reserve Force of Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry, 2,700 of all ranks;
besides a Naval Brigade and Naval Artillery Volunteers numbering nearly
500 men.

_Queensland_ has a Defence Force of three classes, numbering
altogether over 4,500 men.

  1st Class—“Permanent Defence”—135 men.
  2nd Class—“Defence”—2,600 men.
  3rd Class—“Volunteers”—about 1,800 men; besides 4 Lines of Reserves
    in case of national danger, composed of every male between
    18 and 60.

_South Australia_ has 2 troops of Lancers, 1 Field and 2 Garrison
Batteries, 2 battalions Rifles, and numerous Mounted Rifle Corps,
numbering altogether 2,700 men, including Volunteers.

_Victoria_ has a force of several Cavalry and Artillery Corps, 4
battalions Rifles, Mounted Infantry, and numerous Rifle Volunteer
Corps, besides a Reserve. Total 8,300 men.

_Tasmania_ has a small force of Artillery and 2 regiments of Rifles,
total 930 of all ranks.

_Western Australia_ has a small force of Volunteer, Infantry, and
Artillery—640 altogether.

_Trinidad_ and other islands in the West Indies have raised small
forces for their defence, about 1,000 altogether.

Total Colonial Forces, about 84,100 men.

       *       *       *       *       *

Let us now turn to the Reserve Forces at home, composed of the two
classes of Army Reserves, Militia, Militia Reserve, Yeomanry, and
Volunteers. We will not take into account either the Native Indian
Reserves, as they are not yet fully formed, or the Colonial Militia or
Reserves, as they are inextricably mixed up with the Colonial Forces
already described.

[Sidenote: +Army Reserve.+]

The 1st Class Army Reserve, created in 1877, consists of men who have
served their three, seven, or eight years with the Colours, and who
then pass to this Reserve to complete their service to twelve years.
They are liable to service at home and abroad when called out; this
would happen only in case of war or national danger. The men would then
either join their own regiments or be formed into separate corps, or,
with their consent, be attached to a regiment or corps other than their
old one. This class numbers over 54,000 men.

The 2nd Class Army Reserve, in which there are not quite 3,000 men, is
composed of those men who have served twelve years with the Colours and
then choose to enter this Reserve, and of a few other special classes
of men. They do not serve out of Great Britain. Both classes are liable
to be called out for an annual training, but have never yet been so
called out.

[Sidenote: +Militia.+]

The Militia consists of men voluntarily enlisted for six years, with
power to re-engage for periods of four years up to forty-five years of
age. The recruits are trained for six months or less at the depôt of the
regimental district, and have subsequently to undergo only twenty-eight
days’[10] training a year with their corps when called out. During these
twenty-eight days the men receive regular pay, with a “bounty” of 10_s._
or upward at the end of the training. They are then dismissed till next

In cases of national emergency, the Militia may be called out, _i.e._
“embodied,” for active service. This has occurred four times already in
this century; during the Crimean War, for instance, ten battalions of
Militia were garrisoning our possessions in the Mediterranean, and no
fewer than 32,000 entered the Regulars and fought before Sebastopol.

The Militia comprises Artillery, Engineers, and Infantry.

The Artillery consists of 34 brigades of Garrison Artillery, attached
to the regular Garrison Artillery Divisions as follows:—4 to the
Eastern, 21 to the Southern, and 9 to the Western Division. The
Engineer Militia numbers 7 companies.

The Infantry consists of 131 battalions, attached to the different
regiments of Infantry of the Line as their 3rd and 4th or other
battalions, and belonging to the same regimental districts. Some
regiments have only one Militia battalion attached, others as many as

The Militia is clothed, equipped, and armed identically with the
Regular Army, the only distinction being that a Militia private wears
the number of his battalion, and a Militia officer the letter M in
addition on his shoulder-straps.

The Channel Islands have 4 regiments of Artillery, and 6 of Infantry
Militia. Malta has 1 regiment of the latter.

The Militia numbers altogether 103,500 men.

[Sidenote: +Militia Reserve.+]

The Militia Reserve consists of men enlisted from the Militia for six
years or for the remainder of their Militia engagements. These are
liable to an annual training, or to embodiment in case of national
danger. The body was created in 1867 as a temporary expedient for an
Army Reserve, the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 having caused extreme
uneasiness to our authorities; for they discovered then that we had
absolutely no reserves whatever, in case we went to war. The inducement
to join is a pecuniary one, _i.e._ £1 bounty, paid in advance, for
every year service in the Militia. It numbers altogether 30,160 men.

[Illustration: England. III.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Sidenote: +Yeomanry.+]

The Yeomanry is composed of 39 county regiments of Cavalry, and forms
a species of Cavalry Militia or Volunteers. They are called out
annually for only one week’s training. They are liable to be called
out, in addition, for service in any part of Great Britain in case of
threatened invasion, or to suppress a riot. They receive allowances and
pay during their training, an allowance for clothing, and their arms,
from the Government; but have to find their own horses. There is no
Yeomanry in Ireland.

The Yeomanry numbered, in 1889, 10,739 men.

[Sidenote: +Volunteers.+]

The Volunteers consist of a large number of Corps, both Artillery,
Engineers, Infantry, and Medical Staff Corps, with 2 Corps of Light
Horse and 1 of Mounted Rifles. The Honourable Artillery Company
(composed of 1 battery Field Artillery, 6 troops Light Cavalry, and
8 companies Infantry), although not strictly Volunteers, may be
considered as coming under this head.

The Artillery Volunteers are divided into 9 Divisions according to
their locality, forming 62 Corps.

The Engineer Volunteers form 16 Corps of Engineers, 9 Divisions
Submarine Miners, and 1 Railway Staff-Corps.

The Infantry comprises no less than 211 battalions, distributed
throughout Great Britain, and attached to the different regular
regimental districts. 31 Infantry Volunteer Brigades have now been
formed, each consisting of five or more battalions, and each commanded
by a colonel of Auxiliary Forces.

The number of Volunteers is unlimited, and has gone on steadily
increasing, since their formation in 1859. The Corps were originally
intended to be self-supporting, finding themselves in everything except
arms. Now, however, the Government, having awoke to their importance
as a great national reserve for home defence, gives a Capitation Grant
of 35_s._ a year to the different Corps for every efficient Volunteer
on their lists, and £2 10_s._ more for every officer and sergeant who
obtains a certificate of proficiency.

Volunteers are liable to be called out for active military service in
Great Britain, in case of a threatened invasion.

It is, however, a fact that, if they chose, the Volunteers might, on
the eve of the invasion, all disappear within fourteen days by simply
giving notice of their wish to retire! A little legislation on this
point might not be out of place, though of course such a catastrophe is
not to be dreamt of.

Volunteers are exempt from service in the Militia, and cannot be
employed as a military body in aid of the Civil Power. They receive no
pay, and have to attend a certain number of drills of different sorts
every year, otherwise they are not considered efficient.

The Volunteers are not yet thoroughly equipped for service, but
strenuous efforts are being made in this direction by private and
public enterprise.

Their uniforms vary greatly in colour, from green or scarlet to drab
or grey, and in appearance. It is, however, expected that all Corps
will in time present a similar appearance to the Regular Forces, with
the main distinction of silver or white-metal embroidery and buttons
instead of the gold or brass of the Regulars.

The rifle of the Volunteers is either the Martini-Henry or the Snider.

The organisation of the Volunteer Corps is identical with that of the
corresponding Regular Forces.

There were on the 1st January, 1890, 216,999 efficient Volunteers,
besides 7,022 non-efficients—total 224,021.

[Sidenote: +Entrance Of Officers.+]

The mode of entrance of officers to the Regular Army is as follows:—The
candidate, if wishing to enter the Cavalry or Infantry has two routes
open to him. He may either pass a competitive “preliminary” and
“further” examination for the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, remain
there one year, and then enter his regiment direct (if successful
in passing the “final” examination), or else he may be appointed as
2nd lieutenant to a Militia battalion, undergo two annual trainings,
and then pass an examination equivalent to the Sandhurst “final.”
Formerly this latter mode of entrance, _i.e._ through the Militia,
was considered much the easiest, but now there is not much to choose
between the two.

A candidate for the Artillery or Engineers has to pass two examinations
in the R. M. Academy, Woolwich, and then spend two years there. The
order of merit in which the cadets pass the “final” determines which
branch they are to join. As a rule, those passing out high up join the
Engineers, and the others the Artillery.

[Sidenote: +Military Establishments.+]

Other Military establishments are:—

(a.) The Staff College near Sandhurst, which an officer may enter by
means of a competitive examination, after he has served five years
at least with his regiment. Here he remains for two years, and is
instructed in the various acquirements necessary for a good Staff
officer, and in the higher branches of his profession. Having passed
the final examination, the officer is attached for two months each to
the two branches of the service other than that which he belongs to,
and then rejoins his own regiment; he is then entitled to put p.s.c.
after his name in the Army List.

(b.) School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness, where experiments are carried
out and new inventions in gunnery tried, etc., etc.

(c.) Artillery College at Woolwich.—Instruction, etc., in the higher
branches of gunnery.

(d.) School of Military Engineering at Chatham, where officers and N.
C. O.’s of different Corps are put through a course, experiments in
engineering tried, etc., etc.

(e.) School of Musketry at Hythe, for instruction of officers and N. C.
O.’s in the use of, and in details and experiments concerning, small

(f.) Schools of Gymnasium and Signalling at Aldershot, the Army Medical
School at Netley, the Veterinary School at Aldershot, and the School
of Music at Hounslow, whose titles sufficiently explain their _raison

[Sidenote: +Mounted Infantry, &c.+]

A glance at the latest accessories to the Army in the shape of Mounted
Infantry, Machine-guns, and Cyclists, may not be out of place here.

The authorities consider that a force of Mounted Infantry (_i.e._,
Infantry with rifles on horseback) will be of the greatest use to the
Army in case of war. Accordingly, a force is being trained, little by
little, which would be available to act as such on active service.

For the past two or three years 2 companies at Aldershot, formed of
volunteers from the different Infantry battalions quartered there,
and 1 company at the Curragh, consisting of 150 men each, have been
trained during the winter months to act as Mounted Infantry. On the
conclusion of the course, the men are sent back to their regiments, and
a fresh lot come on the following winter. These companies are intended
to be formed into battalions when required. The duty of this force on
service will be to act as Infantry, but with a rapidity of transport
from one place to another unattainable by ordinary Infantry. Thus they
may be pushed forward to attack a village, to hold a defensive position
till supported by other Infantry, to assist the Cavalry, or to perform
a hundred other duties of Infantry far in front of the real Infantry.

It is proposed that every battalion of Infantry and regiment of Cavalry
should in future wars have a Machine-gun Detachment of 2 machine-guns,
worked by 1 officer and 12 men, attached to it. A large number of men
have been trained in this work, but there are at this moment but few
complete detachments in existence.

Corps of Cyclists, chiefly Volunteer, have also lately been started,
but it seems very questionable whether they would ever be of any use in
a hostile country except to carry messages to and fro along good roads.

[Sidenote: +Army Corps.+]

Finally, mention must be made of the recent apportioning of the British
Regular Army into Army Corps. Serious difficulties have arisen in
organising this matter, for, since regiments are always on the move
from point to point at home, or between home, India, and the Colonies,
it is a very difficult task indeed to arrange so that even one Army
Corps should be ready to take the field at the shortest possible
notice. It has, however, been done, and the 1st Army Corps is an
accomplished fact. The 2nd is on the high road to completion, though as
yet it is badly off for horses.

The above gives a tolerably fair idea of the strength and constitution
of the Army of the British Empire. The Navy, it is true, is still
our first line of defence, as it has been for hundreds of years; but
although the best in the world, it is not yet large enough for our
needs. Our Regular Army has also been shown to be barely large enough.
It is, therefore, doubly necessary to keep the Army at a high pitch of
efficiency, and fully supplied with everything needful, in order that
if we ever come into collision with one of the colossal European powers
detailed in the following pages, we shall not be found wanting.


[Footnote 1: This article has been entirely re-written by the

[Footnote 2: The Colonial forces really form a class between the two,
but may be taken here with the Active Army.]

[Footnote 3: The Militia Ballot Act.]

[Footnote 4: _I.e._, West India Regiment, Malta Artillery, etc.]

[Footnote 5: More than 40 per cent. of would-be recruits are annually
rejected by the doctors.]

[Footnote 6: Blue in the 16th and white in the 17th Lancers.]

[Footnote 7: Crimson in the 11th Hussars and brick-red in the lévée
dress of the officers of the 10th Hussars.]

[Footnote 8: The Black Brunswick Hussars came over to England after
Waterloo, and their uniform was so greatly admired that the 60th and
95th, who were in process of being changed from Light Infantry to Rifle
regiments, adapted their Hussar uniform to the Infantry pattern.]

[Footnote 9: With one or two exceptions.]

[Footnote 10: Though liable to fifty-six days.]

                           THE GERMAN ARMY.

[Sidenote: +The German Empire.+]

[Illustration: Prussian Hussar of the Guard.]

It was in the autumn of 1870, during the Franco-German War, that the
preliminary arrangements were made for the forthcoming consolidation of
the German Empire. Up to that time, Germany consisted of a multitude of
States, each with its own Government and its own Army. The interests
of these States, ranging as they did from kingdoms down to small
principalities, were extremely conflicting, and internal hostility was
frequently the result. The one great aim of King William of Prussia
was to see them all united into one Empire, and defended by one Army.
Aided by the genius of Bismarck, the negotiations were brought to
a successful conclusion, and on the 18th January, 1871, William of
Prussia was declared Emperor of Germany with the title of William I. At
the same time the forces of the different States were combined, and the
present German Army is the result.

[Illustration: Prussian Garde du Corps. Court full-dress.]

In peace and war this United Army is under the command of the Emperor,
and each man is bound by oath to render him faithful and loyal service.

Several of the States, whilst keeping their own troops, have, by
means of special military conventions, attached themselves and their
forces still closer to the chief military power of the Empire, namely,
Prussia. On the other hand, a few of the larger States have reserved
for themselves a certain independence in the management of their
armies. The chief outward and visible sign thereof is seen in the
variations of uniform from the strict Prussian pattern. Thus, the
Bavarian Infantry has kept its light-blue tunic, the Saxons still
have red piping round their skirts, and the Württembergers wear
double-breasted tunics and grey greatcoats.

[Illustration: German Empire. I.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Army may be roughly divided into
four groups:

1. The combined forces of Prussia and the following States, which
have concluded conventions with her: Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Meiningen,
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, the two
principalities of Reuss, Oldenburg, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Lippe,
Schaumburg-Lippe, Lübeck, Bremen, Hamburg, Waldeck, Brunswick, Grand
Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Grand Duchy
of Baden, and Grand Duchy of Hesse.

2. The Saxon Army Corps—(one).

3. The Bavarian Army Corps—(two).

4. The Württemberg Army Corps—(one).

Universal Conscription is the keystone of the Army. Introduced on
September 3rd, 1814, first of all, it was amended by the law of the
16th April, 1871, and perfected by subsequent laws passed in 1874
and 1881. The recent edict of the 11th February, 1888, has put the
finishing touches to it, so that it now holds sway throughout the whole
Empire. According to this law, every German who is physically capable
and who is in the enjoyment of civil rights, is bound to serve as a

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

A man is bound to commence his service, as a rule, with his 21st year.

The period of service is as follows:—

  3 years with the Colours.[11]
  4 years in the Reserve of the Active Army.[11]
  5 years in the 1st Class Landwehr.
  7 years in the 2nd Class Landwehr.
  6 years in the 2nd Class Landsturm.

By this time the soldier is in his 45th year.

The 1st Class Landwehr is divided into complete units, and these are
formed into Reserve Divisions for the Active Army. The 2nd Class
Landwehr garrisons the interior and fortresses, and acts, if called
out, as a reserve for the above-mentioned Landwehr Reserve divisions.

All men between the ages of 17 and 45 who are fit to bear arms and
who are not serving in either the Active Army (including the Ersatz
Reserve) or in the Landwehr, are enrolled in the 1st Class Landsturm.
This body can only be called out in case of national invasion, or for
garrison duty at home.

The Ersatz (_i.e._ Supply) Reserve consists of those men who are
physically fit, but have, owing to surplus numbers or other causes,
escaped being sent to serve in the Regular Army. Part of this Reserve
undergoes a training of ten weeks in the first, six weeks in the
second, and four weeks in the third year. These are considered as
belonging to the so-called “Furlough Men”[12] class, and serve when
required to complete the Army in the field. On the completion of
their thirty-first year, the men are sent to the Landwehr and 2nd
Class Landsturm, and there they remain till the termination of their
liability to service, _i.e._, their forty-fifth year. The men of the
untrained portion of the Ersatz Reserve remain available for service
up to their thirty-second year, and then pass over to the 1st and 2nd
Classes of the Landsturm in due order.

If every single able-bodied young man were to be taken for the Regular
Army, two disadvantages would accrue to the State; on the one hand an
immense amount of industrial labour would be lost to the country, and
on the other, it would be impossible for the State to support such a
huge Army. For this reason the law of the constitution has laid down
that the peace Army is not to exceed one per cent. of the population.
This gives the Army the respectable peace-strength of 468,409 men (not
including officers and one-year volunteers). Of these numbers about
156,000 annually enter the ranks as recruits.

