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Title: The Three Voyages of Captain Cook Round the World. Vol. IV. Being the Second of the Second Voyage.
Author: Forster, Georg, Cook, James
Language: English
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                           Transcriber’s Note


When italics were used in the original book, the corresponding text has
been surrounded by _underscores_. Superscripted characters are preceded
by ^.

Some corrections have been made to the printed text. These are listed in
a second transcriber’s note at the end of the text.



[Illustration: _A View in the Island of Rotterdam._]



                                  THE

                                 THREE

                                VOYAGES

                                   OF

                           CAPTAIN JAMES COOK

                            ROUND THE WORLD.

                                COMPLETE

                           In Seven Volumes.

                      _WITH MAP AND OTHER PLATES._

                                VOL. IV.

                 BEING THE SECOND OF THE SECOND VOYAGE.



                                LONDON:

                              PRINTED FOR
                 LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN,
                            PATERNOSTER-ROW.

                                 1821.



                                CONTENTS

                                   OF

                          _THE FOURTH VOLUME_

                             SECOND VOYAGE.

                                 BOOK III.

                       From Ulietea to New Zealand.


                                 CHAP. I.

 Passage from Ulietea to the Friendly Isles; with a                 Page 1
   Description of several Islands that were discovered,
   and the Incidents which happened in that track


                                 CHAP. II.

 Reception at Anamocka; a Robbery and its Consequences,                  9
   with a variety of other Incidents.—Departure from the
   Island.—A sailing Canoe described.—Some Observations
   on the Navigation of these Islanders.—A Description of
   the Island, and of those in the Neighbourhood, with
   some Account of the Inhabitants, and Nautical Remarks


                                CHAP. III.

 The Passage from the Friendly Isles to the New Hebrides;               21
   with an Account of the Discovery of Turtle Island, and
   a variety of Incidents which happened, both before and
   after the Ship arrived in Port Sandwich in the Island
   of Mallicollo.—A Description of the Port; the adjacent
   Country; its Inhabitants, and many other particulars


                                 CHAP. IV.

 An Account of the Discovery of several Islands, an                     35
   Interview and Skirmish with the Inhabitants upon one
   of them.—The Arrival of the Ship at Tanna, and the
   Reception we met with there


                                 CHAP. V.

 An Intercourse established with the Natives; some                      49
   Account of the Island, and a variety of Incidents that
   happened during our stay at it


                                 CHAP. VI.

 Departure from Tanna; with some Account of its                         69
   Inhabitants, their Manners and Arts


                                CHAP. VII.

 The Survey of the Islands continued, and a more                        78
   particular Description of them


                                CHAP. VIII.

 An Account of the Discovery of New Caledonia, and the                  95
   Incidents that happened while the Ship lay in Balade


                                 CHAP. IX.

 A Description of the Country and its Inhabitants; their               109
   Manners, Customs, and Arts


                                 CHAP. X.

 Proceedings on the Coast of New Caledonia, with                       118
   geographical and nautical Observations


                                 CHAP. XI.

 Sequel of the Passage from New Caledonia to New Zealand,              135
   with an Account of the Discovery of Norfolk Island:
   and the Incidents that happened while the Ship lay in
   Queen Charlotte’s Sound


                                 BOOK IV.

            From leaving New Zealand to our Return to England.


                                 CHAP. I.

 The run from New Zealand to Terra del Fuego, with the                 151
   range from Cape Deseada to Christmas Sound, and
   Description of that part of the Coast


                                 CHAP. II.

 Transactions in Christmas Sound, with an Account of the               163
   country and its Inhabitants


                                CHAP. III.

 Range from Christmas Sound, round Cape Horn, through                  173
   Strait Le Maire, and round Staten Land; with an
   Account of the Discovery of a Harbour in that Island,
   and a Description of the Coasts


                                 CHAP. IV.

 Observations, geographical and nautical; with an Account              182
   of the Islands near Staten Land, and the Animals found
   in them


                                 CHAP. V.

 Proceedings after leaving Staten Land; with an Account                190
   of the Discovery of the Isle of Georgia, and a
   Description of it


                                 CHAP. VI.

 Proceedings after leaving the Isle of Georgia, and an                 204
   Account of the Discovery of Sandwich Land: with some
   reasons for there being Land about the South Pole


                                CHAP. VII.

 Heads of what has been done in the Voyage; with some                  219
   Conjectures concerning the Formation of Ice-islands;
   and an Account of our Proceedings till our Arrival at
   the Cape of Good Hope


                                CHAP. VIII.

 Captain Furneaux’s Narrative of his Proceedings in the                229
   Adventure, from the time he was separated from the
   Resolution, to his Arrival in England; including
   Lieutenant Burney’s Report concerning the Boat’s Crew,
   who were murdered by the Inhabitants of Queen
   Charlotte’s Sound


                                 CHAP. IX.

 Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope; with an Account                241
   of some Discoveries made by the French; and the
   Arrival of the Ship at St. Helena


                                 CHAP. X.

 Passage from St. Helena to the Western Islands, with a                248
   Description of the Islands of Ascension and Fernando
   Noronho


                                 CHAP. XI.

 Arrival of the Ship at the Island of Fayal, a                         258
   Description of the Place, and the Return of the
   Resolution to England

 A Vocabulary of the Language of the Society Isles                     269

 A Table, exhibiting, at one view, Specimens of different   _At the End of
   Languages spoken in the South Sea, from Easter Island      the Volume._
   westward to New Caledonia, as observed in the Voyage



                                   A

                                 VOYAGE

                                TOWARDS

                            THE SOUTH POLE,

                                  AND

                            ROUND THE WORLD,

                     IN 1772, 1773, 1774, AND 1775.



                               BOOK III.

                      FROM ULIETEA TO NEW ZEALAND.



                                CHAP. I.

   PASSAGE FROM ULIETEA TO THE FRIENDLY ISLES; WITH A DESCRIPTION OF
 SEVERAL ISLANDS THAT WERE DISCOVERED, AND THE INCIDENTS WHICH HAPPENED
                             IN THAT TRACK.


On the 6th, being the day after leaving Ulietea, at eleven o’clock A. M.
we saw land bearing N. W., which, upon a nearer approach, we found to be
a low reef island about four leagues in compass, and of a circular form.
It is composed of several small patches connected together by breakers,
the largest lying on the N. E. part. This is Howe island, discovered by
Captain Wallis, who, I think, sent his boat to examine it; and, if I
have not been misinformed, found a channel through, within the reef,
near the N. W. part. The inhabitants of Ulietea speak of an uninhabited
island, about this situation, called by them Mopeha, to which they go at
certain seasons for turtle. Perhaps this may be the same; as we saw no
signs of inhabitants upon it. Its latitude is 16° 46ʹ South; longitude
154° 8ʹ West.

From this day to the 16th, we met with nothing remarkable, and our
course was West southerly; the winds variable from the North round by
the East to S. W. attended with cloudy, rainy, unsettled weather, and a
southerly swell. We generally brought to, or stood upon a wind, during
night; and in the day made all the sail we could. About half an hour
after sun-rise this morning, land was seen from the top-mast head,
bearing N. N. E. We immediately altered the course and steering for it,
found it to be another reef island, composed of five or six woody
islets, connected together by sand banks and breakers, inclosing a lake,
into which we could see no entrance. We ranged the West and N. W.
coasts, from its southern to its northern extremity, which is about two
leagues; and so near the shore, that at one time we could see the rocks
under us; yet we found no anchorage, nor saw we any signs of
inhabitants. There were plenty of various kinds of birds, and the coast
seemed to abound with fish. The situation of this isle is not very
distant from that assigned by Mr. Dalrymple for La Sagitaria, discovered
by Quiros; but, by the description the discoverer has given of it, it
cannot be the same. For this reason, I looked upon it as a new
discovery, and named it Palmerston Island, in honour of Lord Palmerston,
one of the Lords of the Admiralty. It is situated in latitude 18° 4ʹ
South, longitude 163° 10ʹ West.

At four o’clock in the afternoon we left this isle, and resumed our
course to the W. by S. with a fine steady gale easterly, till noon on
the 20th, at which time, being in latitude 18° 50ʹ, longitude 168° 52ʹ,
we thought we saw land to S. S. W. and hauled up for it accordingly. But
two hours after, we discovered our mistake, and resumed our course W. by
S. Soon after we saw land from the mast-head in the same direction; and,
as we drew nearer, found it to be an island which, at five o’clock, bore
West, distant five leagues. Here we spent the night plying under the
top-sails; and, at day-break next morning, bore away, steering for the
northern point, and ranging the West coast at the distance of one mile,
till near noon. Then, perceiving some people on the shore, and landing
seeming to be easy, we brought to, and hoisted out two boats, with which
I put off to the land, accompanied by some of the officers and
gentlemen. As we drew near the shore, some of the inhabitants, who were
on the rocks, retired to the woods, to meet us, as we supposed; and we
afterwards found our conjectures right. We landed with ease in a small
creek, and took post on a high rock to prevent a surprise. Here we
displayed our colours, and Mr. Forster and his party began to collect
plants, &c. The coast was so over-run with woods, bushes, plants,
stones, &c. that we could not see forty yards round us. I took two men,
and with them entered a kind of chasm, which opened a way into the
woods. We had not gone far before we heard the natives approaching; upon
which I called to Mr. Forster to retire to the party, as I did likewise.
We had no sooner joined, than the islanders appeared at the entrance of
a chasm not a stone’s-throw from us. We began to speak, and make all the
friendly signs we could think of to them, which they answered by
menaces; and one of two men, who were advanced before the rest, threw a
stone, which struck Mr. Sparrman on the arm. Upon this two musquets were
fired, without order, which made them all retire under cover of the
woods; and we saw them no more.

After waiting some little time, and till we were satisfied nothing was
to be done here, the country being so over-run with bushes, that it was
hardly possible to come to parly with them, we embarked and proceeded
down along shore, in hopes of meeting with better success in another
place. After ranging the coast for some miles without seeing a living
soul, or any convenient landing-place, we at length came before a small
beach, on which lay four canoes. Here we landed by means of a little
creek, formed by the flat rocks before it, with a view of just looking
at the canoes, and to leave some medals, nails, &c. in them; for not a
soul was to be seen. The situation of this place was to us worse than
the former. A flat rock lay next the sea; behind it a narrow stone
beach; this was bounded by a perpendicular rocky cliff of unequal
height, whose top was covered with shrubs; two deep and narrow chasms in
the cliff seemed to open a communication into the country. In, or before
one of these, lay the four canoes which we were going to look at; but in
the doing of this, I saw we should be exposed to an attack from the
natives, if there were any, without being in a situation proper for
defence. To prevent this, as much as could be, and to secure a retreat
in case of an attack, I ordered the men to be drawn up upon the rock,
from whence they had a view of the heights; and only myself, and four of
the gentlemen, went up to the canoes. We had been there but a few
minutes, before the natives, I cannot say how many, rushed down the
chasm out of the wood upon us. The endeavours we used to bring them to a
parly, were to no purpose; for they came with the ferocity of wild
boars, and threw their darts. Two or three musquets, discharged in the
air, did not hinder one of them from advancing still farther, and
throwing another dart, or rather a spear, which passed close over my
shoulder. His courage would have cost him his life, had not my musquet
missed fire; for I was not five paces from him, when he threw his spear,
and had resolved to shoot him to save myself. I was glad afterwards that
it happened as it did. At this instant, our men on the rock began to
fire at others who appeared on the heights, which abated the ardour of
the party we were engaged with, and gave us time to join our people,
when I caused the firing to cease. The last discharge sent all the
islanders to the woods, from whence they did not return so long as we
remained. We did not know that any were hurt. It was remarkable, that
when I joined our party, I tried my musquet in the air, and it went off
as well as a piece could do. Seeing no good was to be got with these
people, or at the isle, as having no port, we returned on board, and
having hoisted in the boats, made sail to W. S. W. I had forgot to
mention, in its proper order, that having put ashore a little before we
came to this last place, three or four of us went upon the cliffs, where
we found the country, as before, nothing but coral rocks, all over-run
with bushes; so that it was hardly possible to penetrate into it, and we
embarked again with intent to return directly on board, till we saw the
canoes; being directed to the place by the opinion of some of us, who
thought they heard some people.

The conduct and aspect of these islanders occasioned my naming it Savage
Island. It is situated in the latitude 19° 1ʹ South, longitude 169° 37ʹ
West. It is about eleven leagues in circuit; of a round form, and good
height; and hath deep waters close to its shores. All the sea-coast, and
as far inland as we could see, is wholly covered with trees, shrubs, &c.
amongst which were some cocoa-nut trees; but what the interior parts may
produce, we know not. To judge of the whole garment by the skirts, it
cannot produce much; for so much as we saw of it consisted wholly of
coral rocks, all over-run with wood and bushes. Not a bit of soil was to
be seen; the rocks alone supplying the trees with humidity. If these
coral rocks were first formed in the sea by animals, how came they
thrown up to such a height? Has this island been raised by an
earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it? Some philosophers have
attempted to account for the formation of low isles, such as are in this
sea; but I do not know that any thing has been said of high islands, or
such as I have been speaking of. In this island, not only the loose
rocks which cover the surface, but the cliffs which bound the shores,
are of coral stone, which the continual beating of the sea has formed
into a variety of curious caverns, some of them very large: the roof or
rock over them being supported by pillars, which the foaming waves have
formed into a multitude of shapes, and made more curious than the
caverns themselves. In one, we saw light was admitted through a hole at
the top; in another place, we observed that the whole roof of one of
these caverns had sunk in, and formed a kind of valley above, which lay
considerably below the circumjacent rocks.

I can say but little of the inhabitants, who I believe, are not
numerous. They seemed to be stout, well-made men, were naked, except
round the waists, and some of them had their faces, breast, and thighs
painted black. The canoes were precisely like those of Amsterdam; with
the addition of a little rising like a gunwale on each side of the open
part; and had some carving about them, which shewed that these people
are full as ingenious. Both these islanders and their canoes, agree very
well with the descriptions M. de Bougainville has given of those he saw
off the Isle of Navigators, which lies nearly under the same meridian.

After leaving Savage Island, we continued to steer W. S. W. with a fine
easterly trade-wind, till the 24th in the evening, when, judging
ourselves not far from Rotterdam, we brought to, and spent the night
plying under the top-sails. At day-break, next morning, we bore away
West; and, soon after, saw a string of islands extending from S. S. W.
by the West to N. N. W. The wind being at N. E. we hauled to N. W. with
a view of discovering more distinctly the isles in that quarter; but,
presently after, we discovered a reef of rocks a-head, extending on each
bow farther than we could see. As we could not weather them, it became
necessary to tack and bear up to the South, to look for a passage that
way. At noon, the southernmost island bore S. W.; distant four miles.
North of this isle were three others, all connected by breakers, which
we were not sure did not join to those we had seen in the morning, as
some were observed in the intermediate space. Some islands were also
seen to the West of those four; but Rotterdam was not yet in sight.
Latitude 20° 23ʹ S. longitude 174° 6ʹ West. During the whole afternoon,
we had little wind: so that, at sunset, the southernmost isle bore
W. N. W., distant five miles; and some breakers, we had seen to the
South, bore now S. S. W. half W. Soon after it fell calm, and we were
left to the mercy of a great easterly swell; which, however, happened to
have no great effect upon the ship. The calm continued till four o’clock
the next morning, when it was succeeded by a breeze from the South. At
day-light, perceiving a likelihood of a passage between the islands to
the North, and the breakers to the South, we stretched in West, and soon
after saw more islands, both to the S. W. and N. W. but the passage
seemed open and clear. Upon drawing near the islands, we sounded, and
found forty-five and forty fathoms, a clear sandy bottom. I was now
quite easy, since it was in our power to anchor, in case of a calm; or
to spend the night, if we found no passage. Towards noon, some canoes
came off to us from one of the isles, having two or three people in
each; who advanced boldly along-side, and exchanged some cocoa-nuts, and
shaddocks for small nails. They pointed out to us Anamocka or Rotterdam;
an advantage we derived from knowing the proper names. They likewise
gave us the names of some of the other isles, and invited us much to go
to theirs, which they called Cornango. The breeze freshening, we left
them astern, and steered for Anamocka; meeting with a clear passage, in
which we found unequal sounding, from forty to nine fathoms, depending,
I believe, in a great measure, on our distance from the islands which
form it.

As we drew near the south end of Rotterdam, or Anamocka, we were met by
a number of canoes, laden with fruit and roots; but, as I did not
shorten sail, we had but little traffic with them. The people in one
canoe enquired for me by name; a proof that these people have an
intercourse with those of Amsterdam. They importuned us much to go
towards their coast, letting us know, as we understood them, that we
might anchor there. This was on the S. W. side of the island, where the
coast seemed to be sheltered from the South and S. E. winds; but as the
day was far spent, I could not attempt to go in there, as it would have
been necessary to have sent first a boat in to examine it. I therefore
stood for the north side of the island, where we anchored about
three-fourths of a mile from shore; the extremes of it bearing S. 88°
East to S. W. a cove with a sandy beach at the bottom of it S. 50° East.



                               CHAP. II.

RECEPTION AT ANAMOCKA; A ROBBERY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES, WITH A VARIETY OF
 OTHER INCIDENTS. DEPARTURE FROM THE ISLAND. A SAILING CANOE DESCRIBED.
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE NAVIGATION OF THESE ISLANDERS. A DESCRIPTION OF
THE ISLAND, AND OF THOSE IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD, WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE
                   INHABITANTS, AND NAUTICAL REMARKS.


Before we had well got to an anchor, the natives came off from all parts
in canoes, bringing with them yams and shaddocks, which they exchanged
for small nails and old rags. One man taking a vast liking to our lead
and line, got hold of it, and, in spite of all the threats I could make
use of, cut the line with a stone; but a discharge of small shot made
him return it. Early in the morning, I went ashore, with Mr. Gilbert, to
look for fresh water. We landed in the cove above-mentioned, and were
received with great courtesy by the natives. After I had distributed
some presents amongst them, I asked for water, and was conducted to a
pond of it that was brackish, about three-fourths of a mile from the
landing-place; which I suppose to be the same that Tasman watered at. In
the mean time, the people in the boat had laden her with fruit and
roots, which the natives had brought down, and exchanged for nails and
beads. On our return to the ship, I found the same sort of traffic
carrying on there. After breakfast, I went ashore with two boats to
trade with the people, accompanied by several of the gentlemen, and
ordered the launch to follow with casks to be filled with water. The
natives assisted us to roll them to and from the pond; and a nail or a
bead was the expence of their labour. Fruit and roots, especially
shaddocks and yams, were brought down in such plenty, that the two boats
were laden, sent off, cleared, and laden a second time, before noon; by
which time also the launch had got a full supply of water, and the
botanical and shooting parties had all come in, except the surgeon, for
whom we could not wait, as the tide was ebbing fast out of the cove;
consequently he was left behind. As there is no getting into the cove
with a boat, from between half ebb to half flood, we could get off no
water in the afternoon. However, there is a very good landing-place
without it, near the southern point, where boats can get ashore at all
times of the tide; here some of the officers landed after dinner, where
they found the surgeon, who had been robbed of his gun. Having come down
to the shore some time after the boats had put off, he got a canoe to
bring him on board; but as he was getting into her, a fellow snatched
hold of the gun, and ran off with it. After that no one would carry him
to the ship, and they would have stripped him, as he imagined, had he
not presented a tooth-pick case, which they, no doubt, thought was a
little gun. As soon as I heard of this, I landed at the place
above-mentioned, and the few natives who were there fled at my approach.
After landing, I went in search of the officers, whom I found in the
cove, where we had been in the morning, with a good many of the natives
about them. No step had been taken to recover the gun, nor did I think
proper to take any; but in this I was wrong. The easy manner of
obtaining this gun, which they now, no doubt, thought secure in their
possession, encouraged them to proceed in these tricks, as will soon
appear. The alarm the natives had caught being soon over, they carried
fruit, &c. to the boats, which got pretty well laden before night, when
we all returned on board.

Early in the morning of the 28th, Lieutenant Clerke, with the Master and
fourteen or fifteen men, went on shore in the launch for water. I did
intend to have followed in another boat myself, but rather unluckily
deferred it till after breakfast. The launch was no sooner landed than
the natives gathered about her, behaving in so rude a manner, that the
officers were in some doubt if they should land the casks; but, as they
expected me on shore soon, they ventured, and, with difficulty, got them
filled, and into the boat again. In the doing of this, Mr. Clerke’s gun
was snatched from him, and carried off; as were also some of the
cooper’s tools; and several of the people were stripped of one thing or
another. All this was done, as it were, by stealth; for they laid hold
of nothing by main force. I landed just as the launch was ready to put
off; and the natives, who were pretty numerous on the beach, as soon as
they saw me, fled; so that I suspected something had happened. However,
I prevailed on many to stay, and Mr. Clerke came, and informed me of all
the preceding circumstances. I quickly came to a resolution to oblige
them to make restitution; and, for this purpose, ordered all the marines
to be armed, and sent on shore. Mr. Forster and his party being gone
into the country, I ordered two or three guns to be fired from the ship,
in order to alarm him; not knowing how the natives might act on this
occasion. These orders being given, I sent all the boats off but one,
with which I stayed, having a good many of the natives about me, who
behaved with their usual courtesy. I made them so sensible of my
intention, that long before the marines came, Mr. Clerke’s musquet was
brought, but they used many excuses to divert me from insisting on the
other. At length Mr. Edgecumbe arriving with the marines, this alarmed
them so much, that some of them fled. The first step I took was to seize
on two large double-sailing canoes, which were in the cove. One fellow
making resistance, I fired some small shot at him, and sent him limping
off. The natives being now convinced that I was in earnest, all fled;
but on my calling to them, many returned; and, presently after, the
other musquet was brought, and laid at my feet. That moment I ordered
the canoes to be restored, to show them on what account they were
detained. The other things we had lost being of less value, I was the
more indifferent about them. By this time the launch was ashore for
another turn of water, and we were permitted to fill the casks without
any one daring to come near us; except one man, who had befriended us
during the whole affair, and seemed to disapprove of the conduct of his
countrymen.

On my returning from the pond to the cove, I found a good many people
collected together, from whom we understood that the man I had fired at
was dead. This story I treated as improbable, and addressed a man, who
seemed of some consequence, for the restitution of a cooper’s adze we
had lost in the morning. He immediately sent away two men, as I thought,
for it; but I soon found that we had greatly mistaken each other; for,
instead of the adze, they brought the wounded man, stretched out on a
board, and laid him down by me, to all appearance dead. I was much moved
at the sight; but soon saw my mistake, and that he was only wounded in
the hand and thigh. I therefore desired he might be carried out of the
sun, and sent for the surgeon to dress his wounds. In the mean time, I
addressed several people for the adze; for as I had now nothing else to
do, I determined to have it. The one I applied the most to, was an
elderly woman, who had always a great deal to say to me, from my first
landing; but, on this occasion, she gave her tongue full scope. I
understood but little of her eloquence; and all I could gather from her
arguments was, that it was mean in me to insist on the return of so
trifling a thing. But when she found I was determined, she and three or
four more women went away; and soon after the adze was brought me, but I
saw her no more. This I was sorry for, as I wanted to make her a
present, in return for the part she had taken in all our transactions,
private as well as public. For I was no sooner returned from the pond,
the first time I landed, than this old lady presented to me a girl,
giving me to understand she was at my service. Miss, who probably had
received her instructions, wanted, as a preliminary article, a
spike-nail, or a shirt, neither of which I had to give her, and soon
made them sensible of my poverty. I thought, by that means, to have come
off with flying colours; but I was mistaken; for they gave me to
understand I might retire with her on credit. On my declining this
proposal, the old lady began to argue with me; and then abuse me. Though
I comprehended little of what she said, her actions were expressive
enough, and showed that her words were to this effect, sneering in my
face, saying, what sort of a man are you, thus to refuse the embraces of
so fine a young woman? For the girl certainly did not want beauty;
which, however, I could better withstand, than the abuses of this worthy
matron, and therefore hastened into the boat. They wanted me to take the
young lady aboard; but this could not be done, as I had given strict
orders, before I went ashore, to suffer no woman, on any pretence
whatever, to come into the ship, for reasons which I shall mention in
another place.

As soon as the surgeon got ashore, he dressed the man’s wounds, and bled
him; and was of opinion that he was in no sort of danger, as the shot
had done little more than penetrate the skin. In the operation, some
poultice being wanting, the surgeon asked for ripe plantains; but they
brought sugar-cane, and having chewed it to a pulp, gave it him to apply
to the wound. This being of a more balsamic nature than the other,
proves that these people have some knowledge of simples. As soon as the
man’s wounds were dressed, I made him a present, which his master, or at
least the man who owned the canoe, took most probably to himself.
Matters being thus settled, apparently to the satisfaction of all
parties, we repaired on board to dinner, where I found a good supply of
fruit and roots, and therefore gave orders to get every thing in
readiness to sail.

I now was informed of a circumstance which was observed on board:
several canoes being at the ship, when the great guns were fired in the
morning, they all retired, but one man, who was bailing the water out of
his canoe, which lay along-side, directly under the guns. When the first
was fired, he just looked up, and then, quite unconcerned, continued his
work; nor had the second gun any other effect upon him; he did not stir
till the water was all out of his canoe, when he paddled leisurely off.
This man had several times been observed to take fruit and roots out of
other canoes, and sell them to us. If the owners did not willingly part
with them, he took them by force; by which he obtained the appellation
of custom-house officer. One time, after he had been collecting tribute,
he happened to be lying along-side of a sailing canoe which was on
board. One of her people seeing him look another way, and his attention
otherwise engaged, took the opportunity of stealing somewhat out of his
canoe; they then put off, and set their sail; but the man, perceiving
the trick they had played him, darted after them, and having soon got on
board their canoe, beat him who had taken his things, and not only
brought back his own but many other articles which he took from them.
This man had likewise been observed making collections on shore at the
trading-place. I remembered to have seen him there; and, on account of
his gathering tribute, took him to be a man of consequence, and was
going to make him a present; but some of their people would not let me;
saying he was no _Areeke_, (that is, chief). He had his hair always
powdered with some kind of white dust.

As we had no wind to sail this afternoon, a party of us went ashore in
the evening. We found the natives every where courteous and obliging; so
that, had we made a longer stay, it is probable we should have had no
more reason to complain of their conduct. While I was now on shore, I
got the names of twenty islands which lie between the N. W. and N. E.
some of them in sight. Two of them, which lie most to the West, viz.
Amattafoa and Oghao, are remarkable on account of their great height. In
Amattafoa, which is the westernmost, we judged there was a volcano, by
the continual column of smoke we saw daily ascending from the middle of
it.

Both Mr. Cooper and myself being on shore at noon, Mr. Wales could not
wind up the watch at the usual time; and, as we did not come on board
till late in the afternoon, it was forgotten till it was down. This
circumstance was of no consequence, as Mr. Wales had had several
altitudes of the sun at this place, before it went down; and also had
opportunities of taking some after.

At day-break on the 29th, having got under sail with a light breeze at
West, we stood to the North for the two high islands; but the wind,
scanting upon us, carried us in amongst the low isles and shoals; so
that we had to ply to clear them. This gave time for a great many
canoes, from all parts, to get up with us. The people in them brought
for traffic various articles; some roots, fruits and fowls, but of the
latter not many. They took in exchange small nails, and pieces of any
kinds of cloth. I believe, before they went away, they stripped the most
of our people of the few clothes the ladies of Otaheite had left them;
for the passion for curiosities was as great as ever. Having got clear
of the low isles, we made a stretch to the South, and did but fetch a
little to windward of the south end of Anamocka; so that we got little
by this day’s plying. Here we spent the night, making short boards over
that space with which we made ourselves acquainted the preceding day.

On the 30th at day-break stretched out for Amattafoa, with a gentle
breeze at W. S. W. Day no sooner dawned than we saw canoes coming from
all parts. Their traffic was much the same as it had been the day
before, or rather better; for out of one canoe I got two pigs, which
were scarce articles here. At four in the afternoon, we drew near the
island of Amattafoa, and passed between it and Oghao, the channel being
two miles broad, safe and without soundings. While we were in the
passage, we had little wind and calms. This gave time for a large
sailing double canoe, which had been following us all the day, as well
as some others with paddles, to come up with us.

I had now an opportunity to verify a thing I was before in doubt about;
which was, whether or no some of these canoes did not, in changing
tacks, only shift the sail, and so proceed with that end foremost which
before was the stern; the one we now saw wrought in this manner; the
sail is latteen, extended to a latteen yard above, and to a boom at the
foot; in one word, it is like a whole mizzen, supposing the whole foot
to be extended to a boom. The yard is slung nearly in the middle, or
upon an equipoise. When they change tacks, they throw the vessel up in
the wind, ease off the sheet, and bring the heel or tack-end of the yard
to the other end of the boat, and the sheet in like manner: there are
notches, or sockets, at each end of the vessel in which the end of the
yard fixes. In short, they work just as those do at the Ladrone Islands,
according to Mr. Walter’s description.[1] When they want to sail large,
or before the wind, the yard is taken out of the socket and squared. It
must be observed, that all their sailing vessels are not rigged to sail
in the same manner; some, and those of the largest size, are rigged so
as to tack about. These have a short but pretty stout mast, which steps
on a kind of roller that is fixed to the deck near the fore-part. It is
made to lean or incline very much forward; the head is forked; on the
two points of which the yard rests, as on two pivots, by means of two
strong cleats of wood secured to each side of the yard, at about
one-third its length from the tack or heel, which, when under sail, is
confined down between the two canoes, by means of two strong ropes, one
to and passing through a hole at the head of each canoe; for, it must be
observed, that all the sailing vessels of this sort are double. The tack
being thus fixed, it is plain that, in changing tacks, the vessels must
be put about; the sail and boom on the one tack will be clear of the
mast, and on the other it will lie against it, just as a whole mizzen.
However, I am not sure if they do not sometimes unlace that part of the
sail from the yard which is between the tack and mast-head, and so shift
both sail and boom leeward of the mast. The drawings which Mr. Hodges
made of these vessels seem to favour this supposition, and will not only
illustrate, but in a manner make the description of them unnecessary.
The out-riggers and ropes used for shrouds, &c. are all stout and
strong. Indeed, the sail, yard, and boom, are all together of such an
enormous weight, that strength is required.

The summit of Amattafoa was hid in the clouds the whole day, so that we
were not able to determine with certainty whether there was a volcano or
no; but every thing we could see concurred to make us believe there was.
This island is about five leagues in circuit. Oghao is not so much; but
more round and peaked. They lie in the direction of N. N. W. 1/2 W. from
Anamocka, eleven or twelve leagues distant: they are both inhabited; but
neither of them seemed fertile.

We were hardly through the passage before we got a fresh breeze at
south. That moment, all the natives made haste to be gone, and we
steered to the west, all sails set. I had some thoughts of touching at
Amsterdam, as it lay not much out of the way; but, as the wind was now,
we could not fetch it; and this was the occasion of my laying my design
aside altogether.

Let us now return to Anamocka, as it is called by the natives. It is
situated in the latitude of 20° 15ʹ South, longitude 174° 31ʹ West, and
was first discovered by Tasman, and by him named Rotterdam. It is of a
triangular form, each side whereof is about three and a half or four
miles. A salt-water lake in the middle of it occupies not a little of
its surface, and in a manner cuts off the S. E. angle. Round the island,
that is, from the N. W. to the south, round by the north and east, lie
scattered a number of small isles, sand-banks, and breakers. We could
see no end to their extent to the north; and it is not impossible that
they reach as far south as Amsterdam, or Tongatabu. These, together with
Middleburg or Eaoowee, and Pylstart, make a group, containing about
three degrees of latitude and two of longitude, which I have named the
Friendly Isles or Archipelago, as a firm reliance and friendship seems
to subsist among their inhabitants, and their courteous behaviour to
strangers entitles them to that appellation; under which we might
perhaps extend their group much farther, even down to Boscawen and
Keppel’s isles, discovered by Captain Wallis, and lying nearly under the
same meridian, and in the latitude of 15° 53ʹ; for, from the little
account I have had of the people of these two isles, they seem to have
the same sort of friendly disposition we observed in our Archipelago.

The inhabitants, productions, &c. of Rotterdam, and the neighbouring
isles, are the same as at Amsterdam. Hogs and fowls are, indeed, much
scarcer; of the former having got but six, and not many of the latter.
Yams and shaddocks were what we got the most of; other fruits were not
so plenty. Not half the isle is laid out in inclosed plantations as at
Amsterdam; but the parts which are not inclosed are not less fertile or
uncultivated. There is, however, far more waste land on this isle, in
proportion to its size, than upon the other, and the people seem to be
much poorer; that is, in cloth, matting, ornaments, &c. which constitute
a great part of the riches of the South Sea islanders.

The people of this isle seem to be more affected with the leprosy, or
some scrophulous disorder, than any I have seen elsewhere. It breaks out
in the face more than any other part of the body. I have seen several
whose faces were ruined by it, and their noses quite gone. In one of my
excursions, happening to peep into a house where one or more of them
were, one man only appeared at the door, or hole by which I must have
entered, and which he began to stop up, by drawing several parts of a
cord across it. But the intolerable stench which came from his putrid
face was alone sufficient to keep me out, had the entrance been ever so
wide. His nose was quite gone, and his whole face in one continued
ulcer; so that the very sight of him was shocking. As our people had not
all got clear of a certain disease they had contracted at the Society
isles, I took all possible care to prevent its being communicated to the
natives here; and I have reason to believe my endeavours succeeded.

Having mentioned a house, it may not be amiss to observe, that some here
differ from those I saw at the other isles; being inclosed or walled on
every side with reeds neatly put together, but not close. The entrance
is by a square hole about two and a half feet each way. The form of
these houses is an oblong square; the floor or foundation every way
shorter than the eve, which is about four feet from the ground. By this
construction, the rain that falls on the roof is carried off from the
wall; which otherwise would decay and rot.

We did not distinguish any king, or leading chief, or any person who
took upon him the appearance of supreme authority. The man and woman
before mentioned, whom I believed to be man and wife, interested
themselves on several occasions in our affairs; but it was easy to see
they had no great authority. Amongst other things which I gave them as a
reward for their service, was a young dog and bitch, animals which they
have not, but are very fond of, and know very well by name. They have
some of the same sort of earthen pots we saw at Amsterdam; and I am of
opinion they are of their own manufacture, or that of some neighbouring
isle.

The road, as I have already mentioned, is on the north side of the isle,
just to the southward of the southernmost cove; for there are two on
this side. The bank is of some extent, and the bottom free from rocks,
with twenty-five and twenty fathoms water, one or two miles from the
shore.

Fire-wood is very convenient to be got at, and easy to be shipped off;
but the water is so brackish that it is not worth the trouble of
carrying it on board; unless one is in great distress for want of that
article, and can get no better. There is, however, better, not only on
this isle, but on others in the neighbourhood; for the people brought us
some in cocoa-nut shells, which was as good as need be; but probably the
springs are too trifling to water a ship.

I have already observed that the S. W. side of the island is covered by
a reef or reefs of rocks, and small isles. If there be a sufficient
depth of water between them and the island, as there appeared to be, and
a good bottom, this would be a much securer place for a ship to anchor
in than that where we had our station.



                               CHAP. III.

THE PASSAGE FROM THE FRIENDLY ISLES TO THE NEW HEBRIDES, WITH AN ACCOUNT
  OF THE DISCOVERY OF TURTLE ISLAND, AND A VARIETY OF INCIDENTS WHICH
 HAPPENED, BOTH BEFORE AND AFTER THE SHIP ARRIVED IN PORT SANDWICH, IN
   THE ISLAND OF MALLICOLLO.—A DESCRIPTION OF THE PORT; THE ADJACENT
         COUNTRY; ITS INHABITANTS, AND MANY OTHER PARTICULARS.


On the 1st of July, at sun-rise, Amattafoa was still in sight, bearing
E. by N. distant twenty leagues. Continuing our course to the west, we,
the next day at noon, discovered land bearing N. W. by W. for which we
steered; and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a small island. At
4 o’clock it bore, from N. W. 1/2 W. to N. W. by N. and, at the same
time, breakers were seen from the mast-head, extending from W. to S. W.
The day being too far spent to make farther discoveries, we soon after
shortened sail, hauled the wind, and spent the night making short
boards, which, at daybreak, we found had been so advantageous that we
were further from the island than we expected, and it was eleven o’clock
before we reached the N. W. or lee-side, where anchorage and landing
seemed practicable. In order to obtain a knowledge of the former, I sent
the master with a boat to sound; and, in the mean time, we stood on and
off with the ship. At this time, four or five people were seen on the
reef, which lies round the isle, and about three times that number on
the shore. As the boat advanced, those on the reef retired, and joined
the others; and when the boat landed, they all fled to the woods. It was
not long before the boat returned, when the master informed me that
there were no soundings without the reef, over which, in one place only,
he found a boat-channel of six feet water. Entering by it, he rowed in
for the shore, thinking to speak with the people, not more than twenty
in number, who were armed with clubs and spears; but the moment he set
his foot on shore, they retired to the woods. He left on the rocks some
medals, nails, and a knife; which they, no doubt, found, as some were
seen near the place afterwards. This island is not quite a league in
length, in the direction of N. E. and S. W. and not half that in
breadth. It is covered with wood, and surrounded by a reef of coral
rocks, which, in some places, extend two miles from the shore. It seems
to be too small to contain many inhabitants; and probably the few whom
we saw may have come from some isle in the neighbourhood to fish for
turtle; as many were seen near this reef, and occasioned that name to be
given to the island, which is situated in latitude 19° 48ʹ South,
longitude 178° 2ʹ West.

Seeing breakers to the S. S. W., which I was desirous of knowing the
extent of before night, I left Turtle isle, and stood for them. At two
o’clock we found they were occasioned by a coral bank of about four or
five leagues in circuit. By the bearing we had taken, we knew these to
be the same breakers we had seen the preceding evening. Hardly any part
of this bank or reef is above water at the reflux of the waves. The
heads of some rocks are to be seen near the edge of the reef, where it
is the shoalest; for in the middle is deep water. In short, this bank
wants only a few little islets to make it exactly like one of the
half-drowned isles so often mentioned. It lies S. W. from Turtle island,
about five or six miles, and the channel between it and the reef of that
isle is three miles over. Seeing no more shoals or islands, and thinking
there might be turtle on this bank, two boats were properly equipped and
sent thither; but returned without having seen one.

The boats were now hoisted in, and we made sail to the west, with a
brisk gale at east, which continued till the 9th, when we had, for a few
hours, a breeze at N. W. attended with squalls of rain. This was
succeeded by a steady fresh gale at S. E. with which we steered N. W.
being at this time in the latitude of 20° 20ʹ South, longitude 176° 8ʹ
East.

On the 15th at noon, being in the latitude of 15° 9ʹ South, longitude
171° 16ʹ East, I steered west. The next day the weather was foggy, and
the wind blew in heavy squalls, attended with rain, which in this ocean,
within the tropics, generally indicates the vicinity of some high land.
This was verified at three in the afternoon, when high land was seen
bearing S. W. Upon this we took in the small sails, reefed the
top-sails, and hauling up for it, at half past five, we could see it
extend from S. S. W. to N. W. by W. 1/2 W. Soon after we tacked and
spent the night, which was very stormy, in plying. Our boards were
disadvantageous; for, in the morning, we found we had lost ground. This,
indeed, was no wonder, for having an old suit of sails bent, the most of
them were split to pieces; particularly a fore-top-sail, which was
rendered quite useless. We got others to the yards, and continued to
ply, being desirous of getting round the south ends of the lands, or at
least so far to the south as to be able to judge of their extent in that
direction. For no one doubted that this was the Australia del Espiritu
Santo of Quiros, which M. de Bougainville calls the Great Cyclades, and
that the coast we were now upon was the east side of Aurora island,
whose longitude is 168° 30ʹ East.

The gale kept increasing till we were reduced to our low sails; so that,
on the 18th, at seven in the morning, I gave over plying, set the
topsails double-reefed, bore up for, and hauled round the north end of
Aurora island, and then stretched over for the Isle of Lepers, under
close-reefed topsails and courses, with a very hard gale at N. E.; but
we had now the advantage of a smooth sea, having the Isle of Aurora to
windward. At noon the north end of it bore N. E. 1/2 N. distant four
leagues; our latitude, found by double altitudes, and reduced to this
time, was 15° 1ʹ 30ʺ South, longitude 168° 14ʹ East. At two o’clock
P. M. we drew near the middle of the Isle of Lepers, and tacked about
two miles from land; in which situation we had no soundings with a line
of seventy fathoms. We now saw people on the shore, and many beautiful
cascades of water pouring down the neighbouring hills. The next time we
stood for this isle, we came to within half a mile of it, where we found
thirty fathoms, a sandy bottom; but a mile off we had no soundings at
seventy fathoms. Here two canoes came off to us, in one of which were
three men, and in the other but one. Though we made all the signs of
friendship, we could not bring them nearer than a stone’s throw; and
they made but a short stay before they retired ashore, where we saw a
great number of people assembled in parties, and armed with bows and
arrows. They are of a very dark colour, and, excepting some ornaments at
their breast and arms, seemed to be entirely naked.

As I intended to get to the south, in order to explore the land which
might lie there, we continued to ply between the Isle of Lepers and
Aurora; and on the 19th, at noon, the south end of the last-mentioned
isle bore South 24° East, and the north end north, distant twenty miles.
Latitude observed 15° 11ʺ. The wind continued to blow strong at S. E.,
so that what we got by plying in the day, we lost in the night. On the
20th, at sunrise, we found ourselves off the south end of Aurora, on the
N. W. side of which the coast forms a small bay. In this we made some
trips to try for anchorage; but found no less than eighty fathoms water,
the bottom a fine dark sand, at half a mile from shore. Nevertheless, I
am of opinion that, nearer, there is much less depth, and secure riding;
and in the neighbourhood is plenty of fresh water and wood for fuel. The
whole isle, from the sea-shore to the summits of the hills, seemed to be
covered with the latter; and every valley produced a fine stream of the
former. We saw people on the shore, and some canoes on the coast, but
none came off to us. Leaving the bay just mentioned, we stretched across
the channel which divides Aurora from Whitsuntide island. At noon we
were abreast of the north end of this latter, which bore E. N. E. and
observed in 15° 28ʹ 1/2. The Isle of Aurora bore from N. to N. E. 1/2 E.
and the Isle of Lepers from N. by W. 1/2 W. to West. Whitsuntide Isle
appeared joined to the land to the S. and S. W. of it; but in stretching
to S. W. we discovered the separation. This was about four o’clock
P. M., and then we tacked and stretched in for the island till near
sunset, when the wind veering more to the east made it necessary to
resume our course to the south. We saw people on the shore, smokes in
many parts of the island, and several places which seemed to be
cultivated. About midnight, drawing near the south land, we tacked and
stretched to the north, in order to spend the remainder of the night.

At daybreak on the 21st, we found ourselves before the channel that
divides Whitsuntide island from the south land, which is about two
leagues over. At this time, the land to the southward extended from S.
by E. round to the west farther than the eye could reach, and on the
part nearest to us, which is of considerable height, we observed two
very large columns of smoke, which, I judged, ascended from volcanos. We
now stood S. S. W. with a fine breeze at S. E., and at ten o’clock,
discovered this part of the land to be an island which is called by the
natives Ambrym. Soon after an elevated land appeared open off the south
end of Ambrym; and after that, another still higher, on which is a high
peaked hill. We judged these lands to belong to two separate islands.
The first came in sight at S. E. the second at E. by S., and they
appeared to be ten leagues distant. Holding on our course for the land
ahead, at noon it was five miles distant from us, extending from
S. S. E. to N. W. by W. and appeared to be continued. The islands to the
east bore from N. E. by E. to S. E. by E., latitude observed 16° 17ʹ
South. As we drew nearer the shore we discovered a creek, which had the
appearance of being a good harbour, formed by a low point or peninsula,
projecting out to the north. On this a number of people were assembled,
who seemed to invite us ashore; probably with no good intent, as the
most of them were armed with bows and arrows. In order to gain room and
time to hoist out and arm our boats, to reconnoitre this place, we
tacked and made a trip off, which occasioned the discovery of another
port about a league more to the south. Having sent two armed boats to
sound, and look for anchorage, on their making the signal for the
latter, we sailed in S. S. W. and anchored in eleven fathoms water, not
two cables’ length from the S. E. shore, and a mile within the entrance.

We had no sooner anchored than several of the natives came off in
canoes. They were very cautious at first; but, at last, trusted
themselves along-side, and exchanged, for pieces of cloth, arrows; some
of which were pointed with bone, and dipped in some green gummy
substance, which we naturally suppose was poisonous. Two men having
ventured on board, after a short stay I sent them away with presents.
Others probably induced by this, came off by moonlight; but I gave
orders to permit none to come along-side; by which means we got clear of
them for the night.

Next morning early, a good many came round us, some in canoes, and
others swimming. I soon prevailed on one to come on board; which he no
sooner did than he was followed by more than I desired; so that not only
our deck but rigging was presently filled with them. I took four into
the cabin, and gave them various articles, which they showed to those in
the canoes, and seemed much pleased with their reception. While I was
thus making friends with those in the cabin, an accident happened that
threw all into confusion, but in the end, I believe, proved advantageous
to us. A fellow in a canoe having been refused admittance into one of
our boats that lay along-side, bent his bow to shoot a poisoned arrow at
the boat-keeper. Some of his countrymen prevented his doing it that
instant, and gave time to acquaint me with it. I ran instantly on deck,
and saw another man struggling with him; one of those who had been in
the cabin, and had leapt out of the window for this purpose. The other
seemed resolved, shook him off, and directed his bow again to the
boat-keeper; but on my calling to him, pointed it at me. Having a musket
in my hand, loaded with small shot, I gave him the contents. This
staggered him for a moment, but did not prevent him from holding his bow
still in the attitude of shooting. Another discharge of the same nature
made him drop it, and the others, who were in the canoe, to paddle off
with all speed. At this time, some began to shoot arrows on the other
side. A musket discharged in the air had no effect; but a four-pound
shot over their heads sent them off in the utmost confusion. Many
quitted their canoes and swam on shore: those in the great cabin leaped
out of the windows; and those who were on the deck, and on different
parts of the rigging, all leaped over-board. After this we took no
farther notice of them, but suffered them to come off and pick up their
canoes; and some even ventured again along-side the ship. Immediately
after the great gun was fired, we heard the beating of drums on shore;
which was, probably, the signal for the country to assemble in arms. We
now got every thing in readiness to land, to cut some wood, of which we
were in want, and to try to get some refreshments, nothing of this kind
having been seen in any of the canoes.

About nine o’clock, we put off in two boats, and landed in the face of
four or five hundred people, who were assembled on the shore. Though
they were all armed with bows and arrows, clubs and spears, they made
not the least opposition. On the contrary, seeing me advance alone, with
nothing but a green branch in my hand, one of them, who seemed to be a
chief, giving his bow and arrows to another, met me in the water,
bearing also a green branch, which having exchanged for the one I held,
he then took me by the hand, and led me up to the crowd. I immediately
distributed presents to them, and, in the mean time, the marines were
drawn upon the beach. I then made signs (for we understood not a word of
their language) that we wanted wood; and they made signs to us to cut
down the trees. By this time, a small pig being brought down and
presented to me, I gave the bearer a piece of cloth, with which he
seemed well pleased. This made us hope that we should soon have some
more; but we were mistaken. The pig was not brought to be exchanged for
what we had, but on some other account; probably as a peace-offering.
For all we could say or do did not prevail on them to bring down, after
this, above half-a-dozen cocoa-nuts, and a small quantity of fresh
water. They set no value on nails, or any sort of iron tools; nor indeed
on any thing we had. They would, now and then, exchange an arrow for a
piece of cloth; but very seldom would part with a bow. They were
unwilling we should go off the beach, and very desirous we should return
on board. At length, about noon, after sending what wood we had cut on
board, we embarked ourselves; and they all retired, some one way and
some another.

Before we had dined, the afternoon was too far spent to do any thing on
shore; and all hands were employed, setting up the rigging, and
repairing some defects in it. But seeing a man bring along the strand a
buoy, which they had taken in the night from the kedge-anchor, I went on
shore for it, accompanied by some of the gentlemen. The moment we
landed, it was put into the boat, by a man who walked off again without
speaking one word. It ought to be observed, that this was the only thing
they took, or even attempted to take from us, by any means whatever.
Being landed near some of their plantations and houses, which were just
within the skirts of the woods, I prevailed on one man to conduct me to
them; but, though they suffered Mr. Forster to go with me, they were
unwilling any more should follow. These houses were something like those
of the other isles; rather low, and covered with palm thatch; some were
inclosed, or walled round with boards; and the entrance to these was by
a square hole at one end, which at this time was shut up, and they were
unwilling to open it for us to look in. There were here about six
houses, and some small plantations of roots, &c. fenced round with reeds
as at the Friendly Isles. There were, likewise, some bread-fruit,
cocoa-nut, and plaintain-trees; but very little fruit on any of them. A
good many fine yams were piled up upon sticks, or a kind of raised
platform; and about twenty pigs, and a few fowls, were running about
loose. After making these observations, having embarked, we proceeded to
the S. E. point of the harbour, where we again landed and walked along
the beach till we could see the islands to the S. E. already mentioned.
The names of these we now obtained, as well as the name of that on which
we were. This they called Mallicollo[2]: the island that first appeared
over the south end of Ambrym is called Apee; and the other, with the
hill on it, Paoom. We found on the beach a fruit like an orange, called
by them Abbi-mora, but whether it be fit for eating, I cannot say, as
this was decayed.

Proceeding next to the other side of the harbour, we there landed, near
a few houses, at the invitation of some people who came down to the
shore; but we had not been there five minutes before they wanted us to
be gone. We complied, and proceeded up the harbour in order to sound it,
and to look for fresh water, of which, as yet, we had seen none, but the
very little that the natives brought, which we knew not where they got.
Nor was our search now attended with success; but this is no proof that
there is not any. The day was too far spent to examine the place well
enough to determine this point. Night having brought us on board, I was
informed that no soul had been off to the ship; so soon was the
curiosity of these people satisfied. As we were coming on board, we
heard the sound of a drum, and, I think, of some other instruments, and
saw people dancing; but as soon as they heard the noise of the oars, or
saw us, all was silent.

Being unwilling to lose the benefit of the moonlight nights, which now
happened, at seven A. M. on the 23d we weighed; and, with a light air of
wind, and the assistance of our boats, proceeded out of the harbour; the
south end of which, at noon, bore W. S. W. distant about two miles.

When the natives saw us under sail, they came off in canoes, making
exchanges with more confidence than before, and giving such
extraordinary proofs of their honesty as surprised us. As the ship at
first had fresh way through the water, several of them dropped astern
after they had received our goods, and before they had time to deliver
theirs in return. Instead of taking advantage of this, as our friends at
the Society Isles would have done, they used their utmost efforts to get
up with us, and to deliver what they had already been paid for. One man,
in particular, followed us a considerable time, and did not reach us
till it was calm, and the thing was forgotten. As soon as he came
along-side, he held up the thing which several were ready to buy; but he
refused to part with it, till he saw the person to whom he had before
sold it, and to him he gave it. The person not knowing him again,
offered him something in return, which he refused, and showed him what
he had given him before. Pieces of cloth and marbled paper were in most
esteem with them; but edge tools, nails, and beads, they seemed to
disregard. The greatest number of canoes we had alongside at once did
not exceed eight, and not more than four or five people in each; who
would frequently retire to the shore all on a sudden, before they had
disposed of half their things, and then others would come off.

At the time we came out of the harbour, it was about low water, and
great numbers of people were then on the shoals or reefs which lie along
the shore, looking, as we supposed, for shell and other fish. Thus our
being on their coast, and in one of their ports, did not hinder them
from following the necessary employments. By this time they might be
satisfied we meant them no harm; so that, had we made a longer stay, we
might soon have been upon good terms with this ape-like nation; for, in
general, they are the most ugly, ill-proportioned people I ever saw, and
in every respect different from any we had met with in this sea. They
are a very dark-coloured and rather diminutive race; with long heads,
flat faces, and monkey countenances. Their hair mostly black or brown,
is short and curly; but not quite so soft and woolly as that of a negro.
Their beards are very strong, crisp, and bushy, and generally black and
short. But what most adds to their deformity, is a belt, or cord, which
they wear round the waist, and tie so tight over the belly that the
shape of their bodies is not unlike that of an overgrown pismire. The
men go quite naked, except a piece of cloth or leaf used as a
wrapper.[3]

We saw but few women, and they were not less ugly than the men; their
heads, faces, and shoulders are painted red; they wear a kind of
petticoat; and some of them had something over their shoulders like a
bag, in which they carry their children. None of them came off to the
ship, and they generally kept at a distance when we were on shore. Their
ornaments are ear-rings made of tortoise-shell and bracelets. A curious
one of the latter, four or five inches broad, wrought with thread or
cord, and studded with shells, is worn by them just above the elbow.
Round the right wrist they wear hogs’ tusks bent circular, and rings
made of shells; and round their left, a round piece of wood, which we
judged was to ward off the bow-string. The bridge of the nose is
pierced, in which they wear a piece of white stone, about an inch and a
half long, and in this shape. [Illustration] As signs of friendship they
present a green branch, and sprinkle water with the hand over the head.

Their weapons are clubs, spears, and bows and arrows. The two former are
made of hard or iron wood. Their bows are about four feet long, made of
a stick split down the middle, and are not circular, but in this form.
[Illustration] The arrows, which are a sort of reeds, are sometimes
armed with a long and sharp point, made of the hard wood, and sometimes
with a very hard point made of bone; and these points are all covered
with a substance which we took for poison. Indeed, the people themselves
confirmed our suspicions, by making signs to us not to touch the point,
and giving us to understand, that if we were pricked by them we should
die. They are very careful of them themselves, and keep them always
wrapped up in a quiver. Some of these arrows are armed with two or three
points, each with small prickles on the edges, to prevent the arrow
being drawn out of the wound.

The people of Mallicollo seemed to be a quite different nation from any
we had yet met with, and speak a different language. Of about eighty
words which Mr. Forster collected, hardly one bears any affinity to the
language spoken at any other island or place I had ever been at. The
letter R is used in many of their words; and frequently two or three
being joined together, such words we found difficult to pronounce. I
observed that they could pronounce most of our words with great ease.
They express their admiration by hissing like a goose.

To judge of the country by the little we saw of it, it must be fertile;
but I believe their fruits are not so good as those of the Society or
Friendly Isles. Their cocoa-nut trees, I am certain, are not; and their
bread-fruit and plantains did not seem much better. But their yams
appeared to be very good. We saw no other animals than those I have
already mentioned. They have not so much as a name for a dog, and
consequently have none; for which reason we left them a dog and a bitch;
and there is no doubt they will be taken care of, as they were very fond
of them.

After we had got to sea, we tried what effect one of the poisoned arrows
would have on a dog. Indeed we had tried it in the harbour the very
first night, but we thought the operation had been too slight, as it had
no effect. The surgeon now made a deep incision in the dog’s thigh, into
which he laid a large portion of the poison just as it was scraped from
the arrows, and then bound up the wound with a bandage. For several days
after, we thought the dog was not so well as he had been before; but
whether this was really so, or only suggested by imagination, I know
not. He was afterwards as if nothing had been done to him, and lived to
be brought home to England. However, I have no doubt of this stuff being
of a poisonous quality, as it could answer no other purpose. The people
seemed not unacquainted with the nature of poison; for when they brought
us water on shore, they first tasted it, and then gave us to understand
we might with safety drink it.

This harbour, which is situated on the N. E. side of Mallicollo, not far
from the S. E. end, in latitude 16° 25ʹ 20ʺ S., longitude 167° 57ʹ 23ʺ
E., I named Port Sandwich. It lies in S. W. by S. about one league, and
is one-third of a league broad. A reef of rocks extends out a little way
from each point; but the channel is of a good breadth, and hath in it
from forty to twenty-four fathoms water. In the port, the depth of water
is from twenty to four fathoms; and it is so sheltered that no winds can
disturb a ship at anchor there. Another great advantage is, you can lie
so near the shore as to cover your people who may be at work upon it.



                               CHAP. IV.

    AN ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF SEVERAL ISLANDS, AN INTERVIEW AND
SKIRMISH WITH THE INHABITANTS UPON ONE OF THEM. THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHIP
             AT TANNA, AND THE RECEPTION WE MET WITH THERE.


Soon after we got to sea, we had a breeze at E. S. E. with which we
stood over for Ambrym till three o’clock in the afternoon, when the wind
veering to E. N. E. we tacked and stretched to the S. E. and weathered
the S. E. end of Mallicollo, off which we discovered three or four small
islands, that before appeared to be connected. At sun-set the point bore
S. 77° West, distant three leagues, from which the coast seemed to trend
away West. At this time the isle of Ambrym extended from N. 30° E. to N.
65° E. The isle of Paoom from N. 76° E. to S. 88° E. and the isle of
Apee from S. 83° E. to S. 43° East. We stood for this last isle, which
we reached by midnight, and then brought to till day-break on the 24th,
when we made sail to the S. E. with a view of plying up to the eastward
on the south side of Apee. At sun-rise, we discovered several more
islands, extending from the S. E. point of Apee to the South as far as
S. E. by S. The nearest to us we reached by ten o’clock, and not being
able to weather it, we tacked a mile from its shore in fourteen fathoms
water. This island is about 4 leagues in circuit, is remarkable by
having three high peaked hills upon it, by which it has obtained that
name. In the P. M. the wind veering more to the north, we resumed our
course to the east; and having weathered Threehills, stood for the group
of small isles which lie off the S. E. point of Apee. These I called
Shepherd’s Isles, in honour of my worthy friend Dr. Shepherd, Plumian
professor of astronomy at Cambridge. Having a fine breeze, I had
thoughts of going through between them; but the channels being narrow,
and seeing broken water in the one we were steering for, I gave up the
design, and bore up, in order to go without, or to the south of them.
Before this could be accomplished, it fell calm, and we were left to the
mercy of the current, close to the isles, where we could find no
soundings with a line of an hundred and eighty fathoms. We had now lands
or islands in every direction, and were not able to count the number
which lay round us. The mountain on Paoom was seen over the east end of
Apee, bearing N. N. W. at eight o’clock. A breeze at S. E. relieved us
from the anxiety the calm had occasioned; and we spent the night making
short boards.

The night before we came out of Port Sandwich, two reddish fish, about
the size of large bream, and not unlike them, were caught with hook and
line. On these fish most of the officers, and some of the petty
officers, dined the next day. The night following, every one who had
eaten of them was seized with violent pains in the head and bones,
attended with a scorching heat all over the skin, and numbness in the
joints. There remained no doubt that this was occasioned by the fish
being of a poisonous nature, and having communicated its bad effects to
all who partook of them; even to the hogs and dogs. One of the former
died about sixteen hours after; it was not long before one of the latter
shared the same fate; and it was a week or ten days, before all the
gentlemen recovered. These must have been the same sort of fish
mentioned by Quiros[4], under the name of Pargos, which poisoned the
crews of his ships, so that it was some time before they recovered; and
we should, doubtless, have been in the same situation, had more of them
been eaten.

At day-break on the 25th, we made a short stretch to the east of
Shepherd’s Isles till after sun-rise, when, seeing no more land in that
direction, we tacked and stood for the island we had seen in the south,
having a gentle breeze at S. E. We passed to the east of Threehills, and
likewise of a low isle, which lies on the S. E. side of it, between a
remarkable peaked rock which obtained the name of Monument, and a small
island named Twohills, on account of two peaked hills upon it, disjoined
by a low and narrow isthmus. The channel between this island and the
Monument is near a mile broad, and twenty-four fathoms deep. Except this
rock, which is only accessible to birds, we did not find an island on
which people were not seen. At noon, we observed, in latitude 17° 18ʹ
30ʺ longitude, made from Port Sandwich, 45ʹ East. In this situation the
Monument bore N. 16° East, distant two miles; Twohills bore N. 25° West,
distant two miles, and in a line with the S. W. part of Threehills; and
the islands to the South extended from S. 16° 30ʹ E. to S. 42° West.

Continuing our course to the south, at five P. M. we drew near the
southern lands, which we found to consist of one large island, whose
southern and western extremities extended beyond our sight, and three or
four smaller ones, lying off its north side. The two northernmost are
much the largest, have a good height, and lie in the direction of E. by
S. and W. by N. from each other, distant two leagues. I named the one
Montagu, and the other Hinchinbrook, and the large island Sandwich, in
honour of my noble patron the earl of Sandwich. Seeing broken water
a-head between Montagu and Hinchinbrook Isles, we tacked; and soon after
it fell calm. The calm continued till seven o’clock the next morning,
when it was succeeded by a breeze from the westward. During the calm,
having been carried by the currents and a S. E. swell, four leagues to
the W. N. W. we passed Hinchinbrook Isle, saw the western extremity of
Sandwich Island, bearing S. S. W. about five leagues distant, and at the
same time discovered a small island to the west of this direction. After
getting the westerly breeze, I steered S. E. in order to pass between
Montagu Isle and the north end of Sandwich Island. At noon we were in
the middle of the channel, and observed in latitude 17° 31ʹ South. The
distance from one island to the other is about four or five miles; but
the channel is not much above half that breadth, being contracted by
breakers. We had no soundings in it with a line of forty fathoms.

As we passed Montagu Isle several people came down to the sea-side, and,
by signs, seemed to invite us ashore. Some were also seen on Sandwich
Island, which exhibited a most delightful prospect, being spotted with
woods and lawns, agreeably diversified, over the whole surface. It hath
a gentle slope from the hills, which are of a moderate height, down to
the sea-coast. This is low and guarded by a chain of breakers, so that
there is no approaching it at this part. But more to the west, beyond
Hinchinbrook Island, there seemed to run in a bay sheltered from the
reigning winds. The examining it not being so much an object with me as
the getting to the south, in order to find the southern extremity of the
Archipelago, with this view I steered S. S. E. being the direction of
the coast of Sandwich Island. We had but just got through the passage,
before the west wind left us to variable light airs and calms; so that
we were apprehensive of being carried back again by the currents, or
rather of being obliged to return in order to avoid being driven on the
shoals, as there was no anchorage, a line of an hundred and sixty
fathoms not reaching to the bottom. At length a breeze springing up at
S. W. we stood to S. E. and at sun-set the Monument bore N. 14° 30ʹ
West, and Montagu Island N. 28° West, distant three leagues. We judged
we saw the S. E. extremity of Sandwich Island bearing about S. by E.

