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Title: Americans All, Immigrants All
Author: Education, United States Department of the Interior Office of
Language: English
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Twenty-six dramatic radio broadcasts, spotlighting the contributions
of various cultural groups to the economic, social, and political
development of the United States, presented by the United States
Department of the Interior, Office of Education, and the Columbia
Broadcasting System with the cooperation of the Service Bureau
for Intercultural Education, and assisted by the Works Progress

    _Secretary of the Department of the Interior_

    _Director, Radio Division, Office of Education_

    _Commissioner of Education_

    _Director, Service Bureau for Intercultural Education_


    _Program Executive_: PHILIP H. COHEN, Office of Education.

    _Writing_: GILBERT SELDES, _Director Television_, Columbia
    Broadcasting System.

    _Research_: PHILIP L. GREEN, Office of Education; RACHEL
    DAVIS-DUBOIS, Service Bureau for Intercultural Education; RUTH
    E. DAVIS, Office of Education.

    _Production_: EARLE MCGILL and WILLIAM ROBSON, Casting
    Directors, Columbia Broadcasting System; MITCHELL GRAYSON,
    Office of Education.

    _Music_: LEON GOLDMAN, Conductor, Columbia Broadcasting System;
    RUDOLF SCHRAMM, Office of Education; H. CHARLES PANTLEY, Office
    of Education.

    _Administrative_: RICHARD P. HERGET, Business Manager. WM. A.
    WHEELER, JR., Assistant.


The “Americans All—Immigrants All” programs are designed to promote a
more appreciative understanding of our growing American culture through
the dramatization of the contributions made by the many groups which are
a part of it. What brought people to this country from the four corners
of the earth? What gifts did they bear? What were their problems? What
problems remain unsolved? This series dramatically presents the story of
“Americans All—Immigrants All.”

=1. Opening Frontiers.=—New trails are blazed, frontiers are pushed
westward, and foundations of our great democracy are laid by newcomers
from across the seas.

    ADAMS, JAMES TRUSLOW. _The March of Democracy; the Rise of the
    Union_, Vol. I. Charles Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 1932.

    MORGAN, JAMES. _The Birth of the American People._ Macmillan
    Company, N. Y. 1930.

=2. Our English Heritage.=—Rich experiences in self-government and basic
liberties are introduced by the English in colonizing the northern
Atlantic seaboard.

    BROOKS, VAN WYCK. _The Flowering of New England._ E. P. Dutton
    Co., N. Y. 1936.

    WILLIAMS, ELLIS A., and FISHER, F. J. _The Story of English
    Life._ Coward-McCann, N. Y. 1936.

=3. Our Hispanic Heritage.=—The Spaniards build missions and bring
Andalusian cattle and horses into the Southwest.

    OTERO, N. _Old Spain in Our Southwest._ Harcourt, Brace and
    Company, N. Y. 1936.

    SANTEE, ROSS. _The Cowboy._ Farrar and Rinehart, N. Y. 1928.

=4. Scots, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh.=—Sturdy Scotch-Irish and Scots,
vanguard of march to the West, settle along frontiers. The Welsh, lovers
of song, discover coal and develop our mines.

    FORD, H. J. _Scotch-Irish in America._ Princeton University
    Press, Princeton, N. J. 1915.

    HARRIES, F. J. _Welshmen in the United States._ St. David’s
    Society, N. Y. 1927.

    JAMES, BESSIE ROWLAND, and MARQUIS, JAMES. _Courageous Heart._
    Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, Ind. 1934.

=5. Winning Freedom.=—Through cooperation and willingness to sacrifice
both wealth and life, colonists win independence and preserve priceless
principles and ideals.

    BEARD, C. A. and M. R. _The Rise of American Civilization._
    Macmillan Company, N. Y. 1937.

    EATON, JEANETTE. _Leader by Destiny._ Harcourt, Brace and
    Company, N. Y. 1938.

=6. The Negro.=—From early colonial days, the Negro, who composes
one-tenth of our population, plays large part in our economic and
artistic life.

    BRAWLEY, BENJAMIN. _The Negro Genius._ Dodd, Mead, and Co., N.
    Y. 1936.

    BROWN, J. C. _The Story of the American Negro._ Friendship
    Press, N. Y. 1930.

    WOODSON, CARTER G. _The Negro in Our History._ Associated
    Publishers, Washington. 1937.

=7. The French and Netherlanders.=—French fur traders and missionaries
pioneer the Mississippi Valley; Netherlanders settle on Manhattan Island;
French-Canadians work in lumber camps and mills of New England; diamond
cutters come from Belgium; and French-speaking Swiss build up our cheese

    COFFIN, ROBERT P. T. _Kennebec: Cradle of Americans._ Farrar
    and Rinehart, N. Y. 1936.

    REPPLIER, AGNES. _Pere Marquette, Priest, Pioneer, Adventurer._
    Doubleday, Doran, and Co., N. Y. 1929.

    WERTENBAKER, CHARLES. _Before They Were Men._ Liveright
    Publishing Co., N. Y. 1931.

=8. Upsurge of Democracy.=—Frontiersmen and newcomers unite to bring
about decline of aristocracy. Eastern wage earners march in the ranks of
the new democracy.

    JAMES, MARQUIS. _Life of Andrew Jackson._ Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
    Indianapolis, Ind. 1938.

    ROOSEVELT, THEODORE. _The Winning of the West._ G. P. Putnam’s
    Sons, N. Y. 1895.

=9. The Irish.=—Sons of old Ireland develop canals, railroads, and
factories, enter the ranks of public service, and bring song, humor, and
literature of a high order.

    DUNNE, FINLEY PETER (ELMER ELLIS, ed,). _Mr. Dooley at His
    Best._ Charles Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 1938.

    O’BRIEN, MICHAEL J. _The Irish in the United States._ Phoenix
    Ltd., Washington, D. C. 1914.

(_Continued on page 15_)


Every Sunday Afternoon, 2:00 E.S.T.; 1:00 C.T.; 12:00 M.T.; 11:00 P.T.


In the Fall of 1935, President Roosevelt made the first allotment of
funds to the Office of Education for educational broadcasting. In
discussing the idea, he emphasized the need for programs that would make
more significant the human struggle to achieve our freedom as safeguarded
by our Constitution; the values of inter-American understanding and
friendship; and the processes of building a finer and more enduring
American culture by developing a greater appreciation of the rich
heritages that have come to us through the many races and nationalities
which make up our population.

Hence, the first series, “Let Freedom Ring,” traced the evolution of
human freedom and presented the contributions which old-world settlers
had made to our conception of civil liberty. Then came “Brave New
World,” portraying the Latin-American contributions to democracy and to
the general culture of the Americas. In April, 1938, the President in
addressing the Daughters of the American Revolution unknowingly gave
the title to the series “Americans All—Immigrants All” when he said,
“Remember that all of us are descended from immigrants.”

(_Continued on page 16_)

What Brought Us to the United States?

    _Have you ever played with a magnet and a bunch of iron
    filings? Wasn’t it amazing to see the bits of iron leap across
    space to reach and cling to the magnet? This story is about
    a magnet much larger and more powerful than you have ever
    imagined—one 3,000 miles long and 1,500 miles wide. A different
    kind of magnet, too, one that attracted not iron filings, but
    human beings, real live people. A magnet that attracted every
    type and variety of human being alive! White people, black
    people, yellow people; Catholics, Protestants, Huguenots,
    Quakers, Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, Jews; Spaniards,
    Danes, Chinese, Japanese, Dutch, Bohemians, Italians,
    Austrians, Slavs, Poles, Roumanians, Russians—and I’ve only
    just begun; farmers, miners, adventurers, soldiers, sailors,
    rich men, poor men, beggar men, thieves, shoemakers, tailors,
    actors, musicians, ministers, engineers, writers, singers,
    ditch-diggers, manufacturers, butchers, bakers, and candlestick
    makers. That magnet was AMERICA.—From “We the People”—by_ LEO

Ever since the dawn of history, man has been on the move, restlessly
seeking new environments in an effort to satisfy his physical and
other needs. In the main, his wanderings have been local in character,
highlighted by occasional mass migrations which have had a marked effect
upon the history of the world. Among such mass migrations may be cited
the migration of the Israelites from Palestine to Egypt, of the Germanic
tribes into the Roman Empire, of the Saxons and Danes to England, of
the Moors from the north of Africa to Spain, and of the Mongols and the
Tartars from the Orient to Central Asia.

Great as these migrations were and important as their effect was on the
course of history, they did not compare with the stream of humanity that
began to flow to this country early in the seventeenth century—a stream
that assumed flood proportions toward the close of the nineteenth century.

Not only did the movement of peoples to our shores differ in magnitude
from other migrations, it also differed in character. Whereas earlier
mass migrations had consisted of the movements of tribes and distinct
racial groups, the migration to the New World consisted of men of all
races, nations, and creeds—a pageant of all the nations.

_Great Historic Freedoms_

What motives impelled these people to uproot themselves from their
homelands and to transplant themselves to a country where it was
necessary to adjust themselves to a new environment and culture pattern?
Many came for the love of adventure, answering the challenge of the
unknown. Some were mercenary soldiers seeking new exploits. Others came
because they were friendless down-and-outers and “ne’er-do-wells,”
seeking a chance to begin life anew. There were still others, like the
Negroes, who although the majority did not come of their own free will,
nevertheless contributed toil and labor to the making of America.

Commercial enterprise and the hope of economic gain have, of course, been
important factors in the peopling of our country. So also has the search
for freedom. In fact, the cherished moral ideals and objectives of the
immigrants laid the foundations of our democratic ideals. These great
historic freedoms include:

    1. _Religious liberty_—freedom of conscience.

    2. _Personal and political liberty_—freedom from political
    tyranny and oppression.

    3. _Economic liberty_—freedom to use brain, brawn, and
    initiative to earn the best living possible.

    4. _Intellectual liberty_—freedom of opinion, speech, assembly,
    and press.

    5. _Cultural liberty_—freedom to establish institutions and to
    practice certain traditions and customs.

The _search for human freedom_ can be advanced, with historical warrant,
as the basic reason for the presence in this country of about 130,000,000
people. Without question, this is the common denominator of our democracy.

_Religious Liberty_

The vanguard of those seeking refuge from religious persecution arrived
on the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. John Winthrop
founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony as a refuge for Puritans. Maryland,
later on, became the haven for persecuted Catholics. Rhode Island was
founded by Roger Williams and his group of independent, religious free
thinkers. Here, the Quakers found a ready welcome and the Jews, driven
out of Europe, were allowed to build their synagogues. Toward the end of
the seventeenth century, William Penn and his Quaker followers settled in
Pennsylvania and cultivated the most friendly relationships with Indians,
colonists, and new settlers alike.

To Manhattan Island and South Carolina came the French Huguenots, a group
of French Protestants, whose guarantee of religious liberty had been
revoked by the Edict of Nantes. During the nineteenth century, one of the
early acts of the Mormons after settling in Utah was to contribute money
toward building a Catholic church.

_Personal and Political Liberty_

To escape political tyranny and oppression, thousands of people left
their homes and crossed the Atlantic. Following their unsuccessful
rebellion against the English, the Irish came in large numbers. So did
the Germans when the Revolution of 1848 failed. Likewise, the Jews left
Russia toward the close of the nineteenth century in order to escape
intolerable conditions.

