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Title: Stanley's Story - Through the Wilds of Africa: a Thrilling Narrative of His Remarkable Adventures, Terrible Experiences, Wonderful Discoveries and Amazing Achievements in the Dark Continent
Author: Feather, A. G.
Language: English
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[Illustration: H. M. STANLEY




Through the Wilds of Africa

A Thrilling Narrative

Of His
Remarkable Adventures, Terrible Experiences,
Wonderful Discoveries and Amazing
Achievements in
The Dark Continent.

Giving Accounts of his Discovery of Dr. Livingstone, the Lost
Explorer; his Great Overland Journey Across the Dark Continent; the
Great Mysteries of the past five thousand years, as solved by him; his
Exploration of the Congo; the Founding of the Congo Free State, and
the Opening of Equatorial Africa to Commerce, Civilization and
Christianity; his Expedition to the Relief of Emin Bey in the Egyptian
Soudan, with its Terrible Experiences of Starvation, Misery and Death;
and a Resume of all his Wonderful Discoveries and their Great Value to
Geographical and Scientific Knowledge, to the present time, and
covering his entire career in
Southern and Central Africa.

From Information, Data, and the Official Reports
Henry M. Stanley.

By our Special Foreign Correspondent,


Richly and Profusely Embellished with Many Full-Page Plain and
Colored Illustrations.

John E. Potter & Company,
1111 and 1113 Market Street.


by John E. Potter & Company,
All Rights Reserved.


  The Engravings in this book, as well as the printed matter, being
  fully protected by copyright, we desire to caution all persons against
  copying or reproducing in any form. Any one so offending will be








  To those Public Spirited Citizens


  The Emin Bey Relief Expedition,





Fifty years have hardly elapsed since Dr. Livingstone first entered the
dark and benighted regions of South Africa as a missionary. Till then
the country had been little less than a sealed book to the outside
world, and the student of geography only knew its face as a blank and
unknown void. History also stood silent, giving little information or
evidence of what these hidden recesses in the Dark Continent might
contain. What knowledge the world did have was limited to the coasts,
and that only obtained through the prominence given it by the atrocious
slave trade--at that time the leading feature of its commerce. But what
a mighty change has been wrought since then! To-day, thanks to the
missionary spirit, labors and exploits of Livingstone, who first planted
the germs of Civilization and Christianity within her borders, as well
as to the patient and persevering spirit of the bold and intrepid
Stanley, upon whose shoulders so fitly fell the mantle of the dead
Livingstone, we are in possession of a more comprehensive map of Africa.
History, too, is no longer silent. Her pages now teem with marvellous
accounts of the wonderful regions developed by these and other daring
explorers--with the still more remarkable tales of the immeasurable
wealth lying dormant and quietly awaiting the developing arms of
Commerce. Geography and Science have also received a mighty impetus
through the discoveries made by these fearless adventurers into the
wilds of the Dark Continent; and to-day we are enabled to record the
fact that a satisfactory solution to the great problems, which for ages
have so much mystified the world, has been arrived at. The return of
Stanley and his followers, with the fruits of their experiences and the
light which they are able to throw upon the subject, will give to the
literature of the world an addition of almost incalculable value. The
expedition will take historic rank with the famous “retreat of the ten
thousand” under Xenophon. As the tale unfolds, of the arduous toils and
dangers encountered in the vast African wilderness, wonder at its
success increases.

Though much has been done since Livingstone’s time to fill up the blanks
of Central Africa’s physical geography, no expedition has ever returned
with a richer harvest of discoveries than Stanley’s last. The almost
impenetrable forest of the Aruwimi, probably the largest of African
forests--extending over four hundred miles of latitude and
longitude--with a dense jungle in all stages of decay, resounding with
the murmurs of monkeys and chimpanzees, strange noises of birds and
animals, and the crashes of troops of elephants rushing through the dark
and tangled copse, is an obstacle that, once surmounted, gives us the
hydrography of the greatest lake-system of the globe, adds to the giant
mountains of geography the stately and snow-clad Ruwenzori, whose rocky
peak towers eighteen or nineteen thousand feet above sea-level, and to
the lakes the Albert Edward Nyanza, whence issues the mysterious stream
which fertilizes Egypt and makes the valley of the Nile the most
marvellous seat of human culture, art and science.

In STANLEY’S STORY the reader has presented a most thrilling narrative
of the terrible experiences encountered, as well as a graphic account of
these wonderful discoveries and the amazing achievements accomplished by
Mr. Stanley during his career in Africa. The subject--one of
unparalleled interest--is presented in the characteristic style of the
writer, from thoroughly reliable information, data, and the official
reports of Mr. Stanley himself. It favorably commends itself to every
lover of geographical science, as well as to the admirer of the
marvellous in life and nature. It has been prepared in a popular form,
and at a price much lower than books of like character and value, and
very much lower than others which claim to give the story of Stanley in
Africa, but are simply compilations from the writings of the different
explorers who have in times past essayed to traverse its vast interior,
and failed. Stanley, however, has not failed. Fate has decreed
otherwise. His story has been told. It is the only authentic story, as
recorded in these pages, and the reader will find it not only
interesting but highly entertaining and thoroughly instructive









  TO ANSWER IN THE AFFIRMATIVE -- DARWINISM                           28



  TO TRIUMPHS OF CIVILIZATION                                         47












  BESTOWED ON AMERICAN JOURNALISM                                    107



  NEWSPAPER                                                          123







  INTERIOR, AND OF MR. STANLEY FOR EUROPE                            191









  CIVILIZATION -- BRITISH CULPABILITY                                238



  AFRICA -- ANTS AND OTHER INSECTS                                   248



  CONSULATE AT ZANZIBAR                                              281



  ABBEY                                                              289



  CONCEALED -- ARRIVAL ON THE COAST                                  298






  DAYS                                                               360



  AT KAGEHYI                                                         372



  THE MALAGARAZI TO UJIJI -- SAD REFLECTIONS                         389



  TO ZANZIBAR -- CLOSE OF THE EXPEDITION                             404






  STANLEY IN GERMANY                                                 431






  YAMBUYA TO THE ALBERT NYANZA                                       457



  1889                                                               481



  ADDITION TO THE VICTORIA NYANZA                                    501








    0. A Frontispiece--Stanley and Emin Bey                    op. title

   27. A Camp of Arab Traders                                   „    68

   26. A Dance by Torchlight                                    „    66

   70. Attacked by a Hippopotamus                               „   252

   47. A Fierce Battle with the Natives                         „   132

   53. A Floating Alligator                                     „   150

   37. African Musician                                         „    94

   31. An African Sun-Dance                                     „    76

   57. Amazon Warriors                                          „   172

   52. An Unexpected Surprise                                   „   144

   67. An African Gazelle                                       „   236

   49. A Fine Covey of the Noble Game                           „   138

   93. A Ghastly Monument                                       „   358

   16. An Object of Intense Interest                            „    36

  117. A South African                                          „   456

   78. A Terror of the Insect Kingdom                           „   278

   50. African Warblers                                         „   140

  100. A Shore Scene on Lake Windermere                         „   398

   20. A Street Scene in African Village                        „    50

   69. A Surprise in the Jungle                                 „   250

   82. Allegorical                                              „   288

  122. Arabi Pasha and the Egyptian Soudanese                   „   482

   23. A Narrow Escape                                          „    58

   15. Arrival of the Expedition on the Banks of the Zambesi    „    32

   17. Arab Slave Traders                                       „    40

   59. An African Belle                                         „   184

   14. Arab Chief of Central Africa                             „    28

   22. A Stretch of the Nile                                    „    54

   76. African Snake Charmer[xviii]                             „   274

   21. African Bird-Life                                        „    52

   35. A Remarkable Wasp-Nest found in Africa                   „    84

   38. An Arab Courier                                          „    96

   34. A Baobab Tree                                            „    82

   29. Attacked by Buffaloes                                    „    70

   61. Ambuscade by Manyuemas                                   „   188

   95. Allegorical                                              „   370

   71. A Jungle Scene in South Africa                           „   254

   68. A Mightier Roar than that of the Forest King             „   248

  114. A Nyambana                                               „   445

   28. African Lioness and her Young                            „    68

  113. African Alligator                                        „   430

   91. An African Tailor                                        „   351

  121. An African Barber                                        „   481

  102. Allegorical                                              „   402

   62. Bashouay Ant                                             „   191

   55. Broad-Billed Duck of the Nile                            „   159

   58. Characteristic Head-Dresses                              „   178

   51. Crossing a Lagoon                                        „   142

   87. Chuma and Susi, the Fast Friends of Livingstone          „   308

   19. Discussing the Feast of Game                             „    48

   12. Dr. David Livingstone                                    „    22

   39. Equipped for War                                         „    98

  Floating Island                                               „   214

   18. Fleet-Footed Elk                                         „    45

   89. Hippopotamus in his Lair                                 „   338

   65. “I’ll Shoot You, if You Drop that Box”                   „   212

   77. Insect Life in Africa                                    „   276

   80. Insect Nest-Building                                     „   280

  111. In the Clutches of the Game                              „   422

   83. Livingstone Ending his Last March at Ilala               „   288

   84. Jacob Wainwright with Dr. Livingstone’s Remains at Aden  „   290

    9. Map of Stanley’s Last Route                              „    17

  110. Mouth of the Congo                                       „   420

   97. Natives of Uganda                                        „   380

   99. Natives Coralling Wild Game                              „   390

  119. On the Banks of the Nepoko[xix]                          „   470

   92. Off for the Heart of Africa                              „   356

   42. Rapids of the Livingstone River                          „   120

   40. Reception of the Officers of the Expedition at the
       Sultan’s Palace, Zanzibar                                „   102

   63. Reception of the Chief Ruhingi                           „   194

  106. Repelling the Attack of the Piratical Bangala            „   412

   73. Running down Elands                                      „   258

   74. Sounding the Alarm                                       „   260

   48. Sketch of an African Forest Scene                        „   136

   36. Stanley, Henry M., as he Appeared on his First
       Expedition                                               „    92

  103. Stanley Fighting his Way along the Lualala or Congo      „   406

  118. Stanley Quelling a Mutiny                                „   460

  107. Stanley Returning to the Coast                           „   414

  104. Stanley’s Followers Seeking Supplies                     „   408

  116. Supplies for the Caravan                                 „   452

   64. Slave Robbers’ Camp                                      „   200

  123. Terrific Fight for Life                                  „   490

  105. The Battle of the Boats near the Confluence of the
       Aruwimi and the Livingstone Rivers                       „   410

   90. The African Elephant                                     „   340

   33. The African “Tweet-Tweet”                                „    80

   46. The Attack on Mirambo                                    „   128

   66. The Camp of an Early Explorer                            „   228

   98. The Demons of Bumbireh                                   „   384

   56. The Discovery of Livingstone                             „   160

   41. The Egyptian Cerastes                                    „   107

   79. The Terror of the Bird Kingdom                           „   280

   60. The Massacre of the Manyuema Women                       „   186

   30. The Reception of Livingstone by an African Chief         „    74

  101. The Hot Springs of Mtagata                               „   400

  112. The African Cactus                                       „   428

   96. The Victoria Nyanza                                      „   372

   75. The King of the Jungle                                   „   272

   81. The Last Mile of Dr. Livingstone’s Travels               „   282

   88. The Village in which Livingstone’s Body was Prepared     „   314

  109. The Face of a Wangwana                                   „   418

   43. The African Tiger                                        „   120

  115. The Elephant Protecting her Young                        „   452

   44. The Strong Beast Conquered                               „   120

   13. The Python                                               „    26

   45. The Rhinoceros Bird                                      „   123

   85. The Last Entries in Dr. Livingstone’s Note-Book     op. 298, 301

  125. Tippu-Tib                                                „   510

  108. Transporting the Sections of the Boat                    „   416

   24. View on the Lualala                                      „    62

   25. View on the Zambesi                                      „    62

   11. View of Zanzibar                                         „    20

   54. Warlike Demonstrations                                   „   156

  120. Wild Game on the Aruwimi                                 „   476

   94. Wild Goat of Ugogo                                       „   359

  126. Wilderness Sketch                                        „   527

   72. Wreaking his Vengeance on a Tree                         „   256

   32. Zulu Warrior                                             „    78



  That vast fertile area hitherto marked
  _the Scene of all the late great Exploring Expeditions,
  the extensive achievements of

  Stanley’s     Route
  Cameron’s       „
  Livingstone’s   „  ]







  A Brief Account of Africa -- Its Ancient Civilization -- Little
  Information Extant in Relation to Large Portions of the Continent --
  The Great Field of Scientific Explorations and Missionary Labor --
  Account of a Number of Exploring Expeditions, including those of Mungo
  Park, Denham and Clapperton, and others -- Their Practical Results --
  Desire of Further Information Increased -- Recent Explorations,
  notably those of Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Stanley, representing the New
  York “Herald” newspaper.

A work of standard authority among scholars says that “Africa is the
division of the world which is the most interesting, and about which we
know the least.” Its very name is a mystery; no one can more than
approximately calculate its vast extent; even those who have studied the
problem the most carefully widely disagree among themselves as to the
number of its population, some placing it as low as 60,000,000, others,
much in excess of 100,000,000 souls; its superficial configuration in
many portions is only guessed at; the sources of its mightiest river are
unknown. The heats, deserts, wild beasts, venomous reptiles, and savage
tribes of this great continent have raised the only barrier against the
spirit of discovery and progress, elsewhere irrepressible, of the age,
and no small proportion of Africa is to-day as much a _terra incognita_
as when the father of history wrote. Many of its inhabitants are among
the most barbarous and depraved of all the people of the world, but in
ancient times some of its races were the leaders of all men in
civilization and were unquestionably possessed of mechanical arts and
processes which have long been lost in the lapse of ages. They had vast
cities, great and elaborate works of art, and were the most successful
of agriculturists. Noted for their skill in the management of the
practical affairs of life, they also paid profound attention to the most
abstruse questions of religion; and it was a people of Africa, the
Egyptians, who first announced belief in the resurrection of the body
and the immortality of the soul. Large numbers of mummies, still
existing, ages older than the Christian era, attest the earnestness of
the ancient faith in dogmas which form an essential part of the creed of
nearly every Christian sect. The most magnificent of women in the arts
of coquetry and voluptuous love belonged to this continent of which so
much still sits in darkness. The art of war was here cultivated to the
greatest perfection; and it was before the army of an African general
that the Roman legions went down at Cannæ, and by whom the Empire came
near being completely ruined. Indeed, it may with much show of argument
be claimed that the continent over so much of which ignorance and
superstition and beasts of prey now hold thorough sway, was originally
the cradle of art, and civilization, and human progress.

But if the northern portion of the continent of Africa was in the remote
past the abode of learning and of the useful arts, it is certain that
during recent periods other portions of the continent, separated from
this by a vast expanse of desert waste, have supplied the world with the
most lamentable examples of human misery and the most hideous instances
of crime. Nor did cupidity and rapacity confine themselves in the long
years of African spoliation to ordinary robbers and buccaneers.
Christian nations took part in the horrid work; and we have the
authority of accredited history for the statement that Elizabeth of
England was a smuggler and a slave-trader. Thus Africa presents the
interesting anomaly of having been the home of ancient civilization, and
the prey of the modern rapacity and plunder of all nations. It is
natural, therefore, that in regard to the plundered portions of this
devoted continent, the world at large should know but little. It is also
natural that with the advancement of the cause of scientific knowledge,
humanity, genuine Christianity, and the rage for discovery, this vast
territory should receive the attention of good and studious men and
moral nationalities. Accordingly we find that during a comparatively
recent period Africa has become a great field of scientific explorations
and missionary labor, as well as of colonization.

The first people to give special and continued attention to discoveries
in Africa, were the Portuguese. During the fifteenth century, noted for
the great advance made in geographical discoveries, the kingdom of
Portugal was, perhaps, the greatest maritime power of Christendom. Her
sovereigns greatly encouraged and many of their most illustrious
subjects practically engaged in voyages of discovery. They were
pre-eminently successful both in the eastern and western hemisphere, and
one of the results of their daring enterprise is the remarkable fact
that Portuguese colonies are much more powerful and wealthy to-day than
the parent kingdom.

  “The Child is father of the Man.”

The Portuguese sent many exploring expeditions along the coast of
Africa, and in the course of a century they had circumnavigated the
continent and planted colonies all along the shores of the Atlantic and
the Indian oceans. Bartholmew Dias having discovered the Cape of Good
Hope, the reigning sovereign of Portugal determined to prosecute the
explorations still further, with the object of discovering a passage to
India. This discovery was made by the intrepid and illustrious mariner,
Vasco de Gama, November 20, 1497, a little more than five years after
the discovery of America. He pursued his voyage along the eastern coast
of Africa, discovering Natal, Mozambique, a number of islands, and
finding people in a high stage of commercial advancement, with
well-built cities, ports, mosques for the worship of Allah according to
the Mohammedan faith, and carrying on a considerable trade with India
and the Spice Islands. Of this trade, Portugal long retained
supremacy. Other European powers also meantime established colonies at
different places on the African coast, so that in the sixteenth century
a considerable portion of the outer shell, so to say, had been examined
The vast interior, however, long remained unexplored, and much of it
remains an utterly unknown primeval wilderness to this day. The
settlements and colonies of the Portuguese, French, Dutch, and English
were for commercial purposes only, and added very little to the general
stock of information.

[Illustration: VIEW OF ZANZIBAR.]

It was not until a year after the adoption of the Constitution of the
United States that any organized effort in behalf of discoveries in
Africa was made. In the city of London a Society for the Exploration of
Interior Africa was formed in 1788, but it was not until seven years
afterwards, that the celebrated Mungo Park undertook his first
expedition. Thus it was more than three hundred years from the discovery
of the Cape of Good Hope before even a ray of light began to penetrate
the darkness of benighted Africa. Meantime, great empires had been
overthrown and others established in their place and beneficent
governments founded on both continents of the western world.

The life and adventures of Mungo Park form a story of exceeding
interest, between which and the life and adventures of Dr. Livingstone
there are not a few points of remarkable coincidence. Park was a native
of Scotland, and one of many children. He was educated also in the
medical profession. Moreover, while he was making his first tour of
discovery in Africa, having long been absent from home, reports of his
death reached England and were universally credited. His arrival at
Falmouth in December 1797, caused a most agreeable surprise throughout
the kingdom. An account of his travels abounding with thrilling
incidents, including accounts of great suffering from sickness and
cruelty at the hands of Mohammedan Africans on the Niger, was
extensively circulated. Many portions of this narrative were in about
all the American school books during the first half of the nineteenth
century, and the name of Mungo Park became as familiar as household
words in the United States. In 1805, Park undertook another tour of
discovery, which he prosecuted for some time with indomitable courage
and against difficulties before which an ordinary mind would have
succumbed. He navigated the Niger for a long distance, passing Jennee,
Timbuctoo, and Yaoori, but was soon after attacked in a narrow channel,
and, undertaking to escape by swimming, was drowned. His few remaining
white companions perished with him.

The discoveries of this celebrated man were in that part of Africa which
lies between the equator and the 20th degree of north latitude. They
added much to the knowledge of that portion of the country, and keenly
whetted the desire of further information. Several journeys and voyages
up rivers followed, but without notable result till the English
expedition under Denham and Clapperton in 1822. This expedition started
with a caravan of merchants from Tripoli on the Mediterranean, and after
traversing the great desert reached Lake Tsad in interior Africa.
Denham explored the lake and its shores, while Lieut. Clapperton pursued
his journey westward as far as Sakatu, which is not greatly distant from
the Niger. He retraced his steps, and having visited England, began a
second African tour, starting from near Cape Coast Castle on the Gulf of
Guinea. Traveling in a northeastern direction, he struck the Niger at
Boussa, and going by way of Kano, a place of considerable commercial
importance, again arrived at Sakatu, where he shortly afterwards died.
He was the first man who had traversed Africa from the Mediterranean sea
to the Gulf of Guinea. Richard Lander, a servant of Lieut. Clapperton,
afterwards discovered the course of the Niger from Boussa to the gulf,
finding it identical with the river Nun of the seacoast.

[Illustration: DR. DAVID LIVINGSTONE.]

Other tours of discovery into Africa have been made to which it is not
necessary here to refer. The practical result of all these expeditions,
up to about the middle of the nineteenth century, was a rough outline of
information in regard to the coast countries of Africa, the course of
the Niger, the manners and customs of the tribes of Southern Africa, and
a little more definite knowledge concerning Northern and Central Africa,
embracing herein the great desert, Lake Tsad, the river Niger, and the
people between the desert and the Gulf of Guinea. Perhaps the most
comprehensive statement of the effect of this information upon Christian
peoples was that it seemed to conclusively demonstrate an imperative
demand for missionary labors. Even the Mohammedans of the Moorish
Kingdom of Ludamar, set loose a wild boar upon Mungo Park. They were
astonished that the wild beast assailed the Moslems instead of the
Christian, and afterwards shut the two together in a hut, while King and
council debated whether the white man should lose his right arm, his
eyes, or his life. During the debate, the traveler escaped. If the
Mohammedan Africans were found to be thus cruel, it may well be inferred
that those of poorer faith were no less bloodthirsty. And thus, as one
of the results of the expeditions to which we have referred, a renewed
zeal in proselytism and discovery was developed.

Thus, the two most distinguished African travellers, and who have
published the most varied, extensive, and valuable information in regard
to that continent, performed the labors of their first expeditions
cotemporaneously, the one starting from the north of Africa, the other
from the south. We can but refer to the distinguished Dr. Heinreich
Barth, and him who is largely referred to in this volume, Dr. David
Livingstone. The expeditions were not connected the one with the other,
but had this in common that both were begun under the auspices of the
British government and people. A full narrative of Dr. Barth’s travels
and discoveries has been published, from which satisfactory information
in regard to much of northern and central Africa may be obtained. The
narrative is highly interesting and at once of great popular and
scientific value. Hence the world has learned the geography of a wide
expanse of country round about Lake Tsad in all directions; far toward
Abyssinia northeasterly, as far west by north as Timbuctoo, several
hundred miles southeasterly, and as far toward the southwest, along the
River Benue, as the junction of the Faro. Dr. Barth remained in Africa
six years, much of the time without a single white associate, his
companions in the expedition having all died. Dr. Overweg, who was the
first European to navigate Lake Tsad, died in September, 1852. Mr.
Richardson, the official chief of the expedition, had died in March of
the previous year.

But unquestionably the most popular of African explorers is Dr.
Livingstone, an account of whose first expedition--1849-52--has been
read by a great majority of intelligent persons speaking the English
language. Large and numerous editions were speedily demanded, and Africa
again became an almost universal topic of discourse. Indeed,
intelligence of Dr. Livingstone’s return after so many years of toil and
danger, was rapidly spread among the nations, accompanied by brief
reports of his explorations, and these prepared the way for the
reception of the Doctor’s great work by vast numbers of people. Every
one was ready and anxious to carry the war of his reading into Africa.
And afterwards, when Dr. Livingstone returned to Africa, and having
prosecuted his explorations for a considerable period reports came of
his death at the hands of cruel and treacherous natives, interest in
exact knowledge of his fate became intense and appeared only to increase
upon the receipt of reports contradicting the first, and then again of
rumors which appeared to substantiate those which had been first
received. In consequence of the conflicting statements which, on account
of the universal interest in the subject, were published in the public
press throughout the world, the whole Christian church, men of letters
and science became fairly agitated. The sensation was profound, and,
based upon admiration of a man of piety, sublime courage, and the most
touching self-denial in a great cause to which he had devoted all his
bodily and intellectual powers, it was reasonable and philosophical.

It is not surprising, therefore, that the English government should have
fitted out an expedition in search of Livingstone. Accordingly, the
Livingstone Search Expedition, as it is called, was organized early in
the winter of 1871-72, and under command of Lieut. Dawson, embarked on
its destination, on the 9th of February of the last year. The expedition
reached Zanzibar April 19, and the members were most kindly received by
the Sultan, Sayid Bergash, and greatly assisted by his Grand Vizier,
Sayid Suliman. A company of six Nasik youths, originally slaves in a
part of Africa through which the Search Expedition would pass, were
being drilled for the purpose, and were expected to be of great

But before intelligence of the Livingstone Search Expedition at Zanzibar
awaiting favorable weather, had arrived, the world was startled by the
news that a private expedition, provided solely by the New York “Herald”
newspaper, and in charge of Mr. Henry M. Stanley, had succeeded, after
surmounting incredible difficulties, in reaching Ujiji, where a meeting
of the most remarkable nature took place between the great explorer and
the representative of the enterprising journal of New York. Unique in
its origin, most remarkable in the accomplishment of its beneficent
purpose, the Herald-Livingstone expedition had received the considerate
approval of mankind, and Mr. Stanley had come to be regarded, and with
justice, as a practical hero of a valuable kind. His accounts of his
travels, his despatches to the “Herald” from time to time, the more
formal narratives furnished by him, composed a story of the deepest
interest and, when properly considered, of the greatest value. This
interest has also been deepened and greatly strengthened by the later
labors of Stanley in the great field made memorable by Livingstone; and
in the results of later explorations we have it fairly demonstrated that
the life-work of the elder explorer did not end with his death, but has
fallen upon the shoulders of one in every respect qualified to carry on
the good work.

To fully appreciate the work done and to thoroughly comprehend its
bearing upon Christian civilization, the reader will find in these pages
a brief resume of the most important incidents in the life history of
Livingstone, with accounts of his several explorations into the African
continent. Hence, these, in connection with those of Stanley respecting
his later researches, will serve to make a volume of extremely
interesting reading upon a subject of universal interest to all
Christian people.




  The General Geological Formation of the Continent -- The Want of
  Comprehensive Investigation -- Singular Facts as to the Desert of
  Sahara -- The Question of the Antiquity of Man -- Is Africa the
  Birth-place of the Human Race? Opinions of Scientists Tending to
  Answer in the Affirmative -- Darwinism.

It is to be greatly regretted that no comprehensive geological surveys
of Africa have ever been made; because there are certain questions,
eventually to be settled by geology, whose determination, it appears to
be agreed, will be finally resolved by investigations in this continent.
In a volume of this nature, designed for the general reader, those facts
and reasonings only need be referred to which may be supposed to have
the most interest. Reference has already been made to Sir Roderick
Murchison’s exposition of the trough-shaped form of South Africa in his
discourse before the Royal Geographical Society in 1852--an exposition
which was so remarkably substantiated by Dr. Livingstone in his journey
across the continent from Loanda to Kilimane. Though in its geographical
configuration Africa is not greatly unlike South America, in its
geological structure it much more resembles the northern continent of
the western hemisphere. The Appalachian range of mountains extending
through nearly the whole of the eastern portion of North America,
parallel with the coast, and the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevadas
in the west, bear a notable resemblance to those ranges of mountains in
Africa, which, rising first in the northern portions of Senegambia,
pursue a south-easterly, then a southerly course to near the southern
limit of the continent, when they sharply bend toward the northeast, and
with many lofty peaks, some of which reach the region of eternal snow,
pass through Mozambique, Zanguebar, and end not until after they have
passed through Abyssinia and Nubia, and penetrated the limits of Egypt.
In Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco, is the Atlas range, between
which and the beginning of the other the distance is hardly so great as
that between the southern limits of the Appalachian range and the
mountains of Mexico. The course of each of the great rivers of these
continents is also across the degrees of latitude instead of generally
parallel with the equator, as is the case with the great river of South
America. There is a similarity also between North America and Africa in
an extensive system of inland lakes of fresh water and vast extent.


The geological structure of the mountains of Africa, especially of South
Africa, appears to be quite uniform. They have a nucleus of granite
which often appears at the surface and forms the predominating rock, but
in the greater proportion of the mountains, perhaps, the granite is
overlain by vast masses of sandstone, easily distinguished by the
numerous pebbles of quartz which are embedded in it. The summit, when
composed of granite, is usually round and smooth, but when composed of
the quartzose sandstone is often perfectly flat. Of this Table Mount,
in South Africa, is a notable illustration. The thickness of this
stratum of sandstone is sometimes not less than 2,000 feet. Such is the
case in the Karoo mountains of Cape Colony. When thus appearing, it may
be seen forming steep, mural faces, resembling masonry, or exhibiting a
series of salient angles and indentations as sharp, regular, and
well-defined as if they had been chiselled. With the granite are often
associated primitive schists, the decomposition of which seems to have
furnished the chief ingredients of the thin, barren clay which forms the
characteristic covering of so much of the South African mountains. In
some places, more recent formations appear, and limestone is seen
piercing the surface. The geological constitution of the Atlas
Mountains, in northwestern Africa, presents old limestone alternating
with a schist, often passing to a well-characterized micaceous schist,
or gneiss, the stratification of which is exceedingly irregular.
Volcanic rocks have here been found in small quantities. There are veins
of copper, iron, and lead.

In Egypt we find the alluvial soil a scarcely less interesting object of
study than the rocks upon which it rests. These are limestone,
sandstone, and granite, the latter of which, in Upper Egypt, often rises
1,000 feet above the level of the Nile. Not many years ago were
discovered about 100 miles east of the Nile, and in 28 deg. 4 min. of
north latitude the splendid ruins of the ancient Alabastropolis, which
once derived wealth from its quarries of alabaster. Farther south are
the ancient quarries of jasper, porphyry, and verd antique. The emerald
mines of Zebarah lay near the Red Sea.

The Atlas range in Algeria is better known than elsewhere. It is as
described above, but at Calle there are distinct traces of ancient
volcanoes. Iron, copper, gypsum, and lead are found in considerable
quantities. Cinnabar is found in small quantities. Salt and thermal
springs abound in many parts of Algeria, amethysts in Morocco, slates in
Senegambia, and iron in Liberia, Guinea, the Desert of Sahara and many
other parts of Africa.

Gold, gold-dust, and iron are among the best known of the mineral riches
of Africa, and are the most generally diffused throughout the continent.
In the country of Bambouk, in Senegambia, most of the gold which finds
its way to the west coast is found. Here the mines are open to all, and
are worked by natives who live in villages. The richest gold mine of
Bambouk, and the richest, it is believed, yet discovered in Africa, is
that of Natakoo--an isolated hill, some 300 feet high and 3,000 feet in
circumference, the soil of which contains gold in the shape of lumps,
grains, and spangles, every cubic foot being loaded, it is said, with
the precious metal. The auriferous earth is first met with about four
feet from the surface, becoming more abundant with increase of depth. In
searching for gold the natives have perforated the hill in all
directions with pits some six feet in diameter and forty or fifty feet
deep. At a depth of twenty feet from the surface lumps of pure gold of
from two to ten grains weight are found. There are other mines in this
portion of Africa, gold having been found distributed over a surface of
1,200 square miles. The precious metal is not only found in hills, the
most of which are composed of soft argillaceous earth, but in the beds
of rivers and smaller streams, so that the lines of Bishop Heber’s
well-known missionary hymn are truthful as well as poetical:--

  “Where Afric’s sunny fountains,
   Roll down their golden sands.”

The gold mines of Semayla, which are some forty or fifty miles northward
of those of Natakoo, though nearly as rich as the latter, are in hills
of rock and sandstone, which substances are pounded in mortars that the
gold may be extracted. Barth judged that gold would be found in the
Benue river, the principal eastern tributary of the Niger. Gold, silver,
iron, lead and sulphur have been found in large quantities, and were
long profitably mined in the mountainous districts of Angola. In Upper
Guinea gold and iron are deposited in granitic or schistose rocks. The
interior contains vast quantities of iron which might be easily mined,
but the natives are not sufficiently enterprising to accomplish much in
this respect. Gold is also obtained in the beds of some of the rivers of
Guinea. In Mozambique, on the east coast, the Portuguese have for a
great length of time had a considerable commerce in gold obtained from
mines near the Zambezi, in the region near the western limit of that
province. It has already been stated that here Dr. Livingstone
discovered deposits of coal. Along the Orange and Vaal rivers, in
extreme South Africa, have recently been discovered diamond fields which
some noted scientists believe will yet prove to be among the richest in
the world.


Perhaps the portions of Africa which are the most interesting on account
of geological investigations which have been made, are the valley of the
Nile in Egypt, and the Desert of Sahara. It is well known that the river
Nile annually overflows its banks in Egypt, and the inundation remaining
a considerable period, a thin layer of soil is each year added to that
which existed there before. This Nile mud, as it is called by
geologists, has been the subject of considerable scientific examination
for many years. In his work upon the “Geological Evidences of the
Antiquity of Man,” Sir Charles Lyell gives a full account of certain
systematic borings in the Nile mud which were made between the years
1851 and 1854, under the superintendency of Mr. Leonard Horner, but who
employed to practically conduct the examinations an intelligent,
enterprising, and faithful Armenian officer of engineers, Hekekyan Bey,
who had for many years pursued scientific studies in England, was in
every way qualified for the task, and, unlike Europeans, was able to
endure the climate during the hot months, when the waters of the Nile
flow within their banks. Sir Charles Lyell states that the results of
chief importance arising out of this inquiry were obtained from two sets
of shafts and borings--sunk at intervals in lines crossing the great
valley from east to west. One of these consisted of fifty-one pits and
artesian perforations made where the valley is sixteen miles wide
between the Arabian and the Libyan deserts, in the latitude of
Heliopolis, about eight miles above the apex of the delta. The other
line of pits and borings, twenty seven in number, was in the parallel
of Memphis where the valley is five miles wide. Besides Hekekyan Bey,
several engineers and some sixty workmen, inured to the climate, were
employed for several years, during the dry season, in the furtherance of
these interesting investigations.

It was found that in all the works the sediment passed through was
similar in composition to the ordinary Nile mud of the present day,
except near the margin of the valley, where thin layers of quartzose
sand, such as is sometimes blown from the adjacent desert by violent
winds, were observed to alternate with the loam. A remarkable absence of
lamination and stratification, the geologist goes on to say, was
observed almost universally in the sediment brought up from all points
except where the sandy layers above alluded to occurred, the mud closely
agreeing in character with the ancient loam of the Rhine. Mr. Horner
attributes this want of all indication of successive deposition to the
extreme thinness of the film of matter which is thrown down annually on
the great alluvial plain during the season of inundation. The tenuity of
this layer must indeed be extreme, if the French engineers are tolerably
correct in their estimate of the amount of sediment formed in a century,
which they suppose not to exceed on the average five inches. It is
stated, in other words, that the increase is not more than the twentieth
part of an inch each year, or one foot in the period of 240 years. All
the remains of organic bodies found during these investigations under
Hekekyan Bey belonged to living species. Bones of the ox, hog, dog,
dromedary, and ass were not uncommon, but no vestiges of extinct
mammalia were found, and no marine shells were anywhere detected. These
excavations were on a large scale, in some instances for the first
sixteen or twenty-four feet. In these pits, jars, vases, and a small
human figure in burnt clay, a copper knife, and other entire articles
were dug up; but when water soaking through from the Nile was reached,
the boring instrument used was too small to allow of more than fragments
of works of art being brought up. Pieces of burnt brick and pottery were
constantly being extracted, and from all depths, even where they sank
sixty feet below the surface toward the central parts of the valley. In
none of these cases did they get to the bottom of the alluvial soil. If
it be assumed that the sediment of the valley has increased at the rate
of six inches a century, bricks at the depth of sixty feet have been
buried 12,000 years. If the increase has been five inches a century,
they have lain there during a period of 14,400 years. Lyell states
further on that M. Rosiere, in the great French work on Egypt has
estimated the rate of deposit of sediment in the delta at two inches and
three lines in a century. A fragment of red brick has been excavated a
short distance from the apex of the delta at a depth of seventy-two
feet. At a rate of deposit of two and a-half inches a century, a work of
art seventy-two feet deep must have been buried more than 30,000 years
ago. Lyell frankly states, however, that if the boring was made where an
arm of the river had been silted up at a time when the apex of the delta
was somewhat further south, or more distant from the sea than now, the
brick in question might be comparatively very modern. It is agreed by
the best geologists that the age of the Nile mud cannot be accurately,
but only approximately calculated by the data thus far furnished. The
amount of matter thrown down by the waters in different parts of the
plain varies so much that to strike an average with any approach to
accuracy must be most difficult. The nearest approach, perhaps, as has
been observed by Baldwin, to obtaining an accurate chronometric scale
for ascertaining the age of the deposits of the Nile at a given point,
was made near Memphis, at the statue of King Rameses. It is known that
this statue was erected about the year 1260 B. C. In 1854 it had stood
there 3,114 years. During that time the alluvium had collected to the
depth of nine feet and four inches above its base, which was at the rate
of about three and a half inches in each century. Mr. Horner found the
alluvium, below the base of the statue, to be thirty feet deep, and
pottery was found within four inches of the bottom of the alluvium. If
the rate of accumulation previous to the building of the statue had been
the same as subsequently, the formation of the alluvium began, at that
point, about 11,660 years before the Christian era, and men lived there
some 12,360 years ago, cultivating the then thin soil of the valley. But
it would appear to be certain that the average deposit is so slight
annually that many centuries more than those formerly quite universally
received as the age of the world for the stage of mankind’s achievements
must have passed since the work of man’s hands have been buried under
these vast deposits of alluvium. Thus, geology insists, is the fact of
man’s existence, long before the historic era, conclusively established.


The Desert of Sahara presents some interesting facts of the same nature.
It has already been stated that this part of Africa was ocean within a
comparatively recent geological period. Tristram and several French
officers of scientific attainments, who have made geological
examinations of large portions of the desert have shown that the
northern margin is lined with ancient sea-beaches and lines of
terraces--the “rock-bound coasts” of the old ocean. Numerous salt-lakes
exist in the desert which are tenanted by the common cockle. A species
of _Haligenes_ which inhabits the Gulf of Guinea is found in a salt lake
in latitude 30 deg. north and longitude 7 deg. east, separated,
therefore, from its present marine habitat by the whole extent of the
great desert, and the vast expanse of Soudan and Guinea. Geologists
hence conclude that the existing fauna, including man, occupied Africa
long before the Sahara became dry land. Reference has been made in the
preceding chapter to the supposed remarkably beneficent effect this
great expanse of desert, heated sands, and hot air, has upon the
climate, and consequently upon the civilization of Europe.

It is probable that from the fact that Sahara was about the last
extensive portion of earth to be abandoned by the ocean, that the
general opinion became prevalent that the continent of Africa was,
geologically, the most recent of the grand divisions of the earth.
Though supposed to be the oldest in civilization, it has been supposed
to be the youngest in geological constitution. I am informed by
scientific men that on account of recent investigations and reasonings,
the opinion has for some time been gaining ground that Africa is likely
to be shown to be the oldest part of the globe in both respects, and to
have been the original birthplace of the race of man.

The negroid race, comprehending the Negroes, Hottentots, and Algutos,
are, it is claimed by many scientists, the most ancient of all the types
of mankind, and since their appearance on earth vast geographical
changes have taken place. Continents have become ocean and sea has
become land. “The negroes,” says Lubbock, “are essentially a
non-navigating race, they build no ships, and even the canoes of the
Feejeeans are evidently copied from those of the Polynesians. Now what
is the geographical distribution of the race? They occupy all Africa
south of Sahara, which neither they nor the rest of the true African
fauna have ever crossed. And though they do not occur in Arabia, Persia,
Hindoostan, Siam, or China, we find them in Madagascar, and in the
Andaman Islands; not in Java, Sumatra, or Borneo, but in the Malay
Peninsula, in the Phillippine Islands, New Guinea, the New Hebrides, New
Caledonia, the Feejee Islands, and in Tasmania. This remarkable
distribution is perhaps most easily explicable on the hypothesis that
since the negroid race came into existence there must have been an
immense tract of land or a chain of islands stretching from the eastern
coast of Africa right across the Indian ocean; and secondly that the
sea then occupied the area of the present great desert. In whatever
manner, however, these facts are to be explained, they certainly
indicate that the race is one of very great antiquity.” “It is
manifest,” says Baldwin in his Pre-Historic Nations, “that Africa at a
remote period was the theatre of great movements and mixtures of peoples
and races, and that its interior countries had then a closer connection
with the great civilizations of the world than at any time during the
period called historical.” It is the opinion of this writer that the
Cushite race--the Ethiopians of Scripture--appeared first in the work of
civilization, and that in remote antiquity that people exerted a mighty
and wide-spread influence in human affairs, whose traces are still
visible from farther India to Norway. Nor is he by any means alone in
the opinion that the Carthagenians, ages ago, sent their ships across
the Atlantic to the American continent. The Cushites, or original
Ethiopians originated in Arabia, but their descendents are still found
in northern Africa from Egypt to Morocco. Of this race are the Tuariks,
the robbers of the Great Desert, to this day among the most magnificent
specimens of physical man to be found anywhere on the globe.

The final solution of these problems of the geological status of Africa,
and the great antiquity of man can but be of the greatest interest to
all thoughtful persons. Unquestionably their solution will be greatly
hastened, should Dr. Livingstone succeed in the great enterprise upon
which he is now engaged, and soon make known to the world the true
sources of the Nile. His success therein would stimulate endeavor,
study, exploration, and, it is to be hoped, comprehensive and systematic
surveys of a continent the evidences of whose civilization in remote
ages lie buried among the debris of countless centuries.

We know, from the imperfect investigations which have already been made,
that cities have been engulfed in the sands of Sahara. We know that vast
changes have taken place in the physical structure of the continent of
Africa and of the world since the negro race first appeared. It is not
improbable, therefore, that where for so many ages beasts of prey and
savage tribes have occupied a land oppressed with heat and burdened with
many ills, there may yet be found evidences of former civilization and
power in greatest possible contrast to present barbarism and national
weakness. And who shall say that when the face of the continent was
changed, whether by a great convulsion or by a gradual process, some of
the people did not migrate northward, cross the Mediterranean and
populate the continent which has since become the abode of the highest
civilization and the greatest intellectual culture? Who shall say that
these races of remote antiquity were not possessed of culture and arts
and literature placing them very high in the scale of civilization?
Within the historic period those nations have passed away which were the
acknowledged parents of modern culture and art. The power and
versatility of the human mind, reason, eloquence, and poetry, were most
sublimely illustrated by the Greeks, whose works still remain to benefit
and instruct mankind. Yet the freedom and power of this wonderful people
have for more than twenty centuries been annihilated. The people, in
the eloquent diction of Macaulay, have degenerated into timid slaves;
the language into a barbarous jargon; and the beautiful temples of
Athens “have been given up to the successive depredations of Romans,
Turks, and Scotchmen.” The vast empire of Rome has passed entirely away
within a few centuries. She had herself annihilated Carthage leaving
nothing, as we have seen, of the arts, literature, or institutions of a
people whose ships had sailed on every wave from the Hellespont to the
Baltic, and, not improbably, from the Mediterranean to the delta of the
Mississippi. Other great nations are also known to have passed away or
been destroyed, the nature of their civilization and institutions being
left to conjecture based upon a few monuments or a few literary remains
preserved by foreign writers. It being once established that man existed
ages before what is commonly called the beginning of the historic period
it would be simply logical, considering many national destructions which
have occurred during the historic period, to conclude by analogy that
races of remote antiquity flourished and passed away leaving no sign,
which has been yet discovered, of their power and civilization. It is
evident the historian Macaulay thinks it not improbable such may be the
fate of England, and he expressly states in a well-known passage that
the time may come when only a single naked fisherman may be seen in the
river of the ten thousand masts. It is difficult, if not impossible, for
mankind entirely to overcome the tendency to decay.

[Illustration: ARAB SLAVE TRADERS.]

We shall presently see that Africa is a field upon which must soon be
decided a great issue of politico-social importance; an issue which
involves the abolition of polygamy, domestic slavery, and the
suppression of the foreign slave trade. From what has gone before in
this volume, it will have been seen that here, too, are likely to be
most conclusively demonstrated the vast age of the world, the great
antiquity of man, and the nature of his origin. In comparison of the
settlement of this issue and the solution of these problems of science,
even the discovery of the true sources of the Nile may be regarded as
unimportant, except for the reason that Dr. Livingstone’s great
achievement will arouse other men of science to similar sacrifices,
labors, and fortitude. Thus Africa is found to present another
remarkable contrast for our contemplation; for while civilization is
there at a lower ebb than in any other grand division of the globe, the
highest intellectual efforts of the most astute thinkers of the times
are turning their best efforts thitherward, in the confident hope of
greatly enlarging the sphere of human knowledge, and of extending the
triumphs of science and civilization.

There are many, it is true, who imagine that the scientific inquiries
which are being made in regard to the great age of the world, the races
which existed long anterior to the historic period, and the origin of
the human species are founded in a spirit of skepticism and hostility to
Christian civilization, or, rather to Christianity as a religion.
Doubtless there are many scientists who put no faith in Holy Writ, as
much of it has been commonly understood. Others, and those among the
most distinguished of men, are no less devout believers in Christianity
than they are firm believers in the great age of the world and antiquity
of man. The devotees of Christianity have in not a few instances
mistaken an ally for an enemy. This was notably the fact, in an example
which is here most appropriate, in the case of the modern origin of the
science of astronomy. The Christian church, as then existing, pronounced
as religious heresy the plain truth that the world moves, and that the
sun neither rises nor sets, but is stationary--the sublime centre of a
universe of planets and stars, and, perhaps, inhabited worlds, whose
movements must be controlled, as the vast system must have been
originated, by One of infinite wisdom and power and goodness. In due
course of time it was discovered that astronomy did not militate against
Christianity, and the church not only ceased putting astronomers in
prison, but learned that the acceptance of all truth, come from whatever
source it may, is a Christian duty. And many of the most distinguished
astronomers have been no less earnest exemplars of the Christian system
of religion than any monk who ever wore the pavements of a monastery and
left the world no wiser or better than he found it.

As it was with astronomy, so it has been even of late years with the
science of geology. The era of imprisonment for heresy had indeed passed
by when men began to construct a comprehensive science on the study of
rocks; but as their revelations became more extensive and more
wonderful, it again appeared to many that here had arisen a formidable
foe of Christianity, and the new science was assailed accordingly. It
has not turned out that these disputants were as wise as they were
zealous and as they were undoubtedly sincere. Though the sun never rises
and never sets, we should be stupid indeed were we always, when speaking
of his appearance on our horizon, or his disappearance therefrom, to
state the fact in words of scientific accuracy. The world has never yet
been slow enough justly to permit such waste of time and words. Not only
the almanac-makers, but the most celebrated astronomers persist in
saying that the sun rises and the sun sets. And, properly understood, it
is perfectly true though scientifically false. To all appearance and for
all practical purposes to the inhabitants of earth the sun does rise and
set, and when one so says, whether inspired or uninspired, one simply
conveys the idea that he intends to convey, and this is the province of
language. As astronomy appeared to be utterly opposed by certain
expressions in Scripture, but was found not to be, upon more liberal
construction of the language, as well as more philosophical, so geology
appeared to be, in its apparent demonstration of the vast age of the
world, and, later, of the great antiquity of man, hostile to the
received canons of the church, and especially subversive of the Mosaic
account of creation and the generally received system of chronology. The
conflicts thus arising have dissipated many erroneous theological
constructions and dogmas, but they have in no manner affected the
foundations of Christianity. There are many eminent geologists who are
earnest Christians, and though Dr. Livingstone himself has done geology
incalculable service he has done Christianity incalculably more. It may
well be doubted whether any single theologian of the age has conferred
more valuable service upon Christianity than Hugh Miller, the great
geologist of Scotland, whose scientific works are, perhaps, the most
fascinating of any in the English language.

There can be, then, no well-grounded fear of science overturning
Christianity. It is more likely thereby to be in the end not only more
thoroughly and correctly understood, but more firmly established and
more generally adopted. Even the inquiry which is now receiving so much
attention from men of thought--that into the origin of man--need not be
deemed as fraught with any real danger to the system which has given the
world its present civilization. Were it possible to establish Mr.
Darwin’s theory of evolution--and that it is more than a theory cannot
be claimed for it by its most devoted advocate--and establish man’s
origin in the ape, still would the act of his creation into man from ape
be an act of infinite power and goodness. For the infinite power and
goodness of the act consist in the creation, by some means, of a being
of intellectual and moral attributes. The act of divine power is in
breathing into the nostrils the breath of life, and causing the being to
become a living soul. Even Mr. Darwin will not dispute that the ape was
in the long ages evolved from dust, nor that, so far as science has
shown or probably ever can show, there is no being in the universe with
capacity to evolve thought except only God, as shown in His manifold
works, and man.

Whatever may be the result, therefore, of the interesting inquiries in
commerce, religion, geography, geology, ethnology which now are being
more and more directed toward Africa with each passing year, we may
quite safely conclude, judging from the results of the past, that
Christianity will come forth out of the conflicts that may arise,
whether they be scientific or of other nature, with renewed beauty and
power; with more liberal and enlightened views, doubtless, upon some
questions which have been erroneously considered, but with greater
influence on this account, and with brighter prospects of more speedily
than might have been but for these conflicts extending the rule of her
pure and beneficent morality among all the nations and tribes of men.




  The Result in Behalf of Science, Religion, and Humanity of the
  Explorations and Missionary Labors of Dr. Livingstone and Others in
  Africa -- Review of Recent Discoveries in Respect to the People and
  the Physical Nature of the African Continent -- The Diamond Fields of
  South Africa -- Bird’s-Eye View of that Division of the World -- Its
  Capabilities and Its Wants -- Christianity and Modern Journalism
  Dissipating Old Barbarisms, and Leading the Way to Triumphs of

It would be difficult to estimate the result present and sure to come,
in behalf of science, religion, and humanity, of the explorations and
missionary labors of Dr. Livingstone and others in Africa during a
period which embraces but little more than a quarter of a century. The
manner in which Livingstone conducted his missionary labors has already
been pointed out, but more with reference to their connection with
peoples outside of Africa: with men of letters, of science, and of trade
in the civilized world: than with reference to the natives themselves.
Nevertheless, it is a fact that the Christian religion has nowhere in
Africa been anything like so generally adopted, practiced, and honored
by the natives as in the country of the Bakwains. And it was among the
Bakwains that Dr. Livingstone performed his principal missionary work.
Among that people only did he establish a permanent missionary station.
There he had his home in Africa: there his children were born.
Unquestionably the labors of the Rev. Dr. Moffat, Dr. Livingstone’s
father-in-law, were of the highest importance in some respects. The
scene of his studies was at Kuruman, several hundred miles to the
southward of Kolobeng where Livingstone was stationed. He translated the
Scriptures into the Bechuana language, travelled and preached over a
wide domain in South Africa, and accomplished vast good. But it was
Livingstone who infused into the spirit of Christian propagandism
practical wisdom and the argument of present as well as future good. He
is the Franklin of missionaries, having wonderful power in showing
pagans that, even so far as their temporal affairs and material
prosperity are concerned, the religion of Him of Nazareth is the best
policy. Much has been accomplished at the “Gaboon Mission” as it has
been called, on the east coast, but it may be said that the principal
good is in the mitigation of the woes of the slave trade, which here,
with the aid of nations which keep cruisers off the coast, has received,
perhaps, a mortal wound. Nevertheless, the tribes of this coast are
exceedingly depraved, drunken, and ignorant. They are universally
idolatrous and given to disgusting superstitions and habits. Scarcely
more than a hundred miles in the interior are tribes of cannibals, which
are doubtless succeeded by others practicing the horrid orgies of
man-eating across the continent to Tanganyika Lake. But with the great
decrease in the slave trade has sprung up among all these people a wish
to engage in legitimate commerce. With half the ideas of Christian
civilization which have been instilled into the Bakwains of South
Africa, these unhappy people would soon find ways and means to conduct a
large trade in ebony, India-rubber, ivory, and other products of their
country so much prized by commerce. Those who live on the coast have
become somewhat skilful and daring in navigation, their little vessels,
made of great trees hollowed out and pointed, making considerable
coastwise voyages. Upon the arrival of a vessel on the coast, great
numbers of these canoes, filled with natives, are constantly moving
about from ship to shore, too often carrying off the miserable beings
from the baracoons. This terrible traffic completely done with, they
must perforce seek other means of trade; and these their country happily
affords in great abundance.


The Makololo of central South Africa, so often mentioned in this volume,
were greatly improved by the restless genius of the warrior-statesman
Sebituane, whose remarkable career has been delineated in these pages.
These people, possessing a country of great beauty and fertility along
the valley of one of the most magnificent rivers of the world;
possessing also vast herds of cattle and many villages and towns; and
endued by nature with tractable dispositions and ambitious spirit,
continue greatly to profit by the teachings and example of Dr.
Livingstone. Related to the Bakwains and with them speaking the Bechuana
language, Christian ideas are rapidly gaining adherents, so that it is
but reasonable to expect that ere long, that vast extent of country from
Cape Colony to Londa, between the eastern and western coast “shells” of
South Africa will have come under the benignant and progressive
influences of Christian civilization.

The value of the results of Dr. Livingstone’s explorations to science
can hardly be overestimated. Geography, geology, botany, natural
history, ornithology, have all received new facts of value by his
labors, while the latest intelligence from him clearly points to his
speedy success, should his life be spared, in the solution of that
problem in geography which for many years has elicited the studies of
the learned and the adventures of the adventurous.


But Dr. Livingstone has not been alone in giving the world intelligence
of the long unknown continent. In the interest of commerce, England sent
an expedition to central Africa in 1850 under Captain Richardson, with
whom were associated Dr. Overweg and the celebrated Dr. Barth, upon the
latter of whom the work of the mission devolved on account of the death
of both of his colleagues. The result was published in a most elaborate
work of which mention has been made in the early pages of this volume.
Dr. Barth traversed the African Sahara from north to south and again
from south to north, near the middle, passing through Murzuk, the
capital of Fezzan, Ghat, Tintellust, the capital of Asben, Agades, and
Katsena, whence on the journey out Dr. Barth proceeded to Kano, Messrs.
Richardson and Overweg going to Lake Tsad. Dr. Barth remained in Africa
about five years, exploring the country from east of Lake Tsad to
Timbuctoo. All this vast country is inhabited by a remarkable people, or
a variety of remarkable peoples, who are good horsemen, sustaining large
armies, chiefly of cavalry, adroit robbers, cruel, vindictive, having
the worst form of domestic slavery, but who number many millions of
souls; cultivate vast tracts of land, raising corn, rice, millet,
tobacco, cotton, and other products; have many extensive towns and
walled cities, carry on great operations in manufactures, trade, and
mining; and are almost constantly at war: for the different states are
independent of each other, each empire governed by its own sheik, the
lesser sovereignties by sultans. The common religion of the people is
that of Mahomet, but there are remnants of pagan tribes, some of which
are even yet independent, and wage deadly war with their cruel
oppressors. The country is well watered, and may be generally described
as a vast plain, diversified only at wide distances by insulated
mountains of no great height. In this expanse, the general name of which
is Soudan, or Soodan (Berr es-Soodan, “Land of the Blacks”), the most
celebrated city, perhaps, is Timbuctoo, which, from remote antiquity,
has been the meeting-place of many caravans and converging lines of
traffic. Sokato, or Sukatu, was formerly a city of 50,000 inhabitants,
but has of late years decreased in importance. It is noted for its
excellent manufactures of leather and iron, and its general markets,
which always bring together great numbers of people and a wonderful
variety of articles for sale. Kano, the capital of the province of
Houssa, has a population of forty thousand souls. The city is surrounded
by a wall of clay, thirty feet high, and more than fifteen miles in
extent. Much of the enclosed space is occupied by gardens and cultivated
fields. The cotton cloth woven and dyed at Kano is the chief article of
commerce. The fine cotton fabrics of the Timbuctoo market are really
manufactured at Kano. Dyed sheep-skins, sandals, ivory, the kola nut are
largely exported. Kuka, the capital of Bornu, is near Lake Tsad, but is
a small city of inconsiderable importance. Yola, the capital of Adamwa,
is larger than Kuka. It was in this province that Dr. Barth discovered
the Benue river, a navigable stream and the principal affluent from the
east of the Niger. There are many cities in this portion of Africa of
far more importance than the capitals of Bornu and Adamwa. Polygamy is
universally practiced, and there are probably more slaves than freemen
throughout all the vast expanse between the equator and the Desert of
Sahara, and Senegambia and Abyssinia.

In 1856, Captain Burton, whose “Pilgrimage to El Medinah and Mecca”
(which he made in the disguise of a dervish) had just made a sensation
in the reading world, explored, with the lamented Speke, a considerable
portion of East Africa. The explorations of Grant and Speke in this
portion of the continent were also of the greatest value. Thus was a
knowledge of the expanse lying between Lake Nyassa, Tanganyika Lake,
Victoria Nyanza and the Indian ocean made known to the world. The
explorations of Sir Samuel Baker and others in search of the sources of
the Nile are familiar to the intelligent public. At this moment there
are at least two expeditions engaged in attempting to solve this
interesting geographical problem, one, under the patronage of the Prince
of Wales, the other under that of the Khedive of Egypt. With this
latter is a representative of the same American journal whose Search
Expedition under Mr. Stanley discovered the great discoverer on the
shores of Tanganyika.

[Illustration: AFRICAN BIRD-LIFE.]

The most interesting and valuable series of explorations from the west
coast of Africa which have been made of late years were those by Paul B.
Du Chaillu, an American traveller and student whose work has been freely
quoted from in this volume. His explorations embraced some three degrees
of latitude and six of longitude near the equator. He penetrated far
into the country of the gorilla and the cannibal, and his researches in
respect of the people, animals, vegetation, and birds of this part of
the continent are confessedly of great value to science.

Thus, if we consider the known portions of Africa at the time Dr.
Livingstone began his first expedition of discovery, and compare them
with the known portions of Africa at the time of the finding of
Livingstone by the “Herald” expedition, we shall see that nearly all
South Africa and much of East Africa has been explored by Livingstone
himself; that Baker, Burton, Speke, Grant have added much to our
knowledge of the supposed regions of the upper Nile and the “lake
country” of East Africa; that Richardson and Barth have informed us of
the true nature of the Desert of Sahara, the latter adding a vast fund
of information in respect to north-central Africa; that Du Chaillu’s
explorations and direct information almost impinge upon the vast area,
both upon the east and the south, explored by Dr. Livingstone. The
unexplored regions of Africa, therefore, are now small in comparison of
the regions explored and in regard to which trustworthy information has
been gathered. Whereas, when Dr. Livingstone went to Africa, only the
outer portions of the continent had been examined, the regions now
unknown are a wide belt eastward of Lake Tsad; a considerable expanse
south of Abyssinia; portions of the Desert of Sahara, and of Kalahari;
and that expanse in equatorial Africa between the recent explorations of
Livingstone among the supposed sources of the Nile and the eastern limit
of Du Chaillu’s journeys. It is true that these still unexplored regions
embrace the most interesting portion of the continent and extend over an
area several times larger than that of France, but in comparison of the
portions of this great division of the earth which have now come under
the view and the study of civilized man, they are but like a little
cloud in a clear sky.

Within the long explored regions of South Africa, a most important
discovery in respect to commerce has recently been made. Reference can
be had, of course, only to the discovery of the diamond fields of the
Orange and Vaal rivers, some seven or eight hundred miles, by a
traversable route, northeastward of Cape Town, but considerably nearer
either Port Elizabeth in Cape Colony, or Port Natal on the east coast.
Some twenty years ago England abandoned the tract of country now known
as the Orange River Free State, and it was occupied by emigrant Boers,
some of whom also proceeded still farther north and established the
Trans-Vaal Republic--a region over which Great Britain never had
dominion. The Boers are generally supposed to be descendants of the
Dutch colonists, but by some they are believed to be descended of
certain warlike North Germans, whom the Dutch employed to guard their
distant settlements, giving them lavish grants of lands in return for
their services. This latter opinion would seem to be substantiated by
the fierce and warlike nature of the present race of Boers. The diamond
fields commence near the junction of the Orange and Vaal rivers, and
extend indefinitely up both those streams. The diamond region is
described as “a desert country of bare rock and sand, far from the
upland pastoral districts” where the Boers successfully conduct
agricultural pursuits. The fields are reached by a journey of some eight
hundred miles from Cape Town. The distance from Port Elizabeth is about
five hundred miles; that from Port Natal about four hundred and fifty.
By the Port Elizabeth route, the traveller passes over the Zumberg
mountains, and over the Drakensberg range, should he start from Port
Natal. By either route, the scenery is described as magnificent and
calculated to put the traveller at once in love with the country. But
the region between Port Natal and the diamond fields is more wild and
desolate than that on either of the other routes, and great suffering is
often experienced by the way.

[Illustration: A STRETCH OF THE NILE.]

The first South African diamond is said to have been found in March,
1867. The fortunate person was a Dutch farmer named Schalk Van Niekerk,
who was struck with the appearance of a stone with which some children
were playing. It turned out to be a genuine diamond, and was purchased
by Sir Philip Wodehouse, then governor of the Colony, for $2,500. In a
short time the governor purchased several other fine and valuable
stones. In May, 1869, the magnificent diamond “Star of South Africa” was
discovered by a man named Swatbooy, near Sandfontein, on the Orange
river. This was a diamond of eighty-three and a-half carats and was
purchased for $56,500. Being cut, it produced a fine gem of forty-six
and a-half carats, valued at $100,000. The finder of this diamond sold
it for 500 head of sheep, 10 head of cattle, and a horse. In a single
year since their discovery these fields have yielded more than five
stones above forty carats. Professor Tennant thinks we shall have
diamonds from South Africa exceeding the famous Koh-i-noor in size and
equaling it in beauty when cut and polished. The Sultan of Matan, of the
island of Borneo, has a diamond of the first water, weighing 367 carats,
and worth at least $3,500,000. The Orloff diamond, belonging to the Czar
of Russia, weighs 195 carats, but is worth only about $500,000 on
account of being a little off color. It is not too credulous to believe
that the diamond fields of South Africa may produce stones equal to
these, and which will throw the fabulous “Moonstone,” about which Wilkie
Collins has written one of his most fascinating stories, completely in
the shade.

These diamond fields have already been visited by great numbers of
explorers, many of whom have been exceedingly lucky, while others had
better remained at home. Astonishingly few scenes of lawlessness and
violence have been witnessed, a fact which is owing to the peaceful
nature of the Africans who do the most of the digging. The result of
the discovery of this extraordinary diamond region was greatly to lower
the price of rough diamonds for a season. It is not believed that the
price will be permanently affected. Only about one tenth of the African
diamonds are of the first water. The ordinary trade in diamonds had been
about $800,000 a month--$400,000 from the mines of South America and
India, and $400,000 from private parties. The increase from the South
African fields has not yet been $100,000 a month, or anything like it on
the average. The introduction of machinery and of capital to direct and
control the workings, will doubtless add largely to the yield of these
precious stones. Rubies are also found here in large numbers, but they
are generally small. The probability of the discovery of gold also is
very great.

       *       *       *       *       *

Reflecting upon all these recent explorations and discoveries in Africa,
how different would be a bird’s eye view of that continent now from what
it was when Dr. Livingstone first went ashore at Cape Town! The extreme
southern portion of the continent is under the dominion of Great
Britain. On the east and northeast are Natal and the Boer republics of
Orange River and Trans-Vaal. Here, of course, we find a people not
unlike the peasantry of Europe, with towns and cities and farms and
manufactures and commerce. The political institutions are liberal, and
popular education supported by the state, is becoming general. The
original inhabitants of this region were the Hottentots, a race bearing
more resemblance to the Mongols than to the negroes, having broad
foreheads, high cheek bones, oblique eyes, thin beards, and a yellow
complexion. They are of a docile disposition, and quick intellectual
perception. They were possessed of vast herds of cattle and large flocks
of sheep, but were enslaved by the Dutch. Emancipated in 1833 by
England, they are still found all over this region--still enslaved by
the Boers in their so-called republics--and in small bodies here and
there to a great distance in the interior. The Caffres, who inhabit the
eastern portion of South Africa north of the British possessions, and
form a large proportion of the population of the northern part of Cape
Colony, are described by Livingstone as “tall, muscular, and well made;
they are shrewd, energetic, and brave; altogether they merit the
character given them by military authorities of being magnificent
savages! Their splendid physical development and form of skull show
that, but for the black skin and woolly hair, they would take rank among
the foremost Europeans.” Near the east coast of Africa the Caffres are
brown or copper-colored. Their government is patriarchal, a petty chief
presiding over each kraal or village, who is tributary to a higher
chief, and these higher chiefs owe allegiance to the great chief, with
whom they form the National Council. They live by hunting and raising
cattle. Their women attend to the agriculture. They have no notion of a
Supreme Being, but are exceedingly superstitious in respect to witches,
spirits, and the shades of their ancestors. The missionary labors of
more than forty years have made no perceptible impression upon this
stalwart race except those who live under the British Colonial
government, and these have only been partially won over to civilization.
Caffre women are described as superior in beauty to the other native
races of South Africa. Then, and farther to the left, still looking
northward, we have the Bushmen, who are described by Livingstone as true
nomads. Then we come to the Griquas, an independent people north of the
Orange river. By Griquas is meant any mixed race sprung from natives and
Europeans. These are of Dutch extraction through association with
Hottentot and Bushwomen. Many of these have adopted Christianity. The
human inhabitants of the Kalahari Desert are Bushmen and Bakalahari, the
former supposed to be the aborigines of Southern Africa, the latter the
remnants of the first emigration of Bakwains. Both of these singular
people are possessed of an intense love of liberty, but the Bushmen live
almost exclusively on wild animals, while the Bakalahari have an
irrepressible love of flocks of domestic animals. They procure a
precarious existence over the dry expanse of Kalahari. East of the
Desert are the Bakwains, among whom Moffat and Livingstone labored.
These, numbering many different tribes, inhabit a large portion of
Southern Africa and by their migrations under Sebituane, have for a
number of years also held a vast territory on the Chobe and Zambesi
rivers, north of Lake Ngami. Many of the Southern tribes have embraced
Christianity and all are noted for intelligence and the desire of
progress. Between the Southern Bechuanas and their relatives the
Makololo are the Bamangwato and the Bayeiye, the latter “the Quakers of
Africa,” who do not believe in fighting. The former are sufficiently
savage and indolent. They live round about Lake Ngami. To the westward
of Kalahari and as far northward as the country under Portuguese
dominion we observe a region possessing many fertile tracts. A wide
expanse is called Namaqua Land, and is sparsely inhabited by Hottentots
among whom live a few Dutch. Northward of these are the Damaras, whose
domains extend far into the interior, but of whom little is known. Far
up the east coast extends the country of Mozambique, long known to
geography. Near the middle of this country the waters of the Zambesi
empty into the Indian ocean. Far up this stream we find many tribes of
ignorant men, all polygamous, but none, until we reach the watershed of
central South Africa, devoted to disgusting fetiches. There, where the
country is for a vast distance an immense flat, with a river, part of
whose sluggish waters seek outlet in the Atlantic and part in the Indian
ocean, we see negroes of the most savage nature and the most degrading
superstitions. And as we cast our vision westward toward the Portuguese
colony of Angola, we find them becoming more and more degraded, through
the immense territory of the Balonda, until we reach the magnificent
valley of the Quango, and begin to perceive the beneficent effects of
civilization, even though its representatives have not been of the best.
We shall look in vain over the whole expanse of Lower Guinea for notable
prospects cheering to the cause of man’s advancement. Then extending
our vision northward and eastward over what may for convenience sake be
called the equatorial region of Africa, we shall observe great lakes and
rivers on the east, the lakes scarcely less great in surface extent than
those of interior North America, while at the west we perceive extensive
rivers, and immense forests. Here the nobler wild animals do not live,
but repulsive apes and cannibals possess the gloomy shade of the vast
wilderness. Near the eastern portion of this expanse the great explorer
of Africa is at this time engaged in traversing that now most
interesting portion of the globe whence spring the sources of the Nile.
Still farther north, and extending nearly across the continent, we see
an immense territory crowded with a commercial, trading people, whose
cities have been noted for ages through the reports of caravans which
have brought their goods and gold across the great desert to the
Mediterranean sea. On the right of the desert we find Abyssinia, Nubia,
and Egypt. The desert itself is seen to have many oases, stately
mountains, and in places a growth of singular trees. Its caravans are
sometimes submerged by the terrible simoon; but the robbers of the
desert are more cruel and destructive than the winds and sands. On the
north of Sahara we see the countries bordering on the Mediterranean,
where in ancient times the great rival of Rome exercised supreme
authority, which was doubtless wrested from Carthage in a calamity to
mankind. To the westward of this famous seat of ancient empire, the
French now have a numerous and prosperous colony. Still farther westward
and looking out upon the pillars of Hercules, live the remnants of that
singular people who once possessed a large part of Spain, and whose
melancholy fate has been rendered wonderfully interesting to the
intelligent of all lands by the great and tender genius of our American
Irving. The descendants of the old possessors of Granada, the builders
of the Alhambra, may now be found in northwestern Africa, and
penetrating deeply into the regions of the Desert, with little to
suggest the ancient taste, and culture, and warlike prowess. With the
exception of Liberia, and the English, Portuguese, Dutch, and French
colonies, and of late some of the Bakwains who have become
Christianized, the people of whom we are taking this rapid view are
devoted to polygamy. As it exists throughout nearly the whole of the
vast continent it is both a social and a political institution. Of all
these people, perhaps those only who are actually progressive are the
Bakwains, under Sechele, the Makololo, under Sekeletu, successor to the
greatest of South African chieftains, Sebituane, some of the colonists
of extreme South Africa, and a province or two of central West Africa.

[Illustration: A NARROW ESCAPE.]

Confining our view now to the physical aspect of Africa, we perceive
that the four great rivers are the Nile, the Zambesi, the Quango, or
Congo, and the Niger. The Orange river of the south is of less
magnitude, as is the Senegal of the west. Of these, the Nile is the
greatest and most interesting, the most interesting river, perhaps, of
the world. The Niger drains much of western and central Africa, and with
its affluents forms a system of drainage for an immense empire. The
Quango is the principal river of central South Africa, but between it
and the Niger are the Gaboon and the Fernand Vas with their many
affluents. The Zambesi is seen to drain a region many times larger than
Great Britain. The Orange with its affluents is at least equal to the
Ohio in the United States. All these rivers, with the exception of the
Nile, force their way through mountains which reach in almost unbroken
range around the continent from Abyssinia southwestward to Cape Colony,
then northwestward to Senegambia, whence they shoot off in broken
fragments over the Desert of Sahara.

[Illustration: VIEW ON THE LUALALA.]

[Illustration: VIEW ON THE ZAMBESI.]

The northern half of Africa is chiefly Mohammedan, the southern half
chiefly pagan. In the north we have sheikhs, khedives, sultans, harems,
intrigues, treachery, vindictiveness, and tortures. In the south we have
man-eating, superstitions, fetiches, degradation, but, unquestionably as
I think, very much less of man’s inhumanity to man. North and south,
except where the English have control, domestic slavery exists in its
most cruel forms, but nowhere in the world has it ever existed, perhaps,
in such monstrous shape of iniquity as in central Africa under the rule
of Islamism. Dr. Barth accompanied the sheikh of Bornoo on a predatory
(slave-catching) expedition into the Musgu country on one occasion. He
thus relates the principal business of a single day:

“The village we had just reached was named Kakala, and is one of the
most considerable places in the Musgu country. A large number of slaves
had been caught this day, and in the course of the evening, after some
skirmishing, in which three Bornoo horsemen were killed, a great many
more were brought in; altogether they were said to have taken one
thousand, and there were certainly not less than five hundred. To our
utmost horror, not less than one hundred and seventy full-grown men were
mercilessly slaughtered in cold blood, the greater part of them being
allowed to bleed to death, a leg having been severed from the body.”

The number of “slaves” (that is, free persons captured) on this
expedition was about 4,000, of whom nearly 1,000, being full-grown men,
were disposed of in the horrible manner above described.

--Those who have read the preceding pages can hardly help arriving at
the conclusion that the capabilities and the wants of Africa are very
great. Leaving out those portions of the continent which were known when
Dr. Livingstone first reached South Africa, we find that there have
since been discovered lakes, rivers, mountains, regions abounding in
precious stones and metals, vast fertile plains, forests rich in
valuable trees and vines, animals producing rare articles of commerce,
peoples rude indeed and degraded but neither cruel by nature,
vindictive, nor revengeful. Many of them are magnificent specimens of
mankind, so far as physical nature is concerned, while a great majority
of them are far above that which is too generally considered the typical
African. They are by no means wanting in intellectual powers; and their
almost universal love of children must be regarded as a most admirable
and redeeming trait. Even the cannibals of the equatorial regions are
unquestionably less cruel and infinitely less treacherous than the
Mohammedans of north Central Africa, while the numerous tribes of
Bakwains and Makololo are for the most part by nature gentlemen; brave,
magnanimous, and reasonable. The Bakalahari are a pastoral people; and
those who are fond of both children and flocks cannot be irreclaimably
depraved. Over a large part of South Africa, idolatry is unknown; and
skepticism is a much less powerful antagonist of Christian civilization
than fetiches.

These people have many navigable rivers, vast extents of arable lands,
large numbers of domestic animals, and some of them are wonderfully
skilful in the manufacture of certain fabrics and tools. Perhaps it is
hardly too much to say that the Fans (cannibals) of equatorial Africa
are the best blacksmiths in the world.

There can be little doubt that many of these people would have adopted
Christian civilization before this time but for polygamy. As has been
said a moment ago this is both a social and political institution. The
more wives a chief has the more fathers-in-law, the more friends, and
consequently the more influence. We have seen how this long kept the
chief Sechele from espousing Christianity. It appeared to his generous
nature like a cruelty to return his supernumerary “wives.” It is
difficult to see how any general progress can be made toward the
adoption of Christian civilization by these people until this
institution shall have been destroyed.

The abolition of domestic slavery is one of the greatest wants of the
continent. In no part of pagan Africa is this inhuman system upheld by
such barbarous practices as in many large portions under the sway of
Islamism. In pagan Africa the captives of war are made slaves, but the
adult males are not mangled and slain. Throughout a great extent of
Mohammedan Africa the system of slavery is upheld by nameless atrocities
in gratification of the terrible cruelty and scarcely less terrible lust
of the most cruel and lustful people. The legend of Legree in Mrs.
Stowe’s celebrated novel of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” is a pleasant fable in
comparison of many acts pertaining to African domestic slavery of which
truthful accounts might be given. It might appear that time is necessary
to prepare a people so cruel for the reception of Christian
civilization. The Boers of South Africa are exceedingly hard
task-masters with their slaves, compelling them to do a great deal of
hard labor and drudgery, but they have not been charged with

This wide-spread system of domestic slavery is, of course, an important
ally of the foreign slave trade but the slave trade is in some respects
a wrong and unutterable woe of itself. There is a certain intronational
slave trade, if we may so speak, in Africa, carried on between tribes
which are independent of each other. The importance of a chief is often
estimated by the number of his slaves and wives. Now that the recent
explorations of white men have made intercourse between tribes of more
frequent occurrence than formerly, a rude diplomacy has sprung up, which
is chiefly exercised in matters pertaining to slaves and the purchase of
wives. A chief strengthens himself at home by marrying as many of the
daughters of his “head men” as he can, and among other tribes by the
same course among them. A large number of slaves adds to the
consideration in which he is held at home and abroad. Thus polygamy,
domestic slavery, and the foreign slave trade are the great obstacles
which stand in the way of civilizing the continent of the black man. And
of these the greatest obstacle is the foreign slave trade. This, not
only because of its own cruelty, fearful wrongfulness, and hideous
practices, but because it gives the black man a fairly unanswerable
practical argument against civilization. Dr. Livingstone expressly tells
us, in letters which we have quoted, that the practices of the
slave-traders are more horrible and cruel than even those of the
man-eating Manyema. Is it to be expected that the natives of Africa will
adopt a system which, so far as they see, is more cruel than the most
horrible customs of their most degraded tribes? Those Africans only who
have to any considerable extent adopted Christian civilization live at
the greatest distance from the scenes of the foreign slave trade.

[Illustration: A DANCE BY TORCHLIGHT.]

The first great want of Africa, therefore, is the suppression of the
slave trade. This has been to great extent accomplished on the West
Coast. It has not been accomplished on the East Coast because of the
neglect of the British government. Not long since Zanzibar was visited
by a terrible hurricane, whose destructive fury laid waste its shipping,
its houses, and scattered death and desolation over a wide expanse. The
affliction was very great, and grievous to be borne. The slave trade of
Zanzibar is almost infinitely more cruel than the remorseless elements.
Its speedy suppression is demanded by the united cries of Christianity
and humanity. It is the undoubted duty of the government of Great
Britain to heed this demand, and put an end to the woes which exist
through the cupidity of British subjects and the inefficiency of British
officials at Zanzibar.

The other great wants of Africa are the abolition of domestic slavery
and the destruction of the system of polygamy. To accomplish these great
objects will be no easy achievement, nor one, it is believed, which can
be speedily brought about. It certainly can be done the more easily and
the more speedily after the suppression of the foreign slave trade.
Until that be done, it is simply impossible. That having first been
brought about, the national characteristic of all African peoples will
be found, it is confidently believed, to form an element of vast power
in bringing the continent under the sway of civilization. That
characteristic is the love of trade. It is another of the singular
anomalies of this division of the world, that while it is, upon the
whole, the least commercial of all, the people are natural traders. They
are universally fond of barter. This may be called the African
idiosyncrasy. Taking advantage of it, with his inculcations of religious
truth, Dr. Livingstone’s labors at the time and afterwards were crowned
with magnificent success. Those of his co-laborers who have succeeded
have pursued the same plan. Thus throughout a vast expanse have slavery
and polygamy passed away, and the institutions of Christian
civilization been adopted in their stead by a people naturally
intelligent, progressive, and brave.

[Illustration: A CAMP OF ARAB TRADERS.]

Christianity and modern journalism ought, therefore, to unite in urging
commerce to clasp hands with religion for the purpose of making a common
triumph for trade and civilization over the vast continent much of which
has so long sat in darkness. There, surely, are the foundations upon
which a mighty commerce may be built; there, beyond question, is a vast
field in which the labors of Christian propagandists have much to engage
them, and much to encourage great zeal and self-denial. Journalism and
Christianity thus succeeding in making a firm and earnest ally of
Commerce, cannot help leading the way, in the good time of Heaven’s
providence, to most gratifying triumphs of civilization; so that the
gloom and misery of centuries shall be dispelled, and even Ethiopia
shall soon stretch out her hands unto GOD.




  Again leaves England, March, 1858 -- Resigning his position as
  Missionary for the London Society, he is appointed by the British
  Government Consul at Killimane -- After a brief exploration along the
  Zambesi, he again visits England -- Sails on his Final Expedition
  August 14th, 1865, and proceeds by way of Bombay to Zanzibar -- Report
  of his Murder on the shores of Nyassa.

Among great men who have had much to do in directing the destinies of
nations or any considerable number of mankind, there have been two
kinds--one class, who supposed they controlled events and by imperial
will and power mastered circumstances and the course of Providence; the
other, composed of those who have modestly imagined they were but
instruments in the hands of a Superior Power through whom some of his
beneficent designs were to be accomplished. Among the former was
Napoleon Bonaparte, who probably thought that in many particulars God
was entitled to high respect, but that in the general conduct of
military campaigns, He could not be compared with the French Emperor. It
is historically true that the men of this class have generally inflicted
great evils upon mankind. Of the other class of great men, David
Livingstone is a conspicuous example; and the one thing of which he is
the most unaffectedly ignorant is his own genius. “If the reader
remembers,” he modestly remarks near the close of his work, “the way in
which I was led, while teaching the Bakwains, to commence exploration,
he will, I think, recognize the hand of Providence.” And he goes on to
show how, previously to this, Sebituane had gone north and from a
country larger than France expelled hordes of bloody savages, and
occupied their country with a people speaking the language of the
Bakwains. Then again he was singularly turned toward the west instead of
the east coast of Africa, it thus happening that when he returned upon
his great expedition across the continent, the country was at peace and
his life saved. Meantime, Sechele himself at Kolobeng had become a
missionary to his own people and they were becoming civilized. “I
think,” he concludes, “that I see the operation of the unseen hand in
all this, and I humbly hope that it will still guide me to do good in my
day and generation in Africa.”


But this explorer was withal eminently practical. He wanted British
merchants as well as English missionaries to go to Africa, and thinking
that philanthropy and profit were equally interested, he believed that
the explorations he had already made fully justified the opinion that
still further discoveries might completely demonstrate the fact that
Africa was not only a great missionary field but might become of the
greatest value in the commercial world through the production especially
of cotton and sugar. “I propose,” he says, “to spend some more years of
labor, and shall be thankful if I see the system fairly begun in an open
pathway which will eventually benefit both Africa and England.”

From all which it is clear that the second expedition of Dr. Livingstone
to Africa, and which had not at that time been concluded, was the result
of a deliberate opinion that, with the blessing of heaven, he might be
able to accomplish that which should result in great good to Africa and
at the same time help to increase the trade and commerce of his own
country. Impelled by such worthy and unselfish motives, he again left
England in March, 1858, and sailed for Kilimane. He had resigned his
position as missionary for the London Society, but the British
government had appointed him consul at Kilimane, with the understanding
that he was not on this account to give up his character of explorer. On
the contrary, he was supplied with a small vessel, and accompanied by a
number of scientific associates, made a number of exploring expeditions
by which his ideas in respect to the production of cotton and sugar and
the overthrow of the slave traffic were greatly encouraged, and the
conclusion reached that it would not be long before the opening of
commercial intercourse between European nations and the tribes of South
Africa. It was afterwards discovered by Mr. Young, in charge of an
English expedition of search, which proceeded far up the Zambesi river,
that the memory of Dr. Livingstone was highly revered, and his influence
manifested in the moral improvement of the people and the advancement of
their material interests. Subsequently, Dr. Livingstone made an
expedition in a large region of country drained by the river Rovuma,
which, along the east coast of Africa is a sort of boundary between
Mohammedan and Portuguese authority. For this expedition a steamer was
provided, but it was found to be of too great draft of water to be of
much service. Dr. Livingstone, therefore, with the object of
accomplishing the great design of his second voyage to Africa, returned
to England, having re-explored a large portion of country along the
Zambesi and visited for the first time the tribes of a large extent of
country several hundred miles north of the Zambesi in its eastward
course. This return to England was, however, but a part of the
expedition upon which he had started in 1858, or rather an episode in
it, without which the original object--the discovery of the principal
watershed of the African continent, including the sources of the
Nile--would not have been accomplished. Whilst, therefore, Dr.
Livingstone has made three voyages from England to Africa, it will be
more convenient to group his series of explorations under the general
heading of two great expeditions--the first under the auspices of the
London Missionary Society, the second under those of the Royal
Geographical Society, with special assistance from the British

For the completion of the series of explorations of this expedition,
upon which the explorer was then still engaged, he left England, August
14th, 1865, accompanied by his daughter as far as Paris. Thence, he
proceeded to Bombay, and provided himself with _materiel_ and men for
the work before him. From Bombay he proceeded to Zanzibar, and on March
28th, 1866, left that island accompanied by two boys--Chanma and
Wakotasie--a number of Sepoys, several men from Johanna Island, and some
Suahili from a school at Bombay, and having reached the main land
proceeded to the interior by the river Rovuma. As he proceeded he from
time to time sent back accounts of his progress and the interesting
incidents of his explorations. But late in this year the leader of the
Johanna men arrived at Zanzibar with a story that Dr. Livingstone had
been murdered on the shores of Lake Nyassa by a band of Mazitus. The
tale had such an air of truth that no one doubted it. Moosa’s story
being fully credited, the world quite generally gave up Dr. Livingstone
as lost. Dr. G. Edward Seward, resident agent of the English government
at Zanzibar, condensed Moosa’s information into a dispatch to Lord
Stanley, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, of which the following
is the principal portion:

  “ZANZIBAR, Dec. 10, 1866.

“MY LORD--I send you the saddest news. Dr. Livingstone, in his despatch
from Ngomano, informed your Lordship that he stood ‘on the threshold of
the unexplored.’ Yet, as if that which should betide him had already
thrown its shadow he added:--‘It is but to say little of the future.’

“My Lord, if the report of some fugitives from his party be true, this
brave and good man has ‘crossed the threshold of the unexplored’--he has
confronted the future and will never return. He was slain, so it is
alleged, during a sudden and unprovoked encounter with those very Zulus
of whom he says in his despatch, that they had laid waste the country
round about him and had ‘swept away the food from above and in the
ground.’ With an escort reduced to twenty by desertion, death and
dismissals, he had traversed, as I believe, that _terra incognita_
between the confluence of the Loende and Rovuma rivers, at Nyomano,
and the eastern or northeastern littoral of Lake Nyassa; had crossed the
lake at some point as yet unascertained; had reached a station named
Kompoonda or Mapoonda, on its western, probably its northwestern, shore,
and was pushing west or northwest, into dangerous ground, when between
Marenga and Mukliosowe a band of implacable savages stopped the way, a
mixed horde of Zulus, or Mafilte and Nyassa folk. The Nyassa folk were
armed with bow and arrow, the Zulus with the traditional shield, broad
bladed spears, and axes. With Livingstone there were nine or ten
muskets; his Johanna men were resting with their loads far in the rear.


“The Mafilte instantly came on to fight; there was no parley, no
avoidance of the combat; they came on with a rush, with war cries and
rattling on their shields their spears. As Livingstone and his party
raised their pieces their onset was for a moment checked, but only for a
moment. Livingstone fired and two Zulus were shot dead (his boys fired
too but their fire was harmless); he was in the act of reloading when
three Mafilte leaped upon him through the smoke. There was no
resistance--there could be none--and one cruel axe cut from behind him
put him out of life. He fell, and when he fell his terror stricken
escort fled, hunted by the Mafilte. One? at least of the fugitives
escaped; and he, the eye-witness, it is who tells the tale--Ali Moosa,
chief of his escort of porters.