There is a supplementary clause to the law of universal conscription,
and that is the one which allows of _One-year Volunteers_. It stands
to reason that with a three-years’ bout of compulsory service, a large
portion of the youth of the country are interrupted in the studies
which are to prepare them for their particular professions, and that at
a period when they can least afford to lose the time. For the labourer,
who needs but little knowledge for his daily task, and for those
handicraftsmen whose work demands but little brain capacity or culture
of any sort, this interruption of business is of small moment. It is
far otherwise, however, with the young man who requires to spend some
time in the higher schools in order to fit himself for the profession
he has chosen, be it industrial or scientific. This disadvantage of
the conscription law makes itself felt in proportion to the progress
in education and general culture made in the country. At the same time
it is obvious that a man who has the assistance of a well-educated
and well-trained mind does not require so long a period to master the
intricacies of soldiering as one who is less intelligent.

For this reason the Government allows young men who have either
received a certificate of educational efficiency from one of the higher
schools or else passed an examination before a commission appointed
for the purpose, to enter the service as volunteers on completing
their seventeenth year. After one year with the Colours they are sent
“on furlough” to the Active Reserve, and for this privilege they have
to find themselves in uniform, equipment, and food during the period
of their service. They may become officers in the following manner:
If they have behaved well and have subsequently, during two trainings
of several weeks each, whilst attached to a Corps, shown themselves
professionally and socially qualified to become officers, they are
balloted for by the officers of their district. If the ballot is
favourable, they are commissioned by his Majesty and become full-blown
officers of the Reserve. These have, in case of war, to complete the
active establishment of officers to war-strength, or have to fill
vacancies as officers in the Landwehr.

[Sidenote: +Officers.+]

The German Army represents the people under arms, and their officers
represent the cream of the Army. The road to the higher, and even
to the highest ranks, lies open to every educated man, without
reference to social standing or birth, if he only have the necessary
qualifications thereto.

Every candidate for an officer commission must possess—

1. A good general education, of which the candidate must give
satisfactory proof, either by the possession of an “Abiturient”
certificate,[13] or by passing an examination before a commission held
in Berlin.

2. Physical qualifications for military service, including good eyes.

3. An honourable character.

Having satisfied the authorities on these subjects, the candidate now
serves as a private for five months, generally with the regiment he
intends to enter. At the end of this time, during which he is called an
“avantageur,” he undergoes an examination in military duties, etc., and
on receiving a certificate of satisfactory service from his superior
officers, he becomes an ensign (“Porte-épée Fähnrich”) and is sent to
a military college for a year. There he passes a final examination in
military knowledge, and, if balloted for successfully by the officers
of the regiment of his choice, he joins as second lieutenant.

As much as 40 to 45 per cent. of the officers are drawn from the Cadet
Corps, which is distributed amongst establishments at Lichterfelde
(near Berlin, head college), Kulm, Potsdam, Wahlstatt, Bensberg, Plön
and Oranienstein, in Prussia; Dresden in Saxony, and Munich in Bavaria.
A new college will shortly open in Karlsruhe. This Corps is chiefly
composed of the sons of officers, who receive a cheap and excellent
training and education. The proverb that “the apple falls close to the
stem” is well exemplified here, for amongst the cadets are many who
bear celebrated soldiers’ names, such as Roon, Steinmetz, Canstein,
etc., etc.

Although the training in the Cadet Corps is chiefly a military one,
yet on the whole the cadets receive an education equal to that of a
first-class civilian college. Thus they are enabled in after-life, when
they have left the Service, to pursue a civilian calling with greater
ease than if their education had been purely military.

Mention may also be made here of the establishments in which the
“Porte-épée Fähnrichs” (ensigns) are instructed: they are the military
colleges of Potsdam, Engers, Neisse, Glogau, Hanover, Cassel, Anklam,
Metz, and Munich. The higher branches of military science are pursued
in the United Artillery and Engineer School, and the Staff College
(Kriegsakademie), both in Berlin. The entire military education and
training of the country are managed by an Inspection-General.

As in all large armies, the three great branches of the German service
are Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery, besides the Engineers and
Transport Corps, the latter of which is called the “Train.”

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

As everybody knows, Infantry is intended to go anywhere and fight
anywhere. It is, therefore, equipped for all contingencies that may
arise, and is armed with a weapon for use either at a long range or in
close hand-to-hand fighting.

The German Infantry is[14] armed with a capital magazine-rifle, with a
bore of ·315 inches, which, with a point-blank range of over 300 yards,
will carry up to 2,400 yards. The magazine is detachable, and holds 8
cartridges. The bayonet is a short sword-bayonet, very similar to the
new English bayonet.

[Illustration: Württemberg, Sergeant of the Train.]

As a rule, the German foot-soldier has to carry his own equipment,
both on the march and in action. The equipment consists of a knapsack
with large mess-tin attached, great coat, bayonet and scabbard (to
which latter is fastened a small spade), havresack, and water-bottle,
and three pouches, two in front and one behind. These pouches hold,
altogether, 150 rounds. The whole thing can be put on or taken off
at a moment notice, by simply buckling or unbuckling the waist-belt
and slipping the arms into, or out of, the knapsack braces. This new
arrangement also obviates to a great extent the discomfort caused
by the older pattern of equipment, which compressed the man chest

The old division of the Infantry into Grenadiers, Musketeers, and
Fusiliers has now no significance, except from a historical point of
view. Nowadays, the whole of the Infantry being identically equipped,
they all receive exactly the same amount of instruction and training,
with the sole exception that the Rifle battalions (Jäger) spend
somewhat more time and pains on their musketry than the other troops.

[Illustration: Prussian Engineer.]

“Grenadiers” first sprang into existence in the seventeenth century;
as their name indicates, they were originally intended to throw
hand-grenades amongst the enemy ranks. For this object, particularly
powerful men were selected, and in France, under Louis XIV., four
Grenadiers were at first attached to each company; subsequently, each
battalion received a Grenadier company. Grenadiers were now introduced
into every civilised army, but as there was seldom an opportunity for
the employment of their special weapon, they were given muskets, and
remained Grenadiers only in name, and thus the name came to be applied
to particularly fine bodies of troops only. The Prussian Grenadier
battalions of Frederick the Great were the flower of his Army, and in
memory of these troops the 1st Prussian Foot-Guard Regiment still
wears the old sugar-loaf brass helmet on big review days and other
special occasions. The title of “Grenadier Regiments,” which the first
twelve Prussian Infantry regiments received in 1861, was only bestowed
in order to keep green the memory of the old Grenadiers.

The names of “Musketeers” and “Fusiliers” come from the different
firearms their predecessors bore, _i.e._, the musket and the rifle
(fusil), first introduced into France in the seventeenth century. The
Musketeers were at first the Heavy Infantry, in contradistinction to
the Fusiliers, who represented the Light Infantry. Later, however, on
each branch receiving the same firearm, the distinction ceased, and it
is now only remembered through the old Fusilier songs, of which there
exist several, and whose burden is the chaffing of the heavy Musketeer.

The peculiar qualities necessary for good Light Infantry have been
developed _par excellence_ in the Prussian Rifle battalions. These draw
a very large proportion of their recruits from the gamekeepers and
forester class of the country. Such men have of necessity been already
trained in the attainments required for that branch of the Infantry.
They are well acquainted with firearms and can shoot; they can put up
with considerable hardships, they can find their way about a strange
country, and they have studied in the school of nature—in short, they
are the very men to make into skirmishers and marksmen, and are in
their element on outpost or patrol duty. Frederick the Great was the
first to train the Jäger as Light Infantry, and his influence is seen
to this day. “Vive le roi et ses chasseurs” was the motto engraved on
their “hirschfänger” (lit. “stag-sticker,” a large knife still worn by
keepers for the purpose of giving the stag his _coup de grâce_) in his
day, and it is still the watchword of the Prussian Riflemen of to-day.
Frederick recognised that the true method of employing Riflemen was to
extend them as skirmishers, and there is a story which tells how, when
one day, in Potsdam, the Rifles were marching past him in close order,
the old king shook his crutch-stick at them and shouted: “Get out of
that, get out of that, you scoundrels!” and made them march past in
extended order.

On the 1st of April, 1890, the German Infantry numbered 171 regiments
of 3 battalions each, and 21 Rifle battalions—total 534 battalions.

The Guard and Grenadier Regiments are:—

   4 Regiments of Foot-Guards,
   4 Regiments of Guard Grenadiers,
  12 Prussian Grenadier regiments (Nos. 1–12),
   1 Mecklenburg Grenadier regiment (No. 89),
   2 Baden Grenadier regiments (Nos. 109 and 110),
   2 Saxon Grenadier regiments (Nos. 100 and 101),
   2 Württemberg Grenadier regiments (Nos. 119 and 123),
   1 Bavarian Body-Guard regiment,
   1 Hessian Body-Guard regiment (No. 115).

The Fusilier and Rifle (Schützen) Regiments are:—

  12 Prussian Fusilier regiments (composed of 1 Guard Fusilier
     regiment, and Nos. 33–40, 73, 80, and 86 of the Line).
   1 Mecklenburg Fusilier regiment (No. 90), and
   1 Saxon Rifle (Schützen) regiment (No. 108).

Of the remaining Line regiments, 81 are Prussian, _i.e._, Nos. 13–32,
41–72, 74–79, 81–85, 87–88, 97–99, 128–132, 135–138, and 140–143;

  No. 91 is Oldenburg,
  No. 92  ” Brunswick,
  No. 93  ” Anhalt,
  No. 94  ” Saxe-Weimar,
  No. 95  ” Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,
  No. 96 is Saxe-Altenburg, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and the two
    principalities of Reuss,
  Nos. 111–114, and 144, are Baden, and
  Nos. 116–118 are Hessian.
  Total, 95 regiments of the first group.

Nine belong to the 2nd group, Saxony, _i.e._, Nos. 102–107, 133, 134,
and 139.

Six belong to the 3rd group, Württemberg, _i.e._, Nos. 120–122 and

The 4th group, Bavaria, has 18 regiments of the Line, which are
numbered apart from the rest of the Army.

The Rifle (Jäger) battalions are thus divided:—

  Prussia: 1 battalion Rifles of the Guard; 1 battalion Schützen of the
    Guard; 11 battalions Rifles of the Line (Nos. 1–11); 1 battalion
    Mecklenburg Rifles. Total, 14 battalions.
  Saxony: 3 battalions Rifles of the Line (Nos. 12, 13, and 15).
  Bavaria: 4 battalions Rifles (numbered apart).

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry is intended for fighting chiefly at close quarters and on
open ground. Their use on the battle-field is generally confined to
the attack in close order.

Although both branches of the Cavalry, the Heavy and the Light, receive
an identical training, yet the distinction between them has not yet
entirely lost its old significance. The Cavalry of the German Army
is divided into four groups, distinguished by different equipment
and arms; they are the Cuirassiers, the Dragoons, the Lancers, and
the Hussars. The chief weapon throughout is the sword, though the
Cuirassiers differ from the others in being armed with a long straight
sword, whilst that of the latter is slightly curved. Besides this
weapon, the whole of the Cavalry is being armed with lances. As it may
happen that the men may have to dismount and use firearms on foot,
at present they are all armed with a useful carbine (Mauser, 1871
pattern); the non-commissioned officers and trumpeters wear a revolver

The main point in a Cavalry fight is the shock, _i.e._, the moment
when they come into contact with the enemy. This must be the result
of gradually quickening the pace till at the supreme moment an
irresistible mass is hurled with crushing force on the ranks of the
enemy. The best powers of man and horse must therefore be reserved for
this moment, and it is a fact that the turning-point of an action has
often been decided by the mere impetus of the charge, and without any
use whatever of cold steel.

[Illustration: German Empire. II.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

Of the whole German Cavalry the Prussian arm has the best record. This
dates from the time of Frederick the Great and his celebrated Cavalry
leaders Zieten, Seydlitz, and others, who made use of bold and clever
offensive tactics which led to grand results at Rossbach, Leuthen,
Zorndorf, and other actions. Prussian horses are powerful, fast, and
capable of considerable endurance, so that they are particularly suited
to military service. In addition, the Prussian soldier is a capital
groom. These qualities, in conjunction with thorough discipline and
tactical training, have brought the German Cavalry to a height of
excellence that is surpassed by few.

The Cuirassiers are the troops who from their outward appearance
most resemble the knights of the Middle Ages. Although the cuirass,
from which they take their name, has lately been abolished for field
service in consequence of its weight and inability to keep off the
enemy bullets, yet with the lance, just introduced, a genuine knightly
weapon has been brought in to take its place.

The Prussian Regiment of Gardes-du-Corps, whose chief is _ex-officio_
the King of Prussia, is equipped and armed in the same way as the
Cuirassiers. Although it forms a Royal body-guard, still the regiment
has seen a considerable amount of service. History tells of a memorable
saying of the Commander of the regiment, Colonel von Wacknitz, at the
battle of Zorndorf (25th August, 1758), where the enemy, the Russians,
were getting the best of the day; Frederick the Great was with his
regiment, the Gardes-du-Corps, and said anxiously to Colonel von
Wacknitz: “What do you think of it? My idea is that we shall get the
worst of the action.” Von Wacknitz lowered his sword and said: “Your
Majesty, no battle is lost, in my opinion, where the Gardes-du-Corps
have not charged.” “Very good,” said the king, “then charge.” And the
fortune of the day was decided by the brilliant and successful attack
made by this regiment. The battle was won, and the country saved.

[Illustration: Württemberg. Dragoon.]

In Bavaria the two regiments of Heavy Cavalry, and in Saxony the
regiments of Horse Guards and Carbineers, correspond to the Prussian

The Dragoons were originally intended to combine the fire-action of
Infantry with the rapidity of movement of Cavalry, and were therefore
armed, on horseback, with a light musket and bayonet. The Brandenburg
Dragoons of the great Elector Frederick William came greatly to the
fore in this double capacity at the battles of Warsaw and Fehrbellin.
The uncertainty, however, of the results of shooting when mounted, and
the inconvenience of dismounting or mounting according as to whether
the fight raged on foot or on horseback, showed plainly as time went on
that the idea of an intermediate arm, a sort of mounted infantry, could
not yet be brought to perfection. The Dragoons were therefore, during
the eighteenth century, gradually formed into Cavalry pure and simple,
and at the present time they are horse-soldiers, and horse-soldiers
only. One of the most celebrated Cavalry attacks was that of the
regiment of Anspach-Bayreuth Dragoons in the battle of Hohenfriedberg
(4th June, 1745). In this action, the regiment rode down no fewer than
20 battalions of Infantry, took 2,500 prisoners and 66 standards,
besides a large number of guns: as Frederick the Great said, “It is a
feat unparalleled in history.” This regiment was, at a later period,
turned into a Cuirassier regiment, and is now known as the Queen’s 2nd
Cuirassiers (Pomeranians).

The Bavarian Chevau-légers correspond to the Prussian Dragoons, and
many a record testifies to their gallantry in action.

The spirit of Zieten, the “Hussar-father,” and of old Blücher, “Field
Marshal Forwards,” still lives in the Hussars of the German Empire.
Activity, boldness, and cheeriness are the attributes which make a good
Hussar, and many are the songs which record their successes in camp and

The Uhlans (Lancers) who spread such terror amongst the enemy in the
war of 1870–71, hail, as far as their name goes, from Tartary.[15] For
this reason, the French took them for a wild tribe, such as the Kirghiz
of the Steppes, or the African Turcos. The name is, however, the only
foreign element about them, for their mode of fighting is essentially

The chief weapon of the Uhlan, the lance, with which they caused such
consternation among the French, although it had been the most popular
weapon of the Middle Ages, disappeared almost entirely from European
armies on the introduction of firearms; the Russian and Polish Cavalry
alone retaining it. After the second Silesian war in 1745, Frederick
the Great armed a body of Light Horse with lances, and gave them the
name of “Bosniaks.” Consisting at first of only 1 “company,” their
strength was increased afterwards to 10 companies, and in the year
1800 they were founded into a regiment under the name of “Towarczys,”
_i.e._, experienced in war. In 1808, the name was changed to “Uhlans,”
and the corps was divided into several regiments, whose number was
increased at a later period. In 1870 the French peasantry called the
whole of the German Cavalry “ulans,” and the sudden appearance of a few
of their horsemen in a district at a time when the Frenchmen flattered
themselves that the enemy was still far distant, caused shouts of “les
ulans! les ulans!” universal consternation, and immediate flight. The
German Uhlans were everywhere at once. More than one populous town,
_e.g._, Nancy on the 11th August, 1870, opened their gates at their
approach, and the small fortress of Vitry le françois surrendered to a
mere handful of Uhlans.

[Illustration: Bavarian Halberdier.


The Cavalry of the German Empire consists altogether of 93
regiments of 5 squadrons each—total, 465 squadrons. On the regiment
being ordered on active service, one of the squadrons remains
behind as supply-squadron for the rest. Its duty is to replace the
partially-trained or unserviceable horses by good ones, and also to
fill up the ranks of the other squadrons with good men when required.
By this means, the active part of the regiment is brought to a high
state of readiness for action, and gains greatly in efficiency. There

14 regiments of Cuirassiers, including:

   The Garde-du-Corps regiment,
   The Guard Cuirassier regiment,
   8 Prussian Cuirassier regiments,
   2 Bavarian Heavy Cavalry regiments,
   1 Saxon Horse Guards regiment, and
   1 Saxon regiment of Carbineers.

34 Regiments of Dragoons, namely:

   2 Regiments of Dragoon Guards,
  16 Prussian Dragoon regiments (Nos. 1–16),
   2 Mecklenberg Dragoon regiments (Nos. 17 and 18),
   1 Oldenburg Dragoon regiment (No. 19).
   3 Baden Dragoon regiments (Nos. 20–22),
   2 Hessian Dragoon regiments (Nos. 23 and 24),
   2 Württemberg Dragoon regiments (Nos. 25 and 26), and
   6 Bavarian Chevau-léger Regiments.