We continued to stand to S. E. till four A. M. on the 27th, when we
tacked to the west. At sun-rise having discovered a new land bearing
south, and making in three hills, this occasioned us to tack and stand
towards it. At this time Montagu Isle bore N. 52° West, distant thirteen
leagues; at noon it was nearly in the same direction, and the new land
extended from S. 1/2 E. to S. by W. and three hills seemed to be
connected. Our latitude, by observation, was 18° 1ʹ S. and the
longitude, made from Port Sandwich, 1° 23ʹ E. We continued to stand to
the S. E. with a gentle breeze at S. W. and S. S. W. till the 28th at
sun-rise, when, the wind veering to the south, we tacked and stood to
the west. The three hills mentioned above, we now saw belonged to one
island, which extended from S. 35° to 71° West, distant about ten or
twelve leagues.

Retarded by contrary winds, calms, and the currents that set to N. W.,
we were three days in gaining this space; in which time we discovered an
elevated land to the south of this. It first appeared in detached
hummocks, but we judged it to be connected. At length, on the 1st of
August, about ten A. M. we got a fine breeze at E. S. E. which soon
after veered to N. E. and we steered for the N. W. side of the island.
Reaching it about two P. M. we ranged the west coast at one mile from
shore, on which the inhabitants appeared in several parts, and by signs
invited us to land. We continued to sound without finding bottom, till
we came before a small bay, or bending of the coast, where, near a mile
from shore, we found thirty and twenty-two fathoms water, a sandy
bottom. I had thoughts of anchoring here, but the wind almost instantly
veered to N. W., which being nearly on shore, I laid this design aside.
Besides, I was unwilling to lose the opportunity that now offered of
getting to the south-east, in order first to explore the lands which lay
there. I therefore continued to range the coast to the south, at about
the same distance from shore; but we soon got out of soundings. About a
league to the south of this bay, which hath about two miles extent, is
another more extensive. Towards the evening, the breeze began to abate,
so that it was sun-set before we got the length of it. I intended not to
stop here, and stand to the south under an easy sail all night, but at
eight o’clock, as we were steering S. S. E. we saw a light a-head. Not
knowing but it might be on some low detached isle, dangerous to approach
while dark, we hauled the wind, and spent the night standing off and on,
or rather driving to and fro; for we had but very little wind.

At sun-rise on the 2d, we saw no more land than the coast we were upon;
but found that the currents had carried us some miles to the north, and
we attempted, to little purpose, to regain what we had lost. At noon we
were about a league from the coast, which extended from S. S. E. to
N. E. Latitude observed 18° 46ʹ S. In the afternoon, finding the ship to
drift, not only to the north, but in shore also, and being yet to the
south of the bay we passed the day before, I had thoughts of getting to
an anchor before night, while we had it in our power to make choice of a
place. With this view, having hoisted out two boats, one of them was
sent a-head to tow the ship; in the other Mr. Gilbert went, to sound for
anchorage. Soon after, the towing boat was sent to assist him. So much
time was spent in sounding this bay, that the ship drove past, which
made it necessary to call the boats on board to tow her off from the
northern point. But this service was performed by a breeze of wind,
which, that moment, sprung up at S. W., so that as the boats got on
board, we hoisted them in, and then bore up for the north side of the
island, intending once more to try to get round by the east. Mr. Gilbert
informed me, that, at the south part of the bay, he found no soundings
till close to a steep stone beach, where he landed to taste a stream of
water he saw there, which proved to be salt. Some people were seen
there, but they kept at a distance. Farther down the coast, that is to
the north, he found twenty, twenty-four, and thirty fathoms,
three-fourths of a mile, or a mile from shore, the bottom a fine dark
sand.

On the 3d, at sun-rise, we found ourselves abreast a lofty promontory on
the S. E. side of the island, and about three leagues from it. Having
but little wind, and that from the south, right in our teeth, and being
in want of fire-wood, I sent Lieutenant Clerke with two boats to a small
islot which lies off the promontory, to endeavour to get some. In the
mean time we continued to ply up with the ship; but what we gained by
our sails, we lost by the current. At length, towards noon, we got a
breeze at E. S. E. and E. with which we could lie up for the head; and
soon after Mr. Clerke returned, having not been able to land, on account
of an high surf on the shore. They met with no people on the isle; but
saw a large bat, and some birds, and caught a water-snake. At six
o’clock P. M. we got in with the land, under the N. W. side of the head,
where we anchored in seventeen fathoms water, the bottom a fine dark
sand, half a mile from shore; the point of the head bearing N. 18° East,
distant half a league; the little islot before mentioned N. E. by E. 1/2
E. and the N. W. point of the bay N. 32° West. Many people appeared on
the shore, and some attempted to swim off to us; but having occasion to
send the boat a-head to sound, they retired as she drew near them. This,
however, gave us a favourable idea of them.

On the 4th, at day-break, I went with two boats to examine the coast, to
look for a proper landing-place, wood, and water. At this time, the
natives began to assemble on the shore, and by signs invited us to land.
I went first to a small beach, which is towards the head, where I found
no good landing, on account of some rocks which every where lined the
coast. I, however, put the boat’s bow to the shore, and gave cloth,
medals, &c. to some people who were there. For this treatment they
offered to haul the boats over the breakers to the sandy beach; which I
thought a friendly offer, but had reason afterwards to alter my opinion.
When they found I would not do as they desired, they made signs for us
to go down into the bay, which we accordingly did, and they ran along
shore abreast of us, their number increasing prodigiously. I put into
the shore in two or three places, but, not liking the situation, did not
land. By this time, I believe, the natives conceived what I wanted, as
they directed me round a rocky point, where, on a fine sandy beach, I
stepped out of the boat without wetting a foot, in the face of a vast
multitude, with only a green branch in my hand, which I had before got
from one of them. I took but one man out of the boat with me, and
ordered the other boat to lie to a little distance off. They received me
with great courtesy and politeness, and would retire back from the boat
on my making the least motion with my hand. A man whom I took to be a
chief, seeing this, made them form a semicircle round the boat’s bow,
and beat such as attempted to break through this order. This man I
loaded with presents, giving likewise to others, and asked by signs for
fresh water, in hopes of seeing where they got it. The chief immediately
sent a man for some, who ran to a house, and presently returned with a
little in a bamboo; so that I gained but little information by this. I
next asked, by the same means, for something to eat; and they as readily
brought me a yam, and some cocoa-nuts. In short, I was charmed with
their behaviour; and the only thing which could give the least suspicion
was, that most of them were armed with clubs, spears, darts, and bows
and arrows. For this reason I kept my eye continually upon the chief,
and watched his looks as well as his actions. He made many signs to me
to haul the boat up upon the shore, and at last slipped into the crowd,
where I observed him speak to several people, and then return to me,
repeating signs to haul the boat up, and hesitating a good deal before
he would receive some spike-nails which I then offered him. This made me
suspect something was intended, and immediately I stepped into the boat,
telling them by signs that I should soon return. But they were not for
parting so soon, and now attempted, by force, what they could not obtain
by gentler means. The gang-board happened unluckily to be laid out for
me to come into the boat. I say unluckily, for if it had not been out,
and if the crew had been a little quicker in getting the boat off, the
natives might not have had time to put their design in execution, nor
would the following disagreeable scene have happened. As we were putting
off the boat, they laid hold of the gang-board, and unhooked it off the
boat’s stern, but as they did not take it away, I thought this had been
done by accident, and ordered the boat in again to take it up. Then they
themselves hooked it over the boat’s stern, and attempted to haul her
ashore; others, at the same time, snatched the oars out of the people’s
hands. On my pointing a musket at them, they in some measure desisted,
but returned in an instant, seemingly determined to haul the boat
ashore. At the head of this party was the chief; the others, who could
not come at the boat, stood behind with darts, stones, and bows and
arrows in hand, ready to support them. Signs and threats having no
effect, our own safety became the only consideration; and yet I was
unwilling to fire on the multitude, and resolved to make the chief alone
fall a victim to his own treachery; but my musket at this critical
moment missed fire. Whatever idea they might have formed of the arms we
held in our hands, they must now have looked upon them as childish
weapons, and began to let us see how much better theirs were, by
throwing stones and darts, and by shooting arrows. This made it
absolutely necessary for me to give orders to fire. The first discharge
threw them into confusion; but a second was hardly sufficient to drive
them off the beach; and, after all, they continued to throw stones from
behind the trees and bushes, and, every now and then, to pop out and
throw a dart. Four lay, to all appearance, dead on the shore; but two of
them afterwards crawled into the bushes. Happy it was for these people,
that not half our muskets would go off, otherwise many more must have
fallen. We had one man wounded in the cheek with a dart, the point of
which was as thick as my finger, and yet it entered above two inches;
which shews that it must have come with great force, though indeed we
were very near them. An arrow struck Mr. Gilbert’s naked breast, who was
about thirty yards off; but probably it had struck something before; for
it hardly penetrated the skin. The arrows were pointed with hard wood.

As soon as we got on board, I ordered the anchor to be weighed, with a
view of anchoring near the landing-place. While this was doing, several
people appeared on the low rocky point, displaying two oars we had lost
in the scuffle. I looked on this as a sign of submission, and of their
wanting to give us the oars. I was, nevertheless, prevailed on to fire a
four pound shot at them, to let them see the effect of our great guns.
The ball fell short, but frightened them so much, that none were seen
afterwards; and they left the oars standing up against the bushes.

It was now calm; but the anchor was hardly at the bow before a breeze
sprung up at north, of which we took the advantage, set our sails, and
plyed out of the bay, as it did not seem capable of supplying our wants,
with that conveniency I wished to have. Besides, I always had it in my
power to return to this place, in case I should find none more
convenient farther south.

These islanders seemed to be a different race from those of Mallicollo,
and spoke a different language. They are of the middle size, have a good
shape, and tolerable features. Their colour is very dark, and they paint
their faces, some with black, and others with red pigment. Their hair is
very curly and crisp, and somewhat woolly. I saw a few women, and I
thought them ugly; they wore a kind of petticoat made of palm leaves, or
some plant like it. But the men, like those of Mallicollo, were in a
manner naked; having only the belt about the waist, and the piece of
cloth, or leaf, used as a wrapper.[5] I saw no canoes with these people,
nor were any seen in any part of this island. They live in houses
covered with thatch, and their plantations are laid out by line, and
fenced round.

At two o’clock in the afternoon, we were clear of the bay, bore up round
the head, and steered S. S. E. for the south end of the island, having a
fine breeze at N. W. On the S. W. side of the head is a pretty deep bay,
which seemed to run in behind the one on the N. W. side. Its shores are
low, and the adjacent lands appeared very fertile. It is exposed to the
S. E. winds; for which reason, until it be better known, the N. W. bay
is preferable, because it is sheltered from the reigning winds; and the
winds to which it is open, viz. from N. W. by N. to E. by N. seldom blow
strong. The promontory, or peninsula, which disjoins these two bays, I
named Traitor’s Head, from the treacherous behaviour of its inhabitants.
It is the N. E. point of the island, situated in the latitude 18° 43ʹ
south, longitude 169° 28ʹ east, and terminates in a saddle hill which is
of height sufficient to be seen sixteen or eighteen leagues. As we
advanced to S. S. E., the new island we had before discovered began to
appear over the S. E. point of the one near us, bearing S. 1/2 E.
distant ten or twelve leagues. After leaving this one, we steered for
the East end of the other, being directed by a great light we saw upon
it.

At one o’clock the next morning, drawing near the shore, we tacked, and
spent the remainder of the night making short boards. At sun-rise, we
discovered a high table land (an island) bearing E. by S., and a small
low isle in the direction of N. N. E. which we had passed in the night
without seeing it. Traitor’s Head was still in sight, bearing N. 20°
West, distant fifteen leagues, and the island to the south extended from
S. 7° West to S. 87° West, distant three or four miles. We then found
that the light we had seen in the night, was occasioned by a volcano,
which we observed to throw up vast quantities of fire and smoke, with a
rumbling noise heard at a great distance. We now made sail for the
island; and, presently after, discovered a small inlet which had the
appearance of being a good harbour. In order to be better informed, I
sent away two armed boats, under the command of Lieutenant Cooper, to
sound it; and, in the mean while, we stood on and off with the ship, to
be ready to follow, or give them any assistance they might want. On the
east point of the entrance, we observed a number of people, and several
houses and canoes; and when our boats entered the harbour they launched
some, and followed them, but came not near. It was not long before Mr.
Cooper made the signal for anchorage; and we stood in with the ship. The
wind being at west, and our course S. S. W., we borrowed close to the
west point, and passed over some sunken rocks, which might have been
avoided by keeping a little more to the east, or about one-third channel
over. The wind left us as soon as we were within the entrance, and
obliged us to drop an anchor in four fathoms water. After this, the
boats were sent again to sound; and, in the mean time, the launch was
hoisted out, in order to carry out anchors to warp in by, as soon as we
should be acquainted with the channel.

While we were thus employed, many of the natives got together in
parties, on several parts of the shore, all armed with bows, spears, &c.
Some swam off to us, others came in canoes. At first they were shy, and
kept at the distance of a stone’s throw; they grew insensibly bolder;
and, at last, came under our stern, and made some exchanges. The people
in one of the first canoes, after coming as near as they durst, threw
towards us some cocoa-nuts. I went into a boat and picked them up,
giving them in return some cloth and other articles. This induced others
to come under the stern, and alongside, where their behaviour was
insolent and daring. They wanted to carry off every thing within their
reach; they got hold of the fly of the ensign, and would have torn it
from the staff; others attempted to knock the rings off the rudder; but
the greatest trouble they gave us was to look after the buoys of our
anchors, which were no sooner thrown out of the boats, or let go from
the ship, than they got hold of them. A few musquets fired in the air
had no effect; but a four-pounder frightened them so much, that they
quitted their canoes that instant, and took to the water. But as soon as
they found themselves unhurt, they got again into their canoes; gave us
some halloos; flourished their weapons; and returned once more to the
buoys. This put us to the expence of a few musketoon shot, which had the
desired effect. Although none were hurt, they were afterwards afraid to
come near the buoys; very soon all retired on shore; and we were
permitted to sit down to dinner undisturbed.

During these transactions, a friendly old man in a small canoe made
several trips between us and the shore, bringing off each time a few
cocoa-nuts, or a yam, and taking in exchange whatever we gave him.
Another was on the gangway when the great gun was fired, but I could not
prevail on him to stay there long. Towards the evening, after the ship
was moored, I landed at the head of the harbour, in the S. E. corner,
with a strong party of men, without any opposition being made by a great
number of the natives who were assembled in two parties, the one on our
right, the other on our left, armed with clubs, darts, spears, slings,
and stones, bows and arrows, &c. After distributing to the old people,
(for we could distinguish no chief,) and some others, presents of cloth,
medals, &c., I ordered two casks to be filled with water out of a pond
about twenty paces behind the landing-place; giving the natives to
understand, that this was one of the articles we wanted. Besides water,
we got from them a few cocoa-nuts, which seemed to be in plenty on the
trees; but they could not be prevailed upon to part with any of their
weapons. These they held in constant readiness, and in the proper
attitudes of offence and defence; so that little was wanting to make
them attack us; at least we thought so, by their pressing so much upon
us, and in spite of our endeavours to keep them off. Our early
re-embarking probably disconcerted their scheme; and after that, they
all retired. The friendly old man before mentioned, was in one of these
parties; and we judged, from his conduct, that his temper was pacific.



                                CHAP. V.

AN INTERCOURSE ESTABLISHED WITH THE NATIVES; SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND;
    AND A VARIETY OF INCIDENTS THAT HAPPENED DURING OUR STAY AT IT.


As we wanted to take in a large quantity both of wood and water, and as,
when I was on shore, I had found it practicable to lay the ship much
nearer the landing-place than she now was, which would greatly
facilitate that work, as well as over-awe the natives, and enable us
better to cover and protect the working party on shore; with this view,
on the 6th, we went to work to transport the ship to the place I
designed to moor her in. While we were about this, we observed the
natives assembling from all parts, and forming themselves into two
parties, as they did the preceding evening, one on each side the
landing-place, to the amount of some thousands, armed as before. A
canoe, sometimes conducted by one, and at other times by two or three
men, now and then came off, bringing a few cocoa-nuts or plantains.
These they gave us without asking for any return; but I took care that
they should always have something. Their chief design seemed to be to
invite us on shore. One of those who came off was the old man who had
already ingratiated himself into our favour. I made him understand, by
signs, that they were to lay aside their weapons, took those which were
in the canoe and threw them overboard, and made him a present of a large
piece of cloth. There was no doubt that he understood me, and made my
request known to his countrymen. For as soon as he landed we observed
him to go first to the one party, and then to the other; nor was he,
ever after, seen by us with any thing like a weapon in his hand. After
this, three fellows came in a canoe under the stern, one of them
brandishing a club, with which he struck the ship’s side, and committed
other acts of defiance, but at last offered to exchange it for a string
of beads, and some other trifles. These were sent down to him by a line;
but the moment they were in his possession, he and his companions
paddled off in all haste, without giving the club, or any thing else, in
return. This was what I expected, and indeed what I was not sorry for,
as I wanted an opportunity to show the multitude on shore the effect of
our fire-arms, without materially hurting any of them. Having a
fowling-piece, loaded with small shot, (No. 8.) I gave the fellow the
contents; and, when they were above musket-shot off, I ordered some of
the musketoons, or wall-pieces, to be fired, which made them leap out of
the canoe, keep under her off side, and swim with her ashore. This
transaction seemed to make little or no impression on the people there.
On the contrary, they began to halloo, and to make sport of it.

After mooring the ship, by four anchors, with her broadside to the
landing-place, hardly a musket-shot off, and placing our artillery in
such a manner as to command the whole harbour, I embarked with the
marines, and a party of seamen, in three boats, and rowed in for the
shore. It hath been already mentioned, that the two divisions of the
natives were drawn up on each side the landing-place. They had left a
space between them of about thirty or forty yards, in which were laid,
to the most advantage, a few small bunches of plantains, a yam, and two
or three roots. Between these and the water were stuck upright in the
sand, for what purpose I never could learn, four small reeds, about two
feet from each other, in a line at right angles to the shore, where they
remained for two or three days after. The old man before mentioned, and
two more, stood by these things, inviting us, by signs, to land; but I
had not forgot the trap I was so near being caught in at the last
island; and this looked something like it. We answered, by making signs
for the two divisions to retire farther back, and give us more room. The
old man seemed to desire them so to do, but no more regard was paid to
him than to us. More were continually joining them, and, except two or
three old men, not one unarmed. In short, every thing conspired to make
us believe they meant to attack us as soon as we should be on shore; the
consequence of which was easily supposed; many of them must have been
killed and wounded, and we should hardly have escaped unhurt; two things
I equally wished to prevent. Since, therefore, they would not give us
the room we required, I thought it was better to frighten them into it,
than to oblige them by the deadly effect of our fire-arms. I accordingly
ordered a musket to be fired over the party on our right, which was by
far the strongest body; but the alarm it gave them was momentary. In an
instant they recovered themselves, and began to display their weapons.
One fellow showed us his backside, in a manner which plainly conveyed
his meaning. After this I ordered three or four muskets to be fired.
This was the signal for the ship to fire a few great guns, which
presently dispersed them; and then we landed, and marked out the limits,
on the right and left, by a line. Our old friend stood his ground,
though deserted by his two companions, and I rewarded his confidence
with a present. The natives came gradually to us, seemingly in a more
friendly manner; some even without their weapons, but by far the
greatest part brought them; and when we made signs to lay them down,
they gave us to understand that we must lay down ours first. Thus all
parties stood armed. The presents I made to the old people, and to such
as seemed to be of consequence, had little effect on their conduct. They
indeed climbed the cocoa-nut trees, and threw us down the nuts, without
requiring any thing for them; but I took care that they should always
have somewhat in return. I observed that many were afraid to touch what
belonged to us; and they seemed to have no notion of exchanging one
thing for another. I took the old man, whose name we now found to be
Paowang, to the woods, and made him understand, I wanted to cut down
some trees to take on board the ship; cutting some down at the same
time, which we put into one of our boats, together with a few small
casks of water, with a view of letting the people see what it was we
chiefly wanted. Paowang very readily gave his consent to cut wood; nor
was there any one who made the least objection. He only desired the
cocoa-nut trees might not be cut down. Matters being thus settled, we
embarked and returned on board to dinner, and, immediately after, they
all dispersed. I never learnt that any one was hurt by our shot, either
on this or the preceding day; which was a very happy circumstance. In
the afternoon, having landed again, we loaded the launch with water, and
having made three hauls with the seine, caught upwards of three hundred
pounds of mullet and other fish. It was some time before any of the
natives appeared, and not above twenty or thirty at last, amongst whom
was our trusty friend Paowang, who made us a present of a small pig,
which was the only one we got at this isle, or that was offered us.

During the night, the volcano, which was about four miles to the west of
us, vomited up vast quantities of fire and smoke, as it had also done
the night before; and the flames were seen to rise above the hill which
lay between us and it. At every eruption, it made a long rumbling noise
like that of thunder, or the blowing up of large mines. A heavy shower
of rain, which fell at this time, seemed to increase it; and the wind
blowing from the same quarter, the air was loaded with its ashes, which
fell so thick, that every thing was covered with the dust. It was a kind
of fine sand or stone, ground or burnt to powder, and was exceedingly
troublesome to the eyes.

Early in the morning of the 7th, the natives began again to assemble
near the watering-place, armed as usual, but not in such numbers as at
first. After breakfast we landed, in order to cut wood and fill water. I
found many of the islanders much inclined to be friends with us,
especially the old people; on the other hand, most of the younger were
daring and insolent, and obliged us to keep to our arms. I staid till I
saw no disturbance was like to happen, and then returned to the ship,
leaving the party under the command of Lieutenants Clerke and Edgcumbe.
When they came on board to dinner, they informed me that the people
continued to behave in the same inconsistent manner as in the morning;
but more especially one man, whom Mr. Edgcumbe was obliged to fire at,
and believed he had struck with a swan-shot. After that, the others
behaved with more discretion; and as soon as our people embarked, they
all retired. While we were sitting at dinner, an old man came on board,
looked into many parts of the ship, and then went ashore again.

In the afternoon, only a few of those who lived in the neighbourhood,
with whom we were now upon a tolerable footing, made their appearance at
the watering-place. Paowang brought us an axe which had been left by our
people, either in the woods or on the beach, and found by some of the
natives. A few other articles were afterwards returned to us, which
either they had stolen, or we had lost by our negligence. So careful
were they now not to offend us in this respect.

Early the next morning, I sent the launch, protected by a party of
marines in another boat, to take in ballast, which we wanted. This work
was done before breakfast; and after it, she was sent for wood and
water, and with her the people employed in this service under the
protection of a serjeant’s guard, which was now thought sufficient, as
the natives seemed to be pretty well reconciled to us. I was told, that
they asked our people to go home with them, on condition they stripped
naked as they were. This shows that they had no design to rob them,
whatever other they might have.

On the 9th, I sent the launch for more ballast, and the guard and
wooders to the usual place. With these I went myself, and found a good
many of the natives collected together, whose behaviour, though armed,
was courteous and obliging; so that there was no longer any occasion to
mark out the limits by a line; they observed them without this
precaution. As it was necessary for Mr. Wales’s instruments to remain on
shore all the middle of the day, the guard did not return to dinner, as
they had done before, till relieved by others. When I came off, I
prevailed on a young man, whose name was Wha-a-gou, to accompany me.
Before dinner I showed him every part of the ship; but did not observe
that any one thing fixed his attention a moment, or caused in him the
least surprise. He had no knowledge of goats, dogs, or cats, calling
them all hogs (_Booga_ or _Boogas_). I made him a present of a dog and a
bitch, as he showed a liking to that kind of animal. Soon after he came
on board, some of his friends followed in a canoe, and enquired for him,
probably doubtful of his safety. He looked out of the quarter-gallery,
and having spoken to them, they went ashore, and quickly returned with a
cock, a little sugar-cane, and a few cocoa-nuts, as a present to me.
Though he sat down with us, he did but just taste our salt pork, but eat
pretty heartily of yam, and drank a glass of wine. After dinner I made
him presents, and then conducted him ashore.

As soon as we landed, the youth and some of his friends took me by the
hand, with a view, as I understood, to conduct me to their habitations.
We had not gone far, before some of them, for what reason I know not,
were unwilling I should proceed; in consequence of which the whole
company stopped; and, if I was not mistaken, a person was dispatched for
something or other to give me; for I was desired to sit down and wait,
which I accordingly did. During this interval, several of our gentlemen
passed us, at which they showed great uneasiness, and importuned me so
much to order them back, that I was at last obliged to comply. They were
jealous of our going up the country, or even along the shore of the
harbour. While I was waiting here, our friend Paowang came with a
present of fruit and roots, carried by about twenty men; in order, as I
supposed, to make it appear the greater. One had a small bunch of
plantains, another a yam, a third a cocoa-nut, &c.: but two men might
have carried the whole with ease. This present was in return for
something I had given him in the morning; however, I thought the least I
could do now, was to pay the porters.

After I had dispatched Paowang, I returned to Wha-a-gou and his friends,
who were still for detaining me. They seemed to wait with great
impatience for something, and to be unwilling and ashamed to take away
the two dogs, without making me a return. As night was approaching, I
pressed to be gone; with which they complied, and so we parted.

The preceding day, Mr. Forster learnt from the people the proper name of
the island, which they call Tanna; and this day I learnt from them the
names of those in the neighbourhood. The one we touched at last is
called Erromango; the small isle, which we discovered the morning we
landed here, Immer; the Table Island to the east, discovered at the same
time, Erronan or Foottoona; and an island which lies to the S. E.
Annattom. All these islands are to be seen from Tanna.

They gave us to understand, in a manner which I thought admitted of no
doubt, that they eat human flesh, and that circumcision was practised
among them. They began the subject of eating human flesh of their own
accord, by asking us if we did; otherwise I should never have thought of
asking them such a question. I have heard people argue, that no nation
could be cannibals, if they had other flesh to eat, or did not want
food; thus deriving the custom from necessity. The people of this island
can be under no such necessity; they have fine pork and fowls, and
plenty of roots and fruits. But since we have not actually seen them eat
human flesh, it will admit of doubt with some, whether they are
cannibals.

When I got on board, I learnt that, when the launch was on the west side
of the harbour taking in ballast, one of the men employed on this work
had scalded his fingers in taking a stone up out of some water. This
circumstance produced the discovery of several hot springs at the foot
of the cliff, and rather below high water mark.

This day Mr. Wales and two or three of the officers advanced a little,
for the first time, into the island. They met with a straggling village,
the inhabitants of which treated them with great civility; and the next
morning, Mr. Forster and his party, and some others, made another
excursion inland. They met with several fine plantations of plantains,
sugar-canes, yams, &c.; and the natives were courteous and civil.
Indeed, by this time, the people, especially those in our neighbourhood,
were so well reconciled to us, that they showed not the least dislike at
our rambling about in the skirts of the woods, shooting, &c. In the
afternoon, some boys having got behind thickets, and having thrown two
or three stones at our people, who were cutting wood, they were fired at
by the petty officers present on duty. Being ashore at the time, I was
alarmed at hearing the report of the muskets, and seeing two or three
boys run out of the wood. When I knew the cause, I was much displeased
at so wanton an use being made of our fire-arms, and took measures to
prevent it for the future. Wind southerly, with heavy showers of rain.

During the night, and also all the 11th, the volcano was exceedingly
troublesome, and made a terrible noise, throwing up prodigious columns
of fire and smoke at each explosion, which happened every three or four
minutes; and, at one time, great stones were seen high in the air.
Besides the necessary work of wooding and watering, we struck the
main-top-mast to fix new trestle-trees and back-stays. Mr. Forster and
his party went up the hill on the west side of the harbour, where he
found three places from whence smoke of a sulphureous smell issued,
through cracks or fissures in the earth. The ground about these was
exceedingly hot, and parched or burnt, and they seemed to keep pace with
the volcano, for at every explosion of the latter, the quantity of smoke
or steam in these was greatly increased, and forced out so as to rise in
small columns, which we saw from the ship, and had taken for common
fires made by the natives. At the foot of this hill are the hot springs
before mentioned.

In the afternoon Mr. Forster, having begun his botanical researches on
the other side of the harbour, fell in with our friend Paowang’s house,
where he saw most of the articles I had given him, hanging on the
adjoining trees and bushes, as if they were not worthy of being under
his roof.

On the 12th, some of the officers accompanied Mr. Forster to the hot
places he had been at the preceding day. A thermometer placed in a
little hole made in one of them, rose from 80, at which it stood in the
open air, to 170. Several other parts of the hill emitted smoke or steam
all the day, and the volcano was unusually furious, insomuch, that the
air was loaded with its ashes. The rain which fell at this time, was a
compound of water, sand, and earth; so that it properly might be called
showers of mire. Whichever way the wind was, we were plagued with the
ashes; unless it blew very strong indeed from the opposite direction.
Notwithstanding the natives seemed well enough satisfied with the few
expeditions we had made in the neighbourhood; they were unwilling we
should extend them farther. As a proof of this, some undertook to guide
the gentlemen when they were in the country, to a place where they might
see the mouth of the volcano. They very readily embraced the offer; and
were conducted down to the harbour, before they perceived the cheat.

The 13th, wind at N. E., gloomy weather. The only thing worthy of note
this day was, that Paowang being at dinner with us on board, I took the
opportunity to show him several parts of the ship, and various articles,
in hopes of finding out something which they might value, and be induced
to take from us in exchange for refreshments; for what we got of this
kind was trifling. But he looked on every thing that was shown him with
the utmost indifference; nor did he take notice of any one thing except
a wooden sand-box, which he seemed to admire, and turned two or three
times over in his hand.

Next morning, after breakfast, a party of us set out for the country, to
try if we could not get a nearer and better view of the volcano. We went
by the way of one of those hot smoking places before mentioned, and dug
a hole in the hottest part, into which a thermometer of Fahrenheit’s
construction was put; and the mercury presently rose to 100°. It
remained in the hole two minutes and a half without either rising or
falling. The earth about this place was a kind of white clay, had a
sulphureous smell, and was soft and wet, the surface only excepted, over
which was spread a thin dry crust, that had upon it some sulphur, and a
vitriolic substance, tasting like alum. The place affected by the heat
was not above eight or ten yards square; and near it were some
fig-trees, which spread their branches over a part of it, and seemed to
like their situation. We thought that this extraordinary heat was caused
by the steam of boiling water, strongly impregnated with sulphur. I was
told that some of the other places were larger than this; though we did
not go out of the road to look at them, but proceeded up the hill
through a country so covered with trees, shrubs, and plants, that the
bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees, which seem to have been planted here by
nature, were in a manner choked up. Here and there we met with a house,
some few people, and plantations. These latter we found in different
states; some of long standing; others lately cleared; and some only
clearing, and before any thing had been planted. The clearing a piece of
ground for a plantation seemed to be a work of much labour, considering
the tools they had to work with, which, though much inferior to those at
the Society Isles, are of the same kind. Their method is, however,
judicious, and as expeditious as it can well be. They lop off the small
branches of the large trees, dig under the roots, and there burn the
branches and small shrubs and plants which they root up. The soil, in
some parts, is a rich black mould; in other parts, it seemed to be
composed of decayed vegetables, and of the ashes the volcano sends forth
throughout all its neighbourhood. Happening to turn out of the common
path, we came into a plantation, where we found a man at work, who,
either out of good-nature, or to get us the sooner out of his
territories, undertook to be our guide. We followed him accordingly, but
had not gone far before we came to the junction of two roads, in one of
which stood another man with a sling and a stone, which he thought
proper to lay down when a musket was pointed at him. The attitude in
which we found him, the ferocity appearing in his looks, and his
behaviour after, convinced us that he meant to defend the path he stood
in. He, in some measure, gained his point; for our guide took the other
road, and we followed; but not without suspecting he was leading us out
of the common way. The other man went with us likewise, counting us
several times over, and hallooing, as we judged, for assistance; for we
were presently joined by two or three more, among whom was a young woman
with a club in her hand. By these people we were conducted to the brow
of a hill, and shown a road leading down to the harbour, which they
wanted us to take. Not choosing to comply, we returned to that we had
left, which we pursued alone, our guide refusing to go with us. After
ascending another ridge, as thickly covered with wood as those we had
come over, we saw yet other hills between us and the volcano, which
seemed as far off as at our first setting out. This discouraged us from
proceeding farther, especially as we could get no one to be our guide.
We therefore came to a resolution to return; and had but just put this
in execution, when we met between twenty and thirty people, whom the
fellow before mentioned had collected together, with a design, as we
judged, to oppose our advancing into the country; but as they saw us
returning, they suffered us to pass unmolested. Some of them put us into
the right road, accompanied us down the hill, made us stop by the way to
entertain us with cocoa-nuts, plantains, and sugar-cane; and what we did
not eat on the spot, they brought down the hill with us. Thus, we found
these people hospitable, civil, and good-natured, when not prompted to a
contrary conduct by jealousy; a conduct I cannot tell how to blame them
for, especially when I consider the light in which they must view us. It
was impossible for them to know our real design; we enter their ports
without their daring to oppose; we endeavour to land in their country as
friends, and it is well if this succeeds; we land, nevertheless, and
maintain the footing we have got, by the superiority of our fire-arms.
Under such circumstances, what opinion are they to form of us? Is it not
as reasonable for them to think that we come to invade their country, as
to pay them a friendly visit? Time, and some acquaintance with us, can
only convince them of the latter. These people are yet in a rude state;
and, if we may judge from circumstances and appearances, are frequently
at war, not only with their neighbours, but among themselves;
consequently must be jealous of every new face. I will allow there are
some exceptions to this rule to be found in this sea; but there are few
nations who would willingly suffer visitors like us to advance far into
their country.

Before this excursion, some of us had been of opinion, that these people
were addicted to an unnatural passion, because they had endeavoured to
entice some of our men into the woods; and, in particular, I was told,
that one who had the care of Mr. Forster’s plant bag, had been, once or
twice, attempted. As the carrying of bundles, &c. is the office of the
women in this country, it had occurred to me, and I was not singular in
this, that the natives might mistake him, and some others, for women. My
conjecture was fully verified this day: for this man, who was one of the
party, and carried the bag as usual, following me down the hill, by the
words which I understood of the conversation of the natives, and by
their actions, I was well assured that they considered him as a female;
till, by some means, they discovered their mistake, on which they cried
out, _Erramange! Erramange!_ It’s a man! It’s a man! The thing was so
palpable that every one was obliged to acknowledge, that they had before
mistaken his sex; and that, after they were undeceived, they seemed not
to have the least notion of what we had suspected. This circumstance
will show how liable we are to form wrong conjectures of things, among
people whose language we are ignorant of. Had it not been for this
discovery, I make no doubt that these people would have been charged
with this vile custom.

In the evening I took a walk, with some of the gentlemen, into the
country on the other side of the harbour, where we had very different
treatment from what we had met with in the morning. The people we now
visited, among whom was our friend Paowang, being better acquainted with
us, showed a readiness to oblige us in every thing in their power. We
came to the village which had been visited on the 9th. It consisted of
about twenty houses, the most of which need no other description than
comparing them to the roof of a thatched house in England taken off the
walls and placed on the ground. Some were open at both ends; others
partly closed with reeds; and all were covered with palm thatch. A few
of them were thirty or forty feet long, and fourteen or sixteen broad.
Besides these, they have other mean hovels, which, I conceived, were
only to sleep in. Some of these stood in a plantation, and I was given
to understand, that in one of them lay a dead corpse. They made signs
that described sleep, or death; and circumstances pointed out the
latter. Curious to see all I could, I prevailed on an elderly man to go
with me to the hut, which was separated from the others by a reed fence,
built quite round it, at the distance of four or five feet. The entrance
was by a space in the fence, made so low as to admit one to step over.
The two sides and one end of the hut were closed or built up in the same
manner, and with the same materials, as the roof. The other end had been
open, but was now well closed up with mats, which I could not prevail on
the man to remove, or suffer me to do it. There hung at this end of the
hut a matted bag or basket, in which was a piece of roasted yam, and
some sort of leaves, all quite fresh. I had a strong desire to see the
inside of the hut, but the man was peremptory in refusing this, and even
showed an unwillingness to permit me to look into the basket. He wore
round his neck, fastened to a string, two or three locks of human hair;
and a woman present had several about her neck. I offered something in
exchange for them; but they gave me to understand they could not part
with them, as it was the hair of the person who lay in the hut. Thus I
was led to believe, that these people dispose of their dead in a manner
similar to that of Otaheite. The same custom of wearing the hair is
observed by the people of that island, and also by the New Zealanders.
The former make _Tamau_ of the hair of their deceased friends, and the
latter make ear-rings and necklaces of their teeth.

Near most of their large houses were fixed upright in the ground the
stems of four cocoa-nut trees, in a square position, about three feet
from each other. Some of our gentlemen, who first saw them, were
inclined to believe they were thus placed on a religious account; but I
was now satisfied that it was for no other purpose but to hang
cocoa-nuts on to dry. For when I asked, as well as I could, the use of
them, a man took me to one, loaded with cocoa-nuts from the bottom to
the top; and no words could have informed me better. Their situation is
well chosen for this use, as most of their large houses are built in an
open airy place, or where the wind has a free passage, from whatever
direction it blows. Near most, if not all of them, is a large tree, or
two, whose spreading branches afford an agreeable retreat from the
scorching sun. This part of the island was well cultivated, open and
airy; the plantations were laid out by line, abounding with plantains,
sugar-canes, yams, and other roots, and stocked with fruit trees. In our
walk we met with our old friend Paowang, who, with some others,
accompanied us to the water-side, and brought with them, as a present, a
few yams and cocoa-nuts.

On the 15th, having finished wooding and watering, a few hands only were
on shore making brooms, the rest being employed on board, setting up the
rigging, and putting the ship in a condition for sea. Mr. Forster, in
his botanical excursion this day, shot a pigeon, in the craw of which
was a wild nutmeg. He took some pains to find the tree, but his
endeavours were without success. In the evening a party of us walked to
the eastern sea-shore, in order to take the bearing of Annattom, and
Erronan or Foottoona. The horizon proved so hazy that I could see
neither; but one of the natives gave me, as I afterwards found, the true
direction of them. We observed that in all, or most of their sugar
plantations, were dug holes or pits, four feet deep, and five or six in
diameter, and on our inquiring their use, we were given to understand,
that they caught rats in them. These animals, which are very destructive
to the canes, are here in great plenty. The canes, I observed, were
planted as thick as possible round the edge of these pits, so that the
rats in coming at them are the more liable to tumble in.

Next morning we found the tiller sprung in the rudder-head, and by some
strange neglect, we had not a spare one on board, which we were ignorant
of till now it was wanting. I knew but of one tree in the neighbourhood
fit for this purpose, which I sent the carpenter on shore to look at,
and an officer, with a party of men, to cut it down, provided he could
obtain leave of the natives; if not, he was ordered to acquaint me. He
understood that no one had any objection, and set the people to work
accordingly. But as the tree was large, this required some time; and,
before it was down, word was brought me that our friend Paowang was not
pleased. Upon this I gave orders to desist, as we found that, by
scarfing a piece to the inner end of the tiller, and letting it farther
into the rudder-head, it would still perform its office. But, as it was
necessary to have a spare one on board, I went on shore, sent for
Paowang, made him a present of a dog and a piece of cloth, and then
explained to him that our great steering paddle was broken, and that I
wanted that tree to make a new one. It was easy to see how well pleased
every one present was with the means I took to obtain it. With one voice
they gave their consent, Paowang joining his also, which he perhaps
could not have done without the others; for I do not know that he had
either more property or more authority than the rest. This point being
obtained, I took our friend on board to dinner, and after it was over
went with him on ashore, to pay a visit to an old chief, who was said to
be king of the island, which was a doubt with me. Paowang took little or
no notice of him. I made him a present, after which he immediately went
away, as if he had got all he came for. His name was Geogy, and they
gave him the title of _Areeke_. He was very old, but had a merry open
countenance. He wore round his waist a broad red and white checquered
belt, the materials and manufacture of which seemed the same as that of
Otaheite cloth; but this was hardly a mark of distinction. He had with
him a son, not less than forty-five or fifty years of age. A great
number of people were at this time at the landing-place; most of them
from distant parts. The behaviour of many was friendly, while others
were daring and insolent, which I thought proper to put up with, as our
stay was nearly at an end.

On the 17th, about ten o’clock, I went ashore, and found in the crowd
old Geogy and his son, who soon made me understand that they wanted to
dine with me; and accordingly I brought them, and two more on board.
They all called them _Areekees_ (or kings); but I doubt if any of them
had the least pretensions to that title over the whole island. It had
been remarked that one of these kings had not authority enough to order
one of the people up into a cocoa-nut tree to bring him down some nuts.
Although he spoke to several, he was at last obliged to go himself, and
by way of revenge, as it was thought, left not a nut on the tree, taking
what he wanted himself, and giving the rest to some of our people.

When I got them on board, I went with them all over the ship, which they
viewed with uncommon surprise and attention. We happened to have for
their entertainment a kind of pie or pudding made of plantains, and some
sort of greens which we had got from one of the natives. On this, and on
yams, they made a hearty dinner; for, as to the salt beef and pork, they
would hardly taste them. In the afternoon, having made each of them a
present of a hatchet, a spike-nail, and some medals, I conducted them
ashore.

Mr. Forster and I then went over to the other side of the harbour, and
having tried, with Fahrenheit’s thermometer, the head of one of the hot
springs, we found that the mercury rose to 191°. At this time the tide
was up within two or three feet of the spring, so that we judged it
might, in some degree, be cooled by it. We were mistaken, however; for,
on repeating the experiment next morning, when the tide was out, the
mercury rose no higher than 187°; but, at another spring, where the
water bubbled out of the sand from under the rock at the S. W. corner of
the harbour, the mercury, in the same thermometer, rose to 202° 1/2,
which is but little colder than boiling water. The hot places before
mentioned are from about three to four hundred feet perpendicular above
these springs, and on the slope of the same ridge with the volcano; that
is, there are no vallies between them but such as are formed in the
ridge itself; nor is the volcano on the highest part of the ridge, but
on the S. E. side of it. This is, I have been told, contrary to the
general opinion of philosophers, who say that volcanos must be on the
summits of the highest hills. So far is this from being the case on this
island, that some of its hills are more than double the height of that
on which the volcano is, and close to it. To these remarks I must add,
that, in wet or moist weather, the volcano was most violent. There seems
to be room for some philosophical reasoning on these phænomena of
nature; but not having any talent that way, I must content myself with
stating facts as I found them, and leave the causes to men of more
abilities.

The tiller was now finished; but as the wind was unfavourable for
sailing, the guard was sent on shore on the 19th, as before, and a party
of men to cut up and bring off the remainder of the tree from which we
had got the tiller. Having nothing else to do, I went on shore with
them, and finding a good number of the natives collected about the
landing-place as usual, I distributed among them all the articles I had
with me, and then went on board for more. In less than an hour I
returned, just as our people were getting some large logs into the boat.
At the same time four or five of the natives stepped forward to see what
we were about, and as we did not allow them to come within certain
limits, unless to pass along the beach, the sentry ordered them back,
which they readily complied with. At this time, having my eyes fixed on
them, I observed the sentry present his piece (as I thought at these
men), and was just going to reprove him for it, because I had observed
that, whenever this was done, some of the natives would hold up their
arms, to let us see they were equally ready. But I was astonished beyond
measure when the sentry fired, for I saw not the least cause. At this
outrage most of the people fled: it was only a few I could prevail on to
remain. As they ran off, I observed one man to fall; and he was
immediately lifted up by two others who took him into the water, washed
his wound, and then led him off. Presently after, some came and
described to me the nature of his wound; and, as I found he was not
carried far, I sent for the surgeon. As soon as he arrived, I went with
him to the man, whom we found expiring. The ball had struck his left
arm, which was much shattered, and then entered his body by the
short-ribs, one of which was broken. The rascal who fired pretended that
a man had laid an arrow across his bow, and was going to shoot at him,
so that he apprehended himself in danger. But this was no more than they
had always done, and with no other view than to show they were armed as
well as we; at least I have reason to think so, as they never went
farther. What made this incident the more unfortunate, was, it not
appearing to be the man who bent the bow that was shot, but one who
stood by him. This affair threw the natives into the utmost
consternation; and the few that were prevailed on to stay ran to the
plantations and brought cocoa-nuts, &c. which they laid down at our
feet. So soon were these daring people humbled! When I went on board to
dinner they all retired, and only a few appeared in the afternoon,
amongst whom were Paowang and Wha-a-gou. I had not seen this young man
since the day he dined on board. Both he and Paowang promised to bring
me fruit, &c. the next morning, but our early departure put it out of
their power.



                               CHAP. VI.

   DEPARTURE FROM TANNA; WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF ITS INHABITANTS, THEIR
                           MANNERS AND ARTS.


During the night the wind had veered round to S. E. As this was
favourable for getting out of the harbour, at four o’clock in the
morning of the 20th, we began to unmoor, and at eight, having weighed
our last anchor, put to sea. As soon as we were clear of the land, I
brought to, waiting for the launch which was left behind to take up a
kedge-anchor and hawser we had out, to cast by. About day-break a noise
was heard in the woods, nearly abreast of us, on the east side of the
harbour, not unlike singing of psalms. I was told that the like had been
heard at the same time every morning, but it never came to my knowledge
till now, when it was too late to learn the occasion of it. Some were of
opinion, that at the east point of the harbour (where we observed, in
coming in, some houses, boats, &c.) was something sacred to religion,
because some of our people had attempted to go to this point, and were
prevented by the natives. I thought, and do still think, it was only
owing to a desire they showed, on every occasion, of fixing bounds to
our excursions. So far as we had once been, we might go again; but not
farther with their consent. But by encroaching a little every time, our
country expeditions were insensibly extended without giving the least
umbrage. Besides, these morning ceremonies, whether religious or not,
were not performed down at that point, but in a part where some of our
people had been daily.

I cannot say what might be the true cause of these people showing such
dislike to our going up into their country. It might be owing to a
naturally jealous disposition, or perhaps to their being accustomed to
hostile visits from their neighbours, or quarrels among themselves.
Circumstances seemed to show that such must frequently happen; for we
observed them very expert in arms, and well accustomed to them; seldom
or never travelling without them. It is possible all this might be on
our account; but I hardly think it. We never gave them the least
molestation, nor did we touch any part of their property, not even the
wood and water, without first having obtained their consent. The very
cocoa-nuts, hanging over the heads of the workmen, were as safe as those
in the middle of the island. It happened, rather fortunately, that there
were so many cocoa-nut trees near the skirts of the harbour, which
seemed not to be private property; so that we could generally prevail on
the natives to bring us some of these nuts, when nothing would induce
them to bring any out of the country.

We were not wholly without refreshments; for besides the fish, which our
seine now and then provided us with, we procured daily some fruits or
roots from the natives, though but little in proportion to what we could
consume. The reason why we got no more might be our having nothing to
give them in exchange, which they thought valuable. They had not the
least knowledge of iron; consequently, nails and iron tools, beads, &c.
which had so great a run at the more eastern isles, were of no
consideration here; and cloth can be of no use to people who go naked.

The produce of this island is bread-fruit, plantains, cocoa-nuts, a
fruit like a nectarine, yams, terra, a sort of potatoe, sugar-cane, wild
figs, a fruit like an orange, which is not eatable, and some other fruit
and nuts whose names I have not. Nor have I any doubt that the nutmeg
before mentioned was the produce of this island. The bread-fruit,
cocoa-nuts, and plantains, are neither so plentiful nor so good as at
Otaheite; on the other hand, sugar-canes and yams are not only in
greater plenty, but of superior quality, and much larger. We got one of
the latter which weighed fifty-six pounds, every ounce of which was
good. Hogs did not seem to be scarce; but we saw not many fowls. These
are the only domestic animals they have. Land birds are not more
numerous than at Otaheite, and the other islands; but we met with some
small birds, with a very beautiful plumage, which we had never seen
before. There is as great a variety of trees and plants here as at any
island we touched at, where our botanists had time to examine. I believe
these people live chiefly on the produce of the land, and that the sea
contributes but little to their subsistence. Whether this arises from
the coast not abounding with fish, or from their being bad fishermen, I
know not; both causes perhaps concur. I never saw any sort of
fishing-tackle amongst them, nor any one out fishing, except on the
shoals, or along the shores of the harbour, where they would watch to
strike with a dart such fish as came within their reach; and in this
they were expert. They seemed much to admire our catching fish with the
seine; and, I believe, were not well pleased with it at last. I doubt
not they have other methods of catching fish besides striking them.

We understood that the little isle of Immer was chiefly inhabited by
fishermen, and that the canoes we frequently saw pass, to and from that
isle and the east point of the harbour, were fishing canoes. These
canoes were of unequal sizes, some thirty feet long, two broad, and
three deep, and they are composed of several pieces of wood clumsily
sewed together with bandages. The joints are covered on the outside by a
thin batten champhered off at the edges, over which the bandages pass.
They are navigated either by paddles or sails. The sail is latteen,
extended to a yard and boom, and hoisted to a short mast. Some of the
large canoes have two sails, and all of them outriggers.

At first we thought the people of this island, as well as those of
Erromango, were a race between the natives of the Friendly Islands and
those of Mallicollo; but a little acquaintance with them convinced us
that they had little or no affinity to either, except it be in their
hair, which is much like what the people of the latter island have. The
general colours of it are black and brown, growing to a tolerable
length, and very crisp and curly. They separate it into small locks,
which they woold or cue round with the rind of a slender plant, down to
about an inch of the ends; and, as the hair grows, the woolding is
continued. Each of these cues or locks is somewhat thicker than common
whipcord; and they look like a parcel of small strings hanging down from
the crown of their heads. Their beards, which are strong and bushy, are
generally short. The women do not wear their hair so, but cropped; nor
do the boys, till they approach manhood. Some few men, women, and
children, were seen, who had hair like ours; but it was obvious that
these were of another nation; and I think we understood they came from
Erronan. It is to this island they ascribe one of the two languages
which they speak, and which is nearly, if not exactly, the same as that
spoken at the Friendly Isles. It is therefore more than probable that
Erronan was peopled from that nation, and that, by long intercourse with
Tanna and the other neighbouring islands, each hath learnt the other’s
language, which they use indiscriminately.

The other language which the people of Tanna speak, and, as we
understood, those of Erromango and Annattom, is properly their own. It
is different from any we had before met with, and bears no affinity to
that of Mallicollo; so that, it should seem, the people of these islands
are a distinct nation of themselves. Mallicollo, Apee, &c. were names
entirely unknown to them; they even knew nothing of Sandwich Island,
which is much the nearer. I took no small pains to know how far their
geographical knowledge extended; and did not find that it exceeded the
limits of their horizon.

These people are of the middle size, rather slender than otherwise; many
are little, but few tall or stout; the most of them have good features,
and agreeable countenances; are, like all the tropical race, active and
nimble; and seem to excel in the use of arms, but not to be fond of
labour. They never would put a hand to assist in any work we were
carrying on, which the people of the other islands used to delight in.
But what I judge most from, is their making the females do the most
laborious work, as if they were pack-horses. I have seen a woman
carrying a large bundle on her back, or a child on her back and a bundle
under her arm, and a fellow strutting before her with nothing but a club
or spear, or some such thing. We have frequently observed little troops
of women pass, to and fro, along the beach, laden with fruit and roots,
escorted by a party of men under arms; though, now and then, we have
seen a man carry a burden at the same time, but not often. I know not on
what account this was done, nor that an armed troop was necessary. At
first, we thought they were moving out of the neighbourhood with their
effects; but we afterwards saw them both carry out and bring in every
day.

I cannot say the women are beauties; but I think them handsome enough
for the men, and too handsome for the use that is made of them. Both
sexes are of a very dark colour, but not black; nor have they the least
characteristic of the negro about them. They make themselves blacker
than they really are, by painting their faces with a pigment of the
colour of black lead. They also use another sort which is red, and a
third sort brown, or a colour between red and black. All these, but
especially the first, they lay on, with a liberal hand, not only on the
face, but on the neck, shoulders, and breast. The men wear nothing but a
belt, and the wrapping leaf as at Mallicollo.[6] The women have a kind
of petticoat made of the filaments of the plantain tree, flags, or some
such thing, which reaches below the knee. Both sexes wear ornaments,
such as bracelets, ear-rings, necklaces, and amulets. The bracelets are
chiefly worn by the men; some made of sea-shells, and others of those of
the cocoa-nut. The men also wear amulets; and those of most value being
made of a greenish stone, the green stone of New Zealand is valued by
them for this purpose. Necklaces are chiefly used by the women, and made
mostly of shells. Ear-rings are common to both sexes, and those valued
most are made of tortoise-shell. Some of our people having got some at
the Friendly Islands, brought it to a good market here, where it was of
more value than any thing we had besides; from which I conclude that
these people catch but few turtle, though I saw one in the harbour, just
as we were getting under sail. I observed that, towards the latter end
of our stay, they began to ask for hatchets, and large nails; so that it
is likely they had found that iron is more serviceable than stone, or
shells, of which all their tools I have seen are made. Their stone
hatchets, at least all those I saw, are not in the shape of adzes, as at
the other islands, but more like an axe, in this form. [Illustration] In
the helve, which is pretty thick, is made a hole into which the stone is
fixed.

These people, besides the cultivation of ground, have few other arts
worth mentioning. They know how to make a coarse kind of matting, and a
coarse cloth of the bark of a tree, which is used chiefly for belts. The
workmanship of their canoes, I have before observed, is very rude; and
their arms, with which they take the most pains in point of neatness,
come far short of some others we had seen. Their weapons are clubs,
spears, or darts, bows and arrows, and stones. The clubs are of three or
four kinds, and from three to five feet long. They seem to place most
dependence on the darts, which are pointed with three bearded edges. In
throwing them they make use of a becket, that is, a piece of stiff
plaited cord about six inches long, with an eye in one end and a knot at
the other. The eye is fixed on the fore-finger of the right hand, and
the other end is hitched round the dart, where it is nearly on an
equipoise. They hold the dart between the thumb and remaining fingers,
which serve only to give it direction, the velocity being communicated
by the becket and fore-finger. The former flies off from the dart the
instant its velocity becomes greater than that of the hand, but it
remains on the finger ready to be used again. With darts they kill both
birds and fish, and are sure of hitting a mark, within the compass of
the crown of a hat, at the distance of eight or ten yards; but, at
double that distance, it is chance if they hit a mark the size of a
man’s body, though they will throw the weapon sixty or seventy yards.
They always throw with all their might, let the distance be what it
will. Darts, bows and arrows, are to them what muskets are to us. The
arrows are made of reeds pointed with hard wood: some are bearded and
some not, and those for shooting birds have two, three, and sometimes
four points. The stones they use are, in general, the branches of coral
rocks from eight to fourteen inches long, and from an inch to an inch
and a half in diameter. I know not if they employ them as missive
weapons; almost every one of them carries a club, and besides that,
either darts, or a bow and arrows, but never both: those who had stones
kept them generally in their belts.

I cannot conclude this account of their arms without adding an entire
passage out of Mr. Wales’s journal. As this gentleman was continually on
shore amongst them, he had a better opportunity of seeing what they
could perform than any of us. The passage is as follows: “I must confess
I have been often led to think the feats which Homer represents his
heroes as performing with their spears a little too much of the
marvellous to be admitted into an heroic poem; I mean when confined
within the streight stays of Aristotle. Nay, even so great an advocate
for him as Mr. Pope acknowledges them to be _surprising_. But since I
have seen what these people can do with their wooden spears, and them
badly pointed, and not of a very hard nature, I have not the least
exception to any one passage in that great poet on this account. But, if
I see fewer exceptions, I can find infinitely more beauties in him; as
he has, I think, scarce an action, circumstance, or description of any
kind whatever, relating to a spear, which I have not seen and recognised
among these people; as their whirling motion, and whistling noise, as
they fly; their quivering motion, as they stick in the ground when they
fall; their meditating their aim, when they are going to throw; and
their shaking them in their hand as they go along, &c. &c.”

I know no more of their cookery, than that it consists of roasting and
baking; for they have no vessel in which water can be boiled. Nor do I
know that they have any other liquor but water and the juice of the
cocoa-nut.

We are utter strangers to their religion; and but little acquainted with
their government. They seem to have chiefs among them; at least some
were pointed out to us by that title; but, as I before observed, they
appeared to have very little authority over the rest of the people. Old
Geogy was the only one the people were ever seen to take the least
notice of; but whether this was owing to high rank or old age I cannot
say. On several occasions I have seen the old men respected and obeyed.
Our friend Paowang was so; and yet I never heard him called chief, and
have many reasons to believe that he had not a right to any more
authority than many of his neighbours, and few, if any, were bound to
obey him, or any other person in our neighbourhood; for if there had
been such a one, we certainly should, by some means, have known it. I
named the harbour Port Resolution, after the ship, she being the first
which ever entered it. It is situated on the north side of the most
eastern point of the island, and about E. N. E. from the volcano; in the
latitude of 19° 32ʹ 25ʺ 1/2 South, and in the longitude of 169° 44ʹ 35ʺ
East. It is no more than a little creek running in S. by W. 1/2 W. three
quarters of a mile, and is about half that in breadth. A shoal of sand
and rocks lying on the east side makes it still narrower. The depth of
water in the harbour is from six to three fathoms, and the bottom is
sand and mud. No place can be more convenient for taking in wood and
water; for both are close to the shore. The water stunk a little after
it had been a few days on board, but it afterwards turned sweet; and,
even when it was at the worst, the tin machine would, in a few hours,
recover a whole cask. This is an excellent contrivance for sweetening
water at sea, and is well known in the navy.

Mr. Wales, from whom I had the latitude and longitude, found the
variation of the needle to be 7° 14ʹ 12ʺ East, and the dip of its south
end 45° 2-1/3ʹ. He also observed the time of high water, on the full and
change days; to be about 5 h. 45m., and the tide to rise and fall three
feet.



                               CHAP. VII.

 THE SURVEY OF THE ISLANDS CONTINUED, AND A MORE PARTICULAR DESCRIPTION
                                OF THEM.


As soon as the boats were hoisted in, we made sail, and stretched to the
eastward, with a fresh gale at S. E., in order to have a nearer view of
Erronan, and to see if there was any land in its neighbourhood. We stood
on till midnight, when, having passed the island, we tacked, and spent
the remainder of the night making two boards. At sunrise on the 21st, we
stood to S. W. in order to get to the south of Tanna, and nearer to
Annattom, to observe if any more land lay in that direction; for an
extraordinary clear morning had produced no discovery of any to the
east. At noon having observed in latitude 20° 33ʹ 30ʺ, the situation of
the lands around us was as follows. Port Resolution bore 86° West,
distant six and a half leagues; the island of Tanna extended from S. 88°
West, to N. 64° West; Traitor’s Head N. 58° West, distant twenty
leagues; the island of Erronan N. 86° East, distant five leagues; and
Annattom from S. 1/2 E. to S 1/2 W. distant ten leagues. We continued to
stretch to the south till two o’clock P. M. when, seeing no more land
before us, we bore up round the S. E. end of Tanna; and, with a fine
gale at E. S. E. ran along the south coast at one league from shore. It
seemed a bold one, without the guard of any rocks; and the country full
as fertile as in the neighbourhood of the harbour, and making a fine
appearance. At six o’clock the high land of Erromango appeared over the
west end of Tanna in the direction of N. 16° West; at eight o’clock we
were past the island, and steered N. N. W. for Sandwich Island, in order
to finish the survey[7] of it, and of the isles to the N. W. On the 22d,
at four o’clock P. M., we drew near the S. E. end, and ranging the south
coast, found it to trend in the direction of West and W. N. W. for about
nine leagues. Near the middle of this length, and close to the shore,
are three or four small isles, behind which seemed to be a safe
anchorage. But not thinking I had any time to spare to visit this fine
island, I continued to range the coast to its western extremity, and
then steered N. N. W. for the S. E. end of Mallicollo, which, at half
past six o’clock next morning, bore N. 14° East, distant seven or eight
leagues, and Three-Hills Island S. 82° East. Soon after, we saw the
islands Apee, Paoom, and Ambrym. What we had comprehended under the name
of Paoom appeared now to be two isles, something like a separation being
seen between the hill and the land to the west of it. We approached the
S. W. side of Mallicollo to within half a league, and ranged it at that
distance. From the S. E. point, the direction of the land is west, a
little southerly, for six or seven leagues, and then N. W. by W. three
leagues, to a pretty high point or head-land, situated in latitude 16°
29ʹ, and which obtained the name of South-West Cape. The coast, which is
low, seemed to be indented into creeks and projecting points; or else,
these points were small isles lying under the shore. We were sure of
one, which lies between two and three leagues east of the Cape. Close to
the west side or point of the Cape lies, connected with it by breakers,
a round rock or islet, which helps to shelter a fine bay, formed by an
elbow in the coast, from the reigning winds.

The natives appeared in troops on many parts of the shore, and some
seemed desirous to come off to us in canoes; but they did not; and,
probably, our not shortening sail was the reason. From the South-West
Cape, the direction of the coast is N. by W., but the most advanced land
bore from it N. W. by N. at which the land seemed to terminate.
Continuing to follow the direction of the coast, at noon it was two
miles from us; and our latitude, by observation, was 16° 22ʹ 30ʺ South.
This is nearly the parallel to Port Sandwich, and our never-failing
guide, the watch, showed that we were 26ʹ W. of it; a distance which the
breadth of Mallicollo cannot exceed in this parallel. The South-West
Cape bore S. 26° East, distant seven miles; and the most advanced point
of land, for which we steered, bore N. W. by N. At three o’clock, we
were the length of it, and found the land continued, and trending more
and more to the north. We coasted it to its northern extremity, which we
did not reach till after dark, at which time we were near enough the
shore to hear the voices of people, who were assembled round a fire they
had made on the beach. There we sounded, and found twenty fathoms and a
bottom of sand; but, on edging off from the shore, we soon got out of
sounding, and then made a trip back to the south till the moon got up.
After this we stood again to the north, hauled round the point, and
spent the night in Bougainville’s passage; being assured of our
situation before sunset, by seeing the land, on the north side of the
passage, extending as far as N. W. 1/2 W.

