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Title: Water Power for the Farm and Country Home
Author: Cooper, David R.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  Equal signs “=” before and after a word or phrase indicate =bold=
    in the original text.
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                           STATE OF NEW YORK
                     STATE WATER SUPPLY COMMISSION

                    HENRY H. PERSONS, =President=.
                            MILO M. ACKER,
                            CHARLES DAVIS,
                           JOHN A. SLEICHER,
                           ROBERT H. FULLER,
                                          =COMMISSIONERS=

                           DAVID R. COOPER,
                                     =Engineer-Secretary=.

                           WALTER MCCULLOH,
                                    =Consulting Engineer=.

                       LYON BLOCK, ALBANY, N. Y.



                              Water Power
                                FOR THE
                         Farm and Country Home

                          BY DAVID R. COOPER
                          Engineer-Secretary

                New York State Water Supply Commission

                            Second Edition

             PRINTED FOR THE STATE WATER SUPPLY COMMISSION
                 BY J. B. LYON COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS
                                ALBANY

[Illustration]



WATER POWER FOR THE FARM AND COUNTRY HOME


BY DAVID R. COOPER

In the course of its general investigations of the water powers
of the State, the Water Supply Commission has heretofore confined
its attention to the possibilities for large developments, and the
regulation of the flow of rivers and large creeks. No previous or
general investigation of small creeks and brooks and their power
possibilities has been made, not because they were considered
unimportant, but because the Commission believes that if the State
decides to take an active part in the regulation of the flow of streams
and the development and conservation of water powers, it should
confine its first activities to the larger units, leaving the smaller
opportunities for later examination and for private and individual
development. However, no comprehensive system of conservation can meet
with universal favor unless it contemplates the prevention of waste,
great or small, and wherever found.

Accordingly, the Commission desires to call attention to the
valuable power which is now running to waste in thousands of small
creeks and brooks in all sections of the State. Many of these minor
streams present possibilities for small individual developments of
power sufficient to supply all the requirements of the owner at a
comparatively small cost. Numerous farms in the State have on them
brooks or creeks capable of supplying power sufficient to furnish
electric light for all the buildings. Others would also furnish power
enough to drive a feed grinder, a churn or cream separator, or to run a
wood saw, sewing machine or other machines and implements requiring a
small amount of power for their operation. In short, there are numerous
small streams now tumbling over ledges in barnyards or pastures whose
wasted energy might readily be transformed and applied to useful work
by the installation of small and inexpensive water-power plants. If the
power of more of these were developed and substituted for manual labor,
a great saving of time and energy would be accomplished, and financial
profit would result.

[Illustration: Modern Application of Hydro-electric Power Vacuum
Milking Machines]

After the initial expense of installing the plant is paid, the cost
of a small water power is inconsiderable, the plant requiring little
personal attention and small expense for supplies and repairs. However,
while the power of some streams may be developed at an amazingly
small cost, in other instances the cost may be prohibitive. In this
connection, one fact that is perhaps not fully appreciated is that
the power of a waterfall is comparatively permanent, only its rate of
availability being limited. While the stream may shrink in the dry
summer and fall, it is quite certain to swell again in the spring and
to continue the process, year after year, as the source of supply is
continually renewed. But the power which might have been, but was not
developed in the year 1910, cannot be reclaimed in 1911 or ever after.
Much of the power that is wasted by inequality of the flow of the
stream may be saved by conservation through water storage; but this
sometimes involves a large outlay and therefore, generally speaking,
the fullest use of the power of a small stream can best be obtained by
using the stream as it runs, or at best after temporary storage behind
inexpensive dams.

[Illustration: “Luminous” Electric Radiator]

The Water Supply Commission believes that the possibilities for small
water powers should be pointed out to the people of the State in order
that there may be a better realization of the usefulness and value of
this remarkable natural resource and that the farmers and residents of
rural districts may take advantage of the opportunities to conserve and
utilize them. It is believed that some facts relating to the utility
of power in general and small water powers in particular, together
with descriptions of some typical small water-power developments
that are now in actual operation, and brief notes as to how such a
power may be developed and applied, will suffice to bring the subject
forcibly to the attention of those most interested, and furnish at
least a beginning for observations in this comparatively new field,
and stimulate a tendency to a more general utilization of this source
of power, and a consequent saving of much energy now secured from
coal, wood and other exhaustible producers of power. Accordingly, the
following discussion of the many and varied uses for power on the
modern farm, together with descriptions of developments now in use, and
notes on developing a small water power, are submitted in the hope that
they may be of interest and service to those who have chosen farming
for their livelihood or pleasure, especially by assisting them in the
consideration as to whether or not it may be worth while to develop the
power of any particular stream. These discussions and descriptions are
not intended to suffice as a practical handbook for laying out a power
plant, but merely to point the way to an intelligent consideration of
the possibilities, by showing what others have done and laying down
a few fundamental principles, which should properly be taken into
consideration in determining upon the development of a small water
power.



USES FOR POWER ON THE FARM


The impossibility of securing a sufficient number of capable and
satisfactory farm hands in these days, when the majority of young men
are turning to the populous centers for their livelihood, is perhaps
the most compelling reason why machines which can be substituted for
manual labor are a decided advantage to the up-to-date farmer. Their
adoption as a part of the permanent equipment for the farm should
render their owner comparatively independent of some of the problems of
supply and demand for farm labor, the solution of which problems is
an important factor in determining the success or failure of the
farmer who disposes of his produce in open market. This condition is
supplemented by a commendable tendency for farmers to live better, to
place the home life of the farm on a higher plane, and to make farming
a means of pleasurable livelihood rather than the mere eking out of
a bare subsistence from the products of the soil. These conditions,
together with the greatly improved quality of illumination and
convenience which electricity affords, are creating a growing demand
for a reliable and reasonably economical source of energy with which to
supply both light and power on the larger estates and farms.

[Illustration: Motor Lifting a Ton of Hay, Hydro-electric Power]

[Illustration: Electric Toaster]

That electric light is much cleaner and more convenient than kerosene
lamps must, of course, be admitted by all. It must also be admitted
that a kerosene lamp of any considerable illuminating power has also
certain heating propensities which render it an unpleasant companion
on a warm summer evening. However, when it comes to a consideration
of mere dollars and cents, there seems to be a widespread belief that
kerosene as a source of illumination is cheaper than electricity.
Statements to this effect are too often allowed to go uncontradicted,
and too many people accept this view without taking the trouble to
investigate.

It is a comparatively simple matter to compare the cost of the two
kinds of light, knowing as we do exactly how much current an electric
lamp of a certain filament and candle-power will consume. Such a
comparison will frequently result in a choice of electricity as the
cheaper light. In many cases the selection of electricity to supplant
kerosene lamps would result in no considerable saving of money, but
would do away with considerable inconvenience and furnish much better
illumination. If cost is the controlling consideration, the comparison
cannot always be so much in favor of electricity. An important
consideration, often overlooked, is that with electric lights the
interiors of living rooms do not require such frequent repapering or
refinishing as they would require with kerosene illumination.

[Illustration: Motor-driven Sewing Machine]

However, the convenience and cleanliness of electricity are fairly well
known and appreciated, but the means by which electric currents may be
generated economically, and by which this form of energy may be applied
to bring about sufficient returns, financial and otherwise, to warrant
the installation of an isolated plant for a farm or country home, are
not so generally understood.

Electric current may be generated by means of a dynamo, or generator,
with any kind of a power-producing plant. All that the dynamo requires
to enable it to produce electric current is power of some kind that
may be applied in such manner and quantity as will cause the armature,
or “interior core,” of the machine to rotate at a sufficiently high
and uniform rate of speed. There are various kinds of power generators
which will perform this work satisfactorily for isolated plants. Within
the last few years the small internal combustion engine, supplemented
by the electric storage battery, for stationary service, have been so
much improved and simplified as to cause them to compare very favorably
with the better-known types of power-producing apparatus in first cost
and in reliability of operation. The extreme simplicity of both this
type of engine and of the storage battery, together with the great
economy in fuel consumption of these engines, the low price of fuel,
and the efficiency of the battery as a device for storing the energy
and delivering it in the form of electric current when needed and in
the quantity required, result in a low operating cost. The advent of
tax-free alcohol into the field of available fuels for use in internal
combustion engines, and the growing demand for this class of fuel,
indicate that it will become, in time, a strong competitor of kerosene
and gasolene. At present, gasolene is the fuel most generally used for
engines of this type and small-size gas engines are now manufactured by
many firms.