20 Regiments of Hussars, namely:

   1 Body-Guard Hussar regiment,
  16 Prussian     ”   regiments,
   1 Brunswick     ”   regiment, and
   2 Saxon         ”   regiments (Nos. 18 and 19).

25 Regiments of Uhlans, namely:

   3 Guard-Uhlan regiments,
  16 Prussian Uhlan regiments (Nos. 1–16),
   2 Saxon Uhlan regiments (Nos. 17 and 18),
   2 Württemberg Uhlan regiments (Nos. 19 and 20), and
   2 Bavarian Uhlan regiments.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of late years there has been a good deal of talk about reorganising
the present force into a so-called “General” Cavalry, and this would
be distinctly a move in the right direction. The term implies that all
branches of the Cavalry arm should be equally and thoroughly equipped,
armed, and trained for any service in which Cavalry could be called
on to take part. An important step has been made in this direction by
the recent arming of the _whole_ of the Cavalry with lances. There
is, however, no intention whatever on the part of the authorities to
carry out the idea to extremities. Such measures as taking away their
particular mode of action from the different branches of the Cavalry,
or giving them all exactly the same uniform, would never be entertained
for a moment. It is obvious that such measures would be the deathblow
of all _esprit de corps_ which, as we know, has led to such brilliant
results in the past. The shock of Cuirassiers on their big horses, the
charge of Uhlans with their fluttering lance-pennons, the sabre-work
of Hussars, and the mobility of Dragoons and Chevau-légers, each has
its particular effect on the enemy, and each distinctive attribute
must be taken into serious account. There can be no doubt that a
total amalgamation of the four branches, and the abolition of their
distinctive uniforms, would produce much more harm in the end than good.

Before closing the subject of Cavalry, mention ought to be made of
the lately-formed Empress’s Body-Guard, composed of one officer, two
sergeants, and 24 men. They were first put on duty in August, 1889,
during the visit of the Emperor of Austria. Their uniform is the usual
dark-blue tunic, with cerise collar and cuffs, besides a full-dress
white Cuirassier tunic. The skirts are lined with cerise cloth and
fastened back with hooks. Both collar and cuffs have white braid-lace
on them, like the rest of the Guard Corps. The breeches are of white
leather, and big knee-boots like those of the Cuirassiers complete the

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

Artillery has but one rôle to play on the battle-field, and that is to
come into action and do as much harm as possible to the enemy from a
long distance off.

The German arm is divided into Field Artillery and Garrison Artillery.

The Field Artillery is intended, as its name implies, for action on the
field of battle. One particular branch of it forms the Horse Artillery,
in which all the men are mounted. The whole of the Field Artillery is
armed with Krupp cast-steel guns (C. 73), the Horse Artillery guns
having a bore of 2·95, and the others a bore of 3·43 inches. They carry
“double-ring shells” (a form of segment shell which fly into about 180
pieces), Shrapnel shells (each containing 240 bullets), and case-shot.
The guns themselves are handy to work, and carry with great accuracy up
to about four miles.

A Battery is formed of six guns, though as a rule not more than four in
peace-time have teams (4 to 6 horses each) to draw them.

There are altogether 318 batteries of Field-and 46 batteries of Horse
Artillery, the whole forming 37 regiments.

To the Prussian group belong 29 regiments, forming 245 Field-and 38
Horse Artillery batteries—total 283 batteries.

Saxony has 2 regiments (Nos. 12 and 28) forming 21 Field-and 2 Horse
Artillery batteries.

Württemberg has 2 regiments (Nos. 13 and 29), forming 18 Field

Bavaria has 4 regiments, forming 34 Field-and 6 Horse Artillery

Grand Total, 364 batteries.

Of the 29 “Prussian” regiments, 2 are Guard Artillery, 24 (Nos. 1–11,
15–24, 26, 27, and 31) are Prussian, 2 belong to Baden (Nos. 14 and
30), and 1 (No. 25) is Hessian.

In the course of the next few years the Field Artillery will undergo
considerable changes in matériel as well as in organisation. It is
intended to give each Army Corps 3 F. A. regiments, each of 2 divisions
of 3 batteries each. Thus each of the two divisions of the Army Corps
would have one F. A. regiment of 6 batteries, and the 3rd regiment
would be available as Corps Artillery. It is also proposed to introduce
a common calibre of gun for the whole, both Field and Horse Artillery,
and also a common projectile which would combine the advantages of
common shell and shrapnel. The introduction of this latter would tend
greatly to simplify both the action and the supply of the gun.

The men of the Garrison Artillery are employed in the attack and
defence of fortresses. They have no guns of their own, but simply
work the big guns of the Siege-train or the fortresses, according to
circumstances. These gunners go by the name of “cannoniers.” They are
armed with the Mauser carbine of the 1871 pattern.

The Garrison Artillery consists of 14 regiments of 2 battalions each,
of 4 companies each, besides 3 independent battalions, altogether 31

Of this force, Prussia has 11 regiments (1 Guard regiment and Nos. 1
to 8, 10 and 11) and 2 independent battalions (No. 9 and No. 14), the
latter belonging to Baden.

Saxony has 1 regiment (No. 12).

Württemberg has 1 battalion (No. 13), and

Bavaria has 2 regiments.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

There remain yet the Engineers and the Train.

[Illustration: Bavarian Officer of Lancers.


The officers of the corps of Engineers are divided into the
Engineer Staff Corps (_i.e._, generals and field officers) and 4
“Engineer-Inspections” (captains and lieutenants).

This is in the Prussian group. The Saxon, Württemberg, and Bavarian
officers are not so divided. Engineer officers are employed either with
the “fortification branch,” _i.e._, that branch which superintends the
construction, repair, etc., of fortresses, or with the “Pioneers,”
_i.e._, Field Engineers.

There are in the German Army nineteen Pioneer battalions, distributed

  1 Guard battalion and 14 others (Nos. 1–11, 14–16), including
    1 Baden battalion (No. 13), to Prussia.
  1 battalion to Saxony (No. 12),
  1 battalion to Württemberg (No. 18), and
  2 battalions to Bavaria.

Each battalion numbers 4 companies; of these the 1st is a Pontoon
company, the 2nd and 3rd are Sapper companies: _i.e._, for sap-work,
construction of siege-batteries, and field-works, etc.; and the 4th
is a Mining company, for laying mines and subterranean galleries in

Besides these, there is a Railway Regiment of 4 battalions (including
1 Saxon and 1 Württemberg company), and 1 Bavarian Railway
battalion of 2 companies, for the construction of military railways
and railway-bridges. Included in the Railway Regiment are the
Field-Telegraph and Balloon sections.

[Sidenote: +Train.+]

The “Train” (corresponding to our Army Service Corps) is for the
transport of supplies, ammunition, and war-material of all sorts. The
drivers and men of the corps are trained in peace-time in the Train
battalions, and the wagons are stored in Train depôts.

There are 19 Train battalions and 1 company, thus divided:

14 battalions, each of 2 to 3 companies, and a depôt (the Guard
battalion, and Nos. 1–11, 15 and 16), in Prussia; one (No. 14), in
Baden, and 1 Train company in Hesse; one (No. 12) in Saxony, one in
Württemberg (No. 13), and 2 in Bavaria.

To the depôt of each battalion belong: 5 provision sections, 3 medical
detachments with field hospitals and bearers, 1 remount-depôt, 1 field
bakery section, and 5 sections of transport.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +Tactical Organisation.+]

The above account gives a general résumé of the fighting force of
Germany. It now remains to give the tactical organisation of the
different branches of the Army.

In the Infantry, the smallest independent body of troops, or “tactical
unit,” is a battalion (except in the case of the independent Rifle
battalions, where the unit is represented by the company). In the
Cavalry it is a squadron, and in the Artillery a battery. The war
strength of a battalion is, at the outside, 1,000 men; that of a
squadron is about 150 mounted men; and that of a battery is 6 guns,
with 12 wagons and men in proportion. The peace-strength of each unit
is dependent, on the one hand, on the numbers required for its full
strength in time of war; and, on the other hand, on the amount of
training requisite for its efficiency. In a less degree also, it is
dependent on the state of the Treasury.

The peace-strength of a Prussian Line battalion (4 companies) is:—

    1 major (commanding the battalion),
    4 captains,
   12 lieutenants and 2nd lieutenants,
    1 adjutant (usually a lieutenant),
  559 N. C. O.’s and men, and
    7 others (paymaster, assistant-paymaster, 4 privates trained
      as medical assistants, and 1 armourer-sergeant).

[Illustration: German Empire. III.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

N.B.—A Regiment of Infantry consists of three battalions, so that in
calculating the strength of a regiment, the regimental staff (colonel,
lieutenant-colonel, regimental-adjutant, surgeons, etc.), should be
taken into account.

That of a Prussian Cavalry Regiment of five squadrons is:—

   25 officers,
    2 or 3 surgeons,
  686 N. C. O.’s and men,
   14 others (paymasters, veterinary surgeons, medical assistants,
     armourers, etc., etc.), and
  667 horses.

The peace-strength of the corresponding troops in Bavaria, Württemberg,
and Saxony is much the same. The Guard regiments and those in
Alsace-Lorraine are somewhat stronger.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +Formation of Brigades, Divisions, and Army Corps.+]

As a rule, two regiments of Infantry (6 battalions), or two of Cavalry
(8 to 10 squadrons), form a Brigade, under a Major-general as brigadier.

The first unit composed of all three arms is the Infantry division.
It consists of usually two brigades of Infantry and one regiment
of Cavalry; and, in the field, has in addition 6 batteries of
Artillery and 1 company of Engineers, the whole under the command of
a lieutenant-general. A Cavalry Division varies in strength, but has
always, if possible, one or two batteries of Horse Artillery attached.

[Illustration: Prussian Officer and Trumpeter of Artillery.]

Two, or three, Infantry Divisions, with a brigade (2 regiments) of
Field Artillery, Engineers and Train, constitute an Army Corps, under
the command of a full general. The Army Corps therefore comprises all
branches of the service, and is thoroughly independent.

The 12th (Saxon) and 13th (Württemberg) Corps have a slightly different
composition. They each number 4 Infantry, 2 Cavalry and 1 Field
Artillery Brigades (each brigade consisting of 2 regiments), besides
one battalion of Field Engineers and one of the Train. The Guard Corps
also is constituted rather differently from any other.

[Sidenote: +Size of Army.+]

On the 1st April, 1890, the entire German Army consisted of 20 Army
Corps, quartered as follows:—

The Guard Corps, in Berlin, Potsdam, Charlottenburg, and Spandau (with
the exception of the 4th Guard Grenadier Regiment, which is quartered
at Coblenz).

      Corps.     |        District.        |    Head
                 |                         |  Quarters.
  I.             | East Prussia            | Königsberg
  II.            | Pomerania               | Stettin
  III.           | Brandenburg             | Berlin
  IV.            | Province of Saxony      | Magdeburg
  V.             | Posen                   | Posen
  VI.            | Silesia                 | Breslau
  VII.           | Westphalia              | Münster
  VIII.          | Rhine Provinces         | Coblenz
  IX.            | Schleswig-Holstein      | Altona
  X.             | Hanover                 | Hanover
  XI.            | Hesse-Nassau[16]        | Cassel
  XII.           | Kingdom of Saxony       | Dresden
  XIII.          | Kingdom of Württemberg  | Stuttgart
  XIV.           | Grand Duchy of Baden    | Carlsruhe
  XV.            | Alsace                  | Strasburg
  XVI.           | Lorraine                | Metz
  XVII.          | West Prussia            | Danzig
  1st Bavarian } |                         |
    Corps.     } | Bavaria                 | Munich
  2nd Bavarian } |                         |
    Corps.     } |    ”                    | Würzburg

The nineteen Territorial Districts of the Army correspond to the
nineteen Army Corps Districts. The recruits, however, of the XVth
and XVIth Corps districts are not allowed to serve there, but are
distributed amongst other corps. The Guard Corps draws its recruits
from the different districts of Prussia, and from Alsace-Lorraine.

The main idea which directed the above recent apportioning of troops
was to distribute them so as to be immediately available in case of war
in any quarter. Formerly, the tendency was to group the forces where
they could be most conveniently trained and worked, without reference
to the possibilities of war.

Now that the new distribution of Army Corps has placed three Corps
(XIVth, XVth, and XVIth) on the western, and four Corps (Ist, IInd,
Vth, XVIIth) on the eastern frontier, it will be possible at the first
declaration of war with either France or Russia to combine large masses
of Cavalry and throw them at once into the enemy’s territory. One or two
battalions of Jäger are also to be sent shortly into Alsace, in order
to watch the passes over the Vosges.

The peace-strength of the German Army is reckoned at—

  534 Battalions of Infantry,
  465 Squadrons of Cavalry,
  364 Batteries of Artillery with 1,500 fully-horsed guns.
  Total, 19,457 officers and 468,400 men.

In consequence of the extension of the Landwehr and Landsturm,
it is difficult to arrive at an exact estimate of the German
war-strength.[17] In the event of war, different Army Corps and
Cavalry Divisions will be combined into Armies, but their number and
strength will necessarily depend on the theatre in which they are to be
utilised, on the plan of campaign, and on the strength of the enemy.
The resources of the Empire will not, however, come to an end with the
20 Army Corps whose strength we have just been describing. Behind the
men doing their seven years of service, who compose the Active Army,
come those of the 1st and 2nd Class Landwehr, and behind these again
come the Ersatz Reserve and the Landsturm.

Although this tremendous Army of close on two million of well-trained
and well-armed men may at first sight appear a menace to the peace of
the world, still we must remember that Germany is absolutely obliged,
for the preservation of her very existence, to keep up these huge
forces, and that she has no intention of using them except for that
purpose. As an old national proverb has it: “He who wants to come to
grief in war had better try a fall with Germany.”

                         ADDENDUM TO GERMANY.

P. 25. The German Infantry now numbers 173 regiments and 19 Rifle
battalions—total 538 battalions.

P. 31. The Artillery has lately been increased to 387 batteries of
Field, and 47 batteries of Horse Artillery, the whole forming 43

P. 32. The Engineers number 20 battalions.

P. 34. The peace strength of the German Army now numbers

  538 battalions of Infantry,
  465 squadrons of Cavalry,
  434 batteries of Artillery, with over 1700 guns.

The latest estimate of the German Army at war-strength, _i.e._ Active
Army, Active Reserve, and 1st class Landwehr, is as follows—

     48,635 officers,
  2,253,841 men,
    445,104 horses,
      3,982 guns.


[Footnote 11: Or in the Navy and Naval Reserve respectively as

[Footnote 12: “Beurlaubtenstand.”]

[Footnote 13: Corresponding somewhat to our University Degree.]

[Footnote 14: Or rather, will be in the near future.—_Tr._]

[Footnote 15: The word Uhlan means “belonging to the hoof,” in the
language of that region.]

[Footnote 16: Including the independent (25th) Hesse-Darmstadt

[Footnote 17: It may be taken as 36,582 officers, 1,493,690 combatants,
27,000 non-combatants, 331,904 horses, 2,952 guns.—_Tr._]


The next on the list is Germany’s powerful neighbour, friend, and ally
on her southern frontier, Austria-Hungary.

There is in the Austro-Hungarian Army a varied assemblage of different
races: the honest Austrian, the proud and fiery Hungarian, the smart
Czech, the true-hearted Tyrolese, the thin onion-eating Wallachian, the
hot-blooded Croat, the nomad Slowak, the homeless gipsy, etc., etc.,
are all represented in its ranks. All these have been welded together
by the iron bands of discipline into the “Imperial and Royal” Army.
The Emperor is Commander-in-Chief, and with him rests the decision for
peace or war.

After the disastrous campaign of 1866 the Austrian Army was entirely
reorganised. The reorganisation is now almost completed, and the
Army now takes its place as one of the foremost in the world. The
division of the Empire into Cis- and Trans-Leithania—_i.e._ this side,
the Austrian, and that side, _i.e._ the Hungarian, of the Leitha, a
tributary of the Danube, is only partially carried out in the military

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

According to the conscription law of December, 1868, universal
conscription is now the rule; in the whole Austro-Hungarian Empire, and
exemption by purchase, formerly allowed, is now abolished. The forces
are divided into the Standing Army, the Ersatz Reserve, the Landwehr,
and the Landsturm.

About 103,000 recruits are yearly admitted into the Standing Army,
of which Cis-Leithania contributes 54,000. Those able-bodied young
men who are not taken into the Standing or Active Army are sent for
ten years to the Ersatz Reserve, which is intended, as in Germany, to
provide reinforcements for the Active Army. Service in the latter is
for three years with the Colours and seven years in the Active Reserve.
Service in the Landwehr is for two years for those who have served ten
years in the Active Army and Reserve or in the Ersatz Reserve, and for
twelve years for those who have been sent straight thither, for various
reasons, on conscription. After the Landwehr service, the soldier is
sent for five years to the 1st Class Landsturm, and for five years more
to the 2nd Class Landsturm. By this time he is forty-two years of age.
The one-year Volunteers are enlisted in the same manner as in Germany
(q. v.).