The south coast of Mallicollo, from the S. E. end to the S. W. Cape, is
luxuriantly clothed with wood, and other productions of nature, from the
sea-shore to the very summits of the hills. To the N. W. of the Cape the
country is less woody, but more agreeably interspersed with lawns, some
of which appeared to be cultivated. The summits of the hills seemed
barren; and the highest lies between Port Sandwich and the S. W. Cape.
Farther north, the land falls insensibly lower, and is less covered with
wood. I believe it is a very fertile island, and well inhabited; for we
saw smoke by day, and fire by night, in all parts of it.

Next morning at sunrise, we found ourselves nearly in the middle of the
passage, the N. W. end of Mallicollo extending from S. 30° East, to S.
58° West; the land to the north from N. 70° West, to N. 4° East; and the
Isle of Lepers bearing N. 30° East, distant eleven or twelve leagues. We
now made sail, and steered N. by E., and afterwards north, along the
east coast of the northern land, with a fine breeze at S. E. We found
that this coast, which at first appeared to be continued, was composed
of several low woody isles, the most of them of small extent, except the
southernmost, which, on account of the day, I named St. Bartholomew. It
is six or seven leagues in circuit, and makes the N. E. point of
Bougainville’s Passage. At noon the breeze began to slacken. We were, at
this time, between two and three miles from the land, and observed, in
latitude 15° 23ʹ, the Isle of Lepers bearing from E. by N. to E. by S.,
distant seven leagues; and an high bluff-head, at which the coast we
were upon seemed to terminate, N. N. W. 1/2 W., distant ten or eleven
leagues; but from the mast-head we could see land to the east. This we
judged to be an island, and it bore N. by W. 1/2 W.

As we advanced to N. N. W. along a fine coast, covered with woods, we
perceived low land that extended off from the bluff-head towards the
island above mentioned, but did not seem to join it. It was my intention
to have gone through the channel, but the approach of night made me lay
it aside, and steer without the island. During the afternoon we passed
some small isles lying under the shore; and observed some projecting
points of unequal height, but were not able to determine whether or no
they were connected with the main land. Behind them was a ridge of hills
which terminated at the bluff-head. There were cliffs, in some places of
the coast, and white patches, which we judged to be chalk. At ten
o’clock, being the length of the isle which lies off the head, we
shortened sail, and spent the night making short boards.

At day-break, on the 25th, we were on the north side of the island
(which is of a moderate height, and three leagues in circuit), and
steered west for the bluff-head along the low land under it. At sun-rise
an elevated coast came in sight beyond the bluff-head, extending to the
north as far as N. W. by W. After doubling the head we found the land to
trend south, a little easterly, and to form a large, deep bay, bounded
on the west by the coast just mentioned.

Every thing conspired to make us believe this was the bay of St. Philip
and St. Jago, discovered by Quiros in 1606. To determine this point it
was necessary to proceed farther up; for at this time we saw no end to
it. The wind being at south, we were obliged to ply, and first stretched
over for the west shore, from which we were three miles at noon, when
our latitude was 14° 55ʹ 30ʺ South, longitude 167° 3ʹ East; the mouth of
the bay extending from N. 64° West to S. 86° East, which last direction
was the bluff-head, distant three leagues. In the afternoon, the wind
veering to E. S. E., we could look up to the head of the bay; but as the
breeze was faint, a N. E. swell hurled us over to the west shore; so
that, at half past four o’clock P. M, we were no more than two miles
from it, and tacked in one hundred and twenty fathoms water, a soft
muddy bottom. The bluff-head, or east point of the bay, bore N. 53°
East.

We had no sooner tacked than it fell calm, and we were left to the mercy
of the swell, which continued to hurtle us towards the shore, where
large troops of people were assembled. Some ventured off in two canoes;
but all the signs of friendship we could make, did not induce them to
come along-side, or near enough to receive any present from us. At last
they took sudden fright at something, and returned ashore. They were
naked, except having some long grass, like flags, fastened to a belt,
and hanging down before and behind, nearly as low as the knee. Their
colour was very dark, and their hair woolly; or cut short, which made it
seem so. The canoes were small, and had out-riggers. The calm continued
till near eight o’clock, in which time we drove into eighty-five fathoms
water, and so near the shore, that I expected we should be obliged to
anchor. A breeze of wind sprung up at E. S. E., and first took us on the
wrong side; but, contrary to all our expectations, and when we had
hardly room to veer, the ship came about, and having filled on the
starboard tack, we stood off N. E. Thus we were relieved from the
apprehensions of being forced to anchor in a great depth, on a lee
shore, and in a dark and obscure night.

We continued to ply upwards, with variable light breezes between
E. S. E. and S., till ten next morning, when it fell calm. We were, at
this time, about seven or eight miles from the head of the bay, which is
terminated by a low beach; and behind that is an extensive flat covered
with wood, and bounded on each side by a ridge of mountains. At noon we
found the latitude to be 15° 5ʹ South, and were detained here by the
calm till one o’clock P. M., when we got a breeze at N. by W., with
which we steered up to within two miles of the head of the bay; and then
I sent Mr. Cooper and Mr. Gilbert to sound and reconnoitre the coast,
while we stood to and fro with the ship. This gave time to three sailing
canoes, which had been following us some time, to come up. There were
five or six men in each; and they approached near enough to receive such
things as were thrown to them fastened to a rope, but would not advance
along-side. They were the same sort of people as those we had seen the
preceding evening; indeed we thought they came from the same place. They
seemed to be stouter and better shaped men than those of Mallicollo; and
several circumstances concurred to make us think they were of another
nation. They named the numerals as far as five or six, in the language
of Anamocka, and understood us when we asked the names of the adjacent
lands in that language. Some, indeed, had black short frizzled hair,
like the natives of Mallicollo; but others had it long, tied up on the
crown of the head, and ornamented with feathers, like the New
Zealanders. Their other ornaments were bracelets and necklaces; one man
had something like a white shell on his forehead; and some were painted
with a blackish pigment. I did not see that they had any other weapon
but darts and gigs, intended only for striking of fish. Their canoes
were much like those of Tanna, and navigated in the same manner, or
nearly so. They readily gave us the names of such parts as we pointed
to: but we could not obtain from them the name of the island. At length,
seeing our boats coming, they paddled in for the shore, notwithstanding
all we could say or do to detain them.

When the boats returned, Mr. Cooper informed me, that they had landed on
the beach which is at the head of the bay, near a fine river, or stream
of fresh water, so large and deep, that they judged boats might enter it
at high water. They found three fathoms depth close to the beach, and
fifty-five and fifty, two cables’ length off. Farther out they did not
sound; and where we were with the ship we had no soundings with an
hundred and seventy fathoms line. Before the boats got on board, the
wind had shifted to S. S. E. As we were in want of nothing, and had no
time to spare, I took the advantage of this shift of wind, and steered
down the bay. During the fore-part of the night, the country was
illuminated with fires, from the sea-shore to the summits of the
mountains; but this was only on the west side of the shore. I cannot
pretend to say what was the occasion of these fires, but have no idea of
their being on our account. Probably they were burning or clearing the
ground for new plantations. At day-break, on the 27th, we found
ourselves two-thirds down the bay; and, as we had but little wind, it
was noon before we were the length of the N. W. point, which at this
time bore N. 82° West, distant five miles. Latitude observed, 14° 39ʹ
30ʺ.

Some of our gentlemen were doubtful of this being the bay of St. Philip
and St. Jago, as there was no place which they thought could mean the
port of Vera Cruz. For my part, I found general points to agree so well
with Quiros’s description, that I had not the least doubt about it. As
to what he calls the port of Vera Cruz, I understand that to be the
anchorage at the head of the bay, which in some places may extend
farther off than where our boats landed. There is nothing in his account
of the port which contradicts this supposition.[8] It was but natural
for his people to give a name to the place, independent of so large a
bay, where they lay so long at anchor. A port is a vague term, like many
others in geography, and has been very often applied to places far less
sheltered than this.

Our officers observed that grass and other plants grew on the beach
close to high-water mark; which is always a sure sign of pacific
anchorage, and an undeniable proof that there never is a great surf on
the shore. They judged that the tide rose about four or five feet, and
that boats and such craft might, at high water, enter the river, which
seemed to be pretty deep and broad within; so that this, probably, is
one of those mentioned by Quiros; and, if we were not deceived, we saw
the other.

The bay hath twenty leagues sea-coast; six on the east side, which lies
in the direction of S. 1/2 West and N. 1/2 East; two at the head, and
twelve on the west side, the direction of which is S. by E. and N. by W.
from the head down to two-thirds of its length, and then N. W. by N. to
the N. W. point. The two points which form the entrance lie in the
direction of S. 53° East, and N. 53° West, from each other distant ten
leagues. The bay is every where free from danger, and of unfathomable
depth, except near the shores, which are for the most part low. This,
however, is only a very narrow strip between the sea-shore and the foot
of the hills; for the bay, as well as the flat land at the head of it,
is bounded on each side by a ridge of hills, one of which, that to the
west, is very high and double, extending the whole length of the island.
An uncommonly luxuriant vegetation was every where to be seen; the sides
of the hills were chequered with plantations, and every valley watered
by a stream. Of all the productions of nature this country was adorned
with, the cocoa-nut trees were the most conspicuous. The columns of
smoke we saw by day, and the fires by night, all over the country, led
us to believe that it is well inhabited and very fertile. The east point
of this bay, which I name Cape Quiros, in memory of its first
discoverer, is situated in latitude 14° 56ʹ South, longitude 167° 13ʹ
East. The N. W. point, which I named Cape Cumberland, in honour of his
Royal Highness the Duke, lies in the latitude of 14° 38ʹ 45ʺ South,
longitude 166° 49-1/2ʹ East, and is the N. W. extremity of this
archipelago; for, after doubling it, we found the coast to trend
gradually round to the S. and S. S. E.

On the 28th and 29th we had light airs and calms, so that we advanced
but little. In this time we took every opportunity, when the horizon was
clearer than usual, to look out for more land; but none was seen. By
Quiros’s track to the north, after leaving the bay above mentioned, it
seems probable that there is none nearer than Queen Charlotte’s Island,
discovered by Captain Carteret, which lies about ninety leagues N. N. W.
from Cape Cumberland, and I take to be the same with Quiros’s Santa
Cruz.

On the 30th the calm was succeeded by a fresh breeze at S. S. E., which
enabled us to ply up the coast. At noon we observed in 15° 20ʹ;
afterwards we stretched in east, to within a mile of the shore, and then
tacked, in seventy-five fathoms, before a sandy flat, on which several
of the natives made their appearance. We observed, on the sides of the
hills, several plantations that were laid out by line, and fenced round.

On the 31st, at noon, the S. or S. W. point of the island bore N. 62°
East, distant four leagues. This forms the N. W. point of what I call
Bougainville’s Passage; the N. E. point, at this time, bore N. 85° East,
and the N. W. end of Mollicollo from S. 54° East to S. 72° East.
Latitude observed, 15° 45ʹ S. In the afternoon, in stretching to the
east, we weathered the S. W. point of the island, from which the coast
trends east northerly. It is low, and seemed to form some creeks or
coves; and, as we got farther into the passage, we perceived some small
low isles lying along it, which seemed to extend behind St. Bartholomew
Island.

Having now finished the survey of the whole archipelago, the season of
the year made it necessary for me to return to the south, while I had
yet some time left to explore any land I might meet with between this
and New Zealand; where I intended to touch, that I might refresh my
people, and recruit our stock of wood and water for another southern
course. With this view, at five P. M. we tacked, and hauled to the
southward, with a fresh gale at S. E. At this time the N. W. point of
the passage, or the S. W. point of the island Tierra del Espiritu Santo,
the only remains of Quiros’s continent, bore N. 82° West, distant three
leagues. I named it Cape Lisburne, and its situation is in latitude 15°
40ʹ, longitude 165° 59ʹ East.

The foregoing account of these islands, in the order in which we
explored them, not being particular enough either as to situation or
description, it may not be improper now to give a more accurate view of
them, which, with the annexed chart, will convey to the reader a better
idea of the whole group.

The northern islands of this archipelago were first discovered by that
great navigator, Quiros, in 1606; and, not without reason, were
considered as part of the southern continent, which, at that time, and
until very lately, was supposed to exist. They were next visited by M.
de Bougainville, in 1768; who, besides landing on the Isle of Lepers,
did no more than discover that the land was not connected, but composed
of islands, which he called the Great Cyclades. But as, besides
ascertaining the extent and situation of these islands, we added to them
several new ones which were not known before, and explored the whole, I
think we have obtained a right to name them; and shall in future
distinguish them by the name of the New Hebrides. They are situated
between the latitude of 14° 29ʹ and 20° 4ʹ South, and between 166° 41ʹ
and 170° 21ʹ East longitude, and extend an hundred and twenty-five
leagues in the direction of N. N. W. 1/2 West, and S. S. E. 1/2 East.

The most northern island is that called by M. de Bougainville Peak of
the Etoile. It is situated, according to his account, in latitude 14°
29ʹ, longitude 168° 9ʹ; and, N. by W., eight leagues from Aurora.

The next island, which lies farthest north, is that of Tierra del
Espiritu Santo. It is the most western and largest of all the Hebrides,
being twenty-two leagues long, in the direction of N. N. W. 1/2 West,
and S. S. E. 1/2 East, twelve in breadth, and sixty in circuit. We have
obtained the true figure of this island very accurately. The land of it,
especially the west side, is exceedingly high and mountainous; and, in
many places, the hills rise directly from the sea. Except the cliffs and
beaches, every other part is covered with wood, or laid out in
plantations. Besides the bay of St. Philip and St. Jago, the isles which
lie along the south and east coast, cannot, in my opinion, fail of
forming some good bays or harbours.

The next considerable island is that of Mallicollo, to the S. E. It
extends N. W. and S. E., and is eighteen leagues long in that direction.
Its greatest breadth, which is at the S. E. end, is eight leagues. The
N. W. end is two-thirds this breadth; and nearer the middle, one-third.
This contraction is occasioned by a wide and pretty deep bay on the
S. W. side. To judge of this island from what we saw of it, it must be
very fertile and well inhabited. The land on the sea-coast is rather
low, and lies with a gentle slope from the hills which are in the middle
of the island. Two-thirds of the N. E. coast was only seen at a great
distance; therefore the delineations of it on the chart can have no
pretensions to accuracy; but the other parts, I apprehend, are without
any material errors.

St. Bartholomew lies between the S. E. end of Tierra del Espiritu Santo,
and the north end of Mallicollo; and the distance between it and the
latter is eight miles. This is the passage through which M. de
Bougainville went; and the middle of it is in latitude 15° 48ʹ.

The Isle of Lepers lies between Espiritu Santo and Aurora Island, eight
leagues from the former, and three from the latter, in latitude 15° 22ʹ,
and nearly under the same meridian as the S. E. end of Mallicollo. It is
of an egg-like figure, very high, and eighteen or twenty leagues in
circuit. Its limits were determined by several bearings; but the lines
of the shore were traced out by guess, except the N. E. part, where is
anchorage half a mile from the land.

Aurora, Whitsuntide, Ambrym, Paoom, and its neighbour Apee, Threehills,
and Sandwich Islands, lie all nearly under the meridian of 167° 29ʹ or
30ʹ East, extending from the latitude of 14° 51ʹ 30ʺ, to 17° 53ʹ 30ʺ.

The island of Aurora lies N. by W. and S. by E., and is eleven leagues
long in that direction; but I believe it hardly any where exceeds two or
two and a half in breadth. It hath a good height, its surface hilly, and
every where covered with wood, except where the natives have their
dwellings and plantations.

Whitsuntide Isle, which is one league and a half to the south of Aurora,
is of the same length, and lies in the direction of north and south, but
is something broader than Aurora Island. It is considerably high, and
clothed with wood, except such parts as seemed to be cultivated, which
were pretty numerous.

From the south end of Whitsuntide Island to the north side of Ambrym is
two leagues and an half. This is about seventeen leagues in circuit; its
shores are rather low, but the land rises with an unequal ascent to a
tolerably high mountain in the middle of the island, from which ascended
great columns of smoke; but we were not able to determine whether this
was occasioned by a volcano or not. That it is fertile and well
inhabited seems probable from the quantities of smoke which we saw rise
out of the woods, in such parts of the island as came within the compass
of our sight; for it must be observed, that we did not see the whole of
it.

We saw still much less of Paoom, and its neighbourhood. I can say no
more of this island than that it towers up to a great height, in the
form of a round hay-stack; and the extent of it, and of the adjoining
isle (if there are two) cannot exceed three or four leagues in any
direction; for the distance between Ambrym and Apee is hardly five; and
they lie in this space, and east from Port Sandwich, distant about seven
or eight leagues.

The island of Apee is not less than twenty leagues in circuit; its
longest direction is about eight leagues N. W. and S. E.; it is of
considerable height, and hath a hilly surface, diversified with woods
and lawns, the west and south parts especially; for the others we did
not see.

Shepherd’s Isles are a group of small ones of unequal size, extending
off from the S. E. point of Apee about five leagues, in the direction of
S. E.

The island Threehills lies south four leagues from the coast of Apee,
and S. E. 1/2 S., distant seventeen leagues, from Port Sandwich: to
this, and what has been already said of it, I shall only add, that W. by
N., five miles from the west point, is a reef of rocks on which the sea
continually breaks.

Nine leagues, in the direction of south, from Threehills, lies Sandwich
Island. Twohills, the Monument, and Montagu Islands, lie to the east of
this line, and Hinchinbrook to the west, as also two or three small
isles which lie between it and Sandwich Island, to which they are
connected by breakers.

Sandwich Island is twenty-five leagues in circuit; its greatest extent
is ten leagues; and it lies in the direction of N. W. by W. and S. E. by
E. The N. W. coast of this island we only viewed at a distance;
therefore the chart in this part may be faulty, so far as it regards the
line of the coast, but no farther. The distance from the south end of
Mallicollo to the N. W. end of Sandwich Island is twenty-two leagues in
the direction of S. S. E. 1/2 E.

In the same direction lie Erromango, Tanna, and Annattom. The first is
18 leagues from Sandwich Island, and is twenty-four or twenty-five
leagues in circuit. The middle of it lies in the latitude of 18° 54ʹ,
longitude 169° 19ʹ E., and it is of a good height, as may be gathered
from the distance we were off when we first saw it.

Tanna lies six leagues from the south side of Erromango, extending S. E.
by S. and N. W. by N. about eight leagues long in that direction, and
every where about three or four leagues broad.

The Isle of Immer lies in the direction of N. by E. 1/2 E., four leagues
from Port Resolution in Tanna; and the island of Erronan or Footoona
east, in the same direction, distant eleven leagues. This, which is the
most eastern island of all the Hebrides, did not appear to be above five
leagues in circuit, but of a considerable height, and flat at top. On
the N. E. side is a little peak, seemingly disjoined from the isle, but
we thought it was connected by low land.

Annattom, which is the southernmost island, is situated in the latitude
of 20° 3ʹ, longitude 170° 4ʹ, and S. 30° East, eleven or twelve leagues
from Port Resolution. It is of a good height, with an hilly surface; and
more I must not say of it.

Here follows the lunar observations by Mr. Wales, for ascertaining the
longitude of these islands, reduced by the watch to Port Sandwich in
Mallicollo, and Port Resolution in Tanna.

             {Mean of 10 sets of observ. before  167° 56ʹ 33ʺ 3/4 } E. Long.
             {         2 Ditto,          at      168   2  37  1/2 }
 PORT        {        20 Ditto,          after   167  52  57      }
 SANDWICH,   {                                  ------------------
             {Mean of those means,               167  57  22-3/4
                                                ------------------
             {Mean of 20 sets of observ. before  169  37  35      } E. Long.
 PORT        {         5 Ditto,          at      169  48  48      }
 RESOLUTION, {        20 Ditto,          after   169  47  22-1/2  }
             {                                  ------------------
             {Mean of those means,               169  44  35
                                                ------------------

It is necessary to observe, that each set of observations, consisting of
between six and ten observed distances of the sun and moon, or moon and
stars, the whole number amounts to several hundreds; and these have been
reduced, by means of the watch, to all the islands; so that the
longitude of each is as well ascertained as that of the two ports
above-mentioned. As a proof of this I shall only observe, that the
longitude of the two ports, as pointed out by the watch and by the
observations, did not differ two miles. This also shows what degree of
accuracy these observations are capable of, when multiplied to a
considerable number, made with different instruments, and with the sun
and stars, or both sides of the moon. By this last method, the errors
which may be either in the instruments or lunar tables, destroy one
another, and likewise those which may arise from the observer himself;
for some men may observe closer than others. If we consider the number
of observations that may be obtained in the course of a month (if the
weather is favourable) we shall perhaps find this method of finding the
longitude of places as accurate as most others; at least it is the most
easy, and attended with the least expense to the observer. Every ship
that goes to foreign parts is, or may be, supplied with a sufficient
number of quadrants at a small expense; I mean good ones, proper for
making these observations. For the difference of the price between a
good and bad one, I apprehend, can never be an object with an officer.
The most expensive article, and what is in some measure necessary in
order to arrive at the utmost accuracy, is a good watch; but for common
use, and where that strict accuracy is not required, this may be
dispensed with. I have observed before, in this journal, that this
method of finding the longitude is not so difficult but that any man,
with proper application, and a little practice, may soon learn to make
these observations as well as the astronomers themselves. I have seldom
known any material difference between the observations made by Mr.
Wales, and those made by the officers at the same time.[9]

In observing the variation of the magnetic needle, we found, as usual,
our compasses differ among themselves, sometimes near 2°; the same
compass, too, would sometimes make nearly this difference in the
variation on different days, and even between the morning and evening of
the same day, when our change of situation has been but very little. By
the mean of the observations which I made about Erromango, and the S. E.
part of these islands, the variation of the compass was 10° 5ʹ 48ʺ East;
and the mean of those made about Tierra del Espiritu Santo, gave 10° 5ʹ
30ʺ East. This is considerably more than Mr. Wales found it to be at
Tanna. I cannot say what might occasion this difference in the variation
observed at sea and on shore, unless it be influenced by the land; for I
must give the preference to that found at sea, as it is agreeable to
what we observed before we made the islands, and after we left them.



                              CHAP. VIII.

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF NEW CALEDONIA, AND THE INCIDENTS THAT
                 HAPPENED WHILE THE SHIP LAY IN BALADE.


At sun-rise on the 1st of September, after having stood to S. W. all
night, no more land was to be seen. The wind remaining in the S. E.
quarter, we continued to stand to S. W. On the 2d, at five o’clock
P. M., being in the latitude 18° 22ʹ, longitude 165° 26ʹ, the variation
was 10° 50ʹ East; and at the same hour on the 3d, it was 10° 51ʹ,
latitude at that time 19° 14ʹ, longitude 165° East. The next morning, in
the latitude of 19° 49ʹ, longitude 164° 53ʹ, the amplitude gave 10° 21ʹ,
and the azimuths 10° 7ʹ East. At eight o’clock, as we were steering to
the south, land was discovered bearing S. S. W., and at noon it extended
from S. S. E. to W. by S., distant about six leagues. We continued to
steer for it with a light breeze at east, till five in the evening, when
we were stopped by a calm. At this time we were three leagues from the
land, which extended from S. E. by S. to W. by N. round by the S. W.
Some openings appeared in the west, so that we could not tell whether it
was one connected land or a group of islands. To the S. E. the coast
seemed to terminate in a high promontory, which I named Cape Colnett,
after one of my midshipmen, who first discovered this land. Breakers
were seen about half-way between us and the shore; and, behind them, two
or three canoes under sail, standing out to sea, as if their design had
been to come off to us; but a little before sun-set they struck their
sails, and we saw them no more. After a few hours’ calm, we got a breeze
at S. E., and spent the night standing off and on.

On the 5th, at sun-rise, the horizon being clear, we could see the coast
extend to the S. E. of Cape Colnett, and round by the S. W. to N. W. by
W. Some gaps or openings were yet to be seen to the west; and a reef, or
breakers, seemed to lie all along the coast, connected with those we
discovered the preceding night. It was a matter of indifference to me
whether we plied up the coast to the S. E. or bore down to N. W. I chose
the latter; and after running two leagues down the outside of the reef
(for such it proved), we came before an opening that had the appearance
of a good channel, through which we might go in for the land. I wanted
to get at it, not only to visit it, but also to have an opportunity to
observe an eclipse of the sun which was soon to happen. With this view
we brought to, hoisted out two armed boats, and sent them to sound the
channel, ten or twelve large sailing canoes being then near us. We had
observed them coming off from the shore, all the morning, from different
parts; and some were lying on the reef, fishing as we supposed. As soon
as they all got together, they came down to us in a body, and were
pretty near when we were hoisting out our boats, which probably gave
them some alarm; for, without stopping, they hauled in for the reef, and
our boats followed them. We now saw that what we had taken for openings
in the coast was low land, and that it was all connected, except the
western extremity, which was an island, known by the name of Balabea, as
we afterwards learnt.

The boats having made a signal for a channel, and one of them being
placed on the point of the reef, on the weather side of it, we stood in
with the ship, and took up the other boat in our way, when the officer
informed me, that where we were to pass, was sixteen and fourteen
fathoms water, a fine sandy bottom, and that, having put along-side two
canoes, he found the people very obliging and civil. They gave him some
fish; and, in return, he presented them with medals, &c. In one was a
stout robust young man, whom they understood to be a chief. After
getting within the reef, we hauled up S. 1/2 E. for a small low sandy
isle that we observed lying under the shore, being followed by all the
canoes. Our sounding, in standing in, was from fifteen to twelve
fathoms, (a pretty even fine sandy bottom,) for about two miles; then we
had six, five, and four fathoms. This was on the tail of a shoal which
lies a little without the small isle to the N. E. Being over it, we
found seven and eight fathoms water, which shallowed gradually, as we
approached the shore, to three fathoms, when we tacked, stood off a
little, and then anchored in five fathoms, the bottom a fine sand mixed
with mud. The little sandy isle bore E. by S. three quarters of a mile
distant; and we were one mile from the shore of the main, which extended
from S. E. by E. round by the south to W. N. W. The island of Balabea
bore N. W. by N., and the channel, through which we came, north, four
miles distant. In this situation we were extremely well sheltered from
the reigning winds, by the sandy isle and its shoals, and by the shoal
without them.

We had hardly got to an anchor before we were surrounded by a great
number of the natives, in sixteen or eighteen canoes, the most of whom
were without any sort of weapons. At first they were shy of coming near
the ship; but in a short time we prevailed on the people in one boat to
get close enough to receive some presents. These we lowered down to them
by a rope; to which, in return, they tied two fish that stunk
intolerably, as did those they gave us in the morning. These mutual
exchanges bringing on a kind of confidence, two ventured on board the
ship; and presently after she was filled with them, and we had the
company of several at dinner in the cabin. Our pea-soup, salt-beef, and
pork, they had no curiosity to taste; but they eat of some yams, which
we happened to have yet left, calling them _Oobee_. This name is not
unlike _Oofee_, as they are called at most of the islands, except
Mallicollo; nevertheless, we found these people spoke a language new to
us. Like all the nations we had lately seen, the men were almost naked,
having hardly any other covering but such a wrapper as is used at
Mallicollo.[10] They were curious in examining every part of the ship,
which they viewed with uncommon attention. They had not the least
knowledge of goats, hogs, dogs, or cats, and had not even a name for one
of them. They seemed fond of large spike-nails, and pieces of red cloth,
or indeed of any other colour; but red was their favourite.

[Illustration: _View in the Island of New Caledonia._]

After dinner I went on shore with two armed boats, having with us one of
the natives who had attached himself to me. We landed on a sandy beach
before a vast number of people, who had got together with no other
intent than to see us; for many of them had not a stick in their hands;
consequently we were received with great courtesy, and with the surprise
natural for people to express at seeing men and things so new to them as
we must be. I made presents to all those my friend pointed out, who were
either old men, or such as seemed to be of some note; but he took not
the least notice of some women who stood behind the crowd, holding my
hand when I was going to give them some beads and medals. Here we found
the same chief who had been seen in one of the canoes in the morning.
His name, we now learnt, was Teabooma; and we had not been on shore
above ten minutes, before he called for silence. Being instantly obeyed
by every individual present, he made a short speech; and soon after
another chief having called for silence, made a speech also. It was
pleasing to see with what attention they were heard. Their speeches were
composed of short sentences; to each of which two or three old men
answered, by nodding their heads, and giving a kind of grunt,
significant, as I thought, of approbation. It was impossible for us to
know the purport of these speeches; but we had reason to think they were
favourable to us, on whose account they doubtless were made. I kept my
eyes fixed on the people all the time, and saw nothing to induce me to
think otherwise. While we were with them, having inquired, by signs, for
fresh water, some pointed to the east, and others to the west. My friend
undertook to conduct us to it, and embarked with us for that purpose. We
rowed about two miles up the coast to the east, where the shore was
mostly covered with mangrove trees; and entering amongst them, by a
narrow creek or river, which brought us to a little straggling village
above all the mangroves, there we landed, and were shown fresh water.
The ground near this village was finely cultivated, being laid out in
plantations of sugar-canes, plantains, yams, and other roots; and
watered by little rills, conducted by art from the main stream, whose
source was in the hills. Here were some cocoa-nut trees, which did not
seem burdened with fruit. We heard the crowing of cocks, but saw none.
Some roots were baking on a fire, in an earthen jar, which would have
held six or eight gallons; nor did we doubt its being their own
manufacture. As we proceeded up the creek, Mr. Forster having shot a
duck flying over our heads, which was the first use these people saw
made of our fire-arms, my friend begged to have it; and when he landed,
told his countrymen in what manner it was killed. The day being far
spent, and the tide not permitting us to stay longer in the creek, we
took leave of the people, and got on board a little after sunset. From
this little excursion, I found that we were to expect nothing from these
people but the privilege of visiting their country undisturbed. For it
was easy to see they had little else than good-nature to bestow. In this
they exceeded all the nations we had yet met with; and, although it did
not satisfy the demands of nature, it at once pleased and left our minds
at ease.

Next morning we were visited by some hundreds of the natives; some
coming in canoes, and others swimming off; so that before ten o’clock,
our decks, and all other parts of the ship, were quite full with them.
My friend, who was of the number, brought me a few roots, but all the
others came empty in respect to eatables. Some few had with them their
arms, such as clubs and darts, which they exchanged for nails, pieces of
cloth, &c. After breakfast, I sent Lieutenant Pickersgill with two armed
boats to look for fresh water; for what we found the day before was by
no means convenient for us to get on board. At the same time, Mr. Wales,
accompanied by Lieutenant Clerke, went to the little isle to make
preparations for observing the eclipse of the sun, which was to be in
the afternoon. Mr. Pickersgill soon returning, informed me that he had
found a stream of fresh water, pretty convenient to come at. I therefore
ordered the launch to be hoisted out to complete our water, and then
went to the isle to assist in the observation.

About one P. M. the eclipse came on. Clouds interposed, and we lost the
first contact, but were more fortunate in the end, which was observed as
follows:

 By Mr. Wales with Dollond’s 3-1/2 foot achromatic                }
  refractor, at                                     3h 28ʹ 49-1/4ʺ}
 By Mr. Clerke with Bird’s 2 foot reflector,                      } Apparent
  at                                                3  28  52-1/4 } time
 And by me with an 18 inch reflector, made                        }
  by Watkins                                        3  28  53-1/4 }

Latitude of the isle or place of observation, 20° 17ʹ 39ʺ south.

Longitude per distance of the sun and moon, and moon and stars, 48 sets,
  164° 41ʹ 21ʺ east.

Ditto per watch 163 58 0

Mr. Wales measured the quantity eclipsed by a Hadley’s quadrant, a
method never before thought of. I am of opinion it answers the purpose
of a micrometer to a great degree of certainty, and is a great addition
to the use of this most valuable instrument. After all was over, we
returned on board, where I found Teabooma the chief, who soon after
slipped out of the ship without my knowledge, and by that means lost the
present I had made up for him.

In the evening I went ashore to the watering-place, which was at the
head of a little creek, at a fine stream that came from the hills. It
was necessary to have a small boat in the creek to convey the casks from
and to the beach over which they were rolled, and then put into the
launch; as only a small boat could enter the creek, and that only at
high water. Excellent wood for fuel was here far more convenient than
water, but this was an article we did not want. About seven o’clock this
evening, died Simon Monk, our butcher, a man much esteemed in the ship;
his death being occasioned by a fall down the fore-hatchway the
preceding night.

Early in the morning of the 7th, the watering-party, and a guard, under
the command of an officer, were sent ashore; and soon after, a party of
us went to take a view of the country. As soon as we landed, we made
known our design to the natives, and two of them undertaking to be our
guides, conducted us up the hills by a tolerably good path. In our route
we met several people, most of whom turned back with us; so that at last
our train was numerous. Some we met who wanted us to return; but we paid
no regard to their signs, nor did they seem uneasy when we proceeded. At
length we reached the summit of one of the hills, from which we saw the
sea in two places, between some advanced hills on the opposite or S. W.
side of the land. This was an useful discovery, as it enabled us to
judge of the breadth of the land, which, in this part, did not exceed
ten leagues.

Between those advanced hills and the ridge we were upon, was a large
valley, through which ran a serpentine river. On the banks of this were
several plantations, and some villages, whose inhabitants we had met on
the road, and found more on the top of the hill gazing at the ship, as
might be supposed. The plain or flat land, which lies along the shore we
were upon, appeared from the hills to a great advantage; the winding
streams which ran through it, the plantations, the little straggling
villages, the variety in the woods, and the shoals on the coast, so
variegating the scene, that the whole might afford a picture for
romance. Indeed, if it were not for those fertile spots on the plains,
and some few on the sides of the mountains, the whole country might be
called a dreary waste. The mountains and other high places are, for the
most part, incapable of cultivation, consisting chiefly of rocks, many
of which are full of mundicks. The little soil that is upon them is
scorched and burnt up with the sun; it is, nevertheless, coated with
coarse grass and other plants, and here and there trees and shrubs. The
country in general bore great resemblance to some parts of New Holland
under the same parallel of latitude, several of its natural productions
seeming to be the same, and the woods being without underwood, as in
that country. The reefs on the coast, and several other similarities,
were obvious to every one who had seen both countries. We observed all
the N. E. coast to be covered with shoals and breakers, extending to the
northward, beyond the isle of Balabea, till they were lost in the
horizon.—Having made these observations, and our guides not choosing to
go farther, we descended the mountains by a road different from that by
which we ascended. This brought us down through some of their
plantations in the plains, which, I observed, were laid out with great
judgment, and cultivated with much labour. Some of them were lying in
fallow; some seemingly lately laid down, and others of longer date,
pieces of which they were again beginning to dig up. The first thing I
observed they did, was to set fire to the grass, &c. which had over-run
the surface. Recruiting the land by letting it lie some years untouched,
is observed by all the nations in the sea; but they seem to have no
notion of manuring it, at least I have no where seen it done. Our
excursion was finished by noon, when we returned on board to dinner; and
one of our guides having left us, we brought the other with us, whose
fidelity was rewarded at a small expence.

In the afternoon I made a little excursion along shore to the westward,
in company with Mr. Wales. Besides making observations on such things as
we met, we got the names of several places, which I then thought were
islands; but upon farther enquiry, I found they were districts upon this
same land. This afternoon, a fish being struck by one of the natives
near the watering-place, my clerk purchased it, and sent it to me after
my return on board. It was of a new species, something like a sun-fish,
with a large, long, ugly head. Having no suspicion of its being of a
poisonous nature, we ordered it to be dressed for supper; but very
luckily, the operation of drawing and describing took up so much time,
that it was too late, so that only the liver and row were dressed, of
which the two Mr. Forsters and myself did but taste. About three o’clock
in the morning, we found ourselves seized with an extraordinary weakness
and numbness all over our limbs. I had almost lost the sense of feeling,
nor could I distinguish between light and heavy bodies, of such as I had
strength to move; a quart pot full of water and a feather being the same
in my hand. We each of us took an emetic, and after that a sweat, which
gave us much relief. In the morning, one of the pigs which had eaten the
entrails was found dead. When the natives came on board and saw the fish
hang up, they immediately gave us to understand it was not wholesome
food, and expressed the utmost abhorrence of it; though no one was
observed to do this when the fish was to be sold, or even after it was
purchased.

On the 8th, the guard and a party of men were on shore as usual. In the
afternoon I received a message from the officer, acquainting me that
Teabooma, the chief, was come with a present, consisting of a few yams
and sugar-canes. In return I sent him, amongst other articles, a dog and
a bitch, both young, but nearly full grown. The dog was red and white,
but the bitch was all red, or the colour of an English fox. I mention
this, because they may prove the Adam and Eve of their species in that
country. When the officer returned on board in the evening, he informed
me that the chief came attended by about twenty men, so that it looked
like a visit of ceremony. It was some time before he would believe the
dog and bitch were intended for him; but as soon as he was convinced, he
seemed lost in an excess of joy, and sent them away immediately.

Next morning early I dispatched Lieutenant Pickersgill and Mr. Gilbert,
with the launch and cutter, to explore the coast to the west; judging
this would be better effected in the boats than in the ship, as the
reefs would force the latter several leagues from land. After breakfast,
a party of men was sent ashore to make brooms; but myself and the two
Mr. Forsters were confined on board, though much better, a good sweat
having had a happy effect. In the afternoon, a man was seen, both ashore
and alongside the ship, said to be as white as any European. From the
account I had of him (for I did not see him) his whiteness did not
proceed from hereditary descent, but from chance or some disease; and
such have been seen at Otaheite, and the Society Isles.[11] A fresh
easterly wind, and the ship lying a mile from the shore, did not hinder
these good-natured people from swimming off to us in shoals of twenty or
thirty, and returning the same way.

On the 10th, a party was on shore as usual; and Mr. Forster so well
recovered as to go out botanizing.

In the evening of the 11th the boats returned, when I was informed of
the following circumstances. From an elevation, which they reached the
morning they set out, they had a view of the coast. Mr. Gilbert was of
opinion, that they saw the termination of it to the west, but Mr.
Pickersgill thought not; though both agreed that there was no passage
for the ship that way. From this place, accompanied by two of the
natives, they went to Balabea, which they did not reach till after
sun-set, and left again next morning before sun-rise; consequently this
was a fruitless expedition, and the two following days were spent in
getting up to the ship. As they went down to the isle, they saw
abundance of turtle but the violence of the wind and sea made it
impossible to strike any. The cutter was near being lost, by suddenly
filling with water, which obliged them to throw several things
overboard, before they could free her and stop the leak she had sprung.
From a fishing canoe, which they met coming in from the reefs, they got
as much fish as they could eat; and they were received by Teabi, the
chief of the isle of Balabea, and the people, who came in numbers to see
them, with great courtesy. In order not to be too much crowded, our
people drew a line on the ground, and gave the others to understand they
were not to come within it. This restriction they observed, and one of
them, soon after, turned it to his own advantage. For happening to have
a few cocoa-nuts, which one of our people wanted to buy, and he was
unwilling to part with, he walked off, and was followed by the man who
wanted them. On seeing this he sat down on the sand, made a circle round
him, as he had seen our people do, and signified that the other was not
to come within it; which was accordingly observed. As this story was
well attested, I thought it not unworthy of a place in this journal.

Early in the morning of the 12th, I ordered the carpenter to work, to
repair the cutter, and the water to be replaced which we had expended
the three preceding days. As Teabooma, the chief, had not been seen
since he got the dogs, and I wanted to lay a foundation for stocking the
country with hogs also, I took a young boar and sow with me in the boat,
and went up the mangrove creek to look for my friend, in order to give
them to him. But when we arrived there, we were told that he lived at
some distance, and that they would send for him. Whether they did or no,
I cannot say; but he not coming, I resolved to give them to the first
man of note I met with. The guide we had to the hills happening to be
there, I made him understand, that I intended to leave the two pigs on
shore, and ordered them out of the boat for that purpose. I offered them
to a grave old man, thinking he was a proper person to intrust them
with; but he shook his head, and he, and all present, made signs to take
them into the boat again. When they saw I did not comply, they seemed to
consult with one another what was to be done; and then our guide told me
to carry them to the _Alekee_ (chief). Accordingly I ordered them to be
taken up, and we were conducted by him to a house wherein were seated,
in a circle, eight or ten middle-aged persons. To them I and my pigs
being introduced, with great courtesy they desired me to sit down; and
then I began to expatiate on the merits of the two pigs, explaining to
them how many young ones the female would have at one time, and how soon
these would multiply to some hundreds. My only motive was to enhance
their value, that they might take the more care of them; and I had
reason to think I, in some measure, succeeded. In the mean time, two men
having left the company, soon returned with six yams, which were
presented to me; and then I took leave and went on board.

I have already observed, that here was a little village; I now found it
much larger than I expected; and, about it, a good deal of cultivated
land, regularly laid out, planted and planting with taro or eddy root,
yams, sugar-canes, and plantains. The taro plantations were prettily
watered by little rills, continually supplied from the main channel at
the foot of the mountains, from whence these streams were conducted in
artful meanders. They have two methods of planting these roots, some are
in square or oblong patches, which lie perfectly horizontal, and sink
below the common level of the adjacent land; so that they can let in on
them as much water as they think necessary. I have generally seen them
covered two or three inches deep; but I do not know that this is always
necessary. Others are planted in ridges about three or four feet broad,
and two, or two and a half high. On the middle or top of the ridge is a
narrow gutter, in and along which is conveyed, as above described, a
little rill that waters the roots planted in the ridge, on each side of
it; and these plantations are so judiciously laid out, that the same
stream waters several ridges. These ridges are sometimes the divisions
to the horizontal plantations; and when this method is used, which is
for the most part observed where a pathway or something of that sort is
requisite, not an inch of ground is lost. Perhaps there may be some
difference in the roots, which may make these two methods of raising
them necessary. Some are better tasted than others, and they are not all
of a colour. But be this as it may, they are a very wholesome food, and
the tops make good greens, and are eaten as such by the natives. On
these plantations, men, women, and children were employed.

In the afternoon I went on shore, and, on a large tree, which stood
close to the shore, near the watering place, had an inscription cut,
setting forth the ship’s name, date, &c. as a testimony of our being the
first discoverers of this country, as I had done at all others at which
we had touched, where this ceremony was necessary. This being done, we
took leave of our friends, and returned on board; when I ordered all the
boats to be hoisted in, in order to be ready to put to sea in the
morning.



                               CHAP. IX.

    A DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY AND ITS INHABITANTS; THEIR MANNERS,
                           CUSTOMS, AND ARTS.


I shall conclude our transactions at this place with some account of the
country and its inhabitants. They are strong, robust, active, well-made
people, courteous and friendly, and not in the least addicted to
pilfering, which is more than can be said of any other nation in this
sea. They are nearly of the same colour as the natives of Tanna, but
have better features, more agreeable countenances, and are a much
stouter race; a few being seen who measured six feet four inches. I
observed some who had thick lips, flat noses, and full cheeks, and, in
some degree, the features and look of a negro. Two things contributed to
the forming of such an idea; first, their ruff mop heads; and secondly,
their besmearing their faces with black pigment. Their hair and beards
are, in general, black. The former is very much frizzled; so that, at
first sight, it appears like that of a negro. It is, nevertheless, very
different; though both coarser and stronger than ours. Some, who wear it
long, tie it up on the crown of the head; others suffer only a large
lock to grow on each side, which they tie up in clubs; many others, as
well as all the women, wear it cropped short. These rough heads, most
probably, want frequent scratching, for which purpose they have a most
excellent instrument. This is a kind of comb made of sticks of hard
wood, from seven to nine inches long, and about the thickness of
knitting needles. A number of these, seldom exceeding twenty, but
generally fewer, are fastened together at one end, parallel to, and near
1/10th of an inch from each other. The other ends, which are a little
pointed, will spread out or open like the sticks of a fan, by which
means they can beat up the quarters of an hundred lice at a time. These
combs or scratchers, for I believe they serve both purposes, they always
wear in their hair, on one side their head. The people of Tanna have an
instrument of this kind, for the same use; but theirs is forked, I think
never exceeding three or four prongs; and sometimes only a small pointed
stick. Their beards, which are of the same crisp nature as their hair,
are, for the most part, worn short. Swelled and ulcerated legs and feet
are common among the men; as also a swelling of the scrotum. I know not
whether this is occasioned by disease, or by the mode of applying the
wrapper before mentioned, and which they use as at Tanna and Mallicollo.
This is their only covering, and is made generally of the bark of a
tree, but sometimes of leaves. The small pieces of cloth, paper, &c.
which they got from us, were commonly applied to this use. We saw coarse
garments amongst them, made of a sort of matting, but they seemed never
to wear them, except when out in their canoes and unemployed. Some had a
kind of concave, cylindrical, stiff black cap, which appeared to be a
great ornament among them, and, we thought, was only worn by men of
note, or warriors. A large sheet of strong paper, when they got one from
us, was generally applied to this use.

The women’s dress is a short petticoat, made of the filaments of the
plantain tree, laid over a cord, to which they are fastened, and tied
round the waist. The petticoat is made at least six or eight inches
thick, but not one inch longer than necessary for the use designed. The
outer filaments are dyed black; and, as an additional ornament, the most
of them have a few pearl oyster-shells fixed on the right side. The
general ornaments of both sexes, are ear-rings of tortoise-shell,
necklaces or amulets, made both of shells and stones, and bracelets,
made of large shells, which they wear above the elbow. They have
punctures, or marks on the skin, on several parts of the body; but none,
I think, are black, as at the eastern islands. I know not if they have
any other design than ornament; and the people of Tanna are marked much
in the same manner.

Were I to judge of the origin of this nation, I should take them to be a
race between the people of Tanna and of the Friendly Isles; or between
those of Tanna and the New Zealanders, or all three; their language, in
some respects, being a mixture of them all. In their disposition they
are like the natives of the Friendly Isles, but in affability and
honesty they excel them.

Notwithstanding their pacific inclination, they must sometimes have
wars, as they are well provided with offensive weapons; such as clubs,
spears, darts, and slings for throwing stones. The clubs are about two
feet and a half long, and variously formed; some like a scythe, others
like a pick-axe; some have a head like an hawk, and others have round
heads; but all are neatly made. Many of their darts and spears are no
less neat, and ornamented with carvings. The slings are as simple as
possible; but they take some pains to form the stones that they use into
a proper shape; which is something like an egg, supposing both ends to
be like the small one. They use a becket, in the same manner as at
Tanna, in throwing the dart, which, I believe, is much used in striking
fish, &c. In this they seem very dexterous; nor, indeed, do I know that
they have any other method of catching large fish; for I neither saw
hooks nor lines among them.

It is needless to mention their working tools, as they are made of the
same materials, and nearly in the same manner, as at the other islands.
Their axes, indeed, are a little different; some, at least; which may be
owing to fancy as much as custom.

Their houses, or at least most of them, are circular; something like a
bee-hive, and full as close and warm. The entrance is by a small door,
or long square hole, just big enough to admit a man bent double. The
side walls are about four feet and a half high; but the roof is lofty,
and peaked to a point at the top, above which is a post or stick of
wood, which is generally ornamented either with carving or shells, or
both. The framing is of small spars, reeds, &c. and both sides and roof
are thick and close covered with thatch, made of coarse long grass. In
the inside of the house are set up posts, to which cross spars are
fastened and platforms made for the conveniency of laying any thing on.
Some houses have two floors, one above the other. The floor is laid with
dry grass, and here and there mats are spread for the principal people
to sleep or sit on. In most of them we found two fire-places, and
commonly a fire burning, and, as there was no vent for the smoke but by
the door, the whole house was both smoky and hot, insomuch that we, who
are not used to such an atmosphere, could hardly endure it a moment.
This may be the reason why we found these people so chilly when in the
open air and without exercise. We frequently saw them make little fires
any where, and hustle round them, with no other view than to warm
themselves. Smoke within doors may be a necessary evil, as it prevents
the musquitoes from coming in, which are pretty numerous here. In some
respects their habitations are neat; for, besides the ornaments at top,
I saw some with carved door-posts. Upon the whole, their houses are
better calculated for a cold than a hot climate; and as there are no
partitions in them, they can have little privacy.

They have no great variety of household utensils; the earthen jars
before mentioned being the only article worth notice. Each family has,
at least, one of them, in which they bake their roots, and perhaps their
fish, &c. The fire by which they cook their victuals, is on the outside
of each house, in the open air. There are three or five pointed stones
fixed in the ground, their pointed ends being about six inches above the
surface, in this form: [Illustration] Those of three stones, are only
for one jar, those of five stones, for two. The jars do not stand on
their bottoms, but lie inclined on their sides. The use of these stones
is, obviously, to keep the jars from resting on the fire, in order that
it may burn the better.

They subsist chiefly on roots and fish, and the bark of a tree, which I
am told grows also in the West Indies. This they roast, and are almost
continually chewing. It has a sweetish, insipid taste; and was liked by
some of our people. Water is their only liquor; at least, I never saw
any other made use of.

Plantains and sugar-canes are by no means in plenty. Bread-fruit is very
scarce, and the cocoa-nut trees are small and but thinly planted; and
neither one nor the other seems to yield much fruit.

To judge merely by the numbers of the natives we saw every day, one
might think the island very populous; but, I believe, that at this time,
the inhabitants were collected from all parts on our account. Mr.
Pickersgill observed, that down the coast, to the west, there were but
few people; and we knew they came daily from the other side of the land,
over the mountains, to visit us. But although the inhabitants, upon the
whole, may not be numerous, the island is not thinly peopled on the
sea-coast, and in the plains and valleys that are capable of
cultivation. It seems to be a country unable to support many
inhabitants. Nature has been less bountiful to it than to any other
tropical island we know in this sea. The greatest part of its surface,
or at least what we saw of it, consists of barren, rocky mountains, and
the grass, &c. growing on them, is useless to people who have no cattle.

The sterility of the country will apologize for the natives not
contributing to the wants of the navigator. The sea may, perhaps, in
some measure, compensate for the deficiency of the land; for a coast
surrounded by reefs and shoals as this is, cannot fail of being stored
with fish.

I have before observed, that the country bears great resemblance to New
South Wales, or New Holland, and that some of its natural productions
are the same. In particular, we found here the tree which is covered
with a soft white ragged bark, easily peeled off, and is, as I have been
told, the same that in the East Indies is used for caulking of ships.
The wood is very hard, the leaves are long and narrow, of a pale dead
green, and a fine aromatic; so that it may properly be said to belong to
that continent. Nevertheless, here are several plants, &c. common to the
eastern and northern islands, and even a species of the passion-flower,
which, I am told, has never before been known to grow wild any where but
in America. Our botanists did not complain for want of employment at
this place; every day bringing something new in botany or other branches
of natural history. Land-birds, indeed, are not numerous, but several
are new. One of these is a kind of crow, at least so we called it,
though it is not half so big, and its feathers are tinged with blue.
They also have some very beautiful turtle-doves, and other small birds,
such as I never saw before.

All our endeavours to get the name of the whole island proved
ineffectual. Probably, it is too large for them to know by one name.
Whenever we made this enquiry, they always gave us the name of some
district or place, which we pointed to; and, as before observed, I got
the names of several, with the name of the king or chief of each. Hence,
I conclude, that the country is divided into several districts, each
governed by a chief; but we know nothing of the extent of his power.
Balade was the name of the district we were at, and Tea Booma the chief.
He lived on the other side of the ridge of hills, so that we had but
little of his company, and therefore could not see much of his power.
_Tea_ seems a title prefixed to the names of all or most of their chiefs
or great men. My friend honoured me by calling me _Tea_ Cook.

They deposit their dead in the ground. I saw none of their
burying-places; but several of the gentlemen did. In one, they were
informed, lay the remains of a chief, who was slain in battle; and his
grave, which bore some resemblance to a large molehill, was decorated
with spears, darts, paddles, &c. all stuck upright in the ground round
about it.

The canoes which these people use, are somewhat like those of the
Friendly Isles: but the most heavy, clumsy vessels I ever saw. They are
what I call double canoes, made out of two large trees hollowed out,
having a raised gunnel about two inches high, and closed at each end
with a kind of bulk head of the same height; so that the whole is like a
long square trough, about three feet shorter than the body of the canoe;
that is, a foot and an half at each end. Two canoes, thus fitted, are
secured to each other, about three feet asunder, by means of cross
spars, which project about a foot over each side. Over these spars is
laid a deck or very heavy platform, made of plank and small round spars,
on which they have a fire hearth, and generally a fire burning; and they
carry a pot or jar to dress their victuals in. The space between the two
canoes is laid with plank, and the rest with spars. On one side of the
deck, and close to the edge, is fixed a row of knees, pretty near to
each other, the use of which is to keep the mast, yards, &c. from
rolling over-board. They are navigated by one or two latteen sails,
extended to a small latteen yard, the end of which fixes in a notch or
hole in the deck. The foot of the sail is extended to a small boom. The
sail is composed of pieces of matting, the ropes are made of the coarse
filaments of the plantain tree, twisted into cords of the thickness of a
finger; and three or four more such cords, marled together, serve them
for shrouds, &c. I thought they sailed very well; but they are not at
all calculated for rowing or paddling. Their method of proceeding, when
they cannot sail, is by sculling; and for this purpose there are holes
in the boarded deck or platform. Through these they put the sculls,
which are of such a length, that, when the blade is in the water, the
loom or handle is four or five feet above the deck. The man who works it
stands behind, and with both his hands sculls the vessel forward. This
method of proceeding is very slow, and for this reason, the canoes are
but ill calculated for fishing, especially for striking of turtle,
which, I think, can hardly ever be done in them. Their fishing
implements, such as I have seen, are turtle nets, made, I believe, of
the filaments of the plantain tree, twisted; and small hand nets, with
very minute meshes made of fine twine and fish gigs. Their general
method of fishing, I guess, is to lie on the reefs in shoal water, and
to strike the fish that may come in their way. They may, however, have
other methods, which we had no opportunity to see, as no boat went out
while we were here, all their time and attention being taken up with us.
Their canoes are about thirty feet long, and the deck or platform about
twenty-four in length and ten in breadth. We had not, at this time, seen
any timber in the country so large as that of which their canoes were
made. It was observed, that the holes made in the several parts, in
order to sew them together, were burnt through, but with what instrument
we never learnt; most probably it was of stone; which may be the reason
why they were so fond of large spikes, seeing at once they would answer
this purpose. I was convinced they were not wholly designed for edge
tools; because every one showed a desire for the iron belaying pins
which were fixed in the quarter deck rail, and seemed to value them far
more than a spike-nail, although it might be twice as big. These pins,
which are round, perhaps have the very shape of the tool they wanted to
make of the nails. I did not find that a hatchet was quite so valuable
as a large spike. Small nails were of little or no value; and beads,
looking-glasses, &c. they did not admire.

The women of this country, and likewise those of Tanna, are, so far as I
could judge, far more chaste than those of the more eastern islands. I
never heard that one of our people obtained the least favour from any
one of them. I have been told, that the ladies here would frequently
divert themselves, by going a little aside with our gentlemen, as if
they meant to be kind to them, and then would run away laughing at them.
Whether this was chastity or coquetry, I shall not pretend to determine;
nor is it material, since the consequences were the same.



                                CHAP. X.

    PROCEEDINGS ON THE COAST OF NEW CALEDONIA, WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND
                         NAUTICAL OBSERVATIONS.


Every thing being in readiness to put to sea, at sunrise, on the 13th of
September, we weighed, and with a fine gale at E. by S., stood out for
the same channel we came in by. At half past seven we were in the middle
of it. Observatory Isle bore S. 5° E., distant four miles, and the Isle
of Balabea W. N. W. As soon as we were clear of the reef, we hauled the
wind on the starboard tack, with a view of plying in to the S. E.; but
as Mr. Gilbert was of opinion that he had seen the end or N. W.
extremity of the land, and that it would be easier to get round by the
N. W., I gave over plying, and bore up along the outside of the reef,
steering N. N. W., N. W., and N. W. by W. as it trended. At noon the
island of Balabea bore S. by W., distant thirteen miles; and what we
judged to be the west end of the great land, bore S. W. 1/2 S., and the
direction of the reef was N. W. by W., latitude observed 19° 53ʹ 20ʺ.
Longitude from Observatory Isle 14ʹ W. We continued to steer N. W. by W.
along the outside of the reef till three o’clock, at which time the Isle
of Balabea bore S. by E. 1/2 E. In this direction we observed a
partition in the reef, which we judged to be a channel, by the strong
tide which set out of it. From this place the reef inclined to the
north, for three or four leagues, and then to N. W. We followed its
direction, and as we advanced to N. W., raised more land, which seemed
to be connected with what we had seen before; so that Mr. Gilbert was
mistaken, and did not see the extremity of the coast. At five o’clock
this land bore W. by N. 1/2 N., distant twenty miles; but what we could
see of the reef trended in the direction of N. W. by N.

Having hauled the wind on the starboard tack, and spent the night
plying, on the 14th, at sunrise, the Island of Balabea bore S. 6° East,
and the land seen the preceding night west, but the reef still trended
N. W., along which we steered, with a light breeze at E. S. E. At noon
we observed in latitude 19° 28ʹ, longitude from Observatory Isle 27ʹ
West. We had now no sight of Balabea; and the other land, that is, the
N. W. part of it, bore W. by S. 1/2 S.; but we were not sure if this was
one continued coast, or separate islands. For though some partitions
were seen, from space to space, which made it look like the latter, a
multitude of shoals rendered a nearer approach to it exceedingly
dangerous, if not impracticable. In the afternoon, with a fine breeze at
E. S. E., we ranged the outside of these shoals, which we found to trend
in the direction of N. W. by W., N. W. by N., and N. N. E. At three
o’clock we passed a low sandy isle, lying on the outer edge of the reef;
in latitude 19° 25ʹ, and in the direction of N. E. from the
north-westernmost land, six or seven leagues distant. So much as we
could see of this space was strewed with shoals, seemingly detached from
each other; and the channel leading in amongst them, appeared to be on
the S. E. side of the sandy isle; at least there was a space where the
sea did not break. At sunset, we could but just see the land, which bore
S. W. by S., about ten leagues distant. A clear horizon produced the
discovery of no land to the westward of this direction; the reef too,
trended away W. by N. 1/2 N., and seemed to terminate in a point which
was seen from the mast head. Thus every thing conspired to make us
believe that we should soon get round these shoals; and with these
flattering expectations we hauled the wind, which was at E. N. E., and
spent the night making short boards.

Next morning, at sunrise, seeing neither land nor breakers, we bore away
N. W. by W., and two hours after saw the reef extending N. W. farther
than the eye could reach; but no land was to be seen. It was therefore
probable, that we had passed its N. W. extremity; and, as we had seen
from the hills of Balade its extent to the S. W., it was necessary to
know how far it extended to the E. or S. E. while it was in our power to
recover the coast. For, by following the direction of the shoals, we
might have been carried so far to leeward as not to be able to beat back
without considerable loss of time. We were already far out of sight of
land; and there was no knowing how much farther we might be carried,
before we found an end to them. These considerations, together with the
risk we must run in exploring a sea strewed with shoals, and where no
anchorage, without them, is to be found, induced me to abandon the
design of proceeding round by the N. W., and to ply up to the S. E., in
which direction I knew there was a clear sea. With this view, we tacked
and stood to the S. E., with the wind at N. E. by E., a gentle breeze.
At this time we were in the latitude of 19° 7ʹ S., longitude 165° 57ʹ
East.

In standing to S. E. we did but just weather the point of the reef we
had passed the preceding evening. To make our situation the more
dangerous, the wind began to fail us; and at three in the afternoon it
fell calm, and left us to the mercy of a great swell, setting directly
on the reef, which was hardly a league from us. We sounded, but found no
bottom, with a line of 200 fathoms. I ordered the pinnace and cutter to
be hoisted out to tow the ship; but they were of little use against so
great a swell. We, however, found that the ship did not draw near the
reef so fast as might be expected; and at seven o’clock, a light air at
N. N. E. kept her head to the sea, but it lasted no longer than
midnight, when it was succeeded by a dead calm.

At day-break, on the 16th, we had no sight of the reef; and at eleven, a
breeze springing up at S. S. W. we hoisted in the boats, and made sail
to S. E. At noon we observed in 19° 35ʹ South, which was considerably
more to the south than we expected, and showed that a current or tide
had been in our favour all night, and accounted for our getting so
unexpectedly clear of the shoals. At two o’clock P. M. we had again a
calm, which lasted till nine, when it was succeeded by a light air from
E. N. E. and E., with which we advanced but slowly.

On the 17th, at noon, we observed in latitude 19° 54ʹ, when the Isle of
Balabea bore S. 60° West, ten and a half leagues distant. We continued
to ply, with variable light winds, between N. E. and S. E. without
meeting with any thing remarkable till the 20th at noon, when Cape
Colnet bore N. 78° West, distant six leagues. From this cape the land
extended round by the south to E. S. E. till it was lost in the horizon;
and the country appeared with many hills and vallies. Latitude observed
20° 41ʹ, longitude made from Observatory Isle 1° 8ʹ East. We stood in
shore with a light breeze at east till sunset, when we were between two
and three leagues off. The coast extended from S. 42° 1/2 East to N. 59°
West. Two small islets lay without this last direction, distant from us
four or five miles; some others lay between us and the shore, and to the
east, where they seemed to be connected by reefs, in which appeared some
openings from space to space. The country was mountainous, and had much
the same aspect as about Balade. On one of the western small isles was
an elevation like a tower; and, over a low neck of land within the isle,
were seen many other elevations resembling the masts of a fleet of
ships.

