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Title: A Grammar of Colloquial Chinese, as Exhibited in the Shanghai Dialect
Author: Edkins, Joseph
Language: English
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                         A GRAMMAR

                             OF

                     COLLOQUIAL CHINESE,

                     AS EXHIBITED IN THE

                      SHANGHAI DIALECT

                             BY

               J. EDKINS, B.A., Univ. Coll. Lond.


                  SECOND EDITION, CORRECTED.


                          SHANGHAI:

                   PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS.

                            1868.



                           PREFACE,

                    TO FIRST EDITION 1853.

Among works on Chinese Grammar, that of Prémare, written a century
and a half ago, still stands preeminent. Besides a more extended
knowledge, he possessed a better appreciation of the peculiar
beauties of Chinese style, than any other writer on the subject. But
it has been justly remarked that his work, abounding in good
examples, is deficient in order, and the exhibition of principles.
Remusat, in his accurate and learned work, has made great use of
Prémare, but he has given less attention than his predecessor, to
those numerous groups, in which ideas or sounds are repeated, and he
says nothing on propositions. The deficiency that the reader of
these works feels in the treatment of groups of words, has been
pointed out by Bazin in his clever Essay on Colloquial Mandarin. He
quotes the section on words, in Gutzlaff’s Notices on Chinese
Grammar, containing a classification of compound words. Partly from
the suggestion of that work, and more from his own researches, he
has constructed a comprehensive system of grouped words (mots
composés).

The little work now in the hands of the reader, is an attempt to
elucidate colloquial Chinese, by taking a limited field of enquiry,
that of the dialect of a single district. By this means it has been
hoped, something might be done to help the causes of Chinese
philology, by collecting facts, which writers having a wider scope,
have overlooked.

There are aids for the study of the southern dialects of China, but
no one has yet written on the speech of the rich and populous
province of Kiáng-nán. On Missionary and Commercial grounds, it is
time that some attempt should be made to supply this want.

The mandarin student will meet with scarcely any new idioms here. Of
words, there are a few tens not used in the fashionable colloquial.
It is in sounds that the greatest variation exists, and an attempt
has therefore been made to form a correct nomenclature for tones,
and for the alphabetic elements of spoken words. For the latter, Sir
W. Jones’ system, as introduced by J. R. Morrison in the Chinese
Repository, has, with a few necessary modifications, been adopted as
by far the best.

For the tones, a new nomenclature is here proposed, based on their
real character, as distinct from the arbitrary names, which, though
they doubtless represented exactly the tones used by their author,
are not applicable, except for convenience sake, to those of other
dialects.

Upwards of twenty natural tones, from which each dialect chooses
its own set, varying from four to eight, are here described. The
early Roman Catholic Missionaries wrote much on this singular
characteristic of spoken Chinese, but Bayer in his abstract of
their system, in the Museum Sinicum, has not given a very
intelligible account of it.

Attention has been paid throughout to the mode of grouping words, as
a subject second to none in interest and importance. Some
similarity, though an independent one, will be found here to the
system adopted by M. Bazin.

The grammars of Morrison and Marshman, beside the excellent works
already alluded to, have been of occasional service, especially the
latter, which with all its diffuseness, is a useful and suggestive
book.

The assistance of friends has been kindly afforded. To Dr. Medhurst
special thanks are due, for revising the sheets as they passed
through the press, thus adding much to the correctness of the work;
and to Rev. T. M’Clatchie, for material assistance in regard to the
laws of Shanghai tones.



                      TABLE Of CONTENTS.

                           PART I.
                        ON SOUND, 1–57.

{Section} 1. Alphabet. Table of sounds.                             1.
          2. On the Chinese tones. Natural tones described.
             Tones of several dialects.                             6.
          3. On Shanghai tones. Tones in state of transition.
             Relation of tones to music and accents.               13.
          4. Alphabetic elements of the sounds. The 36 initials
             of the Dictionaries, Represent the sounds of the old
             language, and are now a provincial pronunciation.
             The Shanghai dialect, a branch of that system.
             Finals. Comparative table of Shanghai and Mandarin
             finals. The final consonants n, ng and k.             43.