Among the great champions of personal liberty has been Thomas Paine, who
turned the tide of victory during the Revolutionary War when he declared,
“This is the cause for which we are ready to suffer and to die—Freedom
for ourselves and the rest of the world.” Another outstanding champion
of personal liberty was Carl Schurz, one of the German forty-eighters,
who supported men of principles and worthy causes regardless of political

_Economic Liberty_

Coupled with other motives, the newcomer has almost always been imbued
with the hope of making a livelihood or of making profits for himself
or for his employers. The first permanent settlement was established at
Jamestown by the London Company to profit from gold mining and trade. New
Hampshire was founded by Georges and Mason for the purpose of profit from
trade and farming. The Carolinas were founded by a group of nobles for
the same purpose. It was a similar motive which led the Swedes to settle
on the Delaware, the Netherlanders to settle on Manhattan, the English to
conquer New Amsterdam, and Berkeley and Carteret to settle New Jersey.

It was the hope of gain which brought the French to Louisiana and the
Spaniards to Florida, New Mexico, and California. Likewise, at the close
of the nineteenth century, it was the high wages and high standards of
living which attracted the tide of people who poured in from south and
eastern Europe.

_Intellectual Liberty_

The fight of man to establish freedom of opinion, freedom of speech, and
freedom of assembly is as old as man himself. For the last two hundred
years, his fight for the freedom of the press has been equally important.
Peter Zenger, who founded the _New York Weekly Journal_ in 1733,
registered a great triumph for the freedom of the press when he won his
fight against Governor Cosby of New York. Men of strong principles and
ideas have always clashed with those who would mold them to a definite
pattern and so enslave their minds. In this country, the thoughts and
ideas of all men may be expressed freely and analyzed by everybody.

_Cultural Liberty_

The United States has been greatly enriched as the result of cultural
liberty. Here, the immigrant has often found the opportunity to practice
and pass on to others those customs and traditions which have been
handed down to him by his ancestors. The Christmas tree, Easter bunny,
and New Year festivities are German in origin. Many of the festivals in
California and the rodeo are Spanish in origin. Singing societies, folk
dancing, games, cookery, and home life have been enriched by customs
introduced from other lands.

Immigration has indeed proved to be a “wind that blows democratic ideas
through the world.”


When We Came to the United States


1536 Spaniards begin to settle in California and in the Southwest.

1565 Spaniards establish St. Augustine, oldest city in the United States.

1607 English establish Jamestown, the oldest English settlement in North

1619 Negroes are first brought in as slaves.

1620 English Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock.

1624 Walloons, from Netherlands, settle Fort Orange, now Albany, New York.

1626 Netherlanders establish New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.

1628 Persecuted Protestants establish the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1634 Lord Baltimore and a group of English Catholics arrive in Maryland.

1636 Roger Williams and his followers establish Rhode Island.

1636 Connecticut is founded by Thomas Hooker and his religious group.

1638 Swedes and Finns settle along the Delaware River.

1639 John Mason and his followers come to New Hampshire.

1654 Twenty-three Portuguese Jews land at New Amsterdam from Brazil.

1662 Huguenots settle in Massachusetts on the present site of Oxford.

1663 English nobles, with grant from Charles II, establish North Carolina.

1664 English capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York.

1664 Berkeley, Carteret, and others establish New Jersey.

1670 English make first permanent settlement in South Carolina.

1670 French fur traders and missionaries come to the Mississippi Valley.

1679 French Huguenots settle in South Carolina.

1681 The Quakers, led by William Penn, settle Pennsylvania.

1682 The first Germans come to Pennsylvania.

1690 About 200 Scotch-Irish settle in Maryland.

1693 English help to settle 600 German-Swiss in North Carolina.

1699 The Acadians come to Louisiana and reach as far as Biloxi in
present-day Mississippi.

1700 The Scotch-Irish settle along the frontiers.

1710 First German Protestants arrive in New York.

1719 Acadians establish New Orleans, Louisiana.

1720 Between 1720 and 1750, 60,000 Germans come to Pennsylvania.

1732 Oglethorpe founds Georgia.

1733 German Lutherans, Italian Protestants from Piedmont, Scots, Swiss,
Portuguese Jews, and English arrive in Georgia.

1737 Irish laborers come to South Carolina.

1749 About 600 Scots settle near Fayetteville, North Carolina.

1750 Over 4,300 Germans and 1,000 English and Irish arrive in

1790 Between 1790 and 1820, around 234,000 newcomers arrive.

1807 Slave trade is forbidden.

1817 20,000 people come from Europe.

1819 First United States Passenger Act, marking beginning of systematic
immigration statistics.

1842 Annual immigration first reaches 100,000.

1847 Annual immigration passes 200,000.

1845 Large German influx begins as a result of political unrest.

1847 Irish begin to come in large numbers because of famine and political

1851 Annual immigration passes 300,000.

1853 About 13,000 Chinese laborers arrive to work in the California gold

1855 Castle Garden, New York, established as principal immigrant station.

1860 Slavs and southern Europeans begin to arrive.

1870 More than 15,000 Chinese arrive to work on the railroads.

1880 Because of militarism and overpopulation in Germany, Germans again
begin to arrive in large numbers.

1880 Between 1880 and 1900, large numbers of Scandinavians arrive because
introduction of machinery takes place of men on Scandinavian farms.

1881 For next 15 years, an average of nearly 500,000 arrive each year.

1882 Idiots, lunatics, and persons likely to become public charges

1890 For next 30 years, Italians, Austrians, Hungarians, and Slavs pour
into United States to supply demand for unskilled labor.

1890 Ellis Island replaces Castle Garden as chief immigrant station.

1891 More than 1,000 Japanese arrive.

1891 The office of Superintendent of Immigration is established in the
Treasury Department.

1900 More than 12,000 Japanese arrive.

1900 Between 1900 and 1914, more than 3,000,000 Italians and about
6,000,000 people from Slavic countries enter.

1905 Annual immigration first exceeds 1,000,000.

1907 Immigration reaches all-time peak of 1,285,349.

1907 Immigration Commission is set up.

1917 During World War and afterwards thousands of Mexicans cross the

1919 Flow of immigrants from Europe again gets under way.

1921 Temporary Quota Law, restricting immigration.

1924 Permanent Quota Law, restricting immigration to 150,000 annually.

1938 Annual immigration drops to about 70,000.

The Development of Our Immigration Policy

    “_Those who have come to our shores, representing many kindreds
    and tongues, have been welded by common opportunity into a
    united patriotism._”—FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.

Long before the Revolutionary War, the colonies enacted restrictive
immigration laws. Many of these laws were based on religious prejudices,
which, although somewhat softened in intensity, still existed when the
new nation was born. Fear and consequent hatred of foreigners and foreign
influence were widely prevalent in the early years of the Republic.

John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, John Jay, and other
prominent statesmen opposed the introduction of aliens into the political
or economic life of the country. Thomas Jefferson believed that natural
expansion of the existing population would be sufficient to meet the
country’s needs. Even George Washington, in 1794, said:

    My opinion with respect to emigration, is that except of
    useful mechanics and some particular descriptions of men or
    professions, there is no need of encouragement.

The prevailing spirit found expression in stringent naturalization laws
which, however, were soon modified.

_The Open Door_

While the Federal Government was not unmindful of its inherent right to
determine who might or might not come or remain within its borders, yet
for a hundred years after the Revolutionary War ended, the country’s
doors were open to all who chose to enter regardless of race, of
physical, mental, or economic condition, of religious or political
affiliation, or even of moral character.

An era of comparative tranquillity prevailed toward immigration until the
1840’s when a great flood of immigrants focused hostility against the
Germans and Irish, a feeling which continued until the outbreak of the
Civil War. A strong movement developed in Congress in favor of regulating
or even limiting immigration. But nothing came of it. In a message to
Congress in 1841, President Tyler gave expression to a sentiment that
grew stronger with the passing of the years. He said:

    We hold out to the people of other countries an invitation to
    come and settle among us as members of our rapidly growing
    family, and for the blessings we offer them we require of them
    to look upon our country as their country and unite with us
    in the great task of preserving our institutions and thereby
    perpetuating our liberties.

The open-door policy continued, for Congress was reluctant to abandon
the time-honored belief that the United States had been dedicated at
the beginning as a refuge for the oppressed people of all nations. Such
legislation as was enacted during this period, including three laws for
the improvement of conditions on immigrant-carrying ships, indicated the
sympathetic attitude of Congress toward the incoming multitudes.

Congress again favored the foreign-born by providing that aliens who had
declared an intention to become citizens might enjoy the benefits of the
Homestead Act of 1862. This privilege was later on destined to accelerate
the settlement of public lands in the West.

Because man power in industry and agriculture had been depleted during
the War Between the States, a Federal law to stimulate immigration was
enacted in 1864, but it was soon repealed when peace was restored.

_Federal Control_

In the absence of federal action, several seaboard States attempted
immigration control but, after many years of effort, the Supreme Court
held that Congress alone had such power. Congress assumed this power in
1882 when it reluctantly passed the first general immigration law which
provided only that idiots, lunatics, persons likely to become a public
charge, and criminals other than political offenders should be denied
admission. This law marked the beginning of a policy of _quality
selection_ which dominated all subsequent legislation.

In 1882, because of Western opposition, Chinese laborers were excluded—a
policy subsequently extended to include practically all Orientals. In
1884, a law forbidding the importation of foreign labor under contract
was passed but necessary skilled laborers and members of learned
professions were exempted. Thus was Washington’s opinion unwittingly

While Congress was developing a more stringent selective policy,
immigration increased by leaps and bounds with a shift in the incoming
tide from Northern and Western to Southern and Eastern Europeans. Unable
to function economically, socially, or politically in their home lands,
a steady stream of immigrants was spreading over the United States in
answer to the demand for unskilled labor. For more than thirty years, the
words of Emma Lazarus, carved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty,
had vital meaning:

    Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, the tempest-tost, to me:
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

_Checking the Tide_

The endless stream of newcomers, whose economic and political backgrounds
differed from those of the earlier immigrants, led to a search for some
method of checking the new immigration. With this end in view, the
application of a literacy test was advocated. Presidents Cleveland and
Taft had vetoed acts which contained this provision and President Wilson
twice repudiated it. However, it became part of the General Law of 1917
over presidential objection. In a reference to the immigrants, President
Wilson said:

    Some of the best stuff in America has come out of foreign lands
    and some of the best stuff in America is in the men who are
    naturalized citizens of the United States.

In the meantime, during the administration of President Theodore
Roosevelt, a Gentlemen’s Agreement had been made with Japan in 1907,
whereby Japan undertook to check the emigration of Japanese laborers to
the United States.

Immigration from Europe was largely suspended during the World War, but
it rapidly increased thereafter until it was checked by the temporary
Quota Limit Law of 1921 and definitely limited by the permanent Quota
Limit Law of 1924. By this law, immigration was restricted to 150,000
annually, with quotas allotted to the various nations based on the Census
of 1890. In 1929, the quota based on the Census of 1920 went into effect,
bringing the total immigration quota to about 153,000 annually.

_Our Present Policy_

The theory that America should be a refuge for the oppressed of all
nations has been quite generally honored in shaping our immigration
policy. However, the United States is no longer a refuge for the
oppressed peoples of all the world in the same way as it was in the past.

Our present policy is that immigration shall be limited to a fixed
number, that such immigrants shall be of good character and well disposed
toward American institutions. For, in the words of former President

    Whether one traces his Americanism back three centuries to
    the Mayflower or three years to the steerage is not half so
    important as whether his Americanism today is real and genuine.
    No matter on what various crafts we came here, we are all now
    in the same boat.