Next day, at sunrise, after having stood off all night with a light
breeze at S. E., we found ourselves about six leagues from the coast;
and in this situation we were kept by a calm till ten in the evening,
when we got a faint land breeze at S. W., with which we steered S. E.
all night.

On the 22d, at sunrise, the land was clouded, but it was not long before
the clouds went off, and we found, by our land-marks, that we had made a
good advance. At ten o’clock, the land-breeze being succeeded by a
sea-breeze at E. by S., this enabled us to stand in for the land, which
at noon extended from N. 78° West, to S. 31-1/2° East, round by the
south. In this last direction the coast seemed to trend more to the
south in a lofty promontory, which, on account of the day, received the
name of Cape Coronation. Latitude 22° 2ʹ, longitude 167° 7-1/2ʹ East.
Some breakers lay between us and the shore, and probably they were
connected with those we had seen before.

During the night we had advanced about two leagues to S. E., and at
day-break, on the 23d, an elevated point appeared in sight beyond Cape
Coronation, bearing S. 23° East. It proved to be the S. E. extremity of
the coast, and obtained the name of Queen Charlotte’s Foreland. Latitude
22° 16ʹ S., longitude 167° 14ʹ East. About noon, having got a breeze
from the N. E., we stood to S. S. E., and, as we drew towards Cape
Coronation, saw in a valley to the south of it, a vast number of those
elevated objects before-mentioned; and some low land under the Foreland
was wholly covered with them. We could not agree in our opinions of what
they were. I supposed them to be a singular sort of trees, being too
numerous to resemble any thing else; and a great deal of smoke kept
rising all the day from amongst those near the Cape. Our philosophers
were of opinion that this was the smoke of some internal and perpetual
fire. My representing to them that there was no smoke here in the
morning, would have been of no avail, had not this eternal fire gone out
before night, and no more smoke been seen after. They were still more
positive, that the elevations were pillars of basaltes, like those which
compose the Giant’s Causeway in Ireland. At sunset, the wind veering
round to the south, we tacked and stood off, it not being safe to
approach the shore in the dark. At day-break we stood in again, with a
faint land-breeze between E. S. E. and S. S. E. At noon observed in
latitude 21° 59ʹ 30ʺ, Cape Coronation bearing west southerly, distant
seven leagues, and the Foreland S. 38° West. As we advanced to S. S. W.
the coast beyond the Foreland began to appear in sight; and, at sunset,
we discovered a low island lying S. S. E., about seven miles from the
Foreland. It was one of those which are generally surrounded with shoals
and breakers. At the same time a round hill was seen bearing S. 24°
East, twelve leagues distant. During night, having had variable light
winds, we advanced but little either way.

On the 25th, about ten o’clock A. M., having got a fair breeze at
E. S. E., we stood to S. S. W., in hopes of getting round the Foreland;
but, as we drew near, we perceived more low isles beyond the one already
mentioned, which at last appeared to be connected by breakers, extending
towards the Foreland, and seeming to join the shore. We stood on till
half-past three o’clock, when we saw, from the deck, rocks just peeping
above the surface of the sea, on the shoal above mentioned. It was now
time to alter the course, as the day was too far spent to look for a
passage near the shore, and we could find no bottom to anchor in during
the night. We therefore stood to the south, to look for a passage
without the small isles. We had a fine breeze at E. S. E., but it lasted
no longer than five o’clock, when it fell to a dead calm. Having
sounded, a line of 170 fathoms did not reach the bottom, though we were
but a little way from the shoals, which, instead of following the coast
to S. W., took a S. E. direction towards the hill we had seen the
preceding evening, and seemed to point out to us that it was necessary
to go round that land. At this time the most advanced point on the main
bore S. 68° West, distant nine or ten leagues. About seven o’clock we
got a light breeze at north, which enabled us to steer out E. S. E., and
to spend the night with less anxiety. On some of the low isles were many
of those elevations already mentioned. Every one was now satisfied they
were trees, except our philosophers; who still maintained that they were
basaltes.

About day break, on the 26th, the wind having shifted to S. S. W., we
stretched to S. E. for the hill before mentioned. It belonged to an
island, which at noon extended from S. 16° E. to S. 7° West, distant six
leagues. Latitude observed 22° 16ʹ South. In the P. M. the wind
freshened, and, veering to S. S. E., we stretched to the east, till two
A. M. on the 27th, when we tacked and stood to S. W. with hopes of
weathering the island; but we fell about two miles short of our
expectations, and had to tack about a mile from the east side of the
island, the extremes bearing from N. W. by N. to S. W. the hill west,
and some low isles, lying off the S. E. point, S. by W. These seemed to
be connected with the large island by breakers. We sounded when in
stays, but had no ground with a line of eighty fathoms. The skirts of
this island were covered with the elevations more than once mentioned.
They had much the appearance of tall pines, which occasioned my giving
that name to the island. The round hill, which is on the S. W. side, is
of such a height as to be seen fourteen or sixteen leagues. The island
is about a mile in circuit, and situated in latitude 22° 38ʹ S.,
longitude 167° 40ʹ East. Having made two attempts to weather the Isle of
Pines before sunset, with no better success than before, this determined
me to stretch off till midnight. This day at noon the thermometer was at
68° 3/4, which is lower than it had been since the 27th of February.

Having tacked at midnight, assisted by the currents, and a fresh gale at
E. S. E. and S. E., next morning, at daybreak, we found ourselves
several leagues to windward of the Isle of Pines, and bore away large,
round the S. E., and south sides. The coast from the S. E., round by the
south to the west, was strewed with sand-banks, breakers, and small low
isles, most of which were covered with the same lofty trees that
ornamented the borders of the greater one. We continued to range the
outside of these small isles and breakers, at three-fourths of a league
distance, and as we passed, one raised another; so that they seemed to
form a chain extending to the isles which lie off the Foreland. At noon
we observed, in latitude 22° 44ʹ 36ʺ South, the Isle of Pines, extending
from N. by E. 1/2 E. to E. by N., and Cape Coronation N. 32° 30ʹ West,
distant seventeen leagues. In the afternoon, with a fine gale at E., we
steered N. W. by W. along the outside of the shoals, with a view of
falling in with the land a little to S. W. of the Foreland. At two
o’clock P. M. two low islets were seen bearing W. by S., and as they
were connected by breakers, which seemed to join those on our starboard,
this discovery made it necessary to haul off S. W. in order to get clear
of them all. At three, more breakers appeared, extending from the low
isles towards the S. E. We now hauled out close to the wind; and, in an
hour and an half, were almost on board the breakers, and obliged to
tack. From the mast-head, they were seen to extend as far as E. S. E.,
and the smoothness of the sea made it probable that they extended to the
north of east, and that we were in a manner surrounded by them. At this
time the hill on the Isle of Pines bore N. 71-1/2° East, the Foreland N.
1/4 W., and the most advanced point of land on the S. W. coast bore
N. W., distant fifteen or sixteen leagues. This direction of the S. W.
coast, which was rather within the parallel of the N. E., assured us
that this land extended no farther to the S. W. After making a short
trip to N. N. E., we stood again to the south, in expectation of having
a better view of the shoals before sunset. We gained nothing by this but
the prospect of a sea strewed with shoals, which we could not clear but
by returning in the track by which we came. We tacked nearly in the same
place where we had tacked before, and on sounding found a bottom of fine
sand. But anchoring in a strong gale, with a chain of breakers to
leeward, being the last resource, I rather chose to spend the night in
making short boards over that space we had, in some measure, made
ourselves acquainted with in the day. And thus it was spent; but under
the terrible apprehension, every moment, of falling on some of the many
dangers which surrounded us.

Daylight showed that our fears were not ill-founded, and that we had
been in the most imminent danger; having had breakers continually under
our lee, and at a very little distance from us. We owed our safety to
the interposition of Providence, a good look-out, and the very brisk
manner in which the ship was managed; for, as we were standing to the
north, the people on the lee gangway and forecastle saw breakers under
the lee-bow, which we escaped by quickly tacking the ship.

I was now almost tired of a coast which I could no longer explore, but
at the risk of losing the ship and ruining the whole voyage. I was,
however, determined not to leave it, till I knew what trees those were
which had been the subject of our speculation; especially as they
appeared to be of a sort useful to shipping, and had not been seen any
where but in the southern part of this land. With this view, after
making a trip to the south, to weather the shoals under our lee, we
stood to the north, in hopes of finding anchorage under some of the
islets on which these trees grew. We were stopped by eight o’clock by
the shoals which lie extended between the Isle of Pines and Queen
Charlotte’s Foreland; and found soundings off them in fifty-five, forty,
and thirty-six fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. The nearer we came to these
shoals, the more we saw of them, and we were not able to say if there
was any passage between the two lands.

Being now but a few miles to windward of the low isles lying off the
Foreland, mentioned on the 25th and 26th, I bore down to the one next to
us. As we drew near it I perceived that it was unconnected with the
neighbouring shoals, and that it is probable we might get to an anchor
under its lee or west side. We therefore stood on, being conducted by an
officer at the mast-head; and after hauling round the point of the reef
which surrounds the isle, we attempted to ply to windward, in order to
get nearer the shore. Another reef to the north confined us to a narrow
channel, through which ran a current against us, that rendered this
attempt fruitless; so that we were obliged to anchor in thirty-nine
fathoms’ water, the bottom fine coral sand; the isle bearing W. by N.,
one mile distant. As soon as this was done, we hoisted out a boat, in
which I went ashore, accompanied by the botanists. We found the tall
trees to be a kind of spruce pine, very proper for spars, of which we
were in want. After making this discovery, I hastened on board in order
to have more time after dinner, when I landed again with two boats,
accompanied by several of the officers and gentlemen, having with us the
carpenter and some of his crew, to cut down such trees as were wanting.
While this was doing, I took the bearings of several lands round. The
hill on the Isle of Pines bore S. 59° 30ʹ E.; the low point of Queen
Charlotte’s Foreland N. 14° 30ʹ West; the high land over it, seen over
two low isles, N. 20° West; and the most advanced point of land to the
west, bore west, half a point south, distant six or seven leagues. We
had, from several bearings, ascertained the true direction of the coast
from the Foreland to this point, which I shall distinguish by the name
of Prince of Wales’s Foreland. It is situated in the latitude of 22° 29ʹ
S., longitude 166° 57ʹ E., is of a considerable height, and, when it
first appears above the horizon, looks like an island. From this cape
the coast trended nearly N. W. This was rather too northerly a direction
to join that part which we saw from the hills of Balade. But as it was
very high land which opened off the cape in that direction, it is very
probable that lower land, which we could not see, opened sooner; or else
the coast more to the N. W. takes a more westerly direction, in the same
manner as the N. E. coast. Be this as it may, we pretty well know the
extent of the land, by having it confined within certain limits.
However, I still entertained hopes of seeing more of it; but was
disappointed.

The little isle upon which we landed, is a mere sand bank, not exceeding
three-fourths of a mile in circuit, and on it, besides these pines, grew
the _Etos_ tree of Otaheite, and a variety of other trees, shrubs, and
plants. These gave sufficient employment to our botanists, all the time
we staid upon it, and occasioned my calling it Botany Isle. On it were
several water-snakes, some pigeons and doves, seemingly different from
any we had seen. One of the officers shot a hawk, which proved to be of
the very same sort as our English fishing-hawks. Several fire-places,
branches, and leaves very little decayed, remains of turtle, &c. showed
that people had lately been on the isle. The hull of a canoe, precisely
of the same shape as those we had seen at Balade, lay wrecked in the
sand. We were now no longer at a loss to know of what trees they make
their canoes, as they can be no other than these pines. On this little
isle were some which measured twenty inches diameter, and between sixty
and seventy feet in length, and would have done very well for a
fore-mast to the Resolution, had one been wanting. Since trees of this
size are to be found on so small a spot, it is reasonable to expect to
find some much larger on the main, and larger isles, and, if appearances
did not deceive us, we can assert it.

If I except New Zealand, I, at this time, knew of no island in the South
Pacific Ocean, where a ship could supply herself with a mast or a yard,
were she ever so much distressed for want of one. Thus far the discovery
is or may be valuable. My carpenter, who was a mast-maker as well as a
ship-wright, two trades he learnt in Deptford yard, was of opinion that
these trees would make exceedingly good masts. The wood is white,
close-grained, tough, and light. Turpentine had exuded out of most of
the trees, and the sun had inspissated it into a rosin, which was found
sticking to the trunks, and lying about the roots. These trees shoot out
their branches like all other pines; with this difference, that the
branches of these are much smaller and shorter; so that the knots become
nothing when the tree is wrought for use. I took notice, that the
largest of them had the smallest and shortest branches, and were
crowned, as it were, at the top, by a spreading branch like a bush. This
was what led some on board into the extravagant notion of their being
basaltes: indeed, no one could think of finding such trees here.—The
seeds are produced in cones; but we could find none that had any in
them, or that were in a proper state for vegetable or botanical
examination. Besides these, there was another tree or shrub of the
spruce fir kind; but it was very small. We also found on the isle a sort
of scurvy-grass, and a plant, called by us Lamb’s Quarters, which, when
boiled, eat like spinnage.

Having got ten or twelve small spars to make studding sail booms,
boats’-masts, &c., and night approaching, we returned with them on
board.

The purpose for which I anchored under this isle being answered, I was
now to consider what was next to be done. We had, from the topmast head,
taken a view of the sea around us, and observed the whole, to the west,
to be strewed with small islets, sand-banks, and breakers, to the utmost
extent of our horizon. They seemed, indeed, not to be all connected, and
to be divided by winding channels. But when I considered, that the
extent of this S. W. coast was already pretty well determined; the great
risk attending a more accurate survey, and the time it would require to
accomplish it, on account of the many dangers we should have to
encounter, I determined not to hazard the ship down to leeward, where we
might be so hemmed in as to find it difficult to return, and by that
means lose the proper season for getting to the south. I now wished to
have had the little vessel set up, the frame of which we had on board. I
had some thoughts of doing this when we were last at Otaheite, but found
it could not be executed, without neglecting the caulking and other
necessary repairs of the ship, or staying longer there than the route I
had in view would admit. It was now too late to begin setting her up,
and then to use her in exploring this coast; and in our voyage to the
south, she could be of no service. These reasons induced me to try to
get without the shoals; that is, to the southward of them.

Next morning, at day-break, we got under sail, with a light breeze at E.
by N. We had to make some trips to weather the shoals to leeward of
Botany Isle; but when this was done, the breeze began to fail; and at
three P. M. it fell calm. The swell, assisted by the current, set us
fast to S. W. towards the breakers, which were yet in sight in that
direction. Thus we continued till ten o’clock, at which time a breeze
springing up at N. N. W. we steered E. S. E., the contrary course we had
come in; not daring to steer farther south till day-light.

At three o’clock next morning, the wind veered to S. W., blew hard, and
in squalls, attended with rain, which made it necessary to proceed with
our courses up, and topsails on the cap, till day-break, when the hill
on the Isle of Pines bore N., and our distance from the shore in that
direction was about four leagues. We had now a very strong wind at
S. S. W., attended by a great sea, so that we had reason to rejoice at
having got clear of the shoals before this gale overtook us. Though
every thing conspired to make me think this was the westerly monsoon, it
can hardly be comprehended under that name, for several reasons; first,
because it was near a month too soon for these winds; secondly, because
we know not if they reach this place at all; and lastly, because it is
very common for westerly winds to blow within the tropics. However, I
never found them to blow so hard before, or so far southerly. Be these
things as they may, we had now no other choice but to stretch to S. E.,
which we accordingly did, with our starboard tacks aboard; and at noon
were out of sight of land.

The gale continued with very little alteration till noon next day; at
which time we observed in latitude 23° 18ʹ, longitude made from the Isle
of Pines 1° 54ʹ East. In the afternoon we had little wind from the
south, and a great swell from the same direction; and many boobies,
tropic, and men-of-war birds were seen. At eleven o’clock a fresh breeze
sprung up at W. by S., with which we stood to the south. At this time we
were in the latitude of 23° 18ʹ, longitude 169° 49ʹ E., and about
forty-two leagues south of the Hebrides.

At eight o’clock in the morning, on the 3d, the wind veered to S. W.,
and blew a strong gale by squalls, attended with rain. I now gave over
all thought of returning to the land we had left. Indeed, when I
considered the vast ocean we had to explore to the south; the state and
condition of the ship, already in want of some necessary stores; that
summer was approaching fast; and that any considerable accident might
detain us in this sea another year; I did not think it advisable to
attempt to regain the land.

Thus I was obliged, as it were by necessity, for the first time, to
leave a coast I had discovered, before it was fully explored. I called
it New Caledonia; and, if we except New Zealand, it is perhaps the
largest island in the South Pacific Ocean; for it extends from the
latitude of 19° 37ʹ to 22° 30ʹ S., and from the longitude of 163° 37ʹ to
167° 14ʹ E. It lies nearly N. W. 1/2 W., and S. E. 1/2 E., and is about
eighty-seven leagues long in that direction; but its breadth is not
considerable, not any where exceeding ten leagues. It is a country full
of hills and valleys, of various extent both for height and depth. To
judge of the whole by the parts we were on, from these hills spring vast
numbers of little rivulets, which greatly contribute to fertilize the
plains, and to supply all the wants of the inhabitants. The summits of
most of the hills seem to be barren; though some few are clothed with
wood; as are all the plains and valleys. By reason of these hills, many
parts of the coast, when at a distance from it, appeared indented, or to
have great inlets between the hills; but, when we came near the shore,
we always found such places shut up with low land, and also observed low
land to lie along the coast between the sea-shore and the foot of the
hills. As this was the case in all such parts as we came near enough to
see, it is reasonable to suppose that the whole coast is so. I am
likewise of opinion, that the whole, or greatest part, is surrounded by
reefs or shoals, which render the access to it very dangerous, but at
the same time guard the coast from the violence of the wind and sea;
make it abound with fish; secure an easy and safe navigation along it,
for canoes, &c. and most likely form some good harbours for shipping.
Most, if not every part of the coast is inhabited, the Isle of Pines not
excepted; for we saw either smoke by day, or fires by night, wherever we
came. In the extent which I have given to this island is included the
broken or unconnected lands to the N. W., as they are delineated in the
chart. That they may be connected, I shall not pretend to deny; we were
however of opinion that they were isles, and that New Caledonia
terminated more to S. E., though this, at most, is but a well-founded
conjecture.

But whether these lands be separate isles, or connected with New
Caledonia, it is by no means certain that we saw their termination to
the west. I think we did not, as the shoals did not end with the land we
saw, but kept their N. W. direction farther than Bougainville’s track in
the latitude of 15° or 15-1/2°. Nay, it seems not improbable, that a
chain of isles, sand-banks, and reefs, may extend to the west, as far as
the coast of New South Wales. The eastern extent of the isles and shoals
off that coast, between the latitude of 15° and 23°, were not known. The
semblance of the two countries;[12] Bougainville’s meeting with the
shoal of Diana above sixty leagues from the coast, and the signs he had
of land to the S. E., all tend to increase the probability. I must
confess that it is carrying probability and conjecture a little too far,
to say what may lie in a space of two hundred leagues; but it is in some
measure necessary, were it only to put some future navigator on his
guard.

Mr. Wales determined the longitude of that part of New Caledonia we
explored, by ninety-six sets of observations, which were reduced to one
another by our trusty guide the watch. I found the variation of the
compass to be 10° 24ʹ E. This is the mean variation given by the three
azimuth compasses we had on board, which would differ from each other a
degree and a half, and sometimes more. I did not observe any difference
in the variation between the N. W. and S. E. parts of this land, except
when we were at anchor before Balade, where it was less than 10°; but
this I did not regard, as I found such an uniformity out at sea; and it
is there where navigators want to know the variation. While we were on
the N. E. coast, I thought the currents set to S. E. and W. or N. W. on
the other side; but they are by no means considerable, and may as
probably be channels of tides as regular currents. In the narrow
channels which divide the shoals, and those which communicate with the
sea, the tides run strong; but their rise and fall are inconsiderable,
not exceeding three feet and a half. The time of high water, at the full
and change, at Balade, is about six o’clock; but at Botany Isle we
judged it would happen about ten or eleven o’clock.



                               CHAP. XI.

SEQUEL OF THE PASSAGE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO NEW ZEALAND, WITH AN ACCOUNT
  OF THE DISCOVERY OF NORFOLK ISLAND; AND THE INCIDENTS THAT HAPPENED
             WHILE THE SHIP LAY IN QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND.


The wind continuing at S. W., W. S. W. and W. blowing a fresh gale, and
now and then squalls, with showers of rain, we steered to S. S. E.,
without meeting with any remarkable occurrence till near noon on the
6th, when it fell calm. At this time we were in the latitude of 27° 50ʹ
S., longitude 171° 43ʹ E. The calm continued till noon the next day,
during which time we observed the variation to be 10° 33-1/2ʹ E. I now
ordered the carpenters to work to caulk the decks. As we had neither
pitch, tar, nor rosin, left to pay the seams, this was done with varnish
of pine, and afterwards covered with coral sand, which made a cement far
exceeding my expectation. In the afternoon, we had a boat in the water,
and shot two albatrosses, which were geese to us. We had seen one of
this kind of birds the day before, which was the first we observed since
we had been within the tropic. On the 7th, at one P. M., a breeze sprung
up at south; soon after it veered to, and fixed at S. E. by S., and blew
a gentle gale, attended with pleasant weather.

We stretched to W. S. W., and next day at noon were in the latitude of
28° 25ʹ, longitude 170° 26ʹ E. In the evening, Mr. Cooper having struck
a porpoise with a harpoon, it was necessary to bring to, and have two
boats out, before we could kill it, and get it on board. It was six feet
long; a female of that kind, which naturalists call dolphin of the
antients, and which differs from the other kind of porpoise in the head
and jaw, having them long and pointed. This had eighty-eight teeth in
each jaw. The haslet and lean flesh were to us a feast. The latter was a
little liverish, but had not the least fishy taste. It was eaten
roasted, broiled, and fried, first soaking it in warm water. Indeed
little art was wanting to make any thing fresh, palatable to those who
had been living so long on salt meat.

We continued to stretch to W. S. W. till the 10th, when, at day-break,
we discovered land bearing S. W., which on a nearer approach we found to
be an island of good height, and five leagues in circuit. I named it
Norfolk Isle, in honour of the noble family of Howard. It is situated in
the latitude of 29° 2ʹ 30ʺ S., and longitude 168° 16ʹ E. The latter was
determined by lunar observations made on this, the preceding, and
following days; and the former, by a good observation at noon, when we
were about three miles from the isle. Soon after we discovered the isle
we sounded in twenty-two fathoms on a bank of coral sand; after this we
continued to sound, and found not less than twenty-two, or more than
twenty-four fathoms (except near the shore), and the same bottom mixed
with broken shells. After dinner, a party of us embarked in two boats,
and landed on the island, without any difficulty, behind some large
rocks which lined part of the coast on the N. E. side.

We found it uninhabited, and were undoubtedly the first that ever set
foot on it. We observed many trees and plants common at New Zealand;
and, in particular, the flax plant, which is rather more luxuriant here
than in any part of that country; but the chief produce is a sort of
spruce pine, which grows in great abundance, and to a large size, many
of the trees being as thick, breast high, as two men could fathom, and
exceedingly straight and tall. This pine is of a sort between that which
grows in New Zealand and that in New Caledonia; the foliage differing
something from both; and the wood not so heavy as the former, nor so
light and close-grained as the latter. It is a good deal like the Quebec
pine. For about two hundred yards from the shore the ground is covered
so thick with shrubs and plants, as hardly to be penetrated farther
inland. The woods were perfectly clear and free from underwood, and the
soil seemed rich and deep.

We found the same kind of pigeons, parrots, and paroquets as in New
Zealand, rails, and some small birds. The sea fowl are, white boobies,
gulls, tern, &c. which breed undisturbed on the shores, and in the
cliffs of the rocks.

On the isle is fresh water; and cabbage-palm, wood-sorrel, sow thistle,
and samphire abounding in some places on the shores; we brought on board
as much of each sort as the time we had to gather them would admit.
These cabbage-trees, or palms, were not thicker than a man’s leg, and
from ten to twenty feet high. They are of the same genus with the
cocoa-nut tree; like it, they have large pinnated leaves, and are the
same as the second sort found in the northern parts of New South
Wales.[13] The cabbage is, properly speaking, the bud of the tree; each
tree producing but one cabbage, which is at the crown, where the leaves
spring out, and is inclosed in the stem. The cutting off the cabbage
effectually destroys the tree; so that no more than one can be had from
the same stem. The cocoa-nut tree, and some others of the palm kind,
produce cabbage as well as these. This vegetable is not only wholesome,
but exceedingly palatable, and proved the most agreeable repast we had
for some time.

The coast does not want fish. While we were on shore, the people in the
boats caught some which were excellent. I judged that it was high water
at the full and change, about one o’clock, and that the tide rises and
falls upon a perpendicular about four or five feet.

The approach of night brought us all on board, when we hoisted in the
boats; and stretching to E. N. E. (with the wind at S. E.) till
midnight, we tacked, and spent the remainder of the night making short
boards.

Next morning, at sun-rise, we made sail, stretching to S. S. W., and
weathered the island, on the south side of which lie two isles, that
serve as roosting and breeding-places for birds. On this, as also on the
S. E. side, is a sandy beach; whereas most of the other shores are
bounded by rocky cliffs which have twenty and eighteen fathoms water
close to them; at least so we found it on the N. E. side, and with good
anchorage. A bank of coral sand, mixed with shells, on which we found
from nineteen to thirty-five or forty fathoms water, surrounds the isle,
and extends, especially to the south, seven leagues off. The morning we
discovered the island the variation was found to be 13° 9ʹ E.; but I
think this observation gave too much, as others, which we had both
before and after, gave 2° less.

After leaving Norfolk Isle, I steered for New Zealand, my intention
being to touch at Queen Charlotte’s Sound, to refresh my crew, and put
the ship in a condition to encounter the southern latitudes.

On the 17th, at day-break, we saw Mount Egmont, which was covered with
everlasting snow, bearing S. E. 1/2 E. Our distance from the shore was
about eight leagues, and, on sounding, we found seventy fathoms water, a
muddy bottom. The wind soon fixed in the western board, and blew a fresh
gale, with which we steered S. S. E. for Queen Charlotte’s Sound, with a
view of falling in with Cape Stephens. At noon Cape Egmont bore
E. N. E., distant three or four leagues; and though the mount was hid in
the clouds, we judged it to be in the same direction as the Cape;
latitude observed 39° 24ʹ. The wind increased in such a manner as to
oblige us to close reef our top-sails, and strike top-gallant yards. At
last we could bear no more sail than the two courses, and two
close-reefed top-sails; and under them we stretched for Cape Stephens,
which we made at eleven o’clock at night.

At midnight we tacked, and made a trip to the north till three o’clock
next morning, when we bore away for the sound. At nine we hauled round
Point Jackson, through a sea which looked terrible, occasioned by a
rapid tide and a high wind; but as we knew the coast, it did not alarm
us. At eleven o’clock we anchored before Ship Cove; the strong flurries
from off the land not permitting us to get in.

In the afternoon, as we could not move the ship, I went into the cove,
with the seine, to try to catch some fish. The first thing I did after
landing was to look for the bottle I left hid when last here, in which
was the memorandum. It was taken away; but by whom it did not appear.
Two hauls with the seine producing only four small fish, we, in some
measure, made up for this deficiency, by shooting several birds, which
the flowers in the garden had drawn thither, as also some old shags, and
by robbing the nests of some young ones.

Being little wind next morning, we weighed, and warped the ship into the
Cove, and there moored with the two bowers. We unbent the sails to
repair them, several having been split, and otherwise damaged in the
late gale. The main and four courses, already worn to the very utmost,
were condemned as useless. I ordered the top-masts to be struck and
unrigged, in order to fix to them moveable chocks or knees, for want of
which the trestle-trees were continually breaking; the forge to be set
up, to make bolts and repair our iron-work; and tents to be erected on
shore for the reception of a guard, coopers, sail-makers, &c. I likewise
gave orders that vegetables (of which there were plenty) should be
boiled every morning with oat-meal and portable broth for breakfast, and
with peas and broth every day for dinner for the whole crew, over and
above their usual allowance of salt malt.

In the afternoon, as Mr. Wales was setting up his observatory, he
discovered that several trees, which were standing when we last sailed
from this place, had been cut down with saws and axes; and a few days
after, the place where an observatory, clock, &c. had been set up, was
also found, in a spot different from that where Mr. Wales had placed
his. It was therefore now no longer to be doubted that the Adventure had
been in this cove after we had left it.

Next day, winds southerly, hazy cloudy weather. Every body went to work
at their respective employments, one of which was to caulk the ship’s
sides, a thing much wanted. The seams were paid with putty, made with
cook’s fat and chalk; the gunner happening to have a quantity of the
latter on board.

The 21st, wind southerly, with continual rains.

The weather being fair in the afternoon of the 22d, accompanied by the
botanists, I visited our gardens on Motuara, which we found almost in a
state of nature, having been wholly neglected by the inhabitants.
Nevertheless, many articles were in a flourishing condition, and showed
how well they liked the soil in which they were planted. None of the
natives having yet made their appearance, we made a fire on the point of
the island; in hopes, if they saw the smoke, they might be induced to
come to us.

Nothing remarkable happened till the 24th, when, in the morning, two
canoes were seen coming down the sound; but as soon as they perceived
the ship, they retired behind a point on the west side. After breakfast
I went in a boat to look for them; and as we proceeded along the shore,
we shot several birds. The report of the muskets gave notice of our
approach, and the natives discovered themselves in Shag Cove by
hallooing to us; but as we drew near to their habitations, they all fled
to the woods, except two or three men, who stood on a rising ground near
the shore, with their arms in their hands. The moment we landed, they
knew us. Joy then took place of fear, and the rest of the natives
hurried out of the woods, and embraced us over and over again, leaping
and skipping about like madmen; but I observed that they would not
suffer some women, whom we saw at a distance, to come near us. After we
had made them presents of hatchets, knives, and what else we had with
us, they gave us in return a large quantity of fish, which they had just
caught. There were only a few amongst them whose faces we could
recognise; and on our asking why they were afraid of us, and inquiring
for some of our old acquaintances by name, they talked much about
killing, which was so variously understood by us, that we could gather
nothing from it; so that, after a short stay, we took leave, and went on
board.

Next morning early, our friends, according to a promise they made us the
preceding evening, paying us a visit, brought with them a quantity of
fine fish, which they exchanged for Otaheitean cloth, &c. and then
returned to their habitations.

On the 26th we got into the after-hold four boatload of shingle ballast,
and struck down six guns, keeping only six on deck. Our good friends the
natives having brought us a plentiful supply of fish, afterwards went on
shore to the tents, and informed our people there, that a ship like ours
had been lately lost in the Strait; that some of the people got on
shore; and that the natives stole their clothes, &c. for which several
were shot; that afterwards, when they could fire no longer, the natives
having got the better, killed them with their _Patapatoos_, and eat
them; but that they themselves had no hand in the affair, which, they
said, happened at Vanna Aroa, near Teerawhitte, on the other side of the
Strait. One man said it was two moons ago; but another contradicted him,
and counted on his fingers about twenty or thirty days. They described
by actions how the ship was beat to pieces, by going up and down against
the rocks, till at last it was all scattered abroad.

The next day some others told the same story, or nearly to the same
purport, and pointed over the East Bay, which is on the east side of the
sound, as to the place where it happened. These stories making me very
uneasy about the Adventure, I desired Mr. Wales, and those on shore, to
let me know if any of the natives should mention it again, or to send
them to me; for I had not heard any thing from them myself. When Mr.
Wales came on board to dinner, he found the very people who had told him
the story on shore, and pointed them out to me. I inquired about the
affair, and endeavoured to come at the truth by every method I could
think of. All I could get from them was, _Caurey_ (no); and they not
only denied every syllable of what they had said on shore, but seemed
wholly ignorant of the matter; so that I began to think our people had
misunderstood them, and that the story referred to some of their own
people and boats.

On the 28th, fresh gales westerly, and fair weather. We rigged and
fitted the top-masts. Having gone on a shooting-party to West Bay, we
went to the place where I left the hogs and fowls; but saw no vestiges
of them, nor of any body having been there since. In our return, having
visited the natives, we got some fish in exchange for trifles which we
gave them. As we were coming away, Mr. Forster thought he heard the
squeaking of a pig in the woods, close by their habitations; probably,
they may have those I left with them when last here. In the evening we
got on board, with about a dozen and an half of wild fowl, shags, and
sea-pies. The sportsmen who had been out in the woods near the ship,
were more successful among the small birds.

On the 29th and 30th nothing remarkable happened, except that in the
evening of the latter all the natives left us.

The 31st being a fine pleasant day, our botanists went over to Long
Island, where one of the party saw a large black boar. As it was
described to me, I thought it to be one of those which Captain Furneaux
left behind, and had been brought over to this isle by those who had it
in keeping. Since they did not destroy those hogs when first in their
possession, we cannot suppose they will do it now; so that there is
little fear but that this country will, in time, be stocked with these
animals, both in a wild and domestic state.

Next day we were visited by a number of strangers, who came from up the
sound, and brought with them but little fish. Their chief commodity was
green stone or talc, an article which never came to a bad market; and
some of the largest pieces of it I had ever seen were got this day.

On the 2d I went over to the east side of the sound, and, without
meeting any thing remarkable, returned on board in the evening, when I
learnt that the same people who visited us the preceding day had been on
board most of this, with their usual article of trade.

On the 3d, Mr. Pickersgill met with some of the natives, who related to
him the story of a ship being lost, and the people being killed; but
added, with great earnestness, it was not done by them.

On the 4th fine pleasant weather. Most of the natives now retired up the
sound. Indeed, I had taken every gentle method to oblige them to be
gone; for since these new-comers had been with us, our old friends had
disappeared, and we had been without fish. Having gone over to Long
Island to look for the hog which had been seen there, I found it to be
one of the sows left by Captain Furneaux; the same that was in
possession of the natives when we were last here. From a supposition of
its being a boar, I had carried over a sow to leave with him; but on
seeing my mistake, brought her back, as the leaving her there would
answer no end.

Early in the morning of the 5th, our old friends made us a visit, and
brought a seasonable supply of fish. At the same time I embarked in the
pinnace with Messrs. Forsters and Sparrman, in order to proceed up the
sound. I was desirous of finding the termination of it; or rather, of
seeing if I could find any passage out to sea by the S. E., as I
suspected from some discoveries I had made when first here. In our way
up we met with some fishers, of whom we made the necessary inquiry; and
they all agreed that there was no passage to sea by the head of the
sound. As we proceeded, we some time after met a canoe, conducted by
four men, coming down the sound. These confirmed what the others had
said, in regard to there being no passage to sea the way we were going;
but gave us to understand that there was one to the east, in the very
place where I expected to find it. I now laid aside the scheme of going
to the head of the sound, and proceeded to this arm, which is on the
S. E. side, about four or five leagues above the Isle of Motuara.

A little within the entrance on the S. E. side, at a place called
Kotieghenooee, we found a large settlement of the natives. The chief;
whose name was Tringo-boohee, and his people, whom we found to be some
of those who had lately been on board the ship, received us with great
courtesy. They seemed to be pretty numerous both here and in the
neighbourhood. Our stay with them was short, as the information they
gave us encouraged us to pursue the object we had in view. Accordingly,
we proceeded down the arm E. N. E. and E. by N., leaving several fine
coves on both sides, and at last found it to open into the strait by a
channel about a mile wide, in which ran out a strong tide; having also
observed one setting down the arm, all the time we had been in it. It
was now about four o’clock in the afternoon; and in less than an hour
after, this tide ceased, and was succeeded by the flood, which came in
with equal strength.

The outlet lies S. E. by E., and N. W. by W., and nearly in the
direction of E. S. E., and W. N. W. from Cape Terrawhitte. We found
thirteen fathoms water a little within the entrance, clear ground. It
seemed to me that a leading wind was necessary to go in and out of this
passage, on account of the rapidity of the tides. I, however, had but
little time to make observations of this nature, as night was at hand,
and I had resolved to return on board. On that account, I omitted
visiting a large _hippa_, or strong-hold, built on an elevation on the
north side, and about a mile or two within the entrance. The inhabitants
of it, by signs, invited us to go to them; but, without paying any
regard to them, we proceeded directly for the ship, which we reached by
ten o’clock, bringing with us some fish we had got from the natives, and
a few birds we had shot. Amongst the latter, were some of the same kind
of ducks we found in Dusky Bay; and we have reason to believe that they
are all to be met with here. For the natives knew them all by the
drawings, and had a particular name for each.

On the 6th, wind at N. E., gloomy weather with rain. Our old friends
having taken up their abode near us, one of them, whose name was Pedero,
(a man of some note,) made me a present of a staff of honour, such as
the chiefs generally carry. In return, I dressed him in a suit of old
clothes, of which he was not a little proud. He had a fine person and a
good presence; and nothing but his colour distinguished him from an
European. Having got him and another into a communicative mood, we began
to enquire of them if the Adventure had been there during my absence,
and they gave us to understand in a manner that admitted of no doubt,
that soon after we were gone she arrived, that she staid between ten and
twenty days, and had been gone ten months. They likewise asserted, that
neither she nor any other ship had been stranded on the coast, as had
been reported. This assertion, and the manner in which they related the
coming and going of the Adventure, made me easy about her; but did not
wholly set aside our suspicions of a disaster having happened to some
other strangers. Besides what has been already related, we had been told
that a ship had lately been here, and was gone to a place called Terato,
which is on the north side of the Strait. Whether this story related to
the former or no, I cannot say. Whenever I questioned the natives about
it, they always denied all knowledge of it; and for some time past had
avoided mentioning it. It was but a few days before, that one man
received a box on the ear for naming it to some of our people.

After breakfast, I took a number of hands over to Long-Island, in order
to catch the sow, to put her to the boar, and remove her to some other
place; but we returned without seeing her. Some of the natives had been
there not long before us, as their fires were yet burning; and they had
undoubtedly taken her away. Pedero dined with us, ate of every thing at
table, and drank more wine than any one of us, without being in the
least affected by it.

The 7th, fresh gales at N. E. with continual rain.

The 8th, fore-part rain, remainder fair weather. We put two pigs, a boar
and a sow, on shore, in the cove next without Cannibal Cove; so that it
is hardly possible all the methods I have taken to stock this country
with these animals should fail. We had also reason to believe that some
of the cocks and hens which I left here still existed, although we had
not seen any of them; for an hen’s egg was, some days before, found in
the woods almost new laid.

On the 9th, wind westerly or N. W. squally, with rain. In the morning we
unmoored, and shifted our birth farther out of the cove, for the more
ready getting to sea the next morning; for, at present, the caulkers had
not finished the sides, and till this work was done we could not sail.
Our friends having brought us a very large and seasonable supply of
fish, I bestowed on Pedero a present of an empty oil-jar, which made him
as happy as a prince. Soon after, he and his party left the cove, and
retired to their proper place of abode, with all the treasure they had
received from us. I believe that they gave away many of the things they,
at different times, got from us, to their friends, and neighbours, or
else parted with them to purchase peace of their more powerful enemies;
for we never saw any of our presents after they were once in their
possession; and every time we visited them they were as much in want of
hatchets, nails, &c. to all appearance, as if they never had had any
among them.

I am satisfied that the people in this Sound, who are, upon the whole,
pretty numerous, are under no regular form of government, or so united
as to form one body politic. The head of each tribe, or family, seems to
be respected; and that respect may, on some occasions, command
obedience; but I doubt if any amongst them have either a right or power
to enforce it. The day we were with Tringo-boohee, the people came from
all parts to see us, which he endeavoured to prevent. But though he went
so far as to throw stones at some, I observed that very few paid any
regard either to his words or actions; and yet this man was spoken of as
a chief of some note. I have, before, made some remarks on the evils
attending these people for want of union among themselves; and the more
I was acquainted with them, the more I found it to be so.
Notwithstanding they are cannibals, they are naturally of a good
disposition, and have not a little humanity.

In the afternoon a party of us went ashore into one of the coves, where
were two families of the natives variously employed; some sleeping, some
making mats, others roasting fish and fir roots, and one girl, I
observed, was heating of stones. Curious to know what they were for, I
remained near her. As soon as the stones were made hot, she took them
out of the fire, and gave them to an old woman, who was sitting in the
hut. _She_ placed them in a heap, laid over them a handful of green
celery, and over that a coarse mat, and then squatted herself down, on
her heels, on the top of all; thus making a kind of Dutch warming-pan,
on which she sat as close as a hare on her seat. I should hardly have
mentioned this operation, if I had thought it had no other view than to
warm the old woman’s backside. I rather suppose it was intended to cure
some disorder she might have on her, which the steams arising from the
green celery might be a specific for. I was led to think so by there
being hardly any celery in the place, we having gathered it long before;
and grass, of which there was great plenty, would have kept the stones
from burning the mat full as well, if that had been all that was meant.
Besides, the woman looked to me sickly, and not in a good state of
health.

Mr. Wales from time to time communicated to me the observations he had
made in this Sound for determining the longitude, the mean results of
which give 174° 25ʹ 7ʺ 1/2 E. for the bottom of Ship Cove, where the
observations were made; and the latitude of it is 41° 5ʹ 56ʺ 1/2 S. In
my chart, constituted in my former voyage, this place is laid down in
184° 54ʹ 30ʺ West, equal to 175° 5ʹ 30ʺ E. The error of the chart is
therefore, 0° 40ʹ 0ʺ, and nearly equal to what was found at Dusky Bay;
by which it appears that the whole of Tavai-poenammoo is laid down 40ʹ
too far east in the said chart, as well as in the journal of the voyage.
But the error in Eaheino-mauwe is not more than half a degree, or thirty
minutes; because the distance between Queen Charlotte’s Sound and Cape
Palliser has been found to be greater by 10ʹ of longitude than it is
laid down in the chart. I mention these errors, not from a fear that
they will affect either navigation or geography, but because I have no
doubt of their existence; for, from the multitude of observations which
Mr. Wales took, the situation of few parts of the world is better
ascertained than Queen Charlotte’s Sound. Indeed, I might, with equal
truth, say the same of all the other places where we made any stay; for
Mr. Wales, whose abilities are equal to his assiduity, lost no one
observation that could possibly be obtained. Even the situation of those
islands which we passed without touching at them, is, by means of
Kendal’s watch, determined with almost equal accuracy. The error of the
watch from Otaheite to this place was only 43ʹ 39ʺ 1/4 in longitude,
reckoning at the rate it was found to go at, at that island and at
Tanna; but by reckoning at the rate it was going when last at Queen
Charlotte’s Sound, and from the time of our leaving it, to our return to
it again, which was near a year, the error was 19ʹ 31ʺ, 25 in time, or
4° 52ʹ 48ʺ 3/4 in longitude. This error cannot be thought great, if we
consider the length of time, and that we had gone over a space equal to
upwards of three-fourths of the equatorial circumference of the earth,
and through all the climates and latitudes from 9° to 71°. Mr. Wales
found its rate of going here to be that of gaining 12ʺ, 576, on mean
time, per day.

The mean result of all the observations he made for ascertaining the
variation of the compass and the dip of the south end of the needle, the
three several times we had been here, gave 14° 9ʹ 1/5 E. for the former,
and 64° 36ʺ 2/3 for the latter. He also found, from very accurate
observations, that the time of high-water preceded the moon’s southing,
on the full and change days, by three hours; and that the greatest rise
and fall of the water was five feet ten inches and a half; but there
were evident tokens on the beach of its having risen two feet higher
than it ever did in the course of his experiments.



                                BOOK IV.

           FROM LEAVING NEW ZEALAND TO OUR RETURN TO ENGLAND.



                                CHAP. I.

 THE RUN FROM NEW ZEALAND TO TERRA DEL FUEGO, WITH THE RANGE FROM CAPE
 DESEADA TO CHRISTMAS SOUND, AND DESCRIPTION OF THAT PART OF THE COAST.


At daybreak on the 10th, with a fine breeze at W. N. W., we weighed and
stood out of the Sound; and, after getting round the Two Brothers,
steered for Cape Campbell, which is at the S. W. entrance of the Strait,
all sails set, with a fine breeze at north. At four in the afternoon, we
passed the Cape, at the distance of four or five leagues, and then
steered S. S. E. 1/2 E. with the wind at N. W. a gentle gale, and cloudy
weather.

Next morning, the wind veered round by the west to south, and forced us
more to the east than I intended. At seven o’clock in the evening, the
snowy mountains bore W. by S., and Cape Palliser N. 1/2 W. distant
sixteen or seventeen leagues; from which Cape I for the third time took
my departure. After a few hours’ calm, a breeze springing up at north,
we steered S. by E. all sails set, with a view of getting into the
latitude of 54° or 55°; my intention being to cross this vast ocean
nearly in these parallels, and so as to pass over those parts which were
left unexplored the preceding summer.

In the morning of the 12th, the wind increased to a fine gale: at noon
we observed in latitude 43° 13ʹ 30ʺ S., longitude 176° 41ʹ E., an
extraordinary fish of the whale kind was seen, which some called a
sea-monster. I did not see it myself. In the afternoon, our old
companions the pintado peterels began to appear.

On the 13th, in the morning, the wind veered to W. S. W. At seven,
seeing the appearance of land to the S. W. we hauled up towards it, and
soon found it to be a fog-bank. Afterwards we steered S. E. by S. and
soon after saw a seal. At noon, latitude, by account, 44° 25ʹ, longitude
177° 31ʹ E. Foggy weather, which continued all the afternoon. At six in
the evening, the wind veered to N. E. by N. and increased to a fresh
gale, attended with thick hazy weather; course steered E. E. 1/4 S.

On the 14th, A. M., saw another seal. At noon, latitude 45° 54ʹ,
longitude 179° 29ʹ E.

On the 15th, A. M., the wind veered to the westward; the fog cleared
away, but the weather continued cloudy. At noon, latitude 47° 30ʹ,
longitude 178° 19ʹ W.; for, having passed the meridian of 180° E., I now
reckon my longitude west of the first meridian, viz. Greenwich. In the
evening heard penguins, and the next morning saw some sea or rock weed.
At noon a fresh gale from the west and fine weather. Latitude observed
49° 33ʹ, longitude 175° 31ʹ W.

Next morning fresh gales and hazy weather; saw a seal and several pieces
of weed. At noon, latitude 51° 12ʹ, longitude 173° 17ʹ W. The wind
veered to the north and N. E. by N., blew a strong gale by squalls,
which split an old topgallant sail, and obliged us to double-reef the
topsails; but in the evening the wind moderated, and veered to W. N. W.
when we loosed a reef out of each topsail, and found the variation of
the compass to be 9° 52ʹ E., being then in the latitude 51° 47ʹ,
longitude 172° 21ʹ W.; and the next morning, the 18th, in the latitude
of 52° 25ʹ, longitude 170° 45ʹ W., it was 10° 26ʹ E. Towards noon, had
moderate but cloudy weather, and a great swell from the west: some
penguins and pieces of sea-weed seen.

On the 19th, steered E. S. E. with a very fresh gale at N., hazy, dirty
weather. At noon, latitude 53° 43ʹ, longitude 166° 15ʹ W.

On the 20th, steered E. by S. with a moderate breeze at N. attended with
thick hazy weather. At noon, latitude 54° 8ʹ, longitude 162° 18ʹ W.

On the 21st, winds mostly from the N. E. a fresh gale attended with
thick, hazy, dirty weather. Course S. E. by S., latitude, at noon, 55°
31ʹ, longitude 160° 29ʹ W.; abundance of blue peterels and some penguins
seen.

Fresh gales at N. W. by N. and N. by W., and hazy till towards noon of
the 22d, when the weather cleared up, and we observed in latitude 55°
48ʹ S., longitude 156° 56ʹ W. In the afternoon had a few hours’ calm;
after that, the wind came at S. S. E. and S. E. by S. a light breeze,
with which we steered east northerly. In the night the aurora australis
was visible, but very faint, and no ways remarkable.

On the 23d, in the latitude of 55° 46ʹ S., longitude 156° 13ʹ W., the
variation was 9° 42ʹ E. We had a calm from ten in the morning till six
in the evening, when a breeze sprung up at west; at first it blew a
gentle gale, but afterwards freshened. Our course was now E. 1/2 N.

On the 24th, a fresh breeze at N. W. by W. and N. by W. At noon, in
latitude 55° 38ʹ S., longitude 153° 37ʹ W., foggy in the night, but next
day had a fine gale at N. W. attended with clear pleasant weather;
course steered E. by N. In the evening, being in the latitude of 55° 8ʹ
S., longitude 148° 10ʹ W. the variation, by the mean of two compasses,
was 6° 35ʹ 1/2 E.

Having a steady fresh gale at N. N. W. on the 26th and 27th, we steered
east, and at noon, on the latter, were in latitude 55° 6ʹ S., longitude
138° 56ʹ W.

I now gave up all hopes of finding any more land in this ocean, and came
to a resolution to steer directly for the west entrance of the Straits
of Magalhaens, with a view of coasting the out or south side of Terra
del Fuego, round Cape Horn, to the Strait le Maire. As the world has but
a very imperfect knowledge of this shore, I thought the coasting of it
would be of more advantage, both to navigation and to geography, than
any thing I could expect to find in a higher latitude. In the afternoon
of this day, the wind blew in squalls, and carried away the main
topgallant mast.

A very strong gale northerly, with hazy rainy weather, on the 28th,
obliged us to double-reef the fore and main topsail, to hand the mizen
topsail, and get down the fore top-gallant yard. In the morning, the
bolt rope of the main topsail broke, and occasioned the sail to be
spilt. I have observed that the ropes to all our sails, the square sails
especially, are not of a size and strength sufficient to wear out the
canvass. At noon, latitude 55° 20ʹ S., longitude 134° 16ʹ W., a great
swell from N. W. albatrosses and blue peterels seen.

Next day towards noon, the wind abating, we loosed all the reefs out of
the topsails, rigged another top-gallant mast, and got the yards across.
P. M. little wind, and hazy weather; at midnight calm, that continued
till noon the next day, when a breeze sprung up at E. with which we
stretched to the northward. At this time we were in the latitude 55° 32ʹ
S., longitude 128° 45ʹ W., some albatrosses and peterels seen. At eight
P. M. the wind veering to N. E. we tacked and stood to E. S. E.

On the 1st of December, thick hazy weather, with drizzling rain, and a
moderate breeze of wind, which at three o’clock P. M. fell to a calm; at
this time in latitude 55° 41ʹ S., longitude 127° 5ʹ W. After four hours’
calm, the fog cleared away, and we got a wind at S. E. with which we
stood N. E.

Next day, a fresh breeze at S. E. and hazy foggy weather, except a few
hours in the morning, when we found the variation to be 1° 28ʹ E.,
latitude 55° 17ʹ, longitude 125° 41ʹ W. The variation after this was
supposed to increase; for on the 4th, in the morning, being in latitude
53° 21ʹ, longitude 121° 31ʹ W., it was 3° 16ʹ E.; in the evening, in
latitude 53° 13ʹ, longitude 119° 46ʹ W. it was 3° 28ʹ E.; and on the
5th, at six o’clock in the evening, in latitude 53° 8ʹ, longitude 115°
58ʹ W., it was 4° 1ʹ E.

For more than twenty-four hours having had a fine gale at S., this
enabled us to steer E., with very little deviation to the N.; and the
wind now altering to S. W. and blowing a steady fresh breeze, we
continued to steer E., inclining a little to S.

On the 6th, had some snow showers. In the evening, being in latitude 53°
13ʹ, longitude 111° 12ʹ, the variation was 4° 58ʹ E.; and the next
morning, being in latitude 58° 16ʹ, longitude 109° 33ʹ, it was 5° 1ʹ E.

The wind was now at W., a fine pleasant gale, sometimes with showers of
rain. Nothing remarkable happened, till the 9th, at noon, when being in
the latitude of 53° 37ʹ, longitude 103° 44ʹ W., the wind veered to N. E.
and afterwards came insensibly round to the S., by the E. and S. E.
attended with cloudy hazy weather, and some showers of rain.

On the 10th, a little before noon, latitude 54°, longitude 102° 7ʹ W.,
passed a small bed of sea-weed. In the afternoon the wind veered to
S. W., blew a fresh gale, attended with dark cloudy weather. We steered
E. half a point N.; and the next day, at six in the evening, being in
latitude 53° 35ʹ, longitude 95° 52ʹ W., the variation was 9° 58ʹ E. Many
and various sorts of albatrosses about the ship.

On the 12th, the wind veered to the W. N. W. and in the evening to N.;
and, at last, left us to a calm. That continued till midnight, when we
got a breeze at S.; which, soon after, veering to, and fixing at, W. we
steered E.; and on the 14th, in the morning, found the variation to be
13° 25ʹ E., latitude 53° 25ʹ, longitude 87° 53ʹ W.; and in the
afternoon, being in the same latitude, and the longitude of 86° 2ʹ W. it
was 15° 3ʹ E., and increased in such a manner, that on the 15th, in the
latitude of 53° 30ʹ, longitude 82° 23ʹ W., it was 17° E.; and the next
evening, in the latitude of 53° 25ʹ, longitude 78° 40ʹ, it was 17° 38ʹ
E. About this time, we saw a penguin and a piece of weed; and the next
morning, a seal and some diving peterels. For the three last days, the
wind had been at W., a steady fresh gale, attended, now and then, with
showers of rain or hail.

At six in the morning of the 17th, being nearly in the same latitude as
above, and in the longitude of 77° 10ʹ W., the variation was 18° 33ʹ E.;
and in the afternoon it was 21° 38ʹ, being at that time in latitude 53°
16ʹ S., longitude 75° 9ʹ W. In the morning, as well as in the afternoon,
I took some observations to determine the longitude by the watch; and
the results, reduced to noon, gave 76° 18ʹ 30ʺ W. At the same time, the
longitude, by my reckoning, was 76° 17ʹ W. But I have reason to think,
that we were about half a degree more to the west than either the one or
the other; our latitude, at the same time, was 53° 21ʹ S.

We steered E. by N. and E. 1/2 N. all this day, under all the sail we
could carry, with a fine fresh gale at N. W. by W. in expectation of
seeing the land before night; but not making it till ten o’clock, we
took in the studding-sails, top-gallant sails, and a reef in each
topsail, and steered E. N. E. in order to make sure of falling in with
Cape Deseada.

Two hours after, we made the land, extending from N. E. by N. to E. by
S. about six leagues distant. On this discovery, we wore and brought to,
with the ship’s head to the S., and having sounded, found seventy-five
fathoms water, the bottom stone and shells. The land now before us could
be no other than the west coast of Terra del Fuego, and near the west
entrance to the Straits of Magalhaens.

As this was the first run that had been made directly across this ocean,
in a high southern latitude[14], I have been a little particular in
noting every circumstance that appeared in the least material; and after
all, I must observe that I never made a passage any where of such
length, or even much shorter, where so few interesting circumstances
occurred. For, if I except the variation of the compass, I know of
nothing else worth notice. The weather had been neither unusually stormy
nor cold. Before we arrived in the latitude of 50°, the mercury in the
thermometer fell gradually from sixty to fifty; and after we arrived in
the latitude of 55°, it was generally between forty-seven and
forty-five; once or twice it fell to forty-three. These observations
were made at noon.

I have now done with the Southern Pacific Ocean; and flatter myself that
no one will think that I have left it unexplored; or that more could
have been done, in one voyage, towards obtaining that end, than has been
done in this.

Soon after we left New Zealand, Mr. Wales contrived, and fixed up an
instrument, which very accurately measured the angle the ship rolled,
when sailing large and in a great sea; and that in which she lay down,
when sailing upon a wind. The greatest angle he observed her to roll was
38°. This was on the 6th of this month, when the sea was not unusually
high; so that it cannot be reckoned the greatest roll she had made. The
most he observed her to heel or lie down, when sailing upon a wind, was
18°; and this was under double-reefed topsails and courses.

On the 18th, at three in the morning, we sounded again, and found one
hundred and ten fathoms, the same bottom as before. We now made sail
with a fresh gale at N. W. and steered S. E. by E. along the coast. It
extended from Cape Deseada, which bore N. 7° E., to E. S. E., a pretty
high ragged isle, which lies near a league from the main, and S. 18° E.
six leagues from Cape Deseada, bore N. 49° E. distant four leagues; and
it obtained the name of Landfall. At four o’clock, we were north and
south of the high land of Cape Deseada, distant about nine leagues; so
that we saw none of the low rocks said to lie off it. The latitude of
this Cape is about 53° S. longitude 74° 40ʹ W.

Continuing to range the coast, at about two leagues distance, at eleven
o’clock we passed a projecting point, which I called Cape Gloucester. It
shows a round surface of considerable height, and has much the
appearance of being an island. It lies S. S. E., 1/2 E., distant
seventeen leagues from the Isle of Landfall. The coast between them
forms two bays, strewed with rocky islets, rocks, and breakers. The
coast appeared very broken with many inlets; or rather it seemed to be
composed of a number of islands. The land is very mountainous, rocky,
and barren, spotted, here and there, with tufts of wood, and patches of
snow. At noon Cape Gloucester bore N. distant eight miles, and the most
advanced point of land to the S. E. which we judged to be Cape Noir,
bore S. E. by S. distant seven or eight leagues. Latitude observed 54°
13ʹ S. Longitude made from Cape Deseada, 54ʹ E. From Cape Gloucester,
off which lies a small rocky island, the direction of the coast is
nearly S. E.; but to Cape Noir, for which we steered, the course is
S. S. E., distant about ten leagues.

At three o’clock, we passed Cape Noir, which is a steep rock of
considerable height, and the S. W. point of a large island that seemed
to lie detached a league or a league and a half from the main land. The
land of the Cape, when at a distance from it, appeared to be an island
disjoined from the other; but, on a nearer approach, we found it
connected by a low neck of land. At the point of the Cape are two rocks;
the one peaked like a sugar-loaf, the other not so high, and showing a
rounder surface; and S. by E. two leagues from the Cape are two other
rocky islets. This Cape is situated in the latitude of 54° 30ʹ S.
longitude 73° 33ʹ W.

After passing the two islets, we steered E. S. E. crossing the great bay
of St. Barbara. We but just saw the land in the bottom of it; which
could not be less than seven or eight leagues from us. There was a
space, lying in the direction of E. N. E. from Cape Noir, where no land
was to be seen: this may be the Channel of St. Barbara which opens into
the Straits of Magalhaens, as mentioned by Frezier. We found the Cape to
agree very well with his description; which shows that he laid down the
channel from good memoirs. At ten o’clock, drawing near the S. E. point
of the bay, which lies nearly in the direction of S. 60° E. from Cape
Noir, eighteen leagues distant, we shortened sail, and spent the night
standing off and on.

At two o’clock in the morning of the 19th, having made sail, we steered
S. E. by E. along the coast, and soon passed the S. E. point of the Bay
of St. Barbara, which I called Cape Desolation; because near it
commenced the most desolate and barren country I ever saw. It is
situated in the latitude of 54° 55ʹ S., longitude 72° 12ʹ W. About four
leagues to the east of this Cape is a deep inlet, at the entrance of
which lies a pretty large island, and some others of less note. Nearly
in this situation some charts place a channel leading into the Straits
of Magalhaens, under the name of Straits of Jelouzel. At ten o’clock,
being about a league and a half from the land, we sounded, and found
sixty fathoms water, a bottom of small stones and shells.

The wind, which had been fresh at N. by W. began to abate, and at noon
it fell calm, when we observed in latitude 55° 20ʹ S., longitude made
from Cape Deseada 3° 24ʹ E. In this situation we were about three
leagues from the nearest shore, which was that of an island. This I
named Gilbert Isle, after my master. It is nearly of the same height
with the rest of the coast, and shows a surface composed of several
peaked rocks unequally high. A little to the S. E. of it are some
smaller islands, and, without them, breakers.

I have before observed that this is the most desolate coast I ever saw.
It seems entirely composed of rocky mountains without the least
appearance of vegetation. These mountains terminate in horrible
precipices, whose craggy summits spire up to a vast height; so that
hardly any thing in nature can appear with a more barren and savage
aspect than the whole of this country. The inland mountains were covered
with snow, but those on the sea-coast were not. We judged the former to
belong to the main of Terra del Fuego, and the latter to be islands, so
ranged as apparently to form a coast.

After three hours’ calm, we got a breeze at S. E. by E. and having made
a short trip to south, stood in for the land; the most advanced point of
which, that we had in sight, bore E., distant ten leagues. This is a
lofty promontory, lying E. S. E. nineteen leagues from Gilbert Isle, and
situated in latitude 55° 26ʹ S. longitude 70° 25ʹ W. Viewed from the
situation we now were in, it terminated in two high towers; and within
them a hill shaped like a sugar-loaf. This wild rock therefore obtained
the name of York Minster. Two leagues to the westward of this head
appeared a large inlet, the west point of which we fetched in with, by
nine o’clock, when we tacked in forty-one fathoms water, half a league
from the shore: to the westward of this inlet was another, with several
islands lying in the entrance.

During the night between the 19th and 20th, we had little wind easterly,
which in the morning veered to N. E. and N. N. E., but it was too faint
to be of use; and at ten, we had a calm, when we observed the ship to
drive from off the shore out to sea. We had made the same observation
the day before. This must have been occasioned by a current; and the
melting of the snow increasing, the inland waters will cause a stream to
run out of most of these inlets. At noon, we observed in latitude 55°
39ʹ 30ʺ S. York Minster, then bearing N. 15° E., distant five leagues;
and Round-hill, just peeping above the horizon, which we judged to
belong to the isles of Saint Ildefonso, E. 25° S., ten or eleven leagues
distant. At ten o’clock, a breeze springing up at E. by S., I took this
opportunity to stand in for the land, being desirous of going into one
of the many ports which seemed open to receive us, in order to take a
view of the country, and to recruit our stock of wood and water.