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The whole Empire is, for military purposes, divided into fifteen
Territorial Districts; these are of various sizes, so that the Austrian
Army Corps are not all of the same strength. In case of war, the whole
“Imperial and Royal” Army would be grouped into three armies, under one
supreme command, each army consisting of three or more Army Corps. The
Army Corps consists of 2 Infantry Divisions, each of 2 brigades. The
division is commanded by a “field-marshal-lieutenant,” corresponding to
our lieutenant-general, and the brigade by a major-general.

Each Infantry brigade has as a rule 2 regiments, and 1 battalion of
Rifles. Besides the 2 Infantry brigades, each Division has in addition
2 to 4 squadrons of Cavalry, 1 battery division (2 to 3 batteries of
Field Artillery), and 1 company of Engineers.

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

[Illustration: Officer of Infantry (Marching Order).]

The Infantry of the Active Army comprises 102 regiments, each of 4
Field and 1 Ersatz battalions; the latter is in peace-time represented
by a cadre only. The 4th Field battalions, so-called “Mobile”
battalions, have mostly a stronger peace-establishment than the others,
and are used to garrison Bosnia, Herzegovina, and the Sanjak of
Novi-Bazar; _i.e._ they are completely separated from their regiments.

[Illustration: Cavalry Officer (Undress).]

The Rifles comprise the Tyrolese Rifle Regiment of 10 Active and 2
Ersatz battalions, and 32 independent battalions of Rifles, each of 4
Field and 1 Ersatz companies.

The Infantry has (since 1868) laid aside its historical white uniform,
and is now clothed in dark blue tunics or loose jackets, and light
blue trousers, the latter in the Hungarian regiments being ornamented
with embroidery and fitting like tights. The Hungarian regiments wear
lace-boots, the remainder Wellingtons. The usual head-dress is the
fatigue-cap, and, on great occasions, the shako. The Rifles are dressed
in blue-grey.

After 1866 the Austrian Infantry was armed with an excellent
breech-loader, the Werndl rifle. Since the German Infantry have
attained a certain moral superiority by being armed with a
magazine-rifle, the authorities have introduced a magazine-rifle for
the Infantry and Rifles.

So quickly has the work of manufacturing and issuing them proceeded,
that by the autumn of this year (1890) it is expected that they will
all be thus armed, and will have overtaken the German Infantry. The new
Austrian magazine-rifle, called after its inventor, Colonel Männlicher,
is of ·315-inch bore, and can fire 30 to 40 shots in the minute.

Austria possesses an excellent Rifle Regiment in the Tyrolese, the
so-called Emperor Rifles, mentioned above, which is composed of men
accustomed from their youth up to the use of the rifle. They are
recruited in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg.

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry of the Active Army consists

  14 Regiments of Dragoons (Austrians and Bohemians),
  16 Regiments of Hussars (Hungarians), and
  11 Regiments of Lancers (with Polish Reserve).

Each regiment consists of 6 squadrons and a depôt-cadre. In case of
mobilisation the latter develops into one Ersatz squadron (in which
are trained the Ersatz men and the extra horses required), one Reserve
squadron for supply purposes, and two sections of Staff Cavalry for
service at the headquarters of Corps and at Field-Supply stores. The
peace establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Cavalry accordingly comes
to 246 squadrons, and the war-establishment to 246 Field, 41 Reserve,
and 41 Ersatz squadrons, besides the Staff Cavalry.

The Cavalry Regiments are clothed according to their nationality. The
Dragoons wear a light-blue tunic, the Uhlans their tunic of peculiar
cut, and the Hussars the jacket and attila, the latter as a rule
suspended by yellow cords from the shoulder. The whole Cavalry wear red
breeches, tight in the Hussar regiments, and loose in the others.

The Hungarian Hussars, on their small but swift horses, are a
peculiarly national institution. These Hussars (from a Magyar word
“husz,” meaning “twenty,” from the fact that every twenty houses in
Hungary had to provide one horseman in days gone by) have always been
particularly prominent in the Austrian Army and were long held to be
pre-eminent in their mode of fighting, until Frederick II. formed some
regiments after their pattern. These were afterwards increased to ten
in number, and, under celebrated leaders like Zieten, soon won for
themselves renown equal to that of their Hungarian cousins.

The whole of the Cavalry is armed alike, with sword and Werndl carbine.
The Uhlans’ lances have been done away with since 1884, but there is a
question of the re-introduction of this old Polish weapon. After the
Infantry has been fully armed with the magazine-rifle, the Cavalry
will, it is said, be armed with repeating-carbines, which will have
been served out by next spring (1891). This is an example which, it is
to be hoped, other armies will soon follow.[18]

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

The Artillery comprises Field and Garrison Artillery. The Field
Artillery consists of 14 regiments of Corps Artillery, numbered
according to their Army Corps and each of 5 batteries; and of 28
independent Heavy Battery Divisions, each of 3 batteries. Several
Corps Artillery Regiments have in addition a couple of Horse Artillery
Batteries, or a Mountain Battery.

The batteries have each in peace-time 4, and in war-time 8,
fully-horsed guns. An exception to this are the Horse Artillery
batteries, which always have 6 guns in the battery.

The Mountain Batteries, which have been found most useful in campaigns
in Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, are a peculiar feature of the
Austrian Artillery. Their guns can be dismounted and packed on the
backs of mules, and in this way they can be transported along narrow

The Corps Artillery Regiments are to have their number of batteries
increased by one each, but this will barely be completed before 1892.

The Austrian Field Artillery has an excellent weapon in the shape of
the 2·95-inch Uchatius steel bronze gun, and also that of the 3·43-inch
bronze gun for the heavy batteries, both equal in worth to the Krupp
gun. The shells are of the German pattern, but the shrapnel have fewer
bullets than the German ones. Besides these projectiles, case-shot,
fire-shells, and so-called high-angle shells, for bursting among troops
behind cover, are carried with the battery.

The Garrison Artillery numbers 12 battalions, each of 5 Field and 1
Depôt-cadre companies. Eighteen more battalions have been projected,
and will be formed in the course of the next few years according to the
amount of money in hand.

The uniform of the Artillery is dark-brown. The men are armed with
sword and revolver, those of the Garrison Artillery carrying the
Werndl rifle instead.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

The Corps of Engineers is composed of the Engineer Staff and Engineer
troops. The former is exclusively composed of officers; the latter of 2
regiments of 5 battalions each. Each battalion has 4 Field, 1 Reserve,
and 1 Depôt-cadre companies. The Pioneer Regiment, not considered as
Engineers, consists of 5 battalions, similarly constituted to the
Engineer battalions.

The Railway and Telegraph Regiment, which has but recently been
formed, after the German model, consists of 2 Field and 1 Depôt-cadre

The Train consists of 3 regiments of 5 squadrons each and a Depôt-cadre.

There is no Guard Corps in the Austrian Army, so several bodies of
troops have been formed for the honour of protecting the Emperor
person and guarding his palaces. These are the Arcieren squadron of
Life-Guards, the Hungarian Body-Guard, the Trabanten Body-Guard, the
squadron of Horse-Guards, and the Infantry Company of the Guard. These
troops are richly dressed in peculiar uniforms.

[Sidenote: +Reserve Troops.+]

The Landwehr is formed into two distinct bodies, which are also quite
distinct from the Active Army; each Landwehr is under its own ministry
of defence. In peace-time only the cadres exist; that is to say, that
of 92 Infantry battalions and 6 Cavalry regiments (24 squadrons) of
Cis-Leithanian Landwehr, only 1 strong company per battalion and 1
strong squadron per Cavalry Regiment are kept up.

The Native Rifles (Landesschützen) of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg consist
of 10 battalions in time of peace, which are in war-time increased by
ten Reserve battalions.

[Illustration: Royal Hungarian Body-Guard.]

[Illustration: Hungarian Palace Guard.]

[Sidenote: +The Honvéd.+]

In Trans-Leithania the Landwehr forms a peculiar national Hungarian
Army, the so-called Honvéd Army, which is subject in war-time only to
the commander-in-chief, and in peace-time only to the Royal Hungarian
jurisdiction, _i.e._ the Ministry of Defence and the Landwehr Ministry.
It forms in peace-time the Cadres for 92 battalions of Infantry and
15 regiments of Honvéd Hussars (60 squadrons). The officers of this
force are trained in the Honvéd Ludovica Academy at Buda Pesth. It
is on this Army, whose standards and badges are of the Hungarian
colours, and which in time of war reaches nearly 200,000 men, that the
pride of Hungary rests. It is this Army whose predecessors saved the
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from destruction a century and a half ago. On
the 21st of September, 1741, the Empress Queen, Maria Theresa, came to
her Parliament at Presburg in dire distress. Dressed in the national
Hungarian dress, with her newly born son (destined to become Joseph
II.) in her arms, pain and courage depicted on her noble countenance,
she advanced towards the Hungarian nobles, and in a powerful Latin
speech asked for the National Army to be called out, to protect her and
her country from her many foes. Then the Hungarian magnates tore their
crooked swords from their scabbards, clashed them wildly together, and
shouted: “Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa!” With the help of her
brave Hungarians, Maria Theresa, after making peace with Frederick II.
of Prussia, succeeded in beating off her numerous enemies.

[Illustration: Austria-Hungary. I.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Illustration: Austria-Hungary. II.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Sidenote: +Conclusions.+]

If we consider that the total strength (on a war establishment) of
the Austro-Hungarian Army, Line and Landwehr included, exceeds one
million of trained men, of which 778,889 belong to the 1st Line, and
we remember that the Cis-Leithanians are in no way inferior in warlike
spirit, that inheritance of their forefathers, to their brethren on
the far side of the Leitha, we shall come to the conclusion that in
the Austrian Army, with its excellent Corps of officers and excellent
material in the shape of men and horses, any State in Europe would find
either a powerful adversary or a most desirable ally.


[Footnote 18: Turkey set this example long ago.—_Tr._]


In Italy we have the third of the Powers who have formed the Triple
Alliance in order to maintain the peace of Europe and to make common
cause against any disturber thereof. The history of this country has
been very similar to that of Germany. In this instance also, an
energetic Prince, King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia (died 1878),
supported by an active statesman, Count Cavour, placed himself at the
head of the national movement in favour of unity, and formed the various
States of the Peninsula into one kingdom under his rule.

The kingdom of Italy appears thenceforth as the last formed among the
European Powers, and it has raised an excellent Army in order to
maintain its position as such. The development of the latter has since
that time progressed considerably, and especially so during the last
decade, when a distinct advance has been apparent.

Constituted on the principle of Universal Conscription, the land forces
of Italy are formed, similarly to those of the German Empire, into a
Standing Army, a Landwehr (Milizia mobile), and a Landsturm (Milizia

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

The liability to serve commences with the twentieth year, and continues
till the thirty-ninth. It consists of eight years in the Standing
Army (three with the Colours and five in the Reserve); four years in
the Landwehr, and seven years in the Landsturm. Those who have been
exempted from service by ballot are sent straight to the Landsturm for
nineteen years.

When the young men attain the age rendering them liable to serve, those
physically unfit are “cast,” and some are put back who are ill or
excused for domestic reasons. The remainder of the men draw lots and
are placed according to their lottery number in the 1st or 2nd class,
those excused being placed in the 3rd class. The 1st class conscripts
are distributed throughout the Standing Army. The 2nd class go through
three months’ training, to form an Ersatz (or reinforcing) Reserve, and
the 3rd class men are called out every four years for a few days at a
time for instruction in the use and manipulation of their arms.

The Standing Army consists accordingly of eight yearly batches of the
1st class and eight of the 2nd class; the Landwehr of four yearly
batches of men who have served their time in the Standing Army, and
four batches of the 2nd class; and the Landsturm comprises seven
batches of the 1st, seven of the 2nd, and nineteen of the 3rd class.

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

The Infantry of the Standing Army consists of 96 regiments (including
2 Grenadier regiments), each of 3 battalions and 1 Ersatz company.
Besides these, there are the special Corps d’Élite, the Bersaglieri
(“marksmen”—from bersaglia = a target), and the Alpini (Alpine Rifles).

The Bersaglieri, in 12 regiments, each of
3 battalions and 1 Ersatz company, are Light Infantry, trained to
execute all movements at the “double,” exceedingly good shots, and
looking very smart in their neat uniforms, the large hats of which are
ornamented with a waving bunch of cock feathers.

The Alpine Troops consist of 7 regiments (forming 75 companies), to
which are attached 9 mountain batteries. These are also considered
Corps d’Élite.

Composed of herdsmen and gamekeepers, familiar with every footpath in
the Alps, never fatigued, quick of sight and hearing, and excellent
shots, they are equally valuable in reconnoitring work or on the field
of battle, although their original rôle is that of acting in defence
of their mountain passes. The Alpine companies are placed in summer as
near as possible to the particular mountain passes whose defence is
assigned to them, and are stationed for only half the year in the towns
as winter quarters.

Their duty is carried out with a particular object in view, and
consists mostly in shooting, skirmishing, constant marches over
mountain paths, reconnaissance duty and patrolling, and in minor

The whole of the Italian Infantry is at this moment armed (until the
alteration of their former weapon, the single-loader Vetterli, is
completed) with an excellent repeating rifle, the Vitali. Particular
attention is paid to musketry instruction, and facilities for shooting
are given and encouraged by the holding of National Rifle Meetings at
stated times. At these meetings, any soldier on furlough is allowed to
compete, with his Service rifle.

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry of the Italian Army, on account of the scarcity of
useful horses, and the mountainous character of the land, is weak in
comparison with the Cavalry of other European armies.

It consists of 24 regiments, each of 6 squadrons and an Ersatz-cadre;
_i.e._, 10 Lancer regiments and 14 regiments of Light Cavalry

The Light Cavalry are armed with a long curved sword, and the Lancers
with a lance. In addition to these weapons, the whole of the Cavalry is
armed with a rifled breech-loading carbine.

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

The Field Artillery consists of 24 regiments, each of 8 batteries;
there are also 6 Horse Artillery and 9 Mountain batteries. It can put
in the field in war-time 1,196 guns. The heavy batteries are armed with
3·54-inch breech-loaders; the Light and Horse Artillery batteries with
2·76-inch breech-loaders. The mountain guns, for the transport of each
of which three horses or mules are provided, are of 2·95-inch calibre,
of steel-bronze, and mounted on wooden carriages.

The Garrison Artillery consists of 5 regiments; the Siege-train of 2
parts—each of 200 guns.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

The Engineers consist of 4 regiments, including a Railway and Telegraph
Company, a Pontoon and a Bridging Troop.

The Artillery and Engineers provide their own Train.

12 Commissariat companies are told off for service in the depôts.

The men of the Field Artillery and Engineers carry a revolver besides a
sword; Garrison Artillerymen are armed with a breech-loading carbine.

[Sidenote: +Gendarmerie.+]

[Illustration: Carbineer.]

There is also a Corps closely connected with the Army which deserves
mention, namely, the Gendarmes, or “Carabinieri Reali,” whose strength
amounts to 543 officers, 22,487 Foot Gendarmes, and 11 legions of
Mounted Gendarmes.

Formerly many a story was told of the fights between the Carabinieri
and the banditti. Nowadays, both the robbers and the old Carabinieri
have disappeared, and the present Carabinieri Reali form an excellent
Corps, whose duty it is to maintain peace and good order in the country.

In war-time a battalion of them is sent with each Army Corps. They have
then to provide orderlies for the Staff, as well as to act as Military

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The whole kingdom is divided into twelve Army Corps Districts.

[Illustration: Bersagliere of the African Contingent.]

In peace-time the Army Corps vary in strength. In war, each Army Corps
consists of 2 Divisions, the Division numbering 2 Brigades (each
brigade consisting of 2 regiments of Infantry), and an Artillery
Division of 3 batteries. Besides these, each Army Corps has 1 regiment
of Bersaglieri, 1 or 2 Artillery Divisions, each of 4 batteries, 1
regiment of Cavalry, 2 companies of Engineers, with bridging-train,
and 1 battalion of Carabinieri, forming altogether 27 battalions of
Infantry, 5 or 6 squadrons of Cavalry, 12 to 16 batteries of Artillery,
and 2 companies of Engineers, etc.—total, about 29,000 men and 112 guns.

The Alpini are not included in the Corps organisation.

[Sidenote: +Milizie.+]

The Landwehr consists of 48 regiments of Infantry, 18 battalions of
Bersaglieri, 22 Alpine Companies, 61 batteries of Artillery, and 35
companies of Engineers. It is formed into twelve divisions in time of

Besides the above, there are 342 battalions, 30 Engineer companies, and
100 companies of Foot Artillery of the Landsturm, for garrison purpose.
In peace-time depôts for the Landwehr and Landsturm are not organised:
preparations are however being made for instituting them.

[Sidenote: +Conclusions.+]

In this manner is organised the Army which has now for about ten years
proudly taken its place alongside the proved and war-tried armies of
the senior Powers. Anyone accustomed to English or German troops, such
as the Brigade of Guards in Hyde Park, or the German Foot-Guards at
Potsdam, will find much that is strange on seeing the Italian Army,
resulting from the peculiarity of race. He will miss the upright
bearing, the regular movements and the steady drill of the Infantry,
and the well-groomed and glossy horses of the Cavalry; but he will be
pleased with the picturesque uniforms of the Army, the extremely smart
appearance and active movements of the Bersaglieri, with their waving
green plumes, and with the martial and powerful bearing of the Alpini,
with their upright plumes in their head-dress; and he will find that
the cry of “Evviva il Re Umberto” sounds just as loud and strong here
as our own English “God save the Queen.” The impression that he will
take away with him will be that the like spirit of the ancient Romans
has not been lost in their descendants, and that the young kingdom of
Italy is well prepared to throw her Army as a decisive weight on to the
side of victory in some future European war.