Ourselves and Our Neighbors

A recent dinner in Chicago with Catholic friends, whose parents came
from Italy, a conference with a group of 25 cultured Negro men and
women at Chicago University, and a visit in Des Moines, Iowa, with a
close personal friend of mine, a rabbi, are a few personal experiences
which show in a very real way how a relatively free society enables us
to enrich our lives through fellowship with men of different races and

In this Nation, to which more than 38,000,000 immigrants have come
during the last 120 years, the struggle of people of all races and of
many creeds _has been_ and _is_ consciously toward the goal of human
understanding and tolerance. This is an effort to elevate human welfare,
irrespective of race, color, or creed; and to rise to new heights of
civilization with the help of all contributions to our culture. A
distinguishing characteristic of a true American is that he measures men
of all races and creeds by their achievement, their honesty of purpose,
and their humility.

                                                  J. W. STUDEBAKER,
                                             _Commissioner of Education_.

The Immigrant and Our Economic Progress

    _The greatest wealth of any nation is its people._—ALLEN H.

To paint an adequate picture of the part which the immigrant has played
in the economic progress of the United States, it would be necessary, as
Rudyard Kipling says, “to splash at a ten-league canvas with brushes of
comet’s hair.” The industrial and agricultural greatness of the United
States has been made possible by the brawn and brain of the immigrants
and their children.


The important part played by the _Negro_ in the agricultural life of the
South is nowhere more vividly portrayed than by the story of King Cotton.
Cotton production, which amounted to 85,000,000 lb. in 1810, doubled
every ten years for the following three decades. By 1840, two-thirds
of the world’s cotton supply was produced in the South and, by 1850,
cotton valued at $98,000,000 was raised. In 1937-1938, the United States
produced four times as much cotton as the rest of the world.


    U.S.A.         18,946,000 BALES
    BRAZIL          2,107,839 BALES

Much of the credit for this amazing achievement goes to the _Negro_ whose
labor has been the foundation of our Cotton Kingdom.


The story of tobacco is, too, largely the achievement of _Negro_ labor.
In 1618, the Virginia planters exported 20 lb. of tobacco, which
increased to 1,500,000 lb. in 1639 and reached a total of 53,000,000 lb.
in 1773. In 1937, the United States raised more than one-fourth of the
world’s tobacco supply.


    U.S.A.         1,553,000,000 LB.
    CHINA          1,400,000,000 LB.
    INDIA          1,200,000,000 LB.

In addition to his labor in the cotton and tobacco fields, the _Negro_
has also helped to make profitable the production of rice and sugar.


The railroad played a great part in the settling of the West. With the
completion of the Erie Canal, the _Irish_ transferred their energy and
labor to building tracks for the transcontinental railroad. The _Chinese_
also labored on the western end. Today, _Irish_, _Chinese_, _Italian_,
and _Mexican_ laborers help to maintain the railroads. In 1937, almost
one-half the world’s miles of railways were in our country.


    U.S.A.      238,539 MI.
    RUSSIA       52,425 MI.
    INDIA        43,128 MI.


Natural resources and inventive genius have enabled us to produce each
year three times as many automobiles as the rest of the world put
together. The work of the _Poles_, _Slavs_, _Mexicans_, and other groups
has been an important factor in this phenomenal growth.


    U.S.A.      4,808,974
    BRITAIN       490,366
    GERMANY       331,894


Early colonial iron mills were operated by the _Germans_, whose muskets,
made in Nazareth, Pa., were used by the continental troops. In later
years, the _Poles_ and _Slavs_ have labored in the great steel mills
of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and New York. It is the endurance and
physical heritage of these sturdy people that have made it possible for
us to lead the world in the production of steel.


    U.S.A.       50,569,000 T.
    GERMANY      19,536,000 T.
    BRITAIN      12,964,000 T.


The _Welsh_ with the _Scotch-Irish_ were the first to develop our coal
mines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. These, together with the
_English_, _Irish_, _Germans_, _Poles_, and _Slavs_, have made us the
chief coal producer of the world.


    U.S.A.        488,692,000 T.
    BRITAIN       224,000,000 T.
    GERMANY       146,696,000 T.


Our debt to the _German_ farmer is great, for he made the wilderness
blossom in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri. To
Minnesota and surrounding states came the _Swedes_, _Norwegians_, and
_Finns_ with their advanced cooperative methods and the _Danes_ with
their dairy methods.... Sturdy _Czechs_ farmed Nebraska and Iowa. The
_Swiss_ in Wisconsin helped us to become the greatest cheesemakers in the
world. The _Russians_ brought us important seed varieties of wheat, rye,
oats, buckwheat, sunflowers, and millet.

_Finns_ and _French-Canadians_ in the lumber camps of Maine and
Washington have made it possible for us to produce more than 24 million
board feet of lumber in one year.... _Portuguese_ are prominent in the
New England fisheries as are the _Finns_ on the Pacific Coast.... The
_Greeks_ have developed a flourishing sponge industry in Florida....
_Italians_ are engaged in the marble quarries of Vermont and on truck
farms of New Jersey and California.


Pulling Together—The American Way

    _America is made up of the cultural strains of many countries.
    The mere knowledge of this matchless wealth is an inspiration
    to anyone who knows it._—ALLEN H. EATON.

Nature has blessed this country with great natural wealth, but
immigration has brought us even greater riches in the form of human
resources. Andrew Carnegie, himself an immigrant, was well aware of this
when he said, “Take away my factories, my railroads, my ships. Take away
my money, strip me of all these things, but leave me my men, and in two
or three years, I will have everything back again.”

_Priceless Gifts_

Transforming her immigrants as they have come, the United States has, in
turn, been enriched and transformed by them. The immigrant has played
an important part in our cultural as well as in our economic life. One
immigrant, Franklin K. Lane, who became Secretary of the Interior, wrote
feelingly of the contributions which the immigrant has made to American

    Their music—dirge and dance and wassail song, proud march
    and religious chant, and their instruments for the making of

    Their poetry—winged tales of man’s many passions, folk songs
    and psalm, ballads of heroes and tunes of the sea, lilting
    scraps caught from the sky and field, or mighty dramas that
    tell of primal struggles of the profoundest meaning.

    Their art—fancies of the mind, woven in wood or wool, silk,
    stone, or metal, rugs and baskets, gates of fine design and
    modeled gardens, houses and walls, pillars, roofs, windows,
    statues and painting—their art and handcraft.

    Homelike familiar things—a favorite tree or fruit, an
    accustomed flower, a style in cookery or in costume.

    Hands with which to work.

    Minds that could conceive.

    Hearts filled with home—stout hearts to drive live minds; live
    minds to direct willing hands.

Irish song and wit, German thrift and industry, Scottish virility and
genius, English love of law and order, Scandinavian honesty and love
of home, Negro fervor in song and story, Mexican enjoyment of life,
Indian customs and traditions, Slavic dance and folk song, neatness and
thoroughness of the Netherlanders, Italian love for art and music, and
philosophic tendencies of the Oriental for the beautiful, are but a few
of the strands that may be found woven into our national pattern.

_The Art of Living Together_

Barriers that once existed between racial and national groups in this
country are fast disappearing. Cooperative effort and healthy respect
are taking their place. We are “learning to understand other peoples to
understand ourselves.” The newcomers brought with them an ardent desire
to improve their conditions. They quickly availed themselves of the
opportunity which the public school offered them.

The school took “the child of the exile of Hungary, of the half-starved
emigrant from the Emerald Isle, and of the hardy Norwegian, and placed
them on the same bench with the offspring of those whose ancestors’
bones bleached upon the fields of Lexington.” The library, the church,
the motion picture, and radio are also powerful educational agencies in
molding the pattern of the New American.

_Milestones of Progress_

The immigrant has always been a firm devotee of the ideals of democracy,
for in most cases he has suffered religious, political, military, or
other oppression. Even in the United States, democracy did not begin full
tilt. But, just as the frontier has been conquered, so too the areas of
human rights and freedoms have been extended.

The abolition of slavery, universal suffrage, the grant of full rights
of citizenship to women, labor legislation, and property rights have all
been milestones in the onward march of democracy.

The immigrant has not been unmindful of the blessings conferred upon him
in this country. He has adjusted himself quickly to his new environment.
In every crisis, he has faithfully stood by our country and institutions.
He has striven to teach his children to love and honor the land which
harbors them.

All human history teaches us that the price of human liberty is the
continuous enlargement of that liberty. The only safe principle of
democracy is justice, equity, and equal respect among all our people.
Great unfinished tasks remain for us to solve. Our common loyalty must
hold high the torch and pass it on, with fire unquenched, to the citizen
of tomorrow.


Recordings of “Americans All—Immigrants All”

Many organizations, churches, schools, and colleges have requested that
“Americans All—Immigrants All” be made available in recorded form.
The Office of Education, by special arrangement with the Columbia
Broadcasting System, the Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning, the
American Federation of Musicians, and the Music Authors and Publishers
Protective Association, have recordings for non-commercial use in both
33⅓ r.p.m. and 78 r.p.m. (suitable for use on phonographs). For complete
information regarding the recordings, write to: _Educational Radio Script
Exchange_, Radio Division, Office of Education, Washington, D. C.



Are People Really Different?

    “_Democracy means not ‘I’m as good as you are’ but ‘you’re as
    good as I am.’_”—THEODORE PARKER.

Immigration has made the United States the most composite nation on
earth. More peoples of widely different national and racial origins have
been brought together and welded into a single political, economic, and
social system than anywhere else in the world.

What constitutes a race? Does each race have certain hereditary
characteristics which determine its mental life and social behavior?
Is there a racial stock which is superior—physically, mentally, and
morally—to other racial stocks? Just what differences, if any, exist
between those who were born here and those who have adopted this country
as their home land?

There is no such person as a native American, nor was there ever such
a person if we are to be strictly accurate. We are told that even the
American Indian is an immigrant who came from far-off Asia by way of the
Bering Straits and Alaska. Our ancestors may have come on the Mayflower
or in the steerage, we may be descended from immigrants who settled here
generations ago, or we may have come direct from other lands, yet one
fact remains crystal clear—WE ARE ALL IMMIGRANTS.

_Physical Characteristics_

From the physical standpoint, races do have certain very definite
differences that are obvious. One of the most obvious is that of color.
White, black, yellow, red, brown, and yellow-brown are the colors we
usually associate with certain racial types. Some of us are tall, blond,
and blue-eyed. Others are short, dark, and brown-eyed. Some people
have long, narrow heads while others have short, round heads. However,
the same physical differences may be found not only between racial and
national groups, but also between individuals within the nation, tribe,
or family.

_Mental Characteristics_

In answer to the contention that certain racial groups are mentally
superior to others, Franz Boas, an outstanding scientist, says, “No one
has ever proved that a human being through his descent from a group of
people must of necessity have certain mental characteristics.... If
we were to select the most intelligent, imaginative, energetic, and
emotionally stable third of mankind, all races would be represented.”

Hooton, another scientist, is even more emphatic. He declares that “each
racial type runs the gamut from idiots and criminals to geniuses and
statesmen. No type produces a majority of individuals from either end
of the scale. There are no racial monopolies of either human virtues or

Carefully controlled intelligence tests given by educators and scientists
to different racial groups show that, where environment and social
conditions are the same, no group can claim mental superiority. In
fact, it has been clearly apparent that “man, everywhere, is basically
and fundamentally similar” and that his differences, be they physical,
mental, or moral, are determined not by race so much as by the social
conditions and opportunities around him.