In standing in for an opening, which appeared on the east side of York
Minster, we had forty, thirty-seven, fifty, and sixty fathoms water, a
bottom of small stones and shells. When we had the last soundings we
were nearly in the middle between the two points that form the entrance
to the inlet, which we observed to branch into two arms, both of them
lying in nearly N., and disjoined by a high rocky point. We stood for
the eastern branch as being clear of islets; and after passing a black
rocky one, lying without the point just mentioned, we sounded and found
no bottom with a line of an hundred and seventy fathoms. This was
altogether unexpected, and a circumstance that would not have been
regarded, if the breeze had continued; but, at this time, it fell calm,
so that it was not possible to extricate ourselves from this
disagreeable situation. Two boats were hoisted out, and sent a-head to
tow; but they would have availed little, had not a breeze sprung up
about eight o’clock, at S. W. which put it in my power either to stand
out to sea, or up the inlet. Prudence seemed to point out the former;
but the desire of finding a good port, and of learning something of the
country, getting the better of every other consideration, I resolved to
stand in; and as night was approaching, our safety depended on getting
to an anchor. With this view we continued to sound, but always had an
unfathomable depth.

Hauling up under the east side of the land which divided the two arms,
and seeing a small cove a-head, I sent a boat to sound; and we kept as
near the shore as the flurries from the land would permit, in order to
be able to get into this place, if there should be anchorage. The boat
soon returned, and informed us that there was thirty and twenty-five
fathoms water, a full cable’s length from the shore. Here we anchored in
thirty fathoms, the bottom sand and broken shells; and carried out a
kedge and hawser, to steady the ship for the night.



                               CHAP. II.

TRANSACTIONS IN CHRISTMAS SOUND, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE COUNTRY AND ITS
                              INHABITANTS.


The morning of the 21st was calm and pleasant. After breakfast, I set
out with two boats to look for a more secure station. We no sooner got
round, or above the point, under which the ship lay, than we found a
cove in which was anchorage in thirty, twenty, and fifteen fathoms, the
bottom stones and sand. At the head of the cove was a stony beach, a
valley covered with wood, and a stream of fresh water; so that there was
every thing we could expect to find in such a place, or rather more; for
we shot three geese out of four that we saw, and caught some young ones,
which we afterwards let go.

After discovering and sounding this cove, I sent lieutenant Clerke, who
commanded the other boat, on board, with orders to remove the ship into
this place, while I proceeded farther up the inlet. I presently saw that
the land we were under, which disjoined the two arms, as mentioned
before, was an island, at the north end of which the two channels
united. After this I hastened on board, and found every thing in
readiness to weigh; which was accordingly done, and all the boats sent
a-head to tow the ship round the point. But, at that moment, a light
breeze came in from the sea too scant to fill our sails; so that we were
obliged to drop the anchor again, for fear of falling upon the point,
and to carry out a kedge to windward. That being done, we hove up the
anchor, warped up to, and weighed the kedge, and proceeding round the
point under our stay-sails, there anchored with the best bower, in
twenty fathoms; and moored with the other bower, which lay to the north,
in thirteen fathoms. In this position we were shut in from the sea by
the point above mentioned, which was in one with the extremity of the
inlet to the east. Some islets, off the next point above us, covered us
from the N. W., from which quarter the wind had the greatest fetch; and
our distance from the shore was about one-third of a mile.

Thus situated, we went to work, to clear a place to fill water, to cut
wood, and to set up a tent for the reception of a guard, which was
thought necessary; as we had already discovered, that, barren as this
country is, it was not without people, though we had not yet seen any.
Mr. Wales also got his observatory and instruments on shore; but it was
with the greatest difficulty he could find a place of sufficient
stability, and clear of the mountains, which every where surrounded us,
to set them up in; and at last he was obliged to content himself with
the top of a rock, not more than nine feet over.

Next day I sent lieutenants Clerke and Pickersgill, accompanied by some
of the other officers, to examine and draw a sketch of the channel on
the other side of the island; and I went myself in another boat,
accompanied by the botanists, to survey the northern parts of the sound.
In my way, I landed on the point of a low isle covered with herbage,
part of which had been lately burnt; we likewise saw a hut; signs
sufficient that people were in the neighbourhood. After I had taken the
necessary bearings, we proceeded round the east end of Burnt Island, and
over to what we judged to be the main of Terra del Fuego, where we found
a very fine harbour encompassed by steep rocks of vast height, down
which ran many limpid streams of water; and at the foot of the rocks,
some tufts of trees, fit for little else but fuel.

This harbour, which I shall distinguish by the name of the Devil’s
Bason, is divided, as it were, into two, an inner and an outer one; and
the communication between them is by a narrow channel five fathoms deep.
In the outer bason, I found thirteen and seventeen fathoms water, and in
the inner, seventeen and twenty-three. This last is as secure a place as
can be, but nothing can be more gloomy. The vast height of the savage
rocks which encompass it, deprived great part of it, even on this day,
of the meridian sun. The outer harbour is not quite free from this
inconvenience, but far more so than the other; it is also rather more
commodious, and equally safe. It lies in the direction of north, a mile
and an half distant from the east end of Burnt Island. I likewise found
a good anchoring-place a little to the west of this harbour, before a
stream of water that comes out of a lake or large reservoir, which is
continually supplied by a cascade falling into it.

Leaving this place, we proceeded along the shore to the westward, and
found other harbours, which I had not time to look into. In all of them
is fresh water, and wood for fuel; but except these little tufts of
bushes, the whole country is a barren rock, doomed by nature to
everlasting sterility. The low islands, and even some of the higher,
which lie scattered up and down the sound, are indeed mostly covered
with shrubs and herbage, the soil a black rotten turf, evidently
composed, by length of time, of decayed vegetables.

I had an opportunity to verify what we had observed at sea; that the
sea-coast is composed of a number of large and small islands, and that
the numerous inlets are formed by the junction of several channels; at
least so it is here. On one of these low islands, we found several huts,
which had lately been inhabited; and near them was a good deal of
celery, with which we loaded our boat, and returned on board at seven
o’clock in the evening. In this expedition we met with little game; one
duck, three or four shags, and about that number of rails or sea-pies,
being all we got. The other boat returned on board some hours before;
having found two harbours on the west side of the other channel; the one
large, and the other small; but both of them safe and commodious;
though, by the sketch Mr. Pickersgill had taken of them, the access to
both appeared rather intricate.

I was now told of a melancholy accident which had befallen one of our
marines. He had not been seen since eleven or twelve o’clock the
preceding night. It was supposed that he had fallen over-board out of
the head, where he had been last seen, and was drowned.

Having fine pleasant weather on the 23d, I sent lieutenant Pickersgill
in the cutter, to explore the east side of the sound, and went myself in
the pinnace to the west side, with an intent to go round the island,
under which we were at anchor, (and which I shall distinguish by the
name of Shag island), in order to view the passage leading to the
harbours Mr. Pickersgill had discovered the day before, on which I made
the following observations. In coming from sea, leave all the rocks and
islands, lying off and within York Minster, on your larboard side; and
the black rock, which lies off the south end of Shag island, on your
starboard; and when abreast of the south end of that island, haul over
for the west shore, taking care to avoid the beds of weeds you will see
before you, as they always grow on rocks; some of which I have found
twelve fathoms under water; but it is always best to keep clear of them.
The entrance to the large harbour, or Port Clerke, is just to the north
of some low rocks lying off a point on Shag Island. This harbour lies in
W. by S. a mile and an half, and hath in it from twelve to twenty-four
fathoms depth, wood and fresh water. About a mile without, or to the
southward of Port Clerke, is, or seemed to be, another which I did not
examine. It is formed by a large island, which covers it from the south
and east winds. Without this island, that is, between it and York
Minster, the sea seemed strewed with islets, rocks, and breakers. In
proceeding round the south end of Shag Island, we observed the shags to
breed in vast numbers in the cliffs of the rocks. Some of the old ones
we shot, but could not come at the young ones, which are, by far, the
best eating. On the east side of the island we saw some geese; and
having with difficulty landed, we killed three, which at this time was a
valuable acquisition.

About seven in the evening we got on board, where Mr. Pickersgill had
arrived but just before. He informed me that the land opposite to our
station was an island, which he had been round; that, on another, more
to the north, he found many _terns’_ eggs, and that without the great
island, between it and the east head, lay a cove in which were many
geese; one only of which he got, besides some young goslins.

This information of Mr. Pickersgill induced me to make up two shooting
parties next day; Mr. Pickersgill and his associates going in the
cutter, and myself and the botanists in the pinnace. Mr. Pickersgill
went by the N. E. side of the large island above mentioned, which
obtained the name of Goose Island; and I went by the S. W. side. As soon
as we got under the island, we found plenty of shags in the cliffs, but,
without staying to spend our time and shot upon these, we proceeded on,
and presently found sport enough; for, in the south of the island, were
abundance of geese. It happened to be the moulting season; and most of
them were on shore for that purpose, and could not fly. There being a
great surf, we found great difficulty in landing, and very bad climbing
over the rocks when we were landed; so that hundreds of the geese
escaped us, some into the sea, and others up into the island. We,
however, by one means or other, got sixty-two; with which we returned on
board, all heartily tired; but the acquisition we had made overbalanced
every other consideration, and we sat down with a good appetite to
supper, on part of what the preceding day had produced. Mr. Pickersgill
and his associates had got on board some time before us with fourteen
geese; so that I was able to make distribution to the whole crew, which
was the more acceptable, on account of the approaching festival; for,
had not Providence thus singularly provided for us, our Christmas cheer
must have been salt beef and pork.

I now learnt that a number of the natives, in nine canoes, had been
along-side the ship; and some on board. Little address was required to
persuade them to either; for they seemed to be well enough acquainted
with Europeans, and had, amongst them, some of their knives.

The next morning, the 25th, they made us another visit. I found them to
be of the same nation I had formerly seen in Success-Bay; and the same
which M. de Bougainville distinguishes by the name of Pecheras; a word
which these had, on every occasion, in their mouths. They are a little,
ugly, half-starved, beardless race. I saw not a tall person amongst
them. They were almost naked; their clothing was a seal-skin; some had
two or three sewed together, so as to make a cloak which reached to the
knees; but the most of them had only one skin, hardly large enough to
cover their shoulders; and all their lower parts were quite naked. The
women, I was told, cover their nakedness with a flap of a seal-skin, but
in other respects are clothed like the men. They, as well as the
children, remained in the canoes. I saw two young children at the breast
entirely naked; thus they are inured from their infancy to cold and
hardships. They had with them bows and arrows, and darts, or rather
harpoons, made of bone, and fitted to a staff. I suppose they were
intended to kill seals and fish; they may also kill whales with them, as
the Esquimaux do. I know not if they resemble them in their love of
train-oil; but they, and every thing they had, smelt most intolerably of
it. I ordered them some biscuit, but did not observe them so fond of it
as I had been told. They were much better pleased when I gave them some
medals, knives, &c.

The women and children, as before observed, remained in the canoes.
These were made of bark; and in each was a fire, over which the poor
creatures huddled themselves. I cannot suppose that they carry a fire in
their canoes for this purpose only; but rather that it may be always
ready to remove ashore wherever they land; for let their method of
obtaining fire be what it may, they cannot be always sure of finding dry
fuel that will kindle from a spark. They likewise carry in their canoes
large seal hides, which, I judged, were to shelter them when at sea, and
to serve as covering to their huts on shore; and occasionally to be used
for sails.

They all retired before dinner, and did not wait to partake of our
Christmas cheer. Indeed I believe no one invited them, and for good
reasons; for their dirty persons, and the stench they carried about
them, were enough to spoil the appetite of any European; and that would
have been a real disappointment, as we had not experienced such fare for
some time. Roast and boiled geese, goose-pye, &c. was a treat little
known to us; and we had yet some Madeira wine left, which was the only
article of our provision that was mended by keeping. So that our friends
in England, did not, perhaps, celebrate Christmas more cheerfully than
we did.

On the 26th, little wind, next to a calm, and fair weather, except in
the morning, when we had some showers of rain. In the evening, when it
was cold, the natives made us another visit; and it being distressing to
see them stand trembling and naked on the deck, I could do no less than
to give them some baize and old canvass to cover themselves.

Having already completed our water, on the 27th I ordered the wood,
tent, and observatory to be got on board; and, as this was work for the
day, a party of us went in two boats to shoot geese, the weather being
fine and pleasant. We proceeded round by the south side of Goose Island,
and picked up in all thirty-one. On the east side of the island, to the
north of the east point, is good anchorage, in seventeen fathoms water,
where it is entirely land-locked. This is a good place for ships to lie
in that are bound to the west. On the north side of this isle, I
observed three fine coves, in which were both wood and water; but it
being near night, I had no time to sound them; though I doubt not, there
is anchorage. The way to come at them is by the west end of the island.

When I returned on board, I found every thing got off the shore, and the
launch in; so that we now only waited for a wind to put to sea. The
festival, which we celebrated at this place, occasioned my giving it the
name of Christmas Sound. The entrance, which is three leagues wide, is
situated in the latitude of 55° 27ʹ S., longitude 70° 16ʹ W.; and in the
direction of N. 37° W. from St. Ildefonso Isles, distant ten leagues.
These isles are the best landmark for finding the sound. York Minster,
which is the only remarkable land about it, will hardly be known by a
stranger from any description that can be given of it, because it alters
its appearance according to the different situations it is viewed from.
Besides the black rock, which lies off the end of Shag Island, there is
another about midway between this and the east shore. A copious
description of this sound is unnecessary, as few would be benefited by
it. The sketch which accompanies this journal will be a sufficient guide
for such ships as chance may bring hither. Anchorage, tufts of wood, and
fresh water, will be found in all the coves and harbours. I would advise
no one to anchor very near the shore for the sake of having a moderate
depth of water; because there I generally found a rocky bottom.

The refreshments to be got here are precarious, as they consist chiefly
of wild fowl, and may probably never be found in such plenty as to
supply the crew of a ship; and fish, so far as we can judge, are scarce.
Indeed the plenty of wild fowl made us pay less attention to fishing.
Here are, however, plenty of muscles, not very large, but well tasted;
and very good celery is to be met with on several of the low islets, and
where the natives have their habitations. The wild-fowl are geese,
ducks, sea-pies, shags, and that kind of gull so often mentioned in this
journal under the name of Port Egmont hen. Here is a kind of duck,
called by our people race-horses, on account of the great swiftness with
which they run on the water; for they cannot fly, the wings being too
short to support the body in the air. This bird is at the Falkland
Islands, as appears by Pernety’s journal.[15] The geese too are there,
and seem to be very well described under the name of bustards. They are
much smaller than our English tame geese, but eat as well as any I ever
tasted. They have short black bills and yellow feet. The gander is all
white; the female is spotted black and white, or grey with a large white
spot on each wing. Besides the bird above mentioned, here are several
other aquatic, and some land ones; but of the latter not many.

From the knowledge which the inhabitants seem to have of Europeans, we
may suppose that they do not live here continually, but retire to the
north during the winter. I have often wondered that these people do not
clothe themselves better, since nature has certainly provided materials.
They might line their seal-skin cloaks with the skins and feathers of
aquatic birds; they might make their cloaks larger, and employ the same
skins for other parts of clothing; for I cannot suppose they are scarce
with them. They were ready enough to part with those they had to our
people; which they hardly would have done, had they not known where to
have got more. In short, of all the nations I have seen, the Pecheras
are the most wretched. They are doomed to live in one of the most
inhospitable climates in the world, without having sagacity enough to
provide themselves with such conveniences as may render life in some
measure more comfortable.

Barren as this country is, it abounds with a variety of unknown plants,
and gave sufficient employment to Mr. Forster and his party. The tree
which produceth the Winter’s bark, is found here in the woods, as is the
holly-leaved barberry, and some other sorts which I know not, but I
believe are common in the Straits of Magalhaens. We found plenty of a
berry which we called the cranberry, because they are nearly of the same
colour, size, and shape. It grows on a bushy plant, has a bitterish
taste, rather insipid; but may be eaten either raw or in tarts, and is
used as food by the natives.



                               CHAP. III.

 RANGE FROM CHRISTMAS SOUND, ROUND CAPE HORN, THROUGH STRAIT LE MAIRE,
AND ROUND STATEN LAND; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF A HARBOUR IN
             THAT ISLAND, AND A DESCRIPTION OF THE COASTS.


At four o’clock in the morning on the 28th, we began to unmoor; and at
eight weighed and stood out to sea, with a light breeze at N. W. which
afterwards freshened, and was attended with rain. At noon, the east
point of the sound (Point Nativity), bore N. 1/2 W.; distant one and a
half leagues, and St. Ildefonso Isles S. E. 1/2 S., distant seven
leagues. The coast seemed to trend in the direction of E. by S., but the
weather being very hazy, nothing appeared distinct.

We continued to steer S. E. by E. and E. S. E., with a fresh breeze at
W. N. W., till four o’clock P. M., when we hauled to the South, in order
to have a nearer view of St. Ildefonso Isles. At this time we were
abreast of an inlet, which lies E. S. E. about seven leagues from the
sound; but it must be observed that there are some isles without this
distinction. At the west point of the inlet, are two high peaked hills;
and below them, to the E. two round hills, or isles, which lie in the
direction of N. E. and S. W. of each other. An island, or what appeared
to be an island, lay in the entrance; and another but smaller inlet
appeared to the west of this; indeed, the coast appeared indented and
broken as usual.

At half-past five o’clock, the weather clearing up, gave us a good sight
of Ildefonso Isles. They are a group of islands and rocks above water,
situated above six leagues from the main, and in the latitude of 55° 53ʹ
S., longitude 69° 41ʹ W.

We now resumed our course to the east; and, at sun-set, the most
advanced land bore S. E. by E. 3/4 E.; and a point, which I judged to be
the west point of Nassau Bay, discovered by the Dutch fleet under the
command of Admiral Hermite in 1624, bore N. 80° E., six leagues distant.
In some charts, this point is called false Cape Horn, as being the
southern point of Terra del Fuego. It is situated in latitude 55° 39ʹ S.
From the inlet above-mentioned to this false cape, the direction of the
coast is nearly E., half a point S., distant fourteen or fifteen
leagues.

At ten o’clock, having shortened sail, we spent the night in making
short boards under the top-sails, and at three next morning, made sail,
and steered S. E. by S. with a fresh breeze at W. S. W., the weather
somewhat hazy. At this time, the west entrance to Nassau Bay extended
from N. by E. to N. 1/2 E., and the south side of Hermite’s Isles, E. by
S. At four, _Cape Horn_, for which we now steered, bore E. by S. It is
known, at a distance, by a high round hill over it. A point to the
W. N. W. shows a surface not unlike this; but their situations alone
will always distinguish the one from the other.

At half past seven, we passed this famous _cape_, and entered the
Southern Atlantic Ocean. It is the very same point of land I took for
the cape, when I passed it in 1769, which at that time I was doubtful
of. It is the most southern extremity on a group of islands of unequal
extent, lying before Nassau Bay, known by the name of Hermite Islands,
and is situated in the latitude of 55° 58ʹ, and in the longitude of 68°
13ʹ west, according to the observations made of it in 1769. But the
observations, which we had in Christmas Sound, and reduced to the cape,
by the watch, and others, which we had afterwards, and reduced back to
it by the same means, place it in 67° 19ʹ. It is most probable that a
mean between the two, viz. 67° 46ʹ will be nearest the truth. On the
N. W. side of the cape are two peaked rocks like sugar loaves. They lie
N. W. by N. and S. E. by S., by compass, of each other. Some other
straggling low rocks lie west of the cape, and one south of it; but they
are all near the shore. From Christmas Sound to Cape Horn, the course is
E. S. E. 1/4 E. distant thirty-one leagues. In the direction of
E. N. E., three leagues from Cape Horn, is a rocky point, which I called
Mistaken Cape, and is the southern point of the easternmost of Hermite
Isles. Between these two capes there seemed to be a passage directly
into Nassau Bay; some small isles were seen in the passage; and the
coast, on the west side, had the appearance of forming good bays or
harbours. In some charts, Cape Horn is laid down as belonging to a small
island. This was neither confirmed, nor can it be contradicted by us;
for several breakers appeared in the coast, both to the east and west of
it; and the hazy weather rendered every object indistinct. The summits
of some of the hills were rocky, but the sides and valleys seemed
covered with a green turf, and wooded in tufts.

From Cape Horn we steered E. by N. 1/2 N. which direction carried us
without the rocks that lie off Mistaken Cape. These rocks are white with
the dung of fowls; and vast numbers were seen about them. After passing
them, we steered N. E. 1/2 E. and N. E. for Strait Le Maire, with a view
of looking into Success Bay, to see if there were any traces of the
Adventure having been there. At eight o’clock in the evening, drawing
near the strait, we shortened sail, and hauled the wind. At this time
the Sugar-loaf on Terra del Fuego bore N. 33° W.; the point of Success
Bay, just open of the cape of the same name, bearing N. 20° E.; and
Staten Land, extending from N. 53° E. to 67° E. Soon after, the wind
died away, and we had light airs and calms by turns till near noon the
next day; during which time we were driven by the current over to Staten
Land.

The calm being succeeded by a light breeze at N. N. W. we stood over for
Success Bay, assisted by the currents, which set to the north. Before
this, we had hoisted our colours, and fired two guns; and soon after,
saw a smoke rise out of the woods, above the south point of the bay;
which I judged was made by the natives, as it was at the place where
they resided when I was here in 1769. As soon as we got off the bay, I
sent lieutenant Pickersgill to see if any traces remained of the
Adventure having been there lately; and in the mean time we stood on and
off with the ship. At two o’clock, the current turned and set to the
south; and Mr. Pickersgill informed me when he returned, that it was
falling water on shore; which was contrary to what I had observed when I
was here before; for I thought then that the flood came from the north.
Mr. Pickersgill saw not the least signs of any ship having been there
lately. I had inscribed our ship’s name on a card, which he nailed to a
tree at the place where the Endeavour watered. This was done with a view
of giving Captain Furneaux some information, in case he should be behind
us and put in here.

On Mr. Pickersgill’s landing, he was courteously received by several of
the natives, who were cloathed in guanicoe and seal skins, and had on
their arms bracelets, made of silver wire, and wrought not unlike the
hilt of a sword, being no doubt the manufacture of some Europeans. They
were the same kind of people we had seen in Christmas Sound; and, like
them, repeated the word Pechera on every occasion. One man spoke much to
Mr. Pickersgill, pointing first to the ship and then to the bay, as if
he wanted her to come in. Mr. Pickersgill said the bay was full of
whales and seals; and we had observed the same in the strait, especially
on the Terra del Fuego side, where the whales, in particular, are
exceedingly numerous.

As soon as the boat was hoisted in, which was not till near six o’clock,
we made sail to the east, with a fine breeze at north. For since we had
explored the south coast of Terra del Fuego, I resolved to do the same
by Staten Land; which I believed to have been as little known as the
former. At nine o’clock the wind freshening, and veering to N. W. we
tacked, and stood to S. W. in order to spend the night; which proved
none of the best, being stormy and hazy, with rain.

Next morning, at three o’clock, we bore up for the east end of Staten
Land, which, at half past four, bore S. 60° E. the west end S. 2° E. and
the land of Terra del Fuego S. 40° W. Soon after I had taken these
bearings, the land was again obscured in a thick haze, and we were
obliged to make way, as it were, in the dark; for it was but now and
then we got a sight of the coast. As we advanced to the east, we
perceived several islands, of unequal extent, lying off the land. There
seemed to be a clear passage between the easternmost and the one next to
it, to the west. I would gladly have gone through this passage, and
anchored under one of the islands, to have waited for better weather;
for on sounding we found only twenty-nine fathoms water; but when I
considered that this was running to leeward in the dark, I chose to keep
without the islands, and accordingly hauled off to the north. At eight
o’clock we were abreast of the most eastern isle, distant from it about
two miles, and had the same depth of water as before. I now shortened
sail to the three top-sails, to wait for clear weather; for the fog was
so thick, that we could see no other land than this island. After
waiting an hour, and the weather not clearing up, we bore, and hauled
round the east end of the island, for the sake of smooth water and
anchorage, if it should be necessary. In hauling round, we found a
strong race of a current, like unto broken water; but we had no less
than nineteen fathoms. We also saw on the island abundance of seals and
birds. This was a temptation too great for people in our situation to
withstand, to whom fresh provisions of any kind were acceptable; and
determined me to anchor, in order that we might taste of what we now
only saw at a distance. At length, after making a few boards, fishing,
as it were, for the best ground, we anchored in twenty-one fathoms
water, a stony bottom, about a mile from the island, which extended from
N. 18° E. to N. 55° 1/2 W.; and soon after, the weather clearing up, we
saw Cape St. John, or the east end of Staten Land, bearing S. 75° E.,
distant four leagues. We were sheltered from the south wind by Staten
Land, and from the north wind by the island; the other isles lay to the
west, and secured us from that wind; but beside being open to the N. E.
and E. we also lay exposed to the N. N. W. winds. This might have been
avoided by anchoring more to the west; but I made choice of my situation
for two reasons: first, to be near the island we intended to land upon;
and secondly, to be able to get to sea with any wind.

[Illustration: _Christmas Sound, Terra del Fuego._]

After dinner we hoisted out three boats, and landed with a large party
of men; some to kill seals; others to catch or kill birds, fish, or what
came in our way. To find of the former, it mattered not where we landed;
for the whole shore was covered with them; and, by the noise they made,
one would have thought the island was stocked with cows and calves. On
landing, we found they were a different animal from seals, but in shape
and motion exactly resembling them. We called them lions, on account of
the great resemblance the male has to that beast. Here were also the
same kind of seals which we found in New Zealand, generally known by the
name of sea-bears; at least, we gave them that name. They were, in
general, so tame, or rather stupid, as to suffer us to come near enough
to knock them down with sticks; but the large ones we shot, not thinking
it safe to approach them. We also found on the island abundance of
penguins and shags; and the latter had young ones almost fledged, and
just to our taste. Here were geese and ducks, but not many; birds of
prey, and a few small birds. In the evening we returned on board, our
boats well laden with one thing or other.

Next day being January the 1st, 1775, finding that nothing was wanting
but a good harbour to make this a tolerable place for ships to refresh
at, whom chance or design might bring hither, I sent Mr. Gilbert over to
Staten Land in the cutter, to look for one. Appearances promised
success, in a place opposite the ship. I sent also two other boats for
the lions, &c. we had killed the preceding day; and soon after, I went
myself, and observed the sun’s meridian altitude at the N. E. end of the
island, which gave the latitude 54° 40ʹ 5ʺ south. After shooting a few
geese, some other birds, and plentifully supplying ourselves with young
shags, we returned on board, laden with sea-lions, sea-bears, &c. The
old lions and bears were killed chiefly for the sake of their blubber,
or fat, to make oil of; for, except their harslets, which were
tolerable, the flesh was too rank to be eaten with any degree of relish.
But the young cubs were very palatable; and even the flesh of some of
the old lionesses was not much amiss; but that of the old males was
abominable. In the afternoon, I sent some people on shore to skin and
cut off the fat of those which yet remained dead on shore; for we had
already more carcasses on board than necessary; and I went myself, in
another boat, to collect birds. About ten o’clock Mr. Gilbert returned
from Staten Land, where he found a good port, situated three leagues to
the westward of Cape St. John, and in the direction of north, a little
easterly, from the N. E. end of the eastern island. It may be known by
some small islands lying in the entrance. The channel, which is on the
east side of these islands, is half a mile broad. The course in is S. W.
by S. turning gradually to W. by S. and west. The harbour lies nearly in
this last direction; is almost two miles in length; in some places near
a mile broad; and hath in it from fifty to ten fathoms water, a bottom
of mud and sand. Its shores are covered with wood fit for fuel; and in
it are several streams of fresh water. On the islands were sea-lions,
&c. and such an innumerable quantity of gulls as to darken the air when
disturbed, and almost to suffocate our people with their dung. This they
seemed to void in a way of defence, and it stunk worse than asafœtida,
or as it is commonly called, devil’s dung. Our people also saw several
geese, ducks, and race-horses, which is also a kind of duck. The day on
which this port was discovered, occasioned my calling it New Year’s
Harbour. It would be more convenient for ships bound to the west, or
round Cape Horn, if its situation would permit them, to put to sea with
an easterly and northerly wind. This inconvenience, however, is of
little consequence, since these winds are never known to be of long
duration. The southerly and westerly are the prevailing winds; so that a
ship can never be detained long in this port.

As we could not sail in the morning of the 2d, for want of wind, I sent
a party of men on shore to the island, on the same duty as before.
Towards noon we got a fresh breeze at west; but it came too late, and I
resolved to wait till the next morning, when, at four o’clock, we
weighed with a fresh gale at N. W. by W. and stood for Cape St. John,
which, at half-past six, bore N. by E. distant four or five miles. This
cape, being the eastern point of Staten Land, a description of it is
unnecessary. It may, however, not be amiss to say, that it is a rock of
considerable height, situated in the latitude of 54° 46ʹ South,
longitude 64° 7ʹ West, with a rocky islet lying close under the north
part of it. To the westward of the cape, about five or six miles, is an
inlet, which seemed to divide the land; that is, to communicate with the
sea to the south; and between this inlet and the cape is a bay; but I
cannot say of what depth. In sailing round the cape, we met with a very
strong current from the south: it made a race which looked like
breakers; and it was as much as we could do, with a strong gale, to make
head against it.

After getting round the cape, I hauled up along the south coast; and as
soon as we had brought the wind to blow off the land, it came upon us in
such heavy squalls as obliged us to double-reef our topsails. It
afterwards fell, by little and little, and at noon ended in a calm. At
this time Cape St. John bore N. 20° east, distant three and a half
leagues; Cape St. Bartholomew, or the S. W. point of Staten Land, S. 83°
west; two high detached rocks N. 80° west; and the place where the land
seemed to be divided, which had the same appearance on this side, bore
N. 15° west, three leagues distant. Latitude observed 54° 56ʹ. In this
situation we sounded, but had no bottom, with a line of one hundred and
twenty fathoms. The calm was of very short duration, a breeze presently
springing up at N. W., but it was too faint to make head against the
current, and we drove with it back to the N. N. E. At four o’clock the
wind veered at once to S. by E. and blew in squalls attended with rain.
Two hours after, the squalls and rain subsided, and the wind returning
back to the west, blew a gentle gale. All this time the current set us
to the north; so that, at eight o’clock, Cape St. John bore W. N. W.
distant about seven leagues. I now gave over plying, and steered S. E.
with a resolution to leave the land; judging it to be sufficiently
explored to answer the most general purposes of navigation and
geography.



                               CHAP. IV.

OBSERVATIONS, GEOGRAPHICAL AND NAUTICAL, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE ISLANDS
            NEAR STATEN LAND, AND THE ANIMALS FOUND IN THEM.


The annexed chart will very accurately shew the direction, extent, and
position of the coast, along which I have sailed, either in this or my
former voyage; and no more is to be expected from it. The latitudes have
been determined by the sun’s meridian altitude, which we were so
fortunate as to obtain every day, except the one we sailed from
Christmas Sound; which was of no consequence, as its latitude was known
before. The longitudes have been settled by lunar observations, as is
already mentioned. I have taken 67° 46ʹ for the longitude of Cape Horn.
From this meridian, the longitudes of all the other parts are deduced by
the watch; by which the extent of the whole must be determined to a few
miles; and whatever errors there may be in longitude, must be general.
But I think it highly probable, that the longitude is determined to
within a quarter of a degree. Thus the extent of Terra del Fuego from
east to west, and consequently that of the Straits of Magalhaens, will
be found less than most navigators have made it.

In order to illustrate this, and to show the situations of the
neighbouring lands, and, by this means, make the annexed chart of more
general use, I have extended it down to 47° of latitude. But I am only
answerable for the inaccuracy of such parts as I have explored myself.
In laying down the rest, I had recourse to the following authorities.

The longitude of Cape Virgin Mary, which is the most essential point, as
it determines the length of the Straits of Magalhaens, is deduced from
Lord Anson, who made 2° 3ʹ difference of longitude between it and the
Strait Le Maire. Now as the latter lies in 65° 22ʹ, Cape Virgin Mary
must lie in 67° 52ʹ, which is the longitude I have assigned to it, and
which, I have reason to think, cannot be far from the truth.

The Strait of Magalhaens, and the east coast of Patagonia, are laid down
from the observations made by the late English and French navigators.

The position of the west coast of America, from Cape Victory northward,
I have taken from the discoveries of _Sarmiento_, a Spanish navigator,
communicated to me by Mr. Stuart, F. R. S.

Falkland islands are copied from a sketch taken from Captain M’Bride,
who circumnavigated them some years ago in his Majesty’s ship Jason; and
their distance from the main is agreeable to the run of the Dolphin,
under the command of Commodore Byron, from Cape Virgin Mary to Port
Egmont, and from Port Egmont to Port Desire; both of which runs were
made in a few days; consequently no material errors could happen.

The S. W. coast of Terra del Fuego, with respect to inlets, islands, &c.
may be compared to the coast of Norway; for I doubt, if there be an
extent of three leagues where there is not an inlet or harbour which
will receive and shelter the largest shipping. The worst is, that till
these inlets are better known, one has, as it were, to fish for
anchorage. There are several lurking rocks on the coast; but happily
none of them lie far from land, the approach to which may be known by
sounding, supposing the weather so obscure that you cannot see it. For
to judge of the whole by the parts we have sounded, it is more than
probable that there are soundings all along the coast, and for several
leagues out to sea. Upon the whole, this is by no means the dangerous
coast it has been represented.

Staten Land lies nearly E. by N. and W. by S. and is ten leagues long in
that direction; and no where above three or four leagues broad. The
coast is rocky, much indented, and seemed to form several bays or
inlets. It shews a surface of craggy hills which spire up to a vast
height, especially near the west end. Except the craggy summits of the
hills, the greatest part was covered with trees and shrubs, or some sort
of herbage, and there was little or no snow on it. The currents between
Cape Deseada and Cape Horn, set from west to east, that is, in the same
direction as the coast; but they are by no means considerable. To the
east of the cape their strength is much increased, and their direction
is N. E. towards Staten Land. They are rapid in Strait Le Maire and
along the south coast of Staten Land, and set like a torrent round Cape
St. John; where they take a N. W. direction, and continue to run very
strong both within and without New Year’s isles. While we lay at anchor
within this island, I observed that the current was strongest during the
flood; and that, on the ebb, its strength was so much impaired, that the
ship would sometimes ride head to wind when it was at west and W. N. W.
This is only to be understood of the place where the ship lay at anchor;
for at the very time we had a strong current setting to the westward,
Mr. Gilbert found one of equal strength near the coast of Staten Land,
setting to the eastward; though probably this was an eddy current or
tide.

If the tides are regulated by the moon, it is high-water by the shore at
this place, on the days of the new and full moon, about four o’clock.
The perpendicular rise and fall is very inconsiderable, not exceeding
four feet at most. In Christmas Sound it is high water at half past two
o’clock on the days of the full and change, and Mr. Wales observed it to
rise and fall, on a perpendicular, three feet six inches; but this was
during the neap-tides, consequently the spring-tides must rise higher.
To give such an account of the tides and currents on these coasts as
navigators might depend on, would require a multitude of observations,
and in different places, the making of which would be a work of time. I
confess myself unprovided with materials for such a task; and believe
that the less I say on this subject the fewer mistakes I shall make. But
I think I have been able to observe, that in Strait Le Maire, the
southerly tide or current, be it flood or ebb, begins to act on the days
of new and full moon about four o’clock, which remark may be of use to
ships who pass the strait.

Were I bound round Cape Horn to the west, and not in want of wood or
water, or any thing that might make it necessary to put into port, I
would not come near the land at all. For by keeping out at sea, you
avoid the currents, which, I am satisfied, lose their force at ten or
twelve leagues from land; and at a greater distance there is none.

During the time we were upon the coast, we had more calms than storms,
and the winds so variable that I question if a passage might not have
been made from east to west in as short a time as from west to east; nor
did we experience any cold weather. The mercury in the thermometer at
noon was never below 46°; and while we lay in Christmas Sound, it was
generally above temperate. At this place, the variation was 23° 30ʹ
east; a few leagues to the S. W. of Strait Le Maire, it was 24°; and at
anchor, within New Year’s isles, it was 24° 20ʹ east.

These isles are, in general, so unlike Staten Land, especially the one
on which we landed, that it deserves a particular description. It shews
a surface of equal height, and elevated about thirty or forty feet above
the sea, from which it is defended by a rocky coast. The inner part of
the isle is covered with a sort of sword-grass, very green, and of a
great length. It grows on little hillocks, of two or three feet in
diameter, and as many or more in height, in large tufts, which seemed to
be composed of the roots of the plant matted together. Among these
hillocks are a vast number of paths made by sea-bears and penguins, by
which they retire into the centre of the isle. It is, nevertheless,
exceedingly bad travelling; for these paths are so dirty that one is
sometimes up to the knees in mire. Besides this plant, there are a few
other grasses, a kind of heath, and some celery. The whole surface is
moist and wet, and on the coast are several small streams of water. The
sword-grass, as I call it, seems to be the same that grows in Falkland
isles, described by Bougainville as a kind of _gladiolus_, or rather a
species of _gramen_,[16] and named by Pernety, corn-flags.

The animals found on this little spot are sea-lions, sea-bears, a
variety of oceanic and some land birds. The sea-lion is pretty well
described by Pernety; though those we saw here have not such fore-feet
or fins as that he has given a plate of, but such fins as that which he
calls the sea-wolf. Nor did we see any of the size he speaks of; the
largest not being more than twelve or fourteen feet in length, and
perhaps eight or ten in circumference. They are not of that kind
described, under the same name, by Lord Anson; but, for aught I know,
these would more properly deserve that appellation; the long hair with
which the back of the head, the neck and shoulders, are covered, giving
them greatly the air and appearance of a lion. The other part of the
body is covered with a short hair, little longer than that of a cow or a
horse, and the whole is a dark brown. The female is not half so big as
the male, and is covered with a short hair of an ash, or light dun
colour. They live, as it were, in herds, on the rocks, and near the
sea-shore. As this was the time for engendering as well as bringing
forth their young, we have seen a male with twenty or thirty females
about him, and always very attentive to keep them all to himself, and
beating off every other male who attempted to come into his flock.
Others again had a less number; some no more than one or two; and here
and there we have seen one lying growling in a retired place, alone, and
suffering neither males nor females to approach him: we judged these
were old and superannuated.

The sea-bears are not so large, by far, as the lions, but rather larger
than a common seal. They have none of that long hair which distinguishes
the lion. Theirs is all of an equal length, and finer than that of the
lion, something like an otter’s; and the general colour is that of
iron-grey. This is the kind which the French call sea-wolfs, and the
English seals; they are, however, different from the seals we have in
Europe and in North America. The lions may too, without any great
impropriety, be called overgrown seals; for they are all of the same
species. It was not at all dangerous to go among them; for they either
fled or lay still. The only danger was in going between them and the
sea; for if they took fright at any thing, they would come down in such
numbers, that, if you could not get out of their way, you would be run
over. Sometimes, when we came suddenly upon them, or waked them out of
their sleep (for they are a sluggish sleepy animal), they would raise up
their heads, snort and snarl, and look as fierce as if they meant to
devour us; but as we advanced upon them, they always run away; so that
they are downright bullies.

The penguin is an amphibious bird, so well known to most people, that I
shall only observe, they are here in prodigious numbers; so that we
could knock down as many as we pleased with a stick. I cannot say they
are good eating. I have indeed made several good meals of them; but it
was for want of better victuals. They either do not breed here, or else
this was not the season; for we saw neither eggs nor young ones.

Shags breed here in vast numbers; and we carried on board not a few, as
they are very good eating. They take certain spots to themselves, and
build their nests near the edge of the cliffs on little hillocks, which
are either those of the sword-grass, or else they are made by the shags
building on them from year to year. There is another sort rather smaller
than these, which breed on the cliffs of rocks.

The geese are of the same sort we found in Christmas Sound; we saw but
few; and some had young ones. Mr. Forster shot one which was different
from these, being larger, with a grey plumage, and black feet. The
others make a noise exactly like a duck. Here were ducks, but not many;
and several of that sort which we called race-horses. We shot some, and
found them to weigh twenty-nine or thirty pounds; those who ate of them
said they were very good.

The oceanic birds were gulls, terns, Port Egmont hens, and a large brown
bird of the size of an albatross, which Pernety calls quebrantahuessas.
We called them Mother Cary’s geese, and found them pretty good eating.
The land-birds were eagles, or hawks, bald-headed vultures, or what our
seamen called turkey buzzards, thrushes, and a few other small birds.

Our naturalists found two new species of birds. The one is about the
size of a pigeon, the plumage as white as milk. They feed along shore,
probably on shell-fish and carrion; for they have a very disagreeable
smell. When we first saw these birds, we thought they were the
snow-peterel, but the moment they were in our possession, the mistake
was discovered; for they resemble them in nothing but size and colour.
These are not web-footed. The other sort is a species of curlews nearly
as big as a heron. It has a variegated plumage, the principal colours
whereof are light grey, and a long crooked bill.

I had almost forgot to mention that there are sea-pies, or what we
called, when in New Zealand, curlews; but we only saw a few straggling
pairs. It may not be amiss to observe, that the shags are the same bird
which Bougainville calls saw-bills; but he is mistaken in saying that
the quebrantahuessas are their enemies; for this bird is of the peterel
tribe, feeds wholly on fish, and is to be found in all the high southern
latitudes.

It is amazing to see how the different animals, which inhabit this
little spot, are mutually reconciled. They seem to have entered into a
league not to disturb each other’s tranquillity. The sea-lions occupy
most of the sea-coast; the sea-bears take up their abode in the isle;
the shags have post in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix their
quarters where there is the most easy communication to and from the sea;
and the other birds chuse more retired places. We have seen all these
animals mix together, like domestic cattle and poultry in a farm-yard,
without one attempting to molest the other. Nay, I have often observed
the eagles and vultures sitting on the hillocks among the shags, without
the latter, either young or old, being disturbed at their presence. It
may be asked how these birds of prey live? I suppose, on the carcasses
of seals and birds which die by various causes; and probably not few, as
they are so numerous.

This very imperfect account is written more with a view to assist my own
memory, than to give information to others. I am neither a botanist nor
a naturalist; and have not words to describe the productions of nature,
either in the one branch of knowledge or the other.



                                CHAP. V.

    PROCEEDINGS AFTER LEAVING STATEN ISLAND, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
       DISCOVERY OF THE ISLE OF GEORGIA, AND A DESCRIPTION OF IT.


Having left the land in the evening of the 3d, as before mentioned, we
saw it again next morning, at three o’clock, bearing W. Wind continued
to blow a steady fresh breeze till six P. M. when it shifted in a heavy
squall to S. W. which came so suddenly upon us, that we had not time to
take in the sails, and was the occasion of carrying away a top-gallant
mast, a studding-sail boom, and a fore studding-sail. The squall ended
in a heavy shower of rain, but the wind remained at S. W. Our course was
S. E. with a view of discovering that extensive coast, laid down by Mr.
Dalrymple in his chart, in which is the Gulph of St. Sebastian. I
designed to make the western point of that gulph, in order to have all
the other parts before me. Indeed, I had some doubt of the existence of
such a coast; and this appeared to me the best route for clearing it up,
and for exploring the southern part of this ocean.

On the 5th, fresh gales, and wet and cloudy weather. At noon observed in
57° 9ʹ, longitude made from Cape Saint John, 5° 2ʹ E. At six o’clock,
P. M. being in the latitude 57° 21ʹ, and in longitude 57° 45ʹ W., the
variation was 21° 28ʹ E.

At eight o’clock in the evening of the 6th, being then in the latitude
of 58° 9ʹ S. longitude 53° 14ʹ W., we close-reefed our top-sails, and
hauled to the north, with a very strong gale at W., attended with a
thick haze and sleet. The situation just mentioned is nearly the same
that Mr. Dalrymple assigns for the S. W. point of the Gulph of St.
Sebastian. But as we saw neither land, nor signs of land, I was the more
doubtful of its existence, and was fearful, that by keeping to the south
I might miss the land said to be discovered by La Roche in 1675, and by
the ship Lion in 1756, which Mr. Dalrymple places in 54° 30ʹ latitude,
and 45° of longitude; but on looking over Danville’s Chart, I found it
laid down 9° or 10° more to the west; this difference of situation being
to me a sign of the uncertainty of both accounts, determined me to get
into the parallel as soon as possible, and was the reason of my hauling
to the north at this time.

Towards the morning of the 7th, the gale abated, the weather cleared up,
and the wind veered to the W. S. W. where it continued till midnight;
after which it veered to N. W. Being at this time in the latitude of 56°
4ʹ S. longitude 53° 36ʹ W., we sounded, but found no bottom with a line
of one hundred and thirty fathoms. I still kept the wind on the
larboard-tack, having a gentle breeze and pleasant weather. On the 8th,
at noon, a bed of sea-weed passed the ship. In the afternoon, in the
latitude of 55° 4ʹ, longitude 51° 45ʹ W., the variation was 20° 4ʹ E.

On the 9th, wind at N. E. attended with thick hazy weather; saw a seal,
and a piece of sea-weed. At noon, latitude 55° 12ʹ S. longitude 50° 15ʹ
W., the wind and weather continuing the same till towards midnight, when
the latter cleared up, and the former veered to west, and blew a gentle
gale. We continued to ply till two o’clock the next morning, when we
bore away E., and at eight, E. N. E.; at noon, observed in latitude 54°
35ʹ S., longitude 47° 56ʹ W., a great many albatrosses and blue peterels
about the ship. I now steered E., and the next morning, in the latitude
of 54° 38ʹ, longitude 45° 10ʹ W., the variation was 19° 25ʹ E. In the
afternoon saw several penguins, and some pieces of weed.

Having spent the night lying to, on the 12th, at day-break, we bore
away, and steered east northerly, with a fine fresh breeze at W. S. W.;
at noon observed in latitude 54° 28ʹ S., longitude in 42° 8ʹ W.; that
is, near 3° E. of the situation in which Mr. Dalrymple places the N. E.
point of the Gulph of St. Sebastian; but we had no other signs of land
than seeing a seal and a few penguins; on the contrary we had a swell
from E. S. E. which would hardly have been, if any extensive track of
land lay in that direction. In the evening the gale abated, and at
midnight it fell calm.

The calm, attended by a thick fog, continued till six next morning, when
we got a wind at E., but the fog still prevailed. We stood to the S.
till noon, when, being in the latitude of 55° 7ʹ, we tacked and
stretched to the N. with a fresh breeze at E. by S. and E. S. E. cloudy
weather; saw several penguins and a snow-peterel, which we looked on to
be signs of the vicinity of ice. The air too was much colder than we had
felt it since we left New Zealand. In the afternoon the wind veered to
S. E. and in the night to S. S. E. and blew fresh; with which we stood
to the N. E.

At nine o’clock the next morning we saw an island of ice as we then
thought; but at noon were doubtful whether it was ice or land. At this
time it bore E. 3/4 S., distant thirteen leagues; our latitude was 53°
56-1/2ʹ, longitude 39° 24ʹ W.; several penguins, small divers, a
snow-peterel, and a vast number of blue peterels about the ship. We had
but little wind all the morning; and at two P. M. it fell calm. It was
now no longer doubted that it was land, and not ice, which we had in
sight. It was, however, in a manner wholly covered with snow. We were
farther confirmed in our judgment of its being land, by finding
soundings at one hundred and seventy-five fathoms, a muddy bottom. The
land at this time bore E. by S., about twelve leagues distant. At six
o’clock the calm was succeeded by a breeze at N. E., with which we stood
to S. E. At first it blew a gentle gale, but afterwards increased so as
to bring us under double-reefed topsails, and was attended with snow and
sleet.

We continued to stand to the S. E. till seven in the morning on the
15th, when the wind veering to the S. E. we tacked and stood to the N. A
little before we tacked, we saw the land bearing E. by N. At noon the
mercury in the thermometer was at 35-1/4°. The wind blew in squalls,
attended with snow and sleet, and we had a great sea to encounter. At a
lee-lurch which the ship took, Mr. Wales observed her to lie down 42°.
At half-past four P. M. we took in the top-sails, got down top-gallant
yards, wore the ship, and stood to the S. W. under two courses. At
midnight the storm abated, so that we could carry the top-sails double
reefed.

At four in the morning of the 16th, we wore and stood to the E., with
the wind at S. S. E., a moderate breeze and fair; at eight o’clock saw
the land extending from E. by N. to N. E. by N.; loosed a reef out of
each top-sail, got top-gallant yards across, and set the sails. At noon
observed in latitude 54° 25-1/2ʹ; longitude 38° 18ʹ W. In this situation
we had one hundred and ten fathoms’ water; and the land extended from N.
1/2 W. to E., eight leagues distant. The northern extreme was the same
that we first discovered, and it proved to be an island which obtained
the name of Willis’s Island, after the person who first saw it.

At this time we had a great swell from the S., an indication that no
land was near us in that direction; nevertheless, the vast quantity of
snow on that in sight, induced us to think it was extensive, and I chose
to begin with exploring the northern coast. With this view we bore up
for Willis’s Island, all sails set, having a fine gale at S. S. W. As we
advanced to the N., we perceived another isle lying east of Willis’s,
and between it and the main. Seeing there was a clear passage between
the two isles, we steered for it, and at five o’clock, being in the
middle of it, we found it about two miles broad.

Willis’s Isle is a high rock of no great extent, near to which are some
rocky islets. It is situated in the latitude of 54° S., longitude 38°
23ʹ W. The other isle, which obtained the name of Bird Isle, on account
of the vast number that were upon it, is not so high, but of greater
extent, and is close to the N. E. point of the main land, which I called
Cape North.

The S. E. coast of this land, as far as we saw it, lies in the direction
of S. 50° E., and N. 50° W. It seemed to form several bays or inlets;
and we observed huge masses of snow, or ice, in the bottoms of them,
especially in one which lies ten miles to the S. S. E. of Bird Isle.

After getting through the passage, we found the north coast trended E.
by N. for about nine miles; and then E. and E. southerly to Cape Buller,
which is eleven miles more. We ranged the coast, at one league distance,
till near ten o’clock, when we brought to for the night, and, on
sounding, found fifty fathoms, a muddy bottom.

At two o’clock in the morning of the 17th, we made sail in for the land,
with a fine breeze at S. W.; at four, Willis’s Isle bore W. by S.,
distant thirty-two miles; Cape Buller, to the west of which lie some
rocky islets, bore S. W. by W.; and the most advanced point of land to
the E., S. 63° E. We now steered along the shore, at the distance of
four or five miles, till seven o’clock, when, seeing the appearance of
an inlet, we hauled in for it. As soon as we drew near the shore, having
hoisted out a boat, I embarked in it, accompanied by Mr. Forster and his
party, with a view of reconnoitring the bay before we ventured in with
the ship. When we put off from her, which was about four miles from the
shore, we had forty fathoms’ water. I continued to sound as I went
farther in, but found no bottom with a line of thirty-four fathoms,
which was the length of that I had in the boat, and which also proved
too short to sound the bay, so far as I went up it. I observed it to lie
in S. W. by S. about two leagues, about two miles broad, well sheltered
from all winds; and I judged there might be good anchorage before some
sandy beaches which are on each side, and likewise near a low flat isle,
towards the head of the bay. As I had come to a resolution not to bring
the ship in, I did not think it worth my while to go and examine these
places; for it did not seem probable that any one would ever be
benefited by the discovery. I landed in three different places,
displayed our colours, and took possession of the country in his
Majesty’s name, under a discharge of small arms.

I judged that the tide rises about four or five feet, and that it is
high water on the full and change days about eleven o’clock.

The head of the bay, as well as two places on each side, was terminated
by perpendicular ice-cliffs of considerable height. Pieces were
continually breaking off, and floating out to sea; and a great fall
happened while we were in the bay, which made a noise like cannon.

The inner parts of the country were not less savage and horrible. The
wild rocks raised their lofty summits, till they were lost in the
clouds, and the valleys lay covered with everlasting snow. Not a tree
was to be seen, nor a shrub even big enough to make a toothpick. The
only vegetation we met with, was a coarse strong-bladed grass, growing
in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss, which sprung from the
rocks.

Seals, or sea bears, were pretty numerous. They were smaller than those
at Staten Land; perhaps the most of those we saw were females; for the
shore swarmed with young cubs. We saw none of that sort which we call
lions; but there were some of those which the writer of Lord Anson’s
Voyage describes under that name; at least they appeared to us to be of
the same sort; and are, in my opinion, very improperly called lions; for
I could not see any grounds for the comparison.

Here were several flocks of penguins, the largest I ever saw; some,
which we brought on board, weighed from twenty-nine to thirty-eight
pounds. It appears by Bougainville’s account of the animals of Falkland
Islands, that this penguin is there; and I think it is very well
described by him under the name of First Class of Penguins.[17] The
Oceanic birds were albatrosses, common gulls, and that sort which I call
Port Egmont hens, terns, shags, divers, the new white bird, and a small
bird like those of the Cape of Good Hope, called yellow birds; which,
having shot two, we found most delicious food.

All the land birds we saw consisted of a few small larks; nor did we
meet with any quadrupeds. Mr. Forster, indeed, observed some dung, which
he judged to come from a fox, or some such animal. The lands, or rather
rocks, bordering on the sea-coast, were not covered with snow like the
inland parts; but all the vegetation we could see on the clear places
was the grass above mentioned. The rocks seemed to contain iron. Having
made the above observations, we set out for the ship, and got on board a
little after twelve o’clock, with a quantity of seals and penguins, an
acceptable present to the crew.

It must not, however, be understood that we were in want of provisions:
we had yet plenty of every kind; and since we had been on this coast, I
had ordered, in addition to the common allowance, wheat to be boiled
every morning for breakfast; but any kind of fresh meat was preferred by
most on board to salt. For my own part, I was now, for the first time,
heartily tired of salt meat of every kind; and though the flesh of the
penguins could scarcely vie with bullock’s liver, its being fresh was
sufficient to make it go down. I called the bay we had been in,
Possession Bay. It is situated in the latitude of 54° 5ʹ S., longitude
37° 18ʹ W., and eleven leagues to the east of Cape North. A few miles to
the west of Possession Bay, between it and Cape Buller, lies the Bay of
Isles; so named on account of several small isles lying in and before
it.

As soon as the boat was hoisted in, we made sail along the coast to the
E. with a fine breeze at W. S. W. From Cape Buller, the direction of the
coast is S. 72° 30ʹ E., for the space of eleven or twelve leagues, to a
projecting point, which obtained the name of Cape Saunders. Beyond this
Cape, is a pretty large bay, which I named Cumberland Bay. In several
parts in the bottom of it, as also in some others of less extent, lying
between Cape Saunders and Possession Bay, were vast tracks of frozen
snow, or ice not yet broken loose. At eight o’clock, being just past
Cumberland Bay, and falling little wind, we hauled off the coast, from
which we were distant about four miles, and found one hundred and ten
fathoms’ water.

We had variable light airs and calms till six o’clock the next morning,
when the wind fixed at N. and blew a gentle breeze; but it lasted no
longer than ten o’clock, when it fell almost to a calm. At noon,
observed in latitude 54° 30ʹ S., being then about two or three leagues
from the coast, which extended from N. 59° W. to S. 13° W. The land in
this last direction was an isle, which seemed to be the extremity of the
coast to the east. The nearest land to us being a projecting point which
terminated in a round hillock, was, on account of the day, named Cape
Charlotte. On the west side of Cape Charlotte lies a bay, which obtained
the name of Royal Bay, and the west point of it was named Cape George.
It is the east point of Cumberland Bay, and lies in the direction of
S. E. by E. from Cape Saunders, distant seven leagues. Cape George and
Cape Charlotte lie in the direction of S. 37° E., and N. 37° W., distant
six leagues from each other. The isle above mentioned, which was called
Cooper’s Isle, after my first lieutenant, lies in the direction of S. by
E., distant eight leagues from Cape Charlotte. The coast between them
forms a large bay, to which I gave the name of Sandwich. The wind being
variable all the afternoon, we advanced but little; in the night it
fixed at S. and S. S. W., and blew a gentle gale attended with showers
of snow.

The 19th was wholly spent in plying, the wind continuing at S. and
S. W., clear pleasant weather, but cold. At sun-rise, a new land was
seen bearing S. E. 1/2 E. It first appeared in a single hill, like a
sugar-loaf; some time after, other detached pieces appeared above the
horizon near the hill. At noon observed in the latitude 54° 42ʹ 30ʺ S.,
Cape Charlotte bearing N. 38° W., distant four leagues; and Cooper’s
Isle S. 31° W. In this situation, a lurking rock, which lies off
Sandwich Bay, five miles from the land, bore W. 1/2 N., distant one
mile, and near this rock were several breakers. In the afternoon we had
a prospect of a ridge of mountains behind Sandwich Bay, whose lofty and
icy summits were elevated high above the clouds. The wind continued at
S. S. W. till six o’clock, when it fell to a calm. At this time Cape
Charlotte bore N. 31° W., and Cooper’s Island W. S. W. In this situation
we found the variation, by the azimuths, to be 11° 39ʹ, and by the
amplitude, ll° 12ʹ E. At ten o’clock, a light breeze springing up at N.,
we steered to the S. till twelve, and then brought to for the night.

At two o’clock in the morning of the 20th, we made sail to S. W., round
Cooper’s Island. It is a rock of considerable height, about five miles
in circuit, and one mile from the main. At this isle the main coast
takes a S. W. direction for the space of four or five leagues to a
point, which I called Cape Disappointment. Off that, are three small
isles, the southernmost of which is green, low, and flat, and lies one
league from the Cape.

As we advanced to S. W., land opened off this point, in the direction of
N. 60° West, and nine leagues beyond it. It proved an island quite
detached from the main, and obtained the name of Pickersgill Island,
after my third officer. Soon after, a point of the main, beyond this
island, came in sight, in the direction of N. 55° W.; which exactly
united the coast at the very point we had seen, and taken the bearing
of, the day we first came in with it, and proved to a demonstration that
this land, which we had taken for part of a great continent, was no more
than an island of seventy leagues in circuit.

Who would have thought that an island of no greater extent than this,
situated between the latitude of 54° and 55°, should, in the very height
of summer, be in a manner wholly covered many fathoms deep with frozen
snow, but more especially the S. W. coast? The very sides and craggy
summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow and ice; but the
quantity which lay in the valleys is incredible; and at the bottom of
the bays, the coast was terminated by a wall of ice of considerable
height. It can hardly be doubted that a great deal of ice is formed here
in the winter, which in the spring is broken off and dispersed over the
sea; but this island cannot produce the ten-thousandth part of what we
saw; so that either there must be more land, or the ice is formed
without it. These reflections led me to think that the land we had seen
the preceding day might belong to an extensive track; and I still had
hopes of discovering a continent. I must confess the disappointment I
now met with, did not affect me much, for to judge of the bulk by the
sample, it would not be worth the discovery.

I called this land the Isle of Georgia in honour of his Majesty. It is
situated between the latitude of 53° 57ʹ and 54° 57ʹ S.; and between 38°
13ʹ and 35° 34ʹ W. longitude. It extends S. E. by E., and N. W. by W.
and is thirty-one leagues long in that direction; and its greatest
breadth is about ten leagues. It seems to abound with bays and harbours,
the N. E. coast especially; but the vast quantity of ice must render
them inaccessible the greatest part of the year; or, at least, it must
be dangerous lying in them, on account of the breaking up of the
ice-cliffs.

It is remarkable that we did not see a river or stream of fresh water,
on the whole coast. I think it highly probable that there are no
perennial springs in the country; and that the interior parts, as being
much elevated, never enjoy heat enough to melt the snow in such
quantities as to produce a river or stream of water. The coast alone
receives warmth sufficient to melt the snow, and this only on the N. E.
side; for the other, besides being exposed to the cold south winds, is
in a great degree deprived of the sun’s rays by the uncommon height of
the mountains.

It was from a persuasion that the sea-coast of a land situated in the
latitude of 54°, could not, in the very height of summer, be wholly
covered with snow, that I supposed Bouvet’s discovery to be large
islands of ice. But after I had seen this land, I no longer hesitated
about the existence of Cape Circumcision; nor did I doubt that I should
find more land than I should have time to explore. With these ideas I
quitted this coast, and directed my course to the E. S. E. for the land
we had seen the preceding day.

The wind was very variable till noon, when it fixed at N. N. E., and
blew a gentle gale; but it increased in such a manner, that, before
three o’clock, we were reduced to our two courses, and obliged to strike
top-gallant yards. We were very fortunate in getting clear of the land
before this gale overtook us, it being hard to say what might have been
the consequence had it come on while we were on the north coast. This
storm was of short duration, for at eight o’clock it began to abate, and
at midnight it was little wind. We then took the opportunity to sound,
but found no bottom with a line of an hundred and eighty fathoms.

Next day the storm was succeeded by a thick fog, attended with rain; the
wind veered to N. W., and at five in the morning it fell calm, which
continued till eight, and then we got a breeze southerly, with which we
stood to the east till three in the afternoon. The weather then coming
somewhat clear, we made sail and steered north in search of the land;
but at half past six we were again involved in a thick mist, which made
it necessary to haul the wind, and spend the night in making short
boards.

We had variable light airs, next to a calm, and thick foggy weather,
till half-past seven o’clock in the evening of the 22d, when we got a
fine breeze at N., and the weather was so clear that we could see two or
three leagues round us. We seized the opportunity, and steered to west;
judging we were to the east of the land. After running ten miles to the
west, the weather became again foggy, and we hauled the wind, and spent
the night under top-sails.

Next morning, at six o’clock, the fog clearing away so that we could see
three or four miles, I took the opportunity to steer again to the W.,
with the wind at E., a fresh breeze; but two hours after, a thick fog
once more obliged us to haul the wind to the south. At eleven o’clock, a
short interval of clear weather gave us a view of three or four rocky
islets, extending from S. E. to E. N. E., two or three miles distant;
but we did not see the Sugar-loaf Peak before-mentioned. Indeed, two or
three miles was the extent of our horizon.

We were well assured that this was the land we had seen before, which we
had now been quite round: and therefore it could be no more than a few
detached rocks, receptacles for birds, of which we now saw vast numbers,
especially shags, who gave us notice of the vicinity of land before we
saw it. These rocks lie in the latitude of 55° S. and S. 75° E., distant
twelve leagues from Cooper’s Isle.

