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Title: A Prose English Translation of Harivamsha
Author: Vyasa, Veda
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Note

This book was transcribed from a scan of the original found at Google
Books. Words in italics in this etext were italicized in the original
book. I have corrected obvious misspellings but I’ve left variant
spellings alone.


                       PROSE ENGLISH TRANSLATION




                        EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY

                  MANMATHA NATH DUTT, M.A., M.R.A.S.,

                        RECTOR, KESHUB ACADEMY;

     _Author of the English Translations of Ramayana, Mahabharata,_

           _Srimadbhagavatam, Vishnupuran, Markandeyapuran,_

                 _Bhagavat-Gita and many other works._


                         PRINTED BY H. C. DASS,

                  Elysium Press, 6.5/2 Beadon Street.


    HARIVAMSHA ........................................................
      THE PRELUDE. ....................................................
      CHAPTER V. AN ACCOUNT OF VENA AND PRITHU. .......................
      CHAPTER VI. THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH. ............................
      CHAPTER VII. AN ACCOUNT OF MANWANTARAS. .........................
      CHAPTER VIII. DIVISION OF TIME. .................................
      CHAPTER IX. ACCOUNT OF THE SUN’S OFFSPRING. .....................
      CHAPTER X. VAIVASWATA MANU’S OFFSPRING. .........................
      CHAPTER XI. ACCOUNT OF RAIVATA AND HIS SONS. ....................
      CHAPTER. XII. THE STORY OF SATYAVRATA. ..........................
      CHAPTER XIII. THE SAME STORY CONTINUED. .........................
      CHAPTER XIV. AN ACCOUNT OF SAGARA. ..............................
      CHAPTER XV. THE SAME STORY CONTINUED. ...........................
      CHAPTER XVII. THE SAME STORY CONTINUED. .........................
      CHAPTER XVIII. AN ACCOUNT OF PITRIS. ............................
      CHAPTER XIX. BHARADWAJA’s FAMILY. ...............................
      CHAPTER XXII. THE CURSE OF THE BIRDS. ...........................
      CHAPTER XXVI. AN ACCOUNT OF PURURAVA. ...........................
      CHAPTER XXVII. AN ACCOUNT OF ILA’S FAMILY. ......................
      CHAPTER XXIX. AN ACCOUNT OF KASHI KINGS. ........................
      CHAPTER XXX. ACCOUNT OF THE KING YAYATI. ........................
      CHAPTER XXXI. AN ACCOUNT OF PURU’S FAMILY. ......................
      CHAPTER XXXIV. KROUSTHU’S FAMILY. ...............................
      CHAPTER XXXV. VASUDEVA’S FAMILY. ................................
      CHAPTER XXXVI. KROUSHTHU’S FAMILY. ..............................
      CHAPTER XXXIX. AN ACCOUNT OF AKRURA. ............................
      CHAPTER XL. A DESCRIPTION OF VISHNU. ............................
      CHAPTER XLI. THE INCARNATIONS OF VISHNU. ........................
      CHAPTER XLII. VISHNU’S APPEARANCE. ..............................
      CHAPTER XLVI. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. ...........................
      CHAPTER XLVIII. KALANEMI GOES TO VISHNU. ........................
      CHAPTER XLIX. ATTRIBUTES OF NARAYANA ............................
      CHAPTER L. AN ACCOUNT OF NARAYANASHRAMA. ........................
      CHAPTER LII. THE ASSEMBLY OF THE GODS. ..........................
      CHAPTER LIV. THE BIRTH OF THE DAITYAS. ..........................
      CHAPTER L.V. VISHNU’S REPLY. ....................................
      CHAPTER LVIII. ATTRIBUTES OF THE GODDESS. .......................
      CHAPTER LIX. BIRTH OF KRISHNA AND BALADEVA. .....................
      CHAPTER LX. A DESCRIPTION OF VILLAGE VRAJA ......................
      KILLS PUTANA. ...................................................
      WOLVES. .........................................................
      CHAPTER LXV. AN ACCOUNT OF THE RAINY SEASON. ....................
      CHAPTER LXVI. AN ACCOUNT OF KALYA. ..............................
      CHAPTER LXVII. KRISHNA SUBDUES KALYA. ...........................
      CHAPTER LXX. AN ACCOUNT OF INDRA-YAJNA. .........................
      AUTUMN. .........................................................
      CHAPTER LXXII. THE REPLY OF THE GOPAS. ..........................
      CHAPTER LXXV. RASA DANCE. .......................................
      CHAPTER LXXVI. DEATH OF ARISTHA. ................................
      HIM. ............................................................
      CHAPTER LXXVIII. ANDHAKA’S ADVICE TO KANSA. .....................
      CHAPTER LXXIX. THE DESTRUCTION OF KESHI. ........................
      CHAPTER LXXX. AKRURA GOES TO VRAJA ..............................
      PARENTS. ........................................................
      CHAPTER LXXXII. KRISHNA’S ARRIVAL. ..............................
      CHAPTER LXXXIV. A DESCRIPTION OF THE ARENA. .....................
      CHAPTER LXXXV. TRIAL OF ARMS. ...................................
      OCEAN. ..........................................................
      CHAPTER XC. JARASANDHA’S ARMY. ..................................
      CHAPTER XCIII. AN ACCOUNT OF HARYASHWA. .........................
      CHAPTER XCVII. BALARAMA GETS DRUNK. .............................
      CHAPTER XCIX. KRISHNA MEETS HIS ENEMY. ..........................
      CHAPTER C. BATTLE WITH SHRIGALA. ................................
      CHAPTER CI. KRISHNA’S ARRIVAL AT MATHURA. .......................
      CHAPTER CII. BALADEVA VISITS VRAJA. .............................
      CHAPTER CIII. RUKSHMINI’S SWAYAMVARA ............................
      CHAPTER CVI. DANTAVAKRAS SPEECH. ................................
      CHAPTER CVII. KAISHIKA WORSHIPS KRISHNA. ........................
      CHAPTER CX. SHALYA MEETS KALAYAVANA. ............................
      CHAPTER CXII. UGRASENA RECEIVES KRISHNA. ........................
      CHAPTER CXIV. ACCOUNT OF KALAYAVANA. ............................
      CHAPTER CXV. THE LAYING OUT OF DWARKA. ..........................
      RUKSHMINI. ......................................................
      CHAPTER CXVIII. MARRIAGE OF RUKSHMAVATI. ........................
      CHAPTER CXX. THE DEFEAT OF THE ASURA NARAKA. ....................
      CHAPTER CXXI. KRISHNA VISIT WITH ADITI. .........................
      RUKSHMINI. ......................................................
      TO HER. .........................................................
      CHAPTER CXXIV. SATYABHAMA’S GRIEF. ..............................
      KRISHNA AND NARADA. .............................................
      TRANSPLANTATION OF THE PARIJATA. ................................
      CHAPTER CCXVIII. NARADA’S ADVICE. ...............................
      CHAPTER CCXIX. ATTRIBUTES OF HARI. ..............................
      CHAPTER CCXXII. INDRA FIGHTS WITH KRISHNA .......................
      CHAPTER CCXXIII. SATYA PERFORM THE RITE. ........................
      CHAPTER CCXXV. PUNYAKA DESCRIBED BY UMA. ........................
      OTHER LADIES. ...................................................
      PRABHAVATI. .....................................................
      HER. ............................................................
      CHAPTER CCL. KRISHNA’S CHILDREN. ................................
      CHAPTER CCLI. AN ACCOUNT OF PRADYUMNA. ..........................
      CHAPTER CCLIV. SHAMVARA’S DEATH. ................................
      HIM. ............................................................
      EXPLAINED. ......................................................
      UNSUCCESSFUL. ...................................................
      CHAPTER CCLXII. KRISHNA’S FEATS DESCRIBED. ......................
      CHAPTER CCLXIII. VANA—THE GREAT ASURA. ..........................
      FRIENDS TO BRING HIM. ...........................................
      ANIRUDDHA’S FIGHT WITH VANA’S SOLDIERS. .........................
      FOLLOWERS ON THE WAY. ...........................................
      CHAPTER CCLXXI. KRISHNA’S BOON TO JVARA. ........................
      HOW BRAHMA, VISHNU, SIVA ARE ONE. ...............................
      KUMBHANDA AND FIGHTS WITH VARUNA FOR COWS. ......................
    BHAVISHYA PARVA OR THE BOOK OF FUTURE. ............................
      CHAPTER III. AN ACCOUNT OF KALI-YUGA. ...........................
      CHAPTER IV. KALI-YUGA DESCRIBED. ................................
      JANAMEJAYA’S WRATH. .............................................
      CHAPTER VII. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD. .............................
      CHAPTER X. THE GOD AFTER DISSOLUTION. ...........................
      CHAPTER XII. A DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH. ........................
      KAITABHA. .......................................................
      CHAPTER XIV. BRAHMA’S CREATION. .................................
      CHAPTER XV. JANAMEJAVA’s QUERY. .................................
      CHAPTER XVI. THE GREAT BRAHMAN DESCRIBED. .......................
      CHAPTER XVII. THE CREATION OF RIVERS. ...........................
      CHAPTER XIX. KSHATRA YUGA DESCRIBED. ............................
      CHAPTER XX. THE FRUITS OF YOGA. .................................
      CHAPTER XXI. THE PROCESS OF PRANAYAMA. ..........................
      CHAPTER XXV. VISHNU KILLS MADHU. ................................
      CHAPTER XXVII. THE DESTRUCTION OF BALI. .........................
      WITH HIM. .......................................................
      CHAPTER XXXII. THE CREATION OF THE VEDAS. .......................
      CHAPTER XXXV. THE LORD COMES OUT AS A BOAR. .....................
      CHAPTER XXXVI. RELEASE OF THE CELESTIALS. .......................
      HIRANYAKASHIPU’S PRAYER TO BRAHMA. ..............................
      MAN-LION FORM. ..................................................
      KING. ...........................................................
      CHAPTER XLI. BALI’S PROSPERITY. .................................
      THE DESTRUCTION OF BALI. ........................................
      CHAPTER XLIV. VISHNU’S BIRTH AS A DWARF. ........................
      CHAPTER XLVI. THE DANAVAS DESCRIBED. ............................



Harivamsha or the family of Hari (Srikrishna) is properly speaking a
sequel of the great Epic Mahabharata. The work opens with a request made
by Sounaka to Souti for an account of the two great clans namely,
Vrishnis and Andhakas. He says:—"O son of Lomaharshana, while describing
the birth and history of the Kurus you forgot to narrate the history of
Vrishnis and Andhakas. It becomes you to relate their history." Chapter
I, Sloka 9. The work in which an account of the Kurus is given is
undoubtedly the Mahabharata though we meet with a little confusion in
the text, when it is mentioned as a Purana. This passage clearly shows
that the object of the author is evidently to give a detailed account of
the family of Krishna which is not to be found in Mahabharata.

It is very difficult to ascertain the true nature of this work—whether
it is to be called a Purana or an epic poem. It is not mentioned in the
list of _Puranas_ or _Upapuranas_, though in style, form and character
it resembles the Puranas. As in the Puranas and more particularly in
Vishnu Purana so in Harivamsha we find an account of creation, the
dimension of the earth, the division of the time and the history of the
patriarchal and regal dynasties. They so much resemble each other that
sometimes it appears, that one is the paraphrase of the other. The
account of Krishna’s early life and some of his miracles are merely the
counterparts of the same in Vishnupuran. Thus it is evident that though
this work is not included in the list of Puranas it is in reality one of
them written with the same object and in the same style. It is called a
sequel of the Mahabharata only because it gives a profuse account of
what has been left off in that work. The greatest interest however lies
in the fact that it gives an elaborate account of the life of Srikrishna
and as such it is always regarded as an authority.

It is almost impossible to ascertain the date of the composition of this
work as it is of other ancient Sanskrit works. We have no regular
history of our literatures and there are so many contradictory
statements in various works that we cannot safely rely on internal
evidence for the solution of the question of date. The popular belief is
that Mahabharata Ramayna and Puranas were written long after the Vedas.
But we have references to these works even in the Vedic literature.

In the Atharva Veda we have the names of _Itihasa_, _Purana_ and
_Gatha_. We meet with another passage in _Satpata Brāhmana_ wherein
_Itihasas_ and _Puranas_ have been mentioned. The text is:

"The Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, Itihasis, Purana, Upanishads,
Sutras, Slokas, etc."

There are many other similar passages which clearly prove that the class
of literature passing under the appelation of _Puranas_ and _Itihasas_
were in existence even in the Vedic period. From these statements it is
very difficult to arrive at a conclusion when these works were really
written. The various episodes of these works passed orally from one
generation to another for many centuries before they were committed to
writing. And even after this many interpelations had been added by
various writers in the shape of references to contemporaneous events.
The ancient Hindu writers were so very modest that they never liked the
idea of making their names known as authors. Many works written by those
unknown writers passed in the names of their Gurus or spiritual guides.
Thus from internal evidence it is not safe to make any attempt for the
determination of date or authorship. The only safe course is to give an
approximate date based upon the development of thought that is to be
seen in various works, making use of the internal evidence as a test for
the accuracy of our conclusions. Taking a survey of the various
departments of Hindu literature we find that the theory of incarnation
and sectarial worship were absolutely unknown to the Vedic writers and
took a very meagre proportion even when the Ramayana and the Mahabharata
were written. In the Puranas however we see that the entire theology is
based on the doctrine of incarnation-the various sects have their
rituals and ceremonies definitely laid down and the caste rules
introduced with all their severity and force. Besides we also find the
doctrines of Vedanta and Sankya explained popularly in the shape of
episodes. This clearly proves that whatever may be the actual date of
the composition of these works they are long posterior to the
Mahabharata and the Ramayana. From the evidence of style, the treatment
of subject matter, the account of Creation and Patriarchal families it
is clear, that Harivamsha, although it is a sequel to the Mahabharata,
was written long after that great work. If it was not written in the
same period when the Puranas were composed it was not at least written

I have said before that Harivamsha consists of the life and miracles of
Srikrishna together with an account of his family. I think, I should say
a few words whether the central hero of this great work as well as of
many other works is a historical person or a myth. Foreigners who have
no access to the literature of the Hindus consider him as a creation of
imagination, an ideal of lust. Several poetical works and Brahma
Vaivarta Purana in the list of Puranas are responsible for this opinion.
Any impartial student, of Mahabharata and other authentic writings
regarding his life, will admit that he was a real historical personage—a
man of wonderful power and superhuman intellect. He was a great
politician and a great prophet. Such a combination is rare in the
history of men. If the battle of Kurukshetra is a historical incident
which many inscriptions prove we fail to see why the central figure
should not be a historical character. Srikrisna is a grand figure in the
history of the Aryans—his life teems with lofty moral precepts which
have been still shedding lustre upon the greatness of our forefathers;
his teachings have been not only swaying over the vast millions of India
but have arrested the admiration and veneration of the people of the
West. Writers like Messrs Dupuis and Volney have even gone the length of
arguing in their respective works that the history of life and miracles
of Christ have been borrowed from those of Indian Krishna. If then for
many miracles attributed to him he is to be considered a myth, what
claim then can any other prophet have for being considered a historical
character whose life also has been interwoven with many such miracles?

Harivamsha is an account of the life and family of this Greatest Prophet
of the Hindus and therefore it is hoped an English Translation of such a
work will be welcome to the public.

            With His Highness’ kind permission this English

                       Translation of Harivamsha

              Is most humbly and respectfully dedicated to

                          Col. H. H. Maharajah

          Sir Pertab Sing, Inday Mahindar Bahadur G. G. S. T.

                         Maharajah of Cashmere

        As a token of appreciation of His Highness’ sympathy for

            Such works, his vast scholarship and liberality

                    By his most obedient and humble

                          Servant and admirer

                              The author.



Salutation unto Ganesha.¹ Salutation unto Veda Vyasa.² Having saluted
Nārāyana and the best of male beings Nara as well as the goddess of
learning Saraswati let us cry success (1). What is the use of bathing at
the sacred shrine of Pushkara³ for him who listens to the recitation of
the Mahābhārata, dropped off the lips of Dwaipayana, wondrous,
destructive of sins, auspicious and highly sacred (2). May Vyasa, the
son of Parāçara and the delighter of Satyavati, be crowned with success,
from whose lotus mouth the wordy ambrosia has come down which the world
drinks (3). He, who listens to the sacred theme of Bhārata, acquires the
same fruit with him who makes a gift of a hundred kine with golden horns
unto a Brāhmana conversant with the Vedas and many Srutis (4). By making
a gift of Harivamsha a man acquires far more everlasting piety than what
is acquired by the celebration of a hundred horse sacrifices, or by the
distribution of inexhaustive food, or by doing what secures the dignity
of Indra. This has been recounted by the great Rishi Vyasa (5). This
bestows the same fruit as is given by _Bajpeya_⁴ or Rājashuya⁵ Yagnas or
by making a gift of a car with elephants. Vyasa’s word is the proof
hereof and this has also been said by the great Rishi Vālmiki (6). The
great ascetic, who duly commits to writing Harivamsha, speedily
approaches the lotus-feet of Hari like a bee moving towards a lotus,
drawn by the smell of honey (7). I consider Dwaipāyana as the supreme
cause of all, who is the sixth in descent from Brahmā, who is a Rishi
endued with eternal spiritual greatness, who has descended from a
portion of Nārāyana and who has only Suka for his son (8).

    ¹ The deity Ganesha, according to the Hindus, confers the
      accomplishment of all objects. It is customary with them to offer
      him worship at the beginning of every ceremony,

    ² Vyasa is a generic term meaning compiler. Here it refers to the
      person who arranged the Vedas and compiled the Puranas.

    ³ It is a lake situated in the District of Ajmir, Marwar, where
      thousands of pilgrims resort every year for bathing.

    ⁴ A particular sacrifice at which the acetous fermentation of meat
      and water is drunk by the gods.

    ⁵ A sacrifice at which all the tributary kings assemble to pay
      homage to their Emperor.


Having saluted Hari, the master of senses and the preceptor or the
mobile and immobile, the Prime Purusha Icāna, who is eulogised and
propitiated with oblations by many in sacrifices, who is real, who is
Brahman, shorn of all attachments, is both manifest and not manifest,
who does exist for ever, who is above the real and unreal and from whom
has emanated this universe, visible and invisible, who is above all, the
creator of all, ancient, great and undecaying; who is joy and the giver
of joy, who is Vishnu, the worshipful of all, sinless and pure, the
virtuous-souled great Muni Kulapati⁶ Sounaka, well-read in all
scriptures, said to Souti in the forest of Naimisha (1-4).

Sounakla said:—O Souti, you have recounted the great history of the
descendants of Bharata as well as that of other kings; of the gods,
demons, Gandharvas, serpents, Rākshasas, Daityas, Siddhas and of
Guhyakas as well (5-6). You have described in sweet words the most
excellent and sacred Purāna, dealing with their wondrous deeds, heroic
feats and religious practices and their births. This nectarine theme,
affording pleasure unto the mind and ears, O Souti, has given us
satisfaction. O son of Lomaharshana, while describing the birth and
history of the Kurus, you forgot to narrate the history of Vrishnis and
Andhakas.⁷ It becomes you to relate their history (7–9).

Souti said:—I shall now relate to you the story of the birth of Vrishnis
from the very beginning about which the pious disciples of Vyasa,
Vaishampāyana was accosted by Janamejaya (10). Hearing the complete
history of the descendants of Bharata, the highly wise Janamejaya, born
in their race, said to Vaishampāyana (11).

Janemejaya said:—You described before in full and I heard the story of
Mahābhārata full of many meanings and Historical accounts (12). Therein
you mentioned the names and deeds of many mighty car-warriors and heroes
of the Vrishni and Andhaka families (13). O foremost of the twice born,
you have described briefly and fully their many excellent deeds (14).
Though this ancient story has been recounted again and again, still I
have not been satiated with it. The Pāndavas and Vrishnis are related to
each other; you are competent enough to describe their families and you
have with your own eyes seen everything. Therefore, O you having
asceticism for your wealth, do you describe their family at length
(15–16). I wish to know who were born in which families. Therefore, O
great ascetic, beginning with the Patriarch and recollecting their
previous creations, do you describe truly everything at length (17).

Souti said:—Having been welcomed and accosted by him, the high-souled
ascetic of rigid austerities described in full the whole story from the
very beginning (18).

Vaishampayana said:—Listen, O king, to the sacred theme, as narrated by
me, heavenly, destructive of sins, wonderful and abounding in various
meanings and sacred stories (19). He, who circulates this story or
listens to it constantly, multiplies his own family and is spoken high
of in the celestial region (20). This universe, permeated by Isvara
(God), emanated from Pradhāna Purusha who is the unmanifest cause,
eternal and identical with the existent and non-existent (21). Know him,
O monarch, as Brahmā (Creator) of incomparable energy, the creator of
all beings and ever devoted to Nārāyana (Vishnu) (22). From _Mahat_ has
emanated _Ahankara_; from the latter the five subtle elements have
sprung and from them the grosser elements: thus the eternal work of
creation is carried on.⁸ Hear, I shall relate as I have heard and as I
think, of the long extending genealogies of families increasing the
glory of their fore-fathers (23–24). The account of these pious men of
everlasting glory always gives fruit and leads to the multiplication of
race and attainment of heaven (25). On account of this theme being
fruitful and because you are competent to hear it and are pure I shall
relate, to you, beginning with the family of Vrishnis the most excellent
creation of beings (26).

Thereupon desirous of creating various creatures the Divine Self-sprung
(Brahmā) at first created waters and then created seeds therein (27).
The waters are designated as Nārā for they are the offspring of Nara.
The deity first rested thereon and is therefore called Nārāyana (28).
The egg, lying in the waters, assumed golden hue—from that sprang
Brahmā, of his own accord and he is (therefore) called Self-sprung (29).
Having lived there for many years the divine Hiranyagarbha divided the
egg into two and they were called the heaven and earth (30). The Lord
created Akāsa or space between the two portions and in the waters he
created the floating earth and the ten quarters (31). There-upon
desirous of creating the Patriarchs or lords of creation he created
time, mind, speech, passion, anger and desire (32). The highly effulgent
deity then created his seven mind-born sons—Marichi, Atri, Angiras,
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vashistha. (33). These seven have been
ascertained as Brāhmanas in the Puranas. These seven created by Brahmā,
are like Nārāyana himself (34). There-upon Brahmā created Rudra born of
his anger and Sanat Kumar, the predecessor of those born before (35). O
descendant of Bharata, these seven and Rudra engaged in the work of
creation. Skanda and Sanat Kumar sustained the energy of creation (36).
Their seven great families consisted of Yakshas, Pishachas, the
celestials and others who all performed heavenly deeds and created
progeny and were adorned with Kaçyapa and other leading saints (37). He
then created lightning, thunderbolt, the straight and bent rainbows, the
rangers of the sky and clouds (38). He, then for the successful
celebration of Paynas, created Riks, Yuyush and Sāman; he then created
the gods from his mouth and the ancestral manes from his breast (39). He
then engendered human beings from his organ of generation and from his
hips the Asuras, Sādhyas and other classes of gods. This we have heard
(40). From the body of the Patriarch Vashishtha when he was desirous of
creating progeny, sprang the various kinds of elemental creations (41).
When the progeny, created by his mind, did not multiply he divided his
own body into two and with the half he created man (42). With the other
half he created woman and through her he engendered various kinds of
progeny. He resides enveloping the heaven and earth with his own glory
(43). Vishnu created a universal form which again created a Purusha: You
should know him as Manu and his regeme is known as Manwantara (44). The
second creation of Washishtha is called Manwantara. The great Virat
Purusha created the progeny. He is the creation of Nārāyana and his
progeny are not born in any sex (45). Having known this primaeval
creation a man gains longevity, fame, wealth, progeny and his wished-for
region (46).

    ⁶ The head of the family of Rishis of the same name.

    ⁷ Two clans representing two royal families of ancient India.

    ⁸ According to Sankhya _Mahat_ is the intellect. It is the
      intellectual principle which appertains to individual beings.
      _Ahankara_ is self consciousness or the consciousness of _ego_.
      The five subtle elements are _Akasa_ or ether, air, fire, water
      and earth. By them are produced the four kinds of grosser elements
      such as _Viviparous_ born from the womb as man and other animals;
      _oviparous_, or born of the egg as birds, fishes and serpents;
      those engendered by heat and damp as insects and worms; and those
      springing from the earth—as vegetables, trees &c.


Vaishampayana said:—When the work of his creation of progeny was
complete the Patriarch Vashishtha obtained Shatarupā, not born of a
woman, as his spouse (1). While he resided covering the etherial region,
he created Shatarupā, O monarch, by his greatness and Yoga power (2).
Having carried on rigid austerities for a million of years she obtained
her husband of burning asceticism (3). That Purusha, O my child, is
called Swayambhuva Manu. His own Manwantara in this world consists of
seventy-one Yugas (4). The Universal Purusha begat on Shatarupā a son by
name Veera who begat on Kāmyā two sons by name Pryavrata and Uttānapāda
(5). Kāmyā, the daughter of the Patriarch Kardama, gave birth to four
sons, O you of large arms, namely Samrāt, Kukshi, Virāt, and Prabhu.
Obtaining Pryavrata as her husband she gave birth to them (6) The
Patriarch Atri adopted Uttānapāda as his son. Sunritā gave birth to four
sons through Uttānapāda (7). The youthful daughter of Dharma was known
as Sunritā. She originated from a horse sacrifice and that pure damsel
was the mother of Dhruva (8). The Patriarch Uttanapāda begat on Sunritā,
four sons by name, Dhruva, Kirtiman, Ayushmān, and Vasu (9). O
descendant of Bharata, O monarch, with a view to obtain the great
Brahman, Vishnu, Dhruva carried on hard austerities for three thousand
celestial years (10). Being propitiated the Patriarch Brahmā conferred
on him a permanent region, peerless on earth, in the front of the region
of the seven Rishis (11). Beholding his great prosperity and greatness
the preceptor of the gods and demons, (Ushanā) sang the following hymn
(12). "Oh, wonderful is his energy of asceticism, knowledge of
scriptures and prowess, placing whom before them the seven Rishis are
living (13)". From Dhruva were born Shlishthi, Bhavya and Shumbha.
Shlishthi begat on Suchayā seven sinless sons (14). They were Ripu,
Ripunjaya, Pushpa, Vrikala and Vrikatejā. Ripu begat on Vrihati, a son,
gifted with all energies, by the name of Chākshusha (15). The noble
Chākshusha begat Muni on Pushkarini, a mother of heroes and the daughter
of the Patriarch Aranya (16). O foremost of Bharatas, Muni begat ten
highly powerful sons on Nadvalā, the daughter of the Patriarch Vairaj
(17), Uru, Puru, Shata dyumna, Tapaswi, Satyavān, Kavi, Agnistut and
Atirātra; and Sudyumna was the ninth (18). The tenth was Abhimanyu;
these were the sons of Nadvalā. Uru begat on Agneyi six highly powerful
sons-Anga, Sumanas, Swati, Kratu, Angiras and Gaya (19). Anga begat only
one son on Sunithā, by name Vena. By the irregularities of Vena (the
Rishis) were highly irritated (20). For creating progeny the Rishis
churned his right arm. When Vena’s right arm was churned by the
ascetics, therefrom originated Prithu (21). Seeing him the Rishis said
in delight, "This highly powerful one will delight his subjects and will
attain to fame (22)". As if burning all with his energy he took his
birth with a bow and a coat of mail. Born first in the race of
Kshatriyas, Vena’s son Prithu protected this earth (23). That lord of
the earth was the first born of those who are sprinkled with water at
the Rajshuya sacrifices. For him were born Suta and Magadha, experts in
singing the glories of kings (24). O descendant of Bharata, to give
livelihood to his subjects by him the earth was milched for corns in the
company of the gods, Rishis, the ancestral manes, Dānavas, Gandharvas,
Apsarās, serpents, Guyakas, creepers and mountains (25–26). When milched
the earth gave wished-for milk in their respective vessels; by it they
maintain their lives (27). Two sons, conversant with religion, were born
to Prithu, Antardhi and Pālita. Antardhi begat Havirdhāna on Shikhandin
(28). Havirdhana begat on Agneyidhishanā six sons—Prāchina varhis,
Sukra, Gaya, Krishna, Vraja and Ajina (29). Thus O monarch,
Prāchinavarhis, gifted with great spiritual power, was born of
Havirdhāna. He was a great Patriarch and multiplied the progeny (30). O
Janamejaya, the tips, of the Kuça grass in his sacrificial ground, were
directed towards the east and they covered the entire earth. And
therefore he was celebrated by the name of Prāchinavarhis (31). Having
carried on great austerities that king espoused Savarnā the daughter of
the ocean, who gave birth to ten sons for Prāchinavarhis who were all
called Prachetas and had mastered the science of archery (32–33).
Observing the same religion and lying in the waters of the ocean they
carried on great austerities for ten thousand years (34).

When the Prachetas were engaged in carrying on penances the trees
covered the unprotected earth and so the creatures were being destroyed
(35). The wind could not blow and the sky was covered with trees. The
creatures could set forth no exertion for ten thousand years (36).
Perceiving this and getting angry all those Prachetas, observant of
rigid austerities, created air and fire from their mouths (37). Having
uprooted those trees the wind dried them up and the fire then burnt them
up—thus their was a dreadful destruction of trees (38). Informed of the
destruction of trees and when a few plants still survived the king Soma,
approaching the Patriarchs, said (39). "O Ye kings of the family of
Prāchinavarhis, do ye control your anger. The earth is shorn of trees
and so let fire and air be pacified (40). This beautiful daughter of the
trees is like a jewel. Knowing the future I begat her (41). This girl is
called Marishā and is created for the trees. Let this great one,
multiplying the race of Soma, be your wife (42). By the half of your
energy and that of mine, your son, the Patriarch Daksha will be born of
her (43). That one, effulgent like fire, will multiply the creation
well-nigh destroyed by your fire-like energy (44)".

Thereupon in accordance with the words of Soma restraining their anger
against the trees the Prachetas duly married Marisha (45). Then they all
mentally thought of conception in Marisha. O Bhārata, the Patriarch
Daksha was born of Marisha through the tenth Prachetas with a portion of
Soma’s energy (46). Then to multiply the race of Soma he created various
offspring, mobile, immobile, two legged and four legged sons. Having
created mentally first the sons Daksha created his daughters (47). Of
them Dharma espoused ten and Kagyapa thirteen. The Lord Daksha then
conferred on the king Soma the remaining ones called Nakshatras or
planets (48), They gave birth to gods, sky-rangers, cows, Nagas,
Danavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras and various other beings (49). Since then,
O king, creatures are being engendered by sexual intercourse. Their
predecessors were created by (mere) thinking, seeing and touching (50).

Janemejaya said:—You had described before the birth of the gods, demons,
Gandharvas, serpents and Rakshasas as well as that of the high-souled
Daksha (51). O sinless one, you have said that Daksha sprang from the
right thumb of Brahmā and his wife from the left. How could they then
enter into a matrimonial alliance? (52) How could the great ascetic
Daksha attain to the energy of Prachetas? Being a grand-son of Soma how
could he become his father-in-law? I have grave doubts in this, O Vipra,
it behoves you to remove them (53).

Vaishampayana said:—Origin and destruction are always present in the
elemental creation. The Rishis and the wise are not bewildered at it
(54). O king, the Dakshas are born in every yuga. There is one Daksha in
one yuga and another in another. The learned make no mistakes in it
(55). O king, there was formerly no priority of birth among them—they
were considered elder by asceticism and their prowess was the cause
thereof (56). He, who knows the mobile and immobile creation of Daksha,
gets offspring and when the lease of his life runs out is worshipped in
the celestial region (57).


Janamejaya said:—O Vaishampāyana, do thou describe at length the origin
of the gods, Dānavas, Gandharvas, serpents and Rakshasas (1).

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, hear how Daksha created progeny when he was
commanded by Swayambhuva, saying "create progeny." (2) The capable
Daksha first created his mental offspring—the Rishis, gods, Gandharvas,
Asuras, Rākshasas, Yakshas, goblins, Pishāchas, beasts, birds, and
reptiles (3). When this his mind-born creation did not multiply, for
such was the thought of the intelligent Mahādeva, the Patriarch,
thinking again of the multiplication of his creation and desirous of
creating progeny by sexual intercourse, married Asniki, the daughter of
the Patriarch Virana, engaged in a penance for a son and capable of
giving birth to a great race (4–6). Thereupon the energetic Patriarch
Daksha begat five thousand sons on Asniki, the daughter of Virana (7).
Beholding those great men desirous of multiplying progeny, the celestial
saint Nārada, ever fond of carrying news, for their destruction and for
his own imprecation, said (8). Afraid of Daksha and his imprecation the
ascetic Kaçyapa begat on his daughter the same celestial saint Nārada
who had been begotten by Brahmā (9). Nārada was formerly begotten by
Brahmā; and then that foremost of celestial saints (Kaçyapa) again begat
that best of ascetics on Asniki, daughter of Virana (10). Undoubtedly by
him the sons of Daksha, celebrated under the name of Haryaswas were
freed from attachment to body through scriptural knowledge and rendered
invisible (11). When Daksha, of immeasurable prowess, was ready to
destroy Nārada, Parameshti (Brahmā), with leading saints before him,
begged him (not to do it) (12). Thereupon Daksha made this contract with
Parameshti that his son Nārada would be born as the son of his
(Daksha’s) daughter (13). Thereupon Daksha gave away his daughter unto
Parameshti: and the Rishi, in fear of the imprecation of Daksha, begat
Nārada on her (14).

Janamejaya said:—O foremost of the twice-born, I wish to hear truly why
Daksha’s sons were killed by the great saint Nārada (15).

Vaishampāyana said:—When the highly energetic sons of Daksha called
Haryaswas came there with a view to multiply the progeny Nārada said to
them (19), "O ye sons of Daksha, how stupid you are all, since you do
not know the cause of all and still desire to create progeny; with out
knowing him who is in heaven, earth and nether region how do you wish to
create progeny?" (17) Hearing his words those descendants of Daksha,
without caring for each other, repaired to various directions to see the
cause of all (18). Having restrained vital airs, and attained to the
pure Brahman they secured emancipation. Even now they have not returned
like the rivers from the ocean (19). When the Haryaswas were thus lost
sight of, Daksha, the son of Prachetas, capable of creating progeny,
again begat one thousand sons on the daughter of Virana (20). When those
Shavalashwas were again desirous of multiplying progeny they were
addressed by Narada with the self-same words (21). They then spoke
amongst themselves, "The great saint Nārada has spoken the just thing.
We should follow the footsteps of our brothers; there is no doubt about
that (22). Learning the dimension of the earth, we will, at ease and
with whole minded attention, create progeny in due order (23)". They, by
the same way, repaired to various directions. Even now they have not
returned like the rivers from the ocean (24). When the Shavalāshwas too
were lost sight of, Daksha, possessed by anger, said to Nārada:—"Do thou
meet with destruction and experience the pain of living in the womb
(25)". Since then, O king, if a brother issues out in quest of another
he meets with destruction. So the learned should not do it (26). Knowing
his sons thus exiled and destroyed the Patriarch Daksha again begat
sixty daughters on the daughter of Virana. This we have heard (27). O
descendant of Kuru, the Patriarch Kaçyapa, the Moon, Dharma and other
Rishis took their wives from among those daughters of Daksha (28). Of
them Daksha conferred ten on Dharma, thirteen on Kaçyapa, twenty seven
on the Moon, four on Arishtanemi, two on Vahuputra, two on Angiras and
two on the learned Krisāshwa. Hear from me their names (29–30).
Arundhuti, Vasu, Yami, Lamvā, Bhānu, Marutvati, Sankalpa Muhurta, Sādhyā
and Vishwā, these ten, O descendant of Bharata, were the wives of
Dharma. Hear from me of their offspring (31). Vishwadevas were the sons
of Vishwā and Sādhyā gave birth to Sādhyas. Marutvati was the mother of
Maruts and Vāsus were the sons of Vasu (32). Bhānus were the sons of
Bhānu and the Muhurttas of Muhurtta (33). Gosha was born of Lamvā and
Nāgavithi of Yami. Arundhuti gave birth to all the herbs of the earth
(34). The Deity of determination, the soul of all, took his birth from
Sankalpa and Vrihalamva took his birth from Nāgabitha (35). O king, all
the daughters, whom Daksha conferred on the Moon, have been celebrated
by the name of _Nakshatras_ or _planets_ in astrology (36). The
celestials, who have profuse effulgence before them, were celebrated by
the name of eight Vasus. I will mention their names at length (37). Apa,
Dhruva, Soma, Dhara, Anila, Anala, Pratyusha, and Pravasha—these eight
are known as eight Vasus (38), Apa’s sons were Vaitandya, Srānta and
Muni. Dhruva’s son was the Divine Kāla, the destroyer of creatures (39).
Soma’s son was the Divine Varchas who begat Varcaaswi. Dhara’s son was
Dravina the carrier of sacrificial oblations. He begat on his wife
Manoharā, Sishira, Prāna and Ramana (40). Anila’s wife was Shivā whose
son was Manojava. Anila, whose course is not known, had two sons (41).
Agni’s son Kumara shone in the thickets of Sara grass. His names are
Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya and Prishthaja (42). And on account of his
being an offspring of Kirtikās⁹ he was called Kartikeya: With the fourth
part of his energy Agni created Skanda and Sanat Kumar (43).

Pratyusha’s son was the Rishi Devala whose two sons were forgiving and
observant of hard austerities (44). Shorn of attachment Vrihaspati’s
sister, the beautiful Yogasiddhā, who led a life of celibacy, ranged all
over the earth (45). She became the wife of the eighth Vasu Prabhasa.
The noble Patriarch Vishwakarma was born of her (46). He made chariots
for the celestials, was their architect, the maker of thousands of fine
things and dresses and the foremost of artizans. Adopting his art as
their profession mankind are now making their livelihoods (47-48). By
the grace of Siva and having her heart purified by virtue of asceticism,
Surabhi gave birth, through Kaçyapa, to the eleventh Rudra (49). O
descendant of Bharata, Ajaikapāt, Ahir-Budhna, Rudrashwa, Tasta, Srimān
and Vishwarupa, those were the highly illustrious sons of Tastu (50).
Hara, Vahurupa, Tryamvaka, Aparājita, Vrishākapi, Sambhu, Kapardi,
Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarpa and Kapāli—these are known as the eleven
Rudras who lord over the three worlds (51-52). O foremost of Bhāratas,
in Purānas, hundreds, of such Rudras of incomparable energy, have been
mentioned who have spread over the mobile and immobile creation (53). O
foremost of Bhāratas, hear from me of the wives of Kaçyapa who have
spread over all the worlds: They are Aditi, Diti, Dana, Aristha, Suravā,
Surabhi, Vinatā, Tāmrā, Krodhavashā, Irā, Kadru, Muni and Swasā; hear
now of their offspring (54-55). In the previous Manwantara they were
twelve leading celestials. In the Manwantara of Vaivaswata they used to
address one another by the name of Tushita (56). During the reign of the
present highly illustrious Manu Chakshusha, they all assembled together
for the benefit of all creatures and said (57). "Let us all enter into
the womb of Aditi to be born in the Manwantara of Vaivaswata and we will
attain well-being (58)".

Vaishampāyana said:—Having said this during the Manwantara of Manu
Chakshusha, they were begotten on Aditi, daughter of Daksha by Kagyapa
the son of Marichi (59). Sakra and Vishnu were also born of her.
Besides, O descendant of Bharata, Aryamā, Dhātā, Twastā, Pushā,
Vivashmān, Savitā, Mitra, Varuna, Ansha, and the highly effulgent
Bhaga—these eight were also born of Aditi; so it is said (60-61). Those
who passed by the name of _Tushita_ during the Manwantara of Chakshusha
were known as twelve Adityas during the Manwantara of Vaivaswata (62).
The twenty seven wives of Soma, observant of vows and of incomparable
energy, gave birth to luminous bodies as their offspring (63).
Arishthanemi’s wives had sixteen sons. The learned Patriarch Vahuputra
had four sons:—Vidyut (lightning), Açani (thunder-bolt), Megha (cloud)
and Indradhanu (rain-bow) (64). The best of works _Riks_ originated from
Pratyangiras and the celestial saint Krishāswa begat deities presiding
over various celestial weapons (65).

O child, these deities take their births again after a thousand Yugas.
Of them thirty three¹⁰ take birth of their own accord (66). As in this
world the sun rises and sets, so O king, the origin and disappearance of
all these gods are also mentioned. They appear and disappear at every
Yuga (67-68).

Kaçyapa begat on Diti two sons, the powerful Hiranyakashipu and
Hiranyaksha. This we have heard (69). He had a daughter (also) by name
Sinhikā whom Viprachitti espoused. Her highly powerful sons were
celebrated by the name of Saihinkeyas. It is said, O king, that their
number was ten thousand (70). They had, O thou having mighty arms,
hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons. Hear now from me of the
children of Hiranykashipu (71). He had four sons of well-known
prowess—Anurhāda, Hrāda, and the energetic Pralhāda (72). And Sanghrāda
was the fourth. Hrāda’s son was Hrada. Sangrada’s sons were Sunda and
Nisunda (73). Anurahada’s sons were Ayu, Sivi and Kāla. Virochana was
Pralhada’s son; and his son was Vali (74). O king, Vali had a hundred
sons, of whom Vāna was the eldest. Dhritarashtra, Surya, Chandramā,
Indratapana, Kumbhanabha, Gardhabhaksha, Kukshi and others were their
names. Of them Vāna was the eldest, powerful and a beloved votary of
Paçupati (75–76). In the previous Kalpa, Vāna, having propitiated the
Divine Lord of Uma, prayed to him for the boon "I shall remain by your
side." (77). Vāna begat on his wife Lohita, a son, by name Indradamana.
Hundreds and thousands of Asuras yielded to his power (78). The five
sons of Hiranyaksha were learned and highly powerful—they were Jarjara,
Sakuni, Bhutasantāpana, the powerful Mahānābha and Kālanabha. Hundred
sons of dreadful prowess were born to Danu. They were all ascetic and
endued with great energy. Hear their names in order of precedence
(79–80). Dwimurdhā, Shakuni, Shankushira, Vibhu, Shankukarna, Virava,
Gaveshtha, Dundubhi, Ayomukha, Shamvara, Kapila, Vāmana Marichi,
Maghavāna, Ira, Vrika, Vikshovana, Ketu, Ketuvirya, Shatahrada,
Indrajit, Satyajit, Vajranābha, the powerful Mahānābha, Kālanabha
Ekachakra, the highly powerful and mighty-armed Taraka, Vaishvanara,
Pulomā, Victravana, Mahāsura, Swarbhanu, Vrishaparva, the great Asura
Tuhunda, Sukhshma, Nichandra, Urnanabha, Mahāgiri, Asilomā, Sukeshi,
Shatha, Valaka, Mada, Gaganamurdha, the great ascetic Kumbhanābha,
Pramada, Daya, Kupatha, the energetic Hayagriva, Vaisripa, Virupaksha,
Supatha, Hara, Ahara, Hiranyakashipu, Salya and the energetic
Viprachitta—these sons of Danu were begotten by Kaçyapa. Amongst those
highly powerful Dinavas Viprachitta was the head (81-89). O king, I
cannot enumerate the offspring, sons and grandsons, of all these Dānavas
(90). Sarvana’s daughter was Prabhā, Puloma’s daughter was Sachi,
Hayasira’s daughter was Upadānavi and Vrishaparva’s daughter was
Sharmishthā (91).

Vaishwānara had two daughters Pulomā and Kalikā-they were both highly
powerful, gave birth to many children and were the wives of Kaçyapa, the
son of Marichi (92). They gave birth to sixty thousand Dānavas; of them
fourteen thousand lived in the city of Hiranya (93). Being observant of
rigid austerities Kaçyapa begat highly powerful Dānavas called Poulamas
and Kālakeyās (94). Those living in the city of Hiranya were placed by
Brahmā above destruction even by the gods. They were afterwards killed
by Savyasachi in battle (95). Nahusha was Prabhā’s son, Jayanta was
Sachi’s son, Sarmisthā gave birth to Puru and Upadānavi gave birth to
Dushmanta (96). Viprachitta begat on Singhikā another class of highly
dreadful Dānavas (97). By the union of Daity and Danava energies they
grew of dreadful prowess. Those thirteen highly powerful Dānavas were
celebrated by the name of Sainghikeyas (98). They were the powerful
Aisha, Nabha, Vala, Vatāpi, Namuchi, Ilvala, Khasrima, Anjika, Naraka,
Kālanābha, Shara, Potarana, and the energetic Vajranābha (99-100). Of
them Rāhu, the represser of the sun and the moon, was the eldest. Hrāda
had two sons, Suka and Tuhunda (101). Sunda begat on Tāraka a son by
name Mārachi, another (by name) Sivamana, energetic like a celestial
(102). All these Dānavas, multiplying the race of Danu, were great.
Their sons and grandsons were hundreds and thousands in number (103).
The noble Nivātakavachas endued with great asceticism were born in the
race of the Daitya Sanghrāda(104). Those Danavas, living in the city of
Manimati, begat three Koti offspring. The gods could not destroy them
and they were slain by Arjuna (105). It is said that Tāmrā gave birth to
six highly powerful daughters—Kake, Sweni, Bhāsi, Sugrivi, Suchi, and
Gidhrika (106). Kāki gave birth to crows, Uluki to owls, Sweni to Swena
birds, Bhāsi to Bhāsa birds, Gidhri to vultures, Suchi to waterfowls and
Sugrivi to horses, camels and asses. Such is the description of Tāmrā’s
family (107-108). Vinata had two sons, Aruna and Garuda. Suparna, the
foremost of birds, grew immensely powerful by his own action (109).
Surasā gave birth to a thousand highly powerful serpents and high-souled
sky-rangers of many heads (110). Powerful, and many headed Nagas endued
with immeasurable energy, the offspring of Kadru, were born as being
subject to Suparna (111). Amongst them Sesha, Vāsuki, Takshaka,
Airavata, Mahāpadma, Kamvala, Aswatara, Ekapatra, Shankha, Karko taka,
Dhananjāya, Mohāneela, Mahākarna, Dhritarashtra, Valāhaka, Kuhara,
Pushpapangstra, Durmukha, Sumukha, Shankhapala, Kapilā, Vāmana, Nahusha,
Sangkaroma and Manu were the heads. Fourteen thousand sons and grand
sons of these dreadful serpents were devoured by Garuda, living on
serpents. Know this class to be full of anger. All animals having teeth,
those born on land, birds and those produced by water are the offspring
of Dhara. Surabhi gave birth to kine and buffaloes (112-117). Ira
produced trees, creepers, groves and all kinds of grasses and Khasa gave
birth to Yakshas, Rakshas, Munis and Apsarās (118). Aristha gave birth
to the powerful Gandharvas of unmitigated prowess and the mobile and
immobile creation is said to have originated from Kaçyapa (119).
Hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons have been born to them.
Such was the creation, O my child, in Swarochisha Manwantara (120). I
shall now describe to you the creation of the Patriarch Brahmā who
offered oblation to fire at the long-extending sacrifice of Varuna in
Vaivaswata Manwantara (121). Formerly when seven Rishis were procreated
by his mind the grand-father considered them as his sons (122).

O descendant of Bharata, when the conflict between the gods and demons
raged on, Diti, who had her sons slain, began to propitiate Kaçyapa
(123). Being duly adored by her and propitiated, Kaçyapa pleased her by
giving a boon. She too prayed for a highly powerful son for killing
Indra. That great ascetic, when thus begged, conferred on her the same
boon (124-125). Having conferred on her the boon without the least
anxiety the son of Marichi said:—"If being pure and observant of vows
you can hold your conception for one hundred years you will give birth
to such a son as will slay Indra (126–127)." O monarch, saying so be it
and being pure Diti obtained her conception from her that great ascetic
husband (128). Thinking of one of the leadings gods of immeasurable
power and infusing energy which the immortals even can not destroy he
knew Diti. Then that one of great vows repaired to a hilly region for
carrying on penances (129-130). From that day the slayer of Pāka (Indra)
began to seek her fault. One day before hundred years were complete
Diti, without washing her feet, lay down on her bed. Beholding her
impure state the king of gods entered into her abdomen and made her
asleep (131-132).

Then the holder of thunderbolt sundered the embryo into seven pieces.
Cut into pieces with the thunderbolt the embryo began to cry (133).
Sakra again and again prevented him saying "Do not cry! Do not cry!" The
embryo was then divided into seven pieces. Indra too, the slayer of
enemies, worked up with anger, again cut every piece into seven portions
with his thunder-bolt. From them originated the gods called Maruts, O
foremost of Bharatas (134-135). Because they were addressed by Maghavan
(saying "Do not weep" _Ma ruda_) so the Maruts were born and they all
became of help to the holder of thunder-bolt (136). When creatures thus
multiplied, O Janamejaya, Hari consoled that foremost of gods of
immeasurable energy, and then conferred kingdoms on various Patriarchs
of whom Prithu was first installed as king (137-138). That Hari is the
heroic person Vishnu, Jishnu, the Patriarch, the king of rains and is
the air in his visible form. The whole universe is His (139). O foremost
of Bharatas, he, who is informed of this creation of creatures, and he
who reads or hears the auspicious birth of the Maruts, has no fear of
being born again in this world—what of fear in the next world (140)?

    ⁹ They are nymphs and the nurses of Kumara.

   ¹⁰ The thirty three gods are:—8 Vasus, 11, Rudras, 12 Adityas, Brahma
      and Indra.


Janamejaya said:—Having installed Prithu the son of Vena, in the office
of the Lord Paramount the Patriarch began to confer kingdoms on Soma and
others (1). He placed Soma in charge of the twice-born, herbs, planets,
stars, sacrifices and hard austerities (2). He then installed Varuna as
the king of waters, Vaishravana as the lord of kings, Vishnu the king of
Adityas, Pāvaka the king of Vasus, Laksha the king of Patriarchs, Vāsava
the king of Maruts, Pralhāda of incomperable energy the king of Daityas,
and and Danavas, Yama, the offspring of the sun, as the king of the
departed manes, Nārāyana as the king of Mātris, vows, Mantrās, kine,
Yakshas, Rākshasas and kings and Siva, having the emblem of a bull, as
the king of Sādhyas and Rudras (3–7). He then ordered Viprachitta to
become the king of the Dānavas and made Girisha (Siva) the holder of
mace, the king of all ghosts and goblins (8). He made Himavān, the king
of mountains, and the ocean the king of rivers and appointed the greatly
power Vāyu as the king of smell, bodiless creatures, sound, ether and
earth (9). He made the lord Chitraratha the king of Gandarvas, Vāsuki,
the king of Nāgas and Takshaka the king of serpents (10). He ordered
Airavat to become the king of the elephants, Ushaishrava, of the horses
and Garuda the king of birds, tiger the king of beasts and the bull, the
king kine, Plaksha the king of trees, and, installed Parjanya as the
king of ocean, rivers, showers and Adityas (11—13). He installed Sesha
as the king of wild animals and Takshaka, the king of reptiles and
serpents (14). He made Kāmadeva the king of Gandharvas and Asuras and
Samvatsara the king of seasons, months, days, fortnights, moments,
conjunctions of planets, Parvas, Kālas, Kāshthās, Pramāsha, Ayanas,
Mathematics and all conjunctions. Having divided the kingdom in such an
order Brahmā placed all the guardians of the quarters. He installed
Sudhanna, the son of the Patriarch Vairaja as the Protector of the
eastern quarter. He placed in the South the high-souled Sankhapāda, the
son of the Patriarch Kardama. He installed the high-souled Ketuman, the
son of Raja, as the king of the West. And he made the irrepressible,
Hirany roma, the son of the Patriarch Prajanya, the king of the North.
Even now they have been piously ruling over their respective provinces
of the earth consisting of seven insular continents and mountains. By
all those kings Prithu was appointed as the Lord Pāramonnt in a Rajshuya
sacrifice according to rites laid down in the Vedas, O king (15–23).
After the expiration of the highly vigorous Manwantara of Chakshusha the
Patriarch Brahmā conferred the kingdom on Manu Vaivaswata. If you wish
to listen, O sinless king, I shall give you at length an account (of his
life) for your help. This has been described fully in Purana. It is
sacred and confers fame, longevity, residence in heaven and auspicious
ness (24–25).

Janamejaya said:—O Vaishampāyana, do thou describe in full, the birth of
Prithu and how by that high-souled one this earth was milched (26); how
was she milched by the ancestral manes, gods, Rishis, Daityas, Nagas,
Yakshas, serpents, mountains, Pishachas, Gandharvas, the leading
Brāhmanas, Rakshasas, and other great creatures, (27–28). Do thou also
describe fully, O Vaishampāyana, their various vessels, the calves and
the various articles in order, for which she was milched (29). Do thou
also relate, why formerly Vena’s arm was churned by the angry Rishis

Vaishampāyana said:—O Janamejaya, listen, with attention and
concentrated mind, I shall give you a detailed account of Prithu, the
son of Vena (31). O monarch, I do not describe this unto him, who is
impure, little-witted, who is not a worthy disciple, who does not
observe vows, who is ungrateful and injures people (32). O king, do thou
listen duly to this theme described by the god-like Rishis which secures
heaven, longevity, fame and riches (for all) (33). He, who having
saluted the Brāhmanas daily, listens to the birth story of Vena’s son,
Prithu, does not grieve for iniquities committed by him (34).


Vaishampāyana said:—Formerly the Patriarch Anga, born in the race of
Atri, and equally all-powerful like him, became the protector of
religion (1). A highly impious son by name Vena was born to him. That
Patriarch was begotten on Sunithā the daughter of Death (2). Imbibing
the defect of his maternal grand-father, that son of Kāla’s daughter
deviated from his own duties and preached freedom of conduct in the
world (3). That king established an irreligious order and disregarding
Vedic observances he engaged in impious actions (4). During his
administration the study of the Vedas and the performance of the Vedic
rites were suspended. And the celestials did not get Soma juice
consecrated in Yajnas (5). Such was the dreadful promise of the
Patriarch that no one would perform, even at the time of destruction,
either Homa or Yajna (6). O foremost of Kurus, (he said) I am worthy of
being adored, I am the agent of Yajna, I am identical with Yajna—you
should dedicate all your Yajnas and Homas unto me (7). Beholding him
thus transgress the order and partake unduly and unfairly of the
sacrificial offerings the great Rishis, headed by Marichi, said (8):–"We
shall enter upon the initiation ceremony for many long years—therefore
do not act irreligiously, O Vena, for such is the eternal religion (9).
After the death of Atri you have forsooth been born as a Patriarch. And
you made the contract that you would govern the subjects" (10). After
they had said this the wicked and ill-disposed Vena, laughing, said to
all those great Rishis, the following evil words (11). Vena said "Who
else will be the founder of religion? Whom shall I hear? Who else is
superior to me on this earth in learning, energy, prowess, asceticism
and truth (12)? All creatures and especially all forms of religion have
originated from me. You are all stupid and void of consciousness and
therefore you do not know me (13). If I wish I can burn down the earth
or overflow it with water. I can obstruct the heaven and earth: there is
no need of discussing it (14)". When the noble Rishis could not make
Vena humble on account of his pride and egotism, they, worked up with
anger, belaboured that highly powerful king and began to churn his left
thigh (15–16). When the thigh of that king was thus churned there arose
from it a greatly short and dark person (17). O Janamejaya, he stood
there, stricken with fear and folding his arms. Beholding him thus
possessed by fear Atri said to him "Nishida" _Sit down_ (18). O foremost
of speakers, he became the originator of the race of Nishadas (hunters)
and procreated the race of fishermen begotten of the sins of Vena (19).
And Tukhāras, Tumuras and other races taking delight in impiety who live
on the Vindhya mountain were also born of Vena (20). Thereupon, those
high-souled Rishis, worked up with anger, began to churn the right arm
of Vena like a piece of wood used for kindling fire (21). From that arm
originated Prithu resembling the very flame, and burning in effulgence
like the fire itself (22). The highly illustrious Prithu was born with
his most excellent prime bow _Ajagava_, heavenly arrows and a highly
lustrous coat of mail to protect his body (23-24). At his birth all the
creatures were filled with delight and Vena too, O monarch, repaired to
the celestial region (25). O descendant of Kuru, the great Prithu, a
good son, being born he saved Vena from the hell called _Put_¹¹ (26).
Taking all the jewels the oceans came to him with water for his
installation (27). The Divine Brahmā with the Devas, the offspring of
Angiras, and all other creatures, mobile and immobile, came there and
installed the effulgent king, the son of Vena, the lord of an extensive
kingdom (28-29). The highly energetic and powerful son of Vena, Prithu,
was installed as the first king by the leading Rishis conversant with
the Vedas and other scriptures (30) By him were pleased the subjects who
had been dissatisfied by his father. On account of his being the object
of their love he was called Rājā (king) (31). When he used to make a
voyage in the ocean the water used be grow hard as land and the
mountains made way for him and the branches of the trees were not broken
down (32). The earth grew easy of production and yielded articles of
food as soon as thought of. The kine gave milk whenever milched and
honey grew in every leaf (33). In the meantime at the sacred Yajna of
Brahmā, was born the highly intelligent Suta (34). At that great Yajna
was also born the wise Māgadha. They were invited by the celestial
saints for chanting the glories of Prithu (35). All the Rishis said to
them "Do ye sing the glories of this king. This is a work that befits
you and this king too is also an worthy subject for it (36)". Then Suta
and Māgadha said to all those Rishis:—"We shall, with our own actions,
delight the gods and Rishis (37). O ye twice born ones, we are not
cognizant of the actions, characteristics and fame of this energetic
king. How shall we then chant his glories (38)?" They were then engaged
by the Rishis (to chant his glories) saying "Do ye chant his glories by
the deeds which the highly powerful Prithu did in the previous Kalpa
(39). This king speaks truth, has a good character, keeps his promise,
is modest, does good unto all, is forgiving, powerful, represses the
wicked, observes his duties, is grateful, merciful, always speaks sweet
words and respects those who deserve it, performs Yajnas, is devoted to
Brāhmanas, is of a quiet temperament, and observes the rules of
society." Since then, O Janmejaya, at the time of chanting glories Sutas
and Māgadhas (panegyrists) pour their benedictions in this world
(40-42). Being highly pleased with their eulogy the king Prithu
conferred upon Suta the province of Arupa, and on Māgadha, that of
Magadha (43). Thereat delighted the great Rishis and the subjects said
"The king will forsooth grant us maintenances in abundance (44)".
Thereupon at the words of the great saints, the subjects approached the
son of Vena and begged of him their maintenances (45). Thus approached
by his subjects and with a view to do them good the powerful king took
up his bow and assailed the earth (46). Thereupon assuming the form of a
cow the earth fled away in fear of Vena’s son. Prithu too, taking up his
bow, pursued her (47). Traversing the region of Brahmā and all other
regions in fear of Vena’s son she saw him everywhere before her with the
bow in his hand (48). He looked effulgent like the burning eternal fire
with his sharpened arrows and even the immortals could not repress that
high-souled one (49). Even when repairing to the region of Brahmā she
could not find safety; the earth, adored even by the three worlds with
folded hands then said to the son of Vena:—"You should not perpetrate
the iniquity of slaying a woman. Without me, how will you be able, O
king, to protect your subjects (50-51). O king, all the worlds are
situated on me, and this universe is sustained by me. Know this, O king,
that with my destruction all the creatures will be destroyed (52). O
king, if you wish to encompass the well being of your subjects it does
not behove you to kill me. Listen to these words of mine (53). If works
are undertaken commensurate with their means they are crowned with
success. Do you, O king, find out the means by which you will protect
your subjects (54). By slaying me, O king, you will not be able to
protect your subjects by any means. O you of great effulgence, I will
find it out; do you restrain your anger (55). Even women of inferior
births should not be slain. Therefore, O king, you should not forsake
your morality (56)."

Hearing those various words of the earth the high-souled and pious king,
restraining his anger, said to her (57).

   ¹¹ It is a hell where all those who have no son born to them go after
      death. It is for this that the Hindus look so eagerly to the birth
      of a son.


Prithu said:—He, who for one individual destroys many lives either
belonging to his own side or to his opposite party, commits a sin in
this world (1). By slaying that harmful person at whose death many
become happy one is not visited by sin, either great or small (2). If by
the destruction of one wicked person the well-being of many is secured
such an act leads to the acquisition of virtue (3). I shall therefore,
for the behoof of my subjects, kill you, O earth. If you do not satisfy
this command of mine conducive to the well-being of the world I shall
kill you with this arrow who have neglected my command. And having
buried my own self (under the earth) I shall uphold my subjects forever
(4-5). O you ever observant of pious rites, do you, during my regeme,
give life to my subjects for you are capable of protecting them (6). Do
you give milk for me and then I will withdraw the dreadful arrow that I
have taken up for your destruction (7).

The earth said:—O hero, forsooth shall I carry out all that you have
said. If works are undertaken along with the means they always prove a
success (8). So do you resort to the means by which all the subjects may
be protected. Behold this my calf. Being attached to it I shall give
milk (9), O you foremost of the pious, do you level my surface all over,
so that my milk may reach everywhere (10).

Vaishampāyana said:—Thereupon Vena’s son, with the end of his bow,
uprooted thousands of hills for which they multiplied greatly (in
number) (11). Vena’s son Prithu then levelled the surface of the earth.
In the past Manwantara she was of uneven surface (12). The earth was by
nature both even and uneven; such was her state in Chakshusha Manwantara
(13). The earth having been uneven in the previous Manwantara there
existed no regular division of the cities and villages (14). There was
no corn, no rearing of kine, agriculture or trade. There was neither
truth, untruth, avarice nor pride (15). O king, now with the advent of
Vaivaswata Manwantara, agriculture, trade and the keeping of kine have
originated from Vena’s son Prithu (16). O sinless one, at that time
people desired to makes their habitations at all those places of the
earth which were levelled (17). Then with great difficulty people could
live upon fruits and roots. This I have heard (18). Having converted the
Manu Swayambhuva into a calf the powerful son of Vena, Prithu, the
foremost of men, milched the earth for all sorts of corns with his own
hands (19). On that food, O my child, the people are daily living even
now. I have heard the earth was again milched by the Rishis. Soma became
their calf; the son of Angiras, the highly energetic Vrihaspati, milched
her. The Vedas were the vessels, O descendant of Bharata, and the
eternal devotion to Brahman was the incomparable milk (20-21). I have
heard she was again milched by all the celestials headed by Purandara
with golden vessels (in their hands) (22). Then Maghavān (Indra) became
the calf and the lord Sun milched her. A continued flow of milk came out
on which the Devas are living (23). I have heard the earth was again
milched by the ancestral manes of unlimited prowess, with silver vessels
(in their hands) (24). The powerful son of Vivaswat became the calf and
Antaka, the destroyer of Lokas (worlds), milched her (26). O foremost of
men, I have heard, that making Takshaka the calf, the Nāgas milched her
with the cavity of their palms as vessels and got poison for the milk
(26). O foremost of Bharatas, O king, the powerful Airavata
Dhritarashtra became the milcher when the Nāgas and serpents milched her
(27). By that poison the huge serpents of deadly venom are living their
dreadful lives. They live on poison, they give out poison and poison
constitutes their energy (23). I have heard that the earth was again
milched by Asuras with iron vessels for the illusory power capable of
over-powering the enemies (29). Pralhāda’s son Virochana became their
calf and the highly powerful, two-headed Madhu, the priest of the
Daityas milched her (30). By that Māyā (illusory power) the Asuras have
been rendered adepts in illusion. The Asuras, endued with immeasurable
wisdom, are therefore so very powerful (31). I have heard, O monarch,
that the earth was again, in the days of yore, milched by Yakshas for
eternal disappearance from view with uncouth vessels (32). The highly
effulgent and pious Yakshas made Vaisravana their calf. The ascetic
three-headed son of Yaksha, by name Rajatanābha, the father of
Maninābha, milched (the earth). By that (power of disappearance into
another’s body) they are now still living. This the great saint Nārada
has said (33-34). O foremost of men, with a view to afford gratification
to their children the earth was again milched by the Rākshasas and
Pishāchas with the skulls of dead bodies (35). O glory of the Kuru race,
Rajatanābha milched (the earth) for them. Sumāli became the calf and
blood came out for the milk (36). By that bloody milk the immortal
Yakshas, Rakshasas, Pishāchas and other ghosts are keeping their lives
(37). O foremost of men, having made Chitraratha their calf the
Gandharvas and Apsarās again milched her with lotus vessels for sweet
perfume (38). O foremost of Bharatas, the greatly powerful and the
high-souled king of Gandharvas, Suruchi, resembling the Sun itself,
milched (her) for them (39). O king, I have heard that the mountains
again milched her for the herbs in forms and various jewels (40).
Himavāna became the calf and the great mountain Sumeru milched (her).
Other great mountains were the vessels and by that the mountains are
increasing in proportions (41). I have heard, O king, that the trees, in
the days of yore, once milched her with Palāsa leaves as vessels for
reviving the scorched and burnt trees and creepers (42). The blossoming
Sāla tree milched her and the Plaksha tree became the calf. That
purifying Earth, who sustains all, is the instrument of the birth and
preservation of the entire mobile and immobile creations. When milched
she gives all desired-for objects and produces all corns (43-44).
Extending up to the ocean she was celebrated under the name of _Medini_.
Her entire surface was filled with the fat (of the demons) Madhu and
Katabha. Therefore was she called _Medini_ by Brahmā and others (45). O
descendant of Bharata, when she was brought under the subjection of the
king Prithu, the son of Vena and became his daughter¹² she came by the
name of Prithivi. Being divided and purified by Prithu the earth has
become full of corns, mines, cities and provinces. O best of kings, such
a powerful king was the son of Vena (46–47). Undoubtedly he is an object
of reverence and adoration of all creatures. Prithu, born of eternal
Brahmā, is worthy of the adoration even of the great Brāhmanas,
well-read in the Vedas and all their divisions. The powerful prime king
Prithu, the son of Vena, deserves also the adoration of the great kings
who desire kingdoms. The first king of the heroes, Prithu, is also
worthy of the adoration of the valiant warriors who wish for victory in
battle (48–50). The warrior, who issues out for battle after reciting
the name of the king Prithu, is crowned with success and glory even in
dreadful battles (51). The illustrious king Prithu, who conferred
livelihood on all, is worthy of the adoration of the wealthy Vaisyas who
carry on trade (52). The first king is also worthy of the adoration of
the pure Sudras who serve the three other Varnas and who wish for
supreme well-being (53). O monarch, I have thus described the various
calves, those who milched, the various sorts of milk and vessels. What
more shall I describe to you? (54)

   ¹² Literally it means ’when she was milched by him’. She was milched
      by the king Prithu and became his daughter and therefore she was
      called Prithivi.


Janamejaya said:—O Vaishampayana, O you having asceticism for your
wealth, do you describe at length all the Manwantaras and the creations
previous to them (1). O. Brahman, I wish to hear, in sooth, of all the
Manus and the extent of their reigns (2).

Vaishampāyana said:—O descendant of Kuru, I cannot give a detailed
account of Manwantaras even in hundreds of years. Do you hear from me in
brief (3). O descendant of Kuru, Swayambhuva, Swārochisha, Auttami,
Tāmasa, Raivata, Chakshusha, the present Manu Vaivaswata, the four Manus
Savarne, Bhoutya, Rouchya and Manu Sāvarna—these all are Manus. I have
described, as I have heard, of Manus, present, past and future. I will
now describe the Rishis, the sons of Manus, and the celestials who were
born in the various Manwantaras (4-7). Marichi, the reverend Atri,
Angira, Puloha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vasishtha—these seven are the sons
of Arahmā (8). O king, during Swāyambhava Manwantara there were seven
Rishis and the celestials by the name of Yamas in the north. Agnidhra,
Agnivāhu, Medha, Medhātithi, Vasu, Yotishman, Dyutiman, Havya, Savana
and Putra: these were the ten highly powerful sons of Manu Swayambhuva.
I have thus described to you, O king, the first Manwantara (9–11). O
child, during Swārochisha Manwantara narrated by Vayu, Aurva, the son of
Vasistha, Stambha, the son of Kagyapa, Prāna, Vrihaspati, Datta, Atri
and Chyavana—these were the great Rishis of great vows and Tushitas were
the gods (12-13). Havirdhra, Sukriti, Jyoti, Apomurti, Ayaprathita,
Nabhasya, Nabha and Urja—these were the sons of the high-souled
Swarochisha Manu. They have been described, O king, as being gifted with
high energy and prowess (14–15). I have thus described to you the second
Manwantara. Hear, O king, I shall describe the third (16). The seven
sons of Vasishtha, celebrated under the name of Vasishtha and the highly
energetic sons of Hiranyagarbha by name Sutejas were the seven Rishis,
as I have said. O monarch, Auttama had ten beautiful sons. Hear I shall
describe them (17–18). They were Isha, Urja, Tanurjja, Madhu, Mādhava,
Suchi, Sukra, Saha, Nabharya and Nabha (19). It is said that the Bhanus
were the celestials in that Manwantara. Hear, I shall describe the
fourth Manwantara (20). O descendant of Bharata, Kāvya, Prithu, Agni,
Jahnu, Dhāta, Kapivan and Akapivān—these were the seven Rishis (21), O
descendant of Bharata, in Puranas their sons and grandsons have been
mentioned. Satyas were the celestials in Tāmasa Manwantara (22). O king,
I shall now enumerate the sons of Tamasa Manu-Dyuti, Tapasya, Sutapa,
Tapomula, Tapogana, Taporati, Akalmāsha, Tanvi, Dhanvi and
Parantapa—these ten were the sons of the highly powerful Manu Tāmasa. So
Vayu has said (23-24). During the fifth Manwantara Vedavāhu, Yadudhra,
Muni, Vedaçira, Hiranyaroma, Parijanya, Somasuta, Urdhavahu, Atreya and
Satyanetra were the seven Rishis. The celestials of that period passed
under the name of Abhutarajas—having their nature not permeated by the
quality of darkness. There were also two other classes of celestials by
the name of Pāriplava and Raivya (25–27). Hear, I shall enumerate the
names of their sons—Dhritimān, Avya, Yukta, Tatwadarshi, Nirutsuka,
Arany, Prakāsha, Nirmoha, Satyavāk and Kadi were the sons of Manu
Raivata-and this is the fifth Manwantara (28-29). Hear, O king, I shall
describe the sixth Manwantara. Bhrigu, Nabha, Vivaswān, Sudhāmā, Virajā,
Atinamā and Sahishnu these were the seven Rishis in the sixth
Manwantara. Hear the names of the celestials who flourished in
Chākshusha Manwantara (30–31). O king, Adya, Prasuta, Rishabha
Prithokbhava and Lekha—these have been recorded as the five classes of
deities. The high-souled and the highly energetic sons of Angiras were
the Rishis (32). O monarch, those ten sons, Uru and others, passed under
the name of Nādvaleyās. This is known as the sixth Manwantara (33).
Atri, the reverend Vasistha, the great saint Kaçyapa, Goutama
Bharadwaja, Vishwāmitra, the reverend Jamadagni, the son of the
high-souled Richika-these seven Rishis are now living in heaven (34–35).
The Sādhyas, Vishwas, Rudras, Vasus, Maruts, Adityas, Vaivaswān, the two
Açwinis are now all living during the present Manwantara of Vaivaswat.
He had ten high-souled sons headed by Ikshwāku (36–37). O descendant of
Bharata, the sons and grandsons of those great Rishis of great energy
are living in all the quarters (38). In all the Manwantaras, as in the
previous Kalpa, exist the forty nine Maruts for protecting and governing
the people (39). After the expiration of a Manwantara twenty Maruts,
having performed heavenly deeds, attain to the region of Brahmā freed
from all dangers (40). Thereupon others, observing rigid austerities,
succeed them. O descendant of Bharata, I have thus described to you the
past and present Manwantaras as well as the seven Manus, O descendant of
Kuru. Hear, I shall describe the Manwantara that is to come (41–42).
Hear from me an account of the five Sāvarni Manus; of them one is the
son of the Sun and the four are the offspring of Prajapati Paramesthi. O
king, they are the grandsons of Daksha and sons of Pryā. Because those
mighty and energetic ones carried on hard austerities on the mount Meru
they were called Meru Sāvarni (43–44). The son of the Patriarch Ruchi
was celebrated by the name of Rouchya. The son whom Ruchi begat on Bhuti
came by the name of Bhoutya (45). Hear now of the seven Rishis of
Sāvarni Manwantara, who have not come as yet and who are said to be
living in the celestial region (46). Rāma, Vyāsa, the effulgent and
celebrated Atreya, the highly energetic Aswathama, the son of Drona, the
son of Bharadwāja, Kripa, the son of Goutama’s son Saradvān, Gālava, the
son of Kushika and Ruru, the son of Kaçyapa—these seven high souled ones
are the future Munis. These seven Rishis are equal to Brahmā and
fortunate (47-49). By asceticism practised from their very birth, by
their knowledge of sacred formulae and grammar they will secure a
position in the region of Brahmā and will be celebrated as pure Brāhmana
saints (50). Being repeatedly born in every Yuga beginning with the
golden, the noble and truthful seven Rishis institute the various orders
and lay down their duties. They are endued with the knowledge of the
present, past and future, have themselves become, by means of their
asceticism, well known, just and considerate. By the knowledge of
formulae, and grammar and by their spiritual insight they see everything
like an emblic myrobalam in their hands. They are known as seven Rishis
by their sevenfold qualities. They are long-lived, far-sighted and have
seen the God. They are the first born, well-versed in various duties and
the founders of various families (51-55). When virtue suffers any
deterioration, the Rishis, the originators of _Mantras_ (mystic
formulae) and Brāhmanas are repeatedly born in their families (56). When
all the Rishis are capable of conferring boons and are all respectively
great there is no evidence of the time when they flourished and of their
age (57). O king, I have thus described to you the seven Rishis. O best
of the Bhārata race, hear now of the future sons of Manu Sāvarni (58).
Varian, Avarian, Sammala, Dhritimān, Vasu, Varishna, Arya, Dhrishnu,
Rāja and Sumati, these are the ten future sons of Manu Sāvarni, O
descendant of Bharata (59). Hear, I shall enumerate the names of the
Munis of the reign of the first Manu Sāvarni. Medhatithi, the son of
Palastya, Kavyapa’s son Vasu, Bhrigu’s son Yotismāna, Angira’s son
Dyutimāna, Vasistha’s son Savana, Atri’s son Havyavāhana and
Poulaha—these seven Rishis flourished in Rohita Manwantara. O king,
these were the three classes of deities (60–62). They were the sons of
the Patriarch Rohita,—the son of Dhksha, Manu’s son Dhrishthaketu,
Panchahotra, Nirakriti, Prithu, Shravā, Bhuridyumna, Richaka, Vrihata
and Gaya, these were the sons of the highly energetic first Manu Savarni
during the second Manwantara of the tenth order. Pulaha’s son Havishmān,
Bhrigu’s son Sukriti, Atri’s son Apomurti, Vasishtha’s son Ashwathāma,
Pulastya’s son Pramati, Kagyapa’s son Nabhāga and Angira’s son Nabhasa
Satya—these were the seven great saints (63–66). The two classes of the
deities and the Rishis have (already) been enumerated. Manusuta,
Uttamanjā, Kunishanja, Viryāvān, Satānika, Niramitra, Vrishasena,
Jayadratha, Bhuridyumna and Suvarcha—these ten were Manu’s sons (67–68).
Hear, I shall enumerate the names of the seven Rishis who flourished
during the eleventh period of the third Manwantara. Kaçyapa’s son
Havishmān, Bhrigu’s son Havishman, Atri’s son Taruna, Vasishtha’s son
Taruna, Angira’s son Urudhisna, Pulastya’s son Nischara, Pulaha’s son
Agnitejā,—these are the future seven great Rishis (69–71). It is said
that Brāhma’s sons, the deities were divided into three classes.
Sarvatraga, Susharmā, Devānika, Purudvaha, Kshemadanva, the long-lived
Adarsha, Parudaka and Manu—these were the nine sons of the third Manu
Sāvarni (72–73). Hear from me the names of the seven Rishis of the
fourth Manwantara.

They were Vasishtha’s son Dyuti, Atri’s son Sutapa, Pulastya’s son
Taposhana, and Pulaha’s son Taporavi. Know Bhrigu’s son Tapovriti as
their seventh. It is said, there were five classes of deities—the
mind-born sons of Brahmā (74–76). Devavāyu, Adura, Devasreshtha,
Viduratha, Mitravān, Mitradeva, Mitrasena, Mitrakrit, Mitravaha, and
Suvarcha—these are the sons of the twelfth Manu (77). During the
thirteenth Manwantara that is to come Angira’s son Dhritiman, Pulastya’s
son Havyapa, Pulaha’s son Tatwadarshi, Bhrigu’s son Nirutsuka, Atri’s
son Nishprakampa, Kacyapa’s son Nirmoha and Vasishtha’s son Sutapa will
be the seven Rishis and three classes of deities as mentioned by the
self-sprung (Brahmā) (78–80). During the thirteenth Manwantara Manu’s
sons were the sons of Ruchi, Chitrasen, Vichitra, Naya, Dharmacrit,
Dhrita, Sunetra, Kshatra, Vriddhi, Sutapa, Nirbhaya, and Drida—these
were the sons of Manu Rouchaya in the thirteenth Manwantara (81-82).
During the fourteenth Manwantara of Manu Bhoutya, Kacyapa’s son
Agnidhra, Pulasta’s son Bhargava, Bhrigu’s son Ativahu, Angira’s son
Suchi, Atri’s son-Yukta, Vasistha’s son Asukra, and Pulaha’s son Ajita
were the last seven Rishis (83–84). Chanting the glory of their period a
man attains happiness, great renown and long life (85.) He, who recites
always the names of the great Rishis, past and present, becomes
long-lived and gains renown. O foremost of the Bharatas, five classes of
deities, it is said, flourished then (86). Tarangabhirā, Bushma,
Tarashmān, Ugra, Abhimāni, Pravira, Jishuu, Sangkrandana, Tejashi, and
Savala are the sons of Manu Bhoutya. With the completion of Bhoutya
Manwantara one Kalpa will be complete (87-88) I have thus enumerated the
names of the past and future Manus. O king, these Manus with with their
children, rule over the earth extending to the ocean for thousands of
Yugas and govern the subjects with asceticism. And they also in time
perish away as usual (89–90).


Janamejaya said:—O you highly intelligent twice-born one, you should
enumerate the Yugas and mention the extent of Brahmā’s day (1).

Vaishampāyana said:—O subduer of enemies, hear, I shall enumerate the
days of Brahmā by the same calculation by which men make divisions of
day and night (2). Five _Nimeshas_ make one _Kāstha_, thirty _Kāshthas_
make one _Kalā_ and thirty _Kalās_ make one _Muhurtta_. And the
intelligent consider thirty _Muhurttas_ constituting one day and night
comprising the motion of the sun and moon. Such days and nights daily
take place in all the countries around the mount Meru (3–4). Fifteen
days and nights make one _Paksha_ (fortnight); two fortnights make one
month—two months make one _Ritu_ (season) (5). Three _Ritus_ make one
_Ayana_ and two _Ayanas_ make one year. Those, conversant with the
science of enumeration, divide _Ayana_ (course) into two—northern and
southern (6). Those, who have mastered (the various divisions of) time,
consider a month, consisting of two fort-nights, as the one day and
night of the ancestral manes (7). The dark-half of the month is their
day and the light half is their night. Therefore, O king, Srādhas, for
the departed manes, are performed in the dark half of the month (8).
That which is considered as a _Samvatsara_ (year) for human beings is a
day and night for the celestials. Of them the northern course is
considered by the learned as their day and the southern course as their
night (9). When a celestial year is multiplied ten-fold it is considered
as one day and night of Manu. A day and a night, when multiplied
ten-fold, constitute one _Paksha_ (fortnight) of Manu (10). A _Paksha_,
when multiplied tenfold, forms one month; and twelve months are regarded
by the wise, discriminating truth, as forming a season of Manu. Three
_Ritus_ (seasons) make one _Ayana_ and two _Ayanas_ make one
_Samvatsara_ (year) (11). Their four thousand years constitute the
extent of Krita Yuga (golden age). O king, four hundred years form the
_Sandhyā_¹³ and four hundred such form the _Sandhyāngsha_¹⁴ (12). The
extent of the Treta Yuga is three thousand years. Its _Sandhyā_ and
_Sandhyāngsha_ severally extend over three hundred years (13). It is
said that the duration of Dwāpara Yuga is two thousand years. Its
_Sandhyā_ and _Sandhyāngsha_ are said to extend each over two hundred
years (14). The wise have enumerated the duration of Kali Yuga as
extending over a thousand years. Its _Sandhyā_ and _Sandhyāngsha_ too
extend over one hundred years each (15). I have thus described the
extent of Yugas comprising twelve thousand years. Hear, from me, the
enumeration of Yugas measured by celestial Ayanas (16). Krita, Treta,
Dwāpara and Kali these are the four Yugas. O foremost of kings, with
such seventy-one Yugas one Manwantara is completed. So is said by those
who are versed in the science of enumeration. The _Ayana_, that has been
mentioned before, is two-fold, northern and southern (17–18). When one
Manu disappears his _Ayana_ is completed, and then another reigns. In
this way when many a Manu rise and disappear one _Samvatsara_ of Brahmā
is completed. His one _Samvatsara_ has been described by the
truth-observing ascetics as consisting of one million of years (19–20).
Brahmā’s one day is said to be tantamount to one Kalpa. The earth, with
her mountains, woods, and forests, sinks into water in the night which
is enumerated by the wise as extending over a thousand Yugas. O foremost
of Bharatas, at the completion of that one thousand Yugas, Brahmā’s one
day is completed and the termination of a Kalpa is said to be brought
about. I have thus described to you the preceding seventy Yugas (21–23).
Krita, Tretā and other Yugas are said to constitute one Manwantara. I
have also described to you fourteen Manus, enhancing their (own) glory
(24). O king, all these patriarchs were masters of the Vedas and
Puranas. Even the chanting of their glories is crowned with success
(25). At the termination of a Manwantara sets in the dissolution (of the
universe) after which again begins the work of creation. Even with
hundred years I cannot enumerate this period (26), O foremost of
Bharatas, during these Man wantaras, the termination of the creation and
destruction of creatures is brought about. This I have heard (27). At
that time there exist the gods with gross and subtle elements and the
seven Rishis, who carry on penances, lead a life of celibacy and are
endued with the knowledge of scriptures (28). One _Kalpa_ terminates
with the completion of a thousand Yugas. Then scorched by the rays of
the sun, all the creatures, placing the lord Brahmā before them, and
accompanied by the Adityas, approached the omnipotent lord Nārāyana, the
foremost of gods, ever engaged in Yoga, the master of Yogins, unborn,
eternal, the soul of all, who repeatedly engenders all creatures at
various Kalpas. He is the unseen and eternal God to whom belongs the
whole universe (29–31). Then there sets in night when all are converted
into one ocean. They all sleep in the belly of Nārāyana for one thousand
years of Brahmā (32). That extent of time goes by the name of night when
the Grandfather (Brahmā) enters upon the Yoga of sleep (33). After the
expiration of that night extending over a thousand Yugas awakes the
Divine Brahmā, the Grand-father of all (34). Desirous of engendering
progeny again he sets his mind on the work of creation. There comes into
existence the same ancient recollection, the same character, the same
energy for action, the same abode for the gods, but only a change in
order of things takes place. O foremost of Bharatas, then are born again
at the commencement of Yuga, the celestials saints, Yakshas, Gandharvas,
Pishāchas, serpents and Rakshas, that had (before) been consumed by the
rays of the sun (35–37). As the signs of various seasons are changed
with the change of cycles, so the various orders of creations are
metamorphosed in Brahmā’s night (38). Having come out (of the lotus
navel of Nārāyana) Prajapati engages, for sooth, in the work of
creation. O my child, O foremost of Bharatas, those gods, men and
saints, who renouncing all attachment for the body, and being pure of
mind, are united with Great Brahman, are never born in the next cycle
(39–40). Having divided his own day into a thousand Yugas (cycles) and
his night into an equal number of cycles in due order, the Divine
Brahmā, the ordainer of all, well-versed in the enumeration of time,
creates and destroys the creatures again and again (41–42). The Great
God the Lord Nārāyana, Hari exists both in his subtle and gross form. I
shall relate the history of Manu Vaivaswata born of a portion of his
energy (43). O foremost of Bharatas, hear the ancient story of the
highly effulgent Manu described incidentally along with the description
of Vrishni race (44). Here the omnipotent, Great Lord, Hari was born for
the destruction of all the demons and the behoof of all the worlds (45).

   ¹³ The period that elapses between the expiration of one Yuga or age
      and the commencement of another.

   ¹⁴ The period at the end of each Yuga.


Vaishampāyana said:—O subduer of foes, Kaçyapa begat Vivaswan on Aditi,
the daughter of Daksha. He espoused the goddess Sajnā (1). That
beautiful damsel was celebrated over the three worlds by the name of
Surenu. The wife, of that high-souled, divine Mārtanda (sun) gifted with
beauty and youth (as she was) was, not satisfied with the beauty of her
husband. Amongst females on this earth Sajnā was gifted with great
ascetic powers. Having her body scorched by the rays of the sun she did
not look beautiful (2-4). Kaçyapa affectionately said (to Aditi) who was
ignorant "your embryo¹⁵ is not dead" and so he is called Mārtanda (5).
The rays of the sun are always very powerful, O my child, and the son of
Kaçyapa oppresses the three worlds therewith (6). Q foremost of
Kouravas, that best of luminous bodies, Aditya begat on Sajna three
children, one daughter and two sons who became patriarchs (7). First was
born Manu Vaivaswata and then the patriarch Srāddhadeva, then Yama and
Yamunā were born as twins (8). Thereupon beholding the pale countenance
of Vivaswān and unable to bear her own form she created Savarnā out of
her own shadow (9). Sajnā was an adept in illusion and so, O king, her
shadow at once sprang up and bowing with folded hands said to her (10).

She said:—"O thou of pure smiles, tell me what I am to do. Command me, O
fair one, I am at your service (11)".

Sajna said:—"May good betide you, I shall now go to my father’s house.
Do you now live in this my house without any anxiety (12). You should
look after these my boys and my youthful daughter. Never give out this
secret to the Divine (Sun) (13)".

The shadow said:—"I shall not give out your secret so long the sun does
not hold me by the hair or imprecate a curse on me. Go now at your
pleasure, O goddess (14)".

Vaishampāyana said:—Having said carefully "so be it". to Sarvanā, the
ascetic Sajnā went to Twasta as if in shame (15). When she met her
father he remonstrated with her repeatedly and asked her to go to her
husband again (16). Then hiding her beauty and assuming the form of a
mare, that faultless (damsel) repaired to the (province of) Uttarakuru
and began to graze there (17). Then taking the second Sajna for the
(real) one, Aditya begat a son on her after his own self (18). This lord
was like the first-born Manu and people designate him as Manu Sāvarni
(19). He became Manu Sāvarni. Her second son was known by the name of
Sani (20). O child, the immitation Sajnā did not show that affection
towards the first-born children which she did towards her own son (21).
Manu forgave her for that but Yama could not do so. Out of childishness,
anger and future glory, Vivaswata’s son Yama threatened Sajnā with a
stroke of his foot (22). O king, greatly stricken with sorrow Sāvarni’s
mother (accordingly) cursed him in anger, saying "your foot shall drop"
(23). Then worked up with anxiety on account of the imprecation and
assailed by Sajnā’s words, Yama, with folded hands, communicated
everything unto his sire (24). He said to his father:—"Do thou so
arrange as to withdraw the curse. It is the duty of a mother to show
affection equally towards all her sons (25). Disregarding us she always
loves the youngest son. So I did lift up my foot but it did not fall on
her body (26). You should forgive me for the offence that I have
committed out of childishness or ignorance; since I have insulted her,
being a son, who is worthy of my respect, forsooth shall my foot drop
off. A son may prove a bad son, but never does the mother. O foremost of
luminous bodies, O lord of the worked, I have been cursed by my mother.
Let not my foot drop by your favour (27-29)".

Vivaswat said:—"Undoubtedly, my son, there must be a mighty cause for
it, since anger has possessed you who are truthful and pious (30). I
shall not be able to make otherwise your mother’s words; taking flesh
from your foot the worms shall fall on the surface at the earth, O
highly wise one, and you will, accordingly attain to happiness. This
being done the words of your mother shall prove true (31–32). And you
will also be saved from the effect of the imprecation". Aditya then said
to Sajnā:—"Equal affection should be shown towards all children. Why are
you then again and again showing partiality towards one?" In order to
evade it she made no reply to the sun (33–34). Then having concentrated
his own self by virtue of Yoga, he found out the truth. O descendant of
Kuru, then to imprecate a curse of destruction on her the lord sun held
her by the hair. The terms of contract being thus transgressed she
communicated the truth unto Vivaswān (35-36). Hearing all Vivaswān got
enraged and approached Twasta. He too, having eulogized him (the sun)
properly who was bent upon consuming him, pacified his anger (37).

Twasta said:—"This your highly effulgent form does not look graceful.
Unable to bear your lustre Sajnā is wandering in the yellow forest (38).
To-day will you behold your wife of pure conduct, who is daily engaged
in hard austerities under the guise of a mare (39). Living on leaves,
and a life of a female anchorite, she has grown emaciated and poorly;
her hairs have grown into matted locks and she has been agitated like a
lotus crushed by the trunk of an elephant. O lord of rays, if you accept
my view, I may, for that praiseworthy damsel endued with ascetic power,
resorting to Yoga, O king of gods, convert this form of yours into a
beautiful one, O slayer of enemies (40–41)." The rays of the sun were
crooked and extended above. Gifted with such a celestial form the sun
was not of a gentle look (42). So the Patriarch (sun) attached great
importance to Twasta’s words and gave order to the celestial Architect
for beautifying his own form (43). Thereupon Twasta approached the
effulgent Mārtanda. And then placing him on a chisel, O descendant of
Bharata, he cut lose his lustre (44). When his effulgence was thus
reduced and he appeared in his new form he looked superbly beautiful and
more than it (45). The beautiful form of that lord of rays was thus
easily formed. Since then the countenance of the deity, sun, is red. The
twelve Adityas, originated from his mouth, sprang from the portions of
his effulgence dropped from the countenance of Mārtanda when the act of
chiselling was performed; they were Dhāta, Aryamā, Mitra, Varuna,
Angsha, Bhaga, Indra, Vivaswan, Pusha, the tenth Parjanya, the eleventh
Twasta and the youngest Vishnu (46-47). Thereupon beholding the Adityas
begotten of his own body he attained delight. Then Twasta worshipped him
with scents, flowers, ornaments and a brilliant crown and said to
him:—"O god, go to your own wife in Uttarakuru, who, assuming the form
of a mare, is grazing in the forest of green grass." Thereupon assuming
sportively a similar form, he, by virtue of his Yoga power, espied his
own wife in the form of a mare. O king, assuming the form of a mare she
was fearlessly wandering there and no one could distress her on account
of her energy and pious observances. Then the powerful sun, in his horse
form, knew her by his mouth (48–53). Taking him for another man the mare
did not yeild to his desire. Then from his nostril the two Aswinis, the
foremost of the physicians, were born. They were the sons of the eighth
Patriarch Mārtanda. Aditya begat the two Aswinis on Sajnā in the guise
of a mare and he then appeared before his wife in his beautiful form

O Janamejaya, beholding her husband she (Sajnā) was greatly delighted.
Yama, greatly sorry at heart on account of his own mis-deed, began to
please his subjects with his pious rule and he was accordingly called
_Dharmarāj_. By his holy act of pleasing his subjects he was appointed
the regent of the ancestral manes and elevated to the dignity of a
patriarch. The ascetic Sāvarni Manu was a patriarch and in the future
Savarni Manwantara he will be the Manu. The all-powerful Manu, even now,
is carrying on penances on the summit of the mount Meru (57-60). His
brother Shanischara has attained to the status of a planet. Those, who
were known as Aswinis, became the physicians of the celestial region
(61). O king, Sevata too became the physician of the horses. Twasta,
with that effulgence, created the discus of Vishnu (62). With a view to
destroy the Dānavas that discus is never baffled in a warfare. Their
illustrious twin sister Yamunā became the foremost of rivers of that
name purifying the world. Manu was known as Sāvarni Manu in the world
(63-64). His second son, Manu’s brother Sanischara attained to the
status of a planet, worshipped of all the worlds (65). He, who listens
to this story of the birth of gods or meditates on it, is freed from all
calamities and attains great renown (66).

   ¹⁵ The allusion is:—When Aditi was _enciente_ Budha went to her for
      alms. For her condition she was late in complying with his request
      and Budha imprecated a curse on her saying "the child will be
      dead." At this she grew pale, and Kaçyapa, knowing all this by his
      ascetic power, preserved the child.


Vaishampāyana said:—O foremost of Bharatas, Vivaswata Manu had nine sons
after him—Ikshwāku, Nābhaga, Dhrishnu, Sharyāti, Narishyan, Prangsha,
Nābhagarishtha, Korusha and Prishadhra (1–2). O king, desirous of
progeny the patriarch Manu performed a sacrifice before Mitra and Varuna
(3). O descendant of Bharata, before the birth of these nine sons of
his, Muni offered oblation to the portions of Mitra and Varuna in the
present sacrifice. When this oblation was offered, the gods, Gandharvas,
men and ascetics attained to great delight and exclaimed. "Oh! wonderful
is his ascetic energy! Oh! Wonderful is his knowledge of scriptures
(4–6)." The tradition is, that in that sacrifice was born Ilā, clad in a
celestial raiment, adorned with celestial ornaments and equipped with a
celestial armour (7). Manu, with a rod of chastisement in his hand, said
to her: "Follow me, O fair one." She gave the following moral reply to
that Patriarch desirous of offspring (8).

Ilā said:—"O best of speakers, I am born of the energy of Mitra and
Varuna and so I shall go to them. Do not destroy my morality (9)."

Having said this to Manu Ilā approached Mitra and Varuna and that fair
one with folded hands said to them, "I am born of your energy; Manu has
asked me to follow him. Tell me what I shall do (10-11)". Hear from me
what Mitra and Varuna did say to the pious and chaste Ilā who had
addressed them thus (12). "O you fair one of beautiful hips, we have
been pleased with your virtue, humility, self restraint and truthfulness
(13). Therefore O great lady, you will be celebrated as our daughter, O
fair one, you will be the son of Manu, perpetuating his race, celebrated
in the three worlds by the name of Sudyumna. You will be pious, beloved
of the world and multiply the race of Manu (14–15)." While she, on
hearing this, was about to return to her father (Manu), she was invited,
on the way, by Buddha, for conjugal purposes (16). Then Soma’s son
Buddha begat on her Pururava. Having given birth to that son Ilā became
Pradyumna (17). O descendant of Bharata, the three kinsmen of
Sudyumna-Uutkala, Gaya and the energetic Vinatashwa were greatly pious
(18), O king, the northern quarter was under Utkala, the western under
Vinatashwa and the city Gayā was under Gaya (19). O subduer of foes,
Manu having entered the sun, his sons divided the earth into ten parts
(20). The eldest of them Ikshwaku obtained the central portion by whose
sacrificial stakes the earth, with her forests and mines, has been
marked (21). On account of his partaking of the nature of a female
Sudyumna did not obtain this (central region). According to the words of
Vasishtha, the high-souled pious king Sudyumna was installed in the
province of Pratishtāna.¹⁶ O foremost of Kurus. Having obtained that
kingdom the highly illustrious Sudyumna conferred it on Pururava and he
himself reigned in Partishtana. Utkala had three sons celebrated in the
three worlds Dhristaka, Amvarisha and Danda (22-24). Amongst them the
noble Danda founded the most excellent _Dandakāranya_ (the forest of
Danda) celebrated in the world as the abode of the ascetics (25). As
soon as a man enters there he is freed from sins. O descendant of
Bharata, having begotten Aila, Sudyumna repaired to heaven (26), O
monarch, that son of Manu, who was endowed with the characteristics of
both a man and woman, and who took the name of Ilā, was celebrated by
the name of Sudyumna (27). O descendant of Bharata, Shakas were the sons
of Narishwanta, and Amvarisha, the foremost of kings, was the son of
Nābhāga (28). Dhrishnu’s son Dharshtaka and Ranadhrishta became known as
Kshatra. And Karusha’s sons were the Kshatrya Kārushas, dreadful in
battle (29). In this way a thousand mighty powerful Kshatryas were born,
O descendant of Bharata. The sons of Nābhāgarishtha, although Kshatryas
(by birth), came by the status of Vaishyas (30). Prāngshu had one son
celebrated by the name of Sharyati. Narishwanta’s son was the powerful
Danda. Saryāti had a twin son and daughter. The son was named Anartta
and the daughter Sukanya became the wife of Chyavana. Anartta’s
successor was the highly effulgent Reva (31–32). His city Kusasthali was
in the province of Anartta. Reva’s son Raivata passed by the name of
Kukudmi and was pious (32). Having obtained the kingdom of Kusasthali he
became the father of a hundred sons. He, along with his daughter,
received from Brahmā instructions in music. And O lord, many a Yuga
passed away to him like a moment. He then, in his youthful state,
returned to his own city filled with Yādavas (33–35). The city of
Dwaravati, charming with many damsels, was protected by the descendants
of Bhoja and Vrishni races headed by Vasudeva (36).

O slayer of foes, then informed of all these details Raivata conferred
upon Baladeva that vow-observing maiden by name Revati (37). Having
given away (his daughter) he repaired to the summit of the mount Sumeru
for carrying on hard austerities. Rāma too lived happily in the company
of Revati (38).

   ¹⁶ Pratishtana or Prayāga is the modern Allahabad, the seat of the
      Government of N. W. P.


Janamejaya said:—O foremost of the twice-born, why were not Revati and
Revata’s son Kukudmi, visited by decrepitude although they lived for
many years (1). Why does Saryāti’s grandson, even after his retirement
to Meru, still live in this world? I wish to hear all this in sooth (2).

Vaishampāyana said:—O sinless one, O foremost of Bharatas, there is
neither decrepitude, hunger, thirst, death, nor the change of seasons in
the region of Brahmā (3). After the departure of Revata’s son Kukudmi,
his city Kushasthali was destroyed by demons and goblins (4). That
high-souled and pious king had a hundred brothers. When the Rākshasas
began to carry on the work of destruction they fled away in various
directions (5). O king of kings, when after their escape all the hundred
brothers settled in various parts the Kshatriyas thereof were stricken
with fear (6), O king, their families extended to all those countries
and are known as Sharyātas (7). O foremost of Bharatas, in all the
quarters those pious Kshatriyas reside; O descendant of Kurus, amongst
them many entered into mountainous regions (8). The two sons of
Nabhāgāristha, although born of a Vaishya mother, attained to the status
of a Brāhmana. The sons of Karusha, Kshatriyas dreadful in battle,
passed by the name of Kārushas (9). Only one son of Prāngshu is
mentioned by the name of Prajapati. O Janamejaya, having killed the cow
of his preceptor, Prishata is said to have come by the birth of a Sudra.
O fore most of Bhāratas, I have thus given an account of the nine sons
of Manu Vaivaswata (10–11). When Manu sneezed there came out from his
nostril a son by name Ikshāwku. He had a hundred sons who gave away
profuse gifts (12). The eldest of them Vikukshi, on account of his huge
abdomen, could not make a warrior and so that pious king reigned as the
lord of Ayodhya (13). He had fifty excellent sons headed by Sakuni. They
all reigned, O king, protecting the province of Uttarapatha (14). O
king, thirty-eight sons headed by Shashāda protected the southern
quarter (15). On an _Ashtaka_¹⁷ day Ikshwāku commanded Vikukshi by
saying "O you of great strength, do you bring meat for the Srāddha after
killing deer (16)." Having taken the meat of a hare before the
performance of the _Srāddha_ for which it was collected he returned from
hunting with the name of _Shashāda_¹⁸ (17). He was forsaken by Ikshwāku
at the words of Vashishtha. After the demise of Ikshwāku Shashāda began
to live in the city (of Ayodhya) (18). Shashāda’s son was the powerful
Kakutstha. Seated on the hump of Indra in the guise of a bull he
defeated the Asuras in the days of yore in battle and accordingly he was
called Kakutstha. Kakustha’s son was Anenā and his son was Prithu
(19–20). Prithu’s son was Vishtarāshwa and from him was born Adra.
Adra’s son was Yuvanāshwa and his son was Shrāva (21). The king Shrāva
made a city by the name of Shrāvasti. And his son was highly illustrious
Vrihadāshwa (22). His son was the highly pious king Kuvalashwa, who, by
killing (the demon) Dhundhu, came by the name of king Dhundhumāra (23).

Janamejaya said:—O Brahman, I wish to hear the true account of the
destruction of Dhundhu for which Kuvalashwa came by the name of
Dhundhumāra (24).

Vaishampāyana said:—Kuvalāshwa had a hundred sons all skillful archers;
they were all well-educated, powerful irrepressible and pious and
performed sacrifices and gave away profuse gifts. Kuvalāshwa installed
his son Vrihadāshwa in the kingdom (25–26). Having made over the charge
of his kingdom to his son he repaired to the forest. But the saint
Uttanka prevented him (from doing that) (27). He said:—"O king, it
behoves you to protect your subjects; you should not carry on penances,
relieved of all anxiety (for the state) (28). O king, high-souled as you
are, the earth should be protected by you. Setting aside all cares you
should not enter into woods (29). It is seen that great virtue consists
in protecting the subjects, but not so, in repairing to the forest (30)
Such is upheld to be the duty of a king and even the former saintly
kings used to protect their subjects. Therefore, you should look after
your subjects (31). On the even ground near my hermitage, all desert and
with little water, there is a tract full of the sands of the ocean
called _Ujjānaka_.¹⁹ There entered into the ground full of sand a
huge-bodied and highly powerful (demon) whom it was beyond (the power of
the) gods even to destroy. That son of the Rakshasa, Madhu, also passed
by the name of the huge Asura, Dhundhu. Resorting to dreadful penances,
he is lying there for the destruction of men (32-33). When he breathes
after the expiration of a year the earth trembles with her mountains,
forest and wood (34). The heavy dust, raised by his breath, obstructs
the path of the sun—the earth-quake continues for one week—and there
comes out smoke with scintillations of fire and cinders. At that time, O
my child, I cannot live at my hermitage (35-36). Therefore, for the
behoof of mankind, do you slay that huge-bodied demon. On the
destruction of that demon people will be at ease (37). O king, you alone
are competent to kill him. O sinless one, in the previous Yuga Vishnu
conferred a boon on me (38). ’You will welcome his energy with a boon
who will kill that dreadful and highly powerful great Asura’ (39). O
king, even in a hundred celestial years trifling energy cannot consume
that highly powerful Dhundhu. Great is his energy which even the gods
cannot with difficulty overcome (40)". Thus accosted by the high-souled
Uttanka the royal saint despatched his son Kuvalāshwa for suppressing
Dhundhu (41).

Vrihadashwa said:—"O Reverend Sir, I have given up the use of weapons.
He is my son, and forsooth, O foremost of the twice-born, he will
destroy Dhundhu (and acquire the name of Dhundhumāra) (42)".

Having ordered his son for the destruction of Dhundhu, the
self-controlled royal saint went to the mountain for carrying on
penances (43). O king, Kuvalāshwa, with his hundred sons and the
ascetic, issued out to destroy Dhundhu (44). For the behoof of mankind
and at the behest of Uttanka the Lord Divine Vishnu entered into him by
his own energy (45). After his departure a terrible sound was heard in
the sky. "This graceful prince will be _Dhundhamara_ (46)".²⁰ Then the
celestials engarlanded him with heavenly garlands. The celestial bugles
were also sounded, O foremost of Bharatas (47).

Having gone there, that best of victors, the energetic (Kuvalāshwa) made
his sons dig up the un-ending sandy ocean (48). O descendant of Kuru,
being invigorated by Nārāyana’s energy he became highly powerful and
energetic (49). Digging up the sandy ocean his sons, O king, found out
Dhundhu, lying in the west (50). He seemed, as if, to have burnt down
the quarters in anger with fire coming out of his mouth. O foremost of
Bharatas, as the ocean swells up with the rise of the moon, so (by the
movement of that demon) mighty torrents of water began to flow.
Excepting three the hundred sons of that king were consumed by that
Rākshasa (51–52). Thereupon, O descendant of Kuru, the highly energetic
king Dhundhumāra confronted the highly powerful Rākshasa Dhundhu (53).
Then having drunk up, by his Yoga power, his (Rakshasa’s) watery energy
the ascetic (king) quenched the fire with water (54). Then having slain
with his strength that demon of the water the king proved himself
successful to Uttanka (55). Uttanka too conferred a boon on the high
souled king—via endless riches, victory over his enemies, inclination to
virtue and eternal habitation in heaven, as well as the attainment to
the eternal region of those of his sons who were killed by the Rākshasa

   ¹⁷ The eighth day of three months on which the progenitors are

   ¹⁸ Meaning one who eats the meat of a hare.

   ¹⁹ Literally _Ut_ and _Janaka_ or collection of men, i.e., divested
      of men. It means that in that tract of land there was no human

   ²⁰ Lit: Destroyer of (the Demon) Dhundhu. This will be his surname
      after the destruction of the demon Dhundhu by him.


Vaishampāyana said:—Of his three surviving sons Dridhāshwa is spoken of
as the eldest; Chandrāshwa and Kapilāshwa were the two younger sons (1).
Haryashwa was the son of Dhundhumāra’s son Dridhāshwa. His son was
Nikumbhu always observant of the duties of the Kshatryas (2). Nikumbhu’s
son was Sanghatāshwa, well-versed in the art of warfare. O king,
Sanghatāshwa had two sons Krishāshwa and Akrishāshwa (3). Himalaya’s
daughter Drishadvati, respected by the good and celebrated in the three
worlds, was his spouse. Her son was Prasenajit (4) Prasenajit got a wife
by name Gouri ever devoted to her husband. Cursed by her husband she
became a river by name Vāhudā (5). His son was the emperor Yuvanāshwa
whose son was Māndhātā, the victor of the three worlds (6). His wife was
Chaitrarathi the daughter of Shashavindhu—her another name was the
chaste Vindumati unequalled in beauty in the world (7). She was chaste
and the eldest of ten million brothers. O king, Māndhātā begat on her
two sons—the pious Purukutsa and the virtuous Muchukunda. Purukutsa’s
son was the emperor Trāsadasyu (8–9). He begat a son on Narmadā by name
Sambhuta whose son was the king Sudhanwā (10). Sudhanwā’s son was
Tridhanwā, the represser of foes; the educated powerful king Trayyāruna
was Tridhanwā’s son (11). His highly powerful son, of vicious
understanding, by name Satyavrata, put obstacles to the nuptial mantras
(12). On account of his childishness, fickleness, lust, ignorance and
joy he took as his wife the duly wedded spouse of another man (13). Out
of lust he stole away the daughter of another citizen. Pierced by the
dart of iniquity and worked up with anger (therefore) the king
Trayyāruna renounced him saying. "Go to rack and ruin." Forsaken by his
sire he again and again said to him "Where shall I go?" (14–15).

The father then said to him "Go and live with the _Chandalas_.²¹ O you
who have sullied your family, I do not like to be the father of a son
like you (16)". Thus spoken to by his father he issued out of the city.
The omniscient Rishi Vasishtha did not prevent him (however) (17) O
child, thus forsaken by his father the heroic Satyavrata repaired to
where the _Chandalas_ were living. His father too left for the forest
(18). On account of his iniquity the chastiser of Pakā²² (Indra), did
not pour rain in his kingdom for twelve long years (19). Having made
over the kingdom to his wives the great ascetic Viswāmitra carried on
hard penances near the sea (20). Having tied a rope round the neck of
his own begotten second son his wife sold him for a hundred coins for
the maintenance of the remaining sons (21). O descendant of Bharata,
when he saw the ascetic’s son thus bound for sale the pious prince
released him (22). For encompassing Viswāmitra’s pleasure and for his
favour the mighty-armed Satyavrata maintained his sons (23). On account
of his being bound by the neck the great ascetic passed by the name of
Gālava. And that great saint Kausika was released by that heroic (king)

   ²¹ A low caste people, by living with whom the people are outcasted.

   ²² This refers to Indra the god of rain. He received this appellation
      by destroying a demon by name Paka.


Vaishampāyana said:—Thus on account of his Bhakti, mercy and promise²³
Satyavrata, ever stationed in humility, took charge of Vishwāmitra’s
offspring (1). Having killed wild deer, bear and buffaloes he used to
keep meat tied to the trees near the hermitage of Vishwāmitra (2). After
the king had left for the forest he, taking the vow of not taking
another’s wife, passed twelve years at the behest of his sire as a
probationer (3). On account of his being the royal priest the ascetic
Vashishtha protected the city of Ayodhyā and the kingdom (4). Satyavrata
too, on account of his childishness and future greatness, foolishly got
greatly enraged with Vashishtha (5). O king, when his father renounced
his own son Satyavrata, Vashishtha, for some reason, did not prevent
him.(6). By proceeding seven footsteps all the nuptial _mantras_ are
annulled. Satyavrata, however, could not hear those muttering prayers
(7). O descendant of Bharata, thinking "although Vashishtha is pious
still he is not saving me" Satyavrata got highly enraged with him (8).
Thinking well however the great Vashishtha did not prevent him then; but
Satyavrata could not understand his intention (9). His high-souled sire
was not satisfied with him and therefore the slayer of Pāka did not send
showers for twelve years (10). By carrying on those hard austerities now
on earth he is releasing his family (from that sin) (11). When he was
forsaken by his father Vashishtha did not prevent him because the
ascetic had in view of placing his (Satyavrata’s) son on the throne
(12). Carrying on hard austerities for twelve years, one day the
powerful prince Satyavrata, stricken with anger, ignorance, labour and
hunger, for not finding meat, saw the high-souled Vashishtha’s milch-cow
conferring the grant of all desires (13-14). O Janamejaya, possessed by
drunkenness, madness, exhaustion, anger, hunger, hastiness, cowardice,
avarice and lust he killed that cow (15). He himself took the meat and
made Vishwāmitra’s children partake of it. Hearing it Vashishtha was
enraged. The revered Rishi, worked up with anger, then said to the
prince (16). "O wicked man, I discharge at you this javelin (of sin); if
you had not two other javelins of sin (stuck to you) forsooth I would
not have discharged it²⁴ (17). You have committed threefold
transgressions, namely the incurring of your father’s displeasure, the
killing of your preceptor’s milch-cow and the eating of forbidden meat"

Vaishampāyana said:—The incurring of his father’s displeasure, the
killing of his preceptor’s cow and the eating of forbidden meat formed
as it were three javelins to him and therefore he was called Trishankhu
(19). After his return Vishwāmitra found his wife and children looked
after by him and pleased accordingly the ascetic conferred a boon on
Trishankhu (20). When that ascetic was about to confer a boon on him the
prince begged of him (the boon) of going bodily to heaven (21). Then the
fear of draught, extending over twelve years, was gone and the ascetic,
having installed him on the throne, began to act as his priest (22). The
all-powerful son of Kushika took him bodily to heaven in the presence of
all the gods and the great saint Vashishtha (23). He had a wife by name
Satyarathā born in the race of Kekayas. He begat on her the sinless
prince Harishchandra (24). The king Harishchandra was called
Traishankava.²⁵ Having celebrated a a Rajasuya sacrifice he became the
Lord Paramount (25). Harishchandra had a powerful son by name Rohita by
whom, for the advancement of his kingdom, the city of Rohitapura was
founded (26). Having governed his kingdom and the subjects and been
convinced of the worthlessness of the world the royal saint (Rohita)
gave away that city unto the Brāhmanas (27). Rohita’s son was Harita,
whose son was Chanchu who had two sons, by name Vijaya and Sudeva (28).
Vijaya defeated all the Kshatryas and therefore he got that name. His
son was Ruruka who was virtuous-souled and studied the Vedas (29).
Ruruka’s son was Vrika and of him was born Vahu. Haihaya, Talajangha and
other Kshatriya clans accompanied by Shaka, Javana, Kāmvoja, Pārada
Palhava and other clans discomfitted that king for he was not greatly
virtuous even in golden age (30–31). Vāhu’s son was born with poison and
therefore he was called Sagara. Coming to the hermitage of Aurva he was
protected by Bhārgava (32). O foremost of Kurus, having obtained a fiery
weapon from Bhārgava the pious king Sagara, endued with great strength,
slew all the Haihayas and Talajanghas, conquered all the world and put
down the religious practices of Shaka, Palhava and Pārada Kshatryas

   ²³ The promise refers to that of his no longer being a disciple of

   ²⁴ This passage requires a little elucidation. He had already been
      visited by two transgressions, namely the incurring of his
      father’s displeasure and the killing of his preceptor’s cow. Now
      he commits another transgression, namely the eating of forbidden
      meat—these three transgressions are compared to three javelins.