_Important Findings_

The assimilation of different groups within the United States would seem
to show that:

=_1. Under favorable conditions of equal opportunity, all racial groups,
whatever their original homeland conditions and status, are capable of
rapid social change both as individuals and as groups._=

“It can easily be shown,” says one scientist, “how dependent mental
differences are upon social conditions. For instance, exact observations
have been made on Negroes who have moved from the country to the city and
it has been shown that assimilation of these people to the behavior of
the city population takes place within a few years.

“Likewise, it has been shown in the case of Italian immigrants that they
grow to resemble the Americans in behavior the longer they have been
in this country, provided they do not remain isolated. One of the most
instructive illustrations of this assimilation is the ease with which
children adopt the dialect and manner of expression of their environment.”

=_2. All groups, under the stimulus of opportunity and contact, have
capacity to produce exceptional individuals of high creative ability or
genius and thus help build up and perfect human culture._=

The Nordic and Slav, the southern European and Jew, black, white, brown,
and yellow have all produced men and women of outstanding brains and
genius. To confirm these statements it is only necessary to read, in the
pages that follow, the contributions of the immigrant and his descendants
to American life.

Research studies, conducted on an objective basis, prove that individual
brilliance may be and is, found in all groups.

=_3. Under the influence of a common environment, physical and cultural,
the offspring of different racial and national groups in a democracy tend
toward a common culture with common customs and ideals._=

John Dewey has emphasized that, “in a democratic society, individuals
give freely to others of the peculiar value, essence, quality, and
contribution of the group to which they belong, and receive freely the
corresponding treasures of other groups, and this without violence to the
complete uniqueness of the group.”

At birth, no individual has any culture and so the culture he eventually
acquires is the one he finds around him and is capable of assimilating.
However, “new conditions bring the need of new ideals and new emphasis
on certain aspects of old ideals.” Civilization itself is not only
safeguarded but advanced when a nation, composed of many races, finds it
possible for each racial group to “function creatively in building the
culture of the race into the whole culture pattern.”

=_4. Within the framework of common political and economic institutions,
a variety of cultural elements makes for a richer and more active social

In all history, some of the most advanced civilizations have been the
product of a mixture of cultures. No great nations or civilizations have
been born in isolation. Inbreeding inevitably results in one-sidedness
and, eventually, in stagnation and decadence.

Spain was at its greatest “when the mixture of peoples was at its
height.” England grew great because the ingredients of many racial groups
ran in the Englishman’s blood. The United States will continue to be
great because the intermingling of many groups tends to build a culture
or civilization that unifies the best of their contributions.

=_5. A civilization of many different elements develops religious,
social, and cultural tolerance. It also creates ability which may permit
it to grow and change._=

Immigration from 1820 to 1936

    Albania                            2,846
    Austria and Hungary            4,138,333
    Belgium                          155,024
    Bulgaria                          65,424
    Czechoslovakia                   110,928
    Denmark                          333,900
    Estonia                            1,839
    Finland                           18,310
    France                           588,023
    Germany                        5,938,822
    Great Britain:
      England                      2,629,335
      Scotland                       732,587
      Wales                           86,233
      Not Specified                  793,741
    Greece                           427,006
    Ireland                        4,588,464
    Italy                          4,692,447
    Latvia                             3,918
    Lithuania                          7,166
    Luxemburg                            854
    Netherlands                      249,059
    Norway and Sweden              2,018,640
    Poland                           407,366
    Portugal                         254,499
    Rumania                          155,496
    Russia                         3,343,088
    Spain                            168,913
    Switzerland                      292,153
    Turkey in Europe                 155,568
    Yugoslavia                        53,394
    Other Europe                      21,309
    TOTAL FROM EUROPE             32,434,685

    China                            379,982
    India                              9,704
    Japan                            277,162
    Turkey in Asia                   205,317
    Other Asia                        38,858
    ASIA COMPLETE TOTAL              911,023

    Canada and Newfoundland        2,957,422
    Mexico                           768,453
    Central America                   46,919
    West Indies                      438,633
    South America                    117,649
    Other America                         40
    AMERICA TOTAL                  4,329,116

    AFRICA                            25,311
    AUSTRALIA-NEW ZEALAND             53,739
    PACIFIC ISLANDS                   10,610
    NOT SPECIFIED                    254,066
    TOTAL FROM ALL COUNTRIES      38,018,550

_From 1931 to 1938, departures have exceeded admissions by 203,694._

Our Gifts to Science and to Agriculture

The brawn, brain, and inventive genius of the immigrants and their
descendants have made the United States a world leader in science and
industry. In reading about this pageant of achievement, which is unique
in human history, you will also learn something about the =diverse racial
origins= of those who laid the gifts on the “altar of America.” Here they
and women who have thrilled the worlds of science and industry, the arts
and crafts, and social progress and government. The _italics_ indicate
the racial origin of each individual or a major racial group from which
he is descended, although it should be kept in mind that a person’s
ancestors frequently include many racial strains. The achievements listed
are suggestive rather than exhaustive.



Use of cocaine as local anaesthetic first introduced by Carl Koller,
_German Jew_ ... ether first demonstrated to the world in surgical
operation by William Morton, _Scot_ ... first successful operation on
human heart performed by Daniel H. Williams, _Negro_.

Schick Diphtheria Test devised by Dr. Bela Schick, _Hungarian Jew_ ...
pioneer work in antiseptics by Henry Banga, _Swiss_, and many lives saved
during World War through contributions to aseptic surgery of Alexis
Carrel, _French_ ... preventive compound for cholera and typhoid fever
discovered by F. G. Novy, _Slovak_ ... apparatus for electric blood
transfusion perfected by D. J. Calicchio, _Italian_.

Charles and William Mayo, _Irish_, have made surgery almost as reliable
a science as bookkeeping ... Charles McBurney, _Scotch-Irish_,
discovered McBurney’s Point as a sign for the necessity of operating for

Discovery that the disease pellagra was due to faulty diet made by Joseph
Goldberger, _German Jew_ ... typhus and typhoid fever distinguished by
Alfred Stillé, _Swede_ ... human blood classified in different types by
Karl Landsteiner, _Austrian Jew_ ... research work in combatting syphilis
and yellow fever by Hideyo Noguchi, _Japanese_.

Expert on infantile paralysis and meningitis is Simon Flexner, _German
Jew_ ... first removal of human ovary by Ephraim MacDowell, _Scot_
... one of the famous authorities on plastic surgery is V. Kazanjian,
_Armenian_ ... world authority on venereal disease is Vecki Victor,
_Yugoslav_ ... Edward Trudeau, _French_, began sanatorium treatment for
tuberculosis ... Clifford Beers, _English-Netherlander_, founder of
mental hygiene movement.

Discovery that mosquitoes carried yellow fever made by Walter Reed,
_English_ ... malaria driven out of Panama by General William C. Gorgas,
_Scotch-Irish-Netherlander_ ... first hospital in colonies founded by Dr.
Thomas Bond, _Welsh_.



Our great electrical wizards have been: Joseph Henry, _Scotch-Irish_, who
helped to invent the telegraph ... Charles Steinmetz, _German-Polish_,
mathematical genius and electrical scientist, who had one of the world’s
most inventive minds ... Thomas Edison, _Scot-Netherlander_, who invented
electric light bulb and phonograph ... Michael Pupin, _Yugoslav_, who
perfected tuning-in mechanism of radio.... Nicola Tesla, _Yugoslav_, who
made extensive use of electrical power possible ... Vladimir Karapetoff,
_Armenian_, inventor of electrical devices.

Most distinguished physicist on light rays is Albert A. Michelson,
_German Jew_ ... on x-rays, Arthur H. Compton, _English_ ... on cosmic
rays, Robert Millikan, _Scotch-Irish_ ... outstanding investigator
of Röentgen ray is Mihran Kassabian, _Armenian_ ... through work on
electrotechnics, expansion of telephonic and telegraphic communication
made possible by E. F. W. Alexanderson, _Swede_ ... John Kruesi, _Swiss_,
helped Edison develop electric incandescent lamp, dynamo, and phonograph.



First observatory put up by Ephraim Williams, _Welsh_ ... many of our
early-day almanacs based on astronomical studies and computations of
David Rittenhouse, _German-Welsh_ ... Lick Observatory, California,
and Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, founded by James Lick and Charles
Yerkes, _Germans_ ... for pictures of many of the stars, Dorothy Klumpke,
_German_, achieved much fame ... famous mathematician and everyday
almanac maker was Benjamin Banneker, _Negro_, who also helped L’Enfant,
_French_, to lay out Washington, D. C.


Ephedrin, drug used as base for cold remedies, discovered by K. K. Chen,
_Chinese_ ... adrenalin and diastase, discovered by Jokichi Takamine,
_Japanese_ ... grape sugar changed into tartaric acid by Mooshegh
Vaygoony, _Armenian_ ... George Washington Carver, _Negro_, made 145
products from peanut, 100 products from sweet potato, and 60 products
from the pecan ... fermented milk product of high curative values
discovered by H. M. Dadoorian, _Armenian_.


A pilot on one of Columbus’ ships was Pedro Alonzo, _Negro_ ... first
explorers in New Mexico led by Estévanico, _Moroccan_ ... first settlers
of Alabama, who accompanied De Soto in 1540, were Robles, _Negro_, and
Feryada, _Greek_ ... first reliable map of Virginia and Maryland made by
Augustine Herrman, _Czech_.

Lewis, _Welsh_, and Clark, _English_, led the famous expedition to
the Northwest ... 1903 Ziegler Expedition to the North Pole led by
Anthony Fiala, _Czech_ ... North Pole discovered by Robert Peary,
_French-English_, accompanied by Matthew Henson, _Negro_ ... first to fly
across South Pole was Richard Byrd, _English_.

_Other Sciences_

First of American geologists was William McClure, _Scot_ ... the great
naturalist, John J. Audubon, _French-Spanish_, taught us about birds of
America ... many inspired to study natural sciences by Louis Agassiz,
_French_ ... Henry D. Thoreau, _Huguenot_, was great naturalist and
writer ... famous anthropologists are Franz Boas and Edward Sapir,
_German Jews_, and Ales Hrdlicka, _Czech_.

International authority on zoology and botany is Leonhard Steiniger,
_Norwegian_ ... expert on function of cell and fertilization is
Ernest Just, _Negro_ ... first botanical garden in world founded near
Philadelphia by John Bartram, _Welsh_, early in 18th century ... public
garden, established in Georgia by General Oglethorpe, _English_, served
as our first agricultural experiment station ... scientific breeding of
plants demonstrated by Luther Burbank, _English-French-Netherlander-Scot_.


Famous philosophers: Wm. James, _Welsh-English_ ... John Dewey, _Irish_
... Santayana, _Spaniard_ ... Jiddu Krishnamurti, _Hindu_.



First vineyard in our country was set out by Jean Jacques Dufour, _Swiss_
... oranges, olives, dates, and grapes were brought to California by Fray
Junipero Serra, _Spaniard_ ... fig cuttings were imported by Denotovitch
of Fresno, _Yugoslav_ ... wild strawberry developed into large table
variety by Johann Schwerdkopf, _German_, who came to Long Island before
Revolutionary War.

Alfalfa seed, known as Lucerne, brought to Minnesota and developed by
Wendelin Grimm, _German_, in 1858 ... hardy alfalfa for prairies of
northwest, brought from Siberia and Turkestan by Niels Hansen, _Dane_ ...
mower and reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick, _Scotch-Irish_.