The interval of clear weather was of very short duration, before we had
as thick a fog as ever, attended with rain; on which we tacked in sixty
fathoms’ water, and stood to the north. Thus we spent our time involved
in a continual thick mist; and for aught we knew, surrounded by
dangerous rocks. The shags and soundings were our best pilots; for after
we had stood a few miles to the north, we got out of soundings, and saw
no more shags. The succeeding day and night were spent in making short
boards; and at eight o’clock on the 24th, judging ourselves not far from
the rocks by some straggling shags which came about us, we sounded in
sixty fathoms’ water, the bottom stones and broken shells. Soon after,
we saw the rocks bearing S. S. W. 1/2 W., four miles distant, but still
we did not see the Peak. It was, no doubt, beyond our horizon, which was
limited to a short distance; and, indeed, we had but a transient sight
of the other rocks, before they were again lost in the fog.

With a light air of wind at N., and a great swell from N. E., we were
able to clear the rocks to the W.; and at four in the P. M., judging
ourselves to be three or four leagues E. and W. of them, I steered S.,
being quite tired with cruizing about them in a thick fog; nor was it
worth my while to spend any more time in waiting for clear weather, only
for the sake of having a good sight of a few straggling rocks. At seven
o’clock, we had at intervals a clear sky to the W., which gave us a
sight of the mountains of the Isle of Georgia, bearing W. N. W., about
eight leagues distant. At eight o’clock we steered S. E. by S., and at
ten S. E. by E., with a fresh breeze at N., attended with a very thick
fog; but we were, in some measure, acquainted with the sea over which we
were running. The rocks above-mentioned obtained the name of Clerke’s
Rocks, after my second officer, he being the first who saw them.



                               CHAP. VI.

  PROCEEDINGS AFTER LEAVING THE ISLE OF GEORGIA, AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE
DISCOVERY OF SANDWICH LAND; WITH SOME REASONS FOR THERE BEING LAND ABOUT
                            THE SOUTH POLE.


On the 25th we steered E. S. E., with a fresh gale at N. N. E., attended
with foggy weather, till towards the evening, when the sky becoming
clear, we found the variation to be 9° 26ʹ E., being at this time in the
latitude of 56° 16ʹ S., longitude 32° 9ʹ W.

Having continued to steer E. S. E., with a fine gale at N. N. W., till
daylight next morning, on seeing no land to the E., I gave orders to
steer S., being at this time in the latitude of 56° 33ʹ S., longitude
31° 10ʹ W. The weather continued clear, and gave us an opportunity to
observe several distances of the sun and moon for the correcting our
longitude, which at noon was 31° 4ʹ W., the latitude observed 57° 38ʹ S.
We continued to steer to the S. till the 27th at noon, at which time we
were in the latitude of 59° 46ʹ S., and had so thick a fog that we could
not see a ship’s length. It being no longer safe to sail before the
wind, as we were to expect soon to fall in with ice, I therefore hauled
to the E., having a gentle breeze at N. N. E. Soon after, the fog
clearing away, we resumed our course to the S. till four o’clock, when
it returned again as thick as ever, and made it necessary for us to haul
upon a wind.

I now reckoned we were in latitude 60° S., and farther I did not intend
to go, unless I observed some certain signs of soon meeting with land;
for it would not have been prudent in me to have spent my time in
penetrating to the south, when it was at least as probable that a large
tract of land might be found near Cape Circumcision. Besides, I was
tired of these high southern latitudes, where nothing was to be found
but ice and thick fogs. We had now a long hollow swell from the W., a
strong indication that there was no land in that direction; so that I
think I may venture to assert that the extensive coast, laid down in Mr.
Dalrymple’s chart of the ocean between Africa and America, and the Gulph
of Saint Sebastian, do not exist.

At seven o’clock in the evening, the fog receding from us a little, gave
us a sight of an ice-island, several penguins and some snow peterels; we
sounded, but found no ground at one hundred and forty fathoms. The fog
soon returning, we spent the night in making boards over that space
which we had, in some degree, made ourselves acquainted with in the day.

At eight in the morning of the 28th, we stood to the E., with a gentle
gale at N.; the weather began to clear up, and we found the sea strewed
with large and small ice; several penguins, snow peterels, and other
birds were seen, and some whales. Soon after we had sun-shine, but the
air was cold; the mercury in the thermometer stood generally at
thirty-five, but at noon it was at 37°; the latitude by observation was
60° 4ʹ S., longitude 29° 23ʹ W.

We continued to stand to the E. till half-past two o’clock P. M., when
we fell in, all at once, with a vast number of large ice-islands, and a
sea strewed with loose ice. The weather too was become thick and hazy,
attended with drizzling rain and sleet, which made it the more dangerous
to stand in among the ice. For this reason we tacked and stood back to
the W., with the wind at N. The ice-islands, which at this time
surrounded us, were nearly all of equal height, and showed a flat even
surface; but they were of various extent, some being two or three miles
in circuit. The loose ice was what had broken from these isles.

Next morning, the wind falling and veering to S. W., we steered N. E.,
but this course was soon intercepted by numerous ice-islands; and,
having but very little wind, we were obliged to steer such courses as
carried us the clearest of them; so that we hardly made any advance, one
way or other, during the whole day. Abundance of whales and penguins
were about us all the time; and the weather fair, but dark and gloomy.

At midnight the wind began to freshen at N. N. E., with which we stood
to N. W. till six in the morning of the 30th, when the wind veering to
N. N. W., we tacked and stood to N. E., and soon after sailed through a
good deal of loose ice, and passed two large islands. Except a short
interval of clear weather about nine o’clock, it was continually foggy,
with either sleet or snow. At noon we were, by our reckoning, in the
latitude of 59° 30ʹ S., longitude 29° 24ʹ W.

Continuing to stand to N. E., with a fresh breeze at N. N. W., at two
o’clock, we passed one of the largest ice-islands we had seen in the
voyage, and some time after passed two others, which were much smaller.
Weather still foggy, with sleet; and the wind continued at N. by W.,
with which we stood to N. E. over a sea strewed with ice.

At half an hour past six in the morning, as we were standing N. N. E.
with the wind at W., the fog very fortunately clearing away a little, we
discovered land a-head, three or four miles distant. On this we hauled
the wind to the N., but finding we could not weather the land on this
tack, we soon after tacked in one hundred and seventy-five fathoms
water, three miles from the shore, and about half a league from some
breakers. The weather then cleared up a little more, and gave us a
tolerably good sight of the land. That which we had fallen in with
proved three rocky islets of considerable height. The outermost
terminated in a lofty peak like a sugar-loaf, and obtained the name of
Freezeland Peak, after the man who first discovered it. Latitude 59° S.,
longitude 27° W. Behind this peak, that is to the east of it, appeared
an elevated coast, whose lofty snow-clad summits were seen above the
clouds. It extended from N. by E. to E. S. E. and I called it Cape
Bristol, in honour of the noble family of Hervey. At the same time
another elevated coast appeared in sight, bearing S. W. by S., and at
noon it extended from S. E. to S. S. W., from four to eight leagues
distant; at this time the observed latitude was 59° 13ʹ 30ʺ S.,
longitude 27° 45ʹ W. I called this land Southern Thule, because it is
the most southern land that has ever yet been discovered. It shows a
surface of vast height, and is every where covered with snow. Some
thought they saw land in the space between Thule and Cape Bristol. It is
more than probable that these two lands are connected, and that this
space is a deep bay, which I called Forster’s Bay.

At one o’clock, finding that we could not weather Thule, we tacked and
stood to the north, and at four, Freezeland Peak bore E., distant three
or four leagues. Soon after it fell little wind, and we were left to the
mercy of a great westerly swell, which set right upon the shore. We
sounded, but a line of two hundred fathoms found no bottom. At eight
o’clock, the weather, which had been very hazy, clearing up, we saw Cape
Bristol bearing E. S. E., and terminating in a point to the north,
beyond which we could see no land. This discovery relieved us from the
fear of being carried by the swell on the most horrible coast in the
world, and we continued to stand to the north all night, with a light
breeze at W.

On the 1st of February, at four o’clock in the morning, we got sight of
a new coast, which at six o’clock bore N. 60° E. It proved a high
promontory, which I named Cape Montagu, situated in latitude 58° 27ʹ S.,
longitude 26° 44ʹ W., and seven or eight leagues to the north of Cape
Bristol. We saw land from space to space between them, which made me
conclude that the whole was connected. I was sorry I could not determine
this with greater certainty; but prudence would not permit me to venture
near a coast, subject to thick fogs, on which there was no anchorage;
where every port was blocked or filled up with ice; and the whole
country, from the summits of the mountains, down to the very brink of
the cliffs which terminate the coast, covered, many fathoms thick, with
everlasting snow. The cliffs alone was all which was to be seen like
land.

Several large islands lay upon the coast; one of which attracted my
notice. It had a flat surface, was of considerable extent both in height
and circuit, and had perpendicular sides, on which the waves of the sea
had made no impression; by which I judged that it had not been long from
land, and that it might have lately come out of some bay on the coast,
where it had been formed.

At noon we were east and west of the northern part of Cape Montagu,
distant about five leagues, and Freezeland Peak bore S. 16° E., distant
twelve leagues; latitude observed 58° 25ʹ S. In the morning the
variation was 10° 11ʹ E. At two in the afternoon, as we were standing to
the north, with a light breeze at S. W. we saw land bearing N. 25ʹ E.,
distant fourteen leagues. Cape Montagu bore at this time, S. 66° E.; at
eight it bore S. 40° E.; Cape Bristol, S. by E.; the new land extending
from N. 40° to 52° E.; and we thought we saw land still more to the E.,
and beyond it.

Continuing to steer to the north all night, at six o’clock the next
morning, a new land was seen bearing N. 12° E., about ten leagues
distant. It appeared in two hummocks just peeping above the horizon; but
we soon after lost sight of them; and having got the wind at N. N. E., a
fresh breeze, we stood for the northernmost land we had seen the day
before, which at this time bore E. S. E. We fetched in with it by ten
o’clock, but could not weather it, and were obliged to tack three miles
from the coast, which extended from E. by S. to S. E., and had much the
appearance of being an island of about eight or ten leagues’ circuit. It
shows a surface of considerable height, whose summit was lost in the
clouds, and, like all the neighbouring lands, covered with a sheet of
snow and ice, except on a projecting point on the north side, and two
hills seen over this point, which probably might be two islands. These
only were clear of snow, and seemed covered with a green turf. Some
large ice-islands lay to the N. E., and some others to the S.

We stood off till noon, and then tacked for the land again, in order to
see whether it was an island or no. The weather was now become very
hazy, which soon turning to a thick fog, put a stop to discovery, and
made it unsafe to stand for the shore; so that after having run the same
distance in, as we had run off, we tacked and stood to N. W. for the
land we had seen in the morning, which was yet at a considerable
distance. Thus we were obliged to leave the other, under the supposition
of its being an island, which I named Saunders, after my honourable
friend Sir Charles. It is situated in the latitude of 57° 49ʹ S.,
longitude 26° 44ʹ W.; and N., distant thirteen leagues from Cape
Montagu.

At six o’clock in the evening, the wind shifting to the W., we tacked,
and stood to the N., and at eight the fog clearing away, gave us a sight
of Saunders’s isle, extending from S. E. by S. to E. S. E. We were still
in doubt if it were an island; for, at this time, land was seen bearing
E. by S., which might, or might not be connected with it; it might also
be the same that we had seen the preceding evening. But, be this as it
may, it was now necessary to take a view of the land to the north before
we proceeded any farther to the east. With this intention, we stood to
the north, having a light breeze at W. by S., which, at two o’clock in
the morning of the 3d, was succeeded by a calm that continued till
eight, when we got the wind at E. by S., attended with hazy weather. At
this time we saw the land we were looking for, and which proved to be
two isles. The day on which they were discovered, was the occasion of
calling them Candlemas isles; latitude 57° 11ʹ S., longitude 27° 6ʹ W.
They are of no great extent, but of considerable height, and were
covered with snow. A small rock was seen between them, and perhaps there
may be more; for the weather was so hazy that we soon lost sight of the
islands, and did not see them again till noon, at which time they bore
W., distant three or four leagues.

As the wind kept veering to the S. we were obliged to stand to the
N. E., in which route we met with several large ice-islands, loose ice,
and many penguins; and, at midnight, came at once into water uncommonly
white, which alarmed the officer of the watch so much that he tacked the
ship instantly. Some thought it was a float of ice, others that it was
shallow water; but as it proved neither, probably it was a shoal of
fish.

We stood to the south till two o’clock next morning, when we resumed our
course to the E., with a faint breeze at S. S. E., which having ended in
a calm, at six, I took the opportunity of putting a boat in the water to
try if there were any current; and the trial proved there was none. Some
whales were playing about us, and abundance of penguins; a few of the
latter were shot, and they proved to be of the same sort that we had
seen among the ice before, and different both from those on Staten Land,
and from those at the isle of Georgia. It is remarkable, that we had not
seen a seal since we left that coast. At noon we were in the latitude of
56° 44ʹ S., longitude 25° 33ʹ W. At this time we got a breeze at E.,
with which we stood to the S., with a view of gaining the coast we had
left; but at eight o’clock the wind shifted to the S., and made it
necessary to tack and stand to the E; in which course we met with
several ice-islands and some loose ice, the weather continuing hazy with
snow and rain.

No penguins were seen on the 5th, which made me conjecture that we were
leaving the land behind us, and that we had already seen its northern
extremity. At noon we were in the latitude of 57° 8ʹ S., longitude 23°
34ʹ W., which was 3° of longitude to the east of Saunders’s isle. In the
afternoon the wind shifted to the W., this enabled us to stretch to the
S., and to get into the latitude of the land, that, if it took an east
direction, we might again fall in with it.

We continued to steer to the S. and S. E. till next day at noon, at
which time we were in the latitude of 58° 15ʹ S., longitude 21° 34ʹ W.,
and seeing neither land nor signs of any, I concluded that what we had
seen, which I named Sandwich Land, was either a group of islands, or
else a point of the continent; for I firmly believe that there is a
track of land near the pole which is the source of most of the ice that
is spread over this vast Southern Ocean. I also think it probable that
it extends farthest to the north opposite the southern Atlantic and
Indian Oceans, because ice was always found by us farther to the north
in these oceans than any where else, which I judge could not be, if
there were not land to the S.; I mean a land of considerable extent. For
if we suppose that no such land exists, and that ice may be formed
without it, it will follow of course that the cold ought to be every
where nearly equal round the pole, as far as 70° or 60° of latitude, or
so far as to be beyond the influence of any of the known continents;
consequently we ought to see ice every where under the same parallel, or
near it; and yet the contrary has been found. Very few ships have met
with ice going round Cape Horn; and we saw but little below the sixtieth
degree of latitude, in the Southern Pacific Ocean. Whereas in this
ocean, between the meridian of 40° W. and 50° or 60° E., we found ice as
far N. as 51°. Bouvet met with some in 48°; and others have seen it in a
much lower latitude. It is true, however, that the greatest part of this
southern continent (supposing there is one) must lie within the polar
circle, where the sea is so pestered with ice that the land is thereby
inaccessible. The risk one runs in exploring a coast, in these unknown
and icy seas, is so very great, that I can be bold enough to say that no
man will ever venture farther than I have done; and that the lands which
may lie to the south will never be explored. Thick fogs, snow-storms,
intense cold, and every other thing that can render navigation
dangerous, must be encountered; and these difficulties are greatly
heightened, by the inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country; a country
doomed by nature never once to feel the warmth of the sun’s rays, but to
lie buried in everlasting snow and ice. The ports which may be on the
coast, are, in a manner, wholly filled up with frozen snow of vast
thickness; but if any should be so far open as to invite a ship into it,
she would run a risk of being fixed there for ever, or of coming out in
an ice-island. The islands and floats on the coast, the great falls from
the ice-cliffs in the port, or a heavy snow storm attended with a sharp
frost, would be equally fatal.

After such an explanation as this, the reader must not expect to find me
much farther to the south. It was, however, not for want of inclination,
but for other reasons. It would have been rashness in me to have risked
all that had been done during the voyage, in discovering and exploring a
coast, which, when discovered and explored, would have answered no end
whatever, or have been of the least use, either to navigation or
geography, or indeed to any other science. Bouvet’s discovery was yet
before us, the existence of which was to be cleared up; and besides all
this, we were not now in a condition to undertake great things; nor
indeed was there time, had we been ever so well provided.

These reasons induced me to alter the course to E., with a very strong
gale at N., attended with an exceedingly heavy fall of snow. The
quantity which lodged in our sails was so great, that we were frequently
obliged to throw the ship up in the wind to shake it out of them,
otherwise neither they nor the ship could have supported the weight. In
the evening it ceased to snow; the weather cleared up; the wind backed
to the W.; and we spent the night in making two short boards, under
close-reefed top-sails and fore-sail.

At day-break on the 7th, we resumed our course to the E., with a very
fresh gale at S. W. by W., attended by a high sea from the same
direction. In the afternoon, being in the latitude of 58° 24ʹ S.,
longitude 16° 19ʹ W., the variation was 1° 52ʹ E. Only three ice-islands
seen this day. At eight o’clock, shortened sail, and hauled the wind to
the S. E. for the night, in which we had several showers of snow and
sleet.

On the eighth, at day-light, we resumed our east course with a gentle
breeze and fair weather. After sun-rise, being then in the latitude of
58° 30ʹ S., longitude 15° 14ʹ W.; the variation, by the mean results of
two compasses, was 2° 43ʹ E. These observations were more to be depended
on than those made the night before, there being much less sea now than
then. In the afternoon, we passed three ice-islands. This night was
spent as the preceding.

At six next morning, being in the latitude of 58° 27ʹ S., longitude 13°
4ʹ W., the variation was 26ʹ E., and in the afternoon, being in the same
latitude, and about a quarter of a degree more to the E., it was 2ʹ W.
Therefore this last situation must be in or near the line in which the
compass has no variation. We had a calm the most part of the day. The
weather fair and clear, excepting now and then a snow shower. The
mercury in the thermometer at noon rose to 40; whereas for several days
before, it had been no higher than 36 or 38. We had several ice-islands
in sight, but no one thing that could induce us to think that any land
was in our neighbourhood. At eight in the evening, a breeze sprung up at
S. E., with which we stood to N. E.

During the night the wind freshened and veered to south, which enabled
us to steer east. The wind was attended with showers of sleet and snow
till day-light, when the weather became fair, but piercing cold, so that
the water on deck was frozen, and at noon the mercury in the thermometer
was no higher than 34-1/2. At six o’clock in the morning, the variation
was 23ʹ west, being then in the latitude of 58° 15ʹ S., longitude 11°
41ʹ W., and at six in the evening, being in the same latitude, and in
the longitude of 9° 24ʹ W., it was 1° 51ʹ W. In the evening the wind
abated; and during the night it was variable between south and west.
Ice-islands continually in sight.

On the 11th, wind westerly, light airs attended with heavy showers of
snow in the morning; but, as the day advanced, the weather became fair,
clear, and serene. Still continuing to steer east, at noon we observed
in latitude 58° 11ʹ, longitude at the same time 7° 55ʹ west. Thermometer
34-2/3. In the afternoon we had two hours’ calm, after which we had
faint breezes between the N. E. and S. E.

At six o’clock in the morning of the 12th, being in the latitude of 58°
23ʹ S., longitude 6° 54ʹ W., the variation was 3° 23ʹ W. We had variable
light airs next to a calm all this day, and the weather was fair and
clear till towards the evening, when it became cloudy, with snow
showers, and the air very cold. Ice-islands continually in sight; most
of them small and breaking to pieces.

In the afternoon of the 13th the wind increased, the sky became clouded,
and soon after we had a very heavy fall of snow, which continued till
eight or nine o’clock in the evening, when the wind abating and veering
to S. E., the sky cleared up, and we had a fair night, attended with so
sharp a frost, that the water in all our vessels on deck was next
morning covered with a sheet of ice. The mercury in the thermometer was
as low as 29°, which is 3° below freezing, or rather 4; for we generally
found the water freeze when the mercury stood at 33°.

Towards noon on the 14th, the wind veering to the south, increased to a
very strong gale, and blew in heavy squalls, attended with snow. At
intervals, between the squalls, the weather was fair and clear, but
exceedingly cold. We continued to steer east, inclining a little to the
north, and in the afternoon crossed the first meridian, or that of
Greenwich, in the latitude of 57° 50ʹ S. At eight in the evening, we
close-reefed the top-sails, took in the main-sail, and steered east,
with a very hard gale at S. S. W., with a high sea from the same
direction.

At day-break on the 15th, we set the main-sail, loosed a reef out of
each top-sail, and with a very strong gale at S. W. and fair weather,
steered E. N. E. till noon, at which time we were in the latitude of 56°
37ʹ S., longitude 4° 11ʹ east, when we pointed to the N. E., in order to
get into the latitude of Cape Circumcision. Some large ice-islands were
in sight, and the air was nearly as cold as on the preceding day. At
eight o’clock in the evening, shortened sail, and at eleven hauled the
wind to the N. W., not daring to stand on in the night, which was foggy,
with snow-showers, and a smart frost.

At day-break on the 16th, we bore away N. E. with a light breeze at
west, which, at noon, was succeeded by a calm and fair weather. Our
latitude at this time was 55° 26ʹ S., longitude 5° 52ʹ east, in which
situation we had a great swell from the southward, but no ice in sight.
At one o’clock in the P. M., a breeze springing up at E. N. E., we stood
to S. E. till six, then tacked, and stood to the north, under
double-reefed top-sails and courses, having a very fresh gale, attended
with snow and sleet, which fixed to the masts and rigging as it fell,
and coated the whole with ice.

On the 17th the wind continued veering by little and little to the
south, till midnight, when it fixed at S. W. Being at this time in the
latitude of 54° 20ʹ S., longitude 6° 33ʹ east, I steered east, having a
prodigious high sea from the south, which assured us no land was near in
that direction.

In the morning of the 18th it ceased to snow; the weather became fair
and clear; and we found the variation to be 13° 44ʹ west. At noon we
were in the latitude of 54° 25ʹ, longitude 8° 46ʹ east. I thought this a
good latitude to keep in, to look for Cape Circumcision; because, if the
land had ever so little extent in the direction of north and south, we
could not miss seeing it, as the northern point is said to lie in 54°.
We had yet a great swell from the south, so that I was now well assured
it could only be an island; and it was of no consequence which side we
fell in with. In the evening Mr. Wales made several observations of the
moon, and stars Regulus and Spica; the mean results, at four o’clock,
when the observations were made, for finding the time by the watch, gave
9° 15ʹ 20ʺ east longitude. The watch at the same time gave 9° 36ʹ 45ʺ.
Soon after the variation was found to be 13° 10ʹ west. It is nearly in
this situation that Mr. Bouvet had 1° east. I cannot suppose that the
variation has altered so much since that time; but rather think he had
made some mistake in his observations. That there could be none in ours
was certain, from the uniformity for some time past. Besides, we found
12° 8ʹ west, variation, nearly under this meridian, in January, 1773.
During the night the wind veered round by the N. W. to N. N. E., and
blew a fresh gale.

At eight in the morning of the 19th, we saw the appearance of land in
the direction of E. by S. or that of our course; but it proved a mere
fog-bank, and soon after dispersed. We continued to steer E. by S. and
S. E. till seven o’clock in the evening, when, being in the latitude of
54° 42ʹ S., longitude 13° 3ʹ E., and the wind having veered to N. E., we
tacked and stood to N. W. under close-reefed top-sails and courses;
having a very strong gale, attended with snow showers.

At four o’clock next morning, being in the latitude of 54° 30ʹ S.,
longitude 12° 33ʹ E., we tacked, and stretched to N. E., with a fresh
gale at S. W., attended with snow-showers and sleet. At noon, being in
the latitude of 54° 8ʹ S., longitude 12° 59ʹ E., with a fresh gale at W.
by N. and tolerably clear weather, we steered E. till ten o’clock in the
evening, when we brought to, lest we might pass any land in the night,
of which we however had not the least signs.

At day-break, having made sail, we bore away east, and at noon observed
in latitude 54° 16ʹ S., longitude 16° 13ʹ E., which is 5° to the east of
the longitude in which Cape Circumcision is said to lie; so that we
began to think there was no such land in existence. I however continued
to steer east, inclining a little to the south, till four o’clock in the
afternoon of the next day, when we were in latitude of 54° 24ʹ S.,
longitude 19° 18ʹ E.

We had now run down thirteen degrees of longitude, in the very latitude
assigned for Bouvet’s Land; I was therefore well assured that what he
had seen could be nothing but an island of ice; for, if it had been
land, it is hardly possible we could have missed it, though it were ever
so small. Besides, from the time of leaving the southern lands, we had
not met with the least signs of any other. But even suppose we had, it
would have been no proof of the existence of Cape Circumcision; for I am
well assured that neither seals, nor penguins, nor any of the oceanic
birds, are indubitable signs of the vicinity of land. I will allow that
they are found on the coasts of all these southern lands; but are they
not also to be found in all parts of the southern ocean? There are,
however, some oceanic or aquatic birds which point out the vicinity of
land; especially shags, which seldom go out of sight of it; and gannets,
boobies, and men of war birds, I believe, seldom go very far out to sea.

As we were now no more than two degrees of longitude from our route to
the south, when we left the Cape of Good Hope, it was to no purpose to
proceed any further to the east under this parallel, knowing that no
land could be there. But an opportunity now offering of clearing up some
doubts of our having seen land farther to the south, I steered S. E. to
get into the situation in which it was supposed to lie.

We continued this course till four o’clock the next morning, and then
S. E. by E. and E. S. E. till eight in the evening, at which time we
were in the latitude of 55° 25ʹ S., longitude 23° 22ʹ E., both deduced
from observations made the same day; for, in the morning, the sky was
clear at intervals, and afforded an opportunity to observe several
distances of the sun and moon, which we had not been able to do for some
time past, having had a constant succession of bad weather.

Having now run over the place where the land was supposed to lie,
without seeing the least signs of any, it was no longer to be doubted
but that the ice-islands had deceived us as well as Mr. Bouvet. The wind
by this time having veered to the north, and increased to a perfect
storm, attended as usual with snow and sleet, we handed the top-sails,
and hauled up E. N. E. under the courses. During the night the wind
abated, and veered to N. W., which enabled us to steer more to the
north, having no business farther south.



                               CHAP. VII.

    HEADS OF WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN THE VOYAGE; WITH SOME CONJECTURES
     CONCERNING THE FORMATION OF ICE-ISLANDS; AND AN ACCOUNT OF OUR
         PROCEEDINGS TILL OUR ARRIVAL AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.


I had now made the circuit of the Southern Ocean in a high latitude, and
traversed it in such a manner as to leave not the least room for the
possibility of there being a continent, unless near the pole, and out of
the reach of navigation. By twice visiting the tropical sea, I had not
only settled the situation of some old discoveries, but made there many
new ones, and left, I conceive, very little more to be done even in that
part. Thus I flatter myself, that the intention of the voyage has, in
every respect, been fully answered; the southern hemisphere sufficiently
explored; and a final end put to the searching after a southern
continent, which has, at times, ingrossed the attention of some of the
maritime powers for near two centuries past, and been a favourite theory
amongst the geographers of all ages.

That there may be a continent, or large tract of land, near the pole, I
will not deny; on the contrary, I am of opinion there is; and it is
probable that we have seen a part of it. The excessive cold, the many
islands and vast floats of ice, all tend to prove that there must be
land to the south; and for my persuasion that this southern land must
lie, or extend, farthest to the north, opposite to the Southern Atlantic
and Indian Oceans, I have already assigned some reasons; to which I may
add the greater degree of cold experienced by us in these seas, than in
the Southern Pacific Ocean under the same parallels of latitude.

In this last ocean, the mercury in the thermometer seldom fell so low as
the freezing point, till we were in 60° and upwards; whereas in the
others it fell as low in the latitude of 54°. This was certainly owing
to there being a greater quantity of ice, and to its extending farther
to the north, in these two seas than in the South Pacific; and if ice be
first formed at, or near land, of which I have no doubt, it will follow
that the land also extends farther north.

The formation or coagulation of ice-islands, has not, to my knowledge,
been thoroughly investigated. Some have supposed them to be formed by
the freezing of the water at the mouths of large rivers, or great
cataracts, where they accumulate till they are broken off by their own
weight. My observations will not allow me to acquiesce in this opinion;
because we never found any of the ice which we took up incorporated with
earth, or any of its produce, as I think it must have been, had it been
coagulated in land waters. It is a doubt with me, whether there be any
rivers in these countries. It is certain, that we saw not a river, or
stream of water, on all the coast of Georgia, nor on any of the southern
lands. Nor did we ever see a stream of water run from any of the
ice-islands. How are we then to suppose that there are large rivers? The
valleys are covered, many fathoms deep, with everlasting snow; and, at
the sea, they terminate in icy cliffs of vast height. It is here where
the ice-islands are formed; not from streams of water, but from
consolidated snow and sleet, which is almost continually falling or
drifting down from the mountains, especially in the winter, when the
frost must be intense. During that season, the ice-cliffs must so
accumulate as to fill up all the bays, be they ever so large. This is a
fact which cannot be doubted, as we have seen it so in summer. These
cliffs accumulate by continual falls of snow, and what drifts from the
mountains, till they are no longer able to support their own weight; and
then large pieces break off, which we call ice-islands. Such as have a
flat even surface, must be of the ice formed in the bays, and before the
flat valleys; the others, which have a tapering unequal surface, must be
formed on, or under, the side of a coast composed of pointed rocks and
precipices, or some such uneven surface. For we cannot suppose that snow
alone, as it falls, can form, on a plain surface, such as the sea, such
a variety of high peaks and hills as we saw on many of the ice isles. It
is certainly more reasonable to believe that they are formed on a coast
whose surface is something similar to theirs. I have observed that all
the ice-islands of any extent, and before they begin to break to pieces,
are terminated by perpendicular cliffs of clear ice or frozen snow,
always on one or more sides, but most generally all round. Many, and
those of the largest size, which had a hilly and spiral surface, showed
a perpendicular cliff or side from the summit of the highest peak down
to its base. This to me was a convincing proof, that these, as well as
the flat isles, must have broken off from substances like themselves,
that is, from some large tract of ice.

When I consider the vast quantity of ice we saw, and the vicinity of the
places to the pole where it is formed, and where the degrees of
longitude are very small, I am led to believe that these ice-cliffs
extend a good way into the sea, in some parts, especially in such as are
sheltered from the violence of the winds. It may even be doubted if ever
the wind is violent in the very high latitudes. And that the sea will
freeze over, or the snow that falls upon it, which amounts to the same
thing, we have instances in the northern hemisphere. The Baltic, the
Gulph of St. Laurence, the Straits of Belle-Isle, and many other equally
large seas, are frequently frozen over in winter. Nor is this at all
extraordinary, for we have found the degree of cold at the surface of
the sea, even in summer, to be two degrees below the freezing point;
consequently nothing kept it from freezing but the salts it contains,
and the agitation of its surface. Whenever this last ceaseth in winter,
when the frost is set in, and there comes a fall of snow, it will freeze
on the surface as it falls, and in a few days, or perhaps in one night,
form such a sheet of ice as will not be easily broken up. Thus a
foundation will be laid for it to accumulate to any thickness by falls
of snow, without its being at all necessary for the sea water to freeze.
It may be by this means these vast floats of low ice we find in the
spring of the year are formed, and which, after they break up, are
carried by the currents to the north. For, from all the observations I
have been able to make, the currents every where, in the high latitudes,
set to the N., or to the N. E. or N. W.; but we have very seldom found
them considerable.

If this imperfect account of the formation of these extraordinary
floating islands of ice, which is written wholly from my own
observations, does not convey some useful hints to an abler pen, it
will, however, convey some idea of the lands where they are formed.
Lands doomed by nature to perpetual frigidness; never to feel the warmth
of the sun’s rays; whose horrible and savage aspect I have not words to
describe. Such are the lands we have discovered; what then may we expect
those to be which lie still farther to the south? For we may reasonably
suppose that we have seen the best, as lying most to the north. If any
one should have resolution and perseverance to clear up this point by
proceeding farther than I have done, I shall not envy him the honour of
the discovery; but I will be bold to say, that the world will not be
benefited by it.

I had, at this time, some thoughts of revisiting the place where the
French discovery is said to lie. But then I considered that, if they had
really made this discovery, the end would be as fully answered as if I
had done it myself. We know it can only be an island; and if we may
judge from the degree of cold we found in that latitude, it cannot be a
fertile one. Besides, this would have kept me two months longer at sea,
and in a tempestuous latitude, which we were not in a condition to
struggle with. Our sails and rigging were so much worn, that something
was giving way every hour; and we had nothing left, either to repair or
replace them. Our provisions were in a state of decay, and consequently
afforded little nourishment, and we had been a long time without
refreshments. My people, indeed, were yet healthy, and would have
cheerfully have gone wherever I had thought proper to lead them; but I
dreaded the scurvy laying hold of them, at a time when we had nothing
left to remove it. I must say farther, that it would have been cruel in
me to have continued the fatigues and hardships they were continually
exposed to longer than was absolutely necessary. Their behaviour,
throughout the whole voyage, merited every indulgence which it was in my
power to give them. Animated by the conduct of the officers, they showed
themselves capable of surmounting every difficulty and danger which came
in their way, and never once looked either upon the one or the other, as
being at all heightened by our separation from our consort the
Adventure.

All these considerations induced me to lay aside looking for the French
discoveries, and to steer for the Cape of Good Hope; with a resolution,
however, of looking for the isles of Denia and Marseveen, which are laid
down in Dr. Halley’s variation chart in the latitude of 41-1/2° S., and
about 4° of longitude to the east of the meridian of the Cape of Good
Hope. With this view I steered N. E., with a hard gale at N. W. and
thick weather; and on the 26th at noon, we saw the last ice-island,
being at this time in the latitude of 52° 52ʹ S., longitude 26° 31ʹ E.

The wind abating and veering to the S., on the 1st of March, we steered
W., in order to get farther from Mr. Bouvet’s track, which was but a few
degrees to the east of us, being at this time in the latitude of 46° 44ʹ
S., longitude 33° 20ʹ E., in which situation we found the variation to
be 23° 36ʹ west. It is somewhat remarkable, that all the time we had
northerly winds, which were regular and constant for several days, the
weather was always thick and cloudy; but, as soon as they came S. of W.
it cleared up, and was fine and pleasant. The barometer began to rise
several days before this change happened; but whether on account of it,
or our coming northward, cannot be determined.

The wind remained not long at south before it veered round by the N. E.
to N. W., blowing fresh and by squalls, attended, as before, with rain
and thick misty weather. We had some intervals of clear weather on the
afternoon of the 3d, when we found the variation to be 22° 26ʹ W.;
latitude at this time 45° 8ʹ S., longitude 30° 50ʹ E. The following
night was very stormy; the wind blew from S. W. and in excessively heavy
squalls. At short intervals between the squalls, the wind would fall
almost to a calm, and then come on again with such fury, that neither
our sails nor rigging could withstand it, several of the sails being
split, and a middle stay-sail being wholly lost. The next morning the
gale abated, and we repaired the damage we had sustained in the best
manner we could.

On the 8th, being in the latitude of 41° 30ʹ S., longitude 26° 51ʹ E.,
the mercury in the thermometer rose to 61, and we found it necessary to
put on lighter clothes. As the wind continued invariably fixed between
N. W. and W., we took every advantage to get to the west, by tacking
whenever it shifted any thing in our favour; but as we had a great swell
against us, our tacks were rather disadvantageous. We daily saw
albatrosses, peterels, and other oceanic birds; but not the least sign
of land.

On the 11th, in the latitude of 40° 40ʹ S., longitude 23° 47ʹ E., the
variation was 20° 48ʹ W. About noon the same day, the wind shifting
suddenly from N. W. to S. W. caused the mercury in the thermometer to
fall as suddenly from 62° to 52°; such was the different state of the
air, between a northerly and southerly wind. The next day, having
several hours calm, we put a boat in the water, and shot some
albatrosses and peterels; which, at this time, were highly acceptable.
We were now nearly in the situation where the isles which we were in
search of, are said to lie; however, we saw nothing that could give us
the least hope of finding them.

The calm continued till five o’clock of the next morning, when it was
succeeded by a breeze at W. by S., with which we stood to N. N. W. and
at noon observed in latitude 38° 51ʹ S. This was upwards of thirty miles
more to the north than our log gave us; and the watch shewed that we had
been set to the east also. If these differences did not arise from some
strong current, I know not how to account for them. Very strong currents
have been found on the African coast, between Madagascar and the Cape of
Good Hope; but I never heard of their extending so far from the land;
nor is it probable they do. I rather suppose that this current has no
connection with that on the coast; and that we happened to fall into
some stream which is neither lasting nor regular. But these are points
which require much time to investigate, and must therefore be left to
the industry of future navigators.

We were now two degrees to the north of the parallel in which the isles
of Denia and Marseveen are said to lie. We had seen nothing to encourage
us to persevere in looking after them; and it must have taken up some
time longer to find them, or to prove their non-existence. Every one was
impatient to get into port, and for good reasons; as for a long time we
had had nothing but stale and salt provisions, for which every one on
board had lost all relish. These reasons induced me to yield to the
general wish, and to steer for the Cape of Good Hope, being at this time
in the latitude of 38° 38ʹ S., longitude 23° 37ʹ E.

The next day the observed latitude at noon was only seventeen miles to
the north of that given by the log; so that we had either got out of the
strength of the current, or it had ceased.

On the 15th the observed latitude at noon, together with the watch,
shewed that we had had a strong current setting to the S. W. the
contrary direction to what we had experienced on some of the preceding
days, as hath been mentioned.

At day-light, on the 16th, we saw two sail in the N. W. quarter standing
to the westward, and one of them shewing Dutch colours. At ten o’clock
we tacked and stood to the west also, being at this time in the latitude
of 35° 9ʹ S., longitude 22° 38ʹ E.

I now, in pursuance of my instructions, demanded of the officers and
petty officers, the log-books and journals they had kept; which were
delivered to me accordingly, and sealed up for the inspection of the
Admiralty. I also enjoined them, and the whole crew, not to divulge
where we had been, till they had their Lordships’ permission so to do.
In the afternoon the wind veered to the west, and increased to a hard
gale, which was of short duration; for, the next day, it fell, and at
noon veered to S. E. At this time we were in the latitude of 34° 49ʹ S.,
longitude 22° E.; and, on sounding, found fifty-six fathoms water. In
the evening we saw the land in the direction of E. N. E., about six
leagues distant; and, during the forepart of the night, there was a
great fire or light upon it.

At day-break on the 18th, we saw the land again, bearing N. N. W., six
or seven leagues distant, and the depth of water forty-eight fathoms. At
nine o’clock, having little or no wind, we hoisted out a boat and sent
on board one of the two ships before mentioned, which were about two
leagues from us; but we were too impatient after news to regard the
distance. Soon after, a breeze sprung up at west, with which we stood to
the south; and, presently, three sail more appeared in sight to
windward, one of which shewed English colours.

At one P. M. the boat returned from on board the Bownkerke Polder,
Captain Cornelius Bosch, a Dutch Indiaman from Bengal. Captain Bosch,
very obligingly, offered us sugar, arrack, and whatever he had to spare.
Our people were told by some English seamen on board this ship, that the
Adventure had arrived at the Cape of Good Hope twelve months ago, and
that the crew of one of her boats had been murdered and eaten by the
people of New Zealand; so that the story which we heard in Queen
Charlotte’s Sound was now no longer a mystery.

We had light airs, next to a calm, till ten o’clock the next morning,
when a breeze sprung up at west, and the English ship, which was to
windward, bore down to us. She proved to be the True Briton, Captain
Broadly, from China. As he did not intend to touch at the Cape, I put a
letter on board him for the Secretary of the Admiralty.

The account which we had heard of the Adventure was now confirmed to us
by this ship. We also got, from on board her, a parcel of old
newspapers, which were new to us, and gave us some amusement; but these
were the least favours we received from Captain Broadly. With a
generosity peculiar to the commanders of the India Company’s ships, he
sent us fresh provisions, tea, and other articles, which were very
acceptable; and deserve from me this public acknowledgment. In the
afternoon we parted company. The True Briton stood out to sea, and we in
for the land; having a fresh gale at west, which split our fore top-sail
in such a manner, that we were obliged to bring another to the yard. At
six o’clock we tacked within four or five miles of the shore; and, as we
judged, about five or six leagues to the east of Cape Aguilas. We stood
off till midnight, when, the wind having veered round to the south, we
tacked, and stood along-shore to the west. The wind kept veering more
and more in our favour, and at last fixed at E. S. E., and blew, for
some hours, a perfect hurricane.

As soon as the storm began to subside we made sail, and hauled in for
the land. Next day at noon, the Table Mountain over the Cape Town bore
N. E. by E., distant nine or ten leagues. By making use of this bearing
and distance to reduce the longitude shewn by the watch to the Cape
Town, the error was found to be no more than 18ʹ in longitude, which it
was too far to the east. Indeed, the difference we found between it and
the lunar observations, since we left New Zealand, had seldom exceeded
half a degree, and always the same way.

The next morning, being with us Wednesday, the 22d, but with the people
here Tuesday, the 21st, we anchored in Table Bay, where we found several
Dutch ships; some French; and the Ceres, Captain Newte, an English East
India Company’s ship, from China, bound directly to England, by whom I
sent a copy of the preceding parts of this journal, some charts, and
other drawings, to the Admiralty.

Before we had well got to an anchor, I dispatched an officer to acquaint
the governor with our arrival, and to request the necessary stores and
refreshments, which were readily granted. As soon as the officer came
back, we saluted the garrison with thirteen guns, which compliment was
immediately returned with an equal number.

I now learnt that the Adventure had called here, on her return; and I
found a letter from Captain Furneaux, acquainting me with the loss of
his boat, and of ten of his best men, in Queen Charlotte’s Sound. The
captain, afterwards, on my arrival in England, put into my hands a
complete narrative of his proceedings, from the time of our second and
final separation, which I now lay before the public in the following
chapter.



                              CHAP. VIII.

CAPTAIN FURNEAUX’S NARRATIVE OF HIS PROCEEDINGS, IN THE ADVENTURE, FROM
    THE TIME HE WAS SEPARATED FROM THE RESOLUTION, TO HIS ARRIVAL IN
  ENGLAND; INCLUDING LIEUTENANT BURNEY’S REPORT CONCERNING THE BOAT’S
 CREW, WHO WERE MURDERED BY THE INHABITANTS OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S SOUND.


After a passage of fourteen days from Amsterdam, we made the coast of
New Zealand near the Table Cape, and stood along-shore till we came as
far as Cape Turnagain. The wind then began to blow strong at west, with
heavy squalls and rain, which split many of our sails, and blew us off
the coast for three days; in which time we parted company with the
Resolution, and never saw her afterwards.

On the 4th of November, we again got in shore, near Cape Palliser, and
were visited by a number of the natives in their canoes, bringing a
great quantity of cray-fish, which we bought of them for nails and
Otaheite cloth. The next day it blew hard from W. N. W., which again
drove us off the coast, and obliged us to bring to for two days; during
which time it blew one continual gale of wind with heavy falls of sleet.
By this time our decks were very leaky; our beds and bedding wet; and
several of our people complaining of colds; so that we began to despair
of ever getting into Charlotte Sound, or joining the Resolution.

On the 6th, being to the north of the Cape, the wind at S. W. and
blowing strong, we bore away for some bay to complete our water and
wood, being in great want of both; having been at the allowance of one
quart of water for some days past; and even that pittance could not be
come at, above six or seven days longer. We anchored in Tolaga Bay on
the 9th, in latitude 38° 21ʹ S., longitude 178° 37ʹ E. It affords good
riding with the wind westerly, and regular soundings from eleven to five
fathoms, stiff muddy ground across the bay for about two miles. It is
open from N. N. E. to E. S. E. It is to be observed, easterly winds
seldom blow hard on this shore, but when they do, they throw in a great
sea; so that if it were not for a great undertow, together with a large
river that empties itself in the bottom of the bay, a ship would not be
able to ride here. Wood and water are easily to be had, except when it
blows hard easterly. The natives here are the same as those at Charlotte
Sound, but more numerous, and seemed settled, having regular plantations
of sweet potatoes, and other roots, which are very good; and they have
plenty of cray and other fish, which we bought of them for nails, beads,
and other trifles, at an easy rate. In one of their canoes we observed
the head of a woman lying in state, adorned with feathers and other
ornaments. It had the appearance of being alive; but, on examination, we
found it dry, being preserved with every feature perfect, and kept as
the relic of some deceased relation.

Having got about ten tons of water, and some wood, we sailed for
Charlotte Sound on the 12th. We were no sooner out than the wind began
to blow hard, dead on the shore, so that we could not clear the land on
either tack. This obliged us to bear away again for the bay, where we
anchored the next morning, and rode out a very heavy gale of wind at E.
by S. which threw in a very great sea. We now began to fear we should
never join the Resolution; having reason to believe she was in Charlotte
Sound, and by this time ready for sea. We soon found it was with great
difficulty we could get any water, owing to the swell setting in so
strong; at last, however, we were able to go on shore, and got both wood
and water.

Whilst we lay here, we were employed about the rigging, which was much
damaged by the constant gales of wind we had met with since we made the
coast. We got the booms down on the decks, and having made the ship as
snug as possible, sailed again on the 16th. After this we met with
several gales of wind off the mouth of the Strait; and continued beating
backwards and forwards till the 30th, when we were so fortunate as to
get a favourable wind, which we took every advantage of, and at last got
safe into our desired port. We saw nothing of the Resolution, and began
to doubt her safety; but on going ashore, we discerned the place where
she had erected her tents; and, on an old stump of a tree in the garden,
observed these words cut out, “Look underneath.” There we dug, and soon
found a bottle corked and waxed down, with a letter in it from Captain
Cook, signifying their arrival on the 3d instant, and departure on the
24th; and that they intended spending a few days in the entrance of the
Straits to look for us.

We immediately set about getting the ship ready for sea as fast as
possible; erected our tents; sent the cooper on shore to repair the
casks; and began to unstow the hold, to get at the bread that was in
butts; but on opening them found a great quantity of it entirely
spoiled, and most part so damaged that we were obliged to fix our copper
oven on shore to bake it over again, which undoubtedly delayed us a
considerable time. Whilst we lay here, the inhabitants came on board as
before, supplying us with fish, and other things of their own
manufacture, which we bought of them for nails, &c. and appeared very
friendly; though twice in the middle of the night, they came to the
tent, with an intention to steal, but were discovered before they could
get any thing into their possession.

On the 17th of December, having refitted the ship, completed our water
and wood, and got every thing ready for sea, we sent our large cutter
with Mr. Rowe, a midshipman, and the boat’s crew, to gather wild greens
for the ship’s company; with orders to return that evening, as I
intended to sail the next morning. But, on the boat’s not returning the
same evening, nor the next morning, being under great uneasiness about
her, I hoisted out the launch, and sent her, with the second lieutenant,
Mr. Burney, manned with the boat’s crew and ten marines, in search of
her. My orders to Mr. Burney were, first to look well into East Bay, and
then to proceed to Grass Cove, the place to which Mr. Rowe had been
sent; and if he heard nothing of the boat there, to go farther up the
Sound, and come back along the west shore. As Mr. Rowe had left the ship
an hour before the time proposed, and in a great hurry, I was strongly
persuaded that his curiosity had carried him into East Bay, none in our
ship having ever been there; or else, that some accident had happened to
the boat, either by going a-drift through the boat-keeper’s negligence,
or by being stove among the rocks. This was almost every body’s opinion;
and on this supposition the carpenter’s mate was sent in the launch,
with some sheets of tin. I had not the least suspicion that our people
had received any injury from the natives; our boats having frequently
been higher up, and worse provided. How much I was mistaken, too soon
appeared; for Mr. Burney having returned about eleven o’clock the same
night, made his report of a horrible scene indeed, which cannot be
better described than in his own words, which now follow.

“On the 18th we left the ship; and having a light breeze in our favour,
we soon got round Long Island, and within Long Point. I examined every
cove, on the larboard hand, as we went along, looking well all around
with a spy-glass, which I took for that purpose. At half-past one, we
stopped at a beach, on the left hand side going up East Bay, to boil
some victuals, as we brought nothing but raw meat with us. Whilst we
were cooking, I saw an Indian on the opposite shore, running along a
beach to the head of the bay. Our meat being drest, we got into the boat
and put off; and, in a short time, arrived at the head of this reach,
where we saw an Indian settlement.

“As we drew near, some of the Indians came down on the rocks, and waved
for us to be gone; but seeing we disregarded them, they altered their
notes. Here we found six large canoes hauled up on the beach, most of
them double ones, and a great many people; though not so many as one
might expect from the number of houses and size of the canoes. Leaving
the boat’s crew to guard the boat, I stepped a-shore with the marines
(the corporal and five men), and searched a good many of their houses;
but found nothing to give me any suspicion. Three or four well-beaten
paths led farther into the woods, where were many more houses; but the
people continuing friendly, I thought it unnecessary to continue our
search. Coming down to the beach, one of the Indians had brought a
bundle of _Hepatoos_ (long spears), but seeing I looked very earnestly
at him, he put them on the ground, and walked about with seeming
unconcern. Some of the people appearing to be frightened, I gave a
looking-glass to one, and a large nail to another. From this place the
bay ran, as nearly as I could guess, N. N. W. a good mile, where it
ended in a long sandy beach. I looked all round with the glass, but saw
no boat, canoe, or sign of inhabitant. I therefore contented myself with
firing some guns, which I had done in every cove as I went along.

“I now kept close to the east shore, and came to another settlement,
where the Indians invited us ashore. I inquired of them about the boat,
but they pretended ignorance. They appeared very friendly here, and sold
us some fish. Within an hour after we left this place, in a small beach
adjoining to Grass Cove, we saw a very large double canoe just hauled
up, with two men and a dog. The men, on seeing us, left their canoe, and
ran up into the woods. This gave me reason to suspect I should here get
tidings of the cutter. We went ashore, and searched the canoe, where we
found one of the rullock-ports of the cutter, and some shoes, one of
which was known to belong to Mr. Woodhouse, one of our midshipmen. One
of the people, at the same time, brought me a piece of meat, which he
took to be some of the salt meat belonging to the cutter’s crew. On
examining this, and smelling to it, I found it was fresh. Mr. Fannin
(the master) who was with me, supposed it was dog’s flesh, and I was of
the same opinion; for I still doubted their being cannibals. But we were
soon convinced by most horrid and undeniable proof.

“A great many baskets (about twenty) lying on the beach tied up, we cut
them open. Some were full of roasted flesh, and some of fern-root, which
serves them for bread. On farther search, we found more shoes and a
hand, which we immediately knew to have belonged to Thomas Hill, one of
our forecastle men, it being marked T. H. with an Otaheite
tattow-instrument. I went with some of the people a little way up the
woods, but saw nothing else. Coming down again, there was a round spot
covered with fresh earth about four feet diameter, where something had
been buried. Having no spade, we began to dig with a cutlass; and in the
mean time I launched the canoe with intent to destroy her; but seeing a
great smoke ascending over the nearest hill, I got all the people into
the boat, and made what haste I could to be with them before sun-set.

“On opening the next bay, which was Grass Cove, we saw four canoes, one
single and three double ones, and a great many people on the beach, who,
on our approach, retreated to a small hill within a ship’s length of the
water-side, where they stood talking to us. A large fire was on the top
of the high land beyond the woods, from whence, all the way down the
hill the place was thronged like a fair. As we came in, I ordered a
musquetoon to be fired at one of the canoes, suspecting they might be
full of men lying down in the bottom; for they were all afloat, but
nobody was seen in them. The savages on the little hill still kept
hallooing and making signs for us to land. However, as soon as we got
close in, we all fired. The first volley did not seem to affect them
much; but on the second, they began to scramble away as fast as they
could, some of them howling. We continued firing as long as we could see
the glimpse of any of them through the bushes. Amongst the Indians were
two very stout men, who never offered to move till they found themselves
forsaken by their companions; and then they marched away with great
composure and deliberation; their pride not suffering them to run. One
of them however, got a fall, and either lay there or crawled off on all
fours. The other got clear without any apparent hurt. I then landed with
the marines, and Mr. Fannin stayed to guard the boat.

“On the beach were two bundles of celery, which had been gathered for
loading the cutter. A broken oar was stuck upright in the ground, to
which the natives had tied their canoes; a proof that the attack had
been made here. I then searched all along at the back of the beach, to
see if the cutter was there. We found no boat, but instead of her, such
a shocking scene of carnage and barbarity as can never be mentioned or
thought of but with horror; for the heads, hearts, and lungs of several
of our people were seen lying on the beach, and, at a little distance,
the dogs gnawing their entrails.

“Whilst we remained almost stupified on the spot, Mr. Fannin called to
us that he heard the savages gathering together in the woods; on which I
returned to the boat, and hauling alongside the canoes, we demolished
three of them. Whilst this was transacting, the fire on the top of the
hill disappeared; and we could hear the Indians in the woods at high
words, I suppose quarrelling whether or no they should attack us, and
try to save their canoes. It now grew dark, I therefore just stepped
out, and looked once more behind the beach to see if the cutter had been
hauled up in the bushes; but seeing nothing of her, returned and put
off. Our whole force would have been barely sufficient to have gone up
the hill, and to have ventured with half (for half must have been left
to guard the boat) would have been fool-hardiness.

“As we opened the upper part of the sound, we saw a very large fire
about three or four miles higher up, which formed a complete oval,
reaching from the top of a hill down almost to the water-side, the
middle space being inclosed all round by the fire, like a hedge. I
consulted with Mr. Fannin, and we were both of opinion that we could
expect to reap no other advantage than the poor satisfaction of killing
some more of the savages. At leaving Grass Cove, we had fired a general
volley towards where we heard the Indians talking; but, by going in and
out of the boat, the arms had got wet, and four pieces missed fire. What
was still worse, it began to rain; our ammunition was more than half
expended, and we left six large canoes behind us in one place. With so
many disadvantages, I did not think it worth while to proceed, where
nothing could be hoped for but revenge.

“Coming between two round islands, situated to the southward of East
Bay, we imagined we heard somebody calling, we lay on our oars and
listened, but heard no more of it; we hallooed several times, but to
little purpose; the poor souls were far enough out of hearing; and,
indeed, I think it some comfort to reflect that, in all probability,
every man of them must have been killed on the spot.”

Thus far Mr. Burney’s report; and, to complete the account of this
tragical transaction, it may not be unnecessary to mention that the
people in the cutter were Mr. Rowe; Mr. Woodhouse; Francis Murphy,
quarter-master; William Facey, Thomas Hill, Michael Bell, and Edward
Jones, forecastle-men; John Cavenaugh and Thomas Milton, belonging to
the after-guard; and James Sevilley, the captain’s man, being ten in
all. Most of these were of our very best seamen, the stoutest and most
healthy people in the ship. Mr. Burney’s party brought on board two
hands, one belonging to Mr. Rowe, known by a hurt he had received on it;
the other to Thomas Hill, as before-mentioned; and the head of the
captain’s servant. These, with more of the remains, were tied in a
hammock and thrown over-board, with ballast and shot sufficient to sink
it. None of their arms nor clothes were found, except part of a pair of
trowsers, a frock, and six shoes, no two of them being fellows.

I am not inclined to think this was any premeditated plan of these
savages; for, the morning Mr. Rowe left the ship, he met two canoes,
which came down and stayed all the forenoon in Ship Cove. It might
probably happen from some quarrel which was decided on the spot; or the
fairness of the opportunity might tempt them, our people being so
incautious, and thinking themselves too secure. Another thing which
encouraged the New Zealanders, was, they were sensible that a gun was
not infallible, that they sometimes missed, and that when discharged,
they must be loaded before they could be used again, which time they
knew how to take advantage of. After their success, I imagine there was
a general meeting on the east side of the sound. The Indians of Shag
Cove were there; this we knew by a cock which was in one of the canoes,
and by a long single canoe, which some of our people had seen four days
before in Shag Cove, where they had been with Mr. Rowe in the cutter.

We were detained in the sound by contrary winds four days after this
melancholy affair happened, during which time we saw none of the
inhabitants. What is very remarkable, I had been several times up in the
same cove with Captain Cook, and never saw the least sign of an
inhabitant, except some deserted towns, which appeared as if they had
not been occupied for several years; and yet, when Mr. Burney entered
the cove, he was of opinion there could not be less than fifteen hundred
or two thousand people. I doubt not, had they been apprized of his
coming, they would have attacked him. From these considerations I
thought it imprudent to send a boat up again; as we were convinced there
was not the least probability of any of our people being alive.

On the 23d, we weighed and made sail out of the Sound, and stood to the
eastward to get clear of the Straits; which we accomplished the same
evening, but were baffled for two or three days with light winds before
we could clear the coast. We then stood to the S. S. E., till we got
into the latitude of 56° S., without any thing remarkable happening,
having a great swell from the southward. At this time the winds began to
blow strong from the S. W., and the weather to be very cold; and as the
ship was low and deep laden, the sea made a continual breach over her,
which kept us always wet; and by her straining, very few of the people
were dry in bed or on deck, having no shelter to keep the sea from them.

The birds were the only companions we had in this vast ocean; except now
and then, we saw a whale or porpoise, and sometimes a seal or two, and a
few penguins. In the latitude of 58° S., longitude 213°[18] E., we fell
in with some ice, and every day saw more or less, we then standing to
the E. We found a very strong current setting to the eastward; for by
the time we were abreast of Cape Horn, being in the latitude of 61° S.,
the ship was a-head of our account eight degrees. We were very little
more than a month from Cape Palliser in New Zealand to Cape Horn, which
is an hundred and twenty-one degrees of longitude, and had continual
westerly winds from S. W. to N. W., with a great sea following.

On opening some casks of peas and flour, that had been stowed on the
coals, we found them very much damaged, and not eatable; so thought it
most prudent to make for the Cape of Good Hope, but first to stand into
the latitude and longitude of Cape Circumcision. After being to the
eastward of Cape Horn, we found the winds did not blow so strong from
the westward as usual, but came more from the north, which brought on
thick foggy weather; so that for several days together we could not be
able to get an observation, or see the least sign of the sun.

This weather lasted above a month, being then among a great many islands
of ice, which kept us constantly on the look-out for fear of running
foul of them, and, being a single ship, made us more attentive. By this
time our people began to complain of colds and pains in their limbs,
which obliged me to haul to the northward to the latitude of 54° S., but
we still continued to have the same sort of weather, though we had
oftener an opportunity of obtaining observations for the latitude.

After getting into the latitude abovementioned, I steered to the east,
in order if possible to find the land laid down by Bouvet. As we
advanced to the east, the islands of ice became more numerous and
dangerous; they being much smaller than they used to be; and the nights
began to be dark.

On the third of March, being then in the latitude of 54° 4ʹ S.,
longitude 13° E., which is the latitude of Bouvet’s discovery, and half
a degree to the eastward of it, and not seeing the least sign of land,
either now or since we have been in this parallel, I gave over looking
for it, and hauled away to the northward. As our last track to the
southward was within a few degrees of Bouvet’s discovery, in the
longitude assigned to it, and about three or four degrees to the
southward, should there be any land thereabout, it must be a very
inconsiderable island. But I believe it was nothing but ice; as we, in
our first setting out, thought we had seen land several times, but it
proved to be high islands of ice at the back of the large fields; and as
it was thick foggy weather when Mr. Bouvet fell in with it, he might
very easily mistake them for land.

On the 7th, being in the latitude of 48° 30ʹ S., longitude 14° 26ʹ E.,
saw two large islands of ice.

On the 17th, made the land of the Cape of Good Hope, and on the 19th
anchored in Table Bay, where we found Commodore Sir Edward Hughes, with
his Majesty’s ships Salisbury and Sea-horse. I saluted the Commodore
with thirteen guns; and soon after, the garrison with the same number;
the former returned the salute, as usual, with two guns less, and the
latter with an equal number.

On the 24th, Sir Edward Hughes sailed with the Salisbury and Sea-horse
for the East Indies; but I remained refitting the ship and refreshing my
people till the 16th of April, when I sailed for England and on the 14th
of July anchored at Spithead.



                               CHAP. IX.

     TRANSACTIONS AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE; WITH AN ACCOUNT OF SOME
   DISCOVERIES MADE BY THE FRENCH; AND THE ARRIVAL OF THE SHIP AT ST.
                                HELENA.


I now resume my own Journal, which Captain Furneaux’s interesting
Narrative in the preceding chapter, had obliged me to suspend.

The day after my arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, I went on shore and
waited on the governor, Baron Plettenberg, and other principal officers,
who received and treated us with the greatest politeness, contributing
all in their power to make it agreeable. And, as there are few people
more obliging to strangers than the Dutch in general at this place, and
refreshments of all kinds are no where to be got in such abundance, we
enjoyed some real repose, after the fatigues of a long voyage.

The good treatment which strangers meet with at the Cape of Good Hope,
and the necessity of breathing a little fresh air, has introduced a
custom not common any where else (at least I have no where seen it so
strictly observed), which is, for all the officers who can be spared out
of the ships to reside on shore. We followed this custom. Myself, the
two Mr. Forsters, and Mr. Sparrman, took up our abode with Mr. Brandt, a
gentleman well known to the English by his obliging readiness to serve
them. My first care after my arrival, was to procure fresh-baked bread,
fresh meat, greens, and wine, for those who remained on board; and,
being provided every day during our stay with these articles, they were
soon restored to their usual strength. We had only three men on board
whom it was thought necessary to send on shore for the recovery of their
health; and for these I procured quarters, at the rate of thirty
stivers, or half a crown, per day, for which they were provided with
victuals, drink, and lodging.