                           ADDENDUM TO ITALY

P. 43. Additional troops have lately been raised for service in Africa.
They consist of—

  1 Regiment African Rifles (4 battalions),
  1 Regiment Native African Infantry (4 battalions),
  1 Battalion African Bersaglieri,
  1 Squadron Native Cavalry,
  3 Batteries African Mountain Artillery.

These are all for service at Massowah.

[Illustration: Italy.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]


[Illustration: Officer of Mountain Artillery.]

The next on the list is France, our nearest continental neighbour, who
for a long time was the foremost of European Military Powers. In the
disastrous war of 1870 she lost this position entirely, and has ever
since then been making the most strenuous exertions to regain something
of her old strength by thorough revision and reorganisation of her

The laws of 1872 and 1873 were passed with a view to this object,
and by them Universal Conscription was introduced, as in Germany. On
economical grounds, all able-bodied conscripts were divided into two
classes, the first of which serves five years with the Colours, and the
second only one year.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

After his five years’ active service (or one year, as the case may
be) the soldier goes for four (or eight) years to the Active Reserve.
Thereafter he enters the Territorial Army for five years, and the
Territorial Army Reserve for a subsequent six years, making twenty
years in all. The Active Army and its Reserve form the Army of the 1st
Line, and the Territorial Army and its Reserve the Army of the 2nd Line.

The institution of one-year Volunteers covers a much larger area than
in the German Army. The main point looked to in a would-be one-year
Volunteer is whether he can pay his 1,500 francs; the scientific and
educational certificates required from such candidates in Germany are
quite a secondary consideration in France.

[Illustration: France. I.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

France was not content with following the German model when she
re-constituted her Army, but endeavoured to organise a system
whereby an enormous number of trained soldiers should be turned out in
the shortest possible time—something like the “levée en masse” which
took place at the time of the French Revolution in 1793. This has been
the aim of successive war ministers since 1871. It seems to have been
brought to a conclusive issue by the law of the 15th July, 1889, which
for severity and harshness appears to surpass any military sacrifices
and duties ever demanded of any people.

[Sidenote: +New Law.+]


  Hospital Orderly.    Surgeon.]

The main points of this law are as follows:—

1. Extension of liability to service from twenty to twenty-five years.

2. Change from five years’ to three years’ service with the Colours.

3. Abolition of all exemptions from service; even the only sons of
widows, the eldest sons of orphans, and those whose brothers are
already serving, must serve one year, and may be sent away at its
conclusion; if, however, they have not given satisfaction in the ranks,
they may be kept on for another two years. Candidates for the higher
professions and theological students will have to serve for one year,
the latter to serve as bearers during active service.

4. One-year Volunteers to be drawn exclusively from students of
science, and from a few moderately high schools.

5. Payment of a military tax by all, and an extra one by those who are
unfit for service, and by any who are conscribed for less than three

[Illustration: Officer of Mountain Rifles.]

A final point is given to this law by stating that no one is to accept
a governmental or departmental office without having previously served
for five years in either Army or Navy, and during two of these years
to have served in the capacity of either officer or non-commissioned

[Sidenote: +War-Strength.+]

The war-strength of France was, before the passing of this law, and
according to French sources:—

  Army of the 1st Line  2,051,458 men.
  Army of the 2nd Line  2,057,196  ”
               Total    4,108,654  ”

It is almost impossible to calculate, from the new law, what her
strength will be exactly, but it appears to be nearly equal to that of
the three Powers together who form the Triple Alliance!

Whether this law has been promulgated in view of an approaching war, or
whether it will be carried out in all its Spartan severity throughout
the present peace—and long may it last!—is a question only to be
determined by the future. In either case the spirit of self-sacrifice
which has prompted the French to lay the heavy burden on themselves is
much to be admired. The mainspring of this spirit appears, however, to
be more the frantic effort to get back the country’s former military
prestige than pure patriotism.

The peace-strength of France is no criterion by which to measure the
forces that she could put in the field in case of war.

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

The Infantry consists of—

  162 Line Regiments, each of 3 battalions—486 battalions.
  4 Zouave Regiments, each of 4 battalions—16 battalions.
  4 Algerian Rifle Regiments (Turcos) 4 battalions—16 battalions.
  2 Regiments of the Foreign Legion, 4 battalions—8 battalions.
  30 Battalions of Rifles (Chasseurs)—30 battalions.
  5 Battalions of African Light Infantry (Zéphyrs)—5 battalions.
  Grand total, 561 battalions.

The magazine rifle of the French Infantry, introduced in 1887, and
called after its inventor, Colonel Lebel, director of the Normal
School of Musketry at Chalons, is certainly equal to both the German
and Austrian magazine rifles in shooting and general value. As regards
the powder for its cartridges, the composition of which[19] remains
a secret up till now, the inventor has claimed that its use will
revolutionise Infantry tactics. According to French accounts, the
powder is both noiseless and smokeless. If this were the case, no doubt
it would produce changes in the mode of fighting, and surprises would
be greatly facilitated thereby. Last year, however, experiments were
made at the German Artillery School and at the Manœuvres with an almost
identical powder, the results of which proved that the advantages of
the French powder were greatly exaggerated. The report of the rifle
is distinctly heard, and is little, if at all, less loud than that of
the old powder. The smoke, it is true, is very much less, but is still
quite visible on a still day, its colour being a transparent dull blue.
The new powder, therefore, certainly possesses advantages, but these
will be of little account when all armies—as seems very probable in the
near future—come to use the same powder.

The Lebel rifle is apparently being superseded by a new rifle, that
invented by Captain Pralon, and it is said that the Rifle battalions
will shortly be armed with it. The uniform of the French Infantry is
the same as it has been for the last forty years, the main features in
field-order being the long blue-grey great-coat, red képi and loose red
trousers. The full dress is shako and double-breasted dark-blue
tunic. The Rifle battalions wear blue-grey trousers.

[Illustration: France. II.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Sidenote: +African Troops.+]

The foreign troops, chiefly African, form a remarkable feature in the
French Army; they consist of Zouaves, Turcos, Foreign Legion, and
Spahis, and take the field with the French troops against any Power,
civilised or otherwise.

The Zouaves were originally an Arab tribe, whom the French conquered
and forced to pay tribute. Their dress is picturesque, consisting of
an open blue jacket, red sash, loose red knickerbockers, and white
gaiters, their head-gear being a red fez with or without a white
turban. At the present time, there are but few Africans amongst them,
the greater portion being Frenchmen, pure and simple.

The Turcos are natives of Algeria and Tunis, induced to enlist by a
bounty of £16. Their dress is similar to that of the Zouaves, excepting
that their knickerbockers are blue, or white, instead of red.

Both Zouaves and Turcos have many attributes of good Light Infantry.
The former are renowned for their energy and activity in the attack,
and the latter for their stalking and crawling powers. As long as there
is a prospect of victory, these troops are full of _élan_ and courage,
but a defeat takes much of their spirit out of them.

Another peculiar body of troops are the five battalions of Zéphyrs
Light African Infantry. They consist of very bad characters who are
sent to the Corps as a punishment for their crimes. They garrison
different districts in Algeria, as a rule the most unpleasant ones, and
though formerly never employed in Europe, will now be allowed to do so
in future wars.

The Foreign Legion, numbering 5,000 men, consists of foreigners
voluntarily enlisted for five years. They do not have a happy time of

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry, with the latest additions to it, is composed of 79
regiments of 5 squadrons each (including a depôt-squadron), and 4
regiments of Spahis of 6 squadrons each—total, 419 squadrons. They
consist of—

  12 Regiments of Cuirassiers,
  28     ”     ”  Dragoons,
  21     ”     ”  Chasseurs à Cheval,
  12     ”     ”  Hussars,
   6     ”     ”  Chasseurs d’Afrique,
   4     ”     ”  Spahis.
  Total, 83 regiments.

The whole of the Cavalry is armed with the cut-and-thrust sword. Lances
there are none. The Cuirassiers carry a revolver, the other regiments a
carbine. The cuirass is still worn in Cuirassier regiments.

The French horse is not by a long way as lasting or as fit for service
as the German (_i.e._, Lithuanian and Hanoverian) horse. Nor is the
French Cavalry soldier a good groom. The Chasseurs d’Afrique and the
Spahis, mounted on Arabian stallions, form exceptions to this rule. The
Spahis are for the most part natives of Africa, officered by Frenchmen.
Their whole appearance produces a novel impression, dressed as they
are in their Oriental attire of blue jacket and baggy breeches, long
red-leather riding-boots, with the white burnous slung over their
shoulders, and mounted on their sinewy little horses, which they guide
at will with a mere turn of the wrist. It is a strange sight to see
these children of the desert at their games, tearing along with wild
war-shrieks and waving their long guns frantically over their heads,
each man and horse straining every muscle to be first in the race.

[Illustration: Railway Troop.]

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

The Field Artillery consists of 19 brigades (one to each Army Corps),
each of 2 regiments. One of these regiments has 12, the other 11
batteries, including between them 3 batteries of Horse Artillery,
so that each Army Corps has 23 batteries. Each battery has 6 guns,
fully-horsed even in peace-time. Besides these, some mountain batteries
are going to be formed, but only in case of need.

The Artillery is armed with an excellent (3·53-in.) gun, on the De
Bange system. It was entirely re-armed with these after the 1870–71
campaign, and at an enormous cost.

The Garrison Artillery, 16 battalions of 6 batteries each, is also
armed with first-rate new guns.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

Of Engineers there are 4 regiments, each of 5 battalions. An
independent Railway Regiment has lately been formed.

The Corps of Gendarmerie, numbering as many as 25,000 men, is more or
less connected with the Army, for though in peace-time it is employed
on police-duty, in war-time it would be formed into as many Field
Divisions of military police as would be required for keeping order
in rear of the Army. The Garde-Républicaine of Paris (Cavalry and
Infantry), is a branch of the Gendarmerie, and not of the Army, and
the Regiment of Sapeurs-Pompiers, though militarily organised, is in
reality only the Fire Brigade.

[Illustration: Trumpeter of the Paris Mounted Garde Républicaine.]

The Train consists of 19 squadrons of 5 companies each.

Besides the above troops, there are military corps organised for
Postal and Telegraph service in the field; also a Balloon Corps, a
Carrier-pigeon Corps, a Cyclist Corps, and a Dog-training Corps.

[Sidenote: +Military Schools.+]

There are numerous schools in France intended either for military
education or further military instruction. Chief amongst them is the
Military School of St. Cyr, into which 400 candidates are admitted
every year as cadets, after a competitive examination. The course lasts
for two years, and the cadets are then sent as 2nd lieutenants to the
Infantry and Cavalry. The Polytechnic School in Paris sends 250 cadets
annually under like conditions to the Artillery and Engineers. In the
time of Napoleon I., a great many of the officers, including some of
his most famous marshals, rose from the ranks; and even now a very
large proportion of them come from the same source.

[Sidenote: +Total Forces.+]

The whole of France is divided for administrative and organising
purposes into 18 Regions, in each of which an Army Corps is quartered.
The 19th Corps is in Algeria.

Each Army Corps comprises 2 Infantry Divisions, each of 2 brigades of 2
regiments each, besides a battalion of Rifles, a brigade of Cavalry (2
regiments), and a brigade of Artillery.

On reviewing the size and organisation of the French Army, we cannot
help being struck by the fact that, besides being exceedingly
numerous, it is well organised, well armed, and endowed with a proper
warlike spirit. Although not “the best in the world,” as every
Frenchman will tell you, the French soldier is possessed of many
excellent and soldier-like qualities. One cannot form one’s judgment
by the extremely slack and unsmart appearance of the men, both as
regards physique and uniform. The “Piou-piou,” as the Infantry
soldier is called by his fellow-countrymen, who lounges about with
his képi well on the back of his head and his hands deep in his baggy
trouser-pockets, does certainly not present a soldier-like appearance,
but all the same he is an active and handy man on service, and on the
field of battle advances pluckily through a murderous fire, with little
thought of danger or alarm.

[Illustration: Chasseur d’Afrique.]

If we now come to the question why, with an Army which has given such
numerous proofs in many campaigns of its valour and excellence, France
has not kept up her prestige, the answer is to be found, not in the
morale of the Army, but in that of France herself, a country in which
the spirit of order and subjection, and that stern devotion to duty
which is the foundation of all discipline, have never taken root.
Ambition and desire of conquest form the motive-power of many great and
glorious deeds, and are certainly not wanting in the French character.
Higher than these, however, stands the feeling of duty which keeps a
man at his post through all hardships and perils, without a thought for
his own gain or loss, simply because he has learned to subject his will
to a higher one. On this foundation can be raised a discipline which
permits of no loosening of the bonds of training and order even in
times of disaster, and which keeps up the spirit of the Army and faith
in its final success even under the heaviest blows of misfortune. This
feeling cannot be learnt in a three years’, nor five years’, nor even
twenty-five years’ service, if it is not ingrained and actually born
in the national character and national system of education. Without
these main features even universal conscription itself will not be
successful, and the recent Draconian law in France, although it may
bring forth vast masses of armed men, will not produce that feeling of
combined action and willingness to follow their leaders to the death
which is so characteristic of nations in whom the military spirit is
thoroughly implanted.

France is well-armed for attack as well as defence; for attack, by
means of the great armed masses which she can throw into the enemy
country at the first declaration of war, in conjunction with the
troops she has had stationed on her frontier during peace-time; and
for defence by means of a defensive system on a vast scale, the outer
line of which consists of frontier-fortresses and stop-gap forts from
the Swiss to the Belgian frontier, from Belfort, over the Vosges ridge
to Epinal, now a strong fortress, Toul and Verdun, on the right bank
of the Meuse. Behind this first line of defence a second one has been
built, consisting of entrenched camps between forty and fifty miles
apart, and reaching from Langres to Rheims. There are, in fact, but few
roads into France which are not covered by the fire of some fortress or
other. The central point of the whole of this vast defensive system is
the huge fortress of Paris, which, with her circle of protecting forts
surrounding her on a fifteen-mile radius, is more like a fortified
province than a fortress.

The secret of victory, however, does not lie in vast armaments like
these. “It is the spirit which forms the body” and brings into
subjection the material powers for its own objects. War is not only a
combat of material forces; it is in a higher sense a combat of cultured
forces. Let us, therefore, remember that the best preparation for trial
by combat does not lie in continual striving to over-reach another in
material and brute force, but in the striving after a more complete
development of warlike skill.

                          ADDENDUM TO FRANCE.

Pp. 46, 47. Now that the new law has come into force, July 1890, the
terms of service have been entirely changed. As the law now stands,
seven-tenths of the annual contingent of recruits have to serve for 3
years, and three-tenths for 1 year. After his colour-service, a man
joins the Active Reserve for 7 (or 9) years, then the Territorial
Army for 6 years, and after that the Territorial Reserve for 9 years
more—total 25 years.

312,000 youths reach the military age (20) every year. Of these only
174,000 are required for colour-service. The effect of the new law will
be that by 1915 A.D. there will be no fewer than 3,500,000 of Frenchmen
properly trained as soldiers and ready to take the field, and 60,000
trained men per annum will have been added to the army!

N.B.—The war-strength of over 4,000,000 given on page 47 includes all
men, old and young, who have ever received any military training, and
is therefore hardly a just estimate of the French fighting-strength.
The latest trustworthy estimates put it at 2,790,000 men.

P. 49. The Cavalry is now, or will be very shortly, composed of 92
regiments of 5 squadrons, and 4 regiments of Spahis of 6 squadrons
each—total, 484 squadrons.

They consist of

  14 Regiments of Cuirassiers,
  34     ”     ”  Dragoons,
  22     ”     ”  Chasseurs à Cheval,
  14     ”     ”  Hussars,
   8     ”     ”  Chasseurs d’Afrique,
   4     ”     ”  Spahis.
  Total, 96 regiments.

P. 49. 12 Mountain Batteries are being formed. There are, in addition
to the numbers given, 12 batteries in Corsica, Algeria, and Tunis.


[Footnote 19: Invented by Colonel Bruyère.]


Russia is situated, from a military point of view, quite differently
to any other European country, for of the whole Russian Empire only
about a quarter lies in Europe. This quarter, it is true, is larger
than the rest of all Europe put together, but it contains only a third
of the population. Although by far the greater part of her dominions
lies in another continent, Russia has had a pretty large finger in the
European pie, and will in the future, no doubt, often mix herself up
in European politics. Her policy, if it can be called so, is to try to
influence Western questions in such a manner as eventually to bring all
Slav races under her rule.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

Russia has therefore organised her Army on an European footing,
and chiefly on the German model. In 1874 she brought in Universal
Conscription, from which, however, the upper classes, _i.e._, the
nobility, the clergy, and officials, are exempt. The actual Colour
service lasts six years; after that the soldier is sent for nine years
more to the Reserve, which can be called out to reinforce the Standing
Army. During the rest of his time, _i.e._, up to his twentieth year of
service he belongs to the Opoltschenie—a body of men similar to the
German Landsturm.

The number of able-bodied young men who annually attain the requisite
age, 21 years, comes to about 800,000. Of these only 225,000 are
conscribed, and the requisite number for the Army are selected from
these by lot; the remainder are sent to the Opoltschenie. The latter
body, therefore, consists of a huge mass of men, but mostly untrained.
There is no middle body of men, like the German Landwehr, in the
Russian Army.

The Regular Army is divided into four bodies, according to the
respective duties required from them. They are the Field Forces,
Reserve Forces, Ersatz Forces, and Local Forces.