   ²⁵ The son of Trishankhu.


Janamejaya said:—Why was the powerful king Sagara born with poison? And
why did he, worked up with anger, put down the religious practices of
Shakas and other highly powerful Kshatriya clans as laid down by their
respective orders. And why was he not injured by poison? Describe all
this at length, O great ascetic (1-2).

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, when Vāhu grew addicted to vice, Haihaya,
with Tālajānghas and Shakas spoliated his territories (3). Yavanas,
Pāradas, Kāmbhojas, Palhavas and Shakas—these five classes (of Mlechhas)
displayed their prowess for Haihaya (4). Deprived of his kingdom, the
king Vāhu retired into a forest life. Followed by his wife he gave up
his life there in great misery (5). His wife of the Yadu race was (at
that time) enciente and she followed her husband whose other wife had
administered poison unto her before (her departure) (6). When she,
making a funeral pyre for her husband in that forest, got upon it Aurva,
born in the family of Bhrigu, out of compassion, prevented her (7). In
his hermitage she gave birth to the highly powerful and mighty-armed
king Sagara together with poison (8). Having performed all the rites
consequent upon the birth of that high-souled (king) Aurva taught him
the Vedas and then gave him at last the fiery weapon which even the
immortals cannot withstand. Gifted with great strength he, by dint of
the prowess of that weapon, in no time destroyed the Haihayas like unto
enraged Rudra slaying the beasts. That foremost of the illustrious
(kings) spread his own fame in the world (9-11). Thereupon he made up
his mind for extirpating the race of the Shakas, Kāmbhojas and Palhavas
(12). When about to be slain by the high-souled hero, they, seeking
refuge with the intelligent Vasishtha, bowed unto him (13). Seeing them
arrived in proper time the highly effulgent Vasishtha promised them
security and prevented Sagara (14). Considering his own promise and the
words of his preceptor Sagara violated their religious practices and
made them change their dress (15). Having made the Shakas shave half of
their heads he dismissed them. He made the Yavanas and Kāmbhojas shave
their entire head (16). Pāradas used to have their hairs dishevelled and
Palhavas kept beards. They were prohibited from studying the Vedas, and
offering oblation to fire by the high-souled (Sagara) (17). O my child,
Shakas, Yavanas, Kāmbhojas, Paradas, Kolasapyas, Mahishas, Dārvas,
Cholas and Keralas were all Kshatriyas. O king, at the words of
Vasishtha their religious practices were put down by the high-souled
Sagara (18-19). Having conquered the entire earth consisting of (the
provinces of) Khasa, Tukhāra, China, Madra, Kishkindhaka, Kountala,
Banga, Shālwa, Konkashaka and others, that king, who had put down other
religious forms, entered upon the performance of Bājapeya sacrifice and
let loose a horse (20–21). The horse, while it was roaming near the bank
of the south eastern ocean, was pilfered and made to enter into the
earth (22). Then the king had that portion of the country dug by his
sons. When that mighty ocean was thus dug up they arrived at a place
where the prime deity, the Patriarch Hari, the best of male beings, in
the shape of Kapila, was sleeping (23–24). O great king, when he awoke
all the sons (of Sagara), with the exception of four, were all consumed
by the fire coming out of his eyes (25). O king, they were Varhaketu,
Suketu, Dharmarātha and the heroic Panchajana—they perpetuated the race
of Sagara (36). The Omniscient Hari Nārāyana conferred on him many boons
viz.—unending family, the eternal glory of the Ikshwāku family, the
birth of the ocean as his son, eternal habitation in heaven, and the
ascension into the eternal region of those of his sons who had been
consumed by the fiery looks of Kapila (27–28). Thereupon the ocean
worshipped that king with Arghya, and for this it obtained the
appellation of Sāgara (29). He obtained from the ocean that horse
destined for the Aswamedha sacrifice (30). The highly illustrious king
performed a hundred horse sacrifices and we have heard that he had sixty
thousand sons (31).


Janamejaya said:—By what observance, O twice-born one, did the sixty
thousand heroic and powerful sons of Sagara attain to greatness? (1)

Vaishampāyana said:—Sagara had two wives whose sons had been consumed by
ascetic observances. The oldest of them, the daughter of the king of
Vidarbha, was celebrated by the name Keshini (2). His youngest wife was
the pious daughter of Arishthanemi, who was unequalled on earth in
beauty (3). Hear, O king, what boons Aurva conferred upon them. He
wanted one of them to take sixty thousand sons and the other to pray for
one son (only) after her heart who will perpetuate the race. Of them
she, who was avaricious, prayed for many mighty sons (4-5). The other
prayed for only one son, who will keep up the prestige of the family.
The ascetic conferred on her the same boon. Sagara begat on Keshini a
son named Asmanjā (6). That highly powerful king also passed by the name
of Panchajana. The other, as the rumour is, gave birth to a long gourd
consisting of seeds (7). Therein lay like corns sixty thousand embryos.
They grew up duly in proper time (8). The father threw those embryos
into vessels full of clarified butter and appointed equal number of
nurses to look after them (9). When ten months were complete thence came
out with ease and in proper time those sons of Sagara enhancing his
delight (10). In this way, O king, there originated from bottle gourd
the sixty thousand sons of Sagara (11). When they were consumed by
Nārāyana’s energy one of them only survived namely, Panchajana who
became the king (12). Panchajana’s son was the energetic Angsumān. His
son Dilipa also passed by the name of Khattānga (13). Coming down to
this earth from heaven and taking birth there he, within a moment,
ransacked the three worlds by virtue of his intelligence and
truthfulness, O sinless one (14). Dilipa’s son was the great king
Bhagiratha who, powerful as he was, brought down the best of rivers
Gangā (15). That noble and illustrious king, equal to Sakra in prowess,
brought her to the ocean and then considered her as his daughter.
Therefore by the Rishis who keep account of families she has been styled
Bhāgirathi (16). Bhagiratha’s son was the celebrated king Shruta. The
highly pious Nābhāga was Shruta’s son (17) Nābhāga’s son was Ambarisha
who was the father of Sindhudwipa, whose son was the powerful Ayutajit
(18). The illustrious Rituparna was Ayutajit’s son. He was powerful,
well-versed in the game of celestial dice and a friend of king Nala
(19). The king Artaparni was Rituparna’s son, whose son was the king
Sudāsa who became the friend of Indra (20). The king Soudāsa was
Sudāsa’s son. He was celebrated by the name of Kalmashapāda and was
greatly attached to his friends (21). Kalmāshapāda’s son was known by
the name of Sarvakarmā whose son was the celebrated Anaranya (22).
Anaranya’s son was Nighna who had two sons, both leading kings, by name
Anamitra and Raghu (23). Anamitra’s son was the educated and pious
Duliduho. His son was Dilipa, the grandfather of Rāma (24). Dilipa’s son
was the large-armed Raghu. The highly powerful king Raghu reigned in
Ayodhya (24). Aja was born of Raghu and Aja’s son was Dasharatha whose
son was the virtuous-souled and illustrious Rāma (26). Rāma’s son passed
by the name of Kusha whose son was Atithi and whose son was Nishadha
(27). Nishadhas son was Nala whose son was Nabha. Nabha’s son was
Pundarika whose son passed by the name of Kshemadhanwā (28).
Kshemadhanwā’s son was the powerful Devānika whose son was the great
Ahinagu (29). Ahinagu’s good son was the king Sudhanwā, as whose son was
born the king Anala (30). Anala’s son was the virtuous Uktha, the son of
which high souled (king) was Vajranābha (31). His son Shankha was
celebrated for his great learning and passed by the name of
Dhyushitāshwa. His son was the learned Pushpa, whose son was Arthasiddhi
(32). His son was Sudarshana, whose son was Shighra and whose son was
Maru (33). Maru practised Yoga in the island of Kala. His son was the
illustrious king Vrihadvala (34). O foremost of Bharatas, in Purāna,
there are two kings celebrated by the name of Nala. Of them one was the
son of Veerasena and the other was a descendant of Ikshwāku (35). I have
thus described (to you) in order of precedence the leading members of
the Ikshwāku race. These kings, of immeasurable energy, belonged to the
solar dynasty (36). By reading the account of creation by the
illustrious Srādhadeva Adityā who confers nourishment upon creatures a
man gets offspring, attains to the same status with the sun, is freed
from sins and haughtiness and obtains longevity (37-38).


Janamejaya said:—How did the illustrious Aditya become the (presiding)
deity of Srāddhas? What is the most excellent mode of performing them? I
wish to hear all this, O Vipra. (1). What is the origin of the Pitris
and who are they? We have heard from the conversation of the Brāhmanas
that the Pitris (ancestral manes), stationed in heaven, are even the
gods of the gods. This is said by those well read in the Vedas. I
therefore wish to know this (2-3). I wish to hear of the most excellent
creation of Pitris, their various orders, their great strength, how are
they propitiated by the Srāddhas performed by us, and how they,
delighted, shower benedictions on us (4-5).

Vaishampāyana said:—I will now describe to you the most excellent
creation of the Pitris; how they are propitiated by Srāddhas performed
by us and how they, being pleased, pour blessings on us. Mārkandeya
described this when he was accosted by Bhishma. The question, that you
have asked me, was put to Bhishma by the pious king (Yudhisthira) when
the former was lying on the bed of arrows (5-9).

Yudhisthira said:—O you conversant with virtue, how people, seeking
nourishment, get it? By doing what do they not grieve I wish to hear
this (9).

Bhishma said:—O Yudhishthira, he, who propitiates the departed manes by
the performance of Srāddhas that secure all desired for objects, who
always performs them with a concentrated mind, attains to delight both
in this world and in the next. The Pitris confer virtue on him who seeks
it, children on him who wants them and nourishment on him who desires
for it (10–11).

Yudhisthira said:—The departed manes of some persons live in heaven, and
those of others live in hell. The fruits of Karma, it is said, eternally
exist with people. Persons, in expectation of fruits, perform Srāddhas
for their father, grand-father, and great-grand-father. How those
offerings reach the ancestral manes (12–14)? How can they, while living
in hell, grant them the fruits (thereof)? Who are those ancestral manes
Who else are others? To whom do we offer our offerings (15)? We have
heard that even the gods, in the celestial region, dedicate offerings to
the ancestral manes. I wish to hear all this at length O you of great
effulgence (16). You are endued with immeasurable intelligence, do you
describe to me, how by making gifts to the ancestral manes we are
released (from worldly trammels) (17).

Bhishma said:—O slayer of foes, I shall describe to you what I have
heard on this subject from my deceased father—who are those ancestral
manes and who are others to whom we dedicate our offerings (18). When on
the occasion of my father’s Srāddha I was about to offer him Pinda²⁶ my
father, rending assunder the earth, begged it of me with his hand (19).
His arm was adorned with bracelet and other ornaments—his fingers and
palm were as red as I had seen them before (20). Thinking that no such
practice is seen in Kalpa²⁷ I offered the Pinda at the Kusa grass,
without any consideration (21). O sinless one, then my father
delightedly said to me in sweet accents:—"O foremost of Bharatas, I have
been blessed with a son like you, both in this world and the next-a good
son, pious and learned as you are (22-23). You are also of firm vows, O
sinless one; with a view to lay down the religious practices of people,
I issued this command (24). As a man, observing the religious practices,
is entitled to a fourth part of the virtue thereof, so a stupid person,
transgressing them, is visited by one fourth of the sin (consequent
thereon) (25). The subjects follow the example set by the king in
religious practices (26). O foremost of Bharatas, you have observed the
practices laid down in the eternal Vedas and incomparable is my
satisfaction therefore (27). Greatly pleased with you I will confer upon
you a most excellent boon—do you pray for it which it is hard to get in
the three worlds (28). As long as you will wish to live Death will not
be able to extend his influence on you. When you will permit him he will
overpower you then only (29). O foremost of Bharatas, if there is any
other boon which you wish to pray for, tell me and I shall grant it

On (my father) saying this, I, saluting him with folded hands, said "O
most exalted person, with your being propitiated I have achieved all my
objects (31). O you of great effulgence, if I am again entitled to a
favour, I wish to put a question which I desire you to answer yourself
(32)." My virtuous-souled father then said to me "O Bhishma, tell me
whatever you like. O Bhārata, I will remove your doubt about what you
will ask me" (35). Filled with curiosity I asked my father who had
repaired to the region of the performers of good deeds and who then
disappeared from that place (34).

Bhishma said:—"I have heard that the ancestral manes are the gods of the
gods. Are they the gods or they are others to whom we offer our
adoration (35)? How the _Pindas_ offered at Srāddhas propitiate the
Pitris who have gone to the other world? What are the fruits of a
Srāddha (36)? To whom the people, accompanied by the gods, Dānavas,
Yākshas, Rākshasas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras and huge serpents, dedicate
their offerings (37)? O you conversant with virtue, I consider you as
omniscient—I have grave doubts in this and great is my curiosity—do you
explain it to me." Hearing these words of Bhishma his father said (38).

Shantanu said:—Hear, O sinless descendant of Bharata, I will describe in
brief the origin of the Pitris and the fruits of Srāddhas. Do you hear
with a concentrated mind the object of performing Srāddhas for the
Pitris. The sons of the Prime Deity are known in heaven as Pitris
(39–40). The gods, Asuras, men, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras
and huge serpents, dedicate offerings to them (41). Propitiated by
Srāddhas they please the world with the gods and the Gandharvas—such is
the command of Brahmā (42). Therefore, "O great one, worship them with
excellent Srāddhas. They grant all desired-for objects and they will
encompass your well-being (43). When you will worship them by reciting
their names and families, we also, O Bharata, will be welcomed by them
in heaven (44). Markandeya will explain to you the remaining portion. O
descendant of Bharata, this ascetic, devoted to his father and having a
knowledge of atman, is present to-day at the Srāddha for extending his
favour unto me. Ask him, O great one, about this." Saying this he
disappeared (45–46).

   ²⁶ An oblation to deceased ancestors as a ball or lump of meat or
      rice mixed up with milk curds, flowers etc and offered to the
      manes at the several _Sraddhas_ by the nearest surviving

   ²⁷ One of the six _Vedangas_ and comprehending the description of
      religious rites. It is called _Kalpa Sutra_.


Bhishma said:—Thereupon at the words (of my father) I put to Markandeya
with attention the same question which I had put to my father before
(1). The great and virtuous ascetic Markandeya too said to me:—"O
sinless Bhishma, hear with attention, I will describe everything" (2).

Markandeya said:—I have attained longevity by my father’s favour. For my
devotion to my father, I attained great fame in the world in the days of
yore (3). At the termination of the cycle extending over many thousand
years, I carried on hard penances on the mount Sumeru (4). Thereupon one
day I espied a huge car coming from the north of the mountain and
lighting the heaven with its lustre (5). Therein, a vehicle in the midst
of fire, I saw a person measuring a thumb effulgent like fire or the
Sun. Saluting that lord with my head touching the ground I worshipped
him, lying in the vehicle, with _arghya_ and water for washing feet. I
asked that unthought-of (person). "How can I know thee, O lord (6–8)?
Methinks thou hast originated from ascetic energy endued with the
qualities of Nārāyana. Thou art the god of gods" (9). O Sinless one,
that virtuous-souled one as if surprisingly said to me: "You have not
practised well hard penances, so you cannot recognize me (10)." Within a
moment he assumed another most excellent form, the like of which I had
not seen before (11). Sanatkumar said:—"Know me as the first
mind-begotten son of the all-powerful Brahmā. From ascetic energy I have
been born with the essential characteristics of Nārāyana (12). I am that
Sanatkumar who had been celebrated in the Vedas in the days of yore. O
Bhārgava, may good betide you and what desire of yours shall I fulfill
(13)? The other seven irrepressible sons of Brahmā are my younger
brothers. Their families have been established (on this earth) (14).
They are Kretu, Vasishtha, Pulaha, Pulastya, Atri, Angira, and the
learned Marichi—the gods and Gandharvas worship them also. Those
ascetics, worshipped of the gods and Dānavas, are upholding the three
worlds (15). I am leading the life of a _Yatin_.²⁸ Having controlled my
ownself and my passions I was born, O great Muni, and I am still living
so. Know me as an unmarried person. And therefore I have obtained the
appellation of Sanatkumar (16–17). Out of devotion to me, you have been
carrying on hard penances to behold me. Therefore I have come to you,
tell me what desire of yours I can fulfill" (18). On his saying this and
commanded by that all-powerful deity who was pleased with me, I replied
to that eternal god, O descendant of Bharata (19), O sinless one, I then
accosted the ever-existent (deity) regarding the origin of the Pitris
and the fruits of Srāddhas (20). O Bhishma, that foremost of gods has
removed all my doubts. After holding conversation for many years that
virtuous-souled deity said to me:—"O Brāhmana saint, I have been pleased
(with your question), hear from me all in due order (21). O descendant
of Bhrigu, Brahmā created all the gods, thinking that they would
dedicate offerings to him. But leading aside they began to perform
sacrifices in expectation of fruits (22). Then imprecated by Brahmā, the
inhabitants of heaven lost all sense and consciousness. They could not
understand any thing and the entire world was bewildered (23). Then
prostrating themselves before the Grand-Father (Brahmā) they again
prayed to him for the behoof of the world. There upon he (Brahmā) said
to them (14):—’You should undergo a penance for you have committed a
transgression.²⁹ Do ye accost your sons and you will come by true
knowledge (25)’. (Thereupon) for the purpose of going through a penance
they, in great misery, asked their sons, who, self-controlled as they
were, communicated to them (the truth) (26). ’Persons conversant with
religious practices lay down penances for sins committed by words, deeds
and thoughts and they daily perform them (27).’ Then informed of the
true import of _Prāyaschitta_ (penance) the gods regained their
consciousness and were accosted by the sons, saying ’Go ye sons’ (28).
Thus cursed and reviled the gods, at the words of sons, approached the
grand-father (Brahmā) to have their doubts³⁰ removed (29). The Deity
(Brahmā) then said to them:—’Ye are all Brahmavādins.³¹ So what they
have said will come to pass and it will not be otherwise (30). O gods,
ye have given them the body and they have given ye the knowledge and are
undoubtedly your fathers (31). Ye are gods and they are the Pitris and
undoubtedly you are their fathers and they are yours’" (32).

Thereupon the dwellers of heaven returned and said to the sons:—"Our
doubts have been snapped by Brahmā and so we shall be loving towards
each other (33). Since ye, being conversant with religious merit, have
conferred upon us knowledge, you are our fathers. Tell us what do you
seek and what boons may we confer upon you (34). What you have said will
forsooth prove true and not be otherwise. Since you have addressed us as
sons undoubtedly you will be our fathers (35). The Rakshasas, Dānavas
and Nāgas will be entitled to the fruits of an action which a man will
perform without propitiating the Pitris with the performance of
Srāddhas³² (36). Being propitiated by Srāddhas the Pitris will
propitiate the eternal. Moon. And being propitiated by you, they will
continue flourishing every day (37). Being propitiated by Srāddha the
Moon will afford delight to all the worlds consisting of oceans,
mountains, forests and all creatures both mobile and immobile (38). The
Pitris will always confer nourishment and progeny upon those men, who
desirous of nourishment, will perform Srāddhas (39). Being propitiated
with oblations afforded at Srāddhas, the Pitris with the Omnipresent
Grand-Father will advance the prosperity of those who will offer three
_Pindas_ uttering their names and _Gotras_ at the time of Srāddha (40).
This order was formerly announced by Parameshthi Brahmā. Let his words
prove true to-day, O gods, and we are now respectively fathers and

Sanatkumar said:—Those Pitris are the gods and the gods are the gods,
and they are respectively each other’s fathers (42).

   ²⁸ A sage whose passions are completely under subjection.

   ²⁹ For the negligence of not worshipping the true object of

   ³⁰ The doubt, referred to, is why they were addressed by their sons,
      as sons.

   ³¹ _Brahmavadins_ means conversant with the knowledge of Brāhmana.
      The sentence is elliptical, the full import is: ye are all
      conversant with the knowledge of Brāhmana but not gifted with Yoga

   ³² It is for this reason the usual practice amongst the Hindus is
      that they perform the Srāddha of their ancestral manes before the
      commencement of any ceremony.


Markandeya said:—Hear from me everything from the very beginning, O son
of Ganga, of my doubts which I again referred to that reverend eternal
deity Sanatkumar the foremost of immortals after having been addressed
by that effulgent god of gods (1-2). What is the number of those
ancestral manes and in what region are they stationed? And where do live
the leading gods who derive nourishment from Soma (juice)? (3)

Sanatkumar said:—O foremost of those who perform sacrifices, it is laid
down in Scriptures, that there are seven ancestral manes who all live in
heaven. Of them four are with forms and three without them (4). O you
having asceticism for your wealth, hear, I will describe at length their
region, creation, prowess and greatness (5). Of them the most excellent
three assumed the form of Dharma (virtue). Hear, I shall describe their
names and regions (6). The regions, where the effulgent and formless
ancestral manes, the sons of Prajāpati live, are (designated as) eternal
(7). O foremost of the twice-born, the region of Virāja is known by the
name of Vairāja. The celestials adore them with ceremonies laid down in
Scriptures (8). These Brahmavādins, when they deviate from the paths of
Yoga come down to _Sanatana_ (eternal) regions and after the expiration
of a thousand yugas they take their birth (9). Then obtaining again the
recollection of the most excellent Sānkhya Yoga and securing the
consummate development of their powers they again attain to that Yoga
state which it is so hard to acquire (10). O my child, they are the
Pitris who enhance the ascetic powers of the Yogins and they, by their
Yoga, propitiated Soma in the days of yore (11). Therefore Srāddhas
should be performed particularly for the Yogins. This is the first
creation of the high-souled drinkers of Soma (12). Their mind-begotten
daughter Mena was the first wife of the mountain chief Himalaya. Her son
was called Maināka (13). His son was the effulgent great mountain
Krauncha. This best of mountains was white and abounded in various sorts
of jewels (14). The mountain-king begat on Mena three daughters, namely,
Aparna, Ekaparnā—and the third was Ekapatāla (15). Having carried on
hard austerities, which even the Gods and Dānavas cannot practise with
difficulty, those three daughters disturbed all the worlds consisting of
mobile and immobile creatures (16). Ekaparnā used to live upon one leaf
only and Ekapātala used to live upon one Patala flower only (17). And
when Aparnā divorced from food began to carry on hard austerities, her
mother, stricken with sorrow, consequent upon her motherly affection,
prevented her, saying "_U. Ma._" (18). Thus addressed by her mother,
that fair goddess, carrying on hard penances, became celebrated in the
three worlds by the name of _Uma_ (19). She also became celebrated by
the name of _Yogadharmin_.³³ O Bhargava, this world consisting of three
maidens shall (for ever) exist (20). All the three were endued with yoga
energy and bodies³⁴ perfected by hard austerities. They were all
conversant with the knowledge of Brahman and had controlled their carnal
desires (21). The beautiful Umā was the eldest and foremost of them.
Gifted with great yoga powers she approached the Great Deity Siva (22).
Ekaparnā was given away as a wife unto the high-souled, intelligent and
the great Yogin and preceptor, the black Devala (23). Know Ekapātala as
the wife of Jaigishavya. Those two noble maidens approached those two
preceptors of yoga (24). The celestials offer watery oblations for all
those regions of _Somayagins_³⁵ that are called Somapadā and where dwell
the sons and ancestral manes of the Patriarch Marichi (25). They all
pass by the name of Agnisvatta and are gifted with immeasurable energy.
They have a mind-born daughter by name Achhodā who travels underneath³⁶
(26). From that (river) has sprung a lake by the name of Achhoda. She
had never seen her ancestral manes before (27). That one of beautiful
smiles (thou) saw her bodiless ancestral manes. She was begotten of
their mind and did not know her. For this misfortune that beautiful
damsel was greatly ashamed. Beholding the ancestral mane Vasu, the
illustrious son of Ayu by the name of Amāvasu, who was passing through
the etherial region in a car along with the Apsarā Adrikā, she thought
of him³⁷ (first) (28–30). On account of her this frailty, that she
thought of another and not her own father, that one capable of assuming
forms of her will lost her Yoga power and fell down (31). When she fell
down from the celestial region she behold three cars of the size of
_Esarenu_ and espied in them her ancestral manes (32). They looked
exceedingly subtle, indistinct and like fire offered into clarified
butter. While she was in distress and falling down with her head
downwards she exclaimed "Save me" (33). The ancestral manes stationed on
the cars said to their girl who was in the etherial region "do not
fear." Then with purely words she began to propitiate the ancestral
manes (34). The ancestral manes then said to that girl who was divested
of all her merits on account of this transgression:—"O thou of pure
smiles, for thy own folly, thou hast been divested of all thy merits
(35). The celestials attain, in heaven, to the fruits of their actions
which they perform with their bodies in this world (36). (Sometimes)³⁸
the celestials, by their (mere) determination attain to the fruits of
their actions but mankind reap them only when they repair to the next
world. Therefore, O daughter, by practising hard austerities in this
world thou shalt reap the fruits thereof in the next (37)."

Thus accosted by her own Pitris the maiden began propitiating them. Then
realising the truth in their own minds, they all, out of compassion,
became pleased with her (38). Knowing that all this is inevitable they
asked that maiden to act (in that way) and said to her:—"Thou shalt be
born as the daughter of the high-souled king Vasu who is born on earth
among men. Being born as his daughter thou shalt again attain to thy own
regions which it is so hard to gain (39-40). Thou shalt give birth to
the illustrious son of Parāshara.³⁹ That great Brāhmana saint shall
divide the one Veda into four parts (41). Two sons, the illustrious and
pious Vichitravirya and Chitrangada, will be born unto the king
Shāntanu, who was (in another birth the king) Mahābhisha. Having given
birth to these sons thou shalt again attain to thy own regions. On
account of thy transgressions towards thy ancestral manes thou shalt
come by these inferior births (42-43). Thou shalt be begotten as his
daughter by this king on his wife Adrikā. In the eighteenth Dwāpara
cycle thou shalt be born as a fish" (44). Thus spoken to by her
ancestral manes that maiden was born in Dasha family as Satyavati. First
born as a fish she became the daughter of the king Vasu (45).

The picturesque region Vaibhrāja, where dwell the Pitris celebrated in
heaven as Varhishadas, is situate in Dyuloka (46). The highly effulgent
celestials, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Nāgas, Sarpas (serpents),
Suparnas (birds) offer oblations for (the attainment of those) regions
(47). They are the offspring of the high-souled Patriarch Pulastya. They
were all great, highly meritorious, energetic and used to carry on
ascetic observances. Their mind-born daughter was known as Pivari. She
was (herself) a great ascetic, the wife of an ascetic, and the mother of
an ascetic (48–49).

O you foremost of the pious, at the commencement of Dwāpara Yuga, the
great ascetic and Yogin Suka, the foremost of Brāhmanas born in the race
of Parashara, will take birth in that Yuga. He will be begotten by Vyasa
on _Arani_ like fire divested of smoke (50–51). He will beget on that
daughter of the ancestral manes four sons, _viz_, the highly powerful
Yoga-teacher Krishna, Goura, Prabhu and Shambhu, and a daughter by name
Kritwā, who will be the mother of Brahmadatta and the queen of king
Anuha (52–53). Having begotten these vow-observing teachers of Yoga and
listened to various forms of religion from his own sire Vyasa, the
immeasurably intelligent, pious and ascetic Rishi Suka repaired to the
region from where no one returns—the eternal, undecaying region of
Brahman shorn of all troubles, where reside the shape-less Pitris in the
form of virtue, and where has originated this theme of Vrishnis and
Andhakas (54–55). The ancestral manes of the Patriarch Vasishtha, known
as Sukātas, live eternally in heaven and the region lighted by the
effulgence that grants the consummation of all desires. The Brāhmanas
always offer them oblations (57). Their mind born daughter is known as
Go in the region of celestials, who will be given (in marriage) to your
family and be the other beloved wife of Suka. The Sādhyas have a
well-known daughter, ever enhancing their fame, by name Ekashringā.
(58). She lives in the regions effulgent like the rays of the Sun. The
Kshatriyas, who wish to reap the fruits of their actions, propitiate the
sons of Angiras, who had formerly been rendered prosperous by Sāddhyas.
Their mind-born daughter is known as Yashodā (59–60). She was the wife
of Vishwamahata, daughter-in-law of Vriddhasharmā and the mother of the
high-souled royal saint Dilipa (61). O my son, formerly in the cycle of
gods, at the great horse-sacrifice of the king Dilipa the great saints
chanted various themes with joy (62). Hearing of the birth of Agni
(fire-god) from some descendant of Shandili, those men, who will behold
the truthful and high-souled performer of sacrifices Dilipa, will
conquer the celestial region (63). The ancestral manes of the Patriarch
Karddama, Sudhanwās by name, came into being from the noble Brāhmana
Pulaha (64). They, gifted with etherial movements, are living in the
regions where the dwellers move about of their own will. The Vaishyas
who wish to reap the fruits of their actions, offer oblations unto them
(65). Their mind-born daughter is celebrated by the name of Viraja. O
Brahman, she will be the mother of Yayati and the wife of Nahusha (66).
Thus I have described to you the three orders: hear from me of the
fourth order. The drinkers of Soma juice, who were begotten on Swadhā
the daughter of Kavi, were the offspring of Hiranyagarbha. The Sudras
encompass their gratification (67). The etherial region where they dwell
is called Mānasa. Their mind-born daughter is Narmadā the foremost of
streams (68). Traversing the southern way she is purifying the
creatures. She is the wife of Purukutsa and the mother of Trāsadasyu
(59). The ancestral manes are to be adored—and when this is neglected at
various cycles the Patriarch Manu introduces the performance of Srāddha
in their honour (70).

O foremost of the twice-born, of all the ancestral manes Yama was first
born and he protected all created beings by his own virtue. Therefore he
is designated in the Vedas as Srāddhadeva (71). When after reciting the
mystic formulae, oblation is offered in silver or silver-plated vessels
to the ancestral manes it encompasses their gratification (72). Having
first propitiated Yama the son of Vivaswān and then Soma, one should
offer oblation unto fire; and in the absence of fire unto water (73).
The ancestral manes are pleased with him who reverentially brings about
their gratification, and confer upon him nourishment, innumerable
offspring, wealth and all other desired-for objects. O ascetic, the
worship of the ancestral manes is preferred to that of the celestials
(74–75). It is ordained by scriptures that before the celestials the
ancestral manes should be gratified. The latter are easily pleased,
freed from anger and they confer the most excellent gratification on men
(76). O descendant of Bhrigu, the gratification of ancestral manes is
ever constant. Therefore do thou bow unto them. Thou art ever devoted
unto thy ancestral manes and specially unto me (77). I shall do what
conduces to thy well-being. Do thou witness it thyself. O sinless one, I
shall confer on thee celestial vision together with discriminative
knowledge (78). Listen attentively, O Markandeya, to the means thereof.
This is not the Yoga state of the celestials but the most excellent
state of the celestials (79). Such persons of consummate ascetic powers
behold me with their own eyes. Having thus spoken to me who was present
before him and conferred upon me celestial vision together with
discriminative knowledge, which even the celestials can with difficulty
acquire, the Lord of celestials (Sanatkumar) repaired to his wished-for
region like the second burning fire (80–81). O foremost of Kurus, hear
now, what I had heard, by the favour of that God—(things) above the
comprehension of men in this world (12).

   ³³ This is a name of the Goddess Uma. It literally means _who is
      naturally intent on carrying on Yoga practises_.

   ³⁴ The word in the text is _Tapamaya_ body. It is very difficult to
      render the expression into English. _Tapas_ means hard religious
      practises, such as, placing one’s self in the midst of burning
      fire, exposing one’s self day and night under the Sun and to cold.
      By such practises a yogin can acclimatise his body to the
      influences of climate and restrain his passions. Thus _Tapamaya_
      body means a body that is used to both heat and cold and all other
      climatic influences and that has mastered all the functions,

   ³⁵ Those who invoke the deities by offering them Soma juice—a
      delicious drink which is much liked by the gods according to Hindu

   ³⁶ This mind-born daughter refers to a river of the same name that
      has come down from that region to earth.

   ³⁷ The word in the text is _Vabre_ which literally means to choose as
      a husband. It may also mean to offer benedictory offerings to a
      deity or person. As it is impossible for a daughter to choose one
      of her ancestors as her husband the word evidently means here "to
      accept him and give him offerings as her father". The context
      proves that the maiden was anxious to behold her ancestral manes
      and so when she first saw Vasu, she took him for her father and
      offered him adoration. Later she perceived that he was not her
      father and her real Pitris were in the three cars. This was
      evidently a transgression, for which, as is seen later on, she was
      doomed to take birth as the daughter of Vasu.

   ³⁸ We have put in _Sometimes_ only for preserving consistency. In the
      previous sloka it is mentioned that even the celestials perform
      actions in this world and then attain to the fruits thereof in the
      next. Thus the gods also are under the influence of Karma. Whereas
      in this sloka it is said that by mere determination they attain to
      the fruits of their actions. Therefore the consistency is not
      preserved unless we put in the word ’_Sometimes_’. The author
      evidently had in view that the celestials, though under the
      influence of Karma, are sometimes freed therefrom. But that is not
      the case with men. They cannot avoid the consequences of their
      actions under any circumstances whatever.

   ³⁹ This refers to Veda Vyasa who compiled and arranged the four
      Vedas. The word Vyasa means "an arranger" Veda Vyasa is the
      surname of a Rishi, the son of Parashara, who compiled the four
      Vedas. The Vedas originally existed in the shape of hymns that
      were sung by the ancient Aryans and passed from one family to
      another as sacred heir-looms. For some centuries they existed in
      this form. It was this great Rishi who first committed them to
      writing and arranged them in the order in which they are now
      found. The four divisions are his own creation. On account of this
      great work he received the appellation ’Veda-Vyasa’.


Markandeya said:—"O my child, in the previous Yuga, the Brāhmanas, the
sons of Bharadwāja, although carrying on Yoga practices, were polluted
by their transgressions (1). On account of their degradation consequent
upon the violation of Yoga practices they will remain in an unconscious
state on the other side of the huge lake called Mānasa (2). Stupified by
the thought that the transgressions (they had committed) had been washed
away and having failed to attain to the state of union (with Brahman)
they became invested with the characteristics of time⁴⁰ (3). And
although they had deviated from the path of Yoga, they lived for a long
time in the land of celestials. They will be born in the land of Kurus
as foremost of men, the sons of Kushika (4). They will carry on
religious practices by slaying creatures for the ancestral manes. And
again being (thus) degraded they will come by the most inferior birth
(5). On account of the favour of ancestral manes and their pristine
birth they will have recollection of those inferior births (6). They
will be of controlled minds and always carry on religious practices. And
again by their own Karma they will acquire the status of Brāhmanas (7).
They will then acquire the knowledge of unification (of the human soul
with the divine soul) on account of their pristine birth. And then
having attained perfection again they will acquire the eternal region
(8). Thus you will repeatedly pay attention towards religion and acquire
a most consummate mastery of Yoga (9). It is very difficult for men of
limited understanding to acquire mastery of Yoga. If they happen to
acquire it, that even is destroyed on account of their being
contaminated by vices. Those who commit iniquities and torture their
elders (also lose their Yoga) (10). Those, who do not beg by unfair
means, who protect those seeking refuge with them, who do not disregard
the poor, who are not elated with pride on account of their riches, who
are of regular habits both as regards diet and other appetites, who
energetically carry on their own work, who are bent upon carrying on
meditation and studies, who do not seek to recover their stolen
properties, who do not always seek enjoyments, who do not take meat or
drink intoxicating liquors, who are not addicted to sexual pleasures,
who serve the Brāhmanas, who do not take pleasure in impure
conversation, who are not idle, who are not haughty and egoistic, such
accomplished persons acquire Yoga, which it is so hard to acquire in
this world. Persons of quiescent souls, who have mastered anger, who are
shorn of egotism and pride and who are observant of vows, are crowned
with blessings. Such were the Brāhmanas of that period (11-16). They
used to remember their follies consequent upon their mistakes, engage in
study and meditation and walk in the path of peace (17) There is no
other religious rite, O you conversant with religion, superior to Yoga.
It reigns supreme over all other religious observances. Practise it
therefore, O descendant of Bhrigu (18). With the advancement of years,
one, who lives upon restricted diet, who has mastered his senses and who
is respectful, acquires Yoga" (19). Having said this the reverend
Sanatkumāra disappeared therefrom. Eighteen years appeared to me as one
day (20). Having worshipped that lord of deities for eighteen years, by
the grace of that divine person, I did not suffer any pain (21). O
sinless one, I did not feel then hunger and thirst nor (the progress of)
time. Afterwards I learnt about time from my disciple (22).

   ⁴⁰ _i. e._ They became mortal like other creatures who become subject
      to death in time.


Markandeya said:—After the disappearance of that deity and according to
the words of that lord, I acquired discriminative knowledge along with
celestial vision (1). Thereupon, O son of Gangā, I saw at Kurukshetra,
all those Brāhmanas, the descendants of Koushika of whom that lord
(Sanatkumār) spoke to me (2). Of them the seventh Brāhmana became the
king Brahmadatta. By his name, character and action he also became
celebrated by the name Pitridatta (3). In an excellent city by name
Kāmpilya, the foremost of kings Anuha begat that monarch on Suka’s
daughter Kritvi (4).

Bhishma said:—O king, hear I shall describe the family of that king as
recounted by the highly regenerate great Rishi Mārkandeya (5).

Yudhisthira said:—Whose son was Anuha, the foremost of the pious? In
what age was he born? How powerful was he? Whose son was the highly
illustrious king Brahmadatta? How did the seventh Brāhmana become a king
(6-7)? (Certainly) the self-controlled, omnipotent sage Suka, respected
by all the world, did not give away his illustrious daughter Kritvi to
an effeminate person (8). O thou of great effulgence, I wish to hear at
length the account of Brahmadatta; it behoves thee to describe it (9).
Do thou describe unto me how the Brāhmanas, mentioned by Mārkandeya, are
living in the world (10).

Bhishma said:—I have heard that this king (Brahmadatta) was contemporary
of my grand-father the royal saint Pratipa (II). The noble ascetic
Brahmadatta, the foremost of royal saints, was grateful unto all
creatures and engaged in their well-being (12). He made (that division
of the Vedas) which is called _Sikshā_⁴¹ by means of his Tapas and
instituted an order of study. The highly illustrious teacher of Yoga,
Gālava, was his friend and the ascetic Kandarik was his minister (13).
In another birth they all help each other. As narrated by the noble and
great ascetic Mārkandeya they, in the seventh birth, were all gifted
with unlimited energy (14). Hear, O king, I shall describe to you the
ancient family of the high-souled king Brahmadatta born in the race of
Puru (16).

The pious son of Vrihatkshetra was celebrated by the name of Suhotra.
Suhotra’s son was known by the name of Hasti (16). By him in the days of
yore the most excellent city of Hastināpur was founded. Hasti had three
highly pious sons (17). Of them the eldest was Ajāmida, the second
Dwimida and the youngest Paramida. Ajāmida begat on Dhumini the king
Vrihadishu whose son was the highly illustrious Vrihaddhanu (18). His
son Vrihadbharma was known as a highly pious king. His son was Satyajit
whose son was Viswajit (19). His son was the king Senajit who had four
sons celebrated in the world (20). Ruchira, Swetaketu, Mahim nāra and
Vatsa, the king of Avanti—these were his four sons (21). Ruchira’s son
was the highly illustrious Prithusena whose son was Pāra, from whom was
born Neepa (22). Neepa had a hundred sons who all were of unlimited
energy, mighty car-warriors, heroic and powerful. All these kings were
known by the name of Neepa (23). The illustrious descendant of those
Neepas was known as Samara in the Province of Kāmpilya. He was greatly
fond of Dar (24). Samara had three sons—Para, Pāra and Sadashwa, who
were all greatly pious. Para’s son was Prithu (25). Prithu’s son was
Sukrita, who, by good actions, was endued with all accomplishments. His
son was Vibhrāja (26). His son was the king Anuha. He was the
illustrious son-in-law of Suka and the husband of Kritvi (27). Anuha’s
son was the royal saint Brahmadatta. His son was the ascetic Viswaksena,
the subduer of foes (28). By his own actions Vibhrāja was again born (as
the son of Brahmadatta). He had another son by the name of Sarvasena
(29). His eyes, O king, were torn by a sparrow known by the name of
Pujanyā (worshipful) that lived in the house of Brahmadatta for a long
time (30). Brahmadatta had an other highly powerful son by the name of
Viswaksena (31). His son was the king Dandasena. His son was Bhattata
who was formerly killed by Karna (32). This son of Dandasena was heroic
and perpetuated his race. O Yudhishthira, Bhattata’s son was evil-minded
(33). O king, he brought about the fall of the house of Neepas. For him
all the Neepas were destroyed by Ugrayudha (34). I have killed
Ugrāyudha, in battle, on account of his being elated with pride. He was
proud and took delight in haughtiness and sinful ways (35).

Yudhisthira said:—Whose son was Ugrayudha? And in whose family was he
born? For what did you kill him? Tell me all this (36).

Bhishma said:—Ajamida’s son was the learned king Yavinara. His son was
Dhritimān whose son was Satyadhriti (37). His son was the powerful
Dridanemi whose son was the king Sudharmā (38). His son was the king
Sārvabhouma. He was the only Lord Paramount of the world and was
(therefore) called Sārvabhouma (39). In his family was born Mahān, the
descendant of Puru. Mahān’s son was known as the king Rukmaratha (40).
His son was the king Supārshwa, whose son was the pious Sumati (41). His
son was the virtuous-souled and powerful Sannati. His son was the
valiant king Krita (42). He was the disciple of the high-souled
Hiranyanābha. By him the Sanhita of the Sāma Veda has been sung in
twenty-four ways (43). For this reason the western Saman and the
chanters thereof are known under the appellation of Kārti. Krita’s son
was the heroic Ugrayudha, born in the race of Puru (44). By displaying
his prowess he slew the highly energetic king of Pānchala, Neepa by
name, the grand-father of Prishata (45). Ugrāyudha’s son was the highly
illustrious king Kshemya, whose son was Suvira and whose son was
Nripanjaya (46). From Nripanjaya was born Vahuratha—all these kings are
called Pauravas. O my son, Ugrayudha grew highly vicious (47). Having
burnt down all the Neepas he brought about their extinction. Slaying all
the Neepas and other kings he was filled with pride (48). After the
death of my father he told me (many) sinful words. O king, while I was
lying down on earth encircled by my courtiers Ugrāyudha’s messenger came
to me and said:—"O foremost of Kurus, do thou give me thy illustrious
mother Gandhakāli, the jewel of a female, as my wife (49–50). Forsooth
shall I confer upon thee a prosperous kingdom and riches. I have
acquired jewels, according to my desire, on earth (51). O descendant of
Bharata, by merely hearing of this my effulgent and irrepressible discus
or at the very sight of it the enemies fly away from the field of battle
(52). If dost thou seek thy kingdom, life and the well-being of thy
family, obey my command or else thou shalt have no peace" (53).

I heard these words resembling the flames of fire from the messenger
despatched by him while I was lying down on earth on a Kuçā bed (54). O
undeteriorating one, thus informed of the desire of that vicious-minded
one, I ordered my commander-in-chief to undertake a war (55). As
Vichitravirja was a boy and under my protection, I was filled with rage
and made up my mind for engaging in a war (56). But, O sinless one, all
my ministers, well-versed in counsels, the god-like Ritwikas,
well-meaning friends and companions well-read in scriptures, all
requested me to desist and pointed out sound reasonings too (57–58).

The ministers said:—"O lord, this vicious-souled (Ugrāvudha) is carrying
on the work of devastation and thou, too, art impure.⁴² So thou shouldst
not undertake a war as thy first work (59). We shall first resort to the
expedients of conciliation, gifts and sowing dissension. And afterwards
when thou shalt be pure,⁴³ thou shouldst bow unto the gods, make the
Brāhmanas perform benedictorv rites and then having saluted them and
obtained their permission, thou shouldst set out for victory (60–61). It
has been laid down by the elderly sages that a man, when he is in
mourning, should not take up a weapon or enter into a contract (62).
First thou shouldst try the expedient of conciliation and gift and then
try to sow dissension. And afterwards thou shouldst slay him,
manifesting thy prowess, as Indra killed (the demon) Samvara (63). O
king, the words of the elderly sages should be obeyed in proper time."
Hearing this I desisted from fightlng (64).

Thereupon those ministers, well-versed in counsels, tried all the
expedients. O foremost of Kurus, at that time the most excellent work
began (65). Although solicited by the expedients of conciliation and
others settled upon by the sages that wicked-minded one was not won over
(66). Though the discus of that sinful one was set in motion, it
immediately stopped on account of his longing for others’ wives (67). .
I did not perceive then that his most excellent discus had stopped,
which, spoken ill of by the pious, had been rendered abortive by its own
action (68). Then being purified and having benedictorv rites performed
by the Brāhmanas, I set out from the city in a car with my bow and
arrows and engaged in a fight with my enemy (69). Thereupon encountering
the army strengthened by weapons there took place a mad fight which
lasted for three days like that between the gods and demons (70). When
the battle raged to its highest pitch, that hero, consumed completely by
the might of my weapons, gave up his ghost and fell down with his face
downwards (71). In the meantime, O my son, Prishata started for the
province of Kāmpilya. On the king Neepa and Ugrayudha being slain that
highly effulgent one obtained his ancestral kingdom Ahichhatra. O king,
he was the father of king Drupada and an ally of mine (72–73).
Afterwards having defeated Drupada by force in battle, Arjuna conferred
the province of Kāmpilya together with that of Ahichchatra on Drona
(74). Having accepted both the kingdom, Drona, the foremost of victors,
gave away Kāmpilya to Drupada. This is known to you (75). I have thus
described to you in detail the race of Brahmadatta, the ancestor of
Drupada and that of the hero Ugrāyudha (76).

Yudhisthira said:—O son of Gangā, why did the bird Pujanya put out the
eyes of the eldest son of the Brahmadatta (77)? She lived for a long
time in his house. Why did she (then) commit such a mischief by that
high-souled king (78)? Why did Pujanya contract friendship with him? Do
thou duly satisfy all these my doubts (79).

Bhishma said:—O Emperor! O Yudhishthira! hear in due order what took
place formerly in the house of Brahmadatta (80), O king, a certain
female bird was the companion of Brahmadatta. Her two wings were white,
head red and back and abdomen were black (81). Brahmadatta was greatly
attached to that female companion. O best of men, she made a nest in his
house and lived there (82). She every day used to go out of the palace
and roam at large on the bank of ocean, in lakes and ponds (83). Having
ranged over the rivers, mountains, woods, pleasure gardens, ponds
perfumed with fragrant white water-lilies and places the air whereof is
impregnated with the perfume of lilies and lotuses and abounding in
swans, Sārasas and Kārandavas, she used to come back in the night to the
city of Kāmpilya and live in the house of the intelligent king
Brahmadatta (84–86). O king, whatever strange things she saw in her
peregenations in various parts of the country, she used to describe them
to the king in her conversation in the night. O descendant of Kuru, once
on a time a son, the foremost of kings, was born to Brahmadatta,
celebrated by the name of Sarvasena. Pujanyā also gave birth to an egg
there (87–89). In time that egg opened and thence came out a lump of
flesh with legs, arms and face (90). O king, its face was tawny coloured
and had no eyes. Gradually that young one got its eyes and its wings
grew a little (91). Pujanyā used to love equally her young one and the
Prince, and gradually became fond of them (92). And she every evening
used to pick up with her beaks two ambrosial fruits for (the prince)
Sarvasena and her young one (93). Brahmadatta’s son and the young one
delightedly lived upon those two fruits (94). By daily partaking of
those fruits they began to grow up. When during the day Pujanyā used to
go away the nurse gave play to Brahmadatta’s son in the company of that
young one of the bird (95–96). When Pujanyā went out of the nest the
Prince used to take away that young sparrow for play (97). Once on a
time the Prince held fast the young bird by the neck for which, O king,
it immediately died (98). Beholding the young bird set free a little
with its mouth wide open, that had been killed by the boy, the king was
greatly sorry and remonstrated with the nurse. He was filled with great
grief for that young sparrow (97-100). Pujanyā too, who used to range in
the forest, came at that time to the palace of Brahmadatta with two
fruits (101). Coming there she saw the child, that came out of her body,
dead (102). Beholding her dead young one she at first lost consciousness
but afterwards gradually regained it. Regaining her consciousness the
poor bird began to bewail (103).

Pujanyā said:—"O my child, when I used to come back to my nest emitting
my cries you were wont to come to me with your thousand indistinct
accents (104). Why do you not come to me to-day with your mouth open,
yellow face and black throat (105)? I always cry embracing you with my
wings. Why do I not hear to-day your inarticulate sound (106)? I had
always this desire that some day or other I shall see my young one
begging water with its mouth open and shaking its wings (107). That
desire of mine is now frustrated with your death." Having thus bewailed
in various ways she said to the king (108). "O king, you are a
Kshatriya,⁴⁴ you know the eternal ways of religion. Then why have you
got my young one slain by the nurse (109) O wretch of a Kshasriya, why
did your son take away my young one and kill it? Methinks, you have not
listened to Sruti of Angiras (110). One who seeks shelter, one who is
hungry, one who is assailed by his enemies and one who lives for ever in
his house should be protected by a man (111). He who neglects this duty
goes without any doubt to the hell Kumbhipāka. How can the deities and
the manes accept Havi and food consecrated with Swadha mantras offered
by him (112)?"

Having thus said to the great king, (the bird), stricken with grief and
possessed by ten-fold⁴⁵ characteristics, tore off the eyes of the boy
(113). Thereupon the eyes of the prince were put out. Having thus
blinded him the bird Pujanyā flew away into the sky (114).

Thereupon beholding his own son the king said to the bird:—"Renounce
your grief, O auspicious one. You have done well, O timid bird. (115).
Give up your sorrow and come back; may your friendship become
everlasting. Live in my city and enjoy. May good betide you (16). For
the misfortune of my son I have not the least anger for you. Be my
friend. May you fare well. You have done your duty (117)." Pujanyā
said:—"I know how much love you have for your son like me. Making your
son blind I do not wish to live here (118). Hear I shall recount the
themes narrated by the preceptor Sukra. ’One should always leave at a
distance a bad friend, a bad country, a bad son and a bad wife. There
can be no friendship for an evil friend and attachment for a bad wife.
One cannot expect Pinda from: a bad son and one cannot rely on a bad
king (119-120). Who can trust a bad friend? One cannot live in a bad
country. People are always afraid of a bad king and a bad son always
brings on misery (121). That wretch of a man, who being weak and having
none to protect him, confides in a man who does him injury, does not
live long (122). Do not trust a faithless man and do not place too much
confidence even on a man who is faithful. Fear, begotten by confidence,
destroys all the roots (123). That stupid man, who serves a man and
confides in a low caste, does not survive long (124). As earthworms are
devoured by birds as soon as they are born, so men, obtaining
advancement from a king, undoubtedly meet with destruction soon (125).
As a creeper destroys a huge tree so even a learned man, resorting to
mildness of nature and destroying his body, daily brings about the
destruction of his enemies (126). An enemy, first becoming mild,
delicate and emaciated, gradually makes the body lean and then kills us
as an earth-worm gradually eradicates a tree (127). Having made this
promise in the presence of the ascetics ’I shall not destroy anybody’
Hari, afterwards, O king, killed Namuchi with a foam (128). A man
destroys his enemy either with poison, fire or water whether he be
asleep, drunk or careless (129) In fear of future enmity men do not
leave the remnant of enemies. Remembering this, example, O king, they
bring about the entire extermination of their enemies (130)’".

O king, the remnant of enemies, debt and fire, becomes again united and
assumes proportion. Therefore the remnant of these three should never be
kept (131). An enemy laughs, talks, takes food from the same plate, sits
on the same seat, but he always keeps in mind that sin (132). Even
contracting a relationship with an enemy one should not trust him. The
king of gods, though himself a son-in-law, killed Puloma (133). As a
deer does not approach a hunter so a wise man should not near him who
speaks sweet words keeping enmity at heart (134). It is not proper to
live near an enemy who has prospered. He brings about our destruction as
a river destroys a tree (135). Even obtaining advancement from an enemy
one should not trust him. Securing prosperity from him one meets with
destruction like an earth-worm (136). Learned persons, who are to
protect themselves, should always keep in mind these verses chanted by
the preceptor Sukra, O king, (137). By making your son blind I have
committed a great iniquity so I place no confidence in you (138).

Having said all this the bird at once flew up into the sky. I have thus
O king, described to you, what took place formerly between Pujanyā and
the king Brahmadatta. O highly intelligent one, O Yudhisthira, I shall
describe to you the ancient history of Srādha as accosted by you which
was recounted by Sanatkumar in response to a question from Mārkandeya
(139-141). O king, hear what happened in the days of yore to Gālava,
Kundarika and Brahmadatta the three Brahmacharins in their seventh birth
who longed for the fruit of Srāddha and good actions (142-143).

   ⁴¹ This is one of the parts of Vedanga—a sacred science, considered
      as subordinate to and in some sense a part of the Vedas; six
      sciences come under this denomination; _Siksha_ or the science of
      pronounciation and articulation; _Kalpa_, the detail of religious
      ceremonies; _Vyakarana_ or grammar; _Chhandas_, prosody;
      _Jyotish_, astronomy; and _Nirukta_, or the explanation of the
      difficult and obscure words and phrases that occur in the Vedas.

   ⁴² _i.e._ Thou art in mourning on account of the death of thy father.

   ⁴³ After the performance of thy father’s Srāddha.

   ⁴⁴ The word in the text is _Murdhābhisikta_. Literally it means _on
      whose head water is sprinkled_. The Kshatriyas go through this
      ceremony at the time of installation.

   ⁴⁵ _i.e._ Those of a drunkard, a madman, of one exhausted with
      fatigue, hungry, angry, hasty, of one afraid, stupified and


Markandeya said:—The people perform Srādha and even the Yogins do the
same. So I shall describe to you its most excellent fruit (1). O
descendant of Bharata, religious knowledge gradually evolved from what
Brahmadatta had obtained in his seventh birth (2). O you of great
intellect shorn of sins, hear what in the days of yore the Brāhmanas
obtained by performing Srādhas to the neglect of religion (3). O my son,
I saw with my celestial vision at the field of Kurukshetra the seven
impious Brāhmanas engaged in performing religious rites for ancestral
manes as pointed out by Sanatkumār (4). Vāgdustha, Krodhana, Hingsra,
Pishuna, Kavi, Khasrima and Pitrivarti—these seven Brāhmanas, by name
and action, were the sons of Koushika and the disciples of Garga. When
after imprecating a curse their father left the house, they, taking the
vow of celibacy, began to live in the house of Garga (5–6). Once on a
time at the command of their preceptor they all went to the forest to
tend the milch-cow Kapilā with its calf that had been obtained fairly
(7). O descendant of Bharata, being stricken with hunger on the way they
cherished the sinful desire of killing the cow (8). Kavi and Khasrima,
however, did not wish it then and they two could not prevent the other
Brāhmanas (9). Of these the Brāhmana Pitrivarti, who used to perform
daily Srādha and other evening rites and abide by virtuous ways, said in
anger to his brothers (10):—"If you are all bent upon slaying this cow
then we all, with our minds controlled, dedicate it to the ancestral
manes (11). By this, even this cow will acquire virtue no doubt. And if
we perform a pious rite for our ancestral manes we shall not commit an
iniquity (12)."

Thereupon, O descendant of Bharata, they all, having agreed to this,
killed the cow and having dedicated it to the ancestral manes, took its
meat (13). Having taken the meat of the cow they all said to their
preceptor:—"The cow has been killed by a tiger and here is her calf"
(14). Out of simplicity the Brāhmana took the calf. Having imposed on
their preceptor by a false story all those Brāhmanas, on the expiration
of their lease of life, met with death (15). On account of their that
sinful conduct towards their preceptor and for the destruction of the
cow, they, possessed by envy, ruthlessness and anger, were born as the
sons of a hunter. They were all strong and liberal-minded. On account of
their duly worshipping the ancestral manes and killing the cow they
carried with them the knowledge of their pristine birth and actions.
Those learned seven Brāhmanas were born as hunters in the province of
Dashārna (16-18). They were all intent upon performing their own duties,
were truthful and shorn of avarice. They used to work only for the time
that was necessary to keep their body and soul together (19). The rest
of the time they used to spend in meditation. Their names, O king, were
respectively Nirvaira, Nivirta, Kshanta, Nirmangu, Kriti, Vaighasa and
Mātrivarti. They were all very highly pious hunters (20–22). Thus living
and performing the duties of a hunter they worshipped and satisfied
their old parents (22). When in time their parents died, they, leaving
aside their bows and arrows, renounced their lives in the forest (23).
By those pious actions they, in the next birth, became deer carrying
with them the recollection of their pristine birth. Because they used to
strike terror and slay (the deer) they, filled with fear, were born in
the beautiful Kālanjara mountain as deer, named Unmakha, Nityavitrasta,
Stabdhakarna, Vilochana, Pandit, Ghasmar and Nādi (24–25). Recollecting
their former birth and species they used to roam in the forest. They
were all of subdued minds, peaceful, unmarried and used to perform good
works and observe the same religious rites. Adopting the life of a Yogin
they used to live there (26–27). Leading the life of ascetics and taking
a small quantity of food they gave up their lives in a desert. O king, O
descendant of Bharata, even now in the desert attached to the Kālanjāra
mountain their footsteps are seen (28). By those pious actions, O my
son, they were divested of all evils—and they were born in a more
auspicious species, namely that of Chakravākas (29). Leading a life of
celibacy those pious ascetics were born in the holy island of Shara as
seven water-fowls (30). Their names were Nispriha, Nirmama, Kshānta,
Nirdanda, Nisparigraha, Nivritti and Nivrita (31). Those pious
Chakravakas were all Brahmachārins. Abstaining from food and carrying on
hard austerities they died on the bank of a river (32). Those seven
brothers have become these ganders ranging at will. These are the seven
intelligent Brahmachārins carrying the recollection of their pristine
birth (33). Because born as Brāhmanas they, by false words, imposed on
their preceptor, they are now born as birds moving about in the world
(34). And because though for their selfish ends they worshipped their
ancestral manes they have obtained a knowledge of their previous birth
(35). These ganders are respectively named Sumanā, Suchivāk, Sudha,
Panchama, Chinnadarshana, Sunetra and Swatantra (36). Of them the fifth
came by the name of Pānchika in his seventh birth, the sixth by that of
Pandarika, and the seventh by that of Brahmadatta (37). On account of
the hard austerities performed by them in seven births, of the Yoga
practices carried on by them and of their good Karma they listened to
the recitation of the Vedic hymns in their first birth in the house of
their preceptor. In consequence thereof their inclination remained pure
though they lived in the world, (38–39). All these Brahmachārins had the
knowledge of Brahman; and having been engaged in meditation they lived
there (40). While all those birds were living together there, the highly
prosperous, all-powerful and the effulgent king Vibhrāja, the head of
Neepas, born in the race of Puru, along with the females of his house,
came to that forest (41–42). Beholding that prosperous king the bird
Swatantra was possessed by envy and wished to become so (43). (He
thought):—"If I have done any good deed and practised _Tapas_, forsooth
I shall become such a king. I have been greatly emaciated by
hard-austerities yielding no fruits nor happiness (44)."


Markandeya said:—Thereupon his comrades the other two Chakravākas said
to him:—"We shall be your ministers ever doing you good" (1). Having
said "So be it" his mind was engaged in Yoga. After they had entered
into this contract Shuchivāk said to them (2). "While deviating from the
path of a Yogin and possessed by desire you pray for such a boon, hear
what I have got to say in this matter (3). Undoubtedly you will become
the king of Kāmpilya and these two will be your ministers" (4). With
these words the four ganders imprecated a curse on the other three. And
on account of their falling off from Yoga consequent upon their praying
for a kingdom they did not converse with those three (5). Losing their
Yoga (acquirements) and having their senses bewildered the cursed
ganders prayed to their comrades for relief (6). They were propitiated
and Sumanā, as the spokesman of all, communicated to them the following
words of grace (7). "Undoubtedly there will be an end of your curse.
Freed from this birth you will be again born as men and practise Yoga
(8). Swatantra will be able to understand the sound of all animals. By
his counsels we have secured the favour of the ancestral manes (9). On
account of our dedicating the cow to the ancestral manes after killing
we have all acquired knowledge and been practising Yoga (10)." Hearing
this only sloka, containing the story of those (seven) men, recited one
shall acquire most excellent Yoga (11).


Markandeya said:—Those seven ganders, ever practising Yoga and ranging
in the Mānasa lake, namely Padmagarbha, Aravindaksha, Kshiragarbha,
Sulochana, Uruvindu, Suvindu and Hemagarbha, used always to live upon
air and water and nourish their body (1–2). At that time shining in the
grace of his person and surrounded by his female companions the king was
ranging in that forest like the king of celestials in the pleasure
garden of Nandana (3). By their earnestness and other external marks the
king perceived that those birds were Yogins. Then out of shame⁴⁶ and
thinking upon it he returned to his own city (4). He had a highly pious
son by name Anuha. He had his eye on the minutest details of morality
and accordingly became the Defender of Faith (5). Sukha conferred upon
him his accomplished and worshipful daughter Kritvi gifted with all
auspicious marks and endued with the quality of goodness (6). O Bhishma,
formerly Sanatkumār mentioned that beautiful damsel to me as Pivari, the
daughter of the ancestral manes Vahirshadas (7). She was the foremost of
the truthful, beyond the comprehension of persons of uncontrolled mind,
was herself an ascetic, the wife of a Yogin and the mother of a Yogin
(8). I had described this to you before while giving an account of the
ancestral manes. Having placed Anuha on the throne, welcomed the
citizens with a delighted heart and made the Brāhmanas perform the
benedictory rite the king Vibhrāja repaired to the Mānasa lake, where
the ganders were ranging, for carrying on hard austerities (9–10).
Having renounced all desires, abstained from food and living on air only
he began to practise penances on one side of that lake (11). O
descendant of Bharata, his resolution was that he might become the son
of one of them and thus acquire Yoga (12). Having made this resolution
he began to carry on hard austerities and shone there like the sun (13).
O foremost of Kurus, on account of its being rendered brilliant by
Vibhrāja that forest, where the four ascetic ganders and the other three
who had deviated from the path of Yoga gave up their lives, became
celebrated by the name Vaibhrāja (14–15). Being freed from sins those
seven high-souled men (born as birds) were born in the city of Kāmpilya
under the names of Brahmadatta and others (16). Amongst them four, by
knowledge, meditation and asceticism, mastered the holy Vedas and
Vedangas and had (a good) memory. The other three remained in ignorance
(17). Swatantra was born as the highly illustrious son of Anuha by the
name of Brahmadatta. According to his resolution in the previous birth
as a bird he was endued with knowledge, meditation and Tapas and
mastered the Vedas and Vedangas (18). Chitradarshi and Sunetra were born
as _Srotrya_⁴⁷ Brāhmanas, well read in the Vedas with all their
auxiliaries, in the races Vābhravya and Vatsa (19). For having lived
with him in the previous birth they became helpmates to Brahmadatta. The
others were born as Pānchāla, Pinchika and Kandarika (20). Of them
Pānchāla was well versed in the Rig Veda and (accordingly) performed the
duties of a preceptor. Kandarika was well read in the other two Vedas
and acted as _Chhandoga_⁴⁸ and _Adhvaryu_⁴⁹ (21). Anuha’s son, the king
(Brahmadatta), was conversant with the voice of all animals. He was a
great friend of Pānchala and Kandarika (22). Although they were addicted
to vulgar pleasures they, on account of their pristine good deeds, were
conversant with morality, temporal profit and desires (23). Having
installed the sinless Brahmadatta on the throne the foremost of ascetic
kings, Anuha attained to the most excellent state (24). Brahmadatta’s
wife, who was the daughter of Devala, was a great female anchorite. Her
name was Sunnati (25). Thus from Devala Brahmadatta obtained his
daughter the high-minded ascetic Sunnati who was of the same temperament
with him (26).

O descendant of Bharata, in his seventh birth Panchika was the fifth,
Kandarika the sixth and Brahmadatta the seventh. The remaining ganders
were born as brothers in a poor Srotrya family in the city of Kāmpilya
(27–28). Their names were Dhritimān, Sumanā, Vidvān and Tatwadarshi.
They were well read in the Vedas and gifted with keen observation (29).
They were all endowed with the recollection of their pristine birth.
When after having attained to the consummation of Yoga practices and
welcomed their father they were about to depart he said to them "Verily
by your renouncing me you will commit a mighty iniquity. How can you
(all) depart, without removing my poverty and satisfying the other
duties of a son viz—the spreading of progeny, the performing of Srāddha
at Gya, and attending upon me (in my old age) (30-32)."

The twice-born ones again said to their father:—"We will make
arrangements by which you will live (33). Do you go to the sinless king
Brahmadatta and recite before him and his minister the Sloka pregnant
with great import (34). He will then, with great joy, confer upon you
many villages and desired-for objects. Therefore O father, go there"
(35). Having said this and worshipped their father they attained to
beatitude as the result of the practices of Yoga (36).

   ⁴⁶ He thought–"These are birds and they are practising yoga while I,
      being a man, am only seeking pleasure." He was thus ashamed of his
      own conduct and came back to his city.

   ⁴⁷ There are two classes of Brahmins, one of them who are the
      superior is called _Kulsa_ and another next to them is called

   ⁴⁸ A reciter or chanter of the _Sama Veda_ from _Chhandas_ the metre
      of the _Vedas_ and _Ga_ who sings.

   ⁴⁹ A Brahman versed in the Yayurveda.


Markandeya said:—One of (those ganders) Vaibhrāja, an ascetic and
anchorite as he was, was born as the son of Brahmadatta by name
Viswaksena (1). Once on a time Brahmadatta was sporting delightedly in a
forest in the company of his wife like Indra in the company of Sachi
(2). Thereupon the king heard the noise made by an ant who was
soliciting a female-ant and displaying his displeasure (3). Hearing that
the poor female ant was expressing her disgust at the request of her
husband Brahmadatta laughed aloud (4). Thereat his wife Saunati was
stricken with sorrow and shame. That beautiful damsel had been
abstaining from food for a long time (5). When her husband attempted to
please her, that one of pure smiles said "O king, while you laughed at
me I do not like to live" (6). The king however communicated to her the
cause of his laughter but she placed no confidence in his words but
rather said in anger "This is not within the power of a man (7). What
man can decipher the sound of an ant save by the favour of the
Providence or by the good deeds of his pristine birth (8)? O king, if by
virtue of _Tapas_ or any other knowledge you have acquired the power of
understanding the sound of animals, then by some means create confidence
in me by which I may know it. Otherwise, O king, I shall renounce my
life. I do swear truly" (9-10).

Hearing those harsh words of the queen the highly illustrious king
Brahmadatta was greatly distressed. He then reverentially sought the
protection of the Omnipotent Nārāyana, the lord of all the worlds.
Having controlled his senses and abstaining from food the highly
illustrious king, within six nights, saw the Omnipotent Deity Nārāyana.
The Lord, compassionate unto all creatures, said to him (11-13). "O
Brahmadatta, after the night has passed away you will attain to
well-being." Having said this the lord disappeared there from (#4).
Having learnt a Sloka from his sons the father, of those four
high-souled Brāhmanas, considered himself blessed (15). He then desired
to go to the King and his Minister. Going there, he however found no
opportunity of reciting the sloka to them (16).

Thereupon having bathed in the tank and obtained the boon from Nārāyana,
he, delightedly ascending a golden chariot, entered the city (17).
Kandarikā, the foremost of the twice-born, acted as his charioteer and
Pānchala held the chowries (18). Considering that to be a favourable
moment the Brāhmana recited the sloka before the King and the two
ministers (19).

"Having been born as seven hunters in the Province of Dashārna they
were, in their next birth, born as deer on the Kalanjara mountain,—and
then they were born as Chakravākas in the island of Shara. Then they
were born as ganders in the Mānasa lake. And at last they were born in
Kurukshetra as Brāhmanas well read in the Vedas. Amongst them the four,
that where born of a good family, have gone to a distant region. You,
deviating from the path of Yoga, are sinking" (20–21). O descendant of
Bharata, hearing this the king Brahmadatta was stupified, and the reins
of the horses and chowries slipped off respectively from the hands of
Kandarika and Pānchāla. Seeing this the citizens and friends were all
greatly agitated (22–23). Having waited for a moment with his two
ministers on the car the king, after regaining his consciousness,
returned to the palace (24).

Thereupon recollecting the tank mentioned and regaining the Yoga power
practised in the previous birth he honored the Brāhmana with various
enjoyable things and chariots (25). Then placing on the throne his son
Viswaksena, the subduer of enemies, Brahmadatta retired to a forest with
his wife (26). After the king had gone to the forest for practising Yoga
Devala’s daughter, the good-natured Sunnati said with great delight to
the king (27):—"O monarch, you can understand the sound of the ants and
still you are addicted to sexual desires; therefore in great anger I
wanted to work you up (28). From this birth we must attain to the most
excellent state. You had deviated from the practice of Yoga and
accordingly I reminded you of it" (29). Hearing the words of his wife
the king was highly pleased. And having acquired Yoga power he attained
to a state which it is very difficult to obtain (30). Having purified
himself by his own actions and acquired the most excellent Sankhya Yoga
he attained to a consummate state (31). Having instituted only Sikshā
and laid down the order of the Vedas the great ascetic Pānchālya
acquired renown and the status of a Yoga preceptor (32). O son of Gangā,
all this happened in the days of yore before my very eyes. Meditate on
this and you will meet with well-being (23). Others also, who will
meditate on this most excellent account, will never be visited by
inferior births (34). O descendant of Bharata, listening to this highly
momentous history, one has his mind always bent on practising Yoga (35).
He, who will meditate on this, shall always enjoy peace and gradually
attain to the pure state of a Yogin which it is difficult to acquire in
this world (36). Vaishampāyana said:—In order to propagate the practice
of Yoga the intelligent Mārkandeya thus spoke in the days of yore by way
of describing the fruits of a Srāddha (37). The Divine Soma confers
nourishment on all creatures. Therefore hear from me an account of the
lunar family while describing the family of Vrishnis (38).


Vaisampayana said:—O king, Soma’s father the Divine Rishi Atri was the
mind-begotten son of Brahmā when, in the days of yore, he grew desirous
of creating progeny (1). Atri, with all his sons, began to do good unto
all creatures, by his words, mind and action (2). That innocent, highly
effulgent and virtuous-souled Rishi, of firm vows, formerly pratised,
with his arms raised, the most excellent penance of silence for three
thousand celestial years. This we have heard (3–4).

O descendant of Bharata, when that Rishi, having controlled his senses,
began to practise penances steadfastly his person assumed the mild
lustre of the moon (5). This moon-like lustre, of the person of that one
of controlled senses, soon spread over the sky. Then from his eyes tears
began to trickle down and flood the ten quarters (6). Thereupon the ten
goddesses delightedly conceived in ten different ways. Though they all
did it unitedly they however could not keep it (7). Thereupon the
effulgent, all-protecting moon in the embryo fell down lighting up all
the quarters (8). When the quarters could not bear this conception any
more the embryo, along with them, fell down on earth (9). Beholding the
moon thus fallen Brahmā, the grand-father of all, got on his chariot for
doing good unto all people (10) That chariot was made of the Vedas; its
form was virtue and it carried Brahmā; thousands of _Mantra_ horses wore
yoked to it; this we have heard (11). When that great soul, the son of
Atri, came down on earth, all the deities and the seven mind-begotten
sons of Brahmā began to chant his glories (12). In the same way, O my
child, Angira’s sons and Bhrigu with his sons began to hymn his glories
with Rik and Yayush _Mantras_ (13). Having his glories thus chanted by
the Rishis the effulgent moon had his increasing lustre stationed in a
circular form in the sky. It fully lighted up the three worlds (14). In
his that most excellent chariot the highly illustrious moon
circumambulated, for twenty-one times, the world bounded by the sea
(15). His lustre, that melted down on earth on account of the motion of
his car, became plants that shone in their effulgence (16). O king,
those plants conduce to the nourishment of the gods, ancestral manes,
men, beasts, birds, reptiles and other creatures; the moon is thus the
nourisher of the universe (17). O great one, having acquired lustre
through his own deeds and the chanting of his glories by the Rishis the
divine moon carried on hard austerities for one thousand _Padma_ years
(18). The moon was the asylum of all those silvery goddesses in the
shape of water who upheld the universe. He became celebrated by his own

Thereupon, O Janamejaya, Brahmā, the foremost of those conversant with
the Vedas, conferred upon him the sovereignty over seeds, plants, the
Brāhmanas and water (20). After his installation on the throne, O
monarch, the lord of rays lighted up the three worlds with his rays
(21). Daksha had twenty-seven daughters of great vows. People knew them
as stars. Pracheta’s son Daksha conferred them all on him (22). Having
obtained that great kingdom the moon, the lord of ancestral manes, made
arrangements for a Rajsuya sacrifice in which ten million kine were
given away as presents (23). The divine Atri was the _Hota_⁵⁰ thereof,
Bhrigu _Adhvaryu_⁵¹ Hiranyagarbha, _Udgata_⁵² and Brahmā himself was
Brahma⁵³ (24). And the Divine Nārāyana, surrounded by Sanatkumār and
other Prime Rishis, became the member thereof (25). O descendant of
Bharata, we have heard that the Divine Soma conferred presents on the
leading Brāhmana saints and all other Rishis of the three worlds who had
assembled there (26). Sinivāli, Kuhu, Dyuti, Pushti, Prabhā, Vasu,
Dhriti, Kirti and Lakshmi, these nine goddesses attended upon him (27).
Having bathed after the termination of the Yagna the foremost of kings,
the moon, worshipped of all the gods and Rishis, began steadily to light
up the ten quarters (28). O my child, having been honored by the sages
and acquired prosperity which it is very difficult to obtain his mind
began to deviate from humility. And accordingly sullied by immorality he
lost all control over himself (29). Having disregarded Vrihaspati, the
son of Angiras, the moon by force carried away his illustrious wife Tārā
(30). And albeit solicited by the gods and Rishis he did not return her.
Vrihaspati, the the preceptor of the gods, was accordingly enraged with
him (31). Ushanā (Suka) began to protect his sides. The illustrious
deity Rudra was formerly a disciple of Vrihaspati’s father. Out of
reverence for him he (Rudra) protected his rear, taking his Ajagava bow
in his hands (32–33). A terrible battle, destructive of the gods and
demons on account of Tārā, was fought at the place where the high-souled
Siva discharged his mighty weapon Brahmasiras—for the destruction of the
demons and where their glory was (accordingly) destroyed (34–35).

O descendant of Bharata, in that battle the gods, well read in the
precepts of religion who had sided Vrishaspati, and the deities
Tushitas, who belonged to Soma’s party who had stolen away his
preceptor’s wife, sought refuge with the Prime Deity the Eternal Brahmā
(36). Thereupon the Grand-father himself came there, prevented Sukra and
Sankara (to fight) and gave back Tārā to Vrihaspati (37). Beholding Tārā
_enciente_ Vrihaspati said to her:—"You must not give birth to this
child at my house" (38). She then gave birth to a son, the destroyer of
robbers, effulgent like a burning flame, on a bundle of fibrous sticks
(39). As soon as he was born that beautiful boy overclouded the beauty
of the celestials. Filled with suspicion accordingly the deities
enquired of Tārā saying "Who is he? Tell us truly if he is Vrihaspati’s
son or Soma’s." When she was thus questioned by the gods she could give
no reply out of shame (40—41). Thereupon her son, the slayer of robbers,
was about to imprecate a curse on her. Preventing him Brahmā himself
asked Tārā for the solution of the doubt (42). "Tell us, O Tātā, what
the truth is. Whose son is he?" Thereupon with folded hands she said to
the Lord Brahmā, the conferrer of boons:—"(He is) Soma’s." Then his
father the Patriarch Soma smelt the crown of his high-souled son, the
destroyer of robbers (43–44). The intelligent (Soma) named his son
Budha. He always rises in the sky in a hostile direction (45) Budha
begat a son on Vairāja’s daughter Ilā. His son was the great king
Pururava (46). He begat on Urvashi seven high-souled sons. On account of
his arrogance the Moon was attacked with consumption (47). On account of
his thus being subject to this disease his orbit suffered decrease. He
then sought refuge with his father Atri (48). The great ascetic Atri
released him from his sins. And accordingly freed from consumption he
again shone in his effulgence (49). O monarch, I have thus described to
you, the account of the birth of the Moon enhancing glory. I shall now
describe his family (50). On hearing of the story of the birth of the
Moon ever giving blessedness, freedom from diseases, long life and
progeny one is freed from all his sins (51).

   ⁵⁰ A priest who at a sacrifice recites the prayers of the Rig-Veda.

   ⁵¹ A Brāhmana versed in the rituals of the Yayur-Veda.

   ⁵² A reciter of the prayers &c. of the Sama Veda.

   ⁵³ The Superintending or presiding priest of the sacrifice.


Vaishampayana said:—O great king, Budha’s son Pururava was learned,
energetic, and charitably disposed. He performed many sacrifices and
gave away many presents (1). He was conversant with the knowledge of
Brahman and powerful and the enemies could not defeat him in battle.
That king kept up perpetual fire in his house and celebrated many
sacrifices (2). He was truthful, pious and highly handsome. He had an
entire control over his sexual appetites. At that time there was none in
the three worlds equal to him in glory (3). Having cast off her pride
the illustrious Urvashi selected, as her lord, that forgiving and pious
king conversant with the knowledge of Brahman (4). O descendant of
Bharata, the king Pururava lived with Urvashi at the charming
Chaitraratha garden for ten years, on the banks of the river Mandākini
for five years, in the city of Alakā for five years, in the forest of
Vadari for six, in the best of gardens Nandana for seven, in the
province of Uttara kuru where the trees bear fruits whenever desired for
eight, at the foot of the mount Gāndhamādana for ten and on the summit
of the North Sumeru for eight years (5–7). In these most beautiful
gardens resorted to by the gods the king Pururava sported most
delightedly with Urvashi (8). That king ruled over the sacred province
of Prāyaga, so highly spoken of by the great Rishis (9). His seven sons
were all high-souled and like the sons of the gods born in the celestial
region. They were named Ayu, Dhiman, Amavasu, the pious-souled Vishvāyu,
Shrutayu, Dridayu, Valāyu and Shatāyu. They were all given birth to by
Urvashi (10-11).

Janamejaya said:—O you well-read in various Srutis, why did Urvashi, who
was an Apsara, leave aside the gods and come to a human king? Do you
relate this to me (12).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having been imprecated with a curse by Brahmā and
abiding by the time the most beautiful Urvashi came to a man, the son of
Ilā (13). In order to free herself from the curse Urvashi made a
contract with the king saying "O king, I shall not see you naked and you
should associate with me whenever you will find me filled with desire
(14). Two lambs should always be kept near my bed and you should always
live on a small quantity of clarified butter during the day (15). O
king, if you satisfy this contract and as long as you will remain true
to it so long I shall live with you. This is our contract (16)." The
king satisfied all her conditions. Thus under the influence of a curse,
that damsel, out of reverence towards Pururavā, lived with him at the
above-mentioned places for fifty-nine years. On account of Urvashi’s
living with a man all the Gandharvas were filled with anxiety (17). The
Gandharvas said:—"O you great ones, concert some measure, by which that
best of damsels Urvashi, the ornament of the celestial region, may come
back to the gods" (19). Amongst them a Gandharva by name Viswāvasu, the
foremost of speakers said:—"I heard them when they entered into the
contract (20). As soon as the king will violate that contract Urvashi
will forsake him. I know full well how that king will be divorced from
Urvashi (21). I shall therefore depart with a companion for
accomplishing your work." Having said this the highly illustrious
(Gandharva) repaired to the city of Pratisthāna (22). Having reached
there during the night he pilfered away a lamb. That damsel, of
beautiful smiles, was like a mother to that pair of lambs (23). Hearing
of the arrival of the Gandharva and understanding that the hour of the
termination of the curse had come, that illustrious (damsel) said to the
king, "Who has stolen away one of my sons" (24)? Although thus accosted
by her he did not get up for he was naked, thinking "If the goddess
beholds me without any raiment on then the terms of our contract will be
cancelled" (25).

Thereupon the Gandharvas again stole away the other lamb. When the
second was carried away the damsel said to the son of Ilā (26). "O king,
O lord, who is stealing away my sons as if I have none to look after
me?" Thus addressed the king, although he had no cloth on, ran away in
search of the lambs. In the meantime the Gandharvas created lightnings.
When the king was going out of the place lighted up by lightnings she,
all on a sudden, saw him naked. Beholding him thus without any cloth on
that Apsarā, coursing at her will, went away (27–29). Beholding the pair
of lambs left there the king took them and came to his house. (On his
return), he did not see Urvashi and greatly stricken with grief began to
bewail (30). He travelled over the entire earth in search of her. Then
the highly powerful king saw her bathing at a tank called Haimavati at
the sacred shrine of Plaksha in the province of Kurukshetra. That
beautiful damsel was sporting with five other Apsarās (31–32). Beholding
her thus sport the king, filled with mighty sorrow, began to bewail.
Seeing the king at a distance Urvashi too said to her companions. "This
is the foremost of men with whom I lived for some time." Saying this she
pointed out the king to them (33–34). O king, the Apsaras then grew
anxious lest she might go back. The king then addressed her in sweet
words saying:—"O cruel lady, you may show yourself cruel in words but
remain my wife at heart." Urvashi then said to the son of Ilā, "O lord,
through you I have become _enciente_. Forsooth within a year all your
sons will be born. O king live with me for one night more" (35–37).
Hearing this the highly illustrious king was pleased and returned to his
own city. After the expiration of a year Urvashi again came to him (38).
The highly illustrious king lived with her for one night. Thereupon
Urvashi said to the son of Ila:—"The Gandharvas will confer a boon on
you (39). O king, beg of them a boon and tell them that you want equal
beauty with the high-souled Gandharvas" (40). Then the king prayed for a
boon from the Gandharvas and they too said "so be it." Thereupon filling
a bag with fire the Gandharvas said to him (41):—"O king, having
celebrated a Yajna with this fire you will attain to our region."
Thereupon taking the princes with him the king left for his city (42).
Having thrown away that fire into the forest the king, with his sons,
went to his own city. He did not see there the _Treta_ fire⁵⁴ but only
saw a fig tree (43). Beholding that fig tree of Sami species he was
stricken with surprise. He then communicated to the Gandharvas the
destruction of fire (44). Hearing the whole story they ordered for a
piece of wood to enkindle it. Then taking a piece of wood from the fig
tree, churning the fire duly and worshipping the gods with various
_Yajnas_ there with, he attained the region of the Gandharvas (45–46).
Having obtained the boon from the Gandharvas he placed _Treta_ fire. The
fire was at first one. The son of Ilā divided it into three (47). So
powerful was that foremost of men the royal son of Ilā. The greatly
illustrious king Pururavā reigned in the city of Pratishthāna situate on
the northern bank of the Ganges in the Province of Prayāga, so highly
spoken of by the Rishis (48-49).

   ⁵⁴ The three sacred fires collectively or the southern, household and
      sacrificial fires.


Vaishampayana said:—Ilā’s son had seven high-souled sons resembling the
sons of the celestials born in the celestial region (1). They were Ayu,
Dhimān, Amavasu, the high-souled Vishwāyu, Srutāyu, Dridayu, Valāyu, and
Shatayu. They were all Urvashi’s sons. Amāvasu’s sons were Bhima and
Nagnajit (2). Bhima’s son was the king Kānchanaprabha. Kānchana’s son
was the highly powerful and learned Suhotra who begat on Keshini a son
by name Janhu who celebrated the great sacrifice Sarvamedha (3–4). Gangā
solicited him to become her husband but on account of his refusal she
flooded the Yajna ground (5). O foremost of the Bharata race, beholding
the ground thus flooded by Gangā Suhotra’s son Janhu became enraged and
said to her (6), "I shall exhaust your water by drinking it up and you
will thus meet with punishment for your arrogance (7)." The royal saint
having drunk up Gangā the great Rishis designated her as his daughter by
name Jānhavi (8). Janhu espoused Yuvanāshwa’s daughter Kāveri. On
account of Yuvanāshwa’s curse Gangā made, with one half of her person,
that foremost of rivers, Janhu’s wife the blameless Kāveri (9). Janhu
begat on Kāveri a beloved and pious son by name Susaha whose son was
Ajāka (10). Ajaka’s son the king Valākāshwa was greatly fond of hunting.
His son was Kusha (11). He had four sons effulgent like the gods. They
were Kushika, Kushanābha, Kushashwa and Murtimān (12). The king Kushika
grew up with _Pazhavas_⁵⁵ ranging in the forest. He carried on hard
penances for obtaining a son like Indra. Out of fear, accordingly the
king of gods was born as a son to him (13). After he had carried on
penances for one thousand years Sakra saw that royal saint of hard
austerities. Seeing him the thousand-eyed Purandara thought him capable
of creating progeny and accordingly entered into his energy. When the
king of celestials was thus begotten by Kushika as his son he became the
king Gādhi who was born of Purukutsa’s daughter who was the wife of
Kushika (14–16). Gādhi’s daughter was the noble and amiable Satyavati.
He gave her away to Bhrigu’s son Richika (17). Bhrigu’s son was pleased
with her and therefore made _Charu_ for his own and Gadhi’s sons (18).
Then calling his own wife Bhrigu’s son Richika said to her "you and your
mother should eat this _Charu_ (19). (Your mother) will give birth to an
effulgent son the foremost of Kshatryas. No other Kshatriya in this
world will be able to vanquish him and he will destroy all the leading
heroes of the military caste (20). O auspicious damsel, this _Charu_
will make your son intelligent, a great ascetic of controlled senses and
the foremost of the twice born (21)."

Having said this to his wife Bhrigu’s son Richika entered into woods for
carrying on hard austerities without any interruption (22). At that time
starting on pilgrimage with his family the king Gādhi arrived at
Richika’s hermitage for seeing his own daughter (23). Taking the two
cups of _Charu_ from the Rishi, Satyavati with great care gave one to
her mother (24). By a mere accident the mother unwittingly gave her own
_Charu_ to her daughter and ate herself the one intended for the latter
(25). Thereupon Satyavati conceived the dreadful offspring whereof was
destined to slay all the Kshatryas. She then shone in great effulgence
(26). Seeing her and knowing every thing by meditation the foremost of
the twice-born Richika said to his beautiful wife (27), "By the change
of Charu you have been imposed on by your mother. You will give birth to
a highly terrible and ruthless son (28). Your brother will be born as a
great ascetic conversant with all the Vedas. By virtue of my _Tapas_ I
have handed over my entire knowledge of the Vedas to him (29)." Thus
addressed by her husband the great Satyavati said to him "I do not wish
to have such a wretch of a Brāhmana as my son from you" and began to
propitiate him. Thus accosted the ascetic again said to her (30). "O you
auspicious dame, I myself did not wish for such a son. On account of the
father and mother the son becomes cruel." Satyavati again replied to him
(31). "You can create the worlds if you like, what to speak of a son.
You should therefore give me a simple-minded son capable of controlling
his senses (32). O lord, O foremost of the twice-born, if you cannot
undo this, may a grandson be born after my heart (33)."

Thereupon by virtue of his _Tapas_ he became propitiated with her and
said "O fair one, I make no distinction between a son and a grandson.
Therefore what you have said will come to pass" (34).

Satyavati then gave birth to a son by name Jamadagni always controlling
his senses and intent upon carrying on hard austerities (35). On account
of the change of Bhrigu’s _Charu_ and the union (of the energies) of
Rudra and Vishnu Jamadagni was born from the energy of the latter. And
the truthful and pious Satyavati now passes as the celebrated river
Koushiki (36–37).

There was another powerful king of the Ikshwāku race by name Renuka. His
daughter was the great Renukā. The great ascetic Jamadagni begat on that
Renukā a dreadful and highly effulgent son by name Rāma, the destroyer
of all the Kshatryas, a master of all sciences and specially that of
archery (38–40). Thus by virtue of _Tapas_ Richika begat on Satyavati
the highly illustrious Jamadagni—the foremost of those conversant with
the Vedas (41). His second son was Shunasepha and his youngest son was
Shunapuchha. Kushika’s son Gādhi begat as his son Viswāmitra endued with
_Tapas_ and the quality of self-control. Having obtained the status of
Brāhmana saints he became one of the seven Rishis (42–43). The virtuous
souled Viswāmitra also passed by the name of Viswaratha. By Bhrigu’s
favour he took his birth from Koushika as the multiplier of his race
(44). Viswāmitra’s sons were Devarāt and others celebrated in the three
worlds. Hear from me their names (45). He begat Kati on Devasravā from
whom Kātyānas received their name. He begat Hiranyaksha on Shālāvati and
Renumān on Renu. Sāngkriti Gālava and Mudgala are also well-known.
Madhuchhanda and other Devalas, Ashtaka, Kachhapa and Purita are all the
offspring of Viswāmitra. The families of the high-souled descendants of
Kushika are all well-known (46–48). Pānis, Vabhrus, Karajapās and other
kings are the descendants of Devarat. Shālankāyānas, Vāskalas, Lohityas,
Yāmadutas, Karishis, Soushrutas and besides Saindavāyanas are all the
descendants of Koushika. Devalas and Renus are the grandsons of Renukā.
Yājnawalka, Aghamarshana, Udumvara, Abhiglāna, Tārakāyana and Chunchula
are the grandsons of Sālavati and sons of Hiranyāksha. Sānskritya,
Gālava, Bādrayana and others are the offspring of the intelligent
Viswāmitra. Thus the family of Koushika is well-known to all. They are
married according to grades. The connection, between the Brāhmanas and
Kshatryas amongst the family of Puru and the Brāhmana saint Vasishtha
and of Koushikas, is well known for ever (49–53). Of the sons of
Viswāmitra Sunasepha was the eldest. The foremost of saints Bhārgava
became also a Koushika (54). Viswāmitra’s son Sunasepha was destined to
be killed at the sacrifice of Haridashwa (55). The gods again returned
Sunasepha unto Viswamitra and for this he passed by the name of
Devarāta. Devarāta and six others were the sons of Viswamitra, who begat
on Drishadvati another son by name Ashtaka. Ashtaka’s son was Louhi.
Thus I have described the family of Janhu and I shall now describe the
progeny of Ayu (56-58).

   ⁵⁵ The name of one of the degraded Kshatrya races sentenced by Sagara
      to wear beards, perhaps a _Parthian_.


Vaishampayana said:—O king, Ayu had five sons who were all heroic and
mighty car-warriors. They were begotten on Swarbhānu’s daughter (1). Of
them Nahusha was born first and next to him Vriddhasharmā. Afterwards
Rambha, Raji and Anena were born; they were all well-known in the three
worlds (2). Raji begat five hundred sons who were known on earth by the
name of Rājeyas. Those Kshatriyas made even Indra terrified (3). When
the terrible battle, between the gods and demons, came to pass they went
to the Grandfather and said "O lord of all the gods, say who amongst us
will be crowned with victory. We wish to hear it from you (4-5)."

Brahma said:—"Forsooth they will conquer the three worlds on whose
behalf the king Raji will take up arms in battle (6). Wherever Raji is,
there is forbearance; and wherever forbearance reigns there is
prosperity. And wherever forbearance and prosperity are there exist
morality and victory (7)." O foremost of Bharatas, pleased with what
they heard from the Grandfather, the gods and demons, with a view to
gain victory, went to Raji for making him their commander (8). Raji was
the grandson of Swarbhānu and was begotten on his daughter Prabhā. That
highly powerful king multiplied the race of Soma (9). The gods and
demons, all with delighted minds, said to Raji:—"Do you, for
accomplishing own victory, take up a most excellent bow and arrows
(10)". Then identifying his own interest with that of theirs and
displaying his own glory the king Raji said to the gods and demons (11).
"O Indra and gods, I shall then only engage in fight if I can attain to
the dignity of Indra after vanquishing the demons in battle (12)." The
gods were at first delighted and said, "O king, whatever you wish it
will be; your desire shall be fulfilled (13)." Hearing the words of the
gods the king Raji said to the leading Asuras what he had spoken to the
gods (14). Thinking it conducive to their own interest the haughty
Dānavas, with great indignation, replied to that king (15). "Pralhāda is
our lord for whom we seek victory. O foremost of kings, fulfill the
contract that you have made with the gods for obtaining the kingdom
(16)." Having said ’so be it’ he was appointed by the gods (their
commander). Then entering upon the contract that he would become Indra
the king slew all the Dānavas whom the wielder of thunderbolt could not
kill (17). Having brought about the destruction of all the Dānavas the
highly beautiful, powerful and self-controlled king Raji regained the
lost prosperity of the gods (18). Then Satakratu,⁵⁶ with all the gods,
said to Raji "I am Raji’s son." He again addressed him saying:—"Forsooth
you have become the lord of all creatures, O sire, I, Indra, have become
your son and I shall gain renown by this action" (19–20). Hearing the
words of Satakratu and having been imposed on by his Māyā the king Raji
delightedly said to the king of gods "Let it be so" (21). After the
ascension to heaven of that god-like king his sons took away from the
lord of gods his celestial kingdom following the practice that ancestral
properties should be equally distributed amongst all the sons (22).
Raji’s five hundred sons simultaneously attacked Trivisthapa and the
celestial kingdom of Indra (23). After the lapse of many years the king
of gods, being deprived of his kingdom and share in the sacrificial
offerings, grew very feeble. He then said to Vrihaspati "O Brahmarshi,
do thou arrange for me clarified butter of the weight of a Jujube fruit
so that I may live on its strength (24–25). O lord, having snatched away
my kingdom from me the sons of the king Raji have made me emaciated,
absent-minded, shorn of seat and energy, weak and stupid" (26).

Vrihaspati said:—"O sinless one, if you had said this to me before I
would not have been required to do an unfair work for your well-being
(27). I shall however, O king of gods, surely strive to do you good and
you will soon regain your kingdom and due share of the sacrificial
offerings (28). O my child, I will make arrangements for this and let
not your mind be possessed by stupefaction." He then did something for
increasing the energy of the king of gods (29). The foremost of the
twice-born then brought about the derangement of their (Raji’s sons’)
understanding. For this purpose he wrote a treatise on atheism, the best
of all works on Tarka, dealing with attacks against religion and much
liked by the impious. Those, who regard religion as the supreme (end of
life), do not like this system (30–31). Listening to the contents of
that treatise written by Vrihaspati the ignorant sons of Raji began
expressing their disgust at the previous works on Dharma sāstra (32).
They began respecting highly that atheistical system of their preceptor.
By this irreligious act those sinners met with destruction (33). Having
gained, by the favour of Vrishapati, the kingdom of the three worlds
which it is so hard to acquire the king of gods was highly pleased (34).
The sons (of the king Raji) grew foolish, maddened with anger and
irreligious. They began to hate the Brāhmanas and were shorn of energy
and prowess. Thereupon slaying those sons of Raji possessed by anger and
lust the king of the celestials regained his prosperity and kingdom
(35-36). He, who listens to or meditates on the account of the loss of
kingdom by the king of gods and of the restitution of his prestige, is
never visited by any oppression (37).

   ⁵⁶ Literally performer of hundred sacrifices, a name of Indra.


Vaishampayana said:—Rambhā had no issue. I shall describe the progeny of
Anenā. His son was the highly illustrious king Pratikshatra (1). His son
passed by the name of Srinjaya whose son was Jaya and his son was Vijaya
(2). His son was Kriti whose son was Haryaswan. His son was the powerful
king Sahadeva. Sahadeva’s son was the virtuous-souled Nadina whose son
was Jagatsena whose son was Satkriti. Satkriti’s son was the
pious-souled and highly illustrious Kshatravriddha ever satisfying the
duties of a Kshatrya. I have thus described the progeny of Anenā. Hear
now of the descendants of Kshatravriddha (3-5). Kshatravriddha’s son was
the highly illustrious Sunahotra. He had three highly pious sons whose
names were Kāsha, Shāla and Gritsamada. Gritsamada’s son was Shunaka,
whose offspring, the Saunakas, were Brāhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and
Sudras. Shāla’s son was Arshnisena whose son was Sutapa. O king, Kāsha’s
sons were Kāshya and Dirghatapā. The latter’s son was the learned
Dhanwantari. At the termination of the rigid penances of the intelligent
old king Dirghatapā Dhanwantari arose from the ocean and took his birth
for the second time in this world (6–10).

Janamejaya said:—O lord, why was Dhanwantari born in the land of men? I
wish to know this duly and truly from you. Describe it therefore (11).

Vaishampāyana said:—O foremost of Bharatas, hear of the birth of
Dhanwantari. When ambrosia was being churned out in the days of yore
Dhanwantari arose from the ocean. Enveloped completely with personal
grace he came out of the vessel of ambrosia. Meditating on Vishnu who
grants success in business he stood up as soon as he saw Him (11–13).
Vishnu said to him "As you have come out of water you will be known by
the name of _Avja_." And so he passed by the name of Avja (14). Avja
then replied:—"O lord I am your son. Confer upon me therefore, O lord of
celestials, a share in the sacrificial offerings and a place in this
world." Thus addressed and seeing him the Divine Lord spoke to him the
truth (15). "The gods, who present themselves at _Yajnas_, have already
made apportionments of sacrificial offerings amongst themselves. The
great saints too have dedicated various articles of oblation to various
gods. Know therefore, I shall not be able to give you any thing however
trifling it may be, that is not mentioned in the Vedas. O my son, you
have been born after the gods and so you will not be able to partake of
sacrificial offerings (16–17). In your second birth you will gain renown
in the world. While in the womb you will acquire _Animā Siddhi_⁵⁷ (18).
With that body you will acquire the dignity of a god. The twice-born
ones will worship you with _Charu_, _Mantra_, vows and _Japas_ (19). You
will propagate Ayurveda with its eight divisions. This work, which is
sure to come off, is known to you in your watery birth (20). When the
second Yuga Dwāpara will set in you will undoubtedly take your birth
again." Having conferred this boon on Dhanwantari Vishnu disappeared
again (21). Thereupon when the second Dwāpara Yuga set in Sunohotra’s
son Dirghatapā, the king of Kashi, desirous of having a son, began
carrying on hard austerities affording delight to his worshipful deity
saying (22)—"I shall lay myself under the protection of that god who
will confer on me a son." That king worshipped the deity Avja for a son
(23). Thereupon that Divine lord, being pleased with the king, said to
him "O you of good vows, I shall grant you any boon that you may choose
to have" (24). The king said "O lord, if thou art pleased be born unto
me as my illustrious son." Then saying "Let it be so" he disappeared
therefrom (25). The deity Dhanwantari was then born in his house. He
became the king of Kāshi who could destroy all diseases (26). Having
acquired the kowledge of Ayurveda from Bharadwāja he divided the work of
the physicians into eight classes and then conferred it upon his
disciples (27). Dhanwantari’s son was known by the name of Ketumān whose
son was the heroic Bhimaratha (28). His son was the king Divodāsa. The
pious-souled Divodāsa became the king of Bārānashi (29). O king, at this
time the Rakshasa Kshemaka, an attendant of Rudra, made the city of
Bārānashi divested of its inhabitants (30). The intelligent and
high-souled Nikumbha uttered a curse against Bārānashi saying, "Thou
shalt forsooth have none to live in thee for one thousand years" (31).
As soon as this curse was pronounced against Bārānashi the king Divodāsa
laid out his charming capital on the bank of Gomati (near Bārānashi)
(32). Formerly Bārānashi belonged to Bhadrashenya, son of Mahishmān, of
the Yadu race. Having slain the hundred sons of Bhadrasenya who were all
most excellent bowmen Divodāsa acquired that city. Thus Bhadrasenya was
deprived forcibly of his kingdom by the (king Divodāsa) (33–34).

Janamejaya said:—Why did the powerful Nikumbha imprecate a curse on
Bārānasi? Who is the virtuous Nikumbha who pronounced a curse on that
holy land (25)?

Vaishampāyana said:—Having acquired that prosperous city the highly
powerful emperor, the royal saint Divodāsa began to live there (36). At
this time, having accepted a gift the lord Siva was living at his
father-in-law’s residence for pleasing the goddess (his wife Durgā)
(37). At the command of the god (Siva) the great saints Pārshadas, born
in a respectable family, in this above mentioned form and dress, were
propitiating Pārvati (38). The great goddess Pārvati was highly pleased
thereby but not so was Menakā. She began continually villifying that god
and goddess (39). She said to Pārvati:—"Your husband Maheswara is always
doing vile things in the company of Pārshadas. He is always poor and his
character is not good" (40).

Thus spoken to by his mother the goddess became enraged as is usually
the case with women. Smiling a little she came to Bhava (41). With her
countenance pale the goddess said to Mahādeva:—"O lord, I shall not live
here; take me to your own house" (42). In order to find out a house for
himself Mahādeva eyed all the world. O descendant of Kuru, the highly
powerful Maheswara selected Bārānashi where every body attains to the
consummation of religious culture. Learning that Divodāsa had occupied
the city, Bhava said to Nikumbha who was by him:—"O king of _Ganas_, go
to the city of Beneres, and make it shorn of its inhabitants by mild
means for the king there is very powerful."

Thereupon going to the city of Bārānasi Nikumbha appeared in a dream to
a barber by name Kanduka and said to him. "O sinless one, I shall
encompass your well-being. Place a faithful image of mine in the city."
O king, what he commanded in a dream was all carried out (43–48). Having
duly made an announcement to the king at the gate of the city he began
daily to worship him (Nikumbha) with scents, garland, incense, lamps,
food, and drink. This appeared to be extremely wondrous (49–50). Thus
the lord of _Ganas_ was daily worshipped. Thereupon he began to confer
thousands of boons on the citizens, such as sons, gold, long life and
various desired-for objects (51). The eldest queen of the king Divodāsa
was celebrated by the name of Suyasha. Despatched by her husband that
chaste damsel appeared there for a son (52). Offering him a grand _Pujā_
she prayed for a son. Thus did she daily come there for a son (53). But
for some reason Nikumbha did not give her a son, thinking "If the king
gets enraged I shall accomplish my object" (54). Thereupon after a long
time the king was possessed by anger. He said "This ghost, stationed at
the main gate, is delightedly conferring hundreds of boons on my
citizens; why does he not confer one on me? My people in this city are
always worshipping him. I requested of him for a son for my queen. Why
does not that ungrateful wretch confer a son on me (55–57)? So this
ghost does not deserve good treatment from any, especially from me. I
shall therefore have the habitation of this vicious-souled one
destroyed" (58). Having made this resolution that vicious-souled, wicked
king sacked the house of that king of _Ganas_ (59). Having seen his own
house destroyed Nikumbha imprecated a curse on the king saying, "I have
committed no offence; and still while my house has been ruined, this
city, all on a sudden, shall be shorn of its people" (60).

Thereupon by his curse the city of Bārānasi was divested of its people.
Having pronounced that curse against the city Nikumbha went to Mahadeva
(61). The inhabitants of Bārānasi suddenly fled away to different
directions. The God Siva then built his own house in that city (62).
Mahādeva lived there sporting with the daughter of the Mountain-king. On
account of the liberation being given even to those who did not deserve
it the goddess did not like that place. She then said "I shall not live
here" (63). Siva said:—"I do not live in my house. My house (body)
remains always intact. I shall not go there. Go you, O goddess, to your
house (64)." The three-eyed lord, the slayer of Tripura said these words
with a smile. From that time that city has been spoken of as _Avimukta_
by the god Siva himself (65). Thus Bārānasi has been described as
Avimukta (66). The pious-souled Deity Maheswara, adored of all the gods,
lived there in the company of the goddess for the three Yugas, Satwa,
Tretā, and Dwapara (67). The city of that high-souled god disappeared in
the Kali Yuga. When that city disappeared Maheswara lived there
invisible. Thus Bārānasi was cursed and peopled again (68). Bhadrasenya
had a son by name Durdama. Having slain the hundred sons of Bhadrasenya
Divodāsa spared him out of mercy considering him a child (69). O great
king, the emperor Durdama was adopted by Haihaya as his son. In order to
put an end to hostilities, Bhadrasenya’s son the high souled Kshatriya
king Durdama took back again his ancestral kingdom which had been
forcibly occupied by Divodāsa (70-71). Divodāsa begat on Vrishadvati the
heroic Pratardana. That boy son of his again defeated Durdama (72).
Pratardana had two sons by name Vatsa and Bhāga. Vatsa’s son was Alarka
whose son was Sannati (73). Alarka, the king of Kāshi, was truthful and
devoted to Brahman. The ancient sages composed the following hymn in
praise of the royal saint Alarka (74). "This foremost of the rulers of
Kashi will enjoy youth and beauty for sixty thousand and sixty hundred
years (75)". By the favour of Lopamudrā he gained that longevity. That
youthful and beautiful king had an extensive kingdom. After the
termination of the curse that mighty-armed king slew the Rakshasa
Kshemaka and laid out again the picturesque city of Bārānasi. Sannati’s
son was the pious Sunitha (76-77). Sunitha’s son was the highly
illustrious Kshemya whose son was Ketumān whose son was Suketu (78). His
son passed by the name of Dharmaketu, whose son was the mighty
car-warrior Satya ketu. His son was the king Bibhu whose son was Avarta,
and whose son was Sukumāra. His son was the highly pious Dhristaketu,
whose son was the king Venuhotra, and whose son was the king Bharga. The
province of Vatsa belonged to Vatsa and the land of Bhrigu derived its
name from Bhargava (79–82). These sons of Angiras were born in the race
of Bhrigu. He had thousands of sons amongst the Brāhmanas, Kshatriyas
and Vaisyas. Thus I have described to you the family of Kashi kings. I
shall now describe the progeny of Nahusha (83–86).

   ⁵⁷ Final emancipation from existence.


Vaishampayana said:—The highly energetic Nahusha begat on his father’s
daughter Virajā six sons gifted with the effulgence of Indra (1). They
were Yati, Yayāti, Sang yāti, Ayati and Yāti. And the sixth was Suyāti;
of them Yayāti became the king (2). Yati was the eldest of all. Next to
him was Yayāti. On account of his being the foremost of the pious he
obtained a daughter of Kakuthsthas by name Go. Yati was an ascetic.
Having acquired final liberation he was united with Brahman (3). Of the
other five Yayāti conquered this world. He espoused Sukrācharya’s
daughter Devayani as well as Sharmisthā the daughter of an Asura by name
Vrishaparva (4). Devayāni gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu and
Vrishaparva’s daughter Sharmishthā to Drahyu, Anu, and Puru (5). Being
pleased Sakra gave him a highly effulgent, celestial, golden chariot
going every where without any interruption. White celestial and
excellent horses, fleet like the mind, were yoked to it. By that chariot
he used to accomplish every work. Ascending that car, Yayāti,
irrepressible in battle, within six nights conquered the entire earth
and even the gods with Vāsava (6-7). That car was in the possession of
the Pauravas till Sunāmā was born, O Janamejaya (8). Kuru’s son the king
Parikshit lost that car by the imprecation of the intelligent Gārgya
(9). O Janamejaya, that king slew the harsh-speeched boy of Gārgya and
accordingly he was guilty of the crime of Brahmanicide (10). With a
stench all about his body that royal saint moved about hither and
thither. Then cast off both by the citizens and villagers he could not
enjoy happiness anywhere (11). Thereupon stricken with grief he could
not find relief anywhere. He then sought refuge with the ascetic Indrota
born in the race of Shounaka (12). Indrota then undertook the
celebration of a horse-sacrifice for purifying that king (13). When he
bathed after the termination of a Yajna, that stench disappeared from
his body. Then O king, the lord of gods, with pleasure, gave away that
celestial car to Vasu the king of Chedis; from him Vrihadratha acquired
it (14). From him that car gradually passed into the hands of
Jarāsandha. Thereupon slaying Jarāsandha Bhima, the descendant of Kuru,
delightedly conferred that most excellent car on Vāsudeva.

Having conquered the earth consisting of seven insular continents with
its oceans Yayāti divided it (amongst his sons). Nahusha’s son installed
Turvasa as the king of the south-eastern quarter, Anu and Druhya as the
kings of the northern and eastern divisions respectively, the eldest
Yadu as the king of the north-east, and Puru as the king of the Central
division. Even now they are righteously ruling over the earth consisting
of seven insular continents and various cities in their respective
provinces. O foremost of kings, I shall afterwards describe their
progeny (15–20). Having been thus blessed with five sons and conferred
upon them his bows, arrows and the charge of the kingdom, the foremost
of men, that king Yayāti was possessed by decrepitude. Divested of
weapons when that ever victorious king cast his eyes on the earth he
felt joy. Having thus divided the earth he said to Yadu
(21–22):—"Retiring from thy office, O my son, do thou take this
decrepitude of mine upon thee. Making over my decrepitude to thee and
being gifted with thy youth and beauty I shall range over the earth."
Whereto Yadu replied (23):—"I have promised to give alms to a Brāhmana.
It has not been decided as yet. Without ascertaining this I cannot
accept your decrepitude (24). There are many inconveniences regarding
food and drink in decrepitude. Therefore, O king, I do not like to take
your decrepitude on me (25). O king, you have many other sons who are
more beloved than I. Therefore, O pious king, command any other son of
yours to take your decrepitude" (26).