Steam power is probably the best understood of all classes of power. In
many cases, especially where the fuel is very cheap, this is the best
power for a farmer to have. Steam-power plants, as well as gasolene,
kerosene and alcohol plants, all require personal attendance during
operation and necessitate more or less frequent applications of fuel.
Wind power is also a source of energy which may well be considered by
the farmer who needs a small amount of power.

Perhaps the most promising source of power for farmers in New York
State is the power that may be developed from falling water. This kind
of a power plant requires comparatively little personal attention
while in operation, and needs no replenishing of fuel except such as
Nature herself provides in the flowing brook. Not only are there many
of these powers that are undeveloped as yet, but there are many others
which have been developed at some previous time and have recently been
allowed to fall into disuse for various reasons. Many old sawmills were
abandoned when the surrounding hills were all lumbered off. A small
investment would enable many such old powers to be revived and applied
to some useful purpose. Such a water-power plant could frequently be
made to serve the owner or a group of users of electric current at very
small first cost for each individual, and at an operating cost which
would be inconsiderable.

It should be borne in mind, however, that much depends on the choice of
the best power for any particular purpose, and a careful consideration
of what is needed, and the conditions under which the power must be
supplied, is essential to insure satisfaction with a power plant.
In any particular instance a manufacturer of small waterwheels will
cheerfully submit an estimate for a water-power plant, while the
makers of steam and gasolene engines will quite as readily furnish any
information to be based on data furnished by the intending purchaser.

[Illustration: Motor-driven Ice Cream Freezer]

The extent of the applications of power to practical purposes on the
farm is very broad. While perhaps electric lighting is the use most
frequently thought of, it is, however, in the application of electric
current or power to the operation of labor-saving devices that the
greatest gain is to be derived on the large farm or country place. Feed
grinders, root cutters, fodder cutters, fanning mills, grindstones,
circular saws, corn shellers, drill presses, ensilage cutters and
elevators, horse clippers, milking machines, grain separators,
threshing machines, cream separators, churns, vacuum cleaners,
ice cream freezers, dough mixers, feed mixers, chicken hatchers,
and numerous other machines and implements operated by power, are
obtainable in these days of labor-saving devices. The amount of power
required to operate many of these is small. The presence of a plant of
sufficient capacity to operate one or two particular machines often
makes it possible to use the power for many of the other purposes.
The amount of work that a small power will do may be judged from the
following brief statements of what is actually being done:

[Illustration: Motor-driven Cream Separator

Note small size of motor]

Six horsepower will drive a grain separator and thresh 2500 bushels of
oats in ten hours.

Three horsepower furnishes all power needed to make 6000 pounds of milk
into cheese in one day.

Six horsepower will run a feed mill grinding twenty bushels of corn an
hour.

Five horsepower grinds twenty-five to forty bushels of feed, or ten to
twelve bushels of ear corn, an hour.

Seven horsepower drives an eighteen-inch separator, burr mill and corn
and cob crusher and corn sheller, grinding from twelve to fifteen
bushels of feed an hour, and five to eight bushels of good, fine meal.

Six horsepower runs a heavy apple grater, grinding and pressing 200 to
250 bushels of apples an hour.

Five horsepower will drive a thirty-inch circular saw, sawing from
fifty to seventy-five cords of stovewood from hard oak in ten hours.

[Illustration: Electric Ironing]

Six horsepower saws all the wood four men can pile in cords.

Twelve horsepower will drive a fifty-inch circular saw, sawing 4000
feet of oak, or 5000 feet of poplar, in a day.

Ten horsepower will run a sixteen-inch ensilage cutter and blower, and
elevate the ensilage into a silo thirty feet high at the rate of seven
tons per hour.

One horsepower will pump water from a well of ordinary depth in
sufficient quantity to supply an ordinary farmhouse and all the
buildings with water for all the ordinary uses.

In determining the size of power plant required in any particular
instance the use requiring the largest amount of power must be
considered. It follows that there will then be plenty of power for the
smaller requirements. In considering a water power it should also be
borne in mind that the full theoretical amount of a water power can
never be realized, a certain portion being taken up in friction in the
waterwheel and in losses in the electric generator, transmission lines,
motors, etc. The question as to how much may be made available will be
discussed hereinafter.

Following are descriptions of some typical water-power developments in
use in this State at the present time.



FARM WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT IN ONEIDA COUNTY


[Illustration: Electric Hot Plate]

On the outskirts of the village of Oriskany Falls, in Oneida county,
N. Y., is a farm of about 100 acres, belonging to Mr. E. Burdette
Miner. This community was at one time one of the principal hop-raising
districts of the State. Mr. Miner has been engaged in raising hops for
fifty years, and raised 10,000 pounds of hops on seven acres the past
season. In recent years he has divided his attention between mixed
farming and dairying, keeping from twenty to twenty-five cows.

Before the installation of his water power, not the least of the
irksome tasks about the farmhouse was the daily filling and cleaning
of kerosene lamps and lanterns; and the wood was sawed, and the cream
separator and churn in the dairy room were operated, by hand. Five sons
contributed in no small measure to the prompt disposal of the daily
tasks. But the boys went forth into the world and acquired lines of
activity and interest of their own. Only the oldest son remained to
live on the farm. Another son studied electrical engineering, a third
chose mechanical pursuits, a fourth became a civil engineer, and a
fifth took up commercial work.

[Illustration: Electric Coffee Percolator]

After coming in touch with the outer world and the great modern
achievements of science and invention, especially of a mechanical or
engineering character, the boys quite naturally set their wits to work
to devise some way in which the daily labors of those at home might be
made less burdensome.

Through the farm flows Oriskany creek, which ripples over its gravelly
bed in a channel from twenty to thirty feet wide. The boys said to
their father, “Why not harness the creek and make it do some of the
work?” There was no precipitous fall of the creek on the farm, but
the boys proposed to concentrate at least a portion of the fall by
constructing a dam. This they intended to do primarily for the purpose
of developing enough power to light the homestead and farm buildings
with electricity and to saw the wood and do away with some of the other
tiresome farm tasks.

The elder Miner was not enthusiastic at first, but was finally
persuaded by the boys, who made surveys and plans for a water-power
development, and in October, 1905, with the assistance of three of his
boys and two day laborers, Mr. Miner began the construction of a dam
across the creek. This was to be no ordinary structure. The creek,
while peaceful enough at most times, had a habit, well known to Mr.
Miner, of bursting its bounds every spring and rushing through the farm
in a torrent. So the dam was built in such a way that, while it would
raise the water to a certain height during periods of ordinary flow, it
would not cause the floods to rise perceptibly higher than before the
dam was built. Accordingly, it was designed so that a part of it could
be lowered at flood times to allow free passage for the swollen stream.

[Illustration: Dam of E. B. Miner, Oriskany Falls, N. Y.

Main dam at left; flood spillway at right]

The bed of the stream at the site selected for the dam is composed of
solidly packed gravel. It was not considered advisable to lay timbers
on such a foundation, so a ditch about two feet deep and one and
one-half feet wide was dug across the creek bed and filled with
concrete, to which a heavy timber was securely bolted, to form the
upstream sill for the super-structure. The downstream side was
supported on a sill of heavy timber whose ends were embedded in the
concrete walls, or abutments, at either end of the dam and whose middle
portion was supported by posts, spaced six feet apart, which in turn
rested on large blocks of concrete placed in the bed of the creek.
This downstream sill was about two and one-half feet higher than the
upstream sill. A horizontal floor of double plank extending twelve
feet downstream from the upstream sill and supported by the concrete
foundations under the downstream sill formed an apron for the water to
fall on. This prevents back-washing under the dam. A double layer of
heavy plank was then fastened on the two sills, forming a sloping face
on the water side of the dam. On the upper edge of this plank-facing,
at the crest of the dam, are placed flashboards, one foot high and
extending the full length of the dam, thirty-six feet, but divided into
six sections, each six feet long. Each of these sections is hinged by
the lower edge to the crest of the dam, while the upper edge is held
from tipping over by chains fastened to cast-iron lugs located about
halfway down the planking. The chain is held in these lugs by pins
which are connected by rod and chain to a capstan, or spindle, located
at one end of the dam, and are so arranged that by turning the spindle
the pins will be drawn successively, thereby letting the flashboards
down one at a time. The idea of this arrangement is that, when a flood
is rising, the capstan may be turned with a heavy lever crank, winding
up the chain and pulling down the flashboards one at a time, to give
more space for the flood to pass through so as to prevent the water
upstream from the dam from rising too high. This plan has prevented the
washing away of Mr. Miner’s power house on several occasions.