Simple tests to determine whether soil needs nitrogen, phosphates, or
potash devised by George Hoffer, _German_ ... pasteurization introduced
by Julius Moldenhawar, _Dane_ ... orange that will stay on tree for
months after ripening propagated by Lue Gim Gong, _Chinese_ ... honey
industry revolutionized by Frank Jaeger, _Yugoslav_.

Early cooperative creamery at Clark’s Grove, Minn., organized under
leadership of Hans Jensen, _Dane_ ... first to find trichina spiralis in
hogs and hookworm in cats was Joseph Leidy, _German_ ... International
Institute of Agriculture established by David Lubin, _Polish-Jew_.

Our Gifts to Industry and Commerce


First clock in America constructed to strike the hours built by Benjamin
Banneker, _Negro_, in 1790 ... early flour-milling machinery by Oliver
Evans, _Welsh_ ... iron comb, made by a _Negro_ to help cotton pickers,
gave Eli Whitney, _English_, idea for his cotton gin ... screw propeller
and revolving turret on battleship invented by John Ericsson, _Swede_ ...
first patent to a _Negro_ granted to Henry Blair for corn harvester in
1834 ... comb-making machine built by Nathaniel Jones, _Welsh_.

First zipper fastener invented by Gideon Sundbäck, _Swede_ ... green
coloring matter used in our paper dollar invented by Dr. Seropian,
_Armenian_ ... machine for lasting shoes built by Jan Matzeliger,
_Haitian_, in 1852 ... self-starter automobile clutch invented by Victor
Bendix, _Swede_; also developed four-wheel brakes and carburetor ...
steam-boiler furnace, electrical air-brakes, and incubator invented
by Granville T. Woods, _Negro_ ... inventor of carborundum was E. G.
Acheson, _English_.


Sewing machine invented by Elias Howe, _English_, in 1846 ... lubricating
cup, used on locomotives and marine engines, invented by Elijah J. McCoy,
_Negro_ ... discovery of artificial rubber by Father Nieuland of Notre
Dame, _Belgian_, broke the British hold on rubber ... induction motors
invented by Nicolas Tesla, _Yugoslav_ ... co-discoverer of process for
making luminous paints was John Sochocky, _Ukrainian_ ... fireproof
stairs and library bookstacks invented by Neils Poulson, _Dane_ ...
Stilson wrench invented by Daniel Stilson, _Swede_, in 1875.

Bakelite, a substitute used for ivory and bone in making toilet
articles, invented by Leo Baekeland, _Belgian_. He discovered velox,
a paper used by photographers, and made several other discoveries
through experimenting with the electrolytic cell ... one of our earliest
elevators was built by Dr. Nils Collins, _Swede_, a Philadelphia pastor
... the condensor used in radios and electric motors is the result of
work done by Alexander Georgiev, _Bulgarian_ ... numerous inventions of a
wide and varied nature in connection with steam turbines were developed
by Oscar Junggren and by Carl Söderburg, _Swedes_ ... huge machines used
for knitting are the invention of Ladislaus Robaczynski, _Armenian_ ...
outstanding typewriter designer is Carl Gabrielson, _Swede_.

Airbrake invented by George Westinghouse, _English-Netherlander_ ...
“scientific divining rod” used in electro-magnetic method of locating
metal ore, petroleum, and other minerals devised by Hans Lundberg and
Karl Sundberg, _Swedes_ ... in inventing telephone transmitter and
motion-picture projector, Edison, _Scot-Netherlander_, helped by Emile
Berliner, _German Jew_ ... accuracy gauges from which precision machinery
is made, invented by Carl Johannson, _Swede_ ... process for making
artificial stone invented by Michael Tymofiev, _Ukrainian_ ... pioneer in
radio work and sound motion pictures was Lee De Forest, _French-English_.



First steamboat built and taken down Ohio and Mississippi by Nicholas
Roosevelt, _Netherlander_ ... first elevated railroad in New York City
was built by José Francisco de Navarro, a _Spaniard_, in 1878 ... first
demonstration of steam railroad in practice by John Stevens, _English_,
in 1825 ... the Clermont, our first commercially successful steamboat,
built by Robert Fulton, _Irish_ ... greatest of clipper ships, Rainbow
and Sea Witch, built by John Griffith, _Welsh_ ... wagons and automobiles
produced by Studebaker Brothers, _German_.

Inventor of modern suspension bridge was John Roebling, _German_, who
built beautiful Brooklyn Bridge ... the Niagara cantilever bridge, for
heavy railroad traffic, invented by Charles Schneider, _German_ ... the
Northwest opened up by railroad builder James J. Hill, _Scotch-Irish_ ...
transatlantic flier, Charles Lindbergh, and airship commander, Charles
Rosendahl, _Swedes_.


Window glass manufactured by Caspar Wistar, _German_, in 1739 ...
decorative stoves and glass of highly prized nature manufactured in 18th
century by Heinrich Stiegel, _German_ ... the New England cotton mills
established by Samuel Slater, _English_ ... first to unite all processes
for manufacturing finished cloth in one factory was Patrick Jackson,
_Irish_ ... art of making gunpowder perfected by Eleuthere Dupont,

Great steel works of Pittsburgh founded by Andrew Carnegie, _Scot_,
assisted by William Jones, _Welsh_ ... iron and steel industries of
Pueblo, Colorado, established by Daniel Jones, _Welsh_ ... famous pioneer
organ builder, Matthias Moller, a _Dane_ ... pianos and other instruments
by Steinway, Knabe, Weber, Wurlitzer, Gemünder, _Germans_ ... steel
manufactured by Charles Schwab, _German_ ... sugar produced by Havemeyer,
_German_ ... food products by Heinz and Fleischmann, _Germans_ ...
world-noted cymbals made by Zildijian, _Armenian_ ... airplane builders
are Igor Sigorsky, _Russian_; Bellanca, _Italian_; Douglas, _Scot_;
Boeing, _German_; and Curtiss, _English-German_.



The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, _Scot_ ... the
telegraph was invention of Joseph Henry and Samuel Morse, _Scotch-Irish_
... steam-cylinder printing press, making possible our great daily
newspapers, was brain child of Robert Hoe, _English_ ... Erie Canal built
by DeWitt Clinton, _Irish-Netherlander_ ... long distance telephone
and wireless telegraphy made possible by Michael Pupin, _Yugoslav_ ...
inventor of wireless switch was Fritz Lowenstein, _German Jew_ ...
new device for transmitting radio photographs by Arthur Korn, _German
Jew_ ... loud speaker invented by Peter Jensen, _Dane_ ... Zworykin,
_Russian_, pioneered in television ... first printing press imported to
California by Agustin Zamorana, _Spaniard_.


One of the largest cotton gins owned by Scott Bond, _Negro_ ... our
leading industrialists include Astor, Vanderbilt, and Rockefeller,
_Germans_ ... Julius Rosenwald, Chicago mail-order executive, _German
Jew_ ... Alfred Knudsen, _Dane_, automobile manufacturing executive.

Leading rug merchants are Karaghuesian, Gulbenkian, Kelekian, and
Pushman, _Armenians_ ... leading linen and lace merchants are Mallouk,
Kassab, Bardwill, Jabara, Mamary, and Boutross, _Syrians_ ... largest
raiser of orchids and specialist in cacti is J. A. Manda, _Yugoslav_ ...
first American circus opened in Baraboo, Wisconsin, in 1854, by Ringling
Brothers, _German_ ... Virginia tobacco trade founded by Augustine
Herrman, _Czech_ ... gas first introduced in 1830 by Edward Jones,
_Welsh_, in Boston.



First oil well drilled at Titusville, Pa., by Edwin Drake, _English_, in
1859.... In Texas, oil was first struck by Anthony F. Lucas, _Yugoslav_
... coal in Pennsylvania first discovered by William Jones, _Welsh_
... pioneer miner of Colorado was Vaso Chakovic, _Yugoslav_ ... first
California gold found on ranch of John Sutter, _German-Swiss_ ... eminent
mining industrialists include Simon and Daniel Guggenheim, _Swiss Jews_,
and Adolph Lewisohn, _German Jew_.


Leading bankers include: J. Pierpont Morgan, _Welsh_ ... Nathan Straus,
Felix Warburg, Jacob Schiff, Otto Kahn, and James Speyer, _German Jews_
... Charles G. Dawes, _English_ ... Amadeo Gianini, _Italian_ ... and
Jesse Jones, _Welsh_.


First American iron sea-going steamship built in 1859 by José
Francisco de Navarro, _Spaniard_, who also laid foundation of cement
business in this country ... Panama Canal built by General Goethals,
_Netherlander_ ... George Washington Bridge built by Othmar Ammann,
_Swiss_ ... Manhattan Bridge in New York and Interstate Bridge connecting
Philadelphia and Camden built by Leon Moisseff, _Russian_.

Hetch Hetchy water system from Sierra Nevada to San Francisco built
by Michael O’Shaughnessy, _Irish_ ... Ralph Modjeski, _Polish Jew_,
chairman, Board of Engineers, San Francisco-Oakland Bridge ... Peter
Demyanoff, _Russian_, railroad builder.


Our Gifts to the Arts and Crafts



Outstanding novelists have been James Fenimore Cooper, _English-Swedish_;
Oliver W. Holmes, _English-Netherlander_; Mark Twain, _English_; Wm. Dean
Howells, _Welsh-Irish-English-German_; Mary Wilkins-Freeman, _English_;
Nathaniel Hawthorne, _Irish_; Theodore Dreiser, _German_; James W.
Johnson, _Negro_; Frank Norris, _English_; Booth Tarkington, _English_;
Fannie Hurst, Edna Ferber, and Ludwig Lewisohn, _German Jews_; Jacob
Riis, _Dane_; Louis Adamic, _Yugoslav_.

Our leading poets include, Longfellow, Lowell, and Whittier,
_English_; Edgar A. Poe, _Scotch-Irish-English_; Walt Whitman,
_English-Netherlander_; Sidney Lanier, _French_; Eugene Field, _English_;
Robert Frost, _Scotch-English_; Edwin Markham, _English_; James W.
Riley, _Netherlander-English_; Carl Sandburg, _Swede_; Edna St. Vincent
Millay, _English-French_; Joaquin Miller and Joyce Kilmer, _Germans_;
Louis Untermeyer, _German Jew_, and Arthur Guitermann, _Austrian Jew_;
Christopher Morley, _Irish_; Phillis Wheatley and Paul Dunbar, _Negroes_.

Pioneer heroism immortalized by O. E. Rölvaag, _Norwegian_.... Good
literature circulated in humble homes by P. F. Collier, _Irish_ ...
historian, writer, and lecturer, William Hendrik van Loon, _Netherlander_.



Father of our orchestras and founder of Handel and Haydn Society was
Gottlieb Graupner, _German_ ... first organ builder and maker of spinets
was Gustaf Hesselius, _Swede_ ... our first important composer was Ernst
Bloch, _Swiss Jew_.

“Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” composed by James Bland, _Negro_ ...
“Johnny Comes Marching Home” composed by Patrick Gilmore, _Irish_ ...
“Old Folks at Home,” by Stephen Foster, _Scotch-Irish_ ... an _Italian_,
Campanini, was first director and leader of Metropolitan ... Gatti
Casazza, _Italian_, famous director of Metropolitan ... organizer of
Flonzaley Quartet was Alfred Pochon, _Swiss_.

Famous composers include: Victor Herbert, _Irish_; Edward MacDowell,
_Scot_; John Philip Sousa, _Portuguese_; Percy Grainger, _Australian_;
Eugene Goosens, _English_; Howard Hanson, _Swede_; William Grant Still,
_Negro_; Daniel Protheroe, _Welsh_; Sigmond Romberg, _German Jew_; George
Gershwin and Irving Berlin, _Russian Jews_; Alma Glück, _Roumanian_;
Rudolf Friml, _Czech_.