We now went to work to supply all our defects. For this purpose, by
permission, we erected a tent on shore, to which we sent our casks and
sails to be repaired. We also struck the yards and topmasts, in order to
overhaul the rigging, which we found in so bad a condition, that almost
every thing, except the standing rigging, was obliged to be replaced
with new; and that was purchased at a most exorbitant price. In the
article of naval stores, the Dutch here, as well as at Batavia, take a
shameful advantage of the distress of foreigners.

That our rigging, sails, &c. should be worn out, will not be wondered
at, when it is known, that, during this circumnavigation of the globe,
that is, from our leaving this place, to our return to it again, we had
sailed no less than twenty thousand leagues; an extent of voyage, nearly
equal to three times the equatorial circumference of the earth, and
which, I apprehend, was never sailed by any ship in the same space of
time before. And yet, in all this great run, which had been made in all
latitudes between 9° and 71°, we sprung neither low-masts, top-mast,
lower nor top-sail yard, nor so much as broke a lower or top-mast
shroud; which, with the great care and abilities of my officers, must be
owing to the good properties of our ship.

One of the French ships which were at anchor in the bay, was the Ajax
Indiaman, bound to Pondicherry, commanded by Captain Crozet. He had been
second in command with Captain Morion, who sailed from this place with
two ships, in March, 1772, as hath been already mentioned. Instead of
going from hence to America, as was said, he stood away for New Zealand;
where, in the Bay of Isles, he and some of his people were killed by the
inhabitants. Captain Crozet, who succeeded to the command, returned by
the way of the Philippine Isles, with the two ships, to the Island of
Mauritius. He seemed to be a man possessed of the true spirit of
discovery, and to have abilities. In a very obliging manner, he
communicated to me a chart, wherein were delineated not only his own
discoveries, but also that of Captain Kerguelen, which I found laid down
in the very situation where we searched for it; so that I can, by no
means, conceive how both we and the Adventure missed it.

Resides this land, which Captain Crozet told us was a long but very
narrow island, extending east and west, Captain Morion, in about the
latitude of 48° S., and from 16° to 30° of longitude east of the Cape of
Good Hope, discovered six islands which were high and barren. These,
together with some islands lying between the line and the southern
tropic in the Pacific Ocean, were the principal discoveries made in this
voyage, the account of which, we were told, was ready for publication.

By Captain Crozet’s chart it appeared that a voyage had been made by the
French across the South Pacific Ocean, in 1769, under the command of one
Captain Surville; who, on condition of his attempting discoveries, had
obtained leave to make a trading voyage to the coast of Peru. He fitted
out, and took in a cargo, in some part of the East Indies; proceeded by
way of the Philippine Isles; passed near New Britain; and discovered
some land in the latitude of 10° S., longitude 158° E. to which he gave
his own name. From hence he steered to the south; passed but a few
degrees to the west of New Caledonia; fell in with New Zealand at its
northern extremity, and put into Doubtful Bay, where it seems, he was,
when I passed it, on my former voyage, in the Endeavour. From New
Zealand, Captain Surville steered to the east, between the latitude of
35° and 41° south, until he arrived on the coast of America; where, in
the port of Callao, in attempting to land, he was drowned.

These voyages of the French, though undertaken by private adventurers,
have contributed something towards exploring the Southern Ocean. That of
Captain Surville, clears up a mistake, which I was led into, in
imagining the shoals off the west end of New Caledonia to extend to the
west, as far as New Holland. It proves that there is an open sea in that
space, and that we saw the N. W. extremity of that country.

From the same gentleman we learnt, that the ship which had been at
Otaheite before our first arrival there this voyage, was from New Spain;
and that, in her return, she had discovered some islands in the latitude
of 32° S. and under the meridian of 130° W. Some other islands, said to
be discovered by the Spaniards, appeared on this chart; but Captain
Crozet seemed to think, they were inserted from no good authorities.

We were likewise informed of a later voyage undertaken by the French,
under the command of Captain Kerguelen, which had ended much to the
disgrace of that commander.

While we lay in Table Bay, several foreign ships put in and out, bound
to and from India, viz. English, French, Danes, Swedes, and three
Spanish frigates, two of them going to, and one coming from, Manilla. It
is but very lately that the Spanish ships have touched here; and these
were the first that were allowed the same privileges as other European
friendly nations.

On examining our rudder, the pintles were found to be loose, and we were
obliged to unhang it, and take it on shore to repair. We were also
delayed for want of calkers to calk the ship, which was absolutely
necessary to be done, before we put to sea. At length I obtained two
workmen from one of the Dutch ships; and the Dutton English East
Indiaman, coming in from Bengal, Captain Rice, obliged me with two more;
so that by the 26th of April, this work was finished; and having got on
board all necessary stores, and a fresh supply of provisions and water,
we took leave of the governor and other principal officers, and the next
morning repaired on board. Soon after, the wind coming fair, we weighed
and put to sea; as did also the Spanish frigate Juno, from Manilla, a
Danish Indiaman, and the Dutton.

As soon as we were under sail, we saluted the garrison with thirteen
guns; which compliment was immediately returned with the same number.
The Spanish frigate and Danish Indiaman, both saluted us as we passed
them, and I returned each salute with an equal number of guns. When we
were clear of the bay, the Danish ship steered for the East Indies, the
Spanish frigate for Europe, and we and the Dutton for St. Helena.

Depending on the goodness of Mr. Kendall’s watch, I resolved to try to
make the island, by a direct course. For the first six days, that is,
till we got into the latitude of 27° S., longitude 11-1/2° W. of the
Cape, the winds were southerly and S. E. After this we had variable
light airs for two days; they were succeeded by a wind at S. E. which
continued to the island, except a part of one day, when it was at N. E.
In general, the wind blew faint all the passage, which made it longer
than common.

At day-break, in the morning of the 15th of May, we saw the island of
St. Helena, at the distance of fourteen leagues; and, at midnight,
anchored in the road before the town, on the N. W. side of the island.
At sunrise the next morning, the castle, and also the Dutton, saluted
us, each with thirteen guns; on my landing, soon after, I was saluted by
the castle, with the same number; and each of the salutes was returned
by the ship.

Governor Skettowe, and the principal gentlemen of the island, received
and treated me, during my stay, with the greatest politeness, by showing
me every kind of civility in their power.

Whoever views St. Helena, in its present state, and can but conceive
what it must have been originally, will not hastily charge the
inhabitants with want of industry. Though, perhaps, they might apply it
to more advantage, were more land appropriated to planting of corn,
vegetables, roots, &c. instead of being laid out in pasture, which is
the present mode. But this is not likely to happen, so long as the
greatest part of it remains in the hands of the Company and their
servants. Without industrious planters this island can never flourish,
and be in a condition to supply the shipping with the necessary
refreshments.

Within these three years a new church has been built; some other new
buildings were in hand; a commodious landing-place for boats has been
made; and several other improvements, which add both strength and beauty
to the place.

During our stay here we finished some necessary repairs of the ship,
which we had not time to do at the Cape. We also filled all our empty
water casks; and the crew were served with fresh beef, purchased at
fivepence per pound. Their beef is exceedingly good, and is the only
refreshment to be had worth mentioning.

By a series of observations made at the Cape Town, and at James Fort, in
St. Helena; at the former by Messrs. Mason and Dixon, and at the latter
by Mr. Maskelyne, the present astronomer royal, the difference of
longitude between these two places is 24° 12ʹ 15ʺ, only two miles more
than Mr. Kendall’s watch made. The lunar observations made by Mr. Wales,
before we arrived at the island, and after we left it, and reduced to it
by the watch, gave 5° 51ʹ for the longitude of James Fort; which is only
five miles more west, than it is placed by Mr. Maskelyne. In like
manner, the longitude of the Cape Town was found within 5ʹ of the truth.
I mention this, to show how near the longitude of places may be found by
the lunar method, even at sea, with the assistance of a good watch.



                                CHAP. X.

 PASSAGE FROM ST. HELENA TO THE WESTERN ISLANDS, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF
             THE ISLAND OF ASCENSION AND FERNANDO NORONHO.


On the 21st, in the evening, I took leave of the governor, and repaired
on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was saluted with thirteen guns;
and, upon my getting under sail, with the Dutton in company, I was
saluted with thirteen more; both of which I returned.

After leaving St. Helena, the Dutton was ordered to steer N. W. by W. or
N. W. by compass, in order to avoid falling in with Ascension; at which
island, it was said, an illicit trade was carried on between the
officers of the India Company’s ships, and some vessels from North
America, who, of late years, had frequented the island, on pretence of
fishing for whales, or catching turtle, when their real design was to
wait the coming of the India ships. In order to prevent their homeward
bound ship from falling in with these smugglers, and to put a stop to
this illicit trade, the Dutton was ordered to steer the course
above-mentioned till to the northward of Ascension. I kept company with
this ship till the 24th, when, after putting a packet on board her for
the Admiralty, we parted; she continuing her course to the N. W. and I
steering for Ascension.

In the morning of the 28th, I made the island, and the same evening
anchored in Cross Bay on the N. W. side, in ten fathoms’ water, the
bottom a fine sand, and half a mile from the shore. The Cross Hill, so
called on account of a cross, or flag-staff erected upon it, bore by
compass S. 38° E.; and the two extreme points of the Bay extended from
N. E. to S. W. We remained here till the evening of the 31st; and,
notwithstanding we had several parties out every night, we got but
twenty-four turtle, it being rather too late in the season; however, as
they weighed between four or five hundred pounds each, we thought
ourselves not ill off. We might have had a plentiful supply of fish in
general; especially of that sort called old wives, I have no where seen
such abundance; there were also cavalies, congor eels, and various other
sorts; but the catching of any of these was not attended to, the object
being turtle. There are abundance of goats, and aquatic birds, such as
men-of-war and tropic birds, boobies, &c.

The island of Ascension is about ten miles in length, in the direction
of N. W. and S. E. and about five or six in breadth. It shews a surface
composed of barren hills and valleys, on the most of which not a shrub
or plant is to be seen for several miles, and where we found nothing but
stones and sand, or rather slags and ashes; an indubitable sign that the
isle, at some remote time, has been destroyed by a volcano, which has
thrown up vast heaps of stones, and even hills. Between these heaps of
stones we found a smooth even surface, composed of ashes and sand, and
very good travelling upon it; but one may as easily walk over broken
glass bottles as over the stones. If the foot deceives you, you are sure
to be cut or lamed, which happened to some of our people. A high
mountain, at the S. E. end of the isle, seems to be left in its original
state, and to have escaped the general destruction. Its soil is a kind
of white marl, which yet retains its vegetative qualities, and produceth
a kind of purslain, spurg, and one or two grasses. On these the goats
subsist; and it is at this part of the isle where they are to be found,
as also land-crabs, which are said to be very good.

I was told, that about this part of the isle is some very good land, on
which might be raised many necessary articles; and some have been at the
trouble of sowing turnips and other useful vegetables. I was also told
there is a fine spring in a valley which disjoins two hills on the top
of the mountain above mentioned; besides great quantities of fresh water
in holes in the rocks, which the person who gave me this information
believed was collected from rains. But these supplies of water can only
be of use to the traveller; or to those who may be so unfortunate as to
be shipwrecked on the island; which seems to have been the fate of some
not long ago, as appeared by the remains of a wreck we found on the
N. E. side. By what we could judge, she seemed to have been a vessel of
about one hundred and fifty tons burthen.

While we lay in the road, a sloop of about seventy tons burthen came to
an anchor by us. She belonged to New York, which place she left in
February; and having been to the coast of Guinea with a cargo of goods,
was come here to take in turtle to carry to Barbadoes. This was the
story which the master, whose name was Greves, was pleased to tell, and
which may, in part, be true. But I believe the chief view of his coming
here, was the expectation of meeting with some of the India ships. He
had been in the island near a week, and had got on board twenty turtle.
A sloop, belonging to Bermuda, had sailed but a few days before with one
hundred and five on board, which was as many as she could take in; but
having turned several more on the different sandy beaches, they had
ripped open their bellies, taken out the eggs, and left the carcasses to
putrify; an act as inhuman as injurious to those who came after them.
Part of the account I have given of the interior parts of this island I
received from Captain Greves, who seemed to be a sensible intelligent
man, and had been all over it. He sailed in the morning of the same day
we did.

Turtle, I am told, are to be found at this isle from January to June.
The method of catching them is to have people upon the several sandy
bays, to watch their coming on shore to lay their eggs, which is always
in the night, and then to turn them on their backs, till there be an
opportunity to take them off the next day. It was recommended to us to
send a good many men to each beach, where they were to lie quiet till
the turtle were ashore, and then rise and turn them at once. This method
may be the best when the turtle are numerous; but when there are but
few, three or four men are sufficient for the largest beach; and if they
keep patroling it, close to the wash of the surf, during the night, by
this method they will see all that come ashore, and cause less noise
than if there were more of them. It was by this method we caught the
most we got; and this is the method by which the Americans take them.
Nothing is more certain than that all the turtle which are found about
this island, come here for the sole purpose of laying their eggs; for we
meet with none but females; and of all those which we caught, not one
had any food worth mentioning in its stomach; a sure sign, in my
opinion, that they must have been a long time without any; and this may
be the reason why the flesh of them is not so good as some I have ate on
the coast of New South Wales, which were caught on the spot where they
fed.

The watch made 8° 45ʹ difference of longitude between St. Helena and
Ascension; which added to 5° 49ʹ, the longitude of James Fort in St.
Helena, gives 14° 34ʹ for the longitude of the Road of Ascension, or 14°
30ʹ for the middle of the island, the latitude of which is 8° S. The
lunar observations made by Mr. Wales, and reduced to the same point of
the island by the watch, gave 14° 28ʹ 30ʺ west longitude.

On the 31st of May we left Ascension, and steered to the northward, with
a fine gale at S. E. by E. I had a great desire to visit the island of
St. Matthew, to settle its situation; but as I found the winds would not
let me fetch it, I steered for the island of Fernando de Noronho, on the
coast of Brazil, in order to determine its longitude, as I could not
find this had yet been done. Perhaps I should have performed a more
acceptable service to navigation, if I had gone in search of the island
of St. Paul, and those shoals which are said to lie near the equator,
and about the meridian of 20° west; as neither their situation nor
existence are well known. The truth is, I was unwilling to prolong the
passage in searching for what I was not sure to find; nor was I willing
to give up every object, which might tend to the improvement of
navigation or geography, for the sake of getting home a week or a
fortnight sooner. It is but seldom that opportunities of this kind
offer; and when they do, they are too often neglected.

In our passage to Fernando de Noronho, we had steady fresh gales between
the S. E. and E. S. E. attended with fair and clear weather; and as we
had the advantage of the moon, a day or night did not pass without
making lunar observations for the determining our longitude. In this
run, the variation of the compass gradually decreased from 11° west,
which it was at Ascension, to 1° west, which we found off Fernando de
Noronho. This was the mean result of two compasses, one of which gave 1°
37ʹ, and the other 23ʹ west.

On the 9th of June, at noon, we made the island of Fernando de Noronho,
bearing S. W. by W. 1/2 W., distant six or seven leagues, as we
afterwards found by the log. It appeared in detached and peaked hills,
the largest of which looked like a church tower or steeple. As we drew
near the S. E. part of the isle, we perceived several unconnected sunken
rocks lying near a league from the shore, on which the sea broke in a
great surf. After standing very near these rocks, we hoisted our
colours, and then bore up round the north end of the isle, or rather
round a group of little islets; for we could see that the land was
divided by narrow channels. There is a strong fort on the one next the
main island, where there are several others; all of which seemed to have
every advantage that nature can give them, and they are so disposed as
wholly to command all the anchoring and landing-places about the island.
We continued to steer round the northern point, till the sandy beaches
(before which is the road for shipping) began to appear, and the forts
and the peaked hills were open to the westward of the said point. At
this time, on a gun being fired from one of the forts, the Portuguese
colours were displayed, and the example was followed by all the other
forts. As the purpose for which I made the island was now answered, I
had no intention to anchor; and therefore, after firing a gun to
leeward, we made sail and stood away to the northward, with a fine fresh
gale at E. S. E. The peaked hill or church tower bore south, 27° west,
distant about four or five miles; and from this point of view it leans,
or over-hangs, to the east. This hill is nearly in the middle of the
island, which no where exceeds two leagues in extent, and shows a hilly
unequal surface, mostly covered with wood and herbage.

Ulloa says, “This island hath two harbours, capable of receiving ships
of the greatest burden; one is on the north side, and the other on the
N. W. The former is, in every respect, the principal, both for shelter
and capacity, and the goodness of its bottom; but both are exposed to
the north and west, though these winds, particularly the north, are
periodical, and of no long continuance.” He further says, that you
anchor in the north harbour (which is no more than what I would call a
road) in thirteen fathoms’ water, one third of a league from shore,
bottom of fine sand; the peaked hill above mentioned bearing S. W. 3°
southerly.[19]

This road seems to be well sheltered from the south and east winds. One
of my seamen had been on board a Dutch India ship, who put in at this
isle in her way out, in 1770. They were very sickly, and in want of
refreshments and water. The Portuguese supplied them with some buffaloes
and fowls; and they watered behind one of the beaches in a little pool,
which was hardly big enough to dip a bucket in. By reducing the observed
latitude at noon to the peaked hill, its latitude will be 3° 53ʹ south;
and its longitude, by the watch, carried on from St. Helena, is 32° 34ʹ
west; and by observations of the sun and moon, made before and after we
made the isle, and reduced to it by the watch, 32° 44ʹ 30ʺ west. This
was the mean result of my observations. The results of those made by Mr.
Wales, which were more numerous, gave 32° 23ʹ. The mean of the two will
be pretty near the watch, and probably nearest the truth. By knowing the
longitude of this isle, we are able to determine that of the adjacent
east coast of Brazil; which, according to the modern charts, lies about
sixty or seventy leagues more to the west. We might very safely have
trusted to these charts, especially the Variation Chart for 1744, and
Mr. Dalrymple’s of the Southern Atlantic Ocean.[20]

On the 11th, at three o’clock in the afternoon, we crossed the equator
in the longitude of 32° 14ʹ west. We had fresh gales at S. S. E.,
blowing in squalls, attended by showers of rain, that continued at
certain intervals, till noon the next day, after which we had
twenty-four hours’ fair weather.

At noon, on the 13th, being in the latitude of 3° 49ʹ north, longitude
31° 47ʹ west, the wind became variable, between the N. E. and south; and
we had light airs and squalls by turns, attended by hard showers of
rain, and for the most part dark gloomy weather, which continued till
the evening of the 15th, when in the latitude of 5° 47ʹ north, longitude
31° west, we had three calm days, in which time we did not advance above
ten or twelve leagues to the north. We had fair weather and rain by
turns; the sky, for the most part, being obscured, and sometimes by
heavy dense clouds which broke in excessive hard showers.

At seven o’clock in the evening on the 18th, the calm was succeeded by a
breeze at east, which, the next day, increasing and veering to and
fixing at N. E., we stretched to N. W. with our tacks on board. We made
no doubt that we had now got the N. E. trade wind, as it was attended
with fair weather, except now and then some light showers of rain; and,
as we advanced to the north, the wind increased and blew a fresh
top-gallant gale.

On the 21st, I ordered the still to be fitted to the largest copper,
which held about sixty-four gallons. The fire was lighted at four
o’clock in the morning, and at six the still began to run. It was
continued till six o’clock in the evening; in which time we obtained
thirty-two gallons of fresh water, at the expence of one bushel and a
half of coals; which was about three-fourths of a bushel more than was
necessary to have boiled the ship’s company’s victuals only; but the
expence of fuel was no object with me. The victuals were dressed in the
small copper, the other being applied wholly to the still; and every
method was made use of to obtain from it the greatest quantity of fresh
water possible, as this was my sole motive for setting it to work. The
mercury in the thermometer at noon was at eighty-four and a half, and
higher it is seldom found at sea. Had it been lower, more water, under
the same circumstances, would undoubtedly have been produced; for the
colder the air is, the cooler you can keep the still, which will
condense the steam the faster. Upon the whole, this is an useful
invention; but I would advise no man to trust wholly to it. For although
you may, provided you have plenty of fuel and good coppers, obtain as
much water as will support life, you cannot, with all your efforts,
obtain sufficient to support health, in hot climates especially, where
it is the most wanting; for I am well convinced, that nothing
contributes more to the health of seamen, than having plenty of water.

The wind now remained invariably fixed at N. E. and E. N. E. and blew
fresh with squalls, attended with showers of rain, and the sky for the
most part cloudy. On the 25th, in the latitude of 16° 12ʹ north,
longitude 37° 20ʹ west, seeing a ship to windward steering down upon us,
we shortened sail in order to speak with her; but finding she was Dutch
by her colours, we made sail again and left her to pursue her course,
which we supposed was to some of the Dutch settlements in the West
Indies. In the latitude of 20° north, longitude 39° 45ʹ west, the wind
began to veer to E. by N. and E.; but the weather remained the same;
that is, we continued to have it clear and cloudy by turns, with light
squalls and showers. Our track was between N. W. by N. and N. N. W. till
noon on the 28th, after which our course made good was N. by W., being
at this time in the latitude of 21° 21ʹ north, longitude 40° 6ʹ west.
Afterwards, the wind began to blow a little more steady, and was
attended with fair and clear weather. At two o’clock in the morning of
the 30th, being in the latitude of 24° 20ʹ north, longitude 40° 47ʹ
west, a ship, steering to the westward, passed us within hale. We judged
her to be English, as they answered us in that language; but we could
not understand what they said, and they were presently out of sight.

In the latitude of 29° 30ʹ, longitude 41° 30ʹ, the wind slackened and
veered more to the S. E. We now began to see some of that sea-plant,
which is commonly called gulph-weed, from a supposition that it comes
from the Gulph of Florida. Indeed, for aught I know to the contrary, it
may be a fact; but it seems not necessary, as it is certainly a plant
which vegetates at sea. We continued to see it, but always in small
pieces, till we reached the latitude 36°, longitude 39° west, beyond
which situation no more appeared.

On the 5th of July, in the latitude of 32° 31ʹ 30ʺ north, longitude 40°
29ʹ west, the wind veered to the east, and blew very faint; the next day
it was calm; the two following days we had variable light airs and calms
by turns; and, at length, on the 9th, having fixed at S. S. W., it
increased to a fresh gale, with which we steered first N. E. and then
E. N. E. with a view of making some of the Azores, or Western Isles. On
the 11th, in the latitude of 36° 45ʹ north, longitude 36° 45ʹ west, we
saw a sail which was steering to the west; and the next day we saw three
more.


                               CHAP. XI.

ARRIVAL OF THE SHIP AT THE ISLAND OF FAYAL, A DESCRIPTION OF THE PLACE,
              AND THE RETURN OF THE RESOLUTION TO ENGLAND.


At five o’clock in the evening of the 13th, we made the island of Fayal,
one of the Azores, and soon after that of Pico, under which we spent the
night making short boards. At day break, the next morning, we bore away
for the bay of Fayal, or De Horta, where, at eight o’clock, we anchored
in twenty fathoms water, a clean sandy bottom, and something more than
half a mile from the shore. Here we moored N. E. and S. W., being
directed so to do by the master of the port, who came on board before we
dropped anchor. When moored, the S. W. point of the bay bore S. 16° W.,
and the N. E. point N. 33° E.; the church at the N. E. end of the town
N. 38° W.; the west point of St. George’s Island N. 42° E., distant
eight leagues; and the Isle of Pico extending from N. 74° E. to S. 46°
E. distance four or five miles.

We found in the bay, the Pourvoyeur, a large French frigate, an American
sloop, and a brig belonging to the place. She had come last from the
river Amazon, where she took in a cargo of provisions for the Cape Verde
Islands; but, not being able to find them, she steered for this place,
where she anchored about half an hour before us.

As my sole design in stopping here was to give Mr. Wales an opportunity
to find the rate of the watch, the better to enable us to fix, with some
degree of certainty, the longitude of these islands, the moment we
anchored, I sent an officer to wait on the English consul, and to notify
our arrival to the Governor, requesting his permission for Mr. Wales to
make observations on shore, for the purpose above-mentioned. Mr. Dent,
who acted as consul, in the absence of Mr. Gathorne, not only procured
this permission, but accommodated Mr. Wales with a convenient place in
his garden, to set up his instruments; so that he was enabled to observe
equal altitudes the same day.

We were not more obliged to Mr. Dent for the very friendly readiness he
showed, in procuring us this and every other thing we wanted, than for
the very liberal and hospitable entertainment we met with at his house,
which was open to accommodate us, both night and day.

During our stay, the ship’s company was served with fresh beef; and we
took on board about fifteen tons of water, which we brought off in the
country boats, at the rate of about three shillings per ton. Ships are
allowed to water with their own boats, but the many inconveniences
attending it more than overbalance the expense of hiring shore-boats
which is the most general custom.

Fresh provisions for present use may be got, such as beef, vegetables,
and fruit; and hogs, sheep, and poultry, for sea-stock, at a pretty
reasonable price; but I do not know that any sea-provisions are to be
had, except wine. The bullocks and hogs are very good, but the sheep are
small, and wretchedly poor.

The principal produce of Fayal is wheat and Indian corn, with which they
supply Pico, and some of the other isles. The chief town is called Villa
de Horta. It is situated in the bottom of the bay, close to the edge of
the sea, and is defended by two castles, one at each end of the town,
and a wall of stone-work, extending along the sea-shore, from the one to
the other. But these works are suffered to go to decay, and serve more
for show than strength. They heighten the prospect of the city, which
makes a fine appearance from the road; but, if we except the Jesuits’
College, the monasteries and churches, there is not another building
that has any thing to recommend it, either outside or in. There is not a
glass window in the place, except what are in the churches, and in a
country-house, which lately belonged to the English consul; all the
others being latticed, which, to an Englishman, makes them look like
prisons.

This little city, like all others belonging to the Portuguese, is
crowded with religious buildings; there being no less than three
convents of men, and two of women; and eight churches, including those
belonging to the convents, and the one in the Jesuits’ college. The
college is a fine structure, and is seated on an elevation in the
pleasantest part of the city. Since the expulsion of that order, it has
been suffered to go to decay, and will probably, in a few years, be no
better than a heap of ruins.

Fayal, although the most noted for wine, does not raise sufficient for
its own consumption. This article is raised on Pico, where there is no
road for shipping; but being brought to De Horta, and from thence
shipped abroad, chiefly to America, it has acquired the name of Fayal
wine.

The bay, or road of Fayal, is situated at the east end of the isle,
before the Villa de Horta, and facing the west end of Pico. It is two
miles broad, and three quarters of a mile deep, and hath a semi-circular
form. The depth of water is from twenty to ten, and even six fathoms, a
sandy bottom; except near the shore, and particularly near the S. W.
head, off which the bottom is rocky, also without the line, which joins
the two points of the bay, so that it is not safe to anchor far out. The
bearing before mentioned, taken when at anchor, will direct any one to
the best ground. It is by no means a bad road, but the winds most to be
apprehended, are those which blow from between the S. S. W. and S. E.;
the former is not so dangerous as the latter, because, with it, you can
always get to sea. Besides this road, there is a small cove round the
S. W. point, called Porto Piere, in which, I am told, a ship or two may
lie in tolerable safety, and where they sometimes heave small vessels
down.

A Portuguese captain told me, that about half a league from the road, in
the direction of S. E., in a line between it and the south side of Pico,
lies a sunken rock, over which is twenty-two feet water, and on which
the sea breaks in hard gales from the south. He also assured me, that of
all the shoals that are laid down in our charts and pilot-books about
these isles, not one has any existence but the one between the islands
of St. Michael and St. Mary, called Hormingan.—This account may be
believed, without relying entirely upon it. He further informed me, that
it is forty-five leagues from Fayal to the island of Flores; and that
there runs a strong tide between Fayal and Pico, the flood setting to
the N. E. and the ebb to the S. W., but that out at sea, the direction
is east and west. Mr. Wales having observed the times of high and low
water, by the shore, concluded that it must be high water at the full
and change about twelve o’clock, and the water riseth about four or five
feet.

The distance between Fayal and Flores was confirmed by Mr. Rebiers,
lieutenant of the French frigate, who told me, that, after being by
estimation two leagues due south of Flores, they made forty-four
leagues, on a S. E. by E., course by compass, to St. Catherine’s Point,
on Fayal.

 I found the latitude of the   }     38°  31ʹ 55ʺ N.
   ship at anchor in the bay   }

 By a mean of seventeen sets   }
   of lunar observations, taken}
   before we arrived,          }
   and reduced to the bay by   }     28   24  30  W.
   the watch, the longitude    }
   was made                    }

 By a mean of six sets after   }
   leaving it, and reduced     }     28   53  22
   back by the watch           }
   Longitude by observation          28   38   56
                                     ----------------
   Ditto, by the watch:              28   55   45
   Error of the watch on our   }     --   16   26-1/2
     arrival at Portsmouth     }
                                     ----------------
 True longitude by the watch         28   39   18-1/2
                                     ----------------

I found the variation of the compass, by several azimuths, taken by
different compasses on board the ship, to agree very well with the like
observations made by Mr. Wales on shore; and yet the variation thus
found, is greater by 5°, than we found it to be at sea; for the azimuths
taken on board, the evening before we came into the bay, gave no more
than 16° 18ʹ west variation, and the evening after we came out, 17° 33ʹ
west.

I shall now give some account of the variation, as observed in our run
from the Island of Fernando De Noronho, to Fayal. The least variation we
found was 37ʹ W., which was the day after we left Fernando De Noronho,
and in the latitude of 33ʹ S., longitude 32° 16ʹ W. The next day, being
nearly in the same longitude, and in the latitude of 1° 25ʹ N. it was 1°
23ʹ west; and we did not find it increase till we got into the latitude
of 5° N., longitude 31° west. After this our compasses gave different
variations, viz. from 3° 57ʹ to 5° 11ʹ W. till we arrived in the
latitude of 26° 44ʹ north, longitude 41° west, when we found 6° west. It
then increased gradually, so that in the latitude of 35° N. longitude
40° W., it was 10° 24ʹ W.; in the latitude of 38° 12ʹ N., longitude
32-1/2° W., it was 14° 47ʹ; and in sight of Fayal 16° 18ʹ W., as
mentioned above.

Having left the bay at four in the morning of the 19th, I steered for
the west end of St. George’s Island. As soon as we had passed it, I
steered E. 1/2 S. for the Island of Tercera; and after having run
thirteen leagues, we were not more than one league from the west end. I
now edged away for the north side, with a view of ranging the coast to
the eastern point, in order to ascertain the length of the island; but
the weather coming on very thick and hazy, and night approaching, I gave
up the design, and proceeded with all expedition for England.

On the 29th, we made the land near Plymouth. The next morning, we
anchored at Spithead; and the same day, I landed at Portsmouth, and set
out for London, in company with Messrs. Wales, Forsters, and Hodges.

Having been absent from England three years and eighteen days, in which
time, and under all changes of climate, I lost but four men, and only
one of them by sickness, it may not be amiss, at the conclusion of this
journal, to enumerate the several causes to which, under the care of
Providence, I conceive, this uncommon good state of health experienced
by my people was owing.

In the Introduction, mention has been made of the extraordinary
attention paid by the Admiralty, in causing such articles to be put on
board as, either from experience or suggestion, it was judged would tend
to preserve the health of the seamen. I shall not trespass upon the
reader’s time in mentioning them all, but confine myself to such as were
found the most useful.

We were furnished with a quantity of malt, of which was made _Sweet
Wort_. To such of the men as showed the least symptoms of the scurvy;
and also to such as were thought to be threatened with that disorder,
this was given from one to two or three pints a day each man; or in such
proportion as the surgeon found necessary, which sometimes amounted to
three quarts. This is, without doubt, one of the best antiscorbutic sea
medicines yet discovered: and, if used in time, will, with proper
attention to other things, I am persuaded, prevent the scurvy from
making any great progress for a considerable while. But I am not
altogether of opinion that it will cure it at sea.

_Sour Krout_, of which we had a large quantity, is not only a wholesome
vegetable food, but, in my judgment, highly antiscorbutic; and it spoils
not by keeping. A pound of this was served to each man when at sea,
twice a week or oftener, as was thought necessary.

_Portable Broth_ was another great article, of which we had a large
supply. An ounce of this to each man, or such other proportion as
circumstances pointed out, was boiled in their pease, three days in the
week; and when we were in places where vegetables were to be got, it was
boiled with them, and wheat or oatmeal, every morning for breakfast; and
also with pease and vegetables for dinner. It enabled us to make several
nourishing and wholesome messes, and was the means of making the people
eat a greater quantity of vegetables than they would otherwise have
done.

_Rob of Lemon_ and _Orange_ is an antiscorbutic we were not without. The
surgeon made use of it in many cases, with great success.

Amongst the articles of victualling, we were supplied with _Sugar_ in
the room of _Oil_, and with _Wheat_ for a part of our _Oatmeal_; and
were certainly gainers by the exchange. Sugar, I apprehend, is a very
good antiscorbutic; whereas oil, (such as the navy is usually supplied
with,) I am of opinion, has the contrary effect.

But the introduction of the most salutary articles, either as provisions
or medicines, will generally prove unsuccessful, unless supported by
certain regulations. On this principle, many years’ experience, together
with some hints I had from Sir Hugh Palliser, Captains Campbell, Wallis,
and other intelligent officers, enabled me to lay a plan whereby all was
to be governed.

The crew were at three watches, except upon some extraordinary
occasions. By this means they were not so much exposed to the weather as
if they had been at watch and watch; and had generally dry cloaths to
shift themselves, when they happened to get wet. Care was also taken to
expose them as little to wet weather as possible.

Proper methods were used to keep their persons, hammocks, bedding,
cloaths, &c. constantly clean and dry. Equal care was taken to keep the
ship clean and dry betwixt decks. Once or twice a week she was aired
with fires; and when this could not be done, she was smoked with
gunpowder mixed with vinegar or water. I had also frequently a fire made
in an iron pot at the bottom of the well, which was of great use in
purifying the air in the lower parts of the ship. To this and to
cleanliness, as well in the ship as amongst the people, too great
attention cannot be paid; the least neglect occasions a putrid and
disagreeable smell below, which nothing but fires will remove.

Proper attention was paid to the ship’s coppers, so that they were kept
constantly clean.

The fat which boiled out of the salt beef and pork, I never suffered to
be given to the people; being of opinion that it promotes the scurvy.

I was careful to take in water wherever it was to be got, even though we
did not want it. Because I look upon fresh water from the shore, to be
more wholesome than that which has been kept some time on board a ship.
Of this essential article, we were never at an allowance, but had always
plenty for every necessary purpose. Navigators in general cannot,
indeed, expect, nor would they wish to meet with, such advantages in
this respect, as fell to my lot. The nature of our voyage carried us
into very high latitudes. But the hardships and dangers inseparable from
that situation, were, in some degree, compensated by the singular
felicity we enjoyed, of extracting inexhaustible supplies of fresh water
from an ocean strewed with ice.

We came to few places, where either the art of man, or the bounty of
nature, had not provided some sort of refreshment or other, either in
the animal or vegetable way. It was my first care to procure whatever of
any kind could be met with, by every means in my power; and to oblige
our people to make use thereof, both by my example and authority; but
the benefits arising from refreshments of any kind soon became so
obvious, that I had little occasion to recommend the one or to exert the
other.

It doth not become me to say how far the principal objects of our voyage
have been obtained. Though it hath not abounded with remarkable events,
nor been diversified by sudden transitions of fortune; though my
relation of it has been more employed in tracing our course by sea, than
in recording our operations on shore; this, perhaps, is a circumstance
from which the curious reader may infer, that the purposes for which we
were sent into the southern hemisphere were diligently and effectually
pursued. Had we found out a continent there, we might have been better
enabled to gratify curiosity; but we hope our not having found it, after
all our persevering searches, will leave less room for future
speculation about unknown worlds remaining to be explored.

But, whatever may be the public judgment about other matters, it is with
real satisfaction, and without claiming any merit but that of attention
to my duty, that I can conclude this account with an observation which
facts enable me to make, that our having discovered the possibility of
preserving health amongst a numerous ship’s company, for such a length
of time, in such varieties of climate, and amidst such continued
hardships and fatigues, will make this voyage remarkable in the opinion
of every benevolent person, when the disputes about a Southern Continent
shall have ceased to engage the attention, and to divide the judgment of
philosophers.



                                   A

                               VOCABULARY

                                 OF THE

                                LANGUAGE

                                 OF THE

                            _SOCIETY ISLES_.


                               DIRECTIONS

                                FOR THE

                    PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOCABULARY.

As all nations who are acquainted with the method of communicating their
ideas by characters (which represent the sound that conveys the idea),
have some particular method of managing or pronouncing the sounds
represented by such characters, this forms a very essential article in
the constitution of the language of any particular nation, and must
therefore be understood before we can make any progress in learning, or
be able to converse in it. But as this is very complex and tedious to a
beginner, by reason of the great variety of powers the characters of
letters are endued with under different circumstances, it would seem
necessary, at least in languages which have never before appeared in
writing, to lessen the number of these varieties, by restraining the
different sounds, and always representing the same simple ones by the
same character; and this is no less necessary in the English than any
other language, as this variety of powers is very frequent, and without
being taken notice of in the following Vocabulary, might render it
entirely unintelligible. As the vowels are the regulation of all sounds,
it is these only that need be noticed, and the powers allotted to each
of these in the Vocabulary is subjoined.

_A_ in the English language is used to represent two different simple
  sounds, as in the word Arabia, where the first and last have a
  different power from the second. In the Vocabulary this letter must
  always have the power, or be pronounced like the first and last in
  Arabia. The other power or sound of the second _a_, is always
  represented in the Vocabulary by _a_ and _i_, printed in Italics thus,
  _ai_.

_E_ has likewise two powers, or it is used to represent two simple
  sounds, as in the words Eloquence, Bred, Led, &c. and it may be said
  to have a third power, as in the words Then, When, &c. In the first
  case, this letter is only used at the beginning of words, and wherever
  it is met with in any other place in the words of the Vocabulary, it
  is used as in the second case: but never as in the third example; for
  this power or sound is every where expressed by the _a_ and _i_ before
  mentioned, printed in Italics.

_I_ is used to express different simple sounds, as in the words
  Indolence, Iron, and Imitation. In the Vocabulary it is never used as
  in the first case, but in the middle of words; it is never used as in
  the second example, for that sound is always represented by _y_, nor
  is it used as in the last case, that sound being always represented by
  two _ee_s, printed in Italics in this manner, _ee_.

_O_ never alters in the pronunciation, _i. e._ in this Vocabulary, of a
  simple sound, but is often used in this manner, _oo_, and sounds as in
  Good, Stood, &c.

_U_ alters, or is used to express different simple sounds, as in Unity,
  or Umbrage. Here the letters _e_ and _u_, printed in Italics _eu_, are
  used to express its power as in the first example, and it always
  retains the second power, wherever it is met with.

_Y_ is used to express different sounds, as in My, By, &c. &c. and in
  Daily, Fairly, &c. Wherever it is met with in the middle or end (_i.
  e._ any where but at the beginning) of a word, it is to be used as in
  the first example; but is never to be found as in the second, for that
  sound or power is always represented by the Italic letter _e_. It has
  also a third power, as in the words Yes, Yell, &c. which is retained
  every where in the Vocabulary, at least at the beginning of words, or
  when it goes before another vowel, unless directed to be sounded
  separately by a mark over it, as thus, ÿa.

Unless in a few instances, these powers of the vowels are used
throughout the Vocabulary; but, to make the pronunciation still less
liable to change or variation, a few marks are added to the words as
follows:

This mark: as öa, means that these letters are to be expressed singly.

The letters in Italic, as _ee_ or _oo_, make but one simple sound.

When a particular stress is laid on any part of a word in the
pronunciation, an accent is placed over that letter where it begins, or
rather between that and the preceding one.

It often happens that a word is compounded as it were of two, or in some
cases the same word or syllable is repeated. In these circumstances, a
comma is placed under them at this division, where a rest or small space
of time is left before you proceed to pronounce the other part, but it
must not be imagined that this is a full stop.


                     _Examples in all these Cases._

  Röa,               Great, long, distant.
  E’r_ee_ma,         Five.
  Ry’po_ee_a,        Fog _or mist_.
  E’h_oo_ra,         _To_ invert, _or turn upside down_.
  Par_oo_, r_oo_,    _A_ partition, _division, or screen_.


                                   A

                            VOCABULARY, &c.

                                    A


 To abide, _or remain_                              Ete´_ei_.

 _An_ Abode, _or place of residence_                Noho´ra.

 Above, _not below_                                 N_ee_a, s. Tién_ee_a.

 _An_ Abcess                                        Fe´fe.

 Action, _opposed to rest_,                         Ta´er_ee_.

 Adhesive, _of an adhesive or sticking   quality_   _Oo_´p_ee_re.

 Adjoining, _or contiguous to_                      E´p_ee_iho.

 Admiration, _an interjection of_                   A´w_ai_, s. A´w_ai_
                                                    to _Pee_r_ee_-_ai_.

 _An_ Adulterer, _or one that vexes a married       T_ee_ho t_ee_ho, s.
 woman_                                             Teeho teeho, ta´rar.

 _To_ agitate, _or shake a thing, as water,   &c._  E_oo_a´w_ai_.

 Aliment, _or food of any kind_                     Maa.

 Alive, _that is not dead_                          Waura.

 All, _the whole, not a part_                       A´ma_oo_.

 Alone, _by one’s self_                             Ota´h_oi_.

 Anger, _or to be angry_                            Warrad_ee_, s.
                                                    R_ee_d_ee_.

 _To_ angle, _or fish_                              E´h_oo_tee.

 _The_ Ankle                                        Momöa.

 _The inner_ Ankle                                  A´t_oo_a, ewy.

 Answer, _an answer to a question_                  Oo´m_ai_a.

 Approbation, _or consent_,                         Mad_oo_ho´why.

 _Punctuated_ Arches _on the hips_                  E´var´re.

 _The_ Arm                                          R_ee_ma.

 _The_ Armpit                                       E´e.

 _An_ Arrow                                         E´_oo_me.

 Arrow, _the body of an arrow or reed_              O´wha.

 _The point of an_ Arrow                            To´_ai_, s. O´möa.

 Ashamed, _to be ashamed or confused_               Ama, s. He´ama.

 Ashore, _or on shore_                              Te Euta.

 _To_ ask _for a thing_                             Ho´my, s. Ha´py my.

 Asperity, _roughness_                              Tarra, Tarra.

 _An_ Assassin, _murderer, or rather man-killer,
 soldier or warrior_                                Taata, töa.

 _An_ Assembly, _or meeting_                        Ete_ou_´r_oo_a.

 Atherina                                           A´n_ai_h_eu_.

 Avaricious, _parsimonious, ungenerous_             P_ee_´p_ee_re.

 Averse, _unwilling to do a thing_                  Fata, h_oi_to´
                                                    h_oi_to.

 Authentic, _true_                                  Par_ou_, m_ou_.

 Awake, _not asleep_                                Arra, arra´, s. E´ra.

 Awry, _or to one side; as a wry neck_              Na´na.

 _An_ Axe, _hatchet or adze_                        Töe.

 Ay, _yes; an affirmation_                          _Ai_.


                                    B.

 _A_ Babe, _or child_                               Mydidde.

 _A_ Batchelor, _or unmarried person_               E´ev_ee_ (taata.

 _The_ Back                                         T_oo_a.

 _To wipe the_ Backside                             Fy´r_oo_, too´ty.

 Bad, _it is not good_                              ´Eè´no.

 _A_ Bag _of straw_                                 Ete´öe, s. Eäte.

 Bait, _for fish_                                   Era´_eu_noo.

 Baked _in the oven_                                Et_oo_n_oo_.

 Bald-headed                                        _Oo_po´b_oo_ta.

 Bamboo                                             _Ee_n_ee´ou_.

 A Bank, _or shoal_                                 E´paa.

 Bare, _naked, applied to a person that is
 undressed_                                         Ta´turra.

 _The_ Bark _of a tree_                             Ho´hore.

 Barren _land_                                      Fe´nooa Ma_ou_re.

 _A large round_ Basket _of twig_                   He´na.

 _A small_ Basket _of cocoa leaves_                 V_ai_´h_ee_.

 _A long_ Basket _of cocoa leaves_                  Apo´_ai_ra.

 _A_ Basket _of plantain stock_                     Papa´ M_aiee_a.

 _A fisher’s_ Basket                                Er´re´vy.

 _A round_ Basket _of cocoa leaves_                 Mo´ene.

 _A_ Bastard                                        Fanna t_oo_´n_ee_a.

 Bastinado, _to bastinade or flog a person_         Tapra´h_ai_.

 _To_ bathe                                         Ob´_oo_.

 _A_ Battle, _or fight_                             E´motto.

 _A_ Battle-axe                                     O´morre.

 _To_ bawl, _or cry aloud_                          T_ei_mo´toro.

 _A_ Bead                                           Pöe.

 _The_ Beard                                        _Oo_me _oo_me.

 _To_ beat _upon, or strike a thing_                T_oo_´py _or_
                                                    T_oo_´ba_ee_.

 _To_ beat _a drum_                                 Er_oo_´k_oo_.

 _To_ beckon _a person with the hand_               Ta´rappe.

 _A_ Bed, _or bed-place_                            E´ro_ee_, s. Möi´a.

 _To_ bedawb, _or bespatter_                        Par´ry.

 _A_ Bee                                            E´räo.

 _A_ Beetle                                         P_ee_re´te_ee_.

 Before, _not behind_                               Te´möa.

 _A_ Beggar, _a person that is troublesome,
 continually asking for somewhat_                   Tapa´r_oo_.

 Behind, _not before_,                              Te´m_oo_r_ee_.

 _To_ belch                                         Er_oo_´y.

 Below, _as below stairs_                           Teì´dirro, s.
                                                    T_ee_diraro.

 Below, _underneath, far below_                     O´raro.

 _To_ Bend _any thing, as a stick, &c._             Fa´fe´fe.

 Benevolence, _generosity_   e.g. _You are a        Ho´röa. Taata ho´roa
 generous man_                                      öe.

 Between, _in the middle, betwixt two_              Fero´p_oo_.

 _To_ bewail, _or lament by crying_                 E´tat_ee_.

 Bigness, _largeness, great_                        Ara´hay.

 _A_ Bird                                           Manoo.

 _A_ Bitch                                          _Oo_re, e´_oo_ha.

 _To_ bite, _as a dog_                              A´ah_oo_.

 Black, _colour_                                    Ere, ere.

 Bladder                                            Töa´me eme.

 _A_ Blasphemer, _or person who speaks
 disrespectfully of their deities_                  T_oo_na, (t_aa_ta.

 Blind                                              Matta-po.

 A Blister, _raised by a burn or other means_       M_ei_´_ee_.

 Blood,                                             Toto, s. Eh_oo_´_ei_.

 _To_ blow _the nose_                               Fatte.

 _The_ blowing, _or breathing of a whale_           Ta´hora.

 Blunt, _as a blunt tool of any sort_               Ma´_nee_a.

 _The carved_ Boards _of a Maray_                   E´ra.

 _A little_ Boat, _or canoe_                        E´väa.

 _A_ Boil                                           Fe´fe.

 Boldness                                           Eäw_ou_.

 _A_ Bone                                           E´ev_ee_.

 _A_ Bonetto, _a fish so called_                    Peera´ra.

 _To_ bore _a hole_                                 Ehoo´_ee_, s.
                                                    Eh_oo_´o.

 _A_ Bow                                            E´fanna.

 _A_ Bow-string                                     Aroö h_oo_a.

 _To_ bow _with the head_                           Etoo´o.

 _A young_ Boy,                                     My´didde.

 Boy, _a familiar way of speaking_                  He´aman_ee_.

 _The_ Brain _of any animal_                        A´b_oo_ba.

 _A_ Branch _of a tree or plant_,                   E´ama.

 Bread-fruit, _or fruit of the bread-tree_          _Oo_r_oo_.

 Bread-fruit, _a particular sort of it_             E´patëa.

 _An insipid paste of_ Bread-fruit                  Eh´öe.

 _The gum of the_ Bread-tree                        Tappo´_oo_r_oo_.

 _The leaf of the_ Bread-tree                       E´da´_oo_r_oo_.

 _The pith of the_ Bread-tree                       Po´_oo_r_oo_.

 _To_ break _a thing_                               O´whatte, s. Owhanne,
                                                    s. Fatte.

 _The_ Breast,                                      O´ma.

 _A_ Breast-plate _made of twigs, ornamented   with
 feathers, dog’s hair, and   pearl shell_           Ta´_oo_me.

 _To_ breathe                                       Watte w_ee_te w_ee_
                                                    të´aho.

 Bring, _to ask one to bring a thing_,              Ho´my.

 Briskness, _being brisk or quick_                  T_ee_´t_ee_re.

 Broiled, _or roasted as broiled meat_              _Oo_aw_ee_ra.

 Broken, _or cut_                                   Mot_oo_.

 _The_ Brow, _or forehead_                          E´ry.

 _A_ brown _colour_                                 A´ur_au_ra.

 Buds _of a tree or plant_                          Te, arre´ha_oo_.

 _A_ Bunch _of any fruit_                           E´ta.

 _To_ burn _a thing_                                Döod_oo_e.

 _A_ Butterfly                                      Pepe.


                                    C.

 _To_ call _a person at a distance_                 T_oo_o´t_oo_´o_oo_.

 _A_ Calm                                           Ma´n_ee_no.

 _A_ Calm, _or rather to be so placed that   the
 wind has no access to you_                         E_ou_, she´a.

 _Sugar_ Cane                                       ´Töo, s. Etöo.

 _A_ Cap, _or covering for the head_                T_au_´matta.

 _To_ carry _any thing_                             E´a´mo.

 _To_ carry _a person on the back_                  Eva´ha.

 _To catch a thing hastily with the hand_,   _as a
 fly, &c._                                          Po´po_ee_, s. Peero.

 _To_ catch _a ball_                                Ama´wh_ee_a.

 _To_ catch _fish with a line_                      E´h_oo_te.

 _A_ Caterpillar                                    E´t_oo_a.

 Celerity, swiftness                                T_ee_´teere, s.
                                                    E´tirre.

 _The_ Centre, _or middle of a thing_               Tera´p_oo_.

 Chalk                                              Mamma´tëa.

 _A_ Chatterer, _or noisy impertinent fellow_       Taata E´m_oo_, s.
                                                    E´m_oo_.

 Cheerfulness                                       Wara.

 _The_ Cheek                                        Pappa´r_ee_a.

 _A_ Chest                                          ´P_ee_ha.

 _The_ Chest, _or body_                             O´p_oo_.

 _To_ chew, _or eat_                                E´y.

 Chequered, _or painted in squares_                 P_oo_re, p_oo_re.

 _A_ Chicken                                        Möa pee´ri_ai_a.

 _A_ Chief, _or principal person; one of the first
 rank amongst the people_                           Eär_ee_.

 _An inferior_ Chief, _or one who is only in an
 independent state, a gentleman_                    T_oo_´_ou_.

 Child-bearing                                      Fanou, e´vaho.

 Children’s _language_  Father                      O´pucen_oo_, _and_
                                                    Papa.

 Children’s _language_   Mother                     E´wh_ei_arre, _and_
                                                    O´pa´tëa.

 Children’s _language_ Brother                      E´tama.

 Children’s _language_    Sister                    Te´t_oo_a.

 _The_ Chin, _and lower jaw_                        E´t_aa_.

 Choked, _to be choked as with victuals,   &c._     Ep_oo_´n_ei_na, s.
                                                    Er_oo_´y.

 _To_ choose, _or pick out_                         Eh_ee_e,te,me,my,ty.

 Circumcision, _or rather an incision of   the
 foreskin_                                          E_oo_re te´h_ai_.

 _A sort of_ Clappers _used at funerals_            Par´ha_oo_.

 Clapping _the bend of the arm smartly   with the
 hand, so as make a noise, an   Indian custom_      E´t_oo_.

 _The_ Claw, _of a bird_                            A´_ee_ _oo_.

 Clay, _or clammy earth_                            Ewh_ou_, arra.

 Clean, _not nasty_                                 _Oo_a´ma, s. E_oo_´
                                                    _ee_.

 Clear, _pure; as clear water, &c._                 Tëa´te.

 _White clayey_ Cliffs                              E´mammatëa.

 Close, _shut_                                      Eva´h_ee_.

 Cloth _of any kind, or rather the covering   or
 raiments made of it_                               Ahoo.

 _A piece of oblong_ Cloth, _slit in the middle,
 through which the head is put, and it   then hangs
 down behind and before_                            Teeboota.

 _Brown thin_ Cloth                                 _Oo_´er_ai_.

 _Dark brown_ Cloth                                 Poo´h_ee_re.

 _Nankeen coloured_ Cloth                           A´h_ee_re, s. _Oo_a.

 _Gummed_ Cloth                                     Oo´_ai_r ara.

 _Yellow_ Cloth                                     Heappa, heappa, s.
                                                    A´ade, p_oo_´_ee_
                                                    _ei_, s. Oora
                                                    poo´_ee_ _ei_.

 Cloth, _a piece of thin white cloth wrapt   round  Par_oo_´y, _by which
 the waist, or thrown over the   shoulders_         name they also call a
                                                    white shirt._

 _A_ Cloth-beater, _or an oblong square piece   of
 wood grooved and used in making   cloth_           To´aa.

 _The_ Cloth-plant, _a sort of Mulberry tree_       Ea_ou_te.

 _A_ Cloud                                          E´äo, s. E´a_oo_.

 _A_ Cock                                           Möa, e´töa.

 Cock, _the cock claps his wings_                   Te Moa Pa_ee_,
                                                    pa_ee_.

 _A_ Cock-roach                                     Potte potte.

 _A_ Cocoa nut                                      _A_´r_ee_.

 _The fibrous husk of a_ Cocoa-nut                  P_oo_r_oo_´ waha, s.
                                                    P_oo_r_oo_.

 Cocoa-nut oil                                      E´rede, äe.

 Cocoa leaves                                       E,ne´ha_oo_.

 Coition                                            E´y.

 _The sense of_ Cold                                Ma´r_ee_de.

 _A_ Comb                                           P´ahoro, s. Pa´herre.

 Company, _acquaintance, gossips_                   T_ee_´ÿa.

 Compliance _with a request, consent_               Mad_oo_, ho´why.

 Computation, _or counting of numbers_              Ta´t_ou_.

 _A_ Concubine                                      Wa´h_ei_ne, Möebo,
                                                    s. Etoo´n_ee_a.

 Confusedness, _without order_                      E´vah_ee_a.

 Consent, _or approbation_                          Mad_oo_, ho´why.

 Contempt, _a name of contempt given to a   maid,
 or unmarried woman_                                Wah_ei_ne, p_oo_´ha.

 Conversation                                       Para_ou_, maro, s.
                                                    Para´para_ou_.

 _A sort of_ Convolvulus, _or bind weed, common in
 the Islands_                                       O´h_oo_e.

 _Cooked, dressed; not raw_                         Ee´_oo_, s.
                                                    E_ee_´wera.

 _To_ cool _one with a fan_                         Taha´r_ee_.

 Cordage _of any kind_                              Taura.

 _The_ Core _of an apple_                           Böe.

 _A_ Cork, _or stopper of a bottle or gourd
 shell_                                             Ora´h_oo_e.

 _A_ Corner                                         E´pecho.

 Covering, _the covering of a fish’s gills_         Pe_ee_´eya.

 Covetousness, _or rather one not inclined   to
 give_                                              Pee,peere.

 _A_ Cough                                          Ma´re.

 _To_ court, _woo a woman_                          Ta´raro.

 Coyness _in a woman_                               No´nöa.

 _A_ Crab                                           Pappa.

 Crab, _a large land crab that climbs the
 cocoa-nut trees for fruit_                         E´_oo_wa.

 _A_ Crack, _cleft, or fissure_                     Mot_oo_.

 Crammed, _lumbered, crowded_                       Ooa _pee_a´pe, s.
                                                    Ehotto.

 _The_ Cramp                                        Emo´t_oo_ t_oo_.

 _A_ Cray fish,                                     O´_oo_ra.

 _To_ creep _on the hands and feet_                 Ene´_ai_.

 Crimson _colour_                                   _Oo_ra _oo_ra.

 Cripple, _lame_                                    T_ei_´t_ei_.

 Crooked, _not straight_                            _Oo_o´p_ee_o.

 _To_ crow _as a cock_                              A´a _oo_a.

 _The_ Crown _of the head_                          T_oo_´p_oo_e.

 _To_ cry, _or shed tears_                          Ta_ee_.

 _A brown_ Cuckoo, _with black bars and a   long
 tail, frequent in the isles_                       Ara´werewa.

 _To_ cuff, _or slap the chops_                     E´par_oo_.

 Curlew, _a small curlew or whimbrel found   about
 the rivulets_                                      Torëa.

 Cut, or divided                                    Mot_oo_.

 _To_ cut _the hair with scissars_                  O´tee.


                                    D

 _A_ Dance                                          H_ee_va.

 Darkness                                           Poee´r_ee_, s.
                                                    Po_oo_´r_ee_.

 _To_ darn                                          O´ono.

 _A_ Daughter                                       Ma´h_ei_ne.

 Day, _or day-light_                                Mara´marama. s.
                                                    A´_ou_, s. A´a _ou_.

 Day-break                                          Oota´tah_e_ita.

 Day, _to-day_                                      A_oo_´n_ai_.

 Dead                                               Matte röa.

 _A natural_ Death                                  Matte nöa.

 Deafness                                           Ta´r_eea_,
                                                    t_oo_r_ee_.

 Decrepit                                           Epoo´t_ooa_.

 Deep-water                                         Mona´.

 _A_ Denial, _or refusal_                           Eh_oo_´ nöa.

 _To_ desire, _or wish for a thing_                 E_ooee_.

 _A_ Devil, _or evil spirit_                        E´t_ee_.

 Dew                                                Ahe´a_oo_.

 _A_ Diarrhœa, _or looseness_                       Hawa, hawa.

 _To_ dip _meat in salt water instead of salt_
 (_an Indian custom_)                               Faw_ee_´wo.

 Dirt, _or nastiness of any kind_                   E´repo.

 Disapprobation                                     Eh_oo_nöa.

 _A_ Disease, _where the head cannot be held up,
 perhaps the palsy_                                 E´p_ee_.

 _To_ disengage, _untie or loosen_                  Ea_oo_´w_ai_.

 Dishonesty                                         E_ee_´a.

 Displeased, _to be displeased, vexed, or in the
 dumps_                                             Ta_ee_´va.

 Dissatisfaction, _to grumble, or be dissatisfied_  Fa_oo_´one.

 Distant, _far off_                                 Röa.

 _To_ distort, _or wreath the limbs, body, lips,
 &c._                                               Faee´ta.

 _To_ distribute, _divide or share out_             At_oo_´ha.

 _A_ District                                       Mat_ei_´na.

 _A_ Ditch                                          Eö´h_oo_.

 _To_ dive _under water_                            Eho´p_oo_.

 _A_ Dog                                            _Oo_r_ee_.

 _A_ Doll _made of cocoa-plats_                     Ad_oo_´a.

 _A_ Dolphin                                        A´_ou_na.

 Done, _have done; or that is enough, or there is
 no more_                                           A´teera.

 _A_ Door                                           _Oo_´b_oo_ta.

 Double, _or when two things are in one; as a
 double canoe_                                      Tau´r_oo_a.

 Down, _or soft hair_                               E´waou.

 _To_ draw _a bow_                                  Etëa.

 _To_ draw, _or drag a thing by force_              Era´ko.

 Dread, _or fear_                                   Mattou.

 Dress’d, _or cook’d, not raw_                      Ee´_oo_.

 _A head_ Dress, _used at funerals_                 Pa´ra_ee_.

 _To_ dress, _or put on the clothes_                _Eu_, hau´ho_oo_
                                                    t´Ahoo.

 _To_ drink                                         A_ee_´n_oo_.

 Drop, _a single drop of any liquid_                _Oo_, ata´hai.

 _To_ drop, _or leak_                               Eto´t_oo_r_oo_, s.
                                                    E´t_oo_r_oo_.

 Drops, _as drops of rain_                          To´potta.

 Drowned                                            Parre´mo.

 _A_ Drum                                           Pa´h_oo_.

 Dry, _not wet_                                     _Oo_´maro.

 _A_ Duck                                           Mora.

 _A_ Dug, _teat, or nipple_                         E_oo_.

 Dumbness                                           E´faö.


                                    E

 _The_ Ear                                          Ta´r_ee_a.

 _The inside of the_ Ear                            Ta´toor_ee_.

 _An_ Ear-ring                                      Poe note tar_ee_a.

 _To_ eat, _or chew_                                E´y, s. Mäa.

 _An_ Echinus, _or sea egg_                         Heawy.

 Echo                                               T_oo_o.

 _An_ egg _of a bird_                               Ehooero te Man_oo_.

 _A white_ Egg bird                                 Pee´ry.

 Eight                                              A´waroo.

 _The_ Elbow                                        T_oo_´r_ee_.

 Empty                                              Ooata´aö, s.
                                                    Tata´_oo_a.

 _An_ Enemy                                         Taata´e.

 Entire, _whole, not broke_                         Eta, Eta.

 Equal                                              _Oo_hy´t_ei_.

 Erect, _upright_                                   Et_oo_.

 _A_ Euphorbium _tree, with white flowers_          Te´too_ee_.

 _The_ Evening                                      Ooh_oi_´h_oi_.

 Excrement                                          T_oo_´ty.

 _To_ expand, _or spread out cloth, &c._            Ho´hora.

 _The_ Eye                                          Matta.

 _The_ Eye-brow, _and eye-lid_                      T_oo_a, matta.


                                    F

 _The_ Face                                         E´mo_teea_.

 _To hide or hold the_ Face _away, as when
 ashamed_                                           Far_ee_´wa_i_.

 Facetious, _merry_                                 Faatta atta.

 Fainting, _to faint_                               Möe, mo´my.

 _To_ fall _down_                                   Topa.

 False, _not true_                                  Ha´warre.

 _A_ Fan, _or to fan the face, or cool it_          Taha´r_ee_.

 _To_ fart, _or a fart_                             Eh_oo_.

 Fat, _full of flesh, lusty_                        P_ee_a.