[Illustration: Farm Power House on Oriskany Creek

Dam in left background; tail-race in right foreground]

The sloping face of the dam receives the direct pressure of the water
and transfers it to the sills, which in turn transfer it to the
concrete foundation. The reason for sloping the upstream face of the
dam is that the pressure of water is always normal, or perpendicular,
to the surface against which it presses; therefore, if the face of the
dam is sloping, the pressure is downward, rather than outward, as would
be the case with a vertical face. This results in greater stability for
the dam, due to the lessened tendency to tip over. With a dam of this
type the higher the water rises against or over it, the more nearly
vertical is the line of pressure, and the dam is held tightly down on
its foundation instead of tending to tip over. It follows that the
flatter the face of the dam the more stable it will be. Mr. Miner’s dam
raised the water about four feet.

But in spite of his provision for floods, Mr. Miner did not want to be
under the necessity of letting down his dam for every freshet, so he
provided an additional permanent spillway. This is a simple concrete
barrier, or wall, which flanks one end of the dam. In plan it was
built at an angle with the dam proper, and extends downstream along
the side of the natural bank. It was built with its crest a few inches
higher than the main dam, so that during periods of ordinary flow the
surplus water all passes over the main dam, but as soon as the creek
rises a few inches over the main dam, water begins to flow over this
extra spillway, which, being about forty feet long, will discharge a
considerable volume although the water flowing over it is only a few
inches in depth.

This spillway is strengthened on the downstream end by a concrete
abutment, which consists of a simple heavy block of concrete extending
above the top of the spillway. A similar abutment flanks the upstream
end and also constitutes an abutment for one end of the main dam. The
other end of the main dam is set against the opposite bank of the creek
and is protected from washing and is strengthened by a similar concrete
abutment.

It was considered desirable to place the little power house away from
the main channel of the stream, so an earth embankment was built,
extending from the downstream end of the flood spillway, a distance of
about sixty feet. This embankment, or dyke, is curved in such manner
as to divert the water behind it across a low place to a safe distance
from the main channel. Some excavating had to be done behind this
embankment in order to secure a channel of sufficient depth to prevent
the water from freezing to the bottom and to provide a smooth channel
of approach to the power house. This diversion of the water to one side
from the main channel prevents the accumulation of debris and silt,
which is a hindrance to the proper operation of a waterwheel. The pool
thus formed is called a “forebay” and is very quiet water. The velocity
of the water flowing through it is so slight that it will not carry
much debris.

At the downstream end of the forebay the diverting embankment
approaches a steep bank. At this point Mr. Miner built a small power
house. Under the power house is the wheel-box, which consists of a
box-like compartment having one side open to the forebay. This opening
is covered with a coarse screen to prevent leaves or other debris from
entering the wheel, but the water flows through it readily. In the
wheel-box a waterwheel, of the type known as a turbine, was placed.
This revolves on a vertical shaft, or axle, which is guided by bearings
in a metal case surrounding the wheel and resting on the bottom of the
box-like compartment. The wheel-case is open at the bottom to allow the
free escape of the water after it has passed through the wheel. The
construction of the turbines is such that the pressure of the water on
the curved vanes causes the wheel to revolve, just as the pressure of
wind causes a windmill to revolve. The water must have a free escape
from the opening in the bottom of the wheel-case and wheel-pit and to
provide for this a channel, called a “tail-race,” was excavated to
carry the water back to the creek. Natural conditions were favorable
here and a tail-race joining the main channel about 100 feet below the
power house was constructed with little difficulty. At the point where
the tail-race joins the creek the elevation is two feet lower than the
power house, so that there is little tendency for water to back up from
the creek into the tail-race. There is a certain amount of back-water
during freshets but the increased height of the water in the forebay at
such times partially offsets it.

[Illustration: Interior of E. B. Miner’s Power House]

The vertical shaft of the turbine extends up through and about two feet
above the floor near one end of the power house, where it is supported
on ball-bearings which enable it to be revolved with very little
friction.

At the other end of the power house, which is twelve feet by sixteen
feet in plan and seven feet high to the eaves, was placed an electric
generator, or dynamo, rated at 12½ kilowatts, which is equivalent to
about 17 horsepower. This machine is intended to operate at about 1100
revolutions per minute. The waterwheel, under the pressure of about
six feet, would not revolve at such a high rate of speed. It was,
therefore, impracticable to connect the generator shaft directly to the
waterwheel shaft and it became necessary to magnify the revolutions by
connecting the two shafts by belt, using different-sized pulleys. A
large wooden pulley, seventy-six inches in diameter, was keyed on
the end of the waterwheel shaft. A much smaller pulley, about eight
inches in diameter, was placed on the driving shaft of the generator.
A leather belt connects the two, and since the wheel shaft is vertical
and the generator shaft is horizontal, it is necessary to pass the
belt over an intermediate pulley, or “idler.” This idler is set with
its axis at an angle with both the horizontal and vertical, so that
the transition of the belt from the horizontal to vertical is made
gradually. Since the driving pulley on the generator shaft is so much
smaller than the pulley on the wheel shaft, there are about nine
revolutions of the generator shaft for every revolution of the wheel
shaft.

The amount of power which this equipment will generate depends to a
considerable extent upon the amount of water flowing. Oriskany creek
at this point has a tributary drainage area of about fourteen square
miles, and the flow required to drive the turbine to full capacity is
about 2900 cubic feet per minute. This volume is probably available
during most of the year, but is not available in the driest seasons,
at which times the flow is probably reduced to about 600 cubic feet
per minute. The waterwheel probably has an efficiency of about eighty
per cent, that is, it will probably develop about eighty per cent of
the theoretical energy of the falling water. The remainder is lost
in friction in the wheel-box at the entrance to the wheel and in the
velocity still remaining in the water after it leaves the wheel. Five
per cent of the power generated on the wheel shaft is probably lost by
friction of the belting, so that, at rated load, about seventy-six per
cent of the theoretical power of the water is probably delivered to the
shaft of the generator.

Mr. Miner realized that there would be times when he would not require
all or any of the power which would be produced. At the same time the
pond formed by the dam was not large enough to store any considerable
amount of water, and he had all the power he would require at any one
time, so it was not considered necessary to provide storage batteries
to store the electricity. On the other hand he did not wish to be
compelled to turn the water on and off at frequent intervals, as would
be necessary unless some auxiliary regulating apparatus were provided.
Therefore, it was decided to provide for the plant to run continuously
and to devise some means to consume the electric current when not
in use. A series of resistance coils were mounted on a frame in the
power house, and connected with the generator. When the demand for
electric current is less than the capacity of the generator, a small
electric device automatically throws one or more of these coils into
the circuit, and the surplus current is converted into heat by the
resistance of the coils. By means of this arrangement it was planned
to run the plant continuously, so that whenever electric current was
wanted it could be had simply by turning a switch at the house or barns.

The power plant, including the dam and all the features thus far
described, was completed and in operation before Christmas of the year
in which the construction was begun.

We have thus far seen how Mr. Miner developed his water power and
transformed it into electricity. It remains to see how he gets it to
his house and farm buildings, and how he uses it after he gets it there.