“The party had left the western shores of Nyassa about five days. They
had started from Kompoonda, on the lake’s borders (they left the
havildar of Sepoys there dying of dysentery; Livingstone had dismissed
the other Sepoys of the Bombay Twenty-first at Mataka), and had rested
at Marenga, where Livingstone was cautioned not to advance. The next
station was Mahlivoora; they were traversing a flat country, broken by
small hills, and abundantly wooded.

“Indeed, the scene of the tragedy so soon to be consummated would appear
to have been an open forest glade. Livingstone, as usual, led the way,
his nine or ten unpractised musketeers at his heels. Ali Moosa had
nearly come up with them, having left his own Johanna men resting with
their loads far in the rear. Suddenly he heard Livingstone warn the boys
that the Ma-zitus were coming. The boys in turn beckoned Moosa to press
forward. Moosa saw the crowd here and there between the trees.

“He had just gained the party and sunk down behind a tree to deliver his
own fire when his leader fell. Moosa fled for his life along the path he
had come. Meeting his Johanna men, who threw down their loads and in a
body really passed Moosa, his escape and that of his party verges on the
marvelous. However, at sunset, they, in great fear, left their forest
refuge, and got back to the place where they hoped to find their
baggage. It was gone, and then with increasing dread they crept to where
the slain traveler lay.

[Illustration: AN AFRICAN SUN DANCE.]

“Near him, in front, lay the grim Zulus who were killed under his sure
aim; here and there lay scattered some four dead fugitives of the
expedition. That one blow had killed him outright, he had no other wound
but this terrible gash; it must have gone from their description,
through the neck and spine up to the throat in front, and it had nearly
decapitated him. Death came mercifully in its instant suddenness, for
David Livingstone was ever ready.

“They found him stripped of his upper clothing, the Ma-zitus had
respected him when dead. They dug with some stakes a shallow grave and
hid from the starlight the stricken temple of a grand spirit--the body
of an apostle, whose martyrdom should make sacred the shores of that sea
which his labors made known to us, and which now, baptized with his
life’s blood, men should henceforth know as ‘Lake Livingstone.’”

Dr. Seward added the following postscript to his despatch to the foreign

“The date of Dr. Livingstone’s death is left as much to conjecture as
the place of his grave. All that we certainly know is that he was at
Nyomano on the 18th of May last; that he proceeded to Mataka, whence he
sent a despatch to this Consulate. From Mataka he is said to have made
for and struck Nyassa, which he crossed; but where, or where Mataka is,
cannot be ascertained. The runaway Reuben, with the Sepoys, states that
Livingstone left Mataka a few days before they set out on their return
journey to Zanzibar. They were one month and twenty days on the road to
Keelwa, which they reached during the latter days of September. It may
be inferred from this that Livingstone left Mataka about the middle of
last July. The Johanna men named six weeks as the probable time of their
return journey from Mapoonda to Keelwa with the slave caravan. The
fight with the Zulus took place sixteen days before they set out. They
reached Keelwa in November, Zanzibar the 6th of December. Roughly then,
we may conjecture the death of their leader to have happened during
September. The statements of our informants as to time, distance, and
direction are distressingly vague and untrustworthy.”

The publication of this despatch at once created a profound sensation
throughout the civilized world. There being no apparent reason to doubt
the truthfulness of the story, it was quite universally accepted, and
most men lamented the death of the great explorer with unfeigned
sadness. The obituary notices which appeared in the public journals and
proceedings of many learned bodies demonstrated the fame of Dr.
Livingstone in a manner which will surely be exquisitely agreeable to
him when he shall read the eulogiums, as, it is to be hoped, he may soon
do. Dr. Kirk, of Zanzibar, who had, in former years, accompanied Dr.
Livingstone in some of his explorations, gave the man Moosa a long and
careful examination and cross-examination, and the longer he proceeded
the more terrible the facts connected with Dr. Livingstone’s death
appeared. A letter from him, generally published and quoted by all
journals, seemed to leave the painful reports fully and abundantly
confirmed. The world’s sorrow, therefore, expressed in every proper way,
was, to all appearance, entirely reasonable.

Nevertheless, there were those who did not put their trust in Moosa’s
story. Among these was Sir Roderick Murchison, whose reputation for
sagacity in England was very high. So early as 1844, Sir Roderick had
announced, from the examination of certain rocks brought to him for
study, the existence of gold in Australia, and had vainly endeavored to
enlist the aid of government in behalf of practically testing the
question. We have seen that he correctly decyphered the general
geological formation of central South Africa before the practical
discovery of the fact by Livingstone. By these and other things of like
nature, Sir Roderick had acquired the reputation of a prophet. He could
give no special reason for his opinion, but he did not believe Moosa’s
story of Livingstone’s death, and the fact of his want of faith in it
made many suppose there might be ground for doubt after all. Sir
Roderick was sustained in his doubts by Mr. E. D. Young, an African
traveler of considerable experience who came forward and said that Ali
Moosa belonged to a treacherous race. Suppose he had betrayed Dr.
Livingstone, how else than by a cunningly-devised story of his death
could he prevail upon the British consul to pay him. Here, at least, was
a motive for the story, and it soon had many to believe in it. The
consequence was a variety of conflicting reports and conflicting
opinions, in the midst of which the Royal Geographical Society organized
a search expedition and placed it under the charge of Mr. Young.

[Illustration: ZULU WARRIOR.]

On the 8th of August, 1867, the little steel boat “Search,” Mr. Young in
command, was pointed up the Zambesi river, under the most explicit and
comprehensive instructions from the Geographical Society. At Shupanga,
the grave of Mrs. Livingstone was visited, and such attention given it
as was required. On the 4th of September, Mr. Young heard of a white man
having been seen on Lake Pamalombi, which is far south of Lake Nyassa,
the scene of the reported death. Young proceeded thither and became
convinced that the white man was Livingstone. Continuing the search, he
found that his views were from day to day confirmed by the reports of
natives and articles which the explorer had left with them subsequent to
the time of his reported murder. The search was continued till toward
the close of the year, with the result that Dr. Livingstone had
certainly been seen at a long distance from the Lake Nyassa, months
after he had been reported killed. The expedition under Mr. Young did
not find Dr. Livingstone, but discovered enough to demonstrate that Ali
Moosa’s story was an ably and cunningly devised romance. Then the
Geographical Society received letters from Livingstone himself, which
proved that he was alive and well in February, 1867, some six months
after Moosa’s heroic but vain defense near Lake Nyassa. Authentic
reports of his presence on Lake Ujiji in October of the same year were
received. But about this time Sir Roderick Murchison published a letter
in the London “Times” newspaper, confidently predicting, on intelligence
which he supposed to be reliable, Dr. Livingstone’s return to England
about the coming Christmas. It has since transpired that Sir Roderick
was imposed upon by a round-about story from Trincomalee in the island
of Ceylon, which had been based upon an entire misunderstanding of
something that had been said by Dr. Kirk, British Consul at Zanzibar,
and the report of which was first transmitted from Trincomalee.

Dr. Livingstone did not appear in accordance with his friend’s
prediction, and the consequence was a new variety of reports of
misfortune and death. Conjecture was free; nothing had been lately heard
from him; the suspense of the public in regard to the fate of one in
whom there was so deep and universal interest was absolutely painful.
And it was at this time of intense public anxiety that an expedition was
set on foot, the like of which had not previously been known and the
complete success of which has bestowed upon its projector and commander
imperishable renown.




  The Great Development of Modern Journalism -- The Telegraph -- James
  Gordon Bennett, Horace Greeley, Henry J. Raymond -- The Magnitude of
  American Journalistic Enterprise -- The Herald Special Search
  Expedition for Dr. Livingstone -- Stanley as a Correspondent -- The
  Expedition on its Way Toward Livingstone.

It has already been remarked that among the many important events which
had occurred in Christendom during Dr. Livingstone’s first great series
of explorations in Africa there were none of greater importance to
mankind than the invention of the magnetic telegraph, and the prodigious
development, consequent thereon--at least in great part--of the
newspaper press. There is not so much difference in means of travel,
between the great, lumbering wagon of Cape Colony, drawn by a number of
oxen which get over a few miles in a whole day and the means of travel
by the best of Americas great railways, as there is between the means of
current daily intelligence in 1872 and the means of that current daily
intelligence as they existed when Dr. Livingstone first placed foot in
Africa. If a daily journal of the manner and style of one of that time
were to be now established, it would be looked upon like a curious relic
of the past or an old almanac.

[Illustration: A BAOBAB TREE.]

Nor is it strictly just to attribute the wonderful development of
public journalism since about the year 1840 wholly to the success of
Prof. Morse’s invention of the magnetic telegraph. His success was
largely due to the press, which at the time he sought aid of Congress in
behalf of his discovery had already begun to be something more and
something better than the mere organ of power or of party. At any rate
it may with perfect safety be said that the practical success of Prof.
Morse’s invention was considerably hastened by the influence of a public
press into which had recently been infused an independent spirit and a
consequent influence before unknown. Up to about the time of which we
speak the most widely circulated journals of the United States had been
printed at the National Capital, a city which had never been
representative of the country’s trade, its literature, science, art, or
labor. It was only the seat of government, the centre of the political
power of a nation which claimed to lodge its political power in the
people. Here flourished a number of journalists of the old school, whose
skill in political manipulation, money making, and editorials without
beginning and without end, can never be surpassed. There is at this time
more intelligence of the current events of the day in the poorest daily
journals of the “far West” than there used to be in the “national
organs” of the respective political parties contending for the control
of our national polity. That neither one nor the other could have justly
claimed any great amount of practical wisdom may be asserted with
confidence since the result of the rule of both--now one and now the
other--for a long period of years was a civil war of long duration and
exhaustive effects, growing out of a question which both the great
parties of the times had “finally” settled by act of Congress and solemn
resolution on more than one memorable occasion.

It was while this not very admirable fooling was about at its height,
that certain knights of the quill, no less adventurous in their
enterprises than Dr. Livingstone was in his explorations through the
wilds of Africa, established themselves in the commercial metropolis of
America, and soon became the head of a power in the land scarcely second
to that of the government. If not a new estate in government, this power
became a new estate in society. There sprang up an entirely new
literature; a literature which, as regularly as the sun, appeared every
morning, and soon came to be, to all well informed persons, about as
necessary as the sun is to the physical world. There was no subject too
abstruse, none too sacred, none too high, and few too low for the essays
of the brilliant, daring, dashing minds which about this time threw
themselves into the arena of journalism. Not a few who had been
distinguished in the literature of former days became journalists, and
the most celebrated of American novelists, the illustrious author of the
“Leatherstocking Tales,” finding himself too “slow” for the times,
became incurably disgusted with men who cared little for venerable
antiquity, and spoke of thrones and principalities, and powers, not to
mention the writers of books, with all the sarcasm, wit, and irreverence
of Junius and with infinitely more popular power. Here was, as we
have said, a new literature. What difference was it that the individual
essays were only for a day? Every day there were essays equally good,
and they treated of political topics more fully and candidly than
political topics had ever been discussed before by public journals, and
they also treated of almost everything else under the sun. Every advance
in science, every attempt at social or political reform, every
humanitarian endeavor, every attack upon abuse and crime claimed to be
hallowed by the lapse of time, every current event of importance of
every kind, whether of fact or of idea, here in this wonderful
kaleidescope could be seen, and then seen to give way to new spectacles
of equal interest. Here the people were educated. There never has been
discovered a means of education so powerful and so universal. It is,
doubtless, owing to the fact that so many minds in America capable of
creating a “permanent literature” devoted themselves to this potential
means of influence, thereby losing their individuality but for the time
being augmenting their power, that we have not yet produced an American
Thackeray or even an American Dickens. In the formative era of what may
well be called journalism proper, a very large proportion of existing
genius has been called into such active use, in America, that it has not
had leisure for books. And even in England, many of the most
distinguished thinkers have served their regular terms as journalists.


Among the most celebrated of modern journalists was James Gordon
Bennett, the founder of the New York “Herald” newspaper. A native of
Scotland and a Roman Catholic in religion, he was educated for the
priesthood, but whether, like John Randolph of Roanoke, he perceived
that he had “too much spice of ‘old Nick’” in his composition for the
sacred calling, or on other account, he did not take orders, but
emigrated to America instead. After various fortune--generally
misfortune--embracing teaching, translating, and associate-editorship,
he embarked upon the “Herald” enterprise in 1835. It was not until some
years afterwards, however, that this journal acquired any considerable
reputation outside the city of New York, and inaugurated those news
enterprises which made it so celebrated and a not unfaithful chronicler
of the passing events of the whole world. During the era of “special
correspondence” the “Herald” maintained an extensive corps of writers in
Europe and other foreign countries, who ever gave to the paper great
interest and value.

Meantime, other young men, since distinguished, had been educating
themselves as journalists, and, like Bennett, through various fortune.
Among them was Horace Greeley, who established the first penny daily
paper ever published in the world, but its foundations soon gave way. In
1841 the “Tribune” was established, and Mr. Bennett discovered in the
great and varied abilities of Mr. Greeley and Henry J. Raymond,
assistant editor, rivals whom no assaults could repress, and whose
influence soon began to be felt and acknowledged throughout the country.
The warfare long waged between these journalistic giants was always
sharp, often fierce. The intense rivalry greatly augmented the
enterprise of the printing offices which at length became vast
establishments, employing thousands of men, from the greatest intellects
of the age to the ragged urchins on the street, and receiving and
disbursing vast sums of money.

The invention of the telegraph added immensely to the scope and power of
the daily press. Greatly increasing its expenditures, it also greatly
augmented its circulation and profits. Its demand for brain-labor became
perfectly prodigious, and it almost monopolized the genius of the land.
In the city of New York there were established within a very few years
after Morse’s invention had begun regularly to click the news of the day
no less than four morning journals of acknowledged reputation throughout
the world, and which upon certain memorable occasions of current
intelligence have contained in their combined columns nearly as great an
amount of reading matter as the whole of Bancroft’s history of the
United States.[1] The average quantity of these journals’ reading
matter, of interest to the general public, is equivalent, every day, to
from three to five volumes of Bancroft’s distinguished work.

  [1] As I write this, I take a copy of the Chicago “Tribune” of the
  day, and find, by actual calculation, that it contains reading matter,
  exclusive of advertisements, equivalent to more than 350 pages of
  Bancroft. Among this matter is a profoundly thoughtful speech by
  Horace Greeley, delivered hundreds of miles distant the night before.

Other cities of the republic have been little if any behind the
commercial and financial metropolis, excepting only the city of
Washington whose most successful journalism of the old school has given
way at last till quite recently to a series of wretched failures.

Editorials of a journal published in the largest city of our Lake
country, which was a straggling hamlet when Dr. Livingstone first went
to Africa, have been known to make the proudest speculators of Wall
street tremble, and powerful corporations to abandon long-conceived
schemes of injustice. In an exhaustive article on the United States
census of 1860, the New York “Tribune” said of the public press:

“The very great increase in the circulation of newspapers and
periodicals during the last ten years is an evidence at once of a high
degree of popular intelligence and of a high standard of journalistic
ability. There is no doubt that this country has the best, and the best
sustained public press in the world--the best, we mean, for the people
and not merely the learned few. Newspapers penetrate to every part of
the country, reach even the most obscure hamlet, and find their way to
almost every household. Printing offices go with the vanguard of
civilization toward the west, and in the ‘new country’ are about as
numerous as the mills. The dailies of the great cities cannot be carried
by the government mails; they have created, during the decade, an
entirely new line of business, supporting thousands of families; on
issues fairly joined they have defeated many of the most maturely
considered measures of Congressional Committees.”

Having given the statistics in regard to the number and circulation of
the periodicals and papers of the country at the time under examination,
the article goes on to say:

“The total number of daily papers thrown from the press during the year
is about half that of all the other papers and periodicals combined.
Supposing each one to weigh an ounce, the weight of the whole number of
daily papers printed in the United States during the year of the census
was 28,644,678 pounds avoirdupois--enough to load 14,322 wagons with a
ton each, or to make a train of them seventy miles in length. Were all
the papers and periodicals printed in 1860 placed in such a train, it
would reach from New York to Richmond. Should they be pasted into one
vast sheet, they would make a covering for the continent, and leave a
remnant large enough to shut out the sun from the British Islands.

“But, not to dwell upon the mere material aspect of the Public Press of
America, it will suffice to say that if its records shall be preserved
the historian of two thousand years hence who shall narrate the events
which are now taking place, will find upon their dingy pages his best
authorities and his most trustworthy sources of philosophical
generalization. Not all that is left of Grecian literature, not all the
grand works of the fine old Romans, give so correct a picture of the
great peoples of antiquity as the daily papers of America are now taking
of a people far greater than that whose phalanges swept down the
barbarians from the Hellespont to the Indus, or than that ‘the tramp of
whose legions echoed round the world.’”

To such magnificent proportions and such stupendous influence had the
American press grown during Livingstone’s first sojourn in Africa. When
he left England, its chief business was to chronicle small beer. When
he returned its power was more than imperial, and all exercised through
persuasion. As it had grown in America, so it had been immensely
developed in other lands, but in respect of the publication of current
intelligence at the time of the happening of events, the American press
is not approached by that of any other country. There is more
telegraphic news in almost any number of any Chicago daily, for example,
than the average quantity of such intelligence in the London “Times.”

An additional impetus to the enterprise of journalism was given by the
success of the Atlantic cable during Dr. Livingstone’s second great
expedition to Africa. It is difficult to believe these great facts
though they have occurred before our very eyes. This wonderful
achievement of science, aided by the no less wonderful enterprise of the
daily press of the United States, made the inhabitants of Christendom
like next-door neighbors. A dispatch from Athens in Greece, was once
published by all the evening daily journals of the United States at an
earlier hour than its date. The difference of time and the “girdle round
about the earth” put the inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley, as they
took their suppers, in a situation in which they might have criticised
an oration by Demosthenes before he had gone to bed, had Demosthenes
belonged to this day and generation.

Thus had the press become the great means of the dissemination of
knowledge, and by reason of the wonderful enterprise of its most
distinguished representative men, far more potential in the affairs of
the world than any potentate or any government. It had come to be
acknowledged as of the greatest consequence in the dissemination of
science, in popularizing literature, in aiding moral, social, and
political reform. But the irrepressibility of its enterprising spirit,
its superiority even to the most powerful government in respect of
obtaining intelligence remained to be conclusively shown. And even this
was done by the expedition of Mr. Henry M. Stanley, in the employ of the
New York “Herald,” in search of Dr. Livingstone, long lost from
Christendom in the wilds of central Africa.

So deep an interest did the government of Great Britain take in
discovering the truth of the reports of the explorer’s death, first
given to the world through the story of Ali Moosa, as condensed by Dr.
Seward, English Resident Agent at Zanzibar--the substance of which
appears in the preceeding chapter--that an expedition in that behalf was
organized, and after many hundred miles of journeyings by river and land
found unmistakable evidences that Moosa’s story was a cruel fabrication.
So, too, when years had elapsed without definite information from Dr.
Livingstone, and there arose a world of wild conjecture as to his fate,
the British government again organized an expedition of search, which,
as we have seen, was at last accounts from it at Zanzibar, well prepared
for an expedition inland but waiting for a proper season at which to
begin the journey.


Meantime the great discoverer is discovered in the heart of equatorial
Africa by Mr. Henry M. Stanley, in command of an expedition of search
sent out under the auspices of an American newspaper, the New York
“Herald.” Thus did newspaper enterprise accomplish that in which the
combined efforts of wealthy religious societies, learned corporate
bodies, and one of the most powerful governments of earth had failed. A
brief account of this unique expedition will be of interest:

During the civil war in the United States--1861-65--among the many “war
correspondents” of the “Herald” was Mr. Stanley, just mentioned. He was
not so much distinguished as a writer as he was valuable to the journal
on account of his fearless nature and his restless activity. In
imitation of Tennyson’s charge of the Light Brigade, he would pursue an
item if the search should carry him “into the jaws of hell.” Restrained
by no danger, almost insensible to fatigue, he could ride all day and
write all night almost, and keep up this hard work for an indefinite
period. After the war he went abroad and from various countries,
generally out of the way of ordinary lines of travel, corresponded with
the “Herald.” When the proprietors of that journal--the elder Mr.
Bennett was then living--determined to organize a “Herald Special Search
Expedition,” they naturally selected Mr. Stanley as its commander. This
was in 1868. Mr. Stanley at once accepted the charge, and, after some
hesitation as to whether he should proceed through Egypt up the Nile, or
by way of Zanzibar and then westward overland, or by the line of the
river Rovuma, the route taken by Livingstone, he at length resolved to
go by way of Zanzibar. This is an island, and town also of the same
name, off the coast of Zanguebar, and is toward the southern limit of
Mohammedan rule in Africa. Here Mr. Stanley arrived in due season, and
hence wrote his first letter in this special service, under date of
February 9, 1869. It chiefly had reference to Livingstone’s previous
explorations, the story of his death, and its refutation. But the report
that he was only about a week’s march inland from Zanzibar also received
a quietus, and Mr. Stanley was well nigh persuaded to retrace his steps
to Egypt and proceed by way of the Nile, in consequence of the following
note from the United States Vice Consul:

  “ISLAND OF ZANZIBAR, Dec. 26, 1868.

  “DEAR SIR--I should be most happy to assist you in any way whatever;
  but, in reply to your note, I beg to assure you of my candid belief of
  his non-appearance. There is not the slightest probability of his ever
  coming again to this island. Dr. Kirk the British Vice Consul here,
  and who was with Dr. Livingstone for some years during his travels in
  Africa, thinks it more than probable that he will come out at the
  Nile, and has not the least expectation of having the pleasure of
  seeing him here. In September, 1868, Her Majesty’s ship Octavia, Sir
  Leopold Heath, C. B., left here, and as I see by the Bombay papers, on
  her arrival at Trincomalee, which is in Ceylon, reported that when she
  left Zanzibar Dr. Livingstone was reported within a week’s march of
  the coast. This, if you saw it, probably misled you also to believe he
  would come here, but it is hardly necessary to say that the statement
  was without the slightest foundation of truth, and was probably
  written from some entire misconception by the writer of some
  conversation which took place between him and Dr. Kirk. Trusting,
  however, you will succeed on the other side, I am, dear sir, very


  “United States Vice Consul.”

Nevertheless, Mr. Stanley determined to go on and telegraphing to an
acquaintance residing at Khartoum, Upper Nubia, to send him word, if
anything should be heard from Livingstone, went forward with the
preparations for his journey. He was doubtless cognizant of the fact
also, that the “Herald” had another Search expedition on foot to which
the Khedive of Egypt was rendering generous encouragement and
assistance. It may well be imagined that the drafts upon the “Herald” at
this time for necessary outlays in the purchase of horses, asses, and
supplies and the employment of a sufficient escort--mainly consisting of
a number of Arabs--were not light. The preparations, after months’
delay, caused by war in the interior, were at length made, and the
expedition left Zanzibar on the long-ago trail of the great explorer.

And here it will be proper, while we are awaiting intelligence of its
difficulties and final great success, to speak of the previous life of
him who was to make so many hearts glad by tidings of the safety of the
most distinguished explorer of our times.

[Illustration: AN AFRICAN MUSICIAN.]



  His Nativity -- Early Life -- Comes to America -- His Adoption by a
  New Orleans Merchant -- His Career during the Civil War -- Becomes
  Correspondent of the New York “Herald” -- Sails for the Island of
  Crete to enlist in the cause of the Cretans, then at war -- But
  changes his mind on arriving there -- Instead Undertakes a journey
  through Asia Minor, the Provinces of Russian Asia, etc. -- Attacked
  and plundered by Turkish Brigands -- Relieved by Hon. E. Joy Morris,
  the American Minister -- Goes to Egypt; to Abyssinia -- Remarkable
  success there -- His sudden call to Paris from Madrid by Mr. Bennett,
  of the “Herald” -- Account of the Interview -- Mr. Stanley goes to
  find Livingstone in command of the “Herald’s” Livingstone Expedition.

The subject of our sketch was born near Denbigh, Wales, in 1840. His
parents’ name was Rowland. At three years of age he was sent to the
poor-house at St. Asaph, to get an education. He, the poor, unpromising
lad, remained until he had finished such an education as this
institution could furnish, and then sought employment as teacher; and
for a year was employed as such at Mold, Flintshire. But it was then
that the strong instincts of his nature began to show themselves. He
felt that a school-teacher’s life, however honorable and useful, could
not be his, and with his scant earnings shipped as a cabin-boy in a ship
bound for New Orleans. Arriving in safety, he began to look about for
employment. By what lucky chance it happened we do not know, but he fell
into the hands of a merchant named Stanley, who became so attached to
the frank, energetic, ambitious youth that he finally adopted him and
gave him his name. Thus the Welsh boy Rowland became the American youth
Stanley. Fortune had certainly smiled upon him, and his future seemed

But in his case, as in that of hundreds of others, the fate of war
stepped in to mar his fair prospects at this stage of his career. The
outbreak of the Rebellion led him into the ranks of the Southern
Confederacy; but only for a brief period. He was taken a prisoner by the
Union forces, and shortly thereafter, upon taking the oath of
allegiance, was released on parole. As the Union cause really had his
sympathies, he at once proposed to enlist in the Northern army. But
whether the military authorities were afraid of this sudden conversion,
or not daring to give too much freedom of action to one who showed by
his whole bearing and language that there was no undertaking too daring
for him to attempt, we are not told; but they put him, however, where he
would probably have little chance to show what stuff he was made of--on
board of the iron-clad ship Ticonderoga, he consenting to volunteer in
the navy. Though totally unfit for service of any kind on board of a
man-of-war, he soon became an acting ensign. At the close of the war he
looked about for some field of active service, and what little war he
had seen seemed to fit his peculiar character. Hearing that the Cretans
were about to attempt to throw off the Turkish yoke, he resolved to join
them. He proceeded to that country in company with two other adventurous
spirits in 1866, after having first made an engagement with the New York
“Herald” as its correspondent. But upon arriving at his destination
he found occasion to become displeased with the leaders of the
revolution, and declined to volunteer in the army of the famous little

[Illustration: AN ARAB COURIER]

“His chief recommendation at this time,” says a great journal, “was his
energy and industry and fearlessness in collecting facts, not the style
in which he told them; for although he had previously shown some
indications of literary ability, his pen was as yet neither practiced
nor fluent.” His energy, industry and fearlessness were doubtless better
appreciated in the “Herald” office than by the general public; but his
reputation as a writer grew with time, and he constantly performed his
correspondential duties to the satisfaction of his experienced

It appears that he had a sort of roving commission from the “Herald,”
and now undertook a journey on foot with a few traveling companions of
his own country, by which it was contemplated to pass through Asia
Minor, the provinces of Russian Asia, the Khanates, Bokhara, and Kiva,
Eastern Turkestan, and so through China to the coast. This project came,
however, to a disastrous end. The little party had not penetrated more
than about an hundred miles from Smyrna, when it was attacked by Turkish
brigands, completely plundered, and compelled, in consequence, to
return. Arriving at Constantinople in a most sorry plight, the members
of the party were kindly received by the Hon. E. Joy Morris, then United
States Minister to the Turkish Sultan, and their wants supplied by a
check upon the generous Minister’s private banker. An account of the
affair, written by Mr. Stanley, had appeared in a public journal of the
country, so that Mr. Morris had been apprised of the facts--afterwards
fully substantiated in a court of justice--before the travelers
appeared, in shabby attire, attesting a needy situation.

On the return of Mr. Stanley to Constantinople, a few years after this
event, and during the last year of Mr. Morris’ official residence in
Turkey, he called upon that gentleman. He had then just come from Egypt.
We here give Mr. Morris’ description of Stanley, in his own words:

“The uncouth young man whom I first knew had grown into a perfect man of
the world, possessing the appearance, the manners and the attributes of
a perfect gentleman. The story of the adventures which he had gone
through, and the dangers he had passed during his absence were perfectly
marvellous, and he became the lion of our little circle. Scarcely a day
passed but he was a guest at my table; and no one was more welcome, for
I insensibly grew to have a strong admiration and felt an attachment for
him myself. Instead of thinking he was a young man who had barely seen
twenty-six summers you would imagine that he was thirty-five or forty
years of age, so cultured and learned was he in all the ways of life. He
possessed a thorough acquaintance with most of the Eastern countries,
and, as I took an interest in all that related to Oriental life, we had
many a talk about what he had seen and what I longed to see. He stated
to me that he had a sort of roving commission for the ‘Herald,’ but that
he had exhausted all known countries, and was at a loss to understand
where he should go next. I said to him, ‘Stanley, what do you think of
trying Persia? That is an unexplored country, and would well repay a
visit, if you could get back with your life.’ Stanley thought over the
proposal, and rapidly came to the conclusion he would go. I busied
myself in procuring him letters of introduction to the Russian
authorities in the Caucasus, in Georgia, and in other countries through
which he would have to pass. He saw the Russian Ambassador at
Constantinople in person, who was so well impressed with him that he
made extra exertions to facilitate his progress to the mysterious home
of the Grand Llama. I had some time previous to this had a Henry rifle
sent me from a friend in New York, as a specimen of American art, and
this I presented to Stanley, with my best wishes for the success of his
undertaking. He started on the desperate enterprise some time after, and
my table thereby lost one of its most entertaining guests. When I say
desperate enterprise I mean it, for Persia is to a European a
practically unexplored country; and in consequence of its weak
government and the marauders with which it abounds, a journey to
Zanzibar or Unyanyembe would be a safe trip compared to it. How Mr.
Stanley accomplished the task he undertook the columns of the ‘Herald’
will tell. I received a letter from him, while on the way, narrating the
hospitable manner in which he had been entertained by the Russian
authorities, and the way in which he had astonished them by the
performances of his Henry rifle. His journey through the Caucasus and
Georgia was a sort of triumphal march, though he was looked upon as a
lost man by all who knew anything of the East. The route he took was an
entirely new one, as he went in a kind of zigzag way to Thibet, and he
must have a charmed life to have come through so much peril in complete

[Illustration: EQUIPPED FOR WAR.]

A considerable portion of the year 1868 was spent by Mr. Stanley in
Abyssinia, where he accompanied the British expedition against King
Theodore. He went with the English army as far as Magadla, and upon
several occasions was enabled to transmit accounts of the expedition,
embracing most important news, to the “Herald” in advance of
intelligence sent to the British government. The people of America were
thus supplied with intelligence of this singular British foray in
northeastern Africa in advance of the people of England. These
remarkable successes in Abyssinia were highly appreciated by the
“Herald,” and considerably enhanced the correspondent’s abilities and
services in the special line he was working upon. And it was no doubt
the signal ability thus displayed which led the younger Bennett to
choose this man for his purpose when he had decided to send an
expedition after Livingstone.

The account of the interview and the incidents leading to it between
James Gordon Bennett, Jr., and Mr. Stanley are exceedingly interesting,
as given in the words of Mr. Stanley himself. He was at the time in
Madrid, Spain, October 16th, 1869. At 10 o’clock A. M. he was handed a
telegram, which read: “Come to Paris on important business,” and bore
the signature of James Gordon Bennett, Jr., then the young manager of
the “Herald.”

“Down come my pictures from the walls of my apartments on the second
floor; into my trunks go my books and souvenirs; my clothes are hastily
collected, some half-washed, some from the clothes-line half-dry, and
after a couple of hours of hasty hard work my portmanteaus are strapped
up and labelled for Paris.

“The express train leaves Madrid for Hendaye at 3 P. M. I have yet time
to say farewell to my friends. I have one at No. 6 Calle Goya, fourth
floor, who happens to be a contributor to several London dailies. He has
several children in whom I have taken a warm interest. Little Charlie
and Willie are fast friends of mine; they love to hear of my adventures,
and it has been a pleasure to me to talk to them. But now I must say

“Then I have friends at the American Legation whose conversation I
admire. There has come a sudden ending of it all. ‘I hope you will write
to us. We shall always be glad to hear of your welfare.’ How often have
I not during my feverish life as a flying journalist heard the very same
words, and how often have I not suffered the same pang at parting from
friends just as warm as these.

“But a journalist in my position must needs suffer. Like a gladiator in
the arena, he must be prepared for the combat. Any flinching, any
cowardice, and he is lost. The gladiator meets the sword that is
sharpened for his bosom--the flying journalist or roving correspondent
meets the command that may send him to his doom. To the battle or the
banquet it is ever the same--‘Get ready and go.’

“At 3 P. M. I was on my way, and being obliged to stop at Bayonne a few
hours, did not arrive at Paris until the following night. I went
straight to the Grand Hotel, and knocked at the door of Mr. Bennett’s

“‘Come in,’ I heard a voice say.

“Entering, I found Mr. Bennett in bed.

“‘Who are you?’ he asked.

“‘My name is Stanley,’ I answered.

“‘Ah, yes; sit down. I have important business on hand for you.’”

After throwing over his shoulders his robe-de-chambre, Mr. Bennett
proceeded to ask Stanley, “Where do you think Livingstone is?”

“I really do not know, sir,” answered Stanley.

“Do you think he is alive?” continued Bennett.

“He may be, and he may not be,” replied Stanley.

“Well, I think he is alive, and that he can be found, and I am going to
send you to find him,” was Bennett’s rejoinder.

“What!” said Stanley. “Do you really think I can find Dr. Livingstone?
Do you mean me to go to Central Africa?”

“Yes; I mean that you shall go and find him, wherever you may hear that
he is, and to get what news you can of him, and perhaps”--delivering
himself thoughtfully and deliberately--“the old man may be in want. Take
enough with you to help him, should he require it. Of course you will
act according to your own plans, and do what you think best--BUT FIND

“Have you considered seriously the great expense you are likely to
incur on account of this little journey?” suggested Stanley, wondering
at the cool order of sending one to Central Africa to search for a man
whom he, in common with almost all other men, believed to be dead.


“What will it cost?” asked Mr. Bennett.

“Burton and Speke’s journey to Central Africa cost between £3,000 and
£5,000, and I fear it cannot be done under £2,500,” replied Mr. Stanley.

“Well, I will tell you what you will do. Draw a thousand pounds now, and
when you have gone through that, draw another thousand; and when that is
spent, draw another thousand; and when you have finished that, draw
another thousand, and so on; but FIND LIVINGSTONE!”

Stanley, though somewhat surprised, yet not confused at the order--for
he knew that Mr. Bennett, when once he had made up his mind, was not
easily drawn aside from his purpose--thought, seeing it was such a
gigantic undertaking, that he had not quite fully considered in his own
mind the pros and cons of the case, and said, “I have heard that should
your father die you would sell the ‘Herald’ and retire from business.”

“Whoever told you that is wrong, for there is not money enough in New
York city to buy the ‘Herald.’ My father has made it a great paper; but
I mean to make it greater. I mean that it shall be a newspaper in the
true sense of the word. I mean that it shall publish whatever news will
be interesting to the world, at no matter what cost.”

“After that,” says Stanley, “I have nothing more to say. Do you mean me
to go straight on to Africa to search for Dr. Livingstone?”

Mr. Bennett thereupon outlined a course of instructions as to what he
would have Stanley do in the matter, closing with these words:

“Bagdad will be close on your way to India. Suppose you go there and
write up something about the Euphrates Valley Railroad. Then, when you
have come to India, you can go after Livingstone. Probably you will hear
by that time that Livingstone is on his way to Zanzibar; but if not, go
into the interior and find him, if alive. Get what news of his
discoveries you can; and, if you find he is dead, bring all possible
proof of his being dead. That is all. Good night, and God be with you.”

Thus it was that Stanley received his _carte blanche_, and as promptly
set out upon his mission. He was then about twenty-nine years of age, a
thick-set, powerful man, though short of stature, being only about five
feet seven inches in height. He is a sure shot, an expert swimmer, a
fine horseman, a trained athlete. But few men living have had more
experience in “roughing it.” A better selection for the command of its
singular undertaking could not possibly have been made by the “Herald,”
and this the result, so astonishing to the world, has practically

All civilized nations had shared the anxiety to know whether Livingstone
was living or dead. If living, where; if dead, where he died, and how.
It was surmised that he had with him the records of a number of years,
covering many of the most important discoveries ever made in Africa,
containing many things of infinite consequence in connection with the
great work of African evangelization, and of immense importance in the
interests of science. There were reasons, therefore, why he should not
die in the forests of Manyuema.

Mr. Stanley was a “flying correspondent,” but God saw in him the
elements of a hero demanded by so great an occasion. We do not believe
that he does himself justice in insinuating that he went to Africa only
as he would have gone anywhere else under orders from his employer. Such
a spirit of obedience and faithfulness under an engagement is
commendable; but we prefer to recognize in Mr. Stanley a spirit which
lifts him above the common level of ordinary business honesty. He
manifested an enthusiasm in this undertaking which betrayed a greatness
of soul which he has preferred to conceal, that his employer might have
the more honor. He might not have essayed this expedition at the
suggestions of his own benevolence--he probably could not have done so;
but when he found that he might do it, his heart bounded to the work. We
believe he went forth from Paris under a higher commission than that of
Mr. Bennett. There was needed money, and there was needed a man. God
knew where to find both, and He did find them just when He saw that one
of His noblest servants was approaching an extremity.

From Mr. Stanley’s Zanzibar letter of February 9th, 1869, we quote his

“Now the readers of this letter know really as much of the whereabouts
of Dr. Livingstone as I do; but probably from conversations heard from
different persons I have greater reasons for judging of the case, and I
believe it will be a very long time yet before Dr. Livingstone arrives,
and that his return will be by the river Nile.”

With this opinion, but with a good stock of supplies for Livingstone’s
journey down the Nile, should he be found proceeding in that way, and
with the best escort attainable, Stanley, in charge of the unique
newspaper expedition, after long delay, on account of wars, plunged into
the wilderness, to be heard from no more until after many long months of
suspense and conjecture.




  The Search for Dr. Livingstone Energetically Begun -- Progress Delayed
  by Wars -- The Successful Journey from Unyanyembe to Ujiji in 1871 --
  The “Herald” Cable Telegram Announcing the Safety of Livingstone --
  The Battles and Incidents of this Newspaper Campaign -- Receipt of the
  Great News -- The Honor Bestowed on American Journalism.

Mr. Stanley found it much more difficult to get into Africa than to that
singular land. It was understood, according to the best intelligence to
be had that Dr. Livingstone would probably be found, if found at all,
not far from Ujiji. From Bagamoyo, on the mainland of Africa, opposite
the island of Zanzibar, there is a caravan route to Unyanyembe. The
journey generally takes some four months. At the time Mr. Stanley
undertook to proceed inland, he found the country disturbed by wars, and
though starting now and again, he was delayed many weary months on this
account. “Forward and back” was the necessary call of the situation. At
length the country became so far quiet between Bagamoyo and Unyanyembe
that the expedition, which terminated in success, set forth very early
in April, 1871, and, after an unusually rapid journey, the caravan
reached Unyanyembe on the 23d of June. Hence letters were dispatched
home, but from this time for more than a year, the world remained in
ignorance of the fate of the expedition.

Upon the morning of the 2d of July, 1872, however, in the midst of the
great Peace Jubilee at the city of Boston, appeared a cable telegram
from London to the New York “Herald,” announcing the discovery of
Livingstone and the consequent complete success of the great American
journal’s enterprise. This telegram is worthy of preservation, though
superseded by the fuller information in Mr. Stanley’s letters, as an
illustration of newspaper enterprise:

  LONDON, JULY 1, 1872.


  It is with the deepest emotions of pride and pleasure that I announce
  the arrival this day of letters from Mr. Stanley, Chief of the HERALD
  Exploring Expedition to Central Africa. I have forwarded the letters
  by mail. Knowing, however, the importance of the subject and the
  impatience with which


  is awaited, I hasten to telegraph a summary of the HERALD explorer’s
  letters, which are full of the most romantic interest, while
  affirming, emphatically,


  and confirming the meagre reports already sent on here by telegraph
  from Bombay and duly forwarded to the HERALD. To bring up the thread


  where the last communication from him ended he proceeds with his
  account of the journey. It will be recalled that when last heard from
  he had arrived in the country of Unyanyembe, after a perilous march of
  eighty-two days from Bagamoyo, on the coast opposite the island of
  Zanzibar. The road up to this point had been in


  and the journey was performed in a much shorter time than the same
  distance had been traversed by previous explorers. The expedition


  on the 23d of June, 1871, where he sent forward his communication. The
  caravan had need of rest, and it was necessary to refit while an
  opportunity was at hand through the medium of the Arab caravans then
  on their way to various points on the coast with ivory and slaves. The
  expedition had suffered terribly, but the heart of the HERALD explorer
  never gave out.


  of the countries through which it had passed told on it even more than
  the difficulties of the tribes at war among themselves and upon
  everything that came in their way and which they were in sufficient
  force to attack. The caravans met at the various halting places threw
  every discouragement in the way, which tended to destroy the _morale_
  of the expedition.


  however, the captain of the expedition, proved invaluable in
  controlling the disaffected, whether with tact or a wholesome display
  of force when necessary.


  alternated with a fierce African sun, made the atmosphere heavy,
  charged with moisture, and producing a rank, rotten vegetation. In the
  mountainous regions which we traversed the climate was of course, much
  better, and the result was that the expedition much improved in
  health. The miasmatic vapors and other hardships of the journey had
  played sad havoc with its number and force.


  up to this point by sickness had been one white man, two of the armed
  escort, and eight of the pagazis or native porters. The two horses had
  also succumbed, and twenty-seven of the asses had either fallen by the
  wayside and had to be abandoned or else the rascally native donkey
  leaders had allowed them to stray from the kraal at night. As a
  consequence, a considerable quantity of the stores were either lost or
  wasted, but the rolls of Merikani (American cloth)--for shukkah and
  doti--the beads and wire--had been as far as possible preserved, they
  being the only money in Central Africa. In July


  through Unyanyembe; but before long it was found that almost
  insuperable difficulties were interposed. The country there is
  composed of thick jungle, with large clearings for the cultivation of
  holcus. The utmost alarm and excitement were spread through the native
  villages at


  The inhabitants were shy of intercourse, and it was with great
  difficulty that supplies could be obtained. A little further on the
  villages on either side of the track were found to be filled with Arab


  and gathering together for security. The cause of all this alarm was
  soon discovered. The ku honga or blackmail levied by the head men of
  the tribes as a sort of toll for passage through their territories,
  had been inordinately raised in the Ujowa country by


  King of the Wagowa. Obstinate fights had already occurred in which
  small bands of his soldiers had been beaten, several being killed. He
  had, therefore, declared to the traders that no caravan should pass to
  Ujiji except over his body. The Arabs hereupon held a council, and,
  finding themselves strong in fighting men,


  The HERALD commander took part in this. The Arabs appeared to
  anticipate a speedy victory, and preparations for a jungle fight were
  accordingly made. The ammunition was looked to, muskets inspected and
  matchlocks cleaned. The superior armament of the HERALD expedition
  made their assistance a matter of great importance to the Arabs.


  An address was delivered to the members of the expedition through
  Selim, the interpreter, and the forces, with the American flag flying,
  were marshalled by Captain Seedy Bombay.


  At daybreak on the day following, according to previous arrangement,
  the armed men were divided into three parties. The vanguard for
  attack, the rear guard as immediate reserve, and the remainder,
  consisting of the less active, were stationed with the _impedimenta_
  and slaves in the kraals. The advance was ordered and responded to
  with alacrity, and the first village where the soldiers of Mirambo
  were lying was at once attacked and speedily captured. The inhabitants


  Another village followed the fate of the first, and both were left in
  ashes before nightfall. The troops were wearied with the hot day’s
  work, but all were elate at their success thus far. The commander of
  the HERALD expedition, on his return to camp, passed a sleepless
  night, and morning found him


  He was therefore obliged to remain in camp, and his forces refused to
  fight except under his lead. This weakened the Arab force
  considerably, and, although the dreaded Mirambo and his followers,
  thirsting for vengeance, were known to be in the vicinity, the day was
  passed in fatal inactivity.


  The third day seemed as if about to pass like the preceding, the
  HERALD commander still suffering from the fever, when shots were heard
  in the direction of the Arab kraals, and it soon became evident that
  the wily Mirambo had ambushed the Arabs. This, in effect, was the
  case. A superior body of natives, armed with muskets, assegais
  (spears) and poisoned arrows, had suddenly burst upon the Arabs.


  which ended in the rout with the Arabs, who took refuge in the jungle.
  The fourth day brought with it the fruit of the disaster. The Arabs
  could not be prevailed upon to renew the fight, and desertion and
  flight became the order of the day. Even the


  leaving but six with the commander. Mirambo now threatened the town of
  Unyanyembe. By stupendous exertion the commander collected one hundred
  and fifty of the fugitives; these being convinced by their numbers,
  when collected together, that resistance was still possible, resolved
  to obey the commander.


  With five days provisions on hand the houses were loopholed and
  barricades erected, videttes stationed and the defenders told off as
  well as their numbers, armament and _morale_ could be individually
  depended on.


  and the trembling inhabitants awaited the expected attack. This,
  however, was destined not to come off, for, to the general delight, a
  Wanyamwezi scout brought in the joyful intelligence that Mirambo, with
  all his forces, had retired, not caring to risk an engagement, except
  in the jungle. Mustering what force was possible, the intrepid HERALD
  commander then


  on the Tanganyika Lake, or Sea of Ujiji. The Arabs endeavored in vain
  to dissuade him from this. Death, they said, was certain to the
  muzanyu (white man) and his followers. This frightened the already
  demoralized pagazis and caused a serious loss to the expedition in the
  person of Shaw, the English sailor. Undaunted by the forebodings of
  ill and the losses by desertion, the caravan once more was on the
  march and pushed forward.


  to the one where Mirambo and his Africans were awaiting the first
  caravan. This road lay through an untrodden desert, and caused


  in order to come again upon the caravan road in the rear of the
  Wajowa. No great mishaps were met with, and when the villages and
  cultivated fields of sorghum, and holcus were reached everything
  progressed favorably.


  the outlying portions of the province of Ujiji were reached. Word had
  reached the expedition of the presence of Dr. Livingstone in the
  province within a recent period, and accordingly preparations were
  made for


  The pagazis who chanced to be unladen proceeded, beating drums and
  blowing upon Kudu horns. The armed escort fired salutes every moment,
  keeping up a regular _feu de joie_, and the American flag floated
  proudly over all. In the distance lay the silver bosom of Tanganyika
  Lake, at the foot of the stately mountains in the background, and
  fringed with tall trees and lovely verdure. It was a wonderful relief
  to the pilgrims of progress. Before them lay the settlement or town of
  Ujiji, with its huts and houses looking dreamily like a land of rest.


  turned out at the unwonted display, and flocked in crowds to meet them
  with deafening shouts and beating of drums. Among the advancing throng
  was noticed a muscular group of turbaned Arabs. As they advanced
  still nearer


  who walked in the centre was noticed to be differently attired from
  the others. The group halted, and the word was passed back that a
  muzangu was among them. Spurring forward the HERALD commander indeed
  saw that, strongly contrasting with the dusky, sunburnt Arab faces,


  wearing a navy cap, with a faded gold band and a red woolen jacket. It
  was a trying moment, wherein every emotion of hope and fear flashed
  through the brain. The fatigues faded in the intensity of the
  situation. The questions, was this he who had so long been sought, or
  could it be a delusion of the mind, or was the white man some unknown
  waif of humanity? crowded the mind, bringing their changing feelings
  with them. A few feet in front of the group the HERALD commander
  halted, dismounted and advanced on foot.


  Preserving a calmness of exterior before the Arabs which was hard to
  simulate as he reached the group, Mr. Stanley said:--

  “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

  A smile lit up the features of the hale white man as he answered:


  The meeting was most cordial, and the wearied caravan, joyous at the
  triumph of the expedition were escorted by the multitude to the town.
  After a rest and a meal, in which milk, honey and fish from
  Tanganyika were new features,


  which is briefly as follows:--

  In March, 1866, he informed the HERALD explorer that he started with
  twelve Sepoys, nine Johanna men and seven liberated slaves. He


  Before they had been gone very long the men became frightened at the
  nature of the journey, and the reports of hostile tribes up the
  country they were to pass through. At length they deserted him, and,
  as a cover to their cowardice in doing so, circulated


  Livingstone proceeded on his journey in spite of the isolation, and
  after some difficult marching reached the Chambezi River, which he
  crossed. He found that this was not the Portuguese Zambezi River, as
  had been conjectured, but, on the contrary, wholly separate. He traced
  its course, and found it called further on


  He continued his explorations along its banks for 700 miles, and has
  become convinced in consequence that the Chambezi is


  and that this will make a total length for the mystic river of Africa
  of 2,600 miles. His explorations also establish that the Nile is not
  supplied by Lake Tanganyika. He reached within 180 miles of the source
  and explored the surrounding ground, when,


  he was obliged to return to Ujiji and was in a state of destitution
  there when met by the commander of the “Herald” expedition. On the
  16th of October, 1871,


  and arrived at Unyanyembe toward the end of November, where they
  passed twenty-eight days together exploring the district. They then
  returned and


  at Ujiji. The HERALD explorer arrived at the point of sending this
  important intelligence on the 14th of March, 1872, leaving Livingstone
  at Unyanyembe.


  He will explore the north shore of Tanganyika Lake and the remaining
  180 miles of the Lualaba River.

  This herculean task he expects will occupy the next two years.


There have been but few “sensations” more profound than the sensation
created by this despatch. As has been said, it threw the great Peace
Jubilee into the shade. Sporting men who had just won on the race-horse
“Longfellow” or lost on “Harry Bassett,” paused for a while to think of
the strange intelligence. The report of the trial of him who had been
charged with the murder of the noted James Fisk, Jr. attracted but
comparatively little attention. All through the section of the great
city known as “Five Points” the news was discussed by the
tatterdemalions of the metropolis; all up and down Fifth Avenue,
thousands of the best representatives of wealth and of culture canvassed
the double-leaded telegram; and Wall street gave it as much attention as
it gave to stocks and government securities. The substance of the
telegram was sent to the evening papers all over the country and to
Europe, and before sunset of July 2d a vast majority of intelligent
people of Christendom knew that Livingstone had been found, and through
the means of American private enterprise. It was a triumph in which the
“Herald” might have been excused, had it indulged in no little
self-glorification. Its article upon the subject, however, was greatly
national in spirit, and awarded the credit of the success to American
journalism, rather than claimed it for itself.[2]

  [2] The leading article of the “Herald” upon this subject is worthy of
  quotation here as a part of the journalistic history of this
  remarkable expedition:

  The triumph of the HERALD exploring expedition to search in the heart
  of Equatorial Africa for the long-lost Doctor David Livingstone is one
  which belongs to the entire press of America as well as to the journal
  whose fortune it was to originate and carry it out. It marks the era
  in which the press, already beyond the control of even the most
  exalted among men, who may hold states and empires in their grasp,
  strikes out boldly into new fields and treads daringly on _terra
  incognita_, whether of mind or matter. This is distinctively the work
  of the American press, whose aspirations and ambitions have grown with
  the majesty of the land, and whose enterprise has been moulded on the
  national character. In even recent times the work of progress lay in
  government hands, or else was wholly neglected. Sir John Franklin
  started out amid Polar snows to work out the Northern passage only to
  leave his bones among the eternal ice. Hand or foot was not stirred to
  learn his fate until Lady Franklin, with woman’s devotion, fitted out
  the expeditions to search for him or his remains. When the gentleman
  entrusted with the command of the “Herald” expedition had arrived at
  Unyanyembe, half way on his journey to Ujiji, he wrote:--“Until I hear
  more of him, or see the long-absent old man face to face, I bid you
  farewell; but wherever he is, be sure I shall not give up the chase.
  If alive, you shall hear what he has to say; if dead, I will find and
  bring his bones to you.” To those who neither understood the man nor
  the _esprit de corps_ which gives the representative of an American
  journal his stamp of vitality the words may have sounded like bombast.
  For answer it is sufficient to point to the columns of the HERALD of
  to-day. It may have seemed to those who reasoned from a foreign
  standpoint that no man could so wrap himself up in his work as to give
  utterance to such words with an earnestness of purpose, backed by a
  life at hazard from day to day. They simply mistake the spirit of the
  American journal. If it were in any other quarter of the globe, by
  land or sea, the same enthusiasm, the same dash, enterprise and pluck
  would be exhibited, because of the race which he runs for his journal
  against equally keen-witted rivals, and not alone for the work itself.
  Enterprise, then, is the characteristic of the American press. It is
  confined to no one paper, to no one locality. Whatever the Herald may
  have done in advancing the national reputation in this respect it is
  proud to claim, as the victor in the Olympic games of old was proud of
  his laurel crown above all gifts of gold or gems. But there is not a
  paper published between the Narrows and the Golden Gate which has not
  its own laurels in the line of enterprise to glory in, and there is
  not one leaf of the wreath that has not been snatched at and wrestled
  for by a hundred sinewy journalistic minds. Thus no one journal on the
  Continent looks up to a permanent head of the profession. To-day one
  paper may be “ahead on the news;” to-morrow another will snatch the
  chaplet from its brows. The enterprise of a contemporary in the late
  Franco-Prussian war was celebrated all over the land, as we have no
  doubt the success of the HERALD will be when the HERALD’S special
  columns are perused to-day.

  In England the London _Times_ is looked up to all over as a Triton
  among the minnows. It is the great paper. The _Daily Telegraph_ is the
  cheapest, spiciest paper published there; the _Standard_ is a careful,
  able Tory organ; the _Post_ is a quiet, aristocratic sheet, but the
  Thunderer overshadows them all. Instinct with the democratic spirit of
  our institutions, the press of America looks up to no lord among them.
  As each man born on the soil may be President of the United States, so
  each paper--no matter what its origin or where its birthplace--feels
  within itself the possibility of precedence in point of worth, brains
  and news over all others. We, therefore, reassert that the triumph of
  the HERALD Livingstone expedition is the triumph of American
  journalism in its broadest sense.

  To point this something more, we may say that an American war
  correspondent has achieved what one of the most powerful governments
  in the world failed to accomplish. How it was done is easily told. It
  is probable that an English journal might have succeeded, if it had
  undertaken the task; but, like Columbus with the egg, the enterprise
  which knocked in the end of the oval difficulty and made the
  expedition stand for itself is not a British article.

  The story of the meeting of the greatest explorer of any time with the
  HERALD correspondent, by the shores of Lake Tanganyika, with one
  thousand miles of desert, jungle, jagged mountain path and sodden
  valley trail, peopled with brutal, ignorant savages, behind him, is
  one which will long be remembered. The HERALD correspondent has kept
  his word. Happily for civilization there was no necessity to carry
  back to distant civilization the relics of her hero. He is alive and
  well and hopes to carry himself home when he has attained the object
  of his stay. In March 1866, he started up the Rovuma, but was
  deserted, and the false Moosa spread the lying story of his death to
  cover his own poltroonery, as was hoped against hope when the baleful
  tidings first came to hand. The undaunted Livingstone then set forward
  and reached the Chambezi River, which he discovered has no connection
  with the Portuguese Zambesi River, which disembogues into the
  Mozambique Channel opposite Madagascar. But the gem of his discovery
  lies in the fact that the Chambezi is the true source of the Nile. He
  followed its course for seven hundred miles towards its source, but
  was obliged to turn back in want, with one hundred and eighty miles
  unexplored. The Chambezi towards its source is called the Lualaba, and
  is not supplied from Lake Tanganyika, and the latter lake has no
  effluence to the Nile. To solve the problem of the Lualaba and pass
  round the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika, Livingstone purposes
  spending two years more in Central Africa. Truly this is great news,
  and we congratulate the world that neither the life nor the toil of so
  great a man is lost to the world, as the fates seemed so grimly to
  threaten. The story of his solitary land-finding will now be read by
  joyful millions, who, if they cannot all appreciate fully his labors,
  will not grudge him the tribute of lasting admiration.

[Illustration: THE AFRICAN TIGER.]





  The “Land of the Moon” -- Description of the Country and People --
  Horrid Savage Rites -- Journey from Unyanyembe to Ujiji -- A Wonderful
  Country -- A Mighty River Spanned by a Bridge of Grass -- Outwitting
  the Spoilers -- Stanley’s Entry Into Ujiji and Meeting with
  Livingstone -- The Great Triumph of an American Newspaper.

With the object of presenting to the curious a _fac simile_ of the
famous cable telegram announcing to an anxious world the discovery of
the great discoverer and of undertaking to preserve it in book form, as
vividly illustrative of the important part borne by journalistic
enterprise in opening up Africa to progress and civilization, that
despatch has been literally copied in the preceding chapter. But the
full particulars of the journey of the “Herald” special search
expedition, after leaving the main caravan track at Unyanyembe, are of
thrilling interest. Instead of going directly from the last named place
to Ujiji, Mr. Stanley was compelled, by reason of hostile tribes, to
make an extensive detour to the southwest, and then march up in a
northwesterly direction, not very far distant from the east shore of
Lake Tanganyika. But first let us have quotations from the letter
written just before the fourth and finally successful journey written
from Kwihara in the district of Unyanyembe, on the 21st of September,

“In the storeroom where the cumbersome moneys of the NEW YORK HERALD
Expedition lie piled up bale upon bale, sack after sack, coil after
coil, and the two boats, are this year’s supplies sent by Dr. Kirk to
Dr. Livingstone--seventeen bales of cloth, twelve boxes of wine,
provisions, and little luxuries such as tea and coffee. When I came up
with my last caravan to Unyanyembe I found Livingstone’s had arrived but
four weeks before, or about May 23 last, and had put itself under charge
of a half-caste called Thani Kati-Kati, or Thani ‘in the middle,’ or
‘between.’ Before he could get carriers he died of dysentry. He was
succeeded in charge by a man from Johanna, who, in something like a
week, died of smallpox; then Mirambo’s war broke out, and here we all
are, September 21, both expeditions halted. But not for long, let us
hope, for the third time I will make a start the day after to-morrow.

“Unyamwezi is a romantic name. It is ‘Land of the Moon’ rendered into
English--as romantic and sweet in Kinyamwezi as any that Stamboul or
Ispahan can boast is to a Turk or a Persian. The attraction, however, to
a European lies only in the name. There is nothing of the mystic,
nothing of the poetical, nothing of the romantic, in the country of
Unyamwezi. If I look abroad over the country I see the most inane and
the most prosaic country one could ever imagine. It is the most unlikely
country to a European for settlement; it is so repulsive owing to the
notoriety it has gained for its fevers. A white missionary would shrink
back with horror at the thought of settling in it. An agriculturist
might be tempted, but then there are so many better countries where he
could do so much better he would be a madman if he ignored those to
settle in this. To know the general outline and physical features of
Unyamwezi you must take a look around from one of the noble coigns of
vantage offered by any of those hills of syenite, in the debatable
ground of Mgunda Makali, in Uyanzi. From the summit of one of those
natural fortresses, if you look west, you will see Unyamwezi recede into
the far, blue, mysterious distance in a succession of blue waves of
noble forest, rising and subsiding like the blue waters of an ocean.
Such a view of Unyamwezi is inspiring; and, were it possible for you to
wing yourself westward on to another vantage coign, again and again the
land undulates after the same fashion, and still afar off is the same
azure, mystic horizon. As you approach Unyanyembe the scene is slightly
changed. Hills of syenite are seen dotting the vast prospect, like
islands in a sea, presenting in their external appearance, to an
imaginative eye, rude imitations of castellated fortresses and embattled
towers. A nearer view of these hills discloses the denuded rock,
disintegrated masses standing on end, boulder resting upon boulder, or
an immense towering rock, tinted with the sombre color age paints in
these lands. Around these rocky hills stretch the cultivated fields of
the Wanyamwezi--fields of tall maize, of holcus sorghum, of millet, of
vetches, &c.--among which you may discern the patches devoted to the
cultivation of sweet potatoes and manioc, and pasture lands where browse
the hump-shouldered cattle of Africa, flocks of goats and sheep. This is
the scene which attracts the eye, and is accepted as promising relief
after the wearisome marching through the thorny jungle plains of Ugogo,
the primeval forests of Uyanzi, the dim plains of Tura and Rubuga, and
when we have emerged from the twilight shades of Kigwa. No caravan or
expedition views it unwelcomed by song and tumultuous chorus, for rest
is at hand. It is only after a long halt that one begins to weary of
Unyanyembe, the principal district of Unyamwezi. It is only when one has
been stricken down almost to the grave by the fatal chilly winds which
blow from the heights of the mountains of Usagara, that one begins to
criticize the beauty which at first captivated. It is found, then, that
though the land is fair to look upon; that though we rejoiced at the
sight of its grand plains, at its fertile and glowing fields, at sight
of the roving herds, which promised us abundance of milk and cream--that
it is one of the most deadly countries in Africa; that its fevers,
remittent and intermittent, are unequalled in their severity.

“Unyamwezi, or the Land of the Moon--from U (country) nya (of the) mwezi
(moon)--extends over three degrees of latitude in length and about two
and a half degrees of longitude in breadth. Its principal districts are
Unyanyembe, Ugunda, Ugara, Tura, Rubuga, Kigwa, Usagazi and Uyoweh. Each
district has its own chief prince, king, or _mtemt_, as he is called in
Kinyamwezi. Unyanyembe, however is the principal district, and its king,
Mkasiwa, is generally considered to be the most important person in
Unyamwezi. The other kings often go to war against him, and Mkasiwa
often gets the worst of it; as, for instance, in the present war
between the King of Uyoweh (Mirambo) and Mkasiwa.

“All this vast country is drained by two rivers--the Northern and
Southern Gombe, which empty into the Malagarazi River, and thence into
Lake Tanganyika. On the east Unyamwezi is bounded by the wilderness of
Mgunda Makali and Ukmibu, on the south by Urori and Ukonongo, on the
west by Ukawendi and Uvniza, on the north by several small countries and
the Ukereweh Lake. Were one to ascend by a balloon and scan the whole of
Unyamwezi he would have a view of one great forest, broken here and
there by the little clearings around the villages, especially in and
around Unyanyembe.”

On account of troubles in the country, the Search Expedition was
detained some three months in Kwihara. Mr. Stanley lived in quite a
large, strong house for that country, consisting of a main room and
bathroom, built of mud about three feet thick. He thus describes “the
daily round”:

“In the early morning, generally about half-past five or six o’clock, I
begin to stir the soldiers up sometimes with a long bamboo, for you know
they are such hard sleepers they require a good deal of poking. Bombay
has his orders given him, and Feragji, the cook, who, long ago warned by
the noise I make when I rouse up, is told in unmistakable tones to bring
‘chai’ (tea), for I am like an old woman, I love tea very much, and can
take a quart and a half without any inconvenience. Kalulu, a boy of
seven all the way from Cazembe’s country, is my waiter and chief butler.
He understands my ways and mode of life exactly. Some weeks ago he
ousted Selim from the post of chief butler by sheer diligence and
smartness. Selim, the Arab boy, cannot wait at table. Kalulu--young
antelope--is frisky. I have but to express a wish and it is gratified.
He is a perfect Mercury, though a marvellously black one. Tea over,
Kalulu clears the dishes and retires under the kitchen shed, where, if I
have a curiosity to know what he is doing, he may be seen with his
tongue in the tea cup licking up the sugar that was left in it and
looking very much as if he would like to eat the cup for the sake of the
divine element it has so often contained. If I have any calls to make
this is generally the hour; if there are none to make I go on the piazza
and subside quietly on my bearskin to dream may be, of that far off land
I call my own, or to gaze towards Tabora, the Kaze of Burton and Speke,
though why they should have called it Kaze as yet I have not been able
to find out; or to look towards lofty Zimbili and wonder why the Arabs,
at such a crisis as the present, do not remove their goods and chattels
to the summit of that natural fortress. But dreaming and wondering and
thinking and marvelling are too hard for me; so I make some ethnological
notes and polish up a little my geographical knowledge of Central

“I have to greet about four hundred and ninety-nine people of all sorts
with the salutation ‘Yambo.’ This ‘Yambo’ is a great word. It may mean
‘How do you do?’ ‘How are you?’ ‘Thy health?’ The answer to it is
‘Yambo!’ or ‘Yambo Sana!’ (How are you; quite well?) The Kinyamwezi--the
language of the Wanyamwezi--of it is ‘Moholo’ and the answer is
‘Moholo.’ The Arabs, when they call, if they do not give the Arabic
‘Spal-kher,’ give you the greeting ‘Yambo;’ and I have to say ‘Yambo.’
And, in order to show my gratitude to them, I emphasize it with ‘Yambo
Sana! Sana! Sana?’ (Are you well? Quite well, quite, quite well?) And if
they repeat the words I am more than doubly grateful, and invite them to
a seat on the bearskin. This bearskin of mine is the evidence of my
respectability, and if we are short of common-place topics we invariably
refer to the bearskin, where there is room for much discussion.

[Illustration: THE ATTACK ON MIRAMBO.]

“Having disposed of my usual number of ‘Yambos’ for the morning I begin
to feel ‘peckish,’ as the sea skipper says, and Feragji, the cook, and
youthful Kalulu, the chief butler, are again called and told to bring
‘chukula’--food. This is the breakfast put down on the table at the hour
of ten punctually every morning:--Tea (ugali) a native porridge made out
of the flour of dourra, holcus sorghum, or matama, as it is called here;
a dish of rice and curry. Unyanyembe is famous for its rice, fried
goat’s meat, stewed goat’s meat, roast goat’s meat, a dish of sweet
potatoes, a few ‘slapjacks’ or specimens of the abortive efforts of
Feragji to make dampers or pancakes, to be eaten with honey. But neither
Feragji’s culinary skill nor Kalulu’s readiness to wait on me can tempt
me to eat. I have long ago eschewed food, and only drink tea, milk and
yaourt--Turkish word for ‘clabber’ or clotted milk.

“After breakfast the soldiers are called, and together we begin to pack
the bales of cloth, string beads and apportion the several loads which
the escort must carry to Ujiji some way or another. Carriers come to
test the weight of the loads and to inquire about the inducements
offered by the ‘Muzungu.’ The inducements are in the shape of so many
pieces of cloth, four yards long, and I offered double what any Arab
ever offered. Some are engaged at once, others say they will call again,
but they never do, and it is of no use to expect them when there is war,
for they are the cowardliest people under the sun.

“Since we are going to make forced marches I must not overload my armed
escort, or we shall be in a pretty mess two or three days after we
start; so I am obliged to reduce all loads by twenty pounds, to examine
my kit and personal baggage carefully, and put aside anything that is
not actually and pressingly needed; all the ammunition is to be left
behind except one hundred rounds to each man. No one must fire a shot
without permission, or waste his ammunition in any way, under penalty of
a heavy fine for every charge of powder wasted. These things require
time and thought, for the HERALD Expedition has a long and far journey
to make. It intends to take a new road--a road with which few Arabs are
acquainted--despite all that Skeikh, the son of Nasib, can say against
the project.

“It is now the dinner hour, seven P. M. Feragji has spread himself out,
as they say. He has all sorts of little fixings ready, such as
indigestible dampers, the everlasting ugali, or porridge, the sweet
potatoes, chicken, and roast quarter of a goat; and lastly, a custard,
or something just as good, made out of plantains. At eight P. M. the
table is cleared, the candles are lit, pipes are brought out, and Shaw,
my white man is invited to talk. But poor Shaw is sick and has not a
grain or spirit of energy left in him. All I can do or say does not
cheer him up in the least. He hangs down his head, and with many a sigh
declares his inability to proceed with me to Ujiji.”

On the 15th of July, war was declared between Mirambo and the Arabs. In
this war, it will be recollected, Mr. Stanley with his men took part.
The result was disaster, ensuing from Mirambo’s stratagem, as so
graphically related in the cable telegram. The continuation of this war
is thus described:

“Mirambo, with one thousand guns, and one thousand five hundred
Watuda’s, his allies, invaded Unyanyembe, and pitched their camp
insolently within view of the Arab capital of Tabora. Tabora is a large
collection of Arab settlements, or tembes, as they are called here. Each
Arab house is isolated by the fence which surrounds it. Not one is more
than two hundred yards off from the other, and each has its own name,
known, however, to but few outsiders. South by west from Tabora, at the
distance of a mile and a half, and in view of Tabora is Kwihara, where
the HERALD expedition has its quarters. Kwihara is a Kinyamwezi word,
meaning the middle of the cultivation. There is quite a large settlement
of Arabs here--second only to Tabora. But it was Tabora and not Kwihara
that Mirambo, his forest thieves and the Watula came to attack. Khamis
bin Abdallah, the bravest Trojan of them all--of all the Arabs--went out
to meet Mirambo with eighty armed slaves and five Arabs, one of whom was
his little son, Khamis. As Khamis bin Abdallah’s party came in sight of
Mirambo’s people Khamis’ slaves deserted him, and Mirambo then gave the
order to surround the Arabs and press on them. This little group in this
manner became the targets for about one thousand guns, and of course in
a second or so were all dead--not, however, without having exhibited
remarkable traits of character.

“They had barely died before the medicine men came up, and with their
scalpels had skinned their faces and their abdominal portions, and had
extracted what they call ‘mafuta,’ or fat, and their genital organs.
With this matter which they had extracted from the dead bodies the
native doctors or waganga made a powerful medicine, by boiling it in
large earthen pots for many hours, with many incantations and shakings
of the wonderful gourd that was only filled with pebbles. This medicine
was drunk that evening with great ceremony, with dances, drum beating
and general fervor of heart.

“Khamis bin Abdallah dead, Mirambo gave his orders to plunder, kill,
burn, and destroy, and they went at it with a will. When I saw the
fugitives from Tabora coming by the hundred to our quiet valley of
Kwihara, I began to think the matter serious and began my operations for
defence. First of all, however, a lofty bamboo pole was procured and
planted on the roof of our fortlet, and the American flag was run up,
where it waved joyously and grandly, an omen to all fugitives and their


“All night we stood guard; the suburbs of Tabora were in flames; all the
Wanyamwezi and Wanguana houses were destroyed, and the fine house of
Abid bin Sulemian had been ransacked and then committed to the flames,
and Mirambo boasted that ‘to-morrow’ Kwihara should share the fate of
Tabora, and there was a rumor that that night the Arabs were going to
start for the coast. But the morning came, and Mirambo departed with the
ivory and cattle he had captured, and the people of Kwihara and Tabora
breathed freer.

“And now I am going to say farewell to Unyanyembe for a while. I shall
never help an Arab again. He is no fighting man, or I should say, does
not know how to fight, but knows personally how to die. They will not
conquer Mirambo within a year, and I cannot stop to see that play out.
There is a good old man waiting for me somewhere, and that impels me on.
There is a journal afar off which expects me to do my duty, and I must
do it. Goodby; I am off the day after to-morrow for Ujiji; then,
perhaps, the Congo River.”

After this followed a number of telegrams to the “Herald” from the
expedition, but their substance has been given in what has preceded, to
show the general outline of explorations up to the time of the meeting
of Livingstone and Stanley at Ujiji. There are, however, but few
accounts of travel more interesting and valuable than the letter to the
“Herald” narrating the events of the journey from Unyanyembe to Ujiji,
and the meeting with Livingstone. The greater portion of this remarkable
narrative is appended:

  “CENTRAL AFRICA, November 23, 1871. }

“Only two months gone, and what a change in my feelings! But two months
ago, what a peevish, fretful soul was mine! What a hopeless prospect
presented itself before your correspondent! Arabs vowing that I would
never behold the Tanganyika; Sheikh, the son of Nasib, declaring me a
madman to his fellows because I would not heed his words. My men
deserting, my servants whining day by day, and my white man endeavoring
to impress me with the belief that we were all doomed men! And the only
answer to it all is, Livingstone, the hero traveller, is alongside of
me, writing as hard as he can to his friends in England, India, and
America, and I am quite safe and sound in health and limb.

“September 23 I left Unyanyembe, driving before me fifty well-armed
black men, loaded with the goods of the expedition, and dragging after
me one white man. Once away from the hateful valley of Kwihara, my
enthusiasm for my work rose as newborn as when I left the coast. But my
enthusiasm was shortlived, for before reaching camp I was almost
delirious with fever. When I had arrived, burning with fever, my pulse
bounding many degrees too fast and my temper made more acrimonious by my
sufferings, I found the camp almost deserted. The men as soon as they
had arrived at Mkwenkwe, the village agreed upon, had hurried back to
Kwihara. Livingstone’s letter-carrier had not made his appearance--it
was an abandoned camp. I instantly dispatched six of the best of those
who had refused to return to ask Sheikh, the son of Nasib, to lend or
sell me the longest slave chain he had, then to hunt up the runaways and
bring them back to camp bound, and promised them that for every head
captured they should have a brand new cloth.

“Next morning fourteen out of twenty of those who had deserted back to
their wives and huts (as is generally the custom) had reappeared, and,
as the fever had left me, I only lectured them, and they gave me their
promise not to desert me again under any circumstances. Livingstone’s
messenger had passed the night in bonds, because he had resolutely
refused to come. I unloosed him and gave him a paternal lecture,
painting in glowing colors the benefits he would receive if he came
along quietly and the horrible punishment of being chained up until I
reached Ujiji if he was still resolved not to come. ‘Kaif Halleck’
Arabic for ‘How do you do?’ melted, and readily gave me his promise to
come and obey me as he would his own master--Livingstone--until we
should see him, ‘which Inshallah we shall! Please God, please God, we
shall,’ I replied, ‘and you will be no loser.’ During the day my
soldiers had captured the others, and as they all promised obedience and
fidelity in future, they escaped punishment.

“It is possible for any of your readers so disposed to construct a map
of the road on which the ‘Herald’ expedition was now journeying, if they
draw a line 150 miles long south by west from Unyanyembe, then 150
miles west northwest, then ninety miles north, half east, then seventy
miles west by north, and that will take them to Ujiji.

“We were about entering the immense forest that separates Unyanyembe
from the district of Ugunda, In lengthy undulating waves the land
stretches before us--the new land which no European knew, the unknown,
mystic land. The view which the eyes hurry to embrace as we ascend some
ridge higher than another is one of the most disheartening that can be
conceived. Away, one beyond another, wave the lengthy rectilinear
ridges, clad in the same garb of color. Woods, woods, woods, forests,
leafy branches, green and sere, yellow and dark red and purple, then an
indefinable ocean, bluer than the blueest sky. The horizon all around
shows the same scene--a sky dropping into the depths of the endless
forest, with but two or three tall giants of the forest higher than
their neighbors, which are conspicuous in their outlines, to break the
monotony of the scene. On no one point do our eyes rest with pleasure;
they have viewed the same outlines, the same forest and the same horizon
day after day, week after week; and again, like Noah’s dove from
wandering over a world without a halting place, return wearied with the


“It takes seven hours to traverse the forest between Kigandu and Ugunda,
when we come to the capital of the new district, wherein one may laugh
at Mirambo and his forest thieves. At least the Sultan, or Lord of
Ugunda, feels in a laughing mood while in his strong stockade, should
one but hint to him that Mirambo might come to settle up the long
debt that Chieftain owes him, for defeating him the last time--a year
ago--he attempted to storm his place. And well may the Sultan laugh at
him, and all others which the hospitable Chief may permit to reside
within, for it is the strongest place--except Simba-Moeni and Kwikuru,
in Unyanyembe--I have as yet seen in Africa. Having arrived safely at
Ugunda we may now proceed on our journey fearless of Mirambo, though he
has attacked places four days south of this; but as he has already at a
former time felt the power of the Wanyamwezi of Ugunda, he will not
venture again in a hurry. On the sixth day of our departure from
Unyanyembe we continued our journey south. Three long marches, under a
hot sun, through jungly plains, heat-cracked expanses of prairie land,
through young forests, haunted by the tsetse and sword flies, considered
fatal to cattle, brought us to the gates of a village called Manyara,
whose chief was determined not to let us in nor sell us a grain of corn,
because he had never seen a white man before, and he must know all about
this wonderful specimen of humanity before he would allow us to pass
through his country. Having arrived at the khambi, or camp, I despatched
Bombay with a propitiating gift of cloth to the Chief--a gift at once so
handsome and so munificent, consisting of no less than two royal cloths
and three common dotis, that the Chief surrendered at once, declaring
that the white man was a superior being to any he had ever seen.
‘Surely,’ said he, ‘he must have a friend; otherwise how came he to send
me such fine cloths? Tell the white man that I shall come and see him.’
Permission was at once given to his people to sell us as much corn as we
needed. We had barely finished distributing five days’ rations to each
man when the Chief was announced.

“Gunbearers, twenty in number, preceded him, and thirty spearmen
followed him, and behind these came eight or ten men loaded with gifts
of honey, native beer, holcus sorghum, beans, and maize. I at once
advanced and invited the Chief to my tent, which had undergone some
alterations, that I might honor him as much as lay in my power.
Ma-manyara was a tall, stalwart man, with a very pleasing face. He
carried in his hand a couple of spears, and, with the exception of a
well-worn barsati around his loins, he was naked. Three of his principal
men and himself were invited to seat themselves on my Persian carpet.
The revolvers and Winchester’s repeating rifles were things so wonderful
that to attempt to give you any idea of how awe-struck he and his men
were would task my powers. My medicine chest was opened next, and I
uncorked a small phial of medicinal brandy and gave each a teaspoonful.
Suffice it that I made myself so popular with Ma-manyara and his people
that they will not forget me in a hurry.

“Leaving kind and hospitable Ma-manyara, after a four hours’ march we
came to the banks of the Gombe Nullah, not the one which Burton, Speke,
and Grant have described, for the Gombe which I mean is about one
hundred and twenty-five miles south of the Northern Gombe. The glorious
park land spreading out north and south of the Southern Gombe is a
hunter’s paradise. It is full of game of all kinds--herds of buffalo,
giraffe, zebra, pallah, water buck, springbok, gemsbok, blackbuck, and
kudu, besides several eland, warthog, or wild boar, and hundreds of the
smaller antelope. We saw all these in one day, and at night heard the
lions roar and the low of the hippopotamus. I halted here three days to
shoot, and there is no occasion to boast of what I shot, considering the
myriads of game I saw at every step I took. Not half the animals shot
here by myself and men were made use of. Two buffaloes and one kudu were
brought to camp the first day, besides a wild boar, which my mess
finished up in one night. My boy gun-bearers sat up the whole night
eating boar meat, and until I went to sleep I could hear the buffalo
meat sizzing over the fires as the Islamized soldiers prepared it for
the road.


“From Manyara to Marefu, in Ukonongo, are five days’ marches. It is an
uninhabited forest now, and is about eighty miles in length. Clumps of
forest and dense islets of jungle dot plains which separate the forests
proper. It is monotonous owing to the sameness of the scenes. And
throughout this length of eighty miles there is nothing to catch a man’s
eye in search of the picturesque or novel save the Gombe’s pools, with
their amphibious inhabitants, and the variety of noble game which
inhabit the forests and plain. A travelling band of Wakonongo, bound to
Ukonongo from Manyara, prayed to have our escort, which was readily
granted. They were famous foresters, who knew the various fruits fit to
eat; who knew the cry of the honey-bird, and could follow it to the
treasure of honey which it wished to show its human friends. It is a
pretty bird, not much larger than a wren, and, ‘tweet-tweet,’ it
immediately cries when it sees a human being. It becomes very busy all
at once, hops and skips, and flies from branch to branch with marvellous
celerity. The traveller lifts up his eyes, beholds the tiny little bird,
hopping about, and hears its sweet call--‘tweet-tweet-tweet.’ If he is a
Makonongo he follows it. Away flies the bird on to another tree, springs
to another branch nearer to the lagging man as if to say, ‘Shall I, must
I come and fetch you?’ but assured by his advance, away again to another
tree, coquets about, and tweets his call rapidly; sometimes more earnest
and loud, as if chiding him for being so slow; then off again, until at
last the treasure is found and secured. And as he is a very busy little
bird, while the man secures his treasure of honey, he plumes himself,
ready for another flight and to discover another treasure. Every evening
the Makonongo brought us stores of beautiful red and white honey, which
is only to be secured in the dry season. Over pancakes and fritters the
honey is very excellent; but it is apt to disturb the stomach. I seldom
rejoiced in its sweetness without suffering some indisposition

“Arriving at Marefu, we overtook an embassy from the Arabs at Unyanyembe
to the Chief of the ferocious Watuta, who live a month’s march southwest
of this frontier village of Ukonongo. Old Hassan, the Mseguhha, was the
person who held the honorable post of Chief of the embassy, who had
volunteered to conduct the negotiations which were to secure the
Watuta’s services against Mirambo, the dreaded Chief of Uyoweh. Assured
by the Arabs that there was no danger, and having received the sum of
forty dollars for his services, he had gone on, sanguine of success, and
had arrived at Marefu, where we overtook him.

[Illustration: AFRICAN WARBLERS.]

“We left old Hassan the next day, for the prosecution of the work of the
expedition, feeling much happier than we had felt for many a day.
Desertions had now ceased, and there remained in chains but one
incorrigible, whom I had apprehended twice after twice deserting. Bombay
and his sympathizers were now beginning to perceive that after all there
was not much danger--at least not as much as the Arabs desired us to
believe--and he was heard expressing his belief in his broken English
that I would ‘catch the Tanganyika after all,’ and the standing joke was
now that we could smell the fish of the Tanganyika Lake, and that we
could not be far from it. New scenes also met the eye. Here and there
were upheaved above the tree tops sugar-loaf hills, and, darkly blue,
west of us loomed up a noble ridge of hills which formed the boundary
between Kamirambo’s territory and that of Utende. Elephant tracks became
numerous, and buffalo met the delighted eyes everywhere. Crossing the
mountainous ridge of Mwaru, with its lengthy slope slowly descending
westward, the vegetation became more varied and the outlines of the land
before us became more picturesque. We became sated with the varieties of
novel fruit which we saw hanging thickly on trees. There was the mbembu,
with the taste of an over ripe peach; the tamarind pod and beans, with
their grateful acidity, resembling somewhat the lemon in its flavor. The
matonga, or _nux vomica_, was welcome, and the luscious singwe, the plum
of Africa, was the most delicious of all. There were wild plums like our
own, and grapes unpicked long past their season, and beyond eating.
Guinea fowls, the moorhen, ptarmigans and ducks supplied our table; and
often the lump of a buffalo or an extravagant piece of venison filled
our camp kettles. My health was firmly established. The faster we
prosecuted our journey the better I felt. I had long bidden adieu to the
nauseous calomel and rhubarb compounds, and had become quite a stranger
to quinine. There was only one drawback to it all, and that was the
feeble health of the Arab boy Selim, who was suffering from an attack of
acute dysentery, caused by inordinate drinking of the bad water of the
pools at which we had camped between Manyara and Mrera. But judicious
attendance and Dover’s powders brought the boy round again.

“Mrera, in Ukonongo, nine days southwest of the Gombe Mellah, brought to
our minds the jungle habitats of the Wawkwere on the coast, and an
ominous sight to travellers were the bleached skulls of men which
adorned the tops of tall poles before the gates of the village. The
Sultan of Mrera and myself became fast friends after he had tasted of my

[Illustration: CROSSING A LAGOON.]

“After a halt of three days at this village, for the benefit of the Arab
boy, we proceeded westerly, with the understanding that we should behold
the waters of the Tanganyika within ten days. Traversing a dense
forest of young trees, we came to a plain dotted with scores of ant
hills. Their uniform height (about seven feet high above the plain)
leads me to believe that they were constructed during an unusually wet
season, and when the country was inundated for a long time in
consequence. The surface of the plain also bore the appearance of being
subject to such inundations. Beyond this plain about four miles we came
to a running stream of purest water--a most welcome sight after so many
months spent by brackish pools and nauseous swamps. Crossing the stream,
which ran northwest, we immediately ascended a steep and lofty ridge,
whence we obtained a view of grand and imposing mountains, of isolated
hills, rising sheer to great heights from a plain stretching far into
the heart of Ufipa, cut up by numerous streams flowing into the Rungwa
River, which during the rainy season overflows this plain and forms the
lagoon set down by Speke as the Rikwa. We continued still westward,
crossing many a broad stretch of marsh and oozy bed of mellahs, whence
rose the streams that formed the Rungwa some forty miles south.

“At a camping place beyond Mrera we heard enough from some natives who
visited us to assure us that we were rushing to our destruction if we
still kept westward. After receiving hints of how to evade the
war-stricken country in our front, we took a road leading
north-northwest. While continuing on this course we crossed streams
running to the Rungwa south and others running directly north to the
Malagarazi, from either side of a lengthy ridge which served to
separate the country of Unyamwezi from Ukawendi. We were also attracted
for the first time by the lofty and tapering moule tree, used on the
Tanganyika Lake for the canoes of the natives, who dwell on its shores.
The banks of the numerous streams are lined with dense growths of these
shapely trees, as well as of sycamore, and gigantic tamarinds, which
rivalled the largest sycamore in their breadth of shade. The undergrowth
of bushes and tall grass, dense and impenetrable, likely resorts of
leopard and lion and wild boar were enough to appal the stoutest heart.
One of my donkeys while being driven to water along a narrow path,
hedged by the awesome brake on either side, was attacked by a leopard,
which fastened its fangs in the poor animal’s neck, and it would have
made short work of it had not its companions set up such a braying
chorus as might well have terrified a score of leopards. And that same
night, while encamped contiguous to that limpid stream of Mtambu, with
that lofty line of enormous trees rising dark and awful above us, the
lions issued from the brakes beneath and prowled about the well-set bush
defence of our camp, venting their fearful clamor without intermission
until morning.