 _The_ Fat _of meat_                                Ma_ee_.

 _A_ Father                                         Med_oo_a tanne.

 _A step-_father                                    Tanne, te höa.

 Fatigued, _tired_                                  E´h_eieu_, s. Faea.

 Fear                                               Mattou.

 _A_ Feather, _or quill_                            H_oo_r_oo_,
                                                    h_oo_r_oo_ man_oo_.

 _Red_ Feathers                                     Ora, h_oo_r_oo_ te
                                                    man_oo_.

 Feebleness, _weakness_                             Fara´ra, s.
                                                    Tooro´r_ee_.

 _The sense of_ Feeling                             Fa´fa.

 _To_ feel                                          Tear´ro.

 _A young, clever, dexterous_ Fellow, _or   boy_    Te´my de pa´ar_ee_.

 _The_ Female _kind of any animal_                  E´_oo_ha.

 _The_ Fern-tree                                    Ma´mo_oo_.

 Fertile _land_                                     Fen_oo_a, maa.

 Fetch, _go fetch it_                               Atee.

 Few _in number_                                    Eote.

 _To_ fight                                         E´neotto.

 _A_ Fillip, _with the fingers_                     Epatta.

 _The_ Fin _of a fish_                              Tirra.

 _To_ finish _or make an end_                       Eiote.

 _A_ Finger                                         E´r_ee_ma.

 Fire                                               Ea´hai.

 _A flying_ Fish                                    Mara´ra.

 _A green flat_ Fish                                E_eu_me.

 _A yellow flat_ Fish                               _Oo_´morehe.

 _A flat green and red_ Fish                        P_ai_´_ou_.

 _The cuckold_ Fish                                 Etata.

 _A_ Fish                                           _E_ya.

 Fishing _wall for hauling the seine at the   first
 point_                                             Epa.

 _A_ Fish _pot_                                     E´wha.

 _A long_ Fishing _rod of Bamboo, used to catch
 bonettoes, &c._                                    Ma´k_ee_ra.

 _A_ Fissure, _or crack_                            Motoo.

 Fist, _to open the fist_                           Ma´hora.

 Fist, _striking with the fist in dancing_          A´moto.

 _A flie_ Flapper, _or to flap flies_               Dah_ee_´ere
                                                    e´r_eu_pa.

 Flatness, _applied to a nose, or a vessel   broad
 and flat; also a spreading flat-topt   tree_       Papa.

 _A red_ Flesh _mark_                               E_ee_´da.

 _To_ float _on the face of the water_              Pa´noo.

 _The_ Flower, _of a plant_                         P_oo_a.

 _Open_ Flowers                                     T_ee_arre´_oo_ wa.

 Flowers, _white odoriferous flowers used as
 ornaments in the ears_                             T_ee_arre tarr_ee_a.

 Flown, _it is flown, or gone away_                 Ma h_ou_ta.

 _A_ Flute                                          W_ee_wo.

 _A black_ Fly-catcher, _a bird so called_          O´mamäo.

 _A_ Fly                                            P_oo_re´h_oo_a.

 _To_ fly, _as a bird_                              E´r_ai_re.

 Fog, _or mist_                                     Ry´po_eea_.

 _To_ fold _up a thing, as cloth, &c._              He´fet_oo_.

 _A_ fool, _scoundrel, or other epithet of
 contempt_                                          Ta´_ou_na.

 _The_ Foot, _or sole of the foot_                  Tapooy.

 _The_ Forehead                                     E´ry.

 Forgot, _or lost in memory_                        _Oo_´aro.

 Foul, _dirty, nasty_                               Erepo.

 _A_ Fowl                                           Möa.

 Four                                               E´ha.

 _The_ Frapping _of a flute_                        Ahëa.

 Freckles                                           Taina.

 Fresh, _not salt_                                  Eanna, anna.

 Friction, _rubbing_                                E´_oo_ _ee_.

 Friend, _a method of addressing a stranger_        Ehöa.

 _A particular_ Friend, _or the salutation to him_  E´apatte.

 _To_ frisk, _to wanton, to play_                   Ehanne.

 From _there_                                       No, r_ei_ra, s. No,
                                                    r_ei_da.

 From _without_                                     No, waho´_oo_.

 From _before_                                      No, m_oo_a.

 Fruit                                              ´Hoo´ero.

 _Perfume_ Fruit, _from Tethuroa, a small island_   Hooero te manoo.

 _A yellow_ Fruit, _like a large plumb, with a
 rough core_                                        A´v_ee_.

 Full, _satisfied with eating_                      Pÿa, s. _Oo_´pÿa, s.
                                                    Paÿa.

 _A_ Furunculus, _or a small hard boil_             Apoo.


                                    G

 _A_ Garland _of flowers_                           A´v_ou_t_oo_, s.
                                                    Ar_ou_too Efha, apai.

 Generosity, _benevolence_                          Ho´röa.

 _A_ Gimblet                                        Eho´_oo_.

 _A_ Girdle                                         Ta´t_oo_a.

 _A_ Girl, _or young woman_                         Too´n_ee_a.

 _A_ Girthing _manufacture_                         Tat_oo_´y.

 _To_ give _a thing_                                Höa´t_oo_.

 _A looking-_Glass                                  H_ee_o´_ee_ota.

 _A_ Glutton, _or great eater_                      Taata A´_ee_, s.
                                                    Era´pöa n_oo_e.

 _To_ go, _or move from where you stand; to  walk_  Harre.

 _To_ go, _or leave a place_                        Era´wa.

 Go, _begone, make haste and do it_                 Haro.

 Go _and fetch it_                                  At_ee_.

 Good, _it is good, it is very well_                My´ty, s. Myty, tye,
                                                    s. Maytay.

 Good_-natured_                                     Mama´h_ou_, s.
                                                    Ma´r_oo_.

 _A_ Grandfather                                    Too´b_oo_na.

 _A_ Great-grandfather                              Tooboona tahe´too.

 _A_ Great-great-grandfather                        Ouroo.

 _A_ Grandson                                       Mo´b_oo_na.

 _To_ grasp _with the hand_                         Hara´w_ai_.

 Grasping _the antagonist’s thigh when   dancing_   Tomo.

 Grass, _used on the foots of their houses_         Ano´noho.

 _To_ grate _cocoa-nut kernel_                      E´annatehea´r_ee_.

 Great, _large, big_                                Ara´h_ai_.

 Green _colour_                                     P_oo_re, p_oo_re.

 _To_ groan                                         Er_oo_, whe.

 _The_ groin                                        Ta´pa.

 _To_ grow _as a plant, &c._                        We´r_oo_a.

 _To_ grunt, _or strain_                            Etee, t_oo_whe.

 _The blind_ Gut                                    Ora´b_oo_b_oo_.

 _The_ Guts _of any animal_                         A´a_oo_.


                                    H

 _The_ Hair _of the head_                           E´ror_oo_, s.
                                                    E´roh_oo_r_oo_.

 _Grey_ Hair                                        Hinna´heina.

 _Red_ Hair, _or a red-headed man_                  E´h_oo_.

 _Curled Hair_                                      P_ee_p_ee_.

 _Woolly or frizzled_ Hair                          Oë´töeto.

 _To pull the_ Hair                                 E´w_ou_a.

 Hair, _tied on the crown of the head_              E´p_oo_te.

 Half _of any thing_                                Fa´_ee_te.

 _A_ Hammer                                         Et_ee_´te.

 Hammer _it out_                                    Atoo´bian_oo_.

 _The_ Hand                                         E´r_ee_ma.

 _A deformed_ Hand                                  P_ee_le´_oi_.

 _A motion with the_ Hand _in dancing_              O´ne o´ne.

 _A_ Harangue, _or speech_                          Oraro.

 _A_ Harbour _or anchoring-place_                   T_oo_´t_ou_.

 Hardness                                           E´ta, e´ta.

 _A_ Hatchet, _axe, or adze_                        Töe.

 He                                                 Nana.

 _The_ Head                                         _Oo_po.

 _A shorn_ Head                                     E´v_ou_a.

 _The_ Head-ache, _in consequence of Drunkenness_   Eana´n_ee_a.

 _The sense of_ Hearing                             Faro.

 _The_ Heart _of an animal_                         A´h_ou_too.

 Heat, _warmth_                                     Mahanna, hanna.

 Heavy, _not light_                                 T_ei_ma´ha.

 _The sea_ Hedge-hog                                Totera.

 _A blue_ Heron                                     Otoo.

 _A white_ Heron                                    Tra´pappa.

 _To_ hew _with an axe_                             Teraee.

 Hibiscus, _the smallest species of Hibiscus, with
 rough seed cases, that adhere to the clothes in
 walking_                                           P_ee_re, p_ee_re.

 Hibiscus, _a species of Hibiscus, with large
 yellow flowers_                                    Po_oo_´r_ou_.

 _The_ Hiccup                                       Et_oo_´_ee_, s.
                                                    E_oo_´wha.

 Hide, _to hide a thing_                            Eh´_oo_na.

 High, _or steep_                                   Mato.

 _A_ Hill, _or mountain_                            Ma_oo_, s. Ma_oo_´a,
                                                    s. M_ou_a.

 _One tree_ Hill, _a hill so called in Matavai
 Bay_                                               Tal´ha.

 _To_ hinder, _or prevent_                          Tapëa.

 _The_ Hips                                         E´tohe.

 Hips, _the black punctuated part of the hips_      Tamo´r_ou_.

 _To_ hit _a mark_                                  Ele´ba_ou_, s.
                                                    Wa´p_oo_ta.

 Hiss, _to hiss, or hold out the finger at one_     T_ee_´he.

 Hoarseness                                         Efäo.

 _A_ Hog                                            Böa.

 _To_ hold _fast_                                   Mou.

 Hold _your tongue, be quiet, or silent_            Ma´m_oo_.

 _A_ Hole, _as a gimblet-hole in wood, &c._         E´r_oo_a, s. Poota.

 _To_ hollo, _or cry aloud to one_                  T_oo_´o.

 _To keep at_ home                                  Ate´_ei_ te Efarre.

 Honesty                                            Eea´_ou_re.

 _A fish_ Hook                                      Ma´_tau_.

 _A fish_ hook _of a particular sort_               W_ee_te, w_ee_te.

 _The_ Horizon                                      E´pa_ee_ no t´
                                                    Era_ee_.

 Hot, _or sultry air, it is very hot_               Poh_ee_´a.

 _A_ House                                          E´farre, s. E´wharre.

 _A_ House _of office_                              Eha´m_oo_te.

 _A large_ House                                    Efarre´pota.

 _A_ House _on props_                               A´whatta.

 _An industrious_ House-wife                        Ma´h_ei_ne Am_au_
                                                    hattoi.

 How _do you, or how is it with you_                Te´hanoöe.

 Humorous, _droll, merry_                           Fa, atta, ´atta.

 Hunger                                             Poro´r_ee_, s.
                                                    Po_ee_´a.

 _A_ Hut, _or house_                                E´farre.


                                    I

 I, _myself, 1st person singular_                   ^1W_ou_ ^2M_ee_.

 _The lower_ Jaw                                    E´ta.

 Idle, _or lazy_                                    T_ee_´py.

 Jealousy _in a woman_                              Ta b_oo_ne, s.
                                                    Fateeno, s. H_oo_´hy.

 Ignorance, _stupidity_                             W_ee_a´ta.

 Ill-natured, _cross_                               O_o_re, e´_ee_ore.

 _An_ Image _of a human figure_                     E´tee.

 Imps, _the young imps_                             Tëo´he.

 Immature, _unripe, as unripe fruit_                Poo.

 Immediately, _instantly_                           To´hyto.

 Immense, _very large_                              Röa.

 Incest, _or incestuous_                            Ta´wytte.

 Indigent, _poor, necessitous_                      T_ee_, t_ee_.

 Indolence, _laziness_                              T_ee_´py.

 Industry, _opposed to idleness_                    Ta_ee_´a.

 Inhospitable, _ungenerous_                         P_ee_´p_ee_re.

 _To_ inform                                        E´whäe.

 _A sort of_ Ink, _used to punctuate_               E´rah_oo_.

 _An_ inquisitive _tattling woman_                  Maheine Opatai_ee_hu.

 _To_ interrogate, _or ask questions_               Faeete.

 _To_ invert, _or turn upside down_                 E´h_oo_ra, tela´why.

 _An_ Islet                                         Mo´too.

 _The_ Itch, _an itching of any sort_               Myro.

 _To_ jump, _or leap_                               Mah_ou_ta, s. Araire.


                                    K

 Keep _it to yourself_                              V_ai_h_ee_´o.

 _The_ Kernel _of a cocoa-nut_                      Emo´t_ee_a.

 _To_ kick _with the foot_                          Ta´h_ee_.

 _The_ Kidneys                                      F_oo_a´h_oo_a.

 Killed, _dead_                                     Matte.

 _To_ kindle, _or light up_                         Emäa.

 _A_ King                                           Eär_ee_,da´h_ai_.

 _A_ King-fisher, _the bird so called_              E´r_oo_ro.

 _To_ kiss                                          E´ho_ee_.

 Kite, _a boy’s play-kite_                          O´omo.

 _The_ Knee                                         E´t_oo_r_ee_.

 _To_ kneel                                         T_oo_´t_oo_r_ee_.

 _A_ Knot                                           Ta´pona.

 _A double_ Knot                                    Va´hod_oo_.

 _The female_ Knot _formed on the upper part of the
 garment, and on one side_                          T_ee_bona.

 _To_ know, _or understand_                         E_e_te.

 _The_ Knuckle, _or joint of the fingers_           T_ee_,p_oo_.


                                    L

 _To_ labour, _or work_                             Ehëa.

 _A_ Ladder                                         Era´a, s. E´ara.

 _A_ Lagoon                                         Ewha´_ou_na, s.
                                                    Eä´_ou_na.

 Lame, _cripple_                                    T_ei_´t_ei_.

 _A_ Lance, _or spear_                              Täo.

 Land, _in general a country_                       Fe´n_oo_a, s.
                                                    Whe´n_oo_a.

 Language, _speech, words_                          Pa´ra_ou_.

 Language, _used when dancing_                      Timora´d_ee_,
                                                    te´Timoro´d_ee_.

 Large, _great, not small_                          Ara´h_ai_.

 Largeness, _when applied to a country, &c._        N_oo_e.

 _To_ laugh                                         Atta.

 Laziness                                           T_ee_´py.

 Lean, _the lean of meat_                           Aëo.

 Lean, _slender, not fleshy_                        T_oo_´h_ai_.

 _To_ leap                                          Ma´h_ou_ta, s.
                                                    A´rere.

 Leave _it behind, let it remain_                   ´V_ai_nëo.

 _To_ leave                                         E´wh_eeoo_.

 _The_ Leg                                          A´wy.

 Legs, _my legs ache, or are tired_                 A´h_oo_a.

 _A_ Liar                                           Taata,ha´warre.

 _To_ lie _down, or along, to rest one’s self_      Ete´raha, s.
                                                    Te´_poo_.

 _To_ lift _a thing up_                             Era´w_ai_.

 _Day_ Light                                        Mara´marama.

 Light, _or fire of the great people_               T_ou_t_oi_,papa.

 Light, _or fire of the common people_              N_ee_äo,papa.

 Light, _to light or kindle the fire_               A´t_oo_n_oo_ t´
                                                    E_ee_´wera.

 Light, _not heavy_                                 Ma´ma.

 Lightning                                          _Oo_´w_ai_ra.

 _The_ Lips                                         _Oo_´t_oo_.

 Little, _small_                                    _Ee_te.

 _A_ Lizard                                         Mö´o.

 Loathsome, _nauseous_                              ´E,a´wawa.

 _A sort of_ Lobster, _frequent in the isles_       T_ee_´on_ai_.

 _To_ loll _about, or be lazy_                      Tee´py.

 _To_ loll _out the tongue_                         Ewha´tor_oo_ t´
                                                    Arere.

 _To_ look _for a thing that is lost_               Tap_oo_n_ee_.

 _A_ Looking-glass                                  H_ee_o´_ee_´otta.

 Loose, _not secure_                                A_oo_´w_ee_wa.

 _A_ Looseness, _or purging_                        Hawa,´hawa.

 _To_ love                                          Ehe´nar_oo_.

 _A_ Lover, _courtier, wooer_                       Eh_oo_´nöa.

 _A_ Louse                                          _Oo_´t_oo_.

 Low, _not high, as low land, &c._                  Hëa,hëa, s. Papoo, s.
                                                    E_ee_´öa.

 _The_ Lungs                                        T_ee_too,arapoa.

 Lusty, _fat, full of flesh_                        Oo´p_ee_a.


                                    M

 Maggots                                            E´h_oo_h_oo_.

 _A_ Maid, _or young woman_                         T_oo_´n_ea_.

 _To_ make _the bed_                                _H_o´hora, te
                                                    Mö_e_´ya.

 _The_ Male _of any animal, male kind_              E´töa.

 _A_ Man                                            Täata, s. Taane.

 _An ill-disposed, or insincere_ Man                Täata,ham´an_ee_n_o_.

 _A_ Man _of war bird_                              Otta´ha.

 Many, _a great number_                             Wo´rou, wo´rou, s.
                                                    man_oo_, man_oo_.

 _A black_ Mark _on the skin_                       E´_ee_r_ee_.

 Married, _as a married man_                        Fan_ou_´nou.

 _A_ Mat                                            E´vanne.

 _A silky kind of_ Mat                              Möe´a.

 _A rough sort of_ Mat, _cut in the middle to
 admit the head_                                    P_oo_´rou.

 _A_ Mast _of a ship or boat_                       T_ee_ra.

 Mature, _ripe; as ripe fruit_                      Para, s. Pe.

 Me, _I_                                            W_ou_, s. M_ee_.

 _A_ Measure                                        E´a.

 _To_ measure _a thing_                             Fa´_ee_te.

 _To_ meet _one_                                    Ewharidde.

 _To_ melt, _or dissolve a thing, as grease, &c._   T_oo_´t_oo_e.

 _The_ Middle, _or midst of a thing_                Teropoo.

 Midnight                                           O´t_oo_ra,h_ei_´po.

 _To_ mince, _or cut small_                         E´p_oo_ta.

 Mine, _it is mine, or belongs to me_               No´_oo_.

 _To_ miss, _not to hit a thing_                    _Oo_´happa.

 Mist, _or fog_                                     Ry´po_ee_a.

 _To_ mix _things together_                         A´p_oo_e,p_oo_e.

 _To_ mock, _or scoff at one_                       Etoo´h_ee_.

 Modesty                                            Mamma´,ha_oo_.

 Moist, _wet_                                       Wara´r_ee_.

 _A_ Mole _upon the skin_                           At_oo_´nöa.

 _A lunar_ Month,                                   Mara´ma.

 _A_ Monument, _to the dead_                        Whatta´r_au_.

 _The_ Moon                                         Mara´ma.

 _The_ Morning                                      Oo´po_ee_´po_ee_.

 _To-_morrow                                        Bo´bo, s. A, Bo´bo.

 _The day after to-_morrow                          A´bo´bo d_oo_ra.

 _The second day after to-_morrow                   Po_ee_, po_ee_,
                                                    addoo.

 _A_ Moth                                           E,pepe.

 _A_ Mother                                         Ma´d_oo_a, wa´,
                                                    h_ei_ne.

 _A_ motherly, _or elderly woman_                   Pa´tëa.

 Motion, _opposed to rest_                          _Oo_´ata.

 _A_ Mountain, _or hill_                            Ma_oo_a, s. M_ou_a.

 Mountains _of the highest order_                   M_ou_a tei´tei.

 ---- ---- ---- _second order_                      M_ou_a ´haha.

 ---- ---- ---- _third or lowest order_             Pere´ra_ou_.

 Mourning                                           _Ee_va.

 Mourning _leaves_, viz. _Those of the cocoa-tree
 used for that purpose_                             Ta´pa_oo_.

 _The_ Mouth                                        Eva´ha.

 _To open the_ Mouth                                Ha´mamma.

 _A_ Multitude, _or vast number_                    Wo´r_ou_, wo´r_ou_.

 Murdered, _killed_                                 Matte, s. Matte röa.

 _A_ Murderer                                       Taata töa.

 _A_ Muscle_-shell_                                 N_ou_,_ou_.

 Music _of any kind_                                H_ee_va.

 _A_ Musket, _pistol or fire-arm of any kind_       P_oo_,p_oo_, s. Poo.

 Mute, _silent_                                     Fateb_oo_a.

 _To_ mutter, _or stammer_                          E´wha_o_a.


                                    N

 _The_ Nail _of the fingers_                        A_ee_´_oo_.

 _A_ Nail _of iron_                                 _Eu_re.

 Naked, _i. e._ _with the clothes off, undressed_   Ta´turra.

 _The_ Name _of a thing_                            E_ee´oa_.

 Narrow, _strait, not wide_                         P_ee_re,p_ee_re.

 Nasty, _dirty, not clean_                          E,repo.

 _A_ Native                                         Taata´toob_oo_.

 _The_ Neck                                         A´_ee_.

 Needles                                            Nareeda.

 _A fishing_ Net                                    _Oo_´p_ai_a.

 New, _young, sound_                                H_ou_.

 Nigh                                               Poto, s. Whatta´ta.

 Night                                              Po, s. E´a_oo_.

 _To-_Night, _or to-day at night_                   A´_oo_ne te´ Po.

 _Black_ Night_-shade_                              Oporo.

 Nine                                               A´_ee_va.

 _The_ Nipple _of the breast_                       E´_oo_.

 _A_ Nit                                            Eriha.

 No, _a negation_                                   ^1Ay´ma, ^2Y_ai_ha,
                                                    ^3A´_ou_re, ^4A_ee_,
                                                    ^5Yeha_ee_a.

 _To_ nod                                           A´t_ouou_.

 Noisy, _chattering, impertinent_                   E´moo.

 Noon                                               Wawa´tea.

 _The_ Nostrils                                     Popo´hëo.

 Numeration, _or counting of numbers_               Ta´t_ou_.

 _A cocoa_ Nut                                      Aree.

 _A large compressed_ Nut, _that tastes like
 chesnuts when roasted_                             E_ee_h_ee_.


                                    O

 Obesity, _corpulence_                              _Oo_´p_ee_a.

 _The_ Ocean                                        Ty, s. Meede.

 Odoriferous, _sweet smelled_                       No´nöa.

 _Perfumed_ Oil _they put on the hair_              Mo´nöe.

 _An_ Ointment _plaister, or any thing that heals
 or relates to medicine_                            E´ra´pa_oo_.

 Old                                                Ora´wheva.

 One                                                A´tahai.

 Open, _clear, spacious_                            Ea´tëa.

 Open, _not shut_                                   Fe´r_ei_.

 _To_ open                                          Te´had´doo.

 Opposite _to, or over against_                     Watoo´wh_ei_tte.

 Order, _in good order, regular, without confusion_ Wara´wara.

 Ornament, _any ornament for the ear_               T_ooee_ ta´r_ee_a.

 _Burial_ Ornaments, _viz. nine noits stuck in the
 ground_                                            Ma´ray Wharre.

 _An_ Orphan                                        _Oo_´hoppe,
                                                    poo´_ai_a.

 Out, _not in, not within_                          T_ei_we´ho.

 _The_ Outside _of a thing_                         _Oo_a´p_ee_.

 _An_ Oven _in the ground_                          E_oo_m_oo_.

 Over, _besides more than the quantity_             Te´harra.

 _To_ overcome, _or conquer_                        E´ma´_oo_ma.

 _To_ overturn, _or overset_                        Eha´pa_oo_.

 _An_ Owner                                         E´whattoo.

 _A large species of_ Oyster                        I´t_ee_a.

 _The large rough_ Oyster, _or Spondylus_           Paho´öa.


                                    P

 _The_ Paddle _of a canoe, or to paddle_            E´höe.

 _To_ paddle _a canoe’s head to the right_          Wha´tëa.

 _To_ paddle _a canoe’s head to the left_           Wemma.

 Pain, _or soreness, the sense of pain_             Ma´my.

 _A_ Pair, _or two of any thing together_           Ano´ho.

 _The_ Palate                                       E´ta´nea.

 _The_ Palm _of the hand_                           Ap_oo_´r_ee_ma.

 _To_ pant, _or breathe quickly_                    Oo´pou´pou, tëa´ho.

 Pap, _or child’s food_                             Mamma.

 _A_ Parent                                         Me´d_oo_a.

 _A small blue_ Parroquet                           E´v_ee_n_ee_.

 _A green_ Parroquet, _with a red forehead_         E´a´a.

 _The_ Part _below the tongue_                      Eta´raro.

 _A_ Partition, _division of screen_                Par_oo_´r_oo_.

 _A_ Pass, _or strait_                              E,aree´ëa.

 _A fermented_ Paste _of bread, fruit, &c._         Ma´h_ee_.

 _A_ Path, _or road_                                Eä´ra.

 _The_ Pavement _before a house or hut_             Pÿe,pye.

 _A_ Pearl                                          Pöe.

 _The_ Peduncle, _and stalk of a plant_             A´mäa, s. E´atta.

 _To_ peel, _or take the skin off a cocoa-nut, &c._ A´tee, s. E´atee.

 Peeled, _it is peeled_                             Me´at_ee_.

 _A_ Peg _to hang a bag on_                         Te´a_oo_.

 _A_ Pepper-plant, _from the root of which they
 prepare an inebriating liquor_                     Awa.

 Perhaps, _it may be so_                            E´pa´ha.

 Persons _of distinction_                           Patoo´nehe.

 _A_ Petticoat _of plantane leaves_                 Arou´m_aiee_a.

 Petty, _small, trifling, opposed to N_oo_e_        _Ree_.

 _A_ Physician, _or a person who attends the sick_  Taata no E´rapa_oo_.

 Pick, _to pick or choose_                          Eh_ee_ te m_ai_ my
                                                    ty.

 _A large wood_ Pigeon                              Er_oope_.

 _A small green and white_ Pigeon                   _Oo_´_oo_pa.

 _A small black and white_ Pigeon, _with purple
 wings_                                             _Oooo_wy´der_oo_.

 _A_ Pimple                                         H_oo_a´h_ou_a.

 _To_ pinch _with the fingers_                      _Oo_ma.

 _A_ Plain, _or flat_                               E´p_ee_ho.

 Plane, _smooth_                                    Pa´_ee_a.

 _A_ Plant _of any kind_                            O´mo.

 _A small_ Plant                                    Era´bo.

 _The fruit of the_ Plantane-tree                   M_aiee_´a, s. Maya.

 _Horse_ Plantanes                                  F_ai_´_ee_.

 Pleased, _good-humoured, not cross or surly_       Mar_oo_.

 Pluck _it up_                                      Ar_ee_te.

 _To_ pluck _hairs from the beard_                  H_oo_h_oo_tee.

 _To_ plunge _a thing in the water_                 E,_oo_´wh_ee_.

 _The_ Point _of any thing_                         Oë,öo, or _Oi_,_oi_.

 Poison, _bitter_                                   Awa,awa.

 _A_ Poll                                           _Oo_ra´h_oo_.

 Poor, _indigent, not rich_                         T_ee_´t_ee_.

 _A bottle-nosed_ Porpoise                          E´_ou_a.

 _Sweet_ Potatoes                                   _Oo_´marra.

 _To_ pour _out any liquid substance_               Ma´n_ee_.

 Pregnant, _with young_                             Waha´p_oo_.

 _To_ press, _or squeeze the legs gently with the
 hand, when tired or pained_                        Roro´m_ee_.

 Prick, _to prick up the ears_                      Eoma te ta´r_ee_a.

 _A_ Priest                                         Ta´h_ou_a.

 Prone, _or face downwards_                         T_ee_´opa.

 _A sort of_ Pudding, _made of fruits, oil, &c._    Po´po´_ee_.

 Pumpkins                                           A´h_ooa_.

 _To_ puke, _or vomit_                              E´awa, s. e´r_oo_´y.

 Pure, _clear_                                      E´_oo_´_ee_.

 _A_ Purging, _or looseness_                        Hawa,hawa.

 _To_ pursue, _and catch a person who has done some Er_oo_,Er_oo_, s.
 mischief_                                          Eha´r_oo_.

 _To_ push _a thing with the hand_                  T_oo_´ra_ee_.

 Put _it up, or away_                               Orno.


                                    Q

 Quickness, _briskness_                             E´tirre.

 _To walk_ quickly                                  Harre´n_ei_na.

 Quietness, _silence, a silent or seemingly
 thoughtful person_                                 Falle´b_oo_a.

 _A_ Quiver _for holding arrows_                    ´P_ee_ha.


                                    R

 _A small black_ Rail, _with red eyes_              M_ai_´ho.

 _A small black_ Rail, _spotted and burred with
 white_                                             P_oo_a´n_ee_.

 Rain                                               E´_oo_a.

 _A_ Rainbow                                        E´n_oo_a.

 Raft, _a raft of bamboo_                           M_ai_to´e.

 Rank, _strong, urinous_                            Ewäo wao.

 _A_ Rasp, _or file_                                _Ooee_.

 _A_ Rat                                            ´Yor_ee_, s. Eyore.

 Raw _meat, flesh that is not dressed or cooked_    E´otta.

 Raw _fruit, as plantanes, &c. that are not baked_  Paroure.

 _To_ recline, _or lean upon a thing_               E´py.

 Red _colour_                                       _Oo_ra,_oo_ra, s.
                                                    Matde.

 _To_ reef _a sail_                                 E´po´uie te rya.

 _A_ Refusal                                        Eh_oo_´noöa.

 _The_ Remainder _of any thing_                     T,´Ewah_ei_.

 _To_ rend, _burst, or split_                       M_oo_´m_oo_m_oo_.

 Rent, _cracked, or torn_                           E´wha.

 _To_ reside, _live, or dwell_                      E´noho.

 Respiration, _breathing_                           _Too_e, t_oo_e.

 _A_ Rib                                            A´wäo.

 Rich, _not poor, having plenty of goods, &c._      Epo´too.

 _A_ Ring                                           ´M_ai_no.

 _The_ Ringworm, _a disease so called_              E´n_oo_a.

 Ripe, _as ripe fruit, &c._                         Para, s. Pai, s. Ooo
                                                    p_ai_.

 Rise, _to rise up_                                 A´too.

 _To_ rive, _or split_                              Ewha_oo_´wha_oo_.

 _A_ Road, _or path_                                Eä´ra.

 Roasted, _or broiled_                              _Oo_a´w_ai_ra.

 _A_ Robber, _or thief_                             E_ee_´a (taata.

 _A_ Rock                                           Pa_oo_.

 _A reef of_ Rocks                                  E´a_ou_.

 Rolling, _the rolling of ship_                     T_oo_´r_oo_r_e_.

 _A_ Root                                           Ap_oe_, s. E´a.

 _A_ Rope _of any kind_                             Taura.

 Rotten, _as rotten fruit, &c._                     R_oo_pe.

 Rough, _not smooth_                                Ta´rra, tarra.

 _To_ row _with oars_                               E´_oo_me, s. E´höe.

 _To_ rub _a thing, as in washing the hands and
 face_                                              Ho´ro_ee_.

 _The_ Rudder _of a boat, or steering paddle of a
 canoe_                                             Höe, fa´herre.

 Running _backwards and forwards, endeavouring to
 escape_                                            Oo´atapone.


                                    S

 _The_ Sail _of a ship or boat_                     E_ee_´_aia_.

 _To_ sail, _or to be under sail_                   E´whano.

 Salt, _or salt-water_                              Ty´ty, s. Meede.

 Sand, _dust_                                       E´one.

 Saturn                                             Whati´hëa.

 Saunders_´s island_                                Tab_oo_a, Manoo.

 _A_ Saw                                            E_ee_´oo.

 _A_ Scab                                           E´tona.

 _A fish’s_ Scale, _or scales_                      Pöa.

 _A pair of_ Scissars                               O´t_oo_bo, s.
                                                    O´tob_oo_.

 _A_ Scoop _to empty water from a canoe_            E´tata.

 _To_ scrape _a thing_                              _Oo_´a_oo_.

 _To_ scratch _with the fingers_                    Era´ra_oo_.

 Scratched, _a scratched, metal, &c._               Pah_oo_re´h_oo_re.

 _The_ Sea-cat, _a fish so called_                  P_oo_he.

 _The_ Sea                                          Ta_ee_, s. M_ee_de.

 _A_ Sea-egg                                        He´awy.

 _A_ Seam _between two planks_                      Fatoo´wh_ai_ra.

 _To_ search _for a thing that is lost_             Oö, s. Päe´m_ee_.

 _A_ Seat                                           Papa.

 Secret, _a secret whispering or slandering
 another_                                           Ohe´m_oo_.

 _The_ Seed _of a plant_                            H_oo_a´t_oo_t_oo_, s.
                                                    Ehooero.

 _The sense of_ Seeing                              E´h_ee_´o.

 _To_ send                                          Eho´pöe.

 _A_ Sepulchre, _or burying-place_                  Ma´ray.

 _A_ Servant                                        T_ow_t_ow_.

 Seven                                              A´H_ee_t_oo_.

 _To_ sew, _or string_                              E´t_oo_e.

 Seyne, _to haul a seyne_                           Etoroo te p_ai_a.

 Shady                                              Maroo,maroo.

 _To_ shake, _or agitate a thing_                   E_oo_a´wai.

 _A_ Shark                                          Mäo.

 Sharp, _not blunt_                                 Oö´ëe.

 _To_ shave, _or take off the beard_                Eva´r_oo_, s. Whanne,
                                                    whanne.

 _A small_ Shell                                    Ote´o.

 _A tyger_ Shell                                    Pore´h_oo_.

 Shew _it me_                                       Enara.

 _A_ Ship                                           Pahee.

 Ship-wreck                                         Ara´wha.

 _A white_ Shirt                                    Par_oo_´y.

 _To_ shiver _with cold_                            A´tete.

 _Mud_ Shoes, _or fishing shoes_                    Tama.

 _The_ Shore                                        Euta.

 Short                                              Po´potoo.

 Shut, _not open_                                   Opa´n_ee_, s.
                                                    P_oo_´peepe.

 Sickness                                           Matte my Mamy.

 _The left_ Side                                    A´r_oo_de.

 _The_ Side                                         E´reea´wo.

 _The right_ Side                                   Atou,a´taou.

 Sighing                                            Fa´ëa.

 Silence                                            Fatte´b_oo_a.

 Similar, _or alike_                                _Oo_whyä´da.

 _To_ sink                                          A´tomo.

 _A_ Sister                                         T_oo_´h_ei_ne.

 _To_ sit _down_                                    A´noho.

 _To_ sit _cross-legged_                            T_ee_´py.

 Six                                                A´Hon_oo_.

 _A_ Skate-fish                                     E´wha_ee_.

 _The_ Skin                                         _Ee_´ree.

 _The_ Sky                                          E´ra_ee_.

 _To_ sleep                                         Möe.

 _The long_ Sleep, _or death_                       Möe röa.

 _To_ sleep, _when sitting_                         T_oo_´roore,möe.

 _A_ Sling                                          E´ma.

 Slow                                               Marra,marröa, s.
                                                    Fata.

 Small, _little_                                    _Eet_e.

 _The sense of_ Smelling                            Fata´t_oo_, s.
                                                    _Oo_too,too.

 Smell _it_                                         H_oi_na.

 _To_ smell                                         Ahe´_oi_.

 Smoke                                              E´_oo_ra.

 Smooth                                             Pa´ya.

 Smutting _the face with charcoal for funeral
 ceremonies_                                        Bap´para.

 _A sea_ Snake, _that has alternate rings of a
 white and black colour_                            P_oo_h_ee_´ar_oo_.

 _To_ snatch _a thing hastily_                      E´h_ai_r_oo_.

 Sneezing                                           Mach_ee_´_ai_.

 Snipe, _a bird resembling a snipe, of a black and
 brown colour_                                      T_ee_´t_ee_.

 Snot                                               ´H_oo_pe.

 Soberness, _sobriety, sober, not given to
 drunkenness_                                       T_ei_r_ei_da.

 _To_ soften                                        Epar_oo_´par_oo_.

 Softness, _that is not hard_                       Maroo.

 _The_ Sole _of the foot_                           Tap_oo_´y.

 _A_ Son                                            My´de.

 _A_ Son_-in-law_                                   H_oo_´nöa.

 _A_ Song                                           Heeva.

 _A_ Sore, _or ulcer_                               O´pai.

 Soreness, _or pain_                                Ma´may.

 Sound, _any sound that strikes the ear_            Pa´_ee_na.

 _A_ Span                                           Ewhäe´ono.

 _To_ speak                                         Paraou.

 Speak; _he speaks not from the heart, his words    Neeate _oo_t_oo_ te
 are only on his lips_                              parou  no nona.

 _A_ Spear, _or lance_                              Täo.

 _To_ spill                                         Emare.

 _To_ spit                                          Too´t_oo_a.

 _To_ spread, _or to expand a thing, as cloth &c._  Hoho´ra.

 _To_ squeeze _or press hard_                       Ne-ne_ee_.

 _To_ squeeze _or press gently with the hand_       Roro´m_ee_.

 Squint_-eyed_.                                     Matta´areva.

 _A fighting_ Stage _in a boat_                     E´t_oo_t_ee_.

 _To_ stamp _with the feet, to trample on a thing_  Tata´hy.

 Stand _up_                                         Atëarenona.

 _A_ Star                                           E´f_ai_too, s.
                                                    Hwettoo.

 _A_ Star-fish                                      Eve´r_ee_.

 _To_ startle, _as when one dreams_                 Wa´hee,te´dirre.

 Stay, _or wait a little_                           A´r_ee_a, s.
                                                    Ar_ee_´ana.

 _To_ steal                                         ´Woreedo.

 Steep, _as steep rocks or cliffs_                  Mato.

 _A walking_ Stick                                  Tame.

 Stinking, _ill smelled, as stinking water, &c._    Na´m_oo_a, s. N_ee_´
                                                    n_ee_o.

 Stink, _to stink or smell ill_                     F_ou_, f_ou_.

 _To_ stink, _as excrement_                         P_ee_ro, p_ee_ro.

 _The_ Stomach                                      ´Para_ee_´ä.

 _A_ Stone                                          Owhay.

 _A polished_ Stone, _used to beat victuals into a
 paste_                                             P_ai_n_oo_.

 Stones, _upright stones, which stand on the paved
 area before huts_                                  T_oo_´t_oo_re.

 _A small_ Stool _to lay the head on when asleep_   Papa, s. Papa,r_oo_ä.

 Stool, _to go to stool_                            T_ee_t_ee_´o.

 _To_ stop                                          A´too.

 _The_ Stopper _of a quiver_                        Ponau.

 _A_ Storm _of wind, rain, thunder, &c._            Tarooa.

 Strait, _narrow, not wide_                         P_ee_re,peere.

 Striking, _hollow striking in dancing_             Ap_ee_.

 _The_ String _of a quiver_                         E´aha.

 Strong, _as a strong man_                          O´_o_mara.

 Stuck                                              A´b_oo_l_a_.

 Stupidity, _ignorance_                             W_ee_a´l_a_.

 _To_ suck _as a child_                             Ote,ote.

 Sugar _cane_                                       E´To, s. Töo.

 Suicide                                            Euha´a_ou_.

 Sultry, _or hot air_                               Poh_ee_´_a_.

 _The_ Sun                                          Mahanna, s. Era.

 _The meridian_ Sun                                 T_ei_´n_ee_a te
                                                    Mahanna.

 Supine, _lying_                                    Fateeraha.

 Surf _of the sea_                                  Horo´w_ai_.

 _An interjection of_ Surprise, _or admiration_     Allaheuee´_ai_.

 _To_ surround                                      A´b_oo_ne.

 _To_ swallow,                                      Horo´m_ee_.

 _The_ Sweat _of the body, or to sweat_,            E´h_ou_, s. Eh_ou_
                                                    h_ou_.

 _A_ sweet _taste_                                  Mona.

 Swell _of the sea_                                 E´r_oo_.


                                    T

 _A_ Tail                                           Ero.

 _A_ Tail _of a bird_                               E´hoppe.

 _To_ take _a friend by the hand_                   Etoo´ya_oo_.

 _To_ take _off, or unloose_                        Eve´vette.

 _To_ take _care of the victuals_                   Ewhaapoo te maa.

 _To_ talk, _or converse_                           Paraou.

 _The sense of_ Tasting                             Tama´ta.

 _A_ Tetotum, _or whirligig_                        E´piöra.

 _To_ tear _a thing_                                Ha´hy, s. Whatte.

 _A_ Teat, _or dug_                                 E´_oo_.

 _The_ Teeth                                        E´n_ee_h_ee_o.

 Ten                                                A´h_oo_r_oo_.

 _To_ tend, _or feed hogs_                          Ewha_ee_ te Böa.

 Tenants                                            Af_eu_´h_au_.

 _A black_ Tern, _with a whitish head_              O_ee_´o.

 There                                              Te´raee.

 They, _them, or theirs_                            To´ta_ooa_.

 Thickness, _applied to solid bodies_               M-oo´meoo.

 Thick, _as thick cloth, &c._                       T_oo_e,too´e.

 Thick, _muddy_                                     Eworer´_oo_, s.
                                                    E´worepo.

 Thine, _it is yours, or belongs to you_            No öe.

 Thirst                                             W´ah_ee_´y.

 Thoughts                                           Para_ou_, no te
                                                    o´p_oo_.

 _An appearance of_ thoughtfulness                  Fate´b_oo_a.

 Three                                              Tor_oo_.

 _The_ Throat                                       Ara´poa.

 _To_ throw, _or heave a thing_                     Taora.

 _To_ throw _a thing away_                          Harre´wai.

 _To_ throw _a ball_                                Ama´h_oo_a.

 _To_ throw _a lance_                               Evara´towha.

 Throw, _shall I throw it_                          Taure´a´a.

 Throwing _in dancing_                              Hoe´aire.

 _The_ Thumb                                        E´r_ee_ma,erahai.

 Thunder                                            Pa´t_ee_re.

 Tickle, _to tickle a person_                       My´n_ee_na.

 _A_ Tide, _or current_                             A´ow.

 _To_ tie a _knot_                                  Ty.

 Time, _a space of time, from 6 to 10 at night_     O´t_oo_e,tee´po.

 Time, _a little time, a small space_               Popo´_eu_n_oo_.

 Time, _a long time, a great while_                 Ta´moo.

 _A_ Title _belonging to a woman of rank_           E´tapay´r_oo_.

 _A_ Toe _of the foot_                              Ma´n_ee_o.

 _A_ Tom                                            T_oo_,pap´pou.

 _The_ Tongue                                       E´rero.

 _A_ Tortoise                                       E´hon_oo_.

 Touching                                           Fa´fa.

 Tough, _as tough meat, &c._                        Ah_oo_´_ou_e.

 _A_ Town                                           E´farre p_oo_t_oo_
                                                    p_oo_t_oo_.

 _To_ trample _with the foot_                       Tata´he, s. Ta´ta´hy.

 _A_ Tree                                           E´räo.

 _A_ Tree, _from which they make clubs, spears,
 &c._                                               Töa (Eräo.

 _To_ tremble, _or shudder with cold_               _Oo_´atitte, s. Eta.

 Trembling, _shaking_                               A_ou_´dou.

 _To_ trip _up one in wrestling_                    Me´häe.

 _A_ Tropic-bird                                    Man_oo_´röa.

 Truth                                              Eva_ee_´röa, s.
                                                    Para_ou_, m_ou_.

 _To_ tumble                                        P_ou_ta´heite.

 _A_ Turban                                         E´täe.

 _To_ turn, _or turned_                             _Oo_ä´höe.

 _To_ turn _about, as in walking backwards and
 forwards_                                          H_oo_d_ee_p_ee_pe.

 Twins, _twin children_                             Ma´hëa.

 _To_ twist _a rope_                                Taw_ee_´r_ee_.

 Two                                                E´R_oo_ä.


                                    U

 _An_ Ulcer, _or sore_                              O´p_ai_.

 Under, _below, low down_                           Oraro.

 Under _sail_                                       P_ou_´pou_ee_.

 _To_ understand                                    Ee´te.

 _To_ undress, _or take off the clothes_            Ta´turra.

 _An_ unmarried _person_                            Ar_ee_´_oi_.

 Unripe, _as unripe fruit, &c._                     P_oo_.


                                    V

 _Luminous_ Vapour                                  Epao.

 Vassal, _or subject_                               Manna´h_ou_na.

 Vast                                               Ara,h_ai_, s.
                                                    M_ai_,ara´h_ai_.

 _The_ Veins _that run under the skin_              E´w_ou_a.

 Venus                                              T_ou_´r_oo_a.

 Vessel, _any hollow vessel, as cups of nuts, &c._  _Ai_´boo.

 Vessel, _a hollow vessel in which they prepare an
 inebriating liquor_                                _Oo_´mutte.

 _To_ vomit                                         Er_oo_´y.


                                    W

 Wad, _tow, fibres like hemp_                       Tam_ou_.

 Wait, _stay a little_                              Areeana.

 Wake, _awake_                                      Arra arra, s. Era.

 _To_ walk _out_                                    Avou´_oi_a.

 _To_ walk _backwards and forwards_                 H_oo_a´p_ee_pe.

 _A_ Warrior, _soldier, or rather a man-killer_     Taatatöa.

 Warmth, _heat_                                     Mahanna,hanna.

 _A_ Wart                                           Toria.

 _To_ wash, _as to wash cloth in water_             Mare.

 _To_ watch                                         E´teäe.

 Water                                              A´vy.

 Water-cresses                                      Patöa.

 We, _both of us_                                   Ta_oo_a, s.
                                                    Ar_oo_´r_oo_a.

 _A_ Wedge                                          Era´hei.

 _To_ weep, _or cry_                                Ha nöa,a,ta_ee_.

 Well _recovered, or well escaped_                  Woura, s. woo,ara

 Well, _it is well, charming, fine_                 P_oo_ro´too.

 What, _what’s that_                                E´hara, E´ha´rya, s.
                                                     Ye´ha_ee_a,
                                                    _expressed
                                                    inquisitively_.

 What _do you call that, what is the name of it_    Owy te a_ee´oa_.

 When, _at what time_                               W´hëëa.

 Where _is it_                                      Te´hëa.

 Whet, _to whet or sharp a thing_                   E´v_oee_.

 _To_ whistle                                       Ma´p_oo_.

 Whistling, _a method of whistling to call the
 people to meals_                                   Ep_ou_,maa.

 _To_ whisper _secretly, as in backbiting, &c._     Ohe´m_oo_.

 Who _is that, what is he called_                   Owy,tanna, s.
                                                    Owy,nana.

 Whole, _the whole, not a part of a thing_          E´ta,e´tea, s.
                                                    A´ma_oo_.

 Wide, _not strait or narrow_                       Whatta,whatta.

 _A_ Widow                                          Wat_oo_neea.

 Wife, _my wife_                                    Ma´h_ei_ne.

 _The_ Wind                                         Mattay.

 _The south-east_ Wind                              Mattaee.

 _A_ Window                                         Ma´la_ee_ ou´panee.

 _The_ Wing _of a bird_                             Ere´_ou_.

 _To_ wink                                          E´am_ou_,am_oo_.

 _To_ wipe _a thing clean_                          Ho´ro_ee_.

 Whish, _a whish to one who sneezes_                Eva´r_ou_a t
                                                    Eat_oo_a.

 Within _side_                                      T_ee_´ro to.

 _A_ Woman                                          Wa´h_ei_ne.

 _A married_ Woman                                  Wa´h_ei_ne m_ou_.

 Woman, _she is a married woman, she has got
 another husband_                                   Terra,tanne.

 Won’t, _I won’t do it_                             ´A_eeoo_, _expressed
                                                    angrily_.

 Wood _of any kind_                                 E´raö.

 _A_ Wound                                          Oö´t_ee_.

 _A_ Wrestler                                       M_ou_na.

 Wrinkled _in the face_                             M_ee_o,m_ee_o.

 _The_ Wrist                                        Mo´möa.

 _A_ Wry-neck                                       Na´na.


                                    Y

 _To_ yawn                                          Ha´mamma.

 Yellow _colour_                                    He´appa.

 Yes                                                Ay, s. _ai_.

 Yesterday                                          Ninna´hay.

 Yesternight                                        Ere´po.

 York _island_                                      _Ei_´mëo.

 You                                                Oë.

 Young, _as a young animal of any kind_             P_ee_´n_ai_a.



                       END OF THE FOURTH VOLUME.



                   Printed by A. and R. Spottiswoode,
                        Printers Street, London.



A TABLE[21], exhibiting, at one View, SPECIMENS of different LANGUAGES,
spoken in the South Sea, from Easter Island, westward to New Caledonia,
                       as observed in the Voyage.


 _English._      _Otaheite._     _Easter Island._ _The Marquesas  _The Island     _New Zealand._  _Malicollo._    _Tanna._           _New Caledonia._
                                                  Isles._         Amsterdam._

 _A Bird_,       [22]´Man_oo_,   ´Man_oo_,                        ´Man_oo_,                                       Man_oo_,           Man_ee_, s.
                                                                                                                                     Man_ee_k.

 _A Bow_,        E´fanna,                                         ´Fanna,                         Na´brr_oo_s,    Na´fanga.

 _Bread-fruit_,  _Oo_r_oo_,                       M_aiee_,                                        Ba´rabe,        Tag´_oo_r_oo_.

 _A Canoe_,      E´väa,          ´Wagga,          E´väa,                          Ta´wagga,                                          ´Wang?

 _Cloth_,        ´Ah_oo_,        A´h_oo_,         ´Ah_oo_, s.     Babba´langa,    Kak´ah_oo_,                     Ta´nar_ee_,        Ham´ban.
                                                  A´h_ooee_a,

 _A Cocoa-nut_,  ´Ar_ee_,                                         ´_Eeoo_,                        Nar_oo_,        Nab_oo_´y,         ´N_eeoo_.

 _To drink_,     ´Ayn_oo_,       A_eenoo_,        ´A_ee_n_oo_,                                    No´a_ee_,       ´N_ooee_,          ´_Oo_d_oo_, s.
                                                                                                                                     _Oo_nd_oo_.

 _The Eye_,      Matta,          Matta,           ´Matta, s.      ´Matta,         ´Matta,         M_ai_tang,      Nan_ee_´m_a_iuk,   T_ee_´v_ei_n.
                                                  Matta_ee_a,

 _The Ear_,      Ta´r_ee_a,      Ta´r_ee_an,      B_oo_a´_ee_na,                  Ta´r_ee_ka,     Talingan,       F_ee_n_ee_´enguk,  G_ai_n´_ee_ng.

 _Fish_,         ´_E_ya,         _Ee_ka,                          ´_Ee_ka,        ´_Ee_ka,                        ´Nam_oo_?

 _A Fowl_,       Möa,            Möa,             Möa,                                            Möe´r_oo_.

 _The Hand_,     E´r_ee_ma,      ´R_ee_ma,        E_oo_´my,       E´r_ee_ma,      ´R_ee_nga,                                         Bandon´h_ee_n.

 _The Head_,     _Oo_´po,        Aö´po,                                           Tak´_oo_po,     Ba´s_ai_ne,     N_oo_gwa´n_ai_um,  Gar´moing?

 _A Hog_,        ´Böa,                            ´B_oo_a,        B_oo_´acka,                     ´Brr_oo_as,     ´B_oo_ga, s.
                                                                                                                  ´B_oo_gas.

 _I, myself_,    W_ou_, s. _ou_,                  ´W_ou_,                         _Ou_.

 _To laugh_,     ´Atta,                                                           ´Katta,                         ´Häarish,          Ap, s. Gye´ap.

 _A Man_,        ´Täata,         Papa?            T_ee_te,                                        Ba´rang,        Nar_oo_´mäan.

 _The Navel_,    ´P_ee_to,                        P_ee_to, s.                     P_ee_to,        Nemprtong,      Nap_ee_´r_ai_nguk, Whanb_oo_´_ee_n.
                                                  P_ee_to´_ai_,

 _No_,           ^1´Aym,         ´_Ei_sa,                         ´_Ee_sha,       Ka´_ou_re,      Ta´ep,          E´sa?              ´_Ee_va, s.
                 ^2Y_ai_ha,                                                                                                          _Ee_ba.
                 ^3A´_ou_re,

 _Plantains_,    ´M_ai_ya,       ^1M_ay_a,        M_aiee_a,       ´F_oo_dje,                      Na´brruts.
                                 ^2F_oo_tse,

 _Puncturation_, Ta´t_ou_,                        E´pat_oo_,      Ta´t_ou_,       Moko,                                              ´Gan, s.
                                                                                                                                     Gan,galang.

 _Rain_,         E´_oo_a,        ´_Oo_a,                                                                          Na´mawar,          _Oo_e.

 _Sugar-cane_,   E´To,           To,                                                                              Na´r_oo_k.

 _The Teeth_,    E´n_ee_h_ee_o,  ´N_ee_ho,        E´n_ee_ho,      N_ee_fo,        N_ee_ho,        R_ee_´bohn,     ´Warrewuk, s.      Penna´w_ei_n.
                                                                                                                  ´R_ai_buk,

 _Water_,        A´vay,          E´vy,                                                            Er´g_ou_r,                         _Oo_e.

 _To whistle_,   ´Map_oo_,                                                        F_ee_o,f_ee_o,  Papang,         Awe´hern,          ´Wy_oo_.

 _A Woman_,      Wa´h_ei_ne,                      Ve´h_ee_ne,                                     Ra´bin,         N_ai_´bräan,       Tama.

 _Yams_,         E´_oo_he,       _Oo_he,                          ´_Oo_fe,                        Nan´ram,        _Oo_fe,            _Oo_be.

 _Yes_,          _Ai_,                                            ´_Ee_o,         _Ai_,                           ´_Ee_o,            ´Elo, s. _Ee_o,
                                                                                                                                     s. öe.

 _You_,          Oë,                              Oë.

 _One_,          A´Tahay,        Katta´ha_ee_,    Atta´ha_ee_,    Ta´ha_ee_,                      Ts_ee_´ka_ee_,  R_ee_d_ee_,        Wag_ee_´_ai_ng.

 _Two_,          E´R_oo_a,       ´R_oo_a,         A´_oo_a,        E´_oo_a,                        E´ry,           ´Kar_oo_,          ´War_oo_.

 _Three_,        ´Tor_oo_,       ´Tor_oo_,        A´tor_oo_,      ´Tor_oo_,                       E´r_ei_,        ´Kahar,            Wat_ee_´en.

 _Four_,         A´Haa,          ´Häa, s. Fäa,    A´faa,          A´fäa,                          E´bais,         ´K_ai_phar,        Wam´ba_ee_k.

 _Five_,         E´R_ee_ma,      R_ee_ma,         A´_ee_ma,       ´N_ee_ma,                       E´r_ee_m,       ´Kr_ee_rum,        Wannim.

 _Six_,          A´ono,          ´Hon_oo_,        A´ono,                                          Ts_oo_´ka_ee_,  Ma´r_ee_d_ee_,     Wannim´g_ee_ek.

 _Seven_,        A´H_ei_t_oo_,   ´H_ee_d_oo_,     A´wh_ee_t_oo_,                                  G_oo_y,         Ma´kar_oo_,        Wannim´n_oo_.

 _Eight_,        A´war_oo_,      ´Var_oo_,        A´wa_oo_,                                       H_oo_rey,       Ma´kahar,          Wannim´g_ai_n.

 _Nine_,         A´_ee_va,       H_ee_va,         A´_ee_va,                                       G_oo_dbats,     Ma´k_ai_phar,      Wannim´baeek.

 _Ten_,          A´h_oo_r_oo_,   Atta´h_oo_r_oo_, ´Wannah_oo_, s.                                 Senearn,        Ma´kr_ee_rum,      Wann_oo_´n_ai_uk.
                                 s.               Wanna´h_oo_e,
                                 Anna´h_oo_r_oo_,



                               Footnotes


Footnote 1:

  See Lord Anson’s Voyage.

Footnote 2:

  Or Mallicolla. Some of our people pronounced it Manicolo or Manicola,
  and thus it is also written in Quiros’s Memorial, as printed by
  Dalrymple, vol. ii. p. 146.

Footnote 3:

  The particular manner of applying the wrapper may be seen in Wafer’s
  Voyage, who mentions this singular custom as existing, though with
  some little variation, amongst the Indians of the Isthmus of Darien.
  See Wafer’s Voyage, p. 140.

Footnote 4:

  Dalrymple’s Collection of Voyages, vol. i. p. 140, 141.

Footnote 5:

  See the Note, p. 32.

Footnote 6:

  See the note, p. 32.

Footnote 7:

  The word Survey is not here to be understood in its literal sense.
  Surveying a place, according to my idea, is taking a geometrical plan
  of it, in which every place is to have its true situation, which
  cannot be done in a work of this nature.

Footnote 8:

  See Quiros’s Voyage, in Dalrymple’s Collection, vol. i. p. 136, 137.

Footnote 9:

  See Vol. III.

Footnote 10:

  See the note at p. 32. of this volume.

Footnote 11:

  Wafer met with Indians in the isthmus of Darien of the colour of a
  white horse. See his _Description of the Isthmus_, p. 134. See also
  Mr. de Paw’s Philosophical Inquiries concerning the Americans, where
  several other instances of this remarkable whiteness are mentioned,
  and the causes of it attempted to be explained.

Footnote 12:

  See his Voyage, English translation, p. 303.

Footnote 13:

  Vide Hawkesworth’s Voyages, vol. iii.

Footnote 14:

  It is not to be supposed that I could know at this time that the
  Adventure had made the passage before me.

Footnote 15:

  See Pernety’s Journal, p. 244, and p. 213.

Footnote 16:

  See English Translation of Bougainville, p. 51.

Footnote 17:

  See Bougainville, p. 64

Footnote 18:

  About 147 west longitude, as I reckon.

Footnote 19:

  See Don Antonio d’Ulloa’s Book, vol. ii. chap. 3. page 95 to 102,
  where there is a very particular account of this island.

Footnote 20:

  Ulloa says, that the chart places this island sixty leagues from the
  coast of Brazil; and that the Portuguese pilots, who often make the
  voyage, judge it to be eighty leagues; but, by taking the mean between
  the two opinions, the distance may be fixed at seventy leagues.

Footnote 21:

  It may be easily perceived, that notwithstanding some words are
  entirely different, the first five Indian languages are radically the
  same; though the distance from Easter Island to New Zealand is upwards
  of fifteen hundred leagues. The principal difference consists in the
  mode of pronunciation, which in Easter Island, Amsterdam, and New
  Zealand, is more harsh, or guttural, than at the Marquesas Isles, or
  Otaheite. The other three differ totally, not only from the preceding,
  but from each other; which is more extraordinary than the agreement of
  the others, as from Malicollo to Tanna, you never lose sight of land,
  nor is New Caledonia at a great distance from the last place. In the
  language of Malicollo, a great number of harsh labial sounds prevail,
  very difficult to be represented in writing. At Tanna the
  pronunciation is likewise harsh, but rather guttural, and the
  inhabitants of New Caledonia have many nasal sounds, or snivel much in
  speaking. It may, however, be observed, that in the three last
  languages, some words are found, which seem to have a distant
  resemblance to those that go before; as Brr_oo_as in Malicollo, and
  ´B_oo_ga, or Boogas, in Tanna, both signifying a hog, which at
  Otaheite, and the Marquesas, is expressed by the word ´Böa, and at
  Amsterdam by B_oo_´acka. Yet, whether these may not have been
  accidentally introduced, is hard to determine; because they frequently
  use two words to express the same thing; as, for instance, in New
  Caledonia, they call a star both P_ee_j_oo_ and Fy’fat_oo_: the first
  seems most consonant to the general composition of their language,
  whereas the second differs very little from E’f_ai_t_oo_ or Whett_oo_,
  the name of a star at Otaheite. When they mention puncturation, it is
  commonly called Gan, Gan,galang; but sometimes they say Tata’tou,
  which is almost the same as Ta’t_ou_, used to express the same thing
  at Otaheite and Amsterdam.

Footnote 22:

  The letters in italic, as _oo_, _ee_, &c. are to be sounded as one.
  Those with this ¨ as öe, &c. separately. The accent at the beginning
  of a word, signifies the chief stress in pronunciation is to be laid
  there: if over it, at any other part, the stress is laid on that part
  immediately following. A comma in the middle of a word, either
  signifies, that it is compounded of two; or, that the same syllables
  repeated, make the word; in both which cases, a small stop, or pause,
  must be made in pronouncing it.



                           Transcriber’s Note


This book uses inconsistent spelling and hyphenation, which were
retained in the ebook version. Some corrections have been made to the
text, including normalizing punctuation. Further corrections are noted
below:

 p. vii: Strait Re Maire -> Strait Le Maire
 p. viii:  Fernando Noronha ->  Fernando Noronho
 p. 4: a narrow stone beech -> a narrow stone beach
 p. 4: dischgared in the air -> discharged in the air
 p. 13-14: apparently to to the satisfaction -> apparently to the
    satisfaction
 p. 17: we were hardily through the passage -> we were hardly through the
    passage
 p. 27: readines to land -> readiness to land
 p. 67: to pass along the beech -> to pass along the beach
 p. 74: than stone, stone, or shells -> than stone, or shells
 p. 82: people wese assembled -> people were assembled
 p. 90: hath a good heighth -> hath a good height
 p. 128: all the time we said upon it -> all the time we staid upon it
 p. 152: found it to be a bog-bank -> found it to be a fog-bank
 p. 171: From the knowlege -> From the knowledge
 p. 173: STAIT LE MAIRE -> STRAIT LE MAIRE
 Illustration caption p. 178: Tierra del Fuego -> Terra del Fuego
 p. 202 still did not not see the peak -> still did not see the peak
 p. 210: missing letters in ‘At ---n we were in the latitude’ were
    interpreted as ‘At noon we were in the latitude’
 p. 236: worth while to to proceed -> worth while to proceed
 p. 240: I I saluted -> I saluted
 p. 241: known to to the English -> known to the English
 p. 255: at it was attended by -> as it was attended by
 p. 258: were she anchored -> where she anchored
 Footnote 21: they call a stary both -> they call a star both





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