The power house is situated about 1700 feet from the house, where the
electric current was most wanted. This necessitated the construction of
a transmission line. For this purpose a double line of bare aluminum
wire was stretched on a row of poles about twenty feet high and about
one hundred feet apart. The poles are provided with ordinary crossarms
at the top on which are mounted the insulators carrying the wires.
As the transmission line leaves the power house it crosses a highway
and runs in a perfectly straight line to the house. Over the highway
insulated wires were used as a safety precaution, but bare aluminum
wire was used for the remainder because it was cheaper.

The buildings are all in a cluster and a branch from the transmission
line runs into each one where the current is used. All the wires which
are inside of any of the buildings, or are close to the woodwork, are
covered with insulation, and, where concealed, are further protected by
being placed in twisted metal tubes.

The first actual use of this hydro-electric power was for lighting. The
house was illuminated with electric lights, as were also the barn and
other buildings, there being ultimately about seventy 16-candle-power
lamps in use. Even the pig sty has its electric light, and there is no
more groping in the dark anywhere about the Miner farm buildings.

[Illustration: Lathe in E. B. Miner’s Machine Shop]

But there was more power in the creek than was necessary to run the
electric lights. A circular saw was brought into use, belted to a
motor, and the supply of firewood was cut in a fraction of the time
previously required. The same motor is used to drive a lathe and a
drill in a machine shop which the Miner boys built and equipped. This
motor is belted to a countershaft from which additional machine tools
can be driven. One of the Miner boys has developed this machine shop as
a combined means of pleasure and profit. In addition to a considerable
amount of experimental machine work, he does all the farm repairs and a
considerable amount of machine work for neighboring knitting mills, as
well as general and automobile repair work, all of which has been made
possible by the harnessing of the creek.

Another motor, two-horsepower, driven by the electric current, is
belted to a vacuum pump, which is connected with a one-inch pipe
running to the house and the barn. In the house there are two taps, one
on each floor, to which the hose of a vacuum cleaner may be attached,
and Oriskany creek does the rest; the floors are cleaned in the most
modern, sanitary and thorough manner. In the barn the pipe from the
vacuum pump runs above the cow stanchions with a tap at alternate
stanchions. The tubes of the milking machines are attached and the
creek milks twenty or twenty-five cows twice each day.

[Illustration: Drill in E. B. Miner’s Machine Shop

Note the electric motor in background belted to countershaft near the
ceiling]

In the dairy room is a one-half-horsepower motor, which may be belted
to the cream separator or churn, and on the hot summer days it is
frequently belted to the ice cream freezer. An ingenious float device
in the separator turns off the power when the cream is all separated
from the milk and trips a can of clear water into the heavy, revolving
bowl of the separator, which still retains enough momentum to rinse
itself thoroughly before coming to rest.

In a similar manner other applications of the power have followed from
time to time, and one at a time most of the hand cranks on the Miner
farm have been relegated to the scrap heap; even the grindstone is
operated by a long, narrow belt running from the little motor in the
dairy out through the door to an adjoining compartment.

In the Miner residence are five electrical heaters, which Mr. Miner
states will raise the temperature to 75 degrees when it is zero
outside. Since these heaters were installed there has not been much use
for the wood saw. There are also in the house some electric fans which
stir up a breeze on the hot days. An electric ventilator fan in the
attic insures good ventilation at all times. In the kitchen the Miners
cook for a family of from five to ten with an electric range, and iron
with an electric iron attached by a cord to an ordinary electric lamp
socket. A smaller motor operates the egg beater and cream whipper;
another small motor drives the sewing machine.

[Illustration: E. B. Miner’s Dairy Room

Vacuum milking machines in background; also small motor which drives
the cream separator and churn in the foreground]

The little motor in the dairy room also drives a single-acting plunger
pump, which forces water up to a galvanized iron tank in the attic
of the house, whence water is piped and furnished by gravity to the
bathroom and kitchen. An electric heater in the kitchen heats the water
for the bath and kitchen.

[Illustration: Electric Cooking Outfit, E. B. Miner’s Home]

Other miscellaneous uses are made of the never-failing power of
the creek, such as filling the silo, and the power plant requires
practically no attention. Self-oiling devices on the waterwheel
and generator, and the use of the resistance coils to consume the
superfluous electricity, obviate the necessity for attention, except to
fill the oil cups every few weeks. Practically no trouble has been
experienced in the operation, the only interruption so far being due
to the formation of anchor ice in the forebay, which causes a little
trouble on extremely cold days. The waterwheel is run continuously,
night and day, summer and winter, and electric light or current is
always available at the touch of a button or by throwing a switch.

As to the cost of his plant Mr. Miner would give no figures. His motto
seems to be, “Not how cheap, but how good,” and he states that it would
require several times the cost to induce him to give up his water-power
plant. Engineers estimate the cost of reproducing his plant, including
the dam, power house, waterwheel, generator and transmission line, at
about $1800.



SUMMER HOME POWER PLANT, NORTHWEST BAY, LAKE GEORGE


Among the attractive summer homes on the shores of Lake George is
that of Mr. Stephen Loines of Brooklyn, located at the upper end of
Northwest bay, about four miles above Bolton Landing. On his property
there was a small lake known as Wing pond, having an area of about
seven acres and situated at an elevation of about 180 feet above Lake
George. The outlet was a small brook, which runs through Mr. Loines’
property and flows into Northwest bay.

In the summer of 1902, Mr. Loines built a dam across the outlet of Wing
pond, raising its surface about two feet. He ran a galvanized iron pipe
line from the dam, down the side of the hill and along the brook. It
was four inches in diameter for a short distance, then reduced to three
inches and finally to two inches, and was about 1200 feet long in all,
with a fall of about 110 feet. A twenty-four-inch waterwheel of the
impulse type was installed in a small power house to which the pipe
line was run. The waterwheel developed about three horsepower and was
belted to an electric generator.

[Illustration: Dam at Outlet of Wing Pond]

The power was found to be insufficient to supply Mr. Loines’ needs
at that time. He desired to burn thirty-five 16-candle-power carbon
filament lamps and to charge a 40-cell battery for an electric launch.

Accordingly, in the fall of 1908, Mr. Loines raised his dam two feet
higher and installed a six-inch spiral riveted steel pipe line, running
from the dam down a gulley on the surface of the ground, for about
1600 feet, to a point a short distance from the place where the creek
flows into Lake George. At this point he built a small power house and
installed a twenty-four-inch waterwheel of the impulse type. This wheel
operates under a head of 165 feet and is directly connected by a
shaft to a six and one-half kilowatt generator, which operates at 500
revolutions per minute. This generator supplies a 60-cell house battery
(45 lamps), an 84-cell battery for a 35-foot cabin launch, a 48-cell
battery for a 20-foot open launch and a 40-cell battery for an electric
roadster, all of which are in pretty continuous use from about the
first of June to the first of November of each year.

[Illustration: Power Transmission Line, Northwest Bay, Lake George]

As this new development superseded the older one and proved entirely
adequate for the needs of Mr. Loines’ country place, the old
development was made over so that it could be utilized for sawing
firewood to supply the superintendent’s cottage and the other buildings
during the winter. A countershaft was erected on the wall of the old
power house, which is a building 7 feet by 10 feet in plan and about
8 feet high. This countershaft has three counterpulleys, by means of
which the speed of the waterwheel may be doubled or trebled. For the
purpose of sawing firewood a leather belt is placed on one of the
pulleys of the countershaft and run through a small aperture in the
side of the power house to the driving pulley of a circular saw, which
stands on a small porch at one end of the power house building.

Mr. Loines’ superintendent stated that by operating the saw
continuously for eight hours it would be possible to saw twelve cords
of wood, which he estimated to be sufficient to supply his cottage, and
such other of the buildings as need wood, for the entire winter. This
illustrates very aptly the large amount of work that a small power is
capable of doing in a short time.

In addition to lighting his house and buildings by means of the power
developed at his new power house, Mr. Loines also has a rather unusual
application of power on his summer place. He is an enthusiastic student
of astronomy and has built a small but elaborately equipped observatory
on the hillside above the cottage. The observatory is so constructed
that the roof can be removed entirely from the building to a support
at the back of the observatory. The roof is mounted on wheels and Mr.
Loines uses his electric power to do the work of moving the roof when
he wishes to make astronomical observations with his telescope. This is
accomplished by means of a small 1½-horsepower motor which operates at
1275 revolutions per minute and is connected by belt to a countershaft,
which in turn is connected by a worm gear and a chain drive to the
carriage on which the roof is supported. In this manner the roof may be
moved the required distance in two or three minutes by simply throwing
the switch which is inside the observatory building.