“Our camps by these thick belts of timber, peopled as they were with
wild beasts, my men never fancied. But Southern Ukawendi, with its fair,
lovely valleys and pellucid streams nourishing vegetation to extravagant
growth, density and height, is infested with troubles of this kind. And
it is probable, from the spread of this report among the natives, that
this is the cause of the scant population of one of the loveliest
countries Africa can boast. The fairest of California scenery cannot
excel, though it may equal, such scenes as Ukawendi can boast of, and
yet a land as large as the State of New York is almost uninhabited. Days
and days one may travel through primeval forests, now ascending ridges
overlooking broad, well watered valleys, with belts of valuable timber
crowning the banks of the rivers, and behold exquisite bits of
scenery--wild, fantastic, picturesque and pretty--all within the scope
of vision whichever way one may turn. And to crown the glories of this
lovely portion of earth, underneath the surface but a few feet is one
mass of iron ore, extending across three degrees of longitude and nearly
four of latitude, cropping out at intervals, so that the traveller
cannot remain ignorant of the wealth lying beneath.


“What wild and ambitious projects fill a man’s brain as he looks over
the forgotten and unpeopled country, containing in its bosom such store
of wealth, and with such an expanse of fertile soil, capable of
sustaining millions! What a settlement one could have in this valley!
See, it is broad enough to support a large population! Fancy a church
spire rising where that tamarind rears its dark crown of foliage and
think how well a score or so of pretty cottages would look instead of
those thorn clumps and gum trees! Fancy this lovely valley teeming with
herds of cattle and fields of corn, spreading to the right and left of
this stream! How much better would such a state become this valley,
rather than its present deserted and wild aspect! But be hopeful. The
day will come and a future year will see it, when happier lands have
become crowded and nations have become so overgrown that they have no
room to turn about. It only needs an Abraham or a Lot, an Alaric or an
Attila to lead their hosts to this land, which, perhaps, has been wisely
reserved for such a time.

“After the warning so kindly given by the natives soon after leaving
Mrera, in Ukonongo, five days’ marches brought us to Mrera, in the
district of Rusawa, in Ukawendi. Arriving here, we questioned the
natives as to the best course to pursue--should we make direct for the
Tanganyika or go north to the Malagarazi River? They advised us to the
latter course, though no Arab had ever taken it. Two days through the
forest, they said, would enable us to reach the Malagarazi. The guide,
who had by this forgotten our disagreement, endorsed this opinion, as
beyond the Malagarazi he was sufficiently qualified to show the way. We
laid in a stock of four days’ provisions against contingencies, and
bidding farewell to the hospitable people of Rusawa, continued our
journey northward.

“The scenery was getting more sublime every day as we advanced
northward, even approaching the terrible. We seemed to have left the
monotony of a desert for the wild, picturesque scenery of Abyssinia and
the terrible mountains of the Sierra Nevadas. I named one tabular
mountain, which recalled memories of the Abyssinian campaign, Magdala,
and as I gave it a place on my chart it became of great use to me, as it
rose so prominently into view that I was enabled to lay down our route
pretty accurately. The four days’ provisions we had taken with us were
soon consumed, and still we were far from the Malagarazi River. Though
we eked out my own stores with great care, as shipwrecked men at sea,
these also gave out on the sixth day, and still the Malagarazi was not
in sight. The country was getting more difficult for travel, owing to
the numerous ascents and descents we had to make in the course of a
day’s march. Bleached and bare, it was cut up by a thousand deep ravines
and intersected by a thousand dry water courses whose beds were filled
with immense sandstone rocks and boulders washed away from the great
heights which rose above us on every side. We were not protected now by
the shades of the forest, and the heat became excessive and water became
scarce. But we still held on our way, hoping that each day’s march would
bring us in sight of the long-looked-for and much-desired Malagarazi.
Fortunately we had filled our bags and baskets with the forest peaches
with which the forests of Rusawa had supplied us, and these sustained us
in this extremity.

“Proceeding on our road on the eighth day every thing we saw tended to
confirm us in the belief that food was at hand. After travelling two
hours, still descending rapidly towards a deep basin which we saw, the
foremost of the expedition halted, attracted by the sight of a village
situated on a table-topped mountain on our right. The guide told us it
must be that of the son of Nzogera, of Uvinza. We followed a road
leading to the foot of the mountain, and camped on the edge of an
extensive morass. Though we fired guns to announce our arrival, it was
unnecessary, for the people were already hurrying to our camps to
inquire about our intentions. The explanation was satisfactory, but they
said that they had taken us to be enemies, few friends having ever come
along our road. In a few minutes there was an abundance of meat and
grain in the camp, and the men’s jaws were busy in the process of

“During the whole of the afternoon we were engaged upon the terms
Nzogera’s son exacted for the privilege of passing through his country.
We found him to be the first of a tribute-taking tribe which
subsequently made much havoc in the bales of the expedition. Seven and a
half doti of cloth were what we were compelled to pay, whether we
returned or proceeded on our way. After a day’s halt we proceeded under
the guidance of two men granted to me as qualified to show the way to
the Malagarazi River. We had to go east-northeast for a considerable
time in order to avoid the morass that lay directly across the country
that intervened between the triangular mountain on whose top Nzogera’s
son dwelt. This marsh drains three extensive ranges of mountains which,
starting from the westward, separated only by two deep chasms from each
other, run at wide angles--one southeast, one northeast, and the other
northwest. From a distance this marsh looks fair enough; stately trees
at intervals rise seemingly from its bosom, and between them one catches
glimpses of a lovely champaign, bounded by perpendicular mountains, in
the far distance. After a wide detour we struck straight for this marsh,
which presented to us another novelty in the watershed of the

“Fancy a river broad as the Hudson at Albany, though not near so deep or
swift, covered over by water plants and grasses, which had become so
interwoven and netted together as to form a bridge covering its entire
length and breadth, under which the river flowed calm and deep below. It
was over this natural bridge we were expected to cross. Adding to the
tremor which one naturally felt at having to cross this frail bridge was
the tradition that only a few yards higher up an Arab and his donkey,
thirty-five slaves and sixteen tusks of ivory had suddenly sunk forever
out of sight. As one-half of our little column had already arrived at
the centre, we on the shore could see the network of grass waving on
either side, in one place like to the swell of a sea after a storm, and
in another like a small lake violently ruffled by a squall. Hundreds of
yards away from them it ruffled, and undulated one wave after another.
As we all got on it we perceived it to sink about a foot, forcing the
water on which it rested into the grassy channel formed by our
footsteps. One of my donkeys broke through, and it required the united
strength of ten men to extricate him. The aggregate weight of the donkey
and men caused that portion of the bridge on which they stood to sink
about two feet and a circular pool of water was formed, and I expected
every minute to see them suddenly sink out of sight. Fortunately we
managed to cross the treacherous bridge without accident.

“Arriving on the other side, we struck north, passing through a
delightful country, in every way suitable for agricultural settlements
or happy mission stations. The primitive rock began to show itself anew
in eccentric clusters, as a flat-topped rock, on which the villages of
the Wavinza were seen and where the natives prided themselves on their
security and conducted themselves accordingly, ever insolent and
forward. We were halted every two or three miles by the demand for
tribute, which we did not, because we could not, pay.

“On the second day after leaving Nzogera’s son we commenced a series of
descents, the deep valleys on each side of us astonishing us by their
profundity, and the dark gloom prevailing below, amid their wonderful
dense forests of tall trees, and glimpses of plains beyond, invited
sincere admiration. In about a couple of hours we discovered the river
we were looking for below, at the distance of a mile, running like a
silver vein through a broad valley. Halting at Kiala’s, eldest son of
Nzogera, the principal Sultan of Uvinza, we waited an hour to see on
what terms he would ferry us over the Malagarazi. As we could not come
to a definite conclusion respecting them we were obliged to camp in his

“Until three o’clock P. M. the following day continued the negotiations
for ferrying us across the Malagarazi, consisting of arguments, threats,
quarrels, loud shouting and stormy debate on both sides. Finally, six
doti and ten fundo of sami-sami beads were agreed upon. After which we
marched to the ferry, distant half a mile from the scene of so much
contention. The river at this place was not more than thirty yards
broad, sluggish and deep; yet I would prefer attempting to cross the
Mississippi by swimming rather than the Malagarazi. Such another river
for the crocodiles, cruel as death, I cannot conceive. Their long,
tapering heads dotted the river everywhere, and though I amused myself,
pelting them with two-ounce balls, I made no effect on their numbers.
Two canoes had discharged their live cargo on the other side of the
river when the story of Captain Burton’s passage across the Malagarazi
higher up was brought vividly to my mind by the extortions which Mutware
now commenced.


“Two marches from Malagarazi brought us to Uhha. Kawanga was the first
place in Uhha where we halted. It is the village where resides the first
mutware, or chief, to whom caravans have to pay tribute. To this man we
paid twelve and a half doti, upon the understanding that we would have
to pay no more between here and Ujiji. We left Kawanga cheerfully
enough. The country undulated gently before us like the prairie of
Nebraska, as devoid of trees almost as our plains. The top of every wave
of land enabled us to see the scores of villages which dotted its
surface, though it required keen eyes to detect at a distance the
beehived and straw-thatched huts from the bleached grass of the plain.

“Pursuing our way next day, after a few hours’ march, we came to
Kahirigi, and quartered ourselves in a large village, governed over by
Mionvu’s brother, who had already been advised by Mionvu of the windfall
in store for him. This man, as soon as we had set the tent, put in a
claim for thirty doti, which I was able to reduce, after much
eloquence, lasting over five hours, to twenty-six doti. I saw my fine
array of bales being reduced fast. Four more such demands as Mionvu’s
would leave me, in unclassic phrase, ‘cleaned out.’

“After paying this last tribute, as it was night, I closed my tent, and,
lighting my pipe, began to think seriously upon my position and how to
reach Ujiji without paying more tribute. It was high time to resort
either to a battle or to a strategy of some kind, possibly to striking
into the jungle; but there was no jungle in Uhha, and a man might be
seen miles off on its naked plains. At least this last was the plan most
likely to succeed without endangering the prospects almost within reach
of the expedition. Calling the guide, I questioned him as to its
feasibility. He said there was a Mguana, a slave of Thani Bin Abdullah,
in the Coma, with whom I might consult. Sending for him, he presently
came, and I began to ask him for how much he would guide us out of Uhha
without being compelled to pay any more Muhongo. He replied that it was
a hard thing to do, unless I had complete control over my men and they
could be got to do exactly as I told them. When satisfied on this point
he entered into an agreement to show me a road--or rather to lead me to
it--that might be clear of all habitations as far as Ujiji for twelve
doti, paid beforehand. The cloth was paid to him at once.

“At half-past two A. M. the men were ready, and, stealing silently past
the huts, the guide opened the gates, and we filed out one by one as
quickly as possible. At dawn we crossed the swift Zunuzi, which flowed
southward into the Malagarazi, after which we took a northwesterly
direction through a thick jungle of bamboo. There was no road, and
behind us we left but little trail on the hard, dry ground. At eight A.
M. we halted for breakfast, having marched nearly six hours, within the
jungle, which stretched for miles around us.

“At ten A. M. we resumed our journey, and after three hours camped at
Lake Musuma, a body of water which during the rainy season has a length
of three miles and a breadth of two miles. It is one of a group of lakes
which fill deep hollows in the plain of Uhha. They swarm with
hippopotami, and their shores are favorite resorts of large herds of
buffalo and game. The eland and buffalo especially are in large numbers
here, and the elephant and rhinoceros are exceedingly numerous. We saw
several of these, but did not dare to fire. On the second morning after
crossing the Sunuzi and Rugufu Rivers, we had just started from our
camp, and as there was no moonlight the head of the column came to a
village, whose inhabitants, as we heard a few voices, were about
starting. We were all struck with consternation, but, consulting with
the guide, we despatched our goats and chickens, and leaving them in the
road, faced about, retraced our steps, and after a quarter of an hour
struck up a ravine, and descending several precipitous places, about
half-past six o’clock found ourselves in Ukaranga--safe and free from
all tribute taking Wahha.

“Exultant shouts were given--equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon hurrah--upon
our success. Addressing the men, I asked them, ‘Why should we halt when
but a few hours from Ujiji? Let us march a few hours more and to-morrow
we shall see the white man at Ujiji, and who knows but this may be the
man we are seeking? Let us go on, and after to-morrow we shall have
fish for dinner and many days’ rest afterwards, every day eating the
fish of the Tanganyika. Stop; I think I smell the Tanganyika fish
even now.’ This speech was hailed with what the newspapers call
‘loud applause; great cheering,’ and ‘Ngema--very well, master;’ ‘Hyah
Barak-Allah--Onward, and the blessing of God be on you.’

“We strode from the frontier at the rate of four miles an hour, and,
after six hours’ march, the tired caravan entered the woods which
separate the residence of the Chief of Ukaranga from the villages on the
Mkuti River. As we drew near the village we went slower, unfurled the
American and Zanzibar flags, presenting quite an imposing array. When we
came in sight of Nyamtaga, the name of the Sultan’s residence, and our
flags and numerous guns were seen, the Wakaranga and their Sultan
deserted their village _en masse_, and rushed into the woods, believing
that we were Mirambo’s robbers, who, after destroying Unyanyembe, were
come to destroy the Arabs and bunder of Ujiji; but he and his people
were soon reassured, and came forward to welcome us with presents of
goats and beer, all of which were very welcome after the exceedingly
lengthy marches we had recently undertaken.

“Rising at early dawn our new clothes were brought forth again that we
might present as decent an appearance as possible before the Arabs of
Ujiji, and my helmet was well chalked and a new puggeree folded around
it, my boots were well oiled and my white flannels put on, and
altogether, without joking, I might have paraded the streets of Bombay
without attracting any very great attention.

“A couple of hours brought us to the base of a hill, from the top of
which the Kirangozi said we could obtain a view of the great Tanganyika
Lake. Heedless of the rough path or of the toilsome steep, spurred
onward by the cheery promise, the ascent was performed in a short time.
On arriving at the top we beheld it at last from the spot whence,
probably, Burton and Speke looked at it--‘the one in a half paralyzed
state, the other almost blind.’ Indeed, I was pleased at the sight; and,
as we descended, it opened more and more into view until it was revealed
at last into a grand inland sea, bounded westward by an appalling and
black-blue range of mountains, and stretching north and south without
bounds, a gray expanse of water.

“From the western base of the hill was a three hours’ march, though no
march ever passed off so quickly. The hours seemed to have been
quarters, we had seen so much that was novel and rare to us who had been
travelling so long on the highlands. The mountains bounding the lake on
the eastward, receded and the lake advanced. We had crossed the Ruche,
or Linche, and its thick belt of tall matete grass. We had plunged into
a perfect forest of them, and had entered into the cultivated fields
which supply the port of Ujiji with vegetables, etc., and we stood at
last on the summit of the last hill of the myriads we had crossed, and
the port of Ujiji, embowered in palms, with the tiny waves of the silver
waters of the Tanganyika rolling at its feet was directly below us.

“We are now about descending--in a few minutes we shall have reached the
spot where we imagine the object of our search--our fate will soon be
decided. No one in that town knows we are coming; least of all do they
know we are so close to them. If any of them ever heard of the white man
at Unyanyembe they must believe we are there yet. We shall take them all
by surprise, for no other but a white man would dare leave Unyanyembe
for Ujiji with the country in such a distracted state--no other but a
crazy white man whom Sheik, the son of Nasib is going to report to Syed
or Burghash for not taking his advice.

“Well, we are but a mile from Ujiji now, and it is high time we should
let them know a caravan is coming; so ‘Commence firing’ is the word
passed along the length of the column, and gladly do they begin. They
have loaded their muskets half full, and they roar like the broadside of
a line-of-battle ship. Down go the ramrods, sending huge charges home to
the breech, and volley after volley is fired. The flags are fluttered;
the banner of America is in front waving joyfully; the guide is in the
zenith of his glory. The former residents of Zanzita will know it
directly, and will wonder--as well they may--as to what it means. Never
were the Stars and Stripes so beautiful to my mind--the breeze of the
Tanganyika has such an effect on them. The guide blows his horn, and
the shrill, wild clangor of it is far and near; and still the cannon
muskets tell the noisy seconds. By this time the Arabs are fully
alarmed; the natives of Ujiji, Waguhha, Warundi, Wanguana, and I know
not whom, hurry up by the hundreds to ask what it all means--this
fusilading, shouting, and blowing of horns and flag flying. There are
Yambos shouted out to me by the dozen, and delighted Arabs have run up
breathlessly to shake my hands and ask anxiously where I came from. But
I have no patience with them. The expedition goes far too slow. I should
like to settle the vexed question by one personal view. Where is he? Has
he fled?


“Suddenly a man--a black man--at my elbow shouts in English, ‘How do you

“‘Hello! who are you?’ ‘I am the servant of Dr. Livingstone,’ he says;
but before I can ask any more questions he is running like a madman
toward the town.

“We have at last entered the town. There are hundreds of people around
me--I might say thousands without exaggeration, it seems to me. It is a
grand triumphal procession. As we move they move. All eyes are drawn
towards us. The expedition at last comes to a halt; the journey is ended
for a time; but I alone have a few more steps to make.

“There is a group of the most respectable Arabs, and as I come nearer I
see the white face of an old man among them. He has a cap with a gold
band around it, his dress is a short jacket of red blanket cloth and
pants. I am shaking hands with him. We raise our hats, and I say:--

“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?

“And he says, ‘Yes.’

“_Finis coronat opus._”

And thus was the goal won after long and toilsome and dangerous
journeyings, many hundred miles of them never before looked upon by the
eye of white man. It was a triumph magnificently demonstrating the
progress of humanity, science, and civilization; and it must be
universally regarded as an achievement remarkably and most happily
representative of the spirit of the age, since it was accomplished, not
by the power and wealth of prince, or potentate, or government, but by
the irrepressible enterprise of an AMERICAN NEWSPAPER.




  The Great Explorer as a Companion -- His Missionary Labors -- The
  Story of His Latest Explorations -- The Probable Sources of the Nile
  -- Great Lakes and Rivers -- The Country and People of Central Africa
  -- A Race of African Amazons -- Slave Trade -- A Horrid Massacre --
  The Discoverer Plundered.

Mr. Stanley, rather contrary, it would seem, to his expectations, found
Dr. Livingstone an exceedingly companionable and agreeable gentleman. He
had been led to suppose that the explorer of Africa was haughty and
reserved in manner. Instead, he found him hospitable, most generous, and
as open and unaffected as a child. He deferred reading his own letters,
brought by Mr. Stanley, until he had the general news of the world
during the long period in which he had been “lost.” Then, he read of
home, and gave the commander of the “Herald” expedition an account of
his explorations. The result of these interviews is contained in a
letter dated at Bunder Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, December 26, 1871, from
which we largely extract as follows:

“The goal was won. _Finis coronat opus._ I might here stop very
well--for Livingstone was found--only the ‘Herald’ I know will not be
satisfied with one story, so I will sit down to another; a story so
interesting, because he, the great traveller, the hero Livingstone,
tells most of it himself.

“Together we turned our faces towards his tembe. He pointed to the
veranda of his house, which was an unrailed platform, built of mud,
covered by wide overhanging eaves. He pointed to his own particular
seat, on a carpet of goatskins spread over a thick mat of palm leaf. I
protested against taking his seat, but he insisted, and I yielded. We
were seated, the Doctor and I, with our back to the wall, the Arabs to
our right and left and in front, the natives forming a dark perspective
beyond. Then began conversation; I forget what about; possibly about the
road I took from Unyanyembe, but I am not sure. I know the Doctor was
talking, and I was answering mechanically. I was conning the
indomitable, energetic, patient and persevering traveller, at whose side
I now sat in Central Africa. Every hair of his head and beard, every
line and wrinkle of his face, the wan face, the fatigued form, were all
imparting the intelligence to me which so many men so much desired. It
was deeply interesting intelligence and unvarnished truths these mute
but certain witnesses gave. They told me of the real nature of the work
in which he was engaged. Then his lips began to give me the
details--lips that cannot lie. I could not repeat what he said. He had
so much to say that he began at the end, seemingly oblivious of the fact
that nearly six years had to be accounted for. But the story came out
bit by bit, unreservedly--as unreservedly as if he was conversing with
Sir R. Murchison, his true friend and best on earth. The man’s heart was
gushing out, not in hurried sentences, in rapid utterances, in quick
relation--but in still and deep words. A happier companion, a truer
friend than the traveller, I could not wish for. He was always
polite--with a politeness of the genuine kind--and this politeness never
forsook him for an instant even in the midst of the most rugged scenes
and greatest difficulties. Upon my first introduction to him Livingstone
was to me like a huge tome, with a most unpretending binding. Within,
the book might contain much valuable lore and wisdom, but its exterior
gave no promise of what was within. Thus outside Livingstone gave no
token--except of being rudely dealt with by the wilderness--of what
element of power or talent lay within. He is a man of unpretending
appearance enough, has quiet, composed features, from which the
freshness of youth has quite departed, but which retains the mobility of
prime age just enough to show that there yet lives much endurance and
vigor within his frame. The eyes, which are hazel, are remarkably
bright, not dimmed in the least, though the whiskers and mustache are
very gray. The hair, originally brown, is streaked here and there with
gray over the temples, otherwise it might belong to a man of thirty. The
teeth above show indications of being worn out. The hard fare of Londa
and Manyema have made havoc in their ranks. His form is stoutish, a
little over the ordinary in height, with slightly bowed shoulders. When
walking he has the heavy step of an overworked and fatigued man. On his
head he wears the naval cap, with a round vizor, with which he has been
identified throughout Africa. His dress shows that at times he has had
to resort to the needle to repair and replace what travel has worn.
Such is Livingstone externally.


“Of the inner man much more may be said than of the outer. As he reveals
himself, bit by bit, to the stranger, a great many favorable points
present themselves, any of which taken singly might well dispose you
toward him. I had brought him a packet of letters, and though I urged
him again and again to defer conversation with me until he had read the
news from home and children, he said he would defer reading until night;
for the time he would enjoy being astonished by the European and any
general world news I could communicate. He had acquired the art of being
patient long ago, he said, and he had waited so long for letters that he
could well afford to wait a few hours more. So we sat and talked on that
humble veranda of one of the poorest houses in Ujiji. Talked quite
oblivious of the large concourse of Arabs, Wanguana, and Wajiji, who had
crowded around to see the new comer.

“The hours of that afternoon passed most pleasantly--few afternoons of
my life more so. It seemed to me as if I had met an old, old friend.
There was a friendly or good-natured _abandon_ about Livingstone which
was not lost on me. As host, welcoming one who spoke his language, he
did his duties with a spirit and style I have never seen elsewhere. He
had not much to offer, to be sure, but what he had was mine and his. The
wan features which I had thought shocked me at first meeting, the heavy
step which told of age and hard travel, the gray beard and stooping
shoulders belied the man. Underneath that aged and well spent exterior
lay an endless fund of high spirits, which now and then broke out in
peals of hearty laughter--the rugged frame enclosed a very young and
exuberant soul. The meal--I am not sure but what we ate three meals that
afternoon--was seasoned with innumerable jokes and pleasant anecdotes,
interesting hunting stories, of which his friends Webb, Oswell, Vardon,
and Cumming (Gordon Cumming) were always the chief actors. ‘You have
brought me new life,’ he said several times, so that I was not sure but
that there was some little hysteria in this joviality and abundant
animal spirits, but as I found it continued during several weeks I am
now disposed to think it natural.

“Another thing which specially attracted my attention was his
wonderfully retentive memory. When we remember the thirty years and more
he has spent in Africa, deprived of books, we may well think it an
uncommon memory that can recite whole poems of Burns, Byron, Tennyson,
and Longfellow. Even the poets Whittier and Lowell were far better known
to him than me. He knew an endless number of facts and names of persons
connected with America much better than I, though it was my peculiar
province as a journalist to have known them.

“Dr. Livingstone is a truly pious man--a man deeply imbued with real
religious instincts. The study of the man would not be complete if we
did not take the religious side of his character into consideration. His
religion, any more than his business, is not of the theoretical
kind--simply contenting itself with avowing its peculiar creed and
ignoring all other religions as wrong or weak. It is of the true,
practical kind, never losing a chance to manifest itself in a quiet,
practical way--never demonstrative or loud. It is always at work, if not
in deed, by shining example. It is not aggressive, which sometimes is
troublesome and often impertinent. In him religion exhibits its
loveliest features. It governs his conduct towards his servants, towards
the natives and towards the bigoted Mussulmans--all who come in contact
with him. Without religion Livingstone, with his ardent temperament, his
enthusiastic nature, his high spirit and courage, might have been an
uncompanionable man and a hard master. Religion has tamed all these
characteristics; nay, if he was ever possessed of them, they have been
thoroughly eradicated. Whatever was crude or wilful religion has
refined, and made him, to speak the earnest, sober truth, the most
agreeable of companions and indulgent of masters. Every Sunday morning
he gathers his little flock around him and has prayers read, in the tone
recommended by Archbishop Whatley--viz, natural, unaffected, and
sincere. Following them he delivers a short address in the Kisawahiti
language about what he has been reading from the Bible to them, which is
listened to with great attention.

“When I first met the Doctor I asked him if he did not feel a desire to
visit his country and take a little rest. He had then been absent about
six years, and the answer he gave me freely shows what kind of man he
is. Said he:--

“‘I would like very much to go home and see my children once again, but
I cannot bring my heart to abandon the task I have undertaken when it
is so nearly completed. It only requires six or seven months more to
trace the true source that I have discovered with Petherick’s branch of
the White Nile, or with the Albert Nyanza of Sir Samuel Baker. Why
should I go before my task is ended, to have to come back again to do
what I can very well do now?’ ‘And why,’ I asked, ‘did you come so far
back without finishing the short task which you say you have yet to do?’
‘Simply because I was forced; my men would not budge a step forward.
They mutinied and formed a secret resolution that if I still insisted on
going on to raise a disturbance in the country, and after they had
effected it to abandon me, in which case I should be killed. It was
dangerous to go any farther. I had explored six hundred miles of the
watershed, had traced all the principal streams which discharged their
waters into the central line of drainage, and when about starting to
explore the last one hundred miles the hearts of my people failed, and
they set about frustrating me in every possible way. Now, having
returned seven hundred miles to get a new supply of stores and another
escort, I find myself destitute of even the means to live but for a few
weeks, and sick in mind and body.’

“Again, about a week after I had arrived in Ujiji, I asked Livingstone
if he had examined the northern head of the Tanganyika. He answered
immediately he had not, and then asked if people expected he had.

“‘I did try before setting out for Manyema,’ he said, ‘to engage canoes
and proceed northward, but I soon saw that the people were all
confederating to fleece me as they had Burton, and had I gone under
such circumstances I should not have been able to proceed to Manyema to
explore the central line of drainage, and of course the most important
line--far more important than the line of the Tanganyika; for whatever
connection there may be between the Tanganyika and the Albert the true
sources of the Nile are those emptying into the central line of
drainage. In my own mind I have not the least doubt that the Rusizi
River flows from this lake into the Albert. For three months steadily I
observed a current setting northward. I verified it by means of water
plants. When Speke gives the altitude of the Tanganyika at only 1,880
feet above the sea I imagine he must have fallen into the error by
frequently writing the Anno Domini, and thus made a slip of the pen; for
the altitude is over two thousand eight hundred feet by boiling point,
though I make it a little over three thousand feet by barometers. Thus
you see that there are no very great natural difficulties on the score
of altitude, and nothing to prevent the reasonable supposition that
there may be a water connection by means of the Rusizi or some other
river between the two lakes. Besides, the Arabs here are divided in
their statements. Some swear that the river goes out of the Tanganyika,
others that it flows into the Tanganyika.’

“Dr. Livingstone left the island of Zanzibar in March, 1866. On the 7th
of the following month he departed from Mikindini Bay for the interior,
with an expedition consisting of twelve Sepoys from Bombay, nine men
from Johanna, of the Comoro Isles seven liberated slaves and two
Zambesi men (taking them as an experiment), six camels, three buffaloes,
two mules and three donkeys. He thus had thirty men, twelve of
whom--viz., the Sepoys--were to act as guards for the expedition. They
were mostly armed with the Enfield rifles presented to the Doctor by the
Bombay Government. The baggage of the expedition consisted of ten bales
of cloth and two bags of beads, which were to serve as currency by which
they would be enabled to purchase the necessaries of life in the
countries the Doctor intended to visit. Besides the cumbrous moneys they
carried several boxes of instruments, such as chronometers, air
thermometers, sextant and artificial horizon, boxes containing clothes,
medicines, and personal necessaries.

“The expedition travelled up the left bank of the Rovuma River, a route
as full of difficulties as any that could be chosen. For miles
Livingstone and his party had to cut their way with their axes through
the dense and most impenetrable jungles which lined the river’s banks.
The road was a mere footpath, leading in the almost erratic fashion, in
and through the dense vegetation, seeking the easiest outlet from it
without any regard to the course it ran. The pagazis were able to
proceed easily enough, but the camels, on account of their enormous
height, could not advance a step without the axes of the party first
clearing the way. These tools of foresters were almost always required,
but the advance of the expedition was often retarded by the
unwillingness of the Sepoys and Johanna men to work. Soon after the
departure of the expedition from the coast the murmurings and complaints
of these men began, and upon every occasion and at every opportunity
they evinced a decided hostility to an advance.

“The Doctor and his little party arrived on the 18th day of July, 1866,
at a village belonging to a chief of the Mahiyaw, situated eight days’
march south of the Rovuma and overlooking the watershed of the Lake
Nyassa. The territory lying between the Rovuma river and this Mahiyaw
chieftain was an uninhabited wilderness, during the transit of which
Livingstone and the expedition suffered considerably from hunger and
desertion of men.

“Early in August, 1866, the Doctor came to Mponda’s country, a chief who
dwelt near the Lake Nyassa. On the road thither two of the liberated
slaves deserted him. Here, also, Wakotani (not Wikotani) a _protege_ of
the Doctor, insisted upon his discharge, alleging as an excuse, which
the Doctor subsequently found to be untrue, that he had found his

Hence the explorer proceeded to the heel of Lake Nyassa where there is a
village of a Babisa chief. The chief was ill, and Doctor Livingstone
remained there for some time to give him medical aid. It was here that
he was deserted by his Johanna men, the chief of whom, Ali Moosa (or
Musa), pretended to give credence to a mournful story of plunder
perpetrated upon a certain half-caste Arab who had been along the
western shore of the lake. Though the explorer gave no faith to the Arab
story, he determined not to go among the Ma-zitu, reported so hostile,
and proceeded in a southwestern course for a considerable distance. The
correspondent’s letter goes on to say:

“As soon as he turned his face westward Musa and the Johanna men ran
away in a body. The Doctor says, in commenting upon Musa’s conduct, that
he felt strongly tempted to shoot Musa and another ringleader, but was
nevertheless glad that he did not soil his hands with their vile blood.
A day or two afterwards another of his men--Simon Price by name--came to
the Doctor with the same tale about the Ma-Zitu, but, compelled by the
scant number of his people to repress all such tendencies to desertion
and faint-heartedness, the Doctor ‘shut him up’ at once and forbade him
to utter the name of the Ma-Zitu any more. Had the natives not assisted
him he must have despaired of ever being able to penetrate the wild and
unexplored interior which he was now about to tread.

“‘Fortunately,’ as the Doctor says with unction, ‘I was in a country
now, after leaving the shores of the Nyassa, where the feet of the slave
trader had not trodden. It was a new and virgin land, and of course, as
I have always found it in such cases, the natives were really good and
hospitable, and for very small portions of cloth my baggage was conveyed
from village to village by them.’ In many other ways the traveller in
his extremity was kindly treated by the undefiled and unspoiled natives.
On leaving this hospitable region in the early part of December, 1866,
the Doctor entered a country where the Mazitu had exercised their
customary spoliating propensities. The land was swept clean of all
provisions and cattle, and the people had emigrated to other countries
beyond the bounds of these ferocious plunderers. Again the expedition
was besieged by famine, and was reduced to great extremity. To satisfy
the pinching hunger it suffered it had recourse to the wild fruits which
some parts of the country furnished. At intervals the condition of the
hard-pressed band was made worse by the heartless desertion of some of
its members, who more than once departed with the Doctor’s personal
kit--changes of clothes and linen, etc. With more or less misfortunes
constantly dogging his footsteps, he traversed in safety the countries
of the Babisa, Bobemba, Barungu, Baulungu, and Londa.

“In the country of Londa lives the famous Cazembe--made known to
Europeans first by Dr. Lacerda, the Portuguese traveller. Cazembe is a
most intelligent prince; is a tall, stalwart man, who wears a peculiar
kind of dress, made of crimson print, in the form of a prodigious kilt.
The mode of arranging it is most ludicrous. All the folds of this
enormous kilt are massed in front, which causes him to look as if the
peculiarities of the human body were reversed in his case. The abdominal
parts are thus covered with a balloon-like expansion of cloth, while the
lumbar region, which is by us jealously clothed, with him is only half
draped by a narrow curtain which by no means suffices to obscure its
naturally fine proportions. In this state dress King Cazembe received
Dr. Livingstone, surrounded by his chiefs and body guards. A chief, who
had been deputed by the King and elders to find out all about the white
man, then stood up before the assembly, and in a loud voice gave the
result of the inquiry he had instituted. He had heard the white man had
come to look for waters, for rivers and seas. Though he did not
understand what the white man could want with such things, he had no
doubt that the object was good. Then Cazembe asked what the Doctor
proposed doing and where he thought of going. The Doctor replied that he
had thought of going south, as he had heard of lakes and rivers being in
that direction. Cazembe asked: ‘What can you want to go there for? The
water is close here. There is plenty of large water in this
neighborhood.’ Before breaking up the assembly Cazembe gave orders to
let the white man go where he would through his country undisturbed and
unmolested. He was the first Englishman he had seen, he said, and he
liked him.

“Shortly after his introduction to the King the Queen entered the large
house surrounded by a body guard of Amazons armed with spears. She was a
fine, tall, handsome young woman, and evidently thought she was about to
make a great impression upon the rustic white man, for she had clothed
herself after a most royal fashion, and was armed with a ponderous
spear. But her appearance, so different from what the Doctor had
imagined, caused him to laugh, which entirely spoiled the effect
intended, for the laugh of the Doctor was so contagious that she herself
was the first who imitated, and the Amazons, courtier-like, followed
suit. Much disconcerted by this, the Queen ran back, followed by her
obedient damsels--a retreat most undignified and unqueenlike compared
to her majestic advent into the Doctor’s presence.

“Soon after his arrival in the country of Londa, or Lunda, and before he
had entered the district of Cazembe, he had crossed a river called the
Chambezi, which was quite an important stream. The similarity of the
name with that large and noble river south, which will be forever
connected with his name, misled Livingstone at that time, and he
accordingly did not pay it the attention it deserved, believing that the
Chambezi was but the head-waters of the Zambezi, and consequently had no
bearing or connection with the sources of the river of Egypt, of which
he was in search. His fault was in relying too implicitly upon the
correctness of Portuguese information. This error cost him many months
of tedious labor and travel. But these travels and tedious labors of his
in Londa and the adjacent countries have established beyond doubt,
first, that the Chambezi is a totally distinct river from the Zambezi of
the Portuguese, and secondly, that the Chambezi, starting from about
latitude eleven degrees south, is none other than the most southerly
feeder of the great Nile, thus giving this famous river a length of over
two thousand six hundred miles of direct latitude, making it second to
the Mississippi, the longest river in the world. The real and true name
of the Zambezi is Dombazi. When Lacuda and his Portuguese successors
came to Cazembe, crossed the Chambezi and heard its name, they very
naturally set it down as ‘our own Zambezi,’ and without further
inquiry sketched it as running in that direction.

[Illustration: AMAZON WARRIORS.]

“During his researches in that region, so pregnant in discoveries,
Livingstone came to a lake lying northeast of Cazembe, which the natives
called Liemba, from the country of that name, which bordered it on the
east and south. In tracing the lake north he found it to be none other
than the Tanganyika, or the southeastern extremity of it, which looks on
the Doctor’s map very much like an outline of Italy. The latitude of the
southern end of this great body of water is about nine degrees south,
which gives it thus a length, from north to south, of 360 geographical

“From the southern extremity of the Tanganyika he crossed Marungu and
came in sight of Lake Moero. Tracing this lake, which is about sixty
miles in length, to its southern head, he found a river called the
Luapula entering it from that direction. Following the Luapula south he
found it issue from the large lake of Bangweolo, which is as large in
superficial area as the Tanganyika. In exploring for the waters which
emptied into the lake he found by far the most important of these
feeders was the Chambezi. So that he had thus traced the Chambezi from
its source to Lake Bangweolo, and issue from its northern head under the
name of Luapula, and found it enter Lake Moero. Again he returned to
Cazembe, well satisfied that the river running north through three
degrees of latitude could not be the river running south under the name
of the Zambezi, though there might be a remarkable resemblance in their

“At Cazembe he found an old white-bearded half-caste named Mohammed ben
Salih, who was kept as a kind of prisoner at large by the King because
of certain suspicious circumstance attending his advent and stay in his
country. Through Livingstone’s influence Mohammed ben Salih obtained his
release. On the road to Ujiji he had bitter cause to regret having
exerted himself in the half-caste’s behalf. He turned out to be a most
ungrateful wretch, who poisoned the minds of the Doctor’s few followers
and ingratiated himself in their favor by selling the favors of his
concubines to them, thus reducing them to a kind of bondage under him.
From the day he had the vile old man in his company manifold and bitter
misfortunes followed the Doctor up to his arrival in Ujiji, in March,

“From the date of his arrival until the end of June (1869) he remained
in Ujiji, whence he dated those letters which, though the outside world
still doubted his being alive, satisfied the minds of the Royal
Geographical people and his intimate friends that he was alive, and
Musa’s tale an ingenious but false fabrication of a cowardly deserter.
It was during this time that the thought occurred to him of sailing
around the Lake Tanganyika, but the Arabs and natives were so bent upon
fleecing him that, had he undertaken it the remainder of his goods would
not have enabled him to explore the central line of drainage, the
initial point of which he found far south of Cazembe, in about latitude
11 degrees, in the river Chambezi. In the days when tired Captain
Burton was resting in Ujiji, after his march from the coast near
Zanzibar, the land to which Livingstone, on his departure from Ujiji,
bent his steps, was unknown to the Arabs save by vague report. Messrs.
Burton and Speke never heard of it, it seems. Speke, who was the
geographer of Burton’s expedition, heard of a place called Uruwa, which
he placed on his map according to the general direction indicated by the
Arabs; but the most enterprising of the Arabs, in their search after
ivory, only touched the frontiers of Rua, as the natives and Livingstone
call it; for Rua is an immense country, with a length of six degrees of
latitude and as yet an undefined breadth from east to west.

“At the end of June, 1869, Livingstone took _dhow_ at Ujiji and crossed
over to Uguhha, on the western shore, for his last and greatest series
of explorations, the result of which was the discovery of a series of
lakes of great magnitude connected together by a large river called by
different names as it left one lake to flow to another. From the port of
Uguhha he set off in company with a body of traders, in an almost direct
westerly course, through the lake country of Uguhha. Fifteen days march
brought them to Bambarre, the first important ivory depot in Manyema,
or, as the natives pronounce it, Manuyema. For nearly six months he was
detained at Bambarre from ulcers in the feet, with copious discharges of
bloody ichor oozing from the sores as soon as he set his feet on the
ground. When well, he set off in a northerly direction, and, after
several days, came to a broad, lacustrine river, called the Lualaba,
flowing northward and westward, and, in some places southward, in a most
confusing way. The river was from one to three miles broad. By exceeding
pertinacity he contrived to follow its erratic course until he saw the
Lualaba enter the narrow but lengthy lake of Kamolondo, in about
latitude 6 deg. 30 min. south. Retracing it south he came to the point
where he had seen the Luapula enter Lake Moero.

“One feels quite enthusiastic when listening to Livingstone’s
description of the beauties of Moero scenery. Pent in on all sides by
high mountains clothed to their tips with the richest vegetation of the
tropics, Moero discharges its superfluous waters through a deep rent in
the bosom of the mountains. The impetuous and grand river roars through
the chasm with the thunder of a cataract; but soon after leaving its
confined and deep bed it expands into the calm and broad
Lualaba--expanding over miles of ground, making great bends west and
southwest, then, curving northward, enters Kamolondo. By the natives it
is called the Lualaba, but the Doctor, in order to distinguish it from
the other rivers of the same name, has given it the name of Webb’s
River, after Mr. Webb, the wealthy proprietor of Newstead Abbey, whom
the Doctor distinguishes as one of his oldest and most consistent
friends. Away to the southwest from Kamolondo is another large lake,
which discharges its waters by the important river Locki, or Lomami,
into the great Lualaba. To this lake, known as Chebungo by the natives,
Dr. Livingstone has given the name of Lincoln, to be hereafter
distinguished on maps and in books as Lake Lincoln, in memory of Abraham
Lincoln, our murdered President. This was done from the vivid impression
produced on his mind by hearing a portion of his inauguration speech
read from an English pulpit, which related to the causes that induced
him to issue his emancipation proclamation. To the memory of the man
whose labors in behalf of the negro race deserved the commendation of
all good men Livingstone has contributed a monument more durable than
brass or stone.

“Entering Webb’s River from the south-southwest, a little north of
Kamolondo, is a large river called the Lufira, but the streams that
discharge themselves from the watershed into the Lualaba are so numerous
that the Doctor’s map would not contain them, so he has left all out
except the most important. Continuing his way north, tracing the Luabala
through its manifold and crooked curves as far as latitude four degrees
south, he came to another large lake called the Unknown Lake; but here
you may come to a dead halt, and read it thus:--* * * * * *. Here was
the furthermost point. From here he was compelled to return on the weary
road to Ujiji, a distance of 600 miles.

“In this brief sketch of Doctor Livingstone’s wonderful travels it is to
be hoped that the most superficial reader as well as the student of
geography, comprehends this grand system of lakes connected together by
Webb’s river. To assist him, let him procure a map of Africa, embracing
the latest discoveries. Two degrees south of the Tanganyika, and two
degrees west let him draw the outlines of a lake, its greatest length
from east to west, and let him call it Bangweolo. One degree or
thereabout to the northwest let him sketch the outlines of another but
smaller lake and call it Moero; a degree again north of Moero another
lake of similar size, and call it Kamolondo, and still a degree north of
Kamolondo another lake, large and as yet undefined limits, which, in the
absence of any specific term; we will call the Nameless Lake. Then let
him connect these several lakes by a river called after different names.
Thus, the main feeder of Bangweolo, the Chambezi; the river which issues
out of Bangweolo and runs into Moero, the Luapula; the river connecting
Moero with Kamolondo, Webb’s river; that which runs from Kamolondo into
the Nameless Lake northward, the Lualaba; and let him write in bold
letters over the rivers Chambezi, Luapula, Webb’s River and the Lualaba
the ‘Nile,’ for these are all one and the same river. Again, west of
Moero Lake, about one degree or thereabouts, another large lake may be
placed on his map, with a river running diagonally across to meet the
Lualaba north of Lake Kamolondo. This new lake is Lake Lincoln, and the
river is the Lomami River, the confluence of which with the Lualaba is
between Kamolondo and the Nameless Lake. Taken altogether, the reader
may be said to have a very fair idea of what Dr. Livingstone has been
doing these long years, and what additions he has made to the study of
African geography. That this river, distinguished under several titles,
flowing from one lake into another in a northerly direction, with all
its great crooked bends and sinuosities is the Nile, the true Nile, the
Doctor has not the least doubt. For a long time he did doubt, because of
its deep bends and curves--west, and southwest even--but having traced
it from its headwaters, the Chambezi, through seven degrees of
latitude--that is, from latitude eleven degrees south to a little north
of latitude four degrees south--he has been compelled to come to the
conclusion that it can be no other river than the Nile. He had thought
it was the Congo, but he has discovered the sources of the Congo to be
the Kasai and the Quango, two rivers which rise on the western side of
the Nile watershed in about the latitude of Bangweolo; and he was told
of another river called the Lubilash, which rose from the north and ran
west. But the Lualaba the Doctor thinks cannot be the Congo, from its
great size and body and from its steady and continual flow northward
through a broad and extensive valley, bounded by enormous mountains,
westerly and easterly. The altitude of the most northerly point to which
the Doctor traced the wonderful river was a little over two thousand
feet, so that though Baker makes out his lake to be two thousand seven
hundred feet above the sea, yet the Bahr Ghazal, through which
Petherick’s branch of the White Nile issues into the Nile is only a
little over two thousand feet, in which case there is a possibility that
the Lualaba may be none other than Petherick’s branch. It is well known
that trading stations for ivory have been established for about five
hundred miles up Petherick’s branch. We must remember this fact when
told that Gondokoro, in latitude four degrees north, is two thousand
feet above the sea, and latitude four degrees south, where the Doctor
was halted, is only a little over two thousand feet above the sea. That
two rivers, said to be two thousand feet above the sea, separated from
each other by eight degrees of latitude, are the same stream may, among
some men, be regarded as a startling statement. But we must restrain
mere expressions of surprise and take into consideration that this
mighty and broad Lualaba is a lacustrine river--broader than the
Mississippi--and think of our own rivers, which, though shallow, are
exceedingly broad. We must wait also until the altitude of the two
rivers--the Lualaba, where the Doctor halted, and the southern point on
the Bahr Ghazal, where Petherick has been--are known with perfect


“Webb’s River, or the Lualaba, from Bangweolo is a lacustrine river,
expanding from one to three miles in breadth. At intervals it forms
extensive lakes, then contracting into a broad river it again forms a
lake, and so on to latitude four degrees north, and beyond this point
the Doctor heard of a large lake again north. Now, for the sake of
argument, suppose we give this nameless lake a length of four degrees
latitude, as it may be the one discovered by Piaggia, the Italian
traveller, from which Petherick’s branch of the White Nile issues out
through reeds, marshes and the Bahr Ghazal into the White Nile south of
Gondokoro. By this method we can suppose the rivers one--for the lakes
extending over so many degrees of latitude would obviate the necessity
of explaining the differences of latitude that must naturally exist
between the points of a river eight degrees of latitude apart. Also,
that Livingstone’s instruments for observation and taking altitude may
have been in error, and this is very likely to have been the case,
subjected as they have been to rough handling during nearly six years of

“Despite the apparent difficulty about the altitude, there is another
strong reason for believing Webb’s River, or the Lualaba, to be the
Nile. The watershed of this river, 600 miles of which Livingstone has
travelled, is drained by a valley which lies north and south between the
eastern and western ranges of the watershed. This valley or line of
drainage, while it does not receive the Kasai and the Quango, receives
rivers flowing from a great distance west--for instance, the important
tributaries Lufira and Lomami and large rivers from the east, such as
the Lindi and Luamo; and while the most intelligent Portuguese
travellers and traders state that the Kasai, the Quango and Lubilash are
the head waters of the Congo river, no one as yet has started the
supposition that the grand river flowing north and known to the natives
as the Lualaba, was the Congo. If this river is not the Nile where,
then, are the head waters of the Nile? The small river running out of
the Victoria Nyanza and the river flowing out of the little Lake Albert
have not sufficient water to form the great river of Egypt. As you glide
down the Nile and note the Asna, the Geraffe, the Sobat, the Blue Nile
and Atbara, and follow the river down to Egypt, it cannot fail to
impress you that it requires many more streams, or one large river,
larger than all yet discovered, to influence its inundations and
replace the waste of its flow through a thousand miles of desert.
Perhaps a more critical survey of the Bahr Ghazal would prove that the
Nile is influenced by the waters that pour through ‘the small piece of
water resembling a duck pond buried in a sea of rushes,’ as Speke
describes the Bahr Ghazal. Livingstone’s discovery answers the question
and satisfies the intelligent hundreds, who, though Bruce and Speke and
Baker, each in his turn had declared he had found the Nile, the only and
true Nile sources, yet doubted and hesitated to accept the enthusiastic
assertions as a final solution of the Nile problem. Even yet, according
to Livingstone the Nile sources have not been found; though he has
traced the Lualaba through seven degrees of latitude flowing north, and
though neither he nor I have a particle of doubt of its being the Nile,
not yet can the Nile question be said to be ended for three reasons--

“_First_--He has heard of the existence of four fountains, two of which
give birth to a river flowing north--Webb’s River, or the Lualaba; two
to a river flowing south, which is the Zambezi. He has heard of these
fountains repeatedly from the natives. Several times he has been within
one hundred and two hundred miles from them, but something always
interposed to prevent him going to see them. According to those who have
seen them, they rise on either side of a mound or hill which contains no
stones. Some have even called it an ant hill. One of these fountains is
said to be so large that a man standing on one side cannot be seen from
the other. These fountains must be discovered, and their position
taken. The Doctor does not suppose them to lie south of the feeders of
Lake Bangweolo.

“_Second_--Webb’s River must be traced to its connection with some
portion of the old Nile.

“_Third_--The connection between the Tanganyika and the Albert Nyanza
must be ascertained.

“When these three things have been accomplished, then, and not till
then, can the mystery of the Nile be explained. The two countries
through which this marvellous lacustrine river--the Lualaba--flows, with
its manifold lakes and broad expanses of water, are Rua--the Uruwa of
Speke--and Manyema. For the first time Europe is made aware that between
the Tanganyika and the known sources of the Congo there exist teeming
millions of the negro race who never saw or heard of the white peoples
who make such noisy and busy stir outside of Africa. Upon the minds of
those who had the good fortune to see the first specimen of these
remarkable white races Livingstone seems to have made a favorable
impression, though, through misunderstanding his object and coupling him
with the Arabs who make horrible work there, his life has been sought
after more than once.

“These two extensive countries, Rua and Manyema, are populated by true
heathens--governed not as the sovereignties of Karagwah, Wumdi, and
Uganda by despotic kings, but each village by its own sultan or lord.
Thirty miles outside of their own immediate settlements the most
intelligent of those small chiefs seem to know nothing. Thirty miles
from the Lualaba there were but few people who had ever heard of the
great river. Such ignorance among the natives of their own countries, of
course, increased the labors of Livingstone. Compared with these all
tribes and nations in Africa with whom Livingstone came in contact may
be deemed civilized. Yet in the arts of home manufacture these wild
people of Manyema are far superior to any he had seen. When other tribes
and nations contented themselves with hides and skins of animals thrown
negligently over their shoulders the people of Manyema manufactured a
cloth from fine grass which may favorably compare with the finest grass
cloth of India. They also know the art of dyeing in various
colors--black, yellow, and purple. The Wanguana or freed men of
Zanzibar, struck with the beauty of this fine grass fabric, eagerly
exchange their cotton cloths for fine grass cloth, and on almost every
black man returned from Manyema I have seen this native cloth converted
into elegantly made _damirs_ (Arabic)--short jackets.

“These countries are also very rich in ivory. The fever for going to
Manyema to exchange their tawdry beads for the precious tusks of Manyema
is of the same kind as that which impelled men to the gulches and
placers of California, Colorado, Montana, and Idaho; after nuggets to
Australia, and diamonds to Cape Colony. Manyema is at present the El
Dorado of the Arabs and the Wamrima tribes. It is only about four years
since the first Arab returned from Manyema with such wealth of ivory and
reports about the fabulous quantities found there that ever since the
old beaten tracks of Karagwah, Uganda, Ufipa and Marungu have been
comparatively deserted. The people of Manyema, ignorant of the value of
the precious article, reared their huts upon ivory stanchions. Ivory
pillars and doors were common sights in Manyema, and hearing of these
one can no longer wonder at the ivory palace of Solomon. For generations
they had used ivory tusks as doorposts and eave stanchions, until they
had become perfectly rotten and worthless. But the advent of the Arabs
soon taught them the value of the article. It has now risen considerably
in price, though yet fabulously cheap. At Zanzibar the value of ivory
per frarsilah of thirty-five pounds weight is from fifty dollars to
sixty dollars, according to its quality. In Unyanyembe it is about one
dollar and ten cents per pound; but in Manyema it may be purchased for
from half a cent to one and a quarter cent’s worth of copper per pound
of ivory.

[Illustration: AN AFRICAN BELLE.]

“The Arabs, however, have the knack of spoiling markets by their
rapacity and wanton cruelty. With muskets a small party of Arabs are
invincible against such people as those of Manyema, who until lately
never heard the sound of a gun. The report of a musket inspires mortal
terror in them, and it is almost impossible to induce them to face the
muzzle of a gun. They believe that the Arabs have stolen the lightning,
and that against such people the bow and arrow can have but little
effect. They are by no means devoid of courage, and they have often
declared that were it not for the guns not one Arab would leave the
country alive, which tends to prove that they would willingly engage in
fight with the strangers, who have made themselves so detestable, were
it not that the startling explosion of gunpowder inspires them with such

“Into whichever country the Arabs enter they contrive to render their
name and race abominated. But the mainspring of it all is not the Arab’s
nature, color, or name, but simply the slave trade. So long as the slave
trade is permitted to be kept up at Zanzibar so long will these
otherwise enterprising people, the Arabs, kindle against them throughout
Africa the hatred of the natives. The accounts which the Doctor brings
from that new region are most deplorable. He was an unwilling spectator
of a horrible deed--a massacre committed on the inhabitants of a
populous district--who had assembled in the market place, on the banks
of the Lualaba, as they had been accustomed to for ages. It seems the
Wa-Manyema are very fond of marketing, believing it to be the _summum
bonum_ of human enjoyment. They find unceasing pleasure in chaffering
with might and main for the least mite of their currency--the last
bead--and when they gain the point to which their peculiar talents are
devoted they feel intensely happy. The women are excessively fond of
their marketing, and as they are very beautiful, the market place must
possess considerable attractions for the male sex. It was on such a day,
with just such a scene, that Tagomoyo, a half-caste Arab, with his armed
slave escort, commenced an indiscriminate massacre by firing volley
after volley into the dense mass of human beings. It is supposed that
there were about two thousand present, and at the first sound of the
firing these poor people all made a rush for their canoes. In the
fearful hurry to avoid being shot the canoes were paddled away by the
first fortunate few who got possession of them. Those that were not so
fortunate sprang into the deep waters of the Lualaba, and, though many
of them became an easy prey to the voracious crocodiles that swarmed to
the scene, the majority received their deaths from the bullets of the
merciless Tagomoyo and his villainous band. The Doctor believes, as do
the Arabs themselves, that about four hundred people, mostly women and
children, lost their lives, while many more were made slaves. This scene
is only one of many such which he has unwillingly witnessed, and he is
utterly unable to describe the loathing he feels for the inhuman


“Slaves from Manyema command a higher price than those of any other
country, because of their fine forms and general docility. The women,
the Doctor says repeatedly, are remarkably pretty creatures, and have
nothing except their hair in common with the negroes of the West Coast.
They are of very light color, have fine noses, well-cut and not over
full lips, and a prognathous jaw is uncommon. These women are eagerly
sought after for wives by the half-castes of the East Coast, and even
the pure Amani Arabs do not disdain connection with them. To the north
of Manyema Livingstone came to a light-complexioned race of the color of
Portuguese, or our own Louisiana quadroons, who are very fine people,
and singularly remarkable for commercial ‘cuteness’ and sagacity. The
women are expert divers for oysters, which are found in great abundance
in the Lualaba.

“Rua, at a place called Katanga, is rich in copper. The copper mines of
this place have been worked for ages. In the bed of a stream gold has
been found washed down in pencil-shaped lumps or particles as large as
split peas. Two Arabs have gone thither to prospect for this metal, but
as they are ignorant of the art of gulch mining it is scarcely possible
that they will succeed.

“From these highly important and interesting discoveries Dr. Livingstone
was turned back when almost on the threshold of success by the positive
refusal of his men to accompany him further. They were afraid to go
unless accompanied by a large force of men, and as these were not
procurable in Manyema the Doctor reluctantly turned his face toward

“It was a long and weary road back. The journey had now no interest for
him. He had travelled it before when going westward, full of high hopes
and aspirations, impatient to reach the goal which promised him rest
from his labors; now returning unsuccessful, baffled and thwarted when
almost in sight of the end, and having to travel the same road back on
foot, with disappointed expectations and defeated hopes preying on his
mind, no wonder that the brave old spirit almost succumbed and the
strong constitution almost wrecked. He arrived at Ujiji October 26,
almost at death’s door. On the way he had been trying to cheer himself
up, since he had found it impossible to contend against the obstinacy of
his men, with ‘it won’t take long, five or six months more; it
matters not, since it can’t be helped. I have got my goods in Ujiji and
can hire other people and make a new start.’ These are the words and
hopes with which he tried to delude himself into the idea that all would
be right yet; but imagine, if you can, the shock he must have suffered
when he found that the man to whom was entrusted his goods for safe
keeping had sold every bale for ivory.


“The evening of the day Livingstone had returned to Ujiji, Susi and
Chuma, two of his most faithful men, were seen crying bitterly. The
Doctor asked them what ailed them, and was then informed for the first
time of the evil tidings that awaited him. Said they:--‘All our things
are sold, sir. Shereef has sold everything for ivory.’ Later in the
evening Shereef came to see him and shamelessly offered his hand, with a
salutatory ‘Yambo.’ Livingstone refused his hand, saying he could not
shake hands with a thief. As an excuse Shereef said he had divined on
the Koran and that had told him the Hakim (Arabic for Doctor) was dead.
Livingstone was now destitute. He had just enough to keep him and his
men alive for about a month, after which he would be forced to beg from
the Arabs. He had arrived in Ujiji October 26. The HERALD Expedition
arrived November 10, from the coast--only sixteen days difference. Had I
not been delayed at Unyanyembe by the war with Mirambo I should have
gone on to Manyema, and very likely have been traveling by one road,
while he would have been coming by another to Ujiji. Had I gone on two
years ago, when I first received the instructions, I should have lost
him without doubt. But I am detained by a series of circumstances, which
chafed and fretted me considerably at that time, only to permit him to
reach Ujiji sixteen days before I appeared. It was as if we were
marching to meet together at an appointed rendezvous--the one from the
west, the other from the east.

“The Doctor had heard of a white man being at Unyanyembe, who was said
to have boats with him, and he had thought he was another traveller sent
by the French government to replace Lieutenant Le Sainte, who died from
a fever a few miles above Gondokoro. I had not written to him because I
believed him to be dead, and of course my sudden entrance into Ujiji was
as great a surprise to him as it was to the Arabs. But the sight of the
American flag, which he saw waving in the van of the expedition,
indicated that one was coming who could speak his own language, and you
know already how the leader was received.”





  An Exploration of Tanganyika Lake -- Result -- Christmas at Ujiji --
  Livingstone Proceeds with Stanley to Unyanyembe -- Account of the
  Journey -- Alleged Neglect of Livingstone by the British Consulate at
  Zanzibar -- Departure of the Explorer for the Interior, and of Mr.
  Stanley for Europe.

It had been supposed by Dr. Livingstone that the waters of Tanganyika
Lake had outlet northward, and that they were, therefore, a part of the
necessarily vast sources of the great river of the continent whose
annual inundations are among the most wonderful illustrations in nature
of the more than majestic power of Almighty God. His many discoveries of
great lakes and rivers far to the westward of Tanganyika, their evident
connection in a system, similar to that of the great lakes of North
America at last forming the St. Lawrence river, flowing northward; the
natural necessity there is for immense sources of supply to the
Nile--these and other considerations left the explorer to imagine that
Tanganyika formed a part of the same system with that lake which he
named after an illustrious President of the United States. The commander
of the “Herald” expedition, therefore, with a fine appreciation of the
situation, offered his escort to Dr. Livingstone, with a proposal to
accompany him to the head of the lake. The offer was accepted, and the
explorer, as Mr. Stanley says, “like a hero, lost no time in starting.”

The account of this journey, or voyage, rather, for the party travelled
by boat, is given in a dispatch dated December 23, 1871, at Ujiji. It is
as follows:

“On the 20th of November Dr. Livingstone and your correspondent, with
twenty picked men of the HERALD Expedition Corps, started. Despite the
assertion of Arabs that the Warundi were dangerous and would not let us
pass, we hugged their coast closely, and when fatigued boldly encamped
in their country. Once only were we obliged to fly--and this was at dead
of night--from a large party which we knew to be surrounding us on the
land side. We got to the boat safely, and we might have punished them
severely had the Doctor been so disposed. Once also we were stoned, but
we paid no heed to them and kept on our way along their coast until we
arrived at Mokamba’s, one of the chiefs of Usige. Mokamba was at war
with a neighboring chief, who lived on the left bank of the Rusizi. That
did not deter us, and we crossed the head of the Tanganyika to
Mugihewah, governed by Ruhinga, brother of Mokamba.

“Mugihewah is a tract of country on the right bank of the Rusizi,
extending to the lake. With Mokamba and Ruhinga we became most intimate;
they proved to be sociable, good-natured chiefs, and gave most valuable
information concerning the countries lying to the north of Usige; and if
their information is correct, Sir Samuel Baker will be obliged to
curtail the ambitious dimensions of his lake by one degree, if not more.
A Mgwana, living at Mokamba’s, on the eastern shore of the lake, had
informed us that the River Rusizi certainly flowed out of the lake, and
after joining the Kitangule emptied into the Lake Nyanza (Victoria).

“When we entered Ruhinga’s territory of Mugihewah, we found ourselves
about 300 yards from the river about which a great deal has been said
and written. At Unyanyembe I was told that the Rusizi was an affluent.
At Ujiji all Arabs but one united in saying the same thing, and within
ten miles of the Rusizi a freedman of Zanzibar swore it was an affluent.

“On the morning of the eleventh day of our departure from Ujiji, we were
rowed towards the river. We came to a long, narrow bay, fringed on all
sides with tall, dense reeds and swarming with crocodiles and soon came
to the mouth of the Rusizi. As soon as we had entered the river all
doubt vanished before the strong, turbid flood against which we had to
contend in the ascent. After about ten minutes we entered what seemed a
lagoon, but which was the result of a late inundation. About an hour
higher up the river began to be confined to its proper banks, and is
about thirty yards broad, but very shallow.

“Two days higher up, Ruhinga told us, the Rusizi was joined by the
Loanda, coming from the northwest. There could be no mistake then. Dr.
Livingstone and myself had ascended it, had felt the force of the strong
inflowing current--the Rusizi was an influent, as much so as the
Malagarazi, the Linche, and Rugufu, but with its banks full it can only
be considered as ranking third among the rivers flowing into the
Tanganyika. Though rapid it is extremely shallow; it has three mouths,
up which an ordinary ship’s boat loaded might in vain attempt to ascend.
Burton and Speke, though they ascended to within six hours’ journey by
canoe from the Rusizi, were compelled to turn back by the cowardice of
the boatmen. Had they ascended to Meuta’s capital, they could easily
have seen the head of the lake. Usige is but a district of Wumdi,
governed by several small chiefs, who owe obedience to Mwezi, the great
King of Wumdi.

“We spent nine days at the head of the Tanganyika exploring the islands
and many bays that indent its shores.

“In returning to Ujiji we coasted along the west side of the Tanganyika,
as far as the country of the Wasansi, whom we had to leave on no
amicable terms owing to their hostility to Arabs, and arrived at Ujiji
on the 18th of December, having been absent twenty-eight days.

“Though the Rusizi River can no longer be a subject of curiosity to
geographers--and we are certain that there is no connection between the
Tanganyika and Baker’s Lake, or the Albert N’yanza--it is not yet
certain that there is no connection between the Tanganyika and the Nile
River. The western coast has not all been explored; and there is reason
to suppose that a river runs out of the Tanganyika through the deep
caverns of Kabogo Mountain, far under ground and out on the western side
of Kabogo into the Lualaba, or the Nile. Livingstone has seen the
river about forty miles or so west of Kabogo (about forty yards broad at
that place), but he does not know that it runs out of the mountain.


“This is one of the many things which he has yet to examine.”

It thus appearing that the Rusizi is an affluent, not an effluent, of
Tanganyika Lake, the expedition failed to sustain the explorer’s
hypothesis, but added a useful item of geographical knowledge to the
then existing stock. Nor does it follow that because the Rusizi flows
into the Tanganyika, there is no river flowing out of it into that
system of lakes which had before been discovered by the explorer, and of
which the Chambesi--almost a system of rivers itself--is the largest
affluent yet discovered. Should Dr. Livingstone’s hypothesis of an
effluent from the west shore of Tanganyika Lake not be sustained, and
its waters found to procure outlet by Lake Nyassa and the Zambesi, his
future discoveries will in all probability show a similar formation of
the continent in east central Africa to that which he discovered to be
the fact when he explored Lake Dilolo in the land of the Balonda.

The explorers remained in Ujiji until after “merry Christmas,” both
engaged much of the time in writing accounts of their explorations,
which have appeared or will yet appear in this volume. Meanwhile, they
had determined to make a journey together to Unyanyembe. This journey is
described in telegraphic brevity:

  KWIHARA, UNYANYEMBE, February 21, 1872.

  After spending Christmas at Ujiji Dr. Livingstone, escorted by the NEW
  YORK HERALD Expedition, composed of forty Wanguana soldiers, well
  armed, left for Unyanyembe on the 26th of December, 1871.

  In order to arrive safely, untroubled by wars and avaricious tribes,
  we sketched out a road to Unyanyembe, thus:--

  Seven days by water south to Urimba.

  Ten days across the uninhabited forests of Kawendi.

  Twenty days through Unkonongo, direct east.

  Twelve days north through Unkonongo.

  Thence five days into Unyanyembe, where we arrived without adventure
  of any kind, except killing zebras, buffaloes, and giraffes, after
  fifty-four days’ travel.

  The expedition suffered considerably from famine, and your
  correspondent from fever, but these are incidental to the march in
  this country.

  The Doctor tramped it on foot like a man of iron. On arrival at
  Unyanyembe I found that the Englishman Shaw whom I had turned back as
  useless, had about a month after his return succumbed to the climate
  of the interior and had died, as well as two Wanguana of the
  expedition who had been left behind sick. Thus during less than twelve
  months William Lawrence Farquhar, of Leith, Scotland, and John William
  Shaw, of London, England, the two white men I had engaged to assist
  me, had died; also eight baggage carriers and eight soldiers of the
  expedition had died.

  I was bold enough to advise the Doctor to permit the expedition to
  escort him to Unyanyembe, through the country it was made acquainted
  with while going to Ujiji, for the reason that were he to sit down at
  Ujiji until Mirambo was disposed of he might remain a year there, a
  prey to high expectations, ending always in bitter disappointment. I
  told him, as the Arabs of Unyanyembe were not equal to the task of
  conquering Mirambo, that it were better he should accompany the Herald
  expedition to Unyanyembe, and there take possession of the last lot of
  goods brought to him by a caravan which left the seacoast
  simultaneously with our expedition.

  The Doctor consented, and thus it was that he came so far back as

The “Herald” correspondent complains with much earnestness that Dr.
Livingstone has been neglected by the British consulate at Zanzibar.
Handsomely admitting the liberality of the British people and
government, he has hearty denunciations for those in authority at
Zanzibar. The contrast of their insufficiency with the enterprise of the
“Herald” expedition is remarkable. Mr. Stanley says: “Within the time
that the British Consul’s men took to convey Livingstone’s goods and
letters a distance of only 525 miles, the HERALD Expedition was formed,
and marched 2,059 English statute miles, and before the fourteenth month
of its departure from the seacoast the HERALD Expedition will have
arrived at the seacoast, be paid off and disbanded. In the matter of
supplies, then, being sent to Livingstone semi-annually or annually
there is no truth whatever. The cause is extreme apathy at Zanzibar and
the reckless character of the men sent. Where English gentlemen are so
liberal and money so plentiful it should be otherwise.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Upon this very delicate subject the “Herald” itself editorially remarks:

“On the question of Livingstone’s having received the supplies sent him
by his friends in England these letters will throw a startling light.
The carelessness, theft, and general mismanagement which overtook the
stores forwarded by the British Consulate at Zanzibar, usually wasted
and frittered these almost entirely away before they had time to reach
him. This cannot be better stated than in the HERALD commander’s words:
‘Your correspondent begs to inform his friends that the HERALD
Expedition found him turned back from his explorations when on the eve
of being terminated thoroughly by the very men sent to him by the
British Consulate; that the Expedition found him sitting down at Ujiji
utterly destitute, robbed by the very men sent by the British Consulate
at Zanzibar with his caravan; that the HERALD Expedition escorted him
to Unyanyembe only in time to save his last stock of goods, for they
were rapidly being made away with by the very men entrusted by the
British Consulate with the last lot of goods; that it was only by an
accident that your correspondent saw a packet of letters addressed to
Livingstone, and so, forcibly, took one of Livingstone’s men to carry
the letters to his employer.’”

The commander of the Search Expedition supplied Dr. Livingstone with
such supplies as he could command, in which were several bales of mixed
cloths, about one thousand pounds of assorted beads--all this is African
money--a large quantity of brass wire, a portable boat, revolvers,
carbines, and ammunition.

And thus Mr. Stanley was ready to depart for the sea coast. Bidding the
great explorer farewell, he left Kwihara on March 14, 1872, bending his
course toward Zanzibar by the usual caravan track. At Zanzibar he
forwarded “men and means” to the explorer of whom he had learned to
think so highly, by the aid of which he was doubtless the better enabled
to make his departure from Unyanyembe, and with more confident
anticipations of success.

Meanwhile the chief of the successful Search Expedition discharged his
men at Zanzibar, and by the way of Bombay, thence to Aden in
southwestern Arabia, the Red Sea, and the Suez Canal, found his way
rapidly to the abodes of those races of civilized men who had been
astonished and gratified by the summary of the remarkable success of his
enterprise which had preceded him.



  Mr. Stanley’s Despatches to the “Herald” -- They Create a Profound
  Sensation -- The Question of Authenticity of his Reports -- Conclusive
  Proof Thereof -- Testimony of the English Press, John Livingstone,
  Earl Granville, and the Queen of England Herself -- Mr. Stanley’s
  Reception in Europe -- At Paris -- In London -- The Brighton Banquet
  -- Honors from the Queen.

Mr. Stanley’s despatches to the “Herald” were sent through the London
bureau of that office. The noted telegram printed on the morning of July
2, 1872, announcing his arrival at Zanzibar and the discovery of
Livingstone, created a profound sensation. Followed by other cablegrams
giving reports of his journey towards Europe and of his reception at
Paris and elsewhere, the intelligence was received with almost as much
avidity as the news which came from day to day of the Franco-German war,
or that of the attempted revolution in Paris.

To some, however, the reports of Mr. Stanley’s great success were
incredible. There were those who did not believe he had seen
Livingstone, and who did believe that the story of the meeting--with, of
course, all the correspondence from Zanzibar, Unyanyembe, Ujiji, and
elsewhere--was but an adroitly-devised romance, after the fashion of
that of Ali Moosa, to cover up inglorious failure. It is needless now to
fully state the arguments upon which this incredulity was based.
Perhaps newspaper jealousy had something to do with it. Certainly it was
a matter of deep chagrin to many Englishmen that the British Government,
upon whose soil the sun never sets, should have been totally eclipsed by
the enterprise of private citizens of a rival nationality. Then there
were certain little errors--chiefly misprints and the excusable mistakes
of telegraphing long despatches great distances--which were claimed by
the doubting as showing that the so-called great Special Search
Expedition of the “Herald” was but a magnificent hoax, after all.
Moreover, the universal interest manifested in the subject gave a
splendid opportunity to adventurers, both male and female, to ventilate
themselves and become public characters. Hence, those who had known Mr.
Stanley as a native of Wales, and not of Missouri, or of this, that, or
the other country; who knew that he had not been a correspondent as had
been generally stated; and, in fine, who knew that many assertions in
regard to him were untrue--these adventurers became even more numerous
than the celebrated cow of the crumpled horn which originated the
terrible conflagration of Chicago, and then, with miraculous
self-multiplication, surpassed in number the cattle of a thousand hills,
and, mournfully ruminating over her sad mishap in kicking over the
kerosene lamp, became the observed of all observers in all Christian
lands, and at the same instant of astronomical and clock time.

It were needless to disguise the fact, however, that the statements of
those incredulous of the Search Expedition’s wonderful success, being
for some time constantly iterated and reiterated through the press,
had considerable effect upon the public mind, and actually left it for a
period in a state of painful uncertainty in regard to the fate of the
great explorer, the truth in regard to whom was earnestly desired by all
intelligent persons throughout Christendom. Happily, the authenticity of
Mr. Stanley’s reports were placed beyond reasonable doubt by a mass of
testimony against which no one could dispute.

[Illustration: SLAVE-ROBBERS’ CAMP.]

Much of that testimony has already appeared in this volume, different
portions in their appropriate places. These are:

1.--The letters of Dr. Livingstone to Earl Granville, which were
published by authority of the British Government. In these letters the
African explorer not only gratefully alludes to Mr. Stanley, but
expressly says his despatches are entrusted to his care because of the
great traveller’s belief in Mr. Stanley’s enterprise and capacity to
accomplish whatever he might undertake. In one of these despatches Dr.
Livingstone also states that he had given to the custody of Mr. Stanley
his journal of explorations, sealed, to be delivered to his daughter
when the commander of the Search Expedition of the “Herald” should
arrive in England.

2.--Upon Mr. Stanley’s arrival in England, this journal was promptly
forwarded to Miss Livingstone. Her acknowledgment was published in many
English and American journals. It was as follows:

  August 6th, 1872.             }

  DEAR SIR.--I write to say that I received last Saturday my father’s
  letters and the diary which were entrusted to you by him.

  I wish also to express to you my heartfelt gratitude for going in
  search of my father, and aiding him so nobly and bringing the
  long-looked-for letters safely.

  Believe me, yours truly,



3.--Dr. Livingstone’s letter of thanks to James Gordon Bennett, Esq.,
Jr., the handwriting of which was published in _fac-simile_ in the
“Herald,” and fully substantiated by Mr. John Livingstone, of Canada,
brother of the explorer, and more familiar with him and his handwriting
than any man living.

4.--The letter of John Livingstone to Mr. Blake, American Consul at
Hamilton, Ontario, in Canada, which was accompanied by a letter from Dr.
Livingstone, proving handwriting, and forwarded to the “Herald” through
the Department of State at Washington. This letter follows:

  LISTOWELL, August 24, 1872.

  F. N. BLAKE, Esq., United States Consul, Hamilton, Ontario.

  DEAR SIR.--Would you kindly oblige me by conveying in your official
  capacity to Mr. Bennett, proprietor of the New York “Herald,” and also
  to Mr. Stanley, the leader of the “Herald Livingstone Search
  Expedition,” my warmest congratulations on the successful issue of
  that expedition.

  Having noticed a number of articles in the public press reflecting
  doubts on the veracity of Mr. Stanley and the “Herald,” I am glad to
  be able to say that I place the most implicit confidence in the
  statements of Mr. Stanley and the “Herald.”

  I can also assure you that Dr. Livingstone holds the American
  Government and people in the highest estimation, principally on
  account of the late abolition of slavery in the United States, and I
  trust that his persistent efforts to check the nefarious traffic in
  slaves in Africa will be crowned with success.

  I am, yours respectfully,


5.--The Royal Geographical Society of London, fully persuaded of the
authenticity of Mr. Stanley’s reports, tendered him a formal reception
at Brighton. The meeting occurred, and caused a great deal of comment.

6.--The Sovereign of England herself, on more than one occasion,
tendered special honors to Mr. Stanley on account of his success in
finding Dr. Livingstone.

Evidence like this was not to be shaken by the asseverations of
penny-a-liners. It was regarded by the candid as absolutely conclusive.
Such, it is believed, would have been the result had Mr. Stanley been a
British subject instead of an American citizen. As the fact is, the case
for the “Herald” Expedition was almost immeasurably stronger. It was a
matter of profound chagrin to most of the English people that an
American enterprise should be successful in the search for one of the
most illustrious of Englishmen, whilst English expeditions should have
failed. Under such circumstances Mr. Stanley’s proofs had to be
absolutely unassailable and his credentials unanswerably satisfactory,
or they would not have been received at all. Both majesty and ministry
would have given the commander of the American enterprise the coldest
possible shoulder. Instead, they crowned him with laurels. The only
conclusion with reasonable minds could be that the “Herald” expedition
was a splendid success, and further doubt of it would only have been
stupid and cruel skepticism.[3]

  [3] It is not believed that anything further is needed to convince the
  public of what most of the intelligent public is already convinced;
  but it may be well to place on record the statements of a number of
  prominent journals of the world, and reference to the action of
  certain learned societies.

       *       *       *       *       *

  On July 4th, 1872, the London “Morning Post” said:

  “Far surpassing everything of local import in interest just now is the
  information afforded by the New York ‘Herald’ to the London press of
  the discovery of Dr. Livingstone. Far surpassing everything which has
  been hitherto achieved by journalistic enterprise is the discovery of
  the great African explorer--concerning whose fate the peoples of every
  civilized state in the world have been anxious for many years--by the
  special correspondent of a daily newspaper commissioned to find him.
  We are accustomed to laugh on this side of the Atlantic at the rage
  which prevails for a knowledge of what are classed as ‘big things’
  among our American kinsmen; but it is not only with a feeling of
  satisfaction, but also of kindred pride, that we express our
  admiration of this wonderful undertaking, which was conceived and has
  been carried to such a successful issue by the proprietor of our New
  York contemporary.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The London “Telegraph” of the same date says:

  “Yesterday we, in company with the whole people of Britain, listened
  to the narration of the outlines of a tale describing the
  accomplishment of a work as daring in its execution as that of Vasco
  de Gama, as solitary in its accompaniment as that of Robinson Crusoe,
  and quite as romantic in its progress as that of Marco Polo. The mind
  delights to realize, even in imagination, the moment when the gallant
  and indefatigable Stanley won his way in front of his little band of
  followers--making up in noise what it lacked in numbers--to the
  outskirts of Ujiji; and we must, all of us, envy the republic of the
  United States the fact that the American flag was carried proudly at
  the head of his force in happy agreement, and that under the banner of
  the Stars and Stripes he afforded succor to the lonely Briton.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  And thus the London “Daily News”:

  “The extraordinary narrative which has just been communicated to the
  world by the New York ‘Herald,’ supplies one of the most exciting
  stories which civilization has had since the revelation of the
  startling truths of Bruce. Mr. Stanley gives to his collation a
  somewhat picturesque coloring, but the grand fact remains that he
  found Livingstone notwithstanding, and not, as Sir Henry Rawlinson
  conjectured lately, that Livingstone found Stanley. It is not easy to
  imagine an enterprise more full of toil and peril than this strange
  journey of the lonely American, attended, to be sure, by a small but
  reluctant escort, in the hitherto trackless wilds of Africa and among
  people of native tribes of unknown names. It is wholly impossible not
  to admire the daring and perseverance which the American discovery has
  crowned with triumph.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  Said the Edinburgh (Scotland) “Courant”:

  “It is long since the columns of a newspaper have contained so vividly
  romantic and so startlingly wonderful a story as that which has just
  been told to us of the fortunes that befell Mr. Stanley in his quest
  after Livingstone, and of the most strange circumstances under which
  the object of that quest was fulfilled. The whole narrative reads,
  indeed, more like a forgotten episode from the travels of some Marco
  Polo or Vasco de Gama than, as it is, a truthful and unvarnished
  extract from the severe chronicle of nineteenth century fact.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  This brief extract from the London “Globe” of July 9:

  “The final discovery of Dr. Livingstone would seem to have been a
  bitter disappointment to a large class of his fellow countrymen. The
  doubt and mystery which hung around his fate promised to produce a
  perennial stream of quasi-scientific gossip, and to yield an endless
  crop of letters to the ‘Times.’ As it is, those ‘interested’ in the
  matter are reduced to patching the rags of the worn-out controversy.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The London “Times” of July 15th contained a long letter from Mr.
  Charles Beke, in which he fully answers a number of criticisms upon
  the Livingstone-Stanley despatches, the said criticisms having
  originated in British chagrin, not altogether inexcusable, at the fine
  success of the American enterprise. That great journal of July 27th
  editorially says:

  “To the enterprise of an American newspaper we are indebted for
  trustworthy information that Dr. Livingstone still lives and
  prosecutes his unexampled researches.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The London “Advertiser” of the date last mentioned also published a
  long leading article upon the subject, beginning:

  “In another column we publish the first letter from Dr. Livingstone
  which has been received in England. By the energy of the proprietor of
  the New York ‘Herald’ the great English traveller has been found and
  succored at a moment when he seemed to be upon his ‘last legs.’ In his
  own words, when Stanley arrived at Ujiji, ‘he thought he was dying
  upon his feet.’”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The London “Standard” of July 26th remarked with emphasis:

  “All doubts concerning the _bona fides_ of Mr. Stanley’s narratives of
  his adventures in Africa will now be laid at rest by the arrival of
  Dr. Livingstone’s letters. We shall, apparently, have to wait a little
  for the publication of the geographical despatches, as the report of
  an intended meeting of the Geographical Society on Monday for the
  purpose of hearing them read is unfounded. But it is satisfactory to
  feel that even the very faint suspicions cast on the authenticity of
  Mr. Stanley’s story are dissipated, and that we may absolutely rely
  upon the information which that gallant and triumphant traveller has
  brought home.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The Manchester (England) “Guardian” of July 29th, in an elaborate
  article in criticism of the English authorities because they had not
  organized a successful expedition, and had given the great explorer
  just cause for complaint, says the subject is one “which can be matter
  of no agreeable examination for any Englishman.” And it concludes:

  “Our magnificently equipped expedition did simply nothing; and it was
  reserved for Mr. Stanley, after his return to the coast, to organize a
  caravan with stores for Dr. Livingstone. ‘Before we left Zanzibar,’
  says Mr. New, ‘a caravan numbering fifty-seven men was packed, signed,
  sealed, addressed, and despatched, like so many packets of useful
  commodities, to the service and succor of Dr. Livingstone.’ What says
  England to all this?”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The Leeds (England) “Mercury” of the date last mentioned remarks:

  “The success of Mr. Stanley in his search for Dr. Livingstone is one
  of the most brilliant chapters in the history of newspaper enterprise.
  The expedition was an unprecedented one, and when it was first
  reported in this country there were few who did not laugh at it as a
  Yankee notion, conceived and started for the glorification of the New
  York ‘Herald’ and to gratify the vanity of Mr. James Gordon Bennett.
  The result has shown not only how little there was to laugh at, but
  how much there was to admire in such a project.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  The journals of continental Europe were not less emphatic in awarding
  unmixed praise to the successful expedition of the American journal,
  and Geographical Societies, from Italy to Russia, awarded gold medals
  to Mr. Stanley in recognition of his services in behalf of
  geographical knowledge.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Earl Granville, upon the receipt of Dr. Livingstone’s despatches,
  forwarded from Paris by Mr. Stanley, directed an official
  acknowledgment, which was as follows:

  “FOREIGN OFFICE, August 1, 1872.

  “SIR--I am directed by Earl Granville to acknowledge the receipt of a
  package containing letters and despatches from Dr. Livingstone, which
  you were good enough to deliver to Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris
  for transmission to this department, and I am to convey to you His
  Lordship’s thanks for taking charge of these interesting documents.

  “I am, your most obedient, humble servant,



  And on the next day Earl Granville himself wrote the following letter.

  “AUGUST 2, 1872.

  “SIR--I was not aware until you mentioned it that there was any doubt
  as to the authenticity of Dr. Livingstone’s despatches, which you
  delivered to Lord Lyons on the 31st of July; but, in consequence of
  what you have said, I have inquired into the matter, and I find that
  Mr. Hammond, the Under Secretary of the Foreign Office, and Mr. Wyld,
  the head of the Consular and Slave Trade Department, have not the
  slightest doubt as to the genuineness of the papers which have been
  received from Lord Lyons, and which are being printed.

  “I cannot omit this opportunity of expressing to you my admiration of
  the qualities which have enabled you to achieve the object of your
  mission, and to attain a result which has been hailed with so much
  enthusiasm both in the United States and in this country.

  “I am, sir, your obedient,



  As if all this were not enough we have the testimony of the Queen’s
  speech, delivered for Queen Victoria by commission, on the occasion of
  the prorogation of Parliament, on Saturday, August 10, 1872. The Queen
  said: “My government has taken steps intended to prepare the way for
  dealing more effectually with the slave trade on the east coast of
  Africa.” The London “Times” of the following Monday, in commenting on
  this portion of Her Majesty’s speech, said:

  “This paragraph is the most significant part of the throne speech, and
  we suppose it is not an error to connect the announcement which has
  just been made by Her Majesty with the recent discovery of Dr.
  Livingstone and the despatches to the Foreign Office brought by Mr.
  Stanley, of the New York ‘Herald,’ from the great traveler.”