Thus accosted by Yadu the king was filled with anger. Then blaming his
son Yayāti, the foremost of speakers, said (27):—"O you of vicious
intellect, disregarding me who am your preceptor and who have given you
education, whom else can you seek and what religion can you follow?"
(28) Having addressed Yadu thus in anger he imprecated a curse on him,
saying, "O foolish wight, your sons will be deprived of their kingdom"

That king, the foremost of Bharatas, likewise requested Turvasu, Drahyu
and Anu and was equally dishonoured by them all (30). Being enraged that
ever victorious Yayāti cursed them all as I had described to you before,
O foremost of the royal saints (31). Having thus cursed his four sons
who preceded Puru the king said to him, O descendant of Bharata (32). "O
Puru, if you agree, I shall transfer this my decrepitude to you and
being invested with your beauty and youth I shall roam over this world"
(33). His powerful son Puru accepted his decrepitude. Yayāti too, endued
with Puru’s beauty, ranged over the earth (34). Seeing the termination
of pleasures, O foremost of Bharatas, that lord lived in the
Chaitraratha forest with Vishrāvyā (35). When he was satiated with
enjoyments the king came to Puru and took back from him his decrepitude
(36). Hear, O great king, the songs sung there by Yayāti. Hearing them a
man withdraws himself from pleasures as a tortoise draws in its limbs
(37). "Desire is never satiated with the enjoy ment of its object. It
rather assumes proportions like a fire when clarified butter is thrown
into it (38). Rice, barley, gold, animals and women, that are on earth,
are not sufficient to afford satisfaction to one man. Seeing this even
men are not brought to their senses (39). When a man does not commit
injury to any creature even by his action, thought and words, he is
unified with Brahman (40). When a man is not afraid of another, when no
one is afraid of him, when he cherishes no desire or malice he is
unified with Brahman (41). Verily does he attain to happiness when a man
relinquishes thirst, which wicked people can never cast off, which does
not wear out even when a man is possessed by decrepitude and which is
like a fatal malady (42). When a man is worn out with age his hairs and
teeth fall off but the desire for life and wealth never disappears (43).
Whatever pleasure is there in this world derivable from the satisfaction
of sensual appetites, whatever great heavenly pleasure is there none of
them is equal to the one sixteenth of the pleasure derived from the
extinction of desire" (44). Having said this the royal saint Yayāti
retired into the forest with his wife and for many long years he carried
on hard austerities (45). Having carried on his penances on the Bhrigu
hill that great ascetic, renouncing his body, attained to heaven with
his wife (46).

O great king, in his family five royal saints were born. By them the
whole earth was occupied as by the rays of the sun (47). Hear now of the
family of Yadu honored by all the royal saints. In his family Nārāyana
Hari, the perpetuator of Vrishni race, took his birth (48), O king, he,
who listens to the sacred biography of the king Yāyāti or reads it,
acquires health, offspring, long life and renown (49).


Janamejaya said:—O Brahman, I wish to hear truly and separately of the
families of Puru, Drahyu, Anu, Yadu, and Turvasu. Do you describe them
at length from the very beginning while describing the race of Vrishnis
(1–2). Vaishampāyana said:—O king, hear first of your own family, the
brave Puru race, from the very beginning in which you have been born
(3). O king, I shall describe to you the most excellent family of Puru
as well as those of Drahyu, Anu, Yadu and Turvasu (4). O Janamejaya,
Puru’s son was a highly powerful king; his son was Prachinvān who
conquered the eastern quarter (5). Prachinvāna’s son was Pravira whose
son was Manasyu. His son was the king Abhayada whose son was the king
Sudhanwā. His son was Vahugava whose son was Shamyāti (6-7). His son was
Rahaswati whose son was Roudrāshwa. The latter had ten sons and
daughters (8). The sons were respectively named Dashārneyu, Krikaneyu,
Kaksheyu, Sthandileshu, Saunateshu, Richeyu, Sthaleyu, the highly
illustrious Jalayeu, Dhaneyu and Vaneyu. The daughters were named Rudrā,
Shudra, Bhadrā, Shaladā, Maladā, Khalā, Chalā, Valadā, Suratha and
Gochapata. These ten daughters defeated, with their beauty, Urvashi and
other jems of women (9-11). The Rishi Prabhākara, born in the race of
Atri, was their husband. He begat on Rudrā his illustrious son, Soma
(12). When defeated by Rāhu the sun falls down on earth, and when the
whole world is accordingly enveloped with darkness he spreads his rays
all over (13). When that sage said "May good betide you" the sun,
according to his words, did not fall from the sky (14). The great
ascetic Atri was the founder of great families. At his sacrifice even
the celestials carried the riches (15). This high-souled Rishi begat on
the ten daughters of Roudrāshwa ten sons ever engaged in carrying on
hard penances (16). O king, those Rishis, who had mastered the Vedas,
were the founders of families. They passed by the name of Swastatreya.
But Atri had no money (17). Kasheyu had three sons who were all mighty
car-warriors—they were Subhānava, Chākshusa and Parmekshu (18). The
learned king Kālānala was Subhanavā’s son. His son was the pious
Srinjaya (19). The heroic king Puranjaya was Srinjaya’s son. O king,
Janamejaya was Puranjaya’s son (20). The royal saint Mahāshāla was
Janamejaya’s son. He was well-read in the Vedas and renowned on earth
(21). The pious Mahāmanā was Mahāshāla’s son. He was heroic,
liberal-minded and honoured of all gods (22). O descendant of Bharata,
Mahāmanā begat two sons, the pious Ushinara and Titikshu, endued with
great strength (23). Ushinara had five wives born in the families of
royal saints—Nrigā, Krimi, Navā, Darvi and Drisadvati (24). He begat on
those wives five sons who perpetuated his race. By carrying on hard
austerities he got all those sons in his old age, O descendant of
Bharata (25). Nrigā’s son was Nriga, Krimi’s son was Krima, Navā’s son
was Nava, Darvi’s son was Suvrata and from Drisadvati was born the king
Sivi. Sivi’s sons passed by the name of Sivis, and Nrigā’s sons by that
of Youdheyas (26–27), Nava’s capital was Navarāshtra and that of Krimi
was Krimita; whereas the metropolis of Suvrata was celebrated by the
name of Amvastha. Hear from me the names of Sivi’s sons (28). He had
four sons who were famous in the three worlds for their heroism. They
were Drishadarbha, Saviria, Kaikaya and Madrapā (29). Their prosperous
cities passed by the names of Kaikeya, Madrapa and others. Vrishadarbha
and others were all very heroic. Hear now the names of the sons of
Titikshu (30). O scion of the Bharata race, Titikshu’s son Ushadratha
was the king of the eastern division. His son was Phena whose son was
Sutapa from whom Bali was born. That (demon) king was born as man. He
had a golden quiver (31–32). The king Bali was a great ascetic in the
days of yore. He begat five sons in the world who multiplied his progeny
(33). Of them Anga was born first. Then were born Banga and Sumha. Next
to them were born Pundra and Kalinga. These were the Kshatriya sons of
Bali. Brāhmana descendants of Bali also flourished on this earth. O
descendant of Bharata, being pleased Brahmā confered on him several
boons (34–35). (They were)—the dignity of a great ascetic, a long life
extending over a _Kalpa_, invincibleness in a battle, leadership of a
religious order, the vision of three worlds, supremacy in issuing
commands, an insight into the subtleties of religion and matchlessness
in strength (36–37). The king Bali was then addressed by Brahmā saying
"You will always be a defender of the four castes in this world."
Thereat he attained to a great equanimity of mind (38). (Bali led a life
of celibacy) and accordingly the highly powerful and leading ascetic
Dirghatamā begat on his wife Sudeshnā all those _Kshetraja_ sons—the
foremost of Munis (39). Having installed his five sinless sons on the
throne Bali thought himself blessed. Thereupon practising Yoga that
great ascetic, irrepressible unto all, began to wait for time. After a
long time, O king, he returned to his own region (40–41). His sons had
five provinces, namely Anga, Banga, Sumha, Kalinga and Pundraka. Hear
now of the sons of Anga (42). The great emperor Dadhivāhana was Anga’s
son. His son was the king Diviratha (43). His son was the learned king
Dharmaratha equal to Indra in prowess. His son was Chitraratha (44).
Having celebrated a Yajna on the mount Vishnupada the high-souled
Chitraratha drank Soma juice with the king of gods (45). Chitraratha’s
son was Dasharatha who passed by the name of Lomapada whose daughter was
Shantā (46). By Rishyasringa’s favour he got a highly illustrious and
heroic son by name Chaturanga who perpetuated his race (47).
Chaturanga’s son passed by the name of Prithulāksha whose son was the
highly illustrious king Champa (48). Champa’s capital was Champā which
formerly passed by the name of Mālini. By the favour of the ascetic
Purnabhadra Haryanga was born as his son (49). Thereupon Vibhāndaka’s
son, the ascetic Rishyasringa, brought down, by virtue of incantation,
Indra’s elephant Airāvata to carry him in this world (50). Haryanga’s
son was the king Bhadraratha whose son was the king Vrihadkarmā (51).
His son was Vrihadarbha from whom was born Vrihan manā, who begat the
heroic king Jayadratha whose son was Dridaratha. O Janamejaya,
Dridaratha’s son was Viswajita (52-53). His son was Karna whose son was
Vikarna. He had a hundred sons who multiplied the race of Anga.
Vrihadarbha’s son Vrihanmanā had two wives in the two beautiful
daughters of Chaidya. They were Yashodevi and Satvi who divided the
family (54–55). O king, Jayadratha was born of Yashodevi. And from Satvi
was born the celebrated king Vijaya, who (by his equanimity of mind and
other qualities) was superior to the Brāhmanas and (by heroism and other
accomplishments was superior to) the Kshatriyas (56). Vijaya’s son was
Dhriti whose son was Dhritavrata. His son was the highly illustrious
Satyakarma (57). His son was the mighty car-warrior Suta who adopted
Karna as his son. It is therefore Karna was called the son of a
charioteer (58). The family of the highly powerful Karna has thus been
described. Karna’s son was Vrishasena whose son was Vrisha (59). I have
thus described to you the truthful and noble kings of the Anga family
who had all many sons and were mighty car-warriors (60). O king, hear
now of the family of Roudrāswa’s son Richeyu in which you have been born


Vaishampayana said:—The invincible king Richeyu had none to equal him.
His wife was Ivalanā, the daughter of Takshaka (1). That saintly queen
gave birth to the saintly emperor Matināra. He had three highly pious
sons (2). Of them the first was Tangsu, the second Pratiratha and the
youngest was Suvāhu. He had another well-known daughter by name Gouri
who was the mother of Māndhāta (3). They were all well-read in the
Vedas, conversant with the knowledge of Brahman, truthful, well-versed
in the use of arms, powerful and skillful in war-fare (4). O king,
Pratiratha’s son was Kanwa whose son was Medhātithi. From him the
twice-born ones derived the family of Kānyāyana (5). O Janamejaya, he
had a daughter by name Ilini. Tangsu, far more powerful than even the
Brahmavādins, espoused her (6). His son was the royal saint Surodha, who
propagated religion, was Brahmavādhin, powerful and heroic. His wife was
Upadānavi (7). She had four warrior sons. They were Dushmanta,
Sushvanta, Pravira and Anagha (8). The heroic Bharata was Dushmanta’s
son. (In his boyhood) he passed by the name of Sarvadamana, was
high-souled and gifted with the strength of ten million elephants (9).
Noble Dushmanta begat on Sakuntalā a son by name Bharata who became Lord
Paramount. From him you have all derived the name of Bhāratas (10). A
voice from heaven spoke to the king Dushmanta. "The mother is only a
leathern case. The son belongs to the father. He takes after him by whom
he is begotten (11). O Dushmanta, take care of your son and do not
disregard Sakuntalā. O king, a son, born of a portion of the father,
releases him from the abode of Death (12). Through you she has
conceived. Sakuntalā has spoken the truth." As described by me before
when the sons of the king Bharata were all destroyed by the anger of
their mother, the great ascetic Bharadwaja, the son of Angira’s son
Vrihaspati, was chosen as a son of Bharata by Marutas, the presiding
deities of Yajnas (13–14). This instance, of the Marutas assigning this
duty to the intelligent Bharadwāja on behalf of Bharata, is often cited
(15). Bharadwāja honored the Marutas with sacrifices. When the power of
procreating sons was withdrawn from Bharata, Bharadwāja begat a son
whose name was Vitatha. When his grandson Vitatha was born Bharata
repaired to heaven (16-17).

Thereupon placing Vitatha on the throne Bharadwāja retired into woods.
He again begat five sons-Suhotra, Suhota, Gaya, Garga and the
high-souled Kapila. Suhotra had two sons (18–19), the highly powerful
Kāshika and the king Gritsamati. The latter had sons amongst the
Brāhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas (20). Kāshika’s sons were Kāsheya and
Dirghatapā; by the latter the learned Dhanwantari was begotten (21).
Dhanwantari’s son passed by the name of Ketumān. His son was the heroic
king Bhimaratha. His son was the celebrated king of Bārānashi by name
Divodāsa who slew all the Rākshasas (22–23). At this time, O king, a
Rākshasa, by name Kshemaka, depopulated the city of Bārānashi for the
high-souled and intelligent Nikumbha imprecated a curse against that
city saying that it would be without any inhabitants for one thousand
years. As soon as this curse was pronounced against the city of
Barānāshi the king Divodāsa laid a most beautiful city on the bank of
Gomati (24–25). Formerly the city of Bārānashi was in the possession of
the ascetic king Bhadrasenya born in the race of Yadu. Having slain his
hundred sons who were all excellent bowmen the king Divodāsa laid out
his kingdom there (26-27). The heroic king Pratardanna was Divodāsa’s
son. He had two sons, Vatsa and Bharga (28). Vatsa’s son was Alarka from
whom Sannatimān was born. Bhadrasenya’s son, the high-souled Durdama was
adopted by Haihaya as his son. He regained his ancestral kingdom that
was forcibly invaded by Divodāsa. He was out of mercy spared by
Divodāsa, who thought him a mere child (28–30). The king Ashtaratha was
the son of Bhimaratha. By putting an end to hostilities that Kshatriya
killed all the little boys of (Durdama). Alarka, the king of Kāshi, was
truthful and looked after the well-being of the Brāhmanas (31–32). That
youthful and beautiful king ruled over his kingdom for sixty thousand
and sixty hundred years (35). The king of Kāshi was endued both with
beauty and youth. By Lopamudrā’s favour he acquired a long life (34).
After the termination of the curse that mighty-armed king slew the
Rākshasa Kshemaka and laid out again the charming city at Bārānashi
(35). The king Sunitha was Alarka’s son. The highly illustrious Kshemya
was Sunitha’s son (36). Kshemya’s son was Ketumān whose son was
Varshaketu; the latter’s son was the king Bibhu (37). Bibhu’s son was
Anartha from whom was born Sukumāra. His son was the mighty car-warrior,
the highly energetic and pious king Satyaketu. From Vatsa his province
was called Vatsa and from Bhārgava his province was name Bhārga. These
were all born as the sons of Angiras in the Bhārgava race. O foremost of
Bhāratas, they were Brāhamanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas (38–40).

Suhotra’s son was Vrihat who had three sons, Ajamida, Dwimida and the
energetic Purumida. Ajamida had three beautiful wives namely Nilini,
Keshinā and the beautiful damsel Bhumini (41–42). Ajamida begat the
powerful Janhu on Keshni. He undertook the celebration of the great
sacrifice Sarvamedha. Gangā solicited him to become her husband. But on
his refusing to accept her proposals she flooded his sacrificial ground
(43–44), O foremost of Bharatas, beholding his sacrificial ground thus
flooded by Gangā, Janhu, the slayer of enemies, grew enraged and said to
her:—"O Gangā, I shall exhaust all your waters in the three worlds, by
drinking them. You will pay then dearly for your arrogance" (45–46).

Beholding Gangā then drunk up by Janhu the high-souled Rishis made her
his daughter by the name of Jānhavi (47). Janhu espoused Yuvanāshwa’s
daughter Kāveri. By imprecating a curse on her, Gangā afterwards
converted one-half of her body into a river (48). Janhu’s favourite son
was the emperor Balākāshwa (49). He was very fond of hunting. His son
was Kushika who grew up with the _Panhavas_ in the forest (50). Kushika
carried on hard austerities with the desire that he would obtain as
powerful a son as Indra. Therefore Sakra, out of fear, took his birth as
his son (51). Maghavān, born of his own accord in the race of Kushika,
passed by the name of king Gādhi. His sons were Vishwāmitra,
Vishwaratha, Viswajit and Viswakrit. O king, their youngest daughter was
Satyavati. Richika begat Jamadagni on her (52–53). Vishwamitra’s sons
Devarāta and others are celebrated over the three worlds. Hear their
names from me (54). Devashrava’s son was Kati from whom the Kātyayanas
received their name. Hiranyāksha was begotten on Shālāvatt and Renumān
on Renu (55). Besides, O king, there were Sangskritya, Galava and
Moudgalya. The families of those high-souled Koushikas are still
well-known (56). The Panis, Babhrus, Dhyanajāpyas, the king Devarāta and
others, Satangkayana, Soushrava, Louhitya, Yāmadulā, Karishis and
Sonshrutas were all descendants of Koushika. Besides there are
Saindhavayanas and others. They contract matrimonial alliances amongst
themselves according to the distinction of grades. O emperor, the
alliance, between the Brāhmana saints Koushikas and the Pouravas is
known as the intermarriage between the Brāhmanas and Kshatriyas. Amongst
the sons of Viswāmitra Sunasepha was the eldest (57-60). Although born
in the race of Bhrigu, that foremost of Munis attained to the station of
a Koushika. Viswāmitra had other sons too Devarāta and others (61).
Viswāmitra begat a son on Drishadvati by name Ashtaka whose son was
Louha. I have thus described the progeny of Janhu (62).

O foremost of men, hear of the other sons of Ajāmida. He begat Sushanti
on his wife Nilini (63). From Sushanti was born Purujāti from whom again
was Vāhyāshwa. The latter had five sons resembling the immortals (64).
They were Mudgala, the king Srinjaya, Vrihadishu, Yavanira and the
powerful Krimitāshwa (65). We have heard that the five of them were
capable of protecting their country—and they were the lords of the
Panchāla Province consisting of prosperous villages (66). Because the
five of them were capable of protecting their land therefore it is
called Panchala. Mudgala’s sons were the highly illustrious Moudgalyas
(67). They were all noble, twice-born and abided by the duties of
Kshatriyas. The descendants of Kanwa and Mudgala took the side of
Angiras (68). Mudgala’s eldest son was the highly illustrious Brāhmana
saint Indrasena from whom was born Badhyashwa (69). He begat twins on
Menakā; such we have heard. One of them was the royal saint Livodāsa and
the other was the illustrious Ahalyā (70). Sharadvāna begat on Ahalyā
the foremost of Rishis Shatanada. His son the highly illustrious
Satyadhriti was a master of the science of archery. Seeing a nymph
before him he was possessed by desire, the out-come of which was a twin.
Going out a-hunting the king Shāntanu, out of mercy, took them up.
Accordingly the son was named Kripa and the daughter Kripi, they are
called Shāradwatas and known as Goutamas (71–74).

I shall now describe the progeny of Divodāsa. The saintly king Mitreyu
was Divodāsa’s son (75). From him branched off the Matrayani line and
after him were named the Matreyas. These descendants of Bhrigu took the
side of Kshetropota (76). The high-souled Srinjaya had a son by name
Panchajana, whose son was the king Somadatta. His son was the highly
illustrious Sahadwa whose son was the king Somaka (77–78). When the
family was verging on extinction Somaka was again born of the twins of
Ajamida. His son was Jantu who had a hundred sons (79). Of them the
youngest was Prishata who was Drupada’s father. Drupada’s son was
Dhaistadyumna whose son was Dhristaketu (80). These high-souled Somakās
are known as Ajamidas. And the sons of the high-souled Ajamida became
known by the name of Somakas (81).

O king, the mother of your fore-fathers, Dhumini, desirous of having
sons, was the third queen of Ajamida (82). That lady, ever observant of
vows, practised, for having a son, hard austerities which it is
difficult for women to perform, extending over a million of years (83).
O Janamejaya, living on pure and restricted fare, offering duly oblation
to fire she used to lie down on Kusa grass intended for fire-worship.
Ajamida knew the lady Dhumini and she gave birth to a smoky coloured
beautiful son by name Riksha. From him was born Samvarana who again
begat Kuru, who passing by Prayaga, laid out the city of Kurukshetra
(84–85). After that high-minded king had carried on penances for many
thousand years and cultivated that holy and charming province resorted
to by the pious, Sakra conferred on him a boon. His family was highly
great from whom the Kouravas received their appellation (86–87). Kuru
had four sons, namely, Sudhanwa, Sudhana, the mighty armed Parikshit and
Pravara at whose name the enemies used to tremble (88). Sudhanwa’s son
was the intelligent Suhotra. His son was Chyavana who was well read in
the Vedas and other scriptures (89). Chyavana’s son was Krityajna.
Celebrating many sacrifices that pious king begat a son equal to Indra
in glory (90). He was Vasu the king of Chedis who could range in the sky
and move about in the air. He begat on Girika seven sons (91). They were
the mighty car-warrior Vrihadratha the king of Magadha, Pratyagraha,
Kusha, who passed by the name of Manivahana, Maruta, Yadu the fish Kāli
and Sattama. Vrihadratha’s son was known by the name of Kushāgra
(92–93). His son was the learned and powerful Brishabha whose son was
the pious Puspavāri. His powerful son passed by the name of king
Satyatulā (94-95). His son was the virtuous souled Urja whose son was
Sambhava. A powerful son was born to Sambhava in two portions which were
sewed up by Jarā. And this son was accordingly named Jarāsandha (96-97).
That highly powerful Jarāsandha defeated all the Kshatriyas. His son was
the powerful Sahadeva (98). His son was the beautiful and highly
illustrious Udayu who begat a highly pious son (99). His name was
Srutadharmā who lived in the country of Magadha. Parikshita’s son was
the pious Janamejaya (100). He had three sons who were all mighty
car-warriors; they were Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena (101). They
were all highly prosperous, powerful and brave. Besides these three sons
Janamejaya begat on Manimati another two who were named Suratha and
Matimān (102). Suratha’s son was the powerful Viduratha whose son was
the mighty car-warrior Riksha (103). Though he was the second Riksha he
was illustrious like the first. O king, in your family were born two
Rikshas, two Parikshits, three Bhimasenas and two Janamejayas. Riksha
the second had a son by name Bhimasena whose son was Pratipa. His sons
were Shāntanu, Devapi and Vālhika who were all mighty car-warriors

O king, the family, in which you have been born, is Shāntanu’s family. O
king, Valhika had seven kingdoms (107). Valhika’s son was the highly
illustrious Somadatta whose sons were Bhuri, Bhurishrava and Shala
(108). The ascetic Devapi was the priest of the gods. He was the
favourite son of the high-souled Chyavana (109). The king Shāntanu was
the foremost of the Kuru kings. The family in which, O great king, you
have been born as Shāntanu’s race (110). He begat on Gangā a son by name
Devavrata. He was celebrated by the name of Bhishma the grand-father of
the Pāndavas (111). Kāli (Satyavati) gave birth to Vichitravirya who was
the most favourite, virtuous-souled and sinless son of Shāntanu (112).
Krishnadwaipāyana begat on Vichitravirya’s wife Dhritarāstra, Pāndu and
Vidura. Dhritarastra begat on Gāndhāri a hundred sons, of whom
Duryodhana was the eldest and became king (113-114). Pandu’s son was
Dhananjaya whose son was Abhimanyu who was given birth to by Subhadrā. O
king, your father Parikshit is Abhimanyu’s son (115). O king, such is
the account of the Puru race in which you have been born. I shall
presently describe the families of Turvasu, Drahyu, Puru and Yadu (116).
Turvasu’s son was Vanhi, whose son was Gobhānu, whose son was the
irrepressible king Traisānu. His son was Karandhama whose son was
Marutha. I have mentioned before the name of another Marutta who was the
son of Avikshit. This king Marutta had no issue and accordingly he
celebrated many Yajnas accompanied with profuse presents. O king, he had
a daughter by name Sarmatā. He made a gift of her to the high-souled
Samvarta. Afterwards he obtained the sinless Puru king Dushmanta as his
son (117-120).

O foremost of kings, thus on account of Yayāti’s curse and of his
transferring of his decrepitude Turvasu’s line became identified with
that of Kurus. Dushmanta’s son was the king Karuthāma whose son was
Akrida. He (again) had four sons whose names were Pāndya, Kerala, Kola
and Chola. Their prosperous territories were respectively named Pāndya,
Chola and Kerala. O king, Drahyu’s sons were Babhru and Setu. Setu’s son
was Angāra who was also known as lord of Maruts. That powerful king was
slain, with difficulty, by Youvānāshwa in battle. He fought with him a
dreadful combat for fourteen months (121-125). The king Gāndhāra was
Angāra’s son, after whose name the celebrated Gāndhāra kingdom still
passes. The horses of that province are the best of their kind. Anu’s
son was Dharma whose son was Ghrita. Ghrita begat Duduha whose son was
Prachetā. Suchetā was Prachetā’s son. I have thus described the family
of Anu. Hear, I shall now describe at length the most excellent and
powerful family of the eldest Yadu (126-129).


Vaishampayana said:—Yadu had five sons equal unto the sons of the
celestials. They were Sahasrada, Payoda, Kroshta, Neela and Anjika. O
king, Sahasrada had three highly pious sons–Haihaya, Haya and Venuhaya.
Haihaya’s son was celebrated by the name of Dharmanetra. His son was
Kārta whose son was Sāhanja (1–3). That king founded a city named
Sāhanjani. The king Mahishmān was his son. By him the city of Mahishmati
was founded. The powerful Bhadrasenya was Mahishmān’s son. As recount ed
by me before he was the ruler of Bārānashi. Bhadrasenya’s son was
Durdama (4–6). Durdama’s son was Kanka who was very intelligent. Kanka
had four sons well-known in the world, namely Kritavirya, Kritoujā,
Kritavarmā and Kritāgni. From Kritavirya, Arjuna was born who had a
thousand arms and became the emperor of the seven insular continents. He
alone, in his car effulgent like the sun, conquered the world (7–9).
Having carried on hard austerities for a million of years that royal son
of Kritavirya succeeded in pleasing Atri’s son Datta who conferred on
him four very powerful boons. The first of these, was that he would get
one thousand arms (10–11). The second was that the sages would prevent
him from imbibing irreligious thoughts. The third was that having
conquered the world with fierce Kshatriya energies he would please his
subjects duly. The fourth was that when he would gain many battles and
destroy thousands of enemies he would be killed in battle by a highly
powerful man (12–13). O king, when that ascetic king engaged in a
battle, he, by virtue of asceticism and illusory energy, acquired
thousand arms. By his dreadful prowess he conquered the earth consisting
of seven insular continents, many mountains and oceans. O Janamejaya, we
have heard that king duly celebrated seven hundred Yajnas in the seven
insular continents (14–16). O large-armed one, in those _Yajnas_
thousands of presents were given away. In those _Yajnas_ golden
sacrificial posts and altars were set up. They were all adorned with
gods in celestial cars, with Gandharvas and Apsarās. In his Yajnas, the
Gandharvas and Nārada sang hymns. Seeing his glory Baridasa was struck
with wonder (17-19).

Narada said:—None, among the kings, will attain to the dignity of
Kārtavirya by celebrating Yajnas, making presents, by his prowess and
knowledge of scriptures (20). People saw him ranging in his car
simultaneously, by virtue of his Yoga power, over the seven insular
continents with his armour, sword and bow (21). On account of his
righteously protecting his subjects that great king lost nothing, never
felt any grief nor made a mistake (22). He was the owner of all sorts of
jewels and Lord Paramount. He ruled for eighty-five thousand years (23).
He performed many _Yajnas_ and owned extensive lands. He was like Indra
on account of profuse showers and like Arjuna for his ascetic powers
(24). Like the sun shining with all its thousand rays during the autumn
he shone with his thousand arms with armours on and hardened by the
strokes of his bow-string (25). Having defeated the sons of the Nāga⁵⁸
Karkotaka that highly effulgent king occupied his city, by name
Mahishmati, for the habitation of mankind (26). While sporting in the
water during the rains that lotus-eyed king changed the current of the
ocean with his thousand arms (27). While he sported and bathed in the
water of the river Narmadā engarlanded with her foam she used to
approach him in fear with her thousand waves (28). When he used to
agitate the mighty deep with his thousand arms the great Asuras, living
in the nether region, became inert and silent (29). As the mount
Mandāra, when thrown off by the gods and demons, (agitated) the ocean of
milk so did the king Arjuna, the son of Kritavirya, crush down the waves
of the ocean, shake the fish and other huge acquatic animals, whirl the
foam with air and create whirlpools of water. Awakened by the motion of
the mount Mandāra, terrified by the production of ambrosia and troubled
all on a sudden, the huge Uragas became motionless and humble at the
sight of that terrible man. They trembled before him like plantain
leaves shaken by the evening breeze (30–33). Having vanquished, with his
might, the haughty king of Lanka, Rāvana with his army and made him
senseless with five arrows he bound him with his bow-string, brought him
to the city of Mahishmati and kept him in chains there (34).

Hearing that his son Rāvana had been kept in chains by Arjuna Pulastya
went to him. Then solicited by him Kritavirya’s son Arjuna set free
Pulastya’s son Rāvana (35). The twang of his bow, when drawn by his
thousand arms, was like the clapping of thunder-bolts accompanied by
clouds at the time of the universal dissolution (36). But how great was
the power of Bhrigu’s son (Parashurāma) who sundered in battle the
thousands arms of that king resembling a forest of golden palm trees
(37). Once on a time Chitrabhānu, stricken with thirst, begged of him
(something). Arjuna conferred on Vibhāvasu the seven insular continents.
The fire god (some time after) wished to consume his cities and
villages. With the help of that foremost of men, the great Kārtavirya he
succeeded in destroying the mountains and forests (38–40). The effulgent
Vasishtha, whom Varuna obtained as his son in the days of yore, passed
by another name Apava. The fire-god, together with Kārtavirya burnt down
the charming hermitage of Varuna’s son. He was therefore greatly
terrified. The ascetic Apava, in anger, imprecated a curse on Arjuna,
saying:—"Since O Haihaya, you have not left out my hermitage, another
man will destroy your work so acquired by you with difficulty. The
ascetic, powerful and the mighty-armed Brāhmana, Rāma, the son of
Jamadagni born in the Bhrigu race, will chop off your thousand arms and
slay you (41-43.)"

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, O subduer of enemies, on account of the
imprecation of the ascetic Apava Kritavirya’s son the king Arjuna, under
whose righteous rule even his subjects did not lose anything, met with
his death. O descendant of Kuru, he himself prayed to Datātreya for this
boon (46–47). Amongst the hundred sons of that high-souled one only five
survived him. They were all powerful, heroic, virtuous and intelligent,
and were proficient in the use of weapons. They were Shurasena, Shura,
Dhristokta, Krishna and Jayadhwaja, king of Avanti (48–49). Kārtavirya’s
sons were all powerful, and mighty car-warriors. Jayadhwaja’s son was
the highly powerful Tālajangha. His sons passed by the name of
Tālajanghas. O king, in the race of the high-souled Haihayas, Vitihotra,
Sujāta, Bhoja, Avanti, the powerful Toundika, and several others were
known by the name of Tālajanghas (50–52). It is needless to describe the
descendants of Bharata and Sujāta. The pious Vrisha and others, O king,
were born in the Yadu race (53). Vrisha was the head of the family and
his son was Madhu. He had a hundred sons of whom Vrishana perpetuated
the race. From Vrishana were born the Vrishnis, from Madhu the Mādhavas
and from Yadu the Yadavas. These were the various branches of the
Haihaya family (51–55). Shura, Shurasena and Shuravira passed by the
name of Haihayas. The country, of those high-souled ones, was celebrated
by the name of Shurasena. He, who in this world, recounts daily the
birth of Kritavirya’s son, Arjuna, does not lose his property. And even
if he loses it he acquires it again (56–57).

O king, thus I have described the families of the five heroic sons of
Yayāti, celebrated in the world. They are like the five elements
preserving the mobile and immobile creation (58). A king, well read in
the Vedas and other religious scriptures, becomes the master of five
senses and god-like and obtains the five boons which it is difficult to
get in this world, if he listens to the various creations of those five
kings. By listening to an account of the families of these five kings
Ayu acquired renown, riches, sons, power and prosperity (59–60).

Hear, O king, now of the most excellent and powerful family of the pious
Krousthu, the head of the Yadu family who performed Yajnas. In his
family the lord of the Vrishni race, Vishu was born as Krishna. By
hearing of an account of Krousthu’s family a man is freed from all his
sins (61–63.)

   ⁵⁸ The Nagas were evidently an aboriginal race amongst whom many
      powerful kings flourished.


Vaishampayana said:–Krousthu had two wives Gāndhri and Madri; of them
Gāndhari gave birth to the highly powerful Anamitra and Mādri to
Yudhājit and Devamidusha. There came into being three offshoots of the
Vrishni race, (1-2). Mādri’s son begat two sons Vrishni and Andhaka.
Vrishni’s sons were Shaphalka and Chitraka (3). Wherever, O king, the
virtuous souled Shaphalka lived there existed no fear of disease or of
draught (4). O foremost Bharatas, once on a time Indra, the god of rain,
poured no showers in the territories of the king of Kāshi for three
years (5). The king accordingly brought the reverend Shaphalka to his
kingdom. In consequence of his living there Indra showered rain (6).
Shaphalka obtained as his wife Gāndini the daughter of the king of
Kāshi. She every day used to distribute kine amongst the Brāhmanas (7).
She lived in her mother’s womb for many years. For her living in her
mother’s womb for many years, her father said to her:—"Be born very
soon. May you farewell, why do you live there?" The daughter from the
womb replied "I shall daily give away a cow. If you agree to this I
shall take my birth." The father, saying "So be it," satisfied the
wishes of his daughter (8-10). Shaphalka begat on Gāndini the heroic and
liberal Akrura, who was well read in Shastras, celebrated many Yajnas,
gave away many presents and was fond of guests (11). Upāsanja, Shadgu,
Mridara, Arimejaya, Arikshipta, Upeksha, Shatrughna, Arimarddana,
Dharmadhrik, Yatidharmā, Gidhramoja, Andhaka, Avāhu, and Prativahu were
Akrura’s brothers. And the beautiful Sundari was his sister (12–13).

O descendant of Kuru, Akrura begat on Sugātri the daughter of Ugrasena,
Prasena and Upadeva powerful like the celestials (14) Prithu, Viprithu,
Ashwagriva, Ashwavāhu, Supārshwaka, Gaveshi, Aristhanemi, Ashwa,
Sudharmā, Dharmavrit, Suvāhu and Vahuvāhu were the sons of Akrura’s
brother Chitraka. He had also two daughters by name Shravishtā and
Sravanā. Kroushthu’s third son Devamidusha begat on Ashmaki a son by
name Shura. He begat ten sons on his Bhoja queen (15–17). Amongst them
the mighty armed Vasudeva, surnamed Anākadunduvi was born first. At the
time of his birth bugles were sounded in heaven and the great sound of
kettle-drums arose on earth. A great shower of flowers took place at the
house of Shura. Vasudeva’s beauty was matchless in the world of men.
That foremost of men was beautiful like the moon (18–20). Then were born
in order Devabhāga, Devashravā, Anādrishti, Kanavaka, Vatsavān,
Grinjima, Shyāma, Shamika and Gandusha. These were the ten sons of
Shura. Besides he had five beautiful daughters, namely Prithukirti,
Prithu, Shrātadevā, Shrutashravā and Rājādhidevi. Every one of them gave
birth to heroic sons. O descendant of Kuru, the king Kunti wanted Prithā
(21–23). Therefore Shura conferred her on the aged and worshipful
Kuntibhoja. On her thus being adopted by Kuntibhoja she passed by the
name of Kunti (24). Anta begat Jagrehu on Shrutadeva. The king of Chedi
begat on Shrutashrava the highly powerful Shishupala (25). He was in his
previous birth the Daitya king Hiranyakashipu. Vriddhasharmā begat on
Prithukirti the highly powerful hero Dantavakra the king of Karusha.
Kuntibhoja adopted Prithā as his daughter. Pāndu married her (26–27).
Dharma begat on her the pious Yudhishthira, Vāyu (Wind-god) begat
Bhimasena and Indra the foremost of heroes Dhananjaya,⁵⁹ equally
powerful like him and celebrated in the world. From Anamitra, the
youngest of Vrishni’s sons was born Shini (28–29). His son was Satyaka
whose sons were Yuyudhāna and Sātyaki. Yuyudhāna’s son was Asanga whose
son was Bhumi. His son was Yugandhara with whom the family ended. The
great Uddhava was Devabhāga’s son. He was known as the foremost of the
learned and was illustrious like a celestial (30–31). Anadhrishthi begat
on his wife Ashmaki an illustrious son by name Nivartashatru. Devashravā
begat a son by name Shatrughna (32). Devashravā’s son Ekalavya was
brought up by Nishādas⁶⁰ and was accordingly called Naishādi (33).
Vatsavān had no issue and therefore Shura’s son the powerful Vasudeva
gave him his own be gotten heroic son Koushika (34). Gandusha too had no
issue and therefore Vishwaksena gave him his four sons namely
Chārudeshna, Suchāru, Pānchāla and Kritalakshmana (35). The heroic
(Chārudeshna) never used to come back from a battle without fighting. O
foremost of men, the large-armed Roukshmineya was the youngest of all
(36). Whenever he used to travel thousands of crows followed him with
the hope "We shall feed upon the sweet meat of various animals slain by
Chārudeshna" (37). Kanavaka had two sons Tantrija and Tantripāla.
Avagrinjima had two sons Vira and Ashwahanu. Both of them were heroes.
Shyāma’s sons were Sumitra and Shamika. The latter obtained the kingdom.
He considered himself unworthy for being the king of one province and
accordingly undertook the celebration of a Rājashuya⁶¹ sacrifice
(38–39). Having secured the help of Yudhishthira who had no enemies he
slew all his foes. Hear, I shall now describe the descendants of
Vasudeva (40). He who meditates on this very powerful threefold Vrishni
race consisting of many branches is never visited by any misfortune in
this world (41).

   ⁵⁹ Another name of Arjuna. He was named so because he defeated the
      god of riches, Kuvera.

   ⁶⁰ A low caste people.

   ⁶¹ It is a religious ceremony which only an Emperor can perform when
      he becomes Lord Paramount after subjugating all the Powers. The
      king Shamika was not satisfied with his being the king of one
      Province only.


Vaishampayana said:—Of the fourteen beautiful wives of Vasudeva, Rohini,
of Puru’s race, was the first Madirā, the second, Vaishākhi the third,
Bhadrā the fourth, Sunāmā the fifth, Sahadevā the sixth, Devaki the
seventh, Shāntidevā the eighth, Shridevā the ninth, Devarakshita the
tenth, Vrikadevi the eleventh, Upadevi the twelfth, Sutanu the
thirteenth, and Badarvā the fourteenth. The last two were his female
attendants (1–3). Rohini, of Puru’s race, was the daughter of Vālhika. O
king, she was the first and most beloved wife of Anākadundhuvi (4).
Vasudeva begat on Rohini his eldest son Rāina, Shārana, Shatha,
Durdhama, Damana, Swabhra, Pindāraka, Ushinara, and a daughter by name
Chitrā. O descendant of Kuru, it was Chitrā who passed by the name of
Subhadrā (5–6). Vasudeva begat on Devaki the highly illustrious
Shouri.⁶² Rāma begat on Revati his beloved son Nishatha. Arjuna begat on
Subhadrā the mighty car-warrior Abhimanyu. Akrura begat Satyaketu on the
daughter of the king of Kāshi (7-8). Hear, now, of the heroic sons whom
Vasudeva begat on his seven noble wives (9). Bhoja and Viyaya were the
sons of Shāntideva. Vrika deva and Gada were the sons of Sunāmā (10).
Devarakshitā obtained Upāsangavara as his son. Vrikadevi, the daughter
of the Trigarta king, gave birth to the high-souled Agāvaha. His priest
Shaishirāyana once grew desirous of testing the manhood (of his
brother-in-law Gārgya, the priest of the Yādavas) (11–12). On account of
a false charge being laid home to him⁶³ Gārgya was filled with anger and
remained like black iron for twelve years (13). He then began to live
with a cow-herd’s daughter. A nymph, by name Gopāli, came to him in this
guise (14). By the command of Shulapāni⁶⁴ Gārgya, made his human wife
conceive, the embryo whereof was irrepresible and never to die (15). She
gave birth to a highly powerful king by name Kālayavana. Horses, having
their heads like those of bulls, used to carry him in battle (16). O
king that child grew up in the city of the king of Yavanas⁶⁵ who had no
issue. And accordingly he was named Kālayavana (17). Growing desirous of
entering into a battle that king questioned the twice born ones. Thereat
the omniscient Nārada asked him to fight with the members of Vrishni and
Andhaka families (18). Thereupon starting for Mathurā with one
Akshouhini⁶⁶ of soldiers Kālayavana sent his messenger to the house of
Vrishnis and Andhakas (19). Thereupon being united the Vrishnis and
Andhakas, making the highly intelligent Krishna their president, held a
conference in fear of Kālayavana (20). Then honoring Pinaki⁶⁷ thev
resolved upon flying away from the charming city of Mathurā and thought
of settling down in Kushasthali Dwarkā.⁶⁸ He, who being pure and
self-controlled, listens to the story of Krishna’s birth, becomes
learned, happy and freed from debts (21–22).

   ⁶² A name of Krishna.

   ⁶³ The sentences are very elliptical. The purport is, Saishirayana
      put his brother-in-law Gargya to test and found him
      self-controlled. He however put a wrong construction on this fact
      and thought that he had no manhood in him. This enraged Gargya
      very much whose anger was pacified after twelve years.

   ⁶⁴ A name of Siva. The word literally means one who has a mace in his

   ⁶⁵ A class of non-Aryans. The nymph Gopali, after giving birth to
      that son, left the king.

   ⁶⁶ A complete army consisting of 1,09,350 foot, 65,610 horses, 21,870
      chariots, and 21,870 elephants.

   ⁶⁷ A name of Siva. Literally it means the _holder of Pinaka_, a
      trident or three-pronged spear.

   ⁶⁸ Dwarka situated in the country of Kanyakuhia or Kanoui.


Vaishampayana said:—The highly illustrious Vrijinivān was Kroushthu’s
son. His son was Swāji the foremost of those celebrating Yajnas (1).
Swāhu’s son was the king Ushadgu the foremost of speakers. Desiring to
have a most excellent son he propitiated the celestials with various
grand sacrifices accompanied with profuse presents. By performing
various religious ceremonies he obtained a son by name Chitraratha
(2–3). His son was the royal saint Sashavindu who was a hero, performed
Yajnas duly and gave away profuse presents (4) The highly illustrious
king Prithushravā was Sashavindu’s son. Sages, well-read in Purānas,
designate Prithushravā’s son as Antara. His son was Suyajna whose son
was Ushata. He was the foremost of all men desirous of celebrating
sacrifices according to the prescribed modes of their respective orders
(5–6). Shineyu, the repressor of his enemies, was Ushata’s son. The
royal saint Marutta was Shineyu’s son (7). Marutta obtained
Kamvalavarhisha as his eldest son. He, in anger, performed various
religious ceremonies securing excellent fruits in the next world (8).
Kamvalavarhisha obtained Sutaprasuti as his son who again begat a son by
name Rukshmakāvācha (9). Having slain in battle a very clever warrior
wearing a hundred coats of mail with sharpened arrows Sutaprasuti
attained to most excellent prosperity (10). From Rukshmakavacha was born
Parājit the slayer of hostile heroes. Parājit begat five highly powerful
sons, namely Rukshmeshu, Prithurukshma, Jyāmogha, Pālita and Hari. Their
father gave away Pālita and Hari to the king of Videha (11-12).
Rukshameshu became the king assisted by Prithurukshma. Having been
exiled by them both from the kingdom, Jyāmogha lived in a hermitage
(13). Living in the forest and acquiring equanimity of mind he was
instructed by the Brāhmanas.

Thereupon ascending his car that car-warrior conquered foreign countries
and then lived alone in the city of Mirthikavati situate on the bank of
Nerbuda. Then conquering the mount Rikshavatam he lived in the city of
Shuktimati (14–15). Jyāmogha’s wife Shaivyā was very strong and chaste.
The king, although he had no issue, did not espouse any other wife (16).
He became victorious in a certain battle and obtained a daughter there.
Then the king, in a great hurry, said to his wife "She will be your
daughter-in law." Hearing this the queen said "Whose daughter-in-law
will she be?" Thereat Jyamogha, the foremost of kings, said "This
Upadānavi will be the wife of a son that will be born to you." On
account of the hard austerities of that girl that fortunate Shaivyā, in
her advanced years, gave birth to a son by name Vidarbha (17-19).
Vidarbha begat on that girl two heroic and learned sons well-acquainted
with the various modes of warfare by name Kratha and Kaishika (20). His
third son Lomapāda was highly pious. His son was Vabhru whose son was
Ahvriti. His son Kaishika was learned and highly pious. His son was
Chedi after whose name pass the kings of the Chaidya race (21-22).
Vidarbha’s son was Bhima whose son was Kunti. He begat two sons, namely,
Dhrishta and the powerful Anadhristha. Dhrishtha had three highly pious
and heroic sons, namely, Avanta, Dhshārha and the powerful Vishahara.
Dashārha’s son was Vyomā from whom was born Jeemuta (23–24). His son was
Vrehati whose son again was Bhimaratha. And his son was Navaratha (25).
His son was Dasharatha whose son was Shakuni. From the latter was born
Karambha. The king Devarāta was Karambha’s son. His son was Devakshatra.
The highly illustrious, god-like and sweet-speeched king Madhu, the
glory of his race, was Devakshatra’s son. Madhu begat on his wife
Vaidarbhi a son by name Maruvasa (26–28). Purudvāna, the foremost of
men, was Maruvasa’s son. O foremost of Kurus, he begat on his
Bhadravati, born in the race of Vaidarbhas, a son by name Madhu (29).
Madhu married a lady of the Ikshwāku family from whom was born Satvāna.
He was endued with the quality of goodness and enhanced the glory of the
Sātwatas (30). The man, who knows this account of the family of the
high-souled Jyāmogha, gets offspring and highest felicity (31).


Vaishampayana said:—O king, Sātwata, endued with the quality of
goodness, begat on Koushalyā several sons, namely Bhajina, Bhajamāna,
Divya, Devavridha, the mighty armed Andhaka, and Yadu’s son Vrishni.
Listen to a detailed account of theirs progenitors (1-2). Bhajamāna had
two wives, daughters of Srinjaya, by name Vāhyakā and Upavāhvakā. He had
a number of sons by those two wives. Krami, Kramina, Drishta, Shura and
Puranjava were begotten on Vāhyka. And Ayutajit, Sahasrājit, Shatajit,
and Dāsaka were begotten on Srinjaya’s daughter Upavāhvakā by Bhajamana
(3-5). Resolving "I must have a son endued with all accomplishments" the
king Devavridha, the performer of Yajnas, carried on hard austerities
(6). Controlling his mind he used to bathe in the water of the river
Parnāshā and rinse his mouth there with. On account of his constant
touch, the river accomplished what he liked (7). Thinking alone, that
foremost of rivers Parnāshā resolved upon doing some good by that king.
Meditating thus she could not set his eye upon a woman capable of giving
birth to such an accomplished son. She accordingly made up her mind to
become herself the wife of that king (8–9). Thereupon becoming a maiden
and assuming a most handsome form she selected that king as her husband.
He too liked her (10). She then conceived through that liberal-minded
king. In the tenth month, she, from king Devāvridha, gave birth to a
highly accomplished son by name Vabhru. In this family while describing
the accomplishments of the noble Devāvridha the sages, well-read in the
Puranas, used to say:—Before us, at a distance from us and near us we
behold the king Devavridha range assuming various forms by virtue of his
illusive energy (11-13). Vabhru was the foremost of men, and Devāvridha
was equal unto the celestials. Being slain in battle by Devāvridha and
Vabhru four hundred and sixty two thousand men attained to the region of
Brahma. Vabhru celebrated many Yajnas, made away gifts, was learned and
conversant with the knowledge of Brahman. His weapon was very strong.
Besides he was of glorious deeds, highly effulgent and the foremost of
Sātwatas. His family was extensive and his descendants were Mārtikavata
Bhojas (14–16). From Andhaka Kāshya’s daughter obtained four sons,
namely Kukura, Bhajamāna, Shama and Kamvalavarhisha (17). Kukura’s son
was Dhrishnu and Drishnu’s son was Kapotaroma. His son again was Tittiri
(18). From him was born Punarvasu, whose son was Abhijit who had two
children (19). Both Ahuka (a son) and Ahuki (a daughter) were well-known
and the foremost of all celebrated persons. The following hymn was
chanted in Ahuka’s praise (20). "Encircled by his pure souled
descendants he (was noble and energetic) like a young horse". When that
king first went out on his excursion he was protected by the gods⁶⁹
(21). There was none amongst those who followed this Bhoja king who had
no issue, who had not made away a hundred presents, who had not a life
extending over a thousand years, who was not of pure deeds and who did
not perform Yajnas (22). At the command of Ahuka ten thousand cars with
ten thousand elephants, having yokes, pieces of wood at their bottom,
flags attached to them, with sounds like the muttering of clouds and
golden and silver chains, used to proceed to the eastern quarter
(23–24). An equal number of cars and elephants was placed in the
northern quarter. Having brought under subjection all his commanders
Ashuka used to go about with his kinsmen in his car adorned with a
gridle of small bells (25). The Andhakas conferred on Avanti king
Ahuka’s sister Ahuki. Ahuka begat two sons on the daughter of the king
of Kāshi (26). They were Devaka and Ugrasena who were both like the sons
of celestials. Devaka had four god-like sons (27). They were Devavān,
Upadeva, Sudeva, and Devarakshit. He had seven daughters of all whom he
conferred on Vasudeva (28). They were Devaki, Shāntideva, Sridevā,
Devarakshita, Vrikadevi, Upadevi and Sunāmni was the seventh (29).
Ugrasena had nine sons of whom Kangsa was the eldest. Others were
Nyagrodha, Sunāmā, Kanka, Shambhu, Subhamija, Rāshtrapāla, Sudhanu,
Anadhrishti and Pushtiman. They had five sisters, namely, Kāngsā,
Kangsavati, Sutanu, Rāshtrapāli, and the beautiful Kangkā. I have
described the family of Ugrasena, born in the Kuru race (30–31).
Meditating on this highly energetic Kuru race, a man, having offspring,
gets a big family (32).

   ⁶⁹ There is another meaning of this text. He used to go out on a
      conveyance drawn by eighty men. _Ashiti_ means eighty. _Charma_
      means a wooden conveyance and _Yukta_ means seated. The meaning
      that we have adopted is thus made out. _Ashitayas_ means gods,
      _Charma_ leathern protector of arrows; _Yukta_ protected _i.e._ he
      was protected by the gods as arrows are protected by leathern
      cases _i.e._ the gods were like leathern cases to him. Both the
      meanings are equally good. The former gives an idea of his
      splendour. The latter shows that he was in the good grace of the


Vaishampayana said:—Bhajamāna’s son was Viduratha, the foremost of
car-warriors. The heroic Rajādhideva was Viduratha’s son (1).
Rājādhideva had a number of highly powerful sons, namely the powerful
Datta, Atidatta, Shonaswa, Swetavāhana, Shami, Dandasharmā, Dattashatru
and Shatrujit. They had two sisters by name Shravana and Shravishtha
(2–3). Shami’s son was Pratikshtra whose son was Swayamboja and whose
son was Hridika (4). His sons were of dreadful prowess. Of them
Kritavarmā was the eldest and Shatadhanwā was the second (5). The
celestial saint Chyāvana begat for him four sons and two daughters. The
sons were Vishak, Vaitarana, Suvāntā and Adhidānta. The daughters were
Kamadā and Kāmadantika (6). Kamvalavarhisha had a learned son named
Devavān who had three sons namely Asamouja, Veera and Nāsamoujā (7).
Asamouja had no issue and therefore Andhaka conferred on him his three
sons namely Sudangstra, Suvāhu and Krishna (8). These and various others
members of the Andhaka family have been described to you. He, who daily
meditates upon Andhaka family, forsooth gets his family multiplied.
Krousthu had two wives, Gāndhāri and Mādri (9-10). Gandhāri gave birth
to the highly powerful Anamitra and Mādri gave birth to Yudhājit and
Devamidusha (11). Anamitra was ever irrepressible and subduer of his
enemies. His son was Nighna who had two sons Prasena and Satrājit both
of whom were subduers of hostile armies. Living in the city of Dwarkā
Prasena obtained from the ocean the peerless celestial jewel called
_Swyamantaka_. The sun was his friend as valuable as his life (12–14).
Once on a time after the expiration of the night that foremost of
car-warriors, ascending his chariot, went to the bank of the ocean for
bathing and worshipping the sun (15). When he worshipped the god of rays
the invisible lord Vivaswan appeared in effulgence before him (16).
Thereupon the king said to the Lord Vibhakara before him—"O lord of
rays, I see thee although before me in thy same circular effulgent form
as I always behold thee in the sky. Thou hast appeared before me as a
friend but what special favour have I got (17-18)?" Hearing this, the
lord took out from his neck the peerless jewel _Swyamantaka_ and gave it
to him (19). Thereupon the king saw him in his form. Seeing him he was
pleased and conversed with him for a moment (20). While Vivaswān was
about to go away the king again said to him:—"O lord, it behoveth thee
to confer upon me this jewel with which thou dost always light the
worlds" (21). Thereupon Bhāskara gave him the jewel _Swyamantaka_.
Holding it the king entered his own city (22). All the people followed
him thinking that the sun was going. Filling all the citizens with
wonder the king entered the inner appartment (23). The king Satrajit,
with great delight, conferred that peerless celestial jewel
_Swyamantaka_ on his brother Prasena (24). That jewel used to produce
gold in the palace of Vrishnis and Andhakas. (By its power) the god of
rains used to pour shower in due season and there was no fear of disease
(25). Govinda grew desirous of acquiring that peerless jewel
_Swyamantaka_ from Prasena. Although capable he did not take it by force
or pilfer it (26). Once on a time adorned with that jewel Prasena went
out a-hunting. He was, for that _Swyamantaka_, slain by a wild lion
(27). Killing that flying lion a highly powerful bear took that jewel
and entered into his den (28).

Hearing of the death of Prasena, all the members of Vrishni and Andhaka
families entertained suspicions against Krishna, because they knew that
he had a fancy for that jewel (29). Knowing their suspicion and thinking
that he himself was innocent the virtuous-souled Krishna, resolving "I
must bring the jewel" set out for the forest where Prasena went for
hunting. Following his foot-seps along with his followers and ransacking
the mountains Rikshavan and Vindhya the great Krishna was stricken with
fatigue. He then saw Prasena and his horse killed there but did not find
the jewel. He then saw near Prasena the lion killed by the bear. It was
surmised by the footsteps. Following them he searched for the den of the
running bear (30–34). He heard the voice of a female in the huge den of
that bear. A nurse was giving play with that jewel to Jamvavān’s son and
saying "Do not weep" (35).

The nurse said:—"The lion killed Prasena and he has been killed by
Jamvavān. Therefore, O my good boy, do not weep. This Swyamantaka
belongs to you (36)".

Thereupon keeping all the Yadavas with Baladeva at the mouth of the den
and displaying a beautiful form and voice Krishna, with Sharnga bow,
silently entered into it. And having entered there by force the Lord
beheld the bear (37–38), Govinda wrestled with Jāmvavān in that den for
twenty-one days (39). After Krishna had entered the den all the Yādavas,
headed by Baladeva, returned to Dwarkā and announced that he had been
slain (40).

Having vanquished the highly powerful Jāmvavan he married the most
beloved daughter of the king of bears by name Jamvavati and took away
the jewel for clearing himself (of the charge) (41). Then saluting the
king of Rikshas he came out of the den. Enveloped with great beauty, he,
afterwards, returned to the city of Dwarkā (42). Having thus brought the
jewel and cleared himself of the charge he handed over Swyamantaka to
Satrajit in an assembly of the Sātwatas (43). Having thus acquired the
jewel Swyamantaka Krishna, the slayer of enemies, who had been accused
of a false charge, cleared himself of the guilt (44). Satrajit had ten
wives who gave birth to a hundred sons. Of them three were well-known.
Bhangakara was the eldest, the heroic Bātapati was the second, and
Viyatsnāta was the third. O king, he had three daughters well-known in
all the quarters (45–46). They were Satyabhāmā, the most excellent of
women, Bratini, of firm vows and Praswāpini. Sātrajit married them all
with Krishna (47). Bhangakara had two sons, the foremost of men,
Sabhāksha and Nāreya. Both of them were accomplished, and well-known for
their beauty (48). Madri’s son Yudhajit had a son by name Vrishni. He
had two sons, Shaphalkā and Chitraka (49). Shaphalka married the
daughter of the King of Kashi. Her name was Gāndini and her father used
to give away a cow every day(50). She gave birth to the great Akrura who
was fond of guests and performed sacrifices accompanied with profuse
gifts, Upasanja, Mangu, Mridura, Arimejaya, Girikshipa, Upiksha,
Shatruhā, Arimardana, Dharmabhrit, Yatidharmā, Gridhra, Bhoja, Andhaka,
Suvahu and Prativāhu and to a beautiful daughter by name Sundari. That
beautiful girl was the queen of Virutashwa, was endued with beauty and
youth and was charming unto all (51-54). O descendant of Kuru, Akrura
begat on Ugraseni two sons, Sudeva and Upadeva, who were both powerful
like the celestials (55). Chitraka had many sons, namely, Prithu,
Viprithu, Aswagriva, Ashwavāhu, Supārshwa, Gaveshi, Aristhnemi, Aswa,
Sudharmā, Dharmabhrit, Suvāhu and Vahuvāhu and two daughters by name
Shravishthā and Shravanā. He, who reads of this false accusation against
Srikrishna, suffers from no such thing in his life (56–58).


Vaishampayana said:—Akrura had that peerless jewel which Krishna
conferred on Satrājit, stolen by Shatadhanwā (1). Akrura always wished
to have the beautiful Satyabhāmā.⁷⁰ As soon as he got an opportunity he
desired to possess that valuable jewel (2). Thereupon, having slain
Satrājit at the dead of night the highly powerful Shatadhanwā took away
the jewel and made a present of it to Akrura (3). Taking that jewel he
made Shatadhanwā promise that he would never give out that the jewel was
in his (Akrura’s) possession (4). (He said):—"If Krishna attacks you I
shall follow you. Forsooth the whole of Dwarkā is now under my control
(5)." On her father (Satrājit) being slain the illustrious Satyabhāmā,
stricken with grief, got on a chariot and repaired to the city of
Barawāvata (6). She then communicated to her husband what had been
perpetrated by Shatadhanwa of the Bhoja race. Then stricken with grief
and standing by his side she began shedding tears (7). Having performed
the watering ceremony of the Pāndavas burnt in the house of lac⁷¹
Krishna engaged Satwaki to perform their obsequial rites (8).

Thereupon hurrying on to the city of Dwarkā the graceful slayer of
Madhu⁷² said to his elder brother Haladhar⁷³ (9) "Prasena has been
killed by a lion and Satrājit has been slain by Shatadhanwā. Therefore I
am the master of the jewel Sywamantaka (10). Therefore speedily get on
your car, O mighty armed hero. After slaying the highly powerful Bhoja
Swyamataka will be ours (11)". Thereupon there arose a terrible
encounter between Krishna and Shatadhanwā The latter saw Akrura on all
sides (12). Thereupon beholding both Krishna and Shatadhanwā enraged
Akrura, though capable, out of wickedness did not help the son of
Hridika (13). Thereat stricken with fear Shatadhanwā took to his heels.
With one mare he travelled over a distance of more than a hundred
_Yojanas_⁷⁴ (14). O king, Shatadanwa, of the Bhoja race, had a mare that
could go over a distance of a hundred _Yojanas_, by name
_Vijnātāhridayā_. With her he fought with Krishna (15). Having travelled
over a distance of a hundred _Yojanas_ Shatadhanwa found her motionless
and seeing the increased motion of the car he left her off (16).
Thereupon, O descendant of Bharata, on account of the exhaustion and
misery of that mare all his vital breaths went up to the sky. Then
Krishna said to Rāma. (17). "Wait here, O you of large arms. I have seen
the wretched plight of the mare. Going on foot I shall carry away the
jewel Swyamantaka (18)". Thereupon, O king, going on foot, Achyuta
(Krishna), highly skilled in the use of arms, killed Shatadhanwa on the
way to Mithila (19). Having slain the highly powerful Bhoja king he did
not see Swyamantaka. And seeing Krishna return Balarāma said to him
"Give me the jewel" (20).

Krishna said:—"I have not got it." Thereat Rama was filled with anger.
Repeatedly exclaiming "Fie on you, Fie on you," he replied to Janarddana
(21). "I forgive you because you are my brother. May you farewell. I go
away. I have nothing to do with you or other Vrishnis of Dwarkā (22)."
Thereupon Rāma, the subduer of enemies, entered the city of Mithilā. He
was then honored with all becoming presents after his heart by the king
of Mithilā (23). In the interval the most intelligent Vabhru began to
collect various articles for the performance of sacrifices (24). The
highly illustrious son of Gāndini, on account of the jewel Swyamantaka,
entered into the initiation-like coat of mail⁷⁵ for protecting himself
(25). He devoted most excellent jewels and various other articles to the
performance of sacrifices for sixty thousand years (25). That sacrifice,
of the high-souled Akrura consisting of food and various presents, was
called the Akrura Yajna (27). Thereupon repairing to the city of Mithilā
the king Duryodhana received from Balabhadra the most excellent
instructions in the use of clubs (28). Thereupon propitiating Balarāma
all the mighty car warriors of the Vrishni race and the high-souled
Krishna brought him back to the city of Dwarkā (29). Then the foremost
of men Akrura, with Andhakas, left Dwarkā. Slaying the highly powerful
Satrājit in battle with all his friends Krishna, in feat of dissension
amongst his kinsmen, neglected him (Akrura). After the departure of
Akrura Pākashasana⁷⁶ did not pour rain (30–31). When the whole country
was devastated by draught the Kukuras and Andhakas began to propitiate
Akrura (32). When the liberal Akrura returned to Dwarkā the
thousand-eyed Indra began to discharge showers on the bank of the ocean
(33). O foremost of Kurus, in order to please Krishna the intelligent
Akrura gave him in marriage his sister Sushilā (34). Guessing by his
riches and liberality that Swyamantaka was with Akrura, Janarddana said
to him in the midst of an assembly "O lord, the jewel is in thy
possession. Do thou give it to me. O giver of honors; do not cheat me. O
sinless one, the anger, that possessed me sixty years before, is now
enkindled all on a sudden. A long time has elapsed. Give me the Jewel
therefore (35–37)."

Thereupon at the words of Krishna the high-minded Akrura, without
experiencing the least pain, gave him the jewel in the midst of the
assembled Sātwatas (38). Receiving from Akrura the jewel who gave it
away with all simplicity, Hari, the repressor of enemies, returned it to
him with a delighted heart (39). Obtaining the jewel from Krishna’s
hands and placing it on his breast, Akrura shone there like the sun

   ⁷⁰ The sentence is elliptical and requires a little elucidation.
      Akrura had in view of marrying Satyabhama. But when he found that
      she had been given away to Krishna he was mortified. He was then
      seeking for an opportunity of getting the jewel Swyamantaka.

   ⁷¹ This refers to an incident in the Mahabharata. Duryodhana
      treacherously invited the Pandavas to a house of lac constructed
      for that purpose and set fire to it. They, however, being informed
      of it beforehand, escaped. Duryodhana, however, thought that they
      had been consumed and Krishna, to keep up an appearance, was
      performing the obsequial rites. [_See Jatugrihadaha Parva_.]

   ⁷² The word in the text is Madhusudana, a name of Krishna. He was
      called so on account of his killing the demon king Madhu.

   ⁷³ A name of Balarama because he always used to carry a plough-share
      in battle.

   ⁷⁴ A measure of distance equal to four _Kroras_ which at 8,000 cubits
      or 4,000 yards to the _Krora_ or _Kos_ will be exactly nine miles;
      other computations make the _Yojana_ but about five miles, or even
      no more than four miles and a half.—Wilson.

   ⁷⁵ He initiated himself for the performance of sacrifices, for any
      one so doing is a proof against all misfortunes.

   ⁷⁶ A name of Indra, the god of rain. He obtained this appellation
      after slaying a demon by name Paka. The word literally means, "the
      chastiser of Paka."


Janamejaya said:—O Brahman, the sages describe in the Puranas, the
incarnations of Vishnu of unlimited energy We have heard from them that
the Lord incarnated himself as a boar. But we do not know fully his
history, his commands, his deeds, his accomplishments, his objects, his
conduct and prowess when he assumed before (this form) (1–3). We have
heard that Krishna Dwaipāyana⁷⁷ described this great boar-incarnation
before the twice-born ones when they assembled at a sacrifice (4), O
Brahman, I have heard how Madhusudana, incarnating himself as a boar,
saved with his tusks, the earth sunk in the ocean (5). O Brahman, now I
wish to hear at length the various deeds performed by the intelligent
Hari the slayer of enemies in his boar and various other incarnations⁷⁸
(6). You alone are capable of describing in order the various deeds of
the lord and his character, O Brahman (7). Why did the lord Vishnu, the
king of the celestials and the slayer of his enemies, take his birth as
Vāsudeva in Vasudeva’s family (8)? Why did He, leaving the land of gods,
abounding with immortals and pious men, come down on earth (9)? Why did
He, who is the king of gods and men and from whom the earth has
emanated, convert his celestial body into a human form (10). Why did He,
who is alone turning the healthy circle of mankind, and who is the
foremost of the holders of discus, set his heart upon assuming a human
form (11)? Why did the lord Vishnu, who protects all the great men of
the world, come down on earth as a milkman (12)? Why was Shrigarbha⁷⁹
identical with elements, who is the cause of the great elements
conceived by a woman ranging on earth (13)? He, desired by the
celestials, occupied the three worlds with his three foot-steps⁸⁰ and
thus laid down on earth the three roads of three Vargas⁸¹ (14). He, at
the time of the universal dissolution, drank up the earth and assumed
the form of water. He then converted the whole earth into one sheet of
water⁸² (15). He assumed in the days of yore the form of a boar and
saved the earth with his tusks (16). Having vanquished the Asuras on
behalf of Puruhuta⁸³ that foremost of gods conferred upon the celestials
the three worlds in the days of yore (17). Assuming the form of a
man-lion he killed the prime Daitya the highly energetic Hiranyakasipu⁸⁴
(18). Assuming the form of the submarine fire Samvartaka the lord, in
the days of yore, drank the watery oblations of the submarine region
(19). O Brahman, in various thousands of Yugas that Lord appeared with a
thousand heads, a thousand eyes and a thousand feet (20). When the whole
world was converted into one sheet of water, when the entire mobile and
immobile creations were destroyed there sprang from his navel a lotus on
which Brahmā (Grand-father) rested (21). In the encounter with Tāraka,
he, assuming a form consisting of all gods and holding all weapons, slew
the demons (22). Seated on Garuda and assuming a huge proportion he
killed the great demon Kālanemi and vanquished the great Asura Taraka
(23). Being engaged in eternal Yoga and resorting to his illusive energy
he lay on the northern side of the ocean of milk from which came out
ambrosia (24). On account of the consummation of her hard austerities
Aditi conceived that celestial ancient Purusha who was like the churning
rod of the celestials. Coming out of her womb as a dwarf he satisfied
the desire of Indra who had been confined by the demons (25). Placing
his feet in all the worlds he placed all the demons in the water. And
making the gods playful in heaven he conferred upon Indra the kingdom of
gods (26). He laid down the rules of Gārhapatya⁸⁵ and Anwāharya⁸⁶ works,
created the various articles of sacrifice such as Dakshina,⁸⁷ Diksha,⁸⁸
Chamasa⁸⁹ and Ulukhula,⁹⁰ created the fire where oblations could be
offered, made the sacrificial altar, Kusha,⁹¹ Sruva,⁹² Prokshaniya,⁹³
and Dhruva⁹⁴ created the three sorts of ambrosia beneficial to the bath
after the celebration of a sacrifice, made the twice born ones offer
Havya⁹⁵ and Kavya,⁹⁶ and the celestials to partake of the former and the
ancestral manes of the latter. After the lines laid down by Parameshthi
(Brahmā) He, in the days of yore, by various sacrificial _Mantras_,⁹⁷
made divisions of _Yupas_,⁹⁸ _Samidhas_,⁹⁹ _Srukas_,¹⁰⁰ _Soma_,¹⁰¹ the
sacred _Paridhri_,¹⁰² and of various other sacrificial articles, of the
room for placing sacrificial fire of the members, of _Yajamānas_¹⁰³ and
a classification of _Medha_¹⁰⁴ and other excellent sacrifices. Having
made various classifications of Yugas and displaying his prowess before
all men he created Kshana,¹⁰⁵ Lava,¹⁰⁶ Kāshtha,¹⁰⁷ Kalā,¹⁰⁸ the present,
past and future, divisions of time, Muhutta,¹⁰⁹ Tithi,¹¹⁰ months,
fortnights, years and seasons, the three divisions of the length of
life, the multiplication of the characteristics and the beauty of the
mobile and immobile creations, the three Varnas,¹¹¹ the three Lokas¹¹²
the three Vedas,¹¹³ the three fires,¹¹⁴ three Kālas,¹¹⁵ the threefold
actions,¹¹⁶ the three Upāyās¹¹⁷ (means), and the threefold Gunas¹¹⁸
(30–35). By his endless actions these three worlds had been created by
Him before. He is the creator of all the elements and Gunas and
identical with them all (36). By introducing birth and death amongst
mankind he makes them move about in the universe. He sports everywhere
in the shape of an animal. He is the lord of the universe (37). He is
the refuge of the pious and he (only) punishes the wicked. He is the
origin of the four Varnas and the protector of the four Hotras¹¹⁹ (38).
He is the master of the four-fold knowledge and the preserver of the
four Asramas.¹²⁰ He is identical with the various directions, with the
sky, with the air, fire and water (39). He is identical with the sun,
the moon and the rays. He is the lord of Yogins and He only brings about
the termination of the night. He is identical with the most excellent
lustre and _tapas_ of which we hear (40). The sages designate him as the
thread that connects all the souls; and the whole universe is His form.
The Vedas and all the works exist in Nārāyana (41). Nārāyana is the
greatest virtue and is the most most excellent condition. Truth exists
in Nārayanā and _Tapas_ exists in Him (42) Salvation exists in Nārāyana
and Nārāyana is the most excellent refuge. He is the Aditya and other
gods and he is the slayer of demons (43). At the time of the universal
dissolution he destroys all. He is the death unto the regent of the dead
who destroys all. He is the lord of (Manu and others) who have
instituted various orders of honour amongst mankind and he is more
sacred than (Ganga and others), who purify the mankind (44). He is the
object of learning unto those who are conversant with the Vedas; he is
the lord of the self-controlled (Rishis); he is more handsome than all
handsome objects, he is like fire unto those who are endued with
fire-like effulgence (45). He is the mind of men, the ascetic energy of
the ascetics, the morality of those who are strict moralists, the energy
of the energetic, the creator of all creations and the most excellent
origin of all the worlds (46). He is the idol ef those who seek the
idols and he is the motion of those who are endued with it. Ether is the
origin of air and air is the life of fire (47). The vital power of the
gods is fire and the life of fire is Madhusudana. Blood is engendered by
juice and by blood is created flesh (48). From flesh originates fat and
from fat originate the bones and from the bones originate the veins and
from veins originates the seminal fluid (49). And the seminal fluid is
the instrument of conception. By the process of action at the root of
which is the juice all this is created. Of them the water is the first
portion therefore it is called _Soumya_.¹²¹ The second ingredient is the
fire in the womb (50). Thus the seminal fluid, indential with fire, is
also made of blood. Thus the essence of all juice, the seminal fluid, is
created by an excess of cough and blood is created by an excess of
billious matter. The seat of cough is the heart and the seat of bile is
the navel. The heart, which is in the body, is known as the seat of the
mind. The fire exists as hunger behind the cavity of the navel. Mind is
known as Prajāpati (Brahmā), the cough as Soma and the bile as Agni
(fire-god). Thus the whole world is identical with fire (51–54). When a
conception, as is the formation of a cloud, takes place, the air,
accompanied by Paramātman, enters there¹²² (55). It then creates the
various limbs and nourishes them. The vital air, inside the body,
divides itself into five and gradually assumes proportions (56). The
five vital airs are Prāna, Apāna, Samāna, Udāna, and Vyāna. Prāna
nourishes the most important portion of the body namely, the heart (57).
Apāna nourishes the lower portion of the body up to the feet. Udāna
nourishes the breast and the upper portion of the body. The vital air,
by which works, requiring great strength, are performed, is called
Vyāna. And the vital air, Samāna which exists all over the body, remains
at the navel and distributes to their proper places whatever is drunk or
eaten. (After the distribution of the vital airs) the creatures acquire
the knowledge of the earth through their senses (58). Earth, air, ether,
water and light, are converted into senses. And then they occupy their
respective portions in the body and perform their respective functions.
The tongue, which has the water in it, draws the juice; the eye, which
has the light in it, sees the forms; the skin, which has the air in it,
hears sound. The hardest portion of the body is the transformation of
the earth. The vital air is the metamorphosis of the air; all the holes
originate from ether; the liquid portion is but water; the eye is the
form of light and the mind, which is the energy of the five elements, is
the lord of the senses. It is the mind, that, by its energy, makes the
senses perceive their respective objects (59–61). Having thus created
the ever-existing worlds why did the Great Purusha take his birth as a
man in this mortal world (62)? This is my doubt, this is what surprises
me. O Brahman, why did He, who is the energy of mankind, take his birth
as a man (63)? I have heard an account of my own family as well as of
those of my ancestors. I wish now to hear in due order of the families
of Vishnu and Vrishnis (64). That Vishnu is a great wonder is said by
the gods and demons. Do you, O great Muni, describe to me the wondrous
origin of Vishnu (65). Do you describe to me truly the wonderful and
delightful account of the highly energetic Vishnu of well-known deeds
and prowess who surprised the whole world by his actions (66).

   ⁷⁷ Dwaipayana is the surname of Krishna. The word literally means
      _island-born_, the place of his nativity being a small island in
      the Ganges.

   ⁷⁸ The ten principal forms which Vishnu assumed at various periods
      are called his _Avataras_; they are the fish, tortoise, the bear,
      the man-lion, the dwarf, the two Ramas, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki.

   ⁷⁹ Another name of Vishnu from Shree fortune and garbha womb.

   ⁸⁰ The allusion is. Bali, a demon king, performed many sacrifices for
      which he was about to attain to the dignity of Indra. The gods
      accordingly grew very anxious and prayed to Vishnu for succour.
      He, at their request, assumed the form of a dwarfish Brāhmana and
      went to Bali for alms. After Bali had promised him that he would
      give him whatever he would like to have Vishnu assumed a large
      proportion with three legs and asked Bali to give him room for
      placing his three feet. He placed one in heaven and the other on
      the earth. There was no room for the third which he placed on
      Bali’s head.

   ⁸¹ Three-fold objects of life, namely, Dharma (Virtue), Artha,
      worldly profit, Kama, Desire. These three roads were laid down by
      him for mankind. With virtue they can attain to heaven, worldly
      profit secures, for them, the earth and desire the region
      underneath it.

   ⁸² _i e._, He assumed one form of universal intelligence.

   ⁸³ A name of Indra from _Puru_ much _Huta_ worshipped or invoked.

   ⁸⁴ This refers to the celebrated episode of Pralhada. He was the son
      of the Demon king Hiranyakasipu. He began worshipping Vishnu who
      was an enemy of Hiranykasipu. He prosecuted his son in various
      ways and afterwards was killed by Vishnu in his man-lion form.

   ⁸⁵ A sacred fire perpetually maintained by a householder, received
      from his father and transmitted to his descendants, and from which
      fires for sacrificial purposes are lighted.

   ⁸⁶ The monthly Srāddha or funeral repast in honour of the manes held
      on the day of new moon.

   ⁸⁷ Gifts.

   ⁸⁸ Initiation.

   ⁸⁹ A vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the juice of the acid
      asclepias; a kind of ladle or spoon.

   ⁹⁰ A wooden mortar used for cleaning rice.

   ⁹¹ A species of grass used in many solemn and religious observances;
      hence called sacrificial grass.

   ⁹² A ladle with a double extremity or two oval collateral excavations
      made of wood and used to pour ghee upon the sacrificial fire.

   ⁹³ An object of immolation.

   ⁹⁴ A Sacrificial vase made in the shape of the Indian fig-leave, and
      of the wood of the Flacourtia sapida.

   ⁹⁵ Fit or proper to be offered in oblation. An offering to the gods.

   ⁹⁶ An oblation or offering of food to deceased ancestors.

   ⁹⁷ Hymns recited at the time of the celebration of a religious

   ⁹⁸ A sacrificial post or pillar usually made of bamboos or the wood
      of the Khadira to which the victim at a sacrifice is bound.

   ⁹⁹ Fuel, wood, grass, &c., so employed for enkindling fire.

  ¹⁰⁰ A ladle or spoon.

  ¹⁰¹ The juice of a plant of the same name used for drinking purposes.

  ¹⁰² A wooden frame round the hole in which a sacrificial fire is

  ¹⁰³ Those who perform sacrifices.

  ¹⁰⁴ A kind of sacrifice.

  ¹⁰⁵ A measure of time equal to thirty Kalas or four minutes.

  ¹⁰⁶ A minute division of time, the sixtieth part of the twinkling of
      an eye.

  ¹⁰⁷ A measure of time the thirtieth part of a _Kala_ or eighteen
      twinklings of the eye.

  ¹⁰⁸ A division of time.

  ¹⁰⁹ A division of time, the thirtieth part of the day and night or an
      hour of forty-eight minutes.

  ¹¹⁰ A lunar day, one-thirtieth of a whole lunation.

  ¹¹¹ Three castes, Brāhmanas, or the priestly caste, Kshatriyas, the
      military caste and Vaishyas the mercantile caste.

  ¹¹² Three regions, heaven, earth and the region underneath the earth.

  ¹¹³ The three Vedas are Rik, Yajush and Saman.

  ¹¹⁴ Three fires are (1) _Dakshināgni_ or a kind of sacred fire that
      which is taken from the domestic or consecrated fire and is placed
      to the south (2) _Garhapatya_ or a perpetual domestic fire (3)
      _Ahavaniya_ _i.e._, a fire into which oblation is offered.

  ¹¹⁵ The three Kalas are the present, past and future.

  ¹¹⁶ The three-fold actions are those partaking of the quality of
      goodness, darkness, and ignorance respectively.

  ¹¹⁷ The three-fold means of attaining salvation are, the destruction
      of self, the acquisition of wealth and hard study.

  ¹¹⁸ The three-fold qualities are namely, those of goodness, darkness
      and ignorance.

  ¹¹⁹ Four classes of priests.

  ¹²⁰ Four stages of life namely that of a religious student, that of a
      householder, that of the anchorite, and that of the beggar.

  ¹²¹ (In anatomy) the blood before it receives the red particles, the

  ¹²² The meaning is; as the cloud increases by the help of smoke,
      light, water and air so the embryo is nourished by food, fire and
      water. The air mentioned here refers to the vital power. The soul
      enters in the shape of the vital power.


Vaishampayana said:—O my child, the question that you have put regarding
Hari, the holder of Sranga bow, is indeed very great. Listen, I shall
still describe the glory of Vishnu as much as lies in my power(1).
Fortunately for you that our mind is bent upon listening to Vishnu’s
prowess. Hear, I shall describe the celestial origin of the lord (2).
The Brāhmanas, well read in the Vedas, describe him as having a thousand
eyes, thousand faces, thousand feet, thousand heads, thousand hands, as
eternal, as having thousand tongues, as effulgent, as wearing thousand
crowns, as giving away thousands presents, as having thousand origins
and thousand arms (3–4); as sacrifice, oblation, Havya,¹²³ Hotā,¹²⁴ the
sacred vessels, the sacrificial altar, the initiation, charu,¹²⁵ Sruva
(5); as Sruk, Soma, Shurpa,¹²⁶ Musala,¹²⁷ Prakshanam, Dakshināyanam,¹²⁸
Adveryu, Sāmaga Brāhmana, as Sadasya,¹²⁹ Sadanam Sadas¹³⁰ (6); as Yupa,
Samid, Kusha, Darvi,¹³¹ Chamasa, Ulukhala, Prāgvangsham,¹³² sacrifice,
sacrificial ground, priest and Chayana¹³³ (7); as the small and big
chariots, as the mobile creation, as the penance, as the good fruit
thereof, as Sthandila¹³⁴ and Kushā (8); as _Mantra_, as fire that
carries sacrificial offering, as Bhāga,¹³⁵ Bhagavaha,¹³⁶ Agrebhuj,¹³⁷
Somabhuj,¹³⁸ Ghritarchi,¹³⁹ Udaniya¹⁴⁰ (9); and in the sacrifice as the
eternal Lord. That intelligent Lord of gods, Vishnu, having the mystic
mark of Srivātsa on his breast, incarnated himself in thousands of
forms. And thousands of his incarnations shall take place in future,
Brahmā has said this (10-11). O great king, I shall describe at length,
as accosted by you, the sacred and celestial theme, why the Divine lord
Vishnu, the king of gods and the slayer of his enemies, took his birth
leaving the celestial region, in the race of Vasudeva. For encompassing
the well-being of the gods and men and the prosperity of all the worlds,
the Soul of all, for a great work of his own, went through various
incarnations (12–14). I shall describe the sacred and celestial
incarnations of the Lord fraught with many virtues that have been
recorded in metres and great Srutis (15). Purifying yourself and
controlling your speech, listen to them, O Janamejaya. This highly
sacred Purāna is equal to the Vedas (16). Hear, I shall describe this
celestial story of Vishnu. O Bharata, whenever virtue suffers
deterioration the Lord, for establishing it, incarnates Himself (17). O
great king, he had one form partaking of the quality of goodness. In
this form He is constantly practising hard austerities in Heaven (18).
His second form¹⁴¹ is possessed by yoga sleep for bringing about the
destruction of creatures; and from this sleep originate persons of
misconceived spiritual culture (19). Having slept for a thousand _yugas_
He again appears for work. And after the completion of a thousand
_yugas_, the god of gods, the lord of the universe, Vishnu, the
Grandfather Brahmā, the Regents of all the worlds, the moon, the sun,
the fire, Brahma, Kapila, Paramesthi, the gods, the seven Rishis, the
highly illustrious, three-eyed god Siva, the air, the oceans and the
mountains exist in His form (20–22). The great Sanatkumar and the
high-souled Manu, the father of creation (also exist in His form). That
ancient Lord, effulgent like the fire, has created all the forms (23).
After the destruction of all creatures mobile and immobile, after the
destruction of the gods and demons, serpents and Rakshasas that highly
powerful Purusha killed the two irrepressible Dānavas, Madhu and Kaitava
in the midst of the ocean and conferred upon them the boon of final
liberation (24-25).

While in the days of yore the lotus-navelled Lord lay in the water of
the ocean there sprang from His navel the gods and the Rishis (26). This
is the Lotus incarnation of the Lord as recorded in the Vedas and Srutis
(27). Next the Boar incarnation of the Lord is recorded in Srutis, where
Vishnu, the foremost of the celestials, assumed the form of a boar and
raised up the earth with her forests and mountains, with His tusks sunk
in the all-spreading ocean. The (four) Vedas were his feet, the
sacrificial altar was his tusk, the sacrifices were his teeth, the
funeral pile was his mouth, the fire was his tongue, and the Darbhas
were the hairs of his body. The great ascetic Brahmā was his head, the
days and nights were the eyes of that eldest Purusha, the various
divisions of the Vedas were the ornaments of his ears, the progenitors
were his nose, the chanting of the Sama Veda was his great voice. He was
identical with virtue and truth. Penance was his nostril; dreadful
beasts were his nails and he had long arms. The air was his soul, the
_mantra_ was his hip, the sanctified Soma juice was his blood, the
sacrificial altars were his shoulders. Havi was his smell, Havy and
Kavya were his energies, Nagvangsha was his body. He was effulgent and
sanctified by various forms of initiation. Dakshinā or gift was his
heart. He was ascetic and great and the recitation of the Vedic hymns
was the ornament of his lips. The great heroes, who stand in the way of
virtue, were his ornaments. The various metres were his motion. The
sacred Upanishad was his seat. The image of his wife was his help and he
was tall like the summit of the mount Meru. This thousand-headed Prime
Deity re-established the earth (28–37). Thus in the days of yore for
encompassing the well-being of creatures the Lord, assuming the shape of
a sacrificial boar, raised up the earth from the water of the ocean
(38). This is an account of the boar incarnation. Listen now to an
account of His man-lion incarnation where assuming the form of a lion he
killed Hiranyakashipu.

O king, in the days of yore in the golden age, the first of the Daityas
born, Hiranyakesipu, an enemy of the gods, practised most excellent
penances (40). Observing the vow of silence and steadfastly carrying it
on he alone, placed in the midst of water, spent eleven thousand and
five hundred years (41). O sinless one, thereupon Brahmā was pleased
with his self-control, equanimity of mind, asceticism and observance of
rules and the vow of celibacy (42). O great king then the lord of all,
the divine self-sprung Brahmā, the foremost of all, having the knowledge
of Brahman, himself, in his effulgent and sun like car drawn by swans,
came to him encircled by all the Adityas, Vasus, Sādhyas, Maruds, gods,
Rudras, Viswas, Yakshas, Rakshas, Kinnaras, rivers, oceans, stars,
Muhurthas, creatures ranging in the sky, planets, celestial saints, old
ascetic Siddhas, the seven Rishis, the great royal saints and Apsaras.
He then said to the Daitya:—"O you of firm vows, you are a disciple of
mine. I have been pleased with your asceticism. Pray for a boon; may you
fare well and acquire your wished-for objects (43–48)."

Hiranyakasipu said;—O grand-father, I pray for this boon, that the gods,
Asuras, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Nāgas, Rakshasas, men and goblins may not
by any means kill me and that the Rishis, when enraged, may not
imprecate a curse on me, and that the weapons, mountains, trees, dry or
wet articles or any other things may not bring about my destruction. Let
him alone be my destroyer who will be able, with his servants and army,
to kill me only with the strokes of his arms. I, myself, shall be the
moon, the sun, the air, the fire, air, ether, the stars, the ten
quarters, desire, anger, Varuna, Vāsava, Yama, the lord of riches and
Yaksha, the king of Kimpurushas (49-54).

Thus addressed by the king of Daityas, O emperor, the self-sprung Deity
smilingly said;—"O my child, I confer upon you these most wonderful and
celestial boons. Undoubtedly you will attain to all your desired-for
objects (55–56)." Having said this the divine grand-father repaired, by
the etherial region, to his habitation Vairaja resorted to by the
Brāhmana saints. Hearing that the water-sprung deity, the foremost of
the celestials, had conferred this celestial boon on Daitya-king
Hiranyakasipu, the gods, headed by Indra, communicated it to the
Creator. Hearing of this conferring of the boons the Devas, the Nāgas,
the Gandharvas and the Munis appeared before the grand-father (57–56).

The Gods said—"O lord, by this boon the Asura will oppress us. Be thou
propitiated and concert a measure for his destruction" (60). Hearing
those words beneficial unto all the lord Prajapati, the omniscient,
self-sprung Deity, the invisible and immortal creator of Havy, Kavya and
all other creatures said to the gods (61–62). "Forsooth he must attain
to the fruits of his asceticism. After he enjoys them the lord Vishnu
will kill him." Hearing these words from the lotus-sprung Deity all the
gods, filled with delight, repaired to their respective celestial
habitations (63–64). As soon as he obtained the boon the Daitya
Hiranyakasipu, elated with the pride thereof, began oppressing all the
creatures (65). He first of all carried his work of oppression on the
great, truthful and self-controlled Munis of firm vows living in the
hermitages (66). Having vanquished all the gods of the three worlds and
having brought them all under subjection the Daitya Hiranyakasipu lived
in the celestial region (67). As long as he, elated with pride, lived in
the celestial region the gods could not partake of the sacrificial
offerings and the Daityas were entitled thereto (68).

Thereupon the Adityas, Viswas and Vasus sought refuge with the highly
powerful Nārāyana Vishnu, the lord of protection, who is Brahman
identical with the gods and sacrifices, who is the presiding god of the
Brāhmanas, who is eternal, the present and past and future and who is
omniscient and adored of all the worlds (69–70).

The Gods said:—O. king of gods, O foremost of the celestials, do thou
save us from the fear of Hiranyakasipu. Thou art the Supreme Lord of us
all and of Brahmā and others. Thou art our Great God and Great
Preceptor. O thou having eyes like the full-blown lotuses, O thou the
destroyer of enemies, do thou become our help for bringing about the
destruction of the demons (71–72).

Vishnu said:—O ye immortals, do ye renounce your fear. I promise you
safety. O gods, you will, in no time, acquire as before the celestial
region. I will slay this king of Dānavas, elated with pride, who is
unslayable even by the immortals (73–74).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having said this and left the company of the king of
gods and others the Lord Hari assumed the form of a half-lion and a
half-man. Having pressed his one palm against another Hari, in his
man-lion form, repaired to the court of Hiranyakasipu (75–76). His
colour was like that of clouds and his voice was like the muttering
thereof. He also became effulgent and fleet like a cloud (77). He, with
his own hand, killed the highly powerful and proud Daitya, gifted with
the prowess of a tiger and protected by the mighty Daityas (78). This is
the man-lion incarnation. Next is that of a dwarf. Assuming this form
destructive of the Daityas in the days of yore the powerful Vishnu, with
his three foot steps, assailed the Asuras in the sacrifice of Bali

Viprachitti, Shivi, Sangkaraya, Shangku, Ayashirās, the powerful
Hayagriva, the fierce Ketumān, Ugra, Sogra, Vyagra, Mahāsura, Pushkara,
Pushkala, Sayoshya, Aswapati, Pralhāda, Aswasirā, Kumbha, Sanghrāda,
Gaganapriya, Amihrāda, Hari, Hara, Varāha, Sankara, Ruja, Sharabha,
Salabha, Kupana, Kopana, Kratha, Vrihatkirti, Mahāgihva, Sankukarna,
Mahāswana, Dirghajlbha, Arkanayana, Mriduchāpa, Mriduprya, Vāyu,
Garishtha, Namuchi, Saruvara, Vijvara Mahān, Chakrahanta, Krodhahantā,
Krodhavardhana, Kālaka, Kālakeya, Vritta, Krodha, Virochana, Garishtha,
Varistha, Pralamva, Naraka, Indratāpana, Vātāpi, Valadarpita, Ketumān,
Asiloma, Pulomā, Vāshkala, Pramada, Mada, Vaishika, Kālavadana, Kārala,
Koushika, Shara, Ekāksha, Chadrahā, Rahu, Sanhārāshwa, Mahiswan,
Shataghni, Chakrahasta, Parighapāni, demons with Ashma and Vindipāla
weapons in their hands, with those maces and mortars in their hands,
those with Parashwa weapon, maces, clubs spikes and various other
weapons in their hands, those assuming various dreadful forms, those
assuming the forms of tortoise and fowl, the faces of hares, asses,
camels, boars, dreadful Makaras, jackals, mice, frogs leopards, cats,
elephants, crocodiles, lambs, hogs, kine, buffaloes, Godhas, deer,
Garuda, those having faces like swords and peacocks, those having
armours made of the skin of elephants, some wearing antelope skin, some
covering their bodies with barks, some wearing head-dresses, some
wearing crowns, some wearing Asura ear-rings, some wearing Kiritins,
some with long tufts of hair, some with conch-like necks—thus a
numberless Daityas, wearing various dresses, adorned with diverse
garlands and taking up their burning weapons, surrounded on all sides
the powerful Hrishikesha (81-98). Assuming a highly dreadful form and
grinding them all with his hands and feet the Lord immediately freed the
earth of the demons (99). When he placed his foot-step on the earth, the
sun, and the moon remained on his breast, and when he placed his
foot-step in the sky they lay in his navel (100). And when he placed his
foot-step on a better place (than all these) they lay on the knees of
the highly powerful Vishnu. This has been related by the twice-born ones
(101). Having thus slain all the leading Asuras the Lord Vishnu, the
foremost of all the gods, saved the earth and conferred the celestial
kingdom on the king of gods (102). Thus have I described the dwarf
incarnation of the Great Vishnu. The Brāhmanas, well-read in the Vedas,
describe it as the glorious conduct of Vishnu (103).

The Great Vishnu, the soul of all, next incarnated himself as the highly
forgiving Dattātreya. When the gods disappeared, the religious works,
sacrifices and the four castes suffered deterioration, when truth was
lost and untruth flourished, when all the creatures were about to
perish, when virtue was on the verge of extinction the Lord
re-established the four Vedas with sacrifices as well as the four castes
(104-107). The boon-giving, intelligent Dattātreya conferred a boon on
the Haihaya king Kārtavirya, saying:–"O king, these your two arms, by
the power of my boon, shall be thousand-fold. O lord of the earth, you
will rule over the entire earth and be conversant with virtue. Your
enemies shall not be able to look at you" (108-110). O slayer of
enemies, O emperor, as heard by me, I have described to you the most
wonderful and auspicious incarnation of Vishnu. The Great Lord next
incarnated himself as Jāmadagni (111). In this incarnation Rāma killed
in battle Arjuna in the midst of his irrepressible army who were filled
with wonder at his thousand arms (112). Having brought the king Arjuna
on earth from his car and assailed that king roaring like clouds with
all his kinsmen, Bhrigu’s son Rāma chopped off his thousand arms with
his sword (113-114). The earth, adorned with the mountains Meru and
Mandara, contained _Kotis_ of Kshatryas. He divested the earth of the
Kshatryas for twenty one times (115). Having divested the earth of the
Kshatriyas the great ascetic son of Bhrigu undertook the celebration of
a horse-sacrifice for the expiation of all his sins (116). In that
sacrifice consisting of profuse gifts Bhrigu’s son, with great delight,
made a gift of the earth to Marichi’s son Kashyapa (117). In that horse
sacrifice the highly liberal and illustrious Rāma, the foremost of
car-warriors, made presents of quick-coursing horses, cars, endless
gold, kine and elephants (118). Even now practising hard austerities,
Bhrigu’s son, effulgent like a celestial, is living on the most
excellent mountain Mahendra (119). This is the account of the Jāmadagni
incarnation of the great and intelligent Vishnu, the foremost of gods,
bearing the mystic mark of Srivatsa on his breast (120).

In the twenty fourth Yuga, sending Viswāmitra before him and dividing
himself into four parts the mighty-armed Lord Isvara became celebrated
in the world as the king Dasaratha’s son Rāma. He had eyes like lotuses
and was effulgent like the sun (121-122). For extending his favour to
the world, for destroying the Rākshasas and increasing virtue the highly
illustrious Lord was thus born (123). The sages designate that king of
men as the body of the masters of Bhutas. Viswamitra instructed that
intelligent one in the use of various weapons for the destruction of the
enemies of the gods who were irrepressible even unto them and who put
obstacles in the sacrifices of the self-controlled ascetics. On their
behalf that high-souled (prince) the foremost of the strong killed the
two Rakshasas (Mārichi and Suvāhu) (124–126). Formerly in the sacrifice
of the high-souled Janaka, he, easily out of sport, snapped the bow of
Hara (127). Living in the forest for fourteen years in the company of
Lakshmana Rāghava, ever engaged in the well-being of all creatures and
conversant with all the forms of religion, carried on austerities for
fourteen years (128). The beautiful Sitā, well-known in the world used
to remain by his side always. She was the Lakshmi known before and
followed her husband (129). Living in Janasthāna he accomplished the
work of the gods. Rāghava practised these hard penances for fourteen
years. Lakshmana followed the foot-steps of Sita and remained there as
his servant (130). There were two Rākshasas, Virādha and Kavandha of
dreadful prowess. They became so by the imprecation of a Gandharva.
Discharging at them burning arrows effulgent like the fire, the rays of
the sun or lightning, strong as the thunder-bolt of Indra, and the
feathers whereof were made of gold Rāma killed them both (131-132). On
behalf of Sugriva the highly-powerful Rāma killed Bali in battle and
installed Sugriva on the throne (133). The gods, the Asuras, the
Rakshasas and the Pisacas were not capable of slaying Rāvana. He was
difficult of being vanquished by any in the battle-field. Rāvana, having
the hue of a collection of red collyrium, had millions of Rākshasas as
his guards. The three worlds were terrorized by him. He was invincible,
irrepressible, proud and powerful like a tiger. Even the celestials
could not look at him and he was elated with pride on account of the
boon. He, assisted by his ministers, killed in battle this highly
powerful and huge bodied Rāvana, the king of Rakshasas, resembling a
massive cloud, along with his army (134-137). In the days of yore, Rāma
killed Rāvana the son of Pulastya, with his brothers, sons, ministers
and army, who was a confirmed villain, committed a great iniquity and
was invincible in battle. Madhu’s son the great Asura Lavana, a heroic
Dānava, who was elated with pride on account of the boon (conferred on
him), was killed in battle in the forest of Madhu, by Rāma, who was an
expert in battle. Other Rākshasas were also slain by him (138-140).
Having performed these feats Rāma, the foremost of the pious, collected
continually materials for the celebration of ten horse sacrifices (141).
During Rāma’s regeme, not a single inauspicious sound was heard, hostile
winds did not blow and no body lost his property (142). No widows
bewailed, nobody met with misfortune and the whole world¹⁴² enjoyed
peace during Rāma’s rule (143). Creatures had no fear from the
obstruction of water and air and the aged people had not to perform the
obsequial rites of the boys (144). The Kshatriyas used to serve the
Brāhmanas, the Vaisyas used to follow the Kshatriyas, and the Sudras,
divested of pride, used to serve the three superior castes. The women
never disregarded their husbands, and the husbands never ill-treated
their wives. The whole world was in peace, and freed from robbers. Rāma
alone was the lord and protector of all (145–146). During Rāma’s rule
people lived for a thousand years and had a thousand sons and no
creature suffered from any disease (147). During Rama’s rule, the gods,
the Rishis and men assembled together in the world (148). Persons,
well-read in the Puranas who consider Rāma as the source of all truths,
have sung this hymn in honor of that intelligent one (149). "Ratha, the
king of Ayodhyā, had a green hue, black eyes, nectarine speech, a
shining face, arms extending up to the knees, a beautiful countenance
and leonine shoulders". He ruled for eleven thousand years. In the
kingdom of that high-souled king were continually heard the chanting of
the Rig, Yajush and Sama Vedas, the twang of bows and the utterances
"make gifts and eat" (150–152). The energetic and accomplished son of
Dasaratha, Rāma, shining in his own effulgence, surpassed even the sun
in his lustre (153). Having celebrated hundreds of holy sacrifices with
perfect and most excellent gifts the highly powerful Raghava left
Ayodhya and repaired to the celestial region (154). Having thus brought
about the destruction of Rāvana with all his kinsmen, the omniscient and
mighty-armed Rāma, the descendant of Ikshāku, returned to the region of
the celestials (155).

Vaishampāyana said;—In the Māthura Kalpa the high-souled Keshava, for
the behoof of mankind, went through this incarnation which I have been,
at present, describing (156). In this incarnation the powerful lord slew
Salwa, Mainda, Dwivida, Kansa, Aristha, Vrishabha, Keshi, the demoness
Putanā, the elephant Kuvalayapida, Chānura, Musthi and other demons in
human forms (157-158). By Him of wonderful deeds the thousand arms of
Vāna were chopped off. The Asura, Naraka and highly powerful Yavana were
slain by him, in battle (159). He carried away by force all the jewels
of the kings. And all the wicked kings of the earth were slain, by him
(160). After the expiration of the ninth incarnation of the Dwapara Yuga
included within the eighteenth Mahāyuga, the lord Vishnu, having sent
beforehand Jātukarna, took his birth as Veda-Vyasa¹⁴³ (161). The one
Veda was divided into four by that high-souled one. This Vyasa, the son
of Satyavati,¹⁴⁴ procreated the race of Bharatas (162).

O king these incarnations, of the Lord, undertaken for the behoof of
mankind, have been described. I shall now present an account of the
future incarnations (163). The Lord again, for the well-being of
mankind, will appear as Kalki in the house of a Brāhmana by name
Vishnuyashas in the village of Sambhala (164). After the expiration of
the tenth incarnation He will send Yajnavalka before Him and then engage
in a discussion with the followers of Buddhism, who believe in the
transcient science, who always praise the present and speak ill of the
sacrifices. After defeating them he will disappear at the confluence of
the Ganges and Yamuna with his followers. When all the families will be
ruined, when all the kings, with their ministers and soldiers will be
destroyed there will be none to look after the people. When they will
all be killed by internal dessensions and when their riches will be
pilfered by one another, they will begin to weep, being stricken with
grief. Thus assailed by misfortune at the end of the Kaliyuga all the
creatures will meet with destruction along with the Yuga itself

After the termination of the Kali Yuga the Satya Yuga will again appear
in due order. This is the outcome of the natural sequence and there can
no perversion of it (169). These and various other celestial
incarnations, consisting of gods, have been recorded in the Puranas by
the Rishis conversant with the knowledge of Brahman (170). I have only
given an outline of the incarnations of the Lord the preceptor of all
the worlds, by the chanting of which even the gods are charmed and in
which exist all the Srutis and Puranas (171-172). The ancestral manes of
the person are delighted who, with folded palms, listens to or recites
the incarnations of Vishnu of unlimited power. If a man listens to the
illusive sports of this Lord of Yoga he is freed from all his sins and
acquires, by the favour of the Lord, virtue, prosperity, ascetic wealth
and various objects of enjoyment (173-174).

  ¹²³ A food for gods.

  ¹²⁴ A priest.

  ¹²⁵ A kind of food.

  ¹²⁶ A winnowing basket.

  ¹²⁷ A wooden pestle used for cleaning rice.

  ¹²⁸ Offering of oblation.

  ¹²⁹ Members of a sacrifice.

  ¹³⁰ A house for the assembly of priests.

  ¹³¹ A ladle or spoon.

  ¹³² The room opposite to that which contains the materials for an
      oblation and in which the family and friends of the sacrificer

  ¹³³ A level square piece of ground made of bricks prepared for a

  ¹³⁴ The same as the previous footnote

  ¹³⁵ A portion of fire.

  ¹³⁶ Gayatri and other metrical verses.

  ¹³⁷ Fire

  ¹³⁸ A name of fire.

  ¹³⁹ A name of fire.

  ¹⁴⁰ A name of fire. Other words have been explained in previous notes.

  ¹⁴¹ This refers to His _Rajasik_ form or the form partaking of the
      quality of darkness.

  ¹⁴² By the word _world_ the author evidently means the whole of Rama’s
      dominion which extended over the entire northern and southern
      India and even the far-off Ceylon. It is frequently seen in
      Sanskrit works that the word _world_ is generally put for _whole
      of India_.

  ¹⁴³ The Vedas are the earliest work on our theology. According to the
      tradition they were coeval with creation which had itself taken
      place according to the laws of a pre-existing Veda. They were
      however scattered; some legends state they were lost; and it was
      not till after many years that a Rishi or sage arranged them and
      gave them the form in which they are known. These are Rik, Yajush,
      Saman and Atharvan. The Rig-Veda, from the radical rich to laud,
      is intended to be read on occasions when encomiastic prayers and
      hymns to the elemental deities are prescribed, by the law; the
      Yajush relates chiefly to oblations and sacrifices and contains
      prayers adapted for certain rites to be performed at the full and
      change of the moon and hymns and directions character to be
      recited with melody; and the Atharva Veda, which is considered to
      be of a late date, consists of various hymns and incantations, the
      greater part of which are intended for the destruction and
      perdition of enemies. This arrangement procured to the editor the
      name of Vyasa or arranger.

  ¹⁴⁴ Satyavati was the daughter of a Apsara in the form of a fish. She
      passed into the hands of a fisherman. A Rishi, Parasara by name,
      grew amorous on seeing her. He knew her and in time she gave birth
      to a son on an island in the Yamuna. This son is Vyasa. See
      Mahabharata, Adi Parva chapter LXIII.


Vaishampayana said;—Listen, O king, duly to the dignity of Vishnu as
Viswa (the lord of protection) to that of Hari in the Satya Yuga, to
that of Vaikunta amongst the gods, to that of Krishna amongst men, to
that of Iswara, and to the motive of his various actions past and future
(1–2). Although invisible the lord assumed forms (at various periods).
Narāyana is the cause of all creations and is eternal (3). This Nārāyana
assumed the form of Hari in the Krita Yuga. Brahmā, Indra, the moon,
Dharma, Sukra and Vrihaspati are all the forms of Nārāyana (4). Yadu’s
son Vishnu became the son of Aditi and passed by the name of king
Indrāvaraja (5). For encompassing the destruction of the Daityas,
Dānavas and Rākshasas, the enemies of the celestials, Nārāyana, out of
favour, became the son of Aditi (6). This Supreme Soul created Brahmā in
the days of yore. And that Prime Purusha, in the first Kalpa, created
all the Prajāpatis (7). They, assuming various forms, became the
founders of many most excellent Brāhmana families. From these
high-souled ones emanated, the eternal Veda¹⁴⁵ consisting of various
branches (8). I have thus recounted the names of the wonderful Vishnu.
Now hear from me the subject that is worthy of being recounted (9).
After the Asura Vitra had been slain and even when Satya Yuga was not
over there took, place the world-renowned war with Tāraka (10). Being
elated with success in war and assisted by the Gandharvas, Yakshas,
Uragas, and Rākshasas the dreadful Dānavas engaged in an onslaught of
the gods, (11). When all the weapons were destroyed in battle, they were
about to be killed by the Dānavas. Accordingly being baffled they sought
refuge with the omniscient, Lord Nārāyana, the God of protection (12).
In the meantime were heard the dreadful mutterings of clouds pouring,
showers of embers that covered the sky with, the-sun, moon and planets
and that were accompanied by lightnings. And seven kinds of wind were
driven against one another (13–14). Assailed by boiling water currents,
the fall of lightnings and the winds, endued with the velocity of
lightnings, and as if being consumed by them the earth began to emit
terrible sounds. Thousands of fire-brands fell down from the sky. Cars
began to fall down and go up. Beholding those portends the people were
stricken with fear as they become at the termination of the four Yugas
(15–17). The whole world was enveloped with darkness and nothing was
visible. The ten cardinal points, being covered with darkness, did not
became visible (18). It appeared as if the incarnate form of the night
of the dark half of the month was veiled by the cloud of dissolution.
The sun being overclouded the whole sky was enveloped with darkness
(19). Dispersing these clouds together with darkness the Divine
black-hued Hari displayed his celestial form (20). His body was
dark-hued like a cloud and his hairs were black like collyrium. In his
dark form Krishna appeared like a dark mountain (21). He put on a
burning yellow raiment and was bedecked with gold. It appeared as if a
body, enveloped with the darkness of smoke, arose like the fire of
dissolution (22). His shoulders had grown eightfold, his heads were
covered with head-gears and his fists were adorned with golden weapons
(23). His hand was delighted with a sword by name Nandaka which was
immoveable like a mountain stricken with the rays of the sun and the
moon and which was tied to a waist-cloth of the hue of Menas stone. The
arrows were like the serpents (24). He held mace, thunderbolt, a
ploughshare, a conch, a discus and a club in his hands. Vishnu was like
a mountain of which the base was forgiveness and the tree was Sree. He
held the Sranga bow in his hand. He was seated on a car to which were
yoked yellow-hued horses, on which were hoisted flags having the emblem
of Garuda painted on them, which had the effulgence of the moon, had
beautiful wheels, of which Mandara mountain was the axle, and the
serpent Ananta was the rein. It had Meru and Kuvera on it, was filled
with stars and planets and adorned with variegated flowers. That lord of
gods, who always gives protection, was seen seated in the sky on an
effulgent celestial car by the gods defeated by the Daityas at a time
when they were stricken with fear (25–28). All the gods, headed by
Indra, at first sent up a shout of exclamation and then sought refuge
with the lord to whom all resort for shelter (29). Hearing this loud
exclamation the kind Deity Vishnu made up his mind for destroying the
gods in that great encounter (30). Stationed in the pure sky, Vishnu,
that foremost of gods, promised to the celestials, saying, "O ye Maruts,
may you fare well, do not fear. Be at ease. I have defeated the Dānavas.
Do ye take back the three worlds." Thus welcomed by the words of the
truthful Hari the gods attained to that supreme delight which they
enjoyed when they obtained ambrosia out of the ocean (31–33).

Thereupon the darkness was removed and the cranes emitted cries.
Auspicious winds blew and the ten directions were cleared up. Shinning
stars began to circumambulate the moon, and other luminous bodies began
to move round the sun. The planets did not oppose one another and all
the rivers grew delightful. Etherial and celestial roads appeared
beautiful (34–36). The rivers began to flow quietly and the oceans did
not suffer any agitation. The internal organs of men worked well (37).
The great saints were shorn of grief and began to chant the Vedic hymns.
Hearing the promise of the Lord that he would slay all the enemies in
battle the fire began to eat sweet and nourishing oblations. Sacrifices
were duly undertaken and the minds of men were delighted (38–36).