                         PART II.
              ON THE PARTS OF SPEECH, 58–162.

{Section} 1. Native divisions. Division proposed by a native
             grammarian.                                           58.
          2. Relation of the dialect to the written language,
             and to other dialects. Primitive words exemplified.
             Relation to the mandarin of the Historical Romances.
             Compared with the dialect of Sú-cheú.                 60.
          3. On Substantives.                                      66.
          4. On Numeral and Quantitative Auxiliary Substantives.
             Distinctive Particles. Significant Particles.
             Weights and measures. Collectives.                    81.
          5. On Adjectives.                                        89.
          6. On Pronouns.                                         101.
          7. On Verbs. Modes of grouping. Kinds of Verbs.
             Mode. Tense.                                         111.
          8. Propositions, and Postpositions.                     134.
          9. On Adverbs.                                          136.
         10. On Conjunctions.                                     154.
         11. On Expletives and Interjections.                     160.

                         PART III.
                     ON SYNTAX, 163–214.

{Section} 1. On Government.                                       163.
          2. Interchange of the Parts of Speech. Adjective
             as Substantive. Verb as Substantive, and as
    Adjective, &c.                                       164.
          3. On Government of Words in Groups.                    170.
          4. On Repetition.                                       176.
          5. On Order in Groups.                                  181.
          6. On Simple Propositions.                              187.
          7. On Subordinate Sentences.                            196.
          8. On Coordinate Sentences.                             205.
          9. On Antithesis.                                       210.
         10. On Rhythmus.                                         212.

Appendix I. On the 文理 or higher colloquial used by literary
            men.                                                  215.

        II. On the Native Tables of Initials and Finals.
            Imitated from the Sanscrit. Geographical outline of
            the dialects that agree with the dictionary system.   216.

                         Addenda.

                          Errata.



RULES FOR USING THE ORTHOGRAPHY HERE ADOPTED.

1. The accent marks long vowels í, é, á, ó, ú, pronounced as the
vowel in feel, fail, father, foal, fool.

2. Vowels not accented are the five short vowels corresponding
to these; e.g. in fin, fen, fan, fop, fun.

3. The remaining vowels are ö, ü, au, û, eu, pronounced as in
könig, une, auburn, 書, 頭.

4. The initial consonants k, t, p, f, s, are pronounced high and
with the English and Scotch sound. When k, t, p, take an aspirate
as in the pronunciation of some parts of Ireland and the United
States, they are written k’, t’, p’. These with the vowels and h’ a
strong aspirate, constitute the upper series.

5. The initials g, d, b, y, z with ng, n, m, l, rh, a soft aspirate
{h}, and vowel initials form the lower series. The italic k, t, etc.,
are to be pronounced two full musical notes lower than the roman
k, t, etc., and are counted as the same with g, d, &c.

6. The nasals m, ng, n, without a vowel are italicised.

7. Final n when italicised is pronounced very indistinctly.

8. The superior commas on the left and right of a word, mark
the second and third tones. Final h, k and g, indicate the short
tone. Words not thus marked are all in the first tone.

The series is known by the initial as in the native mode of spelling,
反切, Fan-t’sih. The capital letters denote dialects as—

                    S. Shánghái sound.
                    M. Mandarin sound.
                    C. Colloquial sound.
                    R. Reading sound.



                         A GRAMMAR

                           OF THE

                      SHANGHAI DIALECT,



                          PART 1.



                         {ON SOUND}.


                  {Section} 1. {Alphabet}.