The Field Forces are intended to be the first to take the field in case
of war.

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

Their Infantry consists of 192 regiments of 4 battalions each, and
58½ Rifle battalions, as follows:—

   12 Regiments of the Guard.
   16    ”         Grenadiers.
  164    ”         Infantry of the Line.
    4 Rifle Battalions of the Guard.
   54½ ”      ”      ”     Line.

The Guard Regiments enjoy many privileges denied to the rest, and their
officers rank one step higher in the Army.

Many alterations in the uniform have been made by the present Czar.
The dark green colour has been preserved, but the cut of the tunic has
been altered from that of the Prussian tunic to a loose double-breasted
jacket fastened with hook and eye, and with no buttons. The head-gear
is a round fur-cap, white in the case of Generals and Staff-officers,
and black in all others. The soldier has little to do in the way of
metal-polishing, it is true, but still the eye misses the accustomed
glint which one usually associates with a military uniform. The
Regiments of the Guard and Grenadiers have special distinguishing marks
on their uniform.

[Illustration: Infantry (heavy marching order).]

The Infantry rifle is a useful breech-loader with bayonet, on the
system of the American General Berdan. Regarding the question of
magazine-rifles, the Government has not yet made up its mind; so
that, for the present at all events, Russia is rather behindhand in the

[Illustration: Cossack of the Guard.]

[Illustration: Cossack of the Caucasus.]

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

The Cavalry of the Field Forces consists of:—

Guard Cavalry:—

  4 Regiments of Cuirassiers,
  2     ”     ”  Dragoons,
  2     ”     ”  Hussars,
  2     ”     ”  Lancers,

and 46 regiments of Dragoons of the Line.

The Cuirassier regiments have 4, the remainder 6 squadrons each.
Besides the above, there is a Division (2 squadrons) of Crimean Tartar
Cavalry, which would be expanded in case of war to a regiment.

The uniform of the Guard Cavalry, as can be seen by our plates, is
very brilliant compared with that of the Dragoons of the Line. The
whole Cavalry is armed with a light and slightly-curved sabre, called
a “Shashka,” which is worn on a narrow band over the right shoulder.
The front-ranks of the Cuirassiers and Lancers carry lances on
garrison-duty and on full-dress occasions, but these would not be taken
on service. The Dragoons carry a rifle, somewhat shorter than that of
the Infantry, the bayonet of which is worn on the “Shashka”-scabbard;
other Cavalry regiments carry the Berdan carbine.

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

The Field Artillery consists of:—

   3 Brigades of Guard Field Artillery,
   4 Brigades of Grenadier Field Artillery,
  44 Brigades of Field Artillery of the Line.

Each brigade numbering 6 batteries.

The Horse Artillery consists of 1 Brigade of Guard Artillery, and 23
batteries of Horse Artillery of the Line; besides the above, there are
two Mounted Mountain Batteries.

The Field Batteries have 8 guns, only 4 of which are horsed in
peace-time. A Horse Artillery Battery always has 6 fully-horsed guns.

The matériel consists of excellent steel-guns, mostly from Krupp works
in Essen, the bore of the heavy field-guns being 4·16 inches, and that
of the light ones 3·39 inches.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

The Engineers consist of 17 battalions of Sappers (including 1 Guard
and 1 Grenadier Battalion), and a few independent companies, 8
battalions of Pontonniers, 9 Railway battalions, 6 Field-parks, 16
Military Telegraph-parks, and 2 Siege-parks.

There is no Train; it is formed in war-time by taking men from
the Cavalry Reserves. Hence it would appear that the mobility and
manœuvring power of the Army in the field would not be very great.

During peace-time the Reserve forces, which would have to complete the
Army to war strength on its taking the field, and the Ersatz forces,
whose duty it would be to fill up gaps caused by death, wounds,
disease, etc., during the war, are only represented by depôt-cadres.

To the Local forces belong 50½ battalions of Garrison Artillery,
distributed amongst the fortresses of the country, besides 32 Line
battalions, quartered in Asiatic Russia for garrison duties; they may,
however, if necessary, be employed on Active Service. To these forces
also belong the “Instruction troops,” which practise new regulations,
tactical and otherwise, as they are brought out, and experimentalise
with new arms and equipment when necessary. The Corps of Gendarmes and
the Frontier Guards may also be said to form part of the Local forces.

[Sidenote: +Total Forces.+]

The Field Forces are in peace-time divided into 19 Army Corps
(including the Guard Corps and the Grenadier Corps); 2 to 3 Infantry
Divisions, and 1 Cavalry Division, with their Artillery, form an Army
Corps. The Infantry Division numbers 2 Infantry Brigades, each of 2
regiments and 1 brigade of Field Artillery. A Cavalry Division numbers
in the same way 2 brigades of 2 regiments each; besides 2 batteries of
Horse Artillery.

The peace-strength of the Regular Army comes to something like 700,000
men and 1,538 field-guns, and the war-strength to 1,800,000 men and
3,260 guns.

In addition to this enormous number there are the Irregular troops—a
force quite peculiar to Russia—namely, the Cossacks.[20]

[Sidenote: +Cossacks.+]

The Cossacks are tribes of mixed Russian, Turkish, and Tatar blood.
They are descended from tribes of horsemen, who after the Mongol
invasion in the thirteenth century settled on the Don and Dnieper and
established their own forms of government. Every three years they used
to elect a “Hetman” as chief, with a council of elders, “Narschines,”
to assist him. The Don Cossacks of Great Russia have their
head-quarters north of the Sea of Azov and in the mountainous districts
of that region. Branches of these Cossacks have settled on the Volga,
on the shores of the Sea of Azov, along the Ural, in the Kuban
North-Western Caucasus and in Siberia. Ever since they became subject
to Russia they have assisted in carrying the Russian dominion further
into Asia. The history of the settlement of these tribes in Siberia,
led by the Cossack chief Jermac, is exceedingly interesting. This bold
leader crossed the Ural mountains in 1758 with a following of only 840
Cossacks. His conquering progress equalled that of the Spaniards under
Cortez in Mexico for adventure and for the great results that flowed
from his successes.

Although attached to Russia, the Cossacks are Russian in neither
their language, religion, nor customs. Gifted with extraordinarily
sharp senses, good-humoured, and hospitable, born warriors, excellent
horsemen, and good shots, they are yet difficult to govern, and
inclined somewhat to insubordination. Now that they have been bound
down to stay in settled districts, instead of wandering all over the
country, their wildness has been somewhat toned down, and they are of
inestimable value to Russia in her service on the Chinese frontier, in
the Ural, in the Kuban, in Siberia, in the Crimea, and on the Seas of
Azov or of Aral. In return for lands granted by the government on the
different frontiers, every Cossack is bound to serve as a soldier. They
have a military organisation and are divided into Cavalry regiments, or

[Illustration: Russia. I.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Illustration: Russia. II.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

They are gradually being more and more definitely organised,
disciplined, and trained. Each man has to provide himself with clothing
and equipment according to regulation, and with a horse, and keep
them up during his time of service. The uniform consists in a short
coat, “kasakin,” or a long one, “tcherkesska,” with a woollen shirt,
“beshmet,” loose trousers, long boots, no spurs, and a fur-cap,
“papasha.” Their chief weapon is a long pennonless lance, with
sabre (“shashka”), pistol, or in the case of Cossacks of the Caucasus,
long knives, “kinzhal,” and finally, a rifle of some sort.

[Illustration: Officer of the Field Police (full dress).]

[Illustration: Field Gendarme (service kit).]

Their small insignificant-looking horses are not to be beaten for speed
and endurance. A day journey of twenty hours is not too much for them;
their hardiness is extraordinary, and the worst forage possible does
not come amiss to them.

[Sidenote: +Cossack Characteristics.+]

A Cossack rides in the Oriental manner, _i.e._ with a loose rein, high
saddle, short stirrup, and toes down; he is very fond of his horse and
treats him kindly.

[Illustration: Cossack of the Amour.]

Their extraordinary mobility, endurance, and cleverness in getting
over all obstacles of ground, particularly fit the Cossack troops for
outpost and reconnaissance duty, for rapid raids and bold surprises, as
well as for the pursuit of the enemy. What is also by no means their
least advantage is that this mode of employing them in war would leave
the regular Russian Cavalry free for actual combat in the field.

The Cossack Army which best shows the Cossack peculiarities of
character and organisation is that of the Don Cossacks, which numbers
in peace-time, besides the Bodyguard Regiment of Cossacks, 15 regiments
of Cavalry, 1 battery of Guard-Cossacks, and 7 batteries of the Line.
In war-time these numbers can be considerably increased, and the whole
Cossack Army would amount to 14 battalions Infantry, 136 regiments
Cavalry, and 40 Horse Batteries (236 guns).

This gipsy-like nation of horsemen, who eat, drink, sleep, live and die
in their saddles, and, eager for plunder, either precede the Regular
Army or attach themselves to it, is well known in Germany, where it
appeared during the Wars of the Liberation (1806–1815). One might say
with Schiller: “The rider and his swift horse are fearsome guests.” On
the whole, it seems to be the fate of the Cossacks to be regarded with
feelings of greater respect as enemies than as friends.

Still less amenable to discipline than the Cossacks are some of the
other foreign tribes found amongst the Russian Irregulars, such
as the Tatars of the Crimea, the inhabitants of the Caucasus, the
Tcherkesses, the Bashkirs and the Tunguses. Although these people
render Russia most valuable service in her Asiatic possessions, still
she can hardly count on their services in an European war, so that an
invasion by these Asiatic races, like what happened in the times of
Tamerlane or Jengiz-Khan, need not be taken into account by the Europe
of to-day.

[Sidenote: +Conclusions.+]

Laying aside the question of these Irregular troops, we cannot deny
that Russia possesses a well-disciplined Army, and one which is
prepared for war. It is a mistaken idea to imagine the Russian soldier
to be half a barbarian and a foe to higher culture. Frederick the Great
learnt to respect Russia as a powerful adversary, and in the beginning
of this century she brought a heavy weight to bear in favour of Austria
and Prussia, and fought valiantly as their ally against the power of
Napoleon I. Since that period Russia has made important progress,
not only in her culture, but in the organisation and arming of her
Army; universal conscription has also acted as a powerful assistant
to universal education. Whether Russia will fight Germany in the near
or in the distant future is a matter that does not concern us here;
we will leave the discussion of the probabilities pro and con to the
newspapers. The time may come, but all we need know about the matter
is that Germany is fully prepared and, though respecting her possible
adversary, is not afraid of her.

                          ADDENDUM TO RUSSIA.

P. 53. The Russian Infantry now numbers—

   10 Regiments of the Guard,
   18     ”     ”  Grenadiers,
  164     ”     ”  the Line,
   20     ”     ”  Rifles (2 battalions each),
    4 Rifle Battalions of the Guard,
   38 Rifle Battalions of the Line.

Pp. 56–58. The Cossacks form altogether—

   32 Regiments Regular Cavalry,
  136 Squadrons Irregular  ”
    7 Battalions of Infantry,
   12 Batteries of Artillery.


[Footnote 20: From the Turco-Tataric word Kasak, which means in Turkish
a robber, and in Tatar a free lightly-armed warrior.]



  Switzerland.      Denmark.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

The military organisations of the Great Powers of Europe have served
as patterns to the smaller Powers, for even the smallest State must
have an Army of its own wherewith to defend its independence and secure
the vindication of its rights, actual or imaginary. Its strength would
depend on the size, geographical situation, and historical associations
of the State.

[Sidenote: +Historical.+]

In recent times the small State of Denmark has once or twice been
obliged to have recourse to arms, in order to keep possession of
the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, to the right of attaching which
to the Danish crown, or rather to their absorption into the Danish
commonwealth, Prussia objected. In the year 1848–49 the small Danish
Army succeeded in making such a gallant stand against the might of
Prussia, that time was gained for other great Powers, namely, Russia
and England, to step in in her favour. The result was that Prussia was
obliged to stay her hand from taking under her protection the German
inhabitants of the two Duchies.

In 1863–64, when Prussia and Austria took in hand the German rights
in the Duchies, circumstances were considerably altered, and the war,
which lasted a whole year, was brought at last to a close by the Treaty
of Vienna, which once and for all separated the Duchies from Denmark
and gave them to Prussia. The resolution and courage, however, with
which the men of the tiny Danish Army withstood the vastly superior
forces of the other two Powers, and the determined opposition which
they offered, more especially in their fortifications at Danewirke,
Duppel, and the Island of Alsen, until their last hope of foreign
intervention had gone, bear most honourable testimony to the excellence
and courage of the Danish troops.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

After this war Denmark made use of her bitter experience in
reorganising her Army on new lines, a proof that she had, in spite of
the loss of her lands, by no means given up the idea of being a Power
in the North of Europe. She has now made an important step in the
military line by introducing universal conscription, the terms of which
are four years with the Colours, four in the Reserve, and eight in the
“Reinforcement” Reserve.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Danish Army is now constituted as follows:—

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]


   1 Battalion of Foot Guards, with 4 battalions Reinforcement Reserve.

  10 Regiments of the Line, each of 3 battalions Active and 1 battalion
    Reinforcement Reserve, forming 5 brigades (2 Jutland, 2 Seeland and
    1 Fünen) of 2 regiments each.

[Illustration: Foot Guardsman.]

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]


  1 Regiment Hussars of the Guard and 4 regiments of Dragoons, each of 4

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]


  Field Artillery—2 Regiments of 2 divisions each—total, 12 Line and 4
    Reinforcement Reserve Batteries.

  Garrison Artillery—2 Battalions—total, 6 Line and 4 Reinforcement
    Reserve Companies.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

  Engineers—1 Regiment of 5 Line and 3 Reserve Companies. Train—4

The total strength of the Danish Army is reckoned at about 50,000 men,
with 128 guns. The Reinforcement Reserve battalions and batteries only
exist as depôt-cadres.

The Infantry is still armed with a single-loading rifle, the Remington,
but it is intended to shortly arm them with a magazine-rifle, which is
now in course of preparation.

The Cavalry is armed with the sabre and Remington carbine. Their
Jutland horses are clumsy, but enduring, animals. Recently large
purchases of horses have been made in Germany to improve the breed.

The Danish character is better adapted for stout resistance and
endurance than for daring courage, and the Army accordingly is better
fitted for a defensive rôle, such as holding a fortified position to
the last extremity, than for offensive action and bold attack.

The general plan of national defence is based on this characteristic,
for the capital, Copenhagen, is going to be turned into a great
entrenched camp, which would be garrisoned by the larger portion of the
Danish Army in case of war.

[Illustration: Surgeon.]

                          SWEDEN AND NORWAY.


  Sweden.      Norway.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

Sweden, which once, in the time of the Thirty Years’ War, represented
the first Military Power in Europe, keeps up now only a small Army,
just large enough for the needs of the country. The military system of
Sweden is a peculiar one, and entirely different from that of other

[Sidenote: +Military System.+]

The whole land is divided into a great many small “Rote” or Divisions,
each of which has to supply one able-bodied man of the right age for
the Army. This man serves for as long as his physical powers last. He
receives a small property, consisting of house, farm, and ploughland,
and definite pay as long as he is actually with the Colours.

Men for the Cavalry are provided in a very similar manner with their
horses by the larger landowners or “Rusthalters,” in return for their
exemption from certain taxes.

These troops are called “Indelta” men.

The second portion of the Swedish Army consists of the “Värfvade,”
the men of which body enlist voluntarily for from two to six years’
service, and may re-engage for further service.

The Värfvade men can be trained much more thoroughly than those of the
Indelta, for the former are continually with their Corps, whilst the
latter are, during the greater part of the year, on furlough, looking
after their farms.

The third portion is the “Bewäring,” which consists of all men between
their twenty-first and twenty-sixth years of age. In case of war they
would have to reinforce the other two portions.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Swedish Army consists of—

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]


   2 Regiments of the Body-Guard,
   2     ”       ”    Body-Grenadiers,
  17     ”       ”    Infantry,
   2 Battalions of Body-Grenadiers, and
   4 Rifle battalions.

Each regiment consists of 2 battalions in peace-and 3 in war-time: this
would give 48 and 69 battalions respectively.

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]


  1 Regiment of Life-Guards of 4 squadrons,
  4 Regiments of Hussars with altogether 26 squadrons,
  2 Regiments of Dragoons with altogether 15 squadrons,
  1 Corps of Light Horse of 2 squadrons.
  Total, 47 squadrons.

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

  Artillery—3 Regiments of Field Artillery, of 5 divisions
    of 2 batteries each, the regiment consisting of 10
    (2 “Driving,” 6 Horse-Artillery, and 2 “Foot”) batteries,
    besides the Reserve Artillery of 3 Foot and 6 Driving-batteries.
    Each battery has about 6 guns, which gives a total number
    of 234 field-guns.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

  Engineers—1 Pontoon battalion, including a Field-Telegraph
    Company, and 1 battalion of Sappers.

  Train—1 battalion of 2 companies.

The Swedish Infantry drill is somewhat out of date. The quiet and
leisurely way in which a battalion drills is something astonishing. The
skirmishers have to keep exactly in line and are directed by a sergeant
in the centre with uplifted rifle. Every time a man in the firing-line
snaps his rifle, he shouts out “Piff-paff!” The introduction of a new
magazine-rifle will, therefore, probably cause some fatigue to the
throats of the Swedish Infantry.


Although Norway is united under the same Crown with Sweden, still her
military system differs entirely from that of the latter.