  ¹⁴⁵ The Hindus have received their religion through revelation, the
      Vedas. They hold that the Vedas are without beginning and end. It
      may sound ludicrous how a book can be, without beginning or end.
      But by the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the accumulated
      treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in
      different times. Just as the law of gravitation existed before its
      discovery land would exist if all humanity forgot it, so with the
      laws that govern the spiritual world. The moral, ethical and
      spiritual relation between souls and souls and between individual
      spirits and the Father all spirits were there before their
      discovery and would remain even if we forget them. The discoverers
      of these laws are called Rishis and they are honored by the


Vaishampayana said:—O sinless one, thereupon, hearing of the fear from
Vishnu, the Daityas and Dānavas, irrepressible in battle, began to make
preparations for war on a great scale (1). Being desirous of a battle
the Dānava Maya ascended a golden car as the sun rises over the mount
Meru. It had four strong wheels twelve hundred cubits in circumference,
could go anywhere, contained many huge weapons, was filled with the
tinkling of small bells, was matted with leopard skins, adorned with
jewels and gold, artificial figures of animals and various collections
of birds, contained many celestial weapons and quivers, had the sound
like the muttering of clouds, had beautiful axles, was the best of the
most excellent cars, was filled with beautiful nests, and mountain-like
clubs. It was huge like the very ocean itself, and its joints were
adorned with golden Keyuras and bracelets. Its poles were made of gold
and it was adorned with huge pennons and flags. It looked like the mount
Mandāra when the sun rises over it, like the prince of elephants and the
ocean. It contained thousands of bears and the sound of its wheels was
like the roaring of the ocean. It was effulgent, could course in the sky
and strike the cars of the enemies. The Dānava Tāra got upon a most
excellent iron car. It was two miles in dimension, was huge like a
collection of mountains, was black like red collyrium and was made of
strong and well seasoned iron. It had eight wheels, axles and poles and
was dark like an ember. Its sound was like the roaring of an ocean and
its windows were covered with iron nets. It contained iron Parighas,
Kshepanyas, clubs, Prāsas, maces, various other wooden weapons, Tomaras
and Parashwadas. It was a dread to the enemies and was drawn by a
thousand of mules huge like the mount Mandara. On its flag there was an
emblem of a crow (2-12). Being highly enraged and taking up a club
Virochana stood before the army like a mountain with shining summits
(13). The Dānava Hayagriva, the repressor of the hostile armies, began
to drive a car drawn by a thousand steeds (14). Stretching his huge bow,
many thousand cubits in dimension, the Dānava Vāraha stood before the
army like a fig tree covered with its branches (15), Shedding tears of
anger out of haughtiness and with his lips and teeth trembling the
Dānava Khara stood for the battle (16). Ascending a car drawn by twelve
horses and surrounded by Dānava Vyuhas the energetic Aristha began to
move about in the battle-field (17). Adorned with golden ear-rings,
Viprachitti’s son Swetā stood before the battle-field like a white
mountain (18). Armed with most excellent weapons made of stone and being
tired thereby Bati’s son Aristha stood there for battle like a mountain
(19). A Dānava, by name Kishora, resembling a young charger in pride,
appeared like the sun in the midst of the Daitya army (20). Being
dressed with a long raiment resembling a cloud the Dānava Lamva appeared
in the midst of the Daitya Vyuhas¹⁴⁶ like the sun possessed by Rāhu¹⁴⁷
(21). Taking up weapons in the shape of teeth, lips and eyes the
huge-bodied and terrible warrior Sharbhānu smilingly stood before the
Daityas (22). Some shone on the horses and others on the elephants. Some
sat on the lions and tigers and others on boars and bears (23). Some
rode the asses and camels and others rode the clouds. And others rode on
various birds and some the winds¹⁴⁸ (24). Other Daitya proceeded on
foot. Some Daityas, with dreadful faces, some with one foot and some
with two feet began to dance for battle (25). Some began to strike their
arms. Thus the leading Dānavas began to roar there like proud tigers
(26). The Daityas, expert in the use of bows, began to assail the gods
with fierce clubs, Parighas and their Parigha-like arms (27). And
sporting with maces, Prāshas, clubs hooks, swords, Sataghnies, sharpened
daggers, excellent iron Parighas and discuses they delighted the
soldiers (28–29). The Dānavas, irrepressible in battle, desired for
victory. Thus the Dānavas, proud of their various weapons, confronted
the gods like rising clouds (30). That Daitya army, consisting of
thousands of Dānavas, resembling the air, the fire, the cloud and the
mountain and filled with war-like speed and advancement, was maddened
with desire for battle (31).

  ¹⁴⁶ The arrangement of troops in various positions, as the array in
      line, that in column, that in circle, and that in mixed order.

  ¹⁴⁷ This is the mythological account of the solar eclipse.

  ¹⁴⁸ _i.e._ were fleet like the wind.


Vaishampayana said:—O my child, you have thus heard of the arrangement
of the Daitya army in the war between the gods and demons. Hear, now of
an account of the arrangement of the army of the gods as well as that of
Vishnu’s army (1). The Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras and the two highly
powerful Aswinis took charge of their respective soldiers and
attendants. The commander of the whole celestial army, the thousand-eyed
Patriarch Pākashāna sat on his elephant Airavata in front (of the army).
On his left was kept in readiness a car, quick coursing like Garuda,
with beautiful wheels and adorned with gold and diamonds (2-4).
Thousands of gods and Gandharvas and Yakshas followed him. And the
effulgent Brāhmana saints, members of his court, began to chant his
glories (5). Protected by Valāhakas, carrying weapons, accompanied by
lightnings produced by the hurling of Indra’s thunder-bolt and
resembling mountains moving about at will, the Divine Maghavān began to
proceed on his elephant. The Vipras, who live at a place where Havi is
kept in Soma’s sacrifice, sing his glories (6-7). When the king of gods
repaired to the celestial region bugles were sounded. Thousands of
Apsaras began to dance before him (8). As the sun shines, protected by
Ketu, born in his own family so that chariot, protected by Mātali,¹⁴⁹
appeared beautiful. That car, drawn by a thousand horses, was fleet like
the mind or the air. It appeared as if the mount Meru was enveloped with
the rays of the sun (9-10). Raising up his rod and mace and terrifying
the Daityas Yama stood in the midst of the celestial army (11). Varuna,
with the mace in his hand, also stood there in the midst of the army of
gods. He was surrounded by four oceans and Pannagas. His person was full
of water and he was adorned with conch, jems and Angadas.¹⁵⁰ He always
used to roam with the noose of Kāla in his hand. He made thousands of
sports with the horses resembling the rays of the moon and waves
agitated by the wind. His raiment was black and he put on beautiful
Angadas made of corals. His person had the hue of sapphire and a
necklace hung round his neck. He stood there in expectation of the
battle as the ocean becomes agitated when it is separated from its bank
(12–15). Kuvera, having a body dark-blue like sapphire, and men to carry
him, was seen there along with the Yakshas, Rākshasas and Guhyakas (16).
That lord of riches, that king of kings, was armed with conch, Padma¹⁵¹
and a club (17). That graceful king of riches¹⁵² was stationed in his
car Pushpaka. That king of kings, that friend of Siva, that lord having
men to carry him, appeared there for battle like the very Siva himself
(18). The thousand-eyed Indra protected the eastern wing of the
celestial army, Yama, the king of the ancestral manes, protected the
southern wing, Varuna, the western wing and Kuvera, the northern wing
(19). The four Regents of the quarters, dreadful in battle, protected
the four sides of the celestial army and kept a vigilant watch over
their respective quarters. (20). The sun shone there burning in his own
effulgent rays, on his car, drawn by seven horses that course in the
welkin (21), Shining in his own effulgence of thousand rays, and
ascending the car in which he, conferring heat on all the eternal
regions, goes to the rising and setting mountains, the _Dwādashātma_¹⁵³
lord of rays began to move about in the midst of the celestials (23–24).
Delighting the universe with his cool and watery rays the moon, of cool
rays, shone on his car drawn by white horses (24). The Danavas saw, in
the battle-field, Soma, of cool rays who is the presiding deity of the
Brāhmanas, is encircled by the stars, whose body is marked by the shadow
of the earth, who dispells the nocturnal darkness, who is the lord of
all luminous bodies in the sky, who is the source of all the juices, who
is the lord and protector of all the plants, who is the source of
nectar, who is the first source of food to the world, who is identical
with gentle and cool juice and who distributes dews (25–27). Being
excited by his own energy and joined by the cloud Vayu, the life of all
creatures, began to blow there in contrary directions and assail the
Daityas. He is the life of all creatures and lives in man as five vital
airs; and being divided into seven it is sustaining the three worlds
consisting of mobile and immobile creations. People call him the
charioteer of fire and he is the cause and, lord of all. The source of
his origin is the seven musical notes which are used in singing. He is
called the most excellent element and is bodiless. He courses in the
sky, goes very quickly and has sound for his origin (28–39). The Maruts,
accompanied by the Devas, Gandharvas and Vidyadharas, began to sport
there with unsheathed swords white as the serpents (32). Pouring, in
anger, deadly venom the leading serpents became as it were the arrows of
the gods, and began, with their mouths open, to range in the sky (33).
All the mountains appeared before the gods to grind the Dānavas with
their rocky summits and with trees consisting of hundreds of branches
(34). The highly illustrious and intelligent lord Hari, the holder of
discus and mace, who is the lotus-navelled Hrishikesha of three
foot-steps, who is highly effulgent like the fire of dissolution, who is
the master of the universe, who is Madhusudana, born from the ocean, who
feeds on Havya and is honored by sacrifies, who is identical with earth,
water and ether, who is at one with the elements, who gives peace and
equanimity of mind, who destroys his enemies, who is the source and seed
of the universe, who is the preceptor of the world and who has the
emblem of Garuda on his flag, took up, in the midst of the celestial
army, his enemy-killing discus, effulgent like the rising fire in the
rising solar disc, the maces Vrihati and Mahati, that kill all the
Asuras, in his left hand, the bow Sranga and other burning weapons in
his remaining hands. The Lord Hari rode that huge-bodied younger brother
of Aruna, the foremost of birds, Suparna, who was the best of the twice
born living on serpents, who was the son of Kashyapa, who was superior
even to the wind in fleetness, who used to agitate the sky, who had big
serpents hanging from his mouth, who was huge like the mount Mandara
that was set free after the churning of the ocean for ambrosia, who
displayed his prowess hundreds of times in the encounter between the
gods and demons, whose body was marked with thunder-bolt by the king of
gods for ambrosia, who had tufts of down, who was adorned with shining
ear-rings, who had a raiment of variegated feathers, who was huge like a
mountain consisting of metals and who had on his spacious breast
serpents of moon-like lustre shining with brilliant jems. He remained
easily in the sky with his two beautifully painted wings like two clouds
with rain-bow at the time of the universal dissolution. He was dreadful
in the enemy’s camp adorned with red, dark and yellow flags. The gods
followed him in battle. The great ascetics sang the glories of Gadādhara
with excellent hymns (35–48). Assisted by Kuvera, headed by Vivaswan’s
son Yama, encircled by Varuna the king of water, presided over by the
king of gods, beautified by the rays of the moon, strengthened by the
war-like gods, accompanied by the sounds of the wind, rendered brilliant
by fire, and enveloped with Jishnu, Prahishnu, Bhrājishnu, and Vishnu
energies the celestial army stood wonderfully for the battle. Angiras
prayed for the well-being of the gods and Sukra, the preceptor of the
Daityas, prayed for their well-being (49–52).

  ¹⁴⁹ The charioteer of Indra.

  ¹⁵⁰ A kind of ornament for the Arms.

  ¹⁵¹ One of Kuvera’s treasures or jems.

  ¹⁵² The word in the text is _Nidhipati_ a name of Kuvera. _Nidhi_
      means divine treasures nine of which are enumerated, _viz._, the
      Padma, Mahapadma, Sankha, Makara, Kachchpa, Mukunda, Nanda, Nila
      and Kharba: their nature is not exactly defined though some of
      them appear to be precious jems; according to the Tankrik system,
      they are personified and worshipped as demigods attendant either
      upon Kuvera or upon Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity.

  ¹⁵³ An appellation of the sun. _Dwadasha_, twelve and _Atman_ means
      identity; being represented in and identified with the twelve
      _Adityas_ or the sun in each month of the year.


Thereupon there took place a terrible encounter between the armies of
the gods and demons desirous of vanquishing each other (1). Armed with
various weapons the Dānavas fought with the gods as if the mountains
were fighting with the mountains (2). Thus there took place a wonderful
encounter between the gods and demons, with fairness and unfairness,
humility and pride (3). Then there fell on all sides from the sky cars
drawn by quick-coursing horses, and soldiers with swords in their hands.
Maces were scattered all over. With these and arrows, full drawn bows
and clubs that war, of the gods and demons, grew exceedingly terrible.
It created terror all over the world and assumed a dreadful form like
the whirling clouds at the hour of the universal dissolution (4–6).
Throwing with their hands Parighas and stones the Dānavas began to
assail Indra and the other gods in battle (7). In that great encounter
the gods were greatly assailed by the highly powerful Dānavas with whom
appeared all the signs of success and their (faces) grew pale. They were
grinded by the network of weapons of Diti’s sons; their heads were cut
off by their Parighas, their bodies were mutilated and the wounds made
copious discharges of blood (8). Being fettered by the nooses of the
Danavas, wounded by their arrows and possessed by the illusions of their
women the gods stood motionless (10). They were stupified and showed no
signs of life. The Asuras made the celestial army inert so that they
could not use their weapons (11).

Throwing away the nooses of illusion of the Dānavas, withstanding and
cutting off their arrows with his thunder-bolt the thousand-eyed king of
gods entered into the dreadful army of the Dānavas (12). Having slain
all the Daityas who were stationed in front with his dark weapons he
covered the entire demon-army with darkness. Being thus enshrouded with
darkness through the energy of the king of gods they could not make any
distinction between the gods and demons. Thereupon being freed from the
nooses of illusion and being very careful the gods began to slay the
Dānavas who were overpowered with darkness. Thereat being assailed,
bereft of consciousness and dark-hued on account of the darkness, the
Dānavas began to fall down like mountains having their wings cut off
(13–16). Then the palace, of the king of Dānavas, consisting of
cloud-like demons and resembling an ocean stricken with darkness,
appeared as the very form of darkness itself (17). Thereupon consuming
that illusion of darkness the Dānava Maya created a highly dreadful
illusion of forest-fire resembling the fire of dissolution. When that
illusion, created by Maya, destroyed all darkness, the Daityas, assuming
forms, effulgent like the sun, again appeared in that battle-field

Being consumed by the illusory forest-fire the gods appeared before Soma
lying on the dews. Having their lustre destroyed by the forest-fire and
been consumed thereby the gods, stricken with grief and seeking refuge,
communicated it to their king the holder of thunder-bolt. When the
celestial soldiers were assailed by the illusion of Maya and consumed by
the Dānavas, Varuna, commanded by the king of gods, thus said (20–22).

Varuna said:—O king of gods, in the days of yore, the energetic Urva,
the son of the Brāhmana saint Bhrigu, adorned with accomplishments like
those of Brahmā, practised hard austerities. Like the eternal sun he
assailed the whole world with his penances. The Brāhmana saints, with
the gods and ascetics, appeared before him (23–24). The Dānava-king
Hiranyakasipu communicated it to that highly energetic Rishi (25). The
Brāhmana saints then addressed to him the following sacred words; "This
family, of the Rishis, is about to be extinct now, since, you, being
alone and having no issue, are not thinking of perpetuating your race.
Adopting a life of celibacy you are practising these hard penances
(26–27). Many familes of self-controlled Rishis, are on the verge of
extinction on account of the absence of of any offspring. Only one body
exists (28). If all these families disappear for want of descendants
there is no chance of their being multiplied. You are the foremost of
ascetics and are effulgent like Brahmā (29). Therefore think of
multiplying your race and you yourself multiply yourself. Devote your
great energy and produce your second body (30)."

Thus addressed by the Rishis and having his mind agitated that
self-controlled ascetic blamed them and said (31).

"This had been laid down in the days of yore as the eternal duty of the
Munis living in the forest on roots and following the religion of the
Aryans (32). The well-practised vow of celibacy of the Brāhmanas, born
from Brahmā, agitated even Brahmā himself. To officiate as priests, to
teach and to accept fees are the three-fold duties of the Brāhmanas
living as house-holders. To live in the forest is our duty who,
(observing the vow of celibacy) live in hermitage (33-34). Practising
hard penances and giving preference to chastity in thought, words and
deeds, the Munis, living on water, those living on air, the
Dantolukhalikas,¹⁵⁴ Ashmakuttas,¹⁵⁵ Dashanapās,¹⁵⁶ and Panchatapās,¹⁵⁷
attain to the most excellent state (35-96). Through this chastity in
thought, words and deeds the Brāhmanas attain to their Brāhmanahood. The
Brahmavādins, living in the most excellent region, have recorded this

"Patience resides in Brahmacharyya,¹⁵⁸ asceticism exists in
Brahmacharyya and those Brāhmanas, who practise it, attain to the
celestial region (38). Without Siddhi,¹⁵⁹ there is no yoga, and without
yoga there is no fame. There is no other glorious asceticism in this
world than Brahmacharyya (39). Having subdued the five elements and five
organs of sense one should practise Brahmacharyya. What other greater
Tapas is there than Brahmacharyya (40)? The shaving of the hairs in the
absence of yoga which the Sanyasins are bound to practise, the
observance of the difficult (Chandrāyana) vow (for pleasing the people)
in the absence of determination (to go to the next world), the practice
of religion in the absence of Brahmacharyya—these three are designated
as Dambha¹⁶⁰ (41). When Brahmā created his mind-begotten progeny where
had he his wife and where was his co-habitation and where was the
agitation of his mind (42)? You, self-controlled Rishis, have a great
ascetic energy. Therefore create your mind-born progeny by your
patriarchal works (43). The ascetics should procreate progeny through
their mind-born source. They should not marry and beget children on
their wives (44). What you have said, being yourselves all pious men,
about the different religious practices, appears to me as thoroughly
immoral (45). By this my effulgent body consisting of soul and identical
with mind, I shall pro-create a son, begotten of my body, without
espousing a wife (46). By the forest, regulations¹⁶¹ I shall create, out
of this body of mine, a second body capable of consuming the creatures

Thereupon being engaged in Tapas and placing his thigh into the fire
Urva began to churn an _Arani_,¹⁶² capable of giving a son, with a
_Darbha_.¹⁶³ Thereupon all on a sudden enveloped with flames there came
out the fire in the shape of a son desirous of consuming the universe
(48-49). Riving the thigh of Urva there came into being the all-ending
and the wrathful fire Aurva as if desirous of consuming the three worlds

As soon as he was born, he said to his father in burning words:—"O
father, I am stricken with hunger. Leave me, I shall eat up the whole
world (51)". At that time yawning with flames that had gone up to the
celestial region the all-ending fire completely consumed the ten
quarters and all the elements and thus increased itself (52). In the
meantime the Lord Brahmā, the master of all creatures, went where that
Muni begat that most excellent son (53). He saw there the worlds along
with the Rishis blazing up with the thigh-begotten fiery son of Urva and
assailed by Aurva’s fire of anger (54).

Thereupon honouring the Rishi Urva Brahmā said to him:—"Bear this energy
of your son out of compassion for the world (55). O Vipra, I shall
confer upon this son of yours the most excellent virtue of patience. And
I shall bestow on him the best of habitations and nectarine food. Hear
these my truthful words, O foremost of speakers" (56).

Urva said:—"Blessed I am. I have received a great favour since the Lord
has conferred a great grace on my child and given him this inclination
(57). How will this my son, when he will attain to the desirable youth,
acquire happiness on being honoured with Havyas? Where will be his house
and what will be his food? What sort of food will you arrange for this
highly powerful one commensurate with his strength (58–59)."

Brahma said:—This boy will live in the mouth of the ocean resembling
that of a mare. O Vipra, I am born of water, so his body will be made of
water (60). Always living on watery food I live in the water. I shall
give your son this food. Let him bring it (61). O you of firm vows, at
the time of the termination of a yuga this fire will consume all the
worlds. United with him I shall repeatedly eat up the worlds (62). This
fire has been made by me to live upon the water of dissolution. He will
consume all the creatures with the gods, Asuras and Rākshasas (63).
Saying "So be it," and casting off his effulgence before his father
Aurva, enveloped with consecrated flames of fire, entered into the mouth
of the ocean (64).

Thereupon Brahmā and other great Rishis returned to their respective
habitations. And being informed of the power of Aurva fire they resorted
to their respective courses (65). Beholding the wondrous affair
Hiranyakasipu, placing all his limbs on the ground, worshipped Urva and
said the following words (66) "O Reverend Sir, wonderful is this affair
that has been witnessed by all the worlds. O foremost of Munis, the
grand-father has been pleased with your penances (67). O you of great
vows, if I am worthy of being praised for my actions know me as your and
your son’s servant (68). Behold me as engaged in worshipping you. If I
meet with discomfiture, O foremost of Munis, it will be your defeat

Urva said:—"I have been also blessed and honored since you have accepted
me as your preceptor. O you of firm vows, you have no longer any fear of
ascetic observances (70). Do you take this fiery illusion which even the
fires, without fuels that have been created my son, cannot easily touch
(71). This illusion will help you in killing the enemies of your family;
it will protect your own army and consume the enemies" (72).

Saying ’may it be so’ and saluting that foremost of Munis Hiranyakasipu,
the king of Dānavas, was pleased and returned to the celestial region

Varuna said:—This is that illusion, which the deities cannot bear, and
that had been created in the days of yore by Urva’s son Aurva (74). With
the death of that Daitya it has undoubtedly been shorn of its power. It
had been imprecated with a curse in the days of yore by him who had
created it (75) If we can strike against this illusion the king of gods
will be happy. Give me, O Sakra, my friend Nishakara (the moon) who is
born of water (76). Being united with him and Yados¹⁶⁴ and controlling
my senses, I shall by your favour, undoubtedly destroy this illusion

  ¹⁵⁴ One who eats grain without its having been threshed, anchorite.

  ¹⁵⁵ Breaking or bruising anything with a stone.

  ¹⁵⁶ Those who practise penances on the peak of a mountain.

  ¹⁵⁷ Those who practise penances in the midst of fire.

  ¹⁵⁸ Chastity in thought, words and deeds.

  ¹⁵⁹ The consummation of the Yoga practices and the attainment of the
      object thereof.

  ¹⁶⁰ It means here hypocrisy.

  ¹⁶¹ Regulations observed by Rishis living in the forest.

  ¹⁶² Wood for kindling a fire exciting it by attrition.

  ¹⁶³ Kusa or sacrificial grass.

  ¹⁶⁴ Aquatic animals.


Vaishampayana said:—Saying so be it the king of gods, the multiplier of
the deities, delightedly, first of all, sent for Soma in battle, who had
the dews for his weapons (1).

Sakra said;—O Sudhākara,¹⁶⁵ proceed for the destruction of the demons
and for accomplishing the victory of the gods and help the holder of
noose¹⁶⁶ (2). You are gifted with incomparable energy, the lord of all
the luminous bodies, the lord of even the sun. The persons, who have a
knowledge of the juices, consider you as identical with all the juices
(3). Increase and decrease are manifest in the ocean and your orbit.
Attaching time to the universe you are creating days and nights (4). The
shadow of the earth, resembling a hair, exists in your body. The
Somadevas even, who are born of the stars, do not know this (5). You
exist above the road of the sun and other luminous bodies. Dispelling
darkness with your own body and rays you light up the world (6). You are
of white rays and cool body, the master of the luminous bodies, have a
hare on your lap, the ivisible soul of the time, are worshipped in
sacrifices, the juice of the sacrifices, eternal, the king of plants,
the source of action, water-born, of cool rays, the mine of ambrosia,
fickle and have white horses. You are the grace of the beautiful beings,
the Soma of the Somadevas and the most beautiful in all the worlds. You
dispell darkness and are the king of rays Do you accompany Varuna and
his army and destroy the demonaic illusion by which we have been burnt
down in battle (7-10).

Soma said:—O lord of the universe, O king of gods, I shall do what you
have asked me for the battle. I pour the dews which can dispell the
demonaic illusion (11). Behold in this great encounter the Dānavas
consumed with my cold, covered with dues, divested of their illusive
powers and haughtiness (12).

Vaishampāyana said:—Like unto masses of clouds the smoky showers of
dues, discharged by the moon, enveloped all the dreadful Dānavas (13).
With the pouring of dews and strokes of nooses, Varuna, the holder of
noose and the moon of white rays began to slay the demons in that great
battle (14). Pouring water in the battle-field and fighting with the
noose and cold those two lords of water began to range like two swelling
oceans (15). As the world is enveloped with Pravartaka cloud discharging
copious showers of rain at the time of the universal dissolution so that
Danava army was covered with water by Varuna and Soma (16). Taking up
the rays and the noose the moon and Varuna destroyed the illusion of the
Daitya (17). Being exhausted with cold water and fettered by the noose
the Daityas, like mountains bereft of their peaks, became (extremely)
inactive (18). Being slain by the moon, crushed down by cold and having
their bodies covered with dews those Daityas began to fall down like
extinguished fire (19). The various cars of the demons, shorn of lustre,
began to fall down and go up in the sky (20). The Dānava Maya again
displayed another huge illusion before the Dānavas who had been covered
with dews and bound down with the noose (21). He then spread in the sky
an extensive mountainous illusion coursing every where at will created
by his son Krouncha. It was covered with stones, and rocks. Its peaks
were covered with huge trees, its caves were filled with trees and it
was infested with lions, tigers and elephants. It abounded in deer
emitting cries and trees shaken by the wind (22–24). With a downpour of
rocks and trees that mountainous illusion slew the gods and revived the
Dānavas (25). Thereupon the illusion, created by the moon and Varuna,
was dispelled and Maya’s illusion covered the gods in the battle-field
with iron clouds and rocks (26). The earth, already uneven with the
collection of mountains and filled with trees, was so thickly covered
with mountains that any one could hardly traverse it (27). Some gods
were wounded with rocks, some were assailed with stones and some were
hemmed in with trees in that battle (28). Excepting the holder of club
(Vishnu) all the celestial soldiers lost their bows and had their
weapons broken. And they all became inactive (29). But that beautiful
lord of the universe, Gadhādhara, although stationed in the battle, was
not the least agitated or worked up with anger on account of his
patience (30). In order to witness the assailing of the gods and demons,
Jānārddana, conversant with the knowledge of proper time, resembling the
cloud that appears at the time of the universal dissolution, waited for
the proper hour in the battle-field (31).

Thereupon in the battle-field he ordered the fire and air to destroy the
illusion created by Maya (32). Being united with each other and
increased the increasing fire of flames and air, at the command of
Vishnu, destroyed that illusion (33). By that increasing fire of wild
course and the air that mountainous illusion was consumed and destroyed
in that great battle (34). The air, assisted by fire, increased like
that at the time of the universal dissolution. And the fire assisted by
air consumed the army of demons (35). As soon as the wind blew the fire
followed it; it appeared as if the fire and air were sporting in the
midst of the army of demons (36). When all the Dānavas were consumed and
their cars began to fall down, when the fire was successful in
accomplishing its work, when the cars desisted from slaying the demons
falling down an all sides quickly like the air, when the Daityas grew
inactive and the three worlds were freed from bonds, the gods
delightedly sent up from all sides shouts of victory (37–39). When the
thousand-eyed god achieved victory and the demon Maya met with
discomfiture all the quarters became clear and the religious
performances began to extend (40). The path of the moon was cleared up,
the sun was placed in its course, all the elements were restored to
their natural orders and men, fond of good conduct, were at ease (41).
The Regent of the dead began to carry on his work without any
distinction, oblations were offered to fire, the gods were entitled to
partake of their portions in the sacrificial offerings and find out the
utility of the celestial region (42). The regents, of the quarters,
began to range in their respective provinces, pure persons, intent on
carrying on Tapas, began to flourish and there was absence of impious
men (43). The partizans of the gods were delighted and those of the
Daityas were depressed. Virtue assumed the form of three legs and vice
that of one leg (44). The great gate was kept open and ways to morality
came into being and all the Ashramas and Varnas of the world began to
observe their own duties (45). The wandering kings began to protect
their own subjects, and hymns, in praise of the gods, were sung (46).
All the sins were removed, dreadful pride was pacified and that battle
of the fire and air was brought to a close. People accorded superiority
to them because they accomplished the victory (47).

Hearing of the fear of the air and fire entertained by the Asuras, the
well-known Dānava, by name Kālanemi, appeared in the battle-field (48).
His crown was adorned with crests effulgent like the sun; he was adorned
with Angada and his hundred arms were bedecked with hundred silvery
weapons huge as the mount Mandāra. He had a hundred faces and a hundred
heads. That beautiful demon appeared there like a mountain with a
hundred peaks (49–56). He shone there like an increasing fire on a heap
of grass in the summer season. His hairs were smoky, his beards were
green; he had huge teeth and his face was adorned with lips. He was
living in the intervening space of the three worlds with a huge body of
very great dimension. With his hands he was raising up the sky, with his
feet he was throwing away the mountains, and with his breath he was
dissipating the clouds surcharged with watery contents (51–53). That
Dānava, of expansive and red eyes looking awry, and powerful like Indra,
was as if consuming and roaring at the gods and covering the ten
quarters. They saw that Dānava approach like the proud and hungry Death
at the time of the universal dissolution (54-55). Raising up the fingers
of his right band having a beautiful palm, elevated, adorned with
well-polished finger-protectors, covered with garlands and high like
moving mountains that Dānava was, as if, saying "raise up the slain
demons" (56-57).

The celestials, stricken with fear, saw in the battle Kālanemi, like
Death himself unto his enemies (58). Creatures saw that Kālanemi proceed
like the second Nārāyana of three foot-steps (59). Raising up his front
foot and having his raiment shaken by the wind that demon, striking
terror to the gods, came to the battle-field (60). United with the Asura
king Maya Kālanemi began to proceed in battle. They appeared like Indra
and Vishnu (61). Thereupon beholding the dreadful Kālanemi approach like
death himself all the gods were filled with anxiety (62).

  ¹⁶⁵ This is a name of the moon. According to the Hindu mythology the
      moon is the mine of nectar.

  ¹⁶⁶ This is a name of Varuna whose weapon is a noose.


Vaishampayana said:—In order to welcome the Dānavas the highly powerful
great Asura Kālanemi assumed proportions like clouds in the end of
summer (1). As by acquiring most excellent ambrosia, people are relieved
of their exhaustion so the leading Danavas, on beholding Kālanemi living
in the intervening space of the three worlds, rose up as if they had
never been tired (2). Then the terrified Dānavas, headed by Maya and
Tāra, irrepressible in battle, who always wished victory in Tāraka’s
battle, shone there in the battle-field (3). Beholding Kālanemi all
those Dānavas, throwing weapons and entering into Vyuhas, were greatly
delighted (4). Of them, the principal soldiers of Maya, who were
well-skilled in fighting, cast off fear and delightedly appeared there
for battle (5). Maya, Tāra, Varaha, the powerful Hayagriva,
Viprachitti’s sons Sweta, Khera and Lamva, Bali’s son Arishtha, Kishora,
Ushtra, the immortal-like Sharbhānu and the great Asura Vakrayodhi, who
were all experts in the use of weapons, were devoted to the practice of
Tapas, and skilled in fighting, appeared before Kalanemi the foremost of
them all. Taking up huge clubs, axes, death-like maces, Kshepanyas, huge
rocks, stones, Pattishas, Vindipālas, Parighas made of best steel,
dreadful Ghātanis, Sataghnis, Yugas, Yantras, Argalas, Prāsas, nooses,
serpents, swords, thunder-bolts, blazing Tomaras, unsheathed daggers and
sharpened weapons and having their minds worked up with zeal, they,
taking Kālanemi before them, stood in front of the battle-field (6–14).
That Daitya army, adorned with many excellent shining weapons, shone
there like the cloudy sky bespangled with stars (15). Emblazoned with
the cool and hot rays of the moon and the sun, the celestial army,
reared by the king of gods, also shone there (16). There appeared that
beautiful and great army of gods consisting of dreadful Yakshas and
Rākshasas, fleet as the wind, having the stars for the steamers, the
clouds for their raiments, abounding in smiling stars and planets,
protected by Indra, Varuna and the intelligent Kuvera, the king of
riches, accompanied by the fire and air, devoted to Nārāyana, gifted
with the velocity of the ocean, and adorned with celestial weapons
(17–19). As at the revolution of cycles heaven and earth are united so
the celestial and demon armies met with each other (20). That encounter,
between the gods and demons displaying humility and pride, forgiveness
and prowess, grew exceedingly dreadful (21). As the swollen rivers
generally issue out of the oceans so the dreadful gods and Asuras came
out of both the armies (22). As the elephants come out of two
mountainous forests covered with flowers so issuing out of both the
armies the hosts of the gods and demons began delightedly to range there
(23). They confronted each other and repeatedly blew their conches and
bugles. That sound filled the heaven, earth and all the quarters (24).
The sound, of the bow-strings against the palms, the twang of the bows
and the sound of the bugles rose above the noise of the Daityas (25).
The gods and demons felled and confronted one another. Some grew
desirous of fighting duels. Some broke the arms of others with their own
(26). The gods began to throw, in battle, dreadful thunder-bolts and
excellent Ayasas and Parighas and the Dānavas began to discharge Gurvis,
clubs and Nistringshas (27). Some fell down with their limbs mutilated
by the strokes of clubs and with their bodies bent down (28).

Thereupon worked up with anger, some on cars, some on horse back and
some on quick-coursing chariots, ran towards one another in the battle
(29). Some stood in the battle-field and some fled away. The
car-warriors were obstructed by cars and the infantry were obstructed by
the foot-soldiers (30). The sound, of the wheels of those cars, grew
terrible like the muttering of clouds in the sky (31). Some broke down
the cars, some hurled chariots against chariots and some could not
proceed unitedly in the midst of that collection of cars (32). Striking
one another with their arms and sending up shouts, warriors, armed with
swords and leathern coats of mail and elated with pride, began to
proceed in battle (33). Some, mutilated and wounded by weapons in
battle, began to vomit blood like clouds discharging water in the rains
(34). Filled with those weapons and clubs thrown up and down that
encounter of the gods and demons looked exceedingly terrible there (35).
That unfair day of the encounter set in there with celestial weapons for
the lightnings, the downpour of arrows for showers and the Dānavas for
the massive clouds (36). In the mean time the great Asura Kālanemi,
being worked up with anger, began to increase his body like clouds
filled with water by the waves of the ocean (37). The Valāhakas,
consisting of flickering flames like the lightnings, discharging
thunder-bolts and huge like the mountains, were crushed down as soon as
they fell on his body (38). When he breathed in anger and sweated on
account of the frowning of his eyebrows there came out of his mouth
scintillations of fire, accompanied by lightning and air (39). His arms
began to grow up straight and awry to the sky. It appeared as if the
five-hooded black serpents were repeatedly licking their bodies (40).
That Dānava enshrouded the sky with various weapons, bows and Parighas
high as the mountains (41). Wearing a raiment shaken by the wind
Kālanemi stood in front of the battle-field like the second Sumeru
filled with flames and covered by the rays of the setting sun (42). As
the king of gods fells down the huge mountains with his thunder-bolt so
did he knock down the gods with the mountain peaks and huge trees
uprooted by the strokes of his thighs (43). Having been wounded by
Kālanemi in battle and having their heads and breasts mutilated by
diverse weapons and swords the gods could not move about (44). Some,
killed by the stroke of his foot and others grinded by him, fell down
with the leading Yakshas, Gandharvas and the great Uragas arranged in
Vyuhas (45). Thus terrorized by Kālanemi in battle the gods, bereft of
consciousness, could not set forth their exertions although they were
capable of doing it (46). Being fettered by him with arrows, the
thousand-eyed Sakra, seated on his elephant Airāvata, could not move
about in the battle-field (47). In that battle the demon Kālanemi
constrained Varuna, resembling a watering cloud and effulgent like the
waterless ocean, desist from displaying any feats and deprived him of
his noose (48). Bewailing in the battle-field the Patriarch Vaishravana,
the king of riches, was rendered, by him through illusory weapons,
inactive in the battle-field (49). Yama, who spreads death and destroys
everything, was deprived of his consciousness by Kālanemi and fled to
his own quarter (50). Having thus assailed the Patriarchs and protecting
their respective quarters Kālanemi divided, then his body, into four
parts (51). Thereupon repairing to the celestial road of stars pointed
out by Sharbhānu that demon took, by force, the grace of the moon and
his great object (52). Proceeding to the celestial region he began to
direct the sun of burning rays and then occupied for himself his object
Sayana¹⁶⁷ and his daily duties (53). Beholding fire in the mouth of the
gods Kālanemi placed it in his own and having vanquished the air by his
own strength kept it under his subjection (54). Having brought the
rivers from the ocean by his own strength and power that demon kept them
under his own control and all the seas remained there like his body
(55). Having brought under his subjection all the rivers born in heaven
and earth Kālanemi established the world well protected by the mountains
(56). That Daitya, identical with all the worlds and a terror unto all
creatures, shone there like the self-born Deity the master of all the
elemental deities (57). That Dānava, the one body of all the
Lokpākas,¹⁶⁸ indentical with the sun, moon and the planets and
resembling the fire and air, began to move about in the battle-field
(58). When that Daitya occupied the position of Paramesthi, the source
of the origin and destruction of all the worlds the demons began to
chant his glories as the gods hymn the glories of the grand-father

  ¹⁶⁷ The longitude of a planet reckoned from the vernal equinoctial
      point from _Sa_ with and _Ayana_, the equinoctial point.

  ¹⁶⁸ He defeated the Lokapālas and became himself the one regent of all
      the quarters.


Vaishampayana said:—On account of his irreligious actions the Vedas,
virtue, forgiveness, truth and the prosperity of Narayana, these five
did not follow him (Kālanemi) (1). Owing to the absence of the Veda and
others that king of Dānavas approached Nārāyana in order to attain to
his dignity (2). He saw him there seated on Suparna with conch, discus
and club in his hands. He was whirling a beautiful mace for the
destruction of the Dānavas (3). That god, having the hue of a cloud
surcharged with water and wearing a raiment resembling lighting, was
seated at ease on the bird the son of Kashyapa, gifted with golden wings
and a tuft of down on the forepart of head (4).

Beholding the irrepressible Vishnu stationed in battle for the
destruction of the demons, Kālanemi, with a heavy heart, said:—(5).
"This is our most dreadful enemy. They say he cannot be vanquished by
any means. He is the enemy of our Dānava forefathers and that of Madhu
and Kaitava living in the ocean. He has slain many of our forest-born
Daityas. This man, armed with weapons, is highly ruthless in battle and
extremely shameless like a boy. He had the hairs of the Dānava women
shaved (6–8). He is the Vishnu of the gods, the Vaikuntha of the
celestials, the Ananta of the serpents living in the water and the
Creator of the creators himself (9). He is the worshipful of the gods
and is ever engaged in doing us wrong. Incurring his displeasure
Hiranyakasipu was slain (10). Following him the gods are entitled to the
best portion of the sacrificial offerings and three-fold oblations are
offered to fire by the great saints (11). He is the instrument of the
death of all those who are inimical towards the gods. By his discus all
the Dānavas, born in our race, have been slain in battle (12). Risking
his life even for the gods it is he who hurls his discus, effulgent like
the sun, at the enemies in battle (13). This wicked-minded one is like
the death unto the Daityas. Myself, resembling the very Kala himself,
living, he will soon meet with inevitable death (14). By a mere accident
Vishnu has appeared before me to-day. Being grinded by me in battle he
will be humiliated before me (15). Having slain in battle this Nārāyana,
the source of fear unto the Dānavas I shall worship to-day my
predecessors (16). I shall soon kill also the followers of Nārāyana.
Even when born again he oppresses the Dāvanas (17).

"In the days of yore this Ananta again became celebrated by the name of
Padmanābha (lotus-navelled). When the whole universe was converted into
one sheet of water, he, placing the two Dānavas, Madhu and Kaitava
within his knee-joints, killed them (18). Dividing his own body into two
and assuming the form of a man-lion he, in the days of yore, killed my
father Hiranyakasipu (19). Auspiciously did Aditi, the mother of gods,
conceive him who, assuming the form of a dwarf at the sacrifice of the
king Bali, occupied the three worlds with his foot-steps and then killed
him (20). Now encountering me again in this war of Tāraka, he along with
the gods, will meet with death (21)".

Thus villifying Nārāyana in the field of battle in various unbecoming
words Kālanemi expressed his desire for fighting (22). Although censured
by the king of Asuras Gadādhara (Vishnu) was not angry on account of his
extraordinary forgiveness. Rather smilingly he said (23). "O Daitya,
limited is thy strength, still out of anger thou art villifying me.
Since thou hast transgressed forgiveness, thou shalt be slain by thy own
fault (24). Wretched thou art indeed and fie on thy vaunting words. Men
do not live where the females roar (25). O Daitya, I see thou shalt
follow the footsteps of thy predecessors. Disregarding the orders
instituted by Prajapati who can be at ease? (26). I shall slay thee
to-day who hast disturbed the gods. And I shall again place the
celestials in their respective positions" (27). After Nārāyana, bearing
the mystic mark of Srivatsa on his breast, had said this in the
battle-field, the Dānava took up the weapons in anger and began to smile
(28). Uplifting his hundred arms capable of handling all the weapons,
he, with eyes reddened with anger, struck at the breast of Vishnu (29).
The other Dānavas, headed by Maya and Tāra, ran towards Vishnu (30).
Although assailed by the highly powerful Daityas armed with various
weapons the lord Nārāyana remained unshaken in the battle like a
mountain (31). Being engaged in a conflict with Suparna and taking up,
with all his strength, a huge and dreadful club burning with the
concussion of arms, the highly enraged great Asura Kālanemi hurled it at
Garuda. Even Vishnu was filled with wonder seeing that feat of the
Daitya (32). When that club fell on the head of Suparna, that king of
birds, with a wounded body, fell down on earth (33). Thereupon in that
great encounter the Dānavas began to strike Vishnu and Garuda with clods
of earth, stones and thunder bolts. When Nārāyana moved about in the
battle field the gods chanted his glories. "Glory unto thee, O thou of
great arms, O destroyer of Madhu and Kaitava. With thy nails thou didst
tear off Hiranyakasipu." Thus eulogised by the deities Nārāyana rose up
from the battle-field. Considering Vishnu slain the king of Dānavas blew
his conch. The great Asuras began to play on the three sorts of
Mridangas and dance in accompaniment with the music. It appeared that a
great festivity was taking place at that time. Beholding Suparna wounded
and his own body unscathed, Vaikuntha, with eyes reddened in anger, took
up his discus (34–35). The lord then grew highly impetuous along with
Suparna. His arms multiplied covering the ten quarters (36). Filling up
all the quarters, the etherial region and the earth he increased his
energy as if being desirous of attacking again all the worlds (37). The
Rishis, along with the Gandharvas, began to chant the glories of
Madhusudana who had then assumed a huge proportion in the sky for the
victory of the gods (33).

The Lord covered the celestial region with his Kiritin, the sky and the
clouds, with his raiment, the earth with his feet and all the quarters
with his arms. Thereupon worked up with anger Gadādhara, taking up his
discus capable of performing unparalleled feats and effulgent like the
sun, destroyed with it, by virtue of his own energy, the effulgence of
the Dānavas in battle and chopped off the arms of Kālanemi. It was
dreadful like the burning fire of a thousand flames resembling the rays
of the sun and at the same time beautiful and covered with golden
wheels. It was strong like a thunder-bolt, dreadful and besmeared with
the blood, fat and bones of the Dānavas. It had none to equal it in the
matter of striking, was sharpened like a razor, could go any where and
could assume any form at will. It was made by the Self-born himself, was
a terror to the enemies, possessed by the anger of the great Rishis and
was haughty in the battle field. When it is thrown, all the creatures,
mobile and immobile, are stupified and creatures, living on flesh,
derive greatest satisfaction (36–46). Then with his strength Hari began
to grind the hundred dreadful faces of that demon with wild laughs like
the grinding of fire (47). Although his arms were chopped off and his
heads were cut off the Dānava did not tremble the least in the battle
and stood there like a tree shorn of all its branches (48).

Thereupon spreading his two huge wings and assuming the velocity of the
wind Garuda, with the stroke of his breast, felled down Kālanemi.
Thereupon rolling and leaving the celestial region his body, shorn of
heads and arms, fell down on earth from the sky (49–50). When that
Daitya was killed the Rishis, together with the gods, began to praise
Vaikuntha saying "Well done! Well done!" (51). The other Daityas, who
were witnessing his prowess in battle, were hemmed in by the arms of
Vishnu and could not move in the field (52). The Lord held some Daityas
by the hair, held some by the throat, wounded some on the face and took
up some by the waist (53). Entirely destroyed by the club and discus and
deprived of their energy and life they fell down on earth from the sky
(54). After all the Daityas had been slain, that foremost of Purushas
Gadadhara, scoring success, stood there doing good to the king of gods
(55). After the termination of that dreadful war with Tāraka where many
had been grinded the grand-father of all, Brahmā speedily came there
along with all the Brāhmana saints, Gandharvas and Apsarās. Worshipping
Hari the god of gods said (56–57).

Brahma said:—"O lord, thou hast accomplished a great work; the dart of
the celestials has been uprooted. By the destruction of the Daityas we
have been pleased (58). Thou alone art the only destroyer of this
Kālanemi whom thou hast just slain in battle. Save thee there is none
else who could kill him (59). Vanquishing the gods and all the creatures
mobile and immobile this Dānava used to assail the Rishis; even he used
to roar at me (60). Therefore by this thy powerful feat I have been
greatly pleased, since thou hast destroyed this death-like Kālanemi
(61). Mayst thou fare well; let us now repair to the most excellent
celestial region, where the Brāhmana saints, the members of thy court,
are waiting for thee (62). O Achyuta, O foremost of speakers, I shall
worship thee there along with the Maharshis with heavenly hymns (63). O
thou the foremost of boon givers, although thou dost confer boons on the
celestials and Daityas I shall bestow one on thee (64). O Nārāyana, in
this war thou hast freed the three worlds of the thorns and therefore do
thou now confer upon the high-souled Sakra the prosperous kingdom over
the three worlds" (65).

Thus addressed by the Divine Brahmā, the Lord Hari said to Indra and
other gods in auspicious words (66). "Listen attentively, all ye gods
headed by Purandara, who have assembled here (67). We have slain, in
this battle, many powerful Danavas, Kalnemi and others, who are superior
even to the king of gods himself (68). In this terrible encounter came
out both Virochana’s son Bali and the huge-bodied Rāhu (69). Let now the
king of gods and Varuna repair to their wished-for regions. Let Yama
occupy the south and the king of riches protect the north (70). As
before let the noon be united with the stars in proper season. Let the
sun, being united with equinoctial points, distribute the seasons all
through the year (71). Let sacrifices be duly undertaken honoured by the
ascetic courtiers and let the Vipras, according to the rituals laid down
in the Vedas, offer oblations to fire (72). Let the gods attain
gratification from Vali oblations, the Maharshis from the chanting of
the Vedas and the ancestral manes from the performance of Srādhas as
before (73). Let the wind blow in its own course, let the fire be
enkindled in its three-fold forms, and let the three Varnas, by their
natural qualities, bring about the gratification of the world (74). Let
sacrifices be undertaken by the Brāhmanas who are worthy of performing
initiatory rites and let all the proper sacrificial gifts be distributed
(75). Let the sun afford gratification to all the eyes and let the moon
afford delight to all the juices and let the air delight the vital
breaths of all creatures, and let them all undertake good and auspicious
works (76). Let the rivers, carrying water from the huge mountains and,
the mother of the three worlds, gradually in proper order, proceed to
the ocean (77). Let the gods cast off all fear of the Dānavas and let
them enjoy peace. May you fare well, O ye gods, I repair to the eternal
region of Brahmā (78). Do not live always confidently in your celestial
region and specially in the battle-field for the demons are highly
deceitful (79). They strike people as soon as they find a weak point.
This order of the world is not permanent. You are all gentle and simple
and your mind always moves in innocent matters. O gods, I bring about
the stupefaction of all these wicked demons who cherish a desire of
injuring you (81). Whenever you will cherish a dreadful fear of the
Dānavas I will immediately come and promise you safety (32)."

Having thus addressed the gods the highly illustrious Nārāyana, having
truth for his prowess, repaired with Brahmā to his own region (83). This
was the wonderful encounter, of which you asked, of Nārayana and the
Dānavas in the war of which Tāraka was the root (84).


Jane=amejaya said:—O Brahman, after repairing with the water-born Brahmā
to his own region what did the god of gods Vaikuntha do (1)? After the
completion of the massacre of the Daityas why did the water-born deity
take away Vishnu, who had been honored by the gods, to his own region
(2)? What sort of Yoga does the Lord Brahmā, the Creator of creatures,
practise and what sort of regulations does he observe And what sort of
regions is that of Brahmā (3) How does this great universe attain to the
prosperity adored by the gods and Asuras when he does not remain there
(4) How does he lie down for rest at the end of the summer and awake
with the approach of the rains? How does he, living in the Brahmā
region, carry on the work of the world (5)? O foremost of Brāhmanas, I
wish to hear truly of the celestial conduct of this Lord in the land of
gods (6).

Vaishampāyana said:—Hear now at length of the deeds of Nārāyana before
you listen to how he sported with Brahmā after repairing to his region
(7). His course is very subtle according to his desire which even the
gods cannot know. Hear, O king, what I shall relate (8). This Lord
Nārāyana is identical with the three worlds and the three worlds too are
also permeated by him. He is identical with the gods in heaven and they
too are identical with him (9). Many persons, desirous of going to the
other end of the world, cannot see his end. This Mādhava is the end of
all (10). Hear of an account of his deeds in the Brahmaloka in the days
of yore whose true form is hidden by the senses as if with darkness and
whom the gods seek (11),

Repairing to the region of Brahmā and beholding the dignity of the
Grand-Father Vishnu honored all the Rishis with works sanctioned by the
Vedas (12). Having performed the rites of the first part of the day the
highly energetic Vishnu came to the fire where oblations were being
offered in the morning by the great Rishis (13). He saw his own body
most excellently placed in the midst of the sacrifice, worshipped with
oblations by the great Rishis and eating his own share of the
sacrificial offerings (14). Having saluted the worshipful Rishis of
Brahma energy Nārāyana, who is beyond the comprehension of thought,
began to range in the eternal Brahma region (15). Walking there in the
sacrifice he saw hundreds of sacrificial posts adorned with the tops of
Chashālas¹⁶⁹ and marked by the Brāhmana saints (16). Smelling the smoke
of oblations, hearing the sound of the chanting of the Vedas by the
twice-born ones, and beholding his own self worshipped in the shape of a
sacrifice he began to range there (17). Taking the sacred grass and
Arghya¹⁷⁰ in their hands the courtier deities and the Rishis said to him
(18):—"Whatever power exists in the gods it emanates from Nārāyana and
whatever is undertaken by the deities that also proceeds from
Madhusudana (19). That eternal Vishnu is the region of Soma and fire
about which the people hear from learned men (20). As curd is produced
from milk and clarified butter from curd so when the body and senses are
agitated by virtue of meditation the world originates from Janārddana
(21). As the great soul is comprehended by the senses and the five great
elements so Hari is comprehended by the gods, the Vedas and all the
worlds (22). As in this world of men the relation between the five
elements and senses is perceived so the strength and prosperity of the
gods in the celestial region originate from Vishnu (23). This
independent and highly sacred Nārāyana, who is the thread of the worlds
and who confers fruits of sacrifices on those who perform them, is
worshipped with Mantras like Mantra itself (24)."

The Rishis said:—O foremost of the celestials, O thou of great
effulgence, O lotus-navelled deity, hast thou come with ease? Do thou
accept this sacrificial offering offered according to the _Mantras_
(25). Thou art the sacred vessel of this water sanctified in the
sacrifice. Thou wert always known as the guest mentioned in the
_Mantras_ and hast now become visible (26). O Nārāyana, after thy
departure to the battle-field, our works were not undertaken, for a
sacrifice, without Vishnu, is never sanctioned (27). To-day we will
acquire the fruit of the sacrifice celebrated with presents. Thou art
beholding thyself worshipped by us all (28). Saying "So be it" the Lord,
in return, worshipped the Brāhmanas. The Grand-father Brahmā who was in
his region, was delighted thereat (29).

  ¹⁶⁹ A wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post.

  ¹⁷⁰ Water to wash feet.


Vaishampayana said:—Having been thus worshipped by the Rishis the Lord
entered into the celestial habitation of Brahmā, the hermitage of
Nārāyana as described in the Puranas (1). Having honored delightedly all
those Rishis and bowed unto the Prime Deity the Lotus-sprung Brahmā he
entered into the region mentioned before (2). Having entered the
Narayana hermitage which was so named after Him the Lord left off all
his weapons (3). He saw there his own abode resembling an ocean, filled
with the gods and the immortal Rishis (4). That abode was covered with
Samvartaka and other clouds, enshrouded with the darkness of the starry
region and was beyond the reach of the gods and demons (5). There the
winds do not blow and the sun and the moon do not shine. It was
enveloped with the effulgence of the body of the Lotus-navelled Deity
(6). Entering there, carrying matted locks and being thousand-headed the
Lord began to make arrangements for lying down (7). The death-like
sleep, having dark eyes and being informed of the last days of men,
appeared before that high-sould deity (8). On account of his acquiring a
mastery over his senses, Hari, the foremost of those observant of vows,
laid himself on a celestial bed cool like the water of the Ocean (9).¹⁷¹
The Rishis and the Gods began to worship the great Omnipotent Vishnu,
thus gone to sleep for the creation of the universe (10).¹⁷² When he was
asleep there sprang from his navel a lotus, highly effulgent like the
sun (intended for the) seat of the Patriarch Brahmā, who is both the
beginning and the end (11). That lotus had a thousand petals, a
beautiful hue, was tender and well-adorned. Raising up his hand which is
the thread of the pristine desire the great Muni Brahmā whirls the wheel
of the changes of all the worlds brought about by time (12).¹⁷³ From his
mouth the Patriarchs come out shaken by the wind of his breath.
Sometimes they fall down and sometimes they go up (13). Human beings,
thus created by him, are again divided by Brahmā into four orders. And
then by performing works laid down in the Vedas they reach their
respective goals (14). Even Brahmā himself and the immortal Rishis
cannot understand Vishnu, thus engaged in the Yoga of sleep and covered
with _Tamas_¹⁷⁴ (15). Those Brāhmana saints, headed by the Grand-father,
cannot find out when Nārāyana is asleep and when he does sit up on his
bed (16). Who is awake in this body? Who is asleep? Who, being capable,
does not perform a work? Who enjoys the various objects of pleasure? Who
is effulgent? And who is subtler than the subtle itself (17)?

By the various arguments laid down in Srutis the Rishis seek to find out
His existence. By birth or action none can find Him out (18). The
ancient Rishis have sung his glories in the Purānas and his history can
be known by the songs composed by him (19). His ancient history is also
heard amongst the gods. After the great Purānas there exists no other
record of his doings (20). All the Srutis, relating to the Vedas and the
customs and practices of mankind, are filled with an account of the
prowess of that god of gods (21). The Lord, the origin of all creatures,
appears at the time of the creation of all the worlds. And Madhusudana
remains awake for the destruction of the Dānavas (22). When this
immortal Purusha goes to sleep even the gods cannot look at him. He goes
to sleep at the end of the summer and awakes after the termination of
the rains (13). He is identical with the Vedas, the sacrifices and
various other supplementary rites. This foremost of Purushas is the
course of the sacrifices that has been described (24). When he falls
asleep all the sacrifices, sanctified by _Mantras_, are brought to a
close. And Madhusudana rises up when the autumnal sacrifices are
undertaken (25). When Vishnu goes to sleep, Purandara, the lord of
waters, performs all his duties and pours water (26). The illusion of
darkness, sleep, that exists in the world and that is like a night of
death to the kings, brings ruination upon them who kill one another by
fighting (27). By its body of darkness it destroys the nights and days.
And this dreadful illusion pilfers half of the life of all creatures in
the world (28). Being possessed by this sleep and yawning repeatedly
some people cannot bear its power as if they are almost drowned in a
vast ocean (29). This sleep, engendered by the food or toil of the
mortals in this world, does not conduce to the well-being of all (30).
It grows enfeebled after the termination of the dream of creatures in
this world; and this, at the time of their death, destroys all their
vital airs (31). Amongst the gods, none, but Nārāyana, can withstand the
power of this sleep. This Māyā or illusion is the female companion,
begotten by his own body, of Vishnu who destroys all (32). That one, of
lotus eyes, was seen on the face of Nārāyanā. This one, who stupifies
all the creatures, eats up all the worlds in no time (33). For the
behoof of mankind she is kept by Vishnu. She is adored of all as a
chaste lady serves her husband (34). Being possessed by this sleep and
having stupified the eternal world the Lord Vishnu slept in the Nārāyana
hermitage (35). When that high-souled deity was thus asleep thousands of
years passed away with the most excellent of cycles _Satya_ and _Tretā_
(36). That highly effulgent deity awoke at the close of the _Dwāpara
Yuga_, when the great saints, on witnessing the distress of mankind,
began to chant his glories (37).

The Rishis said:—O lord, do thou cast off this sleep begotten of thy own
self as a garland, already enjoyed, is left off. All the gods, along
with Brahmā, are waiting to see thee (38). O Hrishikesha, all these
self-controlled Rishis, well-versed in the knowledge of Brahman, and in
singing His glories, are welcoming thee (39). O Vishnu, hear the
auspicious words of these Rishis who are identical with the five
elements, namely, the earth, ether, fire, air and water (40). O gods,
the seven Rishis, along with all these saints, are chanting with
celestial and becoming hymns thy glories (41). Rise up, O thou of great
effulgence, O thou having a navel of a lotus of a hundred petals, some
important work of the gods requires thee (42).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having lessened the quantity of water and dispelled
darkness Hrishikesha rose up shining in his great beauty (43). He saw
there all the gods assembled along with the Grand-Father, greatly
aggrieved for the world and desirous of speaking something to him (44).
The Lord Nārāyana, with eyes relieved of exhaustion by sleep, addressed
to them words fraught with sound reasoning and far-sightedness (45).

Vishnu said:—"Where have you got your quarrel, O gods? From whom does
your fear proceed? Who feels a necessity and for what? And haw can I
help you (46)? Has any calamity befallen the world through the Dānavas?
Have men met with any misfortune on account of their weakness? I wish to
know all this without any delay (47). Having renounced my most excellent
bed I stand amongst the Brahmavādins for encompassing your well-being.
What can I do for you (48)?"

  ¹⁷¹ This is an allegorical account of Vishnu’s Samadhi or devout

  ¹⁷² Thus engaged in Samadhi.

  ¹⁷³ The meaning is that the creation of the universe is carried on by
      Brahmā. All the changes, that are manifest in the world, are his
      works. And this creation is the outcome of his desire. He first
      cherishes the desire and then engages in the work of creation.

  ¹⁷⁴ The quality of darkness. The meaning of the passage is that when
      Vishnu, possessed by the desire of creation, is engaged in
      meditating upon his own true form. When _Satwa_, or the quality of
      goodness, reigns supreme in him, he absolutely retires from the
      work of creation and when he is possessed by the desire of
      creation the quality of _Tamas_ or darkness predominates in him.
      The origin of this _desire_ in him is the root of creation, for
      the whole universe before us is the outcome of his will. According
      to the Hindu mythology the work of creation and dissolution is
      perpetually going on, And each of these work is dependant on the
      pure and absolute will of the Lord. When Vishnu, the Supreme Lord,
      happens to cherish a desire for creation he engages in meditating
      upon his true form. Thus meditation is allegorically represented
      as his sleep. From this meditation proceeds Brahmā who is to make
      arrangements for this great work. But he is dependant on the will
      of the Lord. Brahmā next creates the Patriarchs who are to be the
      originators of the various families.


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing these words of Vishnu, Brahmā, the
Grand-Father of all, gave vent to words fraught with the well-being of
gods (1). "There is no fear, from the Asuras, of the gods whom you give
protection by becoming their leader in various battles (2). When you
yourself, the slayer of your enemies, and the king of gods, are crowned
with victory, what fear do men, engaged in religious observances,
cherish (3)? Truthful and pious men are always freed from ills. Death
cannot prematurely visit the pious (4). Enjoying their sixth portion,
the kings, the foremost of men, do not fear one another (5). Doing good
to their subjects and realizing duly tributes from their tributary kings
without being blamed by them, they fill up their treasuries with wealth
(6). Meting out mild punishment and being forbearing they govern their
respective prosperous provinces and protect the four Varnas (7). Without
creating disturbance amongst their subjects and being adored well by
their ministers and protected by the four divisions of army they are
enjoying the six means¹⁷⁵ (8). They are all well-versed in the science
of archery, observant of the Vedic rites and they all worship the gods
with sacrifices accompanied by profuse gifts (9). Having performed the
ceremony of initiation and studied the Vedas they propitiate the great
saints with chastity in thought, words and deeds and the ancestral
manes, hundreds of times, with holy Srāddhas (10). There is no such
object in the world, Vedic, customary, and scriptural that is not known
to them (11). Believing in the great Brahman, all those kings, effulgent
like the great Rishis, are endeavouring to bring back the golden age
(12). By their power Vāsava is pouring good showers, and the winds, with
dust removed, are duly blowing in the ten quarters (13). The earth is
freed of all the evil portends and the planets are ranging at ease in
the sky. United with the stars the moon is beautifully moving about in
the sky (14). The sun, that produces regular successions, is moving in
its two paths. Being propitiated by various oblations the fire has
become sweet scented (15). The sacrifices being thus duly undertaken and
multiplied the entire world is propitiated and men cherish no fear of
death (16). The earth has been oppressed by the power of those powerful
kings of brilliant fame following one another (17). The earth, exhausted
with this weight and assailed by the kings, has come before us like a
boat on the verge of being drowned (18). Oppressed by the kings
resembling the fire of dissolution and having the mountains shaken and
the oceans agitated the earth is repeatedly perspiring (19). With the
body, energy, strength and the extensive territories of the Kshatriyas
the earth is ever enjoying peace (20). In every city the king is
surrounded by ten millions of soldiers; in every kingdom, hundreds and
thousands of villages are growing prosperous and the earth has been
completely covered with thousands of kings, their powerful army and
millions of villages (21-22). Placing before her the Time, freed of all
diseases and being shorn of energy the Earth has come to my house. O
Vishnu, thou art her most excellent refuge (23). This Earth, the land of
human actions, has been greatly assailed. It behoves thee to do that by
which the eternal Earth, the stay of the universe, may not suffer
deterioration (24). O Madhusudana, great is the iniquity in oppressing
her, since on her being assailed all the works of the humanity will come
to a close and the universe will fare ill (25). Being oppressed by the
kings the earth has become evidently exhausted. Renouncing her firmness
and natural forbearance she has grown impatient (26). We have heard her
history. Thou hast listened to it also. We shall therefore consult with
thee for relieving her of her load (27).

"Wending righteous ways all these kings are multiplying their
territories. Amongst men the three other Varna are following the
Brāhmanas (28). All the words are truthful, all the Varnas are observing
their respective duties, all the Brāhmanas are studying the Vedas and
all other men are devoted to Brāhmanas (29). Thus exist men in the world
who are the instruments of righteousness. Let such practices be observed
by which virtue may not suffer deterioration (30). This earth is the
goal of the pious and none else. Virtue is the most excellent object
they should endeavour to secure. Therefore to relieve the earth of her
burden it is meet to destroy the kings. Therefore, O great one, come
with us to hold a consultation. With the earth before us let us go to
the summit of the mount Meru (31–32)." Having said this, O foremost of
kings, the self-controlled Grand Father of all, Brahmā, of great
effulgence, began to take rest with the earth (33).

  ¹⁷⁵ The six acts of a king, in his military character, are peace, war,
      marching, halting, sowing dissension and seeking protection.


Vaishampayana said:—Saying ’so be it’ the Lord, having the hue of a
cloud and voice like its muttering in an unfair day, went away with the
gods like a mountain covered with clouds (1). At that time Hari, having
a dark-blue person, put on shining matted locks crested with jems and
pearls like a cloud with the moon (2). On his spacious breast, the hairs
whereof stood erect, there was the mystic mark of Srivatsa (3). Wearing
two pieces of yellow raiment that eternal Hari, the preceptor of the
world, looked like a mountain covered with evening clouds (4). When he
began to proceed on the back of Garuda the Lotus-born Deity (Brahmā) and
the gods, having their eyes fixed on him, began to follow him (5).
Having reached the jewelled mountain in no time they saw the assembly
hall built after their own hearts (6). It was built on the summit of the
mount Sumeru, and was effulgent like the sun. Its pillars were made of
gold and its gateways were crested with diamonds. It contained diverse
paintings on account of its being constructed by the mind and hundreds
of cars. Its windows were covered with the jewelled nets. It could go
any where at will and was embellished with jems. It was filled with many
sorts of jewels and flowers made of various metals. That celestial
assembly hall, filled with celestial illusion, was constructed by
Viswakarmān¹⁷⁶ (7–9). All the gods, with delighted minds, sat duly on
the seats properly assigned to each of them, in that auspicious assembly
hall (10). They sat on cars, seats, Bhadrāsanas,¹⁷⁷ Pithas,¹⁷⁸ and seats
of Kutha¹⁷⁹ (11). Thereupon at the command of Brahmā, the wind
Prabhanjana began to patrol on all sides of the assembly hall so that
there might not arise any sound (12). When everything was silent and
calm in that assembly of the gods the Earth plaintively began to address
them in piteous accounts (13).

The Earth said:—O god, do thou uphold me. By thee the whole universe has
been sustained. Thou art protecting the creatures and three worlds (14).
Whatever thou dost sustain by thy energy and strength, I do afterwards
hold it by thy favour (15). Whatever thou dost hold I do hold it and
whatever thou dost not sustain I too do not keep it. There is no element
in the universe which thou canst not sustain (16). O lord Nārāyana, at
various cycles thou dost relieve me of my burthen for the behoof of the
world (17). Being possessed by thy energy I have gone to the region
underneath. O foremost of gods, I am at thy mercy. Do thou save me (18).
I have been assailed by the wicked Dānavas and Rākshasas. Thou art my
eternal saviour and I am always at thy mercy (19). I know it for hundred
times that as long as I shall not seek refuge with Nārāyana who relieves
me of all loads so long I shall be under the influence of a mighty fear
(20). Before agriculture, merchandise and other means of livelihood were
instituted by the lotus-sprung Brahmā, in the days of yore, I was
reduced in dimension. Binding me two great Asuras, made of earth, were
born before (21). While this high-souled Vishnu was sleeping in the
mighty deep they originated from the dirt of his ears and remained like
two logs of wood (22). Despatched by the Grand-Father, air, in the shape
of vital breath, entered into the body of those two Dānavas. Thereupon
covering the sky those two great Asuras began to grow up (23). Brahma
gradually touched them both who were gifted with vital breaths. One of
them appeared to be soft and the other hard (24). The water-born Lord
Brahmā then gave them names. The one, who was soft, was named Madhu and
the other, who was hard, was called Kaitava (25). When those two Daityas
were thus named they, elated with the pride of their strength and being
fearless, began to range in the world converted into one sheet of water,
seeking battle (26). Beholding them thus approach Brahmā, the
grand-father of all, disappeared in the water of the universal ocean
(27). The four-mouthed grand-father desired to live secretly in the
lotus sprung from the navel of the lotus-navelled Vishnu (28). When
Nārāyana’s grand-sons, Madhu and Kaitava thus lived in the water, they,
living there for many long years, were not the least agitated (29).
Thereupon after many years, those two demons, Madhu and Kaitava, came
where Brahmā was stationed (30). Beholding those two dreadful,
huge-bodied and irrepressible Dānavas, Brahmā, with the stalk of the
lotus, disturbed Nārāyana. Thereat the highly-effulgent lotus-navelled
Deity rose up from his bed (31). At that time the three worlds were
covered with water and so in that one sheet of water there took place a
terrible encounter between Nārāyana and Madhu and Kaitava (32). That
dreadful battle continued for thousand years and those two Dānavas did
not experience least exhaustion in the encounter (33). After a long time
those two Dānavas, dreadful in battle, with a delighted heart, said to
the Lord Nārāyana. "We have been greatly pleased with fighting with
thee. Thou art our most desirable death. Do thou bring about our
destruction at a place on earth which is not filled with water (34-35).
O foremost of gods, slain by thee we shall become thy sons who
vanquishes us in battle" (35).

Catching these two demons with his arms in battle Nārāyana assailed
them. Thereat Madhu and Kaitava met with death (37). Thus killed those
two Dāityas were saturated with water. Their two bodies were then fused
into one. And then churned by the waves of the water they began to
discharge fat. The water was covered with fat.

O sinless one, thereupon they disappeared and the Lord Nārāyana again
engaged in the work of creation (38-39). On account of my being covered
with the fat of the demons Madhu and Kaitava I have passed by the name
of _Medini_. I have become the eternal universe by the power of the
lotus-navelled deity (40).

Again assuming the form of a boar in the presence of the Muni Mārkandeya
the Lord raised me up from the water with one tusk (41). Again at
another time before your fiery presence the powerful Vishnu released me
from the Daitya chief Bali (42). Now being oppressed and having none to
protect me I have sought refuge with the Lord of the universe Gadādhara
who is ever fond of his votaries (43). Fire is the cause of gold, the
sun is the cause of stars and so Nārāyana is my support (44). I am alone
holding this universe consisting of mobile and immobile creations. And
Gādadhara is supporting all these held by me (45). Desirous of relieving
me of my burden Jamadagni’s son Rāma, out of anger, divested me, for
twenty-one times, of the Kshatriyas (46). Raising up a pillar of
victory, Bhrigu’s son Rāma propitiated me with royal blood at the
obsequial rites of his father and then communicated it to Kashyapa (47).
Filled with a bad stench coming out of fat, flesh and bones and
saturated with the blood of the Kshatriyas I appeared before Kashyapa
like a youthful damsel in her course (48). The Brāhmana saint Kashyapa
then said to me:—"O earth, why art thou so depressed? Why dost thou,
being the wife of a hero, observe the vow of humiliation" (49). Thereat
I said to Kashyapa, the Patriarch of the world:—"O Brāhman, the great
Bhārgava has killed all my husbands (50). I have been divested of all
the powerful Kshatriyas who live on arms, and have lost my husband. I do
not wish to carry on me empty cities (51). Therefore, O Reverend Sir,
confer upon me such a king as will be able to protect me abounding in
villages and cities and engarlanded by oceans" (52).

Hearing my words the Omnipotent Lord said "Let it be so." Thereupon he
gave me away to Manu, the king of men (53). Thereupon obtaining the
god-like kings of the Ikshāku race, originating from Manu, I, under the
influence of powerful time, passed from the hands of one king to those
of another (54). When the Lord bestowed me upon the intelligent Manu,
the king of men, many kings, born in the families of great saints, ruled
over me (55). Having conquered me many heroic Kshatriyas have gone to
the celestial region. Under the influence of time they have disappeared
in me (56). The powerful Kshatriyas, ever victorious in battle, fought
for me in this world with one another and they have been still fighting
even now (57). This is the end of destiny despatched by thee. If thou
hast commisseration for me, if thou dost wish to relieve me of my burden
do thou organise a war for the destruction of the kings for the behoof
of the world. May the beautiful holder of discus alone grant me
protection (58–59). May Nārāyana command me to whom I have come for help
oppressed with a load, if he thinks proper to relieve me of it (60).

  ¹⁷⁶ He was the architect of the gods.

  ¹⁷⁷ Most excellent seat.

  ¹⁷⁸ The seat of the religious student made properly of Kusa grass.

  ¹⁷⁹ A kind of tree.


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon hearing the words of the earth and
thinking minutely on her object the gods said to the grand-father (1).
"O Lord, thou hast created the bodies of all creatures. Thou art the
lord of all the worlds. Do thou therefore relieve the earth of her load.
O lord, if thou dost wish to accomplish the object of the earth in this
her calamity do thou, without delay, ascertain the duties of Mahendra,
Yama, Varuna, the king of riches, Nārāyana, the moon, the sun, the air,
the Adityās, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Patriarchs of the world, the
celestial physicians, the Aswinis, of the Sāddhyas, of Vrihaspati,
preceptor Sukra, of Kāla, of Kali, of Maheswara, of Kārtikeya, of
Yakshas, Rākshasas, Gandharvas, Chāranas, great serpents, of birds, huge
mountains and oceans consisting of great waves of rivers headed by Gangā
(2–8). O grand-father, how shall we send down our portions? Let us
create bodies, not born of any woman, in the family of those kings who
range in the sky, in that of the kings who tread the earth and in that
of courtier Brāhmanas and other princes (9-10)". Hearing this great
resolution of the gods assembled together for one common cause the
grand-father of all, eulogised by the celestials, said to them (11). "O
ye leading celestials, I like very much your resolution. Do you create
portions of your body on earth with your energy (12). Ye are all leading
celestials, do ye, with your energy, descend on earth. And acquiring the
prosperity of the three worlds do you relieve the earth of her burden
(13). Listen to what I did in the days of yore for removing the load of
her burden when I was informed of it (14).

"In the days of yore I was seated on the western bank of the eastern
ocean along with my grand-son the great Kashyapa (15). I was describing
various themes relating to the Vedas described before, as well as many
other episodes of the Purānas (16). While I was thus discoursing, you
all, accompanied by Maruts and the ocean and Gangā in their forms, came
to me (17). With rushing waves, clad in a variegated raiment of acquatic
animals, with a body shining with shells and pearls, adorned with corals
and jewels, accompanied by the moon and roaring like a cloud surcharged
with water, the ocean, as if vanquishing me, came to its bank. And
throwing up its salt waters he greatly distressed that place (18–20).
When the ocean was about to assail that place with his water I said to
him in angry words ’be quiet’ (21). No sooner I said ’be quiet’ than he
assumed a form. And with all his waves stilled he shone there in right
regal grace (22). Desirous of encompassing your well-being and relieving
the earth of her burden I imprecated a curse on the ocean and Gangā,
saying ’O ocean, since you have come in a regal form, go, you will be a
king. Performing many feats with your own power on earth, you will be
born in the race of the great Bharata and be a protector of men.
Although impatient you assumed a form as soon as I asked you to be
quiet. Therefore gifted with a beautiful person you will be celebrated
on earth by the name of Shāntanu. And this foremost of rivers, Gangā, of
unblemished limbs and expansive eyes, will go to you in a beautiful form
(23-27)’. When I said this, the ocean, being depressed at heart, looked
at me. He said ’O Lord, O god of gods, why dost thou imprecate a curse
on me? I always obey thy commands. I have been made by thee and am
always under thy protection. I am therefore thy son. Why hast thou then
cursed me in unbecoming words? (28–29). O lord, by thy favour, my waves
increased with the tides and so I was agitated. O Brāhman, how am I to
blame for this? (30). If during that time thou hast been touched by
water thrown up by the wind, what reason is there for thy imprecating a
curse on me (31)? I was agitated by three-fold instruments namely the
blowing wind, the increasing cloud and _Parva_ accompanied by the moon
(32). O Brahman, if I have committed any offence for these three
instruments set to work by thee it behoves thee to forgive me and let
there be an end of this curse (33). If dost thou find any evidence, O
lord of gods, do thou show me mercy who have been depressed by a curse
for no offence of mine (34). O lord, by thy command, this Gangā will
descend on earth. I am guilty but thou shouldst show mercy on this
innocent one (35).’

"Thereupon I said in sweet accents to the great ocean who had been
terrified and moved by the curse of the gods who were innocent of the
cause thereof. ’O you of great mind, O lord of rivers, be thou at ease,
do not fear, I have been propitiated with thee, Listen now to the future
object of this imprecation (36–37). O lord, renouncing this thy ocean
body, go to the race of Bharata. Then, O great ocean, O great king, you
will be enveloped with regal grace. There, O lord of waters, you will
govern the four Varnas and be pleased (38–39). And assuming, a beautiful
form of a woman, this Gangā, the foremost of rivers, will serve you
(40). Sporting with Jānhavi, by my command you will not experience human
miseries (41). O ocean, be you soon united with Gangā in wed-lock and
carry out my command (42). Exiled from the celestial region the Vasus
have entered the _Rasātala_. I appoint you for procreating them (43).
Let Jānhavi, for having offspring, conceive those eight Vasus who are
effulgent like fire and increase the joy of the celestials (44). Having
procreated the Vasus, multiplied the Kuru race and cast off your human
body, you will, in no time, assume your ocean body’ (45).

"O foremost of gods, thus in the days yore beholding the future burden
of the earth, I sowed the seeds of Shāntanu’s race for your well-being
in which have been born the Vasus who live in the celestial region
(46–47). Even now in the celestial region exists Gangā’s son Bhishma as
the eighth Vasu. The seven other Vasus have repaired to their respective
regions and only Vishnu is now living (48). The king Shāntanu begat on
his second wife the highly effulgent and powerful king Vichitravirya
(49). The two sons of Vichitravirya were the two famous kings of the
world Dhritarāstra and Pāndu, the two foremost of men (50). Of them
Pāndu had two beautiful and youthful wives. The first was named Kunti
and the second was named Mādri. And both of them were like the wives of
the celestials (51). Dhritarāshtra had one wife, by name Gāndhāri, who,
by stead-fastly serving her husband, became celebrated in the world
(52). Herein that house will be divided into two hostile parties and a
terrible dissension will take place amongst the sons of those two kings
(53). On account of the internal dissensions of these kings all the
royal families will be destroyed. A terrible fear, like the hour of
universal dissolution will then prevail (54). When all the kings, with
their armies, will be slain by one another the cities and kingdoms will
be shorn of their inhabitants and Earth will enjoy relief (55). I have
read in the Puranas that in the end of the Dwāpara Yuga, all the kings,
with their armies, will be destroyed by weapons. Then Ashwathama, a
portion incarnate of Sankara, with the fire of weapon, will consume the
remnant of humanity in battle lying unconscious, at night, in sleep
(56–57). When that one of cruel deeds, the like of death himself, will
desist, this story relating to the the Dwāpara Yuga, will come to a
close (58). When Ashwathāmā, a portion of Siva, will disappear, the
dreadful Kali Yuga of Maheswara will set in (59). In this Yuga people
will perpetrate many iniquities and there will flourish only a portion
of virtue. Truth will disappear and falsehood will be stored up (60). In
this Yuga, people will worship only Maheswara and Skanda; old and
long-lived men will not exist on the earth (61). I have thus described
the most excellent annihilation of the kings of this world. Therefore, O
ye celestials, descend on earth, without delay in your respective
portions (62). Let Kunti and Madri conceive portions of Dharma and let
Gandhāri conceive Kali the instrument of all dissensions (63). These
kings, urged on by destiny, will form two parties and being desirous of
securing the earth, will seek a war (64). Let Earth, who upholds all the
worlds, enter into her own native source. This sacred and well-known
means of the kings is thus created (65)." Hearing the words of the
Grand-father Earth with Kāla went away happily for encompassing the
destruction of the kings (66).

Thereupon Brahmā despatched the gods for slaying their enemies. The
ancient Rishi Nara the (Serpent) Sesha, that upholds the earth,
Sanatkumār, the Sadhyas, Agni, and other gods, Varuna, the Vasus, the
sun, the moon, the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Rudras, the Viswas, the
two Aswinis all descended on earth in their respective portions (67–69).
As described by me before the incarnations of the portions of gods,
those foremost of Purushas were born, through women or otherwise, on
earth as the destroyers of the Daityas and Dānavas. Some of them
multiplied their families like fig-trees. And some of them were
hard-bodied like thunder-bolts (70–71). Some of them were endued with
the strength of a million of elephants. Some of them were powerful like
mighty currents and some were capable of handling clubs, Parighas and
other weapons (72). All of them were capable of striking with the
summits of the mountains. Hundreds and thousands of men, having arms
like Parighas, were born in the race of Vrishnis. And the gods were born
in the races of Kuru and Panchala as kings. There were born in the
prosperous family of Yadus and those of Brāhmanas many sacrificers of
pious deeds, well read in the scriptures, mighty bow-men, observant of
Vedic rituals and endued with prosperity and accomplishments (73–75).
Whenever angry they could shake the mountains, the rivers, the surface
of the earth, rise up in the sky and agitate the mighty deep (76).

Having thus commanded the gods the Grand-father Brahmā, the master of
present, past, and future, consigned all the worlds to Nārāyana and
attained peace (77). Listen again to what the Omnipotent Nārāyana,
Vishnu, of sacred fame, the lord of wealth and life, did for the behoof
of creatures after incarnating himself on earth and taking birth in the
family of the intelligent Vasudeva, the descendant of Yayāti (78–79).


Vaishampayana said:—After Nārāyana, on his being successful, had
repaired to a house on the earth becoming his position, after the gods
had incarnated their portions in the race of Bharata, after the portions
of Dharma, Indra, Pavana, the celestial physicians the two Aswinis, and
the sun had descended on earth, after the priest, of the gods, had come
down on earth, in a portion of his, after the eighth portion of Vasus
had come down on earth, after the portion of Death, Kali had been on
earth, after the portion of Sukra, Varuna, Sankara, Mitra, Kuvera,
Gandharvas, Uragas and Yakshas had come down earth Nārada came out of a
portion of Nārāyana’s energy¹⁸⁰ (1-6). He was effulgent like fire, had
eyes like the rising sun and had huge and all-spreading matted locks. He
wore a raiment white like the rays of the moon and was adorned with
golden ornaments (7). He carried a big _Vina_¹⁸¹ like a female companion
always confined in room, had an antelope skin thrown on his body and a
sacred thread made of gold. With a staff and _Kamandalu_¹⁸² in his hands
he appeared like second Sakra (8). That great sage always used to pick
up quarrels, was learned, well-read in _Gandharva-Veda_¹⁸³ and was
capable of deciphering the secret cause of dissensions in this world.
That Brāhmana used to create enemies of his own accord and was like the
second Kali himself. That great Muni was the first speaker in the land
of gods and Gandharvas, was the chanter of the four Vedas and was the
reciter of the first Rik. That immortal sage Nārada, ever ranging in the
region of Brahmā, with a depressed heart said to Vishnu in the midst of
the assembled gods. "O Nārāyana, useless have been the incarnations of
the gods for the destruction of the kings (9-13). O lord of the
celestial region, thyself existing here, this dissension of the kings
will be productive of no fruit. Methinks their work cannot be
accomplished without Nārāyana’s Yoga (14). O god of gods, thou art wise
and observant of the true essence of things. It has not been proper for
thee to institute such a work for the earth (15). Thou art the vision of
the eyes and the lord of the powerful. Thou art the foremost of the
Yogins and the refuge of all (16). Beholding the incarnation of the gods
on earth why didst not thou send, first of all, a portion of thy energy
to relieve the earth of her burden? (17). Making thee their help, and
being identical with and guided by thee all the gods will swim on this
earth from one action to another (18). I have therefore hastened to the
presence of these assembled gods to send thee, O Vishnu; hear the reason
thereof (19). O Nārāyana, hear of the movements of those Daityas who,
amongst many that had been slain by thee in the war of which Tārakā was
the root, have gone to the face of the earth (20). There is a delightful
city on the face of the earth by name Mathurā. It is situate on the bank
of Yamunā and abounds in many prosperous, villages. There was a great
Dānava, irrepressible in battle, by name Madhu. He was highly powerful
and a terror to all creatures (21–22). There was a vast and dreadful
forest by name Madhu abounding in huge trees where he used to live
formerly (23). The great Dānava Lavana was Madhu’s son. He was gifted
with profuse strength and was a terror to all creatures (24). Sporting
there for many years, that Dānava, elated with pride, terrorized all the
gods and others (26). When the pious son of Dasharatha, Rāma, a terror
to the Rākshasas, was ruling in Ayodhya, that Dānava, eulogised by all
the Daityas, repaired to a dreadful forest. Lavana despatched to Rāma, a
harsh-speeched emissary. He said ’O Rāma, I am living near your
territory. The Dānava Lavana is your enemy. The kings do not wish to
have a powerful enemy (26–28). A king, who seeks the well-being of his
subjects, observes his royal duties and wishes to multiply his
territories and riches, should always defeat his enemies (29). That
king, desirous of pleasing his subjects, who has his hairs wet with the
water of installation,¹⁸⁴ should first of all conquer his senses, for
mastery over senses is the sure victory (30), The king, who wishes to
keep his position always intact and strong, should instruct his men in
moral laws for there is no other preceptor like him to the people (31).
If when placed in the midst of dangers and vices, an intelligent king
strengthens himself by his army he is not to entertain any fear of his
enemies (32). All men are killed by their senses, the powerful enemies
born with them. An impatient king is slain by the false notion of good
done to them by their enemies (33). On account of your wife, you have,
out of foolish attachment, killed Rāvana with his army. I do not
consider that sinful action of yours as great and becoming (34). Living
in a forest and observing a vow you have killed a mean Rakshasa. Such a
conduct is not seen in the pious (35). Virtue, begotten of forbearance,
takes the pious to an auspicious and righteous station. Out of ignorance
you have killed Rāvana and honoured the forest ranging Vanaras¹⁸⁵ (36).
Indeed Rāvana is blessed, since you, while observing a vow, killed him
in battle for your wife, in pursance of the conduct of ordinary men
(37). That wicked-minded Rāvana, who has not controlled his senses, has
been killed by you in battle. You are therefore capable of fighting.
Come and fight with me to-day’ (38).

"Hearing those words of that harsh-speeched emissary, Rāma, out of
forbearance, smilingly said to him:—’O Emissary, what you have said, out
of honor to that night-ranger, is unfair, since you have been blaming me
and considering yourself at ease (39–40). What is there to blame, if,
wending the ways of righteousness, I have been stupified, if Rāvana has
been slain and my wife has been carried away (41), The virtuous, always
following the ways of morality, do not blame others even with their
words. As the God is always awake for the pious, He is equally so for
the wicked (42), You have done what is the duty of a messenger. Go now
and make no delay. Persons like me do not hurt the mean: who are fond of
making too much of themselves (43). Here is my younger brother
Satrughna, the repressor of enemies in battle. He will wait for that
wicked-minded demon (44).’ Thus addressed by Rāma and commanded by that
king that messenger set out with Satrughna. Ascending upon a
quick-coursing car, Sumitra’s son Satrughna repaired to the huge forest
of Madhu and desirous of entering into a battle pitched a tent there

"Thereupon hearing the words of that messenger the demon Lavana was
beside himself with anger. Leaving behind the Madhu forest he started
for battle. Then there took place a terrible encounter between Satrughna
and Lavana. They were both heroic and mighty bowmen. Both of them struck
each other with sharpened arrows. None of them fled back from the
battle-field and none of them felt himself tired (47-49).

"Thereupon greatly assailed in battle by Satrughna’s shafts the Dānava
Lavana met with discomfiture for he had not his mace with him (50).
Afterwards taking up a celestial Sankhusha, that was given to him as a
boon and was capable of grinding all creatures, Lavana began to shout in
the battle (51). He caught of hold Satrughna’s turban with it and began
to draw in Rāghava’s younger brother (52). Thereat taking up a most
excellent dagger having a golden handle Satrughna cut off with it
Lavana’s head in that great battle (52). Having slain that demon Lavana
in battle, that heroic son of Sumitra, who gives delight to his friends,
cleared off his forest with his weapons (54). Having cleared that forest
that pious son of Sumitrā, Satrughna, built a city there for the
well-being of that province and desired to live there. Having killed, in
the days of yore, the demon Lavana in Mudhu forest Setrughna built a
city there by name Mathurā (55–56). That great city was adorned with
walls, gate ways and doors. It contained many villages, high buildings
and gardens. Its boundaries were well laid and it was beautifully built.
The walls were very high. The ditches were like the ornament that a
woman uses round her waist. The buildings, made of stone and bricks,
were like Keyuras. Beautiful palaces were like the ear-rings. The
well-protected gates were like the veils and the prominades were like
smiles. It contained many healthy heroes, elephants, horses and cars. It
resembled a crescent and was situate on the bank of Yamuna. It contained
beautiful markets and was proud of her collection of jems. The fields
there were full of corns. The king of gods (Indra) used to pour showers
in proper season. Men and women there were always delightful. The highly
powerful king Surasena, born in the race of Bhojas, reigned there. He
was powerful like Mahāsena and was celebrated by the name of Ugrasena

"He whom thou hast killed, O Vishnu, is his son. The Daitya, by name
Kālanemi, whom thou didst slay in the battle of which Tāraka was the
root, is born as Kansa, and is the scion of the Bhoja race. That king,
who treads like a lion, is celebrated in the world (64–65). He is a
terror to all the kings of the world and a dread to all creatures. He is
always beyond the path of righteousness (66). He is highly persevering
and ruthless. He is so very haughty to his subjects that seeing him
their hairs stand erect (67). He never observes his royal duties and is
never a source of pleasure to his own men. He never does any good to his
kingdom and behaves always like a tyrant (68). He, who was vanquished by
thee in Tāraka battle, is now born as Kansa in the Bhoja race. That one,
living on meat, is oppressing all the worlds, with his demonaic heart
(69). He, who was like a horse and known by the name, Hayagriva, is born
as Keshi the youngest brother of Kansa (70). That wicked bodiless demon
with manes, neighing like a horse, is now living alone in Vrindāvana. He
lives on human flesh (71). Bali’s son Aristha is born as the great Asura
Kakudmi, capable of assuming forms of his own accord. Adopting the form
of a bull he has become an enemy of the kine (72). Diti’s son Ristha,
the foremost of Danavas, is born as Kansa’s elephant (73). That dreadful
demon Lamva is born as Pralamva. He is living under a fig-tree by name
Bhandara (74). That demon, who was known by the name of Khara, is born
as the dreadful Asura Dhanuka. Living in the forest of palm-trees he is
making a havoc of creatures (75). Those two foremost of Danavas, by name
Varaha and Kishora, have been born as wrestlers Chanuka and Musthika who
are always at the arena (76). Those two Danavas Maya and Tara, who were
like death even to the demons, are now living in the city of Bhumi’s son
Naraka, by name Prāgyotish (77).

"O Nārāyana, thou didst slay all these Danavas and divest them of their
forms. Assuming human bodies they are now oppressing the people of the
world (78). They oppose the chanting of thy name and destroy thy
votaries. By thy favour only they will meet with destruction (79). In
heaven they are afraid of thee, in ocean they are afraid of thee and
even on earth they afraid of thee. There is no other source of fear to
them (80). O Sridhar, thou dost slay the wicked Dānavas; none else can
accomplish their destruction. The Daityas, who are sent away from
heaven, find refuge on earth (81).

"O Keshava, thou being awake, it is difficult for that demon to go again
to heaven, who, on his being slain in the celestial region, again rises
up assuming a human body (82). Therefore, O Nārāyana, do thou come to
the world. We are also descending on earth. Do thou create your own self
for the destruction of Dānavas (83). The forms of thine, which are not
manifest, are both visible and invisible to the celestials. In those
forms, the gods, created by thee, shall descend on earth (84).

"O Vishnu, when thou shalt come down on earth, Kansa will not be able to
reign and the object, for which the earth has come, will also be
accomplished (85). Thou art the preceptor of all works in the land of
Bharata, thou art the eye of all and the supreme refuge. Therefore, O
Hrishikesha do thou come on earth and slay those wicked Dānavas (86)".

  ¹⁸⁰ Dharma’s incarnation was Yudhishthira, Sakra’s was Arjuna and
      Pavana’s was Bhimasena. The two Aswinis incarnated themselves as
      Nakula and Sahadeva. The sun incarnated himself as Karna, the
      priest of the gods Vrihaspati as Drona, the eighth Vasu as
      Bhishma, death as Vidura, Kali as Duryodhana, Soma as Abhimanyu,
      Sukra as Bhurisrava, Varuna as Srutayudha, Sankara as Ashwathama,
      Mitra as Kanika, Kuvera as Dhritarashtra. The Gandharva and others
      incarnated themselves as Ugrasena, Dushasana and others.

  ¹⁸¹ A stringed musical instrument.

  ¹⁸² A vessel to carry water.

  ¹⁸³ The art of music. This was the special gift of the Gandharvas.

  ¹⁸⁴ The usual practice is that at the time of installation sacred
      water is sprinkled on the head of a king. The meaning is that who
      has gone through the ceremony of installation.

  ¹⁸⁵ Properly speaking they were not monkeys but a barbarous race
      living in a province of the Southern India.


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Nārada the Lord Madhusudana,
the master of gods, smilingly said in auspicious words (1):—"O Nārada,
listen to a proper reply to all these words which you have addressed to
me for the well-being of the three worlds (2). It is known to me that
all these Dānavas, assuming human forms, have been born on earth (3). I
know too that Kansa is born as the son of Ugrasena on earth. I know also
that Keshi is born as a horse (4). I know also the elephant
Kuvalayapida, the wrestlers Chānura and Mushthika and the demon Arishtha
in the shape of a bull (5). Khara and the great Asura Pralamva are also
known to me. Bali’s daughter Putanā is also well known to me (6). I know
also Kāliya who is living in the lake of Yamunā and who has entered
there in fear of Vinatā’s son¹⁸⁶ (7). I know also Jarāsandha who is the
head of all kings; and the demon Naraka, who is living in the city of
Prāgyotish, is also very well-known to me (8). In the city of Shonitpura
on earth Bāna is born as a man. That energetic and haughty demon, of
thousand arms, is invincible even unto the gods. I know also that the
great charge of Bhāratvarsa lies with me (9-10). I know also how all
these kings will disappear. The destruction of those danavas, in human
forms, who never come back from battle-field and the rejoicing of the
region of Sakra has also been seen by me (11). For myself and for others
I shall enter into Yoga. Going to the region of men and assuming a human
form I shall bring about the destruction of all those mighty demons
headed by Kansa. I shall slay him by that means by which he will enjoy
peace (12–13). By my Yoga I shall resort to all these means. It is my
incumbent duty to destroy all those enemies of the gods in battle (14).
I shall kill the foes of all those great ones who have sacrificed
themselves on behalf of the earth, of all those gods, Rishis and
Gandharvas who have come down on earth at my behest (15). O Nārada, I
have already formed this resolution. Let the grand-father Brahmā make a
house there for me (16). O grand-father, do thou relate to me, how, born
in what country and living in what house I shall kill them (17)".

Brahma said:—O lord, O Nārāyana, hear from me of that key to success and
who your parents will be on earth (18). In order to glorify their family
you will be born in the race of Yādavas (19). Eradicating these Asuras
for good and multiplying your great family you will establish the orders
of mankind. Hear from me about this (20).

O Nārāyana, in the days of yore, in the great sacrifice of the
high-souled Varuna, Kashyapa stole away all the cows giving milk for the
sacrifice (21). Kashyapa had two wives, Aditi and Surabhi who did not
wish to accept the kine from Varuna (24). Thereupon coming to me and
bowing with his head down Varuna said "O revered one, the preceptor has
stolen away all my kine (23). Having accomplished his object, even, O
father, he has not ordered the return of those kine. He is under the
control of his two wives Aditi and Surabhi (24). O lord, all those my
kine give heavenly and eternal milk whenever wished. Protected by their
own power they range in the seas (25). They perpetually yeild milk like
unto the ambrosia of gods. Save Kashyapa there is none else who can
charm them (26). O Brahmā, a master, a preceptor or whoever he may be if
one goes astray thou dost control him. Thou art our supreme refuge (27).
O preceptor of the world, if punishment is not meted out to powerful
persons who do not know their own work, then the order of the world will
not exist (28). Thou art omnipotent and lord of all. Do thou give me my
kine, I will go then to the ocean (29). These kine are my soul—they are
my endless strength. Of all thy creation the kine and the Brāhmanas are
the eternal sources of energy (30). First of all the kine should be
saved. When they are saved they protect the Brāhmanas. The world is
upheld by the protection of the kine and Brāhmanas" (31).

O Achyuta, thus addressed by Varuna, the king of water, and being truly
informed of the pilfering of the kine I imprecated a curse on Kashyapa
(32). With that portion, in which the high-souled Kashyapa stole the
kine, he will be born as a milkman on earth (33). His two wives Surabhi
and Aditi, who are like pieces of wood for the birth of gods, will also
go with him (34). Being born as a milkman with them he will live there
happily. That portion of Kashyapa, equally powerful like himself, will
pass by the name of Vasudeva and will live amongst the kine on earth.
Near Mathurā there is a mountain by name Govardhana (35-36). Paying
tribute to Kansa he lives there being attached to kine. His two wives
Aditi and Surabhi are born as the two wives of Vasudeva by name Devaki
and Rohini. Being born there as a boy having all the characteristics of
a milkman he there grew up as thou didst do before in thy form with
three footsteps. Then covering thyself with the form (of Yoga), O
Madhusudana, do thou go there for the well-being of the world. With
exclamations of thy victory and benediction all these gods are welcoming
thee. Descending on earth and taking thy birth from Rohini and Devaki do
thou please them. Thousands of milk maids will also cover the earth
(37-42). O Vishnu, when thou shalt range in the forest tending kine they
will see thy beautiful form adorned with garlands of wild flowers (43).
O thou having eyes like lotus petals, O large-armed Nārāyana, when thou
wilt go as a boy to the villages of milkmen all people will become boys
(44). O thou having lotus eyes, being milkmen with their minds devoted
to thee all thy votaries will help thee; tending kine in the forest,
running in pastures and bathing in the water of Yamunā they will acquire
a great attachment for thee. And Vasudeva’s life will be a blessed one
(45–46). Thou wilt address him as thy father and he will address thee as
his son. Save Kashyapa whom else canst thou accept as thy father (47)? O
Vishnu, save Aditi who else can conceive thee? Therefore by thy
self-begotten Yoga do thou proceed for victory, O Madhusudana. We too
repair to our respective habitations (48).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having ordered the gods to repair to the celestial
region the Lord Vishnu went to his own abode on the northern side of the
ocean of milk (49). In this quarter there is a cave of the mount Sumeru
difficult of being trodden, which is worshipped with his three
foot-steps during the solistice (60). Having left there, in the cave,
his old body the omnipotent and intelligent Hari despatched his soul to
the house of Vasudeva (61).

  ¹⁸⁶ Garuda who used to eat up serpents.


Vaishampayana said:—Being informed of the descension of Vishnu and of
the portions of other gods, the celestial saint Nārada repaired to the
city of Mathurā to communicate the future death of Kansa (1). Coming
down from the celestial region and arriving at the garden of Mathurā,
that foremost of Munis sent a messenger to Kansa, the son of Ugrasena
(2). He communicated the arrival of the Muni at the garden. Hearing of
the arrival of Nārada, that Asura, having lotus-like eyes, speedily went
out of his city. He saw there his guest, the praiseworthy Brāhmana saint
Nārada, shorn of all sins, powerful like the sun and effulgent like
fire. Having bowed unto him and worshipped him duly he brought for him a
golden seat shining like fire. That Muni, the friend of Sakra, sat on
that seat (3–6).

He then said to the highly wrathful son of Ugrasena:—O hero, you have
duly worshipped me with works laid down in the scriptures. Hear now and
accept what I say. O my son, ranging in Nandana and Chaitraratha
gardens, in Brahmā and other celestial regions I arrived at the great
mount Sumeru, the friend of the sun (7–9). The gods also followed me.
Having bathed in the holy water of all the sacred rivers I saw the
celestial Gangā of three courses and streams, who dissipates all sins as
soon as she is recollected. Thereupon having bathed, in order, at all
those sacred shrines I saw Brahmā’s palace, resorted to by the Brāhmana
saints and filled with the music of the gods, Gandharvas and Apsaras

Once on a time the Grand-Father held a meeting of the gods on the summit
of the mount Sumeru. I, too, taking up my Vinā, set to tune, came to
that meeting of Brahmā and saw that the Grand-Father and the gods,
adorned with white turbans and diverse jewels, and seated on celestial
seats, were holding counsels (13–14). O great king, I heard there that
they, with their followers, were concerting dreadful measures for your
destruction (15). The child, of the eighth conception of your youngest
sister Devaki who lives in Mathurā, will be your death (16). O hero, it
has been ascertained that your death will proceed from that self-born
(Vishnu) who is the stay of heaven, is the great mystery of the gods and
is identical with all (17), O Kansa, to meet with death at the hands of
that god of Gods, as has been settled upon, is a matter of glory to you.
Therefore remember him now. Try to destroy the conception of Devaki and
enjoy all your wealth and articles of pleasure. I love you very much and
therefore I have come here and described to you what took place on the
summit of the mount Sumeru. I; now leave you. May you fare well (17–20).

Vaishampāyana said:—After Nārada had said this and gone away Kansa,
meditating on his words, began to laugh aloud with his lips open, and
smilingly said to his servants who were before him. "Truly the gods make
fun with Narada and he has no knowledge of things (21–22). Even when I
am seated on my throne, asleep, mad or intoxicated, the gods headed by
Vāsava cannot terrify me the least (23). Who is there in the land of men
who can dare make me angry? I can even agitate the earth with these two
my huge arms (24). From to-day I shall greatly oppress men, beasts,
birds and all other creatures who follow the gods (25). Do ye issue this
command to Keshi, in the shape of a horse, Pralamva, Dhenuka, Aristha,
in the form of a bull, Putanā, Kaliya and other demons (26). Assuming
diverse forms do ye range all over the world and destroy them whom you
will find against me (27). Nārada has said that our fear proceeds from
conception and therefore you should always be informed of the movements
of all those who have been conceived by women (28). When I am your
master you need not be afraid of any accidental calamity. Therefore
freed of all anxiety do ye enjoy objects of pleasure of your own accord
(29). Narada is greatly fond of quarrels and is intent on creating
dissensions. In order to set one against another that Brāhmana, with a
restive mind, travels in all the worlds, creates dissensions even
amongst men of highly quiet temparament and works out enmity amongst
kings by various means" (30–31).

Having vauntingly said this Kansa entered his own palace but his heart
was burning with the fire of anger (32).


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon worked up with anger Kansa said to all his
well-meaning ministers:—"Do ye always be on your guard for destroying
the (eight born) children of Devaki (1). The calamity, which we suspect,
should be eradicated. Therefore from the very beginning destroy all the
embryos of Devaki (2). Let Devaki, well guarded in the inner appartment
by the warders, range there confidently. And when she conceives keep her
with care (3). As soon as she will conceive, the women of my harem will
count the months from the very first, and being informed of the time of
delivery we will do what we think proper (4). Let Vasudeva too be kept
unconsciously day and night in the inner appartment by eunuchs and women
engaged in my well being. Let no body disclose to him the secret (5).
With these human efforts people should accomplish their objects. Hear
how persons like me avert the course of destiny (6). Even an adverse
destiny is made propitious by well employed _mantras_, properly
administered medicines, care and devotion (7)."

Vaishampāyana continued:—Hearing from Nārada, the account of his death,
Kansa, out of fear, began to hold counsels as to how he should destroy
Devaki’s embryo (8). On the other hand, being informed of the portendous
and dreadful efforts of Kansa while out of sight, the powerful Vishnu
began to think (9) "Bhoja’s descendant Kansa will destroy the first
seven children of Devaki. In her eighth conception I shall have to live
in her womb" (10). While thus meditating his mind flew where the
Saragarbha Danavas, by name, Hansa, Suvikrātha, Damana, Ripunardana, and
Krodhahartā were living in the water (11). These immortal-like
Saragarbhas, the sons of Kālanemi, were powerful like the celestials,
were of effulgent persons and experts in battle (12). Leaving their own
grand-father Hiranyakasipu and wearing mantted locks those Saragarbha
Daityas worshipped the Grand-father of all, Brahmā, with hard penances
who, being pleased, conferred on them the following boon (13-14).

Brahma said:—"O ye foremost of Dānavas, I have been greatly pleased with
your ascetic austerities. Express to me clearly your wishes, I shall
grant them to you all." (15). Encouraged by Brahmā’s words the Daityas
said "O lord, if thou art pleased with us do thou confer upon us this
best of boons. O Brahman, if thou art ready to confer upon us a boon, do
thou grant us such a one as may render us unslayable by the gods, the
huge Uragas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Siddhas, Chāranas, men and by the
great Rishis ever engaged in penances, whose weapons are their curses"

The Grand-father was greatly delighted at heart with their ascetic
observances and therefore affectionately said to them:—"What you have
prayed for will all be accomplished." Having conferred this boon on
Saragarbhas the self-born repaired to the celestial region.

Thereupon Hiranyakasipu addressed them in angry words saying (19–20).
"By your disregarding me and praying for a boon to the lotus-sprung
Brahmā, you have become my enemies. I therefore have no affection for
you and forsake you all. That father, who has given you the high
sounding name of _Saragarbha_, will kill you all while in embryo
(21–22.) O ye great Asuras Saragarbhas, you all six will be born in
order from Devaki and Kansa will kill you (23)."

Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon repairing to the nether region Vishnu
arrived where Saragarbha Asuras, on account of the imprecation of
Hiranyakasipu, were living in the womb of water. He saw them lying there
possessed by death-like sleep (24–25). Thereupon entering into the body
of the Saragarbhas in a state of dream, Vishnu, having truth for his
prowess, caught hold of their vital breaths and consigned them to the
care of sleep. He said "O sleep, by my command take the vital airs of
all these leading Dānavas Saragarbhas and place them in order in the
womb of Devaki (26-28). They will be born of her womb and proceed to the
abode of Death. Kansa’s efforts will be baffled and Devaki’s labour will
be crowned with success (29). I will show you such a favour that like me
you will be powerful on earth and adored of all creatures (30).
Thereupon when my gentle portion will be conceived by Devaki in her
seventh conception, take that eldest brother of mine in the seventh
month and place him within Rohini’s womb (31). On account of his thus
being taken away from the womb, that moon-like elder brother of mine
will pass, in his youth, by the name of Sangkarsana (32). Thereupon
thinking that ’Devaki has untimely given birth to a child out of fear in
the seventh time’ Kansa will be very careful for the eighth time when I
will be in her womb (33). O goddess, may you fare-well; as being the
ninth of our race, you will be conceived by Yashodā, the best of
milk-women, the most beloved wife of Nanda the master of Kansa’s kine.
You will be born on the ninth day of the dark half of the month (34–35).
I too, in the middle of the night under the influence of Abhijit,¹⁸⁷
will come out happily of the womb (36). O sleep, highly dreadful is
Kansa’s rule. Therefore in the eighth month, we will be simultaneously
born (and exchanged by Vasudeva) (37). I will be taken to Yashodā and
you will be taken to Devaki. By this our interchange Kansa will be
stupified (38). Then taking you by the leg he will dash you against a
stone; you will then at once go up to the sky and attain to your eternal
region (39). O goddess, there the effulgence of your face will be like
that of Sangkarshana and your body will be dark-blue like mine and your
arms will be as huge as those of mine (40). O sleep, when armed with an
uplifted mace of three heads, and with a dagger of golden handles, when
with a cup full of wine and a clean lotus, when adorned with a blue
raiment and a yellow cloth thrown round your breast, you will occupy the
road of the celestials, your breast will adorned with a necklace shining
like the rays of the moon, your two ears will be adorned with two
celestial _Kundalas_ and your countenance will shine like the moon
(41-43). O goddess, adorned, at my command, with a wonderful crown and
hair nets, with flags of peacock feather and _Angadas_, embellishing the
ten quarters, with your dreadful arms resembling the serpents, encircled
by terrible goblins and observing the vow of celibacy you will enter
into the celestial region (44–46). When you will reach the land of gods,
the thousand-eyed Indra will confer upon you the dignity of a god by
sprinkling you with water according to the rules laid down by me and
accept you as his sister. Having been adopted in the family of Kushika
you will pass by the name of Koushika (47–48). Afterwards when Vāsava
will assign to you the mount Vindhyā for your habitation you will adorn
the world with thousand provinces (49). On whomever on earth you will
bestow a boon while ranging of your own accord in the three worlds, he
will at once attain to the fruit thereof (50). O goddess, there thinking
of me in your mind, and starting with the goblins you will kill the two
demons Shumbha and Nishumbha living in mountain, with all their
attendants (51). O sleep, you are greatly fond of an offering of meat.
You will therefore, on a _Navami_,¹⁸⁸ receive, on earth, worship
accompanied by the sacrifice of beasts (52). Children or wealth, it will
not be difficult to acquire any of these for him, who, amongst men
cognizant of my prowess, will bow unto you (53). You will save them all
from danger, those who will be tired in a huge forest, those who will be
drowned in a mighty deep, those who will be attacked by robbers (54). O
auspicious lady, I will not kill him who will propitiate you with
devotion nor will he meet with ruin at my hands (55)".

  ¹⁸⁷ One of the _Nakshatras_ or lunar asterisms.

  ¹⁸⁸ The ninth day of the dark half of the month.


Vaishampayana said:—Having saluted the goddess Nārāyani, the mistress of
the three worlds I shall recite the sacred hymn as sung by the ancient
Rishis (1).

"O goddess, thou art the salvation, intelligence, glory, bashfulness,
learning, advancement and inclination of all the worlds. Thou art
identical with twilight, night, ray, sleep and the night of death (2).
Thou art designated as the worshipful goddess Kātyāyani, Koushiki,
observant of the vow of celibacy and the mother of Kārtikeya. Thou art
highly powerful and dost practise hard austerities (3). O goddess, thou
art Jayā, Vijayā, satisfaction, nourishment, forgiveness and mercy. Thou
art clad in a blue silken raiment and the eldest sister of Yama (4).
Thou art of various forms, art without any, hast dreadful and large eyes
and art the protector of thy votaries (5). O great goddess, living on
the summits of fearful mountains, in rivers, caves, and forest and being
adored by Savaras,¹⁸⁹ Varvaras¹⁹⁰ and Pulindas¹⁹¹ thou dost traverse the
worlds in a car consisting of peacock-feathered flags (6-7). Surrounded
by cocks, goats, lambs, lions and tigers and worshipped by the ringing
of bells thou dost always live in the mount Vindhyā (8). Thou dost hold
trident, Pattisha and other weapons. The sun and the moon are thy flags.
Thou art the ninth day of the dark half of the month and the eleventh
day of the light half (9). Thou art the quarrelsome Rajani, the sister
of Baladeva, the abode of all creatures, the death and the supreme end
of all animals and the daughter of the milk-man Nanda who carries the
victory of the gods. Thou dost wear bark, excellent cloth and art the
dreadful twilight (10-11). Thou art of dishevelled hairs and the death.
Thou art fond of wine and meat. Although thou art Lakshmi (of beautiful
form) thou dost assume a dreadful form for the destruction of the
Dānavas (12). Thou art Sāvitri¹⁹² of the Vedas, the mother of _mantras_,
the celibacy of the maidens, the good luck of women, the external altar
of the sacrifices, the gift of the priest, the plough of the
cultivators, the earth of all creatures, the success of sea-faring
merchants, the bank of the ocean, the first woman of the Yakshns,¹⁹³
Surasa¹⁹⁴ of Nāgas, art conversant with the knowledge of Brahman,
initiation and great beauty. Thou art the effulgence of luminous bodies,
Rohini of stars, the consummate prosperity in courts, forts, confluences
of rivers and the full-moon (13–17). Thou art the goddess of learning in
Valmiki,¹⁹⁵ the memory of Dwaipayana¹⁹⁶ the intellect of the Rishis in
religious matters, the determination of the gods and dost live in all
creatures as the goddess of wine adored by thy own deeds (18). O
goddess, thou art the charming look of the thousand eyes of the king of
gods, the Arani of the Agnihotra ascetics, the hunger of all creatures,
the gratification, oblation, intellect and brain of the celestials, the
receptable of all the Vasus, the hope of men and the pleasure of all
those who are crowned with success. Thou art the direction, the contrary
direction, the flame of fire, ray, Shakuni, Putanā, the terrible Revati,
the over-powering sleep of all creatures and Kshatrya (19-22). Thou art
Brahmavidya¹⁹⁷ in learning, Om¹⁹⁸ and Vasha¹⁹⁹. The Rishis know thee as
the ancient Parvati amongst women (23). As said by Brahmā thou art
Arundhati²⁰⁰ amongst chaste women. Truly thou hast been designated by
the gods as Indrani²⁰¹ (24). This universe, mobile and immobile, is
permeated by thee. Undoubtedly thou art the saviour in battle, burning
fire, rivers, fear of thieves, caves, foreign countries, courts, in
assailing the enemies and in all other matters where life is at stake
(25–26). My heart, mind and reasoning faculty are all devoted to thee.
Do thou save me from all sins; show me this favour (27).