1. The alphabetical symbols we shall need to employ are the
following:—

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  Symbols.         Pronunciation and Examples.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  á                as {a} in f{a}ther; 揩 k’á, wipe; 拜 pá‘, {worship}.

  a                as {a} in s{a}nd, or in h{a}t; 鉛 k’a{n}, {lead};
                   蠟 lah, {wax}.

  au               as in P{au}l, or as {a} in f{a}ll, or {o} in g{o}ne;
                   老 ’lau, {old}. Aú expresses the mandarin sound.

  b or {p}         as in 病 {p}ing‘, {sickness}; 生病 sáng bing‘, {to be
                   sick}.

  d or {t}         as in 道 {t}au‘, {doctrine}; 神道 zun dau‘, {men
                   canonized for their virtues}.

  dz               a compound of {d} and {z}; 盡 dzing‘, {exhaust}.

  dzz              do. as {dze} in a{dz}e. The second z marks a peculiar
                   vowel sound which is sometimes between {i}
                   and {e}, 辭 {dzz}, to {leave}.

  é                as {ai} in f{ai}l, or {a} in m{a}le; 來 lé, {come}.

  e                as {e} in l{e}d or l{e}t; 十 {s}eh, {ten}.

  eu               nearly as {ou} in c{ou}sin lengthened; 手 ’seu,
                   {hand}. Eú expresses the mandarin sound, as {ow} in
                   c{ow}.

  f                as in 夫 fú, or 轎夫 {k}iau‘ fû, {chair-bearer}.

  g or {k}         as in 其 {k}í, {he}, before {i}, {ü} often heard like
                   {ji}; 共衆 {k}óng‘ tsóng‘, {altogether}.

  {h}              a feeble aspirate, often lost; 合 {h}eh, {combine}; 皇
                   {h}wong, {emperor}. When quite lost, as in the
                   latter word, it will be omitted.

  h and h’         a strong guttural aspirate, nearly equivalent to
                   {sh} when occurring before í and ü; 海 ’hé, {sea}; 喜
                   ’h’í, {glad}. Before í and ü, the superior comma
                   will be used.

  í                as {i} in mar{i}ne; 西 sí, {west}.

  i                as {i} in s{i}ng or s{i}t; 心 s{i}ng, {heart}.

  dj               nearly as {j} in {J}une; 序 djü‘, {preface}. This
                   sound may also be read {z}. The natives use either.

  k                古今 ’kú kiun, {ancient and modern}.

  k’               a strongly aspirated sound 空 k’ung, {empty}. It
                   is often mistaken by foreign ears when occurring
                   before i and ü, for the aspirated c‘h but should be
                   separated from that sound in careful pronunciation;
                   去 k’í‘, {go}; usually heard chi‘ aspirated.[1]

  l                禮 ’li, {propriety}.

  m or {m}         米 ’mí, {rice}; 唔沒 {m} méh, {there is no more}.

  n                女, ’nü, {woman}.

  ng or {ng}       a nasal consonant used at the beginning or close
                   of a syllable. When no distinct vowel sound
                   accompanies it, it is marked {ng}; 江 kong, {river};
                   我 ’ngú {I}; 五 ’{ng}, {five}

  a{u}, e{n}, û{n} a slight nasal, best heard before another word;
                   但 {t}a{n}‘, {but}; 敢 ’ké{n}, {dare}; 幹 kû{n},
                   {dry}; 算 sû{n}‘, {count}; 搬轉 pè{n} ’tsé{n}, {to
                   whril round}.

  ó                as {o} in g{o}; 怕 p’ô‘, {fear}.

  o                as {o} in g{o}ng and g{o}t; 當 tong, {ought}, {bear};
                   落 loh, {fall}.