[Sidenote: +Military System.+]

Every able-bodied man of twenty-two years old is sent to the so-called
“Land-armament,” to serve five years in the Line, four in the
“Landwehr” and four in the “Landsturm.” The conscripts remain but very
few weeks with the Colours. The main portion of the Army consists of
men voluntarily enlisted, who are bound to stay for six years.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Rifle Corps, of five companies, of which one forms a Guard-Company,
consisting entirely of voluntarily-enlisted men, constitutes the only
Corps under arms in time of peace; of the remaining troops there are
only cadres in existence. In the event of war, the Line Infantry would
consist of 5 brigades of 4 battalions each—total, 20 battalions. The
Cavalry of 1 brigade of 3 Corps of Light Dragoons—total, 11 squadrons;
the Artillery of 5 battalions = 11 batteries with 66 guns; the
Engineers of a small division. Grand total, about 18,000 men.

[Illustration: Officer (Standard-bearer) of the Life Guards (Andra

The rifle of the Swedish and Norwegian Infantry is the Remington,
which, however, will shortly be replaced by a magazine-rifle invented
by Colonel Jarman of their Army.

[Illustration: Light Cavalry. (Jemtlands hästjägarecorps.)]

The Cavalry carries the Remington carbine in addition to the sabre. The
Artillery is being re-armed with new guns, made partly in the Krupp
works at Essen, and partly in the Swedish cast-steel works.

It is strange to find here, in the north of Europe, a head-dress
similar to that south of the Alps. The Norwegian Rifleman wears an
almost identical hat with the Italian Bersagliere.

The idea of having their Army organised for a foreign campaign does not
appear to have been entertained by the Norwegian-Swedish government.
The men, however, are tough fighters and good campaigners, sturdy and
enduring, abstemious and unassuming, and there is every reason to
believe that the Scandinavian Army would be in any case fully equal to
its true and destined use—_i.e._, the defence of the country.

                          SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

In most European States the Army is worked by the Sovereign or
Government of the country for the defence of the Crown and the nation,
and for the upholding of the Law. This, however, was for a long time
not the case in the south-western portion of Europe, _i.e._ the
Iberian Peninsula. It could not be the case, for during even this
century revolution has succeeded revolution, and the different forms
of government introduced at rapidly-recurring intervals have made it
impossible for the Army to be always at the beck and call of the head
of the State for the time being. The energetic young king, Alfonso
XII., who ascended the Spanish throne in 1874 (and died in 1885),
experienced the necessity of making himself chief of the Army, and
instituted a military system by which he hoped to put an end to the
earlier irregularities.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Army of Spain is therefore now divided into the Peninsular Army,
which serves in Spain itself, and the Colonial Army, which serves in
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

The Peninsular Army is founded on the system of universal conscription,
to which every Spaniard becomes liable on attaining his twentieth year.
Those who are exempted by law from the Army are only called out in time
of war, and those who belong to certain named professions are allowed
to buy exemptions from service for £60. Of the remaining able-bodied
men it is the ballot which decides which are to enter the Active Army.

Service is for twelve years on the whole, of which six years, as
a rule, or three, or even less, are passed with the Colours. The
remainder of a man’s service is passed in the Active Reserve. All those
who are not taken by lot to serve with the Colours, including those
exempted by law and purchase, are classed as “Disponible Recruits;”
these receive only a very short training and are called out to
reinforce the Army in case of necessity only. After six years’ service
as such, the “Disponible” recruits enter the 2nd Reserve.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

[Sidenote: +Infantry.+]

The kingdom of Spain is divided up into 14 Military Districts, each
under a Captain-general. These are again divided into 140 Military
Zones, each under a colonel, who is responsible for mobilisation and
supply details. Each Zone comprises 1 Active, 1 Reserve, and 1 Depôt
battalions. These latter two battalions are in peace-time represented
only by cadres, which would be expanded into either Field or 2nd Line
battalions in case of mobilisation. Of the 140 active battalions 20 are
Rifles; the remainder form 60 Line regiments of 2 battalions each.


  Spain.      Spain. Portugal.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Illustration: Halberdier of the Palace.]

There are in peace-time no higher units than battalions; brigades,
divisions, and army corps would be formed only in case of war.

The remainder of the Spanish Army consists of:—

[Sidenote: +Cavalry.+]

  Cavalry— 8 Regiments of Lancers, 14 Regiments of Cazaderos (Light
    Horse), 2 Regiments of Hussars, 4 Regiments of Dragoons, each of 4
    squadrons. Besides these there are 28 Reserve regiments, of which
    only cadres exist in peace-time, and 1 squadron of Life-Guards.

[Sidenote: +Artillery.+]

  Artillery—5 Regiments of Divisional Artillery of 6 batteries each,
    altogether 30 batteries with 180 guns; 5 regiments of Corps
    Artillery of 4 batteries each, altogether 20 batteries with 120
    guns; 2 regiments of Mountain Artillery, each of 6 batteries,
    altogether 72 guns, and 1 regiment of Siege and Position Artillery,
    4 batteries of 4 guns each, altogether 16 guns. Total therefore, 388
    guns, and 9 battalions Fortress Artillery.

[Sidenote: +Engineers.+]

  Engineers—5 Pioneer regiments, 1 Railway battalion,
    1 Telegraph battalion, and 5 Reserve regiments.

There is no Train in time of peace.

The peace-strength of the Peninsular Army amounts to 116,000 men.

[Illustration: General (full dress).]

Besides these there are 16 regiments of Gendarmes (Guardia Civil),
numbering 15,000 men, and 11,000 men of the Carabineros, or Frontier

The Colonial Army, about 33,000 men in all, is formed by voluntary

[Sidenote: +Armament.+]

The Infantry is armed with the Remington rifle, the Cavalry with sword
and Remington carbine. Three sections[21] of each squadron of Lancers
carry the lance. The Artillery is armed with cast-steel Krupp guns of
3·15 inches calibre; the Mountain Artillery with those of 2·95 inches.
The guns have, however, been altered to Colonel Placentia’s system.

The two Royal Household Companies, Halberdiers, are the only ones who
wear the old Spanish dress.

The Spaniard combines the liveliness and hot blood of the southerner
with the determination and endurance of the northerner, and would now
count as one of the best soldiers in Europe if it were not that, in
consequence of the long civil wars and disturbances in the country, he
had become somewhat less amenable to discipline than formerly. If an
instance is required of what Spaniards can do when fighting for their
land and freedom, we have only to look at the guerilla and mountain
warfare waged by this plucky nation against the old campaigners of
Napoleon at the beginning of this century, before the English troops
came to their assistance.


[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

Universal Conscription is the rule in Portugal as well as in most other
countries, but there are numerous exemptions and sendings on “unlimited
furlough with the Colours” (in order to save the national exchequer),
so that the Army does not by any means comprise as many men as would
appear from the strength as laid down on paper. With a nominal peace
strength of 37,000, the actual strength is only about 18,000.

The terms of service are three years with the Colours, five years in
the 1st Class, and four in the 2nd Class Reserves.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Infantry consists of 24 Line and 12 Rifle regiments, each of 2
Active and 1 Depôt battalions, altogether 72 battalions, the Depôt
battalions being skeleton ones.

Cavalry—10 regiments, of which the first two are Lancers, and the
remainder Light Dragoons (Caçadores a Cavallo). Each regiment consists
of 3 Active and 1 Depôt squadrons.

Artillery—3 Regiments of Field Artillery of 12 batteries each, 2
Regiments of Garrison Artillery of 12 companies each, 1 Mountain
Brigade of 6 batteries.—Total, 32 Active and 10 Reserve batteries with
132 guns.

Engineers—2 Active and 1 Reserve battalions, and 1 Torpedo Company.

Portugal has, besides this Army, a Colonial Force of 9,600 men, chiefly

The Infantry is now armed with the Kropatschek repeating-rifle; till
quite recently, they had the Enfield rifle. The Field Artillery is
chiefly armed with 3·54-inch steel Krupp guns.

More attention appears to be paid in Portugal to the Navy than to the
Army, and it seems unlikely that the latter will be engaged in war, at
all events for some time to come.


[Footnote 21: Out of four.]


The Swiss Republic, or rather the Free Confederation of twenty-two
small Republics (Cantons), had its beginning in the four “Forest”
towns of Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden, and Glarus. It was by the treaties
of 1815, upon which, after the downfall of Napoleon I., the present
distribution of Powers was founded and still to a great extent remains,
that the neutrality of Switzerland was recognised, so that she is now,
to all intents and purposes, excluded from taking part in an European
war. Being, however, surrounded by three Great Powers, whose Armies
may at any time traverse her territories from any quarter, she is
obliged to guard her neutrality very strictly. This object she seeks
to accomplish by universal conscription and by a military system which
is adapted to the exigencies of the country and rests on the so-called
“Militia System.”

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

According to this system the conscript has to pass only a few weeks
or months in being trained, and is subsequently called out for only
a few weeks annually during peace-time. This system certainly allows
of universal service in the widest sense of the word, and also gives
a small State the power of calling out a proportionally large Army
in time of war. At the same time, however, this system, in order to
be of any use, would require the people to be naturally of a warlike
tendency, and every man to be thoroughly accustomed to the use of a
rifle; in fine, it would require that there should always be a nucleus
of thoroughly-trained troops, even in peace-time.

Every Swiss is liable to service from the 20th to the 44th year of his
age. Of these twenty-five years of service, thirteen are spent in the
“Auszug” (Active Army) and twelve in the “Landwehr.” All able-bodied
men between the ages of 17 to 50 who are not employed in either of the
above branches belong to the “Landsturm.” Anyone who is not fit to
serve has to pay a small fine as a sort of compensation.

In case of war the “Auszug” would provide the Army as follows:—

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

  Infantry—98 Fusilier and 8 Rifle Battalions.

  Cavalry—8 Regiments (24 squadrons) of Dragoons and
    12 Companies of Guides.

  Artillery—24 Regiments of Field Artillery, and 1 of
    Mountain Artillery, each of 2 batteries of 6 guns each—
    total, 300 guns, besides 10 batteries of Position Artillery.

  Engineers—9 Battalions.

  Train—8 Battalions.

[Sidenote: +Strength of Army.+]

The strength of the Field Army comes to about 100,000 men. It consists
of the Army Staff and 8 Divisions, each comprising 2 Infantry
Brigades, each Brigade comprising 2 Regiments of Infantry, 1 Rifle
Battalion, 1 Regiment of Dragoons, 1 Company of Guides, 1 Brigade of
Artillery, 1 Battalion of Engineers, 1 of Train, 1 Field Hospital and 1
Administration Company.

The Landwehr consists of nearly as many men as the Auszug, but the
former are only called on to serve on garrison duty at home. As for
arms, the Swiss troops are not behindhand with other nations. The
Infantry is armed with the repeating Vetterli rifle, the Rifles
with a similar short repeating-rifle, and the Dragoons with a
repeating-carbine. The Field Artillery has three patterns of guns:
the light 3·28-in., the heavy 3·93-in., and the mountain 2·92-inch
guns. The Swiss soldier is more of a Light Infantry man than anything
else; as for the Swiss Cavalry, it is not to be considered on the same
footing as the Cavalry of other nations, being feeble.

The Swiss Militiaman is trained for a short time and then sent home
with his uniform and rifle. Thereafter he appears yearly for a short
training, in order to “keep his eye in.” This sketchy military
education is, however, greatly helped by the numerous Cadet divisions
in the schools, and by Volunteer Rifle and Gymnastic clubs.


  Holland.      Belgium.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

                         HOLLAND AND BELGIUM.

The “Kingdom of the Netherlands,” instituted by the Vienna Congress in
1815, was, after the revolt of the southern provinces, divided into two
kingdoms, Holland and Belgium, the former extending from the mouth of
the Ems to those of the Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt, and the latter from
these mouths to the north-eastern frontier of France. The neutrality of
these two States, recognised by the other Great Powers of Europe, have
so far exempted them from keeping up large standing armies, that their
organisation remains very much as it was in 1830.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

The Dutch military system is a combination of the old Voluntary
Enlistment and the Militia systems. Every able-bodied young man between
20 and 25 years of age is bound to enter the Militia; the number of
these not to exceed 11,000 annually. The length of service of these
men, nominally one year, is as a matter of fact shortened to nine or
even six months.

The Army consists partly of voluntarily-enlisted men, who bind
themselves to six years’ service, and partly of Militiamen. Gaps are
often caused by the impossibility of filling Volunteer vacancies by
Militiamen, and this leads to the disadvantage that the training of
the Militiamen is not so thorough as it might be, and also that the
troops are not always kept up to their full establishment.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Standing Dutch Army consists of—

  Infantry—1 Grenadier and Rifle Regiment (comprising 3 battalions of
    Grenadiers and 2 of Rifles), and 8 Line Regiments of 5 battalions
    each—Grand total, 45 battalions.

  Cavalry—3 Regiments of Hussars, each of 5 Field and one Depôt

  Artillery—1 Corps of Horse Artillery, 3 regiments Field Artillery,
    altogether 42 batteries with 252 guns: and 4 regiments of Garrison

  Engineers—3 Field Companies, 3 Fortress, 1 Railway and Telegraph
    Company, and 1 Instruction and Depôt Company.

Besides the above there is a Colonial Army Depôt of three companies, and
the Corps of Maréchaussée, which corresponds to the Gendarmerie in other
States, 373 men.

[Sidenote: +Strength of Army.+]

The total strength of the Active Army approaches 64,000 men and 270
guns. The Colonial Army, recruited entirely by voluntary enlistment,
comes to about 30,000 men.

[Illustration: Infantry of the Schutterij.]

In case a necessity should arise for reinforcing the Dutch Army,
another body of men has been formed, called the “Schutterij,” of all
Dutchmen between their 20th and 30th years not included in the Active
Army or Militia. No great expectations can be formed of this body, for
the members are only trained for forty to fifty hours annually.

The Landsturm and Rifle Clubs are also destined to increase the
strength of the Army in case of emergency.

Since Holland has been declared a neutral State, and her energy is
chiefly devoted to the furthering of her commercial and colonial
interests, the chief duty of the Army will probably be confined to that
of national defence. The numerous sluices and canals, which would offer
numerous obstacles to an invading army, would be of great assistance
in case of war. It has, in fact, already happened that the country has
been saved by letting in the sea through the sluices and forming a
general inundation.

[Illustration: Officer of Horse Artillery. (Holland.)]


Belgium also is not one of the warlike States. She has, however, often
served as a theatre of war for other nations, and her neutrality has
not been always duly respected. She must therefore possess an Army, if
only to watch her frontiers, and to prevent her total dependence on
the will of other Powers. Her Army is, however, not numerous, and is
considerably behindhand both in organisation and training.

[Illustration: Officer of Grenadiers. (Belgium.)]

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

Conscripts are chosen by ballot at the yearly so-called “Appels,” but
this is easily evaded by either paying a substitute, or by paying an
exemption of £64, in consideration of which the Government provides a
substitute of its own finding.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The Belgian Army is formed as follows:

The Infantry numbers 4 Divisions, or 9 Brigades of 2 or 3 regiments
each, _i.e.:_

   1 Regiment of Carbineers.
   1 Regiment of Grenadiers.
   3 Regiments of Rifles.
  14 Regiments of Infantry of the Line.

The Carbineer Regiment consists of 4 Active and 2 Depôt battalions; the
remainder of 3 Active and 1 Depôt battalions, the latter being only
skeleton battalions. This makes altogether 58 Active and 20 Depôt

The Cavalry numbers 2 Divisions of 2 brigades of 2 regiments each,

  2 Regiments of Light Dragoons.
  2 Regiments of Guides (similar to Hussars), and
  4 Regiments of Lancers,

each regiment numbering 4 Active and 1 Depôt squadrons—Grand total, 8
regiments, forming 32 Active and 8 Depôt squadrons.

[Illustration: Officer of Carbineers. (Belgium.)]

  Artillery—4 Regiments Field Artillery, consisting of 30 Field, 4 Horse
    and 6 Reserve batteries. The Reserve batteries are skeleton ones
    and have no guns. The remainder have 6 guns each—total, 34 batteries
    with 204 guns, besides 3 regiments of Siege Artillery, each of
    16 Siege, 1 Reserve, and 1 Depôt batteries.

  Engineers—1 Regiment of 3 battalions, and 5 companies for special work,
    _i.e._, pontooning, railway, telegraph, pyrotechnic and
    general trades.

  Train—1 Battalion of 6 companies.

[Sidenote: +Strength of Army.+]

The whole peace-strength numbers about 45,000 men, with 204 guns. Both
Dutch and Belgian Infantry are armed with single breech-loaders, the
Beaumont and Albini rifles respectively, and there seems no present
intention of introducing magazine-rifles.

The Belgian Army is clothed chiefly according to the French model; the
tall bearskins of the Grenadiers and Guides are peculiar and striking.

Both Holland and Belgium will have to follow the example of other
nations in adopting strict universal conscription. It will be only
when this is accomplished that their Armies will represent the armed
strength of the nation and satisfy the demands made on a National Army.

                     TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE
                           BALKAN PENINSULA.

[Sidenote: +Historical.+]

[Illustration: Officer of the Dorobanze (full dress).]

[Illustration: Officer of the Roșiori (undress).]