"O goddess, thou art always propitiated with him, who, rising up early
in the morning, purifying himself and controlling his mind, will read
this heavenly hymn (28). Thou dost give their desired-for objects to
those who recite it for three months, and a most excellent boon to those
who do it for six months, and celestial vision to those who continue it
for nine months and _Siddhi_ as they desire to those who sing it for one
full year (29–30). O goddess, as recorded by the great saint Krishna
Dwaipayana thou art the supreme Brahman identical with truth. Thou dost
drive away the fear of men, proceeding from chains, death, the
destruction of children and wealth and disease. Assuming various forms
at thy will, thou dost confer boons (31–32). Stupifying Kansa thou shalt
alone enjoy the world. And I shall adopt the life of a milk-man amongst
kine. For accomplishing my own work I shall become Kansa’s milk-man"

Having thus addressed (the goddess of sleep) the lord disappeared and
she too, saluting him, expressed her consent by saying, "So be it" (34).

  ¹⁸⁹ A barbarian race inhabiting the mountainous districts of India and
      wearing the feathers of the peacock as decorations.

  ¹⁹⁰ One of a degraded tribe or occupation.

  ¹⁹¹ A barbarian using an uncultivated and unintelligible dialect.

  ¹⁹² The holy verse of the repetition of which forms an essential part
      of the ceremonies, enjoined to the Brāhmanas for daily

  ¹⁹³ The mother of Kuvera.

  ¹⁹⁴ The mother of the Nagas.

  ¹⁹⁵ According to tradition Valmiki obtained a boon from the goddess of
      learning and composed his great work Ramayana.

  ¹⁹⁶ Dwaipayana Vyasa was celebrated for his memory for he had by heart
      all the Vedas and Puranas.

  ¹⁹⁷ Knowledge of spirit which is regarded as the best of all forms of

  ¹⁹⁸ The mystic name of the deity, prefacing all the prayers and most
      of the writings of the Hindus, from A a name of Vishnu, U Siva and
      Ma Brahma. It therefore implies the Indian triad and expresses the
      three in one.

  ¹⁹⁹ oblation with fire.

  ²⁰⁰ The wife of the sage Vasistha.

  ²⁰¹ The queen of gods, the wife of Indra.


Vaishampayana said:—Under these arrangements the celestial-like Devaki
conceived for seven times as described before (1). Kansa killed the
_Sargarbhas_ by dashing them against a stone, as soon as they came out.
The embryo of the seventh conception was transferred to Rohini (2). Once
on a time at the dead of night while Rohini was sleeping a sound sleep
there took place a discharge of blood followed by an abortion (3).
Rohini, in a dream, saw the falling of her embryo and when she awoke, a
little after, she was greatly pained on not seeing it (4). In that dark
night Vasudeva’s wife Rohini, resembling the moon, was worked up with
great anxiety; thereat the goddess of sleep said to her (5). "O fair
one, I have extracted the embryo out of Devaki’s womb and placed it in
yours. Therefore this your son will be celebrated by the name of
Sangkarshana" (6). Obtaining that son she was pleased and with her head
down she entered her own house like the beautiful wife of the moon (7).

When people grew anxious of instituting enquiries about the seventh
conception of Devaki she conceived him for the eighth time for whom
Kansa had killed her seven children (8). Kansa’s servants began to watch
it with great care wherein the Lord Hari was living of his own accord
(9). Yashodā too conceived the goddess of sleep, begotten of a portion
of Vishnu’s energy and intent on carrying out his command (10). Before
the period of conception was complete, in the eighth month both Devaki
and Yashodā simultaneously gave birth to their children (11). In the
same night in which Krishna was born in the race of Vrishnis, Yashodā
gave birth to her daughter (12). Vasudeva’s wife Devaki and Nanda’s wife
Yashoda, both of them, conceived at the same time (13). In the
auspicious midnight and in _Abkijit Muhurtta_, Devaki gave birth to
Vishnu and Yashodā to that daughter (14). When Janārddana was born, the
oceans were agitated, the pillars of the earth were shaken, the fires,
that had been extinguished, began to burn, auspicious winds began to
blow, the dust was removed and the luminous bodies manifested themselves
(15–16). When the invisible, eternal and powerful Lord Hari of subtle
soul, who encompasses the well-being of the world, was born, the night
was Jayanti, the _Nakshatra_ was Abhijit and Muhurtta was Vijaya. As
soon as he was born he overpowered all the worlds with his looks. The
celestial bugles began to produce sound without being struck and the
king of gods showered flowers from the etherial region. The great
saints, accompanied by the Gandharvas and Apsaras, chanted the glories
of the slayer of Madhu in auspicious hymns. When Hrishikesha was born
the whole universe was in an ecstacy of joy (17–20). Indra too, along
with the gods, eulogised the glories of Madhusudhana. Seeing, in that
night, Vishnu²⁰² born as his son, bearing the mystic mark of Srivasta
and other signs of divinity Vasudeva said to him, "O lord, do thou
withdraw this form of thine. O thou having lotus-eyes, I have been
greatly terrified, on account of my sons, your elder brothers, being
slain by Kansa and therefore I speak thus" (21–23).

Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Vasudeva the lord withdrew his
form of four arms and addressing him as his father asked him to take him
to the house of the milkman Nanda (24). Taking that boy, Vasudeva too,
fond of his sons, speedily repaired to the house of Yashodā (25).
Placing his son in her house against her knowledge he brought her
daughter and placed her on Devaki’s bedstead (26).

After the children had been exchanged Anakadundhubi Vasudeva, having
accomplished his work and his mind filled with fear, issued out of his
house and communicated to Ugrasena’s son Kansa the birth of a beautiful
daughter (27-28). Hearing it the powerful Kansa quickly arrived at
Vasudeva’s door and enquired of him about what was born. He then ordered
him to hand over the new born babe, and remonstrated with him severely

Hearing this all the women of Devaki’s family cried aloud and she,
herself shedding tears, prayed humbly to him; "O lord, you have already
killed my seven beautiful sons. I have taken this new-born daughter for
already slain. Do what you think proper." Seeing that girl and drawing
her out the wicked-minded Kansa said:—"While a daughter is born she is
already killed." That girl, equal to the earth herself, who was wearied
on account of her living in the womb and whose hairs were wet with the
water thereof, was placed before him on the ground. Taking her with
contempt by the legs and whirling her Kansa dashed her against a stone.
Although thrown on a rock in derision, that girl, who is daily
worshipped by the gods, was not crushed. On the other hand, casting off
her human from and being adorned with celestial garlands, pastes, and a
shining crown she, with dishevelled hairs and remonstrating with Kansa,
rose up in the sky (31–38). She was clad in a dark blue raiment, her
breasts were rising, her hip was spacious like a car and she had four
arms. Her colour was shining like lightning, her eyes were like the
rising sun, and she was like a clouded evening. That dreadful girl,
having a moon-like countenance, and roaring like a cloud, was surrounded
by ghosts and goblins. Dancing and laughing in that dark night she rose
up in the sky. Drinking most excellent wine and laughing aloud she, in
anger, said to Kansa (39–42).

"O Kansa, for thy own destruction thou hast whirled and dashed me
against a rock. Therefore at the time of thy death when thy enemy will
attack thee I will tear off thy body with my hands and drink thy hot
blood" (43-44).

Giving vent to these dreadful words, the goddess, by her own wished-for
way, rose up in the sky; and encircled by her own followers and in that
form she began to range in the celestial region (45). That girl,
worshipped by Vrishnis, grew up there. By the command of their kings the
gods brought her up like a child (46). That daughter, who was formerly
created by Brahmā through his yoga, was born with the Lord for
protecting Keshava (47). The Yādāvas daily worship her, who in her
celestial form, protected Krishna (48). After her departure Kansa took
her for the instrument of his death. And being ashamed he secretly said
to Devaki (49).

Kansa said:—"O Sister, I have made endless attempts to escape the hand
of death, and for this, I have destroyed many of your children. O Madam,
my death has now come from another quarter (50). Alas! being ruthless, I
have, with care, slain my own kinsmen, but have not been able to
supersede destiny by my manliness (51). Under the influence of bad time,
I have been the instrument of their death. Therefore cast off your
anxiety for the destruction of your embryos and your sorrow for the
death of your sons (52). It is Time that is the enemy of all and brings
about their destruction. It is Time that moves every thing. People, like
me, are merely the instruments (53). O lady, calamities, the inevitable
out-come of one’s own deeds, arrive of them selves in proper time. But
pity it is that (they think) ’I am the doer’ (54). Do not lament for
your sons and renounce your grief. Such is the course of men and no body
can undo the work of Time (55). The mischiefs, that I have done to you,
are all present in my mind. I throw myself at your feet like a son. Be
not offended with me" (56).

After Kansa had said this, the poor Devaki, with her face bathed in
tears, and casting her looks upon her husband said—"Rise up, my brother,
rise up." And then she addressed to him the following (57).

Devaki said:—"Being like the veritable Death, you have killed, before my
very eyes, all my children. You are not to blame for this. Death himself
is the instrument hereof (58). I forgive you for the sin that you have
committed by destroying my children, since, touching my feet with your
head you are repenting for your mis-deeds (59). Death, in old age and
while in the womb, is however inevitable. And it is equally difficult to
escape its hand even in boyhood and youth (60). This is all the work of
Time; you are merely an instrument. One, who is not born, is not to be
seen like air. One, who being born attains to the condition of one not
born is to be considered as such.²⁰³ All this is the work of Providence.
Death first carries away all and next the instrument is pointed out.
Therefore, go, my child, you are not the cause of my children’s death.
On account of various rites,²⁰⁴ pristine actions, the time of creation,
the works of parents, people meet with death."

Hearing the words of Devaki, Kansa, worked up with anger and his heart
consuming, entered his own house. His object being baffled he went there
depressed and absent-minded (61–65).

  ²⁰² The word in the text is _Adhokshaja_, a name of Vishnu. It
      literally means, being produced by or produced to such as have
      subdued or cast down their passions.

  ²⁰³ As no love is cherished for a son who is not born so no attachment
      should be felt for him, who is dead as soon as he is born.

  ²⁰⁴ The various rites that are performed beginning with the birth of a


Vaishampayana said:—Vasudeva had already heard of the son, more
beautiful than the moon, given birth to by Rohini in the village of
Vraja (1). He, without delay, said to the milkman Nanda, in sweet words
"Quickly go to Vraja with Yashodā. Having performed the various rites
consequent upon their birth do you happily bring up in Vraja those two
boys (2-3). Do you carefully protect in Vraja that son of mine whom
Rohini has given birth to. My name will then be mentioned as having a
son in the list of the ancestral manes (4). Alas, I have not been able
to see the face of my only son. Although I am wise this is stealing away
my wisdom (5). I specially fear this woked Kansa for he does not feel
the least mercy when he kills the children. Besides various other
dangers threaten the children in this world. Therefore, O Nanda, take
care of Rohini’s son as you do of your own (6-7). My son is the eldest
and your son is the youngest. The import of their names is also the
same. Therefore bring them up with equal care (8). They are both of
equal age. Please see, O milkman, that they may grow up under your
fostering care and grace Vraja (9). In their childhood, everybody takes
his own way, becomes naughty and commits mistakes. Therefore train them
with great care (10). Never make your cow-sheds in Vrindavana for there
is every fear of the wicked Keshi, of various reptiles, insects and
vultures. Protect those two boys against the cows and calves in the
cow-shed (11-12). O Nanda, night is almost over. Go soon to Vraja. See,
the birds in the south are also asking you to do so" (13).

Hearing of this secret intelligence from the large-minded Vasudeva,
Nanda was greatly pleased and ascended his conveyance along with Yashoda
(14). He placed the baby prince on a vehicle carried by men on their
shoulders (15). He then proceeded by a road situate on the bank of
Yamunā, sprinkled with profuse water and filled with cool air (16).

Thus proceeding to some distance he saw Vraja, the charming village of
cows, situated on the bank of Yamunā near the mount Govarddhana and
filled with cool air (17). It was adorned with animals emitting sweet
cries, huge trees covered with creepers, and kine, giving milk and
grazing (18). That place was so beautifully level that the kine could
range there at ease and the tanks there had all well-levelled stairs.
The trees were scratched by the humps and horns of the bulls (19).
Vultures, wild cats, falcons and other birds, who are fond of flesh and
always follow them, and other beasts more powerful than they, such as
jackals, leopards and lions always live there. And for this that place
was filled with fat, marrow and bones (20). That place, covered with
profuse grass, was filled with birds of various species and the roaring
of tigers, was well adorned with trees crested with sweet fruits and was
resonant with the auspicious sound of kine, and calves. That charming
village was filled with milk-maids (21–22). The roads, for carriage,
were spacious there. It was covered with thorns and its outside was
filled with fallen huge trees (23).

All through the circumference there were stakes fixed on the ground an
ropes for the calves; and it was filled with cow-dungs. The temples and
cottages there were covered with grass (24). It was filled with the
sound of churning. State officials, possessing all the signs of
prosperity and well-developed and delighted persons always live there
(25). The ground there was saturated with the leavings of curd and the
drains were covered with moss and it was filled with the sound of the
churning bangles of milk-women (26). The cow-sheds were all properly
protected by well-shut doors; inside them were the houses for cows. It
was filled with the play-grounds of milk-men and abounded in boys
wearing feathers of crows (27). The youthful damsels of milk-men, clad
in blue raiments, prepare clarified butter and accordingly there blows
sweet-scented air (28). Having their heads adorned with garlands of wild
flowers and their breasts covered with jackets, the milk-maids, with
jars of milk on their heads, always walk about there (29). The road, on
the bank of Yamunā, was also filled with milk-maids, carrying water.
When the milk-man Nanda, with a delighted heart, entered by this way to
his village there arose a great shout of joy amongst the men of his
clan. The elderly milk men and women came out and received him in the
city. He also went to that delightful place of his own accord. Thereupon
going to the beloved wife of Vasudeva Rohiai, he placed there the mystic
Purusha Krishna, resembling the rising sun (30–32).


Vaishampayana said:—Without showing himself properly the Lord spent a
considerable time as a milk-man in the village of Nanda (1). Of those
two boys the eldest was named Sangkarshana and the youngest Krishna.
They grew up there most happily (2). Incarnating himself as Krishna the
Lord Hari, assuming the dark-blue hue of the cloud, grew up there in the
midst of milk-men like a cloud in the ocean (3).

One day while Krishna fell asleep under a carriage, Yashoda, fond of her
sons, went to the river Yamunā leaving him there (4). Thereupon to sport
there like a child Krishna began to cry and throw up his arms. Then
raising up his legs he overturned the carriage with one of them. And
then crawling on his legs he began to cry for milk (5–6). In the
meantime, Yashodā, having finished her bath and her person wetted with
the milk of her breast like a milch cow, when its calf is tied, came
there with her mind stricken with fear (7). She saw there the carriage
over turned without any wind. And then crying aloud she speedily took up
her child (8). She could not truly make out how the carriage was
overturned; and then filled with fear she said to her boy (9) "O my
child, your father is highly wrathful. I do not know what he will say
when he will come to know of your sleeping under the carriage and of its
being overturned (10). What is the use of my bathing? What business had
I to go to go the river. On account of this foolish act of mine I saw
you under the overturned carriage (11)."

Clad in a silken raiment Nanda had gone to the forest to tend his kine.
When he returned to his own house in Vraja he saw the carriage upset.
Its two wheels were raised up. The axles, the pitcher and the rod were
all broken (12-13) Seeing this he was greatly terrified and coming
quickly with eyes full of tears he repeatedly asked "Is my son all
right?" (14). When he saw his son sucking the breast of Yashodā he was
relieved of his anxiety and asked how the carriage was upset without the
fighting of the bulls (15). Terrified and with a suppressed voice
Yashoda replied: "O gentle one, I do not know who has upset this
carriage. I had been to the river to wash my cloth. When I came back I
saw it overturned (16–17)".

While they were thus talking, the boys, who were present there,
said:—"When we came here of our own accord we saw this boy upsetting the
carriage with his feet". Hearing this the milkman Nanda was filled with
great surprise (18–19). Pleased and terrified he began to think how
could this be. The other milkmen, having the ordinary intelligence of
men, placed no confidence in the words of the boys (20). Filled with
wonder and having their eyes expanded accordingly they replaced the
carriage and tied its wheels (21).

Vaishampayana said:—Once on a time in the mid-night, Kansa’s nurse, the
dreadful Putanā, creating the fear of life, went in the shape of a bird,
capable of assuming forms at will, to village of milkmen, shaking her
wings (22–23). Entering, in the mid-night, into Vraja, roaring like a
tiger, Putanā assumed the form of a woman. And having her breast pressed
by milk she lay down under the wheel of the carriage. When all the
inhabitants of Vraja fell asleep she began to give milk to Krishna
(24–25). Thereupon drink ing up all her vital breaths together with her
milk Krishna set up a terrible sound. She too, having her breast
sundered, fell down earth (26). At that sound, Nanda, other milk-men and
Yashodā awoke. And they were all beside themselves with fear (27). They
saw there Putanā lying down on the ground, bereft of her consciousness
and breast, as if she had been crushed down by a thunder-bolt (23).
Exclaiming "What is this? Who has done it?" all the milkmen headed by
Nanda stood around her (29). They however could not, by any means, find
out the cause. Exclaiming repeatedly "Wonder! Wonder!" they went to
their own houses (30). After the milkmen had gone away to their
respective homes filled with wonder, Nanda respectfully said to
Yashodā:—"O timid lady, I have been struck with great wonder and have
not been able to trace out its cause. What ever it may be, I am really
afraid. Is there any danger for my son (31–42)?"

Yashoda, too, stricken with fear, replied:—"O reverend Sir, I was asleep
with my son and was roused up by this terrible sound. So I do not know
what took place before" (33). Hearing the reply of Yashodā, Nanda,
together with his friends, was filled with surprise and anticipated fear
from Kansa (34).


Vaishampayana said:—As time went on those two boys, named Krishna and
Sangkarshana, began to crawl on their legs. Those two beautiful boys,
resembling the rising sun, the same person in two bodies, as if turned
out by one mould, began to assume the same form, to lie down on the same
bed, to live on the same food, and to put on the same dress. They thus
sported there like boys (1–3). Those two great energies, identical with
the witness of the worlds, although of one body, assumed two human forms
for the destruction of the demons and for accomplishing the only great
work of the resuscitation of sacrifices. Although they were the
protectors of the entire universe they were born, for this, as cow-herds
(4-5). While they sported there they appeared like the sun and moon in
the sky possessed by each other’s rays (6). Going every where, they,
having arms like serpents, appeared like two proud young elephants
covered with dust (7). And sometimes with their persons pasted with
ashes and powdered cow-dung they shone like two princes of fire (8).
Sometimes they used to walk on knees and enter cow-sheds and used to
sport there with their persons and hairs covered with cow-dung (9).
Sometimes committing mischiefs to the inhabitants of Vraja those two
boys used to create the delight of their sire with their laughing (10).
Those two beautiful boys, of moon-like countenances, used to appear more
charming when filled with curiosity and their locks disturbing their
eyes (11). They grew exceedingly playful and naughty and used to walk
all over Vraja. And Nanda could not (by any means) check them (12). One
day Yasoda, worked up with anger, brought the lotus-eyed Krishna near
the carriage. And fastening a rope round his waist and tying it to a
mortar she repeatedly remonstrating with him, said "Go, if you are
capable of doing it." Saying this she engaged in her work (13–14). When
Yashodā was engaged in her household works, Krishna, with a view to
surprise the inhabitants of Vraja and play, issued out of the courtyard

Going out of the courtyard with that mortar Krishna went to the forest
where the huge trees Yamala and Arjuna were (16). Placing that mortar
between the two trees he began to drag it. For his thus dragging it the
mortar was firmly fixed at the root of the trees. He then began to drag
the trees Arjuna and Yamala. Being thus drawn by him with great force
those two Arjuna trees were uprooted with their roots and branches. In
order to show this to the milk-men the Lord, resorting to his heavenly
strength, began to laugh there. That rope, by his power, became stronger
(17-19). The milk-women, who were then going to the bank of the river
Yamunā, saw the child in that condition and were filled with wonder. And
weepingly they approached Yashodā (20). The women, with sorry faces,
said to her:—"Tarry not a moment, O Yashodā and come with us quickly
(21). The two huge trees, that are being worshipped as gods on account
of their granting objects of desire, have fallen on your son (22). Being
bound by a rope like a calf under the belly (of the cow) your boy is
laughing between the two trees (23). Get up and go, O foolish woman. You
think you are wise but you are stupid. Your son is alive as if he has
been released from the mouth of Death" (14).

(Hearing this) she was stricken with fear and began to bewail. She then
went where the two trees were uprooted (25). She saw there her child
placed between the two trees with the rope round his waist and dragging
the mortar (26). All the milk-men and women, aged or youthful, of Vraja
went there quickly to witness this wonderful scene (27). Those milk-men,
who range in the forest, began to speak amongst themselves "Who has
uprooted these two huge trees as if forming the extent of our village
(28)? There is no storm, no rain, no fall of thunderbolt and no mischief
created by elephants. Then why have these two trees, all on a sudden,
fallen down (29)? Alas! being felled down on the ground these two trees
are shorn of beauty like clouds divested of water. O Nanda, these two
Arjuna trees are very favourably disposed towards you and bent upon
doing you good. Although they are huge they have fallen in such a way
saving your child that his body has not been wounded in the least
(30–31). Before this Putanā had been slain and the carriage broken. And
this uprooting of the trees is the third portend in Vraja (32). It is
not meet for the milkmen to live any longer in this village, for these
portends do not auger well" (33).

Thereupon releasing the lotus-eyed Krishna from the mortar, taking him
up on his lap and looking at him again and again as if he had returned
from the land of the dead Nanda could not attain to the consummation of
happiness. Remonstrating then with Yashoda, he, followed by all
milk-men, returned to Vraja (34–35). From that day in which he was bound
with the rope Krishna was called _Dāmodara_ by all the milk-men of that
village (36). O foremost of Bharatas, while living amongst milk-men,
although a mere boy, he performed all these wonderful feats²⁰⁵ (37).

  ²⁰⁵ These miracles of Krishna’s early life have been also described in
      _Srimadbhagavatam_, the greatest of all Vaishnava works. They have
      been recorded with the purpose of showing Krishna’s superhuman
      power. The Hindus regard him as the incarnation of Vishnu and
      these miracles are meant to show that unless he had divinity in
      him he could not have performed these wonderful feats. The early
      writers took a special fancy for recording wonderful deeds
      performed by their hero for proving his superhuman power and
      origin. It was not only a practice with the early Hindu authors
      but was so with the western writers too. The miracles, of the Old
      Testament, will attest this argument. The early life, of Krishna,
      when he worked these miracles, is described in three most
      important works, Vishnupurana, Bhagvatpurana and Harivamsha.


Vaishampayana said:—In this way, Krishna and Sangkarshana passed their
childhood in Vraja and became seven years old (1). They used to put on
dark-blue and yellow raiments, paste their persons with yellow and white
paints and used to wear feathers of crows while tending kine (2). While
gone to the forest those two beautiful boys used to play on Panāvas, the
music of which is sweet to the ears, and shone there like three-hooded
serpents (3). Sometimes putting peacock feathers on their ears, crowns
of leaves on their heads and garlands of wild flowers on their breast
they shone there like two growing trees (4). Sometimes placing a crown
of lotuses on their heads, converting a rope into a sacred thread and
gourds with a string suspended, in their hands, they used to play on
flutes (5). Sometimes sporting with one another, laughing and lying down
on a bed of leaves they used to enjoy sleep (6). Thus leading the life
of a cow-herd boy and moving about delightedly hither and thither like
two young horses they beautified that forest (7).

One day the beautiful Dāmodara said to Sangkarshana: "O Sir, by sporting
everywhere in the forest we have well nigh spoilt it. We cannot play
here any more with the cow-herd boys (8). It has been divested of grass
and twigs and the milk-men have up-rooted the trees. This beautiful
forest has been destroyed by us (9). All the forests and woods, that
were thick (with trees), are now all looking blank like the sky. All
these eternally beautiful trees, that were in the cow-sheds
well-protected by walls and wooden bolts, have been destroyed by the
fire of cow-sheds (10-11). The trees and grass, that were near us, have
been all thrown away on the ground at a great distance (12). Water,
trees, groves and other resorts have now become scarce in this forest.
Even by searching we cannot get at a place for rest. It has become very
dreary and trees are not to be seen (13). The trees have been destroyed
by the people of this extensive village. The birds have fled away from
the useless trees (14). This forest, divested of birds, has become
disgusting like rice without curry and other vegetable dishes. Even the
delightful winds do not blow here (15). Woods and vegetables, grown in
the forest, are now being sold. The grass is all destroyed and this
village has taken the appearance of a city (16). The ornament of the
mountain is the village of herdsmen, the forest is its ornament and the
cows are the ornaments of the forest. And they are our most excellent
refuge (17). Let the wealthy inhabitants of Vraja repair to another
forest filled with new trees and grass; when the extensive villages, of
milkmen, are shut out by doors and when the fields are covered with
houses they do not look beautiful like the Chakrachari²⁰⁶ birds (19).
When excrement and urine fall on grass its juice becomes poisonous. The
cows do not like to graze on it and it is unwholesome for milk (20). We
wish to range, with our kine, in the charming new woods which are almost
like dry ground. Let this station of milk-men be also transferred there
(21). I have heard that there is a charming forest on the bank of Yamunā
abounding in profuse grass, endued with all the virtues and freed of
thorns and insects. It is named Vrindāvana. It is filled with fruits,
water and Kadamba trees (22-23). Cool winds always blow there in the
forest as if it is an asylum of all the seasons. All the woods there are
so very charming that the milk-men will be able to range there happily
(24). Near it is the huge mountain Govardhana with a high summit like
the mount Mandāra near the celestial garden Nandana (25). In the centre
of that mountain there is a huge fig-tree, by name Bhāndira, consisting
of high branches and extending over a _yojana_. It shone there like a
dark-blue cloud in the sky (26). Like unto the river Nalini flowing in
the garden of Nandana, Kālindi, the foremost of streams, passes through
its middle as if forming a line for separating hairs on each side of the
head (27). With great joy we will always behold there the mount
Govardhana, the tree Bhāndira and the charming river Kālindi (28). O
Sir, mayst thou fare well. Leaving this forest which has no attractions
do thou lay out there the station of milk-men. Let us now, creating some
calamity, terrify the milk-men" (29).

While thus talking the intelligent Vasudeva engaged himself in a
thought. From the hairs of his body there arose hundreds of wolves
living on fat, blood and flesh. As soon as they came out they ran in all
directions as if it to devasstate the village Vraja. Beholding them fall
upon calves, kine and their women the milk-men were stricken with great
fear. Forming themselves into groups of five, ten, thirty, twenty and a
hundred those dark-faced wolves, bearing the mystic mark of Srivatsa,
that had come out of the body of Krishna, began to range there and
increase the fear of milkmen. Thus striking terror to the entire land of
milkmen, those wolves, eating up calves, stealing away the boys in the
night, well nigh devastated it. None, then, dared enter into woods, tend
his kine, fetch any thing from the forest and go to the river. In fact,
stricken with fear and motionless, they, with an anxious mind, began to
live there. Those wolves, powerful like tigers, created such a fear in
the inhabitants of Vraja, that they were afraid of even moving their
limbs or shaking their body. And they used all to live together (30–38).

  ²⁰⁶ A kind of wild fowls. As when they are shut up in a cage—they do
      not feel themselves at ease, so when the villages are well
      protected by gates like cities they lose their native beauty.


Vaishampayana said:—Seeing the number of those irrepressible wolves,
daily increased, all the men and women living in that village held a
consultation amongst themselves (1):—"It is not proper for us to live
any more in this forest. Let us go to another great forest where we may
live happily and the kine may range of their own accord (2). Even today
without any delay we will depart with our precious kine, before these
dreadful wolves destroy the entire Vraja (3). These black-faced wolves,
with tawny-coloured limbs, teeth and nails, set up a terrible roar in
the night (4). ’My son, my brother, my calf, my cow have been eaten by
the wolves.’ Such cries are heard in every house" (5). Hearing the cries
of the milk-women and the doleful noise of the kine, the assembled
cow-herds wished to transfer, without any delay, their station. Being
informed of their desire to go to Vrindavana for fixing their station
elsewhere for the well-being of the kine and finding them resolute in
this matter, Nanda, like the preceptor of the gods, gave vent to the
following weighty accents (6-8):—"If you are resolved upon going away
even this very day, then ask the inhabitants of Vraja to get themselves
ready without any delay" (9).

Thereupon the menials announced in the village, saying: "This station
will be transfared to Vrindāvana. Therefore collect your own cows and
calves, get ready your carts and place your own vessels thereon"
(10–11). Hearing those well-meaning words of Nanda they all rose up for
going away speedily (12). Then there was set up a tumult of "Come; let
us go: what is the delay? Make your carts ready. Rise up. Go" (13). With
busy cowherds and milk-women, with their innumerable carts ready that
village assumed the appearance of a roaring ocean (14). The milk-women,
with jars on their heads, and being arranged in rows, like stars coming
out of the sky, issued out of Vraja (15). Having their breasts covered
with blue, yellow, and shining jackets, those milk-women, while going on
the road, appeared like a rain-bow (16). Carrying the load of ropes
hanging on their body some milk-men imitated the beauty of trees covered
with branches and leaves (17). The shining carts moving all around, that
village of cowherds appeared like an ocean abounding in boats upset by
the wind (18). Thus divested of all articles in no time and filled with
crows it appeared like a desert (19).

Thereupon having gradually arrived at the forest of Vrindāvana, they,
for the well-being of the kine, set up many extensive stations there
(20). With roads laid out for carts and situate like a crescent that
forest was one Yoyana in breadth and two in circumference (21). It was
protected on all sides with thorny creepers and trees, ditches and
flying branches (22). It was beautified with charming posts and rods,
with jars full of water for washing, stakes tied round with ropes and
nooses, with upraised pillars, overturned carts, chords thrown upon the
pillars of vessels, grass for covering the huts, sheds made of grass,
with branches of trees, playing hither and thither and trees abounding
in nests, cleansed cow-sheds, well-placed mortars, the burning fire
placed in the west, and well stretched beds consisting of clothes and
leather coatings (23–27). Bringing water and removing the branches of
the trees the milk-women began to cleanse the forest (28). Youthful and
old milk-men with axes, began lightly to fell down the trees (29). This
station of the milk-men, abounding in woods, charming habitations, sweet
roots, fruits and water, appeared more beautiful (30). While ranging in
the forest before, Krishna, with a delighted heart, looked at that
forest for the well-being of the kine. And so obtaining that forest of
Vrindāvana, filled with the nests of various birds and resembling the
garden of Nandana, all the cows, giving milk whenever milched, were
highly pleased (31–32). In the last month of the dreadful summer season,
the king of gods used to pour there nectarine showers. And accordingly
the people there did not suffer from any disease and all the vegetables
grew in profusion. The calves and ignorant people do not suffer any
disease or meet with destruction where the Lord Madhusudana lives
himself for the behoof of mankind (33–34).

In this way the youthful Sangkarshana, the milk-men and the cows began
to live there where Krishna thought of fixing the station (34).


Vaishampayana said:—Thus living in Vrindāvana the two highly beautiful
sons of Vasudeva began to range there tending kine (2). Sporting with
the milk-men and bathing in the river Yamunā they spent the summer there
happily (2). Thereupon with the advent of the rainy season that creates
desire in the mind of men, clouds, containing rainbow, began to
discharge their watery contents (3). The sun was enshrouded by the
scattering clouds drawing in new water. The ground was rendered
invisible by the new grown grass (4). With her surface brushed by the
new clouds the earth appeared like a youthful damsel (5). Watered by the
new showers, the forests and the forest-roads were divested of dust and
filled with _Sakragopas_²⁰⁷ (6). This was the dancing season of the
peacocks emitting sweet notes. And elated with passion they began to
pour their _Kekā_ notes (7). The clouds began to embellish the persons
of the beautiful Kadamva flowers, that had attained their youth in the
wonderful rainy season and which is the only food of the bees (8). The
forest was scented with the fragrance of Kadamva²⁰⁸ flowers and rendered
smiling by the Kutaja²⁰⁹ flowers. Its heat was destroyed by the clouds
and the earth was satisfied by the showers of rain. Being sprinkled with
water by the clouds the mountains, that had been scorched by the rays of
the sun and the forest were, as it were, emitting smokes. With terrible
winds and huge clouds rising in the sky the earth assumed the appearance
of the city of a great king (9-10). Adorned hither and thither with
Kadamba and plantain flowers, that forest, abounding in delightful Nipa
trees, shone there like the burning fire (11). Smelling the fragrance of
the earth wet with the showers of Indra, and scattered by the wind the
people were stricken with desire (12). The earth was filled with the
notes of the maddened bees, the sound of the frogs and the wonderful
_Kekā_ notes of the peacocks (13). With their currents increased by the
downpour of rain the rivers, expanding themselves, began to carry away
the trees grown on their banks. And there were seen all over them
quickly moving whirlpools (14). Stupified by the continuous showers and
having their wings distressed, the birds, as if on account of their
quiet nature, did not leave the branches of the trees (15). The sun, as
if, began to drown himself in the womb of the new clouds surcharged with
water and filled with the noise of the falling torrents (16). The earth
put on, as if, a garland of fresh grass. The huge trees, forming the
land marks, were uprooted and every where was enveloped with water. And
it was difficult, accordingly, to find out the paths (17). The
mountains, abounding in huge trees, were as it were, assailed by
thunderbolts and their summits were being carried down by the torrents
(18). The forest-land was filled with the torrents of rain flowing down
and overflowing the banks of the lakes (19). Following the muttering of
clouds, raising up their trunks and running to and fro during the rainy
season the elephants looked like clouds coming down on earth (20).

In this way when the rains set in Ronini’s son, in order to see the
clouds surcharged with water, said to Krishna in private (21). "O
Krishna, look at the dark clouds in the sky adorned with the shining
ornaments of lightning. They have, as if, stolen away the hue of your
person (22). This is the time for your sleep. The sky is like your body.
As you every year live secretly in this season so the moon is doing
(23). With the advent of the rains, the sky, covered with clouds,
growing dark-blue on account of blue clouds and shining like the
red-blue lotuses, is appearing more beautiful (24). Behold, O Krishna,
the charming mountain Govardhana, covered with dark clouds surcharged
with water, is giving a lie to its own name of _bringing up kine_²¹⁰
(25). Greatly worked up with passion on account of the falling of the
showers the black-bees are ranging happily all over the forest (26). O
you having lotus-like eyes, the highly tender green grass, vegetating
profusely by the new water, are, as if, trying to cover the earth (27).
This rainy season has not been able to increase the beauty of the
mountain, abounding in fountains, that of the forest filled with water,
and that of cultivated fields enveloped with corns (28). O Dāmodara,
driven by the quick-coursing winds, these clouds, with their dreadful
mutterings, are increasing the desire of those living in foreign
countries for returning home and are thus displaying shamelessness (29).
O Hari, O you of three foot-steps, behold, your second foot-step²¹¹ is
embellished with rain-bow of three colors without arrows and string
(30). In this month of Srāvana the sun is shorn of his beauty. His
scorching rays being cooled down by the clouds, he, although of thousand
rays, appears to have none (31). The all-spreading clouds, agitated like
the water of the ocean and accompanied by continuous showers, have, as
it were, united the earth and sky (32). The torrents of rain flowing on
earth, and the air, perfumed with the fragrance of Nipa, Arjuna and
Kadamva flowers and capable of exciting passion, blowing with sound on
high, the sky, covered with extensive and heavily showering clouds, is
appearing like a deep and vast ocean (33–34). Armed with effulgent
Nārāchas in the shape of showers, having the cloud for his coat of mail,
and the rain-bow for his bow, the sky is, as if, ready for battle (35).
O you of a beautiful countenance, covered with clouds, the mountains,
forest and the tops of the trees are looking highly beautiful (56).
Enveloped with clouds pouring down their watery contents and resembling
an army of elephants the sky is imitating the color of the ocean (37).
Blowing there with drops of water the dread ful blasts of winds, that
shake the tender plants and destroy the gravity of the oceans, are
oppressing all with cold (38). The moon disappearing from view in night
after the sun-set, and the clouds continually discharging showers, no
quarter of the sky, appears beautiful (39). Filled with passing clouds
resembling leathern bags full of air, the sky appears moving like an
animate object (40). People can make out very little difference between
day and night. What shall I speak more, O Krishna, see, Vrindavana,
relieved of heat and adorned with showers, is looking beautiful like
Chaitraratha garden" (41).

Thus describing the advantages of the rainy season, Krishna’s elder
brother, the beautiful Balarāma entered Vraja. Pleasing each other
Krishna and Sangkarshana began to range there in that vast forest in the
company of their then kinsmen the cowherds (42-43).

  ²⁰⁷ An insect (coccinella of various kinds).

  ²⁰⁸ A plant commonly Kadamba (Nancha Kadamba)

  ²⁰⁹ A medicinal plant.

  ²¹⁰ The word _Govardhana_ literally means one who nourishes kine from
      _Go_ kine and _Vardhana_ to nourish. The mountain is so
      beautifully situated that the kine grow up there without any
      hitch. But in the rains the mountain has been so covered with
      clouds that they cannot graze there at ease. It has thus given a
      lie to the true import of its name.

  ²¹¹ This refers to the sky, because at the sacrifice of the demon
      Bali, he placed his first foot on earth and the second in the sky.


Vaishampayana said:—One day the lotus-eyed Krishna, having a dark-blue
hue and a beautiful countenance, capable of assuming forms at will and
wearing a feather of crow, without being united with Sangkarshana, began
to range alone in that charming forest. Bearing the mystic mark of
Srivatsa on his breast he shone there like the moon with the mark of a
hare (1–2). His arms, bedecked with Angadas and his tawny colored two
little moving feet shone there like brilliant lotuses (3). His two
pieces of yellow raiments, creating delight of the world and resembling
the filaments of a lotus, shone there like the evening clouds (4). Ropes
and rods were shining in his two plump and moving hands engaged in the
work of tending kine and worshipped by the celestials (5). Charming
fragrance, resembling that of a dark-blue lotus, was coming out from his
beautiful and lotus-like mouth adorned with picturesque lips (6) His
countenance, embellished with dishevelled locks, was shining like a
lotus encircled by black-bees (7). Garlands of new grown buds of Arjuna,
Kadamba and Nipa flowers were shining on his head like a garland of
stars in the sky (8). That hero, of dark-blue hue of the clouds of the
rainy season, with a garland of the same colour around his neck, shone
there like the month of Bhādra incarnate (9). The clean leaves, tied to
the thread round his neck, shone there beautiful when shaken by the
gentle breeze raised by peacock feathers (10).

Thus ranging every day in the forest that youth used some where to sing,
some where to sport and walk and some where to make, of his own accord,
the charming music of of Parna and bugle for pleasing his kine. Ranging
in that wonderful forest and fanned by the charming wind proceeding from
the trees that powerful and effulgent Krishna, dark blue like cloud,
attained to most excellent delight. It was resonant with the notes of
peacocks, its caves were echoed with the muttering of clouds that excite
lust in men, it was adorned with plantain trees and covered with new
grown grass, twigs and lotuses. It abounded in many fountains and was
fragrant with the filaments of lotuses like the treath of females
expressing their desire (11–17). While, ranging in that forest one day,
along with his kine, he saw there a foremost of trees with high branches
(18). Enveloped with thick leaves it was stationed on earth like a
cloud. With its height it traversed half of the sky and if contained as
it were the enjoyment of the wind (19). Covered with fruits of blue and
diverse other colors and resorted to by various birds it appeared like a
cloud accompanied by rain-bow (20). The wind and cloud were as if
simultaneously living in the trees resembling houses, adorned with
creepers and flowers and bent down on account of their huge roots (21).
As if by his pristine good deeds, that great tree, who could give
protection against rain and the rays of the sun, was ruling over others
there (22). Beholding this Bhāndiraka fig-tree resembling the summit of
a mountain the sinless Lord Krishna desired to live there (23).
Thereupon engaged in sport there along with other cow-herd boys of his
own age, as in the city of the celestials, he spent the day there (24).

While Krishna began to sport there under Bhāndiraka tree the other
cow-herds amused him with various wild plays (25). The milkmen began to
sing there and the boys, fond of amusing, sang there many songs relating
to Krishna (26). When they thus began to sing in accompaniment with the
music of Panava, the powerful Krishna, too at times, played on his flute
and Tumvi (27).

One day while tending his kine, Krishna, having the eyes of a bull,
repaired to the bank of Yamunā abounding in trees adorned with creepers
(28). He saw the delightful wind blowing on the water; and the foremost
of rivers Yamunā, embellished with lilies and lotuses, was as if with
her waves, casting her glances (29). All her landing stairs were
well-levelled and her water was sweet; she had many lakes and her
current was strong. And all the trees (on her bank) were shaken by the
watery air (30). It was resonant with the notes of swans, Karandavas and
Sārasas and resorted to by Chakravākas and other fowls that range in
pairs (31) Her water was filled with acquatic animals, was endued with
all the good qualities, was variegated with various water-born flowers
and was rendered yellow by water-born corals (32). The passing currents
were her feet, the bank was her hip, the whirlpool was her navel, the
lotuses were her hairs, the cavity of the bank was her belly, the three
curves of the wave were her three marks on the fore-head, the sides of
the bank were her expansive face, the foams were her teeth, the swans
were her smiles, the dark-blue lotuses were her lips, the water-born
flowers were her eyes having bent down eye-brows, the lakes were her
forehead, the corals were her beautiful hairs, the long extending
currents were her high arms, the serpents were her ears, the geese were
her ear-rings, the lotuses were her beautiful eyes, the trees grown on
her banks were her ornaments, the fishes were her ornaments for the
waist, the other sorts of corals were her silken raiment, the notes of
Sārasas were the sound of her Nupuras, the Kāsa flowers were her cloth,
the Swans and tortoises were the auspicious marks, fishes and crocodiles
were her pastes; the animals were playing in the ditch and men formed
her rising breasts. The animals were agitating her water and her banks
were filled with hermitages. Seeing this beautiful river Yamunā, the
queen of the ocean, Krishna, as if to beautify her the more, was ranging
there (33—41). Ranging thus he saw there a vast lake filled with deep
water and resembling the sky crested with clouds. It extended over a
_Yojana_ and even the celestials could not cross it. Its water was deep
and motionless like that of the ocean. It was cast off by beasts,
acquatic animals and water-fowls. There being many ponds with serpents
on its bank, people, with very great difficulty, could traverse it. It
was enveloped with smoke proceeding from poisonous trees. The sages,
desirous of performing three oblations in a day, could not enjoy its
water. What to speak of its being used by men requiring water it was
unworthy even of the beasts. Even the birds could not range in the sky
overhanging it and the grass burnt up in no time as soon as it fell into
it. Even the gods could not approach that lake extending over a _Yojana_
on all sides. And the trees there were being consumed by the dreadful
poisonous fire (42–47). Beholding in that province freed from all
calamities, such a huge lake at a distance of a Krosa north of Vraja
Krishna began to think (48). "To whom does this huge and deep lake
belong? Methinks that dreadful king of serpents Kalya, resembling a heap
of collyrium of whom I had heard before and who has left the ocean in
fear of the king of birds Garuda, who feeds on serpents, is living here.
By him this Yamunā, flowing to the ocean, has been polluted (49–51). And
in fear of that king of serpents no one lives here. Protected by the
ministers of that serpent king, doing him good, this dreadful forest,
filled with grass and various trees and creepers, has become unworthy of
being resorted to like the sky and being touched like a poisonous food
(52–54). The banks, filled with corals, trees and creepers, are being
protected by his attendants, doing him good. And two artificial roads
are seen running over its two banks (55). I should, however, vanquish
this king of serpents. I should defeat the serpent in such a way as may
render the water of lake useful to the inhabitants of Vraja, and so that
delightful winds may blow here and the landing stairs may become worthy
of use (56–57). In order to vanquish these wicked ones always following
the wrong ways I have taken my birth as a milkman and am living amongst
the cow-herds (58). Therefore sporting like a child I shall climb this
Kadamba tree, jump into the lake and vanquish Kalya (59). Doing this my
superior power of arms will be known to all" (60).


Vaishampayana said:—Thinking thus Krishna repaired to the bank of the
river. Tying his cloth firmly he, with delight, got upon the Kadamba
tree (1). Climbing up to the top of the tree and emitting a leonine roar
the cloud-hued and lotus-eyed Krishna jumped headlong down into the lake
(2). That lake, of the river Yamunā, was agitated by his fall. And the
water thereof overflowed (on all sides) like scattering clouds (3). The
huge abode of the serpent (Kālya) was shaken by that sound. And the
serpents, with their eyes reddened with anger, rose up from the water
(4). Thereupon was seen the king of serpents Kālya endued with the hue
of clouds, having eyes reddened with ire, five hoods, a fiery
countenance and tongue and effulgent like the flames of fire (5–6). The
entire lake was covered with his hood burning like fire and five huge
and dreadful faces were seen above (the water) (7). When that king of
serpents was burning in his energy and anger the water there appeared as
if boiling and the river Yamunā, stricken with fear, flew in her
opposite course (8). Beholding Krishna coming to the lake and sporting
like a boy he had powerful winds issue out of his mouth filled with the
fire of anger (9). Scintiliations of fire, accompanied by smoke, came
out from the mouth of that king of serpents. All the huge trees, which
were grown on the bank near him, were in no time consumed by the fire of
anger discharged by that king of serpents, resembling the very
incarnation of the end of a Yuga.²¹² Thereupon his son Dāra and his
servants, the other leading serpents of incomparable energy, came there
vomitting the dreadful fire of venom accompanied by smokes (10-12).
Thereupon they made Krishna enter into a circle of their hoods. Having
his hands and feet made incapable of putting forth any exertion he stood
there motionless like a mountain (13). The leading serpents began to
sprinkle Krishna with water vitiated by their teeth. The powerful
Krishna however did not die (14). In the meantime the cow-herd boys,
filled with fear, returned weeping to Vraja and with suppressed voice
said (15):

"Out of foolishness Krishna is drowned in the lake Kālya. The king of
serpents is devouring him. Do ye all come without delay (16). Do ye
speedily go and communicate to Nanda and his followers that Krishna is
being dragged into the lake by the serpent" (17).

Hearing those words like unto the fall of a thunderbolt the milk-man
Nanda was greatly distressed with sorrow and speedily went to that most
excellent lake (18). All the inhabitants of Vraja, accompanied by the
youthful Sangkarshana, boys, old men and young ladies, arrived at the
watery abode of that king of serpents (19). Having reached the the bank
of that lake all the milkmen, headed by Nanda, stricken with shame,
surprise and sorrow, began to bewail with their eyes full of tears. Some
cried, exclaiming "Oh, son!" while others said "Alas! woe to us!"
(20–21). Whereas others, assailed greatly by fear, cried "Alas! We are
all slain!" The women, crying aloud, said to Yashodā "Alas! We are all
killed. Behold your son brought under the control of the king of
serpents. He is trembling there as if churned, like ambrosia, by the
hood of the serpent (22–23). Forsooth, your heart is made of stone,
since it is not breaking assunder even beholding your son in this plight
(24). See, the milkman Nanda, filled with grief, is standing on the bank
of the lake like one unconscious, fixing his look on the face of his son
(25). Following Yashodā we shall rather enter into this lake, the abode
of the serpents. And still we will not return to Vraja without Dāmodara
(26). Without Krishna Vraja shall never appear beautiful like the day
shorn of the sun, or the night shorn of the moon or the cow divorced
from the bull. Separated from Krishna we shall not go there like a cow
without her calf" (27).

Hearing the lamentations of the male and female inhabitants of Vraja,
and of Nanda and the cries of Yashodā, Sangkarshana, who though of one
mind, one body and one intelligence, was still a separate person, said
in anger to Krishna (28–29):—"O Krishna, O thou of large-arms, O thou
who dost enhance the delight of the milkmen, do thou soon destroy this
venomous serpent-king (30). O my brother, O my lord, all these our
relations have human understandings and so they are bewailing for thee
considering thee a human being" (31).

Hearing those wise words of Rohini’s son, Krishna sportively raised up
his arms and rose up snapping the fetters of the serpents (32). And
placing his feet on the hoods of the serpent-king that were above the
water he got hold of his bead with his hands (33). Then rising up, by
force, on his middle head, Krishna, who was adorned with a beautiful
Angada, began to dance there (34). Thus grinded by Krishna the hoods of
that serpent-king became pale and blood came out therefrom. (Kālya) then
with dreadful accents said to him (35). "O Krishna of a beautiful
countenance, unwittingly did I display anger against thee. But now I
have been vanquished and subdued by thee and my venom has been
destroyed. Do thou give me my life and command me whom I am to serve
along with my wife, children and friends (36–37)."

Beholding that five-hooded serpent-king and hearing his distressful
words, the Lord Krishna, having the enemy of serpents²¹³ as his carrier,
replied like one having no anger (38):—"O serpent, I do not wish to
allow you to live in this water of Yamunā. Therefore repair to the ocean
with your wife and kinsmen (39). After this whoever amongst your sons
and servants shall be seen either in the water or on the land of this
province he will be killed by me (40). O king of serpents, let this
water prove wholesome unto all and yourself proceed to the mighty deep.
If you remain here after this you will be visited by a great calamity
that will bring about the termination of your life (41). If Garuda, the
enemy of serpents, behold in the ocean, my foot-marks on your head he
will not kill you" (42).

(Thus accosted by the Lord) that foremost of serpents Kalya, carrying on
his head Krishna’s foot-marks, fled away stealthily from the lake in the
very presence of the milk-men (43). After the king of serpents had thus
fled away vanquished the Lord came out from the water and stood on the
bank. Filled with surprise the milk-men chanted his glories and
circumambulated him (44). Thereupon those milk-men, living in the
forest, delightedly said to Nanda: "Indeed thou art fortunate and a
favourite of the gods since your son is (so very powerful) (45). From
to-day, O sinless one, the powerful Krishna, having large eyes, will be
a refuge of the milk-men in their perils and a protector of the kine in
the cow-shed (46). The water of the Yamunā has become everywhere
delightful and wholesome. From now all our kine will happily range in
every landing stair (47). Really we are milk-men for we have not been
able to know Krishna truly in Vraja like fire covered with ashes" (48).
Thereupon eulogising the immortal Krishna the milk-men, filled with
surprise, entered their hamlet like unto the celestials entering the
Chitraratha garden (49).

  ²¹² When a cycle terminates every thing in the world is destroyed. The
      serpent is compared to this termination for every thing there was
      destroyed by his dreadful venom.

  ²¹³ This refers to Garuda whom Vishnu used to ride. Garuda used to
      devour serpents and was thus their enemy.


Vaishampayana said:—After the king of serpents had been vanquished by
Krishna in the lake of Yamunā Rāma and Keshava began to range there (1).
Thereupon going to the mountain Govarddhana²¹⁴ along with their precious
kine, those two heroic sens of Vasudeva beheld a huge forest of palm
trees, situate, on its north, on the bank of Yamunā (2-3). They were
greatly delighted at its sight and began to range in that charming
forest of palm trees covered with palm leaves like two new grown plants
(4). It was well levelled, cool, coated with black earth and profuse
grass and was freed from stones and clods of earth. Dark-blue and tall
palm trees, with fruits and branches hanging, shone there like the
trunks of elephants (5–6).

While thus ranging Dāmodara, the foremost of speakers, said to
Sangkarshana:—"O reverend sir, this forest-land is perfumed with the
fragrance of ripe palm fruits. Let us both quickly pluck the sweet, ripe
and dark-blue fruits. While its smell is so very sweet and pleasing to
the odiferous organ it must undoubtedly be delicious like ambrosia. This
is (in short) my conviction (7–9)."

Hearing the words of Dāmodara, Rohini’s son smilingly shook the trees
with a view of felling down the fruits (10). Appearing like a desert,
although very useful, that forest of palm trees was unworthy of being
resorted to and traversed by men like a habitation of the Rākshasas
(11). For encircled by a herd of mules that huge and dreadful demon
Dhenuka used always to live there, in the shape of an ass (12).
Terrifying men, beasts and birds there that wicked minded ass used to
protect the forest of palm trees (13). Hearing the sound of the fall of
palm fruits he grew exceedingly enraged and could not bear it like unto
an elephant (14). Shaking his manes in anger, lifting up his tail in
delight and scratching the earth with his hoof that Daitya, of
motionless eyes and wide lips, followed the sound of palm fruits and
arrived where the son of Rohini was (15–16). Beholding under the palm
tree that immortal son of Rohini resembling a flag in form, that
Daitya-chief Khara, having the teeth for his weapon, all on a sudden bit
him; and then turning back his face he struck his breast with his long
legs (17–18) Then holding that demon in the shape of an ass by the legs
and whirling his head and shoulders (Sangkarshana) threw him up on the
top of the palm tree (16). He too, with his thighs, waist, neck and back
mutilated and a disfigured form, fell down on earth along with palm
fruits (20). Beholding that ass thus dead and shorn of beauty Baladeva
threw up his other relations too on the top of the tree (21). At that
time the ground there was covered with palm fruits and bodies of the
asses and it shone there like the autumnal sky covered with clouds (22).

Thus when that Daitya, in the form of an ass, was slain with all his
followers that forest of palm trees assumed again a picturesque view
(23). When that most excellent white forest of palm trees was shorn of
fear the kine began to range there with great glee (24). And entering
that forest the milkmen, rangers of woods, began to move about on all
sides divested of sorrow and fear (25). Observing the kine roam on all
sides at ease the two sons of Vasudeva, powerful like elephants, spread
there seats of grass and sat down at ease (26).

  ²¹⁴ There is still a mountain of the same name within a few miles’
      distance from the town of Mathura in N. W. P.


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon leaving off that forest of palm trees the
two sons of Vasudeva again came to the Bhandira tree (1). Traversing
that prosperous forest land and tending the ever increasing flock of
kine those two beautiful subduers of enemies began to strike their arms
and sing. Sometimes they collected the trees and called the kine with
their calves by names (2–3). They had ropes hanging on their shoulders
and their breasts were adorned with garlands of auspicious wild flowers.
And they looked like two bulls with new-grown horns (4). Having the hue
of gold and powdered collyrium and clad in apparels of the same color
with their respective persons, those two boys appeared like white and
black clouds accompanied by rain-bow²¹⁵ (5). Traversing the forest-ways
along with their comrades, making beautiful ear-rings with the tips of
Kuçā grass or flowers, and putting on wild dresses they sometimes
sported on the mount Govardhana, sometimes in the forest and some times
in the table-land. They thus engaged in a sport which was celebrated all
over the world (6-7). Thus following human conduct and engaging in a
play introduced by milk-men they, who were worshipful even unto the
celestials, began to range in the forest (8).

Thus sporting, they, within a short time, reached the Bhāndiraka
fig-tree covered with growing branches—the best of the kind (9). They,
who were experts in fighting, began to play there with cradles, nets and
stones (10). Those two heroes, powerful like lions, began to display
there, in the company of cow-herd boys, of their own accord and with
delight, many a martial feat (11). While they were thus playing, the
foremost of Asuras, by name Pralamva, came there with a view to kill
them and began to find out their weak points (12). Assuming the form of
a cow-herd and adorned with wild flowers that Asura began to tempt the
two brothers with his play and smiles (13). Adopting a human form,
although not born in the race of men that foremost of Dānavas,
fearlessly joined their company (14). Considering him, who came there in
the form of a milk-man, as their friend, those cow-herds began to play
with that enemy of the immortals (15). Searching their weak points
Pralamva too, who had assumed the guise of a milk-man, cast his dreadful
looks at Krishna and Rohini’s son (16). Then considering Krishna of
wonderful prowess as irrepressible he gave him up and made up his mind
for destroying Baladeva (17). O sinless one, at that time the Lord
introduced a new of play of leaping in pairs. And all of them engaged in
it (18). Krishna jumped with another milk-boy by name Sridāma and
Sangkarshana with Pralamva, O sinless one (19). The other milk-boys, of
inferior strength, began to leap with great force in the company of
their comrades (20). Krishna defeated Sridāma and Rohini’s son Pralamva
and other boys were vanquished by those of Krishna’s party (21).
Thereupon carrying on their shoulders the victorious those, who were
vanquished, came delightedly and quickly to the root of the Bhāndiraka
tree and soon reached their appointed quarter. And carrying on his
shoulders Baladeva, the foremost of Dānavas, Pralamva, began to proceed
quickly in an opposite direction like a cloud with the moon (22–23).
Being unable to carry the weight of the intelligent son of Rohini that
huge-bodied (demon) increased (his body) like a cloud attacked by Sakra
(24). Then that foremost of Danavas Pralamva displayed his own body huge
as the Bhandiraka fig-tree and effulgent like a mountain of burnt
collyrium (25). Then that huge-faced and huge-necked dreadful demon,
having eyes like unto the wheels of a car, a head adorned with a
sun-like coronet of five layers and resembling Death himself, shone like
a cloud attacked by the sun. The earth sank under the weight of his feet
(26-27). As Death carries away men sunk in the waves of the ocean, so
the great demon Pralamva, the foremost of heroes, adorned with long
garlands and other ornaments and clad in a long raiment, carried away
quickly and stealthily Rohini’s son like a cloud surcharged with water.
While thus carried away by him Sangkarshana shone there like the moon in
the sky carried by dreadful clouds (28–30). Beholding himself on the
shoulders of the demon the dreadful Sangkarshana began to cherish
suspicions in his mind and said to Krishna (31).

"O Krishna, I am being carried away by this Daitya huge like a mountain
and clad in a coat of mail who has displayed a great illusion and
assumed the form of a man (32). This wicked-minded Pralamva has grown
exceedingly in pride and his power has doubled itself. How shall I
vanquish him?" (33)

Krishna knew very well the character and strength of Rohini’s son and
therefore smilingly and quietly said to him in joyous words (34):–"O
god, thou art identical with the universe and art subtler than the
subtle. Thou art merely showing the conduct of a man (35). Do thou
meditate thy own Nārāyana form at the time of the revolution of the
worlds. Do thou now know of thy own true form and body (which thou didst
manifest at the time of the) union of the ancient Rishis, powerful on
account of their own faculties, of the oceans, Brahmā and water (36–37).
The sky is thy head, the water is thy form, the earth is thy
forgiveness, the fire is thy mouth, the life of all the worlds is thy
breath, the air is thy abode, and thy mind is the creator all (38). Thou
art of thousand faces, thousand limbs, thousand feet, thousand eyes,
thousand lotus-navels and thousand rays, and the slayer of thy enemies
(39). The celestials behold what thou didst display before. None can
find out what had not been said by thee before (40). Whatever is capable
of being known in this world thou hast made them all known. All the
celestials do not know what thou alone dost know (41). The deities see
thy own natural etherial form and worship that artificial form of thine,
begotten of thy own self (which thou didst assume in the golden age)
(42). The gods can not see thy end and therefore thou dost pass by the
appellation of Ananta.²¹⁶ Thou art alone subtle and beyond the
comprehension of the subtle (43). O god, thou art the pillar of this
universe. And stationed in thee this world, the source of the origin of
all creatures, is upholding all the regions (44). My body extends over
the four oceans²¹⁷ and thou hast instituted the division of the four
Varnas.²¹⁸ Thou art the lord of the four Yugas²¹⁹ and the eater of the
fruits of the four Hotras²²⁰ (45). Although we both are of one body, we
have assumed two different forms for protecting the universe, mobile and
immobile. As I am the Lord of the universe so thou art (46). I am the
eternal Krishna and thou art the ancient Sesha.²²¹ Thou art the
ever-existent god Sesha of the world. The world is upheld by our body
divided in twain (47). I am identical with thee and thou art at one with
me. Both of us are highly powerful and of one body (48). What is the
use, O God, of waiting like one having no sense? Do thou strike
forcibly, with thy fist, firm as a thunder-bolt, the head of this
Dānava, the enemy of the celestials" (49).

Vaishampayana said:—Hearing those words of Krishna and recollecting the
ancient history the mighty-armed son of Rohini was filled with his own
strength pervading the three worlds and with his well-formed fist
resembling a thunder-bolt struck the wicked Pralamva on the head
(50-51). His head, shorn of its fore part, entered into the body of the
Danava and he too, divested of his life, touched the ground with his
knees (52). Thereupon, with his body out-stretched on the ground
Pralamva looked like a cloud scattered on the sky (53). As streams of
water, mixed with various minerals, come out of the summit of a mountain
so blood came out of his body shorn of head (54).

Having thus slain Pralamva and withdrawn his own strength the powerful
son of Rohini embraced Krishna (55). Thereupon Krishna, along with the
gods stationed in the sky and milkmen began to chant the glories of the
highly powerful Baladeva with benedictory hymns bespeaking his victory
(56). In the sky was heard an invisible voice of the celestials
declaring "This Daitya has been by force killed by a boy of unwearied
actions" (57). Thus on that Daitya, irrepressible unto the deities,
being slain, the celestials, stationed in the sky, gave him the name
Baladeva after his action. Therefore all the worlds call him by the name
of Baladeva (58–59).

  ²¹⁵ The word in the text literally means the _bow of Indra_. According
      to the Hindu mythology the rain-bow is supposed to be the bow of
      Indra who is the presiding deity of rain and showers.

  ²¹⁶ Literally means one having no end. The God has no beginning or

  ²¹⁷ According to the Hindu mythology the world is bounded by the four
      oceans on the four sides. This figuratively refers to the
      universal form of the God.

  ²¹⁸ There are four principal _Varnas_ or castes, the _Brāhmanas_,
      _Kshatriyas_, _Vaisyas_ and _Sudras_. The Brāhmanas are said to
      have sprung from the mouth of Brahma and belong to the sacerdotal
      class. The Kshatriyas, or the military caste, are said to have
      arisen from His arms. The Vaisyas or the trading class are said to
      have sprung from His thighs and the Sudra or the servile class
      from His feet. The earliest reference to the origin of caste is
      seen in a hymn of the Rig-Veda called _Purusha Sukta_. There are
      various other accounts seen in the various Puranas.

  ²¹⁹ _Yuga_ is an age of the world of which there are four namely,
      Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali.

  ²²⁰ An article intended as fit for offering with fire. Burnt offering,
      oblation with fire.

  ²²¹ A name of Balaveda. It is also the name of the serpent-king, the
      thousand-headed snake who was the couch and canopy of Vishnu.


Vaishampayana said:—Thus ranging and sporting in the forest Krishna and
Baladeva spent the two²²² months of the rainy season (1). Thereupon
returning to Vraja those two heroic brothers heard that arrangements
were being made for performing a _Yajna_ in honor of Indra and that the
milkmen were busily engaged in merriments (2). Seeing this, Krishna,
filled with curiosity, asked "What is that Sakra sacrifice for which you
are all filled with delight?" (3) Amongst them an elderly milk-man
replied:—"Hear, why Indra’s flag is worshipped (4). O subduer of thy
enemies, Indra, the king of the celestials and the lord of the world, is
the master of clouds. For this reason from time immemorial and coming
down from one family to another, this festival is being celebrated (5).
Commanded by him and embellished by his bow the clouds produce corns
with new showers of rain (6). Pleased with witnessing this festival the
Lord Purandara, the giver of clouds and water, and the partaker of many
sacrifices, brings about the gratification of the entire world (7). We
and other men live by the corns produced by him and the celestials are
also gratified thereby (8). Corns grow up when the king of gods sends
down showers. And when the earth is gratified with oblations the whole
universe appears as if full of ambrosia (9). Fed by the grass produced
by him the kine, with the bulls and calves, have attained to nourishment
and easiness (10). Wherever the cloud, pouring down water, is seen,
there is observed neither a piece of ground shorn of grass and corns nor
an hungry animal (11). The nectarine rays, of the sun that are milched
by the Lord Sakra, are discharged by the clouds in the form of
ambrosia-like showers of rain (12). The mighty leonine roar, announced
by the air, which he emits with force from the clouds, is designated by
the people as the muttering of clouds (13). The terrible sound, that he
sends forth when carried by clouds accompanied by the wind, is heard
like the clap of a thunder-bolt that shatters the mountains (14). O my
child, as the great Lord Siva is encircled by the goblins, so Indra,
surrounded by clouds coursing at will, and stationed in the sky, sends
down showers accompanied by the clap of a thunder-bolt (15). Sometimes
resembling an unfair day, sometimes resembling scattered gold, sometimes
resembling collyrium and sometimes pouring water in drops the clouds
paint the sky. Thus extracting water from the earth through the rays of
the sun, Indra, the giver of water, sends it down again on earth for the
behoof of all creatures (16–18).²²³ For these reasons O Krishna, this
rainy season has been fixed upon as the time for worshipping Indra. The
kings and others men with delight worship Indra in the rainy season. We
too do so (19)".

  ²²² In India the year is divided into six seasons of two months each.

  ²²³ This shows that the ancient Hindus were not ignorant of the
      scientific formation of clouds.


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of the aged milk-men regarding the
festivity of Indra, Dāmodara well-informed of Sakra’s might, said to him
(1). "We are all milk-men who range in the forest. The precious kine
constitute our subsistence. We should therefore worship the kine, the
mountains and the forests (2). Cultivation is the means of subsistence
to the cultivators, merchandise is to the merchants and the cow is the
best means of livelihood to us. This has been laid down by the scholars
well-read in the three Vedas (3). The respective profession of each
caste is their great God, is worshipful, adorable and beneficial unto
them. He, who, benefitted by one, worships another, is visited by two
fold calamities in this world, and in the next after death. The fields
are protected by cultivation, the forests are preserved by fields and
the mountains are supported by forests and these mountains are our only
refuge. I have heard that the mountains, which exist in this forest,
assume forms at their will. And adopting various shapes they sport in
their table-lands (4–6). Sometimes assuming the forms of tigers, the
foremost of those having claws or those of lions adorned with manes,
they frighten those who devastate the forest and thus protect their
respective woods (7). When tribes living in the forest²²⁵ or those
obtaining their livelihood through it²²⁶ disfigure a wood, they, with
their work of eating up manliness, destroy them in no time (8). The
Brāhmanas perform _Yajnas_ wherein the _Mantras_ play an important part,
the cultivators should perform a sacrifice in honor of a furrow and we
milk-men should celebrate one in honor of the mountains. Therefore we
should worship the mountains in the forest (9). Methinks, therefore, O
milk-men, that engaged in celebrating a Yajna in honor of the mountains
do ye engage in actions after your own hearts either at the foot of a
tree or of a mountain (10). Digging wells and setting up sheds in that
auspicious place and slaying beasts of sacrifice let the milk-men carry
on their festivity. There is no need of holding a discussion over it
(11). Circumambulating that best of mountains embellished with autumnal
flowers the kine will again return to Vraja (12). Every one is filled
with delight in this charming autumn shorn of clouds, endued with many
virtues and abounding in delicious water affording satisfaction to the
kine and in grass (13). Somewhere rendered white by blossoming Pryaka
flowers and somewhere made dark blue by Bānasanas the forest, abounding
in full-grown grass and shorn of peacocks, is appearing greatly
beautiful (14). Clear clouds, shorn of water and lightnings, are moving
in the sky like a herd of elephants (15). The trees, enveloped with new
grown foliage, are as if being pleased by the continual muttering of
clouds drawing in new water (16). Having the white cloud for its
head-gear, fanned by the swan-like chowries and with the full-moon for
its umbrella the sky is shining like a newly installed king (17). After
the termination of the rainy season all the tanks and pools are as if
smiling with the rows of swans. And as if filled with the cries of
Sārasas, they are daily decreasing in size (18). The rivers, flowing
towards the ocean having the Chakravakas for their breast, the banks for
their waist and the swans for their smiles, are as if going to their
husbands (19). The water, beautified by the full blown lilies and the
sky crested with stars, as if mock each other in the night (20).
Beholding the highly charming forest resonant with the notes of
Kraunchas and blued with the ripe Kalama paddy one attains to delight of
mind (21). The tanks, pools, lakes and rivers and fields, embellished
with blossoming trees, are appearing highly beautiful (22). Copper
coloured and dark-blue lotuses are appearing in the beauty of new water
(23). The peacocks are freed of haughtiness, the sky is divested of
clouds, the oceans are full of water and the wind is gradually assuming
proportions (24). The earth is appearing as if of many eyes by the
feathers cast off by the peacocks after their dancing in the rainy
season (25). With her banks full of mud and covered with Kāsa flowers
and creepers and abounding in swans and Sārasas the river Yamunā is
appearing highly beautiful (26). Ranging in fields filled with corns
ripened in proper season and in the forest, the birds, living on corns
and water, are emitting notes in excitement (27). The tender corns, on
which the clouds poured their watery contents in the rainy season, have
grown hardened (28). Casting off his cloudy raiment and illumined by the
autumn the moon is, as if, ranging with a delighted heart, in the clear
sky (29). Now the kine have been yielding milk in double the quantity,
the bulls have become two-fold maddened, the forest has become twice
beautiful and the earth has become highly accomplished with corns (30).
The luminous bodies, divested of clouds, the water beautified with
lotuses, and the mind of men are daily becoming delightful (31).
Divested of clouds and shining in autumnal effulgence the sun, of
powerful rays, is spreading its lustre on all sides and drawing the
water (32). Having excited their respective armies the kings, the
protectors of the world, desirous of achieving victory, are proceeding
against one another (33). The variegated and charming woods, with the
mud dried up and reddened by _Vandhujiva_ flowers, are creating the
delight of the mind (34). The blossoming Asana, Saptaparna and Kānchana
trees are beautifying the forest (35). Vānāsana, Dantivitapa, Pryaka
Svarnaparna, and Ketaki trees have been covered with flowers and the
she-owls and black-bees are moving about hither and thither (36). As if
assuming the beauty of a harlot the autumnal season is walking in Vraja
and cow-sheds filled with the sound of churning rods (37). The foremost
of the celestials (Vishnu), having the emblem of Garuda on his flag, was
happily sleeping during the rainy season. The deities are now trying to
awaken him (38).

"O ye milk-men, in this autumn abounding in beautiful corns, we will
worship the foremost of mountains, resembling the abode of the wind-god,
resorted to by white, red and blue birds, filled with fruits like clouds
adorned with the bow of Indra, crested with groves of creepers and trees
and adorned with expansive table-lands. We will, in particular, worship
the kine (39–41). Adorning the cows with ear-rings, horns, chaplets of
peacock feathers, bells hanging around their necks and autumnal flowers,
do ye worship them for your well-being. And let the _yajna_, in honor of
the mountain, be undertaken. We will celebrate a _yajna_ in honor of the
mountain as Sakra is worshipped by the celestials. And forsooth we will
compel you to perform the _yajna_ for the cows. If you have any love for
me, and if I am your friend, then do ye all worship the kine. Do not
cherish any doubt in this. If you cherish these my conciliating words,
you will meet with your well-being. Therefore without questioning its
purpose do ye fulfill my words" (42-45).

  ²²⁴ In this Chapter it will be seen that Krishna attempts to put a
      stop to Indra-Yajna or a sacrifice in honor of the god of rain. It
      is evident from the manner in which he preaches against it that he
      was opposed to lifeless rituals and ceremonials. He exhorts all
      the people of his clan to believe that every body’s calling, on
      which depends his livelihood, is a god to him. He was not for
      useless ceremonies and rituals and always tried to present before
      his country a higher form of faith, freed from the prevailing
      superstitions. But he introduced it in a very mild form and for
      this he did not revolutionize the existing modes of things. This
      his stand against Indra-Yajna, and his introduction of the worship
      of mountain, forest &c ultimately developed itself into the great
      religion of _Duty_ which he preached in his after life. To worship
      one’s own means of livelihood, when stripped off metaphor, means
      to perform one’s own duty considering it as sacred as the worship
      of a deity. This incident of introducing a new form of religion
      also proves his superhuman power. Being a mere boy he produced so
      great an influence over his people that they left off their
      established form of religion and followed him.

  ²²⁵ The Bheels or other barbarous tribes who live in the forest.

  ²²⁶ The milk-men or others who obtain their means of livelihood either
      by tending their kine in the forest or selling the produce of the


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Dāmodara the Gopas were greatly
delighted; and being informed of the true import of his nectarine words
they unhesitatingly replied (1):

"O boy, we have been highly pleased seeing this thy understanding
conducive to the multiplication of the kine and the well-being of the
milk-men (2). O Krishna, thou art our course, delight and refuge. Thou
dost understand our hearts and art our saviour in great disasters. Thou
art the friend of our friends (3). By thy favour, this entire hamlet of
milk-men the delightful Gokula²²⁷ has been shorn of her enemies. And
filled with auspiciousness she is living with joy and happiness like the
city of the celestials (4). Witnessing these thy deeds worthy of being
seen and which it is impossible for others to perform, beginning with
thy birth and hearing thy haughty words our minds have been filled with
surprise (5). As Purandara is amongst the celestials so thou hast
acquired supremacy amongst men by thy matchless strength, power, and
fame (6). By thy fierce power and consummate effulgence thou hast
acquired superiority amongst the mortals like unto the sun amongst the
deities (7). As is the moon amongst the gods, so thou hast acquired
prominence amongst men by thy grace, beauty, delightful countenance and
smiles (8). In strength, energy, body, and feats performed in boyhood
only Kārtikeya²²⁸ can equal thee. There is none to match thee amongst
men (9). As the great ocean cannot overleap its bank so who can
disregard your proposal regarding the performance of a _yajna_ in honor
of the mountain (10)? Let now for the well-being of the kine and milkmen
the Giri-yajana,²²⁹ instituted by thee, be undertaken by us in the place
of the Indra-yajna (11). Let delightful viands of milk be prepared and
let beautiful jars be placed at the drinking-place²³⁰ (12). Let spacious
rivers and _Dronis_²³¹ be filled with milk and take such a quantity of
fried meat and various sorts of food and drink to the mountain that the
Gopas may spend three nights (13–14). Let this _yajna_, consisting of
all milkmen and abounding in the meat of buffalo and other beasts, be at
once undertaken (15)".

Thereupon the entire village of milkmen was filled with glee along with
the delighted kine. Then with the sound of trumpets, the roar of the
bulls and the cries of the calves the Gopas were greatly rejoiced. Lakes
of curd, whirlpools of clarified butter and rivers of milk were made
there. A heap of meat and a mountain-like collection of of boiled rice
were taken to the mountain. Thus the Giri-Yajna was undertaken by all
the milkmen there. There were present the delighted Gopas and the
beautiful milk-women. Hundreds of eating-places were set up there. It
abounded in garlands, various sorts of perfumeries and incense. Various
articles of sacrifice were spread there duly. And thus in the auspicious
hour the Gopas, along with the Brāhmanas, celebrated the Giri-Yajna
(16–20). After the termination of the _yajna_, Krishna, assuming, by his
illusive energy, the form of a mountain, feasted on that most excellent
rice, meat, curd and milk (21). The Brāhmanas too were pleased with
eating there and all their desires were accomplished. And uttering there
delightedly the verses of benediction they went away (22). Assuming a
celestial form and partaking of the food and drink after his own heart
in that sacrifice the Lord Krishna smilingly said "I am satisfied" (23).
Then beholding on the top of the hill Krishna in the form of a mountain
embellished with celestial garlands and pastes, the leading Gopas,
bowing, sought refuge with him (24). The omnipotent Lord Krishna, having
his true form hidden by the mountain, himself adored his own self along
with the bowing Gopas (25).

The Gopas, filled with surprise, said to that god stationed on the best
of mountains:—"O lord, we are thy devoted servants, command us what we
are to do" (26). He replied to them in words originating from the
mountain:—"If you have compassion for the kine, engage in my worship
from to-day (27). I am your well-meaning first deity who grant all
objects of desire and by my favour you have got, in your possession, ten
millions of precious kine (28). If you all become my votaries, I will
encompass your well-being in the forest and enjoy, as in the celestial
region, in your company (29). Being delighted I will confer on Nanda and
other leading Gopas immense wealth that is worthy of being acquired by
milk-men (30). Let the cows along with their calves circumambulate me. I
will forsooth then attain to highest felicity" (31).

Thereupon to embellish that best of mountains the cows, with all the
bulls, in flocks, encircled it (32). Thereupon with their horns adorned
with garlands and be-decked with chaplets on their heads and flowery
Angadas, numberless cows delightedly began to circumambulate it quickly
(33). Having their limbs pasted with pastes of diverse colors and clad
in red, crimson and yellow raiments the milk-men followed those cows in
order to govern them (34). In that wonderful assembly shone there the
milk-men adorned with peacock-feathered Angadas, and chords well
arranged for tying their hairs and with weapons in their hands. Some
milk-men hastened to control the kine, some danced in joy and some rode
the bulls. Thus in due order when that festivity terminated the
incarnate god of the hill all on a sudden disappeared and Krishna, too,
with the Gopas, returned to Vraja. Thus when the Giri-Yajna was
instituted all the milk-men, boys and elderly people were filled with
surprise, on witnessing that wonderful scene and began to chant the
glories of Madhusudana (35–39).

  ²²⁷ Gokula is another name of Vraja, the village of milk-men. There is
      still now a village of the same name about five or six miles from
      Mathura. It is very doubtful whether this is the site of the
      ancient Gokula which is described to have been situate near
      Govardhana mountain.

  ²²⁸ The deity of war and son of Siva. Derived from Kirtika the
      personified Pleiades: according to the legend having been fostered
      and brought up by the nymphs so called. He was so great an adept
      in the art of war that he was appointed the commander of the
      celestial army in the war between the gods and demons.

  ²²⁹ A sacrifice in honor of the mount Govardhana.

  ²³⁰ The word in the text is _Udapana_—from _Uda_ water, and the root
      _pa_ to drink. It may also mean a well. Here it means a place
      where water is drunk. Near a well, as is still seen in many place,
      there is a spacious pavement where people may sit at ease and

  ²³¹ Any real vessel made of wood, stone and in the shape of a boat and
      used for holding or pouring out water, as a bathing tub, a bathing
      vessel, a bucket or watering pot &c.


Vaishampayana said:—While in this wise the festivity, in his honor, was
suppressed, Sakra, the king of the celestials said to the clouds called
Samvartaka (1):—"O ye clouds, and elephants, if you cherish any respect
for your king and if you consider it as your duty to do what pleases me
(listen then to my words) (2). All these inhabitants of Vrindāvana are
attached to Dāmodara. Nanda and other Gopas have grown inimical towards
my festival (3). Therefore within seven nights, distress, with rain and
winds, the precious kine which constitute their life-long subsistence
and for which they pass by the name of Gopas²³² (4). I myself, stationed
on (my elephant) Airavata, shall discharge dreadful rain, winds and
showers effulgent like thunder and lightning (5). With dreadful showers
and winds you will kill all the kine and the inhabitants of Vraja and
leave them after they all kiss the ground" (6).

On account of his festival being put down by Krishna the powerful
Pākashāsana thus issued his mandate to the clouds (7). Thereupon, the
dreadful dark-blue clouds, resembling a mountain in size and muttering
awfully, covered the sky on all sides (8). Producing lightnings
continually the clouds, adorned with the bow of Indra, enshrouded the
welkin with darkness (9). Touching one another, all the clouds, some
resembling the elephants, some the Makaras²³³ and some the serpents,
began to move about in the sky (10). Coming in contact with one another
the clouds, resembling a million of elephants, covered the sky and
created a very unfair day (11). Showers of equal size, some resembling
the hands of men, some the trunks of elephants and some bamboos the
clouds began to pour down their watery contents (12). People took that
dreadful weather as a deep, unpassable and limitless ocean stationed in
the sky (13). Hearing the dreadful mutterings of the mountain like
clouds, the birds could not come out of their nests and the animals
began to fly away on all sides (14). By the excessive showers discharged
by the dreadful clouds resembling the hour of the universal dissolution
the bodies of men grew discoloured (15). The planets and stars
disappearing from view, the sky, shorn of the rays of the sun and the
moon was divested of its lustre (16). With the continual showers of rain
let off by the clouds the ground there assumed the form of a tank (17).
The peacocks began to cry aloud and the other birds began to emit their
feeble notes. And the rivers, increasing their size, carried away the
trees grown on their banks (18). As if remonstrated with by the
mutterings of clouds and the clap of thunderbolts the grass and trees
began to tremble there (19). Beside themselves with fear the milk-men
began to speak amongst themselves: "We think the end of the world is at
hand and the earth will be converted into one sheet of water (20)." The
cows were greatly distressed by that dreadful downpour of rain. And they
stood motionless and began to cry aloud (21). Their body was soaked,
thighs and feet were motionless, hoops and mouth inert, the hairs stood
erect and their belly and udders grew lean (22). Some died out of
exhaustion, some took to their heels in fear and some with their calves
sank under frost (23). Some cows, of emaciated belly on account of
hunger and wearied thighs, lay to sleep embracing their calves (24). The
cows and calves, thus assailed by rain, fell down trembling and with
poor and distressing countenance looked towards Krishna and cried "Save
us! Save us! (25)"

Beholding this dreadful oppression over the cows on account of that
inclemeny and the impending death of the Gopas the sweet-speeched
Krishna was greatly worked up with anger. And meditating for a while he
began to speak to himself (26–27):—"I knew before that this will come to
pass. However to protect them against this downpour of rain I will
uproot this best of mountains Govardhana containing forests and woods
and convert it into an asylum for the kine (28). There is not a shadow
of doubt that this mountain, a veritable planet on earth, when upheld by
me, will be able to protect the kine and milk-men" (29).

Thus meditating and displaying the strength of his arms Krishna, having
truth for his prowess and resembling the best of mountains, uprooted
that hill with his hands (30). Then that foremost of mountains,
containing clouds, upheld by Krishna with his left hand, shone there
like a house on account of its caves (41). When that mountain was
uprooted the rocks, at its table-land, were shaken and the trees fell
down (32). And although that mountain was immoveable still, on account
of Krishna’s power, with its whirling summits, falling trees and
trembling tops it went up to the sky (33). All the clouds, united, were
pouring down their watery contents in its side. With their
quick-coursing streams the rocks were loosened and the mountain too was
continually agitated (34). The milk-men however could not perceive the
raining clouds, the rock-pouring mountain and the roaring wind (35). The
clouds, attached to the mountain, coming in contact with the springs
that best of mountains shone there as if bedecked with peacock feathers
(36). Vidyadharas, Uragas, Gandharvas and Apsarās began to exclaim from
all sides—"Gifted with wings the mount Govardhana is flying up" (37).
White, crimson and dark mineral substances began to trickle down from
the earthen layer of that uprooted mountain containing a thousand of
layers (38). Some of the summits of that best of mountain were
slackened, some were shattered and the highly elevated ones entered into
clouds (39). With the shaking of the mountains, the trees also shook,
and their flowers fell down on all sides of the ground (40). The
big-hooded serpents, having half of their body adorned, issued out of
their holes and the birds began to fly up in the sky (41). Out of fear
consequent upon the raising up of the mountain and of heavy downpour
these sky rangers began continually to fly up and come down (42). The
lions in anger began to roar like clouds surcharged with water and the
tigers like that of the churning rods (43). Having its form
metamorphosed that mountain, consisting of even, uneven and impassable
places, appeared like another mountain (44). On account of the excessive
downpour of showers it appeared like Tripura²³⁴ stupified by Rudra in in
the sky (45). Upheld by the rod-like hand of Krishna that huge mountain,
covered with dark-blue clouds, appeared there like an umbrella (46). The
muttering of the clouds making him dream, Govardhana slept there placing
his cave-like face on the pillow of Krishna’s arm (47). Having its
summit covered with trees divested of the notes of the birds and soaked
with the showers and shorn of the cries of peacocks, that mountain shone
there like the sky (48). The summit and forest of that high mountain
were as if possessed by fever on account of its table-lands shaking and
trembling (49). Hastened by the king of gods and driven by the wind the
clouds began to pour down before it continually their contents (50).
Upheld by Krishna’s hand that mountain, covered with clouds, appeared
like a country marked with the signs of wheels when oppressed by a king
(51). As a populous village places before it a city so the clouds stood
encircling that mountain (52).

For protecting the Gopas like unto Brahmā the Lord Krishna raised up
that mountain and kept it on the tip of his finger. He then smilingly
said (53).

"By some heavenly means which is even beyond the comprehension of the
gods I have constructed this mountainous house, an asylum for the cows
where no wind blows (54). Let the flocks of cows speedily enter into it
and peacefully and happily live there where no violent wind blows. Do
ye, of your own accord, make divisions of the room proportionate to your
superiority of position and the number of flocks and put a stop to the
downpour of showers. The big house, that I have constructed by uprooting
this hill extending over five _Kos_ and one _Kos_ in breadth, can even
accommodate the three worlds, what to speak of Vraja (55-57)".

There arose a great tumult of the Gopas accompanied by the mutterings of
clouds outside and the noise of the cows. And arranged in rows by the
milk-men the kine entered into the huge cave of that best of mountains
(58–59). And standing at the foot of that mountain like a rising pillar
of stone Krishna held that hill with one hand like a beloved guest (60).

Thereupon taking with them their carts and vessels the inhabitants of
Vraja, afraid of rain, entered into that rocky house (61). Beholding
this superhuman feat of Krishna and finding his words falsified the
powerful Satakratu asked the clouds to desist (62). And surrounded by
clouds which deprived the earth of all festivities for seven nights he
returned again to the celestial region (63). Thus after seven nights
when the king of gods desisted and the sky was freed of clouds and
become clear the sun rose in its full effulgence (64). The cows and the
milk-men returned to their respective quarters by the same road by which
they had entered (the cave) (63). For the well-being of all the worlds
the Lord Krishna, the giver of boons and identical with all the
elements, established, with a delighted heart, that best of mountains²³⁵

  ²³² Literally the word means one who protects kine from _go_, kine and
      the root _pa_, to protect.

  ²³³ A root of acquatic animal resembling a crocodile.

  ²³⁴ The Danava chief who was defeated by Rudra or Siva in the war
      between the gods and demons.

  ²³⁵ This miracle of Krishna’s holding up of the mountain Govardhana on
      one of his fingers has been described in almost all the Puranas
      and even in the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata. This incident, no
      doubt, on the face of it, appears highly incredible for, it is not
      possible for a man, nay for a boy of ten years of age to raise up
      a huge mountain like Govardhana. It is undoubtedly an allegory
      signifying the wonderful power of Krishna displayed by him for
      protecting the Gopas. The following explanation may be safely
      vouchsafed of the allegory. When he suppressed the worship of
      Indra and all his followers attacked the Gopas, Krishna placed
      them all, with their cattle and goods, on that hill and himself
      fought with the followers of Indra. It is mentioned in the latter
      portion of this Chapter that the Gopas entered into the hollow of
      the mountain, their ’hilly house’ and so forth. This probably may
      suggest an explanation that they took shelter in one of the huge
      caves of the mountain and Krishna guarded them against the attack
      of the worshippers of Indra. Whatever may be the explanation it is
      undoubtedly true that he displayed a superhuman feat on this


Vaishampayana said:—Beholding the mount Govardhana thus held up and the
kine saved Purandara, the king of the celestials, was filled with great
surprise and felt a desire for seeing Krishna (1). And seated on his
elephant Airavata with temporal juice trickling down and resembling a
cloud without water he came down on earth (2). Purandara saw Krishna, of
unwearied actions, seated at the foot of the Govardhana hill (3). He saw
there the immortal Vishnu, assuming the guise of a milk-man and shining
in his great effulgence and attained to great delight (4). Sakra, having
many eyes, saw, with all his eyes, Krishna bearing the mystic mark of
Srivatsa and resembling a dark-blue lotus in hue (5). Beholding him
seated happily at the foot of the hill who was gifted with beauty and
was like an immortal in the land of mortals Sakra was ashamed (6).
Disappearing from view, that foremost of birds (Garuda), feeding on
serpents, was protecting him, seated at ease, against the rays of the
sun with his wings (7). Leaving behind his elephant, Indra, the slayer
of Bala, approached Krishna who was playing in the forest being engaged
in human actions (8). His face was embellished with a crown effulgent
like the sun that gives lustre to lightning, and with a pair of
celestial ear-rings. His breast was adorned with a neck-lace of five
layers of Padmakānta jewel constituting the ornament of the body.
Beholding Vāsudeva with his thousand eyes the powerful Vasava, the
wielder of thunder-bolt, approached Upendra and looked more beautiful
with his celestial garlands and pastes (9–11). Then with his sweet
voice, deep as the muttering of clouds that always issues commands to
the deities, he said (12):—

"O Krishna, O thou of large arms, O thou the enhancer of the delight of
thy kinsmen, what, thou hast accomplished on thy being pleased with thy
kine, is beyond the power of the gods (13). I have been highly pleased
with thy saving the kine from the clouds created by me which bring about
the dissolution of the world (14). Whose mind is not filled with
surprise on seeing thee hold up this best of mountains by thy
own-begotten Yoga power like a house in the sky(15)? O Krishna, I was
enraged on account of the suppression of my sacrifice. And therefore I
sent down this excessive rain extending over seven nights and
destructive of the kine which even the Devas and Dānavas cannot
withstand. But thou hast, by thy own power, put down this terrible
shower in my very presence (16–17). I am highly pleased, O Krishna, for
thy, in anger, settling the entire Vaishnava energy in thy human form
(18). On account of thy being endued with thy own energy although in a
human form, the work of the gods appears to have been well accomplished
(19). O hero, while thou art at the head of all the works of the gods
and their guide, forsooth, every thing will be accomplished and nothing
will remain undone (20). Thou art alone eternal amongst the gods and in
all other worlds. I do not see a second capable of carrying the weight
thou hast held (21). As the best of wheels is placed before a pole so
dost thou engage in relieving the distress of the gods sunk in an ocean
of misery, O thou having a bird for thy carrier (22). O Krishna, as gold
is among the metals, so this universe, created by the Grand-father
(Brahmā) exists, in thy body (23). As a cripple cannot follow one who
runs fast so even the Lord, Self-sprung (Brahma) cannot follow thee in
intelligence or age (24). As the Himalaya is amongst the mountains, as
the great ocean is amongst the watery expanses, as Garuda is amongst the
birds so thou art the foremost of the celestials (25). O Krishna,
underneath all is the region of water; above it are afloat the pillars
of the earth; above them is the region of man; above it is the etherial
region; above it is the effulgent region of the sun constituting the
gate of heaven; above it is the great region of the gods forming the
abode of the celestials; here I occupy the position of the king of gods;
above it is the Brahmaloka where the Brahmarshis live and where move
about the high-souled Soma (moon) and other luminous bodies. Above it is
the Goloka stationed in the great etherial region. O Krishna, Golaka is
the foremost of all regions and is protected by the Sādhyas. There dost
thou live carrying on _Tapas_ which we cannot learn even when accosting
the Grand-Father about it (26–31). This earth is the region of actions
for those who engage in them. Underneath it is the dreadful region of
the iniquitous (32). The etherial region is the refuge of moving objects
like the air and heaven is the excellent refuge of the pious endued with
the qualities of self-control and forbearance (33). Those, who worship
Brahmā, live in the Brahmaloka. Goloka is attainable only by the kine;
even by hard austerities no one else can obtain it (34). O intelligent
and heroic Krishna, in order to protect these kine, thou didst hold up
the mount Govardhana and suppress the calamities sent down by me (35).
Therefore at the request of the Grand Father and the cows and out of
respect for thee I have come here (36).

"O Krishna, I am the lord of Bhutas²³⁶ and of the gods and I am
Purandara. Being born of Aditi I am thy elder brother (37). Do thou
forgive me for displaying my own energy in the shape of clouds which is
but the outcome of thy power (38). O Krishna of the gait of an elephant,
be thou delighted now by thy own gentle energy and listen to the words
given vent to by Brahmā and the cows (39). Pleased with thy heavenly
deeds, hymning of their glories and with the work of protection the Lord
Brahmā and the cows of the sky have communicated this unto thee (40).
Thyself protecting the great Goloka region and all the cows, our race,
through the help of the bulls, will multiply itself (41). We all,
coursing at our will, shall propitiate the cultivators with bulls, their
beasts of burden, the celestials with the oblation of Havi and Sri with
the profusely increasing corns (42). O lord, O thou of great strength,
thou art our preceptor and saviour. Becoming our king and lord do thou
sprinkle thy self to-day with this golden jar full of heavenly water
brought by me with my own hands (43–44). I am the king of the celestials
and thou hast, although eternal, become now the king of the cows.
Therefore the people of this world will hymn thee as Govinda (45). As
the dignity of Indra has been bestowed on me so thou art the king of
cows. O Krishna, the gods will celebrate thy name as Upendra (46). Of
the four months of my rainy season, I confer the latter half
constituting the autumn on thee (47). From to-day people will recognize
the first two months as mine. After the termination of the rains they
will take down my flag and thou shalt receive adoration. Shorn of
excitement and emitting notes occasionally the peacocks will give up
their pride begotten by my clouds. And all other creatures, ranging in
my season and emitting notes at the view of clouds, will be silent
(48–49). Agastya, the regent of the star Canopus, will range like a bird
in the southern quarter and the sun, of thousand rays, will distress all
with his own effulgence (50). Thus with the beginning of autumn the
peacocks will become silent, the birds will hanker after water, the
frogs will desist from leaping, the brinks of the rivers will be filled
with swans and Sārasas, the Krounchas will emit their notes, the bulls
will become excited, the cows will be pleased and yield profuse milk,
the clouds will disappear after filling the earth with water, the cranes
will range in the dark sky, the picturesque lakes, pools and rivers will
be adorned with clean water and new grown lotuses, the dark-blue fields
will be full of corns, the rivers will have waters flowing in their
middle²³⁷ the hermitages of the ascetics will also be filled with
beautiful corns, the earth, abounding in many provinces, will grow
charming after the rains, the roads will look beautiful, the trees will
be covered with fruits, the country will be full of sugarcane and
Vajapeya and other sacrifices will be undertaken. And thus the sacred
autumn will set in. Thou shalt then get up from thy bed. Men in this
world and the immortals in the celestial region will worship me as
Mahendra and thee as Upendra in the flag-staffs on the earth (51-59).
The man, who reciting the great and eternal theme of our conduct as
Mahendra and Upendra, will bow unto us, will not be visited by any
misery" (60).

Thereupon taking those jars full of heavenly water the king of gods,
conversant with Yoga, sprinkled²³⁸ Govinda (61). Beholding the eternal
Krishna thus annointed, the cows, stationed in the celestial region,
along with the bulls, sprinkled him also with a downpour of their milk
through clouds (62). The clear clouds in the sky sprinkled him with
nectarine showers. From trees fell down moon-like drops of water. And
from the sky the gods set up a leonine sound, made a downpour of flowers
and blew the bugles (63–64). The Maharshis, who always follow _mantras_,
chanted his glories with becoming verses and the body of the earth was
separated from one all-extending ocean (65). The seas grew delightful
and the winds began to blow for bringing about the well-being of the
world. And the sun and the moon accompanied by stars stood in their
respective roads (66). The kings were freed of their enemies and the
calamity of excessive rain was pacified. And the trees were embellished
with leaves and flowers of various colours. The deer grew delighted in
the forest and the elephants began to yield temporal juice and the
mountains shone with trees grown on them and with metals (67–68). And
the land of mortals was satisfied with ambrosia-like juice like unto the
celestial region. Thus when the ceremony of the royal unction, of the
Lord Krishna, accompanied by the nectarine showers coming down from the
celestial region, was over the king of gods Purandara said to the
eternal Govinda, wearing celestial garlands and installed in the
sovereignty of the cows (69–70).

"O Krishna, the first work, of installing thee as the king of cows, is
now over. Listen now to the next object of my coming here (71). Slaying
speedily Kansa, the wretch of a horse Keshi, and Aristha, always
committing mischief do thou engage in governing thy own kingdom (72).
From thy father’s sister, a portion of my energy is born as a son by
name Arjuna. Contracting friendship with him do thou always protect him
(73). Thou shalt favour him and he, too, acting on thy advice and
following thee, will acquire great fame (74). He will be the foremost of
bowmen among the descendants of Bharata and will take after thee. And
without thy help he alone will never be pleased with his work (75). This
future war of Bharata²³⁹ depends on him and thee the foremost of men.
When you both will be united all the kings will be slain (76). O
Krishna, I have spoken to the gods and Rishis, that the son, begotten by
me on Kunti, will be an adept in the use of weapons, the foremost of
archers and the greatest of the Kurus. All the warrior-kings will speak
of his learning (77-78). Ever abiding by the duties of a Kshatrya he
alone will be able to kill one Akshouhini of kings skilled in fighting
(79). Save thee there is none among the kings or gods who will be able
to weaken the power of his bow or follow the path of his weapons, O lord
(80). O Govinda, he will be thy friend and help in battle. Therefore at
my request, do thou instruct him in spiritual knowledge (81). Thou dost
know well Arjuna and all the worlds. So thou shouldst always regard and
take care of him as thou dost me (82). If thou dost protect him in the
great battle Death will not be able to extend its influence over him
(83). O Krishna, know Arjuna as me and me as identical with thy own
self. As I am at one with thee, so is Arjuna (84). I am thy elder
brother and therefore thou didst, in the days of yore, acquiring the
three worlds from Bali with thy three footsteps, install me in the
sovereignty over the gods (85). I know thee as fond of truth, as having
truth for thy prowess and as identical with truth. And because thou art
bound to the gods by a promise they have engaged thee in this work of
the destruction of their enemies (86). O Krishna, Arjuna, the son of thy
father’s sister, is my son. As he did become thy companion in the days
of yore²⁴⁰ and so now he will contract friendship with thee (87). O
Mādhava, as a bull carries a burden, so thou shalt always take care of
him when either living in his house, your house or while fighting with
the enemies in the battle-field (88). When Kansa will be slain by thee,
ever observant of the real purpose of things there will take place a
great war of the kings (89). Arjuna will vanquish those heroic men of
superhuman deeds and thou shalt adorn him with glory (90). O Keshava, if
truth, myself and the celestials are thy favourites thou shouldst carry
out whatever I have said" (91).

Hearing the words of Sakra, Krishna, who had become a cow-keeper, with a
delighted mind replied (92). "O lord of Sachi, I am happy to see you.
Nothing, of whatever you have said, will be left off (93). O Sakra, I
know your heart. It is not unknown to me that my father’s sister has
been given away to the high-souled Pandu and that she has given birth to
Arjuna (94). I know also the prince Yudhisthira begotten by Dharma. I
know Bhimasena, the multiplier of Vāyu’s (wind-god’s) race. I know also
Nakula and Sahadeva begotten on Mādri by the two Aswinis²⁴¹ (95-96). I
know also Karna, now known as a charioteer’s son, begotten on my
father’s sister in her maidenhood by the Sun²⁴² (97). That Pandu is dead
on account of the thunder-like imprecation²⁴³ and that the sons of
Dhiitarashtra are desirous of fighting are all known to me (98), O king
of gods, returning now to the city of the celestials increase their
delight. No enemy will be able to trouble Arjuna when he will be before
me (99). When the great war of Bhārata will come to its close, I shall,
on account of Arjuna, consign unscathed unto Kunti all the sons of Pandu
(100). O king of gods, I am bound by affection and therefore I shall
accomplish like a servant what your son Arjuna will command me (101)."
Hearing these words of truthful Krishna, the king of gods returned to
the city of the celestials (102).

  ²³⁶ A demi-god of a particular class.

  ²³⁷ _i.e._ the waters will not overflood their banks as in the rainy

  ²³⁸ _i.e._ installed him as the king of cows. At the time of
      installation sacred water is sprinkled on the head of a king.

  ²³⁹ It refers to the battle of Kurukshetra in which all the kings of
      the world took part.

  ²⁴⁰ When Vishnu assumed the form of Nārayana Arjuna became his
      companion as Nara.

  ²⁴¹ For a detailed account of the birth of all these sons see chapter
      CXXIII of Adi Parva of Mahabharata.

  ²⁴² Kunti, while a maid, obtained a boon from the Rishi Durvasa that
      whomever she would wish to have as her consort, he would at once
      come to her. To make an experiment she invoked the sun and Karna
      is the issue of her union with him. The account of his birth is
      described in one hundred and eleventh chapter of Adi Parva in the

  ²⁴³ Once on a time Pandu went out into a forest for hunting. He struck
      a Rishi’s son who was coupling with his mate in the form of a
      deer. He imprecated a curse on Pandu saying "As you have killed me
      in the form of a deer when I was full of desire, so you, O foolish
      man, will certainly meet with the fate that has fallen me. When
      you will go to your dear one, full of desire as was the case with
      me, you will at that time, certainly go to the land of the dead.
      Your wife will also follow you." See slokas 30, 31, in chapter
      CXVIII in Sambhava Parva of Adi Parva in the Mahabharata.


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon after the departure of Sakra, the
beautiful Krishna the holder of Gavardhana, entered Vraja honored by the
inhabitants, thereof (1). The elderly Gopas and his kinsmen and
comrades, assembled together, welcomed him and said.

"O Govinda, we have been honored and favoured by thy conduct and as well
as that of the best of mountains (2). Indeed thy prowess is like that of
the celestials. By thy favour the kine have tided over the fear of
excessive rain and we too have been relieved of the great fear (3). O
Krishna, O lord of kine, beholding thy superhuman feat of raising up the
mountain we consider thee as a divinity (4). O thou of great strength,
art thou Rudra, Marut, or one of the Vasus? Why hast thou taken thy
birth as the son of Vasudeva (5)? Beholding this thy low birth amongst
us, this thy prowess, sport and feat in thy boyhood our minds are filled
with fear (6). We see, thou art like one of the Lokapālas. But why art
thou, in thy wretched guise of a milk-man, engaged in sport with us and
in protecting kine (7)? Art thou a Deva, a Dānava or a Gandharva now
born as our friend? Whatever thou mayst be we bow unto thee (8). If thou
art present here, of thy own accord, for any work of thine, do thou
consider us as thy dependants and votaries (9)."

Vaishampāyana said:—Hearing the words of Gopas, the lotus-eyed Krishna,
smiling a little, said to his assembled kinsmen:—(10)

"Ye of dreadful prowess, let not the conviction, that you have all
formed about me, take root in your hearts. I am one of your clan and a
friend (11). If however you are all bent upon hearing then wait you will
soon listen to an account of (my origin) and see my true form (12). I am
one of your respected friends like unto a god. If you have any affection
for me, do not wish to learn any thing more about me (13)."

Thus accosted by Vasudeva’s son and covering their own faces and
resorting to silence the milk-men went away in in various directions

Thereupon beholding the charming autumnal night and the beautiful moon
the powerful Krishna felt a desire of sporting (15). Sometimes he made
the haughty bulls fight with one another in the roads of Vraja adorned
with cow-dung pastes. He again set the powerful cow-herds against one
another. He sometimes got hold of the kine in the forest like a
crocodile. (16–17). Sometimes thinking of his boyhood and bringing the
youthful women of Gopas under his control at night he used to enjoy
there (18). With their glances those Gopa women used to drink as if the
ambrosia of his beautiful face who was like the moon come down on earth
(19). Krishna was by nature beautiful but clad in a silken raiment of
shining yellow colour he appeared more beautiful (20). Having his arms
adorned with Angadas and bedecked with garlands of wild flowers Govinda
beautified the entire Vraja (21). Filled with surprise at witnessing the
wonderful conduct of that powerful (being) the beautiful Gopa women used
to call him by the name of Dāmodara (22). And casting again and again
their glances accompanied by various gestures they began to assail him
with their rising breasts (23). After a few days had passed away in this
way the parents of those milk-women prevented them (from doing so).
Those damsels however, fond of amusements, used to hunt Krishna at night
(24). Sometimes arranging themselves in rows and sometimes in circles
they, singing hymns relating to Krishna’s glories, used to satisfy him.
And all of them appeared in pairs with Krishna (25). Casting loving
glances at Krishna and following his course those youthful damsels of
Vraja imitated all his sports (26). Sometimes striking their palms in
the forest they used to imitate him and sometimes they used to take
delight in imitating his songs and dances accompanied by lovely smiles
and looks (27-28). Singing sweet songs describing the profuse love for
Krishna these beautiful women, devoted to Dāmodara, used to range at
Pleasure in Vraja (29). As she-elephants, covered with dust, enjoy with
an infuriated elephant so those milk-women, their limbs covered all over
with dust and cow-dung, used to sport with Krishna encircling him on all
sides (30). Drinking repeatedly his ambrosia-like beauty with their eyes
accompanied by side-long and smiling looks the Gopa-women, having
antelope eyes, could not attain to the consummation of delight (31).
When Damodara used to exclaim "O! Alas!" the damsels anxiously and
delightedly used to listen to the words given vent to by him (33). Thus
encircled by the milk-women Krishna used to sport, of his own accord, in
the autumnal night adorned by the moon²⁴⁴ (35).

  ²⁴⁴ This is one of the principal incidents of Krishna’s life on which
      innumerable poets of India have exhausted their skill and
      ingenuity. This incident has also been recorded in several
      Puranas. Some hostile critics interpret this Rāsa dance as one of
      the blemishes of Krishna’s character and proceed to prove that he
      was an emblem of carnality. They draw upon certain Indian scholars
      in support of their argument. It is therefore necessary to throw a
      few suggestions before our readers so that they may understand Sri
      Krishna aright. This _Rāsa_ dance is described in a few words in
      Harivamsha, a little more profusely in Vishnu Puran, but very
      elaborately in Srimadbhagavatam. There is no mention however to
      this incident in the Mahabharata. In Vishnu Puran it is described
      as the out-burst of a tender love of a number of young girls for
      their youthful companion. In Harivamsha it is the love of youthful
      damsels for a handsome young man. In Bhagvata it is the passionate
      love of some women for a young man. In all these books however the
      different phases of love have been described with a grand esoteric
      meaning behind them. This Rāsa was nothing but a "Ball" dance in
      which all the youthful damsels and girls took part and which was
      introduced by Krishna. It was a favourite pastime with the Aryans
      and frequent references to this dance are seen in Mahabharata and
      other classical works of note. That it was a purely innocent
      amusement freed from every shade of carnality is beyond all
      doubts. From the internal evidences of the three great works on
      Krishna’s life, namely Harivamsa, Vishnu Purana and
      Srimadbhagavatam it is evident that Krishna, at this period, was
      merely a boy of ten years of age or so. It is impossible for a boy
      of this tender age to be so very carnal as he is depicted to have
      been. All the youthful maidens and girls of Vraja were fond of
      Krishna. It was not only on them that he exercised his wonderful
      influence but he did so on the elderly men too. This is clear
      enough from the incident that he succeeded in suppressing the
      great Indra-yajna. Krishna used to invent and organise varions
      sorts of sports for his comrades, both boys and girls. In the
      previous Chapter his wonderful influence over his male companions
      and elderly men has been described. This Chapter is introduced by
      the poet to show that his influence over the women was equally
      marvellous. All these incidents go to prove more his super human
      origin. In all these three works no mention is made of the name of
      a particular woman for whom he cherished a special fancy as
      _Radha_. There is a occasional mention of this word in Bhagavat
      and only once in Harivamsha where it means a worshipper. This
      story of the carnal love of Krishna for his various companions is
      described at a length in _Brahma Vaivarta Purana_ which is
      regarded as a spurious production and is not considered as an
      authentic record of his life. The esoteric meaning underlying this
      incident is the union between the human soul and the Supreme Soul.
      Krishna is the impersonation of the Supreme Soul and _Radha_ or
      the worshipper is the emblem of the human soul. The worshipper can
      secure unification with the Supreme Soul by love—earnest and
      deep-seated devotion. This love, this devotion has been described
      by various poets in various forms.


Vaishampayana said:—One day in the first part of the night while Krishna
was sporting, the dark-hued Dānava, Aristha by name, assuming the form
of an infuriated bull and resembling Death himself, was seen there
terrifying all the inmates of the cow-sheds (1). His body was like
extinguished ember and cloud, his horns were sharpened, his eyes were
effulgent like the sun, his feet were endued with sharpened hoops and
his hump was extremely hard (2). He was repeatedly licking his lips with
his tongue and moving his tail with pride. And for breaking down many
palaces with his hump it became exceedingly hardened (3). Incapable of
being repulsed on account of his own huge body, with his body covered
with excreta and urine, that Dānava, of huge waist, fleshy mouth, hard
knees and long abdomen, terrified all the cows with his skin hanging
from his neck and horns (4-5). That Daitya Aristha, of huge body, the
slayer of inimical bulls and the injurer of the cows, assuming the form
of a bull, was running about in the cow-sheds and pasture grounds. His
face was marked with strokes against the trees and his horns were
adorned as if for a fight (6-7). He used to approach the kine, when big
with their young ones and cause abortion and used to know them
immediately after their delivery (8). Without fighting with the bulls
and cows that irrepressible, and dreadful Daitya, always intent on
striking them with his horns, could not derive pleasure in pasture
grounds (9).

Accidentally on that day, the proud bull, under the influence of
Vaivaswān (the regent of the departed), came before Keshava (10).
Divesting the cow-sheds of bulls, calves and young bulls that one,
elated with proud, used to assail the kine (11). At that time, that one
of wicked soul, under influence of Vaivaswān, terrified the cows that
were near Krishna roaring like a cloud accompanied by Indra’s
thunderbolt. Thereat striking his palms and setting up a leonine shout
Govinda ran after him, increasing the anger of the demon in the shape of
a bull. Beholding Krishna and enraged with the sound of the strokes of
his palms against his arms, moving his tail and expanding his eyes in
delight that bull issued out a shout expressing his desire for fight.
Beholding that wicked demon of the form of a bull approach Krishna did
not move out from where he stood and rather remain there firm like a
mountain (12-15). With a view to slay Krishna, that bull too, raising up
his face and aiming at his belly, came there quickly (16). Vasudeva,
resembling a bull, confronted that irrepressible and collyruim-like bull
before him (17). As a bull faces a huge bull so Arishtha met Krishna and
from his nostril came out foams with a sound (18). Thereupon Krishna and
the bull confronting each other they appeared like two clouds, touching
each other in the rains (19). Placing his feet on the space between the
horns Krishna humiliated his pride and struck him at the neck resembling
the sky (20). Then uprooting his left horn resembling the rod of Yama he
struck him on the face with it; thereat that foremost of bulls breathed
his last (21). With his horns, head and shoulders shattered that demon
fell down vomiting blood like a cloud sending down showers (22).