[Illustration: Stephen Loines’ Power House, Northwest Bay, Lake George

At left, 4-in. water pipe; at right, transmission line connection]

Mr. Loines’ new power house is a stone masonry building, the masonry
being uncoursed rubble, constructed in a very artistic and attractive
manner. The building is 9½ feet by 15½ feet in plan and is about 9 feet
high to the eaves. It has a concrete foundation and the floor is of
first-class concrete. A concrete foundation, about 3 feet by 5 feet,
provides a permanent support for the water motor and the generator.
This foundation projects 6 inches above the level of the concrete
floor. On one end of the foundation stands the waterwheel, there being
an opening about 8 inches by 18 inches through the concrete base under
the water motor to carry off the water after it has passed through
the wheel. The supply pipe for the waterwheel enters the side of the
building on a level about one foot above the floor. Just inside, the
pipe reduces to a diameter of about 2½ inches and is fitted with a
gate valve by means of which the water may be turned on or off. The
nozzle of the waterwheel is also equipped with an adjusting device
by means of which the size of the jet issuing from the nozzle may be
varied in order to secure various speeds or the maximum efficiency
of the waterwheel. The setting required to give the desired speed is
determined by experiment by the operator.



FARM POWER DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOHARIE COUNTY


At the entrance to the driveway approach to the farmhouse of Jared Van
Wagenen, Jr., at Lawyersville, Schoharie county, N. Y., stand two large,
stone gateway posts. On the capstone of one of these posts is engraved,
“Agriculture the Oldest Occupation,” and on the other, “Agriculture
the Greatest Science.” In keeping with the latter sentiment, Mr. Van
Wagenen has conducted his agricultural operations in such a manner
that he is looked upon as one of the most scientific and progressive
agriculturists in the State. He takes an active interest in such
affairs as farmers’ institutes and is considered an authority on the
science of agriculture. His farm and buildings are equipped with the
most modern conveniences and labor-saving devices.

There is a small stream which runs through the farm and flows into the
Cobleskill. This stream is so small that one may easily step across it
in the summer-time. About half a mile from the farmhouse is an old mill
dam which forms a pond with an area of more than an acre. The dam was
built long ago when small sawmills dotted that section of the State.
The timber having been practically all cut off, this mill, along with
hundreds of others, was long since abandoned. Mr. Van Wagenen conceived
the idea of harnessing its wasting energy and making it do some of his
farm work for him. The story of how he accomplished this is best given
in his own words, as follows:

“About eight years ago I began to figure on how to get this power to
the house where it could do a little work. My first thought was to
carry it there by belt cables, but figures proved that the friction
would eat up the five horsepower available. Electric power, easily
transmitted with little loss, was the only solution. I talked with many
who understood electricity and its engineering features and most of
them laughed at the idea of such a small installation. Had I wanted to
construct a million-dollar plant there would have been whole libraries
of advice; but a small plant to run entirely alone and be controlled by
a seven-hundred-foot-wire was evidently a novelty. After a good deal of
studying and feeling my way the plans were made and the work begun.

“The stream being so small, the most rigid economy of water had to be
observed, so I installed a nine-inch upright turbine in an upright
wooden case, building the case myself, where it would get the most
benefit of the fifteen-foot head. This turbine, furnishing about five
horsepower, I belted to a three-kilowatt, or four-horsepower, one
hundred and twenty-five volt direct current generator, which would
easily take care of seventy-five metal filament incandescent lamps.
I next installed a waterwheel governor to insure a steady flow of
electricity. It took about seventy-four hundred feet of weatherproof
copper wire, strung on wooden poles, which were cut on the farm, to
carry the electricity to my home and the farm buildings and to the
house of a neighbor. As it is more than half a mile from the house to
the plant it is out of the question to go there every night and morning
to stop and start the machinery. Of course it is possible to let this
plant run night and day during the wet season, but in dry times it is
best to save the water when the power is not needed. A neighbor living
about seven hundred feet from the power station kindly starts and stops
the machinery with a wire stationed at his bedroom window. This wire
controls a valve and counterweight. At five o’clock in the morning he
pulls the wire and the lights come on and at a certain hour of the
night he releases the wire and they go out. In payment for this service
I light his house and barns free of charge.

“Our maintenance charges are very small; almost negligible. I think our
waterwheel behaves better every year. Carbon brushes for the generator
last a long while and oil is a very small item. Each year I am
improving the plant, and very soon I expect to install a motor-driven
washing machine and wringer to prepare the clothes for the electric
iron and to put a vacuum cleaning outfit in the house.

“Although I consider the cost of our plant about $500, it was installed
under the most rigid economy in every respect and mainly by my own
hands. The dam was already built and needed only some trifling repairs.
The gate control is my own get-up, and, while the cost is trifling,
it took considerable study to get it to work right. I did most of the
house wiring, using concealed knob and tube for the living rooms of the
house; moulding and open wiring for the other rooms and for the barns.
This material cost me about $40. Of course, I do not in any instance
figure in my own labor, as the work was all done at odd times.”

This small power development, using the dam already built, cost Mr. Van
Wagenen about $500 as follows:

    Dynamo, 3 k.w. (second-hand)                  $50
    Waterwheel, 4 h.p. (naked wheel)               55
    Governor (new)                                 75
    Wire (7400 feet)                              210
    Labor (installing waterwheel)                  40
    Fixtures (lamps and the like)                  38
    One small motor, 2 h.p. (new)                  50
                                                 ----
          Total                                  $518
                                                 ====

The plant furnishes power sufficient to light the farmhouse and all
of the buildings with electricity, as well as those of the neighbor
who turns the water on and off. In the dairy a small electric motor of
about 3 horsepower, actuated by the electric current, drives the cream
separator and also furnishes power for running the grindstone, feed
cutters, hay fork and fanning mill, in addition to which the power is
also used to milk the cows and cut the ensilage and to do numerous
other bits of work about the place. Mr. Van Wagenen states that his
water power does work equivalent to that of a hired man the year round
and does away with numerous chores and laborious duties about the place.

The arrangement which Mr. Van Wagenen devised to turn on the water
at his plant and to shut it off again is unique and interesting. It
consists of a triangular frame lever about two feet wide and seven feet
high, hinged at one of the bottom corners. The other bottom corner
is connected to a sliding gate which fits over the feed pipe for the
waterwheel. At the top are fastened two wires, one of which runs to the
house of Mr. Van Wagenen’s accommodating neighbor, and the other runs
over a pulley and has a counterweight attached to it. When the water
is to be turned on, the neighbor pulls the wire and the gate is raised
by the leverage of the frame; when the water is to be shut off, he
releases the wire and the counterweight pulls the lever back, allowing
the gate to fall in place again.

[Illustration: Washing Machine, Driven by Electric Motor]



OTHER SMALL POWER DEVELOPMENTS


Mr. John T. McDonald, who has a farm about five miles from Delhi,
Delaware county, N. Y., some ten years ago began making good use of a
power development from a small stream on his farm. He lights his house
and buildings, runs saws, grinders and various machines in a little
shop on rainy days and in the winter. His dam was made from stone and
earth from the nearby fields and cost very little. It forms a pond,
covering, when full, about four and one-half acres of land. The pond is
well stocked with trout and other fish, and each winter Mr. McDonald
cuts about 500 tons of ice from it. Mr. McDonald turns on the water
at his dam by means of an electric switch at the house and regulates
the voltage also in a similar manner. From the pond the water is led
through a hydraulic race, or canal, about 900 feet long, to one of the
farm buildings where the waterwheels are installed. The head, or fall,
at this point is about 15 feet and there are three waterwheels of the
turbine type: one that develops 25 horsepower, another that develops
6 horsepower and a third that develops about 3 horsepower. The large
wheel is used to run a sawmill and feed mill. The 6-horsepower wheel
drives an electric generator, or dynamo, which furnishes the electric
lights, and also electricity for driving the small motors about the
place. The 3-horsepower wheel runs the small saws, machine tools, etc.,
in Mr. McDonald’s shop.