       *       *       *       *       *

  It would be impossible, it is believed, to more completely demonstrate
  the hearty acknowledgment of the British Government of the success of
  the American enterprise--an acknowledgment which no earthly power but
  that of unanswerable truth could have compelled that Government to

From Zanzibar Stanley sailed across the Indian Ocean to Bombay, whence
he transmitted despatches announcing the success which had crowned his
long labors and journeyings. It was this intelligence, transmitted so
fully through the London office of the New York “Herald,” which so
gratifyingly startled the world about the time of the anniversary of
American independence in 1872. From Bombay, Mr. Stanley proceeded to
Europe by way of the Suez canal, reaching Aden, southwestern Arabia,
July 11; Port Said, the head of the Suez canal, on the 18th; and
arrived at Marseilles, in France, on the 24th. Here he was received with
kindest welcome, and to some extent besieged by gentlemen of his own
profession, who transmitted to their journals accounts of his doings.
At Paris a few days afterwards he was received with exhilarating
hospitality by the American residents of the city, and was greatly
lionized generally. Breakfasting with Hon. Elihu B. Washburne, American
Minister, he there met among other distinguished guests, General William
T. Sherman, the commanding officer of the Army of the United States,
about completing a tour of Europe and the Levant. The General occupied
much of the time in examining Mr. Stanley’s maps, and discharging some
of his fund of caustic humor on the prevalence of the East African slave
trade. On July 30th, Minister Washburne and many other Americans in
Paris extended a formal invitation to Mr. Stanley to meet them at a
banquet, where they might in a body testify their “high appreciation of
the indomitable courage, energy, and perseverance which crowned with
such brilliant success your efforts to find Dr. Livingstone, as well as
to express their sense of the enterprise and liberality of the New York
‘Herald’ in sending you forth on such an extraordinary mission.”

Mr. Stanley’s reply to this cordial invitation was so modest, so happily
expressed, that it is worthy of a place here:

  HOTEL DU HELDER, PARIS, July 30, 1872.

  GENTLEMEN--I have received your letter of this date asking me to
  accept the compliment of a dinner from my compatriots and friends now
  resident in Paris, to be given in acknowledgment of the “enterprise
  and liberality of the New York Herald” in sending out an expedition in
  search of Dr. Livingstone, as well as of the extraordinary good
  fortune and perfect success which, under Providence, attended the
  footsteps of the expedition I had the honor to command. Gentlemen,
  believe me, I am deeply conscious of the great honor you would do me,
  and through me not only to the journal I have the pleasure of serving,
  but to the patient, resolute, brave and Christian gentleman whom I
  left in Central Africa. I therefore gladly accept your invitation, and
  shall be pleased to meet you July 31 at any house or place that may be
  deemed most convenient. I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your
  obedient and humble servant,


  To His Excellency E. B. Washburne, Minister Plenipotentiary of the
  United States of America, and many others.

The meeting was one of great enjoyment. The American Minister, after a
happy speech, richly flavored with American allusions, proposed the
guest of the evening--“Henry M. Stanley, the discoverer of the
discoverer: we honor him for his courage, energy, and fidelity. We
rejoice in the triumphant success of his mission, which has gained him
imperishable renown and conferred additional credit on the American
name.” To this the traveller responded felicitously, and was specially
eloquent when speaking of the great explorer of Africa. A number of
distinguished gentlemen--artists, journalists, public men--addressed the
meeting. The assemblage adjourned at a late hour, Mr. Stanley strongly
impressed with the difference between a Parisian banquet and an African
supper of manioc and hippopotamus. Other like honors flew upon him,
thick and fast. From scientific and literary bodies and from
distinguished persons he received invitations to accept which would have
occupied him a year. These things do not go to the author of a hoax,
however magnificent.

The traveller-correspondent could not long remain at the fashionable
metropolis, and at once departed for England. His reception in England
was most cordial on the part of most intelligent persons, but there was
a feeling of national chagrin, if one may so speak, on account of the
discovery of Dr. Livingstone having been brought about through American
enterprise, which vented itself in no little carping criticism and the
discharge of British atrabilariousness. Hence at once originated
that skepticism in regard to the discovery of the great explorer
which continued to becloud some minds and journals for a number of
weeks. But the publication of Dr. Livingstone’s several official
despatches--already largely quoted from in this work--and the prompt
production of other evidence, heretofore mentioned, brought the English
people quite generally to an acknowledgment of the truth. At the annual
meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which
convened at Brighton, August 14th, W. B. Carpenter, LL.D., in the chair,
Mr. Stanley’s successful mission was handsomely mentioned. He was twice
compelled to rise, in acknowledgment of calls and cheers. Ex-Emperor
Napoleon III. of France, was present and joined in the applause. Here at
another meeting, Mr. Stanley read a paper on Tanganyika Lake, which was
greatly praised. About this time there were many meetings of scientific
associations at Brighton, to all of which Mr. Stanley was invited. On
the occasion of what has been called “the Brighton Banquet,” it being a
dinner given to the British Association by the Brighton and Sussex
Medical Society, Mr. Stanley appeared late in the evening, and, being
soon called out, responded to some remarks of a previous speaker in such
way as to create some feeling. Good nature at last prevailed, and
harmony was restored among the English savants.

But his honors in England did not stop below the recognition of his fine
success by royalty itself. Early in September he was invited to an
interview with Queen Victoria, and afterwards dined with her and the
members of the royal family present at Balmoral. Upon this occasion the
Queen is reported to have expressed to him in the most warm and friendly
terms her congratulations on the successful result of the American
enterprise in furnishing intelligence of the English traveller in
Africa, his condition of health, his discoveries, and his hopes for the
future previous to his return to Great Britain.



  The Great Explorer Still in Search of the Sources of the Nile -- His
  Letters to the English Government on His Explorations --
  Correspondence with Lord Stanley, Lord Clarendon, Earl Granville, Dr.
  Kirk and James Gordon Bennett, Jr. -- His Own Descriptions of Central
  Africa and the Supposed Sources of the Nile -- The Country and People
  -- A Nation of Cannibals -- Beautiful Women -- Gorillas -- The
  Explorer’s Plans for the Future.

When Mr. Stanley bade good-bye to Dr. Livingstone in Unyanyembe, the
explorer entrusted to the care of the correspondent despatches to the
government, his journal, addressed to his daughter, and copies of
letters of which former messengers had been robbed. The letters, old and
new, to the representative of the British government at Zanzibar, Dr.
Kirk, and to different members of the British cabinet, were allowed to
be published. They give a full account of Dr. Livingstone’s explorations
among the supposed true sources of the Nile, and abundantly establish
the complete success of the “Herald” search expedition. The letters to
the British authorities thus sent to the press, August 1, 1872, through
the courtesy of Earl Granville, were: 1. A letter from Dr. Livingstone
to Lord Stanley, under date of November 15, 1870; 2. Two letters of
November 1, 1871, to Lord Clarendon; 3. A letter of November 14, 1871,
to Earl Granville; 4. Letter of October 30, 1871, to Dr. Kirk, British
Consul at Zanzibar; 5. Letter of December 18, 1871 to Earl Granville;
6. Letter of February 20, 1872, to Earl Granville.

The first of these despatches to his government is from “Bambarre,
Manyema country, say about one hundred and fifty miles west of Ujiji,
Nov. 15, 1870,” addressed to Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs. In this dispatch, much is contained which Dr.
Livingstone orally related to Mr. Stanley, of the “Herald,” and which
has already appeared in this work. The country of the Manyema, reputed
cannibals, is described generally thus:

“The country is extremely beautiful, but difficult to travel over. The
mountains of light gray granite stand like islands in new red sandstone,
and mountain and valley are all clad in a mantle of different shades of
green. The vegetation is indescribably rank. Through the grass--if grass
it can be called, which is over half an inch in diameter in the stalk
and from ten to twelve feet high--nothing but elephants can walk. The
leaves of this megatherium grass are armed with minute spikes, which, as
we worm our way along elephant walks, rub disagreeably on the side of
the face where the gun is held, and the hand is made sore by fending it
off the other side for hours. The rains were fairly set in by November;
and in the mornings, or after a shower, these leaves were loaded with a
moisture which wet us to the bone. The valleys are deeply undulating,
and in each innumerable dells have to be crossed. There may be only a
thread of water at the bottom, but the mud, mire or (_scottice_) ‘glaur’
is grevious; thirty or forty yards of the path on each side of the
stream are worked by the feet of passengers into an adhesive
compound. By placing a foot on each side of the narrow way one may
waddle a little distance along, but the rank crop of grasses, gingers,
and bushes cannot spare the few inches of soil required for the side of
the foot, and down he comes into the slough. The path often runs along
the bed of the rivulet for sixty or more yards, as if he who first cut
it out went that distance seeking for a part of the forest less dense
for his axe. In other cases the muale palm, from which here, as in
Madagascar, grass cloth is woven and called by the same name, ‘lamba,’
has taken possession of the valley. The leaf stalks, as thick as a
strong man’s arm, fall off and block up all passage save by a path made
and mixed up by the feet of elephants and buffaloes; the slough therein
is groan-compelling and deep.


“Some of the numerous rivers which in this region flow into Lualaba are
covered with living vegetable bridges--a species of dark glossy-leaved
grass, with its roots and leaves, felts itself into a mat that covers
the whole stream. When stepped upon it yields twelve or fifteen inches,
and that amount of water rises upon the leg. At every step the foot has
to be raised high enough to place it on the unbent mass in front. This
high stepping fatigues like walking on deep snow. Here and there holes
appear which we could not sound with a stick six feet long; they gave
the impression that anywhere one might plump through and finish the
chapter. Where the water is shallow the lotus, or sacred lily, sends its
roots to the bottom and spreads its broad leaves over the floating
bridge so as to make believe that the mat is its own, but the grass
referred to is the real felting and supporting agent, for it often
performs duty as bridge where no lilies grow. The bridge is called by
Manyema ‘kintefwetefwe,’ as if he who first coined it was gasping for
breath after plunging over a mile of it.

“Between each district of Manyema large belts of the primeval forest
still stand. Into these the sun, though vertical, cannot penetrate,
except by sending down at midday thin pencils of rays into the gloom.
The rain water stands for months in stagnant pools made by the feet of
elephants; and the dead leaves decay on the damp soil, and make the
water of the numerous rivulets of the color of strong tea. The climbing
plants, from the size of whipcord to that of a man-of-war’s hawser, are
so numerous the ancient path is the only passage. When one of the giant
trees falls across the road it forms a wall breast high to be climbed
over, and the mass of tangled ropes brought down makes cutting a path
round it a work of time which travellers never undertake.”

At this time, Dr. Livingstone was not persuaded that the Manyema were
men-eaters. Toward the conclusion of his letter to Lord Stanley, he thus
describes them:

“I lived in what may be called the Tipperary of Manyema, and they are
certainly a bloody people among themselves. But they are very far from
being in appearance like the ugly negroes on the West Coast. Finely
formed heads are common, and generally men and women are vastly superior
to the slaves of Zanzibar and elsewhere. We must go deeper than
phrenology to account for their low moral tone. If they are cannibals
they are not ostentatiously so. The neighboring tribes all assert that
they are men-eaters, and they themselves laughingly admit the charge.
But they like to impose on the credulous, and they showed the skull of a
recent victim to horrify one of my people. I found it to be the skull of
a gorilla, or soko--the first I knew of its existence here--and this
they do eat. If I had believed a tenth of what I heard from traders, I
might never have entered the country. Their people told tales with
shocking circumstantiality, as if of eye witnesses, that could not be
committed to paper, or even spoken about beneath the breath. Indeed, one
wishes them to vanish from memory. I have not yet been able to make up
my mind whether the Manyema are cannibals or not. I have offered goods
of sufficient value to tempt any of them to call me to see a cannibal
feast in the dark forests where these orgies are said to be held, but
hitherto in vain. All the real evidence yet obtained would elicit from a
Scotch jury the verdict only of ‘not proven.’”

The second despatch, a year later, is devoted to the expression of
thanks to Lord Clarendon, on account of the expedition of search under
Mr. Young, of which an account has already been given; to an explanation
of Ali Moosa’s story of the explorer’s death, and an earnest request
that the money expended on him and his fellow-impostors might be

The third document of the series, being also a letter to Lord
Clarendon, presents an account of Dr. Livingstone’s explorations and
views on the watershed of the Nile more _in extenso_ than anywhere else
given. It is certainly one of the most interesting and valuable
contributions to modern science. The readers of this volume cannot but
feel that a large share of this interesting document may appropriately
be quoted here.

“I have ascertained that the watershed of the Nile is a broad upland
between ten degrees and twelve degrees south latitude, and from 4,000 to
5,000 feet above the level of the sea. Mountains stand on it at various
points, which, though not apparently very high, are between 6,000 and
7,000 feet of actual altitude. The watershed is over 700 miles in
length, from west to east. The springs that rise on it are almost
innumerable--that is, it would take a large part of a man’s life to
count them. A bird’s-eye view of some parts of the watershed would
resemble the frost vegetation on window panes. They all begin in an ooze
at the head of a slightly depressed valley. A few hundred yards down the
quantity of water from oozing earthen sponge forms a brisk perennial
burn or brook a few feet broad, and deep enough to require a bridge.
These are the ultimate or primary sources of the great rivers that flow
to the north in the great Nile valley. The primaries unite and form
streams in general larger than the Isis at Oxford or Avon at Hamilton,
and may be called secondary sources. They never dry, but unite again
into four large lines of drainage, the head waters or mains of the river
of Egypt. These four are each called by the natives Lualaba, which, if
not too pedantic, may be spoken of as lacustrine rivers, extant
specimens of those which, in pre-historic times, abounded in Africa, and
which in the south are still called by Bechuanas ‘Melapo,’ in the north,
by Arabs, ‘Wadys;’ both words meaning the same thing--river bed in which
no water ever now flows. Two of the four great rivers mentioned fall
into the central Lualaba, or Webb’s Lake River, and then we have but two
main lines of drainage as depicted nearly by Ptolemy.

“In passing over sixty miles of latitude I waded thirty-two primary
sources from calf to waist deep, and requiring from twenty minutes to an
hour and a quarter to cross stream and sponge. This would give about one
source to every two miles. A Suaheli friend in passing along part of the
Lake Bangweolo during six days counted twenty-two from thigh to waist
deep. This lake is on the watershed, for the village at which I observed
on its northwest shore was a few seconds into eleven degrees south. I
tried to cross it in order to measure the breadth accurately. The first
stage to an inhabited island was about twenty-four miles. From the
highest point here the tops of the trees, evidently lifted by the
mirage, could be seen on the second stage and the third stage; the
mainland was said to be as far as this beyond it. But my canoe men had
stolen the canoe and got a hint that the real owners were in pursuit,
and got into a flurry to return home.

“The length of this lake is, at a very moderate estimate, 150 miles. It
gives forth a large body of water in the Luapula; yet lakes are in no
sense sources for no large river begins in a lake; but this and others
serve an important purpose in the phenomena of the Nile. It is one large
lake, and, unlike the Okara, which, according to Suaheli, who travelled
long in our company, is three or four lakes run into one huge Victoria
Nianza, gives out a large river which, on departing out of Moero, is
still larger. These men had spent many years east of Okara, and could
scarcely be mistaken in saying that of the three or four lakes there
only one (the Okara) gives off its waters to the north. The ‘White Nile’
of Speke, less by a full half than the Shire out of Nyassa (for it is
only eighty or ninety yards broad), can scarcely be named in comparison
with the central or Webb’s Lualaba, of from two thousand to six thousand
yards, in relation to the phenomena of the Nile. The structure and
economy of the watershed answer very much the same end as the great
lacustrine rivers, but I cannot at present copy a lost despatch which
explained that. The mountains on the watershed are probably what
Ptolemy, for reasons now unknown, called the Mountains of the Moon. From
their bases I found that the springs of the Nile do unquestionably
arise. This is just what Ptolemy put down, and is true geography. We
must accept the fountains, and nobody but Philistines will reject the
mountains, though we cannot conjecture the reason for the name.

“Before leaving the subject of the watershed, I may add that I know
about six hundred miles of it, but am not yet satisfied, for
unfortunately the seventh hundred is the most interesting of the whole.
I have a very strong impression that in the last hundred miles the
fountains of the Nile, mentioned to Herodotus by the Secretary of
Minerva in the city of Sais do arise, not like all the rest, from oozing
earthen sponges, but from an earthen mound, and half the water flows
northward to Egypt, the other half south to Inner Ethiopia. These
fountains, at no great distance off, become large rivers, though at the
mound they are not more than ten miles apart. That is, one fountain
rising on the northeast of the mound becomes Bartle Frere’s Lualaba, and
it flows into one of the lakes proper, Kamolondo, of the central line of
drainage; Webb’s Lualaba, the second fountain rising on the Northwest,
becomes (Sir Paraffin) Young’s Lualaba, which passing through Lake
Lincoln and becoming Loeki or Lomame, and joining the central line too,
goes north to Egypt. The third fountain on the southwest, Palmerston’s,
becomes the Liambia or Upper Zambesi; while the fourth, Oswell’s
fountain, becomes the Kafue, and falls into Zambesi in Inner Ethiopia.

“More time has been spent in the exploration than I ever anticipated.
Many a weary foot I trod ere I got a clear idea of the drainage of the
great Nile valley. The most intelligent natives and traders thought that
all the rivers of the upper part of that valley flowed into Tanganyika.
But the barometers told me that to do so the water must flow up hill.
The great rivers and the great lakes all make their waters converge into
the deep trough of the valley, which is a full inch of the barometer
lower than the Upper Tanganyika.

“Let me explain, but in no boastful style, the mistakes of others who
have bravely striven to solve the ancient problem, and it will be seen
that I have cogent reasons for following the painful, plodding
investigation to its conclusion. Poor Speke’s mistake was a foregone
conclusion. When he discovered the Victoria Nyansa he at once jumped to
the conclusion that therein lay the sources of the river of Egypt,
‘20,000 square miles of water,’ confused by sheer immensity. Ptolemy’s
small lake, Coloc, is a more correct representation of the actual size
of that one of three or four lakes which alone sends its outflow to the
north. Its name is Okara. Lake Kavirondo is three days distant from it,
but connected by a narrow arm. Lake Naibash, or Neibash, is four days
from Kavirondo. Baringo is ten days distant, and discharges by a river,
the Nagardabash, to the northeast.

“These three or four lakes, which have been described by several
intelligent Suaheli, who have lived for many years on their shores, were
run into one huge Victoria Nyanza. But no sooner did Speke and Grant
turn their faces to this lake, to prove that it contained the Nile
fountains, than they turned their backs to the springs of the river of
Egypt, which are between four hundred and five hundred miles south of
the most southerly portion of the Victoria Lake. Every step of their
heroic and really splendid achievement of following the river down took
them further and further from the sources they sought. But for the
devotion to the foregone conclusion the sight of the little ‘White
Nile,’ as unable to account for the great river, they must have turned
off to the west down into the deep trough of the great valley, and there
found lacustrine rivers amply sufficient to account for the Nile and all
its phenomena.

“But all that can in modern times and in common modesty be fairly
claimed is the re-discovery of what had sunk into oblivion, like the
circumnavigation of Africa by the Phœnician admirals of one of the
Pharaohs about B. C. 600. He was not believed because he reported that
in passing round Libya he had the sun on his right hand. This, to us who
have gone round the Cape from east to west, stamps his tale as genuine.
The predecessors of Ptolemy probably gained their information from men
who visited this very region, for in the second century of our era he
gave in substance what we now find to be genuine geography.

“The geographical results of four arduous trips in different directions
in the Manyema country are briefly as follows:--The great river, Webb’s
Lualaba, in the center of the Nile valley, makes a great bend to the
west, soon after leaving Lake Moero, of at least one hundred and eighty
miles; then, turning to the north for some distance, it makes another
large sweep west of about one hundred and twenty miles, in the course of
which about thirty miles of southing are made; it then draws round to
northeast, receives the Lomani, or Loeki, a large river which flows
through Lake Lincoln. After the union a large lake is formed, with many
inhabited islands in it; but this has still to be explored. It is the
fourth large lake in the central line of drainage, and cannot be Lake
Albert; for, assuming Speke’s longitude of Ujiji to be pretty correct,
and my reckoning not enormously wrong, the great central lacustrine
river is about five degrees west of Upper and Lower Tanganyika.

“Beyond the fourth lake the water passes, it is said, into large reedy
lakes, and is in all probability Petherick’s branch--the main stream of
the Nile--in distinction from the smaller eastern arm which Speke,
Grant, and Baker took to be the river of Egypt. In my attempts to
penetrate further and further I had but little hope of ultimate success,
for the great amount of westing led to a continued effort to suspend the
judgment, lest, after all, I might be exploring the Congo instead of the
Nile, and it was only after the two great western drains fell into the
central main, and left but the two great lacustrine rivers of Ptolemy,
that I felt pretty sure of being on the right track.

“The great bends west probably form one side of the great rivers above
that geographical loop, the other side being Upper Tanganyika and the
Lake River Albert. A waterfall is reported to exist between Tanganyika
and Albert Nyanza, but I could not go to it; nor have I seen the
connecting link between the two--the upper side of the loop--though I
believe it exists.

“The Manyema are certainly cannibals, but it was long ere I could get
evidence more positive than would have led a Scotch jury to give a
verdict of ‘not proven.’ They eat only enemies killed in war; they seem
as if instigated by revenge in their man-eating orgies, and on these
occasions they do not like a stranger to see them. I offered a large
reward in vain to any one who would call me to witness a cannibal feast.
Some intelligent men have told me that the meat is not nice and made
them dream of the dead. The women never partake, and I am glad of it,
for many of them far down Lualaba are very pretty; they bathe three or
four times a day and are expert divers for oysters.

“Markets are held at stated times and the women attend them in large
numbers, dressed in their best. They are light colored, have straight
noses, finely formed heads, small hands and feet and perfect forms; they
are keen traders, and look on the market as a great institution; to
haggle and joke and laugh and cheat seem the enjoyments of life. The
population, especially west of the river, is prodigiously large.

“Near Lomani the Bakuss or Bakoons cultivate coffee, and drink it highly
scented with vanilla. Food of all kinds is extremely abundant and cheap.
The men smelt iron from the black oxide ore, and are very good smiths;
they also smelt copper from the ore and make large ornaments very
cheaply. They are generally fine, tall, strapping fellows, far superior
to the Zanzibar slaves, and nothing of the West Coast negro, from whom
our ideas of Africans are chiefly derived, appears among them; no
prognathous jaws, barndoor mouth, nor lark heels are seen. Their defects
arise from absolute ignorance of all the world.

“There is not a single great chief in all Manyema. No matter what name
the different divisions of people bear--Manyema, Balegga, Babire,
Bazire, Bokoos--there is no political cohesion; not one king or
kingdom. Each head man is independent of every other. The people are
industrious, and most of them cultivate the soil largely. We found them
every where very honest. When detained at Bambarre we had to send our
goats and fowls to the Manyema villages to prevent them being all stolen
by the Zanzibar slaves.

“Manyema land is the only country in Central Africa I have seen where
cotton is not cultivated, spun, and woven. The clothing is that known in
Madagascar as ‘lambas’ or grass cloth, made from the leaves of the
‘Muale’ palm.”

This despatch, it will be observed, is about a year later than the one
to Lord Stanley, in which the statement occurs that the fact as to
whether the Manyema were man-eaters was “not proven,” though the
explorer observed that they ate the gorilla, of which beast Dr.
Livingstone evidently has a rather favorable opinion, as respects his
disposition, and as surely holds his gross stupidity as clearly
demonstrated. In the development of instinct, there appear to be several
animals in Africa approaching nearer the capacity of reflection than the

The next despatch is to Earl Granville, and is dated at Ujiji, November,
1871. It is almost wholly official, and relates in a clear and most
forcible manner, the insurmountable difficulties by reason of which he
had been forced to cease explorations at a time when a little longer
work would most probably have been crowned with complete success. It is
in this despatch that Dr. Livingstone relates the particulars of the
horrid massacre at Nyanme, the fearful outlines of which have appeared
in Mr. Stanley’s letter already quoted. On his return to Ujiji, Dr.
Livingstone narrowly escaped death three times in a single day from the
savages, who would not be persuaded that he did not belong to “the
traders” guilty of the massacre.

The despatch to Dr. Kirk, Consul at Zanzibar, is of interest, as showing
how the explorer had been annoyed, pained, and his plans frustrated by
the inefficiency of those charged with sending him supplies from
Zanzibar. In view of the dispute that has arisen upon this subject among
certain representatives of public opinion in the United States and
England, it may be well to show whether Dr. Livingstone himself thought
he had been well or ill treated. In a postscript to this communication,
he says, with evident reluctance and evident feeling:

“P. S.--November 16, 1871.--I regret the necessity of bringing the
foregoing very unpleasant subject before you, but I have just received
letters and information which make the matter doubly serious. Mr.
Churchill informed me by a letter of September 19, 1870, that Her
Majesty’s government had most kindly sent £1,000 for supplies, to be
forwarded to me. Some difficulties had occurred to prevent £500 worth
from starting, but in the beginning of November all were removed. But it
appears that you had recourse to slaves again, and one of these slaves
informs me that goods and slaves all remained at Bagamoio four months,
or till near the end of February, 1871. No one looked near them during
that time, but a rumor reached them that the Consul was coming, and off
they started, two days before your arrival, not on their business, but
on some private trip of your own. These slaves came to Unyanyembe in May
last, and there they lay till war broke out and gave them, in July, a
good excuse to lie there still.

“A whole year has thus been spent in feasting slaves on £500 sent by
government to me. Like the man who was tempted to despair when he broke
the photograph of his wife, I feel inclined to relinquish hope of ever
getting help from Zanzibar to finish the little work I have still to do.
I wanted men, not slaves, and free men are abundant at Zanzibar; but if
the matter is committed to Ludha instead of an energetic Arab, with some
little superintendence by your dragoman or others, I may wait twenty
years and your slaves feast and fail.

D. L.

“I will just add that the second batch of slaves had, like the first,
two freemen as the leaders, and one died of smallpox. The freemen in the
first party of slaves were Shereef and Awathe. I enclose also a
shameless overcharge in Ludha’s bill. $364 06¹⁄₂.--D. L.”

This should appear to be a complete justification of Mr. Stanley’s
energetic animadversions upon the general maladministration of affairs
at Zanzibar by the British Consulate there so far as they were related
to Dr. Livingstone. It should be a source of honest congratulation to
every American that a citizen of the United States, representing one of
the most widely circulated public journals of the nation, energetically
sent forward “men, not slaves,” and furnished supplies by means of
which, it may reasonably be expected, the explorer may proceed with his
great work and accomplish the object so dear to his admirable ambition.

Dr. Livingstone’s next dispatch is to Earl Granville, from Ujiji,
December 18, 1871. It is almost wholly of an official nature, containing
his theory, already herein set forth, of the watershed of the Nile, but
contains a paragraph relating the arrival of the “Herald” expedition,
which is well worthy of quotation:

“A vague rumor reached Ujiji in the beginning of last month that an
Englishman had come to Unyanyembe with boats, horses, men, and goods in
abundance. It was in vain to conjecture who this could be; and my eager
inquiries were met by answers so contradictory that I began to doubt if
any stranger had come at all. But one day, I cannot say which, for I was
three weeks too fast in my reckoning, my man Susi came dashing up in
great excitement, and gasped out, ‘An Englishman coming; see him!’ and
off he ran to meet him. The American flag at the head of the caravan
told me the nationality of the stranger. It was Henry M. Stanley, the
travelling correspondent of the NEW YORK ‘Herald,’ sent by the son of
the editor, James Gordon Bennett, Jr., at an expense of £5,000, to
obtain correct information about me if living, and if dead to bring home
my bones. The kindness was extreme, and made my whole frame thrill with
excitement and gratitude. I had been left nearly destitute by the moral
idiot Shereef selling off my goods for slaves and ivory for himself. My
condition was sufficiently forlorn, for I had but a few articles of
barter left of what I had taken the precaution to leave here, in case of
extreme need. The strange news Mr. Stanley had to tell to one for years
out of communication with the world was quite reviving. Appetite
returned, and in a week I began to feel strong. Having men and goods,
and information that search for an outlet of the Tanganyika was desired
by Sir Roderick Murchison, we went for a month’s cruise down its
northern end. This was a pleasure trip compared to the weary tramping of
all the rest of my work; but an outflow we did not find.”

The opening paragraph of the dispatch from which this is taken is so
finely characteristic, that it should not be omitted. Dr. Livingstone
began his letter to Lord Clarendon’s successor in this beautifully
courteous manner:

“MY LORD--The despatch of Lord Clarendon, dated 31st May, 1870, came to
this place on the 13th ult., and its very kindly tone and sympathy
afforded me a world of encouragement. Your lordship will excuse me in
saying that with my gratitude there mingled sincere sorrow that the
personal friend who signed it was no more.”


The last of these despatches of the explorer was the longest, and,
perhaps, the most worthy of his fame. Addressed to Earl Granville, it
was a clear, full statement of the prevalence of the African slave trade
and a terrible denunciation of it, together with a proposition “which,”
he says, “I have very much at heart--the possibility of encouraging the
native Christians of English settlements on the west coast of Africa,
to remove, by voluntary emigration, to a healthy spot on this side the
continent.” There are in Zanzibar a considerable number of British
subjects from India, called Banians. They are, like all British
subjects, prohibited from engaging in the slave trade, but shrewdly
managing to throw the responsibility upon the Arabs, they are in fact
responsible for the slave trade of Zanzibar and all the horrible
“slaving” of East Africa. “The Manyema cannibals,” says Dr. Livingstone,
in this dispatch to Earl Granville, “among whom I spent nearly two
years, are innocents compared with our protected Banian fellow-subjects.
By their Arab agents they compass the destruction of more human lives in
one year than the Manyema do for their fleshpots in ten.” “Slaves are
not bought,” he says in another place, “in the countries to which the
Banian agents proceed. Indeed it is a mistake to call the system of
Ujiji ‘slave trade’ at all; the captives are not traded for, but
murdered for, and the gangs which are dragged coastwise are usually not
slaves, but captive free people.” To eradicate this fearful wrong, the
practical remedy proposed by the explorer in his letter to Earl
Granville is encouragement by the British government to the voluntary
emigration of native Christians from the English settlements of the West
Coast to the East Coast. In reply to the argument of the unhealthfulness
of this portion of Africa he says that the fevers are bad enough indeed,
but that very much more of the disease prevailing is due to intemperance
and gross licentiousness than fever. The whole dispatch is a
demonstration of Dr. Livingstone’s earnest piety, humanity and practical
sagacity. If there are some passages in it which show that his Highland
blood is up, they may be attributed to a fiery hatred of injustice.

These quotations from Dr. Livingstone’s letters of this important period
of his life will be appropriately concluded with his letter of thanks to
the editor of the “Herald”:

  “EAST AFRICA, November, 1871.}


“MY DEAR SIR--It is in general somewhat difficult to write to one we
have never seen--it feels so much like addressing an abstract idea--but
the presence of your representative, Mr. H. M. Stanley, in this distant
region takes away the strangeness I should otherwise have felt, and in
writing to thank you for the extreme kindness that prompted you to send
him, I feel quite at home.

“If I explain the forlorn condition in which he found me you will easily
perceive that I have good reason to use very strong expressions of
gratitude. I came to Ujiji off a tramp of between four hundred and five
hundred miles, beneath a blazing vertical sun, having been baffled,
worried, defeated and forced to return, when almost in sight of the end
of the geographical part of my mission, by a number of half-caste Moslem
slaves sent to me from Zanzibar, instead of men. The sore heart made
still sorer by the woful sights I had seen of man’s inhumanity to man
reached and told on the bodily frame and depressed it beyond measure. I
thought that I was dying on my feet. It is not too much to say that
almost every step of the weary sultry way was in pain, and I reached
Ujiji a mere ‘ruckle’ of bones.

“There I found that some five hundred pounds sterling worth of goods
which I had ordered from Zanzibar had unaccountably been entrusted to a
drunken half-caste Moslem tailor, who, after squandering them for
sixteen months on the way to Ujiji, finished up by selling off all that
remained for slaves and ivory for himself. He had “divined” on the Koran
and found that I was dead. He had also written to the Governor of
Unyanyembe that he had sent slaves after me to Manyema, who returned and
reported my decease, and begged permission to sell off the few goods
that his drunken appetite had spared. He, however, knew perfectly well,
from men who had seen me, that I was alive, and waiting for the goods
and men; but as for morality, he is evidently an idiot, and there being
no law here except that of the dagger or musket, I had to sit down in
great weakness, destitute of everything save a few barter cloths and
beads, which I had taken the precaution to leave here in case of extreme
need. The near prospect of beggary among Ujijians made me miserable. I
could not despair, because I laughed so much at a friend who, on
reaching the mouth of the Zambezi, said that he was tempted to despair
on breaking the photograph of his wife. We could have no success after
that. Afterward the idea of despair had to me such a strong smack of the
ludicrous that it was out of the question.

“Well, when I had got to about the lowest verge, vague rumors of an
English visitor reached me. I thought of myself as the man who went down
from Jerusalem to Jericho; but neither priest, Levite, nor Samaritan
could possibly pass my way. Yet the good Samaritan was close at hand,
and one of my people rushed up at the top of his speed, and, in great
excitement, gasped out, ‘An Englishman coming! I see him!’ and off he
darted to meet him. An American flag, the first ever seen in these
parts, at the head of a caravan, told me the nationality of the
stranger. I am as cold and non-demonstrative as we islanders are usually
reputed to be; but your kindness made my frame thrill. It was, indeed,
overwhelming, and I said in my soul, ‘Let the richest blessings descend
from the Highest on you and yours!’

“The news Mr. Stanley had to tell was thrilling. The mighty political
changes on the Continent; the success of the Atlantic cables; the
election of General Grant, and many other topics riveted my attention
for days together, and had an immediate and beneficial effect on my
health. I had been without news from home for years save what I could
glean from a few _Saturday Reviews_ and _Punch_ of 1868. The appetite
revived, and in a week I began to feel strong again.

“Mr. Stanley brought a most kind and encouraging despatch from Lord
Clarendon, whose loss I sincerely deplore, the first I have received
from the Foreign Office since 1866, and information that the British
government had kindly sent a thousand pounds sterling to my aid. Up to
his arrival I was not aware of any pecuniary aid. I came unsalaried, but
this want is now happily repaired, and I am anxious that you and all my
friends should know that, though uncheered by letter, I have stuck to
the task which my friend Sir Roderick Murchison set me with ‘John
Bullish’ tenacity, believing that all would come right at last.

“The watershed of South Central Africa is over seven hundred miles in
length. The fountains thereon are almost innumerable--that is, it would
take a man’s lifetime to count them. From the watershed they converge
into four large rivers, and these again into two mighty streams in the
great Nile valley, which begins in ten degrees to twelve degrees south
latitude. It was long ere light dawned on the ancient problem and gave
me a clear idea of the drainage. I had to feel my way, and every step of
the way, and was, generally, groping in the dark, for who cared where
the waters ran? We drank our fill and let the rest run by.

“The Portuguese who visited Cazemba asked for slaves and ivory, and
heard of nothing else. I asked about the waters, questioned and
cross-questioned, until I was almost afraid of being set down as
afflicted with hydrocephalus.

“My last work, in which I have been greatly hindered from want of
suitable attendants, was following the central line of drainage down
through the country of the cannibals, called Manyuema, or, shortly,
Manyema. This line of drainage has four large lakes in it. The fourth I
was near when obliged to turn. It is from one to three miles broad, and
never can be reached at any point or at any time of the year. Two
western drains, the Lupira, or Bartle Frere’s River, flow into it at
Lake Kamolondo. Then the great River Lomaine flows through Lake Lincoln
into it, too, and seems to form the western arm of the Nile, on which
Petherick traded.

“Now, I knew about six hundred miles of the watershed, and unfortunately
the seventh hundred is the most interesting of the whole; for in it, if
I am not mistaken, four fountains arise from an earthen mound, and the
last of the four becomes, at no great distance off, a large river. Two
of these run north to Egypt, Lupira and Louraine, and two run south into
inner Ethiopia, as the Liambai, or upper Zambezi, and the Kafneare, but
these are but the sources of the Nile mentioned by the Secretary of
Minerva, in the city of Sais to Herodotus. I have heard of them so
often, and at great distances off, that I cannot doubt their existence,
and in spite of the sore longing for home that seizes me every time I
think of my family I wish to finish up by their rediscovery.

“Five hundred pounds sterling worth of goods have again unaccountably
been entrusted to slaves, and have been over a year on the way, instead
of four months. I must go where they lie at your expense, ere I can put
the natural completion to my work.

“And if my disclosures regarding the terrible Ujijian slavery should
lead to the suppression of the east coast slave trade, I shall regard
that as a greater matter by far than the discovery of all the Nile
sources together. Now that you have done with domestic slavery forever,
lend us your powerful aid toward this great object. This fine country is
blighted, as with a curse from above, in order that the slavery
privileges of the petty Sultan of Zanzibar may not be infringed, and the
rights of the Crown of Portugal, which are mythical, should be kept in
abeyance till some future time when Africa will become another India to
Portuguese slave traders.

“I conclude by again thanking you most cordially for your great
generosity, and am,

  “Gratefully yours,





  Dr. Livingstone’s Letter upon the Subject to Mr. Bennett -- Compares
  the Slave Trade with Piracy on the High Seas -- Natives of Interior
  Africa Average Specimens of Humanity -- Slave Trade Cruelties --
  Deaths from Broken Hearts -- The Need of Christian Civilization --
  British Culpability.

While waiting for supplies in Unyanyembe, Dr. Livingstone wrote a second
letter to Mr. James Gordon Bennett, which was principally devoted to the
slave trade of East Africa, to greatly aid in the abolition of which
would be more gratifying to the explorer’s ambition than to discover all
the sources of the Nile. This might well be supposed from what has
already been quoted from Dr. Livingstone’s despatches to his government;
but inasmuch as he here directly appeals to the American people, this
volume would be incomplete without the remarkable and most thrillingly
interesting statements of the letter in question. They were sent by
cable telegram from London and appeared in the “Herald” newspaper of
July 27, 1872:

“At present let me give a glimpse of the slave trade, to which the
search and discovery of most of the Nile fountains have brought me face
to face. The whole traffic, whether by land or ocean, is a gross outrage
on the common law of mankind. It is carried on from age to age, and, in
addition to the evils it inflicts, presents almost insurmountable
obstacles to intercourse between different portions of the human
family. This open sore in the world is partly owing to human cupidity,
partly to the ignorance of the more civilized of mankind of the blight
which lights chiefly on more degraded piracy on the high seas. (_sic._)
It was once as common as slave trading is now, but as it became
thoroughly known the whole civilized world rose against it.

“In now trying to make Eastern African slave trade better known to
Americans, I indulge the hope I am aiding on, though in a small degree,
the good time coming yet when slavery as well as piracy will be chased
from the world. Many have but a faint idea of the evils that trading in
slaves inflicts on the victims and authors of its atrocities. Most
people imagine that negroes, after being brutalized by a long course of
servitude, with but few of the ameliorating influences that elevate the
more favored races, are fair average specimens of the African man. Our
ideas are derived from slaves of the west coast, who have for ages been
subject to domestic bondage and all the depressing agencies of a most
unhealthy climate. These have told most injuriously on their physical
frames, while fraud and the rum trade have ruined their moral natures so
as not to discriminate the difference of the monstrous injustice.

“The main body of the population is living free in the interior, under
their own chiefs and laws, cultivating their own farms, catching fish in
their own rivers, or fighting bravely with the grand old denizens of the
forest, which, in more recent continents, can only be reached in rocky
strata or under perennial ice. Winwood Reade hit the truth when he said
the ancient Egyptian, with his large, round, black eyes, full, luscious
lips, and somewhat depressed nose, is far nearer the typical negro than
the west coast African, who has been debased by the unhealthy land he
lives in. The slaves generally, and especially those on the west coast,
at Zanzibar and elsewhere are extremely ugly. I have no prejudice
against their color; indeed, any one who lives long among them forgets
they are black and feels they are just fellow-men; but the low,
retreating forehead, prognathous jaws, lark-heels and other physical
peculiarities common among slaves and West African negroes, always
awaken some feelings of aversion akin to those with which we view
specimens of the Bill Sykes and ‘Bruiser’ class in England. I would not
utter a syllable calculated to press down either class more deeply in
the mire in which it is already sunk, but I wish to point out that these
are not typical Africans any more than typical Englishmen, and that the
natives on nearly all the high lands of the interior Continent are, as a
rule, fair average specimens of humanity.

“I happened to be present when all the head men of the great Chief
Msama--who lives west of the south end of Tanganyika--had come together
to make peace with certain Arabs who had burned their chief town, and I
am certain one could not see more finely formed, intellectual heads in
any assembly in London or Paris, and the faces and forms corresponded
finely with the well-shaped heads. Msama himself had been a sort of
Napoleon for fighting and conquering in his younger days. He was
exactly like the Ancient Assyrians sculptured on the Nineveh marbles, as
Nimrod and others, and he showed himself to be one of ourselves by
habitually indulging in copious potations of beer, called pombe, and had
become what Nathaniel Hawthorne called ‘bulbous below the ribs.’ I do
not know where the phrase ‘bloated aristocracy’ arose. It must be
American, for I have had glimpses of a good many English noblemen, and
Msama was the only specimen of a ‘bloated aristocrat’ on whom I ever set

“Many of the women are very pretty, and, like all ladies, would have
been much prettier if they had only let themselves alone. Fortunately
the dears could not change charming black eyes, beautiful foreheads,
nicely rounded limbs, well shaped forms and small hands and feet, but
must adorn themselves, and this they do by filing splendid teeth to
points like cats’ teeth. It was distressing, for it made their smile
like that of crocodile ornaments, scarce. They are not black, but of
light, warm brown color, and so very sisterish, if I may use the word,
it feels an injury done one’s self to see a bit of grass stuck through
the cartilage of the nose so as to bulge out the _alæ nasi_, or wing of
the nose of the anatomists.

“Cazembe’s Queen, Moaria Nyombe by name, would be esteemed a real beauty
either in London Paris, or New York, and yet she had a small hole
through the cartilage, near the tip of her fine, slightly aquiline nose.
But she had only filed one side of two of the front of her superb
snow-white teeth, and then, what a laugh she had! Let those who wish to
know go see her. She was carried to her farm in a pony phæton, which is
a sort of throne, fastened on two very long poles and carried by twelve
stalwart citizens. If they take the Punch motto of Cazembe--‘Niggers
don’t require to be shot here’--as their own, they may show themselves
to be men; but whether they do or not Cazembe will show himself a man of
sterling good sense.

“Now, these people, so like ourselves externally, have brave, genuine
human souls. Rua, large sections of country northwest of Cazembe, but
still in same inland region, is peopled with men very like those of
Wsama and Cazembe. An Arab, Syed Ben Habib, was sent to trade in Rua two
years ago, and, as Arabs usually do where natives have no guns, Syed Ben
Habib’s elder brother carried matters with a high hand. The Rua men
observed the elder brother slept in a white tent, and, pitching spears
into it by night, killed him. As Moslems never forgive blood, the
younger brother forthwith ‘ran a muck’ on all indiscriminately in a
large district.

“Let it not be supposed any of these people are, like American Indians,
insatiable, blood-thirsty savages, who will not be reclaimed or
entertain terms of lasting friendship with fair-dealing strangers. Had
the actual murderers been demanded, and a little time granted, I feel
morally certain, from many other instances among tribes who, like the Ba
Rua, have not been spoiled by Arab traders, they would all have been
given up.

“The chiefs of the country would, first of all, have specified the crime
of which the elder brother was guilty, and who had been led to avenge
it. It is very likely they would have stipulated no other should be
punished but the actual perpetrator, the domestic slave acting under his
orders being considered free of blame.

“I know nothing that distinguishes the uncontaminated African from other
degraded peoples more than their entire reasonableness and good sense.
It is different after they have had wives, children, and relatives
kidnapped, but that is more than human nature, civilized or savage, can
bear. In the chase in question indiscriminate slaughter, capture, and
plunder took place. A very large number of very fine young men were
captured and secured in chains and wooden yokes.

“I came near the party of Syed Ben Habib, close to a point where a huge
rent in the Mountain of Rua allows the escape of the great river Lualaba
out of Lake Moora, and here I had for the first time an opportunity of
observing the difference between slaves and freemen made captive. When
fairly across the Lualaba, Syed Ben Habib thought his captives safe, and
got rid of the trouble of attending to and watching the chained gangs by
taking off both chains and yokes. All declared joy and a perfect
willingness to follow Syed to the end of the world or elsewhere, but
next morning twenty-two made clear of two mountains.

“Many more, seeing the broad Lualaba roll between them and the homes of
their infancy, lost all heart, and in three days eight of them died.
They had no complaint but pain in the heart, and they pointed out its
seat correctly, though many believe the heart situated underneath the
top of the sternum, or breast bone. This to me was the most startling
death I ever saw. They evidently die of broken-heartedness, and the
Arabs wondered, seeing they had plenty to eat.

“I saw others perish, particularly a very fine boy ten or twelve years
of age. When asked where he felt ill, he put his hand correctly and
exactly over the heart. He was kindly carried, and, as he breathed out
his soul, was laid gently on the side of the path. The captors are not
unusually cruel. They were callous. Slaving hardened their hearts.

“When Syed, an old friend of mine, crossed Lualaba, he heard I was in
the village, where a company of slave traders were furiously assaulted
for three days by justly incensed Bobemba. I would not fight nor allow
my people to fire if I saw them, because Bobemba had been especially
kind to me. Syed sent a party of his own people to invite me to leave
the village and come to him. He showed himself the opposite of
hard-hearted; but slavery hardens within, petrifies the feelings, is bad
for the victims and ill for the victimizers. Once, it is said, a party
of twelve, who had been slaves in their own country--Cunda or Conda, of
which Cazemba is chief or general--were loaded with large, heavy yokes,
which were forked trees, about three inches in diameter and seven or
eight feet long, the neck inserted in the fork and an iron bar driven
across one end of the fork to the other and riveted to the other end,
tied at night to the tree or ceiling of the hut, and the neck being
firm in the fork and the slave held off from unloosing it, was
excessively troublesome to the wearer, and, when marching, two yokes
were tied together by tree ends and loads put on the slaves’ heads

“A woman, having an additional yoke and load, and a child on her back,
said to me on passing, ‘They are killing me. If they would take off the
yoke I could manage the load and child; but I shall die with three
loads.’ The one who spoke this did die; poor little girl! Her child
perished of starvation.

“I interceded some, but when unyoked off they bounded into the long
grass, and I was greatly blamed for not caring in presence of the owners
of the property.

“After the day’s march under a broiling, vertical sun, with yokes and
heavy loads, the strongest were exhausted. The party of twelve, above
mentioned, were sitting down singing and laughing. ‘Hallo, said I,
‘these fellows take to it kindly. This must be the class for whom
philosophers say slavery is the natural state;’ and I went and asked the
cause of their mirth.

“I had asked aid of their owner as to the meaning of the word ‘Rukha,’
which usually means fly or leap. They were using it to express the idea
of haunting, as a ghost, inflicting disease or death, and the song was:
‘Yes, we going away to Manga, abroad, or white man’s land, with yoke on
our necks; but we shall have no yokes in death, and shall return and
haunt and kill you.’ Chorus then struck in, which was the name of the
man who had sold each of them, and then followed the general laugh, in
which at first I saw no bitterness. Tarembee, an old man, at least one
hundred and four years, being one of the sellers, in accordance with
African belief, they had no doubt of being soon able, by ghost power, to
kill even him.

“The refrain was as if:--‘Oh! oh! oh! bird of freedom, you sold me.’
‘Oh! oh! oh! I shall haunt you! Oh! oh! oh!’ Laughter told not of mirth,
but of tears, such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter. He that
is higher than the highest regardeth.

“If I am permitted,” says Dr. Livingstone in concluding the subject of
the slave trade, “in any way to promote its suppression, I shall not
grudge the toil and time I have spent. It would be better to lessen this
great human woe than to discover the sources of the Nile.”

The moral degradation of these people is only to be reached and cured,
in the deliberate judgment of the explorer-missionary, through the means
of Christian civilization. “The religion of Christ,” he says with
emphasis, “is unquestionably the best for man. I refer to it not as the
Protestant, the Catholic, the Greek, or any other, but to the
comprehensive faith which has spread more widely over the world than
most people imagine, and whose votaries, of whatever name, are better
than any outside the pale.” The great end of placing the numerous tribes
of East and Central Africa under the pure and elevating morality of the
Christian religion cannot be successful until the suppression of the
inhuman slave trade, which has its headquarters at Zanzibar, shall have
been accomplished. It would be unjust to forget that Great Britain has
done much, very much, for the suppression of this terrible traffic in
other portions of the globe. It would be unjust to charge the government
of Great Britain with intentional criminality in this case. But it
stands proved, by the failure of English expeditions to find Dr.
Livingstone, and by his own positive, earnest testimony, that it is the
subjects of the British monarchy who are responsible for the existence
of the slave trade of Zanzibar and all the nameless horrors of the
interior resulting therefrom. The moral culpability, by reason of
neglect--not to put the case too strongly--of the British government is
therefore made manifest; and of this great national turpitude that
government must stand convicted before the bar of Christendom.



  Some Account of the Beasts, Birds, Reptiles, and Insects of Africa --
  Livingstone’s Opinion of the Lion -- Elephants, Hippopotami,
  Rhinoceroses, etc. -- Wild Animals Subject to Disease -- Remarkable
  Hunting Explorations -- Cumming Slays more than One Hundred Elephants
  -- Du Chaillu and the Gorilla -- Thrilling Incidents -- Vast Plains
  Covered with Game -- Forests Filled with Birds -- Immense Serpents --
  The Python of South Africa -- Ants and other Insects.

No portion of the globe is so productive of wild animals as Africa.
There animal life is more extensive, if we may so say, and more varied
than anywhere else. The domestic animals of that continent are not to
such extent different from those of other parts of the world as to merit
special mention, with the exception of the camel, without whose aid a
large portion of the country would be not only uninhabitable but
untraversable. The invaluable services which this patient but obstinate
beast of burden renders to the inhabitants of Northern Africa are known
to all men. In northern Africa and in the central portions, horses are
numerous and many of them of excellent breeds. Here and in many parts of
South Africa, there are many cattle, used as beasts of burden and for
beef. Some of them are noted for the prodigious size of their horns.
Sheep abound in some portions of the continent, but in South Africa the
flocks are composed almost entirely of goats which subsist better on
the dry herbs of the dessert, yield more milk, and are considered more
palatable food.


But in respect to wild beasts--all kinds of “game” as the sportsman
would say--Africa, as has been said by Mr. John Bonner, “may be called
the region of animal life, since there are more than twice the number of
species in it than in the other quarters of the globe.” Here are found,
in immense numbers, all those kinds of animals which fill the strong
cages of the menageries of Europe and America, of parks, and zoological
gardens, and many more besides. Here are the most abject and degraded
specimens of mankind and the most sagacious and lordly wild animals.
Here are the most beautiful and gentle of birds and the most venomous
and terrible serpents and reptiles. Here are small insects whose attacks
are fatal to many useful animals, and others--the devouring
locusts--which in a single day devastate vast sections of country.

The lion, so long regarded as the king of beasts, is found in most parts
of interior Africa. We have already seen that Dr. Livingstone’s opinion
of this beast is not very exalted. It is certainly inferior to the
African leopard both in beauty and courage. In strength and prowess this
latter animal is not inferior to the Asiatic tiger. The hippopotamus,
supposed to be the Behemoth of Job, is found in nearly all the rivers of
Central and South Africa and the Nile. His body is often as large as
that of a full-grown elephant. A noted African hunter killed one with a
single ball, which was six feet broad across the belly. The skin of an
adult hippopotamus, according to Du Chaillu, who shot several and
stuffed one, is from one and a-half to two inches thick, and extremely
solid and tough--quite bullet-proof, in fact, except in a few thinner
spots, as behind the ear and near the eyes. It is devoid of hair with
the exception of a few short bristly hairs in the tail, and a few
scattered tufts near the muzzle. The color of the skin is a clayey
yellow, assuming a roseate hue under the belly. After death, the animal
becomes a dull brownish color. It is successfully hunted by the natives
of east equatorial Africa, who approach within a few feet of it, fire
their “slugs” at his eye and then run for dear life; for if the animal
be not killed the hunter surely will be. Cumming, the most successful of
African Nimrods, once slew some ten hippopotami in the course of a
couple of days, and secured the carcasses of most of them, dragging them
with oxen to which were attached strong cables fastened to the beasts.
The bagging of several tons of edible game--the meat of the beast is
described by some as like beef, by others as like pork--in a day or two
could not be accomplished elsewhere than in Africa.


Most of the perennial rivers and even small streams of a few feet depth
abound in crocodiles. Those of South Africa, whose nature and habits are
described by Dr. Livingstone and Cumming, are a different species from
the crocodile of the Nile, one of the sacred animals of the Egyptians.
They are as great in size, however, and, perhaps, greater in voracity.
Their great numbers, particularly in the waters of equatorial Africa,
are astonishing. The natives hunt them, going in canoes, and using a
sort of harpoon with which the stout armor, elsewhere impenetrable,
of the animal is pierced behind the legs. The natives are fond of the
flesh. Though a full-grown crocodile will weigh as much as an ox, there
is not much flesh that is edible. Cumming shot one more than twenty feet
in length in a stream not more than twelve feet wide. “On our return to
Damagondai’s town,” says Du Chaillu, “as we were paddling along, I
perceived in the distance ahead a beautiful deer, looking meditatively
into the waters of the lagoon, of which from time to time it took a
drink. I stood up to get a shot, and we approached with the utmost
silence. But just as I raised my gun to fire, a crocodile leaped out of
the water, and, like a flash, dove back again with the struggling animal
in his powerful jaws. So quickly did the beast take his prey that though
I fired at him I was too late. I would not have believed that this huge
and unwieldy animal could move with such velocity; but the natives told
me that the deer often falls prey to the crocodile. Sometimes he even
catches the leopard, but then there is a harder battle than the poor
little deer could make.”


The rhinoceros, formerly found on the slopes of Table Mountain, has now
been driven far into the interior of South Africa, but here these huge
animals, second only to the elephant and hippopotamus in bulk, are found
along all the streams and in the neighborhood of fountains and pools of
water. Dr. A. Smith in his “Zoology of South Africa” makes three species
of rhinoceros. The great hunter, Cumming, describes what he considers as
four different kinds.[4] Dr. Livingstone, however, asserts that there
are but two species--the white and the black--insisting that all the
species made by naturalists beyond these two are based on mere
differences in size, age, and direction of horns, all which vary much in
each variety. The rhinoceros has a “guardian spirit” in the
rhinoceros-bird, his constant companion and devoted friend.[5] Those of
the black species are very wary, fierce, and difficult to take. Their
flesh is tough also, whilst that of the white rhinoceros is fat, tender,
and, to the South African tribes, delicious. He is of a comparatively
gentle spirit also, and more easily found and dispatched.

  [4] He says: Of the rhinoceros there are four varieties in South
  Africa distinguished by the Bechuanas by the names of the borèlé, or
  black rhinoceros, the keitloa, or two-horned black rhinoceros, the
  muchocho, or common white rhinoceros, and the kobaoba, or long-horned
  white rhinoceros. Both varieties of the black rhinoceros are extremely
  fierce and dangerous, and rush headlong and unprovoked at any object
  which attracts their attention. They never attain much fat, and their
  flesh is tough, and not much esteemed by the Bechuanas. Their food
  consists almost entirely of the thorny branches of the wait-a-bit
  thorns. Their horns are much shorter than those of the other
  varieties, seldom exceeding eighteen inches in length. They are finely
  polished with constant rubbing against the trees. The skull is
  remarkably formed, its most striking feature being the tremendous
  thick ossification in which it ends above the nostrils. It is on this
  mass that the horn is supported. The horns are not connected with the
  skull, being attached merely by the skin, and they may thus be
  separated from the head by means of a sharp knife. They are hard and
  perfectly solid throughout, and are a fine material for various
  articles, such as drinking cups, mallets for rifles, handles for
  turner’s tools, etc., etc. The horn is capable of a very high polish.
  The eyes of the rhinoceros are small and sparkling, and do not readily
  observe the hunter, provided he keeps to leeward of them. The skin is
  extremely thick, and only to be penetrated by bullets hardened with
  solder. During the day the rhinoceros will be found lying asleep or
  standing indolently in some retired part of the forest, or under the
  base of the mountains, sheltered from the power of the sun by some
  friendly grove of umbrella-topped mimosas. In the evening they
  commence their nightly ramble and wander over a great extent of
  country. They usually visit the fountains between the hours of nine
  and twelve o’clock at night, and it is on these occasions that they
  may be most successfully hunted, and with the least danger. The black
  rhinoceros is subject to paroxysms of unprovoked fury, often plowing
  up the ground for several yards with its horns, and assaulting large
  bushes in the most violent manner. On these bushes they work for hours
  with their horns, at the same time snorting and blowing loudly, nor do
  they leave them in general until they have broken them into pieces.
  The rhinoceros is supposed by many, and by myself among the rest, to
  be the animal alluded to by Job, chap. xxxix., verses 10 and 11, where
  it is written, “Canst thou bind the unicorn with his hand in the
  furrow? or will he harrow the valleys after thee? Wilt thou trust him
  because his strength is great? or wilt thou leave thy labor to him?”
  evidently alluding to an animal possessed of great strength and of
  untamable disposition, for both of which the rhinoceros is remarkable.
  All the four varieties delight to roll and wallow in mud, with which
  their rugged hides are generally incrusted.--_Adventures in South
  Africa_, 1. pp. 215-16.

  [5] These singular birds are thus described by Cumming:--These
  rhinoceros-birds are constant attendants upon the hippopotamus and the
  four varieties of rhinoceros, their object being to feed upon the
  ticks and other parasitic insects that swarm upon these animals. They
  are of a grayish color and are nearly as large as a common thrush;
  their voice is very similar to that of the mistletoe thrush. Many a
  time have these ever-watchful birds disappointed me in my stalk, and
  tempted me to invoke an anathema upon their devoted heads. They are
  the best friends the rhinoceros has, and rarely fail to awaken him
  even in his soundest nap. “Chukuroo” perfectly understands their
  warning, and, springing to his feet, he generally first looks about
  him in every direction, after which he invariably makes off. I have
  often hunted a rhinoceros on horseback, which led me a chase of many
  miles, and required a number of shots before he fell, during which
  chase several of these birds remained by the rhinoceros to the last.
  They reminded me of mariners on the deck of some bark sailing on the
  ocean, for they perched along his back and sides; and as each of my
  bullets told on the shoulder of the rhinoceros, they ascended about
  six feet into the air uttering their harsh cry of alarm, and then
  resumed their position. It sometimes happened that the lower branches
  of trees, under which the rhinoceros passed, swept them from their
  living deck, but they always recovered their former station; they also
  adhere to the rhinoceros during the night. I have often shot these
  animals at midnight when drinking at the fountains, and the birds,
  imagining they were asleep, remained with them till morning, and on my
  approaching, before taking flight, they exerted themselves to their
  utmost to awaken Chukuroo from his deep sleep.--_Ibid._, 292-3.

But the most interesting of the wild animals of Africa is the elephant,
which, as is well known, is in several respects different from the
elephant of Asia. His ears are larger, and the formation of his tough,
elastic feet is very different. His tusks also are larger and he reaches
a greater size than the Asiatic elephant. He has been found in nearly
all parts of interior Africa which have been explored, and to this day
may be seen from vessels sailing along the West Coast near the equator,
as he comes down to the sea to bathe his ponderous body. These animals
are found in troops, varying in number from a few to several hundred. At
times different troops have been seen together, whose heavy tread, in
escaping, would make the earth tremble. They are exceedingly delicate as
to their food, of which, however, they require immense quantities.
Docile by nature, they are wonderfully fearful of man, whom, with a
favorable wind, they can scent at a great distance; but in defence of
their young or when attacked they fight with the greatest courage and
effect. The elephant is unquestionably recognized by all animals of the
forest as their undoubted master. They often retain life long after
being mortally wounded, and when about to die, the agony of the
dissolution of such an immense physical system forces tears from their
eyes, but they expire without convulsions and in heroic silence. It
might almost appear that their predominating feeling is that of sorrow
that the vast forests through which they have roamed for years--perhaps
a century--shall know them no more. It is difficult to believe one can
kill these sublime animals, for gain alone, unless he be, at bottom, a
genuine scoundrel.


It is doubtless different, however, when the gratification of the
sporting propensity is the impelling motive. It was this which
carried the Scottish hunter, Roualeyn Gordon Cumming, into the interior
of South Africa, only about two years after the arrival there of Dr.
Livingstone, and where he remained, hunting elephants, lions,
rhinoceroses, hippopotami, camelopards, and other great game, for the
period of nearly five years. Mr. Cumming’s “Adventures in South Africa”
were published, if our memory does not err, in the year 1850. They were
speedily republished in America, and were at first received with no
little incredulity, as, by the way, most accounts of adventures in
Africa, from Mungo Park to Stanley, have been. Adventures there appear
to be naturally incredible to the rest of the world. It is as it was
with respect to the rebuilding of Chicago; no one believed it until he
saw it all, and after that he could believe that almost anything is
within the power of man’s spirit of enterprise once fully aroused.[6]
The incredulity in regard to Mr. Cumming’s wonderful success in securing
great game in Africa has long since passed away, and his narrative is
now regarded as altogether trustworthy. He remained in Africa, hunting,
the greater part of five years. During this time he slew more than one
hundred elephants, besides those, mortally wounded, which escaped. He
was equally successful with the camelopard, rhinoceros, hippopotamus,
lion, buffalo, eland, and the great variety of antelope which live in
South Africa in countless numbers. One of his first adventures with
large animals was with a troop of camelopards. It is thus graphically

  [6] We cannot all go to Africa, but the testimony of Dr. Livingstone,
  who received visits from this hunter every year during the five years
  of his warfare with wild animals, will be regarded as conclusive upon
  the general truthfulness of Mr. Cumming’s reports. Dr. Livingstone

  As the guides of Mr. Cumming were furnished through my influence, and
  usually got some strict charges as to their behavior before parting,
  looking upon me in the light of a father, they always came to give me
  an account of their service, and told most of those hunting-adventures
  which have since been given to the world, before we had the pleasure
  of hearing our friend relate them himself by our own fireside. I had
  thus a tolerably good opportunity of testing their accuracy, and I
  have no hesitation in saying that, for those who love that sort of
  thing Mr. Cumming’s book conveys a truthful idea of South African
  hunting. Some things in it require explanation, but the numbers of
  animals said to have been met with and killed are by no means
  improbable, considering the amount of large game then in the country.
  Two other gentlemen hunting in the same region destroyed in one season
  no fewer than seventy-eight rhinoceroses alone. Sportsmen, however,
  would not now find an equal number; for, as guns are introduced among
  the tribes, all these fine animals melt away like snow in spring. In
  the more remote districts, where fire-arms have not yet been
  introduced, with the single exception of the rhinoceros the game is to
  be found in numbers much greater than Mr. Cumming ever
  saw.--_Researches in South Africa_, 169-70.


“We halted beside a glorious fountain, the name of which was Massouey,
but I at once christened it ‘the Elephant’s own Fountain.’ This was a
very remarkable spot on the southern border of endless elephant forests,
at which I had at length arrived. The fountain was deep and strong,
situated in a hollow at the eastern extremity of an extensive vley, and
its margin was surrounded by a level stratum of solid old red sandstone.
Here and there lay a thick layer of soil upon the rock, and this was
packed flat with the fresh spoor of elephants. Around the water’s edge
the very rock was worn down by the gigantic feet which for ages had
trodden there. We drew up the wagons on a hillock on the eastern side of
the water. I had just cooked my breakfast, and commenced to feed,
when I heard my men exclaim, ‘Almagtig keek de ghroote clomp cameel;’
and raising my eyes from my sassayby stew, I beheld a truly beautiful
and very unusual scene. From the margin of the fountain there extended
an open level vley, without a tree or bush, that stretched away about a
mile to the northward, where it was bounded by extensive groves of
wide-spreading mimosas. Up the middle of this vley stalked a troop of
ten colossal giraffes, flanked by two large herds of blue wildebeests
and zebras, with an advanced guard of pallahs. They were all coming to
the fountain to drink, and would be within rifle-shot of the wagons
before I could finish my breakfast. I however, continued to swallow my
food with the utmost expedition, having directed my men to catch and
saddle ‘Colesberg.’ In a few minutes the giraffes were slowly advancing
within two hundred yards, stretching their graceful necks, and gazing in
wonder at the unwonted wagons. Grasping my rifle, I now mounted
‘Colesberg,’ and rode slowly toward them. They continued gazing at the
wagons until I was within one hundred yards of them, when, whisking
their long tails over their rumps, they made off at an easy canter. As I
pressed upon them they increased their pace; but ‘Colesberg’ had much
the speed of them, and before we had proceeded half a mile I was riding
by the shoulder of a dark-chestnut old bull, whose head towered high
above the rest. Letting fly at the gallop, I wounded him behind the
shoulder; soon after which I broke him from the herd, and presently
going ahead of him, he came to a stand. I then gave him a second bullet,
somewhere near the first. These two shots had taken effect and he was
now in my power, but I would not lay him low so far from camp; so,
having waited until he had regained his breath, I drove him half way
back toward the wagons. Here he became obstreperous; so loading one
barrel, and pointing my rifle toward the clouds, I shot him in the
throat, when, rearing high, he fell backward and expired. This was a
magnificent specimen of the giraffe, measuring upward of eighteen feet
in height. I stood for nearly half an hour engrossed in the
contemplation of his extreme beauty and gigantic proportions; and, if
there had been no elephants, I could have exclaimed, like Duke Alexander
of Gordon when he killed the famous old stag with seventeen tine, ‘Now I
can die happy.’ But I longed for an encounter with the noble elephants,
and I thought little more of the giraffe than if I had killed a gemsbok
or an eland.”

And in another place he describes his second success with the

“We now bent our steps homeward. We had not ridden many miles when we
observed a herd of fifteen camelopards browsing quietly in an open glade
of the forest. After a very severe chase, in the course of which they
stretched out into a magnificent widely extended front, keeping their
line with a regularity worthy of a troop of dragoons, I succeeded in
separating a fine bull, upward of eighteen feet in height, from the rest
of the herd, and brought him to the ground within a short distance of
the camp. The Bechuanas expressed themselves delighted at my success.
They kindled a fire and slept beside the carcass, which they very
soon reduced to bil-tongue and marrow-bones.”

[Illustration: RUNNING DOWN ELANDS.]

Mr. Cumming’s first successful encounter with elephants was one of the
most exciting of all. It is thus related:

“Having followed the spoor for a short distance, old Mutchuisho became
extremely excited, and told me that we were close to the elephants. Two
or three men quickly ascended the tallest trees that stood near us, but
they could not see the elephants. Mutchuisho then extended men to the
right and left, while we continued on the spoor.

“In a few minutes one of those who had gone off to our left came running
breathless to say that he had seen the mighty game. I halted for a
minute, and instructed Issac, who carried the big Dutch rifle, to act
independently of me, while Kleinboy was to assist me in the chase. I
bared my arms to the shoulder, and, having imbibed a draught of aqua
pura from the calabash of one of the spoorers, I grasped my trusty
two-grooved rifle, and told my guide to go ahead. We proceeded silently
as might be for a few hundred yards, following the guide, when he
suddenly pointed, exclaiming, ‘Klow!’ and before us stood a herd of
mighty bull elephants, packed together beneath a shady grove about a
hundred and fifty yards in advance. I rode slowly toward them, and, as
soon as they observed me, they made a loud rumbling noise, and, tossing
their trunks, wheeled right about and made off in one direction,
crashing through the forest and leaving a cloud of dust behind them. I
was accompanied by a detachment of my dogs, who assisted me in the

“The distance I had come, and the difficulties I had undergone to behold
these elephants, rose fresh before me. I determined that on this
occasion at least I would do my duty, and, dashing my spurs into
Sundays’ ribs, I was very soon much too close in their rear for safety.
The elephants now made an inclination to my left, whereby I obtained a
good view of the ivory. The herd consisted of six bulls; four of them
were full-grown, first-rate elephants; the other two were fine fellows,
but had not yet arrived at perfect stature. Of the four old fellows, two
had much finer tusks than the rest, and for a few seconds I was
undecided which of these two I would follow; when, suddenly, the one
which I fancied had the stoutest tusks broke from his comrades, and I at
once felt convinced that he was the patriarch of the herd, and followed
him accordingly. Cantering alongside, I was about to fire, when he
instantly turned, and, uttering a trumpet so strong and shrill that the
earth seemed to vibrate beneath my feet, he charged furiously after me
for several hundred yards in a direct line, not altering his course in
the slightest degree for the trees of the forest, which he snapped and
overthrew like reeds in his headlong career.

[Illustration: SOUNDING THE ALARM.]

“When he pulled up in his charge, I likewise halted and as he slowly
turned to retreat, I let fly at his shoulder, ‘Sunday’ capering and
prancing, and giving me much trouble. On receiving the ball the elephant
shrugged his shoulder, and made off at a free majestic walk. This shot
brought several of the dogs to my assistance which had been following
the other elephants, and on their coming up and barking another headlong
charge was the result, accompanied by the never-failing trumpet as
before. In his charge he passed close to me, when I saluted him with a
second bullet in the shoulder, of which he did not take the slightest
notice. I now determined not to fire again until I could make a steady
shot; but, although the elephant turned repeatedly, ‘Sunday’ invariably
disappointed me, capering so that it was impossible to fire. At length,
exasperated, I became reckless of the danger, and, springing from the
saddle, approached the elephant under cover of a tree, and gave him a
bullet in the side of the head, when, trumpeting so shrilly that the
forest trembled, he charged among the dogs, from whom he seemed to fancy
that the blow had come; after which he took up a position in a grove of
thorns, with his head toward me. I walked up very near, and, as he was
in the act of charging (being in those days under wrong impressions as
to the impracticability of bringing down an elephant with a shot in the
forehead), stood coolly in his path until he was within fifteen paces of
me, and let drive, at the hollow of his forehead, in the vain
expectation that by so doing I should end his career. The shot only
served to increase his fury--an effect which, I had remarked, shots in
the head invariably produced; and, continuing his charge with incredible
quickness and impetuosity, he all but terminated my elephant-hunting
forever. A large party of the Bechuanas who had come up yelled out
simultaneously, imagining I was killed, for the elephant was at one
moment almost on the top of me; I, however, escaped by my activity, and
by dodging round the bushy trees.

“The elephant held on through the forest at a sweeping pace; but he was
hardly out of sight when I was loaded and in the saddle, and soon once
more alongside. He kept crashing along at a steady pace, with blood
streaming from his wounds. It was long before I again fired, for I was
afraid to dismount, and ‘Sunday’ was extremely troublesome. At length I
fired sharp right and left from the saddle: he got both balls behind the
shoulder, and made a long charge after me, rumbling and trumpeting as
before. The whole body of the Bamangwato men had now come up, and were
following a short distance behind me. Among these was Mollyeon, who
volunteered to help; and being a very swift and active fellow, he
rendered me important service by holding my fidgety horse’s head while I
fired and loaded. I then fired six broadsides from the saddle, the
elephant charging almost every time, and pursuing us back to the main
body in our rear, who fled in all directions as he approached.

“The sun had now sunk behind the tops of the trees; it would very soon
be dark, and the elephant did not seem much distressed, notwithstanding
all he had received. I recollected that my time was short, and therefore
at once resolved to fire no more from the saddle, but to go close up to
him and fire on foot. Riding up to him, I dismounted and, approaching
very near, I gave it him right and left in the side of the head, upon
which he made a long and determined charge after me; but I was now very
reckless of his charges, for I saw that he could not overtake me, and
in a twinkling I was loaded, and, again approaching, fired sharp right
and left behind his shoulder. Again he charged with a terrific trumpet,
which sent ‘Sunday’ flying through the forest. This was his last charge.
The wounds which he had received began to tell on his constitution, and
he now stood at bay beside a thorny tree, with the dogs barking around
him. These, refreshed by the evening breeze, and perceiving that it was
nearly over with the elephant, had once more come to my assistance.
Having loaded, I drew near and fired right and left at his forehead. On
receiving these shots, instead of charging, he tossed his trunk up and
down, and by various sounds and motions, most gratifying to the hungry
natives, evinced that his demise was near. Again I loaded and fired my
last shot behind his shoulder: on receiving it, he turned round the
bushy tree beside which he stood, and I ran round to give the other
barrel, but the mighty old monarch of the forest needed no more; before
I could clear the bushy tree he fell heavily on his side, and his spirit
had fled.”

Such is a specimen of the “sport” which the wilds of Africa offer to the
ambitious hunter. That it is in some respects rather serious sport may
be imagined from the description as well as from Mr. Cumming’s statement
of his losses during his four expeditions into the interior. These were
forty-five horses and seventy head of cattle, the value being at least
$3,000. “I also,” he says, “lost about seventy of my dogs,” which would
convey the idea of a considerable kennel, the dogs all told. But he
usually had only about thirty at a time. Many were killed by lions,
while elephants made way with a still larger number.

The expeditions of Mr. Du Chaillu, an American naturalist, in Equatorial
Africa, were more valuable to the cause of science than those of Mr.
Cumming in South Africa, and scarcely less interesting as the
explorations of a hunter. Like Cumming, he was a highly successful
hunter, and he was also much more--a student of natural history imbued
with a love of science and having a genius for it. As Mr. Cumming’s
starting point was the extreme of South Africa, under English
domination, Mr. Du Chaillu had his headquarters beneath the equator on
the west coast, and under the immediate eyesight, so to speak, of the
American Presbyterian Mission for the Gaboon country. Mr. Du Chaillu
afterwards established his home in the Camma country, and building
himself a little village of huts near the junction of the N’poulounay
and Fernand Vas rivers, and not far from the coast, named it
“Washington.” From the Gaboon and then from this African “city of
Washington,” this celebrated traveller made several explorations of the
interior, much of the time among idolatrous and cannibal tribes.
Enduring many hardships, overcoming many almost insurmountable
difficulties, he not only gave to the world an extremely interesting
account of hunting expeditions but a description of the singular people
and wonderful country he was the first white man to visit which forms a
valued acquisition to the stock of geographical and scientific

  [7] It need not be stated to students of matters pertaining to Africa,
  that this gentleman’s “Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial
  Africa” (published by the Harpers in 1868) is one of our most
  interesting books of travel.

Whilst he was very successful in procuring specimens of most of the
animals and birds in equatorial Africa to a distance of several hundred
miles from the coast, he devoted special attention to hunting the ape,
and was more successful in killing the species commonly known as the
gorilla than any one else of Christendom has ever been. The greater
difficulty of hunting the animal considered, he was as successful with
the gorilla as Mr. Cumming had been with the elephant.

The _troglodytes gorilla_, or great chimpanzee of the equatorial region
of West Africa has long been the most dreaded, perhaps, of all the wild
beasts of that continent. And it is probably true that in unmixed
ferocity when assailed he does not have his equal. The nature of this
fierce animal--much like man in some particulars of physical formation,
totally dissimilar in all other respects--may be learned from an
instance or two of Mr. Du Chaillu’s hunting him. The account of his
killing his “first gorilla” is as follows:

“We started early and pushed for the most dense and impenetrable part of
the forest (this was in the country of the Fan negroes, cannibals, a
little more than one degree north of the equator and something less than
two hundred miles east of the mouth of the Gaboon river), in hopes to
find the very home of the beast I so much wished to shoot. Hour after
hour we travelled, and yet no signs of gorilla. Only the everlasting
little chattering monkeys--and not many of these--and occasional birds.
In fact, the forests of this part of Africa are not so full of life as
in some other parts to the south.

“Suddenly Miengai uttered a little _cluck_ with his tongue, which is the
native’s way of showing that something is stirring, and that a sharp
look-out is necessary. And presently I noticed, ahead of us seemingly, a
noise as of some one breaking down branches or twigs of trees. This was
the gorilla, I knew at once, by the eager and satisfied looks of the
men. They looked once more carefully at their guns, to see if by any
chance the powder had fallen out of the pans; I also examined mine, to
make sure that all were right; and then we marched on cautiously. The
singular noise of the breaking of tree-branches continued. We walked
with the greatest care, making no noise at all. The countenances of the
men showed that they thought themselves engaged in a very serious
undertaking; but we pushed on, until finally we thought we saw through
the thick woods the moving of the branches and small trees which the
great beast was tearing down, probably to get from them the berries and
fruits he lives on.

“Suddenly, as we were yet creeping along, in a silence which made a
heavy breath seem loud and distinct, the woods were at once filled with
the tremendous barking roar of the gorilla. Then the under-brush swayed
rapidly just ahead, and presently before us stood an immense male
gorilla. He had gone through the jungle on his all fours; but when he
saw our party he erected himself and looked us boldly in the face. He
stood about a dozen yards from us, and was a sight I think never to
forget. Nearly six feet high (he proved two inches shorter), with
immense body, huge chest, and great muscular arms, with fiercely-glaring
large deep gray eyes, and a hellish expression of face, which seemed to
me like some nightmare vision: thus stood before us this king of the
African forests.

“He was not afraid of us. He stood there, and beat his breast with his
huge fists till it resounded like an immense bass-drum, which is their
mode of offering defiance; meantime giving vent to roar after roar.

“The roar of the gorilla is the most singular and awful noise heard in
these African woods. It begins with a sharp _bark_, like an angry dog,
then glides into a deep bass _roll_, which literally and closely
resembles the roll of distant thunder along the sky, for which I have
sometimes been tempted to take it where I did not see the animal. So
deep is it that it seems to proceed less from the mouth and throat than
from the deep chest and vast paunch.

“His eyes began to flash fiercer fire as we stood motionless on the
defensive, and the crest of short hair which stands on his forehead
began to twitch rapidly up and down, while his powerful fangs were shown
as he again sent forth a thunderous roar. And now truly he reminded me
of nothing but some hellish dream creature--a being of that hideous
order, half man half beast, which we find pictured by old artists in
some representations of the infernal regions. He advanced a few
steps--then stopped to utter that hideous roar again--advanced again,
and finally stopped when at a distance of about six yards from us. And
here, as he began another of his roars and beating his breast in rage,
we fired, and killed him.

“With a groan which had something terribly human in it, and yet was full
of brutishness, it fell forward on its face. The body shook convulsively
for a few minutes, the limbs moved about in a struggling way and then
all was quiet--death had done its work, and I had leisure to examine the
huge body. It proved to be five feet eight inches high, and the muscular
development of the arms and breast showed what immense strength it had

“My men, though rejoicing at our luck, immediately began to quarrel
about the apportionment of the meat--for they really eat this creature.
I saw that we should come to blows presently if I did not interfere, and
therefore said I should give each man his share, which satisfied all. As
we were too tired to return to our camp of last night, we determined to
camp here on the spot, and accordingly soon had some shelters erected
and dinner going on. Luckily, one of the fellows shot a deer just as we
began to camp, and on its meat I feasted while my men ate gorilla.”

Another hunt resulted fatally to one of the natives. It is thus related:

“The next day we went on a gorilla-hunt. All the olako was busy on the
evening of my arrival with preparations; and as meat was scarce,
everybody had joyful anticipations of hunger satisfied and plenty in the
camp. Little did we guess what frightful death was to befall one of our
number before the next sunset.

“I gave powder to the whole party. Six were to go off in one direction
for bush-deer, and whatever luck might send them, and six others, of
whom I was one, were to hunt for gorilla. We set off toward a dark
valley, where Gambo, Igoumba’s son, said we should find our prey. The
gorilla chooses the darkest, gloomiest forests for its home, and is
found on the edges of the clearings only when in search of plantains, or
sugar-cane, or pine-apple. Often they choose for their peculiar haunt a
piece of wood so dark that even at midday one can scarce see ten yards.
This makes it the more necessary to wait till the monstrous beast
approaches near before shooting, in order that the first shot may be
fatal. It does not often let the hunter reload.

“Our little party separated, as is the custom, to stalk the wood in
various directions. Gambo and I kept together. One brave fellow went off
alone in a direction where he thought he could find a gorilla. The other
three took another course. We had been about an hour separated when
Gambo and I heard a gun fired but little way from us, and presently
another. We were already on our way to the spot where we hoped to see a
gorilla slain, when the forest began to resound with the most terrific
roars. Gambo seized my arms in great agitation, and we hurried on, both
filled with a dreadful and sickening fear. We had not gone far when our
worst fears were realized. The poor brave fellow who had gone off alone
was lying on the ground in a pool of his own blood, and I thought at
first quite dead. His bowels were protruding through the lacerated
abdomen. Beside him lay his gun. The stock was broken, and the barrel
was bent and flattened. It bore plainly the marks of the gorilla’s

“We picked him up, and I dressed his wounds as well as I could with rags
torn from my clothes. When I had given him a little brandy to drink he
came to himself, and was able, but with great difficulty, to speak. He
said that he had met the gorilla suddenly and face to face, and that it
had not attempted to escape. It was, he said, a huge male, and seemed
very savage. It was in a very gloomy part of the wood, and the darkness,
I suppose, made him miss. He said he took good aim, and fired when the
beast was only about eight yards off. The ball merely wounded it in the
side. It at once began beating its breasts, and with the greatest rage
advanced upon him.

“To run away was impossible. He would have been caught in the jungle
before he had gone a dozen steps. He stood his ground, and as quickly as
he could reloaded his gun. Just as he raised it to fire the gorilla
dashed it out of his hands, the gun going off in the fall, and then in
an instant, and with a terrible roar, the animal gave him a tremendous
blow with its immense paw, frightfully lacerating the abdomen, and with
this single blow laying bare part of the intestines. As he sank,
bleeding, to the ground, the monster seized the gun, and the poor
hunter thought he would have his brains dashed out with it. But the
gorilla seemed to have looked upon this also as an enemy, and in his
rage flattened the barrel between his strong jaws.

“When we came upon the ground the gorilla was gone. This is their mode
when attacked--to strike one or two blows, and then leave the victims of
their rage on the ground and go off into the woods.”

During his explorations in equatorial Africa, Du Chaillu discovered two
new species of ape--_Troglodytes calvus_ and _T. Koola-Kamba_--and also
a number of other mamalians, birds, serpents, and reptiles, before
unknown to naturalists.

Contrary to a somewhat prevalent belief, many diseases prevail among
wild animals. “The free life of nature” is subject to woes, and needs
the physician’s aid, after all. “I have seen,” says Dr. Livingstone,
“the gnu, kama or hartebeest, the tressebe, kukama, and the giraffe, so
mangy as to be uneatable even by the natives. Great numbers also of
zebras are found dead with masses of foam at the nostrils, exactly as
occurs in the common ‘horse-sickness.’ I once found a buffalo blind from
ophthalmia standing by the fountain Otse. The rhinoceros has often worms
on the conjunction of his eyes. All the wild animals are subject to
intestinal worms besides. The zebra, giraffe, eland and kukuma have been
seen mere skeletons from decay of their teeth as well as from disease.
The carnivera, too, become diseased and mangy; lions become lean and
perish miserably by reason of the decay of their teeth.” Cumming also
speaks of seeing extensive plains thickly covered with the bones of
wild animals which had died of disease.

As a rule, however, the animals are healthy. Their variety and vast
numbers are beyond calculation. In a single day, Cumming saw the fresh
spoor of about twenty varieties of “large game” and most of the animals
themselves. These included elephant, black and white rhinoceros,
hippopotamus, camelopard, buffalo, blue wildebeest, zebra, water-buck,
sassayby, koodoo, pallah, springbok, serolomootlooque, wild boar,
duiker, steinbok, lion, leopard. This is the _habitat_ also of keilton,
eland, oryx, roan antelope, sable antelope, hartebeest, klipspringer,
grys steinbuck, and reitbuck. A little farther on he thus speaks of the
game he saw while taking breakfast:

“We resumed our march at daybreak on the 28th and held on through
boundless open plains. As we advanced, game became more and more
abundant. In about two hours we reached a fine fountain, beside which
was a small cover of trees and bushes, which afforded an abundant supply
of fire-wood. Here we outspanned for breakfast: it was a fine cool
morning, with a pleasant breeze. The country was thickly covered with
immense herds of game, consisting of zebra, wildebeest, blesbok, and
springbok. There could not have been less than five or six thousand head
of game in sight of me as I sat at breakfast. Presently the whole of
this game began to take alarm. Herd joined herd, and took away up the
wind; and in a few minutes other vast herds came pouring on up the wind,
covering the whole breadth of the plain with a living mass of noble

[Illustration: THE KING OF THE JUNGLE.]

And again:

“When the sun rose next morning I took coffee, and then rode west with
two after-riders, in the hope of getting some blesbok shooting. I found
the boundless undulating plains thickly covered with game, thousands
upon thousands checkering the landscape far as the eye could strain in
every direction. The blesboks, which I was most desirous to obtain, were
extremely wary, and kept pouring on, on up the wind in long continued
streams of thousands, so swift and shy that it was impossible to get
within six hundred yards of them, or even by any stratagem to waylay
them, so boundless was the ground, and so cunningly did they avoid
crossing our track.”

It might thus appear that if there is a sportsman’s paradise anywhere it
is Africa.

Perhaps it would not be too much to say that about all the birds known
to ornithology, and many yet unknown in the books upon that science are
to be found in Africa. The ostrich, the largest of birds, is found only
in Africa. It sometimes attains the height of eight feet. It is swift of
foot, its cry is much like the roar of the lion, and its appearance at a
distance is very stately; but it is extremely stupid. Its feathers have
long been highly valued in commerce. Another most remarkable bird,
peculiar to Africa, is the secretary. This is a bird of prey, feeding
solely on serpents, which it pursues on foot and destroys in great
numbers. It has been described as “an eagle, mounted on the long, naked
legs of a crane.” Waterfowl of all kinds abound, and there are wild
geese which have brilliant and variegated plumage. The most of the
forests of South Africa are alive with countless numbers of an almost
endless variety of birds, but in the equatorial regions they are much
less numerous, though there are many of those varieties which are
characterized by bright, gorgeous plumage.