Thereupon beholding the proud Dānava in the shape of a bull slain by
Govinda all the people began to eulogise him exclaiming "Well done! Well
done!" (23). Slaying that bull demon in that moon light the lotus-eyed
Upendra again engaged in sport (24). Like the immortals adoring their
king in the celestial region the Gopas began to worship delightedly the
lotus-eyed Krishna.


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing that Krishna was advancing in power like
fire in Vraja, Kansa, anticipating fear from him, was filled with
anxiety (1). On Putana being slain, the two trees being dragged by the
boy of no boy-like deeds, Kalya being vanquished, Dhenuka being killed,
Pralamva being discomfitted, the mount Govardhana being raised up,
Indra’s commandment being disregarded, the kine being protected by
enviable deeds and Kakudmi and Arishtha being destroyed the Gopas were
filled with delight. Beholding these highly terrible portends indicating
his impending death and these unthought of feats amongst his rising
enemies Mathura’s king Kansa considered himself as brought under the
influence of death. And his organs and mind being deprived of
consciousness he appeared like one dead (2-6). Thereupon in the
noiseless dead of night, Mathura’s king Kansa, the son of Ugrasena of
fierce commands, summoned his father and kinsmen to his city (7).
Summoning god-like Vasudeva, Kangka, Satyaka, Dāruka, Kanka’s youngest
brother, Bhoja, Vaitarana, the highly powerful Vikadru, the king
Bhayesakha, Viprithu of great prosperity, the liberal Kritavarma, the
highly energetic and bold Bhurishravā and various other descendants of
Yadu race and welcoming them all in due order he said:—"Listen, O ye
Yādavas, ye are all business-like, devoted to the Vedas, expert in
ascertaining the proper rules of conduct, the introducers of the three
Vargas²⁴⁵, ever observant of your duties, like gods in this world, and
ever wending the good ways and firm as the mountains (8-13). Ye are all
shorn of haughtiness and you have all lived properly in the families of
your preceptors²⁴⁶, ye are all therefore proficient in archery and
capable of holding royal counsels (14). Besides ye are all like lamps of
glory in all these worlds, conversant with the real purport of the
Vedas, the true import of the Ashramas (conditions of life), with the
order of Varnas (castes), the propounder of the beautiful rules of
conduct, the leaders of the givers of laws, the conquerors of foreign
kingdoms, and the protectors of those seeking refuge with you (15–16).
You are all so very vivacious in your conversation and endued with such
an unimpeachable character, what to speak of the earth even the
celestial region may feel itself honored (by your presence) (17). Your
conduct resembles that of the Rishis, your power is like that of the
Maruts, your anger is like that of Rudras and your effulgence is like
that of the fire (18). As the earth is supported by the mountains so the
decaying race of Yadus is upheld by you all, heroes of far-famed glory
(19) You all follow my will, why then are you at present disregarding
the rising calamity of mine, (20)? Like unto a rising a cloud, Nanda
Gopa’s son, the celebrated Krishna of Vraja is about to strike at the
root (of the race) (21). I have lost my heart and four eyes and I have
no able ministers. And therefore that boy was kept secretly in Nanda
Gopa’s house (22). Like a malady disregarded, the swelling ocean and the
roaring clouds of the rainy season that wicked-minded one is rising in
power (23). I have not been able to find out the means of subduing or to
understand the movements of that boy of wonderful deeds born in Nanda
Gopa’s house (24). That boy is either the offspring of a god or born of
any other powerful being. I however do not know any thing—but I surmise
so by his superhuman deeds which even the celestials can not perform
(25). While asleep in his infancy he drank up the life of Putanā (going
there in the form of a) bird under the pretext of sucking her breast
(26). Vanquished in no time in the lake of Yamuna, that Nāga Kalya,
ranging in the region underneath, has disappeared (27). But Nanda’s son,
by his Yoga power, has risen up again. Dropped down from the top of a
palm tree Dhenuka has breathed his last (28). Pralamva too, whom even
the gods could not surpass in battle, has been slain like an ordinary
animal, by that powerful one with the strokes of his fist (29).
Suppressing the festivity in honor of Indra, and putting a stop to
excessive rain consequent upon his anger that boy held up the mount
Govardhana for affording shelter to the kine (30). The powerful Aristha,
with his horns shattered, has been slain by him in Vraja. From the
actions of that boy living in the village of milk-men it appears that he
is not a boy, but assuming the false guise of a child, is sporting there
merely. While he stands before me for a battle, forsooth, I know that he
is my Death—(the destroyer) of my former body (31–33). There is a vast
difference between the birth as a wretched milkman amongst men, weak for
their death and his sporting in my cow-settlement with the power of a
god (34). It appears to me as certain that a god, covering his own true
form with a Gopa body, is sporting here like fire in the cremation
ground (35). I have heard that in the days of yore in order to
accomplish the work of the celestials, Vishnu, assuming the form of a
dwarf, took away the earth from Bali (36). At another time assuming the
form of a lion that powerful Vishnu killed Hiranyakashipu the
grand-father of the Dānavas (37). Assuming a form, surpassing the range
of thought, Bhāva (Siva) the destroyer of Tripura killed all the Daityas
on the Sweta mountain (38). Being shaken off his promise²⁴⁷ by his
preceptor Angira’s son (Kacha) resorting to a frog’s illusion²⁴⁸
Bhrigu’s son (Sukra) caused a drought (in the land of the Dānavas) (39).
Assuming the form of a boar that thousand-headed eternal deity Vishnu
raised up the earth from the great ocean (40). When the gods and Asuras,
assembled for (churning) for ambrosia, Vishnu, in the shape of a
tortoise in the ocean, held up the Mandara mountain (41). And when there
arose ambrosia he, assuming the form of a beautiful woman, created a
highly terrible battle between the gods and demons (42). Assuming a
wretched dwarf form in the days of yore he rescued the three worlds
including the land of the celestials, with his three foot-steps from
Bali (43). It was he, who having divided himself into four portions and
taking his birth as Rāma in Dasharatha’s house, killed Ravana (44). For
accomplishing the work of gods Vishnu assumes various forms and
deceitfully does his own work (45). Forsooth Vishnu, of whom Nārada
spoke to me, or Sakra, the king of gods, has now come for bringing about
my death (46). In this matter our fear proceeds from Vasudeva; this is
even my firm conviction. By his sense we have been reduced to this
strait (47). When I met Nārada again in Khatwānga forest that Brāhmana
said to me "O Kansa, Vasudeva, in the night, has baffled your great care
regarding Devaki’s child (48–49). The daughter, whom you dashed against
a stone in that night, is Yashodā’s daughter and know Krishna as
Vasudeva’s son (50). Vasudeva, your enemy in the guise of a friend,
after due consultation, exchanged the children in night for bringing
about your death (51). Having slain on the Vindhya mountain the two
sky-ranging Dānavas, Shumbha and Nisumbha, that daughter of Yashoda,
sprinkled by the gods, is being worshipped by the dreadful robbers and
various animals. She is fond of human and animal sacrifices and confers
boon (upon her worshippers) after their hearts (52–53). Embellished with
two jars full of wine and blood and adorned with peacock-feathers she
has made her own abode, by her own power, in the forest of the Vindhya
range. It is filled with cries of proud cocks and crows, abounds in free
birds and deer, echoes with the roars of lions, tigers and boars, is
thick with trees and covered entirely with woods. The temple is filled
with golden vases, chowries, mirrors and is resonant with the sound of
thousands of trumpets. The beautiful goddess, the mother of fear unto
the enemies, daily lives there with great delight and even the
celestials adore her. Nārada has said that the boy who is known as the
son of Nanda Gopa, Krishna, will be the agent of many important deeds.
The second son that will be born of Vasudeva and pass by the name of
Vāsudeva, that kinsman of yours will easily put you to death. He is
Vasudeva, the powerful son of Vasudeva. Morally he is my kins-man, but
at heart a dreadful enemy (54–61). As a crow, with its beaks fond of
flesh, distresses the eyes of a man on whose head it sets its foot, so
this Vasudeva, brought up by me in my house, along with his son, kinsmen
and fruits, is trying to strike at the root of my family (62–63). A man,
after killing an embryo or a cow or a woman, can somehow save himself,
but there is no region for an ungrateful person (64). An ungrateful man,
who for a selfish end, gives vent to sweet words which prove dangerous
in the long run, wends the way of out-castes (65). He, who having his
mind bent on iniquity, injures an innocent man, is constrained to wend
the way leading to hell (66). On account of our rules of conduct and
accomplishments, we are worthy of praise to persons like you seeking
friendship. And such sons are more worthy of praise (67). As by the
dreadful fight of the elephants, trees are destroyed which, after the
close of the combat, become their food, so when dissensions take place
amongst kinsmen, either relatives or inferior arbitrators meet with
destruction (68–69). Vasudeva, while you are about to sow dissensions in
this family, I now understand forsooth that without knowing you I fed
you who are like death (70). O foolish man, you are always angry by
nature, fond of creating enemies, sinful and of false humility. It is
you who have brought this Yadu race into a pitiable strait (71). O
Vasudeva, your old age is of no use. Unknowingly did I reward you who,
in his hundred years with all his hairs grey, do not become old (72)? He
is aged in this world whose sense is ripe. But he is not aged whose
hairs are grey (73). You are of a harsh temper; your intellect is not
ripe and you are merely old in age like an autumnal cloud (74). O vain
Vasudeva, you have thought. ’On Kansa being slain my son will govern
Mathura’ (75). Your hope is already frustrated, O you who have uselessly
grown old and your resolution is falsified. No, one who has the desire
of living, will live before me (76). By this wicked mind you have
thought of injuring me who have confided in you; I will take steps
against it in the presence of your two sons (77). I have never killed an
old man, a Brāhmana, a woman, or any one specially amongst my kinsmen,
and I shall never do it (78). You are born here and have been brought up
by my father. Besides you are my sister’s husband and the first
preceptor of the Yadus (79). Born in the great family of the well-known
Lords Paramount of the world you are being worshipped as a preceptor by
the noble and religious Yādavas (80). Old man, what shall we do? For
such a conduct of a leading Yadava like your self, all the members of
the Yadu race have become the butt of peoples’ talk (81). O Vasudeva, if
I am dead or defeated, for your improper conduct, it will put the
Yadavas to shame before the pious (82). By concerting this measure for
my destruction you have made yourself an object of distrust and the
Yādavas of redicule (83). What more, you have created such an enmity
between me and Krishna that there will be no peace in the Yadu family
unless one of us dies (84).

"Whatever it may be, O giver of gifts, go to Vraja, at my command and
bring these two boys, Nanda and other Gopas who pay tributes to me (85).
Tell Nanda to come quickly to Mathura with his annual tribute along with
other milk-men (86). Kansa, surrounded by his servants and priests,
wants to see Krishna and Sangkarshana, the two sons of Vasudeva (87). He
has heard that, that both of them are of hard limbs, powerful, careful,
clever in fighting and well up in holding a match in the arena (83).
Well-armed the two wrestlers of mine are rejoicing to combat with them.
They are also experts in fighting and will match them (89). Besides
these two boys, ranging in the woods of Vraja, the two immortal-like
best of warriors are my sister’s sons and therefore I should see them
(90). Tell the inhabitants of Vraja that the king, of his own accord, is
celebrating a bow festivity (91). Therefore let them come with necessary
milk, curd, butter, &c., to cater the invited persons after their hearts
and live at ease in the forest attached to the city. (62–93). O Akrura,
I am filled with curiosity to see Krishna and Sangkarshena. Do you go
soon, bring them here and satisfy my command (94). If they come here I
shall attain to supreme delight. Beholding those two highly powerful
boys I shall engage in a work conducive to my well-being (95). If they
do not come here at my behest I shall subdue them in time (96). O
Akrura, it is better to use conciliatory words first towards the boys.
Do you soon bring them here with sweet words (97). O you of firm vows,
if you are not alienated from me by Vasudeva, do you accomplish this
great work conducive to my pleasure (98). Do that by which they may come

Thus villified, Vasudeva, resembling a Vasu, resorting to gravity and
patience, stood there motionless like an ocean (99). Assailed by foolish
Kansa, with these shaft-like words, he, resorting to forgiveness, did
not give any reply (100). Those, who saw him thus insulted at that time,
all exclaimed, bending low their heads, "Oh fie Oh fie!" (101). With his
celestial vision the liberal Akrura could know everything. And so he was
filled with great delight like a thirsty man on seeing water. And in
order to see the lotus-eyed Krishna he left Mathura in that very moment

  ²⁴⁵ The three-fold objects of life, namely, Dharma, Artha and Kama.

  ²⁴⁶ It was the practice in ancient India that the kings used to send
      their sons to their preceptors to recieve proper instructions.
      These princes lived in the family of their preceptors.

  ²⁴⁷ Sukra promised not to consign the _mantras_ of reviving a dead man
      to any body but this promise was falsified.

  ²⁴⁸ As a frog revives as soon as he is dead so Kacha rose up many
      times alive after his death. The allusion, contained in this
      chapter, is as follows:—Vrihaspati (Angirasa) was the priest of
      the gods and Sukra that of the Danavas. There was a rivalry
      between these two Brāhmanas. Sukra knew the _mantra_ of reviving a
      dead man with which he revived many Daityas. Vrihaspati did not
      know it. Thereat Kacha, the eldest son of Vrihaspati, was sent to
      Sukra to learn it. Kacha became his disciple and began to please
      him and his daughter Devajani. By and by he exercised a great
      influence on Sukra’s daughter who was greatly attached to him. One
      day while Kacha was tending kine the Danavas, learning that he was
      the son of Vrihaspati, hacked him into pieces, which were eaten up
      wolves. Devajani grew mad after him and pressed her father to
      revive him which Sukra did. Next time he was burnt to ashes and
      they were mixed up with liquor which Sukra drank up. Devajani
      again wanted her father to revive Kacha; this was a question of
      life, and death to him. He therefore taught Kacha the mantra first
      who came out of his womb and then revived again Sukra. Thus did
      Kacha learn the art of reviving a dead man. See Mahabharata,
      chapters LXXV and VI, Adiparva.


Vaishampayana said:—Beholding Vasudeva thus insulted and covering their
ears with their hands the leading Yādavas took him for one having his
lease of life run out (1). Resorting to patience, although his mind was
worked up with anxiety Andhaka, the foremost of speakers, addressed,
mildly in the midst of that assembly, powerful words to Kansa (2).

"O my son, it is unworthy of you to give vent to such words. To use such
words to relatives is considered unbecoming and culpable by the pious
(3). O hero, if you consider yourself as one, not born in the family of
the Yadavas listen to what I say. The Yādavas do not by force wish to
regard you as one of them (4). Rather a person like you becoming their
master they have become censurable to all. What more, it appears, that
the king Asamanja, of the Ikshaku race, has returned in your person (5).
O my son, you may wear matted locks, may have your head shaved, may take
any appellation, Bhoja, Yādava or Kansa, your head will remain in its
natural shape (6). Cursed is that Ugrasena who has begotten a son like
you, a wretch and curse of our family (7). O my son, the wise never make
themselves a parade of their own accomplishments. The qualities,
recognized by the Vedas, attain to fructification when spoken of by
others (8). A stupid boy, the destroyer of his race like you, becoming
our king the family of Yadus has become degraded among the royal
families of the world (9). The vilifications, that you have given vent
to, considering them as proper, have not been able to accomplish your
object rather you have laid bare your character before the public (by
it) (10). Will you consider the insulting of a highly worshipful
innocent preceptor, like the destruction of a Brāhmana, as conducive to
well-being (11)? O my son, the aged ought to be adored and worshipped
like fire²⁴⁹ for their anger can consume even the regions acquired by
Yoga (12). Self-controlled and learned men, of advanced intellect,
should enquire into the conduct of the people as they watch the
movements of fish in water (13). Like an oblation not consecrated by
_mantras_ you always pain the fire-like aged people with heart-rending
words (14). You are remonstrating with Vasudeva for his son. We speak
ill of your these useless and abominable words (15). If a son becomes
wicked the father is not so, rather he falls into many difficulties on
account of his son (16). You might think that Vasudeva did not do his
duty by hiding his own baby son. But ask your own father about it (17).
Chiding Vasudeva and speaking ill of the Yadu race you have acquired
poison consequent upon the enmity of the Yādavas (18). If Vasudeva has
acted unfairly by doing this for his son why did not Ugrasena kill you
in your infancy (19)? Persons, conversant with moral laws, have given
the name of _Putra_²⁵⁰ to a son because he saves the departed ancestors
from falling into the hell of Put (20).

"From the very beginning of their birth you have been cherishing enmity
towards the youthful Sankarshana and Krishna although born in the race
of the Yādavas and they too consider you as their enemy (21). On account
of your chiding Vasudeva and exciting the anger of Vāsudeva the hearts
of all the Yadavas are trembling (22).

"On account of your thus remonstrating with Vasudeva Krishna has become
your enemy and therefore these evil omens are declaring your future fear
(23). Evil dreams in the end of night and dreadful portends like the
vision of of serpents are all declaring that this city will soon be a
widow²⁵¹ (24). Behold in the sky the dreadful planet _Rahu_, by his own
effulgence, is possessing the star _Swāti_²⁵² and is waiting in your
tenth star _Chitra_.²⁵³ The dreadful planet _Mangala_²⁵⁴ is united with
them in its oblique course (25). By its dreadful effulgence _Budha_²⁵⁵
has covered the western sky in the evening. And going beyond its course
Sukra is ranging in the sky (26). Separated by the tail of _Ketu_²⁵⁶
_Bharani_²⁵⁷ and other twelve planets are following the moon (27).
Encircled by a disc the dawn with its effulgence is obstructing the sun
and the birds and animals are going in contrary directions with cries
(23) Crying continually and emitting ember-like breaths the dreadful
jackals are coming out of the cremation-grounds and going towards the
city both in the morning and evening (29). Fire-brands are falling on
earth with a terrible sound and the earth and mountain summits are
shaking all on a sudden (30). The sun being possessed by Rahu the day is
appearing like a night and all the quarters are filled with portendous
smoke and thunder-bolts (31). The thick clouds, accompanied by
lightnings, are pouring down blood—the gods are being shaken off their
stations and the birds are leaving their resting trees (32). What more,
all the evil omens, described by the astrologers as indicating the
future death of a king, have set in (33). You are always harmful towards
your relatives, backward in observing your royal duties and wrathful for
nothing. Therefore your death is imminent (34). When you have out of
your foolishness insulted the aged and god-like Vasudeva resembling a
Vasu, there is no peace for you (35). You are an enemy of our race. From
to-day we drive away the love that we had for you. After this we shall
not adore you even for a moment (36). That giver, of gifts among us, is
blessed who will behold the lotus-eyed Krishna of unwearied actions
(now) ranging in the forest (37). For you this Yadu race is uprooted.
Krishna will again unite his own kinsmen (38). Your sense has been
entirely destroyed by Destiny. Speak whatever you like. Vasudeva will
forgive you for all (39). O Kansa, I think it proper now that aided by
Vasudeva, you should go to Krishna and ingratiate yourself to his good
graces" (40).

  ²⁴⁹ Fire was an object of worship with the ancient Aryans. It was
      compulsory for three higher castes to preserve consecrated fire in
      their house. It was kept perpetually and handed down from one
      generation to another. From the Vedic writings it appears that the
      ancient Aryans used to worship fire as a sacred element. This
      fire-worship still prevails amongst the followers of Zoroaster.
      This fact goes to prove that the Parsis and the Hindus are of the
      same stock.

  ²⁵⁰ Putra is derived from _Put_ the name of a hell and the root _tra_
      to save from the hell _Put_.

  ²⁵¹ _i.e._ The master of the city will soon die.

  ²⁵² The star Arcturus or fifteenth lunar asterism consisting of but
      one star. Mythologically it is one of the wives of the sun.

  ²⁵³ A star in the virgin’s spike. _Swati_ is the star under whose
      influence Kansa was born. _Chitra_ was then in the tenth place.
      Rahu was inimical there. From this, it is evident that all his
      attempts will prove futile and he will meet with death.

  ²⁵⁴ The planet Mars.

  ²⁵⁵ The planet Mercury. This portends that his adminstration will come
      to an end.

  ²⁵⁶ The dragon’s tail or descending node, in astronomy the ninth of
      the planets. The rising of a comet is an evil omen.

  ²⁵⁷ The name of the sacred lunar asterism containing three stars.


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Andha ka, Kansa’s eyes were
reddened with anger. Without giving vent to a single word he entered
into his own house (1). Having their resolution thus frustrated,
Yādavas, well-versed in Srutis, repaired to their respective habitations
talking over the ill-conduct of Kansa (2).

Akrura too, as commanded, and desirous of seeing Krishna, set out for
Mathura in an excellent car fleet like the mind (3). Many good signs
appeared on Krishna’s limbs bespeaking of his union with a father-like
relative (4). Before Akrura’s departure, Ugrasena’s son king Kansa sent
an emissary to Keshi for destroying Krishna (4). Hearing the words of
the messenger, the irrepressible Keshi, always oppressing the people, at
once went to Vrindāvana and began to torture the Gopas (6), Feeding upon
human flesh in anger that dreadful and wicked demon, in the shape of a
horse, began to assail all greatly (7). Killing the cows and cow-herds,
that irrepressible Dānava began to feed on beef of his own accord (8).
Wherever in the forest the vicious-souled Dānava Keshi lived it was
filled with the dead bodies of men and appeared like a cremation ground
(9). He used to scratch the earth with his hoofs, weaken the trees with
his velocity, leap up into the sky and trifle at the wind with his
neighing (10). Thus shaking his manes and ranging in the forest, that
highly proud, foolish and wicked demon, assuming the form of a horse,
began to act there as desired by Kansa (11). Destroying the Gopas, that
horse demon, of wicked deeds, made the forest empty (12). That wicked
one so much vitiated the forest that the Gopas, who derive their
sustenance through woods and the kine left it (13). With his mind worked
up with pride he continually fed on human flesh so much so that the
animals could not wend the forest roads (14).

Once during the day, following in anger the noise of men, that Daity, as
if urged on by Destiny, arrived at the settlement of the milk-men (15).
As soon as they saw him the Gopa-women, with their children, and the
Gopas, setting up a cry, fled away to their master Krishna, the lord of
the universe (16). Hearing the cries of the Gopas and of their women
Krishna promised them safety and went out to meet Keshi (17). Keshi,
too, of powerful course, expanding his eyes and teeth and raising up his
neck, ran towards Krishna with a great sound (18). Seeing the
horse-demon Keshi fall on him Govinda confronted him as a cloud
approaches the moon (19). Beholding Krishna at that time approach Keshi,
the Gopas, endued with human sense, said to him for his well-being (20):

"O child, O Krishna, do thou not all on a sudden approach this wretch of
a horse, for thou art a boy and that one of evil ways is beyond the
power of all (21). This highly powerful Dānava, peerless in battle, is
born with Kansa, and is his life though ranging outward. He is a dread
of the horses and soldiers, cannot be killed by any animal and the
foremost of the sinful" (22–23).

Hearing these words given vent to by the Gopas, Madhusudana, the slayer
of his enemies cherished a desire of fighting with Keshi (24). Thereupon
turning reversely to the southern direction in anger that horse-demon
began to break down the trees with his two feet (25). Then from his long
mouth, the thick manes on his neck and those falling on his forehead
like streams of water began to trickle down drops of perspiration
begotten by anger (26). As the moon pours down dews in the sky during
the winter so from his mouth came out loams produced by the strokes of
reins (27). With neighings coming out of his mouth and foams sent out by
him like dews, he, as if, O Bhārata, sprinkled Mādhava (28). Covered
with yellowish dust resembling powdered Madhuka (panic seed) raised up
by his horns Krishna’s locks became tawny (29). Trotting and leaping and
riving the earth, Keshi, biting his teeth, ran towards Krishna (30).
While engaged in fighting with Krishna, the powerful Dānava Keshi, the
foremost of horses, struck him on the breast with his fore-feet, and
wounded him, of unmitigated prowess, repeatedly with his hoofs (31–32).
Thereupon in anger, with his sharpened teeth, forming the weapons of his
dreadful mouth he bit the upper part of Vāsudeva’s arm (33). At that
time fighting with Krishna, Keshi, with long manes, shone like the sun
in sky united with clouds (34).

With his strength doubled by anger that powerful horse, with great
motion, attempted to strike Krishna on the breast (35). Thereat,
lengthening his arms, Krishna of great prowess, in anger caught hold of
the mouth of that demon. (36). Keshi could not therefore eat up or break
down his arms. On the other hand, his teeth being uprooted and broken
down he began to vomit foamy blood (37). His lips were shattered, his
jaws were smashed, and his eyes were disfigured. They came out all being
disjointed (38). His jaws were broken and his eyes were filled with
blood. Raising up his ears in anger and having his mind agitated he set
forth many an exertion (39). Jumping up again and again with his legs,
he discharged urine and excreta, his hairs were soaked with perspiration
and feet grew motionless (40). Thereupon Krishna’s arm, thrown round
Keshi’s head, shone like a cloud stricken with the rays of the half-moon
after the termination of the rainy season (41). With his limbs wearied
out Keshi too, while engaged in a conflict with Krishna, appeared like
the declining and exhausted moon on the mount Meru in the dawn (42). His
teeth, uprooted by Krishna’s hands, from his mouth fell down like white
autumnal clouds shorn of water (43).

Thereupon when Keshi was greatly worn out with fatigue Krishna,
stretching his hands a good deal, sundered him in twain (44). Thus
smashed down by Krishna, the face of the Dānava Keshi became disfigured
and he began to cry most plaintively (45). All his limbs were shaken and
shattered and blood came out of his mouth. He appeared there,
accordingly, disfigured like a mountain, with a half of it being chopped
off (46). Thus smothered by Krishna’s hands and with his mouth expanded
that highly dreadful Asura fell down like an elephant cut into two
halves (47). The dreadful figure of Kehsi, mutilated by Krishna’s hand,
appeared like a beast slain by Rudra, with trident in his hand (78). His
body being sundered into two equal halves each portion bearing two legs,
half of his back and tail, one eye and one nostril, remained on earth
(49). Krishna’s arms too, wounded by Keshi’s teeth, shone like a growing
palm tree in the forest scratched by an elephant’s tusks (50). Having,
in this wise, slain Keshi in the battle-field and divided his body into
two parts the lotus-eyed Krishna stood there smiling (51). Beholding
Keshi slain, the Gopas and their women, with all their troubles and
weariness gone, were greatly delighted (52). And welcoming the beautiful
Dāmodara according to their respective position and age they honored him
again and again with sweet words (53).

The Gopas said:—"O child, O Krishna, having slain the Daitya, assuming
the form of a horse and ranging on earth—the thorn of people, thou hast
performed an arduous work (54). On this vicious horse being slain by
thee Vrindāvana is now full of auspiciousness and men, animals and birds
are at ease (55). This vicious-minded one has destroyed many of our
milk-men, cows fond of calves and villages (56). Perhaps divesting the
worlds of men this sinful (demon) is about to bring about a universal
dissolution for ranging himself at ease (57). O Krishna, what to speak
of mortal men, even amongst the celestials, one, desirous of living,
cannot stand before him (58)."

Thereupon the Brāhmana Nārada, disappearing from view in the sky, said
"O Vishnu, O god, O Krishna, I am pleased (59). The arduous work, that
you have performed by destroying Krishna, is in thy power and in that of
the three-eyed Deity (Siva) amongst the celestials (60). O my child, my
mind is devoted to thee, and therefore desirous of witnessing this
combat between a man and a horse I have come here from the celestial
region (61). O Govinda, beholding thy deeds as the destruction of Putanā
&c., and this thy present feat I have been highly pleased (68). When
this wicked-minded horse-demon Keshi used to increase his body, even
Mahendra, the slayer of Bali, was stricken with fear (63). With thy
outstretched hands thou hast sundered him. This death was ordained for
him by Brahmā, the root of the universe (64). Listen now to my
declaration, O Vishnu. Since thou hast slain Keshi, thou shalt pass by
the name of Keshava in the world (65). May good betide thee, O Keshava,
I shall soon depart. Thou hast many works still to accomplish and thou
art capable of doing them. Do thou perform them therefore, without any
delay (66). O god, thyself being engaged in another work, other deities,
dependant on thy power, are sporting like men imitating thy feats (67).
The time for the mighty deep of the Bharata war, the battle of the
kings, who are about to repair to the celestial region, is near at hand
(68). Because the kings will repair to the region of Sakra, houses are
being built for them there, the etherial roads are being cleared off and
the cars are being embellished with pennons (69). O Keshava, when
Ugrasena’s son will be killed and thou wilt be in thy position this
terrible and all-destroying war of kings will commence (70). O Mādhava,
unparalleled are thy deeds; therefore at the time of the war the
Pāndavas will seek refuge with thee and thou too shalt espouse their
cause (71). When thou shalt be on the royal throne, undoubtedly the
kings will renounce their most excellent and auspicious prosperity (72),
O Krishna, O lord of the universe, thus I have communicated unto thee
the intelligence of the gods living in the celestial region and of the
universe. Although this history is recorded in Srutis it will become
famous in the world (73). O lord, I have witnessed thy deeds and have
seen thee. I now depart and shall return when Kansa will be slain" (74).

Saying this Nārada wended the etherial way. And hearing the words of
Nārada, proficient in celestial music, the Gopas too, along with
Krishna, repaired to Vraja (75–76).


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon when, the sun, with weakened rays, set,
when in the evening crimson sky, the disc of the moon became tawny
coloured, when the birds entered into their nests, when the fire was
enkindled by the sacrificers, when the quarters were enshrouded a little
with darkness, when in that delightful night of the spring, Sukas,
Valakas and other birds fell asleep in the village of the milk-men, when
the night-rangers, fond of meat, became delighted, when the delightful
night of Indra Gopas, when the study of the Vedas is stopped, set in,
when the hour for boiling milk—a necessary adjunct of an Agnihotra
ceremony for the householders, appeared, when the hermits began to offer
oblations to fire, when the cows came back, and having their calves
bound (to stakes) at the time of yielding milk began to bellow, when the
milk-men, with long ropes for binding cows, and setting up a noise,
began to call their kine, by names and collect them, when fire was set
to dried cow-dung by Gopas returned from the forest and having their
shoulders bent down by the weight of woods, when after the termination
of the day and with the beginning of night the moon rose and shone, when
with the disappearance of the rays of the sun the day passed away and
with the shining rays of the moon the night set in, when the sky grew
effulgent like burning fire, Akrura, as if along with birds about to
enter into their nests, arrived at Vraja in his car, with a view of
communicating happy news of union with friends. Having entered there
that giver of gifts frequently enquired after Keshava, Rohini’s son and
Nanda Gopa (1-14).

Thereupon coming down from the chariot that highly powerful and liberal
prince, resembling a Vasu, entered Nanda’s house (15). As soon as he
entered the gate with his face full of joy and eyes full of tears he saw
Krishna stationed at the milking-place in the midst of calves like a
bull. Greatly delighted at seeing Krishna, the pious Akrura with heavy
accents, said "Come to me, O Keshava." And beholding Vāsudeva, at the
junction of boyhood and youth who lay on a fig-leaf at the time of the
universal dissolution, and who assumed the form of a dwarf at the time
of imposing on Bali, served by the prosperity of the three worlds, he
praised him again and again and said within himself:—"This is the
lotus-eyed Krishna of the size of a huge mountain, resembling an ocean
overflowed with water and endued with the prowess of a lion and tiger.
Irrepressible in battle he has the mystic mark of Srivatsa on his breast
and his well-adorned arms are like a ground where the enemies are being
killed (16-20). He is the incarnation of Vishnu under the guise of a
milk-man who is the first worshipful of the universe and whose form is
Upanishad. His hairs have stood erect (on seeing a votary) (21). His
head, resembling an umbrella, is worthy of a crown, his ears of two most
excellent Kundalas and his spacious breast of a neck-chain. And his two
plump and long arms have increased his beauty (22-23). Clad in a yellow
raiment, his body, looked after by a thousand of women can even cut
Madana (Cupid) to the quick. He is the eternal Vishnu (24). The lord,
whose two feet are the refuge of the earth, and which covered the three
worlds, has himself descended on earth (25). His beautiful right hand is
fit for holding the discus and his left hand is, as if, willing to hold
a club (26). With his first foot²⁵⁸ he has descended on earth. And that
foremost of the celestials is shining on earth (27).

"The Brāhmanas, conversant with the knowledge of future, have said that
the Lord Gopāla will multiply the almost extinct Yadu race (28). As the
torrents fill up the great ocean, so hundreds and thousands of Yadavas
by his power will fill up their respective families (29). When the
commander of the enemies will be slain the entire, eternal and
prosperous universe will abide by his commands, as in the golden age
(30). While on earth he will subjugate the entire world; and though not
a king he will rule over all the crowned heads (31). As in the days of
yore, vanquishing Bali with his three foot-steps he installed Purandara
as the king of gods in the celestial region, so subjugating the three
worlds with his two feet he will forsooth now install Ugrasena as the
Lord Paramount (32-33). While Keshava, the Creator of ocean-like
hostilities, who is well-versed in many lores regarding the kings, the
Ancient Purusha, whom the Brāhmanas have hymned in the Vedas, has become
desirous of living like a man, forsooth he will be an object of
imitation to all the worlds (34–35). To-day with _mantras_ I shall duly
adore in my mind the divinity and the person of Vishnu (36). The
Maharshis, endued with spiritual knowledge, know him as superhuman. That
he has appeared amongst men and has become one of our kinsmen is
undoubtedly superhuman (37). However holding a consultation with Krishna
in the night, I shall, if he likes, take him and the Gopas to Mathurā"

Beholding Krishna and thus recapitulating within himself thoughts
pregnant with reasoning and high significance he entered into the court
of Nanda Gopa (39).

  ²⁵⁸ In his true Brahma form devoid of all qualities. The four feet are
      Viswa, Taijasa, Prajna and Turya.


Vaishampayana said:—That giver of liberal gifts, having entered Nanda’s
house with Keshava and collected all the elderly milk-men, said
delightedly to Krishna and Rohini’s son "O my sons, early in the morning
to-morrow, we will all repair to Mathurā (1–2). Under Kansa’s command,
the Gopa inhabitants of Vraja, with their family and annual tributes,
are to go there (3). Kansa is celebrating there a prosperous

"You will all witness it and be united with your kinsmen (4). O my sons,
your father Vasudeva is overwhelmed with sorrow consequent upon the
destruction of his sons. You will be united with him there (5). O
Krishna, he has grown old and all his limbs have become lean on account
of decrepitude. And he is being always oppressed by Kansa of sinful
designs (6). Out of Kansa’s fear and your absence his mind is always
burning in anxiety (7). O Govinda, you will also see the sorrowful and
goddess-like Devaki. Her breast has not been handled by her sons and she
is growing lean out of grief for her sons. She is anxious to see you.
And stricken with the sorrow of separation she is there like a cow
without her calf (8–9). Like unto the moon possessed by Rāhu her eyes
have run into their sockets and clad in a soiled raiment she is poorly
spending her days (10). O Krishna, that ascetic lady is being exhausted
with your sorrow. She is anxious to see you. And the desire for your
return is reigning supreme in her mind (11). O lord, being separated
from thee from thy very infancy she could not listen to thy child-like
talks nor could she see the beauty of thy moon-like countenance (12). If
by giving birth to thee Devaki is to repent thus what necessity had she
then of a son? It would have been better for her not to have any
offspring (13). Women, having no children, are subject to one grief
only—but there is no end of their miseries, if they, on having
offspring, have not their ends accomplished and fie on such sons (14). O
Mādhava, thou art the saviour of even thy enemies, art gifted with
prowess like unto that of Indra and art endued with matchless
accomplishments. She does not desire such a grief whose son thou art
(15). Although aged thy parents are now serving another man and Kansa,
of a sinful mind, is now insulting them on thy account (16). If like
unto earth who holds thee Devaki deserves thy respect it behoves thee to
save that goddess sunk into the water of sorrow (17). O Krishna,
subjecting old Vasudeva, ever fond of his son and used to luxuries, to
sorrow consequent upon the separation of his sons what religious merit
wilt thou acquire (18)? O Mādhava, as thou didst vanquish the wicked
Nāga Kalya in the lake of Yamunā, as thou didst uproot the mount
Govardhana for the behoof of the cows, destroy the powerful Arishtha
elated with pride, kill the wicked-minded Keshi ever intent upon killing
others so do thou now make such an exertion with great care for saving
thy aged parents overwhelmed with grief that thou mayst acquire piety
(19–21). Those, who saw thy father insulted in the court of Kansa, are
all, laden with sorrow, continually shedding tears (22). Brought under
the control of Kansa thy mother is suffering diverse miseries as the
destruction of her sons (23). A son, born of his parents, should satisfy
all the debts due by him as laid down in the scriptures (24). O sinless
Krishna, if dost thou show this favour towards thy parants they will
cast off their grief and thou shalt too satisfy thy duty" (25).

Vaishampāyana said:—The powerful Krishna knew everything so without
taking any offence at the words of the liberal prince he said "So be it"
(26). Hearing the words of Akrura, all the Gopas, headed by Nanda,
desired to follow the orders of Kansa (27). Determined upon going to
Mathurā the elderly Gopa inhabitants of Vraja dressed themselves. And
arranging their presents they all proceeded along (28). Desiring of
offering tributes unto Kansa, the heads of the various Gopa clans
arranged according to their herds and quality, buffaloes and bull, curd,
milk and clarified butter. And with these their tributes they all set
out (29–30). Conversing with Krishna and Rohini’s son Akrura spent the
night without sleep (31). Thereupon in the dawn resonant with the notes
of the birds and after the termination of the night all the rays of the
moon were withdrawn. All the luminous bodies disappeared from the welkin
covered with the rays of the sun. The earth was soaked with drops of
dews driven by the morning breeze. The fading stars fell asleep on their
beds of sky and were shorn of lustre. Thus did the night disappear and
the sun rose. As if seeing the increasing body of the sun, the moon, of
cool rays, withdrew his own form in shame. Thereupon the outskirts of
Vraja were filled with cows, the churning vessels were setting up a
sound, the young ones were bound down with ropes and the high-ways of
Vraja were filled with Gopas. At that time placing on carts their
vessels filled with various materials and themselves also getting on
them the Gopas set out speedily (32–33).

Thereupon Krishna, Rohini’s son, and Akrura, the giver of liberal
presents proceeded on chariots like three Patriarchs (39). When they
reached the bank of Yamunā Akrura said to Krishna:—"Stop the carriage
here and look after the horses (40). Offer with care barley to the
horses in the vessel that is on the car and wait for me for a moment
(41). Ananta, the king of serpents and the protector of all the worlds,
is the lord of the universe. Therefore going to the river Yamunā, I
shall, with celestial _mantras_, worship him (42). When I shall bow unto
that mystic lord Ananta, clad in blue a apparel, having an auspicious
crown and a thousand heads, nectarine poison will come out of the mouth
of that god and I shall drink it like unto the celestials drinking
ambrosia (43–44). For the peace of the serpents Shesha will convene a
meeting and let me behold that king of serpents endued with prosperity
and the very abode of auspiciousness (45). As long as I do not come back
from the lake of the king of serpents you both wait here for me" (46).

Hearing this Krishna was pleased and said "Go but do not delay; for
without you, we shall not be able to wait here" (47).

Thereupon sinking into the lake of Yamunā the liberal prince saw the
region of Nāgas in Rasātala like unto this world (48). He saw there the
thousand-headed Deity Ananta having a golden ball for his insignia. In
his hand was a plough-share and by his belly was a mace (49). He was of
yellow hue and was seated on a yellow seat. He was clad in a dark-blue
raiment and on his ear was shining a Kundala resembling the bud of a
lotus. And his lotus-like eye-lids were closed (50). That serpent was
embellished with two Swastikas²⁵⁹ and he was seated at ease on a
beautiful white seat made by his own body (51). His breast was adorned
with a garland of golden lotuses and his head was decked with a golden
tiara bent a little towards left (52). The body, resembling a white
cloud of that large-armed king of serpents the slayer of his enemies,
was besmeared with crimson-colour ed sandal and adorned with lotus
garlands. The four quarters were filled with the lustre (of his person)
(53). Vasuki and other leading serpents were worshipping their only
king, the powerful Sesha, master of one all spreading ocean (54). The
two Nāgas, Kamvala and Ashwatara, by name, were fanning with chowries
that king of Nāgas, seated on a throne of righteousness (55). The
Pannaga king Vāsuki, encircled by his serpent ministers, headed by
Karkotaka, was shining near him (56). With celestial and golden jars
covered with lotuses other leading Nagas were sprinkling that king
already bathed in one sheet of water (57). He saw there the dark blue
hued Vishnu²⁶⁰ clad in a yellow raiment and bearing the mystic mark of
Srivatsa, seated at ease on the lap of that king of serpents (58).
Another powerful celestial form, resembling Sankarshana, gifted with the
beauty of the moon, was seated there without any seat (59). That giver
of presents was about to address a few words to Krishna there but his
power of speech was suppressed by his (Krishna’s) prowess (60).

Beholding such eternal and divine prosperity in the serpents that giver
of liberal presents was filled with surprise. And coming to the bank
from the water he saw Rama and Krishna of wonderful forms seated on the
car and looking towards each other (61-62). Seeing this Akrura, again
out of curiosity, plunged into the lake and saw that the king of gods,
Ananta, having a white face and clad in a blue raiment, was being
worshipped as before; and that the powerful Krishna too was seated on
the lap of that thousand-headed king of serpents and being worshipped as
before (63–64). Then again coming out all on a sudden and reciting in
his mind that _mantra_ he went to the car by the same way by which he
had come (65). Thereupon Krishna delightedly said to Akrura who was
before him:—"What did you see of the Nāga region situate in this
Bhagavat lake? I think you have seen something wonderful for you waited
for a long time in the lake and your mind too has been agitated

Hearing the words of Krishna Akrura replied:—"O Krishna, what wonder is
there in the entire world, mobile and immobile, which can be
accomplished without thee (68)? The wonder which I saw there, although
rare on earth, I am seeing here and enjoying delight. O Krishna, I am
united with the wonder incarnate in the world and therefore do not like
to see a greater wonder than this. O lord, let us go to the city of king
Kansa before the sun sets (69–71)."

  ²⁵⁹ A kind of mystical figure the inscription of which on any person
      or thing is generally considered to be lucky. The Sesha Naga was
      the couch of Vishnu on whose thousand hoods he lay asleep.

  ²⁶⁰ The Vaishnava writers have variously interpreted this incident.
      According to them the anecdote is that when Vasudeva was carrying
      Krishna he slipped off his hand and fell into the water. He
      however at once picked up the boy. But this time Krishna did not
      come but Vishnu in Krishna form. When Akrura went to bathe in the
      Yamuna Krishna came out and went to Mathura while Vishnu lived in


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon yoking (the horses to the) car and
ascending thereon the liberal giver Akrura set out with Krishna and
Sangkarshana and reached the charming city of Mathurā protected by
Kansa. And before evening when the sun was in its crimson colour he
entered that beautiful city (1-2).

Taking the heroic Krishna and Sangkarshana of beautiful colour first to
his own house the intelligent giver of liberal presents, effulgent like
the sun, said to them:—

"O sire, for the present you are to relinquish the desire of going to
Vasudeva’s house (3-4). For you, your old father is being day and night
chiden by Kansa. So you should not wait here long (5). You should do
such a good and pleasant work on his behalf that your father may attain
to happiness (6)."

Hearing this Krishna said:—"If you like O pious (Akrura) we, while
visiting Mathura and her highways, will enter unperceived into Kansa’s
house (7)."

Vaishampāyana said:—Bowing unto Krishna in his mind Akrura too, with a
delighted mind, went to Kansa (8). Thus instructed those two heroes went
on visiting all the high-ways like two elephants let free from their
posts and desirous of fighting (9). Seeing a washer-man on the way they
asked of him beautiful clothes (10). The washer man replied to them,
saying "Who are you? Out of ignorance you have been fearlessly wanting
the robes of the king. It seems you are rangers of the forest (11). I
dye, as he desires, all the clothes of the king Kansa which he gets from
various countries (12). Methinks, born in a forest you have grown up
with the deer. Otherwise why do long for and pray for the various dyed
clothes (13). You are stupid and of inferior intellect, or else why do
you desire for king’s clothes. Perhaps giving up all hopes of your life
you have come here (14)."

Destiny was against that stupid washer-man of feeble understanding and
therefore he discharged such poisonous words. Krishna grew offended with
him and struck him on the head with his fist strong as the thunder-bolt.
With his head sundered he fell down lifeless on earth (15-16). Thereupon
the wives of that washer-man, bewailing for their dead husband
indignantly and with dishevelled hairs, soon approached Kansa’s house

Like two elephants attracted by smell those two sweet speeched brothers
went to a shop for garlands (18). There lived a wealthy, sweet-speeched
and good-looking garland dealer by name Gunaka. He had a large stock of
garlands (19). Desirous of having garlands Krishna, with sweet words and
without any hesitation, said to the shop-keeper "Give me some garlands
(20)." Hearing this the garland-dealer was pleased and conferred upon
those two beautiful brothers a number of garlands and said "These are
all yours (21)." Being pleased Krishna conferred upon Gunaka a boon
saying "O gentle one, the goddess of prosperity, who is my dependant,
shall always live by you with profuse riches (22)." With his head
bending low and touching the feet of Krishna that garland-dealer
patiently accepted the boon (23). Then thinking "They are Yakshas," the
garland-dealer, stricken with great fear, did not give any reply (24).

Thereupon again going to the high-way the two sons of Vasudeva espied
Kuvjā with pastes in her hands (25). Seeing her Krishna said:—"O
lotus-eyed Kuvjā, tell me quickly for whom you are carrying these
unguents" (26). Hearing this Kuvjā, going obliquely like a lightning,
with delightful eyes and smiles said to the lotus-eyed Krishna in words
grave as the clouds (27). "May you fare-well. I was going to the king’s
bath-room. I am waiting here because you are a darling of my heart; come
and accept this unguent. O you of lotus-eyes, of you of a beautiful
face, seeing you I am filled with surprise (28–29). O gentle one, whence
have you come that you do not know me. I am a favourite of the king and
engaged in the work of smearing his body" (30).

Krishna then replied to Kuvjā who stood there smiling: "Give us unguents
befitting our body (31). O you of a beautiful face, we are wrestlers who
travel over the countries. We have come here at present to see this
happy and prosperous kingdom and to witness this bow-sacrifice (32)".
She said to Krishna "No sooner I have seen you than you have become my
favourite. Without any hesitation accept this unguent becoming a king
(33)." Thereupon besmearing their beautiful persons with unguents those
two brothers shone like two bulls covered all over their body with the
mud of Yamuna (34). Thereupon Krishna, conversant with the art of
arranging for sports, softly touched the haunch of Kuvjā with his
fingers (35). Knowing her haunch (thus) broken, the beautiful and sweet
smiling Kuvjā, like unto a straight creeper, said with love to Krishna
displaying her gestures and laughing aloud "Where wilt thou go? Wait
here, requested by me. Take me (36–37)." The eternal Krishna and Rāma
had a knowledge of Kuvjā’s accomplishments and therefore looking at each
other they began to laugh striking their palms (38). Thereupon smiling a
little Krishna sent away Kuvjā who was stricken with desire. Thus
liberated from Kuvjā’s (grasp) they set out for the court (39).

Thereupon those two brothers, dressed like milk-men and brought up in
Vraja, entered the palace without betraying the designs they had at
heart by the gestures of their faces (40). Like two proud lions, born in
the Himalaya forests, those two boys, unnoticed, reached the house of
bows (41). Desirous of seeing that bow embellished with celebrity those
two heroes said to the keeper of the house of weapons (42). "O keeper of
Kansa’s bows, hear our words. O gentle one, where is that bow for which
this sacrifice is being celebrated (43)? If you like, show us that
celebrated bow." He then showed them the bow resembling a pillar, to
which even the gods headed by Vāsava cannot set a string and which
cannot be broken down. The powerful Krishna took it up with his hand
(44–45). Taking up with his hand with a delighted mind that bow
worshipped of the Daityas the powerful lotus-eyed Krishna stretched and
bent it continually. Bent with force by Krishna that celebrated bow,
resembling a serpent, broke in twain. Having thus broken that best of
bows, the quick-coursing youth Vāsudeva issued out of that room along
with Sangkarshana (46-48). At that time all the quarters were filled
with the sound of the snapping of the bow resembling that of the wind
and the entire inner appartment shook at it (49). Thereupon terrified
the guard, coming out of the room of weapons, speedily approached the
king and breathing like a crow said—"Hear, I shall relate what wonderful
incident, like unto the dissolution of the world, has taken place in the
house of bows. Two heroic men, capable of assuming forms at will and
resembling the sons of gods, clad in blue and and yellow raiments and
besmeared with such unguents, at once entered into the inner appartment
unnoticed by men. The effulgence of their body is like new fire and
their locks are adorned with spreading tufts of hair (50–53). They were
adorned with beautiful raiments and garlands. Those two gentle heroes,
as if at once came, down from the sky and stationed themselves in the
bow-room. I have seen this myself distinctly (54). Of them the
lotus-eyed and dark hued hero, who wore yellow apparel and garlands,
took up that best of bows which even the gods cannot (55), O king,
although a boy, he easily and speedily with force stringed and bent that
huge iron bow (56). When that large armed hero drew that bow without
arrows with a great sound it broke into two pieces in its middle (57).
With the sound of the snapping of that bow the sun was shorn of its
effulgence, the earth was agitated and the sky was as if displaced (58).
O you, a terror of your enemies, beholding this great super-human deed I
am filled with surprise and in fear come have to communicate to you this
news. Of those two heroes of unmitigated prowess, one is like the mount
Kailāsa and the other is like a mountain of collyrium in hue. I do not
know who they are. As an elephant breaks down a pillar so that hero, of
great prowess, shattered that precious bow in twain and went away
speedily like air with his companion. I do not know who he is, O king"
(59–61). Kansa knew everything from before, so hearing of the breaking
of the bow he did not say any thing. Dismissing the guard he entered
into his most excellent room (62).


Vaishampayana said:—Meditating on the incident of the breaking of the
bow Kansa, of Bhoja race, was greatly stricken with grief and
absent-mindedness (1). He began to think:—"How could a boy fearlessly
break down an iron bow guarded by men and go out (2). None can withstand
destiny by manliness for now, as predicted by Nārada, that has come to
pass for which out of fear I perpetrated a dreadful and highly
censurable deed and destroyed the six heroic sons of Devaki" (3-4).

Thus thinking and issuing out of his own apartment the king went to the
arena for examining the platforms (5). This hall was constructed by
clever artizans, abounded in well fixed platforms and was adorned with
turrets consisting of beautiful rooms. It had a spacious courtyard and a
number of pillars of the same size. It was bedecked on all sides with
strong tusks of elephants and with spacious, high and royal seats. It
had many passages, could carry the burden of many men and was filled
with altars. Beholding this spacious well-built, and strong arena that
intelligent best of kings issued the mandate "(tomorrow) the bow
sacrifice will take place. Let the platforms, turrets and passages be
embellished with garlands, flags and covers and be sweet-scented (6-11).
Let the enclosures be adorned with bells, covers and becoming edibles
and place there profuse cow-dung (12). Let excellent golden jars full of
water be placed in due order (13). Let jars full of edibles and scents
be placed and invite all those who are clever judges of warfare and the
citizens (14). Issue my mandate to the wrestlers and visitors and let
beautifully decked and enclosed platforms be set apart (15)." Issuing
this command regarding the arrangement of the party Kansa left the arena
for his own appartment (16).

Having entered his own room Kansa sent for Chānura and Mushthika the two
wrestlers of unequalled strength (17). Following Kansa’s order those two
highly powerful energetic and large armed wrestlers entered his room
with a delighted heart (18). Beholding those two world-renowned
wrestlers before him king Kansa addressed to them the following words
pregnant with propriety (19). "You are both my heroic wrestlers
well-known (in the world). You are worthy particularly of good treatment
and therefore I always regard you (20). If you remember the honors I
have showered upon you then engage in a great work with your energy on
my behalf (21). Forsooth, fighting in the arena with those two
forest-ranging cow-herd boys Krishna and Sangkarshana who have grown in
Vraja for me you will be able to throw them on earth and kill them
(22–23). You will be perfectly careful in killing them; do not disregard
them as boys of fickle nature (24). If those two boys are killed in
battle in the arena I shall meet with well-being both in present and
future (25)."

Hearing these affectionate words of the king the wrestlers Chānura and
Mushthika, mad after fight, delightedly replied (26):—"If those two
helpless boys, the very sin of the Gopas, come before us know them as
already slain and existing in the shape of ghosts (27). On our being
worked up with anger if those two forest-rangers, enveloped in
calamities, withstand us, we will destroy them in your very presence
(28)." Giving vent to these poisonous words and commanded by king Kansa
those two foremost of wrestlers Chānura and Mushthika returned to their
own habitations (29).

Thereupon Kansa said to his elephant-trainer Mahāmātra:—"Keep at the
gate of the arena the fickle-natured and powerful elephant Kuvalayapida,
the oppressor of other elephants, whose temples are soaked with temporal
juice, eyes are always inebriate and who is always angry with men
(30–31). When the mean forest-ranging sons, of Vasudeva, will come do
you so drive that elephant at them that they might at once be deprived
of their lives (32). If by you, through that elephant-chief those two
irrepressible Gopas are killed in the arena my eyes will derive pleasure
from seeing you (33). Beholding them slain, Vasudeva, with his root cut
off and helpless, will meet with destruction along with his wife (34).
Beholding Krishna thrown down all the stupid Yādavas will give up hope
and be slain (35). Having myself slain those two cow-herd boys through
the wrestlers or the elephant I shall divest the city of Mathurā of all
the Yādavas and live here happily (36). I have forsaken my father
because he belongs to the Yadu race and I do now forsake the remaining
Yādavas devoted to Krishna (37). Verily as said by Nārada I am not
begotten by Ugrasena a man of feeble energy who hankers after a son

Mahamatra said:—"How did the celestial saint Nārada describe the
wonderful story related by thee, O king, O thou, the slayer of thy
enemies (39). O king, how couldst thou take thy birth from any other
person save thy father Ugrasena? How could thy mother perpetrate such an
abominable deed which even the ordinary women cannot? O great king,
curious I am to listen to all these in detail (40—41)."

Kansa said:—Hear, if you are so anxious, I shall describe what the
powerful sage Nārada, the foremost of Brāhmanas said (42). Once on a
time came to me from Indra’s palace his friend the immortal, learned and
celestial sage Nārada. He was clad in an apparel white as the rays of
the moon, wore matted locks, had an antelope skin thrown round his neck,
a rough sacred thread, a staff and a pitcher in his hands. He used to
recite the four Vedas, was proficient in the art of music and traversed
the Brahma region like his second-self (43–45). Beholding the arrival of
the sage and adoring him duly with _arghya_, water to wash his feet and
a seat I took him to my house and made him seated (46). Seated at ease
that foremost of divine sages Nārada, always intent on meditating upon
soul, enquired after my well-being and said with a delighted mind (47).

Narada said:—"O hero, I have been worshipped by you with rites
sanctioned by Holy Writs. Listen now to a word of mine and accept it
(48). I had repaired to the golden mountain Meru, the abode of the gods.
On the summit of that mountain Sumeru a meeting of the gods was held. I
heard them hold counsels regarding the highly dreadful destruction of
yourself along with all your followers (49-50). I heard there, that the
eighth son of Devaki, Vishnu, worshipped of all, would bring about
Kansa’s death (51). He is all in all of the gods, the support of the
celestial region, the great mystery of the gods. He will be your Death
(52). O king, one should not disregard his enemy, even he may be weak or
his own kinsman. Be careful to put Devaki’s children to death (53). O
you of great power, Ugrasena is not your father. The energetic and
dreadful Drumila, the king of Soubha,²⁶¹ is your father (54)." Hearing
his words I was filled with anger a little and accosted him again saying
"O Brahman, how could Dānava Drumila become my father (55)? How could he
know my mother, O Vipra? I wish to hear all this at length, O great
ascetic (56)."

Narada said:—"O king, listen, I shall truly relate how your mother was
united with Drumila (57). Once on a time your mother, during her menses,
went out of curiosity to see the mountain Suyāman along with her female
companions. She was ranging in the beautiful summits of the mountain
abounding in charming trees and table-lands, and in the caves and on the
banks of the rivers (58–59). Hearing again and again the lust-exciting
words, sweet as the songs of the Kinnaras, pleasant to the ears; and
echoing on all sides, the notes of the peacocks and other birds her mind
was worked up with desire the usual habit of women (60–61). In the
meantime there blew the wind carrying the fragrance of flowers of the
forest that awakes Manmatha (the god of love) (62). Driven by the wind
the Kadamva flowers, closed by continual showers and adorned with black
bees, began to pour down fragrance profusely (63). With the downpour of
flowers and filaments the Neepa trees shone there like lamps (64).
Covered with new grass and adorned with Indragopa insects the earth
appeared to have her menstrual flow, like a youthful damsel (65). At
that time, O Kansa, as if you urged on by destiny the beautiful Dānava
Drumila, capable of coursing at-will, the king of Soubha, came there by
the etherial way in a quick-coursing car, going everywhere at will, and
effulgent like the new sun, to see mount Suyāmana. Reaching that
foremost of mountains, descending from his car, and keeping his chariot,
that is capable of destroying other cars, in the garden on the mountain
he began to walk on the summit along with his charioteer (66–69). They
saw there many forests and gardens endued with characteristics of
various seasons and resembling the celestial garden of Nandana, various
jewels of golden, silvery and collyrium-like hues, summits covered with
diverse mineral substances, various trees adorned with many sorts of
fruits and flowers, filled with the fragrance of flowers and resorted to
by various creatures and birds of diverse species, various places
abounding in herbs and Rishis of accomplished piety, numberless
Vidyadharas, Kimpurushas, Vānaras, Rakshasas, lions, tigers, boars,
buffaloes, Sarabhas, Shalas, Srimaras, Mahasatwas, elephants and Yakshas
as they walked over that best of mountains (70-75).

"Thereupon from distance Drumila, the king of Daityas, saw your mother,
as if the daughter of a god, culling flowers from the trees and sporting
with her companions (76). Beholding from a distance that goddess of a
beautiful hip encircled by her companions the king of Soubha, filled
with surprise, said to his charioteer (77).

"’Who is this beautiful, high-minded and accomplished damsel having the
eyes of a roe who is ranging at the outskirt of the forest? (78). Is she
Madana’s Rati, Indra’s Sachi or Tilottamā? Or is she Aila’s daughter
Urvashi, the jem of a woman who came out riving the thighs of Nārāyana
(79)? When converting the mount Mandāra into a churning rod the gods and
Asuras, unitedly, churned the ocean of milk for ambrosia the goddess
Sree, the root of the world, arose therefrom and adorned the lap of
Nārāyana. Is she the beautiful Sree (80–81)? Who is she, who, walking in
the midst of that bevy of ladies, is lighting up the forest with her
beauty like into a lightning, attached to dark clouds, shining up all
the quarters (82). I am beside myself at seeing this highly beautiful
damsel of defect-less limbs and moon-like countenance and all my senses
have become agitated (83). My mind is highly worked up with lust. The
holder of the flowery bow²⁶² is wounding greatly my body with flowery
shafts (84). Like a ruthless wight he is cutting my heart and consuming
it with five arrows and my lust is increasing like fire sprinkled with
clarified butter. What work shall I undertake to-day to pacify this fire
of lust (85)? On undertaking what will this beautiful damsel worship

"Thinking thus for a long time Dānava Drumila could not attain to
patience and again said to his charioteer:—’Wait here for a moment, O
sinless one. I shall myself go and see whose wife she is (86–87).
Therefore wait here till my return.’ Hearing his words the charioteer
said ’So be it (88).’

"Saying this to his charioteer and rinsing his mouth that powerful king
of Dānavas, bent on going there, engaged in meditation and thought (89).
Meditating for a moment he, by this knowledge, came to know that she was
Ugrasena’s wife and was highly pleased (90). Changing his form and
assuming that of Ugrasena that large-armed king of Dānavas proceeded
smilingly (91). O Kansa, thus proceeding gradually with smiles in his
Ugrasena form that powerful (Dānava) caught hold of your mother and
ravished her (92), On account of her exuberance of feelings that lady,
devoted heart and soul to her husband, was united with her. Then
perceiving the heaviness of his touch, she was filled with fear (93).
Then rising up and terrified she said to him:—’Forsooth thou art not my
husband. Who art thou that hast polluted me with thy impure conduct
(94). By thee of mean habits, assuming the form of my husband, my vow,
of devotion to one husband, has been spoliated (95). Alas, being enraged
with me what will my kinsmen say to me who have brought disgrace on my
family. And forsaken and censured by my husband’s relatives where shall
I live (96)? O thou born in a degraded race, thou art passionate and
shorn of patience. Fie on thee! While thou hast begun to ravish other’s
wives, thou art not worthy of confidence and your lease of life has run
out (97).’

"While the lady thus remonstrated with him that Dānava, filled with
anger, said:—’I am Drumila, the king Soubha (98). O stupid woman
vaunting of learning, being under the protection of a human husband
subject to mean death, why art thou censuring me (99). O thou proud of
thy womanly honour, eternal is not the understanding of a woman and
therefore they are not (by coming in contact with a person like myself)
visited by the sin of incontinence²⁶³ (100). I have heard that by going
astray many women have given birth to sons of unlimited prowess like
unto the gods (101). Thou art a most chaste and devoted wife amongst
women, and therefore art remonstrating with me, although I am sinless,
and saying whatever thou dost like (102). O excellent woman, because
thou hast addressed me as _Kastham_ (who art thou) therefore thou shalt
give birth to a son by name Kansa the destroyer of his enemies (103).’

"Hearing these words the queen was filled with anger and speaking ill of
his boon she again, with a heart aching, said to that impudent Dānava
(104). ’Fie on thy conduct, O highly wicked one. Thou art speaking
against all women. But there are many amongst them who are chaste and
many who are unchaste (105). O wretch of thy race, by Arundhati and
other chaste ladies, of whom we hear, all these creatures and worlds are
being upheld (106). I do not like the son that thou, hast given me—the
destroyer of my vow. Hear what I say about it (107). O vile creature,
the eternal Purusha, who will be born in the family of my husband, will
be the destroyer of thyself and of the son given by thee (108).’

"Thus addressed and ascending the most excellent car of unobstructed
course Drumila went away by the etherial way (109). And on that very day
your mother too went to her city with a poor heart."

Having said this to me the divine Nārada, the foremost of sages burning
in his ascetic energy like the very fire, playing on his flute of seven
notes and singing, set out for the Brahma region to meet the
Grand-Father. O Mahāmātra, you have listened to the words given vent to
by me (110-112), Truth has been spoken out by the intelligent Nārada
conversant with the knowledge of present, past and future. In strength,
energy, humility, stature, heroism, manliness, truth, and liberality no
man is like me (113-114). Seeing all these (accomplishments) in me I
placed confidence in his words. O elephant-trainer, I am a Kshetraja²⁶⁴
son of Ugrasena (115). If both my parents forsake, I shall be on the
royal throne by my own power. I have been hated by them both and
especially by my kinsmen (116). Having slain, through the elephant,
first these two sinful cowherd boys I shall afterwards kill all the
Yādavas belonging to Krishua’s party (117). Riding your elephant with
goads, swords and Tomaras, do you wait, O Mahāmātra, at the gate of the
arena. Do not tarry (118).

  ²⁶¹ The city of Harishchandra suspended in mid-air.

  ²⁶² This refers to Madana (Cupid). He is represented to carry a
      flowery bow and flowery shafts.

  ²⁶³ The purport is that women are mortal and so by living with
      immortals on immoral terms they commit no sin as they do when they
      mix with men.

  ²⁶⁴ Lit: produced in a field, born of the wife. A son, the offspring
      of the wife by a kinsman or person duly appointed to procreate
      issue to the husband. This is one of the twelve kinds of issue
      acknowledged by the old Hindu Law.


Vaishampayana said:—Upon the following day the ampitheatre was filled by
the citizens anxious to behold the great game (1). The place of assembly
was supported by octagonal painted pillars, fitted up with terraces,
doors and bolts, with windows circular or crescent; shaped and
accomodated with seats with cushions; and it shone like the ocean whilst
large clouds hang upon it, with spacious substantial pavillions fitted
up for the sight of the combat; open to the front but screened with
beautiful and fine curtains, crowned with festoons of flowers and
glistening with radiance, like autumnal clouds. The pavillions of the
different companies and corporations, vast as mountains, were decorated
with banners, bearing upon them the implements and emblems of the
several crafts. The chambers of the inhabitants of the inner apartments
shone near at hand, bright with gold and painting and net-work of gems:
they were richly decorated with precious stones, were enclosed below
with costly hangings and ornamented above with spires and banners and
looked like mountains spreading their rays in the sky; while the rays of
light reflected from the valuable jewels were blended with the waving of
white chowries and the musical tinkling of female ornaments. The
separate pavilions of the courtesans were graced by lovely women attired
in the most splendid dresses and emulated the radiance of the cars of
the gods. In the place of assembly there were excellent seats, couches
made of gold and hangings of various colours, intermixed with bunches of
flowers; and there were golden vases of water and handsome places for
refreshment, filled with fruits of various kinds and cooling juices,
sherbets fit for drinking. And there were many other stages and
platforms constructed of strong timber; and hangings by hundreds and
thousands were displayed; and upon the tops of the houses, chambers,
fitted up with delicate jealousies through which the women might behold
the sports, appeared like swans flying through the air. In front stood
the pavilion of Kansha surpassing all the rest in splendour looking like
mount Meru in radiance; its sides, its columns being covered with
furnished gold; fastened with coloured cords and every way worthy the
presence of a king (2-15).

Having ordered ’Let the elephant Kuvalyapida wait at the gate’ the king
Kansa entered the arena abounding in men hailing from various countries,
echoing with their noise, shaking and radiant like a huge ocean (16-17).
With two white chowries on his two sides, with two pieces of white
raiment on his body and a white turban on his head he shone like the
moon of white rays on the white summit of the white mountain (18). When
that intelligent king was seated at ease on his throne, the citizens,
beholding his matchless beauty, exclaimed shouts of victory (19).

Thereupon entering the arena, the powerful wrestlers, with loose
garments, took ground on three sides (20). Afterwards accompanied by the
sound of trumpets and the slapping of the arms the two sons of Vasudeva,
with delighted minds, arrived at the gate of the arena (21). As soon as
they entered there quickly those two sons of Vasudeva, of beautiful
faces, were obstructed by that mad elephant moving hither and thither
(22). Driven again and again that wicked elephant, folding up its trunk,
attempted to destroy Rama and Krishna (23). Thereupon terrorized by the
elephant, Krishna, smiling and speaking ill of the intention of the
wicked-minded Kansa, said:—"While Kansa is desirous of killing me
through this elephant forsooth he is eager to repair to the abode of
Yama" (24-25).

Thereupon when that elephant, roaring like a cloud, neared him, the
powerful Govinda, leaping up, slapped his arms (26). Roaring like a lion
and slapping his arms, he, stationed before the elephant, took its trunk
covered with water, on his breast (27). Sometimes he went between his
two tusks and again between his two legs and thus agitated him as does
wind the ocean (28). Then coming out of the top of his trunk and tusks
and of his legs Vasudeva drew his tail and put it into the ground (29).
Thereat that huge-bodied best of elephants became bewildered and could
not slay Krishna. And with his body, as if grinded, he began to roar
there (30). Then touching the earth with his two knees and assailing the
surface the earth with his tusks he began to discharge must²⁶⁵ in anger
like a cloud in the rains (31). Thus sporting with that elephant under
the pretext of a childish freak Krishna, in order to kill Kansa, desired
to destroy him soon (32). Thereupon placing his foot on his lower lip
he, with his two hands, uprooted his tusks and struck him therewith
(33). Assailed with the strokes of his own thunder-like tusks the
elephant passed urine and excreta with a great sound (34). Profuse blood
came out of the temples of that elephant whose limbs were mutilated by
Krishna and whose mind was stricken with sorrow (35). As Vinatā’s son
(Garuda) draws a serpent lying with its half on the face of a mountain
so the holder of plough-share (Baladeva) began to drag him with force by
the tail (36). Thus striking the elephant with the tusks, Krishna, with
one stroke, hurt the elephant-driver by name Ulvana (37). Then setting
up a terribly plaintive roar, that huge elephant, with his tusks broken,
fell down along with Mahāmātra like fire thrown down by thunder bolt
(38). Thereupon taking up a Torana and other weapons those two foremost
of men, Rāma and Krishna, dreadful in battle, destroyed the guards
protecting the rear of the elephant (39). Having slain them when those
two Mādhavas, adorned with wild garlands, entered the arena all the
Vrishnis, Andhakas and Bhojas took them for two Ashinis coming down, of
their own accord, from the celestial region. With their leonine roars,
shouts of joy, slapping of arms and striking of palms they pleased all
the people there (40-41). O descendant of Bharata, beholding them and
the attachment and joy of the citizens the vain Kansa was filled with
sorrow (42). Having thus slain the roaring elephant the lotus-eyed
Krishna, along with his elder brother, arrived at the ocean-like arena

  ²⁶⁵ It is a Persian word for _Mada_ which means a juice that exudes
      from the temples of a rutting elephant.


Vaishampayana said:—Shaking the earth with the sound of the slapping of
his arms Krishna, the lotus-eyed son of Devaki, entered the arena, with
his elder brother before him. His raiment was being shaken by the wind,
his body was wounded with the tusks of the elephant and his limbs were
covered with must and blood; he was bounding like a lion and entered
there quickly like a cloud for bringing about the destruction of Kansa.
He was very careful to find out the defects and his beautiful arms were
adorned with the tusks of the elephant. Beholding him thus enter with
great force the face of Ugrasena’s son grew pale and he began to eye
them in anger (1–4). With the tusks in his hand Keshava shone there like
a mountain of one summit stricken with the image of the half-moon (5).
While he ranged by leaps and bounds, that ocean-like arena shone there
filled with the echoes of the crowd (6).

Thereupon with his eyes reddened in anger the highly wrathful Kansa
ordered the greatly powerful Chānura to fight with Krishna (7). He
ordered the powerful wrestlers Andhra, Nikriti and Mushthika, resembling
so many mountains, to engage with Balarāma (8). Chānura had already been
ordered by Kansa to fight with Krishna carefully. And again commanded
thus, he, with his eyes reddened with ire, went forward to fight like a
cloud surcharged with water (9-10). Afterwards when the royal mandate
"Be all silent" was announced on all sides and the entire crowd was
hushed into silence the Yādavas, assembled together, said (11): "This
trial at arms was first introduced by the Creator as one in which no
weapons should be used, in which skill and strength are necessary, in
which there should be judges and no cowards should take part (12). In it
(the parties) should await the appointed hour and remove their toil with
water. It is also laid down that wrestlers should besmear their body
with cow-dung (13). In it one standing should fight with another such,
one lying on the ground should engage with another such; in whatever
condition one may be one should fight with him in that order; such the
judges say (14). A boy, a youth, an old man, a strong man or a weak man,
whoever he may be, they should be informed of the particulars of the
trial waiting in their respective quarters (15). Persons, conversant
with the modes of wrestling, say that one, conversant with this mode,
should not display his strength or skill while his antagonist is
defeated (16). Now Krishna and the wrestler Andhra will fight with each
other in the arena. Krishna is a mere boy and Andhra is an elderly
person. We should exercise our judgment in this matter (17)."

Thereupon a great tumult arose in the midst of that assembly and
Govinda, leaping up, said "I am a boy and though Andhra is of a huge
body like a mountain I wish to fight with this wrestler of strong arms
(18–19). Though I am a boy I will commit no transgression of the rules
of fight and will not at a stain on the opinions of the wrestlers (20).
Let all the rules, laid down by the cult of wrestlers regarding the use
of cow-dung, water and other things for besmearing the body, be followed
(21). One attains to success in the arena by self-control, fortitude,
manliness, exercise, good conduct and strength; such is the opinion of
exerts (22). Although I cherish no enmity this man is about to create
this feeling in me. Vanquishing him I shall therefore please the world
(23). This wrestler Chānura of huge proportion is born in the province
of Karusha. Although he is a wrestler his deeds ought to be considered
(24). This one, desirous of acquiring influence in the arena, has put a
stigma on the ways of wrestlers by destroying many of them after their
discomfiture (25). Success, of those fighting with weapons in a battle,
consists in cutting off those (of this antagonist). So the success of a
wrestler lies in throwing down his antagonist (26). By acquiring victory
in battle one attains to eternal glory; and the slain depart to the land
of the celestials (27). The slayer and the slain, both of them, achieve
the same end in a battle; so it is called a life-terminating match and
is spoken highly of by the pious (28). Besides this way of the wrestlers
is beyond both strength and deed. Where is heaven for the dead and glory
for the victorious²⁶⁶ (29)? By his folly a king, who is proud of his
learning, for a display of his power, brings about the death of some
wrestlers through his own men. (Herein both the agent and the engager)
are visited by the sin of destruction (30)." No sooner had he said this
than a highly terrible fight took place between them both like that of
two elephants in the forest (31). They wrestled with each other in
various ways, by mutually entwining, laying hold of, letting go the
adversary, throwing on earth and taking up in the air (32). By mutually
pulling to and casting back, stricking with fists, elbow, fore-arm and
knees, interlacing the arms, kicking and striking blows as hard as
stones and shaking their heads awry those two heroes, as if made of the
essence of rocks, fought that dreadful contest without weapons (33).
Thereupon at witnessing that strength of arms of the heroes a rejoicing
arose in that assembly. The mind of the people was drawn by that
acclamation (36). The other people from the pavillions spoke highly (of
this feat).

Casting his looks at Krishna and with his face soaked with perspiration
Kansa, with his right hand, prevented the blowing of the bugle (37).
Although his trumpets and bugles were not sounded the celestials in the
sky began to blow their own. When the lotus-eyed Hrishikesha engaged in
fight the sound of bugles arose of itself on all sides (39). Along with
the Vidyadharas, the Devas, capable of assuming form at will,
disappeared from view and began to pray for Krishna’s victory (40).
Stationed in the sky the seven Rishis exclaimed "O Krishna, vanquish the
Dānava in the form of the wrestler Chānura" (41). Wrestling with Chānura
for a long time, Devaki’s son, who foresaw Kansa’s death, stole away his
strength (42). Thereat the earth trembled, the pavillions rolled and the
most excellent jewel slipped off from Kansa’s crown (45). Thereupon
again throwing down the reviving Chānura by his arms Krishna pressed his
breast with his knees and struck him on the head with his fist (44).
Thereat his eyes, covered with tears and blood, were driven out of their
sockets. And hanging on his side they appeared like golden bells (45).
Thus with his eyes drawn out Chānura, shorn of his strength and life,
lay in the arena (46). With the body of the wrestler Chānura, deprived
of his life, that big arena appeared is if to have been obstructed by a
mountain (47).

After Chānura, proud of his strength, had been slain Rohini’s son
engaged with Mushthika and Krishna with Toshala again (48). In the first
challenge, those two wrestlers, beside themselves with anger, as if
urged on by Destiny met Rāma and Krishna (49). Thrown down by a gust of
wind they began to leap and bound in the arena. Taking up Toshala, huge
as a mountain summit and whirling him for a hundred times the powerful
Krishna grinded him on the earth (50). Then profuse blood gushed out of
the mouth of that powerful wrestler attacked and assailed by Krishna.
And he was on the point of death (51). Displaying various circular feats
and fighting for a long time with Mushthika, and the wrestler Andhra the
energetic and powerful athlete Baladeva struck his head with his fist
resembling a cloud accompanied by a thunderbolt (52–53). Thereat his
brain came out and his eyes were displaced. When he fell down slain on
earth the multitude sent up a great shout (54). Having thus slain
Toshala and Andhra, Krishna and Sangkarshana, with eyes reddened in
anger, began to move about with leaps and bounds in the arena (55). At
that time the great wrestlers Andhra and Chānura being slain that grim
looking arena grew void of wrestlers (56). With all their limbs
trembling waited there the Gopa spectators headed by Nanda (57). With
her limbs trembling, her breast pained with the discharge of milk and
eyes bathed in tears of joy Devaki began to see Krishna (58). Vasudeva,
who had his eyes agitated by tears on seeing Krisana, became youthful as
if casting off his decrepitude (59). As if through the black-bees of
their respective glances, the courtesans drank the lotus countenance of
Krishna (60). There were seen drops of perspiration on Kansa’s face for
seeing Krishna and of anger between his eye-brows (61). His heart was
fanned by the breaths of anger accompanied by smoke-like thoughts of
Keshava’s destruction and was consumed by the fire of mental anxiety
(62). His lips trembling in anger and the painted lines on his forehead
being washed off by perspiration his body appeared like the
crimson-coloured sun (63). As dew-drops, falling from a tree, appear
when smitten by the rays of the sun so appeared the drops of
perspiration falling from his face reddened with anger (64). Thereupon
greatly worked up with anger Kansa issued a mandate to dreadful persons,
saying:—"Turn out of the arena these two sinful, grim-visaged and
forest-ranging young cow-herds. I do not wish to see them. Amongst the
Gopas none deserves residence in my territory (65–66). This Nanda Gopa
is wicked and is bent upon committing injury to me. Therefore assail him
with iron chains and spikes (67). Although Vasudeva is my kinsman he is
highly wicked. Therefore punish him even today in such a way which
persons not, aged, deserve (68). The other inferior Gopas, whom you see,
are all devoted to Krishna. Therefore take away from them their kine and
other riches" (69).

Whilst the harsh-speeched Kansa thus issued the mandate, Vāsudeva,
having truth for his prowess, eyed him with eyes expanded in anger (70).
Beholding his father Vasudeva and Nanda insulted, his kinsmen distressed
and Devaki unconscious he was greatly worked up with anger (71).
Desirous of ascending Kansa’s pavillion in order to kill him, the
powerful, large-armed and eternal Krishna, with the velocity of a lion,
began to leap in the arena before him like a cloud driven by the wind
(72-73). Only the citizens, seated on the side of Kansa, saw him when he
leaped in the arena (74). Kansa was completely possessed by Destiny and
so he considered Govinda coming down from the sky (75). There upon
stretching his own Parigha-like arms Krishna drew Kansa by the hair in
the arena (76). Assailed by Krishna’s hands his golden crown, set with
diamonds, fell down on earth from his head (77). When Vāsudeva held
Kansa by the hair he became motionless, overwhelmed and agitated and
began to breath like one lifeless. He was not capable of seeing even
Krishna’s face (78). His ears were divested of Kundalas, his necklace
was torn off, his arms grew lengthened and his body was shorn of
ornaments and body-cloth (80). Thus possessed by divine effulgence
Kansa’s face grew bewildered and he set forth many an exertion (81).
Coming down from the pavillion and holding Kansa, deserving of pain, by
the hair with force Keshava began to drag him in the arena (82). The
highly effulgent king of Bhoja being thus dragged by Krishna, a ditch
was made by his body in the arena (83). Thus sporting in the arena when
Kansa breathed his last Krishna threw away his body at no distance (84).
Thus struck Kansa’s body, used to luxuries, was grinded on the ground
and covered with dust (85). His closed eyes and dark face, without the
crown, were shorn of beauty like a lotus without leaves (86). Slain not
in a battle and his body not wounded with shafts and killed by being
dragged by the hair Kansa was driven away from the path of heroes (87).
But on his body were all on a sudden seen marks of nails set by Keshava,
which mutilated his flesh and destroyed his life (88).

Having thus slain Kansa and removed his thorns and being endued with
twofold effulgence in delight the lotus-eyed Krishna first touched
Vasudeva’s feet. And afterwards the descendant of Yadu bowed at the feet
of his mother. She too sprinkled him with torrents of tear begotten by
joy (89-90). Thereupon shining in his own effulgence Mādhava, according
to rank and age, enquired after the well-being of all other Yadavas
(91). Holding powerfully by his hands the proud brother of Kansa, by
name Urgita, the virtuous-souled Baladeva killed him (92). Thus having
conquered their enemies and subdued their anger, those two heroes,
brought up in Vraja, went delightedly to their father’s house (93).

  ²⁶⁶ The meaning is:—In a wrestling match one gives no proof of his
      power and performs no good deed because it is mere an idle
      amusement. And so the one slain does not go to heaven and the one
      successful secures no glory.


Vaishampayana said:—Beholding their husband slain and fallen Kansa’s
wives encircled him like planets of decreasing lustre (1). Beholding
their lion-like royal husband slain and lying down on earth his wives
began to bewail (2). "O thou of large arms, a hero, ever observant of
heroic vows like thyself, being slain, we all, being the wives of a
hero, have become friendless and all our hopes have been frustrated (3).
O foremost of kings, seeing this thy ordained death we are plaintively
bewailing along with our relatives (4). O highly powerful lord, thyself
being dead and cast off by thee we have our roots cut off (5). Alas!
When stricken with sexual desire we will tremble in anger like creepers.
Who will take us to the bed-room (6)? O gentle one, is it meet that the
sun should scorch thy charming face full of breaths like a lotus without
water (7)? O thou who wert ever fond of Kundalas! Divested of Kundalas,
thy ears, attached to thy neck, are not shining well (8). O hero, where
is that crown crested with jewels and effulgent like the sun that used
to increase greatly the beauty of thy head (9)? Thyself repairing to the
other world, how will these thy thousand wives, ever gracing thy inner
apartment, pass their days poorly (10)? Chaste wives are never
disappointed from their enjoying in the company of their husband nor are
they forsaken by him; why dost thou then leave us behind (11)? Alas!
Time is highly powerful; for although a death to thy enemies thou art
being speedily taken away by Time who carries on his work in order (12).
O lord, we are unworthy of sorrow and have been brought up by thee in
happiness. Being deprived of our lord and miserly how shall we spend our
days (13). A husband is the only refuge unto those women who care for
their character. But the powerful Death has killed such a husband of
ours (14). Possessed by widowhood in thy absence and sunk in the deep
ocean of lamentations, where shall we repair, with hearts stricken with
sorrow (15)? Alas! fickle is the movement of men. Sporting on thy lap we
were spending our days with thee. Now in a moment we have been separated
from thee (16). O thou the conferrer of honors, thyself meeting with
this calamity, we have been visited by disasters. It seems, we all
perpetrated a similar iniquity for we have all in the like manner, met
with widowhood (17). Alas! We were all fond of thee and thou didst take
care of us with heavenly enjoyments. Casting us off where dost thou go
now (18)? O lord of the world, O giver of honors, O thou resembling a
celestial, thou art our master who have been separated from their lord.
O lord, we are bewailing like hind; it behoves thee to give us a reply
(19). O lord sovereign, thy departure, making thy kinsmen sorrowful and
thy wives bewail, appears (to us) as terribly hard (20). Forsooth it
appears O lord, that the damsels of the other world are more beautiful,
because, O hero, thou hast departed leaving behind thy own people (21).
What is the reason O hero, that thou dost pay no heed to the
lamentations of thy wives (22). Alas, the march of men to the other
world is ruthless, because without caring for them they even forsake
their own wives (23). It is better for women not to have husbands than
beloved, heroic husbands, because they love the women of the celestial
region and they too are fond of heroes (24). Alas! carrying away
imperceptibly such a heroic husband Death has pierced our very vitals
(25). O lord of the world, having slain the army of Jarāsandha and
vanquished the other enemies in battle why hast thou met with death at
the hands of an ordinary man (26)? Alas! Fighting with Indra in a combat
of arrows thou wert not defeated by the immortals. How hast thou been
then slain by a mortal (27)? Having agitated, with a shower of arrows,
the ocean that is incapable of being moved thou didst conquer Varuna the
holder of the noose, and take away all his riches (28). When Vāsava did
not pour profuse showers, thou didst, for the citizens, bore through the
clouds with thy arrows and bring down rain by force (29). By thy prowess
all kings were humiliated and used to send thee the precious jewels and
clothes (30). Alas, thy manliness was manifest unto thy enemies and thou
wert like a god. How has then such a life-ending calamity befallen thee
(31)? Thyself being slain O lord, we are passing by the name of widows.
Although not mad we have become so and have been assailed by death (32).
O lord, if thou wert determined upon departing why hast thou then
forgotten us? Would it have tired thee if thou hadst say it in mere
words (33)? O lord, O king of Mathurā, we bow unto thy feet in fear. Be
thou propitiated and return from the distant land (34). O hero, how dost
thou lie down on grass and dust? Prostrating thyself on earth does not
thy body feel any inconvenience (35)? Alas, who has inflicted on us this
stroke of sleep? Who has ruthlessly struck the body of these women (36)?
The woman, who has to survive, should weep and repent. Why should we
weep when we are to follow our husband (37)?"

In the meantime trembling poorly and crying aloud "Where is my son?
Where is my child?" Kansa’s mother arrived there (38). Beholding her son
like unto the moon shorn of its lustre her heart as if broke assunder
and she repeatedly lost her consciousness (39). Beholding her son and
exclaiming "Alas! I am undone!" she began to bewail along with her
daughters-in-law (40). Placing on her lap the head of her son, that one,
fond of sons, began to bewail plaintively saying "O my son, O thou the
enhancer of the delight of thy kinsmen, O thou ever devoted to the vow
of a hero, why hast thou departed so soon? O my son observant of vows,
why art thou asleep before all men? The kings should never lie down on
earth in this way (41–43). When in the days of yore all the Rākshasas
assembled Rāvana, the foremost of the strong in all the worlds, uttered
the following verse, spoken well of by the sages (44). ’Although I am of
great strength and a destroyer of the immortals, a terrible and
irresistable calamity will proceed to me from my kinsmen (45). And such
a life-destroying great calamity will also proceed to my intelligent son
from my relatives (46)’". Thereupon weeping like unto a cow, separated
from her calf, she said to her husband the old king Ugrasena (47). "Come
and see, O pious king, this thy royal son is lying on the bed of a hero
like a mountain clapped by a thunderbolt (48). O king, you are to
perform the obsequial rites of this thy son who has repaired to the
abode of Death and attained to the state of a ghost (49). Kingdoms are
worthy of being enjoyed by heroes and we have been defeated. Go and ask
Krishna about Kansha’s funeral rites (50). Enmity terminates with
death—it ceases with the death of the enemy. His obsequial rites should
therefore be performed. What offence has the dead body committed (51)?"
Having said this to the Bhoja king with a heart laden with sorrow and
casting her looks again on the face of her son Kansa’s mother began to
bewail anew, saying (52): "O king, what will thy wives do hereafter,
who, even having obtained a husband like thee, have their desires
frustrated? (53) How shall I now see thy aged father dried up under the
subjection of Krishna like water in the pool (54)? O my son, I am thy
mother, why dost thou not speak to me? Leaving behind thy beloved people
thou hast departed to a distant land (55). O hero, the inevitable Death
has, against the knowledge of this unfortunate woman, taken away a son
like thee well-read in moral laws (56). O the master of thy clan, thy
servants, who were pleased with thy qualities on receiving honors and
various presents from thee, are now weeping (57). O foremost of kings, O
thou of large arms and great strength, rise up and save the people of
thy house and other poor men (58)."

While the wives of Kansa, stricken with great misery, were thus
bewailing the sun, smitten with evening rays, set in (59).


Vaishampayana said:—Breathing like a person who has drunk poison,
Ugrasena, burning with grief for his son, approached Krishna (1). He saw
him there encircled by Yadavas repenting for his sinful destruction of
Kansa (2). Hearing the heart-rending lamentations of Kansa’s wives he,
censuring his own self in that assembly of the Yādavas, (said)
(3):—"Alas, out of my childish freak and under the influence of anger, I
have, by the destruction of Kansa, made widows of these thousand women
(4). On the death of their husband these women are bewailing so very
plaintively that even an ordinary man’s heart, on hearing it, feels
compassion (5). Hearing the lamentations of these guileless women, even
Kritānta’s (Regent of the dead) heart is filled with pity (6). I had
determined before that Kansa, the oppresser of the pious, and always
given to vice, should be slain (7). Death is preferable to life unto him
who, in this world, is of a degraded conduct, ruthless temper, feeble
understanding and whom the people hate (8). Kansa was highly sinful,
never liked by the pious and him every one used to hate. What pity
should then be felt for him (9)? The ascetics, as a fruit of their
virtuous deeds, live in the celestial region. He, who attains to glory
in this world, is also like a dweller in heaven (to). If the subjects
are self-controlled, observant of their own duties and perform pious
deeds, unrighteousness can never touch the king (11). Those, who are
wicked, are constrained by Death to reap the proper fruits. The pious
attain to auspicious fruits in the next world (12). Many are the agents
of impious deeds in these worlds and therefore the gods perfectly
protect the pious (13). That Kansa has been slain by me should be
considered by you as righteous for I have eradicated (thereby) his
mis-deeds (14). Do you now console the sorrowful women, the citizens and
the merchants (15)."

When Krishna said this, Ugrasena, out of fear for his son’s misdeeds,
entered lowering his head along with other Yadavas (16). In that
assembly of the Yadus he addressed to the lotus-eyed Krishna the
following poor words, sullied by the vapour of grief and becoming the
occasion (17):—"O my son, your anger has been pacified, your enemy has
been led to the abode of Yama, your glory has followed your own duties
and your name has become celebrated in this world (18). By this action
you have established your glory amongst the pious, terrified your
enemies, made strong the position of the Yādavas and rendered your
friends proud (19). Your glory has spread itself amongst the
neighbouring chiefs and now they will all seek alliance with you and
your friendship (20). O hero, your subjects will be devoted to you, the
Brāhmanas will sing your glories and the ministers, well read in peace
and dissension making, will bow unto you (21). O Krishna, accept this
immortal army of Kansa abounding in elephants, horses, chariots and
infantry (22). O Mādhava, let your men take Kansa’s wealth, corn,
jewels, covers, gold, clothes, women and all that he possessed (23). O
Krishna, the slayer of your enemies, by the Yoga, to which you have
resorted on behalf of the Yādavas, all dissensions have been put a stop
to and the earth has been established. O descendant of Yadu, from you
now will proceed the happiness or misery of the Yadavas (24). Hear, what
they are saying with a depressed heart. If you please, O Govinda, they
may perform the obsequial rites of Kansa, of sinful deeds, who has been
consumed by the fire of your anger. Having performed the after-death
ceremonies of that king who has met with this calamity, I shall, along
with my wife and daughters-in-law, range in the forest with the animals.
To perform the obsequial rites of the dead is the duty of men (26–28).
By performing this, Krishna, people are freed from their social
obligations. Therefore having made his funeral pyre, putting fire to it
and offering oblation of water I shall have discharged debt to Kansa
(29). This is my only prayer, O Krishna. Show me kindness in this
matter. With the performance of his after-death rites let sinful Kansa
attain to a blessed state (30)."

Hearing the words of Ugrasena, Krishna was filled with surprise. And
consoling him he said (31). "O sire, O foremost of kings, what you have
said behoves your age and family and becomes your nature (32). While the
inevitable work is over, why do you say so? Although dead, Kansa will
receive funeral honors befitting a king (33). O sire, you are born in a
great race and know every thing that should be known. Why do you not
then understand that destiny is inevitable (34)? O king, pristine deeds
of all creatures, mobile and immobile, attain to fullness in time (55).
O foremost of kings, even the liberal, beautiful and rich sovereigns,
always kind to the poor, endued with prowess like that of Mahendra, well
read in Srutis, laws and knowledge of Brahman, and like unto the regents
of quarters, are carried away by Death (36–37). You know too that many a
pious king, ever intent on protecting their subjects, devoted to
Kshitriya dutes, self-controlled and well-read in all, meet with death
in time (38). When the proper time comes men, by enjoyment or suffering,
can understand whether his actions have been good or bad (39). O king,
even the gods cannot understand the true nature of Māyā that exists in
the hearts of all. Karma is the instrument of people’s being stupified
thereby (40). Urged on by his pristine deeds Kansa has met with death in
time; I am not the cause thereof. Karma (pristine action) and Kāla
(Time) are the instruments thereof (41). This universe, consisting of
the sun and moon, mobile and immobile creations, meets with dissolution
in time and springs up into existence again in time (42). Time subdues
and favours all and therefore all the creatures are subject to time
(43). O king, your son has been consumed by his own sin. I am not the
instrument thereof but Time is the cause (44). Your son has been slain
by his own actions; I am surely the instrument no doubt (45). Powerful
is Time and it is difficult to know its course. This is known to persons
who impartially look into the essence of things (46). That is the course
of Time by which everything comes within its ken. Let it go, do what I
say now (47).

"I do not care for the kingdom or the royal throne. I did not slay Kansa
for a territory (48). For the behoof of all the worlds and for
establishing my glory your son, the curse of this family, has been slain
by me along with all his attendants (49). Like unto a bird coursing at
will, I shall again delightedly range in the forest in the midst of kine
along with the Gopas (50). O foremost of kings, I swear a hundred times,
that I stand in no need of the kingdom. Communicate this to all (51) O
foremost of kings, you are the leader and the lord of the Yadavas and
therefore deserve respect from me. Therefore place yourself on the
throne and acquire victory by becoming the king (52). If you think it
proper to do what pleases me, and if it does not pain you, do you accept
for ever this kingdom abdicated by me (53)."

Vaishampāyana said:—Hearing those words of Krishna in the assembly of
Yadus Ugrasena bent down his head in bashfulness and could give no reply
(54). Then Govinda, well read in laws, installed him on the throne. With
the crown on his head the beautiful and effulgent king Ugrasena, along
with Krishna, performed the funeral ceremonies of Kansa (55). As the
celestials follow their king (Indra) so all the leading Yadavas, at the
command of Krishna, followed Ugrasena in the high-way of the city (56).
Thereupon when the night passed away and the sun rose, the leading
Yadavas began to perform the funeral ceremonies of Kansa (57). Thereupon
desirous of performing the obsequial rites of king Kansa according to
the ritualastic laws they placed his body in a palanquin and took it to
the northern bank of Yamunā. And in due order they performed his funeral
rites by setting fire to the pyre (58–59). With the consent of Krishna
the Yādavas also performed the funeral ceremonies of the large-armed
brother of Kansa by name Sunāma (60). Then repeatedly exclaiming. "May
the departed attain to an eternal course" the Vrishnis, Andhakas and
Yadavas offered oblations of water in their honor (61). Having then
offered water to Kansa and his brother, all the Yadavas, preceded by
Ugrasena, returned to Mathura with a sorrowful heart (62).


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon united with Rohini’s son the heroic and
powerful Krishna began to live in the city of Mathurā filled with
Yadavas (1). Gradually his body began to shine in royal and youthful
grace and he began to range in the city of Mathurā adorned with the
ocean-like Yamunā (2).

After a few days, with a view to learn Danurveda (science of war) Rāma
and Krishna, adorned with vedic study and good conduct, went to this
preceptor Sāndipani of the city of Avanti in the province of Kashi and
communicated to him their family (3-4). When they, shorn of pride began
to serve him he recognised Janārddana and Rāma as his pupils and began
to instruct them in that useful science (5). The heroic Rāma and
Janārddana could learn anything as soon as they heard it; and therefore
within sixty-four days and nights they studied and mastered all the
Vedas with their various Angas²⁶⁷ (6). In no time their preceptor taught
them Danurveda, consisting of four divisions²⁶⁸ and the mysterious use
of various other weapons (7). Thinking of their superhuman merit he used
to consider them as the moon and the sun (8). And when he offered
adoration to those two high-souled deities in Parva he used to see Siva
and Vishnu before him (9). Thereupon, O descendant of Bharata, having
finished their education Baladeva and Krishna said to their preceptor
Sāndipani:—"What fee shall we offer thee for your acting as our
preceptor (19)?" The preceptor knew their power and so with a delighted
heart said "I wish you to return me the son who died in the ocean of
salt-water (11). O Krishna, I had only one son. When I had gone out on a
pilgrimage to Pravāsa a Timi fish carried away my son. Do you bring me
back my that son (12)." With Rāma’s consent Krishna said "it will be
so." And then going to the ocean Hari entered into its water (13). With
folded hands the regent of the ocean came to Vāsudeva, who said "Where
is Sāndipani’s son (14)?" The ocean replied, "O Mādhava, a huge-bodied
demon, by name Panchajana, has devoured that boy, in the form of a Timi
fish (15)."

Hearing it the eternal Purusha Achyuta (Krishna) went to Panchajana and
killed him. But he did not get his preceptor’s son (16). The conch,
which Janārddana obtained after slaying Panchajana, is known amongst
gods and men as Panchajanya (17).

Thereupon that foremost of Purushas repaired to the abode of Vaivaswan
(Yama). Then approaching him Yama saluted Gadādhara (18). Krishna said
to him:—"Give me my preceptor’s son." Thereat there took place a
terrible encounter between them both (19). Thereupon having vanquished
the fearful son of Vivaswan, the foremost of Purusha Achyuta obtained
the child son of his preceptor (20). He then brought from Yama’s abode
his preceptor’s son lost for a long time. By the power of Krishna of
peerless energy Sāndipani’s son, dead long ago, returned in his bodily
form. Beholding this highly wonderful feat which cannot be thought of or
performed by any all the creatures were filled with surprise. Taking his
preceptor’s son, Panchajanya and diverse precious jewels, Mādhava, the
Lord of the universe, returned (21–23). Having brought all those
precious jewels through Yama’s servants the Rakshasas Vāsava’s younger
brother (Krishna) dedicated them to his preceptor (24). Having handed
over to their preceptor Sāndipani, his son, of the same age and beauty,
as before, together with all the jewels the highly intelligent Rāma and
Keshava, the foremost of all the warriors, in all the worlds, in the use
of clubs, swords and various other weapons, were pleased (25–26). Being
greatly pleased with the reconciliation with his son, who had been lost
for a long time Kashyas’s son Sāndipani honored greatly Rāma and Keshava
(27). Having acquired mastery in the use of all weapons and honored
their preceptor, those two vow-observing and heroic sons of Vasudeva
returned to Mathurā (28). Hearing of the approach of the two scions of
the Yadu race, all the Yādavas, boys and old men, headed by Ugrasena,
delightedly went out of the city to receive them (29). All the subjects,
old and young, the priests and the ministers stood before the city in
rows (30). Bugles were sounded, people began to chant the glories of
Janārddana, and all the streets were adorned with flags and garlands
(31). With Govinda’s return all the houses were filled with joy as on
the occasion of an Indra-Yajna (32). The songsters began to sing, in
high ways, songs of blessings and eulogy, highly liked by the Yadavas
(33). They made the announcement, "The two brothers, Rāma and Govinda,
celebrated all over the world, have returned to their city. Let all
fearlessly sport with their friends" (34). O king, when Govinda arrived
at Mathurā, there was none who was poorly, sorrowful or insensible (35).
The birds began to pour sweet notes, and the horses, elephants and cows
were all cheerful. And men and women attained to mental felicity (36).
Delightful winds began to blow and the ten quarters were freed from dust
and all the tutelary deities in the temples became delighted (37). What
more when Janārddana arrived at the city all the signs, that were
visible in the golden age, appeared there (38).

Thereupon in an auspicious moment ascending a car drawn by horses,
Janārddana, the slayer of his enemies, entered the city of Mathurā (39).
As the gods follow Sakra so all the Yadavas followed Upendra when he
entered the charming city of Mathurā (40). Thereafter as the sun and
moon enter into the setting mountain so those two descendants of Yadu
delightedly entered into Vasudevā’s house (41). Keeping all their arms
in their own house those high-souled sons of Vasudeva, ranging at will
along with the Yādavas, began to range in woods full of fruits and
flowers and in streamlets of clear water near the Raivata mountain
beautified with lotus leaves and Kārandavas. Thus Rāma and Keshava, of
beautiful faces and having one heart enjoyed there a few days under
Ugrasena (42–45).

  ²⁶⁷ A division of Hindu learning comprehending such science as is
      considered dependant upon the Vedas, hence called Vedanga; works
      on six subjects come under this description, viz., pronunciation,
      grammar, prosody, explanation of obscure terms, description of
      religious rites and astronomy.

  ²⁶⁸ The four division are (1) _Diksha_, initiation, (2) _Sangraha_
      collection, (3) _Sidhi_, proficiency (4) _Prayoga_ the use.


Vaishampayana said:—United with Rohini’s son Krishna spent some days
happily in the city of Mathura filled with Yādavas (1). Gradually his
person was embellished with the grace of youth and regal prosperity and
he began to range all over Mathurā adorned with woods (2). After some
days had elapsed in this way, Jarāsandha, the king of Rājagriha, heard
of Kansa’s death from his two daughters (3). Hearing this the powerful
Jarāsandha was worked up with anger. And in order to pay his debt to
Kansa and to slay all the Yadus, the powerful Jarāsandha, in no time,
set out with his army consisting of six divisions. O king, the king of
Magadha had two very beautiful and youthful daughters by name Asti and
Prāpti. The royal son of Varhadratha conferred them on Kansa (4–6).
Having chained his father the son of Ahuka enjoyed in their company. You
have heard many a time and oft how, depending on Jarāsandhā’s (help) and
disregarding the Yadavas the lord of Surasena became king (7). In order
to satisfy his duties by his kinsmen and to accomplish their objects
Vasudeva was always carefully engaged in Ugrasena’s well-being. Kansa
did not spare him even (8). When the vicious-souled Kansa was slain by
Ramā and Krishna, Ugrasena, encircled by Bhojas, Vrishnis and Andhakas,
became king (9).

Asti and Prāpti, the wives of a hero, were the beloved daughters of king
Jarāsandha. Therefore burning like fire in anger at their instigation
and making every possible arrangement the king of Magadha started for
Mathurā. All the highly energetic warrior kings who were defeated and
subjugated by Jarāsandha’s prowess, all those who were his friends,
relatives, kinsmen and allies, encircled by their own armies, followed
Jarāsandha with a view to please him. Dantavakra the king of Karusha,
the powerful king of Chedi, the king of Kalinga, the foremost of the
powerful, Poundra, Sāngkriti, the king of Keshika, the king Bhishmaka,
his son Rukshmi, the foremost of bowmen who used to challenge Vāsudeva
and Arjuna in a fight, Venudāri, Shrutarvā, Krātha, Angshumān, the
powerful kings of Anga, Vanga, the kings of Koshala, Kashi and Dashārna,
the powerful king of Sumha, the lord of Vidha, the powerful king of
Madra, the lord of Trigarta, the king of Shālwa endued with prowess, the
highly powerful Darada, the energetic Bhagadatta the lord of Yavanas,
Saivya the king of Shouvira, Pāndya the foremost of the strong, Suvala,
the king of Gāndhāra, Mahāvala, Nagnajit, Gonarda, the king of Kāshmir,
the king of Darada, the highly powerful Duryodhana and other sons of
Dhritarāshtra—these and other highly powerful kings, mighty
car-warriors, followed Jarāsandha, out of jealousy towards Janārddana.
Entering the province of Shurasena, abounding in barley and fuels, they
all, placing their respecting detachments before them, laid siege to
Mathurā (10-22).


Vaishampayana said:—Holding their counsels all the Yādavas, headed by
Janārddana, surveyed the encampment of the kings in the gardens of
Mathurā. Afterwards with a delighted heart Krishna said to
Rāma:—"Forsooth the accomplishment of the object of the gods is near at
hand since king Jarāsandha has come near us. The pennons of the cars,
coursing like air, are being seen (1–3). Behold, O Sir, there shine the
umbrellas of kings desirous of victory, white as the moon (4). The rows,
of white umbrellas stationed on the cars of the kings, are moving
towards us like swans ranging in the sky (5). However the king
Jarāsandha has arrived here in proper time. He is our first guest of
battle and is the touch-stone for testing our strength or weakness (6).
O Sir, while the emperor has arrived here, we must begin with the fight.
Judge now the strength of the enemy’s army (7)". Giving vent to these
words without any anxiety, Krishna, desirous of slaying Jarāsandha and
fighting with him, began to survey his army (8).

Having taken a survey of the assembled kings and armies, the immortal
Krishna, the foremost of Yadus conversant with _Mantras_ began to think
within himself (9). "These are the kings assembled who wend the ways of
the mortals and will meet with death on account of their own actions as
pointed out by scriptures (10). I consider these leading kings, on the
verge of death, sprinkled by Death like unto sacrificial beasts. Their
bodies are all shining as if they are about to repair to the celestial
region (21). Assailed by the armies of these sovereigns and exhausted
with the weight of their burden Prithivi (earth), covered with powerful
kingdoms, went to Brahmā in the celestial region. In no time the surface
of the earth will be shorn of men (12-13). And kings by hundreds will be

Vaishampayana said:—The highly powerful, effulgent and persevering Lord
Paramount Jarāsandha came there encircled by fore-fold ocean-like forces
consisting of war-chariots containing beautiful seats and drawn by
powerful steeds whose course is never obstructed any where, cloud-like
elephants embellished with bells and golden seats, ridden by
car-warriors well-read in the science of war and driven by clever
charioteers, horses, going in leaps and bounds, driven by horsemen and
resembling clouds and numberless fearful foot-soldiers armed with swords
and coats of mail who could bound up in the sky like serpents (14-19).
Innumerable kings attentively followed him. All the quarters of the city
and her woods, resounding with the rattle of cars resembling the
muttering of clouds, the tinkling of the ornaments worn by elephants in
rut, the neighings of the horses and the leonine shouts of the infantry,
the Emperor Jarāsandha, with his army, appeared like an ocean. With
shouts and slapping of arms, the armies of these kings, consisting of
proud warriors, appeared like an army of clouds. That army, consisting
of cars and infuriated elephants, quick-coursing horses, and infantry
resembling the sky-rangers, appeared like a collection of clouds
descending on the ocean in the rains (20-24). Thereupon all the kings,
headed by Jarāsandha, with their armies encamped around the city of
Mathurā (25). The detachments of the army accomodated in the tents shone
like the ocean overflowing in the light half of the month (26). After
the expiration of the night those kings, desirous of fighting, rose up
for entering into the city (27). Those kings, assembled on the bank of
the Yamunā, began, out of curiosity, to hold proper counsels on the eve
of the battle (28). Then there was heard a great tumult of the kings
resembling that of the heaving deep at the time of the universal
dissolution (29). At the command of the king, elderly guards, with
head-gears on their heads and canes in their hands, began to move about
exclaiming _Ma_ (_i.e._ Do not make noise) (30). Thereupon that army,
hushed into silence, shone like an ocean abounding in fishes and huge
serpents (31).

When informed of the mandate of the king that huge ocean-like army stood
motionless and silent like a Yogin, the king Jarāsandha, spoke, like
Vrihaspati (32). ’Let the armies of the kings united lay siege on all
sides to this city (33). Let them get ready stony weapons and maces and
let all the level grounds be overflowed with water. Let them hold up
swords and daggers (34). Let them assail the city with Tankas and
Khamitras. And let kings, expert in the ways of war, near the city (35).
As long as I do not kill in the battle, with sharpened arrows, the two
sons of Vasudeva Krishna and Sangkarshaa, in the guise of milkmen, as
long as the sky is not covered with Tankas so long my army should lay
seige to the city (36-37). Let all the kings, obeying my command, wait
at the outskirts of the city and enter as soon as an opportunity
presents itself (38). Let the Maira king, Kalinga king, Chekitan, the
king of Vālhika, Kashmira king Gonarda, the king of Karusha, Druma of
Kimpurasha country and the Danava of hill tracts, unitedly and speedily
protect the western gate of the city (39–40). Let Venudari of the Puru
race, Sonaka the king of Vidarbha, Rukshmi the king of Bhojas, the
Malava king, Suryaksha, the highly powerful Drupada, the king of
Panchalas, Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti, the powerful Dantavakra,
Chhāgali, Purumitra, the emperor Virāt, the king of Koushāmvi, Mālava,
Shatadhanwā, Viduratha, Bhurishrava the king of Trigartta, Vānga and
Panchanada all these illustrious kings and powerful like a thunder-bolt
now capable of attacking a fort, get upon the northern gate and assail
the city (41-44). Let Ansumāna’s son the heroic Kaitaveya, Uluka,
Ekalavya, Vrihatkshatra, Kshatrādharmā, Jayadratha, Uttamoujā, Shalya,
Kourāvas, Kekayas, Vāmadeva the king of Vidisha, Sāngkiti and the king
of Seni occupy the eastern gate of the city. Let them proceed destroying
everything as the wind disperses the clouds (45–47). Myself, Darava and
the powerful king of Chedi will protect the Southern gate with our army
(48). Thus beseiged on all sides by these armies let the city entertain
a great fear like that at the fall of a lightning (49). Let club-holders
with clubs, Parigha-holders with Parighas and other soldiers with
various other weapons rend the city (50). By you, O kings, this city, of
up hills and down hills, should be levelled down to-day (51).’

Having thus arranged his four-fold forces the king Jarāsandha, along
with other kings, proceeded angrily towards the Yādavas (52). The clever
and well-armed warriors Dāshārhas too confronted them. Thus there
commenced a terrible fight, abounding in cars and elephants, between
that overwhelming army of the kings and the limited number of Yādavas
like that between the gods and Asuras (53). At that time beholding the
two sons of Vasudeva issue out of the city the armies of the kings lost
heart and the animals grew terrified and bewildered (54). Seated on a
car those two descendants of Yadu, Rāma and Krishna, began to move about
in anger like two Makaras that agitate the ocean (55). Thereafter when
in perfect sense they began to fight in the battle there arose in them
their ancient intelligence regarding the use of weapons (56). And even
in that battle-field there fell down from the sky, strong, flaming and
great weapons (57). In order to feed upon the flesh of the kings, those
huge weapons, assuming bodily forms, stricken with thirst (as if),
adorned with celestial garlands and scents, burning in their own
effulgence and terrifying the sky-rangers, descended from the welkin.
And Rākshasas, desirous of eating royal flesh, followed them (58-59).
When in that great battle came down for those two Yadavas, the
ploughshare Samvartaka, the mace Sounanda, Srānga the foremost of bows,
the club Koumodaki—these four powerful weapons of Vishnu, the beautiful
Rāma, the foremost of Sātwatas, took up first of all, with his right
hand, the plough-share, embellished with celestial garlands, rising like
a flag and proceeding obliquely like a serpent, and that foremost of
maces Sounanda that creates depression in the enemy (60–63). The
powerful Krishna took up the celebrated bow Srānga which is worthy of
being seen by all the worlds (64). The other hand of the lotus-eyed
Krishna, the necessity of whose incarnation was known to the gods, was
adorned with the club by name Koumodi (65).