  ö                as ö in Göthe; 端 tö{n}, correct; 看 k’ön‘, {see}; 奪
                   {t}öh, {rob}.

  p                比 pí, {compare}.

  p’               as p with a strong aspirate; 譬 p’i‘, {like}.

  rh               a peculiar Chinese sound, the same as in mandarin;
                   而 rh, {and}.

  s                所 ’sú, {which, therefore}.

  sz               a peculiar Chinese sibilant,[2] pronounced as in
                   mandarin, and nearly as {se} in ca{stle}, whi{stle},
                   t, l, being supposed omitted; 詩 sz, {poetry}.

  t                多 tú, {many}.

  t’               as t with a strong aspirate; 拖 t’ú {to draw}.

  ts               做 tsú‘, {do}.

  ts’              the last strongly aspirated; 秋 ts‘ieu, {Autumn}.

  tsz              a peculiar Chinese sibilant, pronounced as in
                   mandarin, as {ts} in ha{ts}; 子 ’tsz, {a son}; 知 tsz,
                   {know}.

  ts’z             the above with a strong aspirate 雌 ts’z, {female}.

  ú                as {u} in r{u}le; 素 sú‘, {common}, {plain}.

  u                as {u} in r{u}n; 門 mun, {door}; 等 ’tung, {wait}.

  ü                French u as in vert{u}; German ü as in Tübingen;
                   虛 hü {empty}.

  û                處 ts’û‘ {place}. This vowel is between ó and ú.

  v or {f}         佛 {f}eh, {Buddha}; 房 {f}ong, {house}. More of v
                   than f.

  w                光 kwong, {light}; 王 {w}ong, {king}.

  y                右 {y}eu‘, {right-hand}; 要 yau‘, {to want}.

  z or {s}         象 {s}iáng‘, {elephant}; 坐 zú‘, {sit}.

An apostrophe ’ preceding the word, denotes the second tone.

A comma ‘ following the word, denotes the third tone.

The fourth tone will be written with {h}, {k} or {g} final.

Words left unmarked are in the first tone.[3]

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. When a native is asked whether k‘i‘ or c‘hi‘ is the more
  correct pronunciation of 去 he replies the former. Yet the
  orthography by c‘hi‘ seems to the foreigner more like the true
  sound. The fact is that the sound is in a state of transition
  from k‘i to c‘hi.

  2. This sound is better described as s and a peculiar vowel ï or
  t, s, and ï. The mark ï denotes a vowel peculiar to China but
  like e in {castle}.

  3. The further subdivision into upper and lower tones needs no
  mark, being indicated uniformly by the initial letter. Thus, b,
  g, d, z, l, m, n, r, and any letters italicized are in the lower
  tones; other initial letters denote upper tones. There are a few
  exceptions which will be noted afterwards. A {final} italic
  letter denotes a nasal.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

2. Mandarin pronunciation wants several of these sounds.
Among the vowels, the short a and e together with û are omitted,
and au, eu, are lengthened into aú, eú. Among the consonants, b,
d, g, dj, {m} {ng}, {n}, dz, dzz, v and z are wanting.

3. The Shánghái dialect is deficient in the sh, ch and soft j of
mandarin and of Sú-cheú pronunciation.

4. Of the above sounds, those foreign to the English, language, and
therefore needing particular attention, are the following:—

Of vowels, {eu} as in 口 ’k’eu, {mouth}; ö as in 安 ö{n}, {rest}. û
as in 鑽 tsûn, {to bore}. A final r should be carefully avoided
in these three sounds. Oe is not so common in this dialect
as in that of Sú-cheú, where it occurs in 船 jö{n}, {boat}, 滿
’mö{n}, {full}, etc., etc. The vowel ü, (French u), is often
convertible with û. Thus 書 sû, {book} is pronounced sü at Súng-kiáng
and to the east of the Hwáng-p’ú, while it becomes sz in Paú-shán
district.

Of consonants, note well the sibilants sz, tsz, dzz, with rh,
and the nasals {m}, {n}, {ng}, also the strong aspirate h’; also the
three aspirated mutes p’, k’, t’, and ng at the beginning of a
syllable.