“Snake stories” are proverbially tinged with the colors of the
imagination; but the serpents and reptiles of Africa are no jesting
topic to the inhabitants. Many of the serpents are particularly
venomous. Dr. Livingstone states that the picakholu is so copiously
supplied with poison, that “when a number of dogs attack it, the first
bitten dies almost instantaneously, the second in about five minutes,
the third in an hour or so, while the fourth may live several hours.”
The puff adder and several vipers are very dangerous. There is one which
“utters a cry by night exactly like the bleating of a kid. It is
supposed by the natives to lure travellers to itself by this bleating.”
Several varieties, when alarmed, emit a peculiar odor, by which their
presence is made known. The deadly cobra exists in several colors or
varieties. There are various species of tree-climbing serpents, which
appear to have the power of fascination. This belief of Dr. Livingstone
in the fascinating power of some serpents is also entertained by Mr. Du
Chaillu, and avowed as correct by the eminent naturalist, Dr. Andrew
Smith in his “Reptilia.” The eminent hunter of the gorilla says the
presence of serpents in Africa is a “great blessing to the country. They
destroy great numbers of rats and mice, and other of the smaller
quadrupeds which injure the native provisions; and it is but just to say
they are peacefully inclined, and never attack man unless trodden on.
They are glad enough to get out of the way; and the most feared snake I
saw in Africa (the Echidna nasicornis) was one which is very slow in its
movements, from which cause it happens that it oftener bites people than
others, being unable to get out of the way quickly. Though serpents
abound in all parts of the country, I have travelled a month at a time
without seeing one.” The natives, though bare legged, are rarely bitten.
There are several species of boa, which attain great size and weight.
The variety known as the natal rock python, which is often seen in
interior south Africa, though entirely without venom, like other boas,
is very destructive of birds and animals. “They are perfectly harmless,”
says Dr. Livingstone, “and live on small animals, chiefly the rodentia;
occasionally the steinbuck and pallah fall victims, and are sucked into
its comparatively small mouth in boa-constrictor fashion. The flesh is
much relished by Bakalahari and Bushmen. They carry away each his
portion, like logs of wood, over their shoulders.” Cumming killed one of
these boas measuring fourteen feet in length. They have been known to
measure nearly thirty feet in length, and to capture and swallow
half-grown cattle. The Caffre of South Africa is very skilful in slaying
the python with his spear. He is thus often pinned to the earth by a
single throw and dispatched at leisure; then cut up into snake-logs and
carried off for food.

Among the innumerable insects of Africa--the fatal tsetse fly and the
devastating locust have already been mentioned--the most interesting,
perhaps, is the ant. It exists in great variety and prodigious numbers.
There are countless ant-hills in different parts of Africa, which are
larger than a majority of the individual homes of the natives of the
southern and central portions of the continent. Human works, to be of
the same relative size as these homes of insects would tower five or six
times above the pyramids of Egypt, and would require a base
correspondingly large. Among themselves in Africa some of the species
are warriors and cannibals; they fight their enemies and eat the
vanquished. Other species are exceedingly destructive of the timbers of
houses, eating out the insides and leaving useless shells. Others
consume vast quantities of decaying animal matter, and still others the
decaying vegetation, including great trees, of the tropics. Many are
exceedingly fierce in nature. Among these is the bashikouay ant of
equatorial Africa. It is, perhaps, relatively the most voracious of all
living things, and the most destructive. Unlike other large-sized ants
it does not build houses, but excavates holes in the earth for place of
retreat during storms. Its nature and habits are fully described by Du

“This ant is very abundant in the whole region I have travelled over in
Africa. It is the dread of all living animals from the leopard to the
smallest insect. It is their habit to march through the forests in a
long regular line--a line about two inches broad and often several miles
in length. All along this line are larger ants, who act as officers,
stand outside the ranks, and keep this singular army in order. If
they come to a place where there are no trees to shelter them from the
sun, whose heat they can not bear, they immediately build underground
tunnels, through which the whole army passes in columns to the forest
beyond. These tunnels are four or five feet underground, and are used
only in the heat of the day or during a storm.

[Illustration: INSECT LIFE IN AFRICA.]

“When they get hungry the long file spreads itself through the forest in
a front line, and attacks and devours all it comes to with a fury which
is quite irresistible. The elephant and gorilla fly before this attack.
The black men run for their lives. Every animal that lives in their line
of march is chased. They seem to understand and act upon the tactics of
Napoleon, and concentrate, with great speed, their heaviest forces upon
the point of attack. In an incredibly short space of time the mouse, or
dog, or leopard, or deer is overwhelmed, killed, eaten, and the bare
skeleton only remains.

“They seem to travel night and day. Many a time have I been awakened out
of a sleep, and obliged to rush from the hut and into the water to save
my life, and after all suffered intolerable agony from the bites of the
advance-guard, who had got into my clothes. When they enter a house they
clear it of all living things. Roaches are devoured in an instant. Rats
and mice spring round the room in vain. An overwhelming force of ants
kills a strong rat in less than a minute, in spite of the most frantic
struggles, and in less than another minute its bones are stripped. Every
living thing in the house is devoured. They will not touch vegetable
matter. Thus they are in reality very useful (as well as dangerous) to
the negroes, who have their huts cleaned of all the abounding vermin,
such as immense roaches and centipedes at least several times a year.

“When on their march the insect world flies before them, and I have
often had the approach of a bashikouay army heralded to me by this
means. Wherever they go they make a clean sweep, even ascending to the
tops of the highest trees in pursuit of their prey. Their manner of
attack is an impetuous _leap_. Instantly the strong pincers are
fastened, and they only let go when the piece gives away. At such times
this little animal seems animated by a kind of fury which causes it to
disregard entirely its own safety and to seek only the conquest of its
prey. The bite is very painful.

“The negroes relate that criminals were in former times exposed in the
path of the bashikouay ants, as the most cruel manner of putting to

“Two very remarkable practices of theirs remain to be related. When, on
their line of march, they must cross a stream, they throw themselves
across and form a tunnel--a living tunnel--connecting two trees or high
bushes on opposite sides of the little stream. This is done with great
speed, and is effected by a great number of ants, each of which clings
with its fore claws to its next neighbor’s body or hind claws. Thus they
form a high, safe tubular bridge, _through_ which the whole vast
regiment marches in regular order. If disturbed, or if the arch is
broken by the violence of some animal, they instantly attack the
offender with the greatest animosity.


“The bashikouay have the sense of smell finely developed, as indeed have
all the ants I know of, and they are guided very much by it. They are
larger than any ant we have in America, being at least half an inch
long, and are armed with very powerful fore legs and sharp jaws, with
which they bite. They are red or dark-brown in color. Their numbers are
so great that one does not like to enter into calculations; but I have
seen one continual line passing at good speed a particular place for
_twelve hours_. The reader may imagine for himself how many millions on
millions there may have been contained here.”

And yet the ants of Africa are the chief agents employed in forming a
fertile soil. “But for their labors,” remarks Dr. Livingstone, “the
tropical forests, bad as they now are with fallen trees, would be a
thousand times worse. They would be impassible on account of the heaps
of dead vegetation lying on the surface, and emitting worse effluvia
than the comparatively small unburied collections do now. When one looks
at the wonderful adaptations throughout creation, and the varied
operations carried on with such wisdom and skill, the idea of second
causes looks clumsy. We are viewing the direct handiwork of Him who is
the one and only Power in the universe; wonderful in counsel; in whom we
all live, and move and have our being.”

There are vast numbers of annoying insects in all portions of the
continent, which in this respect, perhaps, is neither better nor worse
than other parts of the world, where little annoyances make up the
great sum of human misery. It is only one of many proofs that Africa is
the region of contrasts, that the greatest animals flee from a little
insect, the life of scores of whom might be stamped out by a single
footstep, yet the aggregate labors of which preserve the continent from
desolation and decay.





  Dr. Livingstone anxiously awaits the Recruits and Supplies sent by Mr.
  Stanley -- On their Arrival sets out Southwestward on his Last Journey
  -- Reaches Kisera, where Chronic Dysentery seizes him -- He refuses to
  yield; but pushes on, till Increasing Debility compels him to stop and
  retrace his steps -- He sinks rapidly, and on May 4th Breathes his
  Last -- His attendants take Necessary Precautions to Insure the Return
  of the Corpse to England -- Letter from Mr. Holmwood, Attaché of the
  British Consulate at Zanzibar.

It will be recollected that Stanley bade Dr. Livingstone farewell on the
14th of March, 1872, at Kwihara, and that, on his arrival at Zanzibar,
he sent back to Dr. Livingstone the men and means he had expressed a
wish for.

From some unexplained cause, this party of recruits, with their stores,
was exceedingly slow in reaching Dr. Livingstone. According to the
account given Mr. Stanley by Dr. Livingstone’s body-servant, Jacob
Wainwright, after the funeral, in London, “The Doctor expressed great
joy, when he at last saw the caravan of freemen for which he had been
anxiously waiting, before the resumption of his explorations.” After
allowing them a few days’ rest at Unyanyembe, Dr. Livingstone and his
party started on his last exploring journey. They traveled southwest by
way of Kasagera and Kigandu to Kisera, a district ruled by King Simba.
Here the Doctor had a relapse of his old malady, the Chronic Dysentery,
which so weakened him that he was compelled to take to riding a donkey.
He did not yet regard the attack as dangerous, and accordingly pursued
his march, still southwestward, to Mpathwa, and thence into the valley
of the Rungwa, where he found many boiling springs; thence he pressed on
through Ufipa and Uemba (or Uremba), to Margunga. In the marshes of
Uemba (or Uremba) one of their two donkeys died. Traveling along the
Moungo, they reached the district called Kawendi, where a lion killed
the remaining donkey. Thenceforward, the Doctor, getting daily weaker,
had to be borne in a _kitanda_ (a native bed resembling a hammock); he
still refused to yield, but urged his party on till they came to the
head-waters which empty themselves into Lake Bangweolo. Here they made
use of Stanley’s boat, which they had carried a distance of eleven
hundred miles. They crossed the Chambezi, and attempted to push their
way along the southern shore to Lake Bangu, and toward the Fountains of
Herodotus, reported to be at Katanga (Katanda?), where he hoped to pause
and recruit his health. Perceiving, however, how rapidly he was growing
weaker, he determined to hasten back to Unyanyembe, and accordingly at
last turned his face northward; but on arriving at Kitumbo, he seemed
suddenly to realize that his last hour was drawing near, and he tried to
stop there, but the chief refused to permit it, and he was forced to
proceed farther north toward Kibende. On their arrival at a small
village in the district of Mullala, his tent was pitched, and he was
placed therein. But, fearing the heat of the sun, he directed that a hut
should be built for him “to die in.” This was done, and he was
carefully removed to it. His last entry in his diary is dated April
27th, 1873, thirteen months and thirteen days after his parting from Mr.
Stanley, and in that entry he records his extreme illness and his
inability to proceed farther. After this, he seems to have resolutely
prepared for the great journey of death.


The boy Majwara states that, during the intervals between the paroxysms
of extreme pain, the doctor prayed constantly for his family, and
frequently uttered the word “home!” After his being placed in his hut,
Dr. Livingstone would permit no one to stay with him except Majwara, and
occasionally Susi, though the rest each morning called and greeted him
with the customary words “Yambo, bana!” (“Good-morning, master!”)

Majwara, on the last morning, made some tea for the Doctor and
administered stimulants, which appeared to have no effect. At about
midnight of May 1st, Dr. Livingstone quietly breathed his last.

The next morning, the faithful attendants held a consultation as to what
was to be done with the remains. Their movements had to be kept very
secret, because, if the fact of the death were discovered by the
natives, there was reason to fear that their superstitions would lead
them to prevent the removal of the corpse.

Fargalla, one of the men sent by Mr. Stanley, then disemboweled the
body, and, after leaving the village a safe distance, they hung it in
the sun for five days, to dry it thoroughly, after which they packed it
carefully in bark.

These steps were taken with the view the better to carry out their
determination of sending the body home to England. After the heart and
intestines had been carefully removed a solemn funeral service was held,
and they were committed to the earth, Jacob Wainwright officiating as
leader in the religious ceremonies.

They then set out on their long journey to Unyanyembe, a journey which
consumed six weary months, owing to repeated attempts of natives to bar
their march, which necessitated much loss of time in pursuing circuitous

Meanwhile, the fourth Search and Relief Expedition arrived at Zanzibar
in February, 1873. This expedition was under the leadership of
Lieutenants Murphy and Cameron and Dr. Dillon, and had been sent out by
the Royal Geographical Society. Sir Bartle Frere was then at Zanzibar
endeavoring to forward the efforts of the Government to suppress the
slave trade, in response to the earnest representations of Dr.
Livingstone. He rendered the expedition such aid as he could, and it
proceeded to Unyanyembe, where it arrived in August. In October, a
messenger brought in the sad news of Dr. Livingstone’s death. Dr.
Dillon, who was sick, with Lieut. Murphy, soon after started to return
from their expedition, but at Kasegera Dr. Dillon, under a temporary
attack of insanity, committed suicide.

Leaving to the ensuing chapter the notes of the homeward voyage of the
party who bore Dr. Livingstone’s remains to England, we cannot better
close this chapter than by copying an interesting letter from Mr.
Holmwood, the British Vice-Consul at Zanzibar, to Sir Bartle Frere, then
the President of the Royal Geographical Society. We have already given
the substance of the information, as detailed by Jacob Wainwright, but
the letter is interesting enough to justify its insertion,
notwithstanding the repetitions and occasional apparent discrepancies.

  “ZANZIBAR, March 12, 1874.

  “MY DEAR SIR BARTLE--No doubt you will hear from several interested in
  Dr. Livingstone; but, as I do not feel sure that any one has
  thoroughly examined the men who came down with his remains, I briefly
  summarize what I have been able to glean from a careful
  cross-examination of Majwara, who was always at his side during his
  last days, and Susi, as well as the Nassick boys, have generally
  confirmed what he says. I inclose a small sketch-map, merely giving my
  idea of the locality, and have added a dotted line to show his route
  during this last journey of his life.

  “The party sent by Stanley left Unyanyembe with the Doctor about the
  end of August, 1872, and marched straight to the south of Lake
  Tanganyika, through Ufipa, crossing the Rungwa River, where they met
  with natural springs of boiling water, bubbling up high above the
  ground. On reaching the Chambezi or Kambezi River, they crossed it
  about a week’s journey from Lake Bemba, also crossing a large feeder;
  but by Susi’s advice Livingstone again turned northward, and recrossed
  the Kambezi, or Luapula, as he then called it, just before it entered
  the lake.

  “He could not, however, keep close to the north shore of Lake Bemba,
  owing to the numerous creeks and streams, which were hidden in forests
  of high grass and rushes. After making a detour, he again struck the
  lake, at a village where he got canoes across to an island in the
  centre, called Matipa. Here the shores on either hand were not
  visible, and the Doctor was put to great straits by the natives
  declining to let him use their canoes to cross to the opposite shore.
  He therefore seized seven canoes by force, and when the natives made a
  show of resistance he fired his pistol over their heads, after which
  they ceased to obstruct him. Crossing the lake diagonally, he arrived
  in a long valley; and the rains having now set in fully, the caravan
  had to wade rather than walk, constantly crossing blind streams, and,
  in fact, owing to the high rushes and grass, hardly being able to
  distinguish at times the land, or rather what was generally dry land,
  from the lake.

  “Dr. Livingstone had been weak and ailing since leaving Unyanyembe;
  and when passing through the country of Ukabende, at the southwest of
  the lake, he told Majwara (the boy given him by Stanley, who is now in
  my service) that he felt unable to go on with his work, but should try
  and cross the hills to Katanga (Katanda?) and there rest, endeavoring
  to buy ivory, which in all this country is very cheap (three yards of
  _merikani_ buying a slave or a tusk), and returning to Ujiji through
  Manuema to recruit and reorganize.

  “But as he approached the northern part of Bisa (a very large
  country), arriving in the province of Ulala, he first had to take to
  riding a donkey, and then suffer himself to be carried on a _kitanda_
  (native bedstead), which at first went much against the grain. During
  this time he never allowed the boy Majwara to leave him, and he then
  told that faithful and honest fellow that he should never cross the
  high hills to Katanda. He called for Susi, and asked how far it was to
  the Luapula, and on his answering ‘three days’ remarked ‘he should
  never see his river again.’

  “On arriving at Ilala, the capital of the district, where Kitambo the
  Sultan lived, the party were refused permission to stay, and they
  carried Livingstone three hours’ march back toward Kabende. Here they
  erected for him a rude hut and fence, and he would not allow any to
  approach him for the remaining days of his life except Majwara and
  Susi, except that every morning they were all desired to come to the
  door and say ‘Good-morning!’

  “During these few days he was in great pain, and could keep nothing,
  even for a moment, on his stomach. He lost his sight so far as hardly
  to be able to distinguish when a light was kindled, and gradually sank
  during the night of the 4th of May, 1873. Only Majwara was present
  when he died, and he is unable to say when he ceased to breathe. Susi,
  hearing that he was dead, told Jacob Wainwright to make a note in the
  Doctor’s diary of the things found by him. Wainwright was not quite
  certain as to the day of the month; and as Susi told him the Doctor
  had last written the day before, and he found this entry to be dated
  27th April, he wrote 28th April; but, on comparing his own diary on
  arrival at Unyanyembe, he found it to be the 4th of May; and this is
  confirmed by Majwara, who says Livingstone was unable to write for
  the last four or five days of his life. I fancy the spot where
  Livingstone died is about 11.25 degrees south and 27 degrees east;
  but, of course, the whole of this is subject to correction, and,
  although I have spent many hours in finding it all out, the Doctor’s
  diary may show it to be very imperfect.

  “I fear you will find this a very unconnected narration, but my
  apology must be that the Consul-General is not well, and the other
  assistant absent on duty, and there is much work for me to do. Mr.
  Arthur Laing has been entrusted with the charge of the remains and
  diaries, which latter he has been instructed to hand to Lord Derby.

  “Trusting that you are in the enjoyment of good health, and with great
  respect, believe me, dear Sir Bartle, your most obedient servant,


  “To the Right Hon. Sir BARTLE FRERE, K. C. B., G. C. S. I., etc.,
  President of the Royal Geographical Society.”




  The Body of Dr. Livingstone Borne to Unyanyembe by his Attendants, and
  thence to Zanzibar -- The British Consul-General sends it, with the
  Doctor’s Papers, Books, etc., to England -- Arrival at Southampton,
  and at London -- The People Vie in Tributes of Respect -- The Funeral
  -- The Grave in Westminster Abbey.


From the point where Dr. Livingstone died to Unyanyembe was a distance
of upward of one thousand miles; this the Doctor’s faithful attendants
traversed with his remains, frequently having to diverge materially from
the road to circumvent hostile demonstrations of parties of natives. Six
toilsome months were consumed in the journey, and the month of November
had opened ere they reached Unyanyembe. Thence, after a pause, they bore
their precious burden to Zanzibar, where they arrived in February, 1874,
and delivered the corpse and the Doctor’s personal effects (including
his Diary, papers, etc.) into the custody of the British Consul-General,
who immediately shipped them, in care of Mr. Arthur Laing, for England.
Among those who accompanied the body was Jacob Wainwright, Dr.
Livingstone’s body-servant. At Aden, the steamer _Malwa_, which had been
sent out by the British Government, met them, and the party were
transferred to her.

On the 15th of April, the _Malwa_ arrived at Southampton, and at eleven
o’clock landed the party, with the corpse, at the Royal Pier, in the
presence of a vast concourse of people, estimated at upward of fifty
thousand, business having been suspended, and all classes of the people
having come to testify their respect for the illustrious dead. The Mayor
formally received the remains, and they were borne to the railway
station, accompanied by the assembled thousands, while minute guns were
fired and the bells tolled. The scene was very impressive. The remains
were thence carried to London by rail, and, arriving there at three
o’clock, P. M., were taken in charge by the Royal Geographical Society,
who had the coffin transferred to a hearse, and taken to their rooms,
followed by a numerous line of carriages and a large number of persons
afoot. Here the corpse was viewed by Sir William Ferguson in the
presence of Drs. Kirk and Loudon, Rev. Dr. Moffat and others, the object
being to identify the remains and to remove all possibility of cavil as
to their being those of Dr. Livingstone. The result can best be told in
Sir William Ferguson’s own words, and hence we insert his letter to _The
London Lancet_:


“Within the last few months, many have hesitated to believe that
Livingstone was dead. Above all, it seemed beyond ordinary probability
that his remains would have been brought from Central Africa to the
heart of London. That a body was on its way from this all but mythical
region could hardly be doubted after the examination at Zanzibar of the
remains, but many were skeptical as to this dead frame being that of
Livingstone. Happily it was borne in mind by many old friends that he
had one condition of body which would mark the identification of his
remains, even if years and years had elapsed. If it should be proved on
anatomical examination that the remains of an old ununited fracture in
his left humerus (arm bone) could be recognized, all doubt on the
subject would be settled at once and for ever. It has fallen to my lot
to have the honor of being selected to make the crucial examination to
this end, and I have accordingly performed that duty. From what I have
seen I am much impressed with the ingenious manner in which those who
have contrived to secure that the body should be carried through the
long distance from where Livingstone died, until it could reach a place
where transit was comparatively easy, accomplished their task. The lower
limbs were so severed from the trunk that the length of the bulk of
package was reduced to a little over four feet. The soft tissues seem to
have been removed to a great extent from the bones, and these latter
were so disposed that, by doubling and otherwise, the shortening was
accomplished. The abdominal viscera were absent, and so were those of
the chest, including, of course, heart and lungs. There had been made a
large opening in front of the abdomen, and through that the native
operators had ingeniously contrived to remove the contents of the chest
as well as of the abdomen. The skin over the chest, sternum and ribs had
been untouched. Before these points were clearly ascertained some coarse
tapes had to be loosened, which set free some rough linen material--a
striped colored bit of cotton cloth, such as might have been an
attractive material for the natives among whom Livingstone traveled--a
coarse cotton shirt which doubtless belonged to the traveler’s scanty
wardrobe, and in particular a large portion of the bark of a tree, which
had formed the principal part of the package--the case thereof no doubt.
The skin of the trunk, from the pelvis to the crown of the head, had
been untouched. Everywhere was that shriveling which might have been
expected after salting, baking in the sun, and eleven months of time.
The features of the face could not be recognized. The hair on the scalp
was plentiful, and much longer than he wore it when last in England. A
moustache could not be recognized, but whiskers were in abundance. The
forehead was in shape such as we are familiar with from memory, and from
the pictures and busts now extant. The circumference of the cranium,
from the occiput to the brow, was 23⁷⁄₈ inches, which was recognized by
some present to be in accordance with the measurement when alive. In
particular, the arms attracted attention. They lay as if placed in
ordinary fashion, each down by the side. The skin and tissues under were
on each side shrunk almost to skeleton bulk, and at a glance to
practiced eyes--there were five, I may say six, professional men
present--the state of the left arm was such as to convince every one
present who had examined it during life, that the limb was
Livingstone’s. Exactly in the region of the attachment of the deltoid to
the humerus, there were the indications of an oblique fracture. On
moving the arm, there were the indications of the ununited fracture. A
closer investigation and dissection displayed the false joint which had
long ago been so well recognized by those who had examined the arm in
former days. The Rev. Dr. Moffat, and in particular Dr. Kirk, late of
Zanzibar, and Dr. Loudon, of Hamilton, in Scotland, at once recognized
the condition. Having myself been consulted regarding the state of the
limb when Livingstone was last in London, I was convinced that the
remains of the great traveler lay before us. Thousands of heads with a
like large circumference might have been under similar scrutiny; the
skeletons of hundreds of thousands might have been so; the humerus in
each might have been perfect; if one or both had been broken during life
it would have united again in such a manner that a tyro could easily
have detected the peculiarity. The condition of ununited fracture in
this locality is exceedingly rare. I say this from my personal
professional experience, and that such a specimen should have turned up
in London from the centre of Africa, excepting in the body of Dr.
Livingstone, where it was known by competent authorities to have
existed, is beyond human credibility. It must not be supposed by those
who are not professionally acquainted with this kind of lesion--which
often causes so much interest to the practical surgeon--that a fracture
and new joint of the kind now referred to could have been of recent date
or made for a purpose. There were in reality all the indications which
the experienced pathologist recognizes as infallible, such as the
attenuated condition of the two great fragments (common under such
circumstances), and the semblance of a new joint, but actually there
was a small fragment detached from the others which bore out
Livingstone’s own view that the bones had been ‘crushed into splinters.’
Having had ample opportunity of examining the arm during life, and
conversing with Livingstone on the subject, and being one of those who
entertained hopes that the last reports of Livingstone’s death might,
like others, prove false, I approached the examination with an anxious
feeling regarding this great and most peculiar crucial test. The first
glance at the left arm set my mind at rest, and that, with the further
examination, made me as positive as to the identity of these remains as
that there has been among us in modern times one of the greatest men of
the human race--David Livingstone.”

On Saturday, the 18th of April, all that was mortal of the great
missionary-explorer was consigned to its last resting-place in
Westminster Abbey. The funeral procession started at about ten o’clock
from the Rooms of the Royal Geographical Society, and was participated
in by an immense number of people of all ranks in life. The cortege
included the hearse and twelve mourning coaches, and the private
carriages of the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the German Ambassador,
Baroness Burdett-Coutts, Lady Franklin and many others. The pall-bearers
were Mr. Stanley, Jacob Wainwright, Sir Thomas Steele, W. C. Oswell, W.
F. Webb, Dr. Kirk, Rev. H. Waller, Mr. Young, Rev. F. Steele and Kalulu
(the African boy brought home by Stanley). Among the mourners, we may
note the Duke of Sutherland, Lord Houghton (the poet), the Duke of
Manchester, the Bishops of Lincoln and Sierra Leone, the Lord Mayor and
Corporation of London, Lord Shaftesbury (the philanthropist), Colonel
Grant (the explorer), Mr. Moran (the American Secretary of Legation),
Sir Bartle Frere, Sir H. Rawlinson, Sir Rutherford Alcock, Rev. Dr.
Moffat, Dr. Lyon Playfair, Lord Lawrence, Sir F. Buxton, Hon. Arthur
Kinnaird, Admiral Sir William Hall, Sherard Osborn, Codrington and
Ommaney, of the British Navy, besides deputations from the various
learned societies, and from Glasgow, Edinburgh and Hamilton, together
with other men of eminence too numerous to recapitulate. The procession
did not enter the Abbey till past one o’clock, and long before that hour
every available space in the vicinity of the grave was occupied, and
there were persons even in the clerestory.

“Five minutes past one, Dean Stanley, in his full robes, with a purple
cap on his head, and the red ribbon of the Order of the Bath, of which
he is chaplain, round his neck, is standing at the door of the west
nave, attended by the Sub-Dean and Canons, waiting for the body. Now we
see the procession slowly filing through the cloisters.

“First come the silver mace-bearers, then the choristers, then the
coffin, of brightly polished oak, in which the metal shells have been
enclosed. On the brass plate is the inscription,

  Born at Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland,
  19th March, 1813.
  Died at Mullala, Central Africa,
  4th May, 1873.

and the lid is covered with wreaths of white camellias and branches of

The solemn and impressive service of the English Church was effectively
conducted by Dean Stanley, assisted by the Sub-Dean and Canons; it was
choral throughout. The entire effect was grand in its solemn intensity.

The grave is in the centre of the west part of the nave, in close
proximity to those of Telford and Stephenson, the engineers, Sir James
Outram and General Wade, the soldiers, and other men of eminence in
various lines of service. It is in a spot cheered with sunshine, and
during the funeral service it was illumined with a ray of sunlight
which, passing through the superb stained-glass memorial window erected
to the memory of Brunel, the engineer of the Thames Tunnel and the
Saltash Viaduct, had a fine effect. The grave is shallow, owing to the
fact that the soil is too sandy to admit of digging deep.

The words “Dust to dust, ashes to ashes” having been pronounced and the
service closed, the people dispersed slowly and with a solemnity that
seemed to betoken a sense of personal loss.

One fact was evident throughout all the doings of the three days, from
the time of the landing at Southampton, to the close of the ceremonies
in Westminster Abbey--and that was that the deceased explorer-missionary
had won the respect, the esteem, nay, the love, of all classes, from the
Royal household to the humblest of the people.

Nor are these sentiments confined to the people of the British Empire;
all nations and peoples of the Christian world share in them. And in no
part of the world are these feelings warmer and stronger than in the
United States. As a partial evidence of this, we may allude to the
immense meeting in New York on the 23d of April. The spacious Academy of
Music proved far too small to admit the thousands who sought entrance.
The warmly eulogistic addresses of Chief Justice Daly, Rev. Dr. Adams,
Henry Ward Beecher, Dr. I. I. Hayes (the Arctic explorer), the Rev. Dr.
Schenck and others, met with the hearty endorsement of those who were
fortunate enough to gain admittance. And outside of New York and among
those who could not attend the meeting, the feeling is no less sincere.
This universal sentiment is attributable not so much to Dr.
Livingstone’s eminent services as an explorer, great as are their
certain results, as to his unwearied philanthropy and his Christian
spirit of self-consecration to the great work of rescuing the degraded
people of Central Africa and of putting an end to the fearful slave
trade. His heart lies buried in the land to whose interests he devoted
his best years, and his body in an honored grave in Westminster Abbey
amid England’s most distinguished sons--his soul has found its home
among the “blessed of the Father,” with the Lord whom he loved and
served, but he yet lives, a cherished hero, in the memories of the good
and true of all Christian climes.

The British Government and people received more than they conferred of
honor, in their earnest and unsparing tributes to his memory.



  The Last Night -- Expires in the Act of Praying -- Council of the Men
  -- Noble Conduct of Chitambo -- The Preparation of the Corpse -- Honor
  Shown to Dr. Livingstone -- Interment of the Heart at Chitambo’s --
  Homeward March from Ilala -- Illness of all the Men -- Deaths -- The
  Luapulu -- Reach Tanganyika -- Leave the Lake -- Cross the
  Lambalamfipa Range -- Immense Herds of Game -- News of East Coast
  Search Expedition -- Confirmation of News -- Avant-Couriers sent
  Forward to Unyanyembe -- Chuma Meets Lieut. Cameron -- Sad Death of
  Dr. Dillon -- The Body Effectually Concealed -- Arrival on the Coast.

[We shall now refer to the last words written in Dr. Livingstone’s
diary. A copy of the two pages in his pocket-book which contains them
is, by the help of photography, set before the reader. It is evident
that he was unable to do more than make the shortest memoranda, and to
mark on the map which he was making the streams which enter the lake as
he crossed them. From the 22d to the 27th of April he had not strength
to write down anything but the several dates. Fortunately, Susi and
Chuma give a very clear and circumstantial account of every incident
which occurred on these days, and we shall therefore add what they say,
after each of the Doctor’s entries. He writes:]

_21st April._--Tried to ride, but was forced to lie down, and they
carried me back to vil. exhausted.


[The men explain this entry thus: This morning the Doctor tried if he
were strong enough to ride on the donkey, but he had only gone a short
distance when he fell to the ground, utterly exhausted and faint. Susi
immediately undid his belt and pistol, and picked up his cap, which
had dropped off, while Chuma threw down his gun, and ran to stop the men
on ahead. When he got back, the Doctor said, “Chuma, I have lost so much
blood, there is no more strength left in my legs; you must carry me.” He
was then assisted gently to his shoulders, and, holding the man’s head
to steady himself, was borne back to the village, and placed in the hut
he had so recently left. It was necessary to let the chief Muanzambamba
know what had happened, and for this purpose Dr. Livingstone despatched
a messenger. He was directed to ask him to supply a guide for the next
day, as he trusted then to have recovered so far as to be able to march.
The answer was, “Stay as long as you wish, and when you want guides to
Kalunganjovu’s you shall have them.”]

_22d April._--Carried on kitanda over Buga southwest two and a

  [8] Two hours and a quarter in a south-westerly direction.

[Instead of rallying, his strength was becoming less and less; and in
order to carry him, his servants made a kitanda of wood, consisting of
two side-pieces of seven feet in length crossed with rails three feet
long, and about four inches apart, the whole lashed strongly together.
This frame-work was covered with grass, and a blanket laid on it. Slung
from a pole, and born between two strong men, it made a tolerable
palanquin, and on this the exhausted traveler was conveyed to the next
village through a flooded grass plain. To render the kitanda more
comfortable, another blanket was suspended across the pole, so as to
hang down on either side, and allow the air to pass under while the
sun’s rays were fended off from the sick man. The start was deferred
this morning until the dew was off the heads of the long grass
sufficiently to insure his being kept tolerably dry.

The excruciating pains of his dysenteric malady caused him the greatest
exhaustion as they marched, and they were glad enough to reach another
village in two hours and a quarter, having traveled southwest from the
last point. Here another hut was built. The villagers fled at their
approach; indeed the noise made by the drums sounding the alarm had been
caught by the Doctor some time before, and he exclaimed with
thankfulness on hearing it, “Ah, now we are near!”]

_23d April._--(No entry except the date.)

[They advanced another hour and a half through the same expanse of
flooded, treeless waste, passing numbers of small fish-weirs set in such
a manner as to catch the fish on their way back to the Lake, but seeing
nothing of the owners, who had either hidden themselves or taken to
flight on the approach of the caravan. Another village afforded them a
night’s shelter, but it seems not to be known by any particular name.]

_24th April._--(No entry except the date.)

[But one hour’s march was accomplished to-day, and again they halted
among some huts. His great prostration made progress exceedingly
painful, and frequently, when it was necessary to stop the bearers of
the kitanda, Chuma had to support the Doctor from falling.]

_25th April._--(No entry except the date.)

[In an hour’s course southwest they arrived at a village in which they
found a few people. While his servants were busy completing the hut for
the night’s encampment, the Doctor, who was lying in a shady place on
the kitanda, ordered them to fetch one of the villagers. The chief of
the place had disappeared, but the rest of his people seemed quite at
their ease, and drew near to hear what was going to be said. They were
asked whether they knew of a hill on which four rivers took their rise.
The spokesman answered that they had no knowledge of it; they
themselves, said he, were not travelers, and all those who used to go on
trading expeditions were now dead. In former years Malenga’s town,
Kutchinyama, was the assembling place of the Wabisa traders, but these
had been swept off by the Mazitu. Such as survived had to exist as best
they could among the swamps and inundated districts around the Lake.
Whenever an expedition was organized to go to the coast, or in any other
direction travelers met at Malenga’s town to talk over the route to be
taken; then would have been the time, said they, to get information
about every part. Dr. Livingstone was here obliged to dismiss them, and
explained that he was too ill to continue talking, but he begged them to
bring as much food as they could for sale to Kalunganjovu’s.]

_26th April._--(No entry except the date.)

[They proceeded as far as Kalunganjovu’s town, the chief himself coming
to meet them on the way, dressed in Arab costume and wearing a red fez.
While waiting here, Susi was instructed to count over the bags of beads,
and on reporting that twelve still remained in stock, Dr. Livingstone
told him to buy two large tusks if an opportunity occurred, as he might
run short of goods by the time they got to Ujiji, and could then
exchange them with the Arabs there for cloth, to spend on their way to

To-day, _April 27th, 1873_, he seems to have been almost dying. No entry
at all was made in his diary after that which follows, and it must have
taxed him to the utmost to write.

“Knocked up quite, and remain--recover--sent to buy milch goats. We are
on the banks of the Molilamo.”

[They are the last words that David Livingstone wrote. From this point
we have to trust entirely to the narrative of the men. They explain the
above sentence as follows: Salimane, Amisi, Hamsani, and Laede,
accompanied by a guide, were sent off to endeavor, if possible, to buy
some milch goats on the upper part of the Molilamo. (The name Molilamo
is allowed to stand, but in Dr. Livingstone’s map we find it Lulimala,
and the men confirm this pronunciation.) They could not, however,
succeed; it was always the same story--the Mazitu had taken everything.
The chief, nevertheless, sent a substantial present of a kid and three
baskets of ground-nuts, and the people were willing enough to exchange
food for beads. Thinking he could eat some mapira corn pounded up with
ground-nuts, the doctor gave instructions to the two women, M’sozi and
M’toweka, to prepare it for him, but he was not able to take it when
they brought it to him.]

_28th April._--Men were now dispatched in an opposite direction, that
is, to visit the villages on the right bank of the Molilamo as it flows
to the Lake; unfortunately, they met with no better result, and returned
empty handed.

On _April 29th_, Kalunganjovu and most of his people came early to the
village. The chief wished to assist his guest to the utmost, and stated
that as he could not be sure that a sufficient number of canoes would be
forthcoming unless he took charge of matters himself, he should
accompany the caravan to the crossing-place, which was about an hour’s
march from the spot. “Everything should be done for his friend,” he

They were ready to set out. On Susi’s going to the hut, Dr. Livingstone
told him that he was quite unable to walk to the door to reach the
kitanda, and he wished the men to break down one side of the little
house, as the entrance was too narrow to admit it, and in this manner to
bring it to him where he was; this was done, and he was gently placed
upon it, and borne out of the village.

Their course was in the direction of the stream, and they followed it
till they came to a reach where the current was uninterrupted by the
numerous little islands which stood partly in the river, and partly in
the flood on the upper waters. Kalunganjovu was seated on a knoll, and
actively superintended the embarkation, while Dr. Livingstone told his
bearers to take him to a tree at a little distance off, that he might
rest in the shade till most of the men were on the other side. A good
deal of care was required, for the river, by no means a large one in
ordinary times, spread its waters in all directions, so that a false
step, or a stumble in any unseen hole, would have drenched the invalid
and the bed also on which he was carried.

A good deal of care was required for the difficult task of conveying the
Doctor across, for the canoes were not wide enough to allow the kitanda
to be deposited in the bottom of either of them. Hitherto, Livingstone
had always been able to sit in the various canoes they had used, but
now he had no power to do so. Taking his bed off the kitanda, they laid
it in the bottom of the strongest canoe, and tried to lift him; but he
could not bear the pain of a hand being passed under his back. Beckoning
to Chuma, in a faint voice he asked him to stoop down over him as low as
possible, so that he might clasp his hands together behind his head,
directing him at the same time how to avoid putting any pressure on the
lumbar region of the back; in this way he was deposited in the bottom of
the canoe, and quickly ferried across the Molilamo. The same precautions
were used on the other side; the kitanda was brought close to the canoe,
so as to prevent any unnecessary pain in disembarking.

Susi now hurried on ahead to reach Chitambo’s village, and superintend
the building of another house. For the first mile or two they had to
carry the Doctor through swamps and plashes, glad to reach something
like a dry plain at last.

It would seem that his strength was here at its very lowest ebb. Chuma,
one of his bearers on these, the last weary miles the great traveler was
destined to accomplish, says, that they were every now and then implored
to stop and place their burden on the ground. So great were the pangs of
his disease during this day that he could make no attempt to stand, and
if lifted for a few yards a drowsiness came over him, which alarmed them
all excessively. This was specially the case at one spot where a tree
stood in the path. Here one of his attendants was called to him, and, on
stooping down, he found him unable to speak from faintness. They
replaced him in the kitanda, and made the best of their way on the
journey. Some distance farther on great thirst oppressed him; he asked
them if they had any water, but, unfortunately, for once, not a drop was
to be procured. Hastening on for fear of getting too far separated from
the party in advance, to their great comfort they now saw Farijala
approaching with some, which Susi had thoughtfully sent off from
Chitambo’s village.

Still wending their way on, it seemed as if they would not complete
their task, for again at a clearing the sick man entreated them to place
him on the ground, and to let him stay where he was. Fortunately at this
moment some of the outlying huts of the village came in sight, and they
tried to rally him by telling him that he would quickly be in the house
that the others had gone to build; but they were obliged, as it was, to
allow him to remain for an hour in the native gardens outside the town.

On reaching their companions, it was found that the work was not quite
finished, and it became necessary, therefore, to lay him under the broad
eaves of a native hut till things were ready.

Chitambo’s village at this time was almost empty. When the crops are
growing, it is the custom to erect little temporary houses in the
fields, and the inhabitants, leaving their more substantial huts, pass
the time in watching their crops, which are scarcely more safe by day
than by night; thus it was that the men found plenty of room and shelter
ready to their hand. Many of the people approached the spot where he lay
whose praises had reached them in previous years, and in silent wonder
they stood around him, resting on their bows. Slight drizzling showers
were falling, and as soon as possible his house was made ready, and
banked around with earth.

Inside, the bed was raised from the floor by sticks and grass, occupying
a position across and near to the bay-shaped end of the hut; in the bay
itself bales and boxes were deposited, one of the latter doing duty for
a table, on which the medicine-chest and sundry other things were
placed. A fire was lighted outside, nearly opposite the door, while the
boy, Majwara, slept just within, to attend to his master’s wants in the

On _April 30th, 1873_, Chitambo came early to pay a visit of courtesy,
and was shown into the Doctor’s presence; but the Doctor was obliged to
send him away, telling him to come again on the morrow, when he hoped to
have more strength to talk to him, and he was not again disturbed. In
the afternoon he asked Susi to bring his watch to the bedside, and
explained to him the position in which to hold his hand, that it might
lie in the palm while he slowly turned the key.

So the hours stole on till night-fall. Some of the men silently took to
their huts, while others, whose duty it was to keep watch, sat around
the fires, all feeling that the end could not be far off. About 11 P.M.,
Susi, whose hut was close by, was told to go to his master. At the time
there were loud shouts in the distance, and, on entering, Dr.
Livingstone said, “Are our men making that noise?” “No,” replied Susi;
“I can hear, from the cries, that the people are scaring away a buffalo
from their dura fields.” A few minutes afterward he said, slowly, and
evidently wandering, “Is this Luapula?” Susi told him they were in
Chitambo’s village, near the Molilamo, when he was silent for a
while. Again, speaking to Susi, in Suaheli this time, he said, “How
many days is it to the Luapula?” “I think it is three days, master,”
replied Susi.


A few seconds after, as if in great pain, he half sighed, half said, “Oh
dear, dear!” and then dozed off again.

It was about an hour later that Susi heard Majwara again outside the
door, “Bwana wants you, Susi.” The Doctor wished him to boil some water,
and for this purpose he went to the fire outside, and soon returned with
the copper kettle full. Calling him close, he asked him to bring his
medicine-chest, and to hold the candle near him, for the man noticed he
could hardly see. With great difficulty the Doctor selected the calomel,
which he told him to place by his side; then, directing him to pour a
little water into a cup, and to put another empty one by it, he said, in
a low, feeble voice, “All right; you can go out now.” These were the
last words he was ever heard to speak.

It must have been about 4 A.M. when Susi heard Majwara’s step once more.
“Come to Bwana; I am afraid; I don’t know if he is alive.” The lad’s
evident alarm made Susi run to arouse Chuma, Chowpere, Matthew, and
Muanuasere, and the six men went immediately to the hut.

Passing inside, they looked toward the bed. Dr. Livingstone was not
lying on it, but appeared to be engaged in prayer, and they
instinctively drew backward for the instant. Pointing to him, Majwara
said, “When I lay down he was just as he is now, and it is because I
find that he does not move that I fear he is dead.” They asked the lad
how long he had slept? Majwara said he could not tell, but he was sure
that it was some considerable time; the men drew nearer.

A candle, stuck by its own wax to the top of the box, shed a light
sufficient for them to see his form. Dr. Livingstone was kneeling by the
side of his bed, his body stretched forward, his head buried in his
hands upon the pillow. For a minute they watched him; he did not stir,
there was no sign of breathing; then one of them, Matthew, advanced
softly to him, and placed his hands to his cheeks. It was sufficient;
life had been extinct some time, and the body was almost cold;
_Livingstone was dead_.

His sad-hearted servants raised him tenderly up, and laid him full
length on the bed; then, carefully covering him, they went out into the
damp night air to consult together. It was not long before the cocks
crew; and it is from this circumstance--coupled with the fact that Susi
spoke to him some time shortly before midnight--that we are able to
state with tolerable accuracy that he expired early on the 1st of May.

It has been thought best to give the narrative of these closing hours as
nearly as possible in the words of the two men who attended him
constantly, both here and in the many illnesses of like character which
he endured in his last six years’ wanderings; in fact, from the first
moment of the news arriving in England, it was felt to be indispensable
that they should come home to state what occurred.

The men have much to consider as they cower around the watch-fire, and
little time for deliberation. They are at their farthest point from
home, and their leader has fallen at their head; we shall see presently
how they faced their difficulties.

Several inquiries will naturally arise, on reading this distressing
history; the first, perhaps, will be with regard to the entire absence
of everything like a parting word to those immediately about him, or a
farewell line to his family and friends at home. It must be very evident
to the reader that Livingstone entertained very grave forebodings about
his health during the last two years of his life, but it is not clear
that he realized the near approach of death when his malady suddenly
passed into a more dangerous stage.

It may be said, “Why did he not take some precautions or give some
strict injunctions to his men to preserve his note-books and maps at all
hazards, in the event of his decease?” Did not his great ruling passion
suggest some such precaution?

Fair questions, but, reader, you have all--every word written, spoken,
or implied.

Is there, then, no explanation? Yes; we think past experience affords
it, and it is among the peculiar features of death by malarial

In eight deaths on the Zambesi and Shire districts, not a single parting
word or direction in any instance was uttered. Neither hope nor courage
give way as death approaches. In most cases, a comatose state of
exhaustion supervenes, which, if it be not quickly arrested by active
measures, passes into complete insensibility; this is almost invariably
the closing scene.

In Dr. Livingstone’s case, we find some departure from the ordinary
symptoms. The great loss of blood may have had a bearing on the case. He
was alive to the conviction that malarial poison is the basis of every
disorder in Tropical Africa, and he did not doubt but that he was fully
under its influence while suffering so severely. A man of less
endurance in all probability would have perished in the first week of
the terrible approach to the lake, through the flooded country and under
the continual downpour that he describes. It tried every constitution,
saturated every man with fever-poison, and destroyed several. The
greater vitality in his iron system very likely staved off for a few
days the last state of coma to which we refer; but there is quite
sufficient to show us that only a thin margin lay between the heavy
drowsiness of the last few days before reaching Chitambo’s and the final
and usual symptom that brings on unconsciousness and inability to speak.

He hoped to recover as he had so often done before; and this in a
measure accounts for the absence of anything like a dying statement. It
may be that at the last a flash of conviction for a moment lighted up
the mind; if so, what greater consolation can those have who mourn his
loss, than the account that the men give of what they saw when they
entered the hut? Livingstone had not merely turned himself, he had risen
to pray; he still rested on his knees, his hands were clasped under his
head; when they approached him, he seemed to live. He had not fallen to
right or left when he rendered up his spirit to God. Death required no
change of limb or position; there was merely the gentle settling forward
of the frame unstrung by pain, for the Traveler’s perfect rest had come.

Before daylight the men were quietly told in each hut what had happened,
and that they were to assemble. Susi and Chuma wished every body to be
present while the boxes were opened, so that, in case money or valuables
were in them, all might be responsible. Jacob Wainwright (who could
write, they knew) was asked to make some notes which should serve as an
inventory, and then the boxes were brought out from the hut.

Before he left England in 1865, Dr. Livingstone had arranged that his
traveling equipment should be as compact as possible. An old friend gave
him some exceedingly well-made tin boxes, two of which lasted out the
whole of his travels. In these his papers and instruments were safe from
wet and from white ants, which have to be guarded against more than
anything else. Besides the articles mentioned below, a number of letters
and dispatches in various stages were likewise inclosed, and one can
never sufficiently extol the good feeling which after his death invested
all these writings with something like a sacred care in the estimation
of all his men. It was the Doctor’s custom to carry a small metallic
note-book in his pocket; a quantity of these have come to hand, filled
from end to end; and as the men preserved every one that they found, we
have almost a daily entry to fall back upon. Nor was less care shown for
his rifles, sextants, his Bible and Church-service, and the medicine

Jacob’s entry is as follows, and it was thoughtfully made at the back
end of the same note-book that was in use by the Doctor when he died. It
runs as follows:

  “11 o’clock night, 28th April.

  “In the chest was found about a shilling and a half, and in other
  chest his hat, one watch, and two small boxes of measuring instrments,
  and in each box there was one. One compass, three other kind of
  measuring instruments. Four other kind of measuring instruments. And
  in another chest three drachmas and half half scrople.”

A word is necessary concerning the first part of this. It will be
observed that Dr. Livingstone made his last note on the 27th of April.
Jacob, referring to it as the only indication of the day of the month,
and fancying, moreover, that it was written on the preceding day, wrote
down “28th April.” Had he observed that the few words opposite the 27th
in the pocket-book related to the stay at Kalunganjovu’s village, and
not to any portion of the time at Chitambo’s the error would have been
avoided. Again, with respect to the time. It was about 11 o’clock P.M,
when Susi last saw his master alive, and therefore this time is noted;
but both he and Chuma feel quite sure, from what Majwara said, that
death did not take place till some hours after.

It was not without some alarm that the men realized their more immediate
difficulties; none could see better than they what complications might
arise in an hour.

They knew the superstitious horror connected with the dead prevalent in
the tribes around them, for the departed spirits of men are universally
believed to have vengeance and mischief at heart as their ruling idea in
the land beyond the grave. All rites turn on this belief. The religion
of the African is a weary attempt to propitiate those who show
themselves to be still able to haunt and destroy, as war comes on or an
accident happens.

On this account it is not to be wondered at that chief and people make
common cause against those who wander through their territory, and have
the misfortune to lose one of their party by death. Such occurrences are
looked on as most serious offences, and the men regarded their position
with no small apprehension.


Calling the whole party together, Susi and Chuma placed the state of
affairs before them, and asked what should be done. They received a
reply from those whom Mr. Stanley had engaged for Dr. Livingstone, which
was hearty and unanimous. “You,” said they, “are old men in traveling
and in hardships; you must act as our chiefs, and we will promise to
obey whatever you order us to do.” From this moment we may look on Susi
and Chuma as the captains of the caravan. To their knowledge of the
country, of the tribes through which they were to pass, but, above all,
to the sense of discipline and cohesion which was maintained throughout
their safe return to Zanzibar at the head of their men must, under God’s
good guidance, be mainly attributed.

All agreed that Chitambo must be kept in ignorance of Dr. Livingstone’s
decease, or otherwise a fine so heavy would be inflicted upon them as
compensation for damage done that their means would be crippled, and
they could hardly expect to pay their way to the coast. It was decided
that, come what might, the body must be borne to Zanzibar. It was also
arranged to take it secretly, if possible, to a hut at some distance
off, where the necessary preparations could be carried out, and for this
purpose some men were now dispatched with axes to cut wood, while others
went to collect grass. Chuma set off to see Chitambo, and said that they
wanted to build a place outside the village, if he would allow it, for
they did not like living among the huts. His consent was willingly

Later on in the day two of the men went to the people to buy food, and
divulged the secret; the chief was at once informed of what had
happened, and started for the spot on which the new buildings were being
set up. Appealing to Chuma, he said, “Why did you not tell me the truth?
I know that your master died last night. You were afraid to let me know,
but do not fear any longer. I, too, have traveled, and more than once
have been to Bwani (the coast), before the country on the road was
destroyed by the Mazitu. I know that you have no bad motives in coming
to our land, and death often happens to travelers in their journeys.”
Reassured by this speech, they told him of their intention to prepare
the body, and to take it with them. He, however, said it would be far
better to bury it there, for they were undertaking an impossible task;
but they held to their resolution. The corpse was conveyed to the new
hut the same day on the kitanda, carefully covered with cloth and a

_2d May, 1873._--The next morning Susi paid a visit to Chitambo, making
him a handsome present, and receiving in return a kind welcome. It is
only right to add that the men speak on all occasions with gratitude of
Chitambo’s conduct throughout, and say that he is a fine, generous
fellow. Following out his suggestion, it was agreed that all honors
should be shown to the dead, and the customary mourning was arranged

At the proper time, Chitambo, leading his people, and accompanied by his
wives, came to the new settlement. He was clad in a broad red cloth,
which covered the shoulders, while the wrapping of native cotton cloth,
worn round the waist, fell as low as his ankles. All carried bows,
arrows, and spears, but no guns were seen. Two drummers joined in the
loud wailing lamentation, which so indelibly impresses itself on the
memories of people who have heard it in the East, while the band of
servants fired volley after volley in the air, according to the strict
rule of Portuguese and Arabs on such occasions.

As yet, nothing had been done to the corpse.

A separate hut was now built, about ninety feet from the principal one.
It was constructed in such a manner that it should be open to the air at
the top, and sufficiently strong to defy the attempts of any wild beast
to break through it. Firmly driven boughs and saplings were planted side
by side, and bound together, so as to make a regular stockade. Close to
this building the men constructed their huts, and, finally, the whole
settlement had another high stockade carried completely around it.

Arrangements were made the same day to treat the corpse on the following
morning. One of the men, Safene, while in Kalunganjovu’s district,
bought a large quantity of salt; this was purchased of him for sixteen
strings of beads; there was, besides, some brandy in the Doctor’s
stores, and with these few materials they hoped to succeed in their

Farijala was appointed to the necessary task. He had picked up some
knowledge of the method pursued in making _post-mortem_ examinations
while a servant to a doctor at Zanzibar, and at his request Carras, one
of the Nassick boys, was told off to assist him. Previous to this,
however, early on May 3d, a special mourner arrived. He came with the
anklets which are worn on these occasions, composed of rows of hollow
seed-vessels filled with rattling pebbles, and in low, monotonous chant
sang, while he danced, what, translated into English, would read:

  “To-day the Englishman is dead,
  Who has different hair from ours;
  Come round to see the Englishman.”

His task over, the mourner and his son, who accompanied him in the
ceremony, retired with a suitable present of beads.

The emaciated remains of the deceased traveler were soon afterward taken
to the place prepared. Over the heads of Farijala and Carras, Susi,
Chuma, and Muanuasere held a thick blanket as a kind of screen, under
which the men performed their duties. Tofike and John Wainwright were
present. Jacob Wainwright had been asked to bring his Prayer-book with
him, and stood apart against the wall of the inclosure.

In reading about the lingering sufferings of Dr. Livingstone as
described by himself, and subsequently by these faithful fellows, one is
quite prepared to understand their explanation, and to see why it was
possible to defer these operations so long after death; they say that
his frame was little more than skin and bone. Through an incision
carefully made, the viscera were removed, and a quantity of salt was
placed in the trunk. All noticed one very significant circumstance in
the autopsy. A clot of coagulated blood, as large as a man’s hand, lay
in the left side,[9] while Farijala pointed to the state of the lungs,
which they described as dried up, and covered with black-and-white

  [9] It has been suggested by one who attended Dr. Livingstone
  professionally in several dangerous illnesses in Africa, that the
  ultimate cause of death was acute splenitis.

The heart, with the other parts removed, were placed in a tin box,
which had formerly contained flour, and decently and reverently buried
in a hole dug some four feet deep on the spot where they stood. Jacob
then read the English Church Burial Service, in the presence of all. The
body was then left fully exposed to the sun. No other means were taken
to preserve it, beyond placing some brandy in the mouth and some in the
hair; nor can one imagine for an instant that any other process would
have been available either for Europeans or natives, considering the
rude appliances at their disposal. The men kept watch day and night to
see that no harm came to their sacred charge. Once a day the position of
the body was changed, but at no other time was any one allowed to
approach it.

No molestation of any kind took place during the fourteen days exposure.
At the end of this period preparations were made for retracing their
steps. The corpse, tolerably dried, was wrapped round in some calico,
the legs being bent inward at the knees to shorten the package. The
next, thing was to plan something in which to carry it, and in the
absence of planking or tools, an admirable substitute was found by
stripping from a myonga tree enough of the bark in one piece to form a
cylinder, and in it their master was laid. Over this case a piece of
sail-cloth was sewn, and the whole package was lashed securely to a
pole, so as to be carried by two men.

Jacob Wainwright was asked to carve an inscription on the large
mvula-tree which stands by the place where the body rested, stating the
name of Dr. Livingstone, and the date of his death; and, before leaving,
the men gave strict injunctions to Chitambo to keep the grass cleared
away, so as to save it from the bush-fires which annually sweep over the
country and destroy so many trees. Besides this, they erected close to
the spot two high, thick posts, with an equally strong cross-piece, like
a lintel and door posts in form, which they painted thoroughly with the
tar that was intended for the boat; this sign they think will remain for
a long time, from the solidity of the timber. Before parting with
Chitambo, they gave him a large tin biscuit-box and some newspapers,
which would serve as evidence to all future travelers that a white man
had been at this village.

THE homeward march was then begun. Throughout its length we shall
content ourselves with giving the approximate number of days occupied in
traveling and halting. Although the memories of both men are
excellent--standing the severest test by the light of Dr. Livingstone’s
journals, or “set on” at any passage of his travels--still they kept no
precise record of the time spent at villages where they were detained by
sickness, and so the exactness of a diary can no longer be sustained.

They found, on the first day’s journey, that some other precautions were
necessary to enable the bearers of the mournful burden to keep to their
task. Sending to Chitambo’s village, they brought thence the cask of tar
which they had deposited with the chief, and gave a thick coating to the
canvas outside. This answered all purposes; they left the remainder at
the next village, with orders to send it back to headquarters, and then
continued their course through Ilala, led by their guides in the
direction of the Luapulu.

A moment’s inspection of the map will explain the line of country
traversed. Susi and Chuma had traveled with Dr. Livingstone in the
neighborhood of the northwest shores of Bangweolo in previous years. The
last fatal road from the north might be struck by a march in a due
northeast direction, if they could but hold out so far without any
serious misfortune; but, in order to do this, they must first strike
northward so as to reach the Luapulu, and then crossing it at some part
not necessarily far from its exit from the lake, they could at once lay
their course for the south end of Tanganyika.

There were, however, serious indications among them. First one and then
the other dropped out of the file, and by the time they reached a town
belonging to Chitambo’s brother--and on the third day only since they
set out--half their number were sick. It was impossible to go on. A few
hours more, and all seemed affected. The symptoms were intense pain in
the limbs and face, great prostration, and, in the bad cases, inability
to move. The men attributed it to the continual wading through water
before the Doctor’s death. They think that illness had been waiting for
some further slight provocation, and that the day’s previous tramp,
which was almost entirely through plashy bougas, or swamps, turned the
scale against them.

Susi was suffering very much. The disease settled in one leg, and then
quickly shifted to the other. Songolo nearly died. Kaniki and Behati,
two of the women, expired in a few days, and all looked at its worst.
It took them a good month to rally sufficiently to resume their

Fortunately, in this interval, the rains entirely ceased, and the
natives day by day brought an abundance of food to the sick men. From
them they heard that the districts they were now in were notoriously
unhealthy, and that many an Arab had fallen out from the caravan march,
to leave his bones in these wastes. One day five of the party made an
excursion to the westward, and on their return reported a large deep
river flowing into the Luapula on the left bank. Unfortunately no notice
was taken of its name, for it would be of considerable geographical

At last they were ready to start again, and came to one of the border
villages in Ilala the same night; but the next day several fell ill for
the second time, Susi being quite unable to move.

Muanamazungu, at whose place these relapses occurred, was fully aware of
everything that had taken place at Chitambo’s, and showed the men the
greatest kindness. Not a day passed without his bringing them some
present or other, but there was a great disinclination among the people
to listen to any details connected with Dr. Livingstone’s death. Some
return for their kindness was made by Farijala shooting three buffaloes
near the town; meat and good-will go together all over Africa, and the
liberal sportsman scores points at many a turn. A cow was purchased here
for some brass bracelets and calico, and on the twentieth day all were
sufficiently strong on their legs to push forward.

The broad waters of the long-looked for Luapula soon appeared in sight.
Putting themselves under a guide, they were conducted to the village of
Chisalamalama, who willingly offered them canoes for the passage across
the next day.[10]

  [10] The men consider it five days’ march “only carrying a gun” from
  the Molilamo to the bank of the Luapula--this in rough reckoning, at
  the rate of native traveling, would give a distance of say one hundred
  and twenty to one hundred and fifty miles.

As one listens to the report that the men give of this mighty river, he
instinctively bends his eyes on a dark burden laid in the canoe! How
ardently would he have scanned it whose body thus passes across these
waters, and whose spirit, in its last hours’ sojourn in this world,
wandered in thought and imagination to its stream!

It would seem that the Luapula at this point is double the width of the
Zambesi at Shupanga. This gives a breadth of fully four miles. A man
could not be seen on the opposite bank; trees looked small; a gun could
be heard, but no shouting would ever reach a person across the
river--such is the description given by those who were well able to
compare the Luapula with the Zambesi. Taking to the canoes, they were
able to use the “m’phondo,” or punting-pole, for a distance through
reeds, then came clear, deep water for some four hundred yards, again a
broad, reedy expanse, followed by another deep part, succeeded in turn
by another current not so broad as those previously paddled across, and
then, as on the starting side, gradually shoaling water, abounding in
reeds. Two islands lay just above the crossing-place. Using pole and
paddle alternately, the passage took them fully two hours across this
enormous torrent, which carries off the waters of Bangweolo toward the

A sad mishap befell the donkey the first night of camping beyond the
Luapula, and this faithful and sorely-tried servant was doomed to end
his career at this spot!

According to custom, a special stable was built for him close to the
men. In the middle of the night a great disturbance, coupled with the
shouting of Amoda, aroused the camp. The men rushed out, and found the
stable broken down, and the donkey gone. Snatching some logs, they set
fire to the grass, as it was pitch dark, and by the light saw a lion
close to the body of the poor animal, which was quite dead. Those who
had caught up their guns on the first alarm fired a volley, and the lion
made off. It was evident that the donkey had been seized by the nose,
and instantly killed. At daylight the spoor showed that the guns had
taken effect. The lion’s blood lay in a broad track (for he was
apparently injured in the back, and could only drag himself along); but
the foot-prints of a second lion were too plain to make it advisable to
track him far in the thick cover he had reached, and so the search was
abandoned. The body of the donkey was left behind; but two canoes
remained near the village, and it is most probable that it went to make
a feast at Chisalamalama’s.

Travelling through incessant swamp and water, they were fain to make
their next stopping-place in a spot where an enormous ant-hill spread
itself out--a small island in the waters. A fire was lighted, and by
employing hoes, most of them dug something like a form to sleep in on
the hard earth.

Thankful to leave such a place, their guide led them next day to the
village of Kawinga, whom they describe as a tall man, of singularly
light color, and the owner of a gun, a unique weapon in these parts, but
one already made useless by wear and tear. The next village, N’kossu’s,
was much more important. The people, called Kawende, formerly owned
plenty of cattle, but now they are reduced; the Banyamwezi have put them
under the harrow, and but few herds remain. It is a somewhat singular
fact that the hump quite disappears in the lake breed; the cows would
pass for respectable short-horns.

A present was made to the caravan of a cow; but it seems that the rule,
“First catch your hare,” is in full force in N’kossu’s pastures. The
animals are exceedingly wild, and a hunt has to be set on foot whenever
beef is wanted; it was so in this case. Safene and Muanuasere, with
their guns, essayed to settle the difficulty. The latter, an old hunter,
was not likely to do much harm; but Safene, firing wildly at the cow,
hit one of the villagers, and smashed the bone of the poor fellow’s
thigh. Although it was clearly an accident, such things do not readily
settle themselves down on this assumption in Africa. The chief, however,
behaved very well. He told them a fine would have to be paid on the
return of the wounded man’s father, and it had better be handed to him,
for by law the blame would fall on him, as the entertainer of the man
who had brought about the injury. He admitted that he had ordered all
his people to stand clear of the spot where the disaster occurred, but
he supposed that in this instance his orders had not been heard. They
had not sufficient goods in any case to respond to the demand. The
process adopted to set the broken limb is a sample of native surgery
which must not be passed over.

First of all, a hole was dug, say two feet deep and four in length, in
such a manner that the patient could sit in it with his legs out before
him. A large leaf was then bound round the fractured thigh, and earth
thrown in so that the patient was buried up to the chest. The next act
was to cover the earth which lay over the man’s legs with a thick layer
of mud; then plenty of sticks and grass were collected, and a fire
lighted on the top directly over the fracture. To prevent the smoke
smothering the sufferer, they held a tall mat as a screen before his
face, and the operation went on. After some time the heat reached the
limbs under-ground. Bellowing with fear, and covered with perspiration,
the man implored them to let him out. The authorities concluding that he
had been under treatment a sufficient time, quickly burrowed down and
lifted him from the hole. He was now held perfectly fast, while two
strong men stretched the wounded limb with all their might! Splints duly
prepared were afterward bound round it, and we must hope that in due
time benefit accrued; but as the ball had passed through the limb, we
must have our doubts on the subject. The villagers told Chuma that after
the Banyamwezi engagements they constantly treated bad gunshot-wounds in
this way with perfect success.

Leaving N’kossu’s they rested one night at another village belonging to
him, and then made for the territory of the Wa Ussi. Here they met with
a surly welcome, and were told they must pass on. No doubt the
intelligence that they were carrying their master’s body had a great
deal to do with it, for the news seemed to spread with the greatest
rapidity in all directions. Three times they camped in the forest, and,
for a wonder, began to find some dry ground. The path lay in the direct
line of Chawende’s town, parallel to the north shore of the lake, and at
no great distance from it.

Some time previously a solitary Unyamwesi had attached himself to the
party at Chitankooi’s, where he had been left sick by a passing caravan
of traders; this man now assured them the country before them was well
known to him.

Approaching Chawende’s, according to native etiquette, Amoda and Sabouri
went on in front to inform the chief, and to ask leave to enter his
town. As they did not come back, Muanuasere and Chuma set off after
them, to ascertain the reason of the delay. No better success seemed to
attend this second venture; so, shouldering their burdens, all went
forward in the track of the four messengers.

In the mean time Chuma and Muanuasere met Amoda and Sabouri coming back
toward them with five men. They reported that they had entered the town,
but found it a very large stockaded place; moreover, two other villages
of equal size were close to it. Much pombe-drinking was going on. On
approaching the chief, Amoda had rested his gun against the principal
hut innocently enough. Chawende’s son, drunk and quarrelsome, made this
a cause of offence, and, swaggering up, he insolently asked them how
they dared to do such a thing. Chawende interfered, and for the moment
prevented further trouble; in fact, he himself seems to have been
inclined to grant the favor which was asked; however, there was danger
brewing, and the men retired.

When the main body met them returning, tired with their fruitless
errand, a consultation took place. Wood there was none. To scatter about
and find materials with which to build shelter for the night would only
offer a great temptation to these drunken, excited people to plunder the
baggage. It was resolved to make for the town.

When they reached the gate of the stockade they were flatly refused
admittance, those inside telling them to go down to the river and camp
on the bank. They replied that this was impossible; that they were
tired, it was very late, and nothing could be found there to give them
shelter. Meeting with no different answer, Safene said, “Why stand
talking to them? let us get in somehow or other;” and, suiting the
action to the word, they pushed the men back who stood in the gateway.
Safene got through, and Muanuasere climbed over the top of the stockade,
followed by Chuma, who instantly opened the gate wide and let his
companions through. Hostilities might still have been averted had better
counsel prevailed.

The men began to look about for huts in which to deposit their things,
when the same drunken fellow drew a bow and fired at Muanuasere. The man
called out to the others to seize him, which was done in an instant. A
loud cry now burst forth that the chief’s son was in danger, and one of
the people hurling a spear, wounded Sabouri slightly in the thigh; this
was the signal for a general scrimmage.

Chawende’s men fled from the town; the drums beat the assembly in all
directions, and an immense number flocked to the spot from the two
neighboring villages, armed with their bows, arrows, and spears. An
assault instantly began from the outside. N’chise was shot with an arrow
in the shoulder through the palisade, and N’taru in the finger. Things
were becoming desperate. Putting the body of Dr. Livingstone and all
their goods and chattels in one hut, they charged out of the town, and
fired on the assailants, killing two and wounding several others.
Fearing that they would only gather together in the other remaining
villages and renew the attack at night, the men carried these quickly
one by one, and subsequently burned six others, which were built on the
same side of the river; then crossing over, they fired on the canoes
which were speeding toward the deep water of Bangweolo, through the
channel of the Lopopussi, with disastrous results to the fugitive

Returning to the town, all was made safe for the night. By the fortunes
of war, sheep, goats, fowls, and an immense quantity of food fell into
their hands, and they remained for a week to recruit. Once or twice they
found men approaching at night to throw fire on the roofs of the huts
from outside; but, with this exception, they were not interfered with.
On the last day but one, a man approached and called to them, at the top
of his voice, not to set fire to the chief’s town (it was his that they
occupied); for the bad son had brought all this upon them; he added that
the old man had been overruled, and they were sorry enough for his bad

Listening to the account given of this occurrence, one cannot but lament
the loss of life, and the whole circumstances of the fight. While, on
the one hand, we may imagine that the loss of a cool, conciliatory,
brave leader was here felt in a grave degree, we must also see that it
was known far and wide that this very loss was now a great weakness to
his followers. There is no surer sign of mischief in Africa than these
trumpery charges of bewitching houses by placing things on them; some
such overstrained accusation is generally set in the front rank when
other difficulties are to come; drunkenness is pretty much the same
thing in all parts of the world, and gathers misery around it as easily
in an African village as in an English city. Had the cortege submitted
to extortion and insult, they felt that their night by the river would
have been a precarious one, even if they had been in a humor to sleep in
a swamp when a town was at hand. These things gave occasion to them to
resort to force. The desperate nature of their whole enterprise in
starting for Zanzibar perhaps had accumulated its own stock of
determination, and now it found vent under evil provocation. If there is
room for any other feeling than regret, it lies in the fact that, on
mature consideration and in sober moments, the people who suffered cast
the real blame on the right shoulders.

For the next three days after leaving Chawende’s, they were still in the
same inundated fringe of bouga which surrounds the Lake, and on each
occasion had to camp at night-fall wherever a resting place could be
found in the jungle, reaching Chama’s village on the fourth day. A delay
of forty-eight hours was necessary, as Susi’s wife fell ill; and for the
next few marches she was carried in a kitanda. They met an Unyamwezi man
here, who had come from Kumba-kumba’s town in the Wa Ussi district. He
related to them how on two occasions the Wanyamwezi had tried to carry
Chawende’s town by assault, but had been repulsed both times. It would
seem that, with the strong footing these invaders have in the country,
armed as they are besides with the much-dreaded guns, it can only be a
matter of time before the whole rule, such as it is, passes into the
hands of the new-comers.

The next night was spent in the open air, before coming to the scattered
huts of Ngumbu’s, where a motley group of stragglers, for the most part
Wabisa, were busy felling the trees and clearing the land for
cultivation. However, the little community gave them a welcome, in spite
of the wide-spread report of the fighting at Chawende’s and dancing and
drumming were kept up till morning.

One more night was passed in the plain, and they reached a tributary of
the Lopopussi River, called the M’Pamba; it is a considerable stream,
and takes one up to the chest in crossing. They now drew near to
Chiwaie’s town, which they describe as a very strong place, fortified
with a stockade and ditch. Shortly before reaching it some villagers
tried to pick a quarrel with them for carrying flags. It was their
invariable custom to make the drummer-boy, Majwara, march at their head,
while the union-jack and the red colors of Zanzibar were carried in a
foremost place in the line. Fortunately a chief of some importance came
up and stopped the discussion, or there might have been more mischief,
for the men were in no temper to lower their flag, knowing their own
strength pretty well by this time. Making their settlement close to
Chiwaie’s, they met with much kindness, and were visited by crowds of
the inhabitants.

Three days’ journey brought them to Chiwaie’s uncle’s village; sleeping
two nights in the jungle, they made Chungu’s, and in another day’s march
found themselves, to their great delight, at Kapesha’s. They knew their
road from this point, for on the southern route with Dr. Livingstone
they had stopped here, and could therefore take up the path that leads
to Tanganyika. Hitherto their course had been easterly, with a little
northing; but now they turned their backs to the lake, which they had
held on the right hand since crossing the Luapula, and struck almost

From Kapesha’s to Lake Bangweolo is a three days’ march, as the crow
flies, for a man carrying a burden. They saw a large quantity of iron
and copper wire being made here by a party of Unyamwezi. The process is
as follows: A heavy piece of iron, with a funnel-shaped hole in it, is
firmly fixed in the fork of a tree. A fine rod is then thrust into it,
and a line attached to the first few inches which can be coaxed through.
A number of men haul on this line, singing and dancing in tune, and thus
it is drawn through the first drill; it is subsequently passed through
others to render it still finer, and excellent wire is the result.
Leaving Kapesha, they went through many of the villages already
enumerated in Dr. Livingstone’s diary. Chama’s people came to see them
as they passed by him, and, after some mutterings and growlings, Kasonga
gave them leave to buy food at his town. Beaching Chama’s headquarters,
they camped outside, and received a civil message, telling them to
convey his orders to the people on the banks of the Kalongwese, that the
travelers must be ferried safely across. They found great fear and
misery prevailing in the neighborhood, from the constant raids made by
Kumba-kumba’s men.

Leaving the Kalongwese behind them, they made for M’sama’s son’s town,
meeting four men on the way who were going from Kumba-kumba to Chama to
beat up recruits for an attack on the Katanga people. The request was
sure to be met with alarm and refusal, but it served very well to act
the part taken by the wolf in the fable. A grievance would immediately
be made of it, and Chama “eaten up” in due course for daring to gainsay
the stronger man. Such is too frequently the course of native
oppression. At last Kumba-kumba’s town came in sight. Already the large
district of Itawa has tacitly allowed itself to be put under the harrow
by this ruffianly Zanzibar Arab. Black-mail is levied in all directions,
and the petty chiefs, although really under tribute to Nsama, are
sagacious enough to keep in with the powers that be. Kumba-kumba showed
the men a storehouse full of elephants’ tusks. A small detachment was
sent off to try and gain tidings of one of the Nassick boys, who had
mysteriously disappeared a day or two previously on the march. At the
time no great apprehensions were felt, but as he did not turn up, the
grass was set on fire in order that he might see the smoke if he had
wandered, and guns were fired. Some think he purposely went off rather
than carry a load any further; while others fear he may have been
killed. Certain it is that after a five days’ search in all directions
no tidings could be gained either here or at Chama’s, and nothing more
was heard of him.

Numbers of slaves were collected here. On one occasion they saw five
gangs bound neck to neck by chains, and working in the gardens outside
the towns.

The talk was still about the break-up of Casembe’s power, for it will be
recollected that Kumba-kumba and Pemba-motu had killed him a short time
before; but by far the most interesting news that reached them was that
a party of Englishmen, headed by Dr. Livingstone’s son, on their way to
relieve his father, had been seen at Bagamoio some months previously.

The chief showed them every kindness during their five days’ rest, and
was most anxious that no mishap should by any chance occur to their
principal charge. He warned them to beware of hyenas, at night more
especially, as the quarter in which they had camped had no stockade
around it as yet.

Marching was now much easier, and the men quickly found they had crossed
the water-shed. The Lovu ran in front of them on its way to Tanganyika.
The Kalongwese, we have seen, flows to Lake Moero in the opposite
direction. More to their purpose it was, perhaps, to find the terror of
Kumba-kumba dying away as they traveled in a northeasterly direction,
and came among the Mwambi. As yet no invasion had taken place. A young
chief, Chungu, did all he could for them, for when the Doctor explored
these regions before, Chungu had been much impressed with him; and now,
throwing off all the native superstition, he looked on the arrival of
the dead body as a cause of real sorrow.

Asoumani had some luck in hunting, and a fine buffalo was killed near
the town. According to native game laws (which in some respects are
exceedingly strict in Africa), Chungu had a right to a fore-leg--had it
been an elephant, the tusk next the ground would have been his, past
all doubt--in this instance, however, the men sent in a plea that theirs
was no ordinary case, and that hunger had laws of its own; they begged
to be allowed to keep the whole carcass, and Chungu not only listened to
their story, but willingly waived his claim to the chief’s share.

It is to be hoped that these sons of Tafuna, the head and father of the
Amambwi a lungu, may hold their own. They seem a superior race, and this
man is described as a worthy leader. His brothers, Kasonso, Chitimbwa,
Sombe, and their sister Mombo, are all notorious for their reverence for
Tafuna. In their villages an abundance of colored homespun cloth speaks
for their industry; while from the numbers of dogs and elephant-spears
no further testimony is needed to show that the character they bear as
great hunters is well deserved.

The steep descent to the lake now lay before them, and they came to
Kasakalawe’s. Here it was that the Doctor had passed weary months of
illness on his first approach to Tanganyika in previous years. The
village contained hut few of its old inhabitants, but those few received
them hospitably enough, and mourned the loss of him who had been so well
appreciated when alive. So they journeyed on day by day till the
southern end of the lake was rounded.

The previous experience of the difficult route along the heights
bordering on Tanganyika made them determine to give the lake a wide
berth this time, and for this purpose they held well to the eastward,
passing a number of small deserted villages, in one of which they camped
nearly every night. It was necessary to go through the Fipa country, but
they learned from one man and another that the chief, Kafoofi, was very
anxious that the body should not be brought near to his town; indeed, a
guide was purposely thrown in their way who led them past by a
considerable detour. Kafoofi stands well with the coast Arabs. One,
Ngombesassi by name, was at the time living with him, accompanied by his
retinue of slaves. He had collected a very large quantity of ivory
further in the interior, but dared not approach nearer at present to
Unyanyembe with it, to risk the chance of meeting one of Mirambo’s

This road across the plains seems incomparably the best. No difficulty
whatever was experienced, and one cannot but lament the toil and
weariness which Dr. Livingstone endured while holding a course close to
Tanganyika; although one must bear in mind that by no other means at the
time could he complete his survey of this great inland sea, or acquaint
us with its harbors, its bays, and the rivers which find their way into
it on the east. These are details which will prove of value when small
vessels come to navigate it in the future.

The chief feature after leaving this point was a three days’ march over
Lambalamfipa, an abrupt mountain range, which crosses the country east
and west, and attains, it would seem, an altitude of some four thousand
feet. Looking down on the plain from its highest passes a vast lake
appears to stretch away in front toward the north, but an descending
this resolves itself into a glittering plain, for the most part covered
with saline incrustations. The path lay directly across this. The
difficulties they anticipated had no real existence, for small villages
were found, and water was not scarce, although brackish. The first
demand for toll was made near here, but the headman allowed them to pass
for fourteen strings of beads. Susi says that this plain literally
swarms with herds of game of all kinds; giraffe and zebra were
particularly abundant, and lions reveled in such good quarters. The
settlements they came to belonged chiefly to elephant hunters. Farijala
and Muanuasere did well with the buffalo, and plenty of beef came into

They gained some particulars concerning a salt-water lake on their
right, at no very considerable distance. It was reported to them to be
smaller than Tanganyika, and goes by the name Bahari ya Muarooli--the
sea of Muarooli--for such is the name of the paramount chief who lives
on its shore, and, if we mistake not, the very Merere, or his successor,
about whom Dr. Livingstone from time to time showed such interest. They
now approached the Likwa River, which flows to this inland sea; they
describe it as a stream running breast-high, with brackish water; little
satisfaction was got by drinking from it.

Just as they came to the Likwa, a long string of men was seen on the
opposite side filing down to the water, and being uncertain of their
intentions, precautions were quickly taken to insure the safety of the
baggage. Dividing themselves into three parties, the first detachment
went across to meet the strangers, carrying the Arab flag in front.
Chuma headed another band at a little distance in the rear of these,
while Susi and a few more crouched in the jungle, with the body
concealed in a roughly-made hut. Their fears, however, were needless; it
turned out to be a caravan bound for Fipa to hunt elephants and buy
ivory and slaves. The new arrivals told them that they had come straight
through Unyanyembe from Bagamoio, on the coast, and that the Doctor’s
death had already been reported there by natives of Fipa.


With no small satisfaction the men learned from the outwardbound caravan
that the previous story was a true one, and they were assured that Dr.
Livingstone’s son, with two Englishmen and a quantity of goods, had
already reached Unyanyembe.

The country here showed all the appearance of a salt-pan; indeed, a
quantity of very good salt was collected by one of the men, who thought
he could turn an honest bunch of beads with it at Unyanyembe.

Petty tolls were levied on them. Kampama’s deputy required four dotis,
and an additional tax of six was paid to the chief of the Kanongo when
his town was reached.

The Lungwa River bowls away here toward Tanganyika. It is a quick,
tumbling stream, leaping among the rocks and boulders, and in its deeper
pools it affords cool delight to schools of hippopotami. The men, who
had hardly tasted good water since crossing Lambalamfipa, are loud in
its praise. Muanuasere improved relations with the people at the next
town by opportunely killing another buffalo, and all took a three days’
rest. Yet another caravan met them, bound likewise for the interior, and
adding further particulars about the Englishmen at Unyanyembe. This
quickened the pace till they found at one stage they were melting two
days of the previous outward journey into one.

Arriving at Baula, Jacob Wainwright, the scribe of the party, was
commissioned to write an account of the distressing circumstances of the
Doctor’s death, and Chuma, taking three men with him, pressed on to
deliver it to the English party in person. The rest of the cortege
followed them through the jungle to Chilunda’s village. On the outskirts
they came across a number of Wagogo hunting elephants with dogs and
spears; but although they were well treated by them, and received
presents of honey and food, they thought it better to keep these men in
ignorance of the charge.

The Manyara River was crossed, on its way to Tanganyika, before they got
to Chikooloo. Leaving this village behind them, they advanced to the
Ugunda district, now ruled by Kalimangombi, the son of Mbereke, the
former chief, and so on to Kasekera, which, it will be remembered, is
not far from Unyanyembe.


_20th October, 1873._--We will here run on ahead with Chuma on his way
to communicate with the new arrivals. He reached the Arab settlement
without let or hinderance. Lieutenant Cameron was quickly put in
possession of the main facts of Dr. Livingstone’s death by reading
Jacob’s letter, and Chuma was questioned concerning it in the presence
of Dr. Dillon and Lieutenant Murphy. It was a disappointment to find
that the reported arrival of Mr. Oswell Livingstone was entirely
erroneous; but Lieutenant Cameron showed the wayworn men every kindness.
Chuma rested one day before setting out to relieve his comrades, to whom
he had arranged to make his way as soon as possible. Lieutenant Cameron
expressed a fear that it would not be safe for him to carry the cloth he
was willing to furnish them with, if he had not a stronger convoy, as he
himself had suffered too sorely from terrified bearers on his way
thither; but the young fellows were pretty well acquainted with native
marauders by this time, and set off without apprehension.

And now the greater part of their task is over. The weather-beaten
company wind their way into the old well-known settlement of Kwihara. A
host of Arabs and their attendant slaves meet them, as they sorrowfully
take their charge to the same tembe in which the “weary waiting” was
endured before, and then they submit to the systematic questioning which
the native traveler is so well able to sustain.

News in abundance was offered in return. The porters of the Livingstone
East Coast Aid Expedition had plenty to relate to the porters sent by
Mr. Stanley. Mirambo’s war dragged on its length, and matters had
changed very little since they were there before, either for better or
for worse. They found the English officers extremely short of goods; but
Lieutenant Cameron, no doubt with the object of his expedition full in
view, very properly felt it a first duty to relieve the wants of the
party that had performed this herculean feat of bringing the body of
the traveler he had been sent to relieve, together with every article
belonging to him at the time of his death, as far as this main road to
the coast.

In talking to the men about their intentions, Lieutenant Cameron had
serious doubts whether the risk of taking the body of Dr. Livingstone
through the Ugogo country ought to be run. It very naturally occurred to
him that Dr. Livingstone might have felt a wish during life to be buried
in the same land in which the remains of his wife lay--it will be
remembered that the grave of Mrs. Livingstone is at Shupanga, on the
Zambesi. All this was put before the men; but they steadily adhered to
their first conviction, that it was right, at all risks, to attempt to
bear their master home, and therefore they were no longer urged to bury
him at Kwihara.

To the new-comers it was of great interest to examine the boxes which
the men had conveyed from Bangweolo. As we have seen, they had carefully
packed up everything at Chitambo’s--books, instruments, clothes, and all
which would bear special interest in time to come, from having been
associated with Livingstone in his last hours.

It cannot be conceded for a moment that these poor fellows would have
been right in forbidding this examination, when we consider the relative
position in which natives and English officers must always stand to each
other; but it is a source of regret to relate that the chief part of
Livingstone’s instruments were taken out of the packages and
appropriated for future purposes. The instruments with which all his
observations had been made throughout a series of discoveries extending
over seven years--aneroid barometers, compasses, thermometers, the
sextant, and other things--have gone on a new series of travels, to
incur innumerable risks of loss, while one only of his thermometers
comes to hand.

We could well have wished these instruments safe in England with the
small remnant of Livingstone’s personal property, which was allowed to
be shipped from Zanzibar.

The Doctor had deposited four bales of cloth as a reserve stock with the
Arabs, and these were immediately forthcoming for the march down.

Lieutenant Cameron gave the men to understand that it was agreed
Lieutenant Murphy should return to Zanzibar, and asked that if they
could attach his party to their march; if so, the men who acted as
carriers should receive six dollars a man for their services. This was
agreed to. Susi had arranged that they should avoid the main path of the
Wagogo; inasmuch as, if difficulty was to be encountered anywhere, it
would arise among these lawless, pugnacious people.