Outstanding conductors include Gabrilowitch, _Russian Jew_; Walter
and Klemperer, _German_; Koussevitsky and Smallens, _Russian Jews_;
Stokowski, _Polish_; Ormany and Rapee, _Hungarians_; Ganz, _Swiss_;
Koshetz, _Ukrainian_; Zilotti, _Russian_; Busch, _Dane_; Kindler,
_Netherlander_; Damrosch, _German_; Rodzinsky, _Yugoslav_; Victor Kolar,

Leading violin players of world-wide fame are: Elman, Heifetz, Zimbalist,
_Russian Jews_; and Yehudi Menuhin, _Roumanian Jew_; Ysaye, _Belgian_;
Dvonc, _Czech_; Prydatkevich, _Ukrainian_.

Famous pianists include Rachmaninoff, _Russian_; Iturbi, _Spaniard_;
Honti, _Hungarian_.

Leading flutist is Callimahos, _Greek_; noted zylophonist is Y. Hiraoka,

Among the great concert artists are Sophie Braslau, _Russian Jew_; Lotte
Lehmann, _German_; Rosa Raisa, _Italian Jew_; Schumann-Heink, _Austrian_;
John Charles Thomas, _Welsh_, and Paul Robeson, Jules Bledsoe, Marian
Anderson, Roland Hayes, _Negroes_.


Father of American painting was Benjamin West, _English_ ... portraits
of Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison by Charles Gilbert Stuart,
_Scot_ ... “Washington Crossing the Delaware,” by Emmanuel Lutze,
_German_ ... famous portraits by John Copley, _Irish_ ... famous etchings
by Joseph Pennell, _English-Irish_ ... “Artist’s Mother” by James McNeil
Whistler, _Scotch-Irish_.

“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” by Malvin Johnson, _Negro_ ... “Return of
Prodigal Son” by Henry Mosler, _German Jew_ ... “Gassed” and portraits
by John S. Sargent, _English-Italian_ ... “Autumn Oaks” by George
Inness, _Scot_ ... “Conquerors”—building of Panama Canal—by Jonas Lie,
_Norwegian_ ... “Resurrection of Lazarus” by Henry O. Tanner, _Negro_ ...
“Still Life” by Yasu Kuniyoshi, _Japanese_.

First modernist in America was Arthur Davies, _Welsh_ ... corrupt Tweed
ring in New York City smashed by cartoons of Thomas Nast, _German_ ...
leader in landscape painting, Frederick Detwiller, _Swiss_ ... master of
miniatures, Malthe Hasselriis, _Dane_ ... famous frescoes in National
Capitol by Brumidi, _Italian_ ... illustrator of folk tales and fairy
stories, Willie Pogany, _Hungarian_ ... journalistic cartoons by Harrison
Fisher, _Czech_.



“Puritan,” “Shaw Memorial,” and other statues by Saint-Gaudens,
_Irish-French_ ... “Memory” and “Lincoln” statues by Daniel Chester
French, _English_ ... work on Stone Mountain, Georgia, and Mt. Rushmore,
South Dakota by Gutzon Borglum, _Dane_ ... “Pioneer Mother” at Kansas
City by Phimester Proctor, _Canadian_ ... “The Sower” on the Nebraska
State Capitol by Lee Lawrie, _German_ ... statues of Indians by Ivan
Mestrovic, _Yugoslav_ ... McKinley monument by Haig Patigian, _Armenian_.

_Italian_ sculptors who helped adorn National Capitol were: Franzoni,
bronze clock with statue of Storia on top ... Valperti, emblematic eagle
... Amateis, bronze doors ... Causici, Statue of Liberty Proclaiming
Peace ... Trentanove, “Pere Marquette” statue ... Vincenti, Indian chief,



Skyscraper developed by Louis Henry Sullivan, _Irish-French-German_
... Fanueil Hall, Boston, designed by John Smibert, _Scot_ ... Vieux
Carrè, New Orleans, laid out by Adrien de Pauger, _French_ ... foremost
architect in stone was Henry Richardson, _English_ ... Frank Lloyd
Wright, _Welsh_, harmonized buildings with surroundings ... St. Patrick’s
Cathedral, New York City, built by Joseph Zvak, _Czech_ ... prominent
naval architect is Wm. Hovgaard, _Dane_.

City planning by Eliel Saarinen, _Finn_ ... Bertram Goodhue,
_Scot-English_, developed and refined Gothic in public buildings
... Folger Library and Pan-American Building in Washington by Paul
Cret, _Belgian_ ... banks and office buildings by Stephen Voorhees,
_Netherlander_ ... church architecture by Ralph Cram, _German_, and
Charles Maginnis, _Irish_.

_Motion Pictures_


Outstanding motion-picture stars: Antonio Moreno, _Spaniard_ ... Luise
Rainer, _Austrian_ ... Charles Laughton and Ronald Colman, _English_ ...
Francis Lederer, _Czech_ ... Jean Hersholt, _Dane_ ... Pola Negri, _Pole_
... Anna Sten, _Ukrainian_ ... Laura La Plante, _Yugoslav_.

Leading producers: Mayer, Lasky, Warner, _Russian Jews_, and Goldwyn,
_Polish Jew_ ... pioneers of industry were D. W. Griffith, _Welsh_,
Zukor and Fox, _Hungarian Jews_, and Loew, _German Jew_ ... technique of
cinematography modernized by Vorkepic, _Yugoslav_.


Pioneer of modern American theatre, Augustin Daly, _Irish_ ... geniuses
of the theatre include Belasco, _Portuguese Jew_; Frohmans, Shuberts,
Selwyn, Warfield, Hammerstein, _German Jews_, and Nazimova, _Russian
Jew_ ... John Drew, _Irish_ ... Richard Mansfield, Julia Marlowe, and
Barrymores, _English_ ... Paul Robeson, _Negro_ ... the magician,
Houdini, _Hungarian_.


New York Weekly Journal founded by Peter Zenger, _German_, in 1733 ...
New York Tribune founded by Horace Greeley, _Scotch-Irish_ ... publisher
of St. Louis Post-Dispatch and New York World was Joseph Pulitzer,
_Hungarian Jew_ ... first great newspaper syndicate established by S. S.
McClure, _Irish_ ... magazine, famous as a militant muckraker founded by
P. F. Collier, _Irish_.

First modern newspaper, the New York Morning Herald, founded in 1835 by
James G. Bennett, _Scot_ ... New York Times founded by Henry Raymond,
_Scot_, and George Jones, _Welsh_ ... chain of newspapers founded by
James Scripps, _English_ ... chain of newspapers founded by Wm. Randolph
Hearst, _Scotch-English_ ... editor of a ladies’ magazine, Edward Bok,

Our Gifts to Social Progress and Government


Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson, _Welsh_,
signed by 1 _Swede_, 3 _Irish_, 4 _Scots_, 5 _Welsh_, 5 _Scotch-Irish_,
38 _English_, with John Morton, _Swede_, casting deciding ballot ...
the thirteen colonies were christened the “United States of America” by
Thomas Paine, _English_.

_Social Welfare_

Our first social reformer was Robert Owen, _Welsh_ ... first one to make
use of music in social work was Wm. van de Wall, _Netherlander_ ...
founder of Red Cross, Clara Barton, _English_ ... founder of Chicago’s
famous Hull House was Jane Addams, _English_ ... slums attacked by Jacob
Riis, _Dane_, in “How Other Half Lives” ... welfare library on Ellis
Island organized by Rev. John Kweetin, _Latvian_ ... anti-saloonist and
feminist, Carrie Chapman Catt, _English-German_ ... Atlanta School of
Social Work, directed by Forrester Washington, _Negro_ ... Lillian Wald,
_German Jew_, a social-welfare leader ... famous home for boys, Father
Flanagan, _Irish_.

_Government and Politics_

Two-thirds of our presidents, including Washington, are of _English_
descent ... Martin van Buren and Herbert Hoover, _German_ ... Theodore
Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt, _Netherlanders_ ... Jefferson, Madison,
John Adams, John Q. Adams, Harrison, and Garfield, _Welsh_ ... Monroe,
Hayes, Grant, Wilson, and McKinley, _Scots_.

Among our leading statesmen were Hamilton, Calhoun, Webster, Jefferson
Davis, _Scot-Welsh_ ... James Blaine, Chauncey Depew, Stephen Douglas,
mainly _Scots_ ... Patrick Henry, _Scot-English-Welsh_ ... leading civil
service and tariff reformer was Carl Schurz, _German_ ... iron puddler
who became Secretary of Labor, James J. Davis, _Welsh_.

First governors: of Delaware, John McKinley; Georgia, John Houston;
Illinois, John Boyle; Kansas, James Denver; Louisiana, Wm. Claiborne,
_Irish_ or _Scotch-Irish_ ... present governor of New York, H. H. Lehman,
_German Jew_; of Illinois, Henry Horner, _German Jew_ ... first governor
general of Florida, Bouquet, _Swiss_ ... first president of the Republic
of Texas, Sam Houston, _Scot_.

Tammany Society, founded in 1789 by William Mooney, _Irish_, as protest
against attempt of wealthy Tories to prevent soldiers and others from
voting ... first Secretary of Treasury under Jefferson, responsible for
arranging Louisiana Purchase, was Albert Gallatin, _Swiss_ ... first to
fight for conservation of our forests was Carl Schurz, _German_.



Astor Library, now part of New York Library, founded by John Jacob Astor,
_German_, in 1848 ... 4,000 Negro schools founded by Julius Rosenwald,
_German Jew_ ... Chautauqua movement begun by Lewis Miller, _German_
... gifts during panic of the 90’s, penny meals during World War,
foodships to Palestine, and Milk Fund by Nathan Straus, _Austrian Jew_
... $42,000,000 gift to General Education Board by John D. Rockefeller,

Libraries founded throughout United States by Andrew Carnegie, _Scot_ ...
funds raised to bring Statue of Liberty from France by Joseph Pulitzer,
_Hungarian Jew_ ... appreciation of arts and literature stimulated by
Edward Bok, _Netherlander_ ... Boy Scouts of America helped by Jacob and
Mortimer Schiff, _German Jews_ ... $6,000,000 to Princeton University by
H. C. Frick, _German_.

Colgate University founded by Wm. Colgate, _English_ ... $122,000 to Fisk
University by James Burrus, _Negro_ ... foundations for opportunities to
study abroad and to promote well-being of mankind established by Simon
and Daniel Guggenheim, _Swiss Jews_.

_Champions of Human Liberty_

Protest against slavery by Pastorius, _German_ ... author of “Common
Sense,” “The Crisis” and “Public Good” was Thomas Paine, _English_ ...
powerful leaders against slavery were John Russworm, Benjamin Banneker,
David Walker, Harriet Tubman, William Brown, William Still, Samuel Ward,
Frederick Douglass, _Negroes_.

Peter Zenger, _German_, defended by Andrew Hamilton, _Scot_, registered
great triumph for freedom of press when he won his fight against Governor
Cosby of New York.

_National Defense_


Minutemen roused by Paul Revere, _Huguenot_ ... drill-master of
Continental armies, who helped to plan West Point, was Frederick von
Steuben, _German_ ... $600,000 advanced to Congress and subsidies
negotiated from France and the Netherlands by Haym Solomon, _Polish Jew_
... father of American cavalry was General Casimir Pulaski, _Pole_.