A few miles east from Mr. Van Wagenen’s farm in Schoharie county is
another small power development owned by Mr. Frank Caspar. He has
installed two waterwheels on a small creek and uses the power from
them to drive the machinery in a table and furniture factory. He has
another small waterwheel of the turbine type driving a little dynamo
which generates electricity for electric light. Mr. Caspar lights his
factory buildings, his home, a neighboring church and the main street
in the village with electricity from this little dynamo. An ingenious
device of his own invention makes it possible to start and stop the
power from the house by simply pulling a wire which operates a valve
in a small water pipe, from which water under pressure is let into a
hydraulic cylinder. This causes the piston of the cylinder to rise,
and the piston being directly connected to a gate in the water pipe
inlet, allows the water to flow into the waterwheel. When it is desired
to stop the plant, a pull on the companion wire causes the reverse
operation to take place and the power is shut off.

[Illustration: Farm Power Development of John T. McDonald, Delaware Co.,
N. Y.]

Near the village of Berlin, in eastern Rensselaer county, N. Y., there
is a small power development owned by Mr. Arthur Cowee. His source of
power is a small trout brook which flows through the farm. Mr. Cowee is
a producer of fancy gladiolus bulbs, on a large scale. His principal
power development, consisting of a 36-inch impulse waterwheel, under
a pressure due to a fall of about 210 feet, is used mostly for the
purpose of operating a circular saw and other machinery connected with
a sawmill. The water is diverted from the natural channel of the brook
at a considerable distance from the place where the waterwheel is
installed and is carried in an artificial channel, about four feet wide
and three feet deep, around the side of the hill, where it runs into
a shallow basin which has been excavated by Mr. Cowee at a suitable
location. By means of this basin, or artificial pond, practically all
of the flow of the brook may be stored during the night and used to
operate the waterwheel during the day. In this manner the full power
value of the brook is realized. There is a ten-inch, cast-iron pipe
line, about 1680 feet long, which runs from the pond down the side of
the hill to the waterwheel. This pipe line was placed under ground from
three to four feet in order to avoid freezing in the winter. Mr. Cowee
estimates that the development, including the diverting dam and canal,
pond, pipe line, waterwheel, circular saw and accessories, cost him
a total of about $7000. He states that he can saw about 4000 feet of
lumber in a day with this power.

In addition to this development, Mr. Cowee also has a small impulse
waterwheel in his bulb house. This wheel is operated by water furnished
from the system of the local water company. It is directly connected
to a small electric generator which furnishes electricity sufficient
for 157 sixteen-candle-power carbon-filament lamps which are installed
throughout the bulb house. The generator does not produce enough
electric current to run all of these lights at the same time, but it
will operate as many as forty-five or fifty lights at one time, which
is all that is necessary to meet the requirements.

Mr. D. F. Paine of Wadhams, Essex county, N. Y., has a dam at the
outlet of Lincoln pond. The water surface, when the pond is full, is
about twelve feet above the normal and spreads over an extensive tract
of low, marshy land. The pond thus formed is about three miles long
and from one-quarter to three-quarters of a mile wide. The water is
conducted from the dam to the penstock, a distance of about a mile
and a half, securing a fall of 320 feet. At this point Mr. Paine has
constructed a power house, where he generates electricity which he
transmits to Mineville for use in the mines. This power is transmitted
a distance of about eight miles.

At Chazy, N. Y., near the western shore of Lake Champlain and at a
point about fifteen miles north of the city of Plattsburg, there
is located a modern stock and dairy farm which, in its operation,
exemplifies the manifold advantages to be derived from the use of
hydro-electric power for electric lighting and for the various power
requirements of the farm. This farm, which is owned by Mr. W. H.
Miner and is called “Heart’s Delight,” covers an area of 5160 acres.
About 1200 acres are cultivated, 1200 acres are in pasture and the
remainder in woodland. The output consists of live stock and dairy
products, all crops grown on the farm being fed to the stock and only
finished products being shipped out. The live stock includes registered
Percheron and Belgian horses, pure-bred, short-horn Durham and Guernsey
cattle, Dorset sheep and high-grade hogs for the production of sausage,
hams and bacon. There are also poultry and squabs, and a fish hatchery
for the propagation of trout. The entire output goes directly to
high-grade hotels in New York, Washington and Chicago.

[Illustration: Power House, “Heart’s Delight” Farm]

Two streams pass through the southern portion of the farm, the smaller
one being known as Tracy brook and the larger one as Chazy river. It
was decided to provide the farm with electricity for light and power.
Enough water power was found in these streams to furnish a cheap and
reliable source of energy. Accordingly, a hydro-electric plant was
installed several years ago and has given such satisfaction that
the equipment has been increased from time to time, and some novel
applications have resulted. Three small concrete dams were built across
Tracy brook to form storage reservoirs. A concrete penstock, or pipe,
44 inches in diameter and 670 feet long, carries the water from the
downstream reservoir to a concrete power house, where a fall of 19 feet
is secured.

[Illustration: Alternating Current Transmission Line, “Heart’s Delight”
Farm]

The power house equipment consists of two water turbines automatically
governed and directly connected respectively to one 30-kilowatt and
one 12½-kilowatt, 220-volt, direct current generators. The current is
transmitted over a pole line, a mile and a quarter long, to a central
station in the main group of farm buildings.

[Illustration: Electric Cooking Outfit]

Another dam was built across the Chazy river. This is of concrete, and,
after passing through screens at the intake gate house, built into the
dam, the water flows through a concrete penstock, 48 inches wide by 60
inches high and 630 feet long, to the power house where a fall of
30 feet is obtained. There are two turbines here, belt connected to
alternating current generators, and the current is transmitted over a
pole line, nearly three miles long, to the central station.

An auxiliary to the water-power development consists of two hydraulic
rams, pumping water from one of the Tracy brook reservoirs to a
60,000-gallon tank, 100 feet above the ground, for fire protection for
the buildings.

There are in all about twenty-five motors installed in the various
buildings. The electric current actuates these motors, which are used
to drive or operate numerous machines and labor-saving devices.

[Illustration: Motor-driven Vacuum Pump

For milking machines and vacuum cleaners]

An entire load of hay is lifted from the wagon and stored in the mow
by a ten-horsepower motor. A root-cutting machine is operated by
a two-horsepower motor mounted on the ceiling. A one and one-half
horsepower motor drives a vacuum pump, which operates the milking
machines; five machines are used, each of which will milk two cows
simultaneously. A one and one-half horsepower motor runs the cream
separator, and a three-horsepower motor drives the big churn;
and motors are used for driving the water pumps, as well as the
brine-circulating pumps in the ice-making plant. A grist mill,
driven by electric motor, is part of the farm equipment, and the
sausage-chopping and mixing machines are driven by a four-horsepower
motor. Roots for the sheep are cut by a machine driven by motors of
one and one-half and two horsepower, and food for the fish is prepared
by a grinding machine driven by a two-horsepower motor. Wood-working
machines and machine tools are driven by motors in the carpenter and
machine shops. In addition to the uses already mentioned, the electric
power is also used to pump water, shear the sheep, clip the horses,
wash, dry and iron the clothes, heat the house, cook the food, freeze
the ice cream, cool the house in the summer, curl the ladies’ hair and
play the piano.

The “Heart’s Delight” farm power equipment is much more extensive than
would be warranted on a farm of ordinary size, but the installation
serves to illustrate the extent to which the application of power may
be carried, on an unusually large produce farm. In many instances a
community of farmers could develop such a water power and distribute
the power among themselves to mutual advantage and profit.