By making a ten days’ detour at “Jua Singa,” and traveling by a path
well known to one of their party, through the jungle of Poli ya vengi,
they hoped to keep out of harm’s way, and to be able to make the cloth
hold out with which they were supplied. At length the start was
effected, and Dr. Dillon likewise quitted the expedition, to return to
the coast. It was necessary to stop, after the first day’s march, for a
long halt; for one of the women was unable to travel, they found, and
progress was delayed till she could resume the journey. There seem to
have been some serious misunderstanding between the leaders of Dr.
Livingstone’s party and Lieutenant Murphy soon after setting out, which
turned mainly on the subject of beginning of the day’s march. The
former, trained in the old discipline of their master, laid stress on
the necessity of very early rising, to avoid the heat of the day, and
perhaps pointed out more bluntly than pleasantly, that if the Englishmen
wanted to improve their health, they had better do so too. However, to a
certain extent, difficulty was avoided by the two companies pleasing

Making an early start, the body was carried to Kasekera by Susi’s party,
where, from an evident disinclination to receive it into the village, an
encampment was made outside. A consultation now became necessary. There
was no disguising the fact that if they kept along the main road
intelligence would precede them concerning that in which they were
engaged, stirring up certain hostility, and jeopardizing the most
precious charge they had. A plan was quickly hit upon. Unobserved, the
men removed the corpse of the deceased explorer from the package in
which it had hitherto been conveyed, and buried the bark case in the hut
in the thicket around the village in which they had placed it. The
object now was to throw the villagers off their guard, by making believe
that they had relinquished the attempt to carry the body to Zanzibar.
They feigned that they had abandoned their task, having changed their
minds, and that it must be sent back to Unyanyembe, to be buried there.
In the mean time the corpse of necessity had to be concealed in the
smallest space possible, if they were actually to convey it secretly for
the future; this was quickly managed.

Susi and Chuma went into the wood and stripped off a fresh length of
bark from an n’gombe-tree; in this the remains conveniently prepared as
to length, were placed, the whole being surrounded with calico in such a
manner as to appear like an ordinary traveling bale, which was then
deposited with the rest of the goods. They next proceeded to gather a
fagot of mapira-stalks, cutting them in lengths of six feet or so, and
swathing them round with cloth, to imitate a dead body about to be
buried. This done, a paper, folded as to represent a letter, was duly
placed in a cleft stick, according to the native letter-carrier’s
custom, and six trustworthy men were told off ostensibly to go with the
corpse to Unyanyembe. With due solemnity the men set out. The villagers
were only too thankful to see it, and no one suspected the ruse. It was
near sundown. The bearers of the package held on their way till fairly
beyond all chance of detection, and then began to dispose of their load.
The mapira-sticks were thrown, one by one, far away into the jungle, and
when all were disposed of, the wrappings were cunningly got rid of in
the same way. Going further on, first one man, and then another sprung
clear from the path into the long grass, to leave no trace of footsteps,
and the whole party returned by different ways to their companions, who
had been anxiously awaiting them during the night. No one could detect
the real nature of the ordinary-looking bale, which henceforth was
guarded with no relaxed vigilance, and eventually disclosed the bark
coffin and wrappings containing Dr. Livingstone’s body, on the arrival
at Bagamoio. And now, devoid of fear, the people of Kasekera asked them
all to come and take up their quarters in the town--a privilege which
was denied them so long as it was known that they had the remains of the
dead with them.

But a dreadful event was about to recall to their minds how many fall
victims to African disease.

Dr. Dillon now came on to Kasekera, suffering much from dysentery; a few
hours more, and he shot himself in his tent with a rifle. The malaria
imbibed during their stay at Unyanyembe laid upon him the severest form
of fever, accompanied by delirum, under which he at length succumbed in
one of its violent paroxysms. His remains are interred at Kasekera.

We must follow Susi’s troop through a not altogether eventless journey
to the sea. Some days afterward, as they wended their way through a
rocky place, a little girl in their train, named Losi, met her death in
a shocking way. It appears that the poor child was carrying a water-jar
on her head in the file of people, when an enormous snake dashed across
the path, deliberately struck her in the thigh, and made for a hole in
the jungle close at hand. This work of a moment was sufficient, for the
poor girl fell mortally wounded. She was carried forward, and all means
at hand were applied, but in less than ten minutes the last symptom
(foaming at the mouth) set in, and she ceased to breathe.

Here is a well-authenticated instance which goes far to prove the truth
of an assertion made to travelers in many parts of Africa. The natives
protest that one species of snake will deliberately chase and overtake
his victim with lightning speed, and so dreadfully dangerous is it, both
from the activity of its poison and its vicious propensities, that it is
perilous to approach its quarters. Most singular to relate, an Arab
came to some of the men after their arrival at Zanzibar, and told them
that he had just come by the Unyanyembe road, and that, while passing
the identical spot where this disaster occurred, one of the men was
attacked by the same snake, with precisely the same results; in fact,
when looking for a place in which to bury him they saw the grave of
Losi, and the two lie side by side.

This snake was doubtless a mamba; it is much to be desired that
specimens should be procured for purposes of comparison. In Southern
Africa so great is the dread it inspires that the Kaffirs will break up
a kraal and forsake the place, if a mamba takes up his quarters in the
vicinity, and, from what we have seen above, with no undue caution.

Susi, to whom this snake is known in the Shupanga tongue as “bubu,”
describes it as about twelve feet long, dark in color, of a dirty blue
under the belly, with red markings, like the wattles of a cock, on the
head. The Arabs go so far as to say that it is known to oppose the
passage of a caravan at times. Twisting its tail around a branch, it
will strike one man after another in the head with fatal certainty.
Their remedy is to fill a pot with boiling water, which is put on the
head and carried under the tree. The snake dashes his head into this,
and is killed; the story is given for what it is worth.

It would seem that at Ujiji the natives, as in other places, can not
bear to have snakes killed. “Chatu,” a species of python, is common,
and, from being highly favored, becomes so tame as to enter houses at
night. A little meal is placed on the stool, which the uncanny visitor
laps up, and then takes its departure; the men significantly say they
never saw it with their own eyes. Another species utters a cry, much
like the crowing of a young cock; this is well authenticated. Yet
another black variety has a spine like a black-thorn at the end of the
tail, and its bite is extremely deadly.

At the same time it must be added that, considering the enormous number
of reptiles in Africa, it rarely occurs that any one is bitten, and a
few months’ residence suffices to dispel the dread which most travelers
feel at the outset.

_February, 1874._--No further incident occurred worthy of special
notice. At last the coast-town of Bagamoio came in sight, and before
many hours were over, a British cruiser conveyed the acting consul,
Captain Prideaux, from Zanzibar to the spot which the cortege had
reached. Arrangements were quickly made for transporting the remains of
Dr. Livingstone to the island, some thirty miles distant, and then it
became perhaps rather too painfully plain to the men that their task was

One word on a subject which will commend itself to most before we close
this eventful history.

We saw what a train of Indian sepoys, Johanna men, Nassick boys, and
Shupanga canoe-men accompanied Dr. Livingstone when he started from
Zanzibar in 1866 to enter upon his last discoveries; of all these, five
only could answer to the roll-call as they handed over the dead body of
their leader to his countrymen on the shore whither they had returned,
and this after eight years’ desperate service.

Once more we repeat the names of these men. Susi and James Chuma have
been sufficiently prominent throughout--hardly so, perhaps, has Amoda,
their comrade ever since the Zambesi days of 1864; then we have Abram
and Mabruki, each with service to show from the time he left the Nassick
College with the Doctor in 1865. Nor must we forget Ntoaeka and Halima,
the two native girls of whom we have heard such a good character; they
cast in their lot with the wanderers in Manyuema. It does seem strange
to hear the men say that no sooner did they arrive at their journey’s
end than they were so far frowned out of notice, that not so much as a
passage to the island was offered them when their burden was borne away.
We must hope that it is not too late--even for the sake of
consistency--to put it on record that _whoever_ assisted Livingstone,
whether white or black, has not been overlooked. Surely those with whom
he spent his last years must not pass away into Africa again unrewarded,
and be lost to sight.

Yes, a very great deal is owing to these five men, and we say it
emphatically. If the world has had gratified a reasonable wish in
learning all that concerns the last days on earth of a truly noble man
and his wonderful enterprise, the means of doing so could never have
been placed at our disposal but for the ready willingness which made
Susi and Chuma determine, if possible, to render an account to some of
those whom they had known as their master’s old companions. If the
geographer finds before him new facts, new discoveries, new theories, as
Livingstone alone could record them, it is right and proper that he
should feel the part these men have played in furnishing him with such
valuable matter. For we repeat that nothing but such leadership and
staunchness as that which organized the march home from Ilala, and
distinguished it throughout, could have brought Livingstone’s bones to
England, or his last notes and maps to the outer world. To none does the
feat seem so marvelous as to those who know Africa, and the difficulties
which must have beset both the first and the last in the enterprise.
Thus in his death, not less than in his life, David Livingstone bore
testimony to that good-will and kindliness which exists in the heart of
the African.




  Henry M. Stanley’s New Mission -- The Unfinished Task of Livingstone
  -- The Commission of Mr. Stanley by the “Daily Telegraph” of London
  and the New York “Herald” to Command the New Expedition to Central
  Africa -- Mr. Stanley’s Arrival at Zanzibar -- Fitting Out his
  Expedition and Enlisting Many of his Old Captains and Chiefs -- Sets
  Sail for the West Coast of the Zanzibar Sea and Towards the Dark
  Continent -- Arrival at Bagamoyo -- Completes his Forces and Takes Up
  his Line of March Inland -- Incidents Attending his March to Mpwapwa.

In April, 1874, while on his return from the Ashantee war, Mr. Stanley
first received the news of the death of Dr. Livingstone, and that his
body was then on its way to England.

Mr. Stanley says “The effect which this news had upon me, after the
first shock had passed away, was to fire me with a resolution to
complete his work--to be, if God willed it, the next martyr to
geographical science; or if my life was to be spared, to clear up not
only the secrets of the great river throughout its course, but also all
that remained still problematic and incomplete of the discoveries of
Burton and Speke, and Speke and Grant.

“The solemn day of the burial of my great friend arrived. I was one of
the pall-bearers in Westminster Abbey, and when I had seen the coffin
lowered into the grave, and had heard the first handful of earth thrown
over it, I walked away sorrowing over the fate of David Livingstone.”

From this time forward Mr. Stanley devoted his time assiduously in
completing his literary labors and at the same time in studying up
Africa, its geography, geology, botany and ethnology. He knew what had
been accomplished by African explorers, and knew how much of the dark
interior was still unknown to the world. Until late hours he sat,
inventing and planning, sketching routes, laying out lengthy lines of
possible exploration and noting many suggestions which the continued
study of the subject created.

One day, while on a visit to the office of the “Daily Telegraph,” the
subject of Livingstone and his unfinished work was broached, and after a
brief talk on the subject between himself and the editor, Mr. Stanley
was asked:--

“Could you, and would you, complete the work? And what is there to do?”

Mr. Stanley replied: “The outlet of Lake Tanganyika is undiscovered. We
know nothing scarcely--except what Speke has sketched out--of Lake
Victoria; we do not even know whether it consists of one or many lakes,
and therefore the sources of the Nile are still unknown. Moreover, the
western half of the African continent is still a white blank.”

“Do you think you can settle all this, if we commission you?” asked the
editor of the “Telegraph.”

“While I live, there will be something done. If I survive the time
required to perform all the work, all shall be done.”

The matter was for the moment suspended, however, because Mr. Bennett,
of the New York “Herald,” had prior claims on Mr. Stanley’s services.

A telegram was despatched to Mr. Bennett: “Would he join the ‘Daily
Telegraph’ in sending Stanley out to Africa, to complete the discoveries
of Speke, Burton, and Livingstone?” To which Mr. Bennett replied within
twenty-four hours by the laconic answer: “Yes. Bennett.”

The new mission of Mr. Stanley was defined by the “Telegraph” through
its columns “to be the completion of the work left unfinished by the
lamented death of Dr. Livingstone; to solve, if possible, the remaining
problems of the geography of Central Africa; and to investigate and
report upon the haunts of the slave-trader.”... “He will represent the
two nations whose common interest in the regeneration of Africa was so
well illustrated when the lost English explorer was re-discovered by the
energetic American correspondent. In that memorable journey Mr. Stanley
displayed the best qualities of an African traveller; and with no
inconsiderable resources at his disposal to reinforce his own complete
acquaintance with the conditions of African travel, it may be hoped that
very important results will accrue from this undertaking to the
advantage of science, humanity, and civilization.”

On August 15, 1874, Mr. Stanley sailed from England for Zanzibar, where
he arrived on the 21st day of September--just twenty-eight months after
he had left there on his return from the search of Livingstone.

For many days after his arrival he was busily engaged in selecting the
members of his new expedition and those who were to act as carriers and
soldiers. Among those selected, he gave preference to such as had been
with him on the Search Expedition, and had been despatched to the
assistance of Livingstone in 1872. Out of these the chiefs were
selected. And to these the customary presents had to be distributed.
Ulimengo, or the “World,” the incorrigible joker and hunter in chief of
the Search and Livingstone’s expeditions, was given a gold ring to
encircle one of his thick black fingers, and a silver chain to suspend
round his neck, which caused his mouth to expand gratefully. Rojab, who
was soon reminded of the unlucky accident with Livingstone’s Journal in
the muddy waters of the Mukondokwa, was endowed with a munificent gift
which won him over to Mr. Stanley’s service beyond fear of bribery.
Manwa Sera, the redoubtable ambassador of Speke and Grant to Manwa
Sera--the royal fugitive distressed by the hot pursuit of the Arabs--the
leader of his second caravan in 1871, the chief of the party sent to
Unyanyembe to the assistance of Livingstone in 1872, and now appointed
Chief Captain of the Anglo-American Expedition, was rendered temporarily
speechless with gratitude because a splendid necklace had been suspended
from his neck and a heavy seal ring placed upon one of his fingers. And
thus Mr. Stanley proceeded to endow each one of his old followers with
some suitable gift of such a character as would both please them and
strengthen their attachment towards himself.

Mr. Stanley, in speaking of the usual preliminary deliberative palaver,
or, as the Wangwana call it, “Shauri,” held before the final execution
of all great enterprises, says:--

“The chiefs arranged themselves in a semicircle on the day of the
Shauri, and I sat _à la Turque_ fronting them. ‘What is it, my friends?
Speak your minds.’ They hemmed and hawed, looked at one another, as if
on their neighbors’ faces they might discover the purport of their
coming; but, all hesitating to begin, finally broke down in a loud

“Manwa Sera, always grave, unless hit dextrously with a joke, hereupon
affected anger, and said, ‘You speak, son of Safeni. Verily, we act like
children! Will the master eat us?’

“Wadi, son of Safeni, thus encouraged to perform the spokesman’s duty,
hesitates exactly two seconds, and then ventures with diplomatic
blandness and _graciosity_: ‘We have come, master, with words. Listen.
It is well we should know every step before we leap. A traveller
journeys not without knowing whither he wanders. We have come to
ascertain what lands you are bound for!’

“Imitating the son of Safeni’s gracious blandness, and his low tone of
voice, as though the information about to be imparted to the intensely
interested and eagerly listening group were too important to speak it
loud, I described in brief outlines the prospective journey in broken
Kiswahili. As country after country was mentioned of which they had
hitherto but vague ideas, and river after river, lake after lake named,
all of which I hoped with their trusty aid to explore carefully,
various ejaculations expressive of wonder and joy, mixed with a little
alarm, broke from their lips; but when I concluded, each of the group
drew a long breath, and almost simultaneously they uttered admiringly,
‘Ah, fellows, this is a journey worthy to be called a journey!’”

By 5 o’clock P. M. of the 12th of November, 224 men had responded to
their names, and five of the Arab vessels, laden with the _personnel_,
cattle, and _material_ of the expedition, were impatiently waiting, with
anchor heaved short, the word of command. One vessel still lay close
ashore, to convey Mr. Stanley and Frederick Barker--in charge of the
personal servants--their baggage and the dogs.

A wave of the hand, and the anchors were hove up. With sails set they
bore away westward to launch themselves into the arms of fortune. In the
words of Mr. Stanley: “The parting is over! We have said our last words
for years, perhaps forever, to kindly men! The sun sinks fast to the
western horizon, and gloomy is the twilight that now deepens and
darkens. Thick shadows fall upon the distant land and over the silent
sea, and oppress our throbbing, regretful hearts as we glide away
through the dying light towards the Dark Continent.”


On the 13th of November, Stanley reached Bagamoyo, situated on the
mainland near the sea. On the morning of the 17th, five days after
leaving Zanzibar, the expedition filed out from the town in the
following order: Four chiefs, a few hundred yards in front; next the
twelve guides, clad in red robes of Jobo, bearing the wire coils; then a
long file 275 strong, bearing cloth, wire, beads, and sections of the
_Lady Alice_; after them thirty-six women and ten boys, children of some
of the chiefs and boat-bearers, following their mothers and assisting
them with trifling loads of utensils, followed by the riding asses,
Europeans and gun bearers; the long line closed by sixteen chiefs who
act as rearguard and whose duties are to pick up stragglers and act as
supernumeraries until other men can be procured: in all 356 souls
connected with the Anglo-American Expedition. The lengthy line occupied
nearly half a mile of the path which is the commercial and exploring
highway into the lake regions.

“In this manner,” says Stanley “we begin our long journey, full of
hopes. There is noise and laughter along the ranks, and a hum of gay
voices murmuring through the fields, as we rise and descend with the
waves of the land and wind the sinuosities of the path. Motion had
restored us all to a sense of satisfaction. We had an intensely bright
and fervid sun shining above us, the path was dry, hard, and admirably
fit for travel, and during the commencement of our first march nothing
could be conceived in better order than the lengthy, thin column about
to confront the wilderness.”

Stanley’s line of march strikes the valley of the Kingani River, and
thence to Kikoka, where he makes his first halt. Resting the next day,
he resumes the march on the third day for Rosako. This line is about
thirty miles north of the most northerly route of any of the routes
known to Stanley from the writings of other explorers. From Rosako he
marched to Congorida, thence to Mfuteh, and westward of Mfuteh along
the southern bank of the Wami some four miles. From this point his line
diverges to Rubuti, a village on the Lugumbwa Creek. “Grand and
impressive scenery meets the eye as we march to Makubika, the next
settlement,” says Stanley, “where we attain an altitude of 2675 feet
above the ocean. Peaks and knolls rise in all directions, for we are now
ascending to the eastern front of the Kaguru Mountains. The summits of
Ukamba are seen to the north, its slopes famous for the multitudes of
elephants. The mountain characteristically called the ‘Back of the Bow,’
has a small, clear lake near it, and remarkable peaks or mountain crests
break the sky-line on every side. Indeed, some parts of this great
mountain range abound in scenery both picturesque and sublime.

“Between Mamboya and Kitangeh I was much struck by the resemblance that
many of the scenes bear to others that I had seen in the Alleghanies.
Water is abundant, flowing clear as crystal from numerous sources. As we
neared eastern Kitangeh, villages were beheld dotted over every hill,
the inhabitants of which, so often frightened by the inroads of the
ever-marauding Wamasai, have been rendered very timid. Here, for the
first time, cattle were observed as we travelled westerly from Bagamoyo.

[Illustration: A GHASTLY MONUMENT.]

“We crossed the plain on the 11th of December, and arrived at Tubugwé.
It is only six miles wide, but within this distance we counted fourteen
human skulls, the mournful relics of some unfortunate travellers, slain
by an attack of Wahumba, from the northwest. I think it is beyond doubt
that this plain, extending, as it does, from the unexplored
northwest, and projecting like a bay into a deep mountain fiord
southeast of our road, must in former times have been an inlet or creek
of the great reservoir of which the Ugombo Lake, south of here, is a
residuum. The bed of this ancient lake now forms the pastoral plains of
the Wahumba and the broad, plain-like expanses visible in the Ugogo

From Tubugwé, Stanley directed his march to Mpwapwa, on the banks of a
small tributary of the Mukondokwa, which he reached on the 12th day of
December, after a twenty-five day’s march from Bagamoyo.




  Spends Christmas at Zingeh -- The Rainy Season Sets In -- Famine or
  Scarcity of Food -- Half-Rations -- Extortionate Chiefs Levy Blackmail
  -- Arrival at Jiweni -- Through Jungle to Kitalalo -- The Plain of
  Salina -- “Not a Drop of Water” -- Bellicose Natives -- Trouble with
  Many of his Followers -- Valuable Services Rendered him by Frank and
  Edward Pocock and Frederick Barker -- Frequent Quarrels -- The Trials
  of Stanley -- Camp at Mtiwi -- Terrible Rain Storm, and Sad Plight of
  Stanley and his People -- Misled by his Guide, is Lost in a Wild of
  Low Scrub and Brush -- Terrible Experiences -- Starvation Impending --
  Sends for Relief to Suna in Urimi -- The Welcome Meal of Oatmeal -- A
  Singular Cooking Utensil -- Death of Edward Pocock -- The Weary March
  from the Warimi to Mgongo Tembe -- The Beautiful Usiha -- Reaches
  Victoria Nyanza February 27th, 1875 -- Enters Kagehyi -- Receives its
  Hospitalities -- The End of a Journey of 720 miles in 103 days.

The route of Stanley’s march from Mpwapwa took in Chunyu, Kikombo,
Itumbi, Mpamira’s village, Lechumwa, Dudoma, and Zingeh, spending
Christmas day at the latter place. The rainy season had set in and the
condition of the explorer and his men was aught but agreeable, as
appears by a letter written to a friend on Christmas day. He says, “It
has been raining heavily the last two or three days, and an impetuous
down-pour of sheet rain has just ceased. On the march, rain is very
disagreeable; it makes the clayey path slippery, and the loads heavier
by being saturated, while it half ruins the clothes. It makes us
dispirited, wet and cold, added to which we are hungry--for there is a
famine or scarcity of food at this season, and therefore we can only
procure half-rations.”... “The natives have but little left. I myself
have not had a piece of meat for ten days.”... “I weighed 180 pounds
when I left Zanzibar, but under this diet I have been reduced to 134
pounds within thirty-eight days. The young Englishmen are in the same
impoverished condition of body, and unless we reach some more
flourishing country than Ugogo, we must soon become mere skeletons.

“Besides the terribly wet weather and the scarcity of food, we are
compelled to undergo the tedious and wearisome task of haggling with
extortionate chiefs over the amount of blackmail which they demand and
which we must pay. We are compelled, as you may perceive, to draw heavy
drafts on the virtues of prudence, patience and resignation, without
which the transit of Ugogo under such conditions as above described,
would be most perilous.”

The next camp westward of Zingeh was established at Jiweni, at an
altitude of 3150 feet above sea-level. From here through a scrubby
jungle to Kitalalo. From Kitalalo to the broad and almost level Salina,
which stretches from Mizanza to the south of the track to the hills of
Uyangwira, north. The greatest breadth of the plain of Salina is twenty
miles, and its length may be estimated at fifty miles. The march across
this plain was very fatiguing. Not a drop of water was discovered on the
route, though towards the latter part of the journey a grateful
rain-shower fell, which revived the caravan, but converted the plain
into a quagmire.

“On approaching the Mukondoku district,” says Stanley, “we sighted the
always bellicose natives advancing upon our van with uplifted spears and
noisy show of war. This belligerent exhibition did not disturb our
equanimity, as we were strangers and had given no cause for hostilities.
After manifesting their prowess by a few harmless boasts and much
frantic action, they soon subsided into a more pacific demeanor, and
permitted us to proceed quietly to our camp under a towering baobab near
the King’s village.”

In speaking, also, of his followers at this time, it appears that the
explorer experienced considerable trouble with some of them. He pays
great compliments for the invaluable services rendered him by Frank and
Edward Pocock and Frederick Barker in endeavoring to harmonize the
large, unruly mob, with its many eccentricities and unassimilating

“Quarrels were frequent,” he says, “sometimes dangerous, between various
members of the expedition, and at such critical moments only did my
personal interference become imperatively necessary. What with taking
solar observations and making ethnological notes, negotiating with
chiefs about the tribute moneys and attending to the sick, my time was
occupied from morning till night. In addition to all this strain on my
own physical powers, I was myself frequently sick from fever, and wasted
from lack of proper, nourishing food; and if the chief of an expedition
be thus distressed, it may readily be believed that the poor fellows
depending on him suffer also.”

On the 1st of January, 1875, Stanley struck north, thus leaving for the
first time the path to Unyanyembe, the common highway of East Central
Africa. The next halt was made at Mtiwi, the chief of which was Malewa.
“The last night spent at this place was a disturbed one,” says Stanley;
“the flood-gates of heaven seemed literally opened for a period. After
an hour’s rainfall, six inches of water covered our camp, and a slow
current ran southerly. Every member of the expedition was distressed,
and even the Europeans, lodged in tents, were not exempt from the evils
of the night. My tent walls enclosed a little pool, banked by boxes of
stores and ammunition. Hearing cries outside, I lit a candle, and my
astonishment was great to find that my bed was an island in a shallow
river, which, if it increased in depth and current, would assuredly
carry me off south towards the Rufiji. My walking-boots were miniature
barks, floating to and fro on a turbid tide seeking a place of exit to
the dark world of waters without. My guns, lashed to the centre pole,
were stock deep in water. But the most comical sight was presented by
Jack and Bull, perched back to back on the top of an ammunition box,
butting each other rearward, and snarling and growling for that scant
portion of comfort.

“In the morning I discovered my fatigue cap several yards outside the
tent, and one of my boots down south. The harmonium, a present for
Mtesa, a large quantity of gunpowder, tea, rice and sugar, were
destroyed. Vengeance appeared to have overtaken us. At 10 A. M. the sun
appeared, astonished, no doubt, at a new lake formed during his absence.
By noon the water had considerably decreased, and permitted us to march,
and with glad hearts we surmounted the upland of Uyanzi, and from our
busy camp, on the afternoon of January 4th, gazed upon the spacious
plain beneath, and the vast broad region of sterility and thorns which
we had known as inhospitable Ugogo.”

On the 6th of January, Stanley reached Kashongwa, a village situated on
the verge of a trackless wild, peopled by a mixture of Wasukuma,
renegade Wangwana, and Wanyamwezi. Informed here that he was but a two
days’ march from Urimi, and having yet two days’ rations, he resumed the
march under the guidance of one of these people, along a route that was
said would bring him to Urimi the day after. The experiences of Stanley
and his people during the following four days can be best conceived from
a perusal of his own words.

“The next day we travelled over a plain which had a gradual uplift
towards the northwest, and was covered with dense, low brush. Our path
was ill-defined, as only small Wagogo caravans traveled to Urimi; but
the guide assured us that he knew the road. In this dense brush there
was not one large tree. It formed a vast carpet of scrub and brush, tall
enough to permit us to force our way among the lower branches, which
were so interwoven one with another that it sickens me almost to write
of this day’s experience. Though our march was but ten miles, it
occupied us as many hours of labor, elbowing and thrusting our way, to
the injury of our bodies and the detriment of our clothing.

“We camped at 5 P. M. near another pool, at an altitude of 4350 feet
above the sea. The next day, on the afternoon of the 8th, we should have
reached Urimi, and, in order to be certain of doing so, marched
fourteen miles to still another pool at a height of 4550 feet above
sea-level. Yet still we saw no limit to this immense brushfield, and our
labors had, this day, been increased tenfold. Our guide had lost the
path early in the day, and was innocently leading us in an easterly

“The responsibility of leading a half-starved expedition--as ours now
certainly was--through a dense brush, without knowing whither or for how
many days, was great; but I was compelled to undertake it rather than to
see it wander eastward, where it would be hopeless to expect provisions.
The greater number of our people had consumed their rations early in the
morning. I had led it northward for hours, when we came to a large tree
to the top of which I requested the guide to ascend, to try if he could
recognize any familiar feature in the dreary landscape. After a short
examination, he declared he saw a ridge that he knew, near which, he
said, was situate the village of Uveriveri. This news stimulated our
exertions, and myself leading the van, we travelled briskly until 5 P.
M., when we arrived at the third pool.

“Meantime Barker and the two Pococks, assisted by twenty chiefs, were
bringing up the rear, and we never suspected for a moment that the broad
track which we trampled over grass and through brush would be
unperceived by those in rear of us. The Europeans and chiefs, assisted
by the reports of heavily-loaded muskets, were enabled to reach camp
successfully at 7 P. M.; but the chiefs then reported that there had not
arrived a party of four men and a donkey boy who was leading an ass
loaded with coffee. Of these, however there was no fear, as they had
detailed the chief Simba to oversee them--Simba having a reputation
among his fellows for fidelity, courage, and knowledge of travel.

“The night passed, and the morning of the 9th dawned, and anxiously I
asked about the absentees. They had not arrived. But as each hour in the
jungle added to the distress of a still greater number of people, we
moved on to the miserable village of Uveriveri. The inhabitants
consisted of only two families, who could not spare us one grain! We
might as well have remained in the jungle, for no sustenance could be
procured here.

“In this critical position, many lives hanging on my decision, I
resolved to despatch forty of the strongest men--ten chiefs and thirty
of the boldest youths--to Suna in Urimi, for the villagers of Uveriveri
had of course given us the desired information as to our whereabouts.
The distance from Uveriveri to Suna was twenty-eight miles, as we
subsequently discovered. Pinched with hunger themselves, the forty
volunteers advanced with the resolution to reach Suna that night. They
were instructed to purchase 800 pounds of grain, which would give a
light load of twenty pounds to each man, and urged to return as quickly
as possible, for the lives of their women and friends depended on their

“Manwa Sera was also despatched with a party of twenty to hunt up the
missing men. Late in the afternoon they returned with the news that
three of the missing men were dead. They had lost the road, and,
traveling along an elephant track, had struggled on till they perished
of despair, hunger, and exhaustion. Simba and the donkey boy, the ass
and its load of coffee, were never seen or heard of again.

“With the sad prospect of starvation impending over us we were at
various expedients to sustain life until the food purveyors should
return. Early on the morning of the 10th I travelled far and searched
every likely place for game; but though tracks were numerous, we failed
to sight a single head. The Wangwana also roamed about the forest--for
the Uveriveri ridge was covered with fine myombo trees--in search of
edible roots and berries, and examined various trees to discover whether
they afforded anything that could allay the grievous and bitter pangs of
hunger. Some found a putrid elephant, on which they gorged themselves,
and were punished with nausea and sickness. Others found a lion’s den,
with two lion’s whelps, which they brought to me. Meanwhile, Frank and I
examined the medical stores, and found to our great joy we had
sufficient oatmeal to give every soul two cupfuls of thin gruel. A
‘Torquay dress trunk’ of sheet-iron was at once emptied of its contents
and filled with twenty-five gallons of water, into which were put ten
pounds of oatmeal and four one-pound tins of ‘revalenta arabica.’ How the
people, middle-aged and young gathered round that trunk, and heaped fuel
underneath that it might boil the quicker! How eagerly they watched it
lest some calamity should happen, and clamored, when it was ready, for
their share. And how inexpressibly satisfied they seemed as they tried
to make the most of what they received, and with what fervor they
thanked ‘God’ for his mercies!”

On the 12th of January, Stanley reached Suna, where he halted four days.
Owing to the deplorable condition of his people, but through the evident
restlessness of the Warimi tribe at their presence, the insufficient
quantity of food that could be purchased, and the growing importunings
of the Wangwana to be led away from such a churlish and suspicious
people, Stanley was sorely perplexed. He had now over thirty men on the
sick list, and among them Edward Pocock, one of the young Englishmen,
and who subsequently died. Owing to the sickness of temper from which
the Warimi suffered, it became imperative that he should keep moving, if
only two or three miles a day. Accordingly, on the 17th of January, he
moved from his camp, the sick being carried in hammocks. Hundreds of the
natives, fully armed, kept up with the caravan, on either side of its

“Never since leaving the sea were we weaker in spirit than on this day,”
says Stanley. “Had we been attacked, I doubt if we should have made much
resistance. The famine in Ugogo, and that terribly protracted trial of
strength through the jungle of Uveriveri, had utterly unmanned us.”...
“We are an unspeakably miserable and disheartened band; yet, urged by
our destiny, we struggled on, though languidly. Our spirits seemed
dying, or resolving themselves into weights which oppressed our hearts.
Weary, harassed, and feeble creatures, we arrived at Chiwyu, four
hundred miles from the sea, and camped near the crest of a hill, which
was marked by aneroid as 5400 feet above the level of the ocean.”

Mangura, Izanjeh, and Vinyata, were the next places which marked the
route of Stanley’s expedition. At the latter place he made a halt of
five days, meeting with no little hostility from the natives, some
skirmishing, and suffering the loss of some of his people. On the
morning of the 26th, just before daybreak, he resumed his interrupted
journey. On the 27th, at dawn, he crossed the Leewumbu, and the whole of
that day and the day following his route was through a forest of fine
myombo, intersected by singular narrow plains, forming at that season of
the year so many quagmires. On the 29th he entered Mgongo Tembe, and
formed the acquaintance of the Chief Malewa. On the 1st of February,
after a very necessary halt of two days at Mgongo Tembe, with an
addition to his force of eight pagazis and two guides, and encouraged by
favorable reports of the country in front, he entered Mangura in
Usukuma, near a strange valley containing a forest of borassus palms,
thence by way of Igira, through the magnificent plain of Luwamberri, and
across the Itawa River on its western verge. On the 9th he crossed the
Nanga ravine, and the next day arrived at the Seligwa, flowing to the
Leewumbu, and, following its course for four miles, reached the
hospitable village of Mombiti.

On leaving the Leewumbu--or the Monangah River, as it is also
called--Stanley struck northerly across a pathless country seamed with
elephant tracks, rhinoceros wallows, and gullies which contained pools
of gray, muddy water, and on the morning of the 17th arrived at eastern
Usiha. Usiha is the commencement of a most beautiful pastoral country,
which terminates only in the Victoria Nyanza. From the summit of one of
the weird gray rock-piles which characterize it, one may enjoy that
unspeakable fascination of an apparently boundless horizon. “On all
sides,” says Stanley, “there stretches towards it the face of a vast
circle replete with peculiar features, of detached hills, great
crag-masses of riven and sharply-angled rock, and out-cropping mounds,
between which heaves and rolls in low, broad waves a green, grassy
plain, whereon feed thousands of cattle scattered about in small herds.”

On the morning of the 27th, five days later, Stanley had reached
Gambachika, in North Usmau. This place is nineteen miles from the
village of Kagehyi, his point of destination on Lake Victoria.

In speaking of his last day’s march, Stanley says: “The people were as
keenly alive to the importance of this day’s march, and as fully
sensitive to what this final journey to Kagehyi promised their weary
frames, as we Europeans. They, as well as ourselves, looked forward to
many weeks of rest from our labors and to an abundance of good food.

“When the bugle sounded the signal to ‘take the road,’ the Wanyamezi and
Wangwana responded to it with cheers, and loud cries of ‘Ay indeed! ay
indeed! please God!’ and their good will was contagious. The natives,
who had mustered strongly to witness our departure, were effected by it,
and stimulated our people by declaring that the lake was not very far
off--‘but two or three hours’ walk.’

“We dipped into the basins and troughs of the land, surmounted ridge
after ridge, crossed watercourses and ravines, passed by cultivated
fields, and through villages smelling strongly of cattle, by
good-natured groups of natives, until, ascending a long, gradual slope,
we heard, on a sudden, hurrahing in front, and then we too, with the
lagging rear, knew that those in the van were in view of the great lake!

“Presently we also reached the brow of the hill, where we found the
expedition halted, and the first quick view revealed to us a long, broad
arm of water, which a dazzling sun transformed into silver, some 600
feet below us, at a distance of three miles.”

In a short time the expedition had entered the village of Kagehyi, and
Prince Kaduma, chief of Kagehyi, induced by one Sungoro, an Arab
resident, proffered its hospitalities to the strangers. In summing up,
during the evening of his arrival at this rude village on the Nyanza,
the number of statute miles travelled by him, as measured by two rated
pedometers and pocket watch, Stanley ascertained it to be 720. The time
occupied--from November 17, 1874, to February 27, 1875, inclusive--was
103 days, divided into seventy marching and thirty-three halting
days--an average of a little over ten miles a day.




  Preparing the _Lady Alice_ for Sea -- Selects his Crew -- The Start
  for the Circumnavigation of Lake Victoria -- Afloat on the Lake -- A
  Night at Uvuma -- Barmecide Fare -- Message from Mtesa -- Camp on
  Soweh Island -- An Extraordinary Monarch -- Mtesa, Emperor of Uganda
  -- Arrival at the Imperial Capital -- Glowing Description of the
  Country -- A Grand Mission Field -- The Treachery of Bumbireh --
  Saved! -- Refuge Island -- Return to Camp at Kagehyi.

The members of the expedition enjoyed their much-needed rest; and
Stanley, after taking the necessary observations to ascertain the
position of Kagehyi, and its altitude above the sea; to prepare paper,
pens and ink for the morrow’s report to the journals which had
dispatched him to this remote and secluded part of the world; to make
calculations of the time likely to be occupied in a halt at Kagehyi, in
preparing and equipping the _Lady Alice_ for sea;--found that his own
personal work had but begun.

Within seven days the boat was ready, and strengthened for a rough sea
life. Provisions of flour and dried fish, bales of cloth, and beads of
various kinds, odds and ends of small possible necessaries were boxed,
and she was declared, at last, to be only waiting for her crew. From the
young guides first selected by him at Bagamoyo, and who Kachéché, the
detective, informed him were the sailors of the expedition, he made a
list of ten sailors and a steersman, to whose fidelity he was willing
to entrust himself and fortunes while coasting round the Victorian sea.

[Illustration: THE VICTORIA NYANZA.]

After drawing up instructions for Frank Pocock and Fred. Barker on a
score of matters concerning the well-being of the expedition during his
absence, and enlisting for them, by an adequate gift, the goodwill of
Sungoro and Prince Kaduma, Stanley set sail on the 8th of March, 1875,
eastward along the shores of the broad arm of the lake which he first
sighted, and which henceforth is known, in honor of its first
discoverer, as “Speke Gulf.”

Space will not permit us to follow the details of Stanley’s voyage
around the lake. Sufficient to say it was accompanied with many
interesting and thrilling adventures with the different tribes along its
shores. The most of these tribes were of a savage and warlike character,
and gave the explorer no little amount of trouble.

On the 29th of March he crossed Napoleon Channel and coasted along
Uganda between numerous islands, the largest of which are densely
populated. At Kiwa Island he rested for the day, and was received with
the greatest cordiality by the chief, who sent messengers to the island
of Keréngé, a distance of three miles, to purchase bananas and jars of
maramba wine, for the guest, as he said, of the _Kabaka_ Mtesa. “As it
was the first time for twenty-two days that we had lived with natives
since leaving Kagehyi we celebrated, as we were in duty bound, our
arrival among friends,” says Stanley.

“The next day, guided and escorted by the chief, we entered Ukafu, where
we found a tall, handsome, young Mtongoleh in command of the district,
before whom the Chief of Kiwa Island made obeisance as before a great
lord. The young Mtongoleh, though professing an ardent interest in us,
and voluble of promises, treated us only to Barmecide fare, after
waiting twenty-four hours. Perceiving that his courtesies, though
suavely proffered, failed to satisfy the cravings of our jaded stomachs,
we left him still protesting enormous admiration for us, and still
volubly assuring us that he was preparing grand hospitalities in our

“I was staggered when I understood in its full extent the perfect art
with which we had been duped. ‘Could this be Central Africa,’ I asked
myself, ‘wherein we find such perfect adepts in the art of deception?’
But two days ago the savagery of the land was intense and real, for
every man’s hand was raised in ferocity against the stranger. In the
land next adjoining we find a people agreeable, and professing the
warmest admiration for the stranger, but as inhospitable as any
hotel-keeper in London or New York to a penniless guest!”

Stanley it seems, however, had been premature in his judgment, as he
subsequently discovered on arriving at a little village in the bay of
Buka. Here the Mtongoleh invited them to his village, spread out before
them a feast of new as well as clotted milk, mellow and ripe bananas, a
kid, sweet potatoes, and eggs, and despatched a messenger instantly to
the _Kabaka_ Mtesa to announce the coming of a stranger in the land,
declaring at the same time his intention not to abandon them until he
had brought them face to face with the great Monarch of Equatorial
Africa, in whom, he smilingly assured them, they should meet a friend,
and under whose protection they might sleep secure.

Mr. Stanley’s description of this land and its people is very graphic
and interesting, and we quote: “My admiration for the land and the
people steadily increased, for I experienced with each hour some
pleasing civility. The land was in fit accord with the people, and few
more interesting prospects could Africa furnish than that which lovingly
embraces the bay of Buka. From the margin of the lake, lined by waving
water-cane, up to the highest hill-top, all was verdure of varying
shades. The light green of the elegant matete contrasted with the deeper
tints of the various species of figs; the satin-sheeny fronds of the
graceful plantains were overlapped by clouds of the pale foliage of the
tamarind, while between and around all the young grass of the pastured
hillsides spread its emerald carpet. In free, bold, and yet graceful
outline the hills shut in the scene, swelling upward in full, dome-like
contour, here sweeping round to enclose within its hollow a gorgeous
plantain grove, there projecting boldly into abrupt, steep head-lands,
and again receding in a succession of noble terraces into regions as yet
unexplored by the white man. One village had a low, pebbly beach, that
ran in a sinuous, light-grey line between a darker grey face of the lake
and the living perennial green of a banana plantation. I imagine myself
fallen into an estate which I had inherited by right divine and human;
or at least I felt something akin to that large feeling which heirs of
unencumbered broad lands may be supposed to feel, and attributed such
an unusual feeling to an attack of perfect digestion, and a free,
unclogged, and undisturbed liver.”

On the 2d of April, Stanley proceeded along the beautiful shore
separating Buka Bay from Kadzi Bay, and halted about noon at the village
of Kirudo, here experiencing hospitalities similar to those of the
previous day.

Just as they were about to depart next morning they perceived six
beautiful canoes, crowded with men, coming round a point, and these they
were informed by their hospitable entertainer of Buka were the
_Kabaka’s_ people. In the middle of the bay of Kadzi they encountered,
and a most ceremonious greeting took place. The commander, a fine, lusty
fellow of twenty or thereabout, sprang into Stanley’s boat, and kneeling
before him, declared his errand in these words:

“The _Kabaka_ sends me with many salaams to you. He is in great hopes
that you will visit him, and has encamped at Usavara, that he may be
near the lake when you come. He does not know from what land you come;
but I have a swift messenger with a canoe who will not stop until he
gives all the news to the _Kabaka_. His mother dreamed a dream a few
nights ago, and in her dream she saw a white man on this lake in a boat
coming this way, and the next morning she told the _Kabaka_, and, lo!
you have come. Give me your answer, that I may send the messenger.”

Receiving his instructions from Stanley, through Magassa, who acted as
interpreter, the messenger immediately departed. Persuaded by Magassa to
rest for a day that he might be shown the hospitality of the country,
Stanley rowed to the village of Kadzi. Here Magassa was in his glory, as
shown by his imperious commands given on arrival of the guests and

“Bring out bullocks, sheep and goats, milk, and the mellowest of your
choicest bananas, and great jars of maramba, and let the white man and
his boatmen eat and taste of the hospitalities of Uganda. Shall a white
man enter the _Kabaka’s_ presence with an empty belly? See how sallow
and pinched his cheeks are! We want to see whether we cannot show him
kindness superior to what the pagans have shown him.”

“A wonderful land!” thought Stanley, “where an entire country can be
subjected to such an inordinate bully and vain youth as this Magassa at
the mere mention of the _Kabaka’s_ name, and very evidently with
_Kabaka’s_ sanction!”

The following day Stanley sallied from Kadzi Bay, with Magassa’s escort
leading the way, and at 10 A. M. entered Murchison Bay, camping behind
Soweh Island, on the east side of the bay.

Stanley’s account of his arrival at Usavara, and the reception accorded
him by the _Kabaka_ and his people, is highly interesting and graphic.
“Compared with our lonely voyage from our camp at Usukuma round all the
bays and inlets of the much-indented coasts of the great lakes,” says
Stanley, “the five superb canoes forming line in front of our boat,
escorting us to the presence of the great potentate of Equatorial
Africa, formed a scene which promised at least novelty, and a view of
some extraordinary pomp and ceremony.”

“When about two miles from Usavara, we saw what we estimated to be
thousands of people arranging themselves in order on a gently rising
ground. When about a mile from shore, Magassa gave the order to signal
our advance upon it with firearms, and was at once obeyed by his dozen
musketeers. Half a mile off I saw that the people on the shore had
formed themselves into two dense lines, at the ends of which stood
several finely-dressed men, arrayed in crimson and black and snowy
white. As we neared the beach volleys of musketry burst out from the
long lines. Magassa’s canoes steered outward to right and left, while
200 or 300 heavily-loaded guns announced to all around that the white
man--whom Mtesa’s mother had dreamed about--had landed. Numerous kettle
and bass drums sounded a noisy welcome, and flags, banners, and
bannerets waved, and the people gave a great shout. Very much amazed at
all this ceremonious and pompous greeting, I strode towards the great
standard, near which stood a short young man, dressed in a crimson robe
which covered an immaculately white dress of bleached cotton, before
whom Magassa, who had hurried ashore, kneeled reverently, and turning to
me begged me to understand that this short young man was the _Katekiro_.
Not knowing very well who the ‘Katekiro’ was, I only bowed, which,
strange to say, was imitated by him, only that his bow was far more
profound and stately than mine. I was complexed, confused, embarrassed,
and I believe I blushed inwardly at this regal reception, though I hope
I did not betray my embarrassment.

“A dozen well-dressed people now came forward, and grasping my hand
declared in the Swahili language that I was welcome to Uganda.”

Escorted to comfortable quarters, and after a somewhat extended
interview with the head men who had received him, Stanley and his men
were made the recipients of fourteen fat oxen, sixteen goats and sheep,
a hundred bunches of bananas, three dozen fowls, four wooden jars of
milk, four baskets of sweet potatoes, fifty ears of green Indian corn, a
basket of rice, twenty fresh eggs, and ten pots of maramba wine. Kauta,
Mtesa’s steward or butler, who accompanied the drovers and bearers of
these provisions, fell upon his knees before Stanley, and said:

“The _Kabaka_ sends salaams unto his friend who has travelled so far to
see him. The _Kabaka_ cannot see the face of his friend until he has
eaten and is satisfied. The _Kabaka_ has sent his slave with these few
things to his friend that he may eat, and at the ninth hour, after his
friend has rested, the _Kabaka_ will send and call for him to appear at
the burzah.”

At the ninth hour, as designated, two of the _Kabaka’s_ pages summoned
Stanley and his men to meet him. “The _Kabaka_, a tall, clean-faced,
large-eyed, nervous-looking, thin man, clad in a tarbush, black robe,
with a white shirt belted with gold, shook my hands warmly and
impressively,” says Stanley, “and, bowing not ungracefully, invited me
to be seated on an iron stool. I waited for him to show the example, and
then I and all the others seated ourselves.”

Stanley’s impression of this prince, as gathered from his
correspondence, is of extreme interest to the civilized world, and more
especially to the Christian Church. Mtesa impressed him as being an
intelligent and distinguished man, who, if aided in time by virtuous
philanthropists, would do more for Central Africa than fifty years of
Gospel teaching, unaided by such authority, could do.

“I think I see in him the light that shall lighten the darkness of this
benighted region--a prince well worthy the most hearty sympathies that
Europe can give him. In this man I see the possible fruition of
Livingstone’s hopes, for with his aid the civilization of Equatorial
Africa becomes feasible. I remember the ardor and love which animated
Livingstone when he spoke of Sekeletu. Had he seen Mtesa, his ardor and
love for him had been tenfold, and his pen would have been employed in
calling all men to assist him,” writes Stanley of this remarkable prince
and ruler.

On the 15th of April, Stanley returned to Usavara, after having spent a
fifteen days’ life at the Emperor’s Court at Rubaga.

The following extract of a letter, under date of April 14th, 1875,
written and sent to the “Daily Telegraph” and “New York Herald” from
this point, is a strong appeal for the establishment of a Christian
Mission in Uganda:

[Illustration: NATIVES OF UGANDA.]

“I have, indeed, undermined Islamism so much here that Mtesa has
determined henceforth, until he is better informed, to observe the
Christian Sabbath as well as the Moslem Sabbath, and the great captains
have unanimously consented to this. He has further caused the Ten
Commandments of Moses to be written on a board for his daily
perusal--for Mtesa can read Arabic--as well as the Lord’s Prayer and the
golden commandment of our Saviour, ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbor as
thyself.’ This is great progress for the few days that I have remained
with him; and though I am no missionary, I shall begin to think that I
might become one if such success is feasible. But, oh! that some pious,
practical missionary would come here! What a field and harvest ripe for
the sickle of Civilization! Mtesa would give him anything he
desired--houses, lands, cattle, ivory, etc. He might call a province his
own in one day. It is not the mere preacher, however, that is wanted
here. The bishops of Great Britain collected, with all the classic youth
of Oxford and Cambridge, would effect nothing by mere talk with the
intelligent people of Uganda. It is the practical Christian tutor, who
can teach people how to become Christians, cure their diseases,
construct dwellings, understand and exemplify agriculture, and turn his
hand to anything, like a sailor--this is the man who is wanted. Such an
one, if he can be found, would become the saviour of Africa. He must be
tied to no church or sect, but profess God and His Son and the moral
law, and live a blameless Christian, inspired by liberal principles,
charity to all men, and devout faith in Heaven. He must belong to no
nation in particular, but to the entire white race. Such a man or men,
Mtesa, Emperor of Uganda, Usoga, Unyoro, and Karagwé--an empire 360
geographical miles in length by 50 in breadth--invites to repair to him.
He has begged me to tell the white men that, if they will only come to
him, he will give them all they want. Now, where is there in all the
pagan world a more promising field for a mission than Uganda?”... “Then
why further spend, needlessly, vast sums upon black pagans of Africa who
have no example of their own people becoming Christians before them? I
speak to the Universities’ Mission at Zanzibar and to the Free
Methodists at Mombassa, to the leading philanthropists and the pious
people of England. Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity--embrace it! The
people on the shores of the Nyanza call upon you. Obey your own generous
instincts, and listen to them; and I assure you that in one year you
will have more converts to Christianity than all other missionaries
united can number. The population of Mtesa’s kingdom is very dense. I
estimate the number of his subjects at 2,000,000. You need not fear to
spend money upon such a mission, as Mtesa is sole ruler, and will repay
its cost tenfold with ivory, coffee, otter skins of a very fine quality,
or even in cattle, for the wealth of this country in all these products
is immense.”

On the 17th of April he resumed his voyage along the shores of the great
lake, and delightedly enjoyed the beautiful panorama of nature as it
passed in review before him. Many of the scenes presented most lovely
vistas to the eyes of Stanley as he scanned the ever-changing outlines
of water and sky. To follow him closely in his journeyings, and to enter
fully into all the minor details of his observations would require more
space than these pages afford. We can, therefore, but confine ourselves
to the most noted incidents that came under his observation, and such as
are of the most thrilling and adventurous character. As an instance, we
will give for the benefit of our readers one of Stanley’s pen pictures
of what he saw at this time. It was upon the island of Musira. He had
after some little difficulty scaled the summit of its highest point,
whence he gazed long on the grand encircling prospect. A halcyon calm
brooded on the lake, eastward, northward, and southward, until the clear
sky and stainless silver water met, the clear bounds of both veiled by a
gauzy vapor, suggesting infinity.

“It is a spot,” says Stanley, “from which, undisturbed, the eye may rove
over one of the strangest yet fairest portions of Africa--hundreds of
square miles of beautiful lake scenes--a great length of grey plateau
wall, upright and steep, but indented with exquisite inlets, half
surrounded by embowering plantains--hundreds of square miles of pastoral
upland dotted thickly with villages and groves of banana. From my lofty
eyrie I can see herds upon herds of cattle, and many minute specks,
white and black, which can be nothing but flocks of sheep and goats. I
can also see pale blue columns of ascending smoke from the fires, and
upright thin figures moving about. Secure on my lofty throne, I can view
their movements and laugh at the ferocity of the savage hearts which
beat in those thin dark figures; for I am a part of nature now, and for
the present as invulnerable as itself. As little do they know that human
eyes survey their forms from the summit of this lake-girt isle as that
the eyes of the Supreme in Heaven are upon them.

“What a land they possess! and what an inland sea! How steamers afloat
on the lake might cause Ururi to shake hands with Usongora, and Uganda
with Usukuma, make the wild Wavuma friends with the Wazinza, and unite
the Wakerawé with the Wagana!”

His experiences at Bumbireh Island were not so pleasant, however. Here,
when about ten yards from the beach, the natives, who had been invited
with engaging frankness to come closer, did so; and after consulting a
little while, leisurely advanced into the water until they touched the
boat’s prow. They stood a few seconds talking sweetly, when suddenly
with a rush they ran the boat ashore, and then all the others, seizing
hawser and gunwale, dragged her about twenty yards over the rocky beach
high and dry, leaving Stanley and his men almost stupefied with

“Then ensued a scene which beggars description,” says Stanley.
“Pandemonium--all its devils armed--raged around us. A forest of spears
was leveled; thirty or forty bows were drawn taut; as many barbed arrows
seemed already on the wing; thick, knotty clubs waved above our heads;
two hundred screaming black demons jostled with each other and struggled
for room to vent their fury, or for an opportunity to deliver one
crushing blow or thrust at us.

“In the meantime, as soon as the first symptoms of this manifestation of
violence had been observed, I had sprung to my feet, each hand armed
with a loaded self-cocking revolver, to kill and be killed. But the
apparent hopelessness of inflicting much injury upon such a large crowd
restrained me, and Safeni turned to me, though almost cowed to dumbness
by the loud fury around us, and pleaded with me to be patient. I
complied, seeing that I should get no aid from my crew; but, while
bitterly blaming myself for my imprudence in having yielded--against my
instincts--to placing myself in the power of such savages, I vowed that,
if I escaped this once, my own judgment should guide my actions in the


“Our demeanor had a great effect. The riot and noise seemed to be
subsiding, when some fifty newcomers rekindled the smouldering fury.
Again the forest of spears swayed on the launch, again the knotty clubs
were whirled aloft and the bows were drawn, and again the barbed arrows
seemed flying. Safeni received a push which sent him tumbling, little
Kirango received a blow on the head with a spear-staff, and Saramba gave
a cry as a club descended on his back.

“The elder, whatever he thought, responded with an affectation of
indignation, raised his stick, and to the right and left of him drove
back the demoniac crowd. Other prominent men now assisted this elder,
whom we subsequently discovered to be Shekka, the King of Bumbireh.

“Shekka having thus bestirred himself, beckoned to half-a-dozen men and
walked away a few yards behind the mass. It was the ‘Shauri,’ dear to a
free and independent African’s heart, that was about to be held. Half
the crowd followed the King and his council, while the other half
remained to indulge their violent, vituperative tongues on us, and to
continually menace us with either club or spear. An audacious party came
round the stern of the boat, and, with superlatively hideous gestures,
affronted me. One of them even gave a tug at my hair, thinking it was a
wig. I revenged myself by seizing his hand, and suddenly bending it
back almost dislocated it, causing him to howl with pain. His comrades
swayed their lances; but I smilingly looked at them, for all idea of
self-preservation had now almost fled.”

Next some of the boldest approached the boat and took away the oars, and
shortly thereafter messengers came demanding ransoms of cloths and
necklaces. These were delivered. After the warriors departed, some women
came to look at the invaders. Kindly spoken to, these gave the consoling
assurance that the invaders would be killed; but they said that if
Shekka could be induced to make blood-brotherhood, or to eat honey with
one of them, they would be safe. If that failed, there was only flight
or death. Stanley offered the Shekka three fundo of beads, and asked him
to exchange blood with him; but the King refused. Then fifty bold
fellows came rushing down the hill, uttering a shrill cry. Without
hesitation they came straight to the boat, seizing the Kiganda drum.
Loud applause followed this act of gallantry. Then came two others who
began to drive away some cows that were grazing between Stanley and the

“Why do you do that?” asked Safeni, one of Stanley’s men.

“Because we are going to fight presently, and if you are men, you may
begin to prepare yourselves,” he scornfully replied.

“Thanks, my bold friend,” muttered Stanley to himself. “Those are the
truest words we have heard to-day.”

While the two men were retiring up the hill, Stanley directed Safeni to
take two fine red cloths in his hand, walk slowly up after them a
little way, and the moment he should hear his voice run back. His men he
commanded to arrange themselves on each side of the boat; lay their
hands on it carelessly, but with a firm grip, and when he should give
the word, push it with the force of a hundred men down the hill into the
water. His men all properly disposed as he had directed, he told Safeni
to advance with the red cloth.

Stanley says: “I waited until he had walked fifty yards away, and saw
that he acted precisely as I had instructed him. Then I shouted, ‘Push,
my boys; push for your lives!’

“The crew bent their heads and strained their arms; the boat began to
move, and there was a hissing, grinding noise below me. I seized my
double-barrelled elephant rifle and shouted, ‘Safeni! Safeni, return!’

“The natives were quick-eyed. They saw the boat moving, and with one
accord they swept down the hill uttering the most fearful cries.

“My boat was at the water’s edge. ‘Shoot her into the lake, my men;
never mind the water;’ and, clear of all obstructions, she darted out
upon the lake.

“Safeni stood for an instant on the water’s edge, with the cloths in his
hand. The foremost of a crowd of natives was about twenty yards from
him. He raised his spear and balanced himself. ‘Spring into the water,
man, head first,’ I cried.

“The balanced spear was about to fly, and another man was preparing his
weapon for a deadly cast, when I raised my gun and the bullet ploughed
through him and through the second. The bowmen halted and drew their
bows. I sent two charges of duck-shot into their midst with terrible
effect. The natives then retreated from that part of the beach on which
the boat had lately lain.

“The crew tore the bottom boards out of the boat and used them as
paddles. Meanwhile the savages, baffled and furious at seeing their prey
escape, had rushed, after a short consultation, to man two canoes that
were drawn up on the beach at the northwest corner of the cove. Twice I
dropped men as they endeavored to launch the boats; but they persisted,
and, finally launching them, pursued us vigorously. Two other canoes
were seen coming down the coast from the eastern side of the island.
Unable to escape, we stopped after we had got out of the cove, and
waited for them. My elephant rifle was loaded with explosive balls for
this occasion. Four shots killed five men and sank two of the canoes.
The two others retired to assist their friends out of the water. They
attempted nothing further. We were saved!”

The 30th of April Stanley and his crew reached Refuge Island, a hungry
and wearied-out set of people. Here they were very fortunate in
procuring some wild game and fruit, and rested several days.

The expedition, having now almost reached its journey’s end, the members
were all in good spirits, and, although the weather was somewhat
tempestuous during the remainder of the trip, there occurred nothing of
moment to mar the pleasant expectations they had in store, and which
they were permitted to realize with glad hearts on the 6th of May,
having been absent just fifty-seven days in making the circuit of
Victoria Nyanza.



  Leaves Kagehyi with Half his Expedition -- Arrival at Refuge Island --
  Brings up the Rest -- Encamped on Refuge Island -- Interviewed by
  Iroba Canoes -- Stanley’s Friendship Scorned -- The King of Bumbireh a
  Hostage -- The Massacre of the Kytawa Chief and his Crew -- The
  Punishment of the Murderers -- Its Salutary Effect upon their
  Neighbors -- Arrival in Uganda -- Life and Manners in Uganda -- The
  Emperor -- The Land -- _En-route_ for Muta Nzigé -- The White People
  of Gambaragara -- Lake Windermere -- Rumanika, the King of Karagwé --
  His Country -- The Ingezi -- The Hot Springs of Mtagata -- Ubagwé --
  Msené -- Across the Malagarazi to Ujiji -- Sad Reflections.

On the 20th of June, Stanley again sailed from Kagehyi with his
expedition, having procured the loan of fifty canoes from Lukongeh, the
amiable King of Ukerewe, and arrived safely at Refuge Island, half way
to Uganda and two days’ sail from Bumbireh. This latter place was where
the savages had made the treacherous attack upon his expedition, so
graphically described in the previous chapter.

After a few days’ rest on Refuge Island they proceeded on their voyage,
and remembering the bitter injuries he had received from the natives of
Bumbireh, and the death by violence and starvation he and his party had
so narrowly escaped, Stanley resolved that, unless they should make
amends for their cruelty and treachery, he would attack them and
administer such punishment as would prove a salutary lesson, and teach
them the duty of hospitality to travellers in the future.

Stanley first sent a message to the natives of Bumbireh to the effect
that if they would deliver their King and the two principal chiefs under
him into his hands, he would make peace with them. This ultimatum was
received with contempt; but by a stratagem Stanley succeeded in getting
the King of Bumbireh brought to him, who was at once heavily chained.
Being in want of supplies for his party, Stanley sent to Bumbireh to
procure food; but the natives, instead of giving any, attacked his men,
wounding eight and killing a friendly chief, which was another reason
why Bumbireh should be punished.

Accordingly Stanley started off, on the following morning, with a force
of two hundred and eighty men--fifty muskets, two hundred and thirty
spearsmen--in eighteen canoes, and reached the island of Bumbireh about
two in the afternoon. The natives had evidently been anticipating some
trouble, for as they approached messengers were observed running fast to
a plantain grove that stood on a low hill commanding a clear open view
of a little port at the southern end of the island, from which they
concluded that the main force of the savages was hidden behind the

Perceiving that they were too strong to attack them in the plantain
grove, Stanley steered for the opposite shore, intending to disembark
his force there; but as soon as the natives saw this, they rose from
their coverts, and ran along the hill slopes to meet Stanley, which was
precisely what he wished they would do, and accordingly he ordered his
force to paddle slowly, so as to give them time. In half an hour the
savages were all assembled on the slope of a hill in knots and groups,
and after approaching within one hundred yards of the shore Stanley
formed his line of battle, the American and English flags waving as
their ensigns. Having anchored each canoe so as to turn its broadside to
the shore, he ordered a volley to be fired at one group which numbered
about fifty, and the result was ten killed and thirty wounded. The
savages, perceiving the danger of standing in groups, separated
themselves along the lake shore, and advanced to the water’s edge,
slinging stones and shooting arrows. Stanley then ordered the canoes to
advance within fifty yards of the shore, and to fire as if they were
shooting birds. After an hour the savages saw that they could not defend
themselves at the water’s edge, and retreated up the hill slope, where
they continued still exposed to the fire from the boats.


Another hour was spent in this manner, after which Stanley caused the
canoes to come together, and told them to advance in a body to the shore
as if they were about to disembark. This caused the enemy to make an
effort to repulse their landing, and, accordingly, hundreds came down
with their spears ready on the launch. When they were close to the
water’s edge the bugle sounded a halt, and another volley was fired into
the dense crowd, which had such a disastrous effect on them that they
retired far up the hill, and the work of punishment had been

The loss of the savages was very great, as might naturally be expected,
considering they were so exposed on a shore covered only with short
grass. Forty-two were counted lying dead on the field, and over one
hundred were seen to retire wounded. Stanley’s spearsmen were very
anxious that he should allow them to land and utterly destroy the
Bumbirehs; but this he refused, saying that he had not come to destroy
the island, but to punish them for their treachery and attempted murder
of himself and party when they had put faith in their professed

After leaving Bumbireh, Stanley next landed and camped at Dumo Uganda,
which is a two days’ march north of the Kagera River and two days south
of the Katonga River. This camp he selected for his expedition because
it was intermediate, whence he could start on a northwest, west, or
southwest course for the Albert Nyanza, after ascertaining from Mtesa
which was best: for between the Victoria Nyanza and the Albert Nyanza
are very powerful tribes, the Wasagara, Wa Ruanda, and Wasangora
especially, who were continually at war with Mtesa.

Here Stanley remained several days, until he could procure force
sufficient from Mtesa to pierce the hostile country through which alone
he could penetrate to the Albert Nyanza, the aim of his present
expedition. He himself was of opinion that unless the Emperor gave him a
force of fifty thousand men, it would be almost hopeless to expect that
they could hold their ground long enough to enable him to set out on a
two-months’ voyage of exploration and find on his return the expedition
still intact and safe. On presenting these views to the Emperor, he and
his chiefs assured Stanley that two thousand men were amply sufficient,
as Kabba Rega would not dare to lift a spear against the Waganda,
because it was he (Mtesa) who had seated Kabba Rega on the throne of
Kamrasi. Though not quite convinced with the assurances Mtesa gave him
that there would be no trouble, Stanley entreated him no further, but
accepted thankfully General Samboozi and two thousand men as escort.

The march across Uganda, west and northwest, was uninterrupted by any
event to mar the secret joy Stanley felt in being once more on the move
to new fields of exploration. The party made a bold show of spears and
guns while marching across the easy swells of pastoral western Uganda.

Arriving at the frontier of Unyoro, they made all warlike preparations,
and on January 5th entered Kabba Rega’s territory. The people fled
before them, leaving their provisions behind them, of which free use was
made. On the 9th they camped at the base of Mt. Kabuga, at an altitude
off 5500 feet above the sea. East of the low ridge on which they camped
the Katonga River was rounding from the north to the east on its course
toward Lake Victoria, and west of camp the Rusango River boomed hoarse
thunder from its many cataracts and falls as it rushed westward to Lake
Albert. From one of the many spurs of Kabuga they obtained a passing
glimpse of the king of mountains, Gambaragari, which attains an altitude
of between 13,000 and 15,000 feet above the ocean.

On the summit of this high mountain Stanley came across a strange,
pale-faced tribe of natives, complexion almost European--a handsome
race, some of the women being singularly beautiful. Their hair is kinky,
but inclined to brown in color. Their features are regular and lips
thin; but their noses, though well-shaped, are somewhat thick at the
point. Several of their descendants are scattered throughout Unyoro,
Ankori, and Ruanda, and the royal family of the latter powerful country
are distinguished by their pale complexions. The Queen of Sasua Islands,
in the Victoria Nyanza, is a descendant of this tribe.

Whence this singular people came Stanley was unable to determine,
further than to surmise from a clew which he mentions, viz.: that the
first King of Kishakka, a country to the southwest, was an Arab, whose
cimeter is still preserved with much reverence by the present reigning
family of Kishakka.

This mountain is an extinct volcano, and on the summit is a crystal
clear lake about five hundred yards in length, from the centre of which
rises a column-like rock to a great height. A rim of firm rock, like a
wall, surrounds the summit, within which are several villages, where the
chief of this singular tribe and his people reside.

The first King of Unyoro gave them the land around the base of the
Gambaragari mountain, wherein through many vicissitudes they have
continued to reside for centuries. On the approach of an invading army
they retreat to the summit of the mountain, the intense cold of which
defies the most determined of their enemies. Several years ago Emperor
Mtesa despatched his Prime Minister with about one hundred thousand men
to Gambaragari and Usongora; but though the great General of Uganda
occupied the slopes and ascended to a great height in pursuit, he was
compelled by the inclement climate to descend without having captured
more than a few black slaves, the pale-faced tribe having retreated to
their impregnable fortress at the summit.

About four years previous to this, when exploring the Tanganyika with
Livingstone, they heard that there existed a race of white men north of
the Uzigo. At that time Livingstone and Stanley smiled at the absurdity
of a white people living in the heart of Africa; but here Stanley
actually sees them, and discovers the truth of the report.

After leaving the Gambaragari mountain and its pace-faced inhabitants,
Stanley penetrated through the Unyoro country to the borders of the Lake
Albert; but finding it utterly impossible, through the determined
opposition of the natives, to procure any canoes, he was forced to
return to Uganda, to discover other routes and countries more amenable
to reason and open to friendly gifts than hostile Unyoro or incorrigible

The geographical knowledge acquired by their forcible push to the Albert
Nyanza was of the highest importance, and well repaid Stanley, even
though in the end he was forced to return. The lay of the plateau
separating the great reservoirs of the Nile, the Victoria and Albert
Nyanzas, the structure of the mountains and ridges, and the course of
the water-sheds, and the course of the rivers Katonga and Rusango have
been revealed. The great mountain Gambaragari and its singular people
have been discovered, besides a portion of a gulf of the Albert, which
Stanley called, in honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Beatrice,
Beatrice Gulf.

This gulf, almost a lake itself, is formed by the promontory of
Usongora, which runs southwest some thirty miles from a point ten
geographical miles north of Unyampaka. The eastern coast of the gulf is
formed by the countries of Irangara, Unyampaka, Buhuju and Mpororo,
which coast-line runs a nearly south southwest course. Between Mpororo
and Usongora extend the islands of the maritime state of Utumbi. West of
Unsongora is Ukonju, on the western coast of Lake Albert, reputed to be
peopled by cannibals. North of Ukonju is the great country of Ulegga.

Coming to the eastern coast of Lake Albert we have Ruanda running from
Mpororo on the east to Ukonju on the west, occupying the whole of the
south and southeast coast of Lake Albert. North of Unyampaka, on the
east side, is Irangara, and north of Irangara the district of Toro.
Unyoro occupies the whole of the east side from the Murchison Falls of
the Victoria Nile to Mpororo; for Unyampaka, Toro, Buhuju and Irangara
are merely districts of Unyoro. The great promontory of Usongora, which
half shuts in Beatrice Gulf, is tributary to Kabba Rega, though governed
by Nyika, King of Gambaragara.

Usongora is the great salt field whence all the surrounding countries
obtain their salt. It is, from all accounts, a very land of wonders; but
the traveller desirous of exploring it should have a thousand Sniders to
protect him--for the natives, like those of Ankori, care for nothing but
milk and goatskins. Among the wonders credited to it are a mountain
emitting “fire and stones,” a salt lake of considerable extent, several
hills of rock salt, a large plain encrusted thickly with salt and
alkali, a breed of very large dogs of extraordinary ferocity, and a
race of such long-legged natives that ordinary mortals regard them with
surprise and awe. The Waganda, who have invaded their country for the
sake of booty, ascribe a cool courage to them, against which all their
numbers and well-known expertness with shield and spear were of little
avail. They are, besides, extremely clannish, and allow none of their
tribe to intermarry with strangers, and their diet consists solely of
milk. Their sole occupation consists in watching their cows, of which
they have an immense number; and it was to capture some of these herds
that the Emperor of Uganda sent one hundred thousand men, under his
Prime Minister, to Usongora. The expedition was successful, for by all
accounts the Waganda returned to their country with about twenty
thousand; but so dearly were they paid for with the loss of human life,
that it is doubtful whether such a raid will again be attempted to

Upon arriving at Karagwe, Stanley was enabled through the kindness of
the King, Rumanika, to explore the frontier of Karagwe as far north as
Mpororo, and south as Ugufu. The yacht _Lady Alice_ was conveyed to
Speke’s Lake Windermere, and the sections screwed together, and after
circumnavigating the lake, they entered the Kagera River, when it almost
immediately flashed across Stanley’s mind that he had made another grand
discovery--that he had discovered, in fact, the true parent of the
Victoria Nile.

A glance at Speke’s map will show the reader that he calls the river the
Kitangule River, and that he has two tributaries running to it, called
respectively the Luchuro and the Ingezi. Speke, so wonderfully correct,
with a mind which grasped geographical knowledge with great acuteness,
and arranged the details with clever precision and accuracy, Stanley
thinks is seriously in error in calling this noble river Kitangule.
Neither Waganda nor Wanyamba know it by that name; but they all know the
Kagera River, which flows near Kitangule. From its mouth to Wrundi it is
known by the natives on both banks as the Kagera River. The Luchuro, or
rather Lukaro, means “higher up,” but is no name of any river.

While exploring the Victoria Lake, Stanley had ascended a few miles up
the Kagera, and was even then struck with its great volume and depth, so
much so as to rank it as the principal affluent of the Victoria Lake. On
this occasion he discovered, on sounding, that it was fifty-two feet
deep and fifty yards wide. Proceeding on his voyage up the river for
three days, he came to another lake about nine miles in length and a
mile in width, situate on the right hand of the stream. At the southern
end of this lake they came to the island of Unyamubi, a mile and a half
in length. Ascending the highest point on the island, the secret of the
Kagera or Ingezi was revealed.

Standing in the middle of the island, he perceived it was about three
miles from the coast of Karagwe and three miles from the coast of
Kishakka west, so that the width of the Ingezi at this point was about
six miles, and north it stretched away broader, and beyond the horizon
green papyri mixed with broad gray gleams of water. He also discovered,
after further exploration, that the expanses of papyri floated over a
depth of from nine to fourteen feet of water; that the papyri, in
fact, covered a large portion of a long, shallow lake; that the river,
though apparently a mere swift flowing body of water, confined
apparently within proper banks by dense tall fields of papyri, was a
mere current, and that underneath the papyri it supplied a lake varying
from five to fourteen miles in width and about eighty geographical miles
in length.


On exploring the Kagera throughout its entire length (eighty miles)
Stanley found that it maintains almost the same volume and almost the
same width, discharging its surplus waters to the right and to the left,
as it flows on, feeding, by means of the underground channels what might
be called by an observer on land, seventeen separate lakes, but which
are in reality one lake, connected together underneath the fields of
papyri, and by lagoon-like channels meandering tortuously enough between
detached fields of the most prolific reed. The open expanses of water
are called by the natives so many “rwerus” or lakes; the lagoons
connecting them and the reed-covered water are known by the name of
“ingezi.” Lake Windermere is one of these rwerus, and is nine miles in
extreme length and from one to three miles in width. By boiling point
Stanley ascertained it to be at an altitude of 3760 feet above the
ocean, and about 320 feet above Lake Victoria.

On returning from his voyage of exploration, he resolved on an overland
journey to the hot springs of Mtagata, which have obtained considerable
renown throughout all the neighboring countries for their healing
properties. Two days’ severe marching towards the north brought them to
a deep, wooded gorge wherein the hot springs are situated. Here they
discovered a most astonishing variety of plants, herbs, trees and
bushes; for here Nature was in her most astonishing mood. She shot forth
her products with such vigor that each plant seemed to strangle the
other for lack of room. They so clambered over one another that small
hills of brush were formed, the lowest in the heap stifled by the
uppermost, and through the heaps thus formed tall invules shot forth an
arrow’s flight into the upper air, with globes of radiant, green foliage
upon their stem-like crowns.

These springs issued in streams from the base of a rocky hill, and when
Fahrenheit’s thermometer was placed in the water, the mercury rose to
129 degrees. Four springs bubbled upward from the ground through a depth
of dark, muddy sediment, and had a temperature of 110 degrees. These
were the most favored by the natives, and the curative reputation of the
springs was based on the properties of the water.

Stanley says that he camped there for three days, and made free use of a
reserved spring; but excepting unusual cleanliness, he could not
conscientiously say that he enjoyed any benefit from the water.

Having thoroughly explored the valley of the Kagera, noting and locating
the minor lakes, mineral springs, and other features of the topography
of this hitherto unknown region, and after completing a map of the
Victoria Nyanza, which will prove one of the most important
contributions ever made to geographical science, solving as it does one
of its greatest problems, Stanley commenced his southward march to
Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, the place where he was so fortunate as to
discover the long-lost Livingstone.


He left the capital of Karagwe with brave intentions and high
aspirations. He had discovered that the Kagera River formed a great lake
about eighty miles in length and from five to fourteen miles in breadth,
and that at Kishakka the Kagera was still a powerful, deep-flowing
river; and curious reports from natives and Arabs had created curious
ideas within his mind as to the source of this noble river. Imbued with
the thought that by journeying a sufficient distance along its right
bank he might discover this source, he made ample preparations for the
crossing of a wide wilderness, packed ten days’ provisions of grain on
the shoulders of each man of the expedition, and on the 27th of March,
1876, set out for the uninhabited land.

After travelling for six days he reached Ubimba, the frontier of
Karagwe, where, behind a ridge which extends between Ubimba and the
lake, he saw the extreme south end of the lake he had so long followed,
and noticed a decided change in the formation of the broad valley of the
Kagera. The mountainous ridges bounding the western shore of the Kagera,
which, extending from Mpororo south, continue on a south by west course,
became broken and confused in southern Kishakka, and were penetrated
from the northwest by a wide valley, through which issued into the
Kagera a lake-like river called Akanyaru. Southwest was seen the course
of the Kagera, which, above the confluence of the Akanyaru with it, was
only a swift-flowing river of no very great depth or breadth. Such a
river might well be created by the drainage of eastern Urundi and
western Ubba. His attention was drawn from the Kagera to the lake-like
stream of Akanyaru, and several natives stated to him while looking
toward it that it was an effluent of the Kagera, and that it emptied
into the Albert Nyanza. Such an extraordinary statement as this could
not be received and transmitted as a fact without being able to
corroborate it on his own authority, and exploration of the north of the
Akanyaru proved that the Akanyaru is not an effluent but an affluent of
the Kagera.

Beyond the mouth of the Akanyuru, Stanley found it was impossible for
him to go, owing to the determined hostility and opposition of the
natives on the right and left banks of the river. Forced to abandon the
exploration of Lake Albert from this side of the Tanganyika, he marched
in the direction of Ubagwe, in western Unyamwezi, about fifteen days’
journey from Ujiji. He then proposed to proceed quickly to Ujiji,
explore the Tanganyika in his boat, and from Uzigo strike north to the
Albert; and if that road should not be open, to cross the Tanganyika and
travel north by a circuitous course to effect his purpose--the
exploration of Lake Albert.

The account of his arrival at Ujiji, the scene of his first great
success--the finding of Livingstone--is certainly characteristic, if not
truly pathetic. “At noon of the 27th of May, the bright waters of the
Tanganyika broke upon the view, and compelled me,” says Stanley, “to
linger admiringly for a while, as I did on the day I first beheld them.
By 3 P. M. we were in Ujiji. Muini, Mohammed bin Gharib, Sultan bin
Kassim, and Khamis the Baluch, greeted me kindly. Mohammed bin Sali was
dead. Nothing was changed much, except the ever-changing mud tembés of
the Arabs. The square or plaza where I met David Livingstone in
November, 1871, is now occupied by large tembés. The house where he and
I lived has long ago been burnt down, and in its place there remain only
a few embers and a hideous void. The lake expands with the same grand
beauty before the eyes as we stand in the market place. The opposite
mountains of Goma have the same blue-black color, for they are
everlasting, and the Liuché River continues its course as brown as ever
just east and south of Ujiji. The surf is still as restless, and the sun
as bright; the sky retains its glorious azure, and the palms all their
beauty; but the grand old hero, whose presence once filled Ujiji with
such absorbing interest for me was gone!”




  Surveys Lake Tanganyika -- Settles the Question of the River Luguka --
  An Outbreak of Small-pox and Fever in Ujiji -- Causes Stanley to
  Depart -- Pushes his way along the Right Bank of the Lualala to the
  Nyangwe -- Overland Through Uregga -- Brought to a Stand-still by an
  Impenetrable Forest -- Crosses over to the Left Bank -- Northeast
  Uskusa -- Dense Jungles -- Opposed and Harassed by Hostile Savages --
  Assailed Night and Day -- The Progress of the Expedition almost
  Hopeless -- Deserted by Forty of his Porters -- Takes to the River as
  the only Chance to Escape -- Pass the Cataracts by Cutting a Road
  through Thirteen Miles of Dense Forest for the Passage of the _Lady
  Alice_ and the Canoes -- Almost Incessantly Fighting the Savages --
  Threatened with Starvation -- Three Days without Food -- Meet with a
  Friendly Tribe with whom they Barter for Supplies -- Many Falls and
  Furious Rapids -- Again Attacked by a more Warlike Tribe, armed with
  Firearms -- Almost Starved and Worn-Out with Fatigue, reaches Isangila
  -- Leaves the River -- Terrible Sufferings of his People -- Relief
  from Embomma -- Reach Embomma -- Kabinda and Londa -- Sail for Cape of
  Good Hope -- Thence Return by Steamer to Zanzibar -- Close of the

Here Stanley fitted together and launched his exploring boat, the _Lady
Alice_, in which he had already rendered such excellent service to the
cause of geographical science on Lake Victoria Nyanza, and commenced his
survey of Lake Tanganyika. Starting from Ujiji, he made a complete
circumnavigation of the lake, and verified many observations of that
portion which he had previously visited and explored in company with Dr.

Stanley, in the course of this survey, settled the question of the river
Luguka, which Cameron had conjectured was the outlet of Lake Tanganyika
towards the west, and into the system of lakes which form the head
waters of the Lualala, or Lomame of Livingstone. According to Stanley,
Cameron was both right and wrong with regard to the character of the
Luguka River. When Stanley saw it, it was only a creek, running inland
through a deep depression, which extended westward for a great distance.
But the lake, by constantly increasing its area and raising in level,
will eventually, in Stanley’s opinion, find an outlet through the Luguka

The outbreak of small-pox and fever in the Ujiji district, however,
obliged Stanley to make preparations for an immediate departure. With
his followers he pushed his way along the right bank of the Lualala to
the Nyangwe. This was the most northerly point reached by Cameron, when
the latter attempted to solve the mystery of the Congo and its identity
with the main drainage line of the Lualala basin.

The party travelled overland through Uregga, and after an arduous march
of many days through a country filled with many difficulties, being
compelled to transport every pound of supplies of all kinds on the
shoulders of his men, and even to carry along in a similar manner the
exploring boat, the _Lady Alice_, in sections, Stanley at last found
himself brought to a standstill, further progress being rendered utterly
impracticable owing to the extreme density of the forest. He then
crossed over to the left bank, and continued his journey, passing
through Northeast Uskusa; but here the difficulties were scarcely less
than those encountered on the other side. The jungles were still so
dense and the fatigues of the march, owing to the obstacles to be
overcome, so harassing, that it seemed impossible to break through the
tremendous barrier of the forest. The horrors of his position were still
further augmented by the party being opposed at every step by the
hostile cannibal savages, who filled the woods and poured into the
devoted little band flights of poisoned arrows, killing and wounding
many of their number. Every attempt to propitiate them, or even to
retaliate and drive them off, was of no avail, as the natives kept under
cover. Even the famous “elephant” gun, which it will be remembered
Stanley found so useful as a “propitiator” in the earlier stages of his
journey from Zanzibar, was now powerless.

There was no cessation of the fighting, which was kept up day and night,
any attempt at camping merely having the effect of concentrating the
enemy and of rendering their fire more deadly. The march was a
succession of charges in rude skirmishing order by an advance guard
engaged in clearing the road for the main body, while a rear guard in
like manner covered the retreat. In fact, the progress of the party soon
became almost a hopeless task.

To increase still further his troubles, and render his position more
deplorable, the porters whom Stanley had engaged from Nyangwe, one
hundred and forty in number, deserted in a body, being so panic-stricken
by the terrors of the forest and fatal effects of the fighting that they
firmly believed the entire party were doomed to destruction. No sooner
did the hostile savages become aware of this defection, and that the
ranks of Stanley’s party had been so materially thinned, than they
made a grand charge upon them, expecting to completely crush them. But
Stanley organized a desperate resistance, and after a severe and bloody
struggle succeeded in driving them off for a short time, sufficient to
allow him to adopt measures for an escape from their critical situation.


There was but one way of escape, and that was to take to the river. With
the _Lady Alice_ as a last reliance, and good canoes for the party,
Stanley thought they would have a much better chance to elude their
savage foes, and to make some advance toward their destination.

Although Stanley found that he had now a decided advantage, still the
day’s progress was but a repetition of the previous day’s struggle. The
fighting continued to be as desperate as ever while pushing down the
river, and before many days he encountered a fresh and most formidable
obstacle in finding the river interrupted by a series of great cataracts
not far apart, and just north and south of the equator. In order to pass
these the expedition was compelled to cut a road through thirteen miles
of dense forest, and to drag the canoes and the _Lady Alice_ overland.
This enormous labor entailed the most exhausting efforts, and the men
had frequently to lay down the axe and drag ropes and seize their rifles
to defend themselves against the furious onslaught of their savage
enemy, who still relentlessly pursued them.

At last, however, the passage of the cataract was accomplished, and the
party again embarked on the river, enjoying a long breathing pause and
comparative security from attack.

Notwithstanding the incessant fighting which he had to go through,
Stanley still lost no opportunity of noting the interesting changes and
physical characteristics of the route, so cool and self-possessed was he
under difficulties which would have daunted most men. At two degrees of
north latitude he notes that the course of the Lualala swerved from its
almost northerly course to the northwestward, to the westward, and then
to the southwestward, developing into a broad stream, varying in width
from two to ten miles, and studded with islands.

To avoid the savage enemy, who was still in pursuit, Stanley’s little
fleet passed between these islands, taking advantage of the cover.

In this way they succeeded in making a progress of many miles without
being molested; but being cut off from supplies in the middle of this
great river, they were threatened with starvation. For three whole days
they were absolutely without food of any kind; and at last, driven
desperate, Stanley determined to make for the mainland, preferring to
die at the hands of the enemy, if need be, rather than from hunger on
the river.

By the singular good fortune which seems to have always attended him, he
found a tribe of natives who were acquainted with trade, and who were
willing to sell the provisions so sorely needed.

At this place the river was called “Ikuta ya Congo,” and thence forward
the name Lualala disappears, being replaced as the river approaches the
Atlantic by the name of “Kwango” and “Zoure.”