First to lose life in Revolutionary War was Chrispus Attucks, _Negro_ ...
first commodore of Navy was John Barry, _Irish_ ... naval hero John Paul
Jones, _Scot_ ... $5,000,000 contributed toward War of 1812 by Stephen
Girard, _French_ ... famous privateer, who abolished corporal punishment
in the Navy, was Uriah Levy, _Jew_ ... British defeated on Lake Erie by
Captain Perry, _Scotch-Irish_.


First president of American Federation of Labor, who improved living
standards of workers was Samuel Gompers, _English Jew_ ... leader
of C. I. O., John L. Lewis, _Welsh_ ... organizer of coal miners,
John Mitchell, _Welsh_ ... president of A. F. of L., William Green,
_English-Welsh_ ... leader of Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Sidney
Hillman, _Lithuanian Jew_.

_Religious Work_

Participating in Washington’s Inaugural was Rabbi Seixas, _Portuguese
Jew_ ... one of our greatest clergymen, Jonathan Edwards, _Welsh_ ...
leader in welfare and religious work, Huie Kin, _Chinese_ ... first
Protestant missionary to West Indies was George Lisle, former _Negro_
slave ... professor of theology at Hartford Seminary, N. Y. Ananigian,
_Armenian_ ... authority on early church history is Prof. La Plana,



First book on pedagogy published in 1770 by Christopher Dock, _German_
... Harvard University named after John Harvard, _English_; Yale
University by Elihu Yale, _Welsh_; William and Mary by James Blair,
_Scot_; Brown University by Morgan Edwards and Samuel Jones, _Welsh_
... New York University by Gallatin, _Swiss_ ... Tuskegee Institute by
Booker Washington, _Negro_, world-famed educator ... Williams College by
Ephraim Williams, _Welsh_ ... one of incorporators of Columbia University
was Rabbi Seixas, _Portuguese Jew_ ... Hunter College by Thomas Hunter,
_Irish_ ... Creighton University, Omaha, by Creighton brothers, _Irish_
... Princeton University founded by _Scottish_ Presbyterians ... Barnard
College founded by Annie Nathan Meyer, _German Jew_.

Infant school introduced in 1816, by Robert Owen, _Welsh_ ... first
German kindergarten introduced in Wisconsin in 1855 by wife of Carl
Schurz, _German_ ... a primer, first book produced in Pennsylvania,
written by Franz Pastorius, _German_, headmaster of first school in
Germantown ... College of Journalism at Columbia University founded by
Joseph Pulitzer, _Hungarian Jew_ ... School of Mines founded by Adolph
Lewisohn, _German Jew_ ... first English kindergarten founded in Boston
in 1860 by Elizabeth Peabody, _English_ ... father of modern American
education was Horace Mann, _English_.

World-famous orientalist P. K. Hitti, _Syrian_ ... one of foremost
educators was Henry Suzallo, _Yugoslav_ ... Angelo Patri, _Italian_,
counsels parents and children ... one of our greatest economists was
Thorstein Veblen, _Norwegian_.

_Law and Order_

First Chief Justice of Supreme Court was John Jay, _French_ ... present
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, _Welsh_ ... one of foremost
authorities on international law is Stephen Ladas, _Greek_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Finns_ work the iron-ore fields of northern Minnesota. ...
_Netherlanders_ and _Poles_ developed wood-working trades of Michigan....
_Italians_, _Portuguese_, _Greeks_, and _Swiss_ have built up the grape
and wine industry of California.... _Greek_ candy-makers.... _Mexicans_
and _Japanese_ in beet fields of Colorado, Nebraska, and California....
_Italians_, _Poles_, and _Slavs_ in meatpacking, textile, and building


(_Continued from page 2_)

=10. The Germans.=—The Germans—Protestant, Catholic, and Jew—push
frontiers westward, fashion the Kentucky rifle, build “Switzer” barn
and Conestoga wagon, and develop agriculture, forestry, music, art,
education, and science.

    DUBOIS, R. and SCHWEPPE, E. (eds). _Germans in American Life._
    Thomas Nelson and Sons, New York. 1936.

    FAUST, A. B. _German Element in the United States._ (2 vols.)
    Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 1927.

    HARK, ANN. _Hex Marks the Spot._ J. B. Lippincott Co.,
    Philadelphia, Pa. 1938.

=11. The Scandinavians.=—Swedes, Norwegians, and Finns settle
North-Central States, introducing log cabins, co-operatives, progressive
dairy methods, social consciousness, gymnastics, and folk high schools.

    BENSON, ADOLPH B. and HEDIN, NABOTH (eds). _The Swedes in
    America._ Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. 1938.

    HAVIGHURST, WALTER. _Upper Mississippi: A Wilderness Saga._
    Farrar and Rinehart, N. Y. 1937.

    RÖLVAAG, O. E. _Giants in the Earth._ McClelland and Stewart,
    Toronto, Canada. 1937.

=12. Closing Frontiers.=—When there is no more good free land to settle,
immigrants crowd into our cities to supply demand for unskilled labor.

    HOUGH, EMERSON. _The Passing of the Frontier._ Yale University
    Press, New Haven, Conn. 1918.

    PAXSON, F. J. _History of the American Frontier._ Houghton,
    Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 1924.

=13. The Jews.=—Participating in American life since early colonial days,
the Jews make significant contributions to science, industry, music,
literature, theatre, law, medicine, and philanthropy.

    BROWNE, LEWIS. _Stranger Than Fiction._ Macmillan Company, N.
    Y. 1933.

    DUBOIS, R. and SCHWEPPE E. (eds). _Jews in American Life._
    Thomas Nelson and Sons, N. Y. 1935.

    WALD, LILLIAN D. _The House on Henry Street._ Henry Holt and
    Co., N. Y. 1915.

=14-15. The Slavs.=—The Slavs—northern and southern—succeed in making
abandoned farms productive and work in our mines, steel mills, automobile
factories, packing houses, and forests.

    ADAMIC, LOUIS. _Laughing in the Jungle._ Harper and Brothers,
    N. Y. 1932.

    BALCH, EMILY G. _Our Slavic Fellow Citizens._ Charities
    Publication Committee, N. Y. 1910.

    MILLER, K. D. _Peasant Pioneers._ Council of Women for Home
    Missions, N. Y. 1925.

=16. The Orientals.=—Chinese and Japanese bring artistic sensitivity of
Far East. Chinese answer call of railroad, ranch, and factory. Japanese
reclaim California swamps and develop farms.

    HUNTER, ALLAN A. _Out of the Far East._ Friendship Press, N. Y.

    PALMER, ALBERT W. _Orientals in American Life._ Friendship
    Press, N. Y. 1934.

    SUGIMOTO, ETSU. _A Daughter of the Samurai._ Doubleday, Page
    Co., N. Y. 1927.

=17. The Italians.=—Early explorers and artisans come from Italy, help
to build grape and wine industry, work in our marble quarries, raise
vegetables, and help to build railroads, bridges, and highways.

    D’ANGELO, PASCAL. _Sons of Italy._ Macmillan Company, N. Y.

    FOERSTER, R. _The Italian Immigration of Our Times._ Harvard
    University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1919.

    PANUNZIO, C. _The Soul of an Immigrant._ Macmillan Company, N.
    Y. 1921.

    SCHIARO, G. E. _Italians in America Before the Civil War._ Vigo
    Press, N. Y. 1934.

=18. Near Eastern People.=—Armenians, Greeks, and Syrians bring
philosophy, poetry, medical skill, manual skills, and unique artistic

    HITTI, P. K. _The Syrians in America._ Doubleday, Doran, and
    Co., N. Y. 1924.

    MALCOLM, M. VARTAN. _The Armenians in America._ The Pilgrim
    Press, Boston, Mass. 1919.

    XENIDES, J. P. _The Greeks in America._ Doubleday, Doran, and
    Co., N. Y. 1922.

=19. Other Peoples.=—Hungarians, Roumanians, Portuguese, Bulgarians,
Lithuanians, Estonians, and Latvians bring ideas, labor, fine traditions,
and esthetic values.

    DAVIE, MAURICE R. _World Immigration._ Macmillan Company, N. Y.

    SEITZ, DON CARLOS. _Joseph Pulitzer._ Simon and Schuster, Inc.,
    N. Y. 1924.

=20. Contributions in Industry.=—Each wave of immigration contributes
brain and brawn to American life. Group cooperation makes the United
States leader of world industry.

    FELDMAN, H. _Racial Factors in American Industry._ Harper and
    Brothers, N. Y. 1931.

    KEIR, MALCOLM. _The Epic of Industry._ Yale University Press,
    New Haven, Conn. 1926.

    PUPIN, MICHAEL. _From Immigrant to Inventor._ Charles
    Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 1931.

=21. Contributions in Science.=—Our country is in the forefront
of scientific progress, due to brilliance and inventive genius of
individuals of diverse racial and national origins.

    BURLINGAME, ROGER. _March of the Iron Men, a Social History of
    Union Through Invention._ Charles Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 1938.

    DARROW, FLOYD L. _Masters of Science and Invention._ Harcourt,
    Brace and Company, N. Y. 1937.

    KAEMPFFERT, WALDEMAR B. _Modern Wonder Workers._ Blue Ribbon
    Books, N. Y. 1931.

=22. Arts and Crafts.=—Cultural value of artistic gifts by immigrant
groups since early colonial days is a priceless gift enriching the United
States of today and tomorrow.

    EATON, ALLEN H. _Immigrant Gifts to American Life._ Russell
    Sage Foundation, N. Y. 1932.

    LANGDON, WILLIAM C. _Everyday Things in American Life,
    1607-1776._ Charles Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 1937.

    SMITH, SUSAN C. _Made in America._ Alfred Knopf, N. Y. 1929.

=23. Social Progress.=—Champions of human freedom, drawn from many
groups, preserve and develop ideals for which the founding fathers fought
and died.

    WARE, LOUISE. _Jacob A. Riis: Police Reporter, Reformer, Useful
    Citizen._ D. Appleton, Century Co., N. Y. 1938.

    WOOFTER, T. J. _Races and Ethnic Groups in American Life._
    McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y. 1933.

=24. A New England Town.=—The New England town, founded by early
settlers, changes and develops as new groups participate and function in
its life.

    CHASE, MARY ELLEN. _A Goodly Heritage._ Henry Holt and Co., N.
    Y. 1932.

=25. An Industrial City.=—A panorama of a rapidly expanding industrial
city, peopled by groups drawn from many nations, who learn the American
way of democratic life.

    BRIDGES, H. J. _On Becoming an American._ Marshal Jones
    Company, Inc., Boston, Mass. 1919.

    LEISERSON, W. M. _Adjusting Immigrant and Industry._ Harper and
    Brothers, N. Y. 1924.

=26. Grande Finale.=—In a thrilling climax, outstanding people of various
cultural backgrounds, from different parts of our country, summarize the
story of “Americans All—Immigrants all.”

    BEARD, A. E. S. _Our Foreign-Born Citizens._ Thomas Y. Crowell
    Co., N. Y. 1932.


Commissioner of Education, JOHN W. STUDEBAKER, _Administrator of the
Programs_, invited the following to serve as Advisers:

    LOUIS ADAMIC, _Author and Lecturer_.

    EDITH TERRY BREMER, _Director, National Institute of Immigrant

    DR. ESTHER CAULKIN BRUNAUER, _Chairman, Committee on
    International Relations_.

    DR. EVERETT CLINCHY, _Director, National Conference of Jews and

    DR. STEPHEN DUGGAN, _Director, Institute of International

    STERLING FISHER, _Director of Education and Talks, Columbia
    Broadcasting System_.