5. The native arrangement of the alphabet, as found in the tables
prefixed to K’áng-hí’s Dictionary, is borrowed from the Sanscrit.[1]
The natural order of the letters as formed by the organs of speech,
is as far as possible preserved, and the system adopted contrasts
advantageously with the irregularity of the English and other
alphabets. The pronunciation there registered is what Chinese
authors call the 南音 Nán yin, {Southern pronunciation}, as it was
early in the Christian era. It probably agrees in the main with the
modern speech of Sú-cheú, Háng-chú and the surrounding cities. That
the pronunciation of Sháng-hiá is one of its dialects, appears from
the slightest examination of the tables in question. It is
characterized by the same division into Yin and Yáng, i.e. hard and
soft, or thin and broad consonants, which form the basis of
arrangement, in those tables, and agrees in many of the details.
Vide Appendix on K’áng-hí’s tables of Initials and Finals.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Vide Preface to Morrison’s Dictionary, and Marshman’s Clavis
  Sinica. None of the western alphabets appear to have been so
  scientifically arranged as the Sanscrit.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

6. In the native system, while the consonants are accurately
distinguished, the initial vowels are placed together, under only
two heads. In this respect therefore, we depart from it in the
following table. The initials sh, zh, ch, f’, and some others are
also omitted as not applicable to our dialect. The imperfect nasal
consonants are inserted, though as local variations they have no
place in the native tables. In naming the classes, western terms
have been adopted.

{Tabular view of the alphabetic sounds of the Shánghái dialect}.
---------------------------------------------------------------

                     Fifteen vowels.
              Quantity of syll.|   Value.
              ------------------------------------------
              long or short.   |   á  f{a}ther
              do.              |   a  h{a}nd, b{a}ck
              long             |   au P{au}l
              do.              |   é  M{ay}
              short            |   e  l{e}t
              long             |   eu c{ou}sin
              do.              |   í  mar{i}ne
              long or short    |   i  s{i}ng
              do.              |   ó  g{o}
              do.              |   o  l{o}ng, l{o}ck
              do.              |   ö  Göthe
              long             |   ú  r{u}le
              long or short    |   u  s{u}n, s{u}ck
              long             |   ü  T{ü}bingen
              do.              |   û  as in 書 sû

                   Thirty three consonants.
            |        High.     |             Low.
            |-------------------------------------------------
            | Thin | Aspirated | Broad | Nasals & | Imperfect
            |      |           |       | Liquids  | nasals
            |-------------------------------------------------
  Mutes     | k    | k’        | g     | ng       | {ng}
            | t    | t’        | d     |  n       |  {n}
            | p    | p’        | b     |  m       |  {m}
  ----------|-------------------------------------------------
            |      |           |       |          |
  Labio-    | f    |           | v     |          |
  dentals   |      |           |       |          |
  ----------|-------------------------------------------------
  Sibilants | s    |           | z     |          |
  and       | sz   |           | zz    |          |
  aspirates | tz   | ts’       | dz    |          |
            |      |           | dj    | ni       |
            | tsz  | ts’z      | dzz   |          |
            | h’   |           | {h}   |          |
  ----------|-------------------------------------------------
  Semi-     |      |           |       |  l       |
  vocals    |      |           |       | rh       |
  ------------------------------------------------------------

If from these consonants, we subtract the combinations of t and d,
with s and z, the aspirated mutes, and ní, as capable of resolution,
there remain twenty three in all. Of those that are left, sz and zz
may also be supposed to be made up of s, z, and an indistinct vowel
ï, heard in English after the l of beetle, needle, etc.


                  {Section} 2. {On the Tones}.

7. In order to determine the position of the Shánghái {patois} among
the dialects of China, something must be said on tones generally.
Chinese pronunciation may for our present purpose, be considered in
three or more general divisions, according to the number of tones.