DEVELOPING A SMALL WATER POWER


The prime requisite to the creation of a water power is the existence
of falling or flowing water. The amount of power which may be available
varies; first, with the amount of water flowing, and second, with the
amount of fall. It requires about one cubic foot of water per second,
falling through a height of ten feet, to make available one theoretical
horsepower. The fall may be either naturally concentrated at one point
in a cascade or it may be artificially concentrated, for the purpose
of development, by combining the fall of several cascades or a series
of rapids. This may be accomplished by either of two methods; first,
by building a dam at the downstream end of the rapids to impound the
water so that the entire fall is concentrated at the dam, or second,
by building a dam at the upstream end of the rapids and conducting
the water through a closed pipe to the lower end of the rapids, where
the resulting water pressure will be exactly the same as in the first
instance. A variation of the latter method consists of diverting the
water from the natural channel at the head of the rapids and carrying
it in a canal, on a slight down grade, along the side of a hill to a
suitable point at which the water is turned into penstocks which run
directly down the slope to the stream, where the power development may
be made. The latter method, involving the construction of a canal, is
open to the objection that considerable trouble is usually experienced
from the accumulation of ice in the winter time. The first two methods
described are the most common.

[Illustration: Cascade on Indian Creek, Warren Co., N. Y. Typical
Example of Undeveloped Water Power]

The amount of water which flows in a stream, in New York State, whether
large or small, is subject to remarkable variation. Only one who has
observed very carefully and continuously, by actual measurement, the
extremes of fluctuation to which a flowing stream is subject, is in a
position fully to appreciate this. Some of the larger rivers of New
York State are subject to such fluctuations of flow that the amount
of water discharged during flood periods is several hundred times as
much as the amount that flows in the extreme dry period. Also in many
instances from one-half to three-fourths of the total runoff of the
stream during the year occurs during a period of a few weeks in the
spring months, when the accumulated snow and ice is melted and runs off
in conjunction with the warm spring rains. Unfortunately, reliable data
relating to the fluctuations of small streams in this State are very
meager. It is, however, a matter of record that the smaller streams for
which records are available are subject to greater fluctuations per
unit of tributary watershed area than are the larger streams. It seems
logical, therefore, to assume that the very small creeks and brooks
are subject to fluctuations relatively greater than those recorded for
streams of only relatively small size. This fact must be borne in mind
by any one who proposes to develop the power on a stream, for if it is
overlooked the project is not so assured of success. For most purposes
power is required in about the same amount for all seasons of the year,
while, as previously stated, the streams run off most of their waters
in the spring. Therefore, in developing the power of any particular
stream, if the power is required to be fairly constant at all seasons
of the year as is usually the case, there are two considerations which
must not be overlooked:

First—Will the minimum flow of the stream—that is, the flow which
occurs in the driest season of a dry year—be sufficient to furnish the
amount of power required?

Second—If the minimum flow is not sufficient, what means are available
for storing the surplus water from the wet season until the dry season?

The subject of equalizing stream flow throughout the year by means of
storage reservoirs has been so thoroughly discussed in the reports of
the Commission that further discussion in this connection does not seem
warranted.

Taking a general average throughout the State of New York, large
streams may be depended upon to produce from one-twentieth to
one-quarter of a cubic foot of water per second per square mile of
tributary drainage area, during the driest period. Streams having
only one or two square miles of drainage frequently dry up entirely
in the dry seasons. If a power development is proposed of such a
character that some considerable sacrifice of power might be made
in the dry seasons with no serious loss, most small streams may be
developed to provide for as much as one-quarter to one-half of a cubic
foot per second per square mile. On the other hand it is often found
practicable to provide a small auxiliary power plant, such as gasolene
or kerosene, to fall back upon in dry weather, or to supply extra power
occasionally, in which case the water-power development need not be
limited to the minimum flow of the stream.

The power of falling water may be applied to practical purposes in
several ways. One of the simplest ways, should it be desired to use
the power of the stream to pump water, is by means of what is known as
a hydraulic ram. This is a device which operates on the principle of
the impact due to the sudden stoppage of flow of a column of water. By
means of this device, or engine, water falling through a very small
height may be used to raise a portion of the same, or a comparatively
small amount of other water, to an elevation considerably higher
than the supply. The mechanical efficiency of the hydraulic ram is
comparatively high under certain conditions but generally is very low,
useful work which manufacturers claim may be realized varying from
38 per cent to 80 per cent. The minimum fall under which a ram will
effectively elevate water is about two feet. This fall will elevate
about one-thirteenth of the supply to a height of twenty feet. Under
the most favorable conditions and a fair amount of fall, a ram may
elevate water as high as 120 feet. The proportion of water which may be
elevated varies from one-twentieth to two-sevenths of the total
supplied; and, accordingly, the proportion of water which must be
wasted at the impetus valve of the ram varies from five-sevenths to
nineteen-twentieths. These proportions both depend upon the ratio of
the amount of supply to the amount to be elevated, that is, a small
proportion may be elevated to a considerable height and vice versa. In
cases where a small brook of suitable quality is available for domestic
water supply, it is often entirely practicable to install a hydraulic
ram which will pump a sufficient proportion of the amount of supply to
furnish a household with all the water necessary for ordinary domestic
purposes, in spite of the fact that the brook may be on a lower level
than the house. Owing to the fact that a hydraulic ram may be applied
only to the purposes of elevating water, it is not generally considered
as a means of developing water power, although in the broadest sense it
does constitute such a development.

On the other hand, the purposes for which power is usually required
are not only for the elevation of water for a water supply, but for
many other and varied requirements. In such cases the power must be
developed in such manner that it may be utilized to operate machinery
near the site of the development, or transmitted for some distance, and
there used to operate machinery or for lighting or heating. To develop
water power in this manner requires some kind of a waterwheel.

There are several types of waterwheels, the principal ones being known
as “undershot,” “overshot,” “breastwheel,” “turbine” and “impulse.” The
overshot wheel is a type very familiar to most readers, being usually
of home manufacture. It consists, usually, of a wooden wheel with water
compartments arranged at regular intervals around the periphery. The
water is fed into the wheel at the top, just off the center. It flows
into the compartment at the top and the weight being exerted on one
side of the supporting axle causes the wheel to revolve, the water
spilling out when the compartment, or water pocket, reaches the bottom.
This type of wheel depends entirely for its power upon the weight of
the water which causes the wheel to revolve.

The undershot wheel is very similar in construction to the overshot
type but depends more for its power on the velocity of the flowing
water which strikes the blades, or buckets, on the under side of the
wheel.

[Illustration: Turbine Type of Waterwheel

Phantom view of wheel-case]

The breastwheel is also similar in construction but is in reality an
improvement upon the overshot and undershot types. It depends for its
power on a combination of the action of gravity and the impulse of
the water striking the blades, or buckets. The water is fed into the
wheel a little below the height of the axle and usually enters with
considerable velocity, a part of which is transformed into useful work
by the wheel.

The turbine is a type of wheel which is very extensively used. It is
usually constructed of metal and consists primarily of a series of
curved vanes, or runners, whose arrangement is similar to a screw. The
action of the water flowing through these curved vanes causes the vanes
and shaft to revolve, the vanes being solidly connected to the shaft,
which may be either horizontal or vertical.

The fundamental working principle of an impulse waterwheel is the
turning into useful work of the impulse due to the velocity of a jet of
water issuing from a contracted orifice. This is accomplished usually
by conveying the water from the dam or other source of supply to the
waterwheel in a pipe of comparatively large size and then gradually
reducing the size of the pipe immediately in front of the wheel to a
comparatively small size by means of a reducer section, which is fitted
with a nozzle the opening of which may or may not be regulated in size.
This contraction of the stream of flowing water causes a spouting of
the water under pressure and the water issues in a jet with very high
velocity. The jet thus issuing from the nozzle strikes the cups of
the impulse wheel which are arranged at regular intervals around the
circumference of a metallic disc which is centered on an axle. The cups
transfer the velocity of the jet to the wheel, and the water drops from
them with very little velocity left in it.

[Illustration: Impulse Type of Waterwheel

Showing jet of water striking cups. Wheel illustrated is very powerful,
but principle of small wheels is the same]

In general, the turbine type of wheel is best adapted to low heads, or
falls, and the use of comparatively large volumes of water, and the
impulse wheel is best adapted to the use of a comparatively high head,
or fall, and a comparatively small amount of water. There are certain
intermediate conditions for which the manufacturers of each type claim
their wheel is best suited and in such instance a study of local
conditions is always necessary to determine which type of wheel is best
adapted.