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the inhabitants of Europe
were several times alarmed by a common danger, that of invasion of
their territories by a foreign race, Asiatic by extraction, and
connected primarily with the Mongols. This race, known as Turks or
Osmanli, had made itself master of Constantinople, the capital of the
Eastern Roman Empire, in 1453, and set up its government there under a
Padishah or Sultan. From this point they extended their empire further
and further to the north-west, over Hungary and the intervening lands,
and took possession of the Hungarian capital, Buda, or Ofen. In 1683
they actually besieged Vienna, and this city would undoubtedly have
fallen if it had not been for its heroic defence by Field-Marshal
Rüdiger von Starhemberg, who held out till he was succoured by Duke
Charles of Lorraine with the Army of the Austrian Empire, and John
Sobieski, King of Poland.

The Turkish power now began to wane, and its forces gradually declined
in strength during the wars with Russia in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries. One by one the provinces of the Turkish Empire
became detached from Turkish rule and proclaimed their independence
under their own sovereigns. In this way arose the independent
kingdoms of Greece, Servia, and Roumania, and the principality of
Bulgaria (under Turkish suzerainty), all of them during the present
century. Eastern Roumelia is still in the hands of the Turks, but
she has her own administration. The Turkish Empire—once the terror
of Christendom—is now fighting for very existence, and to retain her
hold over the small remnants of her European possessions. Russia, who
considers herself the champion of the Greek-Catholic Church in the
East, would by this time have undoubtedly seized the lands of the
“Sick Man” on the Bosphorus, if it were not that the ambition of other
Powers has secured a frail but fleeting life for him. Since, however,
Turkey is determined not to let go of her European possessions without
a stiff fight for them, and since no one can foretell what far-reaching
consequences such a war would entail, we must not skip her over, but
must give a short account of her Army as well as of the others.

Turkey has now, since the disbanding of the Janissaries (who formed
the Sultan body-guard, of 12,000 men at first, and later of 100,000),
organised her Army on a purely European footing. The officer who is
chiefly responsible for this organisation, and who was sent for that
purpose to Turkey, at the request of the then Sultan Mahmoud II., from
1835 to 1839, is no less a personage than Field-Marshal Count Moltke.

Since his time, the Turkish Army has improved after every war. Though
it is yet by no means equal to that of any of the great Powers, still
that is the fault of neither the military system nor yet of the Turkish
soldier. The responsibility lies with the confused system of military
administration, which deals in the most hopeless and in the worst
possible way with the clothing and equipment, and even with the feeding
and pay of the Army.

[Sidenote: +Terms of Service.+]

According to the Law, every able-bodied Mahomedan inhabitant of Turkey
is bound to serve in the Army. Christians are exempted on payment of a

Service in the “Nizam,” or Active Army, lasts six years, of which
the Infantry soldier spends three and the Cavalry and Artilleryman
four years with the Colours and the remaining time in the Active
Reserve or “Ikhtiat.” After this the soldier joins the Landwehr or
“Redif” for eight years, and subsequently six years in the Landsturm
or “Muhstafiz.” As a matter of fact, the period of service with the
Colours is usually reduced to two years, or three at the outside.

[Sidenote: +Organisation.+]

The whole Turkish Empire is divided into 7 military districts or
“Ordu,” of which the seventh, Arabia, is exceptionally constituted.
“Ordus” 1 to 6 have each in peace-time to supply 1 Army Corps of Nizam
troops, and, besides this, 1 to 2 Army Corps of the Redif in case of
necessity. The seventh Ordu only possesses 1 Army Corps altogether.

Each Corps consists of 2 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, 1
Regiment of Field Artillery, 1 battalion of Pioneers and 1 of the

A Division consists of 2 brigades; an Infantry brigade numbers 2, and a
Cavalry 3, regiments. A regiment of Infantry numbers 5 battalions, of
which 1 is a Depôt battalion; a regiment of Cavalry, 5 squadrons, of
which 1 is a Depôt squadron.

The Artillery Regiment numbers 14 batteries, of which 3 are Horse
Artillery and 2 mountain batteries, each of 6 guns.

The 18 Army Corps of the Turkish Field Army, (including Redif) comprise
a strength of 612,000 men, with 1,512 guns,[22] and these could be
heavily reinforced by drawing on the “Muhstafiz.”

[Sidenote: +Armament.+]

The Infantry is armed with three different patterns of rifles at this
moment, but will shortly be armed altogether with a magazine-rifle.
Cavalry and Field Artillerymen are armed with a repeating carbine.
The guns are good cast-steel breech-loaders from the Krupp works. The
mountain batteries have steel guns.

As regards discipline and training, the Turkish soldier cannot be
compared on the same grounds with his European comrade. As for a
discipline founded on feelings of honour, respect, and love of country,
the Turks wots not of it. These feelings are, however, compensated for
to some extent by a religious fanaticism and a warlike spirit.

The Turkish soldier is easily satisfied, quiet in his demeanour,
unruffled, sparing of words, dignified, obedient, and true to
the death. The romantic halo which formerly endowed the Turks
with unequalled fighting powers in the assault and unconquerable
stubbornness in the defence of strong positions, has faded. In vain
does one now look for the Spahis and Delhis on their fiery horses,
with crooked swords, flashing turbans and waving garments. With the
exception of the red fez, the uniform of the Turkish troops has a
distinctly European cut. The “Nizam” wear a dark-blue coat, usually
wide in the body, to allow of the growth and alterations of the body,
which take place during their six years’ service, and the “Redif” wear
jackets or sleeved waistcoats. The most adventurous-looking are the
Bashi-Bazouks (_i.e._ “lost heads”), a wild body of Irregular troops
who carry on war in their own fashion, and who are little amenable to
discipline. These wear bizarre and wild-looking dresses, and are armed
with long rifles. The Army is extremely plucky in war, but is sadly
deficient in good officers and non-commissioned officers.

       *       *       *       *       *

The armies of the smaller States of the Balkan Peninsula, organised on
the lines of great European Powers, will in future wars probably only
act as allies to either Russia or Turkey. We need therefore cast but a
hasty glance at them.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +GREECE.+]

_Greece_ has, in consequence of her universal conscription—

  Infantry—27 battalions of the Line and 9 battalions of Rifles.

  Cavalry—12 squadrons.

  Artillery—2 Field, and 2 Mountain battalions, and 1 Garrison Artillery
    battalion, altogether 10 batteries with 64 guns.

The Army (including Engineers and Train, as well as Gendarmerie)
consists of about 30,000 in peace-time, which could be reinforced in
war-time to 80,000 men.

[Illustration: Turkish Infantry of the Redif.]

[Sidenote: +ROUMANIA.+]

_Roumania_ can bring into the 1st Line 4 Army Corps, well-drilled and
well-armed (with repeating rifles and Krupp guns), and into the 2nd
Line 4 more Divisions. Her peace strength consists of—

  Infantry—16 battalions of the Line, 4 battalions of Rifles and
    65 battalions of the Dorobanze (a Territorial Militia)—total, 85

  Cavalry—16 squadrons of Roșiori, (Hussars) and 54 squadrons of
    Kalaraschi (a species of Gendarmerie)—total, 70 squadrons.

  Artillery—54 batteries with 312 guns.

The peace-strength of Roumania numbers over 30,000 men.

The war-strength consists of 120 battalions of Infantry, 80 squadrons
of Cavalry, 72 batteries of Artillery, 20 companies of Engineers, and
details; altogether 150,000 men and 448 guns.

Besides these there are 32 Local Militia battalions and a body of men
corresponding to the German Landsturm.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +SERVIA.+]

_Servia_ can put into the field 5 Divisions, namely:—

  Field Army—45 battalions, 25 squadrons, 25 batteries, besides Engineers
    and Train—total, 65,000 men and 100 guns.

  Reserve Army—65,000 men, formed similarly to the above.

  Landsturm—60 battalions, comprising 30,000 men.
    Total war-strength 130,000 men and 200 guns.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +BULGARIA.+]

[Illustration: Bashi-Bazouks]


  Turkey.—Greece.    Servia.—Bulgaria.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

[Illustration: Roumania.

  _Printed by G. Löwensohn, Fuerth Bavaria_
        _Published by William Clowes & Sons, L^{d}, London._]

_Bulgaria_, although her constitution is as yet not definitely
settled, is not at all behindhand in the organisation of her Army.
The principality would be able to put into the field an Army of over
30,000 well-trained men, besides 24,000 Landwehr and 7,000

[Illustration: Montenegro: Soldier.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The Army of _Eastern Roumelia_ is a species of Militia, which would in
war-time amount to 64,000 men. The Standing Army numbers only 3,400
men, and their efficiency is not very great.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: +MONTENEGRO.+]

_Montenegro._ In the western portion of the Balkan Peninsula, between
the Dinaric Mountains and the Adriatic, though not touching the latter,
lies a wild and craggy mountain land. According to the inhabitants,
“When the Creator was walking over the earth, distributing rocks and
plains, the bag in which the rocks were split, and those which remained
fell on to Montenegro.”

There can certainly not have been many rocks in the bag, for the land
of the Black Mountains (Montenegro or Tzernagora) is a tiny country
of only about 2,300 square miles. The inhabitants are as wild as their
country. They are a small, liberty-loving nation, of great physical
beauty, and born warriors. When the Czar, the other day, called the
Prince of Montenegro the best friend he had on earth, his speech
probably referred less to the Prince himself than to the people whose
merit and determined bravery he so much admired.

[Illustration: Montenegro: Officer.]

This nation has for centuries known how to preserve its independence.
Turkey, who tried to exercise a sovereignty, over the people, came to
grief when met by their determined opposition. In 1862 the inhabitants
of Herzegovina rebelled against the sovereignty of the Crescent,
and were supported in their revolt by the Montenegrins. The Turkish
Government thereupon recalled their best general, Omar Pasha, from
exile, and gave him the chief command of the forces sent against
Herzegovina and her ally.

Omar Pasha forced his way into Montenegro at the head of a powerful
Army. His forces were so superior to those of the Montenegrins that
the latter could not keep up their brave opposition for very long, but
the Turkish losses were so considerable, and their enemy so impossible
to get at, that the former were glad when the Montenegrins showed
themselves willing to treat for peace on easy conditions. Montenegro,
therefore, stands to this day a rocky fortress and a bulwark against
the advance of the Crescent.

Montenegro requires no law of universal conscription, for every
able-bodied man has, as a matter of course, been trained to arms from
his youth up. It has also no Standing Army, only a Body-Guard for
the Prince, composed of 300 men,[23] of whom 50 are mounted. It is,
however, stated that at least 35,000 men and a few mountain-guns could
be put in the field in case of war, in order to defend the country
against an invader from any quarter.


[Footnote 22: Numbering 468 battalions Infantry, 432 squadrons Cavalry,
252 batteries Artillery, and 72 companies Engineers.—_Tr._]

[Footnote 23: “Peganicis.”]


                    SKETCH OF THE NAVIES OF EUROPE.

We have now finished with our bird-eye view of the Armies of Europe. A
country armed strength does not, however, consist exclusively of her
Army; her Navy has to be reckoned with as well. We will, therefore,
glance at the naval forces of the chief of the European States.

[Sidenote: +ENGLAND.+]

The first place amongst Naval Powers is undoubtedly still held by
Great Britain as queen of the seas, however much other nations may
try to overhaul her in ships and material. There have certainly been
voices heard lately in Parliament anent the alleged standstill—_i.e._,
backsliding, when the race with foreign nations is taken into
account—in the naval development of England. The late great Naval
Review, however, last August, appeared to disarm all hostile criticism
as to the strength and efficiency of the British Fleet. There were at
that time, off Portsmouth, several square miles of vessels, altogether
112 fighting-ships. Yet this was but a small portion of England Navy,
for the total English Fleet amounts to altogether 763 vessels, as

  Turreted and belted men-of-war           37
  Ironclad corvettes and cruisers          80
  Sloops and gun-vessels                   40
  Gunboats                                102
  Torpedo-boats                           120
  Torpedo-ships, mine-layers, etc.         43
  Despatch-vessels and survey-ships        33
  Transports, sailing-vessels,
                   and turret-ships        29
  Various, for coast and harbour service  195
  Auxiliary ocean steamers                 23
                Total                     702
      India                                28
      South Africa                          2
      Australia                            31
                Grand total               763

[Sidenote: +FRANCE.+]

France possesses now—

  Men-of-war                               25
  Other ironclads                          29
  Cruisers                                 58
  Gunboats and avisos                      82
  Gun-sloops (small)                       54
  Torpedo-vessels, etc.                    16
  Torpedo-boats                           136
  Transports and sailing-ships             72
  Coast and harbour service, etc.         107
  Auxiliary ocean steamers                 14
                Total                     593

Besides over 200 small sailing-vessels and hulks.

[Sidenote: +RUSSIA.+]

Russia has of late years considerably increased her fleet, spending her
substance chiefly on large ironclads, which appear to be the fashion
nowadays. Her biggest ironclads are those in the Black Sea. The Russian
Navy should not be, all the same, considered as a very powerful one,
for a great many of her ironclads and torpedo-boats are out of date,
and not up to the requirements of modern naval warfare.

The Russian fleet numbers altogether—

  Men-of-war                               21
  Monitors and cruisers                    44
  Torpedo-vessels and gunboats             21
  Torpedo-boats (old and new)             140
  Sailing-vessels, etc.                    50
  Transports, etc.                        123
  Coast and harbour service                50
  Boat-flotilla                            33
                Total                     482

[Sidenote: +ITALY.+]

The naval forces of Italy have increased
very rapidly during the last twelve years.
At present they number—

  Men-of-war                               19
  Corvettes                                19
  Torpedo-vessels and avisos               26
  Gunboats                                 10
  Torpedo-boats                           122
  Transports and survey-ships              19
  Harbour and coast service                92
  Auxiliary ocean steamers                  7
                Total                     314

[Sidenote: +AUSTRIA.+]

Austria also has considerably increased
her fleet. It now consists of—

  Men-of-war and cruisers                  15
  Torpedo-vessels and gunboats             15
  Corvettes, Transports, and avisos        21
  Torpedo-boats                            56
  Harbour and coast service                19
               Total                      126

[Sidenote: +GERMANY.+]

The latest recruit to the Naval Powers is Germany, “last not least,” of
whose naval organisation we will give a few details.

The officers of the German Navy consist of 2 “Station-Chiefs” at
Kiel and Wilhelmshaven with 2 flag-lieutenants, 3 vice-admirals, 17
post-captains, 33 corvette-captains, 64 “captain-lieutenants,” 120
lieutenants, and 114 sub-lieutenants. Besides these, there are 100
naval cadets, and engineers, paymasters, and surgeons in proportion.

The men, when on shore, are formed into 2 Divisions of seamen and 2
Divisions of dockyard men, at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven. Besides these,
there is a Division of “ship-boys,” a Naval Police Corps, 2 battalions
of Marine Infantry at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven, and 2 companies of Marine
Artillery at Friedrichsort and Wilhelmshaven, and the Naval Medical

The Marine Reserve and “Seewehr” are formed similarly to the Army
Reserve and Landwehr.

The matériel consists of—

  Men-of-war and other ironclads           26
  Cruisers                                 26
  Torpedo-vessels, gunboats, and avisos    18
  Torpedo-boats                            93
  Various for harbour service              42
                 Total                    205

The original plan for forming a fleet, started in 1872–73, has been
departed from in several details, gained from the experience of other
nations and from the knowledge of German requirements; economy had
also something to do with the matter. The building of huge ironclads
was not persevered in, and more attention was paid to increasing the
torpedo-flotilla for the defence of the coasts and ports.

Although the Imperial Navy is not yet strong enough to compete
successfully with those of other great naval powers on the open sea,
still one great object has been gained, _i.e._, the protection of
trade and the merchant service. Germany is also now enabled to enter
into commercial and political relations with distant countries, and
to make the German flag respected in all parts of the world in a way
which would not otherwise have been possible. The Navy will also be
able in the future to defend the German coast-line and make the foreign
invasion of her coasts an impossibility. It is difficult to forecast
the probable development of the German Navy, for the colonies which the
country has recently founded and is still founding will increase its
task and may lead to the formation of a much larger fleet.

The recognition which the German Navy has lately won on all sides,
especially on the part of England, allows of the hope that it will soon
be considered as fit to go hand in hand with the German Army. One thing
is certain, and that is, that its successes, whether in the hoisting
of the national flag in distant parts of the world, or in the more
peaceful task of cementing friendly relations with other Powers, are
followed with the greatest interest and appreciation by the whole of
the German Empire.



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+402+ Candidates have +passed+ the competitive Examinations direct
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or out of London.


+257+ Militia Officers have passed from Mr. Wolffram
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  1888 {1st place    Lieut. A. Martyn            1760 marks.
  1889 {1st place    Lieut. C. H. Turner         1929 marks.
  1890 {1st place    Lieut. S. Fitzgerald Cox    2034 marks.

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In addition to the above numbers, +364+ Candidates have passed the
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Who have passed from Mr. Wolffram for Woolwich, Sandhurst, Direct
Commissions, and Commissions through the Militia:—

  1872 and 1873                         Eight   8
  1874  ”  1875                  Thirty-eight  38
  1876  ”  1877                     Fifty-six  56
  1878  ”  1879                   Sixty-seven  67
  1880  ”  1881                     Sixty-two  62
  1882  ”  1883                    Eighty-one  81
  1884  ”  1885         One hundred and seven 107
  1886  ”  1887    One hundred and twenty-one 121
  1888  ”  1889    One hundred and twenty-two 122
           Total    Six hundred and sixty-two 662

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Transcriber’s note:

A small number of obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

The spelling and punctuation of the source book have not been changed
even though some of the punctuation would not be accepted today; for
example, the plural of NCO (non-commissioned officer) is printed as
N. C. O.’s.

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