Thus armed the heroic Rāma and Govinda, resembling Vishnu himself,
opposed the enemies in battle (66). Displaying their prowess and
discomfitting their enemies those two heroic sons of Vasudeva, dependant
on each other and designated by the appellations of elder and younger
brothers, began to range there like two gods (67–68). Raising up in
anger his plough-share resembling the king of serpents, ranging in the
battle-field like the very death of his enemies and drawing in the cars,
elephants and steeds of the Kshatriya car-warriors Rāma began to appease
his anger (69–70). Throwing up these mountain-like elephants with the
end of his plough-share and as if churning them with the strokes of his
mace he began to move about in that battle-field (71).

Thus brought on the point of being almost destroyed by Rāma the leading
Kshatriyas returned in fear to Jarāsandha, who, observant of the duties
of a Kshatriya, said thus to them:—"Fie on your Kshatriya conduct, since
you have returned from the battle-field in fear (72–73). The learned say
that those, who, deprived of their cars, fly away from the battle-field,
are visited by an unbearable sin like that of infanticide (74). Why do
you fly away, O terrified Kshatryas? Fie on your conduct. Urged on by my
bows do you return soon (75). You need not fight. Wait here as
spectators. I shall myself despatch these two cow-herds to the abode of
Yama (76)."

Thus urged on by Jarāsandha the Kshatriyas again rallied round with
delighted hearts. And spreading a net-work of arrows they again engaged
in fight (77). Armed with coats of mail, Nishtringshas, pennons, swords,
flags, bows with strings, quivers and arrows and accompanied by horses
embellished with golden chaplets, cars followed by a rattle like the
muttering of clouds and elephants resembling clouds and driven by
drivers they again set out for the battle-field (78–79). With rising
umbrellas held over their heads and fanned by beautiful chowries the
kings, stationed on cars, shone greatly in the battle-field (80). Taking
up heavy clubs and maces, some warrior-kings, foremost of car-warriors,
out of love for war, entered the battle-field (81).

In the meantime, seated on a most excellent car, adorned with a pennon
carrying the emblem of Garuda the powerful Vāsudeva, ever increasing the
delight of the celestials, approached carefully Jarāsandha and pierced
him with eight arrows, his charioteer with five sharpened shafts and his
horses with other arrows. Beholding Jarāsandha in this perilous plight
the mighty car-warriors Chitrasena and the Commander-in Chief Kaishika
both cut Krishna with arrows. And Kaishika pierced Baladeva with three
arrows (82–85). With his spike the heroic Baladeva sundered his bow into
two pieces and creating in no time a downpour of arrows assailed many a
hero with his arms embellished with gold. Worked up with anger
Chitrasena wounded him with nine arrows (86-87). Then Kaishika wounded
him with five arrows and Jarāsandha with seven. Janārddana wounded them
each with three winged arrows (88). The powerful Baladeva struck
Chitrasena’s car with ten sharpened arrows (89). Baladeva, with his
spike, sundered his bow into two pieces. With his bow shattered and
deprived of his car, the powerful Chitrasena, greatly worked up with
anger and desirous of slaying the holder of plough-share, proceeded
towards him. The highly powerful Jarāsandha cut off the bow of Rāma who
was discharging Nārāchas in order to kill Chitrasena (90–91). The king
of Magadha, in anger, struck his horses with his club. The highly
powerful and heroic Jarāsandha thus confronted Rāma (92). Then taking up
a mace Rāma pursued Jarāsandha. An encounter then took place between
them both desirous of killing each other (93). Beholding the Magadha
king fight with Rāma, Chitrasena, ascending a war-car, encircled
Jarāsandha with a huge army of elephants and other warriors. Then began
a close fight between the two armies (94-95). Thereupon surrounded by
his huge army the highly powerful Jarāsandha attacked the Yādavas who
preceded Rāma and Krishna (96). Then there arose a great tumult from
both the armies like that of an agitated ocean (97). O king, there was
heard a great sound of the numberless bugles, conches and trumpets of
both the armies (98). On all sides were heard the shouts and the
slapping of the arms of the soldiers. And a storm of dust was raised by
the hoofs (of the horses) and the wheels (of the cars) (99). And there
stood roaring at one another, heroes armed with bows and various other
weapons (100).

Thereupon giving up all hopes of life, thousands of highly powerful
car-warriors, elephant drivers and infantry fearlessly engaged in fight.
And a terrible encounter took place between Jarāsandha’s army and the
Yādavas (101-102). O Bhārata, placing Baladeva before them and taking a
half of their army Sini, Anādhrishthi, Babhra, Vipritha and Ahuka
attacked the sothern flank of the enemy’s army protected by Jarāsandha,
the king of Chedis, the highly powerful Udichya, Salya, Sālya and other
kings. And renouncing all hopes of life they began to discharge arrows
(103–105). O foremost kings, Avagāha, Prithu, Kanka, Satadyumna and
Viduratha, led by Janārddana, with the other half of the army attached
the detachment protected by the highly powerful Bhishmaka, Rukshmi,
Devaka, the Madra king and the kings of the West and South endued with
energy and prowess. And casting off all hopes of life they began a
dreadful fight discharging, Saktis, Rishthis, Prāsas and arrows
(106–108). On that battle encircled by a huge army Salyaki, Chitraka,
Shyāma, the energetic Yuyudhāna, Rajādhideva, Mridara, the mighty
car-warriors Swaphalka, Prasena, and Satrajit, attacked the left flank
of the enemy’s army. They began to fight there attacking half of the
enemy’s army led by Mridara and assisted by the highly powerful western
kings headed by Venudari and the sons of Dhritarāshtra (109-111).


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon there commenced a great battle between the
Vrishnis and the commanders and vassal kings of the lord of Magadha (1).
O foremost of the descendants of Bharata, Vāsudeva fought with Rukshmi,
Ahuka with Bishmaka, Vasudeva with Kratha, Vabhru with Kaishika, the
king of Chedi with Gava, and Shambhu with Dantavakra. Thus did the great
heroes and soldiers, belonging to the army of Vrishnis, fight for
twenty-seven days with the highly powerful sovereigns and soldiers of
the king of Magadha’s party (3-4). Those who rode elephants fought with
such, the cavalry with the cavalry, the infantry with the infantry and
the car-warriors with the car-warriors (5). A dreadful hair-stirring
encounter took place between Rāma and Jarāsandha like unto that between
Vitra and the king of gods (6). Caring for Rukshmini’s feeling Krishna
did not slay Rukshmi, but by virtue of his own learning he sent back his
shafts burning like the rays of the sun and dreadful like venomous
serpents. A dreadful onslaught of soldiers took place in this battle
(7-8). The battle-field was covered with mud of flesh and blood of both
the armies. In that encounter of both the contending armies an endless
number of headless figures arose from all sides. The car-warrior Rāma
enveloped Jarāsandha with arrows resembling poisonous serpents. The
heroic king of Magadha too covered him with arrows. Thereupon
approaching each other in quick-coursing cars they struck each other
with diverse weapons and sent up leonine shouts. After their horses and
charioteers been slain, their cars had been shattered and their weapons
fallen short they took up their clubs and ran towards each other. The
earth shook under the weight of their feet (9–13). Taking up their clubs
in anger those two highly powerful heroes, expert in fighting with clubs
and having arms as huge as mountain summits, ran towards each other. And
in order to witness their fight other heroes desisted from the encounter
(14). Thereupon those two highly powerful heroes, celebrated in the
worlds as the masters of the art of war, began to fight with each other
like two infuriated elephants (15). O king, thereupon came there from
all quarters thousands and thousands of gods Gandharvas, Siddhas, Saints
and Yakshas. Shining greatly in their effulgence the battle-field looked
like welkin covered with luminous bodies (16–17). Then turning toward
left the highly powerful Jarāsandha ran towards Rāma and Baladava too
turned towards south (18). By resounding ten quarters as an elephant
strikes his antagonist with his tusks so those two heroes, skilled in
club fighting, struck each other (19). In that encounter the sound of
the fall of the Baladeva’s club was heard like that of thunder-bolt, and
that of Magadha king’s club was like the riving of a mountain (20). As
the wind cannot agitate the mount Vindhya so the club, slipped off the
hands of Jarāsandha, could not shake the foremost of the holders of club
(21). By virtue of learning and patience Jarāsandha, the king of
Magadha, bore and withstood the velocity of Rāma’s club (22).

Thus moving about in diverse circles in the battle-field for a long time
both of them grew tired. And then taking rest for some time they began
to strike each other again (23–24). Those two foremost of warriors
fought with each other for some time on equal terms. And none of them
left the battle-field (25). Thereupon witnessing Jarāsandha’s efficiency
in club-fighting the powerful Rama left off his club in anger and took
up his mace (26). When in that great battle Baladeva, in anger, took up
the terrible-looking mace of sure aim there was heard in the sky a sweet
voice of the witness of the world which said to Baladeva the holder of
plough-share (27–28). "O Rāma, O thou the conferrer of honors, this king
of Magadha is not to be slain by thee. Be not sorry therefore and
desist. Jarasandha shall, in no time, meet with his death from the means
that I have laid out for his destruction (29)."

Hearing this voice of Providence Jarāsandha lost heart and Baladeva did
not strike him therefore (30). O Emperor, while they thus desisted from
fighting there took place a highly terrible encounter extending over a
long time between the Yadavas and other kings in which they struck one.
another fiercely. When the Emperor Jarāsandha was thus defeated and took
to his heels and when the sun set the highly powerful Yadavas, protected
by Krishna, who had gained their aim, did not pursue him in night. And
gathering their respective soldiers according to the will of Mādhava
they entered into their own city. And all the weapons that came down
from the welkin also disappeared (31-34). And filled with
absent-mindedness, king Jarāsandha too returned to his own city. And the
kings, who followed him, returned to their respective kingdoms (35). On
the other hand, O foremost of kings, having defeated Jarāsandha the
Yādavas could not consider themselves as completely above defeat, for he
was a highly powerful king (36). The great car warriors Yādavas fought
with him for eighteen times and still they could not slay him in the
battle-field (37). O foremost of Bharatas, king Jarāsandha had twenty
Akshouhinis of soldiers who all came with him (38). The Vrishnis were
very few in number and so they were overpowered by the king Vārhadratha
who was followed by other kings (39). Having thus defeated Jarāsandha
the king of Magadha, the great car-warriors Vrishnis began to live
happily (40).


Vaishampayana said:—With Rohini’s son the powerful Vasudeva began to
live happily in the city of Mathura filled with Yādavas (1). Gradually
his person shone greatly in the beauty of youth and regal prosperity.
And delightedly he began to range in Mathurā adorned with woods (2).
Once again incited by his two daughters and remembering the death of
Kansa, Jarāsandha, the king of Rajagriha, made preparations for a battle
(3). In this wise the mighty car-warriors Yādavas fought seventeen times
with Jarāsandha but could not kill him in battle (4). Thereupon
accompanied by his four-fold forces the prosperous king of Magadha made
preparations for the eighteenth expedition (5). Out of shame for his
previous defeats and with a view to slay Krishna, the highly-powerful
and valiant king of Rajagriha the beautiful Emperor Jarāsandha, like
unto the king of gods in prowess, set out encircled by a huge army. And
despite his many endeavours he again came back unsuccessful (6-7).
Hearing that Jarāsandha had desisted the Yadavas, stricken with his
fear, began to hold counsels (8). There upon the highly effulgent
Vikadru, well-read in moral laws, said to the lotus-eyed Krishna in the
very presence of Ugrasena (9).

"O my child Govinda, listen to the origin of our family. I am relating
it because the proper time has come. Act according to my words, if you
regard them proper, O pious one (10). Listen, I shall describe at length
the origin of this race of Yadavas as related by Vyasa conversant with
the knowledge of spirit (11). In Manu’s race flourished a celebrated and
prosperous king by name Haryashwa born of Ikshwāku, and powerful like
Mahendra himself (12). Like unto Indra’s Sachi he had a beloved spouse
by name Madhumati the daughter of the Daitya Madhu (13). She was
youthful and of matchless beauty and used always to carry out king’s
wishes. And so she grew dearer than his very life (14). Observing the
vow of one wife that daughter of the king of Dānavas, of a beautiful hip
and capable of assuming forms at will, although a woman, used to satisfy
the desire of that foremost of Ikshāwkus like the sky-ranging Rohini
(15). O Mādhava, once on a time banished from the kingdom by his eldest
brother, that lotus-eyed foremost of kings Haryashwa, conversant with
the knowledge of time, left Ayodhya of his own accord. And with very few
members with him he repaired to woods with his dear wife and began to
live there. One day the lotus-eyed Madhumati said to the king who had
been exiled by his brother (16-18). ’O foremost of kings, do thou cast
off all desires for thy kingdom. Let us both go to the house of my
father Madhu (19). There is the charming forest of Madhu like unto the
city of the celestials where the trees pour down flowers and fruits as
desired. We shall enjoy there happily (20). O king, thou art dear unto
both my parents and for my satisfaction thou art dearer unto my brother
Lavana too (21). So united with him we shall be able to enjoy there
happily as if we are in our own kingdom. O foremost of men, repairing
there like unto the immortals in the garden of Nandana we shall enjoy
there as if in the city of gods. May good betide thee (22). O sovereign,
greatly vain is thy brother. He cherishes malice against us and is
always proud of his kingdom. We should therefore renounce him (23). Oh
fie on such a wretched habitation and dependance like a slave.
Therefore, O hero, let us both go to my father’s house’ (24).

"Although he had no desire of bringing about the destruction of his
eldest brother through the help of his father-in-law the lust-stricken
king however liked the words of his wife (25). Thereupon after that
foremost of men the king Haryashwa, stricken with desire, had repaired
with his beautiful wife to the city of Madhu the king of Dānavas said to
him with love:—’Welcome to thee, O my son Haryshwa, I am pleased to see
thee (26-27). O foremost of kings, I confer on thee all this my kingdom
except the Madhu forest; do thou live here (28). In this forest Lavana
will become thy help and guide in destroying thy enemies (29). Do thou
rule over this prosperous kingdom abounding in kine, filled with
cow-herds and adorned with the water of the ocean (30). O my son, if
thou dost live here thou shalt have a huge mountainous fortress and thy
extensive kingdom, consisting of prosperous villages and cities, will be
the abode of kings (31). The country, that is watered by the ocean, is
freed from dangers. There thou shalt have an extensive territory by name
Anarta (32), O king, that will however come to pass in time. Do thou now
engage in performing the duties of a king in this country (33). O my
child, in time thy family will be amalgamated with the Yadu race
originating from Yayati. Although born in the Solar Dynasty thy race
shall constitute a subdivision of the Lunar race (34). My desire is, O
my child, that after conferring upon thee this most excellent territory
I shall repair to the ocean the abode of salt for carrying on ascetic
observances (35). O my son, being united with Lavana, do thou rule over
this prosperous and extensive kingdom for multiplying thy race (36)’.

"Hearing those words of Madhu and exclaiming ’do thou enter into water’
Haryashwa accepted the kingdom and the Daitya too repaired to the abode
of Varuna, the asylum of ascetics (37).

"Thereupon Haryashwa, highly effulgent like unto an immortal, laid out a
city for habitation on that best of mountains (38). That kingdom named
Anarta, consisting of beautiful cities and precious kine, grew
prosperous in no time (39). Inhabited by subjects Anupa country, adorned
with forests, situate on the bank of the ocean and abounding in walls
and villages, was filled with fields and corns (40). The highly powerful
king Haryashwa, enhancing the delight of the subjects and cities, ruled
over the prosperous kingdom with glory and in pursuance of the royal
duties (41). By the perfect administration of the high-souled Haryashwa
that prosperous kingdom became endued with all the characteristics of a
kingdom and gradually increased in dimension (42). Adorned with royal
accomplishments, that king, O lord, stationed in a kingdom, by his
conduct and morality acquired the prosperity of his family (43).
Thereupon gradually desiring for a son the intelligent Haryashwa began
practising holy observances. He begat on Madhumati his highly
illustrious son Yadu (44). Gifted with a voice like the blare of a
bugle, irrepressible unto his enemies and endued with all regal marks
the highly energetic Yadu began to grow up gradually (45–46). He was the
only begotten son of the high-souled Haryashwa who ruled over the
prosperous earth (47). Therefore having ruled piously for ten thousand
years over his kingdom suffering no deterioration the king Haryashwa
disappeared from the earth and repaired to the city of the celestials
(48). Thereupon the subjects installed the valiant Yadu in the kingdom.
After the demise of his sire the beautiful Yadu, like unto Indra
himself, (from whom the Yadavas have sprung) rose like the sun and
governed the earth. (During his regime) the fear of robbers was
dispelled (49–50).

"Once on a time while engaged in sporting in the water along with his
liberal wives like unto the moon (surrounded) by stars the king began to
swim in the water of the ocean he was all on a sudden assailed by the
powerful king of serpents Dhumavarna (51-52). Dragged by the king of
serpents he was taken to his city, which had pillars and doors made of
diamond, was adorned with a heap of pearls, white conch-shells, masses
of various other jewels, corals and trees covered with foliage. It
abounded in leading serpents living in the belly of he ocean and in its
middle were temples of golden or moon-like lustre (53–55). That lord of
kings saw there in the clear water of the ocean the city of the serpent
chief built as if like one on the surface of the earth (56). Ease at
heart the king Yadu entered that structure of fathomless water filled
with serpent females (57). To him was offered a most excellent watery
seat made of jems strewn over with lotus leaves and hung together by a
lotus thread (58). When the king Yadu sat on that superb serpent seat
Dhumavarna, the king of Pannagas, respectfully said (59).

"’O foremost of Yadus, having established this great family on earth and
begotten you, a highly powerful sovereign, your father has gone to
heaven (60). O my child, the family, the very mine of kings, that your
father has established for the behoof (of the world), will be known as
Yādava after your name (61). O lord in this your family, the gods, the
Rishis and the eternal sons of the great Uragas will take birth as men
(62). O foremost of kings, therefore, in pursuance of your own duties
and by virtue of patriarchal deeds, accept these five maiden daughters
of mine begotten on the sister of Yuvanashwa. You are worthy of
obtaining a boon and I shall confer one upon you (63–64). Those, who
will be born in your family, will be celebrated by the names of Bhouma,
Sātwata, Bhoja, Andhaka, Yadava, Dāshārha and Vrishni—these seven
(families) (65).’ Having said this and with water in his hands the
foremost of Pannagas, Dhumavarna, who was observing the vow of a
daughter, gave away to him cheerfully his daughter. And then delightedly
he conferred on Yadu the following boon:—’O giver of honors, these my
five daughters will give birth to five sons endued with the energies of
their parents in equal proportions. By the power of my boon all the
kings, born in your family, will be able to assume forms at will and
range in water" (66-69)’.

"Having thus obtained the boon and the five maidens the king Yadu, like
the moon, rose up soon from the water (70). Adorned with celestial
garlands and unguents the king, in his bridal dress and encircled by the
five ladies like unto moon in the midst of five stars, visited the
entire inner apartment of the serpent (71–72). Then having consoled his
five fire-like wives the king, filled with great delight, returned to
his own city (73)".


Vaishampayana said:—After a long time the king Yadu begat on the five
daughters of the Nāga king five large armed royal sons, the scions of
his family, namely Muchukunda, Padmavarna, Mādhava, Sārasa and Harita
(1-2). Beholding those five sons like unto the five elements the king,
of incomparable prowess, was delighted (3).

Once on a time worked up with pride and strength the five brothers, like
unto five pillars of earth, stood before their sire and said:—"O father,
we have come of age and have been endued with great strength. Command us
soon what we shall do according to your mandate" (4-5)?

Hearing the words of his sons endued with the prowess of a tiger and
marking their earnestness for work Yadu, the foremost of kings, was
highly pleased and said (6):—"Let my son Muchukunda build up two
mountainous cities around the mountains Vindhya and Rikshavan (7). Let
my son Padmavarna build up in no time in the South a city on the
mountain Sahya (8). Let my son Sarasa lay out a charming city in the
province adorned with Champaka trees in the West on the mount Sahya (9).
Let my son, the large-armed Harita protect the island of Dhumavarna, the
king of serpents, situate in the ocean of yellow water (10). And
installed in the office of heir-apparent, let my pious and large-armed
son Mādhava, the eldest and foremost of all my sons, rule over my own
kingdom (11)".

Thereupon according to the mandate of their sire, those foremost of
kings, duly installed with chowries and others, and having attained to
regal prosperity, set out towards their respective provinces in search
of the quarters where they would lay out their cities (12-13). Having
selected the interior of the Vindhyā impassable with hills, situate on
the bank of Nermuda, for laying out his city, the royal saint Muchukunda
cleared that place, constructed a bridge on a level with Nermuda and
laid out ditches full of fathomless water around the city (14–15). In
the various wards of the city were constructed temples, carriage roads,
shops, high ways and gardens (26). Within a very short time that
foremost of kings Muchukunda adorned his city with flag-staffs and
pennons and filled it with wealth, corn and kine. It became prosperous
like (Amarāvati), the capital of Indra (17). That foremost of kings,
powerful like the king of gods, thus named his city built up by his own
power. Since this city is built under the protection of the mountain
Rikshavān and abounds in rocks it will be celebrated by the name of
Mahishmati (18-19). Thereupon between the mountains Vindhyā and
Rikshavān he laid out a highly charming city beautiful like the city of
gods, by name Purika consisting of hundreds of gardens, prosperous shops
and courtyards (20–21). Because that city was laid out around the mount
Rikshavān by the pious-souled king Muchakunda it was named Purika (22).
Thus did the powerful king Muchukanda, the foremost of the pious, build
two spacious cities worthy of being enjoyed by the gods and began to
rule over them (23). The royal saint Padmavarna laid out, on the
mountain Sahya on the bank of the river Venā, the province Padmāvata
abounding in trees and creepers with a skill like that displayed by the
celestial Architect Viswakarma. And his city was known by the name of
Karavira. Knowing the small compass of his territories the king laid out
one complete kingdom (24-26). In the well-known prosperous province of
Vanavāsi abounding in trees of all seasons Sārasa built his highly
charming city Krouncha consisting of many Champoka and Asoka trees and
coppery colored earth (27–28). Harita began to govern the island of the
ocean abounding in many jewels and beautiful women (29). In his kingdom
the fishermen, called Mudgaras, used to range in the bed of the ocean
and collect shells (30). People of other provinces used to gather heaps
of corals and brilliant pearls grown in water. (31). Searching in small
boats and collecting jewels born in water Nishādas used to gather them
in big boats (32). People of that kingdom used to feed upon fish and
meat. Taking all sorts of jewels the inhabitants of the jeweled island
used to go to distant countries in boats and used to encompass the
satisfaction of Harita only like unto the god of riches with articles
acquired by merchandise (33-34). Thus originating from the Ikshwāku race
and being divided into four by the sons of Yadu his family was split up
into four branches (35).

Having conferred in time upon Mādhava the foremost of the Yadu race his
own kingdom, the Emperor Yadu cast off his earthly body and repaired to
the city of the celestials (36). To Mādhava was born a powerful son by
name Satwata endued with the quality of goodness and endowed with every
sort of royal accomplishment (37). Sātwata’s son, the highly powerful
Bhima also became a king. After his name his descendants are called
Bhaima and those of Sātwata are known by the name of Satwatas (38).
While this king was ruling Rāma also flourished in Ayodhyā. Having slain
Lavana Satrughana (at that time) devastated the Madhu forest (39). That
Lord, the enhancer of Sumitrā’s joy, laid out in that forest the city of
Mathurā (40). When in time Rāma, Bharata and the two sons of Sumitrā
(Lakshmana and Satrughna) terminated their career on earth, Bhima, on
account of its contiguity to his own kingdom, brought that territory of
Vishnu under his own control and began to live there (41-42).

Thereupon when in Ayodhyā Kusha became the king and Lava the heir
apparent Andhaka began to govern that kingdom (43). Andhaka’s son was
the king Revata. From him was born the king Riksha on the charming
mountain situated on the bank of the ocean. After his name that mountain
is known as Raivataka in the world (44–45). Raivata’s son was the highly
illustrious king Vishwagarbha. He was greatly powerful and was a
celebrated king in the world (46). O Keshava, he begat on his three
goddess-like wives four auspicious sons like unto patriarchs by name
Vasu, Vabhru, Sushena and Sabhāksha. Each, of those leading descendants
of Yadu, acquired renown like a patriarch (47-48). O Krishna, this
family of Yadus has been spread on earth by those kings having
off-spring who were born in this family (49). Vasu had a powerful son by
name Vasudeva and two beautiful daughters by name Kunti and
Srhutrashravā (54), Kunti, ranging on earth like a goddess, was the
queen of the king Pandu and Shrutashravā was the wife of Damaghosha the
king of Chedi (51). O Krishna, thus I have related to you the origin of
your family as I had heard before from Krishna Dwaipāyana (52). At
present our family is on the verge of extinction, and therefore for
encompassing our well-being and victory, thou, as the self-sprung Deity,
art born as our leader in our family (53). Thou art omniscient and the
upholder of all. And thou art above even the comprehension of gods. We
can hide thee by recognizing thee as one of the citizens (54). O lord,
thou art capable of fighting with king Jarāsandha and we too, determined
upon entering into a fight, are ready to follow thy guidance (55).
Jarāsandha, on the other hand, is of incomparable prowess, the leader of
the entire circle of kings and has innumerable soldiers. But our
resources are limited (56). This city has a limited supply of food and
fuels. It is not protected by a fort. The diches of water are not well
kept and the gateways are not furnished with weapons. It will not
therefore be able to stand attack for even one day. Ramparts and walls,
extending over a long distance, should be constructed around it (57-58).
And the arsenal should be repaired with bricks. Kansa used to protect
his own city by his own strength and so it is not protected by many men
(59). Now when Kansa is dead and our kingdom is newly acquired this city
will not be able to stand a new seige (60). When besieged this city will
be assailed by the enemies and completely ruined forsooth over kingdom,
along with men, will meet with destruction (61). The Yādavas, whom,
taking advantage of their internal dissension and desirous of a kingdom
we have conquered, are showing signs of enmity. Do what conduces to our
well-being (62–63). On account of our king at this time when our kingdom
is in danger we shall be the butt of redicule even unto those kings who
have taken to their heels in fear of Jarāsandha (63). O Keshava, the
people, who will be obstructed in the city, will distressingly say "We
have been ruined by the internal dissensions of the Yādavas (64)." O
Krishna, I do not speak thus with a view to excite in thee thy sense of
duty, but have simply expressed my opinion out of affection (65), O
Krishna, do thou encompass what conduces to our well-being now. Thou art
the commander of this army and we are to follow thy orders. Besides,
thou art the root of their quarrel. Do thou save us as well as thy own
self (66).


Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Vikadru the highly illustrious
Vasudeva, with a delighted mind, said:—"O Krishna, what the intelligent
Vikadru, the foremost of royal speakers, and conversant with the meaning
of royal counsels has said, is true and well meaning. He has related
royal duties and truths conducive to the well-being of the universe. Do
what that foremost of Yadus has said (1-3)".

Hearing the words of his father and of the high-souled Vikadru, Krishna,
the foremost of men, gave vent to the following reasonable words (4). "I
have listened to what you have said, surveying (the course of) the
Providence according to reason, order, logic and scriptures (5). Hear
the reply that I give and accept it after hearing. The king should
behave according to order and moral laws (6). A king daily meditates on
peace, quarrel, conveyance, seats, dissension-making and help (7). A
learned king should not place himself before a powerful enemy, but
rather should fly away. And in proper time and according to his strength
he should engage in fight (8). Therefore although I am capable, I shall,
at this very moment, fly away with the worshipful Baladeva for saving my
life like one incapable (9). Ascending the mount Sahya beautiful like
myself along with my reverend elder brother, I shall enter into Deccan
and we shall behold the charming cities of Karavira and Krounch and the
foremost of mountains Gomanta (10-11). Hearing of this our departure
that Emperor, elated with success, will not enter into this city but
rather will pursue us in pride. And repairing to the forest of Sahya
with his followers he will endeavour to arrest us (12-13). Therefore
this our departure is conducive to the well-being of the race of Yadu.
By this, the Province, the city and the citizens will fare well (14).
When an enemy flies away from his kingdom, the kings, desirous of
achieving victory while in another kingdom, do not desist from fighting
without killing the enemies (15)".

After this conversation, the heroic Krishna and Sangkarshana, although
capable, set out for the south without experiencing the least anxiety in
mind (19). Assuming forms at will they began to travel in hundreds of
southern kingdoms (17). Thereupon getting upon the charming mountain of
Sahya and experiencing joy they reached the road leading to the south
(18). Going by that road they, within a short time, reached the city of
Karavira, presided over by the members of their own family and adorned
with the mount Sahya. They saw there a huge fig tree on the bank of the
river Venā (19–20). They saw there the eternal great ascetic Rāma, the
descendant of Bhrigu who is never exhausted and like the sun on the
mount Mandara milching his sacrificial cow with her calf ever giving
milk whenever desired and white as the milky Arani tree near the mount
Mahendra. He was seated at the foot of that tree, had his axe on his
shoulder, wore bark and matted locks, was white as the flames of fire,
effulgent like the sun, the destroyer of the Kshatriyas, motionless like
the ocean, was preserving the three sacred fires, was emaciated with the
performance of three oblations a day and was like the very preceptor of
gods (21-26).

Thereupon Krishna, the foremost of speakers and conversant with the
history of men, addressed that foremost of Rishis, in sweet words saying
(27):—"O Reverend Sir, I have known thee as the foremost of Rishis,
Rāma, the son of Jamadagni born in the race of Bhrigu, and the destroyer
of the Kshatriyas (28). O descendant of Bhrigu, having agitated the
ocean with the velocity of thy shafts thou hast laid out a city by name
Surpāra, two thousand cubits in breadth and one thousand in length. Thou
hast laid out a great province in the prosperous groves of the Sahya
mountain situated on the bank of the great ocean. Remembering the
destruction of thy sire thou didst, with thy axe, chop off the thousand
arms of Kārtavirya resembling a forest. Even now the Earth has her mud
covered with the cool blood of the Kshatryas who were killed by thy axe
and were shorn of effulgence. O son of Renukā, the axe remains here in
the same way in which thou didst hold it in battle on earth out of anger
against the Kshatryas. O Vipra, we wish to hear from thee some thing. Do
thou reply to it without any hesitation of mind. O foremost of Munis,
perhaps thou mightest have heard of two Yādavas living on the bank of
the Yamunā. We are those two Yadavas living in Mathurā. From the very
commencement of our birth, our father Vasuveda, the foremost of Yadus
and ever observant of vows, afraid of Kansa, placed us in Vraja. There
we grew up without any fear (29–37). As soon as we came of age we
entered into Mathurā and powerfully destroyed the haughty Kansa in the
assembly (38). Thereupon placing his father Ugrasena in his royal office
we again, as before, engaged in the work of cow-herd boys (39). O thou
of firm vows, thereafter when Jarāsandha laid seige to our city for many
times and fought we, although capable, in the interest of our city and
subjects, in fear of his preparations, left our city on foot, for we are
not powerful, have made no preparations and have no soldiers, carts,
coats of mail and weapons (40–42). Thus, O foremost of Munis, we have
come to thee. Do thou welcome us with good counsels (43)."

Hearing those their becoming words Renukā’s son Rāma, born in the race
of Bhrigu, replied in words pregnant with morality (44).

"O lord Krishna, in order to give you counsels I have just alone come to
this place without my disciples (45). O thou having lotus-eyes, I know
thy habitation in Vraja and the destruction of the vicious-souled Kansa
and other Dānavas (46). Coming to know now of thine and Rama’s quarrel
with Jarāsandha I have come here, O thou having a beautiful face, O
foremost of men (47). O Krishna, I know, though not a boy, thou, the
eternal lord of the universe, hast become a boy, for encompassing the
work of the gods (48). Although there is nothing in the three worlds
which thou dost not know still listen to what I say out of devotion
(49). O Govinda, thy predecessors laid out and established this city of
Karavirapura (50). O Krishna, now in this city reigns the highly
wrathful, illustrious and celebrated king Vasudeva Shrigāla (51). Out of
jealousy towards the heroes that king has destroyed all thy kinsmen and
the kings born in thy race (52). O Govinda, the king Shrigāla is greatly
proud, of uncontrolled mind, cannot look at other’s prosperity, is
elated with the pride of his kingdom and riches and is even oppressive
towards his own sons (53). Methinks, O foremost of men, thou shouldst
not live in this dreadful Karavirapura, censured by all the kings (54).
Hear, now, I shall describe the place stationed where thou wouldst be
able to obstruct and fight with thy enemy Jarāsandha puffed up with
power (55). Mayst thou fare well, O Mādhava. Let us this very day cross
the sacred river Venā with our arms and spend the night on the
impassable mountain situated at the boundary of this kingdom (56).
Spending a night on one of the minor ranges of the Sahya mountain named
Yajnagiri the abode of dreadful beasts living upon flesh, abounding in
trees and creepers and adorned with blossoming trees and crossing the
river Khatangi, resembling the water-fall of Gangā issuing out of the
great mountain and adorned with golden lotuses we shall see the
water-falls of the Ganges adorned with various woods of the ascetics.
Repairing to that hill we shall behold there the ascetics who do not
care for honors although worthy of them. Then crossing the river we
shall go to the charming city of Krouncha (57-61). O Krishna, the lord
of that province is the pious king Mahākapi born in thy race (62).
Without paying a visit to that king we shall repair to the eternally
sacred shrine Andhuha for spending the night (63). Issuing therefrom we
shall go to the celebrated hill Gomanta consisting of many summits
situate in the valley of the mount Sahya (64). O Krishna, one of the
summits has risen so high up into the sky that even the birds cannot get
on it. It is the resting place of the gods, enveloped with luminous
bodies, high as an etherial house and like the stare-case of the
celestial region; (what more) that mountain is like the second Sumeru
and the landing stage for all the celestial conveyances (65–66). Getting
upon that high summit ye will range there seeing the sun and the moon,
the effulgent lords of the luminous bodies, at the time of their rising
and setting and the great ocean of heaving waves and adorning the
insular continent of Apara (67–68). Ranging in the forest situate on the
summit of the mount Gomanta if you obstruct Jarāsandha by fighting with
him in the fort you will be able to conquer him (69). Beholding you on
the summit of the mountain Jarāsandha will become incapable of fighting
in the rocks. I see before me the weapons that you will acquire when
that terrible battle will set in (70–71). O Krishna, as ordained by the
gods, such a battle will take place there between other kings and the
Yādavas that the earth will be filled with the mud of flesh and blood
(72). Appearing as if in the very forms of death, the discus,
plough-share, the club Kōumodaki, the mace Saunada and other Vaishana
weapons will, in that battle, drink the blood of the kings urged on by
death (73–74). O Krishna, O thou the stay of the celestials, in that
battle of discus and mace, as ordained by the gods and brought on by
Time, the celestials and thy enemies will behold thine Vishnu form
(75–76). For accomplishing the work of the gods, which has not come
within thy recollection for a long time, do thou, in thy Vishnu form,
take up that discus and club (77). Let Rohini’s son, the stay of the
world, take up, for destroying the enemies of the gods, dreadful mace
and plough-share capable of grinding the enemies (78). As spoken by the
gods at their meeting held for relieving the earth of her burden this
will be thy first battle in the world with the kings (79). In this
battle thou shalt attain to thy Vishnu form, weapons, prosperity and
energy and destroy the army of the enemies (80), O Krishna, this battle
will sow the seeds of the great battle, abounding in weapons, that will
be named Bhārata (81). Do thou therefore go to that best of mountains
Gomanta. From the signs it appears that Jarāsandha is on the verge of
ruin (82). Drinking the ambrosia-like milk of this sacrificial cow do ye
proceed by the way pointed out by me. May good betide ye (83)".


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon drinking the milk of the sacrificial cow
along with Bhrigu’s descendant the two foremost of speakers and Yādavas
Rāma and Keshava, endued with the gait of infuriated elephants proud of
their strength, set out by the path pointed out by Jāmadghni for
beholding the mount Gomanta (1–2). As the gods beautify the celestial
region so those two heroes, with Jāmadagnya as the third, beautified the
road like three fires (3). As the gods come to the mount Mandara, so
they, passing over the road frequented by men, reached the mount Gomanta
in the evening. It was covered with charming creepers, adorned with
various trees, scented with incense, variegated with a row of beautiful
peacocks, entirely filled with bees, and rocks abounding in trees, and
resonant with the notes of peacocks imitating the muttering of clouds
(4–6). The summits of that mountain were attached to the sky, the trees
were covered with clouds, the rocks were scratched with the tusks of the
infuriated elephants, the places around the water-fall were covered with
green grass and creepers and were resonant with the notes of birds
(7–8). With dark-blue rocks that foremost of mountains assumed various
colours like a cloud. Its body was besmeared with metalic discharges. It
was adorned with table-lands and springs, was filled with beautiful
celestials like the mount Maināka coursing at will, was elevated and of
high summits. Its base was filled with water. Its caves were adorned
with forest, and white clouds and covered with, Panasa, mango, Amrataka,
cane, Syandana, sandal, Hintāla, Tamala and Ela woods. It was adorned
with Marichakshupa, Pippali, Inguda, Sāla, Nimva, Arjuna, Pātali and
Ponnaga trees. The water was adorned with water-born lotuses and the
ground with ground-born ones. It was adorned with Drumashanda, Jamva,
and Jamvula trees and completely embellished with Kanda, Kandala,
Champaka, Ashoka, Vilwa, Tinduka, Kutaja and Naga flowers. It was filled
with elephants and deer-herds. The spacious valleys of that foremost of
mountains were resorted to by Siddhas, Chāranas and Rakshasas, the rocks
were continually filled with Vidyadharas, and echoed with the roars of
lions and tigers. It was sprinkled with currents of water and adorned
with moon trees. That mountain was highly spoken of by the gods and
Gandharvas, adorned with Apsaras and covered with flowers of celestial
trees. Its summits had no experience of the strokes of Indra’s thunder,
forest-fire and fear of high winds. The tops of the summits were
beautified with streams of powerful water-falls and shone greatly with
the beauty of water and moss. All the passages were inhabited by deer
and the sides of that best of mountains were adorned with rocks
dark-blue like clouds. As the wives beautify a husband so it was
beautified by forests abounding in gentle trees covered with blossoming
flowers. At some places its summits, beautified with caves and forests
like a man with his wife, burning in effulgence with herbs and inhabited
by ascetics, it appeared as if it was adorned with artificial golden
forests. It appeared as if with its spacious root and rising summit that
mountain was agitating the earth and the sky (9-27).

Having reached the charming mount Gomanta, the three immortal-like
heroes felt a desire for living there (28). Thereupon as the birds rise
high up into the sky so like Vinatā’s son with their course not
obstructed any where they, with great force and power, got upon that
best of mountains (29). Ascending like gods that most excellent summit
of the mountain, they, without any delay, built a habitation there after
their own heart (30).

Seeing the Yadavas stationed on the summit of the mountain the great son
of Jamadagni, Rāma, with a view to express his liberal views said
(31):—"O my child lord Krishna, I shall now repair to the city of
Surpāraka. Even if you enter upon a battle with the gods you will not be
defeated (32). O Mādhava, by the delight that I acquired on the way by
your following me, this my immortal body has been blessed (33). The
battle, in which you will acquire the weapons and which is intended for
the after-life behoof of the kings, as ordained by the gods, shall take
place here (34). O Vishnu, O Krishna, eulogised by the gods and the
foremost of men do thou listen to the moral words of men in general
(35). This present battle with Jarāsandha, as ordained by Time, is the
first instalment of thy human actions which thou hast begun to perform
in the world assuming a human form (36–37). Do thou thyself, O Krishna,
by thy own power, hold thy weapon and assume thy form terrible in battle
(38). When thou shalt, with thy uplifted discus and mace, stand in the
battle-field, beholding thy well-formed eight arms even the king of gods
will be stricken with fear (39). O foremost of the pious, as settled in
the city of the celestials from to-day commences thy march for
establishing thy glory in the world in the interest of the gods (40). O
foremost of speakers, O large-armed Govinda, do thou speedily send for
Vinatās son for waiting on the flag staff of thy car (41). For the
kings, whose object of life is to fight under the subjection of
Dhritarashtra’s sons, are waiting for battle as if with their faces
turned towards the city of the celestials (42). As if beholding the
future destruction of the kings, possessed by widowhood and with one
braid of hairs the Earth is waiting for thee (43). O Krishna, O thou the
slayer of thy enemies, when assuming a human form thou shalt be present
in the battle-field the Kshatryas, possessed by hostile stars, without
shrinking, will assume a joyous attitude (44). Therefore O Mādhava, do
thou soon engage in fight for grinding the host of Dānavas, for the
attainment of the celestial region by the kings and the happiness of the
gods (45). O Krishna, honored by thee who art honored by the universe I
consider myself honored by the entire world, mobile and immobile (46). O
thou of large arms, forsooth thou shalt remember me when thou wilt fight
with the assembled kings. I shall endeavour for the accomplishment of
thy object (47)."

Having said this to Krishna who never experiences weariness in work, and
showered blessings on him Jamadagni’s son Rāma set out for his
wished-for quarter (48).


Vaishampayana  said:—After the departure of Jamadagni’s son Rāma, Rāma
and Krishna, the perpetuators of the Yadu race, assuming forms of their
own accord began to range on the charming summit of Gomanta (1). Wearing
on their breast garlands of wild flowers, clad in dark-blue and yellow
apparels and with their body besmeared with metalic discharges those two
youths, of dark-blue and white persons, began to range, with a view to
sport in the charming forests on the summit and see the sun and moon,
the lords of luminous bodies at the time of the rising and setting of
planets (2-4).

Thereupon once on a time while separated from Krishna the powerful and
beautiful Sangkarshana, ranging on the summit of the mountain, sat under
a charming shade of a blossoming Kadamva tree, sweet-scented wind began
to fan him (5–6). Thus served by the wind and smell of wine touching his
nostril he felt a hankering for wine and his mouth began to dry up like
one who had excessively drunk in the previous day (7-8). Thereupon
recollecting the drinking of ambrosia in the days of yore, he, searching
the wine, saw the Kadamva tree (9). Deposited in its cave, the water,
that the clouds showered on the tree in the rains, had become a
delightful wine (10). The powerful Baladeva was over-powered by thirst,
so drinking that wine again and again, like a sick person drinking water
he grew inebriete and his body began to reel (11). On account of his
being drunk his eyes and face, resembling an autumnal moon, began to
roll (12). The goddess Vāruni, who was the churning rod of ambrosia unto
the gods, was born in that Kadamva cave in the shape of wine. And so she
passed by the name of Kādamvari (13). Inebriete with Kādamvari wine
while Krishna’s elder brother began to speak in indistinct but sweet
words the wine incarnate Kānti, the beloved spouse of the moon, the
goddess Sree the foremost of damsels having the emblem of a cloud on her
flag, these three celestial ladies approached him with sweet words
(14–16). First of all coming before the inebriete son of Rohini the
goddess Vāruni, with folded hands, addressed to him words conducive to
her own well-being (16):—"O Baladeva, O foremost of gods, do thou
consume the host of Daityas. I am here thy beloved lady Vāruni (17). O
thou having a pure countenance, thou used always to reside by the forest
fire, but now thou hast disappeared. Hearing this, I am ranging on the
face of the earth like one whose religious merit has been dissipated
(18). For a long time I lived in the filaments of flowers and spring
flowers whose bunches were never touched. But I am fond of pleasures,
therefore at the advent of the rains, hiding my own true form I was
lying in the Kadamva cave in expectation of thy arrival stricken with
thirst (19–20). O sinless one, as I was despatched with consummate
beauty reigning over all my limbs, by my father Varuna at the time of
the churning for ambrosia, so I have been sent by him now (21). O lord,
thou art my beloved preceptor, so I wish to live by thee as I was
residing by the forest fire in the ocean (22). O god, O sinless Ananta,
save thee I shall not be able to serve any other people. And so I shall
not leave thee even if thou dost remonstrate with me (23)."

With her eyes rolling a little and her hip moving in drunkenness, the
goddess incarnate of beauty, Kānti, exclaiming "May victory crown Rāma",
approached Sangkarsāna, who was seated there and lovingly addressed to
him with folded-hands the following words pregnant with significance
(24–26). "I regard the highly powerful god Ananta of thousand heads more
than the moon. Therefore with all my accomplishments I am following thee
like wine (27)." Thereupon Kamalā, the abode of lotuses who always lives
on Vishnu’s breast, placed herself on the breast of the holder of
plough-share like a garland of pure flowers (28). Taking a garland of
pure flowers, placing herself on the breast of the lotus-faced Baladeva,
the well-adorned Kamalā, with a lotus in her hand, said (29):—"O Rāma, O
beautiful Rāma, united with Vāruni, Kānti and myself thou dost, O king
of gods, appear beautiful like the moon (30). This is thy crown, I have
brought from the abode of Varuna, which used to shine over thy thousand
heads like the sun (31). O thou having lotus eyes, the golden Kundalas
crested with diamonds and the celestial first lotus, which were thy ear
ornaments (have also been brought) (32). The blue silken apparel, worthy
of the ocean, which was in it and the beautiful neck-chain (have also
been brought) (33). O god, O thou having large arms, now thy proper time
has come. Do thou, as before, adorn thyself with these ornaments and do
them honor (34)."

The goddess Sree having said this, Baladeva, accepting those ornaments
and the three celestial damsels, shone like the autumnal moon (35).
Thereupon united with the slayer of Madhu resembling a cloud surcharged
with water he attained to great delight like the moon released from Rāhu
(36). One day while they were conversing as they always do at home
Vinatā’s son, who had just returned from the battle-field, whose body
was wounded with the strokes of weapons, who wore celestial garlands and
unguents and who used to speak highly of the victory of gods, came there
quickly. (37–38). When the Lord Vishnu was asleep in the abode of Varuna
in the ocean of milk, Virochanana’s son pilfered his crown (39). For
that crown of Vishnu, Garuda, the foremost of birds, fought a dreadful
battle with the Daityas in that ocean, and securing it and not seeing
Vishnu there, he was, with great force, passing through the surface of
the earth, on his way to the celestial region (40–41). While proceeding
with that effulgent crown on his lap, Vinatā’s son arrived there and saw
his master Vishnu engaged in another work (42). Beholding Vishnu in a
human form on that best of mountains, without any diadem on his head and
with out any visible dress and apprised of his intention that foremost
of birds threw from the welkin that crown on Vishnu’s head in such a way
as if it had been attached to his head from before. And placed upon
Mādhava’s head that diadem shone there like the mid-day sun on the
summit of the mount Sumeru (43–45).

Beholding his own diadem brought by Vinatā’s son, Krishna, with a
delighted face, said to Rāma:—(46). "While arrangements for a battle
have been completed on this mountain, methinks, the accomplishment of
the work of gods is near at hand (47). When I fell asleep in the ocean,
Virochana’s son, assuming a celestial form like that of the king of
gods, stole away my diadem and took it away like a planet. Garuda has
brought this back (to me) (48–49). I think it for certain that
Jarāsandha is near at hand, for the tops of the cars, fleet as the wind,
are being seen now (50). Behold, O reverend sir, there shine the
moon-like umbrellas and well-arranged armies of the kings desirous of
achieving victory (51). The white, clean and flying umbrellas, on the
cars of the kings, are coming towards us like cranes in the sky (52).
United with the lustre of the sun the effulgence of the weapons shining
like the celestial region, is moving about in ten cardinal points (53).
When in the midst of battle the kings will aim at me and discharge these
weapons, they will forsooth be destroyed (54). In proper time the
Emperor Jarāsandha has come. He is our first guest in battle and is like
a touch-stone for testing our military skill (55). O reverend sir, as
long as Jarāsandha does not come we should not commence the battle. Let
us therefore get ready and search for our soldiers (56)."

Saying this and desirous of entering into a battle and of slaying
Jarāsandha Krishna began quietly to survey his troops (57). Beholding
those kings that eternal Yadu Chief began to recapitulate within himself
the counsels that were held before in the celestial region (58). "All
these kings have arrived, who, observant of their royal duties, will be
slain by actions laid down in Scriptures (59). I consider these leading
kings sprinkled with water by Death himself like sacrificial beasts and
their bodies are turned towards heaven (60). Her surface being thickly
covered with their armies and territories the Earth, worn out with the
weight of these kings and their forces, had repaired to the celestial
region. However in no time the surface of the earth will be divested of
men and the welkin will be filled with kings (62–62)".


Vaishampayana said:—Surrounded by his four-fold forces moving like the
ocean, the highly effulgent and powerful king Jarāsandha, observant of
vows and the leader of kings, arrived there. He had with him
war-chariots drawn by spirited horses, trained by expert warriors whose
course was not impeded any where, cloud-like elephants, adorned with
bells, carrying a golden room with warriors proud of battle and driven
by clever drivers, horses leaping and fleet like the wind governed by
clever drivers and numberless infantry armed with swords, daggers and
leathern fences who could leap even high up into the the sky. A host of
kings also followed him (1-6). All the caves of that best of mountains
and all the quarters echoing with the clatter of car wheels resembling
the muttering of clouds, the noise of the elephants in rut, the
neighings of the horses and the leonine shouts of the infantry, the
emperor Jarāsandha, with his army, was seen there like an ocean (7-8).
Striking this palms against each other and slapping their arms that army
of the kings, abounding in delighted warriors, shone there like an army
of clouds (9). That army, variegated with cars, fleet like the wind,
with elephants resembling the clouds, with horses resembling white
clouds and with well dressed infantry, shone like clouds kissing the
ocean after the termination of the rainy season (10–11). Thereupon those
powerful kings, headed by Jarāsandha, encamped encircling that mountain
(12). At that time the encampment of those kings lying outside shone
like the full ocean during the full moon (13).

After the expiration of the night, the kings, having performed the
auspicious ceremony of Koutuka, rose up for ascending the hill for fight
(14). Having assembled at the valley of the mountain they, out of
curiosity, began to hold counsels befitting the hour of battle (15).
There was heard thus a great tumult like that of the upheaving of the
ocean at the time of the dissolution of the world (16). With Kanchika
turbans on their heads and canes in their hands the warders began to
move about on all sides exclaiming "_Ma_" _i.e._ (do not make noise)
(17). That army, hushed into silence, imitated the form of the ocean
abounding in fishes and huge serpents (18). When informed of the mandate
of the king that ocean-like army stood silent and motionless the king
Jarāshdha, like the preceptor of the gods, addressed them, saying
(19):—"United soon let the armies of the kings completely besiege this
mountain (20). Let rocky weapons and clubs be got ready and prāshas and
Tomaras be placed on high (21). In order to throw up let artizans make
ready means of obstructing the speedy fall of weapons (22). Let what,
the king of Chedi speaks to heroes engaged in fighting with one another,
and inebriete with desire for battle, be carried out (23). Rive this
foremost of mountains with Tankas and Khanitras and let kings, expert in
fighting, be placed at no distance (24). As long as I do not kill the
two sons of Vasudeva let my army remain besieging the mountain (25). You
will so besiege this mountain sprung from rocks and you will so obstruct
the sky with arrows that even the birds may not go out of it (26). Let
the kings, at my command, wait at the base of the mountain and get up on
it as soon as an opportunity presents itself (27). Let Madra, the king
of Kalinga, Chekitān, the king of Valhika, Gonarda the king of Kāshmira,
the king of Karusha, Druma of Kimpurushā, and mountainous tribes ascend
the mountain from the other side (28–29). Let Venudari of the Puru race,
Vidarbha, king Somaka, Bhoja, king Rukshmi, Mālava, Suryaksha, Drupada,
the king of Panchala, Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti province, the
energetic Dantavakra, Chhāgali, Purumitra, the emperor Virat, the king
of Koushāmvi, Mālava, Shrutadhanwā, Veduratha, the king of Trigarta,
Bhurisrava, Vana and Panchnava, let these kings, powerful like
thunderbolt and expert in capturing a fort, get up on this mountain from
the north and assail it (30-33). Let Ansumāna’s heroic son Kaitaveya,
Uluka, Ekalavya, Dridaksha, Jayadratha, ever observant of Kshatriya
duties, Uttamoujā, Shālwa, the king of Kerala, Koushika, Vāmadeva, the
king of Vidishā and powerful Sukeshi get upon the mountain from the east
and rive it as the wind dissipates the clouds (34–36). Myself, Darada
and the powerful king of Chedi, shall rive the western side of the
mountain (37). In this way let the mountain be beseiged completely on
all sides by our men and entertain a terrible fright as from the fall of
a thunder-bolt (38). Let the holders of clubs with clubs,
Parigha-holders with Parighas and other warriors with diverse other
weapons rend this foremost of mountains (39). O ye kings, you shall
have, even to day to level this mountain abounding in high, uneven and
dangerous rocks" (40).

As the oceans lie encircling the earth, so those kings, at the command
of Jarāsandha, stood encircling the mount Gomanta (41). Thereupon the
king of Chedi, like unto Indra the king of gods, said:—"What is the use
of capturing like a fort this foremost of mountains Gomanta impassable
with high trees and abounding in high summits. Covering it on all sides
with twigs and woods we shall burn it even this very day. What is the
use of making any other effort? Besides the Kshatriyas are tender and
they fight with arrows in battle. We should not engage them to fight on
foot in a mountain. By besieging or rising above it even the gods cannot
rend this mountain. O king, to lay a siege is proper when capturing a
fort (42–46). Those, who take shelter on a mountain, yield when they
fall short of food, water and fuels. Although we are many in number we
should not disregard the two Yadavas stationed in fight. This is not a
wise policy. We do not know the strength of those two Yadavas. By their
actions they have acquired celestial reputation. And although they are
boys they accomplish many difficult feats (47–49). Placing all round
this mountain dried grass and woods we shall set fire to them. Consumed
thereby they will give up their life (50). If on being burnt they come
out of the mountain and approach us we shall, all united, kill them and
they too will meet with death" (51).

The kings with all the soldiers liked what the king of Chedi said for
their well-being (52). Thereupon as a cloud is stricken with the rays of
the sun so that mountain was ablaze with with dried woods, grass and
twigs (53). According to the course of the wind and place the
light-handed kings set fire on all sides of that mountain (54). Then the
fire, excited by the wind, conflagrated on all sides, and with the
lustre its flames, accompanied by smokes, beautified the sky (55). Thus
the fire, begotten by the collection of woods, began to burn up the
beautiful mountain Gomanta abounding in beautiful trees (56). And that
burning mountain being rent assunder into a hundred (pieces) huge rocks
began to come out from all sides, looking like huge fire brands (57). As
the sun, with its lustre, lights up the clouds, so the fire lighted up
the mountain with its rising flames (58). It appeared as if pained with
molten metals, burning trees and agitated beasts that mountain was
weeping (59). From that heated mountain which was being consumed by fire
began to come out molten metals of golden, dark-blue and silvery hues
(60). With its half enshrouded with the darkness of smoke, that
mountain, covered with flames of fire, was shorn of beauty like
disappearing clouds (61).

With the detached collection of rocks and the dreadful down-pour of
embers that mountain appeared like a cloud accompanied by a shower of
fire-brands (62). With springs of water rising up and enveloped with
smokes the mount Gomanta appeared to have been consumed by the fire of
dissolution (63). With half of this body burnt, serpents, having huge
hoods, overwhelmed, with anxious eyes and sighing, began again and again
to leap up and fall down with their heads bent downwards (64). Assailed
by fire and excited the lions and tigers began to cry and the trees
began to yeild juice consequent upon burning (65). Rendered coppery with
ashes and embers the wind began to rise and cover the sky, with smokes,
like clouds (67). On account of the spread of fire the birds and beasts
left the table-lands and the mountain became agitated (68). As if rent
by the thunder-bolt of Vāsava that mountain, abounding in shaken and
high rocks, began to throw out rocks (69). Thus setting fire to that
mountain and themselves distressed by it the Kshatriyas retreated to a
distance of a mile (70).

When that foremost of mountains was thus burnt the great trees were so
scorched that none could look at them, and the root (of the mountain)
was slackened, Rāma in anger, said to the lotus-eyed Krishna, the slayer
of Madhu (71–72). "O my brother Krishna, on account of their enmity
towards us the enemies are consuming this mountain along with its
table-lands, summits and trees (73). Behold O Krishna, the leading
twice-born ones, who are living in the forest of the mountain assailed
by fire and covered with smokes, are as if weeping (74), O brother, if
this Gomanta is burnt down on our account we shall acquire great censure
and blame in the world (75). Therefore O foremost of warriors, in order
to satisfy our debt to this mountain whose shelter we have taken we
shall destroy the Kshatriyas with our very arms (76). Setting fire to
this mountain these foremost of car-warriors, the Kshatriays, well
armed, are signifying their desire for battle. (We shall despatch them
to the abode Yama)" (77). Saying this Keshava’s elder brother, bedecked
with a garland of wild flowers, beautiful Kundalas and crown, inebriete
with Kādamvari wine, resembling an autumnal moon, clad in a blue
raiment, of white face, the beautiful Baladeva jumped down in the midst
of kings from the summit of Gomanta like the moon from the summit of
Sumeru (78-80). When Rāma leaped down, the beautiful Krishna, too of
incomparable energy, resembling a dark-blue cloud, jumped down from the
summit of Gomanta (81). Thereat the divine Hari, assailing that foremost
of mountains with his two feet, its four sides were broken down (82).
Thereupon, water, issuing from its rocks, resembling elephants in rut,
immediately extinguished that fire as the sun, at the end of a cycle,
puts down the fire of dissolution with showers. Having thus put down the
fire the powerful lotus-eyed Krishna, of a gentle face and leonine
voice, carrying a beautiful diadem like that of the thousand eyed deity
and bearing the mystic mark of Srivatsa on his breast, followed Rāma by
jumping. When they got down the foremost of mountains, assailed with
their foot-steps, began to yield water for extinguishing the flaming
fire. Beholding that fire extinguished by water the kings too grew
terrified (83–87).


Vaishampayana said:—Beholding the two sons of Vasudeva come down from
the mountain the soldiers of the kings grew terrified and the animals
bewildered (1). Although they had no other weapons but their arms they
began to move about there in anger like two Makaras that agitate the
ocean (2). When they began to range there desirous of fighting there
arose in them their respective ancient intelligence regarding the
handling of weapons (3). The weapons, which they had obtained before in
their encounter at Mathura, came down from the sky like burning flames
before the very eyes of the assembled kings. The huge bodily weapons,
which the two Yādavas obtained, came down from the sky, as if filled
with thirst and the desire of feeding upon human flesh. They, adorned
with celestial garlands, lighted up the ten quarters with their lustre
and terrified the sky-ranging ones. Beasts of prey followed them with a
view to feed upon royal flesh (4–8). When in that great battle came down
for the two Yadavas four powerful Vaishnava weapons namely, the
plough-share Samvartaka, the mace Sounanda, the discus Sudarshana, and
the club Koumodaki the powerful Rāma, the foremost of Sātwatas, first of
all, took up with his left hand the plough-share embellished with
celestial garlands and moving obliquely like a serpent and with his
right hand, the best of maces Saunanda that creates depression in the
enemies (9-12). Keshava, with delight, took up the discus Sudarshana
which is worthy of being looked at by all the worlds and effulgent like
the sun (13). The other hand of Krishna, the necessity of whose
incarnation was known to the gods, was bedecked with the club Koumodaki

Thus armed the heroic Rāma and Govinda, the very incarnations of Vishnu,
began to withstand the enemies in battle (15). Displaying their prowess
like two gods, the two heroic sons of Vasudeva, designated as the
younger and the elder brothers and although one in Vishnu, divided into
two as men under the names of Rāma and Govinda and dependant on each
other, began to range in the battle-field withstanding the enemies
(16-17). Thereupon raising up his plough-share in anger, resembling the
belly of a crow the heroic Rāma began to move about in the battle-field
like the very Death of the enemies. And dragging the cars of the highly
powerful Kshatriyas he began to give effect to his anger on the horses
and the elephants (18–19). Ranging in that battle-field and assailing
with the strokes of his mace mountain-like elephants thrown up with his
plough share he began as if to churn them (20).

Thereupon the leading Kshatriyas, who were on the point of being slain
by Rāma, left their cars in fear, and went to Jarāsandha. Thereat the
king Jarāsandha, ever observant of Kshatriya duties, said to them:—"O
fie on your conduct as Kshatriyas grown tired of battle (21–22). The
sages say that those, who albeit powerful fly away from the battle-field
leaving their cars behind, are visited by the sin of destroying an
embryo. Do you not know this (23)? Fie on your conduct as Kshatriyas.
Why do ye fly away in fear of a milk-herd of limited power who fights on
foot (24)? Do ye return soon according to my order, or you need not
fight, but wait in the battle-field as spectators. I shall myself
despatch those two cow-herd boys to the abode of Yama (25)."

Thus excited by Jarāsandha the Kshatryas delightedly rallied round and
engaged in fight with a downpour of arrows (26). With coats of mail,
Nishtringsas, weapons, quivers, arrows and bows, set with strings,
horses adorned with golden reins, cars of moon-like lustre and
cloud-like elephants driven by Mahāmātras they again set out for the
battle-field (27-28). Covered with rising umbrellas and fanned with
beautiful chowries the kings, stationed on cars, shone greatly in beauty
in the battle-field (29). The foremost of warriors, the two heroic sons
of Vasudeva, Rāma and Keshava were seen ranging about with a desire of
fighting as soon as they got down in the battle-field (30). Thereupon
there took place a terrible encounter between them and the kings,
accompanied with a profuse discharge of shafts and strokes of clubs
(31). Those two heroic descendants of the Yadu race bore thousands of
arrows shot by the kings like two mountains sprinkled with rain.
Although assailed by heavy clubs and maces they did not tremble (32-33).

Thereupon the highly-powerful Krishna, resembling a cloud and holding
conch, discus and club in his hand, increased his body like a cloud
accompanied by wind. And with his discus effulgent like the sun he began
to cut down men, horses, elephants and mighty car-warriors (34–35). On
the other side, Rāma too so dragged the kings with his plough share and
so struck them with his club, that they, deprived of consciousness,
could not stand in the battle-field (36). The car-wheels being
obstructed the variegated chariots of the kings were broken down and
could not go on in the battle-field (37). Having their tusks broken down
with the strokes of maces, _Hastihānaya_²⁶⁹ elephants began to fly away
from the battle-field with a great noise like the autumnal clouds (38).
Assailed by the flames of the fire wrought by the discus, the cavalry
and the infantry began to breathe their last like those struck down by
thunder-bolts (39). Struck and grinded with the plough-share the entire
host of the royal army appeared like creatures at the time of the
universal dissolution (40). What to speak of fighting the kings could
not even look at the battle-field, the sporting ground of the celestial
weapons of Vishnu incarnate (41). Some of the cars were completely
crushed down, of some the kings were killed and some, with one wheel
broken down, lay upset on the surface of the earth (42). In that
dreadful battle of discus and plough-share portendous Rākshasas were
seen (43). So great was the number of upturned cars, elephants, horses,
and men, who, on being assailed, were plaintively bewailing that even
with great care it could not be ascertained (44). Saturated with the
blood of the wounded kings the battle-field appeared like a damsel
besmeared with sandal paste (45). The battle-field was covered with the
hairs, bones, fat, entrails and blood of horses, elephants and men (46).
The battle-field was destructive of the men and animals of the kings,
was filled with inauspicious cries and bewailings of the jackals, was
crested with lakes of blood, was like the sporting-ground of Death, was
covered with the bones of elephants, with warriors having their arms cut
off and wounded horses and was echoing with the cries of vultures and
wolves (47-49). In that battle-field in which the kings were killed and
death was common Krishna, looking like Death himself, moved about for
killing his enemies (50). Thereupon taking up his discus effulgent like
the sun at the time of the universal dissolution and his dark iron club
Keshava stood there in the midst of the army and said (51). "O ye heroes
of firm resolution who are clever hands in the use of weapons, though I,
a foot-soldier, stand before you with my elder brother, why do you fly
away? (62) Why does not that king Jarāsandha, ill-fated as he is, come
before us by whom you are being protected in the battle-field? (53)"

On his saying this the powerful king Darada ran towards Rāma of coppery
eyes with a plough-share in his hand who was in the midst of the army
and addressed him, like a cultivator calling a bull, saying:—"O Rāma, O
slayer of enemies, come and fight with me" (54–55). Thereupon there
began an encounter between Rāma and Darada, the foremost of men, like
unto two powerful elephants (56). Placing his plough-share on Darada’s
shoulder, Baladeva, the foremost of those endued with strength, struck
him with his mace (57). Thereupon grinded by that mace and with his head
cut off the king Darada fell down on earth like a mountain, with its
half rent assunder (58).

When that foremost of kings Darada was slain by Rāma a dreadful,
hair-stirring encounter took place between Rāma and Jarāsandha like that
between Vitra and Mahendra. When those two heroes, taking up huge clubs,
ran towards each other with great vigior shaking the earth they looked
like two mountain summits (59–61). When those two highly powerful
heroes, celebrated in the world as being most proficient in
club-fighting, ran towards each in anger like two infuriated elephants
all came away from the battle-field to them (62–63). Thereupon thousands
of Gandharvas Siddhas, saints, Yakshas, Apsarās and Devas came there
(64). O king, at that time adorned with Gandharvas and great saints the
welkin shone greatly in beauty as if crested with luminous bodies (65).

Thereat as an elephant strikes, with his two tusks, his antagonist so
amongst those two heroes proficient in club fighting the king Jarāsandha
took possession of the eastern side and Baladeva of the southern side;
and filling the ten quarters with their leonine shouts they struck each
other (66–67). In that encounter the sound of Rāinā’s club was heard
like the clapping of a thunder-bolt, and that of Jarāsandha was like
that of the riving of a mountain (68). The club, slipped off
Jarāsandha’s hand, could not agitate Rāma the foremost of the wielders
of club and (firm as) the mount Vindhvā (69). By virtue of his great
endurance and learning Jarāsandha, the king of Magadha, bore the strokes
of Rāma’s club and baffled them (70). Thereupon was heard in the sky a
sweet voice, the witness of the world:—"O Rāma, O conferrer of honors,
there is is no use of toiling any more. The king of Magadha is not to be
slain by thee. As ordained by me the king of Magadha will, in no time,
meet with his death" (71–72).

Hearing this Jarāsandha was possessed by absent-mindedness and Baladeva
too did not strike him. Then the Vrishnis and other kings retired from
the battle-field (73). Thus, O great king, when after slaying one
another for a long time, Jarāsandha was defeated and fled away and when
the other great car-warriors took to their heels, the army was shorn of
soldiers (74). Then with their elephants, horses and cars, all those
kings, like unto herds of deer pursued by a tiger, fled away in fear
(75). That dreadful battle-field, when left off by the royal
car-warriors whose pride was humiliated, was filled with beasts of prey
and grew exceedingly terrible (76). O sinless one, after the mighty
car-warriors had fled away, the highly effulgent king of Chedi,
remembering his relationship with the Yādavas, approached Krishna
encircled by his Kārusha and Chedi detachments. In order to make closer
the tie of relationship he said to Govinda (77-78):—"O lord, O
descendant of Yadu, I am the husband of thy father’s sister. Thou art an
object of affection unto me and therefore I have come to thee with my
army (79). O Krishna, I had told king Jarāsandha of limited
understanding ’O you of vicious intellect, do not quarrel with Krishna
and desist from battle’ (80). Jarāsandha however disregarded my words.
He is therefore flying away unsuccessful from the battle-field with his
followers. I have also left him to-day. That king is not returning to
his city shorn of hostile feelings. He will again disturb thee with his
sinful attack (81–82). Therefore, O Mādhava, do thou speedily leave this
place, strewn over with dead bodies of men, filled with beasts of prey
and resorted to by ghosts and goblins (83). Let us go with our army and
followers to the city of Karavira and visit the king Vāsudeva Shrigāla
(84). I have got these two cars ready for you drawn by fleet horses and
consisting of daggers, discuses, axles and poles (85). May good betide
thee, O Krishna; do ye get on them speedily and let us go to visit the
king of Karavira" (86).

Hearing the words of the king of Chedi, the husband of his father’s
sister Krishna, the preceptor of the world, with a delighted mind, said
(87):—"Alas! we were assailed with the fire of battle. But thou hast
sprinkled us with the water of thy words according to place and time as
befits a friend (88). O foremost of Chedis, rare in the world is a
person who gives vent to well-meaning and sweet words in pursunance of
time and place (89). O king of Chedi, beholding thee now we think that
we have got a master. There will be nothing unattainable by us since a
king, like thyself, is our friend (90). O thou the perpetuater of the
Chedi race, while thou hast become our help we shall be able to slay
Jarāsandha and other kings like him (91). O lord of Chedi, amongst
kings, thou art the first friend of the Yadus and therefore thou
shouldst superintend all other battles which will take place hereafter
(92). Amongs the war-like kings who will survive us those, who will
describe this battle of discus and mace and the defeat of the kings on
the mount Gomanta, will repair to the celestial region. And they too,
who will think of it, will also go (93–94). O king of Chedi, by the way
pointed out by thee, we shall repair to the city of Karavira for our own
well being" (95). Thereupon mounting a car drawn by horses fleet like
the wind they passed over a long distance like three fires incarnate
(96). Spending three nights on the way those three celestial-like heroes
reached the foremost of cities Karavira on the fourth day and entered
the auspicious place for their well-being (97).

  ²⁶⁹ A species of elephants. This is one of the finest breeds,
      invaluable in a battle-field.


Vaishampayana said:—Being informed of their arrival and thinking that
they would attack the city, king Shrigāla, terrible in battle and endued
with the prowess of Indra, issued (out of the city) (1). Mounting a car
filled with weapons, having the clatter of its axles for its smiles,
adorned with variegated ornaments, filled with inexhaustible arrows and
quivers, making a sound like that of the ocean, drawn by quick-coursing
horses, embellished with strong golden axles, coursing like Garuda,
governed by reins resembling the rays of the sun, effulgent like the sun
and resembling the car of Indra he issued out of the city (2-6). In that
foremost of cars capable of striking the chariots of the enemies
Shrigāla approached Krishna like an insect approaching a flame (7).
Bedecked with sharpened arrows, coats of mail, golden garlands, a white
cloth and an Ushnisha (turban) the king Shrigāla, with a bow in his hand
and having fiery eyes, began again and again to whirl his bow endued
with the qualities of a lightning. And vomitting air begotten by anger,
and effulgent like the flames of fire and burning in the lustre of his
ornaments he was seen on the car like Sumeru the foremost of mountains
(8-10). Stricken with fear at his shouts and the clatter of his
car-wheels the Earth sank under his weight (11). Beholding the beautiful
Shrigala approach like unto a patriarch and the incarnation of a
mountain Vāsudeva was not pained (12). Gradually under the influence of
ire Shrigāla, desirous of fighting, approached Vāsudeva by the help of a
quick-coursing car (13). When beholding Vāsudeva seated at ease,
Shrigāla ran towards him like unto clouds ranging towards a mountain.
Vāsudeva, smiling a little, addressed himself too for giving him a
return battle. Thereupon there took place a dreadful encounter between
them like that of two infuriated elephants in a forest (14–15). Out of
ignorance, the energetic Shrigāla, fond of war and proud of his
position, said to Krishna who was present for battle (16).

"O Krishna, I have heard of thy work in the weak army of the stupid
kings on the mount Gomanta who had no leader. I have heard too of the
defeat of the useless Kshatriyas inexperienced in war and worthy of pity
(17–18). However I am now stationed in the dignity of the emperor of the
world, do thou wait before me. Thou art not expert in the art of war.
Surely wilt thou fly away when I will obstruct thee (19). Thou art alone
and I am with my army; so I should not fight with thee in this way.
Come, I shall alone fight with thee; what is the use of other inferior
men? We shall both engage in fight and one of us will meet with his
death in a fair fight (20–21). If thou art slain, O Krishna, I shall be
the only Vāsudeva in the world. And if I am slain thou shalt be the only
one (22)."

Hearing those words of Shrigala and saying "Strike me as you wish" the
forgiving Mādhava held up his discus (23). Thereupon losing his sense in
anger in the battle field Shrigāla, of limited prowess, discharged a net
of arrows at Krishna (24). The powerful Shrigāla showered on Krishna
mace and various other weapons. And albeit ruthlessly assailed with
weapons covered with flames of fire Krishna stood there motionless like
a mountain (25–26). Thus attacked again and again he was filled with
wrath. And holding up his discus he hurled it at Shrigala’s breast (27).
Having slain the highly powerful Shrigāla, fearful in battle, of growing
pride and ever observant of Kshatriya duties, the discus Sudarshana
returned to its preceptor’s hand. Shrigala too, having his heart pierced
by the discus, shorn of life and joy, fell down, bleeding like a cleft
mountain (28-29). Beholding the king fallen like a mountain struck down
by a thunder-bolt his soldiers lost heart and fled away, on the death of
their king (30). Some, assailed by grief consequent upon the death of
their lord and greatly stricken with sorrow, entered into the city and
began to weep there (31). Some, not being able to forsake their fallen
king and performing auspicious rites, began to bewail there with their
hearts laden with grief (32).

Thereupon declaring safety unto the people assembled there with his
fingers adorned with a discus having silvery handles, the lotus-eyed
Krishna, the slayer of his enemies, said with a voice like the rumbling
of clouds. "Do not fear! Do not fear (33–34)." Thus consoled by Krishna,
and beholding their king, with his breast wounded, fallen on earth like
a mountain with its summits struck down Shrigāla’s subjects and
ministers began to shed tears poorly and were filled with sorrow like
his son (35-38). Hearing their cries and the hoarse noise of the
citizens Shrigāla’s queens, with their sons, came out weeping from the
city (39). Arriving at the battle-field and beholding their worthy royal
husband fallen in that plight they, striking their breasts with their
hands, began to weep plaintively (40). Striking their breasts and
tearing ruthlessly their curling hairs those women began to weep in a
hoarse voice. And stricken with terrible grief and with their eyes full
of tears they fell down on their husband’s body like uprooted and
roughly handled creepers (41–42). The eyes of the queens, full of tears,
shone like lotuses divorced from water (43). Beholding their husband
thus fallen, striking their breast and speaking of his actions they
began to bewail plaintively (44).

Thereupon taking their weeping boy by name Shakradeva, to their
husband’s side, the the ladies, crying aloud with doubled force, said
(45):—"O hero, although endued with prowess, this thy boy son has not
been able to acquire mastery over the art of administration. Without
thee how will he be able to attain to the dignity of his father (46)? O
lord, we are not satiated with enjoying in thy company. How dost thou
leave us all behind simultaneously What shall we all do, widows as we
are (47)?"

Thereupon weeping and taking her son with her Shrigāla’s beautiful queen
Padmāvati approached Vāsudeva and said (48):—"This is the son of the
king, whom, O hero, thou hast slain by thy war-like deeds. He seeks thy
shelter (49). If his father had bowed unto thee and carried out thy
mandate he would not have been thus assailed with one single stroke
(50). If this wicked king had contracted friendship with thee, he would
not have, with his life gone, taken shelter on the surface of the earth
(51). O hero, O sinless Krishna, do thou protect, like thy own son, this
son of thy dead friend, the perpetuator of his race (52)."

Hearing the words of Shrigālā’s queen Krishna, of the Yadu race, the
foremost of speakers, said to her mildly (53):—"O queen, our anger is
gone with this vicious-souled one. We have regained our temper and we
are his friends (54). With your gracious words, O chaste lady, my anger
has been appeased; undoubtedly this son of Shrigāla is just like mine
(55). I declare safety unto them and gladly annoint him as the king.
Inviting the priest, the ministers and the subjects do thou place him on
his ancestral throne."

Thereupon in order to perform the ceremony of installation, all the
subjects, priests and ministers appeared before Rāma and Keshava.
Placing the prince on the throne the powerful Janārddana sprinkled him
with celestial water. Having installed Shrigāla’s son in the city of
Karavira Krishana desired to go away on the very day (56-59). Mounting
on a car drawn by horses acquired in battle Krishna went away like
Vāsava entering into the city of the celestials (60). Placing Shrigala,
terrible in battle, on a conveyance, and going to a distance in the
western quarters the pious-souled Sakradeva, the repressor of his
enemies, along with his mother, and subjects, headed by boys, aged
people and youthful damsels, performed the obsequial rites of his father
according to the ordinances (61–63). Thereupon reciting the name of the
deceased king he offered oblation of water in his favour and thousands
of other funeral presents (64). Having his mind thus worked up with
sorrow consequent upon the death of his father and performed his watery
ceremony the king Sakradeva entered into his own city (65).


Vaishampayana said:—The two heroic sons of Vasudeva, united with
Damaghosha, spent five nights with delight like one in the way according
to the rules of a traveller. And when they reached the city of Mathurā
all the Yadavas, headed by Ugrasena, came out to receive them (1–3). All
the traders, subjects, ministers and the boys and old men of Mathurā
came out to recieve them (4). All the crossings of four streets were
decorated with garlands and flags; trumpets were beaten announcing joy
and panegyrists began to sing the glories of those two foremost of men
(5). At the return of those two brothers the entire city of Mathura
appeared delighted, joyous and beautiful as on the occasion of an
Indrayajna (6). The songsters began to sing on highways delightful songs
containing a profuse description of the glories of the Yādavas,
announcing "O ye Yādavas, the two brothers Rāma and Govinda, celebrated
in the world, have arrived at their own city. Do you sport happily

When Rāma and Krishna came there none in the city of Mathurā was poorly,
in dirty clothes and unconscious (9). Cows, horses and elephants grew
delightful and birds began to emit auspicious notes and men and women
attained to mental felicity (10). Auspicious winds, shorn of dust, began
to blow in the ten quarters and all the images of deities in temples
were delighted (11). All the signs of the Krita age appeared there in
Mathurā with their arrival (12).

Thereupon seated on a car drawn by beautiful horses Rāma and Keshava
entered the city of Mathurā in an auspicious moment (13). As the gods
follow Shakra the Yādavas followed Rāma and Govinda to the charming city
(14). As the sun and moon enter into the mountain so those two
descendants of Yadu, with delightful faces, entered into the house of
their sire Vasudeva (15). Keeping their respective weapons there of
their own accord the two sons of Vasudeva attained to consummate delight
(16). Thereupon bowing unto the feet of Vasudeva they showed proper
honor to king Ugrasena and other leading Yadavas who were assembled
there (17). They, too, welcomed by them duly in return, delightedly
entered into their mother’s appartment (18). In this way following
Ugrasena, Rāma and Keshava, of extraordinary deeds and beautiful faces,
spent some days happily in Mathurā (19).


Vaishampayana said:—After some days had thus elapsed, Rāma, recollecting
his friendship with Gopas, alone went to Vraja with Krishna’s consent
(1). Clad in a beautifully wild attire and quickly entering into Vraja
Krishna’s elder brother, the slayer of his enemies, saw first his
charming and extensive forest that had been enjoyed by him before and
the well-scented tanks (2-3). Thereupon delighting the Gopas with his
sweet behaviour according to age and previous conduct he held various
charming conversations with the milk-women (4-5).

Thereupon the elderly milk-men said to Rāma, the foremost of sporters,
who had just returned from a foreign land in sweet words (6). "Welcome
to thee, O thou of large arms, O descendant of Yadu. We have been
pleased with seeing thee to-day (7). O hero, thou art dreadful unto
enemies and celebrated in the three worlds. We have been pleased for thy
return to Vraja (8). O hero, O descendant of Yadu, we deserve protection
from thee or (it may be) that creatures cherish attachment for their
native place (9). O thou of a pure countenance, no sooner we desired for
thy arrival than thou hadst come and seen us. Forsooth we have been
rendered worthy of the honor of gods (10). By thy good luck and by thy
own greatness the wrestlers and Kansa were slain and Ugrasena has been
installed as a king (11). We have heard of thy encounter, in the ocean,
with Timi-like Panchajana, of his destruction and thy battle with
Jarāsandha and other Kshatriyas on Gomanta (12). We have also heard of
Darada’s death, Jarāsandha’s defeat and of the descension of weapons in
that great battle (13). O hero, we have also heard, that slaying the
king Shrigāla in the charming city of Karavira thou didst place his son
on the throne and console the subjects (14). Thy entrance into the city
of Mathura is worthy of being narrated even by the gods. By it the earth
has been established and all the kings have been brought to subjection
(15). With thy arrival here, we have been, along with our friends,
pleased, delighted and favoured as before" (16).

Rāma then replied to all the Gopas stationed around him saying:—"You are
our better friends than even the Yādavas (17). We had been reared by you
and spent our boyhood in sporting here (18). We took our meals in your
houses and tended the kine. You all are our firm friends" (19). When
Halāyudha gave vent to these words in the midst of Gopas, marks of joy
were visible on the faces of their women (20).

Thereupon repairing to the forest, the highly powerful Rāma, conversant
with the knowledge of spirit, began to sport there with Gopa women (21).
Then the milk-men, conversant with the knowledge of time and place,
brought Vāruni wine to him. Rāma, of the hue of a pale cloud, drank that
wine in the forest along with his friends. Thereafter the cow-herds
brought to him diverse beautiful forest fruits, flowers, meat, sweet
juice and full blown lotuses and lilies just collected. As the mount
Mandara is adorned by the Kailāga hill so Rāma shone, with Kundalas
hanging from his cars, with diadem placed a little askance, with locks
and head and breast besmeared with sandal and decked with garlands of
wild flowers. Clad in an apparel dark-blue like a cloud his white person
appeared like the moon enshrouded by darkness. The plough-share,
attached to his hands like the hood of a serpent and the burning mace
fixed to his finger, increased his beauty the more. Thus with his eyes
rolling in intoxication, Rāma, the foremost of the strong, began to
enjoy there like the moon in an autumnal night (22-29).

Thereupon Rāma said to Yamunā:—"O great river, going to the ocean, I
wish to marry you by bathing in your water; come to me therefore in your
bodily form (30)." Out of her womanish habit and ignorance Yamunā
disregarded his words as being the out-come of drunkenness and did not
come to him (31). Thereat filled with anger and maddened with
drunkenness the powerful Rāma took up his plough share and sat with his
head looking down in order to drag her (32). The garland of flowers,
that fell down on earth, began to pour, through the leaves, clear water
(33). There upon bending down the head of his plough-share Rāma began to
drag the bank of the great river like unto a wife following her
inclination (34). At that time the currents of the river were upset and
all the fishes and the acquatic animals grew bewildered. And Yamunā too
followed the course of the plough-share (35). Dragged with force by Rāma
the powerful river Yamunā, going to the ocean, like unto a drunk woman
going astray in a high-road and over whelmed with fear, began to follow
the way pointed out by the plough-share. She had the bank for her hip,
dark-blue lotuses for her lips, the foams driven by the water for her
girdle, the grave currents for her moving limbs, the bewildered fishes
for her ornaments, the white geese for glances, the rising Kāsa flowers
for her silken raiment, the trees grown on her back for the ends of her
hairs, the current for her slippery gait, and the mark of the
plough-share for the outer corner of her eye, and the Chakravakas for
her breast. Although she goes by the lower ground she was made to go up
and brought to the forest of Vrindavana (36-41). When the river Yamunā
was brought to Vrindāvana the water-fowls, as if weeping, followed her
(42). When she crossed the forest of Vrindāvana, Yamunā, assuming the
form of a woman, said to Rāma (43):—"Be propitiated with me, O lord. I
have been terrified at these thy unfavourable actions. Behold, this my
watery form has been changed (44). O thou of large arms, O son of
Rohini, thou hast dragged me away from my own path. Therefore I have
become unchaste amongst the rivers (45). When I shall go to the ocean,
other rivers, co-wives with me, proud of their course, will smile at me,
with their foams and call me an unchaste river (46). Show me the favour,
O hero, I beg thee, O elder brother, of Krishna. Be thou delighted at
heart, O foremost of the celestials (47). I have been dragged here with
thy weapon. Do thou assuage thy ire. O thou of large arms, O thou, the
wielder of plough-share, I fall at thy feet. Do thou command me, by what
path I shall go."

Beholding Yamunā, the wife of the ocean fallen at his feet the holder of
plough-share, inebriate with wine, said (48–49):—"O beautiful Yamunā of
fair eye-brows, O auspicious damsel seeking union with the ocean, I
command thee to follow the way pointed out by my plough-share and water
this province. Be thou at peace, O noble one, and do thou proceed at thy
pleasure (50–51). As long as the world will exist my glory will

Beholding the dragging of the ocean all the inhabitants of Vraja said to
Rāma, exclaiming "Well done! Well done!" and bowed unto him. Leaving
aside the noble Yamunā, thinking for a moment and taking leave of all
the inhabitants of Vraja, Rāma, the foremost of strikers, again repaired
to the auspicious city of Mathurā (52-54). Repairing to Mathurā Rāma saw
the slayer of Madhu, the eternal essence of the universe, stationed in
his own house (55). In his wild attire and with his breast covered with
garlands of fresh wild flowers he embraced him (56). Beholding the
holder of plough-share Rāma arrived there Govinda too rose up soon and
offered him the seat (57). After Rāma had taken his seat, Jarāsandha, in
sweet words, enquired of him about the well-being of his Vraja friends
and cows (58). Rāma then replied to his brother of sweet words,
saying:—"O Krishna, they, of whose well-being you enquire, are all
well?" (59) Thereupon Rāma and Keshava held conversations on various
ancient and profitable subjects in the very presence of Vasudeva (60).


Vaishampayana said:—At this time the spies assembled at the house of
Baladeva resembling that of a patriarch (1). when those spies arrived
there for cropping up the topic of future dissension all the leading
Yādavas were present in the assembly at Krishna’s mandate (2). When all
the leading Yādavas assembled at the meeting, the emissaries announced
the future destruction of the kings, saying (3): "O Janarddana, at the
invitation of Bhoja’s son a great meeting of the kings will take place
at the city of Kundina. There the kings of various provinces are
repairing in haste (4-5). People there, as we have heard, are announcing
that Rukshmini, the first sister of Rukshmi, will hold her Swayamvara
(6). For this, O Janārddana, all the kings, with their army and
followers, are repairing there (7). O Yādava, on the third day hereof,
the Swayamvara, of Rushmini adorned with golden ornaments, the fairest
in the three worlds, will take place (8). Proceeding on elephants,
horses and cars, all the kings, elated with pride like unto lions and
tigers, bent upon injuring one another, gifted with the gait of
infuriated elephants, fond of battle and highly powerful, will assemble
there. We shall behold those hundreds of encampments of the high-souled
ones (9–10). O descendant of Yadu, while all the kings of earth have
assembled why should we remain depressed alone? Let us all, encircled by
our armies, set out for victory (11)."

Hearing those words like unto a dart stuck to the heart, Keshava, the
foremost of Yadus, set out immediately with his army (12), The Yādavas
too, of fierce prowess, got upon their cars, with a view to engage in a
battle and followed him like gods filled with pride (13). With that
powerful army ready for action Krishna, with uplifted discus and mace in
his hand, and liked by Ishāna, shone there (14). The other Yadavas,
following Vasudeva, increased his beauty with the collection of cars
effulgent like the sun and echoing with the tinkling of bells (15).

Govinda, of sure fore-sight, said to Ugrasena, at the time of his
departure, "O sinless one, O foremost of kings, do thou wait here with
my brother (16). For when this city will be empty on our departure,
those Khatriyas, of deceitful conduct and well-versed in laws, who,
although afraid of us, are enjoying in the city of Kundina, like
immortals in the land of celestials, may attack it at Jarāsandha’s
desire (17-18)".

Vaishampayana said:—Hearing the words of Krishna, the highly illustrious
king of Bhoja replied in nectarine words impressed with affection (19.)
"O Krishna, O thou of large arms, O thou the enhancer of the delight of
the Yadus, O slayer of enemies, listen now to what I say (20). If dost
thou go leaving us behind, we shall not be able to live here happily or
elsewhere like a woman without her husband (21). O my child, O conferrer
of honors, on thy being our leader, we do not, under the shelter of thy
arms, fear even Indra and other gods what to speak of kings (22). O
foremost of Yadus, we shall follow thee wherever thou shalt go for
achieving victory (23)."

Hearing the words of the king, Devaki’s son smilingly said:—"I should do
whatever you wish. There is no doubt, about it (24)."


Vaishampayana said:—Having said this, and set out on his car Krishna
arrived at Bhishmaka’s house in the evening²⁷⁰ (1). When he arrived at
that meeting of the kings and saw the spacious arena full of camps he
was possessed by _Rajasika_²⁷¹ inclination (2). Thereupon in order to
terrify the kings and display his own prowess he thought of the highly
powerful son of Vinatā who had attained _Siddhi_ beforehand (3). As soon
as he was thought of Vinatā’s son, assuming a form that could be seen
easily, approached Keshava (4). With the strokes of his wings which
could agitate even the wind, all the men, trembling and being
haunch-backed, fell down on earth. And they began to exert like serpents
deprived of the power of rising up. Beholding them all fallen Krishna,
firm like a mountain, came to know that the king of birds had arrived.
He then saw that Garuda, adorned with celestial garlands and unguents,
was approaching him, shaking the earth with the flapping of his wings.
The weapons, with their faces down wards, were fixed on his back like
licking serpents with a view to be favoured with the touch of Vishnu’s
hand. Adorned with golden feathers like a mountain consisting of
minerals that king of birds was dragging, with his feet, black serpents.
Beholding his own carrier the intelligent Garuda arrived and stationed
before him like a god, who brought ambrosia for him, who was the
destroyer of serpents, the terrifier of the Daityas, whose emblem was on
his flag-staff and who was his councillor Madhusudana was pleased and
gave vent to the following words befitting the occasion. "O foremost of
birds, O grinder of the enemies of the celestial army, O delighter of
Vinatā’s heart, O favourite of Keshava, thou art welcome (5-13). O
foremost of birds, we shall go to the house of Kaishika and behold the
Swayamvara. Do thou also accompany us (14). There hundreds of highly
powerful kings have assembled with their elephants, horses and cars; we
shall behold those high-souled ones (15)."

Saying this to the highly powerful son of of Vinatā, the beautiful
Krishna, of large arms, set out for the city of the high-sould Kaishika
along with the mighty car-warriors the Yādavas (16). When Devaki’s son
the beautiful Krishna, the friend of Vinatā’s son, reached the city of
Vidarbha along with the mighty car-warrior Yādavas, all the powerful
kings, holding all sorts of weapons, were filled with delight and began
to make arrangements for his quarters (17–18).

Vaishampāyana said:—In the meantime the king Kaishika, well read in
moral laws, rose up delightedly from among the kings, welcomed himself
Krishna with water to wash his feet and rinse his mouth and _arghya_ and
placed him in his own city (19-20). Like unto Shankara entering into the
Kailāca hill Krishna, with his army, entered into the house that had
been kept ready for him from before. Adored with various edibles,
drinks, jewels, honors and love Vāsava’s younger brother Krishna lived
happily in king Kaishika’s house (21–22).

  ²⁷⁰ The word in the text is _Lohitayati Bhaskare_, _i.e._, when the
      sun became red like heated iron.

  ²⁷¹ His inclination was possessed by the quality of darkness _i.e._,
      He was actuated by a selfish motive but not for a sinful end.


Vaishampayana said:—Beholding the eternal Krishna arrive there with
Vināta’s son the leading kings were stricken with great anxiety (1). O
king, those kings of dreadful prowess, well-read in the science of
Polity and expert in counsels, assembled at the golden assembly hall of
king Bhismaka for holding consultations. As the gods sit in the
celestial assembly hall so they sat there on seats variegated with
coverings of diverse colors (1-3). As the king of gods addressed the
celestials so the highly powerful Jarāsandha, of large arms and great
energy, addressed them saying (4).

"O ye foremost of kings, the best of speakers, O highly intelligent
Bhishmaka, do you all listen to what I say according to my own
understanding (5). This Krishna, the well known son of Vasudeva, who has
come to the city of Kundina with Garuda and other Yādavas, is endued
with great energy and prowess. He has come here for the maiden and
forsooth he will set forth mighty exertions for acquiring her (6-7). O
foremost of kings, you should behave in this matter according to the
rules of Polity. Do yo all work so considering your own strength and
weakness (8). You know well the highly dreadful work which these two
powerful sons of Vasudeva performed on the mount Gomanta without the
help of Vinatā’s son (9). I cannot say how Krishna will fight united
with the mighty car-warriors of the Yadava, Bhoja and Andhaka races
(10). When seated on Garuda Vishnu will set forth his exertions for
acquiring the maiden, even Sakra, assisted by the celestials, or any
other person, will not be able to stand in the battle-field (11). When
the universe was submerged under one all-spreading ocean, the powerful
Vishnu, the Prime cause of the world, assuming a boar form, released the
earth gone down to the depth of the nether region and in his same
boarish form killed Hiranyaksha the king of Daityas (12–13). The highly
powerful, uuconquerable Daitya-king, Hiranyakashipu, who did not meet
with his death in the three worlds, consisting of immortals, Daityas,
Rishis, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Yakshas Rakshasas and Nāgas, in the sky,
on the earth, and in the nether region, in day or in night, from a dry
or an wet article, was slain in the days of yore by Hari in his man-lion
form (14–16). Binding the powerful Bali, the foremost of Asuras begotten
by Kagyapa on Aditi, with a noose of promise Vishnu, in his form of a
dwarf, sent him down to the nether region. When at the junction of the
Tretā and Dwāpara ages, the king of seven insular continents, the highly
powerful king Kārtavirya, endued with thousand arms, grew elated with
the pride of kingdom by Dattātreya’s favour the highly energetic Vishnu
took his birth in disguise, from Jamadagni and Renukā, as Rāma, the
foremost of warriors and killed him with his axe, hard as the
thunder-bolt (17–20). Dasharatha’s son Rāma, born in the race of Ikshāku
in the days of yore, killed the heroic Rāvana, the conqueror of the
three worlds (21). In the Tretā age in the war of which Tāraka was the
root, the powerful Vishnu, seated on Garuda, assuming a form of eight
arms, killed in the battle-field the Asuras, who were elated with the
boons conferred on them. By his great Yoga power, Vishnu, having an
universal form, killed, with his discus, effulgent like the sun, the
demon Kālanemi who terrorized the gods (22–24). What more, innumerable
Daityas have been despatched by him in time to the abode of Yama. By him
as a boy in the forest, many highly powerful and forest-ranging demons,
Dhenuka, Arishtha and Pralamva have been slain. Slaying in his cow-herd
form Shakuni, Putanā, Keshi, Jamala, Arjuna, the elephant Kuvalayapida,
Chānura, Mushitika and Kansa with his followers Devaki’s son sported
there. In disguise thus he performed many superhuman feats (25–28). I
consider Devaki’s son Keshava as the first cause of the celestials, the
destroyer of the Asuras, as Nārāyana, the ancient Purusha, the Prime
cause of the universe, as Truth, the creator of all creatures manifest
and unmanifest, irrepressible unto all, the adored of all, the first,
the middle, as devoid of destruction, eternal, self-born, unborn,
stable, mobile and immobile, unconquerable, of three foot-steps, the
lord of the three worlds, the destroyer of the enemies of the king of
gods, and the eternal Vishnu. This my sure under standing, I have
acquired from Mathurā (29–33). Can Garuda be the carrier of a man even
if he be born in the high family of a mortal Lord Paramount (34)?
Besides when Janarddana will display his prowess for the maiden what
powerful man will be able to stand before Garuda (35)? Forsooth I tell
you that Vishnu himself has come for this Swayamvara. Mighty is the
calamity that will befall you on his arrival here (36). You should do
whatever you think proper after this."

Vaishampāyana said:—After Jarāshandha, the king of Magadha, had said
this, the greatly wise Sunitha replied saying:

"What the mighty-armed king of Magadha has said, is true. In that great
battle on the mount Gomanta Krishna performed many feats, difficult of
accomplishment, before the kings (37–39). With the fire of their discus
and ploughshare the huge army, of the kings, consisting of elephants,
horses, cars, infantry and flags, was consumed (40). Remembering the
dreadful plight of the soldiers of the king and fearing their future
calamity the king of Magadha is saying this (41). Though Rāma and
Keshava fought on foot in battle still the soldiers of the kings were
terribly slaughtered and no body could prevent it (42). O foremost of
kings, you all remember that the sky-rangers were overwhelmed by the
wind raised by the flapping of the wings of Suparna when he came there
(43). The oceans were agitated and the earth and the mountains were
repeatedly shaken. We also were terrified thinking ’what is this
calamity (44)?’ When armed with his coat of mail, Keshava, seated on
Garuda, will engage in fight what man, like ourselves, will be able to
stand in the battle-field (45)? The prime kings laid down the practice
of holding Swayamvara ever increasing delight, the mine of piety and
fame unto the kings (46). Coming to this city of Kundina the kings will
no time combat with that great hero (47). If this princess selects any
one from amongst other kings what person will be able to stand the
strength of Krishna’s arms (48)? O kings, although a Swayamvara is a
matter of festivity, still it will give birth to a calamity and for this
Krishna and ourselves have met here (49). Therefore as the king of
Magadha has said, the arrival of Krishna here, for the maiden, bespeaks
of a calamity that is to befall the kings (50)".


Vaishampayana said:—After the highly powerful Sunitha had thus expressed
himself, the heroic Dantavakra, the king of Karusha said (1).

Dantavakra said:—"O ye kings, what the king of Magadha and Sunitha have
said for our well-being appears to me as proper (2). I cannot blame
these nectarine words out of malice, pride or of my own desire for
victory (3). Who, else save them, can give vent, in the midst of kings,
to such words grave like an ocean and sanctioned by the science of
Polity? (4). Listen to what I say which you should keep in memory. O
kings, what wonder is there that Vāsudeva has come here? (5). He has
come here for this maiden as we have all done. What virtue or blemish
lies there? (6). We all unitedly laid siege to Gomanta. Why do you then
find fault with the battle? (7). O kings, on account of Kansa’s
foolishness those two heroes first lived in Vrindāvana (8). Thereupon in
order to slay them both Kansa invited Rāma and Keshava and set an
infuriated elephant against them. Slaying that elephant those two heroes
entered the arena (9). Thereafter by virtue of their own prowess, they
slew Kansa, the king of Mathurā, seated in the sporting arena, like one
dead, with his followers (10). What offence did they commit thereby,
that we all, elderly in age, came to Mathura at (another’s) instigation
(11). O kings, terrified at our huge and overwhelming army, Rāma and
Keshava, leaving their own city and soldiers, fled away to Gomanta (12).
We still pursued them there; and though expert in the art of fighting we
were defeated in the battle-field by those two boys (13). Though they
did not fight with us, with cars, elephants, horses and infantry, still,
as the Kshatriyas should do, we laid seige to the hill and set fire to
it (14). O ye leading Kshatryas, if they had given up their life quietly
in that conflagration considering it a forest fire we would have
considered them humbled. We blame Janārddana because he fought against
us (15). As the matters have now stood it appears that wherever we shall
go we will pick up a quarrel. Let us, therefore, O king, contract
friendship with Krishna (16). Besides, Krishna has not come to this city
of Kundina for picking up a quarrel. He has come for the maiden. Why
should he fight with another (17)? Krishna is not an ordinary human
being. He is the foremost of men in this land of mortals, the foremost
of gods in the land of celestials. He is the Deity and the Creator of
the worlds. In God there is no malice, pride or crookedness (18–19).
They are not stupified, they do not grow lean and are not visited by any
calamity. They always remove the calamities of those who bow unto them.
In order to show his true form, Vishnu, the king of gods has come here
with Garuda. You should also know that Krishna never goes with his army
to slay his enemies. That he has come here accompanied by the leading
Bhojas, Vrishnis, Andhakas and Yadavas indicates his desire of
contracting friendship with you (20–22). Therefore, O kings, let us go
and offer the high-souled Keshava hospitality with _arghya_ and water to
rinse his mouth (23). What more, if we make peace with Keshava we shall
be able to live freed from anxiety and fear" (24).

Hearing the words of the intelligent Dantavakra, Sālwa, the foremost of
speakers, said to the kings (25).

Salwa said:—"What is the use of this fear? Had we trembled in Krishna’s
fear and thought it proper to make peace with him, we would have left
our weapons at that time (26). Besides what is the necessity of speaking
ill of our own army and extolling another? Such is not the duty of the
Kshatriya kings (27). We are all born in great royal families and have
glorified our respective races. Why should then our sense be poorly like
that of a coward (28)? I know Devaki’s son Krishna as the immortal,
eternal, Prime Deity Vishnu, invincible unto the kings, powerful, adored
of all the worlds, Vaikuntha and the preceptor of the entire world,
mobile and immobile (29-30). I know full well all the objects of Vishnu.
He has in view, for incarnating a portion of His Self, the destruction
of king Kansa, the relieving of the earth of her burden, our destruction
and the protection of the worlds. (I know also) that a great battle will
take place between Vishnu and all the kings (31–32). O kings, I know
truly that consumed by the fire of his discus we will go to the abode of
Yama. Still considering that no one meets with untimely death, no one
survives when the proper time comes and the lease of his life runs out
in due time; therefore a man should not entertain fear (33–34). When the
ascetic virtue of the Daityas is annihilated the Divine Vishnu,
conversant with Yoga, brings about their destruction in proper time
(35). This Lord of gods sent down Virochona’s son, the highly powerful
Bali, to the nether region (36). O kings, Vishnu has performed many
other feats like this; you should not therefore question the subject of
fighting—for Vishnu has not come here to fight. Besides he, whom the
maiden will choose, will get her. What chance is there of a quarrel
amongst the kings? Let us all be reconciled now (37-38)".

Vaishampāyana said:—The intelligent kings thus spoke amongst themselves.
But king Bhishmaka did not say any thing out of regard for his son (39).

He knew his own son to be highly-powerful, elated with pride, fearful in
battle, a mighty car-warrior and well protected by Bhārgava weapons

Bhishmaka said:—"My son is highly powerful and is ever arrogant. He does
not fear any one in battle and he won’t stoop before Krishna (41). If
Krishna carries away the maiden by the strength of his arms forsooth a
great dissension will take place amongst the powerful warriors (42).
Alas, how will this my son, evil disposed towards Krishna, survive? I do
not see any means of his escaping with his life, from Keshava (43).
Alas, how shall I, for my daughter, set my eldest son, the enhancer of
the joy of the departed manes, in fight against Keshava and his son
(44). My son Rukshavan, elated with pride and possessed by ignorance,
who does not return from the battle-field, does not pray for boons from
Nārāyana (45). Forsooth he will be consumed like cotton thrown into
fire. The heroic king of Karavira Shrigāla was in no time consumed by
the powerful Keshava, fighting in various ways. While living in
Vrindavana, the powerful Keshava held up the mount Govardhana with one
finger for seven days. Remembering his superhuman feat my mind is
drooping (46-48). Coming on the mount (Govardhana) along with all the
gods, Sachi’s lord (Indra), the slayer of Vitra, sprinkled Krishna and
recognised him as Upendra (his younger brother) (49). The dreadful Nāga
Kālya, burning in the fire of his poison and effulgent like Death, was
subdued by Vasudeva in the lake of Yamunā, The highly powerful
horse-shaped Dānava Keshi, irrepressible even unto the gods, was slain
by him. Killing the demon of Panchajana he brought back from the abode
of Yama Sāndipani’s son who was lost in water for ever (50–52). Fighting
with many on the mount Gomanta both Rāma and Keshava destroyed many
horses and cars and struck terror into their enemies (53). There those
two highly powerful sons of Vasudeva brought about the destruction of
the elephants through elephants, that of the car-warriors through
car-warriors, that of the cavalry through cavalry and that of the
infantry through infantry (54). The way in which they destroyed the
elephants, horses and cars in that battle, none amongst the gods,
Asuras, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas, Rākshasas, Nāgas, Daityas,
Pichāsas, Guhyakas has been able to imitate. Thinking of that battle my
mind is greatly drooping (55–56). I had never seen before on earth a man
more powerful than Vāsudeva the foremost of the celestials nor have I
heard that such a man was ever born in the land of immortals (57). Truly
has the mighty-armed king Dantavakra said that we should reconciliate
the highly powerful Vāsudeva for our well-being" (58).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus thought, in his mind, over the weakness
and strength of the respective armies Bhismaka felt a desire to go to
eternal Krishna for propitiating him (59). Many a king, proficient in
the Science of Polity, approved of his going, and he too, having
benedictory songs sung by panegyrists and bards, set out (69). After the
expiration of the night all the kings, performing their morning rites,
sat in their respective quarters (61). The spies, who were sent to the
city of Vidarbha, returned and communicated every thing secretly to
their master (62). Hearing of Krishna’s _Abhisekha_²⁷² from their
emissaries, some amongst those kings attained to delight and others were
stricken with fear and sorrow. And many paid no attention to it. Thus
moved by the (news of) Krishna’s _Abhisheka_ the army of the kings,
abounding in men, horses and elephants, was agitated like a huge ocean
and divided into three divisions (64). Marking the division of the
kings, the foremost of kings Bhismaka began to think within himself
about the unthought-of insult offered to them by him. And in order to be
informed of their object he, with a burning heart, went to their
assembly. In the meantime carrying on their heads the letter announcing
Krishna _Abhisheka_, the emissaries, despatched by Kaishika, entered
into that ocean-like assembly of the kings (64–67).

  ²⁷² The literal meaning of the word is bathing or sprinkling. It is
      often used for initiation, royal unction &c. sprinkling with the
      water of the Ganges, or water in which various articles have been
      immersed being an essential part of the rite. Here it means a
      religious ceremony which includes the presentation of a variety of
      articles, fruits, jems &c. along with water or fluid substance for
      the bathing of the deities to whom worship is offered.


Janamejaya said:—O lord, having slain the highly powerful Kansa
irrepressible unto the gods Krishna did not sit on the throne. Then he
waited for the maiden and was not welcomed there. Why did he show
forgiveness although thus insulted (1-2). Vinatā’s son was highly
powerful. Why did he too show forgiveness? O Brahman, I am greatly
stricken with curiosity to listen to all this. Do thou describe it at
length (3).

Vaishampāyana said:—When with Vinatā’s son the eternal Vāsudeva arrived
at the city of Vidarbha Kaishika thought thus about him in his
mind:—(4). "Forsooth shall our sins be destroyed if we behold the
wonderful Abhisheka of Krishna (5). And from Krishna who has seen the
true essence of things our mind will also be purified. Besides there is
no other worthier person in the three worlds than the lotus-eyed
Janārddana, Krishna, the king of gods. O kings, what hospitality can we
offer to him obtaining such a person? However virtue will not be
spoiled?" Thus thinking the two brothers Kratha and Kaishika desired to
go to Keshava in order to confer upon him their kingdom. Approaching
that god and bending low their heads unto him, the two heroic and noble
kings of Vidarbha, said: "Blessed is our birth and fame to-day; blessed
are our ancestral manes since thou hast come to our house. (6-10). We
ourselves, our umbrellas, flag-staffs, throne, army and our flourishing
city belong to thee (11). O thou of large arms, formerly thou wert
annointed by Indra as Upendra. We now install thee in in our kingdom
(12). The innumerable kings and even the Emperor Jarāsandha will not be
able to undo what both of us will do (13). The highly effulgent king
Jarāsandha, who offers shelter to other kings, is thy enemy. And he
always mentions in a conversation ’Devaki’s son has not been installed
on a throne and he has no city. How will he sit in the same assembly
with the kings (14–15)? The highly effulgent and powerful Krishna too is
very proud. He will therefore never come to this Swayamvara for the
maiden (16). When all the kings will sit on their respective seats, how
will that highly effulgent one sit on a lower seat (17)?’ Hearing this
discussion amongst the kings and in order to put a stop to the
dissension the king Bhishmaka, after consulting with us, has got ready
this most excellent resting house for the thee. O thou of great
effulgence, thou art the prime deity amongst the gods and art the lord
of all the worlds. Do thou behave now as the Emperor in this land of
mortals. O lord, may not difficulties about seats arise in the assembly
of kings (18–20). Having performed today the ceremony of royal unction
according to rites laid down in scriptures, do thou, next morning,
seated at ease on an auspicious throne, in the city of Vidarbha, be
installed as the Emperor of the kings assembled at the behest of Indra

Having said this to that foremost of celestials and bowing unto him with
folded-hands those two heroes sent an emissary to the kings (23). As
Vāsava, the holder of thunderbolt, announced through the celestial
emissary so Kaishika announced this intelligence to the assembled kings

Kaishika said:—O ye kings, you all know that the eternal Hari has
arrived at the city of Vidarbha, along with Vinata’s son, as our guest
(25). Beholding the worthiest person, to whom a gift could be made,
present my eldest brother Kratha, with a view to acquire piety, has
conferred upon Vasudeva his kingdom (26). When my brother said "Sit on
this seat" an invisible speech was uttered by a sky-ranger (27).

The celestial emissary said:—"O king, thou shouldst not offer to
Vāsudeva the seat on which thou didst sit. For him the king of gods has
sent this white seat of gold, constructed by the celestial Architect,
crested with all sorts of jems and marked with an emblem of a lion
(28–29). Do thou along with other kings place him on this seat and
sprinkle him (30). He, who amongst the kings assembled in this city of
Kundina for the maiden will not come, will be slain by the king of gods
(31). The eight jars, born of the portions of Nidhis made of celestial
gold and jewels and containing celestial ornaments belonging to the
high-souled lord of riches, will come amongst those kings for installing
this Emperor (32–33). O king, this order of the lord of gods is
communicated to thee. Do thou invite all the kings with a letter and
perform the royal unction of Keshava (34)."

Kaishika continued:—"O kings, saying this from the welkin and giving to
Krishna, the seat, effulgent like the rising sun the celestial emissary
returns to the city of gods (35). I therefore speak to the assembled
kings, that they should all behold Janārddana of a wonderful form rare
in the land of mortals whom the king of gods has recognised as dreadful
and greatly irrepressible and whom he will sprinkle from the welkin with
jars (36–37). If we behold the wonderful ceremony, the bathing of
Vishnu, the God of gods, surely our sins will be dissipated (38). Come,
O ye leading kings, you need not fear, for you I have made peace with
Janārddana (39). I have known truly that Krishna’s mind is pure. He will
never make enmity with lords of men (40). Besides he cherishes no enmity
towards the king of Magadha at heart. You should therefore consult and
do whatever is proper in this matter (41)".

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, hearing the words of Kaishika, while the
kings were thinking in fear of a curse, they heard again that an
invisible voice, grave like the muttering of a cloud, filling up the sky
with its sound, said at the mandate of the king of gods (42-43).