    JAMES L. HOUGHTELING, _Commissioner of Immigration and
    Naturalization Service_.

    H. V. KALTENBORN, _Commentator, Columbia Broadcasting System_.

    READ LEWIS, _Foreign Language Information Service, Inc._

    MARVIN LOWENTHAL, _Author and Lecturer_.

    JAMES G. MCDONALD, _Chairman, President’s Advisory Committee on
    Political Refugees_.

    DR. JOY ELMER MORGAN, _Editor, Journal of the National
    Education Association_.

    DR. CARSON RYAN, _President, Progressive Education Association_.

    DR. JAMES T. SHOTWELL, _Director, Division of Intercourse and
    Education, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace_.

    AVENIRE TOIGO, _Executive Secretary, Illinois Committee on
    Citizenship and Naturalization_.

The Script Review Committee

    JAMES L. HOUGHTELING, _Commissioner of Immigration and
    Naturalization Service_.

    CLIFFORD I. LORD, _Instructor, Department of History, Columbia

    DR. HERBERT WRIGHT, HEAD, _Department of Government, Catholic

Books to Read and Sources of Other Materials

    ADAMIC, LOUIS. _America and the Refugees._ Public Affairs
    Committee, New York. 1932.

    ADAMIC, LOUIS. _My America._ Harper and Brothers, Publishers,
    New York. 1938.

    BLANKENSHIP, RUSSELL. _American Literature as an Extension of
    the National Mind._ Henry Holt and Company, New York. 1931.

    BROWN, F. J., and ROUCEK, J. (eds.). _Our Racial and National
    Minorities._ Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York. 1937.

    BROWN, LAWRENCE C. _Immigration, Cultural Conflicts and Social
    Adjustments._ Longmans, Green & Company, New York. 1933.

    CLINCHY, EVERETT R. _All in the Name of God._ John Day Company,
    New York. 1934.

    CORSI, EDWARD. _In the Shadow of Liberty._ The Macmillan
    Company, New York. 1935.

    EATON, ALLEN. _Immigrant Gifts to American Life._ Russell Sage
    Foundation, New York. 1933.

    KLINEBERG, OTTO. _Race Differences._ Harper and Brothers,
    Publishers, New York. 1935.

    LASKER, BRUNO. _Race Attitudes in Children._ Henry Holt and
    Company, New York. 1929.

    OGG, F. A. _Builders of the Republic._ Yale University Press,
    New Haven, Conn. 1927.

    RADIN, PAUL. _The Racial Myth._ McGraw-Hill Book Company, New
    York. 1934.

    SEABROOK, WILLIAM. _These Foreigners._ Harcourt, Brace and
    Company, New York. 1938.

    SPICER, DOROTHY G. _Folk Festivals and the Foreign Community._
    The Women’s Press, New York. 1923.

    STEPHENSON, GEO. M. _A History of American Immigration,
    1820-1924._ Ginn and Company, New York. 1926.

    WOOFTER, T. J. _Races and Ethnic Groups in American Life._
    McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 1933.

The following organizations and agencies have useful and interesting
pamphlets, bulletins, and other materials:

    New York.

    The Service Bureau for Intercultural Education collects facts
    about participation of various groups in American life, guides
    projects in public schools, trains teachers and other community
    leaders in the technique of intercultural education, and
    conducts a guidance-by-mail department.

    INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 17th and Eye Streets, Washington, D. C.

    AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, 361 Fourth Avenue, New York.

    Station, Washington, D. C. (Bronze Booklet Series.)

    Philadelphia, Penna.

    East 22nd Street, New York.

    FOLK FESTIVAL COUNCIL, 222 Fourth Avenue, New York.


    FRENCH INFORMATION CENTER, 610 Fifth Avenue, New York.

    INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS, 129 East 52nd Street, New York;
    also, San Francisco Bay Region Committee, Claus Spreckels
    Building, San Francisco, California.

    Fifth Avenue, New York.

    New York.


    Plaza, New York.

    THE KOSCIUSZKO FOUNDATION, 149 East 67th Street, New York.

    Rockefeller Center, New York.


(_Continued from page 3_)

Many other persons and organizations added their encouragement and
ideas to “Americans All—Immigrants All.” In November, 1935, when it
was announced that the Office of Education was to inaugurate a plan of
broadcasting, Dr. L. R. Alderman, Specialist in Adult Education, and for
many years an ardent contributor to Americanization work, urged the use
of radio as a medium for stimulating nation-wide appreciation of the
“cultures of the melting pot”. Mr. W. D. Boutwell, Director of the radio
project of the Office of Education, was active in developing program
ideas and conferring with Miss Roberta Newell of the Radio Division of
the New York City Board of Education, W.P.A. Adult Education Program,
about plans and techniques used by Miss Newell in her radio series,
“America Calling”, which was on the air in the Spring of 1937.

One of the most enthusiastic advocates and supporters of a comprehensive
radio presentation of the immigrants’ contribution to American life
is Mr. Avenire Toigo, Executive Secretary of the Illinois Committee
on Citizenship and Naturalization. He came to Washington in November,
1937, to urge us to prepare and present a program, and later suggested
the title “American Panorama”. Mr. Charles P. Schwartz, Chairman of the
Illinois Committee on Citizenship and Naturalization, also made several
visits to the Office, beginning in 1935, to assist and urge us to
increase our efforts in Americanization work.

In the research, planning, experimenting with script mechanisms and
production techniques, members of the Staff mentioned elsewhere in this
booklet have given devotedly of their time and talents. The Columbia
Broadcasting System and the W.P.A. have given indispensable assistance
in producing the broadcasts. Acknowledgment is also made to authors and
publishers whose books contributed to our thinking.

In preparing this booklet, valuable help was given by Dr. Alain Locke,
Howard University, Washington, D. C., and by Mr. W. W. Husband,
Washington, D. C., former Commissioner of Immigration.

                                                  J. W. STUDEBAKER,
                                             _Commissioner of Education_.

       *       *       *       *       *


                                                           April 15, 1939

    Dear Listener:

This booklet is presented in sincere appreciation of your interest in the

I am deeply grateful for your patience in the face of delay in getting
this booklet to you. When you read it, however, I feel you will be
repaid, for no effort has been spared in making it worthy of being read
and treasured as a permanent record of the AMERICANS ALL—IMMIGRANTS ALL
radio series.

Since the programs themselves could give you only a general panorama of
the many colorful and significant contributions made by peoples of many
races and lands to the building of our Nation, you will no doubt wish to
be in a position to investigate for yourself some of the things which
have impressed you as most interesting.

The suggested readings and sources for more material, given in the
booklet and the special list should help you in doing this. If this
Office can be of further service, please feel free to call upon us.

As an enthusiastic listener of AMERICANS ALL—IMMIGRANTS ALL, you will no
doubt be glad to learn that these radio programs have been perpetuated
in the form of recordings which can be used on phonographs and on radio
playback equipment. You may wish to give this news to teachers, club
leaders, and others who would have a natural interest in promoting
broader tolerance through understanding. You may also wish to put into
their hands the inclosed reference list.

Thanking you again for your abiding interest, I am

                            Cordially yours,

                                                    J. W. Studebaker
                                               Commissioner of Education.

       *       *       *       *       *



A suggested list of “Other Books to Read”

    Andrews, Charles McLean: _Our Earliest Colonial Settlements_,
    New York University Press, New York, 1933.

    Baldwin, James: _The Story of Liberty_, American Book Co., New
    York, 1919.

    Beard, A. E. S.: _Our Foreign Born Citizens_, Thomas Y. Crowell
    Co., New York, 1922.

    Bowden, Witt: _The Industrial History of the United States_.
    Adelphi Co., New York, 1930.

    Boynton, Percy-Holmes: _Literature and American Life_, Ginn &
    Co., Chicago, 1936.

    Burgess, Thomas: _Greeks in America_, Sherman-French & Co.,
    Boston, 1913.

    Eberlein, Harold D. and McClure, Abbot: _The Practical Book
    of Early American Arts and Crafts_, J. B. Lippincott Co.,
    Philadelphia, 1916.

    Fairchild, Henry Pratt: _Immigrant Backgrounds_, John Wiley &
    Sons, Inc., New York, 1927.

    Gabriel, R. H.: _The Lure of the Frontier_, Yale University
    Press, New Haven, 1929.

    Hicks, John D.: _The Federal Union_, Houghton Mifflin Co.,
    Boston, 1937.

    Johnson, James W.: _Along this Way_, The Viking Press, New
    York, 1933.

    Jones, H. M.: _America and French Culture_, University of North
    Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1927.

    Lebeson, Anita: _Jewish Pioneers in America_, Coward-McCann,
    New York, 1921.

    Mariano, John H.: _The Italian Contribution to American
    Democracy_, Christopher Publishing House, New York, 1921.

    Roberts, Peter: _The New Immigration_, The Macmillan Co., New
    York, 1912.

    Rose, Philip M.: _The Italians in America_, George H. Doran
    Co., New York, 1922.

    Sanchez, Nellie Van de Grift: _Spanish and Indian Place Names
    of California_, A. M. Robertson, San Francisco, 1914.

    Schrader, F. F.: _Germans in the Making of America_, The
    Stratford Col., Boston, 1924.

    Steinberg, Milton: _The Making of the Modern Jew_,
    Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1934.

    Wells, Louis Ray: _Industrial History of the United States_,
    The Macmillan Co., New York, 1922.

In addition to the books listed on the other side of this page, attention
is called to the following special pamphlets, which can be obtained by
communicating with the Service Bureau for Intercultural Education.

    _Adventures in Intercultural Education_, Manuals for teachers
    from kindergarten to senior high schools.

    _Armenian Cooking in the United States_, Foods and food customs
    of the Armenians at home and in the United States.

    _Czechoslovak Immigration_, A brief survey of the Czechs and
    Slovaks in the United States: when they came, where they
    settled, what they did.

    _The Germans in American Life_, Rachel Davis-DuBois and Emma
    Schweppe (editors), Thomas Nelson and Sons, New York, 1956. A
    survey of the part the Germans have played in American life.

    _Irish Immigration_, The various migrations of Irish to the
    United States.

    _Italian Immigration_, A brief survey of the Italians in
    Colonial America, and since.

    _The Jews in American Life_, Rachel Davis-DuBois and Emma
    Schweppe (editors), Thomas Nelson and Sons, New York, 1936. A
    survey of Jewish participation in American life and culture.

    _The Negro Contribution to Folk Music in America_, Negro
    spirituals; origin, history, characteristics; and some of the
    musicians who have helped in their preservation.

    _Orientals in Science and Invention_, A survey of some of the
    outstanding scientific contributions of China and Japan.

    _Poles in American Agricultural Life_, Poles as successful
    American Farmers, in the reclamation of abandoned land and in
    the onion and tobacco industries.

    _Scandinavian Cooking in Scandinavia and the United States_,
    Foods and food customs of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, and
    their influence in the United States.

    _Scottish Immigration_, The Scots in the development of the
    American colonies.

    _Scotch-Irish Immigration_, The Scotch-Irish migration to the
    American Colonies.

    _Welsh Immigration_, A brief survey of the Welsh in the
    development of the United States.


Bibliographies, recipes and special publications representing the
British, Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish,
Scandinavian, Yugoslav and other groups.

the Office of Education in presenting the “Americans All—Immigrants All”
radio series, is prepared to consult with teachers and group leaders
regarding their problems in promoting intercultural understanding.
Address: 106 Waverly Place, New York, N. Y.

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