The development of a water power by means of any kind of a waterwheel
results in the conversion of the energy of the falling water into
mechanical power which is exerted in a more or less rapidly revolving
shaft. In order to apply this power of the revolving shaft to some
useful purpose, there are several methods which may be used. The shaft
may be directly connected to the shaft of an electric generator, or
dynamo, to generate electric current, or it may be directly connected
to a machine which it is desired to operate, provided the machine,
or dynamo, is required to operate at the same speed as that of the
wheel shaft. This is frequently not the case, so that under ordinary
conditions the shaft of the wheel is fitted with a pulley, which in
turn is connected by belt to another pulley on the machine which is to
be driven.

[Illustration: Motor-driven Mangle]

By using pulleys of different diameters on the shaft of the waterwheel
and the shaft of the machinery to be driven, the speed of the machine
may be several times more or less than the speed of the waterwheel.
For instance, if the waterwheel revolves 200 revolutions per minute
and it is desired to operate a machine, connected by belt, at a speed
of 1000 revolutions per minute, a pulley of comparatively small size,
say four inches in diameter, is placed on the shaft to be driven, and
a pulley of five times the diameter, or twenty inches, is placed on
the shaft of the waterwheel. This causes the shaft of the machine to
revolve at a speed five times as great as the waterwheel. If the speed
of the waterwheel is greater than that required for the machinery to
be operated, then the reverse operation is followed out, placing a
small pulley on the shaft of the waterwheel and a larger one on the
shaft of the machinery to be driven. If the speed of the waterwheel
is to be magnified more than about six times, it usually requires the
installation of a countershaft and another series of pulleys in order
to avoid the use of very large and very small pulleys. A pulley which
has a very small diameter does not operate satisfactorily without
considerable loss of power, and a very large pulley is objectionable on
account of the space which it requires.

When a water power is once developed it may be applied to practical use
either near the place of development or at a considerable distance.
If it is to be used for power only, and not for lighting, and can be
used where it is developed, there is no need of converting it into
electricity. But if it is to be used for lighting, or for power to
be applied at a considerable distance from the water-power site,
then it becomes necessary to convert the power into electricity, in
which form it may be most conveniently transmitted from one place to
another. This requires an electric generator, or dynamo, to be driven
by the waterwheel, and a transmission line, preferably of copper or
aluminum wire, to carry the current where it is to be used. In order to
reconvert the current into power at the end of the transmission line,
where the power is to be used, it is necessary to run the current into
an electric motor, the shaft of which is made to revolve by the action
of the electric current. This motor may then be connected directly, or
by belt, gears or chain drive, to the machine to be driven.

It should be borne in mind that in each of these steps of changing from
water power to electric current, in transmitting the current over the
wires, in reconverting it into power, and in transferring this power
from a motor to a power-operated machine, there are losses of energy.
These losses vary considerably in different instances. Assuming, for
illustration, that a water power, whose theoretical power is ten
horsepower, is required to drive a power machine at a distance, the
efficiencies and losses will be somewhat as follows:

    Waterwheel,   efficiency 80%,  Loss 20%,  generates  8.0 horsepower.
    Connections,      “      95%,   “    5%,  transfers  7.6     “
    Dynamo,           “      90%,   “   10%,  generates  6.8     “
    Transmission,     “      90%,   “   10%,  transmits  6.2     “
    Motor,            “      90%,   “   10%,  develops   5.5     “
    Connections,      “      95%,   “    5%,  delivers   5.0     “

Therefore, only five horsepower would be actually delivered to the
machine to be driven. This amounts to only half of the theoretical
power of the falling water which is actually realized in useful work
of the machine being driven. If the power from the waterwheel is to
be applied directly without generating electricity a much higher
efficiency will be realized.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

On behalf of the State Water Supply Commission and the writer, grateful
acknowledgment is made to the following named persons who have extended
courtesies to me by furnishing information or illustrations for use in
connection with the preparation of this pamphlet:

    Mr. E. Burdette Miner, Oriskany Falls, N. Y.
    Mr. R. K. Miner, Little Falls, N. Y.
    Mr. Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., Lawyersville, N. Y.
    Mr. John T. McDonald, Delhi, N. Y.
    Mr. Edward R. Taylor, Penn Yan, N. Y.
    Mr. John Liston, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.
    Mr. R. E. Strickland, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.
    Mr. Stephen Loines, Brooklyn, N. Y.
    Mr. George E. Dunham, Utica, N. Y.
    Pelton Water Wheel Company, New York and San Francisco.
    James Leffel & Company, Springfield, Ohio.
                                                    D. R. COOPER.
    ALBANY, JANUARY 25, 1911.



                            PUBLICATIONS OF
                     STATE WATER SUPPLY COMMISSION
                           STATE OF NEW YORK

                                REPORTS

    =First Annual Report=             Published February 1, 1906.
          Includes Commission’s annual report on applications
        for approval of plans for public water supplies; also
        summarized statistics of public water supplies and
        sewage disposal in New York State.
                                               Edition exhausted.

    =Second Annual Report=            Published February 1, 1907.
          Includes Commission’s annual report and decisions
        on applications for approval of plans for public
        water supplies; also summarized statistics of public
        water supplies and sewage disposal in New York State,
        supplementary to statistics published in First Annual
        Report; also report on River Improvements for the
        benefit of public health and safety.
                                               Edition exhausted.

    =Third Annual Report=             Published February 1, 1908.
          Includes Commission’s annual report and decisions on
        applications for approval of plans for public water
        supplies; also report on River Improvements for the
        benefit of public health and safety; also contains
        Commission’s first Progress Report on Water Power and
        Water Storage Investigations made under chapter 569 of
        Laws of 1907, including details of Sacandaga and Genesee
        river studies.
                                               Edition exhausted.

    =Progress Report on Water Power Development=
                                         Published March 1, 1908.
          This is a revised reprint of the part of the
        Commission’s regular Third Annual Report relating to
        Water Power and Water Storage Investigations, showing
        results of engineering studies up to date of publication.

    =Fourth Annual Report=            Published February 1, 1909.
          Includes Commission’s annual report and decisions on
        applications for approval of plans for public water
        supplies; also report on River Improvements for the
        benefit of public health and safety; also contains
        Commission’s second Progress Report on Water Power and
        Water Storage Investigations, with special details of
        Raquette and Delaware river studies and supplementary
        studies on Upper Hudson and Genesee, also a census of
        water power developments in the State.

    =Fifth Annual Report=             Published February 1, 1910.
          Includes Commission’s annual report and decisions on
        applications for approval of plans for public water
        supplies; also summarized statistics relating to public
        water supplies approved by the Commission in New York
        State; also report on River Improvements for the benefit
        of public health and safety; also contains Commission’s
        third Progress Report on Water Power and Water Storage
        Investigations, with details of reconnaissance studies
        of Ausable, Saranac, Black, Oswegatchie and other
        rivers, and a draft of a proposed Water Storage Law.

    =Sixth Annual Report=             Published February 1, 1911.
          Includes Commission’s annual report and decisions on
        applications for approval of plans for public water
        supplies; also report on River Improvements for the
        benefit of public health and safety; also contains
        Commission’s Fourth Progress Report on Water Power
        and Water Storage Investigations, with details of
        investigations of Black and Oswego river watersheds,
        and a revised draft of a proposed Water Storage Law.

                             MISCELLANEOUS
                                            Published September, 1909.
    =Pamphlet—“New York State Water Supply Commission”=
          Issued for distribution at State Fair at Syracuse, 1909.

                                            Published September, 1910.
    =Pamphlet—“New York’s Water Supply and Its Conservation,
                  Distribution and Uses”=
          Issued for distribution at State Fair at Syracuse, 1910.

                                            Published September, 1910.
    =Pamphlet—“Water Resources of the State of New York”=
          By Henry H. Persons, President of the State Water Supply
                  Commission.
          Issued for distribution at National Conservation Congress
                  at St. Paul, Minnesota, 1910.

                                              Published January, 1911.
    =Pamphlet—“Water Power for the Farm and Country Home”=
          By David R. Cooper, Engineer-Secretary to State Water
                  Supply Commission.





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