Chitrangada said:—"O ye kings, Sakra, the king of the three worlds, for
your well-being and for governing the subjects has issued this mandate
(44). O kings, you should not live creating enmity with Krishna.
Pleasing him do you all live in your respective kingdoms (45). Krishna
removes the calamity of his votaries, and is like the fire of
dissolution unto his enemies. Therefore creating friendship with him be
you all happy and freed of anxiety (46). A king is the lord of men; the
celestials are the lords of kings; Indra is the lord of celestials and
Janārddana is the lord of Indra (47). The powerful Lord Vishnu, the God
of gods, is born as a man in the land of men under the name of Krishna
(48). He alone, in the worlds, is not to be slain by the gods, Dānavas,
men and even by Mahadeva, the holder of trident along with Kumāra²⁷³
(49). What to speak of others, I myself along with the celestials wish
to perform the _Abhisheka_ ceremony of the high-souled Keshava, the king
of gods (50). Besides, the gods have no hand in the _Abhisheka_ ceremony
of an Emperor; the kings are entitled to it. I cannot perform the royal
unction of Keshava, adored of all the worlds (51): O ye kings, do you
repair to the city of Vidarbha, and holding a consultation with Kratha
and Kaishika perform the ceremony as laid down in Scriptures (52). O
kings, thinking that the time for making peace and friendship has
arrived, Vāsava has sent me to you. I am the celestial emissary (53).
To-day the kings Kratha and Kaishika have invited Krishna to the city of
Vidarbha for performing the ceremony of his royal unction. United with
them, do ye, O kings, perform the _Abhisheka_ ceremony of Krishna. And
then taking gifts do you, with delighted hearts, return to the
Swayamvara (54–55). Let the four leading kings Jarāsandha, Sunitha, the
mighty car-warrior, Rukshivān and Shālwa, the king of Soubha, wait here
so that the sporting-ground may not remain vacant (56)".

Vaishampayana said:—Listening to the command of the king of gods
announced by Chitrāngada all the kings desired to go there. And the
intelligent king Jarasandha too accorded his permission. And they set
out encircled by their own armies and headed by Bhishmaka (57–58).
Surrounded by his own followers, and with his heart burning in anxiety,
the mighty-armed king Bhishmaka, along with other kings, went to where
the large-armed Krishna was living in the house of Kaishika. They saw
from distance the brilliance of the picturesque assembly-hall of the
celestials that had been brought there for Krishna’s Abhisheka, and
which was decorated with flags, pennons and garlands, set with celestial
gems; adorned with celestial garlands, streamers and ornaments, perfumed
with celestial fragrance and encircled by celestial conveyances. There,
the Apsarās, Vidyādharas, Gandharvas, Munis and Kinnaras, stationed in
the welkin, were singing the accomplishments of Krishna, the lord of
celestials. And the great saints and Siddhas were eulogising him. And
celestial trumpets were beaten of themselves in the sky (59–65). And the
immortals, stationed in the sky, showered profusely scented powders made
of roots, barks, flowers and fruits of Mandāra, Pārijāta, Santānaka,
Kalpa and Harichandana trees (66). Seated on his own vehicle, the Lord
of Sachi himself came there with the gods and showed himself in the sky
(67). Stationed in their respective quarters, the Eight Regents began to
sing, dance and eulogise (Krishna’s) glories on all sides (68). Hearing
that tumultuous sound and having their eyes expanded in surprise, the
kings entered into the assembly-hall (69). The large-armed and powerful
king Kaishika came out and received them duly (70). When the arrival of
the kings was announced to the beautiful Hari, the foremost of the
celestials, he issued out with the performance of all benedictory rites
(71). Thereupon from the sky, celestial jars, with pieces of cloth tied
round their necks and covered with mango leaves, began to pour down,
like clouds, water mixed with gold, gems, flowers and scented powders on
the occasion of the ceremony of his royal unction (72–73). Having
performed duly according to rites, the Abhisheka ceremony of Janārddana,
before the very presence of the kings, the king of gods adorned him with
celestial ornaments (74). Having welcomed duly all the kings with
celestial garments of various colors, garlands and unguents, Mādhava too
sat in the auspicious assembly-hall of the celestials for the purpose of
bathing. The kings of the Yadu and Vidarbha races began to adore him
(75-76). The powerful son of Vinatā, capable of assuming forms at will,
sat on a seat on the right hand side of Keshava (77). As desired by
Vasudeva himself the high-souled and heroic kings, Kratha and Kaishika,
sat on their respective seats on his left hand side (78). The highly
powerful and heroic car-warriors headed by Sātyaki of the Vrishni and
Andhaka races sat on his left hand side (79). As the gods beautify the
Lord of Sachi-so those leading kings beautified the beautiful Krishna
seated at ease on a celestial seat covered with a celestial coverlet and
effulgent like the sun (80). Afterwards having been introduced to him by
the ministers, various other kings were duly received by Keshava and
they too sat at ease on their respective thrones. Thereupon having shown
him proper respect, the highly wise king Kaishika, the foremost of
speakers and well-read in all Shāstras, said:—

"O lord, considering thee a human being, these ignorant kings have
committed offence by thee. Do thou therefore forgive them, O God."

Krishna said:—"O Kaishika, what of kings observant of Kshatriyas’
duties, even if any one else proves inimical to me it does not find room
in my heart even for a single day. O kings, how can I be offended with
them who have to turn their faces against impiety and to fight
virtuously? What is past is gone. Those who are dead have gone to the
celestial region. Birth and death are natural with men. Do not grieve, O
kings, for them who are dead. I wish that you may all forgive me and
cast off your enmity (81-87)".

Vaishampāyana said:—Having consoled the kings with these words, the
highly effulgent Madhusudana looked at Kaishika and desisted (88). In
the meantime, showing proper respect to all, Bhishmaka, the foremost of
speakers, and of those well read in Polity, said (89).

  ²⁷³ The son of Mahādeva, Kārtikeya, the commander-in-chief of the
      gods, who led the life of a bachelor.


Bhishmaka said:—"O Lord of gods, out of his childish nature, my son
wishes to give away his sister in a Swayamvara, but I do not like it
(1). He is entirely childish; I do not like to give away (my daughter in
this way). I wish that my daughter may select the only person whom she
sees (2). O Lord, I propitiate thee, for this my son’s bad conduct. Be
thou propitiated and forgive (him)" (3).

Krishna said:—"While your son, as a boy, has worked up all these kings,
I do not know how arrogant he will be when he will be advanced in years
(4). He who, born in a great royal family in this earth, speaks a
falsehood, even before one king, consumes with the fire of Yama’s
tortures: his own-self and all the regions effulgent like the rays of
the sun acquired by his asceticism (5–6). O Lord, I know this to be the
religious duty of the kings, and even Brahmā, in the days of yore,
pointed it out as the foremost duty of men (7). Under these
circumstances, O king, how can your son give utterance to a lie before
the kings in this assembly (8). Let it go, I doubt also very much your
statement that you do not know anything of the great assemblage of the
kings invited by your son (9). O king, you have offered hospitality and
welcome duly to the kings, assembled like the sun and moon; cars,
elephants, horses and the infantry have made a wild dance in your city,
and still you do not know anything of your son’s work. How may this be
(10-11)? I doubt very much, O king, how you were not able to know of the
arrival of four-fold forces though it might not have been a source of
anxiety (12). O king, perhaps thinking that my arrival was not conducive
to your well-being, you did not offer hospitality to such an unworthy
person (13). O you of large arms, why should you not give away your
daughter (in Swayamvara) for the very sin of my arrival here. Leaving me
aside, do you confer your daughter on a good husband (14). Manu and
other leading Law-givers have ordained that he who puts obstacles in the
way of a maiden, wastes himself in hell (15). O king, for this, I did
not enter into the assembly-hall and accept hospitality (16). O king,
when possessed greatly by bashfulness, I prayed for giving rest to my
followers in the city of Vidarbha, Kaishika, ever fond of guests,
offered us proper hospitality. I too, in the company of Garuda, am
living here as in the city of gods" (17–18).

Vaishampāyana said:—When Krishna, effulgent like burning fire, showered
these thunder-like words, king Bhishmaka, sprinkling him with sweet
words, consoled him (19).

Bhishmaka said:—"Be thou propitiated, O Lord of the celestial region. Do
thou forgive me, O Lord of the land of mortals. I am possessed by the
darkness of ignorance; do thou give me eyes of wisdom (20). We are men
of perverse understanding, gifted with fleshy eyes. Therefore whatever
we do without judging is not accomplished (21). However we have obtained
thee now who art the God of gods. May my vision grow wise and works be
accomplished (22). The wise, like great commanders, render fruitful
unaccomplished works by the discernment of moral laws (23). Having
obtained thy shelter, I do not entertain any fear. Listen to what I wish
to accomplish now (24). O king of gods, I do not wish to allow my
daughter to hold her Swayamvara lest she may choose another. Be thou
propitiated with me, O Lord of celestials. Do not be angry with me"

Krishna said:—"O king of great intelligence, O sinless one, I do not
perceive the utility of your sayings. Who can adjust whether you will
give away your daughter or not (26). O king, the goddess-like form of
Rukshmini has brought me to this place. But I should not say that you
should give her to me and not to anybody else (27). When in the days of
yore the gods assembled on the summit of the mount Sumeru for
incarnating their portions they said to her: ’O thou of spacious hip, do
thou with thy husband go to the world of men. And having been born in
the house of Bhishmaka in the city of Kundina, be thou united with
Keshava (28–29)’. I tell you this plainly, O king; do what ever you
think proper after due consideration (30). O king, truly your daughter
Rukshmini is not a woman; she is the very goddess Sree. For some object
and at the words of Brahmā she is born (as a woman) (31). She should not
be given away in a Swayamvara where all the kings will be assembled. She
must remain alone, and inviting one bride groom, you should confer her
on him. It will be thus performing a Kshatriya’s duties (32). O king,
you cannot give away Lakshmi in a Swayamvara. Selecting a good
bridegroom, you should give her away according to proper religious rites
(33). In order to put impediments in Swayamvara Vinata’s son has been
despatched by the king of gods and has come to the city of Kundina (34).
I too have come here to witness this Swayamvara festivity of the kings
and your daughter, the beautiful Kamala without lotuses (35). Your
saying before me ’Forgive me’ is considered by me as proper. And I do
not find any folly in it, O king (36). O lord, I have already been
pacified. Know me as conciliated since I have come to your territory in
a gentle form (37). O king, to cast off one’s shortcomings is
forgiveness and it is endued with many virtues. So, how can the mind of
one like myself be possessed by the sin of non-forgiveness (38). How can
sin, O king, be attached to you who are moral, truthful and born in a
family possessing the quality of goodness (39). Know me conciliated
particularly as I have come with my army, for with them I never confront
my enemies (40). When I cherish no forgiveness in my heart I go on the
back of my carrier, Garuda, the foremost of birds, with weapons
effulgent like the sun in my hand (41), O king, you are of the same age
with my father and are therefore adorable unto me like him. Behaving
with me, as a father treats his son, govern your kingdom well (42). How
can that sin, which resides in the heart of a coward, find room in the
heart of a pure-souled hero (43)? Know my conduct as pure as a father’s
feeling towards his son. Treating us with hospitality, these two kings
of Vidarbha have given us their kingdom. By the fruit of this gift their
ancestral manes of ten generations upwards have gone to the celestial
region (44-45) And ten succeeding generations too of their royal line
from son to grandson will also repair to the celestial region (46). And
they two, enjoying their kingdom for many long years, without any
thorns, will attain to emancipation when they will wish it (47). And
those noble kings, who were present at my _Abhisheka_, will in time
repair to the celestial region (40). O king, may you fare well! I shall
now with Vinatā’s son go to the charming city of Mathura protected by
the king Bhoja" (49).

Vaishampāyana said:—Saying this to the king Bhishmaka, welcoming all
other kings and issuing out of the Hall with Kratha and Kaishika, the
lords of Vidarbha, Krishna, the foremost of gods and Yadus, went to his
car (50). Beholding the departure of Keshava, the faces of the royal
saint Bhishmaka and of other kings were stricken with sorrow (51). At
that time beholding the prime and self-sprung Krishna, having eyes like
red lotuses, thousand feet, thousand eyes, thousand arms, thousand
lustrous crowns, thousand heads, adorned with celestial garlands,
raiments, scents, unguents and ornaments, holding uplifted celestial
weapons and having three eyes of the sun, moon and fire, the king
Bhishmaka bowed unto him and began to eulogise his glories, with his
body, mind and speech (52–55).

Bhishmaka said:—O God of gods, O Nārāyana, O Parāyana, thou hast no
origin or destruction. Thou art the eternal prime Deity, I bow unto thee
(56). Thou art the self-sprung Deity, art identical with the universe,
lotus navelled, hast clotted hairs, dost hold a staff and art of coppery
hue. I bow unto thee (57). Thou art Hansa, the discus, Vaikuntha, unborn
and the great Atman. I bow unto thee (58). Thou art Yogin, the existent
and non-existent, the ancient Purusha, the foremost of Purushas, above
three-fold qualities. I bow unto thee (59). O Lord, O foremost of the
celestials, that alone art the lord of all the worlds and the lord of
those who have acquired a know fledge of the soul. I am thy votary. Be
thou propitiated and confer on me a boon (60).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus chanted the glories of the great God
Krishna in the presence of the king, Bhishmaka made a present of
precious gems, pearls, and plates of Vaidurja unto him. Thereupon he
saluted in this way the highly powerful son of Vinatā too (61–62).

Bhishmaka said:—I bow unto that celestial bird, the son of Kashya endued
with the velocity of the wind who can assume various forms at will (63).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus chanted, in brief, the glories of
Vinatā’s son Bhismaka offered him various sorts of most excellent
raiment. After the lotus-eyed Krishna, the younger brother of Vāsava, on
taking leave, had departed all the kings followed him. Having thus
received honors, taken farewell of all the kings, placed Vinatā’s son
the foremost of birds, of a gentle form before him, been encircled by
huge cars, and lighted up all the quarters the energetic Krishna set out
for Mathurā. At that time there arose a great tumult consisting of the
sound of bugles, trumpets, conches, the hissing of the serpents, the
neighing of horses, and the rattle of the wheels of the cars resembling
the muttering of huge clouds.

After the departure of the highly powerful Krishna the gods repaired to
the celestial region with that assembly hall and the most excellent
seat. Encircled by their huge four-fold forces the kings followed
Janārddana, a distance of two miles and afterwards at his command
returned to Swayamvara (64–69).


Vaishampayana said:—After the departure of Vasudeva’s son the kings, who
had their limbs embellished with ornaments and who were anxious to go to
their respective kingdoms, returned to the assembly-hall of Bhishmaka in
order to inform (Jarāsandha of their intention) (1). Thereupon king
Bhishmaka, the foremost of kings and well-read in moral laws, said to
the kings, effulgent like the sun and the moon and seated at ease on
beautiful seats (2). "O ye kings, you all know the calamity that will
befall the Swayamvara. Do you forgive me for the fruit that is the
outcome of my misconduct" (3).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus addressed and welcomed duly all the
kings, (the king) sent away all the monarchs of Central India and of the
East, West and Northern Provinces. Having honored the king Bhishmaka
duly in return, those kings, the foremost of men and mighty
car-warriors, went away delightedly. Jarāsandha, Sunitha, the energetic
Dantavakra, the king of Soubha, the king Mahākurma, Kaishika, all the
leading kings of the Pravara race, the royal saint Venudāri, the king of
Kashmira all those and other kings of the Deccan remained by Bhishmaka
desirous of listening to the mystery.

O monarch, beholding these kings waiting there the powerful king
Bhishmaka, with an affectionate heart and grave and cool voice, said to
them moral words relating to three-fold objects and embellished with

Bhishmaka said:—"O ye kings, I have acted thus in pursuance of moral
words given vent to by you; you should forgive me for we must always
abide by moral laws" (4-12).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus expressed himself in the concourse of
kings, the king Bhishmaka, well-versed in moral laws, again said aiming
at his son (13).

Bhishmaka said:—Observing the movements of my son my eyes are agitated
with fear; I consider all now as mere boys. He (Krishna) alone is the
foremost of Purushas (14). He, the very incarnation of glory, the
foremost of the illustrious, the partaker of fame and powerful, has
established great fame and the might of his arms in this land of mortals
(15). Blessed is Devaki, the foremost of damsels who has conceived as
her son the lotus-eyed Krishna, identical with the sum total of beauty,
the greatest of all in the three worlds, and adored of all the immortals
and who has seen his lotus countenance with her eyes full of affection

Vaishampāyana said:—When the king Bhishmaka gave vent to these words
again and again in the midst of the assembled kings the highly effulgent
king Shalya said in sweet words (18).

Shalya said:—O slayer of thy enemies, O lord of kings, do not lament for
thy son. The Kshatriyas meet either with success or defeat in battle
(19). This is the inevitable course and eternal religion of the mortals.
Save Baladeva and Krishna what third person can withstand thy highly
powerful son in battle? Taking up his bow thy mighty-armed son is alone
capable of withstanding the car-warriors and great heroes of the enemy
in battle. When by the might of his arms he handles the Bhārgava
weapons, difficult of being used even by the celestials what man is
capable of bearing it? This Eternal Purusha Krishna is without birth or
death (20-23). In this land of mortals even the holder of trident (Siva)
cannot defeat him. O Emperor, thy son is well-versed in the true meaning
of all the Shastras (24). Knowing Keshava as Ishāna he did not engage in
fight with him. It is not that there is none who can defeat him (25).
Kālayavana is incapable of being slain by Keshava. With a view to have a
son the great Muni Gārgya adored Rudra for twelve years living on
powdered iron and practising dreadful and highly difficult penances.
Thereat pleased when Shankara offered him a boon Gārgya prayed for a son
whom the kings of Mathurā would not be able to slay. Rudra granted him
the boon, saying ’so be it’ (26-28). Thus by virtue of Rudra’s boon,
Gārgya’s son Kālayavana is unslayable by the kings of Mathura in the
battle-field and especially in the city of Mathurā (29). Though Krishna
is highly powerful amongst the princes of Mathura still if he comes to
battle and fights with him he will be able to defeat him (30). O kings,
if you accept my words as becoming and sound, send an emissary to the
capital of the king of Yavanas (33).

Vaishampāyana said:—Hearing the words of the highly powerful Shalya the
king of Soubha all the leading kings were delighted and said "We will do
it" (32). Hearing their words and recollecting those of Brahmā the
Emperor Jarāsandha lost heart and said (33).

Jarasandha said:—Alas! formerly, assailed by the fear of a foreign king,
all the Chiefs, seeking refuge with me, used to get back their lost
kingdoms, servants, army and conveyances (34). Now, on account of their
bad feelings towards their lord, they, like unto a damsel, coming in
contact with a stranger, are now exciting me to seek another’s shelter
(35). Alas! even when I, afraid of Krishna, am constrained to seek
refuge with another, Destiny alone is powerful. And by no means can any
one overcome it (36). O ye kings, it is better for me to die than to
seek helplessly the protection of another (king). I shall not therefore
seek refuge with any body else (37). I shall give him battle who has
been pointed out as my Death by the invisible words, may he be Krishna,
or Baladeva, or a man, or some one amongst the immortals (38). Even this
is my firm resolution and such is the conduct of a worthy person. I
shall not act against it seeking another’s protection (39). Even if you
be all well disposed he (Krishna) may destroy you all. For your
protection I shall send an envoy to him (40), O kings, the messenger
should so proceed by the etherial way that Krishna may not put in any
impediment. Do ye find out such a person who can go in this way (41).
This effulgent king of Soubha is gifted with the prowess of fire, the
sun and the moon. In a sunny car let him proceed to the capital of
Yavana (42). Let him approach the king of Yavanas as our envoy and
communicate to him our quarrel with Krishna. Let him try to bring him
over to this assemblage of Chiefs (43).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus expressed himself the Emperor Jarāsandha
again said to the powerful king of Soubha:—"Do thou depart, O giver of
honors and help all these Chiefs (44). Use such tactics that the king of
Yavanas may proceed and vanquish Krishna and we may be pleased" (45).

Having thus commanded all and worshipped Bhishmaka duly the Emperor,
encircled by his own army, set out for his city (46). Shalya, too, the
foremost of kings, having honored all duly, set out by the etherial way
in a car, coursing like air (47). Following Jarāsandha to some distance
the Deccan Chiefs repaired to their respective cities (48). Thinking of
his own evil conduct, of Krathā, Kaishika and Krishna, the king
Bhishmaka, along with his own son, entered into his Palace (49). On
account of the discomfiture of the kings consequent upon Krishna’s
arrival and the termination of the Swayamvara the chaste and wise
Rukshmini approached her friends and with her face bent down in shame
said:—"I tell you truly, I do not wish to be the spouse of any body else
save Krishna having lotus eyes" (50-51).


Vaishampayana said:—Kālayavana, the king of Yavanas, was highly powerful
and used to govern the inhabitants of his city in pursuance of royal
duties (1). He was wise, conversant with three Vargas,²⁷⁴ proficient in
six Gunas²⁷⁵ innocent of sevenfold calamities,²⁷⁶ endued with all
accomplishments, well-versed in Srutis, pious, truthful, a master of his
senses, acquainted with the rules of war, an expert in capturing forts,
heroic, of great strength and used to honor his ministers. One day
encircled by his ministers he was seated at ease and the learned and
intelligent Yavanas, discoursing amongst themselves on various celestial
themes were adoring him (2–5). In the meantime there blew delightful,
but exciting, cold and fragrant wind. Thereat the assembled Yavanas and
the king Kālayavana were all worked up and thought "Whence it has come?"
Thereupon they saw a car coming from the south. It was golden and white,
lighted up with the lustre of jewels, adorned with celestial flags and
pennons, drawn by horses fleet like the mind or air, adorned with
tiger-skins, a terror to the enemies, the enhancer of joy to the
friends, constructed by the celestial Architect, effulgent like the sun,
the grinder of others’ cars and embellished with jems like the rays of
the sun and moon. The powerful and beautiful king of Soubha was seated
thereon. Delighted greatly at seeing his friend the mighty-armed king of
Yavanas, the foremost of speakers, repeatedly sent for Arghya and water
to wash feet. And rising up from his throne and with Arghya in his hands
he went out and waited at the landing stair of the car. Be holding the
king Kālayavana, powerful like Sakra the highly energetic Shalya was
greatly delighted, got down alone from the chariot with a confident
heart and joyously entered into the Palace of Yavana for seeing his
friend. Observing _arghya_ in the hands of the king of Yavanas, Shalya,
the foremost of kings, said in sweet words:—"O thou of great effulgence,
I am not now worthy of _arghya_. I am now an envoy of the kings and have
been despatched to thee by the intelligent Jarāsandha. I therefore do
not deserve _arghya_ from the kings" (5–18).

Kalayavana said:—"O you of large-arms, I know that you have been
despatched here as an envoy by the king of Magadha for the behoof of
kings (19). O intelligent king, I adore you duly with water to wash
feet, seat and various other means of welcome because you have been sent
here by the entire circle of kings. By adoring you, O king, I shall
worship the entire host of kings and by honoring you all of them will be
honored. Therefore, O king, sit with me on this throne" (20–21).

Vaishampāyana said:—Thereupon shaking hands with each other and
enquiring of their mutual welfare those two kings sat at ease on the
sacred throne (92).

Kalayavana said:—What has become impossible to him, depending on the
might of whose arms you kings are all living without any anxiety as the
gods do under the protection of Sachi’s lord, that he has sent you to
me. Tell me, truly, O king, what mandate, the powerful king of Magadha
has issued to me. Even if it be very difficult I shall carry out his
command (23-24).

Shalya said:—O king of Yavanas, hear I shall describe at length what the
king of Magadha has deputed me to communicate to you (25).

Jarasandha said:—The highly irrepressable Krishna has been oppressing
the world from his very birth. Informed of his wicked deeds I attempted
to slay him (26). Accompanied by a number of kings along with their
four-fold forces and conveyances I besieged the mount Gomanta with a
huge army (27). And there listening to the highly sensible words of the
king of Chedi I set fire to that best of mountains for their (Rāma and
Krishna’s) destruction (28). Beholding that fire consisting of hundreds
and thousands of flames and resembling the fire of dissolution, Rāma,
holding the golden hilt of a sword, leaped down from the mountain summit
in the midst of the ocean-like army of the kings. And that highly
irrepressible one began to kill the car-warriors, the infantry and
cavalry (30). He moved about like a serpent; and catching elephants,
horses and soldiers with his plough-share he grinded them with his mace
(31). In that battle-field abounding in hundreds of kings that highly
energetic Rāma, endued with the prowess of the sun, ranging in various
ways like the setting sun, destroyed elephants, with elephants,
car-warriors with cars, and the cavalry with horses (32-33). After Rāma,
the highly powerful and energetic Yadu hero, Krishna, taking up his
discus effulgent like the sun, and his black iron club, forcibly leaped
down in the midst of the enemie’s army agitating the mountain with the
force of his feet as a lion attacks the poor deer (34–35). O king, at
that time whirling and bathed with shower that mountain extinguished the
fire and entered into the earth as if dancing (36). Jumping down from
that burning mountain Janārddana with his hand holding the discus began
to destroy our army (37). Whirling his huge discus and throwing all down
with his club he began to grind men, elephants and horses with his mace
(38). Then with the fire of discus and plough-share begotten by their
anger that huge army, protected by sun-like kings, was consumed (39).
Within a moment our army consisting of men, elephants horses infantry
and flags, was consumed by those two foot soldiers (40).

O king, beholding that army distressed by the fear of the fire of discus
and routed, I, encircled by a huge collection of cars, engaged in
battle. And Keshava’s brother the heroic and valiant Baladeva, the
destroyer of Bala, stood before me with a club in his hand (41–42).
Having slain the twelve Akshouhinis of soldiers and cast off his
plough-share and mace Sounanda, that leonine hero pursued me with his
club (43). O king, having thrown the club on me with a force like that
of the fall of a thunder-bolt he again stood manfully on the ground
(44). Then like unto Kārtikeya at the time of the destruction of
Krounch, he, with his two large eyes, as if consumed me, looking at my
joints (45). O king of Yavanas, beholding such a form of Baladeva, what
person, having hopes of life, can stand before him in the battle-field
(46)? When he stood before him holding up that terrible club resembling
the rod of the Regent of the dead and whirling it along with his
plough-share Brahmā, the grand-father of all, filling the welkin with
his invisible voice grave as the muttering of clouds, said:—"O sinless
Rāma, do not strike (him); O holder of plough-share, it has been
destined that he shall not meet with his death from any other person."
Hearing with my own ears those words given vent to by the Grand-father I
was filled with anxiety and returned from the battle-field (47–50).

O king, for this reason, and for the behoof of the kings, I communicated
this incident to you. Hearing this you should do what you think proper
in pursuance of my words (51). Desirous of having a son your father
propitiated Sankara, the god of gods with hard austerities and obtained
you as his son unslayable by the princes of Mathurā (52). Fasting and
feeding on powdered iron for twelve years the great Muni Gārgya
propitiated the great god Siva, on whose lotus feet even the gods and
Asuras meditate and therefore obtained his wished-for prosperity in the
person of yourself (53). By virtue of the asceticism of the ascetic
Gārgya and of the power of Mahādeva carrying the emblem of a crescent
forsooth, shall Janārddana meet with his death as the dews are dried up
by the rays of the sun (54), O king, thus requested by the kings, be up
and doing and march for vanquishing Krishna. And entering the city of
Mathurā with your army establish your glory there (55). Vasudeva’s son
is a native of Mathurā and Baladeva is his brother. If you go to the
city of Mathurā you will be able to defeat them in battle (56).

Shalya said:—O king, I have thus communicated to you, the message
entrusted to me by the Emperor Jarāsandha for the behoof of the kings.
Do you now undertake what is proper and conducive to your well-being
after consulting duly with your ministers (57).

  ²⁷⁴ Three conditions of a king or state; prosperity, evenness or decay
      or loss, gain and equality.

  ²⁷⁵ The six acts of a king in his military character, or peace, war,
      marching, halting, sowing, dissension, seeking potection.

  ²⁷⁶ The seven calamities are gambling, sleeping in a day, calumny,
      whoring, playing, idle roaming, drinking and hunting.


Vaishampayana said:—After the king Shalya, as directed by the Emperor
Jarāsandha had said this Kālayavana, the king of Yavanas, with great
delight said (1).

Kalayavana said:—Oh! highly honored and blessed I am; and my life is
crowned with success since numberless kings have requested me for
vanquishing Krishna (2). The kings have appointed me in the work of
subduing Krishna who is invincible in the three worlds, even unto gods
and Asuras. And they have blessed me so that I will achieve victory (3).
While the kings, with delighted hearts, have declared my victory I
shall, by the very pouring of their water-like words, achieve success
(4). Whatever it may be, I shall carry out the command of the Emperor
Jarasandha issued at the request of the kings. Even my discomfiture in
it will be, tantamount to my success (5). O king, to-day, the day and
the stars are auspicious and in this auspicious moment I shall even
to-day start for Mathurā for defeating Keshava in the battle-field (6).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus addressed the powerful Shalya the king
of Soubha, the lord of Yavanas honored him duly with highly precious
jems and dresses (7). Afterwards for acquiring unstinted blessings he
gave away various riches to his guest and the Brāhmanas and duly offered
libations to fire. Then after the performance of benedictory rites he
set out with his army for vanquishing Janārddana (8–9). O foremost of
Bharatas, king Shālya too, with his desire fully achieved, embraced the
lord of Yavanas and set out with a delighted heart for his own city


Janamejaya said:—O Brahman, when the Lord Krishna, endued with Sakra’s
prowess, set out from the city of Bidarbha he did not ride the highly
powerful son of Vinatā, Garuda; why did he then take him away with him?
And what did Vinatā’s son do? O great Muni, I am filled with great
curiosity in this; do thou unfold the mystery (1–2).

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, listen to the work, difficult of being done
by men, which the highly effulgent son of Vinatā performed after his
departure from the city of Bidarbha (3). O lord, before his departure to
the city of Mathurā when Janārddana, the god of gods, said before the
assembled kings, "I shall repair to the charming city of Mathura
governed by the Bhoja king" the beautiful and intelligent son of Vinatā
thought for a considerable time, and then saluting Vāsudeva, after he
has finished his say, said with folded hands (4–6).

Garuda said:—"O god, I shall now proceed to Raivata’s city Kushasthali,
to the charming mount Raivata and the adjacent forest thereto resembling
the garden of Nandana (7).

"The Rākshasas have abandoned the charming city of Kushasthali. It is
situate at the base of the Raivata mountain and on the bank of the great
ocean. It abounds in trees decorated with filaments of flowers, in
groves and creepers. It is scattered with elephants and serpents, and
inhabited by bear, monkeys, boars, buffaloes and deer. I shall perfectly
examine (that place) and see if it is worthy of thy habitation. O lord,
if that extensive and charming city is fitted for thy residence, I shall
remove all the thorns and come back to thee" (8-10).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus expressed himself before Janārddana, the
king of gods, and saluted him the powerful lord of birds set out towards
the western direction (11). And when Krishna too, with the Yadavas,
entered into the beautiful city of Mathurā, Ugrasena came out of the
city with dancing girls and citizens and honored the victorious Krishna

Janamejaya said:—What did the mighty-armed Emperor Ugrasena do when he
heard of Krishna’s installation by the numberless kings (13)?

Vaishampāyana said:—Hearing of Krishna’s installation as the Emperor by
numberless kings, of Indra’s making peace with him through his envoy
Chitrangada, of the apportionment of wealth, each king being entitled to
a lakh, each emperor to a Arvuda and each ordinary men to ten, and that
every one, who came there, did not go away empty handed and that the
graceful lord of Nidhis, Sanka, commanded by the gods, distributed
wealth after Krishna’s heart, from his own men and other persons
informed of people’s conduct, Ugrasena offered a great _puja_ at the
temples of the tutelary deities. The two sides of the gate of Vasudeva’s
house were decorated with flags, pennons and garlands. He also decorated
with flags Kansa’s assembly hall Suprabhā adorned with various sheets of
cloth (14-20). The doors of the sitting-room of the Emperor Krishna in
Gopura were pasted with ambrosia by the king (21). There was dancing and
music on all sides. The city was decorated with flags, garlands of wild
flowers and jars full of water (22). The king sprinkled sandal water in
all the high-ways and spread sheets of cloth on the ground (23). On both
sides of the roads incense was kept in vessels and continually burnt
with Aguru, molass and various other articles (24). The elderly women
began to sing benedictory hymns and youthful damsels moved about
anxiously in their respective houses (25).

Having thus commenced the festivity in the city the Emperor Ugrasena
repaired to Ugrasena’s Palace and after communicating to him the
pleasant news and consulting with Rāma went to the car. O king, in the
meantime the great sound of the conch-shell Pānchajanya was heard.
Hearing that sound of the conch the entire city of Mathurā, with their
women, boys, elderly men, panegyrists, songsters, and accompanied by a
huge army, issued out placing Rāma before them. Ugrasena himself carried
_arghya_ and water for washing feet for Krishna (26–29).

After going over to some distance and coming within the view of Vāsudeva
the Emperor Ugrasena desired to proceed on foot and accordingly got down
from his white car (30). And beholding Hari, the king of gods, seated on
a charming car adorned with celestial jewels he, in words suppressed
with joy, said to the lotus-eyed Rāma the slayer of his enemy’s army.
Krishna was adorned with ornaments set with jewels, was shining like the
sun on account of the garland of wild flowers decorating his breast, was
accompanied by fans, umbrellas and flags with the emblems of Garuda
painted thereon, embellished with all the marks of royalty and endued
with the beauty of the rising sun (31–34).

(Ugrasena said):—"O great one, it does not behove me to proceed on car
after this. Thinking this I have got down. Do thou go on the car (35).
Coming to Mathurā in the disguise of Keshava Vishnu has manifested
himself as the king of gods in the ocean-like assemblage of the kings. I
therefore wish to chant his glories properly." The highly effulgent
elder brother of Krishna (then) replied to the king (saying) (36–37):

"O king, it is not proper to chant the glories of that best of kings at
the time of his going. Without it Janārddana is pleased with you. What
is the use of hymning him who is himself propitiated? Your visit is
identical with your chanting of his glories. While Krishna, although he
has acquired the dignity of the Lord Paramount, is coming to your house,
what is the use of praising him with celestial and super-human hymns?"
Thus conversing with each other they went to Keshava (38–40).

Beholding the king Ugrasena approach with _arghya_ in his hands Krishna,
the foremost of orators, stopped his car and said:—"O king of Mathurā,
while I have installed you, declaring, ’Be you the lord of Mathura’ it
does not behove me to make it otherwise. O king, you should not offer me
_arghya_ and water for washing my feet and rinsing my mouth. This is my
heart-felt desire (41-43). O king, informed of your intention I say that
you are the king of Mathura. Do not make it otherwise. O king, I will
confer upon you your proper share in the land and gift. As I did with
the other kings I had kept your share in reserve beforehand, one hundred
thousandth portion without any ornaments or raiment. O king, get upon
your white car adorned with gold, umbrella, fans, flags and celestial
ornaments. And wearing your crown of sunny lustre govern the city of
Mathurā, delightedly with your sons and grand-sons, defeat your enemies
and multiply the Bhoja race. The king of gods, the holder of
thunder-bolt sent, for Ananta and Shouri, celestial ornaments and
raiments. From the thousand jars of gold coins reserved for the citizens
of Mathurā in that ceremony of installation the king of gods has ordered
that one thousand should be given to each of the panegyrists and bards,
one hundred to each old man, prostitute and other men and ten thousand
to each of the Yādavas, Vikadru and others who live with the king
Ugrasena (44–52)".

Vaishampāyana said:—Having thus honored the Emperor Ugrasena in the
presence of all the soldiers Janārddana, with great delight, entered the
city of Mathurā (53). On account of the celestial ornaments, garlands,
raiments and unguents it appeared as if he was living in the city of the
celestials encircled by gods (54). Like unto the muttering of clouds
there arose a great tumult consisting of the sound of bugles and
trumpets, blare of conches, the noise of elephants, the neighing of
horses, the leonine shouts of the heroes and rattle of car-wheels
(55-56). The panegyrists began to sing his praises and the subjects to
salute him with numberless presents. At this Hari was not the least
surprised (57). He was high-minded by nature, shorn of egoism and has
seen a greater display than this beforehand. And for this he was not
filled with surprise (58). Beholding Mādhava’s arrival who was shining
in the lustre of his own person effulgent like the sun the inhabitants
of Mathurā saluted him at every step and said (59):

"He is Nārāyāna, the abode of Shree living in the ocean of milk. Leaving
his serpent-couch he has come to the city of Mathurā (60). Having
chained Bali irrepressible unto the immortals he conferred the
soverignty of the three worlds on Vasava the wielder of thunder-bolt
(61). Having slain Kansa, the foremost of the powerful and other Daityas
this slayer of Keshi has conferred the kingdom of Mathura on the Bhoja
king (62). Not being himself installed and not sitting on the royal
throne, he, having acquired the dignity of the Lord Paramount, has
entrusted Ugrasena with the government of Mathurā" (63).

Having heard this conversation of the citizens, the bards, panegyrists
and the poets sang, "O thou the ocean of accomplishments, how can we,
who are one tongued men, sing the deeds begotten of thy prowess and
energy (64–65). The thousand-headed serpent-king Vāsuki, who has the
intellect of a god, can, with his two thousand tongues, to a certain
extent describe thy accomplishments (66). It is a great wonder to the
kings of the earth that a throne was sent by Indra. It never happened
before nor will it be in future (67). The descension of the
assembly-hall and jars from the celestial region has never been heard of
or seen. Therefore we consider it as a wonder (68). O Keshava,
conceiving a son like thee, the foremost of gods, Devaki, the best of
damsels, has been blessed because she, with her eyes full of affection,
saw thy lotus face adored by men and the immortals (69–70)".

Placing Ugrasena before them and listening to the conversation regarding
their praises sung by the citizens the two brothers Rāma and Krishna
arrived at the gate and the king worshipped them repeatedly sending for
_arghya_ and water for washing feet and rinsing mouth (71–72). Thereupon
approaching Keshava’s car, saluting him with his head down and mounting
on an elephant the energetic and intelligent Ugrasena began to shower
gold as the clouds discharge their watery contents (73). Having thus
showered gold on him the beautiful Mādhava arrived at his father’s house
and said to Ugrasena, the king of Mathura (74): "O lord, although I have
secured the dignity of the Lord Paramount, this throne, conferred by the
king of gods, should be kept in the king’s Palace (75). Although
acquired by the strength of my own arms I do not like to come by the
assembly-hall of the king of Mathurā. O lord, I propitiate you. Do not
be offended" (76).

O king Janamejaya, at that time Vasudeva, Devaki and Rohini were so much
overwhelmed with joy that they could not give vent to any word (77).

O king, thereupon considering the importance of time and place, Kansa’s
mother, taking riches and presents of various countries acquired by him,
went to Keshava and dedicated them to his feet. Observing it Krishna
sent for Ugrasena and said in sweet words (78–79).

Krishna said:—"It is time that has snatched away your two sons; I have
not slain them either for riches or for the kingdom of Mathurā (80), O
king of Mathura, having vanquished your enemies by the might of my arms
do you perform many sacrifices and make profuse presents (81). O king,
do you cast off your mental agony and fear consequent upon Kansa’s
death. I return you these riches; do you accept them" (82)

Having thus consoled the king, Krishna, along with Balarama, went to his
parents (83). There those two highly powerful heroes, with heart full of
joy, saluted their parents bending their heads (84). O Janamejaya, at
that time the city of Mathurā left off her own form and as if the
capital of gods came down there leaving the celestial region (85).
Beholding Vasudeva’s house the citizens did not consider it as earth but
took it for the region of the celestials (86). Having thus entered
Vasudeva’s house the heroic Baladeva and Keshava dismissed Ugrasena, the
king of Mathurā and his queen. And then leaving off their arms and
moving about for some time they went through the evening rites. And then
seated at ease they conversed with one another (87-88). In the meantime
there took place a highly dreadful calamity. The clouds were scattered
in the sky, the earth and the mountains were shaken, the oceans were
agitated, the serpents were terrified and the Yadavas, trembling, fell
down on earth (89–90). Beholding them thus fallen the immoveable Rāma
and Krishna, perceived, from the flapping of the huge wings, the
approach of Garuda, the foremost of birds. And within a short time they
saw Garuda by them. Saluting them both with his head, Vinatā’s son, of a
gentle form, adorned with celestial garlands and unguents, sat on a seat
(61–92). Observing the arrival of his war-like minister, the intelligent
son of Vinatā, the slayer of Madhu said: "O thou the grinder of the
enemies of the celestial army, O delight of Vinatā’s heart, O foremost
of birds, O favourite of Keshava, may thy arrival here prove auspicious"
(93–94). Having thus addressed Vinatā’s son, stationed there like a very
god Krishna again said to him who was equally powerful (95).

Krishna said:—O foremost of birds, let us now go to the highly extensive
inner appartment of the Bhoja king, for there, seated at ease we shall
be able to hold counsels after our own hearts (96).

Vaishampāyana said:—When having entered the inner appartment of the
Bhoja king along with Vinatā’s son, the highly powerful Krishna and
Baladeva held parley, the former said:—"O Vinatā’s son, the king
Jarāsandha is unslayable by us. It has been so ordained. Incomparable is
his might and he is encircled by a huge army and highly powerful kings.
The army of the Magadha king consists of many soldiers and so we shall
not be able to consume it even within hundred years. Therefore I tell
you, O king of birds, that it never bodes good for us to live in this
city of Mathura. Even it is my desire (97-100)".

Garuda said:—O god of gods, having saluted thee I took leave and went to
Kusathali for finding out a worthy habitation for thee (101), O foremost
of gods, having gone there and been stationed in the welkin I
reconnoitered all over that city endued with all auspicious marks (102).
That city is situate in an extensive watery province of the ocean. It
has the ocean on the east and is therefore always cool. It is surrounded
on all sides by the ocean, a mine of every sort of jem, spread with
trees conferring wished-for objects, covered on all sides with flowers
of all seasons and therefore highly charming; it is the abode of all
forms of _Ashramas_, satisfies every sort of desire, is filled with men
and women, is always full of merriment, is encircled by ditches and
walls, is embellished with palaces and gates, variegated courtyards and
roads, has huge doors and gates, and various bolts and other
contrivances, is adorned with a golden wall, is filled with
car-warriors, cavalry and infantry, and with trees of various countries
covered with celestial flowers and fruits, is adorned with flags and
pennons, contains big palaces, strikes terror to the enemies, enhances
the joy of the friends and is isolated from other cities presided over
by kings (103-109). O god, there is that best of mountains Raivata
resembling the garden of Nandana. Do thou make it an ornament of thy
gate (110). O foremost of gods, that city will also be liked by thy
sons. Do thou go and live there (111). Like unto Indra’s capital
Amarāvati thy city will be celebrated in the three worlds under the name
of Dwāravati (112). O god, if the great ocean gives there room covered
with water the celestial Architect will make works of art after his own
heart (113). O god, out of lustrous jewels, pearls, corals, diamonds,
sapphires and other jems produced in the three worlds, do thou have many
white palaces built there like unto the assembly hall of the celestials,
consisting of hundred heavenly pillars, adorned with all sorts of jewels
made of gold, decorated with celestial flags and pennons, guarded by
gods and Kinnaras and lighted by the sun and the moon (114-116).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having said this to Keshava and saluted them both
Vinatā’s son took his seat (117). Meditating on the words uttered by him
conducive to their well-being, and in order to give a proof of his
appreciation Krishna, with Rama, honored Garuda with presents of most
excellent and precious dresses and dismissed him. And then they enjoyed
there like two immortals in the city of the celestials (118-119). When
in time the highly illustrious Bhoja king heard of what Garuda had said
he affectionately addressed to Keshava the following nectarine words

He said:—O Krishna, O enhancer of the delight of the Yādavas, O thou of
large arms, O slayer of thy enemies, listen to what I say. O my son,
without thee, like unto a woman separated from her husband we shall not
be able to live happily either in this city of Mathurā or in any other
kingdom. O conferror of honor, even if Indra comes to the help of all
the kings, still we, under the protection of thy arms, do not fear them.
O foremost of Yadus, we shall proceed for accomplishing conquests

Hearing Ugrasena’s words Devaki’s son smilingly said: "O king, I am
ready to do whatever you wish. There is not the least doubt in it"


Vaishampayana said:—Once on a time the lotus-eyed Krishna addressed the
following reasonable words to the Yadus in their assembly:—"This Mathurā
city is the abode of the Yadus: we too were born here and brought up in
Vraja. However all our griefs have disappeared and the enemies have been
defeated. Now our hostilities with the kings and battle with Jarāsandea
have commenced (1-3). The number of our infantry and animals is endless.
And we have enough of jewels and friends (4). Although through our
friends and soldiers we have attained to the consummation of prosperity
still the city of Mathurā is very limited and the enemies can easily
enter it (5). Beside if one _Koti_ of princes and infantry live here
jointly there is every possibility of a dissension cropping up amongst
them (6). Therefore, O ye leading Yadus, methinks it is better that we
should live elsewhere. If you like it, we will lay out a city elsewhere
(7). If you approve of what I have said before this assemblage of the
Yadus for your well-being and in pursuance of the proper time I shall
carry it out (8)." Hearing it all the Yādavas delightedly said:—"O
Krishna, do what thou deemst proper for the behoof of all these people"

Thereupon the Vrishnis began to hold consultations regarding this most
excellent proposal:—"Our enemy the king Jarāsandha has been destined as
unslayable by us. And his power is also very great (10). True it is that
many armies of the kings have been slain in this city of Mathurā. But so
great is the number of his soldiers that we shall not be able to bring
about their destruction even in hundred years" (11). At that time O
king, the emperor Jarāsandha, along with Kālayavana was proceeding
towards Mathurā with his army (12). Having heard of the approach of
Jarāsandha and Kālayavana with that highly irrepressible huge army the
Yadavas thought of retreating as mentioned before (13). The truthful
Krishna again said to the Yadavas:—"To day is an auspicious day. So we
shall, even this very day, issue out of Mathura along with our army and
followers (14)".

Having obtained this command from Krishna, the Yadavas, headed by
Vasudeva, along with their wives, cars and elephants, set out, echoing
the four quarters with the noise of their soldiers resembling that of
the waves of the ocean (15-16). Leaving Mathurā the Yadavas went on with
their wealth, kinsmen, friends, golden chariots, infuriated elephants
and trotting horses decorated with gold (17-18). O foremost of Bharatas,
having adorned their respective detachments of the army and moved it on
the Yādadas set out for the west (19). Stationed in front, Vasudeva and
other leaving Yadavas, ever adorning a battle-field, guided the army
(20). Having thus wended a very long distance the leading Yādus reached
the bank of the ocean. It was variegated with creepers, abounded in
coconut trees and beautiful elephants, was covered with Ketaki trees,
palmyras, Pannages and vines (21–24). Having secured such a picturesque
site the Yadavas were highly delighted as if they had arrived at the
celestial region (23). Searching for a site where he would lay out a
city Krishna, the slayer of inimical heroes, saw an extensive tract of
land situated on the bank of the ocean (24). The land had a coppery soil
mixed with gravels, was well-suited for animals of burden, was endued
with all the favourable marks of a city, as if it was presided over by
the Goddess of prosperity herself. It was fanned by the sea breeze and
was watered by the ocean. Near it was shining in beauty the charming
mountain Raivata like the mount Mandara. On that mountain containing all
the jems and resorted to by many great men Drona lived for many long
years. There lived the king Ekalavya. And the sporting ground laid out
by himself like a board of dice is celebrated by the name of Dwāravati
(25-29). Keshava selected that site for his city and the Yādavas also
wanted to encamp their soldiers there. Thereupon the Yadu commanders
pitched tents there for the night (30–31).

With a view to lay out his city there the Lord Krishna, the foremost of
Yadus, lived there with them shorn of anxiety. And that foremost of men,
the leader of the Yādavas, having Gada as his elder brother, thought in
his mind of the names he would give to the various houses in that city

O king, having thus secured the city of Dwaravati the Yādavas, along
with their friends, lived there happily as do the gods in their own
city. O descendant of Bhārata, thus informed of the approach of
Kālayavana Krishna, the slayer of Keshi, set out for the city of
Dwāravati, in fear of Jarāsāndha (34–35).


Janamejaya said:—O reverend sir, I wish to listen at length to the
history of the high-souled and intelligent Vāsudeva, the foremost of
Yadus (1). O foremost of the twice-born, why did Janārddana, without
fighting, leave Mathura the only abode of Lakshmi (the goddess of
prosperity), the hump (the most elevated) of Central India, the very
summit of the earth, abounding in profuse corns, wealth and beautiful
houses, and consisting of many worshipful Aryans? How did Kālayavana
behave towards Krishna? Having obtained the watery fortress Dwarkā what
did the great Yogin of hard penances the mighty-armed Janārddana do
(2–5)? Whose son was Kālayavana and how powerful was he? Do thou
describe all this to me (6).

Vaishampāyana said:—The high-minded Gārgya was the preceptor of both the
Andhaka and Vrishni races. He always observed the vow of celibacy; and
although he had a wife he did not know her. While the eternal Gārgya,
who was a master of passions, was thus spending his days this
brother-in-law described him as impotent before the king (7-8). O king,
having been thus dishonored in the city of Ajitanjaya and giving up his
desire of being united with his wife out of anger for his
brother-in-law, Gārgya engaged in hard penances for obtaining a son. And
living on pounded iron for twelve years he worshipped Mahādeva, the
holder of trident. For this Rudra conferred on him a boon that he would
obtain an all powerful son who would be able to discomfit in battle the
descendants of the Vishni and Andhaka races (9–10).

The king of Yavanas had no son. Hearing of the boon of having a son
conferred upon Gārgya, the foremost of the twice-born by Mahādeva, the
king brought him over to his own kingdom. And having consoled him he
engaged the milk-women to attend him in their own settlement. Having
assumed the guise of a milk-woman, an Apsara, Gopāli by name, conceived
that dreadful and undecaying embryo through Gārgya (12-14). Thus by the
command of the holder of trident, Gārgya begat on the Apsara, assuming
the form of a woman and living by him like a wife, the highly powerful
hero Kālayavana. And he was brought up in the inner appartment, like his
son, of the king Yavanas who had no issue. O king, after the demise of
the lord of Yavanas Kalyavana became king. And being desirous of
fighting when he questioned the leading twice-born ones about his
antagonist Narada pointed out the heroes of the Vrishnu and Andhaka
races (15-17). Krishna, the powerful slayer of Madhu, took no notice of
Kālayavana, although he grew up in the midst of the Yavanas because he
had heard from Narada the story of his obtaining the boon (18). When the
king of Yavanas grew exceedingly powerful, Shaka, Tukhāra Darava,
Parava, Tangana, Khasha, Panhava and hundreds of Mlechcha kings, living
near Himavan, took shelter under him (19–20). Encircled by those Dasyu
kings resembling a swarm of locusts, assuming various dresses and
holding various weapons, the king of Yavanas set out for Mathura (21).
He agitated the surface of the earth with innumerable horses, elephants,
asses, camels and a huge army (22). The path of the sun was covered with
the dust raised by the soldiers. By the urine and excreta of the
soldiers a river was created (23). And because that river issued from
the excreta of the horses and camels it passed by the name of Aswasakrit

Hearing of the approach of this huge army Vāsudeva, the leader of the
Vrishnis and Andhakas, addressed his kinsmen, saying (25):—"Great is the
calamity that has befallen the descendants of the Vrishni and Andhaka
races. For this enemy is unslayable by us on account of the boon
conferred on him by the holder of the trident (26). I employed all other
means as conciliation etc. to win him over. But he wishes for battle
worked up with pride (27). ’I am to live here:’ this Nārada said to me;
I too tell you this (28). The emperor Jarāsandha is not forgiving
towards us; and the other kings too, assailed by the Vrishni discus and
on account of the distruction of Kansa, have been displeased with us and
sought refuge with the Magadha king. Under the protection of Jarāsandha
they want to obstruct us: and many kinsmen of the Yādavas have been
slain by them. What more we will never acquire prosperity if we live in
this city."

Saying this and desirous of retreating Keshava sent an envoy to the king
of Yavanas. In order to terrorize him (the king of Yavanas) the highly
intelligent Mādhava put a highly dreadful black serpent, resembling a
collection of collyrium, into a jar and sealed it up. He then sent it to
the king of Yavanas through his own emissary. O foremost of Bharatas,
having said "Krishna is like a deadly serpent" that emissary showed the
jar to Kālayavana. Thereupon understanding that the Yadavas had sent it
to terrorize him Kalayavana filled that jar with dreadful ants. Thereat
that serpent was eaten up by the innumerable ants having sharp beaks and
was reduced to ashes. Thereupon sealing up that jar, Kālayavana sent it
with a profuse description to Krishna (29–37). Observing his own
expedient baffled Vāsudeva soon left the city of Mathurā and went to
Dwarka (33). O king, after that in order to put an end to hostilities,
that highly illustrious and powerful hero, Vasudeva settled all the
heroes in Dwarkā and having consoled them, set out on foot for Mathurā
with only his own arm for his weapon (39-40). Kālayavana was pleased at
seeing him and confronted him with rage. The highly powerful Krishna too
attracted him of his own accord. In order to get hold of Govinda the
lord of Yavanas pursued him, but could not catch that Yogin (41-42).

On account of his being successful in the war between gods and demons
the former offered a boon to the highly powerful and illustrious king
Muchakunda, the son of Māndhāta who prayed for sleep. O king, because he
was tired in battle he repeatedly said:—"O gods, I will, with my eyes
burning in anger, consume him who will arouse me from my sleep" (43–45).
The deities along with their king said "So be it." Having been thus
ordered by the gods, that king, worn out with fatigue, first came to the
king of mountains. And then entering into a cave he was asleep till he
was seen by Krishna. Nārada communicated to Krishna the boon obtained by
Muchukunda and his power. And therefore when pursued by his Mlechcha
enemy he humbly entered into Muchukunda’s cave (46–49). In order to
avoid the look of the royal saint Keshava, the foremost of the
intelligent, sat near his head (55). Following Vāsudeva, the wicked
minded Yavana king entered into the cave and saw that king there. And
like an insect falling into fire he kicked that king with his foot for
his own destruction (51–52). With the touch of the foot the royal saint
Muchukunda awoke and was highly enraged on account of the break of his
sleep (53). Thereupon recollecting the boon that was conferred by Indra
he looked at the Yavana king with angry eyes. As soon as he was eyed,
the king of Yavanas was all ablaze (54). O king, as a lightning consumes
a dried tree so the fire, engendered by the energy of Muchukunda’s eyes,
in no time reduced Kālayavana to ashes (55). Having thus acquired
victory by virtue of his own intellect Vāsudeva went to the emperor
Muchukunda, who was engaged in sleep for a long time and addressed to
him the following most excellent words (56):—"O king, I have heard from
Nārada—that thou art asleep for a long time. Thou hast performed a great
work for me. May good betide thee. I depart" (57).

Beholding Vasudeva of short stature the king Muchukunda thought:—"I was
asleep for a long time and the cycle has been changed." Then the emperor
said to Govinda:—"Who are you? Why have you come here? Tell me if you
can, how long I was asleep?" (56-59)

Krishna said:—"There flourished a king in the Lunar dynasty, by name
Yayāti, son of Nahusha. Yadu was his eldest son. He had four other sons
Turvasu and others. O lord, know me, as Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva
born in Yadu’s family. For some work I had come to you (60–61). O king,
I have heard from Nārada that you fell asleep in the Treta Yuga: and now
the Kali has set in. Tell me, what more I can do for you presently (62).
O king, you have reduced him to ashes by virtue of the boon conferred on
you by the gods whom, fighting for a hundred years, I could not slay

Vaishampāyana said:—Thus accosted by Krishna the king Muchukunda issued
out of the cave. And having accomplished his object the intelligent
Vāsudeva too followed him (64). Having come out from the mouth of the
cave he saw that the earth had been covered with men of short stature
and of limited energy, strength and prowess and that his kingdom had
been occupied by others (65). Having seen all this and resolved upon
practising hard penances the king dismissed Krishna and entered into
thickets of the Himalaya (66). Having carried on austerities there he
died and repaired to the celestial region acquired by his own good
actions (67). Having brought about the destruction of his own enemy
through this expedient, the pious-souled and intelligent Vāsudeva went
to his soldiers and set out with that army consisting of cars, elephants
and horses, who had their master slain (68–69). Having thus attained to
the consummate accomplishment of his object and conferred upon the king
Ugrasena that four-fold army Janārddana embellished the city of Dwarkā
with wealth acquired by him (70).


Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon when the sun rose in the clear morning,
Hrishikesha, the descendant of Yadu, having performed his morning
ablution and sat for some time at the outskirt of the forest, began to
survey it for finding out a site where he would build a fortress. The
principal members of the Yudu race followed him (1–2). Thereafter in an
auspicious day under the auspices of the planet Rohini he offered
immense presents to the Brāhmanas and made them perform benedictory
rites. He then commenced the work of the building of the fort. Thus when
the construction of the fort was taken in hand, like unto Indra
addressing the gods, the lotus-eyed slayer of Keshi, the foremost of
creators, said to the Yadavas (3–4). "O ye Yādavas, behold the site that
I have selected like unto the very abode of the gods. I have also
selected the name under which it will be celebrated on earth (5). I am
laying out courtyards, promenades, well-levelled roads and inner
appartments, all those marks, for which this city of mine will be
celebrated on earth by the name of Dwāravati like unto Indra’s Amarāvti
(6-7). Taking Ugrasena before you and putting impediments in the ways of
your enemies do you enjoy here shorn of anxiety like the celestials (8).
Let all of you take lands for building houses; let gardens and crossings
of four roads be laid out and let a survey of roads and walls be taken
(9). Let artizans, expert in building houses and masons be sent round
the country."

Thus accosted the Yādavas gladly selected sites for building their own
houses. O king, some of the Yadavas engaged in measuring their own lands
with ropes and some of them began to worship the tutelary deity by
adorning the Brahmanas on that auspicious day.

Thereupon the high-minded Govinda said to the masons:—"Do ye build for
me a temple for my tutelary deity, well laid out with courtyards and
roads" (10-14). Having said "So be it" to the mighty-armed Krishna, the
masons collected all the materials for building the fort and began to
lay out the gate and the boundary line. Temples, in proper places, were
built for Brahmā, the god of sacrifices, Indra, the presiding deities of
fire and water and other gods. They then constructed the four gates of
the temples (namely Shudrāksha, Aindra, Bhallāta and Pushpadantāka.)
Thus when the houses of the high-souled Yadavas were constructed,
Mādhava thought of laying out the city very soon. Thereupon there arose
by accident a pure intellect in his mind conducive to the well-being of
the Yadavas and of the city, by which, he could soon lay out the city.
(He thought) that Prajāpati’s son, the powerful Viswakarmā, the foremost
of architects, would construct the city. Thereupon, seated in a solitary
place with his face directed towards the celestial region Krishna
thought of Viswakarmā, in his mind, so that he might come there (15–21).
In the meantime the highly intelligent celestial architect, Viswakarma,
the foremost of gods, came there and stood before Krishna (22).

Viswakarma said:—"O Vishnu of firm vows, despatched speedily by the king
of gods, this thy servant has arrived here; what command am I to carry
out (23)? O god, thou art adorable unto me as the grand-father (Brahmā)
and the three-eyed deity (Siva). O lord, there is no difference amongst
the three (24). O thou of large arms, do thou gladly issue command to me
as thou dost order the three worlds (25)."

Hearing the humble words of Viswakarma, Keshava, the foremost of Yudus
and the slayer of Kansa, replied, in incomparable words (26):—"O
foremost of gods, you were also present there and listened to our
counsels held in private for the behoof of gods. You are now to build a
house for me here (27). O you of firm vows, do you build a city here for
manifesting my own self and decorate it with houses befitting my power
(28). You are an expert, O you of great intellect; what shall I tell you
more. Build for me such a city that it may be celebrated on earth like
Amarāvati; you are to build here such a house for me as I have in the
celestial region so that the mortals may see the beauty of my city and
of the Yadu race (29–30)."

Thus accosted the intelligent Viswakarmā said to Krishna of unwearied
actions, the destroyer of the enemies of the celestials (31). "O lord, I
shall do all that thou hast ordered. But thy city will not sufficiently
accommodate such a number of men. So very extensive should be thy city
that even the four oceans, in their full forms, may range here (32–33).
O foremost of Purusas, if the ocean, of his own accord, gives a little
more room then thy city may turn highly extensive (34)."

Krishna, the foremost of orators, had already settled this. Therefore
thus spoken to by the celestial architect he said to the ocean, the lord
of rivers (37):—"O ocean, if you have any respect for me, then withdraw
thy form in the water extending over twelve yojanas (36). If you give
room, this city, abounding in wealth and enjoyments, will be able to
afford accommodation to my huge army" (33). Hearing the words of
Krishna, the ocean, the lord of rivers, offered him his bed, resorting
to his yoga power. Observing the respect shown to Govinda by the ocean
and the site for building the city Vishwakarma was highly pleased
(38–39). Thereupon Vishwakarmā said to Krishna, the descendant of
Yadu:—"From even this very day you will settle down in the city. O lord,
I had already made a plan of this most excellent city in my mind. So in
no time it will be decorated with the rows of houses (40-41). This
charming city will be like the hump of the earth on account of its
beautiful gateways, gates and upper-storied rooms" (42). Thereupon
having constructed that city in the region liked by the gods he built
the inner appartment of Krishna consisting of bathing houses (43). Thus
by Viswakarma’s mental effort that beautiful Vaishnava city, by name
Dwarkāvati, was built (44). That city was properly protected by doors,
adorned with most excellent walls, girt by ditches, filled with palaces,
beautiful men and women, traders and various articles of merchandise.
And although it was established on earth, it appeared like one ranging
in the sky. It was adorned with pools, streamlets of pure water and with
gardens. It was covered on all sides like a damsel of spacious eyes. It
had prosperous court-yards, high edifices stricken by clouds, many clear
public roads and streets for carriages. As Indra’s city beautifies the
celestial region, so that city, prosperous with all sorts of jems,
adorned the ocean on earth (45-49). That city, a beautiful field for
heroes, that creates envy in the hearts of the neighbouring kings,
covered even the sky with its palaces (50). That city was filled with
the noise of people hailing from the various kingdoms of earth and the
air was saturated with the water of the waves of the ocean (51). With
its charming sea-side and gardens that beautiful city Dwarkā, delightful
to the females, shone like the welkin studded with stars (52). That city
was encircled by walls of sun-like and golden lustre, was filled with
golden houses and gates like white clouds and was adorned with palaces.
At some places the high roads were full of high palaces (54). As the
moon lights up the sky, so Krishna, the enhancer of the joy of the
Yadavas, encircled by his own people, began to live in that celestial
city abounding in jewels and built by Viswakarmā (55). Having laid out
that city resembling that of the celestials and been honored by Govinda
the Divine Architect repaired to the region of gods (56).

Thus when the city was laid out Krishna, who was conversant with the
knowledge of Spirit, felt a desire of gratifying his own people, who
were poor, with profuse riches (57). Thereupon in one night the powerful
Upendra invited the foremost of Nidhis, Sankha, who was an attendant of
the god of riches Vaishravana, to his own house. As desired by Keshava
the lord of Dwāravati, Sankha came to him. As he used to respect
Vaishravana, Sankha, humbly and with folded hands, bowed to him and
said:—"O lord, I am a guard of treasures of the gods. O descendant of
Yadu, O thou of large arms, tell me what command of thine I am to carry
out (57-61)" Hearing this Hrishikesha said to that best of Guhyakas
Sankha:—"Give enough of riches to those men of my city who have little
wealth. I do not like to see any man in this city unfed, lean, dirty and
poor and nor do I wish to hear any man cry out ’Give me some thing’

Vaishampāyana:—In order to satisfy Keshava’s order Sankha, the foremost
of Kuvera’s attendants, ordered them to shower heaps of wealth in every
house of Dwāravati and they accordingly did so. Therefore there remained
no man poor, or of limited means (64–65). Thereupon that Divine Purusha,
ever doing good by the Yādavas, sent for the (wind god) Vayu, the vital
air of animals, who, appearing before Gādādhara, seated alone, said "O
god, I am quick-coursing and can go everywhere. What shall I do for
thee? O sinless one, as I am an emissary of the gods, so I am yours".
Hearing this the mystic Purusha Krishna said to Vayu, the life of the
universe, present there in his own form:—"Go to the gods and their king
and offering them my respects beg of them the assembly Hall Sudharmā and
bring it to Dwarkā (66–71). O Vāyu, these pious Yādavas, endued with
prowess, will enter into it; therefore do not bring the false one; for
that undecaying assembly hall only, capable of going and assuming forms
at will, will be able to accommodate these god-like Yādavas (72–73)."
Hearing the words of Krishna of unwearied actions, Vāyu, in his course
fleet like the mind, repaired to the celestial region and communicated
to the gods Keshava’s complements and request. And then taking the
assembly-hall Sudharmā he returned on earth (74-75). Thereupon
presenting to the pious and energetic Krishna that Sudharmā hall the
wind-god disappeared (76). As it was placed in the land of celestials
for the gods so that Sudharmā hall was placed by Keshava in Dwaravati
for the leading Yadavas (77). Thus with divine, earthly and watery
articles the eternal and intelligent Hari decorated the city of
Dwāravati like unto his own wife (78). Thereupon having fixed the limits
of the city the emperor Ugrasena placed in their proper places the
commanders of armies and the heads of clans. He then settled in their
respective places the priest Sāndipani, the commander-in-chief
Anadhristhi, the foremost of ministers Vikadru, and the ten elderly
persons headed by Udhava, always engaged in Yadava’s works. Of the
car-warriors the mighty car-warrior Dāruka was appointed Keshava’s
charioteer and, Satyaki, the foremost of warriors, the commander of his
army (79–82).

Having made these arrangements for his city, the blameless Krishna, the
creator of the world, began to live happily on earth along with the
Yadavas. A few days after with Reshava’s consent Baladeva acquired the
good-natured daughter of Revata, by name Revati (83-84).


Vaishampāyana said:—In the meantime in order to satisfy the king of
Chedis the powerful Jarāsandha announced "A marriage with presents of
gold coins and ornaments will be celebrated between the king Shishupāla
and Bhishmaka’s daughter Rukshmini". And he then excited for battle the
highly powerful Suvaktra the son of Dantavakra, an expert in illusions
like unto the thousand-eyed deity, the highly powerful and energetic
Sudeva, the master of one Akshouhini of soldiers, and the son of
Vāsudeva, the king of Poundra, the highly powerful son of Ekalavya, the
son of Pandya king, the powerful king of Kalinga, the king Venudāri, an
enemy of Krishana’s, Aushumān, Krātha, Shrutarva, the kings of Kalinga
and Gāndhara, the highly powerful Praghasa, the king of Kashi and others

Janamejaya said:—"O foremost of the twice-born conversant with the
Vedas, in what country and in whose family the effulgent king Rukshmi
was born (9)?"

Vaishampāyana said:—Bidarbha, the son of royal saint Yādhava,
constructed a city by name Bidarbhi, on the southern side of the mount
Vindhya (10). His highly powerful and energetic sons, Kratha and others
became all kings of separate kingdoms and founded separate familes (11).
O king, of them the Vrishnis were born in the family of Bhima. Aushumān
was born in Kratha’s family and Bhishmaka, whom people call Hiranyaroma,
the king of Deccan, was born in Kaishika’s family. The king Bhishmaka,
who, living in the city of Kundina, used to govern the southern quarter
presided over by Agastya, had a son by name Rukshmi and a daughter by
name Rukshmini. The highly powerful Rukshmi obtained divine weapons from
Druma and Brahma weapon from Jamadagni’s son Rāma. He always used to
boast before Krishna of wonderful deeds (12–15). O king, Rukshmini was
of matchless beauty on earth and therefore the highly effulgent Vāsudeva
desired to possess her as soon as he heard of it (16). Rukshmini too,
hearing of Janārddana, endued with energy and strength, wished. "He only
will be my husband" (17). Filled with grief on account of Kansa’s death
and thinking "he is his enemy" the highly powerful Rukshmi did not
confer Rukshmini on the highly energetic Krishna although he prayed for
her (18). The emperor Jarāsandha begged that maiden, of Bhishmaka of
dreadful power, for the Chedi king Shishupala, the son of Sunitha (19).

The king Vrihadratha, who formerly made the city of Girivraja in the
province of Magadha, was the son of the Chedi king Vasu. In his family
was born the highly powerful Jarāsandha; and the Chedi king Damaghosha
was also born in the same family (20-21). Damaghosha begat on Vasudeva’s
sister Shrutashravā five sons of dreadful prowess, namely, Dashagriva,
Raivahy, Upadisha and Bali. They were all heroic, energetic, powerful
and well-versed in the use of all sorts of weapons (22–23). The king
Sunitha handed over to Jarāsandha, born in his own family, his son
Shishupāla, who brought him up just like his own son (24). In order to
please the highly powerful Jarāsandha, an enemy of the Vrishnis, under
whose protection he was brought up the Chedi king Shishupala quarrelled
with them (25). Kansa was Jarāsandha’s son-in-law. On account of his
being slain in the arena there took place a dissension between him and
the Vrishnis for Krishna (26). At that time the king of Magadha wanted
Rukshmini from the powerful Bhishmaka for Sunitha’s son Shishupāla. And
he too promised to confer her on him (27).

Thereupon the emperor Jarasandha, with Shishupala and Dantavakra,
started for Vidarbha. And the intelligent Poundra-king Vasudeva, the
highly powerful kings of Anga, Banga and Kalinga followed him (28-29).
By going out in advance Rukshmini honored those kings and welcomed them
to his city (30). In order to please their father’s sister Rāma and
Krishna, with the mighty Vrishni car-warriors and their army, went to
that city (31). Kratha, the king of Kaishika received and duly welcomed
those worshipful Yādhavas who lived outside the city (32). On the day
previous to that of the wedding, Rukshmini, gifted with all auspicious
marks, after the performance of benedictory rites, shining in her beauty
and on a car drawn by four horses and protected by soldiers, was going
from her house to that of Indra in order to worship Sachi (33–34).
Krishna saw, near the temple, Rukshmini, the best of beauties, like unto
the burning flame of fire, as if she were the goddess of illusions
descended on earth, or the goddess earth herself coming out of the
nether region, or the very goddess Shri (the goddess of prosperity) the
foremost of damsels, gentle like the rays of the moon, and separated
from her lotus, coming down on earth as his wife. That damsel of
dark-blue hue and large eyes, Rukshmini, was seated on a car. And though
the gods even could not see her with their mind Krishna could see her.
Her lips, eyes and the corners were coppery, thighs, hips and breast
were plump, her body was tall but thin and beautiful; her countenance
was like the moon, her nails were red; eye-brows were charming, hairs
were curling and black and her beauty was highly picturesque. Her face
was beautified by rows of equal and white teeth (35–40). Seeing the
beautiful Rukshmini, the foremost of damsels, clad in a blue raiment,
matchless in the world at that time for her beauty, fame and grace
Krishna’s desire grew powerful like fire to which clarified butter is
offered and his mind was attracted by her. Thereupon consulting with
Rāma before the Vrishnis he made up his mind for stealing her away

Thereupon as soon as Rukshmini came out of the temple after performing
the _puja_, Janārddana assailed all her bodyguards and took her away by
force to his own car (44). Rāma too, uprooting a huge tree, began to
send away the attacking enemies as guests to the house of Death (45).
According to the command of Baladeva the Dāshārhas too dressed
themselves completely; and various cars with unfurled flags, horses and
elephants encircled Rāma. Having entrusted the charge of that warfare
with Rāma, Yujudhāna, Akrura, Viprithu, Gada, Kritavarma, Chakradeva,
Sudeva, the highly powerful Sārana, Nivrittashatru, the valiant
Bhangakāra, Viduratha, Ugrasenā’s son Kanka, Shatadyumna, Rājādhideva,
Mridara, Prasena, Chitraka, Atidānta, Vrihaddurga, Shwaphalka, Satyaka,
Prithu and the other heroes of the Vrishni and Andhaka races, the
powerful slayer of Madhu, Keshava speedily set out for Dwārakā with
Rukshmini (46–52).

Armed with coats of mail the powerful Dantavakra, Shishupala and
Jarāsandha issued out in anger to kill Janārddana (52). The highly
powerful king of Chedi, too, went out with the kings of Anga, Banga,
Kalinga, and Poundra and his mighty car-warrior brothers (53). As the
gods, headed by Vasudeva, fight with their antagonists, so the highly
powerful Vrishnis, headed by Sangkarshana, gave them battle in anger
(54). In that great battle Satyaki, with six winged shafts, speedily
pierced the highly powerful Janārddana, who attacked them (55). When
Akrura struck Dantavakra with nine arrows, Kārusha king wounded him in
return with ten quick-coursing arrows (56). Struck by Viprithu with
seven shafts the powerful Shishupāla pierced him in return with eight
(57). Thereafter Gaveshana with six arrows, Atidānta with eight and
Vrihaddurga with five pierced the king of Chedi. He too, piercing each
of them in return with five arrows, killed the four horses of Viprithu
with four arrows (58-59). The next moment sundering Vrihaddurga’s head
with Bhalla, the king of Chedi, the slayer of his enemies, sent
Gaveshana’s charioteer to the abode of Yama. Leaving his car, the horses
whereof were slain the energetic and the highly powerful Viprithu
speedily got upon Vrihaddurga’s car. And his charioteer, getting upon
Gaveshana’s car, drove his quick-coursing steeds (60–62). Thereupon the
Yādavas, with bows and arrows in hands, angrily covered Sunitha with a
downpour of shafts, who was dancing on the car (63). Having pierced the
breast of Dantavakra with arrows in the battle-field Chakradeva as
sailed Praghasa with five arrows. He too was wounded by them both with
ten shafts cutting to the very vitals. Thereupon Shishupāla’s brother
Bali wounded Chakradeva with ten arrows and Viduratha with five. Then
the highly powerful Viduratha struck Bali with six sharpened arrows and
himself was wounded in return with thirty arrows. Having pierced
Vasudeva’s son with three arrows Kritavarma killed his charioteer and
struck down his standard. Seeing it Poundra wounded him in return with
six arrows and cut off his bow with his Bhalla. Vivrittashatru pierced
the king of Kalinga with sharpened arrows, and the king of Kalinga too,
struck him, in return, on the shoulder with an iron club. The valiant
Kanka made his elephant fall upon that of the king of Anga and wounded
his person with his club. Anga too assailed him with his arrows. The
mighty car-warriors Chitraka, Shwaphalka, and Satyaki struck the
car-warriors of Kalinga, with winged arrows. In the battle-field, Rāma
hurled a tree in anger and killed with it the king of Banga, and his
elephant. Having slain the king of Banga the valiant Sangkarshana got
upon his chariot and taking up a bow sent a number of Kaishikas to the
abode of Yama with his dreadful arrows. Thereupon having slain the great
bow-men Kārushas with six arrows, and killed a hundred horses of the
Magadha army that mighty-armed and powerful car-warrior ran towards
Jarāsandha. Beholding the holder of mace (Rāma) about to fall on him the
king of Magadha cut him with three winged arrows. He too, wounding him
in return with eight winged arrows, cut off with his Bhalla in anger his
golden standard. Thus there took place a terrible encounter between them
both showering arrows on and striking each other resembling that between
gods and demons. Engaged angrily in conflict with one another, the
elephant riders with the elephant riders, the car-warriors with the
car-warriors, the cavalry with the cavalry, the infantry armed with
spears, swords and armours with the foot-soldiers, they, cutting off
their heads respectively, began to range in the battle-field. There was
heard like the cries of the birds the sound of the fall of swords and
arrows on armours. The sound of bugles, conches, trumpets and flutes
covered that of weapons and the twang of bows of the great warriors


Vaishampāyana said:—Hearing that his sister had been carried away by
Krishna Rukshmi, filled with anger, promised before Bhishmaka saying "I
shall not return to the city of Kundina without slaying Krishna and
bringing back Rukshmini" (1–2). Saying this in anger the heroic Rukshmi
get upon a car abounding in dreadful weapons and flags. And surrounded
by a large army he speedily set out (3). Bhishmaka’s sons, the foremost
of car-warriors, Krātha, Angshuman Shrutarvā, the valiant Venudāri, the
kings of Deccan and other mighty car-warriors, headed by Kratha and
Kaishika followed him (4-5). Having wended a great distance in anger
they saw Govinda with his beloved wife near the river Narmada (6).
Having kept his army there proud Rukshmi, in order to fight a duel of
cars, went to the slayer of Madhu and pierced him with sixty four
sharpened arrows. Janārddana too wounded him in return with seventy
arrows (7-8). Although Rukshmi was very careful the highly powerful and
valiant Mādhava cut off the standard of his car and the head of his
charioteer from his body (6). Seeing him in difficulty the kings of
Deccan, bent upon killing him, encircled Janārddana (10). The mighty
armed Anshumāna struck him with ten arrows Shutarvā with five and
Venudāri with seven (11).

Thereupon when the energetic Govinda wounded the breast of Angshuman
that king, in pain, sat down on his car (12). Thereafter having slain
with four shafts the four horses of Shrutarvā Mādhava cut down
Venudāri’s standard and and wounded his right arm (13). The very next
moment he wounded Shrutava with five arrows who, in great-pain, sat
down, holding the standard of the car (14).

While Vāsudeva began thus to make a downpour of arrows, all the mighty
car-warriors, Krātha, Kaishika and others ran towards him (15).
Janārddana, in anger, cut off their arrows with his own. And although
they were very careful he wounded them all (16). Having wounded all
those kings with sixty four arrows that highly powerful one ran towards
other angry kings (17). Beholding his army taking to their heels
Rukshmi, filled with anger, wounded Keshava on the breast with five
sharpened arrows, his charioteer with three such shafts and sundered his
standard with a bent one (18-19). Piercing in anger, Rukshmi with sixty
arrows Keshava cut off his bow although he was very careful (20). Taking
up another such bow the energetic Rukshmi began to discharge celestial
weapons for killing Keshava (21). Counteracting his weapons with his own
the highly powerful Mādhava again cut off his bow and car with three
arrows (22). Thus having his bow and car sundered the heroic and valiant
king Rukshmi, taking up his sword and shield, jumped down from the car
(23). Beholding him thus leap down Keshava, in anger, cut off his sword
which fell down on the battle-field and pierced his breast with three
winged arrows (24). Thereupon the mighty-armed king Rukshmi, resounding
the whole earth, fell down unconscious like a mighty demon struck down
by a thunderbolt (55). Thereupon Keshava began to assail other kings
with his arrows. They however, beholding Rukshmi fallen, took to their
heels (26).

Beholding her brother lying down motionless on earth, Rukshmini, for his
life, fell at Vishnu’s feet (27). Keshava took up her, embraced and
consoled her. And then promising safety to Rukshmi he set out for his
own city (28).

On the other hand having vanquished Jarāsandha and others, the Vrishnis,
headed by Rāma, gladly set out for Dwarka (29). After the departure of
the lotus-eyed Keshava Shutarvā came to the battle-field, placed Rukshmi
on his own car and took him to his own city (30). Being unable to bring
back his sister and seeing his promise broken the haughty and sensitive
Rukshmi did not like to enter into the city of Kundina (31). For his
residence he built another city in the province of Bidharbha which is
celebrated on earth under the name of Bhojakata (32). Residing in that
city the highly powerful Rukshmi began to govern the southern districts
and the mighty-armed king Bhishmaka lived in the city of Kundina (33).
When Rāma, with the Vrishni army, arrived at Dwārakā the powerful
Keshavā duly espoused Rukshmini (34). Thereupon as did Rāma lively
happily with Sitā, as Purandara lived with Sachi, Puloma’s daughter so
he enjoyed in the company of his sweet partner (35). That beautiful,
good natured and chaste Rukshmini, endued with all accomplishments, was
the first wife of Krishna (36). The powerful Mādhava begat on her ten
sons—all mighty car-warriors, namely the highly powerful Pradyumna,
Chārudeshna, Sudeshna, Sushena, Charugupta, the valiant Charuvaha,
Chāruvinda, Suchāru, Bhadracharu and Chāru, the foremost of the strong
and a daughter by name Chārumati. They were all masters of weapons,
dreadful in battle and well read in religious lore and political science
(37-39). The mighty-armed Madhusudana married seven other beautiful and
accomplished maidens born in high families, namely Kālindi, Mitravinda,
Satya, the daughter of Nagnajita the king of Ayodhyā, Jāmvavati, the
daughter of Jāmvavan, Rohini capable of assuming forms at will, the
good-natured daughter of Madra king, Lakshmanā of fair eyes and
Satrājita’s daughter Satyabhāmā. Besides Gāndhāri, the daughter of
Shavya, like unto an Apsarā in beauty, was his another queen.
Hrishikesha, of unlimited prowess, simultaneously married sixteen
thousand maidens and enjoyed in their company simultaneously. They were
all used to luxuries and were honored with precious dresses and
ornaments of all sorts as they desired. And thousands of highly powerful
and great sons, whom Mādhava begat on them, were all great car-warriors,
endued with great strength, masters of all weapons and performers of
sacrifices and religious rites (40-45).


Vaishampāyana said:—After a few days the powerful Rukshmi, the slayer of
his enemies, announced that his daughter would make her choice of a
husband (1). For this invited by Rukshmi many rich and powerful kings
and princes came to his house from various countries (2). Prādyumna,
accompanied by other princes, went there. As soon as she saw him
Rukshmini’s daughter wanted to marry him. She too, endued with grace and
effulgence, was celebrated on earth for her beauty. Keshava’s son
therefore wished to espouse that one of fair eyes (3-4). Thereupon when
all the powerful kings took their seats in the Swayamvara hall, the
Bidarbha king’s daughter chose Pradyumna the slayer of enemies (for her
husband) (5). For he was a master of arms and well-built like a lion.
Besides Keshava’s son was peerless in beauty on earth (6). And that
beautiful, youthful and accomplished princess too was attached to him
like unto Nārāyanas’s wife Indra-senā (7). After the termination of the
Swayamvara the kings repaired to their respective cities and Pradyumna
too went to Dwārakā with the princess of Bidarbha with him (8). The hero
lived happily in her company as did Nala in that of Damayanti. Pradyumna
begat on her a son by name Aniruddha, like unto the son of a god and of
matchless deeds on earth. When, Aniruddha, coming of age, mastered the
Vedas, the science of archery and the moral laws, Mādhava selected the
beautiful gold-like Rukshmavati, the grand-daughter of Rukshmi, for his
wife (9–11). O Janamejaya, the highly illustrious and intelligent king
Rukshmi used always to show rivalry with Krishna; still, on account of
the eagerness of his son and Rukshmini he cast off his enmity and said
with delightedness "I confer Rukshmavati on Aniruddha endued with
accomplishments and of a peaceful nature (12–13)." On this occasion
Keshava, surrounded by his own army and accompanied by Rukshmini,
Sangkarshana, his own sons and other Yādavas, went to Bidarbha (14).
Rukshmi’s kinsmen, friends and allies came there also at his invitation
(15), O king, thereupon, in an auspicious day and under the auspicies of
a favourable planet Aniruddha’s wedding was celebrated with great
festivity. Thus when Aniruddha was married to the Bidarbha princess, the
Baidharvas and the Yadavas performed a great festivity. And adored there
like immortals the Vrishnis lived happily.

Thereupon the liberal king of Ashmaka, Venudāri, Rukshma’s son
Shrutarvā, Chānura, Krātha, Angshuman, the highly powerful king of
Kalinga, Jayatsena, the king Pārdya and the beautiful king of Rishka,
all these highly rich chiefs of Deccan spoke secretly to the powerful
Rukshmi:—"You are an expert in dice and we too wish to play; Rāma is a
novice. Therefore following you we wish to defeat Rāma". Thus accosted
the mighty car-warrior Rukshmi approved of (their proposal). Thereupon
they all delightedly entered into a beautiful hall with golden pillars
and its floor covered with flowers. And it was sprinkled with sandal
water. Those kings, decorated with beautiful garlands and unguents, and
desirous of scoring victory, entered into that hall and sat upon golden
seats (16–24). Invited by those deceitful kings expert in the game of
dice, Rāma gladly said:—"See I am sporting" (25). In order to vanquish
Revati’s husband with a deceitful play the Deecan chiefs brought to the
place of gambling innumerable jems, pearls and gold coins (26).

Thereupon there commenced the game of dice, the object of dreadful
quarrels, a source of ruin to the wicked-minded and foe to friendship
(27). In that game of dice with Rukshmi, Baladeva betted from ten to a
thousand gold coins (28). Although the highly powerful Baladeva was very
careful Rukshmi won that game and betted another such amount (29). Thus
repeatedly defeated by Rukshmi the highly powerful elder brother of
Keshava betted one _koti_ gold coins (30). Saying to the holder of mace,
’you are defeated’ and smiling the greatly wily Rukshmi threw his dice.
And with pride he again said "Although unconquerable in battle,
Baladeva, a novice and weak in a game of dice, has lost innumerable gold
coins to me" (31–32).

Hearing it the king of Kalinga, delightedly and showing his teeth,
laughed aloud. Hearing those words of Rukshmi relating to his defeat the
holder of ploughshare (Bala) was worked up with anger. Assailed by the
cutting words of Bhishmaka’s son, the pious son of Rohini, although a
master of anger, again invoked his rage. And although worked up with
ire, the highly powerful Rama, controlling his passions, calmly
said:—"My next bet is one hundred _koti_ gold coins, O king. Throwing
red and copper coloured dice in this sinful country take all this"
(33–37). Thus addressed by Rohini’s son, Rukshmi, the wretch of a man,
did not say anything at first, then saying "Very well" he again threw
his dice (38). When the dice, bearing four marks, were thrown by him
Rukshmi was rightly defeated by Rāma. But the descendant of Bhoja did
not admit it but smilingly said "I have won the game." Hearing those
deceiptful words Baladeva was again filled with anger and therefore did
not give any reply. Thereupon increasing the anger of the high-souled
Baladeva an invisible voice said solemnly like the muttering of
clouds—"Truly has said the beautiful Baladeva. Rukshmi has been defeated
in a fair play. Although they know at heart that they have been defeated
still they do not admit it in words. Though Baladeva says nothing, still
in fact, he has won the game. This is the truth (39–44)."

Hearing this well-expressed truthful word from the sky the powerful
Sangkarshena stood up and began to grind on earth, Rukshmi’s elder
brother with the huge dice board. Enraged at those words, Rāma, the
foremost of Yadus, slew with force that harsh-speeched and jealous
Rukshmi (45–46). Thereupon coming out therefrom in anger he struck down
the teeth of the Kalinga king and began to roar there in anger like a
lion. Then taking up a dagger he terrified all other kings. Afterwards
uprooting, like an elephant, the golden pillars of the hall and
terrifying the Kaishikas there Sangkarshana, the foremost of the strong,
came out of the door (47-49). As a lion assails the little deer so
having slain the wicked Rukshmi, Rāma, the foremost of Yadus, encircled
by his own men, returned to his tent and communicated to Keshava all
that had happened (50-51). The highly effulgent Krishna said nothing to
Rāma. Hearing of the death of her own brother and cursing her own self
Rukshmini began to shed tears in anger and said:—"Alas, Rukshmi,
powerful like Indra, the slayer of hostile heroes who had not been slain
by Vāsudeva before, has been slain in the gambling-hall with the dice
board hurled by Rāma." (52-54).

On the highly powerful son of Bhishmaka, Rukshmi, trained by Bhārgava,
and well-versed in warfare and active like Bhārgava himself, being slain
the Vrishnis and Andhakas were filled with sorrow. O foremost of
Bharatas, you have thus listened to how the Vrishnis became enemies, of
Rukshmi and how he was slain. O king, a few days after this incident the
Vrishnis, who were under Rāma and Krishna, came to the city of Dwāravati
with profuse _riches_ (55–58).


Janamejaya said:—O Saint, I wish to listen again to the glorious deeds
of the intelligent Baladeva, the personification of Shesa, the upholder
of the earth (1). Sages, well-read in Puranas, designate Baladeva, full
of effulgence as highly noble and the highly powerful prime deity
Ananta. O Vipra, therefore I wish to listen accurately to his deeds.

Vaishampāyana said:—In the Puranas this highly energetic and powerful
Baladeva is described as the Naga king Sesha, the mine of lustre, who
holds up the earth, as the foremost of Purushas, as a teacher of Yoga
and as the foremost of those who are well-read in the Mantras of the
Vedas. Many times he defeated Jarāsandha while fighting with clubs but
he did not kill him (4-5). The other celebrated kings, of earth who
followed the Maagdha emperor, were defeated by him in battle (6). In
wrestling with him even Bhima, of dreadful prowess, endued with the
strength of an Ayuta elephant, was defeated by him (7). On account of
his stealing awaya Duryodhana’s daughter Lakshmanā, Jamvavati’s son
Shāmva was confined by those princes in the city of Hastina. Hearing of
his confinement the highly powerful Rāma went to that city for releasing
him, but did not find him. Thereat worked up with anger that powerful
hero performed the following wonderful feat. Taking up his invincible,
incomparable, and celestial weapon, plough-share, powerful like that of
Brahma and fixing it on the wall of the city he thought of, throwing
that city of the Kauravas into the Ganges (8-12).

Beholding his city thus whirled the king Duryodhana sent Shamva with his
wife to the highly powerful Rāma and presented himself for his
discipleship. Rāma too accepted the Kuru king as his disciple in club
fighting. O king, from that time, this whirling city is seen bent
towards the ocean. O king, formerly in the Birandirava forest,
Halāyudha, the son of a hero, killed Pralamva, with one stroke of his
fist. This too is one of his deeds well-known on earth. He hurled up the
huge-bodied demon, Dhenuka, coming under the disguise of an ass and
threw him up on the top of a tree. And he too fell down dead on the
surface of the earth (13-17). The holder of plough-share made the great
river Yamuna, the sister of Yama, of quick-current and going towards the
ocean of salt water, turn her course towards the city. This too is one
of his wonderful deeds (18). O king, I have thus described to you the
powerful deeds of Baladeva of matchless strength, the personation of
Sesha passing under the name of Ananta. You shall, while listening to
the Purānas, hear of many other most excellent feats of Haladara, the
foremost of Purushas, which have not been described by me to day


Janamejaya said:—O great Muni, describe to me what the powerful Vishnu
did when he came over to Dwārāka after the destruction of Rukshmi (1).

Vaishampāyana said:—The beautiful and powerful lord Vishnu, having lotus
eyes, the enhancer of the delight of the Yadavas, encircled by them,
directed his mind towards Dwārakā (2) The diverse riches and jewels, he
could lay his hands on any where, he made the Rākshasas bring over to
his own house. The great Asuras, Dānavas and Daityas, who had acquired
boons, as also put in many obstacles at that time; but the mighty-armed
Mādhava destroyed them all (3–4).

O king, while Mādhava lived in Dwarakā, the Dānava Naraka, the great
enemy of the king of gods and a terror to the celestials, presented many
obstacles in his way (5). That Dānava, residing at Murtilinga, an
oppresser of all the gods, used always to oppose the celestials and the
Rishis (6). Once on a time Bhumi’s son Naraka, the king of Prāgyotish,
went to a place called Kasheru. There assuming the form of an elephant
he, by force, ravished Twastha’s daughter the beautiful Chaturdashi. And
shorn of fear or sorrow he foolishly said:—"From this very day, the
Rākshasas, Daityas and Dānavas will bring for me all the jems the gods
and men possess, all that the entire earth contains and all that lie in
the ocean." Saying this Bhumi’s son began to pilfer diverse riches and
clothes. But he did not enjoy them (7–11). The powerful Naraka carried
all the maidens of the gods, Gandharvas, men and the seven divisions of
the Apsaras (12). Thus sixteen thousand and one hundred chaste maidens,
wearing a single braid of hairs, were brought (13). The powerful Bhouma
made a house for them on the mount Mani in Alakā near the territory of
the Daitya Maru (14). There the ten daughters of Maru, those maidens and
the other leading Rākshasas used to carry out his command and adore him,
the king of Pragyotish. O king, the great Asura Naraka, who had obtained
a boon, lived on the bank of the blue ocean (15). Even all the Asuras,
collected together, could not perform before the dreadful feat which
this great demon did (16). O Janamejaya, for ear-rings the great demon
Naraka, whom the goddess earth gave birth to and whose capital was
Prāgyotish, oppressed even Aditi (17). He had four gate-keepers,
dreadful in battle, namely Hayagriva, Nisunda, Panchanada and the great
Asura Muru with his thousand sons, proud of his boon. Those warders,
terrors to those who perform pious deeds, used to occupy even the
aethireal way along with the Rākshasas in battle (18–19).

For his destruction. Vasudeva, of the Vishni race, begat the might-armed
Janārddana, holding conch, discus, club and sword, on Devaki. After
holding consultation with one another the celestials selected the city
of Dwārakā for the residence of the great Purusha Mādhava, of well-known
prowess on earth (20–21). Encircled by the great ocean and beautified
with five hills, that city of Dwārakā excelled that of Indra even in
beauty (22). The great assembly-hall in that city, resembling that of
gods, which extended over a _yojana_ and had huge golden door-ways, was
celebrated by the name of Dāshārha; and the leading members of the
Vrishni and Andhaka races, headed by Rāma and Krishna, used to carry on
their daily transactions there (23–24).

O foremost of Bharatas, once on a time while the Yādavas sat in that
hall there blew the wind carrying celestial fragrance and there was a
downpour of flowers (25). In a moment a great noise, covered with a net
of lustre, was heard in the sky. Within that effulgence, Vāsava was
seen, seated on a white elephant and encircled by the gods (26–27).
Rāma, Krishna and the king Ugrasena, with other leading Yādavas went out
and welcomed the king of gods (28). Afterwards coming down speedily from
that elephant chief the king of gods embraced Janārddana, Baladeva, the
king Ahuka and then the other Yādavas, in order of age and rank. And
then adored by Rāma and Krishna he entered into that magnificent
assembly-hall. Seated there and adoring it the king of gods duly
accepted _arghya_ and other articles of hospitality (29–31).

Then touching the auspicious countenance of his younger brother
(Krishna) with his hand the highly powerful Vāsudava addressed to him
the following consoling words (32). "O Devaki’s son, O slayer of Madhu
and of thy enemies, hear for what I have come to thee (33). Elated with
the boon conferred on him by Brahmā the great Asura Naraka has foolishly
stolen the ear-rings of Aditi (34). He always acts against the gods and
Brāhmanas and is on the look out for your loopholes. Do thou therefore
kill that sinful wretch (35). This Vinatā’s son Guruda, highly powerful,
capable of ranging anywhere and of assuming any strength and always
moving in the sky, will take thee there (36). O Upendra, Bhumi’s son,
Naraka, is unslayable by all creatures. Do thou soon kill that sinful
one and come back (37)."

Thus addressed by the king of gods, the mighty-armed and lotus-eyed
Keshava promised to kill Naraka (38). Then taking up his conch, discus,
club and sword, he, along with Satyabhāmā, sat on Garuda’s back and
immediately started with Sakra (39). Before the very eyes of the leading
Yadus, Keshava, assisted by the powerful Garuda, crossed the seven
regions of the wind-gods and rose high up (40). Then on account of the
distance the king of gods, seated on the elephant chief and Janārddana,
seated on Garuda, appeared like the sun and the moon (41). Thereupon the
Gandharvas and Apsaras chanting their glories in the sky they gradually
disappeared (42). Then advising as to what he should do Vāsava, the king
of gods, repaired to his own abode and Krishna went to the city of
Prāgyotish (43). At that time struck by the flapping of Garuda’s wings
the wind blew in a contrary direction and the sky rangers were assailed
by clouds of dreadful sound (44). By the help of that sky-ranging bird
Mādhava, in no time, reached his wished-for quarter, and seeing the
gate-keepers from distance he went where they were (45). Arriving at the
gate of the mount Mani he saw there elephants, horses, car-warriors and
six-thousand nooses sharp like razors (16).

Vaishampāyana said:—Then beholding the beautiful, four-armed Krishna,
holding conch, discus, club and sword, wearing a garland of wild flowers
round his neck, bearing the moon-like mystic mark Srivatsa on his
breast, with his head illumined with a crown effulgent like the sun or
moon accompanied by a lightning, looking like a blue ocean, and clad in
a yellow raiment, and hearing the dreadful twang of of his bow
resembling the fall of a thunder-bolt the Dānavas could understand that
Vishnu himself had come (47-49). Taking up his Sakti, adorned with
diamond and gold, the great Asura Muru, resembling Death himself, ran
toward him and hurled that huge weapon at him. Beholding that Sati, like
unto a burning fire-brand about to fall Vasudeva took up gold feathered
arrows. When the powerful Vāsudeva discharged that arrow burning like a
lightning it cut that Sakti into twain. When that Sakti was sundered
Muru, having his eyes reddened in anger, took up a huge club and
discharged it as the king of gods hurls his thunder-bolt. Having drawn
his crescent-shaped weapon to his ears Keshava, the foremost of gods,
cut off with it, in the middle the golden club. And with a Bhalla he cut
off the Dānava’s head (50-55).

Having thus slain Muru with his friends and cut off his nooses the Lord,
Devaki’s son, killed the highly powerful Rākshasa soldiers of Naraka.
And crossing the mountain he saw the Dānava host consisting of Nisunda,
Diti’s son Hayagriva and the other heroes capable of fighting in many
ways. Thereupon speedily getting upon his chariot and putting on a
strong celestial golden armour, the highly powerful Nisunda, with his
arms, obstructed Keshava’s path. Thereupon he pierced the slayer of
Keshi and Madhu with ten arrows who in return wounded him with seventy
winged shafts and cut off the Dānāvā’s arrow in the sky before they
could approach him. Then his army completely surrounded Keshava.
Although covered with the net-work of this arrows Janārddana, the
foremost of gods, was highly enraged at seeing those Dānavas and
withstood the Dāvnava army with a downpour of cloudy weapons and other
arrows (56-63). Thereupon assailing all of them with five arrows each he
pierced them to the very vitals with cloudy weapons. Filled with fear
the Dānava army fled away from the battle-field. Beholding his army thus
flying away he again came to the battle (64–65). And making a downpour
of arrows he covered Keshava. Neither the sun, the sky nor the ten
quarters were visible (66). Thereupon taking up a divine weapon, by name
Sāvitra, Hari, the foremost of Purushas, cut off his arrows in the
battle-field. Cutting off the arrows of the Dānavas with his own the
highly powerful Krishna sundered his umbrella with one arrow and the
pole of his car with three. And again destroying his four horses with
four arrows he killed his charioteer with five and cut off his standard
with one. Afterwards with a highly sharpened and whetted Bhalla,
Krishna, the foremost of gods, cut off Nisunda’s head who, alone, in the
days of yore, had fought with the gods for a thousand years (66–71).

Beholding Nisunda thus slain the foremost of Asuras, Hayagriva,
effulgent like a mountain, took up a huge rock and vauntingly hurled it
with great force. Thereupon taking up his celestial cloudy weapon and
discharging it Vishnu, the foremost of those conversant with the use of
weapons, sundered the rock into seven and the stones fell down on earth.
O foremost of Bharatas, with huge arrows of diverse colors discharged
off the Sranga bow there set in a dreadful battle, abounding in various
weapons like that between the gods and demons. Thus seated on Garuda the
mighty-armed Janārddana began to destroy the demons; what more, all the
Dānavas, who approached Nārāyana, were wounded with the huge ploughshare
and killed with arrows and swords. Some, consumed by the fire of the
discus, fell down from the sky, and some, coming near, gave up their
ghost with grim-visaged countenance. And although mutilated with the
arrows of Krishna, some Asuras, capable of fighting in many ways, began
to make a downpour of arrows like unto clouds discharging their watery
contents. Their persons were besmeared with blood like blossoming
Kisgsuka trees and they, with their weapons broken and filled with
fright, took to their heels (77–80). Thereupon with his eyes red hot in
anger the Dānava Hayagriva again, with velocity of the wind, drew a tree
ten fathoms high (81). Uprooting speedily that tree, the cloud-colored
Hayagriva ran and hurled it with such a force by virtue of his training,
that the huge sound, caused by the tree passing through air, was heard
by every body. With a thousand arrows, Janārddana speedily and
wonderfully cut that tree into many pieces and with one shaft struck
Hayagriva on the breast. That arrow, burning like fire, with great force
entered into the breast of the Dānava and came out piercing his very
vitals (82–85). The dreadful Janārddana, of unlimited prowess, the
enhancer of the delight of the Yādavas, killed that highly powerful and
irrepressible Hayagriva who alone formerly fought with the gods for one
thousand years. Having thus slain the grim-visaged and the iniquitous
Hayagriva in the province of Lohitanga in a city encircled by walls and
killed eight hundred thousand Dānavas Devaki’s son, the Lord, the
foremost of Pursushas and the slayer of his enemie’s, set out for the
city of Pragyotish (86–87).

Having entered the shining city of Prāgyotish, the highly powerful
Keshava, after many encounters, killed Naraka’s follower, the great
Asura Panchajana, and blew his conch Pānchjanya. That blare, grave as
the muttering of clouds and that of the whirlpool, was heard every where
all over the three worlds. Hearing that sound the eyes of the heroic
Naraka were reddened with anger. And getting upon his celestial car he
shone like the evening sun. It had eight iron wheels, was colored in
gold and red paints, had spacious seats, had golden flags and pennons
with golden standards. It had a pole set with diamonds and pearls, was
drawn by a thousand horses, was covered with an iron net work, was
filled with various weapons and made of gold. At that time Naraka’s face
looked effulgent like a fire-brand. And he appeared highly beautiful
with his white, and moon-like breast plate. On his head shone a crown of
sun-like lustre and his ears were shining with a pair of Kundalas
(88–96). Putting on diverse sorts of armours, the tawny-coloured,
grim-visaged and huge-bodied Daity as Dānavas, and Rākshasas issued out;
of them some had swords and shields, some had arrows and quivers, some
had Saktis and some had lances. Those well-armed heroes, expert in
fighting, rode elephants and horses and issued out of the city shaking
the earth. Encircled by Daityas Naraka, like unto Death him self, while
proceeding, heard on all sides the sound of thousands of bugles, conchs,
Mridangas and trumpets resembling the muttering of clouds (91-100).

Those grim-visaged heroes unitedly went, where Krishna was waiting and
began to fight with him. Those soldiers covered Vāsudeva with a
down-pour of arrows (101-102). Discharging thousands of Saktis, maces,
lances and arrows they covered the welkin (103). Moving his Srānga bow,
the twang whereof was like the muttering of a cloud, hither and thither,
Janārddana, looking like a dark-blue cloud, began to make a down-pour of
arrows on the Dānavas. And with it their highly powerful soldiers were
greatly assailed. Thus there took place a dreadful encounter between him
and the fierce-looking Rakshasas; and wounded by Krishna’s arrows the
Dānavas were routed (104-106). Some of the Dānavas had their arms broken
and some were wounded on the head and neck; some were cut in twain by
the discus and some were wounded on the breast with arrows (107). Of the
car-warriors, elephant-riders and cavalry some were cut into two pieces
and some were wounded with arrows and lances (108). Thus the entire
army, consisting of elephants, horses, and cars, was completely crushed
down. There took place a highly dreadful encounter in that battle
between him and Naraka (109). Listen to it, I shall describe it briefly.
The energetic Naraka, the terror of gods, fought with the foremost of
Purushas, Madhusudana, like Madhu himself. When in that battle, the
heroic Naraka, like unto Death himself, took up with reddened eyes, a
huge bow resembling that of Sakra, Keshava, taking up an arrow like the
fierce ray of the sun, filled his car with celestial weapons. Thereupon
when taking up a huge weapon the powerful Naraka was about to withstand
the great and war-like slayer of Madhu Janārddana, having a countenance
effulgent like lightning, he cut off that weapon with his discus and
sent his charioteer to the abode of Death with one arrow. Then
destroying the car with horses and standards with ten arrows the slayer
of Madhu cut his coat of mail with one arrow. Thereupon having his
horses slain, and stripped of his coat of mail like a serpent shorn of
its skin, the heroic Dānava Naraka, all on a sudden, took up a strong
iron dart effulgent like a lightning and sent it down whirling. Seeing
that dart covered with gold, about to fall down, Krishna, of wonderful
deeds, cut it off into two pieces with his razor-shaped weapon. Thus
there went on a dreadful encounter with that highly powerful and
grim-visaged Rākshasa Naraka, abounding in most excellent weapons.
Fighting with Naraka for a moment the dreadful Janārddana cut him into
two pieces with his effulgent discus. His body, sundered into twain with
the discus, fell on earth like a mountain summit clapped by a
thunder-bolt. It appeared that the sun was enshrouded by Krishna-like
black clouds (110—122). Naraka’s head, cut off by the discus, appeared
on the battle-field like unto a mountain of minerals clapped by a
thunderbolt (123). Beholding his son slain, Bhumi came with the pair of
Kundalas to Govinda and said "O Govinda, thou dost sport as a boy plays
with his toys. Thou hast with thy own hand killed him whom thou didst
give. O Lord, however, do thou accept these Kundalas for which thou hast
slain Naraka, and protect his children (124-126)".


Vaishampāyana said:—Having slain Bhumi’s son Naraka powerful like
Vāsava, Vishnu, the younger brother of Indra began to search his house
(1). Having arrived at the Treasury of Naraka, Janārddana saw there,
diamonds, pearls, corals, sapphires, emeralds, and various other jems,
gold, heaps of jewels and other precious articles, a highly costly bed
shining like the moon, a lion-shaped throne effulgent like burning fire,
and a huge and beautiful umbrella of the hue of the clouds of the rainy
season, of the lustre of the moon and with a golden standard. O
Janamejaya, I have heard that there was also the golden fountain of
hundreds and thousands of streams, which he had brought from Varuna;
what more, we had never seen or heard of even in the palaces of Kuvera,
Yama and Indra, the collection of jewels that was in Naraka’s treasury.
Bhumi’s son Naraka, Nisunda and Hayagriva being slain, the surving
warders of his Treasury took to Keshava those costly jems and the
damsels of the seraglio, considering them as worthy of him (2-10).

The Daityas said:—O Janārddana, all these various jems and riches, these
goods made of corals, these beautiful flags set with golden threads,
these twenty thousand grim-visaged elephants carrying bows, _Tomaras_
and other weapons such-like forty-thousand she-elephants, and eight lacs
of horses of most excellent breed have been brought to thee. And we will
take to the houses of the Andhakas and Vrishnis as many kine as thou
shalt desire to have. O Lord, we will despatch to the houses of the
Yādavas, bed-steads of fine workmanship, seals, beautiful birds, sandal
and Aguru woods and other jems both in mountains or collected from the
three worlds that are in Naraka’s palace. There are now in Naraka’s
houses all the riches and jems that were formerly in the possession of
the gods, Gandharvas and Pannagas (11-17).

Vaishampāyana said:—Having accepted all those jewels and examined them,
Hrishikesha, the slayer of Madhu, sent them all speedily to Dwāravati
through the Danavas (18). Taking himself the Varuni umbrella capable of
showering gold, he rode Garuda that foremost of birds, the very
personification of a cloud, and set out for the foremost of mountains
Mani (19–20). Janārddana saw there on the mount Mani, gates, summits of
sapphire decorated with flags and doors. At that time adorned with rows
of palaces painted in golden colours, the entire mount Mani shone like a
cloud adorned with lightings. Madhusudana saw there the pure,
gold-coloured and plump-hipped daughters of the Gandharvas and leading
Asuras whom Naraka had carried away by force and confined there.
Although deprived of all sorts of enjoyments, still residing there as if
in the city of the celestials, they lived happily like celestial
damsels. And nobody, on account of Naraka’s powers, could take them away

In order to behold the large-armed Krishna, the foremost of Yadus, the
damsels, controlling their senses, emaciated on account of the
observance of vows and fastings, clad in silken raiments and with one
braid of hairs approached Janarddana with folded hands and stood
encircling him. They fearlessly surrounded Krishna because they had
learnt of the death of the great Asuras Naraka, Mura, Hayagriva and
Nisunda. The elderly Mānavas who were their guards, although more aged,
bowed to Krishna, the descendant of Yadu, with folded hands. Beholding
the moon-like countenance of the large-armed Krishna, those beautiful
damsels were all worked up with desire and wished to select him as their
husband. And they accordingly with joyous hearts said:—(27–32). "What
the celestial saint Nārada, knowing the hearts of all creatures, and the
Wind-god had said to us before, is all true. They said that the
Universal Lord Nārāyana, the holder of conch, discus and club, slaying
Bhumi’s son Naraka, would in no time become our husband. We behold now
our beloved lord, the slayer of his enemies of whom we have been hearing
for ever. Oh! we have been blessed to-day by seeing this high-souled
deity" (33–35).

Thereupon having delightedly welcomed those lotus eyed damsels Vāsav’s
younger brother consoled them all. Having welcomed those ladies duly the
lotus-eyed Keshava, the slayer of Madhu took them all to Dwāraka in a
car protected by servants (36–37). Then there arose a great tumult of
the Rākshas quick-coursing like air, while carrying the vehicle.
Uprooting the most charming and brilliant summit of that best of
mountains, Vishnu the foremost of the strong rode that best of birds
Garuda. It was like the clear sun and the moon, had gates made of jewels
and gold, abounded in birds, deer, various animals and elephants, was
beautified with trees and filled with monkeys. It had spacious rocks,
boars, buffaloes and antelopes. Its table-land was filled with springs
and it had various sorts of trees. Many beasts and peacocks were roving
there and it was wonderful above all comprehension (38–43). Garuda the
king of birds easily carried Janarddana with his wife and the mount Meru
(44). With the flapping of his strong wings, that king of birds, huge
like a big mountain summit, raised up a tumultuous sound on all sides
(45). By the weight of his feet the mountain tops were all broken down,
the trees were uprooted, huge clouds were dispersed and some of them
assumed a wonderful form (46). In this way, as desired by Janarddana
that bird, fleet like the wind, went beyond the paths of the sun and the
moon (47). O Emperor, O thou the slayer of thy enemies, gradually
Keshava, the destroyer of his foes, arrived at the mount Sumeru and saw
the abodes of the celestials. And then crossing the shining babitations
of the Viswadevas, Sadhyas, Maruts, the two Aswins and other auspicious
regions, he arrived at the land of gods, and entered into the palace of
their king. Coming down from Garuda’s back, Madhava there met the king
of gods. And Indra too welcomed him with great delight. Giving to the
king of gods the pair of ear-rings belonging to Aditi and saluting him,
Janarddana, the foremost of men, along with his wife, was welcomed by
him in return. Puloma’s daughter duly received Satyabhāmā (48-53).

Thereupon Vasava and Vasudeva together with their wives repaired to the
prosperous abode of Aditi, the mother of celestials. Arriving there,
those two great gods saw the Asuras, seated all around worshipping the
great Aditi engaged in Tapas (54-55). Placing Janārddana before him,
Aditi’s son and Sachi’s lord Purandara approached his mother, saluted
her, gave her over the pair of ear-rings and narrated the glorious deeds
of Keshava. Hearing them, Aditi was pleased and took up her two sons on
her lap. And welcoming them with auspicious blessings, she honoured
them. Thereafter Puloma’s daughter and Satyabhama with great delight
saluted the feet of the goddess Aditi with veneration; welcoming them
duly with affection, the illustrious mother of the gods said to
Keshava:—"My son, as this king of gods is worshipful to all the worlds,
so you are unslayable by all creatures. This most excellent of all your
wives, this beautiful and pleasant looking Satyabhāma celebrated in all