Rested and refreshed, Stanley resumed his journey from this point,
following the left bank of the river; but in three days after leaving
the friendly village he found himself in the country of a powerful tribe
whose warriors were armed with muskets, and who disputed his passage,
refusing all attempts at conciliation. Here for the first time since
leaving Nyangwe, Stanley found himself opposed to an enemy of equal
footing as to arms. No sooner was his approach discovered than the enemy
manned fifty-four canoes and put off from the bank of the river to
attack him. For twelve miles down the river the battle raged, and though
the expedition came out of the conflict with comparatively small loss,
considering the severity of the combat, it was an escape rather than a
victory. This was the last save one of thirty-two attacks upon Stanley’s
party after leaving Nyangwe.

The Lualala, or Congo, as it runs through the great basin which lies
between 16° and 17° east longitude, has an uninterrupted course of over
700 miles, with magnificent affluents, especially on the southern side.
Thence, clearing the broad belt of mountains between the great basin of
the Atlantic Ocean, the river descends about thirty falls and furious
rapids, to the great river between the falls of Yellala and the

Stanley’s losses during this long and terrible journey across the
continent were fearfully severe. From Isangila, which he had reached on
July 31, 1877, Stanley left the river, as the object of the journey had
been attained--the connection of the great river of Livingstone with
that of the Congo of Tuckey.

The announcement of this fact--the abandonment of the river--gave great
delight to Stanley’s people. “At sunset,” says Stanley, “we lifted the
brave boat, after her adventurous journey across Africa, and carried
her to the summit of some rocks about five hundred yards north of the
fall, to be abandoned to her fate. Three years before Messenger of
Teddington had commenced her construction; two years previous to this
date she was coasting the bluffs of Usongora on Lake Victoria; twelve
months later she was completing her last twenty miles of
circumnavigation of Lake Tanganyika, and on the 31st July, 1877, after a
journey of nearly 7000 miles up and down broad Africa, she was consigned
to her resting-place above Isangila cataract, to bleach and to rot to

       *       *       *       *       *

“A wayworn, feeble, and suffering column were we,” says Stanley, “when,
on the 1st of August, we filed across the rocky terrace of Isangila and
sloping plain, and strode up the ascent to the table-land. Nearly forty
men filled the sick list with dysentery, ulcers, and scurvy, and the
victims of the latter disease were steadily increasing. Yet withal I
smiled proudly when I saw the brave hearts cheerily respond to my
encouraging cries. A few, however, would not believe that within five or
six days they should see Europeans. They disdained to be considered so
credulous, but at the same time they granted that the ‘master’ was quite
right to encourage his people with promises of speedy relief.

“So we surmounted the table-land, but we could not bribe the wretched
natives to guide us to the next village. Ever and anon, as we rose above
the ridged swells, we caught a glimpse of the wild river on whose bosom
we had so long floated, still white and foaming, as it rushed on
impetuously seaward through the sombre defile.


“An hour afterwards we were camped on a bit of level plateau to the
south of the villages of Ndambi Mbongo. A strong healthy man would reach
Embomma in three days. Three days! Only three days off from food--from
comforts--luxuries even! Ah me!

“The next morning we lifted our weakened limbs for another march. And
such a march!--the path all thickly strewn with splinters of
suet-colored quartz, which increased the fatigue and pain. The old men
and the three mothers, with their young infants born at the cataracts of
Massassa and Zinga, and another near the market town of Manyanga, in the
month of June, suffered greatly. Then might be seen that affection for
one another which appealed to my sympathies, and endeared them to me
still more. Two of the younger men assisted each of the old, and the
husbands and fathers lifted their infants on their shoulders and
tenderly led their wives along.

“Up and down the desolate and sad land wound the poor, hungry caravan.
Bleached whiteness of ripest grass, grey rock-piles here and there,
looming up solemn and sad in their greyness, a thin grove of trees now
and then visible on the heights and in the hollows--such were the scenes
that with every uplift of a ridge or rising crest of a hill met our
hungry eyes. Eight miles our strength enabled us to make, and then we
camped in the middle of an uninhabited valley, where we were supplied
with water from the pools which we discovered in the course of a
dried-up stream.”

The experiences of the third day were but a repetition of the previous
one, and by the close of that day they had reached the settlement of
Nsanda. Here, through the aid of the chief, who furnished him with two
messengers to accompany Uledi and Kachéché to Embomma, as bearers,
Stanley wrote and sent a letter asking for immediate relief in the shape
of food. On the 5th the expedition resumed its march, and at 3 o’clock
P. M. covered a further distance of twelve miles, reaching the village
of Mbinda. On the 6th, they were aroused for a further effort and at 9
o’clock A. M. reached Banza Mbuko.

“Ah! in what part of all the Japhetic world would such a distressed and
woeful band as we were then have been regarded with such hard,
steel-cold eyes?” writes Stanley. “Yet not one word of reproach issued
from the starving people; they threw themselves upon the ground with an
indifference begotten of despair and misery. They did not fret nor
bewail aloud the tortures of famine, nor vent the anguish of their
pinched bowels in cries, but with stony resignation surrendered
themselves to rest under the scant shade of some dwarf acacia or sparse
bush. Now and then I caught the wail of an infant and the thin voice of
a starving mother, or the petulant remonstrance of an elder child; but
the adults remained still and apparently lifeless, each contracted
within the exclusiveness of individual suffering.”

In this condition these people were found by Uledi and Kachéché who had
returned from Embomma with relief in the shape of provisions, forwarded
through bearers, rapidly despatched by the proprietors of the English
factory into whose hand Stanley’s letter had fallen. And it may be
readily imagined what a change was wrought in the camp by the timely
arrival of these provisions.


As to Stanley, he speaks for himself: “With profound tenderness Kachéché
handed to me the mysterious bottles, watching my face the while with his
sharp detective eye as I glanced at the labels, by which the cunning
rogue read my pleasure. Pale ale! Sherry! Port wine! Champagne! Several
loaves of bread--wheaten bread, sufficient for a week. Two pots of
butter. A packet of tea! Coffee! White loaf sugar! Sardines and salmon!
Plum pudding! Currant, gooseberry, and raspberry jam!

“The gracious God be praised forever! The long war we had maintained
against famine and the siege of woe were over, and my people and I
rejoiced in plenty! It was only an hour before we had been living on the
recollections of the few peanuts and green bananas we had consumed in
the morning; but now, in an instant, we were transported into the
presence of the luxuries of civilization. Never did gaunt Africa appear
so unworthy and so despicable before my eyes as now, when imperial
Europe rose before my delighted eyes and showed her boundless treasures
of life, and blessed me with her stores.”

On the 9th August, 1877, the 999th day from the date of his departure
from Zanzibar, he prepared himself to greet the van of Civilization. He
was met on the road by an escort of Europeans, residents of Boma, who
accorded him a gracious welcome to the town. Three little banquets were
given him, and he was generously toasted by everybody.

On the 11th, at noon, the expedition embarked on the _Kabinda_, an
English steamer, for the town of Kabinda. “A few hours later,” says
Stanley, “and we were gliding through the broad portal into the ocean,
the blue domain of Civilization!

“Turning to take a farewell glance at the mighty river on whose brown
bosom we had endured so greatly, I saw it approach, awed and humbled,
the threshold of the water immensity, to whose immeasurable volume and
illimitable expanse, awful as had been its power and terrible as had
been its fury, its flood was but a drop. And I felt my heart suffused
with purest gratitude to Him whose hand had protected us, and who had
enabled us to pierce the Dark Continent from east to west, and to trace
its mightiest river to its ocean bourne.”

The expedition, after a stay of eight days at Kabinda, was kindly taken
on board the Portuguese gunboat _Tamega_ to San Paulo de Loanda. From
thence through the kindness and courtesy of the English officers of the
Royal Navy, who had placed H. M. S. _Industry_ at Stanley’s disposal,
the expedition was given passage to Cape Town.

On arriving at Simon’s Bay, Cape of Good Hope, on the 21st of October,
Stanley was agreeably surprised by a most genial letter, signed by
Commodore Francis William Sullivan, inviting him to the Admiralty House
as his guest, and who, during the entire stay of the party at the Cape,
extended the most hearty courtesy and hospitality. He had also made
preparations for transporting the entire expedition to Zanzibar, when a
telegram from the Lords of the British Admiralty was received
authorizing him to provide for the transmission of Stanley’s followers
to their homes.


On the 6th of November, H. M. S. _Industry_ was fully equipped and ready
for her voyage to Zanzibar. Fourteen days later the palmy island of
Zanzibar hove into sight, and in the afternoon the steamer was bearing
straight for the port.

Of the return home, and the final scene which closed this wonderful
expedition, we must let Stanley speak: “As I looked on the Wangwana, and
saw the pleasure which now filled every soul, I felt myself amply
rewarded for sacrificing several months to see them home. The sick had
all but one recovered, and they had improved so much in appearance that
few, ignorant of what they had been, could have supposed that these were
the living skeletons that had reeled from sheer weakness through Boma.

“The only patient who had baffled our endeavors to restore her to health
was the woman Muscati, unfortunate Safeni’s wife. Singular to relate,
she lived to be embraced by her father, and the next morning died in his
arms, surrounded by her relatives and friends. But all the others were
blessed with redundant health--robust, bright, and happy.

“And now the well-known bays and inlets and spicy shores and red-tinted
bluffs of Mbwenni enraptured them. Again they saw what they had often
despaired of seeing: the rising ridge of Wilezu, at the foot of which
they knew were their homes and their tiny gardens; the well-known
features of Shangani and Melindi; the tall square mass of the Sultan’s
palace. Each outline, each house, from the Sandy Point to their own
Ngambu, each well-remembered bold swell of land, with its glories of
palm and mango-tree, was to them replete with associations of by-gone

“The ship was soon emptied of her strange passengers. Captain Sullivan,
of the _London_, came on board and congratulated me on my safe arrival,
and then I went on shore to my friend Mr. Augustus Sparhawk’s house.

“Four days of grace I permitted myself to procure the thousands of
rupees required to pay the people for their services. Messages had also
been sent to the relatives of the dead, requesting them to appear at Mr.
Sparhawk’s, prepared to make their claims good by the mouths of three

“On the fifth morning the people--men, women, and children--of the
Anglo-American Expedition, attended by hundreds of friends, who crowded
the street and the capacious rooms of the Bertram Agency, began to
receive their well-earned dues. The women, thirteen in number, who had
borne the fatigues of the long, long journey, who had transformed the
stern camp in the depths of the wilds into something resembling a
village in their own island, who had encouraged their husbands to
continue in their fidelity despite all adversity, were well rewarded.

“The children of the chiefs who had accompanied us from Zanzibar to the
Atlantic, and who, by their childish, careless prattle, had often
soothed me in mid-Africa, and had often caused me to forget my
responsibilities for the time, were not forgotten. Neither were the
tiny infants--ushered into the world amid the dismal and tragic scenes
of the cataract lands, and who, with their eyes wide open with wonder,
now crowed and crooned at the gathering of happy men and elated women
about them--omitted in this final account and reckoning.


“The second pay-day was devoted to hearing the claims for wages due the
faithful dead. Poor faithful souls! With an ardor and a fidelity
unexpected, they had followed me to the very death. True, negro nature
had often asserted itself; but it was, after all, but human nature. They
had never boasted that they were heroes; but they exhibited truly heroic
stuff while coping with the varied terrors of the hitherto untrodden and
apparently endless wilds of broad Africa.

“The female relatives filed in. With each name of the dead, old griefs
were remembered. The poignant sorrow I felt--as the fallen were named
after each successive conflict in those dark days, never to be forgotten
by me--was revived. Sad and subdued were the faces of those I saw--as
sad and subdued as my own feelings. With such sympathies between us we
soon arrived at a satisfactory understanding. Each woman was paid
without much explanation required--one witness was sufficient. Parents
and true brothers were not difficult to identify. The settlement of the
claims lasted five days, and then--the Anglo-American Expedition was no

On the 13th of December, Stanley sailed from Zanzibar for Aden, on board
the British India Steam Navigation Company’s steamer _Pachumba_. His
late followers had all left their homes early in the morning that they
might be certain to arrive in time to witness his departure. Mr. Stanley
says of them: “When I was about to step into the boat, the brave,
faithful fellows rushed before me and shot the boat into the sea, and
then lifted me up on their heads and carried me through the surf into
the boat. We shook hands twenty times twenty I think, and then at last
the boat started. I saw them consult together, and presently saw them
rush down the beach and seize a great twenty-ton lighter, which they
soon manned and rowed after me. They followed me thus to the steamer,
and a deputation of them came on board, headed by the famous Uledi, the
coxswain; Kachéché, the chief detective; Robert, my indispensable
factotum; Zaidi, the chief, and Wadi Rehani, the storekeeper, to inform
me that they still considered me as their master, and that they would
not leave Zanzibar until they received a letter from me announcing my
safe arrival in my own country. I had, they said, taken them round all
Africa to bring them back to their homes, and they must know that I had
reached my own land before they would go to seek new adventures on the
Continent, and--simple, generous souls!--that if I wanted their help to
reach my country they would help me!

“They were sweet and sad moments, those of parting. What a long, long
and true friendship was here sundered! Through what strange vicissitudes
of life had they not followed me! What wild and varied scenes had we not
seen together. What a noble fidelity these untutored souls had
exhibited! The chiefs were those who had followed me to Ujiji in 1871;
they had been witnesses of the joy of Livingstone at the sight of me;
they were the men to whom I trusted the safeguard of Livingstone on his
last and fatal journey, who had mourned by his corpse at Mullala, and
borne the illustrious dead to the Indian Ocean.

[Illustration: THE FACE OF A WANGWANA.]

“And in a flood of sudden recollection, all the stormy period here ended
rushed in upon my mind--the whole panorama of danger and tempest through
which these gallant fellows had so staunchly stood by me--these gallant
fellows now parting from me. Rapidly, as in some apocalyptic vision,
every scene of strife with Man and Nature through which these poor men
and women had borne me company, and solaced me by the simple sympathy of
common suffering, came hurrying across my memory: for each face before
me was associated with some adventure or some peril, reminded me of some
triumph or of some loss. What a wild, weird retrospect it was, that
mind’s flash over the troubled past! So like a troublous dream!

“And for years and years to come, in many homes in Zanzibar, there will
be told the great story of our journey, and the actors in it will be
heroes among their kith and kin. For me, too, they are heroes--these
poor ignorant children of Africa--for, from the first deadly struggle in
savage Iturue to the last staggering rush into Embomma, they had rallied
to my voice like veterans, and in the hour of need they had never failed
me. And thus, aided by their willing hands and by their loyal hearts,
the expedition had been successful, and the three great problems of the
Dark Continent’s geography had been fairly solved.”



  The Messengers of King Leopold II. of Belgium -- Meet Stanley at
  Marseilles, France -- Object of the Interview -- Another Expedition to
  Africa, to Explore the Congo in the Interests of Commerce -- The
  Comité d’Etudes du Haut Congo -- Object of the Expedition Defined --
  Stanley Returns to Africa -- Arrival at the Mouth of the Congo --
  Commercial Possibilities of the Congo Basin -- Railways Necessary --
  The Population -- Statistics of Trade -- Products of the Immense
  Forests -- Marvellous Beauty of the Country -- Vegetable Products --
  Palms -- India-Rubber Plants -- The Orchilla -- Redwood Powder --
  Vegetable Fibres -- Skins of Animals -- Ivory -- The Climate --
  Importance of the Expedition, both Commercially and Politically --
  Stanley Returns to England.

The Dark Continent had been traversed from east to west, its great
lakes, the Victoria Nyanza and the Tanganyika, had been circumnavigated,
and the Congo River had been traced from Nyangwe to the Atlantic Ocean.
The members of the late exploring expedition had been taken to their
homes, the living had been worthily rewarded, and the widows and orphans
had not been neglected.

When Stanley finally reached Europe in January, 1878, slowly recovering
from the effects of famine and fatigue endured on that long journey,
little did he imagine that before the close of the same year he should
be preparing another expedition for the banks of that river on which he
had suffered so greatly. But on arriving at the Marseilles railway
station, in France, he was met by two commissioners from His Majesty,
the King of the Belgians, Leopold II., who informed him that the King
proposed doing something substantial for Africa, and that he expected
him to assist him in the work. To this Stanley’s reply was: “I am so
sick and weary that I cannot think with patience of any suggestion that
I should personally conduct another expedition. Six months hence,
perhaps, I should view things differently; but at present I cannot think
of anything more than a long rest and sleep.”

[Illustration: MOUTH OF THE CONGO.]

However, after having enjoyed a season of quiet rest, regaining his
wonted strength and health, upon the continent, during which time he
became the recipient of many honors wherever he went, he was induced by
the society called Comité d’Etudes du Haut Congo of Belgium, to
undertake another expedition into Africa--this one directed to a survey
and exploration of the river Congo.

The object of this expedition was defined by the society in these words:

“Within the vast basin known in geographical parlance as the basin of
the Congo there is a vast field lying untouched by the European merchant
and about three-fourths unexplored by the geographical explorer. For the
most part it is peopled by ferocious savages, devoted to abominable
cannibalism and wanton murder of inoffensive people; but along the great
river towards the Livingstone Falls there dwell numerous amiable tribes
who would gladly embrace the arrival of the European merchant, and
hasten to him with their rich produce to exchange for Manchester cloths,
Venetian beads, brass, wire, hardware and cutlery, and such other
articles as generally find favor with friendly Africans.

“Our purpose is threefold--philanthropic, scientific, as well as
commercial. It is philanthropic, inasmuch as our principal aim is to
open the interior by weaning the tribes below and above from that
suspicious and savage state which they are now in, and to rouse them up
to give material aid voluntarily. Our purpose is also scientific,
because we intend to make a systematic survey of that country lying
between the Stanley Pool and Boma, either on the north or the south side
of the Congo, and to determine with exactitude the positions of all
important towns and villages, and all prominent points which shall be of
interest to the geographer and the merchant. Our aims are commercial
also, because we intend to experiment how far people may venture into
commercial relationship with the tribes above, by inviting them to
exchange such products as they may possess for the manufactured goods of
civilized States.”

On the 12th of August, 1877, Stanley had arrived at Banana Point, after
crossing Africa and descending its greatest rivers. On the 14th of
August, 1879, two years later, he again arrived before the mouth of this
river to ascend it, with the novel mission of “sowing along its banks
civilized settlements, to peacefully conquer and subdue it, to remould
it in harmony with modern ideas into National States, within whose
limits the European merchant shall go hand in hand with the dark African
trader, and justice and law and order shall prevail, and murder and
lawlessness and the cruel barter of slaves shall forever cease.”

And what have been the results of this second exploration of the mighty
Congo? Want of space will not permit us to follow the fortunes of
Stanley in the course of his ascent of the great river, of the new
discoveries made, and of the complete survey he made of its tortuous
line; but we shall give a brief outline of the great work he performed,
and an account of the wonderful resources which he has shown this
remarkable region of country to possess.


On the commercial possibilities of this region, Stanley’s recent
communications show no change as to his views of African promises to
commercial enterprise.

He holds that there is less sickness by half in the Congo basin, even in
its present unprepared condition, than there is in the bottom lands of
Arkansas. The great basins of the Nile, Congo, Niger and Shari, he
thinks, furnish fine opportunities for commercial exploit. But these
require railways to connect their upper basins with the sea. About 800
miles of railroad, he says, properly directed, would open to the world
of commerce 22,600 miles of river bank of these four streams. But
$17,000,000 of capital would be required to build this railway. The area
of country and the masses of population which it would make immediately
accessible, according to careful calculation, are: Congo basin,
1,090,000 statute square miles, 43,000,000 population; Nile basin,
660,000 square miles, 23,760,000 population; Niger basin, 440,000 square
miles, 8,800,000 population; Shari basin, 180,000 square miles,
5,400,000 population. Total for four basins, 2,370,000 square miles;
80,960,000 population, or one-fourth more than the total population of
the United States.

The least explored portion of the African coast line, 2900 miles long,
is that from the Gambia to St. Paul de Loanda, which gives an annual
trade of $160,000,000. The banks of these four rivers, if equally
developed, ought to furnish a trade seven and a half times greater, or
$1,200,000,000. The gross sum required to create this enormous trade is
only $17,000,000.

Supposing that a continent abounding with tropic produce, populated by
81,000,000 of working people, and showing a coast line of 22,600 miles
in length, suddenly rose from the bosom of the Atlantic, imagine the
scramble for possession which would be made by the Powers. Yet here are
four river basins offered to civilization at the rate of 1³⁄₄ pence per
acre, with an annual trade of over three shillings per acre almost
guaranteed. Any two rich men in Great Britain, Belgium, France, Germany,
Italy, Holland, Spain, Portugal or Sweden and Norway may combine
together and build the Congo Railway. “I have a strong hope,” said
Stanley, “that Manchester will unite with Berlin, Paris and Brussels in
the subscription of $3,000,000 to build this railway.” The Congo basin,
Stanley thinks, is much more promising than the Mississippi basin was
previous to its development.

“The forests on the banks of the Congo,” he says, “are filled with
precious redwood, lignum vitæ, mahogany and fragrant gum trees. At their
base may be found inexhaustible quantities of fossil gum, with which the
carriages and furniture of civilized countries are varnished. Their
barks exude myrrh and frankincense; their foliage is draped with
orchilla weed, useful for dye. The redwood, when cut down, chipped and
rasped, produces a deep crimson powder, giving a valuable coloring; the
creepers, which hang in festoons from tree to tree, are generally those
from which india-rubber is produced; the nuts of the oil-palm give forth
a butter, while the fibres of others will make the best cordage. Among
the wild shrubs are frequently found the coffee plant. In its plains,
jungles and swamps luxuriate the elephant, whose teeth furnish ivory
worth from eight shillings to eleven shillings per pound. If we speak of
prospective advantages, the copper of Lake Superior is rivaled by that
of the Kwiln-Niadi Valley and of Bembi. Rice, cotton, tobacco, maize,
coffee, sugar and wheat would thrive equally well on the broad plains of
the Congo. I have heard of gold and silver.”

And Stanley also gives the testimony of many others, who have traversed
the regions of country bounding the course of the Congo. Tippoo Tib, the
great Arab trader in the interior, who has traversed the southeast
portion of this section, describes his astonishment at the density of
the population. He had passed through several towns which took a couple
of hours to traverse, told of the beauty of savannah, park, and prairie
country he saw, and how the sight of the camp left in the morning might
be seen from the evening camp after a six hours’ march.

Dr. Schweinfurth says: “From the Wellé to the residence of the Monbuttu
King, Munza, the way leads through a country of marvellous beauty, an
almost unbroken line of the primitively simple dwellings extending on
either side of the caravan route.”

“The vegetable productions of this section,” says Stanley, “are rich and
varied; but until intercourse is facilitated, little use will be made
of them. This might be readily surmised from the country’s bisection by
the equatorial line, the ten months’ rains, and the humid warmth which
nourishes vegetation with extraordinary prolific power.”

The most remarkable among the vegetable growths are the palms, of which
there are an immense variety; but the most useful to commerce is the
oil-palm. Its nut supplies the dark red palm-oil so well known on the
west coast, while its kernel is valuable for oil-cake for cattle. Not a
grove, nor an island scarcely, can be found without this beautiful and
most useful palm; in some places, such as the district between the lower
Lumani and Congo, there are entire forests of it.

The next most valuable product of the forest, as yet untouched in this
region, is the india-rubber plant. There are three kinds of plants
producing this article, but that which exudes from _Euphorbia_ is not so
elastic in quality, although it may have its uses. “On the islands of
the Congo,” says Stanley, “which in the aggregate cover an area of 3000
square miles with 800 square miles of the banks of the main river, I
estimate that enough rubber could be collected in one year to pay for a
Congo railway.”

Vast extents of forest are veiled with the orchilla moss. Between Iboko
and Langa-Langa, Stanley saw a forest of about sixty miles in length
draped with orchilla lying on the woods like a green veil. Every village
contains its manufactured rolls of redwood powder, and few settlements
between the equator and the Kwa could not furnish a few hundredweights
at short notice. Every trading canoe floating on the upper Congo
possesses among its salable wares a certain store of this
universally-demanded article.

“For purely tropical scenes,” says Stanley, “I commend the verdurously
rich isles in mid-Congo, between Iboko on the right bank and Mutembo on
the left bank, with the intricate and recurrent river channels
meandering between. There the rich verdure reflects the brightness of
the intense sunshine in glistening velvet sheen from frond and leaf. The
underwood presents varied colors, with their tufted tops or the climbing
serpentine form of the llianes and their viny leaves. Each and all have
their own separate and particular beauties of coloring that renders
description impossible. At all times I believe the same refreshing
gladness and vigor of tropical nature may be observed about this
latitude. Some of the smallest islets seemed to be all aflame with
crimson coloring, while the purple of the ipomœa and the gold and white
of the jasmine and mimosa flowered, bloomed and diffused a sweet
fragrance. Untainted by the marring hand of man, or by his rude and
sacrilegious presence, these isles, blooming thus in their beautiful
native innocence and grace, approached in aspect as near Eden’s
loveliness as anything I shall ever see on this side of Paradise. They
are blessed with a celestial bounty of florid and leafy beauty, a
fulness of vegetable life that cannot possibly be matched elsewhere save
where soil with warm and abundant moisture and gracious sunshine are
equally to be found in the same perfection. Not mere things of beauty
alone were these isles. The palms were perpetual fountains of a sweet
juice, which when effervescing affords delight and pleasure to man. The
golden nuts of other trees furnish rich yellow fat, good enough for the
kitchen of an epicure, when fresh. On the coast these are esteemed as an
article of commerce. The luxuriant and endless lengths of calamus are
useful for flooring and verandah mats, for sun-screens on river voyages,
for temporary shelters on some open river terrace frequented by
fishermen, for fish-nets and traps, for field baskets, market hampers,
and a host of other useful articles, but more especially for the
construction of neat and strong houses, and fancy lattice-work. Such are
the strong, cord-like creepers which hang in festoons and wind
circuitously upward along the trunk of that sturdy tree. The pale white
blossom which we see is the caoutchouc plant, of great value to
commerce, and which some of these days will be industriously hunted by
the natives of Iboko and Bolombo. For the enterprising trader, there is
a ficus, with fleshy green leaves; its bark is good for native cloth,
and its soft, spongy fibre will be of some use in the future for the
manufacture of paper. Look at the various palms crowding upon one
another! Their fibres, prepared by the dexterous natives of Bangala,
will make the stoutest hawsers, the strength of which neither hemp,
manilla fibre, nor jute can match; it is as superior to ordinary
cord-threads as silk is to cotton. See that soft, pale-green moss
draping those tree-tops like a veil! That is the orchilla weed, from
which a valuable dye is extracted. I need not speak of the woods, for
the tall, dark forests that meet the eye on bank and isle seem to have
no end. We are banqueting on such sights and odors that few would
believe could exist. We are like children ignorantly playing with
diamonds. Such is the wealth of colors revealed every new moment to us,
already jaded with the gorgeousness of the tropic world.”

[Illustration: THE AFRICAN CACTUS.]

The vegetation of the upper Congo is also remarkable for the quantities
of fibres it produces for the manufacture of paper, rope, basket-work,
fine and coarse matting and grass cloths.

In this region, among the many minor items available which commercial
intercourse would teach the natives to employ profitably, are monkey,
goat, antelope, buffalo, lion, and leopard skins; the gorgeous feathers
of the tropic birds, hippopotamus teeth, beeswax, frankincense, myrrh,
tortoise-shell, _cannabis sativa_, and lastly, ivory, which to-day is
considered the most valuable product. “It may be presumed,” says
Stanley, “that there are about 200,000 elephants in about 15,000 herds
in the Congo basin, each carrying, let us say, on an average fifty
pounds weight of ivory in his head, which would represent, when
collected and sold in Europe, £5,000,000.

“For climate,” says Stanley, “the Mississippi Valley is superior; but a
large portion of the Congo basin, at present inaccessible to the
immigrant, is blessed with a temperature under which Europeans may
thrive and multiply. There is no portion of it where the European trader
may not fix his residence for years, and develop commerce to his profit
with as little risk as is incurred in India.”

Thus we find Stanley has succeeded in solving the Congo problem. While
other travellers have only speculated on the probable identity of the
Lualala with the Congo, he has put the matter beyond a possible doubt.
To his deeds of discovery on the Nyanza and Tanganyika, which have
already been recounted, Stanley has, by his second tour of the Congo,
added a fresh and incomparable triumph which will forever link his name
with the history of the continent that his irresistible zeal has done so
much to open up to civilization. His explorations will also have most
important commercial and, it may be, political, results.

Having traversed the entire length of the Congo as far as Vivi, and made
several exploring detours from that point, together with discharging the
duties of his mission, Stanley sailed for home, arriving at Plymouth,
England, on July 29th, 1884. Four days later he presented his report to
His Majesty, the King of the Belgians, who was then spending the summer
at Ostend.




  The International Association seeks Recognition from Foreign Powers --
  Treaty between England and Portugal -- Earl Granville -- Claims of
  Portugal -- Concession of England -- Protest of the United States --
  Opposition in England -- King Leopold Obtains the Assistance of the
  German Chancellor and the Sympathies of the French Republic -- Prince
  Bismarck Protests -- Letter to Baron de Courcel, French Ambassador at
  Berlin -- The Baron’s Reply -- France and Germany in Accord -- Call
  for a Conference of the Powers at Berlin -- Conference Assembles --
  Prince Bismarck Opens the Conference with an Address Stating its
  Object -- Mr. Stanley a Delegate -- Asked to give his Views -- Mr.
  Stanley’s Suggestions -- Deliberations of the Conference -- Results of
  the Conference -- Protocol Signed by all the Plenipotentiaries -- The
  United States the first to Publicly Recognize the Flag of the Free
  Congo State -- Honors to Mr. Stanley in Germany.

The expedition of the Upper Congo and the Bureau of the Association had
now performed their duties, but the Royal Founder of the State was
compelled, in order to insure its prosperity and continuity, as the work
advanced, to apply to the various Governments of Europe and America for
recognition, and for security and peaceful safeguards of its frontiers,
to make treaties with France and Portugal, which would delimit the
boundaries, and arrange with all of them for the preservation of

The Association was in possession of treaties made with over 450
independent African chiefs, whose rights would be conceded by all to
have been indisputable, since they held their lands by undisturbed
occupation, by long ages of succession, by real divine right. Of their
own free will, without coercion, but for substantial considerations,
reserving only a few easy conditions, they had transferred their rights
of sovereignty and of ownership to the Association. The time had arrived
when a sufficient number of these had been made to connect the several
miniature sovereignties into one concrete whole to present itself before
the world for general recognition of its right to govern, and hold these
in the name of an independent State, lawfully constituted according to
the spirit and tenor of international law.

In consequence of negotiations entered into between the British and
Portuguese Governments, beginning November, 1882, and ending February
25th, 1884, a treaty was finally concluded, by which the whole of the
southwest African coast between S. latitude 5° 12´ and S. latitude 5°
18´ was recognized by the British Government as Portuguese territory.
This included the lower Congo, of course, by which the territory of the
Association became excluded from the sea. The treaty was signed on the
26th of February, 1884, by Earl Granville on the part of Great Britain,
and by Senhor Miguel Martins d’ Antãs on behalf of the Government of

Earl Granville however declared, previous to the signature of the
treaty, that the acceptance by other Powers of the Anglo-Portuguese
treaty was indispensable before it came into operation, and that there
was reason to believe that this acceptance would be refused, which would
necessarily delay the ratification.

Heretofore the territory now proposed to be given up to Portugal, so
far as Great Britain was concerned, had been regarded as neutral; and
the treaty, thus concluded, marked a radical change in British
policy--for a long series of British Ministers had, during over half a
century, peremptorily declined to recognize the Portuguese claims.

When the Anglo-Portuguese treaty was published the European Powers,
especially France and Germany, emphatically protested against it, and in
England men of all shades of politics combined to denounce it,
principally through a fear that the restrictions imposed upon trade in
other colonies belonging to Portugal would be so severe as to render
commerce impossible in the Congo region.

The most signal protest came, however, from the United States
Government. The United States Senate also, on the 10th of April, 1884,
passed a resolution authorizing the President to recognize the
International African Association as a governing power on the Congo
River. This recognition gave birth to new life of the Association,
seriously menaced as its existence was by opposing interests and
ambitions, and the following of this example by the European Powers
subsequently affirmed and secured its place among sovereign States. This
act, the result of the well-considered judgment of the American
statesmen, was greatly criticised abroad, as was the participation of
the United States in the Berlin Conference, to which it directly led up,
by the press of America. It was an act well worthy of the Great
Republic, not only as taking the lead in publicly recognizing and
supporting the great work of African civilization in history, and in
promoting the extension of commerce, but of significant import in view
of its interest for the future weal of 7,000,000 people of African
descent within its borders.

The British Chambers of Commerce--notably those of Manchester,
Liverpool, and Glasgow--resolutely opposed the treaty concluded with
Portugal; but withal the strenuous opposition maintained to it in
commercial circles and in the House of Commons, had not the Royal
Founder of the Association obtained the assistance of the German
Chancellor and the sympathies of the French Government, it is doubtful
whether anything done in England would have succeeded in averting the
effectual seal being put upon enterprise in the Congo basin by this
treaty. Much more liberal terms would be needed to tempt Congress within
its borders than any provisions that the treaty contained. Some such
arrangement as that made by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, whereby
liberty of navigation was proclaimed to the great rivers of Europe, such
as the Rhine and the Danube, would be necessary; and now that an
association had absorbed unto itself hundreds of petty sovereignties
along a large portion of it, and France had proceeded in the same manner
to absorb other portions of the Congo banks, while Portugal pressed her
claims to territories washed by the great African river, it was
absolutely and imperatively incumbent on the Powers to step forward and
impose such obligations on the riveraine Powers as would not imperil or
strangle the commerce already thriving on the banks of the lower Congo.

On the 7th of June, 1884, Prince Bismarck, in a communication to Count
Munster, set forth his objections to the Anglo-Portuguese treaty, and
concluded with the following words:

“In the interests of German commerce, therefore, I cannot consent that a
coast of such importance, which has hitherto been free land, should be
subjected to the Portuguese colonial system.”

In West African trade, Great Britain stood almost alone at one time. Her
traders were busy on the Gambia, on the Roquelle, on the Gold Coast, at
Lagos in the oil rivers, at Gaboon and Kabinda, and the Glasgow and
Liverpool and Bristol merchants were represented by a host of agents,
who had planted themselves at various points along the 2900 miles of
coast; but of late years, through the apathy of the English merchants,
Germany, by her enterprise, had also established herself at various
places, and great houses like that of Woerman’s were looming upward,
overtopping all individual English firms, which could number their
factories by dozens and their agents by scores. Hamburg and Bremen were
outrivalling Liverpool and Glasgow. Hence Germany had solid and
substantial reasons for watching and jealously guarding her mercantile
interests; and France, aided by the energy and talents of Monsieur de
Brazza, in territories beyond and contiguous to the Gaboon colony,
naturally wished to establish herself beyond dispute in the districts
acquired by the devotion and intelligence of her agents. German
_savants_ had explored territories unclaimed by any Power; German
merchants were honestly established at certain places on the West
African coast; out of the most intelligent and enterprising of the sons
of Germany twenty-four geographical societies had been formed, and a
dozen colonial associations, besides African societies, were being
constituted in Germany. Already Bascian, Gussfeldt, Peschuel Loesche,
Buchner, Von Mechow, Pogge, Weissman, had been equipped by a German
African Society, and it was preparing to despatch more. These facts were
published in the reviews and magazines. There was no secrecy in the
movement. All was honest and above-board, and all the world was told of
the modest effort Germany was making to expand its colonial strength.

Like the great statesman that he is, Prince Bismarck bent his genius to
the creation of a sound system of colonial policy--not rashly, though to
those without the orbit of his genius it might be supposed to be

On the 13th of September he wrote to Baron de Courcel, French Ambassador
at Berlin:

“Like France, the German Government will observe a friendly attitude
towards the Belgian enterprises on the banks of the Congo, owing to the
desire entertained by the two Governments to secure to their countrymen
freedom of trade throughout the whole of the future Congo States, and in
districts which France holds on the river, and which she proposes to
assimilate to the liberal system which that State is expected to
establish. These advantages will continue to be enjoyed by German
subjects, and will be guaranteed to them in the event of France being
called upon to exercise the right of preference accorded by the King of
the Belgians in the contingency of the acquisitions made by the Congo
Company being alienated!”

Baron de Courcel, in reply, stated that he had not failed to convey to
his Government Prince Bismarck’s note, which in its substance was
similar to the views they had exchanged at Varzin; also, that the French
Republic was completely in accord with the Imperial Government of
Germany about the desirability of arriving at a mutual understanding
respecting the delimitation of territory over the west coast of Africa,
especially where the German possessions border on those of the French.
He likewise acknowledged that the friendly accord between the two
Governments was connected with principles of the highest importance to
trade in Africa, of which the chief are those which must govern the
freedom of trade in the basin of the Congo. He also assented to the idea
that whereas the African International Association, which had
established a number of stations on the Congo, declares itself ready to
admit that principle over all the territory under its control, France
should grant freedom of trade over that which she now owns, or may
hereafter own on the Congo, and that France declared her willingness to
permit this freedom to continue in the event of her reaping the benefit
of the arrangements touched upon by the Prince, which assures to France
the right of preference in case of alienation of the territories
acquired by the Association. He defined freedom of commerce to mean free
access to all flags, and the interdiction of all monopoly or
differential duties; but not excluding the establishment of taxes to
compensate for useful expenditure incurred in the interests of commerce.
While freely extending these beneficial concessions to commercial
enterprise in the Congo basin, Baron de Courcel stated that France was
not willing that Gaboon, Guinea or Senegal should share them; but solely
the Congo and the Niger.

Prince Bismarck then, with the acquiescence of France, extended an
invitation through the representatives of the different nations to a
Conference to be held at Berlin on the 15th of November following. The
sittings of this Conference were held in the German Chancellor’s palace
on Wilhelmstrasse, in the same room where the Berlin Conference sat in

When the members of the Conference had assembled, Prince Bismarck rose
to formally open it, and in a short address he declared that the
Conference had met for the solution of three main objects, to wit:

1. The free navigation, with freedom of trade on the river Congo.

2. The free navigation of the river Niger.

3. The formalities to be observed for valid annexation of territory in
future on the African continent.

To this conference Mr. Stanley had been appointed technical delegate for
the United States, and was introduced by the American Minister in highly
complimentary terms. On the expression of views by the several
delegates, Mr. Stanley, when called upon in the order on the roll, arose
and said:

“To define the geographical basin of the Congo, whether explored or
unexplored, is a very easy matter, since every school-boy knows that a
river basin, geographically speaking, includes all that territory
drained by the river and its affluents, large and small. The Congo,
unlike many other large rivers, has no fluvial delta. It issues into the
Atlantic Ocean in one united stream between Shark’s Point on the south
and Banana Point on the north, with a breadth of seven miles and an
unknown depth. Soundings have been obtained over 1300 feet deep. The
Niger has a fluvial delta extending over 180 miles of coast line. The
Nile and the Mississippi have deltas extending over a considerable
breadth of coast line; but when you ask me as to what I should consider
as the commercial basin of the Congo, I am bound to answer you that the
main river and its most important affluents running into it from the
north and south and from the northeast and northwest, east and west,
southeast and southwest, constitute means by which trade ascending the
river and its affluents can influence a much larger amount of territory
than is comprised within the geographical basin.

“For all practical purposes the geographical basin of the Congo might be
permitted to stand for the commercial basin of the Congo as well. When
we begin to consider the commercial outlets from this basin of the Congo
we must bear in mind that they extend, as a commercial delta to a
commercial basin, from St. Paul de Loanda, to the south of the mouth of
the Congo, as far north and including the Ogowai River. Whereas much of
the littoral through which the commercial delta debouches is already
occupied, we find that the breadth of what may be considered as the free
commercial delta of the commercial basin of the Congo extends along the
coast line from 1° 25´ S. latitude to near 7° 50´ S. latitude 385
geographical miles, for the following reason: At Stanley Pool, 325 miles
up the Congo from the sea, we encounter fleets of trading canoes which
have descended the main river from as far up as the Equator, from the
affluents Mohindu, or Black River, and the Kwango, or Kwa, who wait
patiently months at a time for the caravans from Loango, the Kwilu,
Landana, Kabinda, Zombo, Funta, Kinzas, Kinsembo, Ambrizette and other
places on the coast, which bring European goods from the coast to
Stanley Pool to exchange for the produce of the upper Congo, notably
ivory, rubber and camwood powder; and after a time, having exchanged
their goods, march back with such produce of the upper Congo as will
repay transportation to the European traders settled along the free
coast line of 385 geographical miles just mentioned. These various
channels of trade, formed by uninstructed barbarism, may then well be
compared to a commercial delta. To define the commercial basin of the
Congo by boundaries is very simple after the above remarks, and I will
describe them as follows: Commencing from the Atlantic Ocean, I should
follow the line of 1° 25´ S. latitude east as far as 13° 13´ longitude
east of Greenwich, and along that meridian north until the water-shed of
the Niger-Binué is reached, thence easterly along the water-shed
separating the waters flowing into the Congo from those flowing into the
Shari, and continuing east along the water-parting between the waters of
the Congo and those of the Nile and southerly and easterly along the
water-shed between the waters flowing into the Tanganyika and those
flowing into the affluents of Lake Victoria, and still clinging to the
water-shed to the east of the Tanganyika southerly until the
water-parting between the waters flowing into the Zambesi and those
flowing into the Congo is reached; thence along that water-shed westerly
until the headwaters of the main tributary of the Kwango, or Kwa, is
reached, whence the line shown runs along the left bank of the river
Kwango, or Kwa, to 7° 50´ S. latitude; thence straight to the Loge
River, and thence along the left bank of that river westerly to the
Atlantic Ocean. By this delimitation you will have comprised the
geographical or commercial basin and its present commercial delta.”

Being asked by Baron de Courcel as to what might be the estimated value
of the trade in the Congo basin, Mr. Stanley replied:

“The lower Congo and the immediate free littoral make a shore line 388
miles in length. This mileage produces a present trade of £2,800,000
annually. The upper Congo is much more fertile, and, as it has a river
shore of 10,000 miles, it ought to produce, if equally developed, a
trade worth £70,000,000 annually. Or, if we reckon it in this manner,
from the river Gambia to Loanda, along a coast line of 2900 miles in
length, there are employed forty-five steamers and eighty sailing
vessels every year. The Congo basin, with river banks over three times
longer, ought to employ, if equally developed and equally exploited,
three times that number, or say 135 steamers and 240 sailing vessels.”

In answer to Hon. M. Kasson, U. S. Minister, when asked to explain if a
further extension of the free commercial territory to the eastward would
not be advantageous to commerce, Mr. Stanley proceeded to state, after
briefly referring to his overland journey across the continent in the
years 1874, 1875, 1876 and 1877, with some of its incidents, his reasons
why the free commercial territory across Central Africa should be
comprised within certain limits, which he then also briefly defined. And
in conclusion said:

“I respectfully submit that the more unrestricted this spacious
commercial domain shall be the sooner it will be subjected to the
influences of Christianity, civilization and commerce. It bears within
itself all the products required by the necessities of Europe, and all
the elements that might be needed for its conversion from being an
unproductive waste to be a material and moral profit to humanity. Within
its bosom it contains nearly 80,000 square miles of lake water, the
second largest river and river-basin in the world, fertility that no
equatorial or tropical regions elsewhere can match, a population I
should estimate at ninety millions of people, great independent native
empires, kingdoms and republics, like Uganda, Ruanda, Unyoro, and the
pastoral plain country like the Masai land, gold and silver deposits,
abundant copper and iron mines, valuable forests producing priceless
timber, inexhaustible quantities of rubber, precious gums and spices,
pepper and coffee, cattle in countless herds, and people who are
amenable to the courtesies of life, provided they are protected from the
attacks of the lawless freebooter and the merciless wiles of the slave
traders. These facts, I respectfully submit, are sufficient to justify
me in suggesting that the more comprehensible yet simple limits just
described should form the boundaries of the free commercial territory of
Equatorial Africa, and that free, unrestricted means of access should
be secured to it, both from the east as well as the west.”

The deliberations of the Berlin Conference were finally closed on
February 26th, with the result that the International Association
received satisfactory recognition from the several nations represented,
and the limits of the respective colonial possessions of other nations
in Africa were fully defined and set forth. The protocol was duly signed
by all the plenipotentiaries, and published. Mr. Stanley in speaking of
the labors of the Conference and its results, said: “Two European Powers
emerge out of the elaborate discussions, protracted for such a long
period principally through the adroitness and skill of Baron de Courcel
and the concurrence of Prince Bismarck, with enormously increased
colonial possessions. France is now mistress of a West African territory
noble in its dimensions, equal to the best tropic lands for its
productions, rich in mineral resources, most promising for its future
commercial importance. In area it covers a superficies of 257,000 square
miles, equal to that of France and England combined, with access on the
eastern side to 5200 miles of river navigation; on the west is a coast
line nearly 800 miles, washed by the Atlantic Ocean. It contains within
its borders eight spacious river basins, and throughout all its broad
surface of 90,000,000 squares hectares, not one utterly destitute of
worth can be found.

“Portugal issues out of the Conference with a coast line 995 English
miles in length, 351,500 square statute miles in extent--a territory
larger than the combined areas of France, Belgium, Holland, and Great
Britain. On the lower Congo its river bank is 103 miles in length.”

The International Association in return surrendered its claims to 60,366
squares miles of territory to France, and to Portugal 45,400 square
miles, for which it also received 600 square miles of the north bank
between Boma and the sea, and recognition of its remaining territorial
rights from two powerful neighbors, Germany and England.

The territories surrendered by the Association have been consecrated to
free trade, which, along with those recognized as belonging to the
Association and which were pre-ordained for such uses, and those as yet
unclaimed by any Power, but still reserved for the same privileges, form
a domain equal to 1,600,000 square miles in extent, throughout which
most exceptional privileges have been secured by the cordial unanimity
of the riveraine of the United States and European Powers for commerce.

The merchant adventurer is fenced all about with guarantees against
spoliation, oppression, vexation and worry, and his Consul, the
representative of his Government, is charged with the jurisdiction of
his person and property. At the gateway to the free commercial realm the
Commissioner, with his colleagues, will have position, and will there
remain to protect his interests.

These officials constitute a court of law called the International
Commission, to whom he can always appeal for redress and protection.
Only on the exportation of the produce he has collected can a moderate
charge be made, sufficient to remunerate the riveraine Government for
its expenditure. The liquor traffic is placed under proper control,
slave-trading is prohibited, the missionary is entitled to special
protection, and scientific expeditions to special privileges.

The United States Government was the first to publicly acknowledge the
great civilizing work of King Leopold II. by recognizing the flag of the
International Association of the Congo as that of a friendly government.
This flag is a blue flag with a golden star in the centre.

Mr. Stanley while at Berlin, in attendance upon the sessions of the
Conference, was the recipient of very marked attentions from the
nobility, and had conferred upon him the rank of honorary membership in
the leading geographical and scientific societies of Germany. He
lectured in some of the most prominent cities upon the subject of
Central Africa, and was listened to by large and appreciative audiences,
who gave him most cordial and generous receptions.




  Sketch of his Early Life -- His Real Name -- A Silesian by Birth --
  Student at the University of Breslau -- Becomes a Physician -- Goes to
  Turkey and thence to Antivari and Scutari -- Attached to the Court of
  Valis Ismael Pasha Haggi -- Returns home in 1873 -- In 1875 goes to
  Egypt -- Enters the Egyptian Service as “Dr. Emin Effendi” -- Meets
  with Gordon -- Receives the post of Commander of Lado, together with
  the Government of the Equatorial Provinces -- Death of General Gordon
  and Retreat of Lord Wolseley’s Army -- Becomes Dependent upon his own
  Resources, after all Communication with the Egyptian Government is Cut
  Off -- Encompassed by Hostile Tribes, is Lost to the Rest of the World
  -- A Resume of what he Effected in his Administration of Public
  Affairs -- His Diary -- Extracts sent to Friends -- Insurrection, and
  Invasion of the Province by the Mahdi’s Forces -- His Position very
  Critical -- Excites the Sympathy of the Whole World.

Mr. Stanley’s return to America at the close of the Congo expedition, in
1886, was his first in thirteen years. But he was not to enjoy the rest
which he had promised himself. His services were even then being called
for, by the course events were shaping themselves in the Egyptian
Soudan. Through the infamous action of the British Ministry, in
abandoning Gordon and his followers to their fate in Central Africa,
public opinion became thoroughly aroused to the necessity of sending an
expedition to their relief. And to Stanley the eyes of the world at once
turned as the man to lead it. To understand fully, however, the
situation, it will be necessary to recount some of the history of Emin
and his career in the Egyptian Soudan.

For a sketch of the early life of Emin Pasha we are indebted to Dr.
Schweinfurth. He tells us that Emin’s right name is Edward Schnitzer,
and that he was born in 1840 at Oppeln, in Silesia. His father, a
merchant, died in 1845, and three years before that date the family
removed to Neisse, where Emin’s mother and sister are still living. When
Edward Schnitzer had passed through the gymnasium at Neisse he devoted
himself to the study of medicine at the University of Breslau. During
the years 1863 and 1864 he pursued his studies at the Berlin Academy.
The desire for adventure and an exceptional taste for natural science
induced the young medical student to seek a field for his calling
abroad. He therefore, at the end of 1864, left Berlin with the intention
of obtaining the post of physician in Turkey. Chance carried him to
Antivari and then to Scutari. Here he soon managed to attract the
attention of Valis Ismael Pasha Haggi, and was received into the
following of that dignitary, who, in his official position, had to
travel through the various provinces of the empire. When, in this way,
Dr. Schnitzer had learned to know Armenians, Syrians, and Arabians, he
finally reached Constantinople, where the Pasha died in 1873. In the
summer of 1875 Dr. Schnitzer returned to his relations in Neisse; but
after a few months the old passion for travel again came over him, and
he betook himself to Egypt, where favorable prospects were opened out to
him. With the beginning of the year 1876 he appears as “Dr. Emin
Effendi,” enters the Egyptian service, and places himself at the
disposal of the Governor-General of the Soudan. In the post there given
him Dr. Emin met with Gordon, who two years before (1874) had been
intrusted with the administration of the newly-created Equatorial
province. Gordon was just the man to respect an Emin, and correctly
estimate his gifts and capabilities. He sent him on tours of inspection
through the territory and on repeated missions to King Mtesa at Uganda.
When Gordon Pasha, two years later, became administrator of all
territory lying outside the narrower limits of Egypt, Dr. Emin Effendi
received the post of commander at Lado, together with the government of
the Equatorial province. With how much fidelity and self-denial he
devoted himself to his task is well known.

During the first three years of his term he drove out the slave-traders
from a populous region of six million inhabitants. He converted a
deficiency of revenues into a surplus. He conducted the government on
the lines marked out by General Gordon, and was equally modest,
disinterested, and conscientious. When the Mahdi’s rebellion broke out a
governor-general of another stamp was at Khartoum. Emin’s warning from
the remote south passed unheeded. Hick’s army, recruited from Arabi’s
demoralized regiments, was massacred; the Egyptian garrisons throughout
the Soudan were abandoned to their fate, atrocious campaigns of
unnecessary bloodshed were fought on the seaboard, and General Gordon
was sent to Khartoum to perish miserably while waiting for a relief
expedition that crawled by slow stages up the Nile, and was too late to
be of practical service. During all these years of stupid misgovernment
and wasted blood Emin remained at his post. When the death of General
Gordon and the retreat of Lord Wolseley’s army wiped out the last
vestige of Egyptian rule in the regions of the upper Nile, the
Equatorial provinces were cut off, neglected, and forgotten.

It then became impossible for Emin to communicate with the Egyptian
Government, and he was practically lost to the rest of the world. He was
dependent upon his own resources in a region encompassed by hostile
tribes. He might easily have cut his way out to safety, by the way of
the Congo or Zanzibar, with the best of his troops, leaving the women
and children behind to their fate. But this he scorned to do. He stood
at his post, and bravely upheld the standard of civilization in Africa.
He had with him about four thousand troops at the outset. He organized
auxiliary forces of native soldiers; he was constantly engaged in
warfare with surrounding tribes; he garrisoned a dozen river stations
lying long distances apart; his ammunition ran low, and he lacked the
money needed for paying his small army. But, in the face of manifold
difficulties and dangers, he maintained his position, governed the
country well, and taught the natives how to raise cotton, rice, indigo,
and coffee, and also how to weave cloth, and make shoes, candles, soap,
and many articles of commerce. He vaccinated the natives by the thousand
in order to stamp out small-pox; he opened the first hospital known in
that quarter; he established a regular post-route with forty offices; he
made important geographical discoveries in the basin of the Albert Lake;
and in many ways demonstrated his capacity for governing barbarous races
by the methods and standards of European civilization. The last
European who visited him was Dr. Junker, the German traveller, who
parted from him at Wadelai on January 1st, 1886. His position was then
more favorable, but he had been reduced at one time to extremities, his
soldiers having escaped by a desperate sortie, cutting their way through
the enemy after they had been many days without food, and “when the last
torn leather of the last boot had been eaten.” Letters written by him in
October, 1886, at Wadelai, describing his geographical discoveries, were
received in England in 1887, with a contributed article for a Scotch
scientific journal. The provisions and ammunition sent to him by Dr.
Junker had had a very encouraging effect upon his troops. He wrote: “I
am still holding out here, and will not forsake my people.”

Emin kept a diary of his life and work, and, whenever opportunity
offered, sent extracts from it in the form of letters to friends in
Europe. From these a graphic idea may be formed of his unique career. In
August, 1883, he wrote:

“It seems to me that when disturbances arise among a newly-subdued
people it is chiefly to be attributed to wrong methods of action on the
part of our people, who make exaggerated demands, forgetting that a
newly-captured bird must first become accustomed to its cage.
Intercourse with negroes and their treatment are not so difficult as
often appears to inexperienced travellers, who know their mendacity,
and, where they have the power, their extortion. It only requires
inexhaustible patience and unruffled composure--virtues which are
certainly not often acquired from the brandy-bottle. A sojourn of
nearly eight years here has taught me that, with a little kind
treatment, negroes are tolerably easy to govern. I have also certainly
learnt that for Equatorial Africa temperance is a good habit....

“It is a beautiful characteristic of the Sandeh--the worst anthropophagi
of our country--that they have the greatest affection for their wives
and daughters, and would bear anything rather than their loss....

“From Gambari’s village, four days’ march brought me to Tingasi, our
headquarters in Monbuttu, an hour’s march from Tangara’s residence. To
this place visitors from all sides flocked in such numbers that I was
often quite overwhelmed. From west and south came the chiefs with their
trains--the Sandeh princes Bori, Kanna’s nephew; Mbiltima and Ikva,
Uando’s sons; Mbrú and Massinse, the Monbuttu princes Tangara, Asanga,
Munsa’s brother; Mbala, Munsa’s son; Kadabó, Benda, and others. In
addition to these, the women, often as many as fifty or sixty, seated on
little stools, were grouped round me, all beautifully painted black,
with high chignons; those belonging to the princely houses, such as
Munsa’s and Tangara’s daughters, being crowned with Monbuttu hats. If
only you could have seen the transports of delight which Schweinfurth’s
perfectly accurate drawings excited in this circle, and the interest
with which they looked at my zoological sketches! The Monbuttu are a
very highly-gifted people, and this would be a fertile field for happy
and useful work. If anything is to be made of this richly-endowed
country, here or nowhere is the place for a capable European official,
who must, to be sure, possess some self-denial. If the Government would
give the country over to me, independent of the Equatorial provinces
proper, I should be quite willing to undertake the work at once. The
distance from Lado could be diminished by the opening of new routes....

“I have been twice in Uganda, and believed I should meet with many
persons like those in Monbuttu; but my expectations were not fulfilled.
Monbuttu is very different from all that one is accustomed to see in
Africa, and so different that a comparison can hardly be thought of. I
was always meeting with indescribable splendor and luxuriance of
vegetation--giant trees waving their tops together like a dome, more
sublime and majestic than all the cathedrals in the world. Whoever
wishes to attain a due sense of God’s majesty and power should go into
these forests, and, silent and wondering, confess how miserable and
contemptible are men’s works beside the works of Him who created this
enchanting beauty and splendor.”



Troublous times came upon him, and in August, 1884, he was practically
cut off from the rest of the world, and was in daily expectation of
being assailed by the overwhelming hosts of the Mahdi. Under such
circumstances he wrote:

“It will probably appear to you somewhat comical that, notwithstanding
the non-arrival of a steamer, I should again take up my correspondence
with you. It certainly seems as if we were totally deserted and
forgotten by all the world. But I think that the good God, who has up to
the present time protected us from all harm, will in the future also
have us under His protection, and so, perchance, my letter may some day
arrive at its destination. Whilst suffering from the very sorrowful
impression which the surrender of Lupton Bey to the Mahdi’s troops had
made upon me, I concluded my last letter to you in great haste. Dr.
Junker wished to try to get to Zanzibar by the south route, _via_
Uganda, and was so good as to take with him all my correspondence. Since
he left here nearly two months have passed, and as since then all kinds
of curious rumors have reached me, he has decided to wait awhile in
Dufilé and watch the course of events. Up to the present, thank God, the
much-feared invasion of our province by the Mahdi’s troops has not taken
place, and I have been able, by giving up nearly all of my outlying
stations, to concentrate my few soldiers.... I must, however, tell you
that I heard from Lupton that he had been compelled to surrender both
himself and his province into the Mahdi’s hands, and that he thought the
best thing I could do was to follow his example.”

“Well may our friends,” he wrote on New Year’s Day, 1885, “have long
since given up all hope for us. Our own Government has certainly
deserted us. Yet we have managed to hold our own, and to defend our
flag. How long we shall still be able to do so is a mere question of
time, for as soon as the little remaining ammunition which we possess is
expended, it will be all up with us.... We are without news as to the
course of events in Khartoum; in fact, the whole of the outer world
seems to have vanished completely from our ken. We have now begun to
manufacture for ourselves the most indispensable articles--very
passable shoe-work, soap, and more recently still, cotton cloth for
clothes. Candles made of wax prove very useful, and instead of sugar we
use honey. We have not, however, yet succeeded in our endeavor to make
vinegar, but I am not without hope that we shall have success in that
direction. Temperance is naturally compulsory, for the drinks of native
manufacture can only be consumed by children of the soil. Coffee, which
we have long missed, we have at last replaced by roasting the seeds of a
species of hibiscus, and brewing from it a fairly passable drink. Tea
naturally does not exist. I thank God for His protection hitherto, and
hope and have faith enough to believe that He will still protect us, and
at last enable my few poor people to return to their homes in peace.

“_10th January._--Our fate it seems is soon to be decided. We hear that
four hundred armed men from Bahr-el-Ghazal have joined the rebels and
that one thousand five hundred more are on the way. Only a miracle can
save us. I send at once as many as possible of my people to the south,
for the route to Mtesa is still in existence. If I escape I will follow
with my soldiers. But I can hardly expect to escape. It is shameful of
our Government to have abandoned us.

“_12th January._--Dr. Junker goes in the meantime to Anfinas. He takes
with him all my letters. If I see him again, as I hope I may, for I have
some belief in my good star, I will write more. May God preserve you.”

There Emin remained with his body of Egyptian troops throughout all the
disturbance in that region--the appearance of El Mahdi and his success
in wresting some of the adjoining Soudanese provinces from the
Egyptians; Arabi Pasha’s insurrection in Egypt and the subsequent
Mahdist manœuvers. Emin and his small force were surrounded by hostile
tribes. He was heard from but seldom, and at last all communication
ceased. The position in which Emin found himself after Gordon’s death
excited the sympathy of the whole world. He was the Governor of a
province which he had blessed with many of the arts of civilization, but
was without sufficient force to resist the encroachments of the enemy.
He fought the slave trade and the slave dealers with something like the
passion of fanaticism. He was hemmed in by hordes of cut-throats, and
every effort to save himself from the impending fate seemed futile. It
was feared he had fallen, like Gordon.

In reviewing the career of this remarkable man, who has been so
skillfully extricated by Stanley and his expedition, the New York
_Tribune_ has recently said, editorially:

“At his remote post of duty, this modest scientist has done more for the
abolition of African slavery than any other man now living, if we except
only his gallant deliverer. He gave civilization to an empire and the
blessings of freedom to teeming millions. Throughout a territory larger
than all our New England States he destroyed the slave trade,
established government, and founded schools, posts and industries of
varied kinds. His administration was more than self-supporting, and even
after the betrayal of Khartoum and his isolation from the rest of the
world, he was prepared to hold his own, if only he could have some
trifling aid from Europe. That aid he did not get. There seemed to be
neither money nor votes in helping him, so the statesmen of Europe went
by on the other side. He conquered savagery, defied pestilence, and
triumphed over every foe the wilderness could send against him. The one
enemy he could not subdue was the selfish poltroonery of Europe. To that
he has at last yielded. He has marched out in safety with honor upon his
banners. He has left behind him the dismalest wreck in modern history to
be a reproach to the Powers that betrayed him. That the desert was made
to blossom like the rose, is Emin’s glory; that it now relapses into a
worse desert than before, is Europe’s disgrace.”




  Public Opinion in England -- A Relief Committee Organized --
  Subscription of Funds to Defray Expenses of an Expedition -- Henry M.
  Stanley called to England by Cable -- Accepts Command of the Relief
  Expedition -- Stanley’s Opinion as to the Character of the Expedition
  and the best Route -- Reaches Zanzibar -- Meets Tippu-Tib -- Supplied
  with 600 Carriers -- Consents to Accompany Stanley -- Sails for the
  Mouth of the Congo, February 25th -- Reaches the Aruwimi in June --
  Leaves a Rearguard at Yambuya -- Advance towards Albert Nyanza along
  the Valley of the Aruwimi -- Startling Rumors -- Stanley and Emin
  Reported to be in the Hands of the Arabs -- A Letter in Proof Received
  from a Mahdist Officer in the Soudan -- News of Disasters on the Congo
  -- Murder of Dr. Barttelot -- Death of Mr. Jamieson -- The Gloomy News
  Regarding Stanley’s Fate -- The Opinion of Thomson, the African
  Traveller -- News of Stanley’s Arrival at Emin’s Capital received
  December, 1888 -- First News from Stanley Himself, April 3d, 1889 --
  Full Account of his March, and the Terrible Experiences Suffered from
  Yambuya to the Albert Nyanza.

The betrayal of Gordon at Khartoum by the British Government, and the
consequent sad plight it placed Emin Pasha in, so thoroughly exasperated
public opinion in England that immediate steps were taken to form a
relief committee, and to raise the necessary funds to defray the
expenses of fitting-out a relief expedition, Sir William Mackinnon alone
subscribing $100,000. To this the English Government grudgingly added a
small appropriation from the Egyptian treasury.

Henry M. Stanley, while standing on the stage of the Academy of Music,
in the city of Philadelphia, on December 11th, 1886, lecturing on his
experiences in the Congo, received a cable despatch calling him to
England to take charge of the expedition to Wadelai, Emin’s
headquarters, near Lake Albert Nyanza. He immediately returned to
England, and in a short time the arrangements were completed with the
committee having the matter in charge.

There was much discussion as to the route to be taken, most authorities
favoring that overland from Zanzibar. But Mr. Stanley determined upon
the Congo, and he described the character of the expedition as follows:

“The expedition is non-military--that is to say, its purpose is not to
fight, destroy, or waste; its purpose is to save, to relieve distress,
to carry comfort. Emin Pasha may be a good man, a brave officer, a
gallant fellow deserving of a strong effort of relief; but I decline to
believe, and I have not been able to gather from any one in England, an
impression that his life, or the lives of the few hundreds under him,
would overbalance the lives of thousands of natives, and the devastation
of immense tracts of country which an expedition strictly military would
naturally cause. The expedition is a mere powerful caravan, armed with
rifles for the purpose of insuring the safe conduct of the ammunition to
Emin Pasha, and for the more certain protection of this people during
the retreat home. But it also has means of purchasing the friendship of
tribes and chiefs, of buying food and paying its way liberally.”

Mr. Stanley went from England to Egypt, where he stopped for a time at
Cairo, completing his arrangements with the Egyptian Government. At the
railway station, just before leaving for the wilderness, he had a
farewell conversation with his friend Colonel John Colborne, a veteran
of the Egyptian army in the Soudan. Speaking of some current rumors that
he intended to seize Emin’s province as a British possession, he said:
“The province is not worth taking, at least in the present state of
affairs. The difficulty of transport from either coast is too great, and
the expense, also, to give a return for money. As long as the Nile is
closed the Central provinces will never pay, and it will be years before
it is open again. Yes, the Central African provinces would be valuable
enough were river communication free. On the east side there is no
sufficiently navigable river, the presence of the tsetse fly prevents
the employment of bullocks and horses, the ground is unsuited for
camels, and the African elephant has never been tamed, so the only means
of transport is by the Wapagari, or native porters, and a precious slow
and expensive means it is, too. For any large trade purposes it would be
utterly inadequate; besides, the only present trade is in ivory and
ebony--you know what I mean by that, I suppose?--and ivory is getting
scarcer. Of course, if the Nile were open, there might be a splendid and
most remunerative trade in gum, hides, beeswax, india-rubber; anything,
too, I believe, could be cultivated to perfection in these provinces,
and probably the natives would soon learn, when once they got to
appreciate the benefit of trading, to grow cotton, tea, perhaps coffee,
rice, and the cinchona plant. Some parts are suited well for one kind of
plant, other parts for another. Thus, cotton would grow nearer the
coasts, whereas tea and coffee and the cinchona plant could be
cultivated on the slopes. But, as I said before, the true transit for
trade is by the Nile.”

In the course of further conversation he said, “Do you know that the
Nile itself could be turned off with comparative ease? The Victoria
Nyanza is on a plateau like an inverted basin. It could be made to
trickle over at any point. The present King of Uganda is fond of his
liquor. Waking up any morning after drinking too much ‘mwengi’ (plantain
wine) over night, he might have what is called ‘a head on him,’ and feel
in a very bad temper. He might then take it into his head to turn off
the Nile. He might do this by ordering a thousand or so natives to turn
out and continue to drop stones across the Ripon Falls at the top till
they were blocked. To do this would be quite possible. I calculate this
could be done by the number of men I mention in nine months, for the
falls are very narrow. True, the effect of this could be counteracted in
a year or so by reservoirs and dykes; but meanwhile the population of
Egypt would be starved. His father, King Mtesa, once actually
contemplated doing this--not with a view of creating mischief, but
because he wanted to water some particular tract of land, and for this
purpose to make the lake dribble over it.”

Concerning his own immediate work, Mr. Stanley talked at some length.
“Tell them at home,” he said, “that my mission is purely pacific. Does
any one think I am going to wade through blood to get at Emin? If I
succeeded, what would be the consequence? News would be brought to the
King, ‘Stanley is coming with an army of thirty thousand men’--you
know how figures increase when estimated by savages--and what would be
the consequence? ‘Ho! is he indeed?’ the King would say; ‘I’ll teach him
to bring an army into my country. Chop off the heads of the
missionaries.’ And,” added Mr. Stanley, speaking quite excitedly, “what,
I should like to know, is the value of Emin’s life in comparison with
that of the lives of such noble men as Mackay, Lichfield, Père Loudel,
and Frère Delmonce? Does any one think I would sacrifice them for the
sake of Emin?”


On reaching Zanzibar he found that his agents had already recruited a
force of six hundred men for the expedition, and that Tippu-Tib, who had
escorted his caravan in 1877, when the first descent of the Congo was
made, was waiting for him. Tippu-Tib was the Zobehr of the Upper Congo,
commanding two of the best roads from the river to Wadelai. He agreed to
supply six hundred carriers at thirty dollars a man; and as Emin was
reported by Dr. Junker to have seventy-five tons of ivory, the expenses
of the expedition might be largely defrayed by the return of the
Zanzibaris to the Congo with their precious loads. Tippu-Tib was also
offered the position of Governor at Stanley Falls at a regular salary.
He consented to accompany Mr. Stanley on these terms. The steamer set
out on February 25th for the mouth of the Congo with about seven hundred
men of the expedition, reaching its destination in four weeks. He was
then twelve hundred and sixty-six miles from Aruwimi, whence he was to
march four hundred miles through an unknown country to Emin’s capital.
It was as late as April 26th before he could leave Leopoldville, on
Stanley Pool, and it was not until the second week in June that the
explorer himself was at Aruwimi, much delay having been caused by
defective transportation.

He left men at Stanley Falls with instructions to rebuild the
storehouses, to open negotiations with the tribes, and to provide
convoys of provisions for the relief expedition. A rearguard was left at
Yambuya, and the advance column passed on to the limits of navigation,
whence the overland march was taken up. Few difficulties were
encountered apart from the natural obstacles presented by a country very
difficult to traverse. About July 25th the expedition had ascended the
River Aruwimi as far as an elevated tract of country forming a portion
of the Mabodi district. At this distance from its confluence with the
Congo the river became very narrow, being no longer navigable, and Mr.
Stanley was compelled for several days to have all the provisions and
munitions for the use of the expedition, as well as those intended for
the revictualling of Emin Pasha’s garrison, carried on the men’s backs.
The quantity of rice was so large that each man had to bear a double
burden. The rafts which had been employed to convey the heavy baggage
were left behind, and only the steel whale-boat brought from the camp at
the foot of the Aruwimi rapids was carried past the narrows and again
launched in the river, Mr. Stanley greatly congratulating himself that
he had brought it, owing to the amount of water which, according to the
inhabitants of that part of the country, the expedition would have to
cross before reaching the Albert Nyanza. Mr. Stanley calculated that
once arrived at the summit of the table-lands which shape the basin of
the Aruwimi he would be able to halt for two days, in order to rest his
men and establish a fresh camp, garrisoned like that at Yambuya, by
twenty men and a European officer. The population of the country through
which Mr. Stanley was then travelling was considerable, but the people
were much scattered. The district was tranquil, the agitation prevalent
in the neighborhood of Stanley Falls not having spread to that part of
the country.

At the beginning of August the expedition was reported to be advancing
without the ammunition and stores designed for Emin. Provisions were
scarce, the officers and men undergoing great privations, and suffering
from disease and hunger. Tippu-Tib had failed to send to Yambuya the
five hundred carriers who were to convey the stores. This failure was
not due to treachery, since he was still at his post and faithful to Mr.
Stanley’s interests. In consequence of the disturbed state of the
country he could not, as had been agreed upon, organize a revictualling
caravan to be dispatched direct to the Albert Nyanza by the way of the
River Mbourou, but he agreed to do so as soon as possible. The agitation
continued in the country between Stanley Falls and the confluence of the
Aruwimi with the Congo. Several villages on the right bank of the Congo
had been pillaged and laid waste, and a large number of the natives had
crossed the river to the opposite bank.

Thus, Mr. Stanley and his comrades plunged into the wilderness, and were
lost to the sight of the world. From time to time thereafter countless
rumors came from Africa regarding them--rumors varied in tone as in
number. At one time they had reached Emin in safety. Again they were all
massacred long before they got to Wadelai. Now, Mr. Stanley had put
himself at the head of Emin’s army, and was marching on Khartoum to
avenge Gordon and overthrow the Mahdi; and then he and Emin were
captured by the Mahdist forces at Lado. Stories came of a mysterious
“White Pasha” who was leading a conquering army through the Bahr el
Ghazel country, and it was very generally believed that it was Mr.
Stanley, who had reached Wadelai and was returning to the coast by the
way of the Niger. But on December 15th, 1888, startling news came from
Suakim, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Osman Digna, the Frenchman who
had turned Arab, and was leader of the Mahdist army there, under a flag
of truce informed the British commander that Emin’s province had fallen
into Arab hands, and that Emin and Stanley were prisoners. In proof of
this he sent a copy of a letter just received from a Mahdist officer in
the Soudan, as follows:

“In the name of the Great God, etc. This is from the least among God’s
servants to his Master and Chief Khalifa, etc. We proceeded with the
steamers and army. Reached the town Lado, where Emin, Mudir of Equator,
is staying. We reached this place 5th Safar, 1306. We must thank
officers and men who made this conquest easy to us before our arrival.
They caught Emin and a traveler staying with him, and put both in
chains. The officers and men refused to go to Egypt with the Turks.
Tewfik sent Emin one of the travellers, whose name is Mr. Stanley. This
Mr. Stanley brought with him a letter from Tewfik to Emin, dated 8th
Jemal Aowal, 1304, No. 81, telling Emin to come with Mr. Stanley, and
gave the rest of the force the option to go to Cairo or remain. The
force refused the Turkish orders, and gladly received us. I found a
great deal of feathers and ivory. I am sending with this, on board the
‘Bordain,’ the officers and chief clerk. I am also sending the letter
which came to Emin from Tewfik, with the banners we took from the Turks.
I heard that there is another traveller who came to Emin, but I heard
that he returned. I am looking out for him. If he comes back again, I am
sure to catch him. All the chiefs of the province with the inhabitants
were delighted to receive us. I have taken all the arms and ammunition.
Please return the officers and chief clerk when you have seen them and
given the necessary instructions, because they will be of great use to

This was accompanied by what appeared to be a letter written by the
Khedive at Cairo to Emin, which had been intrusted to Mr. Stanley to
deliver, and this convinced many of the truth of Osman Digna’s story.
But, as a matter of fact, as will be seen later, it was all an ingenious
lie, concocted for the purpose of frightening the British into
abandoning Suakim to the slave-traders. Meantime there was true news of
actual disasters on the Congo. Major Barttelot, commanding the rearguard
of the expedition, was murdered; and Mr. Jamieson, who succeeded to the
command, died of fever. Under these circumstances, the gloomiest and
most anxious views prevailed regarding Mr. Stanley’s fate. That famous
and experienced African traveller, Mr. Joseph Thomson, expressed the
opinion that the whole expedition had been annihilated. “Stanley,” he
said, “has met his terrible fate in some such way as this: He started
from the Aruwimi, and almost immediately plunged into dense forests, to
be made worse by swamps further east. Through such a country his caravan
would have to travel in single file, with probably no more than twenty
men in sight at one time. Under such conditions it would be impossible
for the Europeans to keep in touch with their men, and thus scattered,
thus without officers in a sense, they would fight at a terrible
disadvantage. And fight they would have to for daily food if nothing
else, and consequently with each succeeding week less able to continue
the struggle. In this way they plunged deeper and deeper into the
recesses of the unknown forest and swamp--and deeper and deeper, no
doubt, into the heart of a powerful tribe of natives. And then the end
came. Probably in that last struggle for life not a soul escaped.

“If you ask me why no news, no rumor of that catastrophe leaked out, I
answer because there was no trade, not even a slave route, through that
region. There was no native or Arab merchant to carry the news from
tribe to tribe; and as each tribe has little but fighting relations with
the neighboring ones, the tidings would not get through by their means.
And, after all, what would the massacre of a passing caravan be to those
savages? Only a common incident not worth speaking about beside the
continual tribal wars they are accustomed to. The one thing they would
find to remark would be the wonderful character of the plunder. Some
day, no doubt, the news will leak out, but it may be months before
anything reaches us. It is not much use crying over spilt milk, but one
cannot help lamenting over this probable new disaster. It is all so much
on a par with our terrible blunderings in the Soudan and East Africa.
Only another remarkable man killed, and the magnificent life’s work of
another ruined. But for the selection of the Congo route Stanley might
have been alive, Emin succored, and not improbably the Mahdi’s host

These were weighty words, coming from so eminent an authority, and they
carried conviction to the hearts of many. But less than ten days later
positive and authentic news of Mr. Stanley’s arrival at Emin Pasha’s
capital was received, and April 3d, 1889, full details of the campaign,
written by Mr. Stanley himself, were received and published. This letter
was to the Chairman of the Relief Committee, and was dated at Bungangeta
Island, Ituri or Aruwimi River, August 28th, 1888, and from which we

“A short dispatch briefly announcing that we had placed the first
installment of relief in the hands of Emin Pasha on the Albert Nyanza
was sent to you by couriers from Stanley Falls, along with letters to
Tippu-Tib, the Arab Governor of that district, on the 17th inst., within
three hours of our meeting with the rear column of the expedition. I
propose to relate to you the story of our movements since June 28th,

“I had established an entrenched and palisaded camp at Yambuya, on the
Lower Aruwimi, just below the first rapids. Major Edmund Barttelot,
being senior of these officers with me, was appointed commandant. Mr.
J. S. Jamieson, a volunteer, was associated with him. On the arrival of
all men and goods from Bolobo and Stanley Pool, the officers still
believed Messrs. Troup, Ward and Bonny were to report to Major Barttelot
for duty. But no important action or movement (according to letter of
instructions given by me to the Major before leaving) was to be made
without consulting with Messrs. Jamieson, Troup, and Ward. The columns
under Major Barttelot’s orders mustered two hundred and fifty-seven men.

“As I requested the Major to send you a copy of the instructions issued
to each officer, you are doubtless aware that the Major was to remain at
Yambuya until the arrival of the steamer from Stanley Pool with the
officers, men, and goods left behind; and if Tippu-Tib’s promised
contingent of carriers had in the meantime arrived, he was to march his
column and follow our track, which, so long as it traversed the forest
region, would be known by the blazing of the trees, by our camps and
zaribas, etc. If Tippu-Tib’s carriers did not arrive, then, if he (the
Major) preferred moving on to staying at Yambuya, he was to discard such
things as mentioned in letter of instructions, and commence making
double and triple journeys by short stages, until I should come down
from the Nyanza and relieve him. The instructions were explicit and, as
the officers admitted, intelligible.

“The advance column, consisting of three hundred and eighty-nine
officers and men, set out from Yambuya, June 28th, 1887. The first day
we followed the river bank, marched twelve miles, and arrived in the
large district of Yankondé. At our approach the natives set fire to
their villages, and, under cover of the smoke, attacked the pioneers who
were clearing the numerous obstructions they had planted before the
first village. The skirmish lasted fifteen minutes. The second day we
followed a path leading inland but trending east. We followed this path
for five days through a dense population. Every art known to native
minds for molesting, impeding, and wounding an enemy was resorted to,
but we passed through without the loss of a man. Perceiving that the
path was taking us too far from our course, we cut a northeasterly
track, and reached the river again on the 5th of July. From this date
until the 18th of October we followed the left bank of the Aruwimi.
After seventeen days’ continuous marching we halted one day for rest. On
the twenty-fourth day from Yambuya we lost two men by desertion. In the
month of July we made four halts only. On the 1st of August the first
death occurred, which was from dysentery; so that for thirty-four days
our course had been singularly successful. But as we now entered a
wilderness, which occupied us nine days in marching through it, our
sufferings began to multiply, and several deaths occurred. The river at
this time was of great use to us. Our boat and several canoes relieved
the wearied and sick of their loads, so that progress, though not
brilliant as during the first month, was still steady.

“On the 13th of August we arrived at Air-Sibba. The natives made a bold
front. We lost five men through poisoned arrows, and, to our great
grief, Lieutenant Stairs was wounded just below the heart; but, though
he suffered greatly for nearly a month, he finally recovered. On the
15th Mr. Jephson, in command of the land party, led his men inland,
became confused, and lost his way. We were not re-united until the 21st.

“On the 25th of August we arrived in the district of Air-jeli. Opposite
our camp was the mouth of the tributary Nepoko.

“On the 31st of August we met for the first time a party of Manyema,
belonging to the caravan of Ugarrowwa, _alias_ Uledi Balyuz, who turned
out to be a former tent-boy of Speke’s. Our misfortunes began from this
date, for I had taken the Congo route to avoid Arabs, that they might
not tamper with my men, and tempt them to desert by their presents.
Twenty-six men deserted within three days of this unfortunate meeting.

“On the 16th of September we arrived at a camp opposite the station at
Ugarrowwa’s. As food was very scarce, owing to his having devastated an
immense region, we halted but one day near him. Such friendly terms as I
could make with such a man I made, and left fifty-six men with him. All
the Somalis preferred to rest at Ugarrowwa’s to the continuous marching.
Five Soudanese were also left. It would have been certain death for all
of them to have accompanied us. At Ugarrowwa’s they might possibly
recover. Five dollars a month per head was to be paid to this man for
their food.


“On September 18th we left Ugarrowwa’s, and on the 18th of October
entered the settlement occupied by Kilinga-Longa, a Zanzibari slave
belonging to Abed bin Salim, an old Arab, whose bloody deeds are
recorded in ‘The Congo, and the Founding of its Free State.’ This
proved an awful month to us. Not one member of the expedition, white or
black, will ever forget it. The advance numbered two hundred and
seventy-three souls on leaving Ugarrowwa’s, because out of three hundred
and eighty we had lost sixty-six men by desertion and death between
Yambuya and Ugarrowwa’s, and had left fifty-six men sick at the Arab
station. On reaching Kilinga-Longa’s we discovered we had lost
fifty-five men by starvation and desertion. We had lived principally on
wild fruit, fungi, and a large, flat, bean-shaped nut. The slaves of
Abed bin Salim did their utmost to ruin the expedition. Short of open
hostilities, they purchased rifles, ammunition, clothing, so that when
we left their station we were beggared, and our men were absolutely
naked. We were so weak physically that we were unable to carry the boat
and about seventy loads of goods. We therefore left these goods and boat
at Kilinga-Longa’s under Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson, the latter of
whom was unable to march, and after twelve days’ march we arrived at a
native settlement called Ibwiri. Between Kilinga-Longa’s and Ibwiri our
condition had not improved. The Arab devastation had reached within a
few miles of Ibwiri--a devastation so complete that there was not one
native hut standing between Ugarrowwa’s and Ibwiri, and what had not
been destroyed by the slaves of Ugarrowwa and Abed bin Salim the
elephants had destroyed, and turned the whole region into a horrible
wilderness. But at Ibwiri we were beyond the utmost reach of the
destroyers. We were on virgin soil in a populous region abounding with
food. Our suffering from hunger, which began on the 31st of August,
terminated on the 12th of November. Ourselves and men were skeletons.
Out of three hundred and eighty-nine we now only numbered one hundred
and seventy-four, several of whom seemed to have no hope of life left. A
halt was therefore ordered for the people to recuperate. Hitherto our
people were skeptical of what we told them. The suffering had been so
awful, calamities so numerous, the forest so endless apparently, that
they refused to believe that by and by we should see plains and cattle
and the Nyanza and the white man, Emin Pasha. We felt as though we were
dragging them along with a chain around our necks. ‘Beyond these raiders
lies a country untouched, where food is abundant and where you will
forget your miseries. So cheer up, boys! Be men; press on a little
faster.’ They turned a deaf ear to our prayers and entreaties--for,
driven by hunger and suffering, they sold their rifles and equipments
for a few ears of Indian corn, deserted with the ammunition, and were
altogether demoralized. Perceiving that prayers and entreaties and mild
punishments were of no avail, I then resorted to visit upon the wretches
the death penalty. Two of the worst cases were accordingly taken and
hung in presence of all.

“We halted thirteen days in Ibwiri, and revelled on fowls, goats,
bananas, corn, sweet potatoes, yams, beans, etc. The supplies were
inexhaustible, and the people glutted themselves. The effect was such
that I had a hundred and seventy-three--one was killed by an
arrow--mostly sleek and robust men, when I set out for the Albert Nyanza
on the 24th of November.

“There were still a hundred and twenty-six miles between us and the
lake; but, given food, such a distance seemed nothing.

“On the 1st of December we sighted the open country from the top of a
ridge connected with Mount Pisgah--so named from our first view of the
land of promise and plenty. On the 5th of December we emerged upon the
plains, and the deadly gloomy forest was behind us. After a hundred and
sixty days of continuous gloom we saw the light of broad day shining all
around us, and making all things beautiful. We thought we had never seen
grass so green or country so lovely. The men literally yelled and leaped
with joy, and raced over the ground with their burdens. Ah! this was the
old spirit of former expeditions successfully completed all of a sudden

“Woe betide the native aggressor we may meet, however powerful he may
be; with such a spirit the men will fling themselves like wolves on
sheep. Numbers will not be considered. It had been the eternal forests
that had made the abject, slavish creatures, so brutally plundered by
Arab slaves at Kilonga-Longa’s.

“On the 9th we came to the country of the powerful chief Mozamboni. The
villages were scattered over a great extent of country so thickly that
there was no other road except through their villages or fields. From a
long distance the natives had sighted us and were prepared. We seized a
hill as soon as we arrived in the centre of a mass of villages about 4
P. M. on the 9th of December and occupied it, building a zariba as fast
as bill-hooks could cut brushwood. The war cries were terrible from hill
to hill; they were sent pealing across the intervening valleys; the
people gathered by hundreds from every point; war-horns and drums
announced that a struggle was about to take place. Such natives as were
too bold we checked with but little effort, and a slight skirmish ended
in us capturing a cow, the first beef tasted since we left the ocean.
The night passed peacefully, both sides preparing for the morrow. On the
morning of the 10th we attempted to open negotiations. The natives were
anxious to know who we were, and we were anxious to glean news of the
land that threatened to ruin the expedition. Hours were passed talking,
both parties keeping a respectable distance apart. The natives said they
were subject to Uganda; but that Kabba-Rega was their real King,
Mozamboni holding the country for Kabba-Rega. They finally accepted
cloth and brass rods to show their King Mozamboni, and his answer was to
be given next day. In the meantime all hostilities were to be suspended.

“The morning of the 11th dawned, and at 8 A. M. we were startled at
hearing a man proclaiming that it was Mozamboni’s wish that we should be
driven back from the land. The proclamation was received by the valley
around our neighborhood with deafening cries. Their word ‘kanwana’
signifies to make peace, ‘kurwana’ signifies war. We were therefore in
doubt, or rather we hoped we had heard wrongly. We sent an interpreter a
little nearer to ask if it was kanwana or kurwana. Kurwana, they
responded, and to emphasize the term two arrows were shot at him, which
dissipated all doubt. Our hill stood between a lofty range of hills and
a lower range. On one side of us was a narrow valley two hundred and
fifty yards wide; on the other side the valley was three miles wide.
East and west of us the valley broadened into an extensive plain. The
higher range of hills was lined with hundreds preparing to descend; the
broader valley was already mustering its hundreds. There was no time to
lose. A body of forty men were sent, under Lieutenant Stairs, to attack
the broader valley. Mr. Jephson was sent with thirty men east; a choice
body of sharpshooters was sent to test the courage of those descending
the slope of the highest range. Stairs pressed on, crossed a deep and
narrow river in the face of hundreds of natives, and assaulted the first
village and took it. The sharpshooters did their work effectively, and
drove the descending natives rapidly up the slope until it became a
general flight. Meantime, Mr. Jephson was not idle. He marched straight
up the valley east, driving the people back, and taking their villages
as he went. By 3 P. M. there was not a native visible anywhere, except
on one small hill about a mile and a half west of us.

“On the morning of the 12th we continued our march. During the day we
had four little fights. On the 13th marched straight east; attacked by
new forces every hour until noon, when we halted for refreshments. These
we successfully overcame.

“At 1 P. M. we resumed our march. Fifteen minutes later I cried out,
‘Prepare yourself for a sight of the Nyanza.’ The men murmured and
doubted, and said, ‘Why does the master continually talk to us in this
way? Nyanza, indeed! Is not this a plain, and can we not see mountains
at least four days’ march ahead of us?’ At 1.30 P. M. the Albert Nyanza
was below them. Now it was my turn to jeer and scoff at the doubters;
but as I was about to ask them what they saw, so many came to kiss my
hands and beg my pardon, that I could not say a word. This was my
reward. The mountains, they said, were the mountains of Unyoro, or
rather its lofty plateau wall. Kavali, the objective point of the
expedition, was six miles from us as the crow flies.

“We were at an altitude of five thousand two hundred feet above the sea.
The Albert Nyanza was over two thousand nine hundred below us. We stood
in 1° 20´ N. latitude; the south end of the Nyanza lay largely mapped
about six miles south of this position. Right across to the eastern
shore every dent in its low, flat shore was visible; and traced like a
silver snake on a dark ground was the tributary Laniliki, flowing into
the Albert from the southwest.

“After a short halt to enjoy the prospect, we commenced the rugged and
stony descent. Before the rearguard had descended one hundred feet, the
natives of the plateau we had just left poured after them. Had they
shown as much courage and perseverance on the plain as they now
exhibited, we might have been seriously delayed. The rearguard was kept
very busy until within a few hundred feet of the Nyanza plain. We camped
at the foot of the plateau wall, the aneroids reading two thousand five
hundred feet above sea-level. A night attack was made on us, but our
sentries sufficed to drive these natives away.

“At 9 A. M. of the 14th we approached the village of Kakongo, situate at
the southwest corner of the Albert Lake. Three hours were spent by us
attempting to make friends. We signally failed. They would not allow us
to go to the lake, because we might frighten their cattle. They would
not exchange blood-brotherhood with us, because they never heard of any
good people coming from the west side of the lake. They would not accept
any present from us, because they did not know who we were. They would
give us water to drink, and they would show us our road up to
Nyamsassie. But from these singular people we learned that they had
heard there was a white man at Unyoro, but they had never heard of any
white men being on the west side, nor had they seen any steamers on the
lake. There were no canoes to be had, except such as would hold the men,


“There was no excuse for quarreling; the people were civil enough, but
they did not want us near them. We therefore were shown the path and
followed it a few miles, when we camped about half a mile from the lake.
We began to consider our position, with the light thrown upon it by the
conversation with the Kakongo natives. My couriers from Zanzibar had
evidently not arrived, or, I presume, Emin Pasha with his two steamers
would have paid the southwest side of the lake a visit to prepare the
natives for our coming. My boat was at Kilonga-Longa’s, one hundred and
ninety miles distant. There was no canoe obtainable, and to seize a
canoe without the excuse of a quarrel my conscience would not permit.
There was no tree anywhere of a size to make a canoe. Wadelai was a
terrible distance off for an expedition so reduced as ours. We had used
five cases of cartridges in five days of fighting on the plain. A month
of such fighting must exhaust our stock. There was no plan suggested
which seemed feasible to me, except that of retreating to Ibwiri, build
a fort, send a party back to Kilonga-Longa’s for our boat, store up
every load in the fort not conveyable, leave a garrison in the fort to
hold it, and raise corn for us; march back again to Albert Lake, and
send the boat to search for Emin Pasha. This was the plan which, after
lengthy discussions with my officers, I resolved upon.

“On the 15th we marched to the site of Kavali, on the west side of the
lake. Kavali had years ago been destroyed. At 4 P. M. the Kakongo
natives had followed us and shot several arrows into our bivouac, and
disappeared as quickly as they came. At 6 P. M. we began a night march,
and by 10 A. M. of the 16th we had gained the crest of the plateau once
more, Kakongo natives having persisted in following us up the slope of
the plateau. We had one man killed and one wounded.”

In speaking of his further movements, he says:--

“By January 7th we were in Ibwiri once again, and after a few days’ rest
Lieutenant Stairs, with a hundred men, sent to Kilonga-Longa’s to bring
the boat and goods up, also Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson. Out of the
thirty-eight sick in charge of the officers, only eleven men were
brought to the fort, the rest had died or deserted. On the return of
Stairs with the boat and goods he was sent to Ugarrowwa’s to bring up
the convalescents there. I granted him thirty-nine days’ grace. Soon
after his departure I was attacked with gastritis and an abscess on the
arm; but after a month’s careful nursing by Dr. Parke I recovered, and,
forty-seven days having expired, I set out again for the Albert Nyanza,
April 2d, accompanied by Messrs. Jephson and Parke. Captain Nelson, now
recovered, was appointed commandant of Fort Bodo in our absence, with a
garrison of forty-three men and boys.

“On April 26th we arrived in Mozamboni’s country once again; but this
time, after solicitation, Mozamboni decided to make blood-brotherhood
with me. Though I had fifty rifles less with me on this second visit,
the example of Mozamboni was followed by all the other chiefs as far as
the Nyanza, and every difficulty seemed removed. Food was supplied
gratis; cattle, goats, sheep, and fowls were also given in such
abundance that our people lived royally. One day’s march from the Nyanza
the natives came from Kavali, and said that a white man named ‘Malejja’
had given their chief a black packet to give to me, his son. Would I
follow them? ‘Yes, to-morrow,’ I answered, ‘and if your words are true I
will make you rich.’

“They remained with us that night, telling us wonderful stories about
‘big ships as large as islands filled with men,’ etc., which left no
doubt in our mind that this white man was Emin Pasha. The next day’s
march brought us to the chief Kavali, and after a while he handed me a
note from Emin Pasha, covered with a strip of black American oil-cloth.
The note was to the effect that as there had been a native rumor to the
effect that a white man had been seen at the south end of the lake, he
had gone in his steamer to make inquiries, but had been unable to obtain
reliable information, as the natives were terribly afraid of
Kabba-Rega, King of Unyoro, and connected every stranger with him.
However, the wife of the Nyamsassie chief had told a native ally of his
named Mogo that she had seen us in Mrusuma (Mozamboni’s country). He
therefore begged me to remain where I was until he could communicate
with me. The note was signed ‘(Dr.) Emin,’ and dated March 26th.

“The next day, April 23d, Mr. Jephson was dispatched with a strong force
of men to take the boat to the Nyanza. On the 26th the boat’s crew
sighted Mswa station, the southernmost belonging to Emin Pasha, and Mr.
Jephson was there hospitably received by the Egyptian garrison. The
boat’s crew say that they were embraced one by one, and that they never
had such attention shown to them as by these men, who hailed them as




  Emin Pasha Arrives by Steamer, Accompanied by Signor Casati and Mr.
  Jephson -- Meeting with Stanley -- Camp Together for Twenty-six Days
  -- Stanley Returns to Fort Bodo -- Leaves Jephson with Emin --
  Relieves Captain Nelson and Lieutenant Stairs -- Terrible Loss
  Suffered by Lieutenant Stairs’ Party -- Leaves Fort Bodo for
  Kilonga-Longa’s and Ugarrowwa -- The Latter Deserted -- Meets the Rear
  Column of the Expedition, a Week Later, at Bunalya -- Meets Bonny and
  Learns of the Death of Major Barttelot -- Terrible Wreck of the Rear
  Column -- Seventy-one out of Two Hundred and Fifty-seven left -- The
  Record one of Disaster, Desertion and Death -- Interview with Emin --
  Emin’s Condition -- Emin and Jephson Surrounded by the Rebels and
  Taken Prisoners -- Stanley Returns a Second Time to Albert Nyanza --
  Emin and Jephson Relieved by Stanley -- Letter of Stanley Graphically
  Describing the Forest Region Traversed by Him -- Sketches the Course
  of the Aruwimi -- A Retrospect of his Thrilling Experiences as Far as
  the Victoria Nyanza, August 28th, 1889.

“On the 29th of April we once again reached the bivouac ground occupied
by us on the 16th of December, and at 5 P. M. of that day I saw the
_Khedive_ steamer about seven miles away steaming toward us. Soon after
7 P. M. Emin Pasha and Signor Casati and Mr. Jephson arrived at our
camp, where they were heartily welcomed by all of us,” writes Mr.

“The next day we moved to a better camping-place, about three miles
above Nyamsassie, and at this spot Emin Pasha also made his camp. We
were together until the 25th of May. On that day I left him, leaving Mr.
Jephson, three Soudanese and two Zanzibaris in his care, and in return
he caused to accompany me three of his irregulars and one hundred and
two Mahdi natives as porters.

“Fourteen days later I was at Fort Bodo. At the fort were Captain Nelson
and Lieutenant Stairs. The latter had returned from Ugarrowwa’s
twenty-two days after I had set out for the lake, April 2d, bringing
with him, alas! only sixteen out of fifty-six. All the rest were dead.
My twenty couriers whom I had sent with letters to Major Barttelot had
safely left Ugarrowwa’s for Yambuya on March 16th.

“Fort Bodo was in a flourishing condition. Nearly ten acres were under
cultivation. One crop of Indian corn had been harvested, and was in the
granaries. They had just commenced planting again.

“On the 16th of June I left Fort Bodo with a hundred and eleven
Zanzibaris and a hundred and one of Emin Pasha’s people. Lieutenant
Stairs had been appointed commandant of the fort, Nelson second in
command, and Surgeon Parke medical officer. The garrison consisted of
fifty-nine rifles. I had thus deprived myself of all my officers that I
should not be encumbered with baggage and provisions and medicines,
which would have to be taken if accompanied by Europeans, and every
carrier was necessary for the vast stores left with Major Barttelot. On
the 24th of June we reached Kilonga-Longa’s, and July 19th Ugarrowwa’s.
The latter station was deserted. Ugarrowwa, having gathered as much
ivory as he could obtain from that district, had proceeded down river
about three months before. On leaving Fort Bodo I had loaded every
carrier with about sixty pounds of corn, so that we had been able to
pass through the wilderness unscathed.


“Passing on down river as fast as we could go, daily expecting to meet
the couriers who had been stimulated to exert themselves for a reward of
ten pounds per head, or the Major himself leading an army of carriers,
we indulged ourselves in these pleasing anticipations as we neared the

“On the 10th of August we overtook Ugarrowwa with an immense flotilla of
fifty-seven canoes, and to our wonder our couriers now reduced to
seventeen. They related an awful story of hair-breadth escapes and
tragic scenes. Three of their number had been slain, two were still
feeble from their wounds, and all except five bore on their bodies the
scars of arrow wounds.

“A week later, on August 17th, we met the rear column of the expedition
at a place called Bunalya, or, as the Arabs have corrupted it, Unarya.
There was a white man at the gate of the stockade whom I at first
thought was Mr. Jamieson, but a nearer view revealed the features of Mr.
Bonny, who left the medical service of the army to accompany us.

“‘Well, my dear Bonny, where is the Major?’

“‘He is dead, sir; shot by the Manyuema about a month ago.’

“‘Good God! And Mr. Jamieson?’

“‘He has gone to Stanley Falls to try and get some more men from

“‘And Mr. Troup?’

“‘Mr. Troup has gone home, sir, invalided.’

“‘Hem! well, where is Ward?’

“‘Mr. Ward is at Bangala, sir.’

“‘Heavens alive! then you are the only one here?’

“‘Yes, sir.’

“I found the rear column a terrible wreck. Out of two hundred and
fifty-seven men there were only seventy-one remaining. Out of
seventy-one only fifty-two, on mustering them, seemed fit for service,
and these mostly were scarecrows. The advance had performed the march
from Yambuya to Bunalya in sixteen days, despite native opposition. The
rear column performed the same distance in forty-three days. According
to Mr. Bonny, during the thirteen months and twenty days that had
elapsed since I had left Yambuya, the record is only one of disaster,
desertion, and death. I have not the heart to go into the details, many
of which are incredible, and, indeed, I have not the time, for,
excepting Mr. Bonny, I have no one to assist me in reorganizing the
expedition. There are still far more loads than I can carry, at the same
time articles needful are missing. For instance, I left Yambuya with
only a short campaigning kit, leaving my reserve of clothing and
personal effects in charge of the officers. In December some deserters
from the advance column reached Yambuya to spread the report that I was
dead. They had no papers with them, but the officers seemed to accept
the report of these deserters as a fact, and in January Mr. Ward, at an
officers’ mess meeting, proposed that my instructions should be
cancelled. The only one who appears to have dissented was Mr. Bonny.
Accordingly, my personal kit, medicines, soap, candles, and provisions
were sent down the Congo as ‘superfluities!’ Thus, after making this
immense personal sacrifice to relieve them and cheer them up, I find
myself naked, and deprived of even the necessaries of life in Africa.
But, strange to say, they have kept two hats and four pairs of boots, a
flannel jacket; and I propose to go back to Emin Pasha and across Africa
with this truly African kit. Livingstone, poor fellow! was all in
patches when I met him, but it will be the reliever himself who will be
in patches this time. Fortunately not one of my officers will envy me,
for their kits are intact--it was only myself that was dead.

“I pray you to say that we were only eighty-two days from the Albert
Lake to Banalya, and sixty-one from Fort Bodo. The distance is not very
great--it is the people who fail one. Going to Nyanza we felt as though
we had the tedious task of dragging them; on returning each man knew the
road, and did not need any stimulus. Between the Nyanza and here we only
lost three men--one of which was by desertion. I brought a hundred and
thirty-one Zanzibaris here, and left fifty-nine at Fort Bodo--total, one
hundred and ninety men out of three hundred and eighty-nine; loss, fifty
per cent. At Yambuya I left two hundred and fifty-seven men; there are
only seventy-one left, ten of whom will never leave this camp--loss over
two hundred and seventy per cent. This proves that, though the
sufferings of the advance were unprecedented, the mortality was not so
great as in camp at Yambuya. The survivors of the march are all robust,
while the survivors of the rear column are thin and most

“I have thus rapidly sketched out our movements since June 28th, 1887. I
wish I had the leisure to furnish more details, but I cannot find the
time. I write this amid the hurry and bustle of departure, and amid
constant interruptions. You will, however, have gathered from this
letter an idea of the nature of the country traversed by us. We were a
hundred and sixty days in the forest--one continuous, unbroken, compact
forest. The grass-land was traversed by us in eight days. The limits of
the forest along the edge of the grass-land are well marked. We saw it
extending northeasterly, with its curves and bays and capes, just like a
sea-shore. Southwesterly it preserved the same character. North and
south the forest area extends from Nyangwe to the southern borders of
the Monbuttu; east and west it embraces all from the Congo, at the mouth
of the Aruwimi, to about east longitude 29°-40°. How far west beyond the
Congo the forest reaches I do not know. The superficial extent of the
tract thus described--totally covered by forest--is two hundred and
forty-six thousand square miles. North of the Congo, between Upoto and
the Aruwimi, the forest embraces another twenty thousand square miles.

“Between Yambuya and the Nyanza we came across five distinct languages.
The last is that which is spoken by the Wanyoro, Wanyankori, Wanya,
Ruanda, and people of Karangwe and Ukerwee.

“The land slopes gently from the crest of the plateau above the Nyanza
down to the Congo River from an altitude of five thousand five hundred
feet to one thousand four hundred feet above the sea. North and south of
our track through the grass-land the face of the land was much broken by
groups of cones or isolated mounts or ridges. North we saw no land
higher than about six thousand feet above the sea; but bearing two
hundred and fifteen degrees magnetic, at the distance of about fifty
miles from our camp on the Nyanza, we saw a towering mountain, its
summit covered with snow, and probably seventeen or eighteen thousand
feet above the sea. It is called Ruevenzori, and will probably prove a
rival to Kilimanjaro. I am not sure that it may not prove to be the
Gordon-Bennett Mountain in Gambaragara; but there are two reasons for
doubting it to be the same--first, it is a little too far west for the
position of the latter, as given by me in 1876; and, secondly, we saw no
snow on the Gordon-Bennett. I might mention a third, which is that the
latter is a perfect cone apparently, while the Ruevenzori is an oblong
mount, nearly level on the summit, with two ridges extending northeast
and southwest.

“I have met only three natives who have seen the lake toward the south.
They agree that it is large, but not so large as the Albert Nyanza.

“The Aruwimi becomes known as the Suhali about one hundred miles above
Yambuya; as it nears the Nepoko it is called the Nevoa; beyond its
confluence with the Nepoko it is known as the No-Welle; three hundred
miles from the Congo it is called the Itiri, which is soon changed into
the Ituri, which name it retains to its source. Ten minutes’ march from
the Ituri waters we saw the Nyanza, like a mirror in its immense gulf.

“Before closing my letter let me touch more at large on the subject
which brought me to this land--viz., Emin Pasha.

“The Pasha has two battalions of regulars under him--the first,
consisting of about seven hundred and fifty rifles, occupies Duffle,
Honyu, Lahore, Muggi, Kirri, Bedden, Rejaf; the second battalion,
consisting of six hundred and forty men, guard the stations of Wadelai,
Fatiko, Mahagi, and Mswa, a line of communication along the Nyanza and
Nile about one hundred and eighty miles in length. In the interior west
of the Nile he retains three or four small stations--fourteen in all.
Besides these two battalions he has quite a respectable force of
irregulars, sailors, artisans, clerks, servants. ‘Altogether,’ he said,
‘if I consent to go away from here we shall have about eight thousand
people with us.’

“‘Were I in your place I would not hesitate one moment or be a second in
doubt what to do.’

“‘What you say is quite true; but we have such a large number of women
and children, probably ten thousand people altogether. How can they all
be brought out of here? We shall want a great number of carriers.’

“‘Carriers! carriers for what?’ I asked.

“‘For the women and children. You surely would not leave them, and they
cannot travel?’

“‘The women must walk. It will do them more good than harm. As for the
little children, load them on the donkeys. I hear you have about two
hundred of them. Your people will not travel very far the first month,
but little by little they will get accustomed to it. Our Zanzibar women
crossed Africa on my second expedition. Why cannot your black women do
the same? Have no fear of them; they will do better than the men.’

“‘They would require a vast amount of provision for the road.’

“‘True, but you have some thousands of cattle, I believe. Those will
furnish beef. The countries through which we pass must furnish grain and
vegetable food.’

“‘Well, well, we will defer further talk till to-morrow.’

“_May 1st, 1888._--Halt in camp at Nsabé. The Pasha came ashore from the
steamer _Khedive_ about 1 P. M., and in a short time we commenced our
conversation again. Many of the arguments used above were repeated, and
he said:

“‘What you told me yesterday has led me to think that it is best we
should retire from here. The Egyptians are very willing to leave. There
are of these about one hundred men, besides their women and children. Of
these there is no doubt; and even if I stayed here I should be glad to
be rid of them, because they undermine my authority and nullify all my
endeavors for retreat. When I informed them that Khartoum had fallen and
Gordon Pasha was slain, they always told the Nubians that it was a
concocted story, that some day we should see the steamers ascend the
river for their relief. But of the regulars who compose the first and
second battalions I am extremely doubtful; they have led such a free and
happy life here that they would demur at leaving a country where they
have enjoyed luxuries they cannot command in Egypt. The soldiers are
married, and several of them have harems. Many of the irregulars would
also retire and follow me. Now, supposing the regulars refuse to leave,
you can imagine that my position would be a difficult one. Would I be
right in leaving them to their fate? Would it not be consigning them all
to ruin? I should have to leave them their arms and ammunition, and on
returning all discipline would be at an end. Disputes would arise, and
factions would be formed. The more ambitious would aspire to be chiefs
by force, and from these rivalries would spring hate and mutual
slaughter until there would be none of them left.’

“‘Supposing you resolve to stay, what of the Egyptians?’ I asked.

“‘Oh! these I shall have to ask you to be good enough to take with you.’

“Now, will you, Pasha, do me the favor to ask Captain Casati if we are
to have the pleasure of his company to the sea, for we have been
instructed to assist him also should we meet?’

“Captain Casati answered through Emin Pasha:

“‘What the Governor Emin decides upon shall be the rule of conduct for
me also. If the Governor stays, I stay. If the Governor goes, I go.’

“‘Well, I see, Pasha, that in the event of your staying your
responsibilities will be great.’

“A laugh. The sentence was translated to Casati, and the gallant Captain

“‘Oh! I beg pardon, but I absolve the Pasha from all responsibility
connected with me, because I am governed by my own choice entirely.’

“Thus day after day I recorded faithfully the interviews I had with Emin
Pasha; but these extracts reveal as much as is necessary for you to
understand the position. I left Mr. Jephson thirteen of my Soudanese,
and sent a message to be read to the troops, as the Pasha requested.
Everything else is left until I return with the united expedition to the


“Within two months the Pasha proposed to visit Fort Bodo, taking Mr.
Jephson with him. At Fort Bodo I have left instructions to the officers
to destroy the fort and accompany the Pasha to the Nyanza. I hope to
meet them all again on the Nyanza, as I intend making a short cut to the
Nyanza along a new road.”

In a subsequent letter wherein he refers to his return to the rear, to
bring up those of his forces that had been left behind, he says:

“This has certainly been the most extraordinary expedition I have ever
led into Africa.

“A regular divinity seems to have hedged us while we journeyed. I say it
with all reverence. It has impelled us whither it would, effected its
own will, but nevertheless guided us and protected us.

“What can you make of this, for instance? On August 17th, 1887, all the
officers of the rear column are united at Yambuya. They have my letter
of instructions before them, but instead of preparing for the morrow’s
march to follow our track, they decide to wait at Yambuya, which
decision initiates the most awful season any community of men ever
endured in Africa or elsewhere.

“The results are that three-quarters of their force die of slow poison.
Their commander is murdered, and the second officer dies soon after of
sickness and grief. Another officer is wasted to a skeleton and obliged
to return home. A fourth is sent to wander aimlessly up and down the
Congo, and the survivor is found in such a fearful pest-hole that we
dare not describe its horrors.

“On the same date, one hundred and fifty miles away, the officer of the
day leads three hundred and thirty-three men of the advanced column into
the bush, loses the path and all consciousness of his whereabouts, and
every step he takes only leads him further astray. His people become
frantic; his white companions, vexed and irritated by the sense of the
evil around them, cannot devise any expedient to relieve him. They are
surrounded by cannibals, and poison-tipped arrows thin their numbers.

“Meantime, I, in command of the river column, am anxiously searching up
and down the river in four different directions; through forests my
scouts are seeking for them, but not until the sixth day was I
successful in finding them.

“Taking the same month and the same date in 1888, a year later, on
August 17th, I listen, horror-stricken, to the tale of the last
surviving officer of the rear column at Banalya, and am told of nothing
but death and disaster, disaster and death, death and disaster. I see
nothing but horrible forms of men smitten with disease, bloated,
disfigured and scarred, while the scene in the camp, infamous for the
murder of poor Barttelot Barth four weeks before, is simply sickening.

“On the same day, six hundred miles west of this camp, Jamieson, worn
out with fatigue, sickness and sorrow, breathes his last.

“On the next day, August 18th, six hundred miles east, Emin Pasha and my
officer Jephson are suddenly surrounded by infuriated rebels, who
menace them with loaded rifles and instant death; but fortunately they
relent and only make them prisoners, to be delivered to the Mahdists.

“Having saved Bonny out of the jaws of death, we arrive a second time at
Albert Nyanza, to find Emin Pasha and Jephson prisoners in daily
expectation of their doom.

“Jephson’s own letters will describe his anxiety. Not until both were in
my camp and the Egyptian fugitives under our protection, did I begin to
see that I was only carrying out a higher plan than mine. My own designs
were constantly frustrated by unhappy circumstances. I endeavored to
steer my course as direct as possible, but there was an unaccountable
influence at the helm.”

In still another letter he gives us a most graphic account of this vast
forest region. “Until we penetrated and marched through it,” he writes,
“this region was entirely unexplored and untrodden by either white or

“While in England, considering the best routes open to the Nyanza
(Albert), I thought I was very liberal in allowing myself two weeks’
march to cross the forest region lying between the Congo and the
grass-land; but you may imagine our feelings when month after month saw
us marching, tearing, plowing, cutting through that same continuous
forest. It took us one hundred and sixty days before we could say,
‘Thank God! we are out of the darkness at last.’ At one time we were
all--whites and blacks--almost ‘done up.’ September, October, and half
of that month of November, 1887, will not be forgotten by us. October
will be specially memorable to us for the sufferings we endured. Our
officers are heartily sick of the forest; but the loyal blacks, a band
of one hundred and thirty, followed me once again into the wild,
trackless forest, with its hundreds of inconveniences, to assist their
comrades of the rear column. Try and imagine some of these
inconveniences. Take a thick Scottish copse, dripping with rain; imagine
this copse to be a mere undergrowth, nourished under the impenetrable
shades of ancient trees, ranging from one hundred to one hundred and
eighty feet high; briers and thorns abundant; lazy creeks, meandering
through the depths of the jungle, and sometimes a deep affluent of a
great river. Imagine this forest and jungle in all stages of decay and
growth--old trees falling, leaning perilously over, fallen prostrate;
ants and insects of all kinds, sizes, and colors murmuring around;
monkeys and chimpanzees above; queer noises of birds and animals;
crashes in the jungle as troops of elephants rush away: dwarfs with
poisoned arrows securely hidden behind some buttress or in some dark
recess; strong, brown-bodied aborigines with terribly sharp spears,
standing poised, still as dead stumps; rain pattering down on you every
other day in the year; an impure atmosphere, with its dread
consequences, fever and dysentery; gloom throughout the day, and
darkness almost palpable throughout the night; and then, if you will
imagine such a forest, extending the entire distance from Plymouth to
Peterhead, you will have a fair idea of some of the inconveniences
endured by us from June 28th to December 5th, 1887, and from June 1st,
1888, to the present date, to continue again from the present date till
about December 10th, 1888, when I hope then to say a last farewell to
the Congo forest.

“Now that we have gone through and through this forest region, I only
feel a surprise that I did not give a greater latitude to my ideas
respecting its extent; for had we thought of it, it is only what might
have been deduced from our knowledge of the great sources of moisture
necessary to supply the forest with the requisite sap and vitality.
Think of the large extent of the South Atlantic Ocean, whose vapors are
blown during nine months of the year in this direction. Think of the
broad Congo, varying from one to sixteen miles wide, which has a stretch
of one thousand four hundred miles, supplying another immeasurable
quantity of moisture, to be distilled into rain, and mist, and dew over
this insatiable forest; and then another six hundred miles of the
Aruwimi or Ituri itself, and then you will cease to wonder that there
are about one hundred and fifty days of rain every year in this region,
and that the Congo forest covers such a wide area.

“Until we set foot on the grass-land, something like fifty miles west of
the Albert Nyanza, we saw nothing that looked like a smile, or a kind
thought, or a moral sensation. The aborigines are wild, utterly savage,
and incorrigibly vindictive. The dwarfs--called Wambutti--are worse
still, far worse. Animal life is likewise so wild and shy that no sport
is to be enjoyed. The gloom of the forest is perpetual. The face of the
river, reflecting its black walls of vegetation, is dark and sombre. The
sky one-half of the time every day resembles a winter sky in England;
the face of Nature and life is fixed and joyless. If the sun charges
through the black clouds enveloping it, and a kindly wind brushes the
masses of vapor below the horizon, and the bright light reveals our
surroundings, it is only to tantalize us with a short-lived vision of
brilliancy and beauty of verdure.

“Emerging from the forest, finally, we all became enraptured. Like a
captive unfettered and set free, we rejoiced at sight of the blue cope
of heaven, and freely bathed in the warm sunshine, and aches and gloomy
thoughts and unwholesome ideas were banished. You have heard how the
London citizen, after months of devotion to business in the gaseous
atmosphere in that great city, falls into raptures at sight of the green
fields and hedges, meadows and trees; and how his emotions, crowding on
his dazed senses, are indescribable. Indeed, I have seen a Derby day
once, and I fancied then that I only saw madmen--for great, bearded,
hoary-headed fellows, though well dressed enough, behaved in a most
idiotic fashion, amazing me quite. Well, on this 5th of December we
became suddenly smitten with madness in the same manner. Had you seen us
you would have thought we had lost our senses, or that ‘Legion’ had
entered and taken possession of us. We raced with our loads over a wide,
unfenced field (like an English park for the softness of its grass), and
herds of buffalo, eland, roan antelope, stood on either hand with
pointed ears and wide eyes, wondering at the sudden wave of human
beings, yelling with joy, as they issued out of the dark depths of the

“On the confines of this forest, near a village which was rich in sugar
cane, ripe bananas, tobacco, Indian corn, and other productions of
aboriginal husbandry, we came across an ancient woman lying asleep. I
believe she was a leper and an outcast, but she was undoubtedly ugly,
vicious, and old; and, being old, she was obstinate. I practiced all
kinds of seductive arts to get her to do something besides crossly
mumbling, but of no avail. Curiosity having drawn toward us about a
hundred of our people, she fastened fixed eyes on one young fellow
(smooth-faced and good-looking), and smiled. I caused him to sit near
her, and she became voluble enough--beauty and youth had tamed the
‘beast.’ From her talk we learned that there was a powerful tribe,
called the Banzanza, with a great king, to the northeast of our camp, of
whom we might be well afraid, as the people were as numerous as grass.
Had we learned this ten days earlier, I might have become anxious for
the result; but it now only drew a contemptuous smile from the
people--for each one, since he had seen the grass-land and evidences of
meat, had been transformed into a hero.

“We poured out on the plain a frantic multitude, but after an hour or
two we became an orderly column. Into the emptied villages of the open
country we proceeded to regale ourselves on melon, rich-flavored bananas
and plantains, and great pots full of wine. The fowls, unaware of the
presence of a hungry mob, were knocked down, plucked, roasted, or
boiled; the goats, meditatively browsing, or chewing the cud, were
suddenly seized and decapitated, and the grateful aroma of roast meat
gratified our senses. An abundance, a prodigal abundance, of good
things, had awaited our eruption into the grass-land. Every village was
well stocked with provisions, and even luxuries long denied to us. Under
such fare the men became most robust, diseases healed as if by magic,
the weak became strong, and there was not a goee-goee or chickenheart
left. Only the Babusesse, near the main Ituri, were tempted to resist
the invasion.”

It is not possible yet fully to determine the geographical results of
the expedition. That they are very great and important appears certain.
In the brief narratives already furnished by Mr. Stanley many facts of
value and interest appear, adding new details to the map of Africa. The
Aruwimi, Mr. Stanley says, is also called the Ituri, the Dudu, the
Biyerre, the Luhali, the Nevva, and the Nowelle-Itire. Throughout
several hundred miles of its upper part it is invariably called the
Ituri, as it is by the natives around the Albert Nyanza.

“The main Ituri, at the distance of six hundred and eighty miles from
its mouth,” says Mr. Stanley, “is one hundred and twenty-five yards
wide, nine feet deep, and has a current of three knots. It appears to
run parallel with the Nyanza. Near that group of cones and hills
affectionately named Mount Schweinfurth, Mount Junker, and Mount Speke,
I would place its highest source. Draw three or four respectable streams
draining into it from the crest of the plateau overlooking the Albert
Nyanza, and two or three respectable streams flowing into it from
northwesterly, let the main stream flow southwest to near north latitude
1°, give it a bow-like form north latitude 1° to north latitude 1° 50´,
then let it flow with curves and bends down to north latitude 1° 17´
near Yambuya, and you have a sketch of the course of the Aruwimi, or
Ituri, from the highest source down to its mouth, and the length of this
Congo tributary will be eight hundred miles. We have travelled on it and
along its banks for six hundred and eighty miles; on our first march to
the Nyanza for one hundred and fifty-six miles along its banks or near
its vicinity; we returned to obtain our boat from Kilonga-Longa’s; then
we conveyed the boat to the Nyanza for as many miles again; for four
hundred and eighty miles we travelled its flanks or voyaged on its
waters to hunt up the rear column of the expedition; for as many miles
we must retrace our steps to the Albert Nyanza for the third time. You
will, therefore, agree with me that we have sufficient knowledge of this
river for all practical purposes.”

In a letter, dated South End, Victoria Nyanza, September 3, 1889,
referring to his experiences on the Aruwimi, he says: “For the time
being you can believe me that one day has followed another in striving
fully against all manner of obstacles, natural and otherwise. From the
day I left Yambuya to August 28, 1889, the day I arrived here, the bare
catalogue of incidents would fill several quires of foolscap. The
catalogue of adventures, accidents, mortalities, sufferings from fever,
and morbid musings over the mischances that meet us daily would make a
formidable list. You know that all the stretch of country between
Yambuya and this place is an absolute new country except what may be
measured by five ordinary marches. First, there is that dead white of
the map now changed to a dead black. I mean that the region of earth
confined between east longitude 25° and south latitude 29° 45´ is one
great compact of a remorselessly sullen forest with a growth of an
untold number of ages, swarming at stated intervals with immense numbers
of vicious man-eating savages, and crafty, undersized men who were
unceasing in their annoyance. Then there is that belt of grass-land
lying between it and Albert Nyanza, whose people contested every mile of
our advance with spirit, and made us think that they were guardians of
some priceless treasure hidden in the Nyanza shores or at war with Emin
Pasha and his thousands. Sir Percival in search of the Holy Grail could
not have met with hotter opposition. Three separate times necessity
compelled us to traverse these unholy regions with varying fortunes.”




  Finds that Baker has Made an Error -- Altitudes of Lake Albert and the
  Blue Mountains -- Vacovia -- Discovers the Lofty Ruevenzori -- The
  Nile or the Congo? -- The Semliki River -- The Plains of Noongora --
  The Salt Lakes of Kative -- New Peoples -- Wakonyu of the Great
  Mountains -- The Awamba -- Wasonyora -- Wanyora Bandits -- Lake Albert
  Edward -- The Tribes and Shepherd Races of the Eastern Uplands --
  Wamyau Kori -- Wanyaruwamba -- Wazinya -- A Harvest of New Facts --
  The Importance of Stanley’s Addition to the Victoria Nyanza.

Stanley first sighted the Albert Nyanza on December 13th, 1887. Its
southern part lay at the feet of the explorer almost like an immense
map. He glanced rapidly over the grosser details, the lofty plateau, the
wall of Unyoro to the east and that of Baregga to the west, rising
nearly three thousand feet above the silver water, and between the hills
the stretched-out plain, seemingly very flat and grassy, with here and
there a dark clump of brushwood, which, as the plain trended
southwesterly, became a thin forest. The southwest edge of the lake he
fixed at nine miles in a direct southeasterly line from this place. This
will make the terminus of the southwest corner 1° 17´ N. latitude, by
prismatic compass, magnetic bearing; of the southeast corner, just south
of a number of falls, 1° 37´. This will make it about 1° 11´ 30` N.
latitude, magnetic bearing of 1° 48´.

Taken from N. latitude 1° 25´ 30`, this about exactly describes the line
of shore running from the southwest corner of the lake to the southeast
corner of Albert. Baker fixed his position latitude 1° 15´ N., if we
recollect rightly. The centre of Mbakovia Terrace bears 1° 21´ 30`
magnetic from Stanley’s first point of observation. This will make
Baker’s Vacovia about 1° 15´ 45`x, allowing 10° west variation. In
trying to solve the problem of the infinity of Lake Albert, as sketched
by Baker, and finding that the lake terminus is only four miles south of
where he stood to view it “from a little hill” and on “a beautifully
clear day,” one would almost feel justified in saying he had never seen
the lake.

But Baker’s position of Vacovia proves that he actually was there, and
the general correctness of his outline of the east coast from Vacovia to
Magungo also proves that he navigated the lake.

Stanley says: “When we turn our faces northeast we say that Baker has
done exceedingly well; but when we turn them southward our senses in
vain try to penetrate the mystery, because our eyes see not what Baker
saw. With Lieutenant Stairs, Mounteney, Jephson, Surgeon Parke, Emin
Pasha, Captain Casati, I look with my own eyes upon the scene. I find
Baker has made an error. I am somewhat surprised also at Baker’s
altitudes of Lake Albert and the Blue Mountains and at the breadth
attributed by him to the lake. The shore opposite Vacovia is ten and a
quarter miles distant, not forty or fifty miles. The Blue Mountains are
nothing else but a west upland, the highest cone or hill being not above
six thousand feet above the level of the sea. The altitude of Lake
Albert by the aneroid and the boiling point will not exceed two
thousand three hundred and fifty feet.”

Last of all, away to the southwest, while Baker has sketched his
infinite stretch of lake, there rises, about forty miles from Vacovia,
an immense snowy mountain, a solid, square-browed mass, with an almost
level summit between two lofty ridges. If it were a beautifully clear
day he should have seen this, being nearer to it by thirteen
geographical miles than Stanley was.

“About the lake discovered by me in 1876 I can learn very little from
the natives,” says Stanley. “At the Chief of Kavallis I saw two natives
who came from that region. One of them hailed from Unyampaka and the
other from Usongora. The first said that the Albert Lake is much larger
than that near Unyampaka. The other said that the southern lake is the
larger, as it takes two days to cross it. He describes it as being a
month’s march from Kavallis. Their accounts differ so much that one is
almost tempted to believe that there are two lakes, the smaller one near
Unyampaka and connected by a river or channel with that of Usongora.

“My interest is greatly excited, as you may imagine, by the discovery of
Ruevenzori, the snowy mountain, and a possible rival of Kilimanjaro.
Remember that we are in north latitude, and that this mountain must be
near or on the Equator itself; that it is summer now, and that we saw it
in the latter part of May; that the snow-line was about estimated at
only one thousand feet below the summit.

“Hence I conclude that it is not Mount Gordon-Bennett seen in December,
1876--though it may be so--which the natives said had only snow

“At the time I saw the latter there was no snow visible. It is a little
further east, according to the position I gave it, than Ruevenzori. All
questions which this mountain naturally give rise to will be settled, I
hope, by this expedition before it returns to the sea.

“If at all near my line of march, its length, height and local history
will be ascertained. Many rivers will be found to issue from this
curious land between the two Muta Nziges. What rivers are they? Do they
belong to the Nile or the Congo? There is no river going east or
southeast from this section except the Katonga and Kafur, and both must
receive, if any, but a very small supply from Mount Gordon-Bennett and
the Ruevenzori. The new mountain must therefore be drained principally
south and west--if the south streams have connection with the lake,
south; if west, Semiliki, a tributary of Lake Albert, and some river
flowing to the Congo must receive the rest of its waters. Then, if the
lake south receives any considerable supply, the interest deepens.

“Does the lake discharge its surplus to the Nile or the Congo? If to the
former, then it will be of great interest to you, and you will have to
admit that Lake Victoria is not the main source of the Nile. If to the
Congo, then the lake will be the source of the river Lowa or Loa, since
it is the largest tributary to the Congo from the east between the
Aruwimi and Luama.”

Of the many geographical discoveries that have resulted from the
expedition just completed, the following may be noted as among the most
prominent: The snowy ranges of Ruevenzori, the Cloud King, or
Rain-creator; the Semliki River, the plains of Noongora, the salt lakes
of Kative; new peoples, Wakonyu of the Great Mountains; dwellers of the
rich forest regions, the Awamba, the fine-featured Wasonyora, the
Wanyora bandits, and then Lake Albert Edward, the tribes and shepherd
races of the Eastern Uplands, then Wanyankori, besides Wanyaruwamba and

Stanley found that Albert Nyanza does not extend as far south by
considerable as Baker represented, and as has generally been believed.
He discovered a new lake, which he named Albert Edward Nyanza, southwest
of Albert Nyanza, and connected with it by a considerable river, which
now bears the name Semliki. This new lake must thus be considered the
source of the White Nile. And he has found that Victoria Nyanza extends
much farther southwest than has been supposed, and approaches within one
hundred and fifty-five miles of Tanganyika.

In a letter, under a recent date, giving some details of his later
experiences, Stanley glowingly refers to his geographical discoveries:

“Over and above the happy ending of our appointed duties, we have not
been unfortunate in geographical discoveries. The Aruwimi is now known
from its source to its bourne. The great Congo forest, covering as large
an area as France and the Iberian peninsula, we can now certify to be an
absolute fact. The mountains of the Moon this time, beyond the least
doubt, have been located, and Ruevenzori, ‘the Cloud King,’ robed in
eternal snow, has been seen and its flanks explored, and some of its
shoulders ascended, Mounts Gordon-Bennett and Mackinnon cones being but
giant sentries, warding off the approach to the inner area of ‘the Cloud

“On the southwest of the range the connection between Albert Edward
Nyanza and Albert Nyanza has been discovered, and the extent of the
former lake is now known for the first time. Range after range of
mountains have been traversed, separated by such tracts or pasture land
as would make your cowboys out West mad with envy.

“And right under the burning Equator we have fed on blackberries and
bilberries, and quenched our thirst with crystal water fresh from
snow-beds. We have also been able to add nearly six thousand square
miles of water to Victoria Nyanza.

“Our naturalist will expatiate upon the new species of animals, birds
and plants he has discovered. Our surgeon will tell what he knows of the
climate and its amenities. It will take us all we know how to say what
new store of knowledge has been gathered from this unexpected field of

“I always suspected that in the central regions between the equatorial
lakes something worth seeing would be found, but I was not prepared for
such a harvest of new facts.”

Of the relative importance of Stanley’s discovery, made through his
survey of the Victoria Nyanza, the New York “Herald” says,

“Along the blood-stained line of his march from Albert Nyanza to the
ocean, Stanley has discovered a large addition to the great Victorian
sea. This most expansive of Africa’s inland waters, discovered thirty
years ago by the lamented and dashing explorer Speke, is the source of
the Nile, and drains the eastern plateau of Equatorial Africa bordering
the head waters of the mighty Congo. On this water-shed, within a radius
of two hundred miles, collects the rainfall which feeds and fertilizes
two enormous river basins rivalling that of the Amazon.

“According to our cable despatches Stanley now finds that the Victoria
Nyanza covers twenty-six thousand square miles. This extension, when
combined with its elevation (4100 feet) above the sea level, makes it
the most important, if not the largest, reservoir of fresh water on the
globe. Lake Superior overspreads more territory, but Victoria is
probably much deeper, and is perched up more than six times as high.
Though not quite rivalling tempestuous Lake Titicaca, which stands on
the Bolivian table-land over twelve thousand feet high, the Victorian
sea is vastly larger and more influential, both as a hydrographic and
meteorological agent.

“Mr. Stanley’s survey of this Mediterranean bears with very special
interest on the future of Central Africa. The most effective entrances
which the wedge of Civilization has ever made into the Dark Continent
have been on its southern and southeastern coast. If the routes from
Zanzibar and other points on the southeast coast to the lake region
centering in Victoria Nyanza can be opened up, the wave of Progress and
Illumination will enter the populous heart of Africa more rapidly by
these short cuts traversing a comparatively healthy region than by the
sickly, tortuous valley of the Congo.”



  Emin Pasha’s Indecision -- Much Time Wasted -- Stanley Grows Impatient
  -- Jephson’s Report -- Stanley Demands Positive Action, and Threatens
  to March Homeward on February 13th -- Receives Emin’s Reply, Accepting
  the Escort, on the Day he had Proposed to Begin his Return March --
  Stanley Furnishes Carriers to Help him Up with his Luggage -- Stanley
  Greatly Hindered by the Suspicions of the Natives -- Convalescent from
  his Recent Severe Illness, Stanley leaves Kavalli with his United
  Expedition, for the Indian Ocean, April 12th -- Letter of Lieutenant
  W. G. Stairs -- Reaches Ursulala -- Stanley’s Letter to Sir Francis de
  Winston -- Expeditions Fitted Out and Forwarded to the Interior to
  Meet Stanley -- Stanley reaches Msuwah November 29th -- Meets the
  “Herald” Commissioner -- Reaches Mbiki, December 1st -- Kigiro,
  December 3d -- Bagamoyo, December 4th -- Grand Reception Accorded
  Stanley at Bagamoyo -- Enter Zanzibar December 5th -- Sad Accident
  Befalls Emin Pasha -- Seriously, if not Fatally, Injured -- The End of
  a Remarkable and Extraordinary Expedition -- The Closing Words of
  Stanley’s Story.

In a previous chapter reference is made to the hesitancy shown by Emin
Pasha, Casati, and followers, to accept the escort of Stanley out of the
country, and the time that was wasted in considering the proper step to
take. That our reader may more fully comprehend how the patience of
Stanley was tried at this time, we will quote from his letter to Sir
William McKinnon, under date of August, 1889. In referring to this
matter, Stanley says:--

“If you will bear in mind that August 17, 1888, after a march of six
hundred miles to hunt up the rear column, I met only a miserable remnant
of it, wrecked by the irresolution of its officers, neglect of their
promises, and indifference to their written orders, you will readily
understand why after another march of seven hundred miles I was a little
put out when I discovered that, instead of performing their promise of
conducting the garrison of Fort Bodo to Nyanza, Mr. Jephson and Emin
Pasha had allowed themselves to be made prisoners on or about the very
day they were expected by the garrison of Fort Bodo to reach them. It
could not be pleasant reading to find that, instead of being able to
relieve Emin Pasha, I was more than likely, by the tenor of these
letters, to lose one of my own officers to add to the number of
Europeans in that unlucky Equatorial province. However, a personal
interview with Jephson was necessary in the first place to understand
fairly or fully the state of affairs. February 6, 1889, Jephson arrived
in the afternoon at our camp at Kavalli on a plateau. I was startled to
hear Mr. Jephson in plain, undoubting words say, ‘Sentiment is Pasha’s
worst enemy. No one keeps Emin Pasha back but Emin Pasha himself.’ This
is a summary of what Jephson had learned during the nine months from May
25, 1888, to February 6, 1889. I gathered sufficient from Jephson’s
verbal report to conclude that during the nine months neither Pasha,
Signor Casati, nor any man in the province had arrived nearer any other
conclusion than that which was told us ten months before this:

“The Pasha--‘If my people go, I go. If they stay, I stay.’

“Signor Casati--‘If the Governor goes, I go. If the Governor stays, I

“The Faithful--‘If the Pasha goes, we go. If the Pasha stays, we stay.’

“However, a diversion in our favor was created by the Mahdist’s
invasion, and the dreadful slaughter they made of all they met inspired
us with a hope that we could get a definite answer at last, though Mr.
Jephson could only reply: ‘I really cannot tell you what Pasha means to
do. He says he wishes to go away, but will not make a move. No one will
move. It is impossible to say what any man will do. Perhaps another
advance by the Mahdists would send them all pell-mell towards Utoagin.
They are irresolute, and require several weeks’ rest to consider

In February, however, Stanley despatched a messenger with orders to
Lieutenant Stairs to hasten with his column to Kavalli, with a view to
concentrate the expedition ready for any contingency. Couriers were also
dispatched to Pasha telling him of these movements and intentions, and
asking him to point out how they could best aid him--whether it would be
best for them to remain at Kavalli, or whether they should advance into
the province and assist him at Mswa or Tangura Island, where Jephson had
left him. Stanley suggested the simplest plan for him would be to seize
the steamer and employ her in the transport of refugees, who he heard
were collected in numbers at Tangura, to his (Stanley’s) old camp on the
Nyanza; or that, failing with the steamer, he should march overland from
Tangura to Mswa, and send a canoe to inform him that he had done so,
when, a few days after, he (Stanley) could be at Mswa with two hundred
and fifty rifles to escort them to Kavalli. But Stanley demanded
something positive, otherwise it would be his duty to destroy the
ammunition and march homeward on the 13th of February.

[Illustration: TIPPU-TIB.]

The following letter, by a courier, was received by Stanley from Emin
Pasha, much to his astonishment, on the very day he had proposed to
begin the homeward march, Emin being then actually at anchor just below
his camp:--

  CAMP, February 13, 1889.

  HENRY M. STANLEY, Commanding Relief Expedition.

  Sir:--In answer to your letter of the 7th inst., for which I beg to
  tender my best thanks, I have the honor to inform you that yesterday
  at three I arrived here with my two steamers carrying the first lot of
  people desirous to leave this country under your escort. As soon as I
  have arranged for cover of my people, steamships have to start for
  Mswa station to bring on another lot of people awaiting
  transportation. With me there are some twelve officers anxious to see
  you and only forty soldiers. They have come under my orders to request
  you to give them some time to bring their brothers, at least such as
  are willing to leave, from Wadelai, and I promised them to do my best
  to assist them. Things having to some extent now changed, you will be
  able to make them undergo whatever conditions you see fit to impose
  upon them. To arrange these matters I shall start from here with
  officers for your camp, and if you send carriers I could avail me of
  some of them. I hope sincerely that the great difficulties you have
  had to undergo and the great sacrifices made by your expedition to
  assist us may be rewarded by full success in bringing out my people.
  The wave of insanity which overran the country has subsided, and of
  such people as are now coming with me we may be sure. Sig. Casati
  requests me to give his best thanks for your kind remembrance of him.
  Permit me to express to you once more my cordial thanks for whatever
  you have done for us until now, and believe me to be, yours,


During the interval between Jephson’s arrival and the receipt of this
letter Jephson had written pretty full reports of all that he had heard
from Pasha, Signor Casati, and the Egyptian soldiers, of the principal
events that had transpired within the last few years in the Equatorial
province. In Jephson’s report appear such sentences as the following:
“And this leads me to say a few words concerning the position of affairs
in this country. When I entered it, April 21, 1888, the first battalion
of about seven hundred rifles had been long in rebellion against Pasha’s
authority, and had twice attempted to make him prisoner. The second
battalion of about six hundred and fifty rifles, though professedly
loyal, was insubordinate and almost unmanageable. Pasha possessed only a
semblance, a mere rag of authority, and if he required anything of
importance to be done he could no longer order, he was obliged to beg
his officers to do it. Now, when we were at Nzabe, in May, 1888, though
Pasha hinted things were a little difficult in his country, he never
revealed to us the true state of things, which was actually desperate,
and we had not the slightest idea that any mutiny or discontent was
likely to arise among his people. We thought, as most people in Europe
and Egypt had been taught to believe by the Pasha’s own letters and
Juncker’s later representations, that all his difficulties arose from
events outside his country, whereas in point of fact his danger arose
from internal dissensions. Thus we were led to place our trust in people
who were utterly unworthy of our confidence or help, and who, instead of
being grateful to us for wishing to help them, have from the first
conspired how to plunder the expedition and turn us adrift; and had the
mutineers in their highly-excited state been able to prove one single
case of injustice, cruelty, or neglect of his people against Pasha he
would most assuredly have lost his life in this rebellion.”

Jephson further says, in summing up his report:--

“As to Pasha’s wish to leave the country, I can say decidedly he is most
anxious to go out with us; but under what conditions he will consent to
come I can hardly understand. I do not think he knows himself. His ideas
seem to me to vary much on the subject. To-day he is ready to start up
and go; to-morrow some new idea holds him back. I have had many
conversations with him about it, but have never been able to get his
unchanging opinion on the subject. After this rebellion I remarked to
him: ‘I presume now that your people have deposed you, and put you
aside, you do not consider that you have any longer any responsibility
or obligations concerning them,’ and he answered: ‘Had they not deserted
me I should have felt bound to stand by them and help them in any way I
could, but now I consider I am absolutely free to think only of my own
personal safety and welfare; and if I get a chance I shall go out
regardless of everything.’ And yet only a few days before I left him he
said to me: ‘I know I am not in any way responsible for these people,
but I cannot bear to go out myself first and leave anyone here behind me
who is desirous of quitting the country. It is mere sentiment, I know,
and perhaps a sentiment you will not sympathize with, but my enemies at
Wadelai would point at me and say to the people, “You see he has
deserted you.”’ These are merely two examples of what passed between us
on the subject of his going out with us, but I could quote numbers of
things he has said all equally contradictory. Being somewhat impatient
after one of these unsatisfactory conversations, I said: ‘If ever the
expedition does reach any place near you I shall advise Mr. Stanley to
arrest you and carry you off, whether you will or not,’ to which he
replied: ‘Well, I shall do nothing to prevent you doing that.’ It seems
to me that if we are to have him we must save him from himself. Before
closing my report I must bear witness to the fact that, in my frequent
conversations with all sorts and conditions of the Pasha’s people, I
heard with hardly any exception only praise of his justice and
generosity to his people. But I have heard it suggested that he did not
hold his people with a sufficiently firm hand.”

In answer to Emin’s request, Stanley supplied him with carriers and
successfully aided him in bringing up his luggage and that of his
European companions.

Stanley in referring to the dangers which had menaced him, and the many
thrilling incidents that had crowded themselves, one upon another, to
this point of time, to say nothing of the innumerable perplexities,
says:--“There is virtue you know even in striving unyieldingly, in
hardening the nerves, and facing these overclinging mischances without
paying too much heed to the reputed danger. One is assisted much by
knowing that there are no other coups, and the danger somehow, nine
times out of ten, diminishes. The rebels of Emin Pasha’s government
relied on their craft and on the wiles of the Heathen Chinee, and it is
rather amusing to look back and note how punishment has fallen upon
them. Was it Providence or luck? Let those who love to analyze such
matters reflect. Traitors without the camp and traitors within were
watching, and the most active conspirator was discovered, tried, and
hanged. The traitors without fell afoul of one another and ruined
themselves. If not luck, then it is surely Providence in answer to good
men’s prayers. Far away our own people, tempted by extreme wretchedness
and misery, sold our rifles and ammunition to our natural enemies, the
Manyema, the slave-traders’ true friends, without the least grace in
either bodies or souls. What happy influence was it that restrained me
from destroying all those concerned in it? Each time I read the story of
Captain Nelson’s sufferings I feel vexed at my forbearance, and yet
again I feel thankful, for a higher power than man’s severely afflicted
the cold-blooded murderers by causing them to feed upon one another a
few weeks after the rescue and relief of Nelson and Parkes. The memory
of those days at times hardens and again unmans me. With the rescue of
Pasha, poor old Casati, and those who preferred Egypt’s fleshpots to the
coarse plenty of the province near Nyanza, we returned, and while we
were patiently waiting the doom of the rebels was consummated.

“Since that time of anxiety and unhappy outlook I have been at the point
of death from a dreadful illness. The strain had been too much, and for
twenty-eight days I lay helpless, tended by the kindly and skillful
hands of Surgeon Parkes. Then little by little I gathered strength, and
ordered the march for home. Discovery after discovery in that wonderful
region was made. Snowy ranges of the Ruevenzori (Cloud King or
Rain-Creator), the Semliki River, the Albert Edward Nyanza, the plains
of Noongora, the salt lakes of Kative, the new peoples Wakonju, great
mountain dwellers of a rich forest region; the Awamba, the fine-featured
Wazonira, the Wanyoro bandits, then the Lake Albert Edward tribes and
the shepherd races of the Eastern Uplands, then the Wanyankori, besides
the Wanyaruwamba and the Wazinya, until at last we came to a church
whose cross dominated a Christian settlement, and we knew that we had
reached the outskirts of blessed Civilization. We have every reason to
be grateful, and may that feeling be ever kept within me. Our promises
as volunteers have been performed as well as though we had been
specially commissioned by the Government.

“We have been all volunteers, each devoting his several gifts,
abilities, and energies to win a successful issue for the enterprise. If
there has been anything that sometimes clouded our thoughts it has been
that we were compelled by the state of Emin Pasha and his own people to
cause anxieties to our friends by serious delay. At every opportunity I
have endeavored to lessen these by despatching full accounts of our
progress to the committee, that through them all interested might be
acquainted with what we were doing. Some of my officers also have been
troubled in thought that their Government might not overlook their
having overstayed their leave; but the truth is, the wealth of the
British treasury could not have hastened our march without making
ourselves liable to impeachment for breach of faith, and the officers
were as much involved as myself in doing the thing honorably and well. I
hear there is great trouble, war, etc., between the Germans and Arabs of
Zanzibar. What influence this may have on our fortune I do not know, but
we trust nothing to interrupt our march to the sea, which will be begun
in a few days.”

Stanley had been greatly hindered also by the suspicions of the natives.
“It has been current talk in the provinces,” he says, “that we were
only a party of conspirators and adventurers; that the letters of the
Khedive and Nubar Pasha were forgeries concocted by the vile Christians,
Stanley and Casati, assisted by the Mohammedan, Emin Pasha.”

It had also been generally doubted, after Stanley’s expedition had
started, whether Emin Pasha might, after all, be in want of aid. On
September 28th, 1887, this doubt was fully confirmed by a letter from
him, dated April 17th of the same year, which represented him as saying:
“I have passed twelve years here, and have succeeded in re-occupying
nearly every station in the country which General Gordon entrusted to
me. I have won the confidence of the people, sowing the seed of a
splendid future civilization. It is out of the question to ask me to
leave. All I want England to do is to make a free tradeway to the
coast.” The various references to Emin in the recent letters of Stanley
clearly show that the German was far from ready at first to accept
Stanley’s escort to the east coast of Africa. And the letter of Emin
Pasha to the President of the Emin Relief Committee, thanking the
subscribers to the fund and the members of the fund for their generous
help, which “saved a handful of forlorn ones from destruction,”
conclusively establishes the fact that the acceptance of Stanley’s
escort was but a compulsory matter at the last moment.

On the 12th of April, Stanley having somewhat recovered from his severe
illness, and preparations having been fully completed for the march to
the Indian Ocean, the united expedition left Kavalli on the Albert
Nyanza. Of the experiences of the expedition on the homeward march,
Lieutenant W. G. Stairs, in a letter under date Usambiro Mission
Station, Victoria Nyanza, August 30th, 1889, says:

“I wrote you last from Yambuya. Our starvation periods, fighting, fevers
and other trials would occupy pages. Directly on leaving Yambuya some
had a bad fever. Then we got into countries without food, and lost men
at a terrible rate. The natives shot a great many. When, on December
16th, 1887, we reached Albert Nyanza we had one hundred and seventy out
of four hundred and fourteen men that left Yambuya. We could not then
connect with Emin, and had to return one hundred and twenty miles west
of Albert Nyanza. Here we built a strong fort, and I started back to a
place two hundred and twenty-eight miles down the river to bring up our

“Meantime Stanley and two of our officers went east to the lake and
connected with the Pasha. Then our return march to Yambuya commenced.
April 12th the united expedition left Kavallis on the Albert for the
Indian Ocean. Our numbers were then one thousand one hundred and
seventy-five. Now, on reaching here, Ursalala, we have about six hundred
and seventy.

“We have made many important geographical discoveries--one of the most
important being Mount Ruevenzori, which for all these three thousand
years has been undiscovered. The very source of the Nile is from its
snow-capped peaks. It is a wonderful sight. I went up ten thousand seven
hundred feet, but was stopped by ravines two thousand feet deep.

“Anchori and the Albert Nyanza are new places to Europeans--at least
beyond the mere names. Here in Karagwe we found the Urigi to be a large
lake instead of the petty thing laid down on the maps.

“After a hard march of four months we reached here (Ursalala) and found
Mr. McKay and Mr. Dreaks of the Church Missionary Society. We have been
here three days, and from these kind-hearted people have received a most
hearty welcome, and rejoiced again in a cup of tea, with milk and
biscuit. We fortunately found that cloth and beads for us had come up
from the coast enough to buy our way out to the coast. Everything has
been stopped on its way inland by the Arabs, making affairs assume a
very critical aspect for missionaries and attached whites living inland.

“From here to the coast--should we have open roads--is a four and a half
months’ march for the caravan. If the Arabs, however, oppose our
progress no one can say how long it will take.

“Of our trials and sufferings I have said very little, but so far our
expedition has been an immense success, in spite of sneers seen in some
of the English papers. I hope we will emerge triumphantly to the coast.
The Pasha we have; also Casati, the Italian, besides Egyptian and
Turkish officers, soldiers, men, women and children and convicts.

“We have had no news from the coast here for over one and a half years,
and we are all in uncertainty. If pluck and determination can carry us
through, we shall reach the coast.

“One of our greatest dangers has been from starvation in the immense
forest between the Congo and the Albert Nyanza, which was thought to be
an open, grassy country. In this forest we lost out of six hundred
Zanzibaris some three hundred and sixty; also sixteen Somali boys and
about forty Nubian soldiers. This was _en route_ to the Pasha. The loss
of life since leaving the Albert Nyanza has been general--some two
hundred. In this forest for three weeks we lived on roots and fungi, and
though we hunted and fished, not a thing could we bring in. Of course
our poor men died like dogs, and we whites were just about pegged out
when we reached food.”

Under the date of Ursalala, August 31, Stanley writes Sir Francis de
Winston a long letter, wherein he objects very strongly to the tone of a
batch of newspaper cuttings he had received, which commented with an
utter lack of common sense and a total disregard of accuracy upon his
expedition. He dwells upon Emin’s indecision, which cost him a journey,
otherwise unnecessary, of thirteen hundred miles for Barttelot.

He justifies the payment of a salary of £30 per month to Tippu-Tib as a
means for averting a desolating war, and declares that if both parties
are honest in the maintenance of their agreements peace may continue for
an indefinite period.

He rebukes those persons in England who had lost faith in his
steadfastness of purpose to such a degree as to give credit to rumors
that he was marching in the direction of Khartoum.

He dwells at much length upon the case of Barttelot, and removes the
impression produced by previous letters reflecting upon the Major’s
conduct. He says that to extricate himself from his dilemma Barttelot
only needed qualities that will not be gained save by long experience in
Africa, and eulogizes his courage and high qualities. He knew the Major
was a man of little forbearance, and had intended to keep him with
himself, but necessity compelled the change that caused him to leave him
behind. Barttelot was ignorant of the language of the people, and his
interpreter may have been false, and occasioned the coolness between the
men and the Major which was never overcome, and led to his death.

Stanley recites in detail the instructions given to Barttelot, and
finally denies with much emphasis the alleged Congo atrocities of the
Manyema, the cannibalism, and the story of photographing women during
execution. During the whole expedition he executed only four men.

As Stanley and Emin neared the confines of the colonized territory on
the east coast great interest was manifested as to the time and place at
which they would emerge from their long and wilderness enshrouded
journey. Considerable difference of opinion was held as to their exact
whereabouts, the course they were taking, and the point on the coast at
which they would appear. When the question was still one of extreme
uncertainty the “Herald” made the following prediction, which the
information now received shows has been fulfilled:

“In our opinion Stanley and his gallant comrade, Emin Pasha, himself a
German, will come home by the shortest practicable route. This, as a
glance at the map will show, is through German territory, where Captain
Wissmann, representing the German Government, and the special
correspondent of the ‘Herald’ await them with sympathy, succor and
congratulations upon their brilliant success.

“Within the last few months several expeditions, one of which was fitted
out by the ‘Herald,’ have been sent toward the interior to meet Stanley.
This was done not through great concern for his safety, but to extend to
him a welcome, made substantial by generous quantities of tea, coffee,
tobacco, spirits and food supplies, which it was believed would prove
both needful and gratefully acceptable after the hardships and
deprivations of his long journey.”

On the 29th of November, 1889, the expedition reached Msuwah, whence the
“Herald” commissioner sent the following despatch:

  MSUWAH, November 29.--5 P. M.

  I have just met Henry M. Stanley, Emin Pasha, Casati, Lieutenant
  Stairs, Mr. Jephson, Dr. Parke, Nelson and Bonny, and five hundred and
  sixty men, women and children.

  I have found Stanley looking exceedingly hearty. He wears a Prussian
  cap, linen breeches and canvas shoes. I presented him with the
  American flag with which I was entrusted, and it is now flying from
  Mr. Stanley’s tent.

  The great explorer’s hair is quite white and his mustache is

  Emin Pasha is a slight, dark man. He wears spectacles. In a short
  conversation which I had with him he told me he did not wish for any
  honors for what he had done. He simply desired to be employed again in
  the Khedive’s service.

  I have given Captain Casati his letters. He looks well, but the
  hardships which he has undergone seem to have quite undermined his

  All the other Europeans are well. We shall all proceed toward the
  coast the day after to-morrow.

  Stanley, Emin and Casati were entertained at dinner last night in this
  camp by Baron Gravenreath. Speeches were made by the Baron and by
  Stanley. The Baron complimented Stanley, Emin and their companions on
  their march from Central Africa. Stanley responded, and praised German
  enterprise and civilizing abilities.

On the 1st of December the expedition reached Mbiki. The “Herald’s”
despatch informed the world that its force had united with Stanley, and
was then escorting him to Bagamoyo:

  MBIKI, December 1.--Noon.

  Stanley’s expedition, accompanied by the force sent out by the
  “Herald,” arrived here safely to-day. All the Europeans connected with
  the caravan are well with the exception of Stevens, the Commissioner
  of the New York Gift Enterprise, who has been struck down with fever,
  and lies in my tent very ill.

  Stanley is bringing with him two hundred and eighty-six of Emin
  Pasha’s people. Many of these persons are aged, decrepit or sick, and
  they are all being carried down to the coast by Stanley’s Zanzibar

  The troops and carriers in Stanley’s command elicit the unbounded
  admiration of every one. They are under the most perfect discipline,
  and when on the road march in that perfect order which could only be
  expected of a well-trained and well-provisioned army.

  Acting under the orders of Major Wissmann, Lieutenant Schmidt and a
  few soldiers are accompanying us to the coast. It is their duty to
  slightly precede the main body on the march, and to make all
  preparations for camping comfortably at the various places selected
  for nightly halts.

  Stanley and all his officers are loud in their praises of the kindly
  reception they met with at the hands of the Germans. A special caravan
  was sent up to Mpwapwa by Major Wissmann, bearing many of the comforts
  of life of which the gentlemen of the expedition stood sorely in need.
  I am assured that these things were most welcome.

  Although we are only four days from the coast, Stanley is still
  expecting to meet the caravan of provisions which should have been
  sent out in accordance with the directions which he gave four months

The next despatch, dated from Kigiro, December 3d, read:

  We have a march of two hours to-morrow to the Kinghani River, where we
  will stop. As there is only one boat we shall be all day crossing the
  stream. We should reach Bagamoyo December 5. There a British
  man-of-war and one of Major Wissmann’s vessels will meet us and convey
  us to Zanzibar.

  The Egyptian Government has chartered a British India steamer to carry
  Emin and his people to Egypt. Emin brings with him two hundred and
  eighty-three officers, soldiers, civil servants, three women and
  children, but not a single tusk of ivory. It was all burnt or
  deposited with native chiefs.

  Stanley says he finds his reward in the accomplishment of his deeds.
  He has received the “Herald” caravan of provisions for his people.

Stanley reached Bagamoyo, at eleven o’clock on the morning of the 4th,
Major Wissmann having provided horses for him and Emin at At-oni, the
day before, on the opposite bank of the Kinghani River. The town of
Bagamoyo was profusely decorated. Verdant arches were built across all
the avenues and palm branches waved from every window. A salute of nine
guns was fired by Major Wissmann’s force and the same number by the
German man-of-war. All the officers of the expedition were sumptuously
entertained at a luncheon at Major Wissmann’s headquarters.

The Captain of the _Sperber_ on behalf of the German Emperor, formally
welcomed first Stanley, then Emin, and congratulated them upon their
return to civilization. All the vessels in the roadstead were dressed in

Many persons came from Zanzibar, among them being Mr. Nichol, who came
on behalf of Sir William Mackinnon, President of the Emin Pasha Relief
Committee; the British Consul, Mr. Churchill; Judge Cracknall of the
British Court, and the German and Italian Consuls.

In the evening a banquet was held, and amid a flood of champagne the
German Consul, General Steifensand, toasted the Queen of Great Britain
and Ireland, and Major Wissmann toasted Stanley, calling him his master
in African exploration.

Stanley, in reply, said he thanked God he had performed his duty. He
spoke with emotion of his soldiers whose bones were bleaching in the
forest, and remarked that with him and those of his party work was
always onward. He bore testimony to the Divine influence that had guided
him in his work.

Then he said: “Emin is here, Casati is here, I am here, and all the
young gentlemen who went with me are here,” and concluded by thanking
Major Wissmann and the “Herald” for their kindness in sending him

Emin Pasha toasted the German Emperor, and Lieutenant Stairs returned
thanks for Stanley’s officers. Captain Brackenbury, senior naval
officer, toasted Major Wissmann. This toast was drunk with honors, the
whole company joining in singing “For he’s a jolly good fellow!”

Stanley and his men went to Zanzibar on the day following by the
_Sperber_, which had been specially placed at his disposal by the German
Emperor. Emin’s people were taken over by the British man-of-war.

This glorious and most welcome news was, however, destined to be broken
in upon by the sad intelligence which so closely followed, that Emin had
met with an accident. The Pasha, being nearsighted, had walked out of a
window, fallen and fractured his skull, the report stated, and was lying
in a most critical state at Bagamoyo. This report was subsequently
modified, so far as the facts were concerned. Instead of falling out of
a window he had misjudged the height of a balcony parapet, overbalanced
himself, and fell a distance of twenty feet. When found his right eye
was closed and blood was issuing from his ears. His body was also
terribly bruised.

The report further stated that all the doctors had given him up except
Stanley’s physician, Dr. Parke, who remained with him, and who said he
thought he might save him. He was receiving every care and attention
from Major Wissmann and his officers.

Later reports brought more encouraging words from the attending
physician: that the results of the accident to the Pasha had not been so
serious as was at first supposed, and that with careful nursing and
quiet rest he might be moved in about ten days.

Thus has ended, what must be conceded by every intelligent mind, the
most remarkable and extraordinary expedition that ever essayed to
traverse the terrible wilds of this Dark Continent; and the story of
Stanley, its brave leader, will take a place in history whose prominence
future ages of marvellous deeds and heroic adventures can never
overshadow. Stanley’s story, too, is fittingly closed by the grand and
sublime words he uses in reviewing the work of his co-laborers as he
reaches civilization once again; and we can give it no better ending
than through the language of him, who said:

  I gave as much good will to my duties as the strictest honor would
  compel. My faith that the purity of my motive deserved success was
  firm, but I have been conscious that the Issues of every effort were
  in other hands.

  Not one officer who was with me will forget the miseries he has
  endured; yet every one that started from his home, destined to march
  with the advance column and share its wonderful adventures, is here
  to-day, safe, sound and well.

  This is not due to me. Lieutenant Stairs was pierced with a poisoned
  arrow like others, but others died and he lives. The poisoned tip came
  out from under his heart eighteen months after he was pierced. Jephson
  was four months a prisoner, with guards with loaded rifles around him.
  That they did not murder him is not due to me.

  These officers have had to wade through as many as seventeen streams
  and broad expanses of mud and swamp in a day. They have endured a sun
  that scorched whatever it touched. A multitude of impediments have
  ruffled their tempers and harassed their hours.

  They have been maddened with the agonies of fierce fevers. They have
  lived for months in an atmosphere that medical authority declared to
  be deadly. They have faced dangers every day, and their diet has been
  all through what legal serfs would have declared to be infamous and
  abominable; and yet they live. This is not due to me any more than the
  courage with which they have borne all that was imposed upon them by
  their surroundings or the cheery energy which they bestowed on their
  work or the hopeful voices which rang in the ears of a deafening
  multitude of blacks and urged the poor souls on to their goal.

  The vulgar will call it luck; unbelievers will call it chance; but
  deep down in each heart remains the feeling--that of verity. There are
  more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in common

  I must be brief. Numbers of scenes crowd the memory. Could one but sum
  them into a picture it would have great interest. The uncomplaining
  heroism of our dark followers, the brave manhood latent in such
  uncouth disguise, the tenderness we have seen issuing from nameless
  entities, the great love animating the ignoble, the sacrifice made by
  the unfortunate for one more unfortunate, the reverence we have noted
  in barbarians, who, even as ourselves, were inspired with nobleness
  and incentives to duty--of all these we could speak if we would, but I
  leave that to the “Herald” correspondent, who, if he has eyes to see,
  will see much for himself, and who with his gifts of composition may
  present a very taking outline of what has been done and is now near
  ending, thanks be to God forever and ever.

  Yours faithfully,




  Opinions of Eminent Persons

The Queen of England, under date of December 12th, cabled Mr. Stanley at

  My thoughts are with you and your brave followers, whose hardships and
  dangers are at an end. I again congratulate you all, including the
  Zanzibaris, who displayed such devotion and fortitude during your
  marvellous expedition. I trust Emin Pasha is making favorable

The Emperor of Germany also cabled:

  Thanks to your perseverance and inflexible courage, you have now,
  after repeatedly crossing the Dark Continent, overcome a new and long
  succession of exceeding perils and almost unendurable hardships. That
  after surmounting those your return journey should lead you through
  lands covered by my flag affords me great satisfaction, and I welcome
  you heartily to civilization and security.

To which Mr. Stanley sent the following reply:

  IMPERATOR ET REX: My expedition has now reached its end. I have had
  the honor to be hospitably entertained by Major Wissmann and other of
  your Majesty’s officers under him. Since arriving from Mpwapwa, our
  travels have come to a successful conclusion. We have been taken
  across from Bagamoyo to Zanzibar by your Majesty’s ships, Sperber and
  Schwalbe, and all honors coupled with great affability have been
  accorded us. I gratefully remember the hospitality and princely
  affability extended to me at Potsdam, and am profoundly impressed with
  your Majesty’s condescension, kindness and gracious welcome. With a
  full and sincere heart I exclaim, “Long live the noble Emperor

The Anti-Slavery Conference in Brussels, sent him a greeting by cable in
these words:

  We have been deeply moved by the sufferings and perils you have
  braved. We congratulate you upon the success of your expedition, and
  appreciate the great services you have rendered. Convey our sympathy
  to Emin Pasha.

Professor G. B. Adams, of Yale College, says:

  This is the greatest and most important of Stanley’s explorations. His
  pluck and self-confidence are nothing short of miraculous. I am
  inclined to believe that Stanley has proven what modern geographers
  have conjectured concerning the soil and physical features of the
  region he has explored. One of the most striking portions of his
  letter is his description of a temperate region under the “burning
  Equator.” Just what the extent of this tract is, and exactly what he
  means, will be anxiously waited for by the scientific world. There is
  every reason to believe that Stanley has opened the gates of Africa
  for the progress of civilization.

  His firm belief in religious guidance has been one of the greatest
  elements of his success, without which even Stanley’s determination
  and genius would have quailed before such gigantic difficulties.

Professor A. M. Wheeler says:

  Every civilized man owes a debt of gratitude to Stanley. To my mind
  the exploration is without parallel in the history of discoveries. He
  is the Columbus of the nineteenth century. No geographer had dared to
  conjecture what Stanley has now made a reality. His unswerving
  fidelity to one purpose, amid the greatest dangers that have ever
  befallen man, is wonderful. The discovery of the connection of Albert
  Edward Nyanza and Albert Nyanza is but one of his triumphs over what
  was beyond the reach of all other African explorers. Stanley’s work
  seems like that of an inspired man.

Ex-Judge Charles P. Daly, President of the Geographical Society of New
York City, says:

  His geographical insight is wonderful. When going north on the Congo
  and passing the Equator, he felt that he would come out on the east
  coast of Africa, and he has done so. That, I think, is quite
  remarkable. Stanley is one of the most remarkable explorers of the

George C. Hurlbert, Esq., also of the Geographical Society of New York
City, and who has followed the exploration in Africa closely, says:

  Everything was against Stanley in his task, but he showed himself to
  be a born ruler--a leader of men. He overcame dangers with a
  persistency, energy and pluck that commanded all praise. It was the
  quality of the man that always conquered and came to the front, and
  Stanley’s quality has brought him through all difficulties. He had the
  courage and the enterprise and the will to achieve great things. He
  had the gifts of a great explorer.

Professor Libbey, of Princeton College, says:

  With regard to the geographical results it would be hard to tell their
  magnitude at present, but we cannot doubt but that they will be of
  great importance, judging from the information contained in the
  letters which have reached us from time to time, the discoveries,
  already hinted at, showing that the White Nile rises in Lake Muta
  Nzige, giving us a better knowledge of the shape of this lake; the
  discovery of the River Semlike and Mount Ruevenzori, which rivals in
  height the giant of the eastern coast, Kilimanjaro, and his further
  discoveries in the course of the outlines of Victoria Nyanza.

  Undoubtedly there will be a rich harvest of information concerning the
  country lying between the Congo and Lake Albert Edward, and also
  between the lakes and the coast. I think Stanley was right in his
  decision to go around the Cape of Good Hope and up the Congo rather
  than to push his heavily-laden caravan through the mountains and the
  hostile country between the lakes and the Zanzibar coast. Not one of
  the least advantages of the trip will be the fact that he has brought
  Emin Bey back with him to civilization, where it is hoped that this
  learned, enthusiastic and successful student of the races and the
  natural history of the country in which he has so long been a
  voluntary exile will be content to remain and give to the world some
  of the valuable stores of knowledge, to obtain which came so near
  costing him his life.

The Boston _Transcript_, in a late issue, says:

  An experience like that which Stanley went through in Africa, and of
  which he sends the world a graphic and harrowing account, is well
  calculated to awaken all the latent piety in a brave man’s nature. Men
  who war with nature and with barbarous peoples, and who pass through
  narrow escapes and dreadful emergencies, are always the last to assert
  that they themselves performed the wonders which they witness. Stanley
  has pretty well established a claim to greatness in this last African
  venture of his, and it is not strange to those who have read history
  to find him exclaiming, with many other men of great force and genius:
  “There was a Divinity that hedged me about.”

Captain O’Kane, Commander of the U. S. Steamer Boston, says:

  I consider Mr. Stanley’s expedition a marvellous one, and his
  successful arrival at the coast an achievement of which the world--and
  particularly America--may be proud.

  Mr. Stanley has now opened to civilizing influences the last important
  unexplored region of the world, and all future ages will applaud and
  honor him for it.

Stanley on arriving at Cairo, Egypt, on January 14th, met with a great
and notable reception at the station from Sir Evelyn Baring, General Sir
Francis Grenfell, Acting United States Consul Grant, and others. He went
to the Khedive’s palace in state, and made an official call on him
lasting half an hour, and was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the
Medjidich, a very distinguished honor. He also here received an officer
bearing a special letter of congratulation from King Leopold of Belgium.

  “Throughout the length and breadth of the United Kingdom, and the same
  may be said of Europe and the rest of the civilized world, the name of
  Stanley is on every tongue. On the streets, in the clubs, wherever men
  congregate, the one theme of conversation is Stanley, his wonderful
  achievements and his modesty, as illustrated in his letter to the
  ‘Herald,’ which is on all sides held to be a masterpiece and to stamp
  its author as a truly great man.”--_London Cablegram to N. Y. Herald._

The Worshipful Company of Turners, of London, at a banquet held on the
evening of December 5th, received the following telegram from the King
of the Belgians:

  I understand you will, as Master for the second year of the Worshipful
  Company of Turners, propose at their annual dinner the health of your
  illustrious honorary member, Mr. Henry M. Stanley. Let me, as an
  honorary member of the Worshipful Company, a title I am proud to
  possess, assure you beforehand how cordially and gladly I join the
  Turners in all their expressions of admiration of the unparalleled and
  heroic services rendered by our friend Stanley to science and
  civilization in that vast continent, in the discovery of which he has
  taken so great a share.

  _Sovereign of the Congo State_.

Mr. Burdett-Coutts, the President of the Company, proposed the health of
Stanley; and, on motion, it was directed that the greetings of the
Company should be despatched to the hero at Zanzibar.

The message despatched by Mr. Burdett-Coutts to Zanzibar was as follows:

  Turners’ Company, at their annual dinner with the Lord Mayor and other
  old friends of yours, after listening to the full and gracious
  telegram with respect to yourself from the King of the Belgians, have
  just drank your health with stirring enthusiasm, and congratulated you
  on your splendid achievement, and send you a hearty welcome home.


  UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF                 }

  ANTWERP, November 25, 1889.

  _To the Proprietor of the New York “Herald,” New York._

  Sir:--While the civilized world was in suspense over the fate of the
  two illustrious travellers lost in Africa, Henry Stanley and Emin
  Pasha (Schnitzler); while governments, exhausting their forces in
  sterile struggles for the conquest of lands on the African coast, were
  showing themselves powerless to carry succor to these valiant
  missionaries of civilization, the New York “Herald,” true to the glory
  it acquired in rescuing the illustrious and unfortunate Livingstone,
  did not hesitate to organize a new expedition in aid of Stanley and
  Emin. On learning the welcome news a joyful cry was uttered by all
  friends of African civilization, and loudly re-echoed in the midst of
  our Society.

  Pursuant to a resolution passed at the Society’s sitting on the 13th
  inst., we hereby sincerely congratulate you over, and warmly thank you
  for this your undertaking.

  We hope to soon see in our midst the two illustrious travellers. The
  festal occasion would be complete were a correspondent of the New York
  “Herald” to find it convenient to be present at this reception in
  order to be tendered the expression of our gratitude at the very
  moment when we shall be welcoming the two greatest travellers of
  modern times--great, really, by their disinterested devotion to the
  noble cause of civilization.

  We beg, sir, you will herewith accept the expression of our deep and
  heartfelt sympathy.

  M. WAUWERMANS, President.

  P. GENAUD, Secretary-General.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber’s note:

  Inconsistent and archaic spelling (including the spelling of proper
  and geographical names and names of tribes and peoples), hyphenation,
  etc. have been retained, except when deviations from the book’s most
  common spelling of a word occurred very rarely only (see below).
  French accents have not been added or corrected.

  Page vii-xx: there are some differences in wording between the table
  of contents/list of illustrations and the actual text; these have not
  been standardised. The order of entries in the list of illustrations
  is as printed in the source document.

  Page xviii, list of illustrations: there is no illustration “Floating
  Island” in the source document. The portrait on page 500 is not
  included in the list of illustrations.

  Several of the engravings in the source document were damaged and/or
  discoloured because of the book’s binding; some of this damage and
  discolouration remains visible in this e-text.

  The cover image has been created for this text, and is placed in the
  public domain.

  Page 20, Bartholmew Dias: as printed in the source document.

  Page 24: Heinreich Barth: probably an error for Heinrich Barth.

  Page 146, ... five days’ marches brought us to Mrera: possibly an
  error, as they recently left Mrera.

  Page 146, ... who had by this forgotten ...: there appears to be a
  word missing (time or similar).

  Page 226, $364 06¹⁄₂: as printed in the source document; the decimal
  point (or possibly a digit) may be missing.

  Page 313, In the chest ... scrople.: as printed in the source

  Page 320, THE homeward march ...: the reason for the small capitals is
  not clear.

  Page 343-344, There seem to have been ...: as printed in the source

  Page 427, ipomæa: probably an error for ipomœa.

  Changes made:

  Illustrations have been moved outside text paragraphs.

  Some minor obvious typographical and punctuation errors have bee
  corrected silently.

  Page x: KISERI changed to KISERA as elsewhere

  Page xvii-xx: Illustration numbers (in the order in which they occur
  in the text) have been added to the list of illustrations

  Page xix: Entry Rapids of the Livingstone River inserted

  Page 62: Backwains changed to Bakwains

  Page 130: Ferrajji changed to Feragji as elsewhere; ngali changed to

  Page 131: Tarbora changed to Tabora

  Page 138: closing quote mark added after ... I shall come and see him.

  Page 157: Opening single quote added before Hello! who are you?

  Page 180: Mississipi changed to Mississippi as elsewhere

  Page 200: astronominal changed to astronomical

  Page 226: closing quote mark added after second D.L.

  Page 234: Opening quote mark added before The news ...

  Page 265: gorrilla changed to gorilla (2×)

  Page 303, closing square bracket added after ... on their way to

  Page 397: Rumainka changed to Rumanika; Keragwe changed to Karagwe

  Page 419: Question mark after ... had been fairly solved deleted;
  Muilala changed to Mullala

  Page 457: Kartoum changed to Khartoum

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Stanley's Story - Through the Wilds of Africa: a Thrilling Narrative of His Remarkable Adventures, Terrible Experiences, Wonderful Discoveries and Amazing Achievements in the Dark Continent" ***

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