(1.) The first of these is the Northern mandarin. 北音 Pih yin, where
four or five tones are in use. It is the pronunciation of the
Emperor’s court, and professedly of the government officers
throughout the empire. It is also spoken in considerable purity in
the parts north of the Yáng tsz Kiáng (hence its name), and in the
provinces of Sz-ch’uen, Kwei-cheú, Yün-nán, and parts of Kwangsi and
Hunan.

(2.) The second in the Southern pronunciation, 南音 Nán yin, spoken
in the part of Kiáng-sú, that is south of the Yáng-tsz’-kiáng, in
Cheh-kiáng and part of Kiáng-sí. This is mainly the pronunciation
out of which the mandarin grew and which is followed in the
Dictionaries, from K’ang-hí upwards, nearly to the Hán dynasty.[1]
The tones are four in number, each subdivided into kaú and tí, upper
and lower, or as they are also denominated yin and yáng, feminine
and masculine. These upper and lower series of tones are also
distinguished, by different initial consonants, the one taking g, d,
b, v, z, etc., and the other k, t, p, f, s, etc. The variations that
exist even between contiguous districts, are very numerous, a
circumstance which furnishes a mark of distinction between this part
of China and the mandarin provinces, where orthographical
differences are few.

(3.) The pronunciation of the other provinces presents many
extensive departures from the true mandarin. The tones are seven or
eight in number, and are often found inverted in position, as well
as contradictory in nature to the names they bear. The Fúh-kien and
Canton dialects have long been the subject of foreign study, and
have received abundant illustration. Ngán-hwei and Kiangsi have also
many eccentricities of pronunciation.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Vide in K’áng-hí, the Fán-ts’eih spelling, quoted from the
  previously existing Dictionaries. In K’áng-hí’s table of sounds,
  the former model is to some extent departed from, in favour of
  the Northern mandarin. The terms 北音南音 are common both in
  books, and in the conversation of the natives. Mandarin
  pronunciation has also its dictionaries, such as 五方元音, but it
  is the old tonic dictionaries and new works founded on them to
  which reference is here made.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

8. The tones may be partially described according to their natural
character. In attempting this, we intentionally avoid for the
present, the usual Chinese terms 平上去入 {p}ing, {even}, záng,
{rising}, k’ü‘, {going}, zeh, {entering}, because, being the same in
all dialects, they do not in the majority of cases, represent the
actual effect of the sounds on the ear. When first adopted in the
reign of Liang wu ti, A.D. 402 to 450, they must have represented
the tones of the dialect, spoken by Shen yoh[1] the writer who
selected them a native of Hu cheu only 100 miles from Sháng-hái. But
when applied according to universal practice, to the sounds given to
the same characters in other parts of the empire, these four names
convey no idea of the actual pronunciation. The descriptions
given of the tones by native authors, are consequently often
incomprehensible.

A. {Upper acute tone}. We pronounce monosyllabic words, when
speaking with moderate emphasis, in a quick descending tone. It is
heard in commands as Gó, Fíre, Go at ônce. In naming any object,
English speakers usually adopt this intonation for a monosyllable,
or the penultimate of a dissyllable. It might be called the
affirmative tone. It represents the 上平 záng‘ bing, or upper first
tone at Sháng-hái and Sú-cheú, as 天 t’íe{n} {heaven}; while in the
dialect of Amoy, it is the second, and in the mandarin of Pe-king,
the first tone.

B. {Upper even tone}. This is a sound without deflection like a long
note in music, and is not so common in English conversation as the
former. When high in key, it is in Sháng-hái the upper second tone,
as in 水 sz; {water}; 火 hú, {fire}, 土 t’ú, {earth}. In Sz-ch’uen
mandarin, and in the Fúh-kien of Amoy, it is the upper first tone.

C. {Upper quick rising tone}. This is nearly like the {staccato} of
musical notation, and is usually heard in interjections of surprise
and indignation, and frequently in questions. If quick and high, it
is in Sháng-háe the upper third tone, as 信 sing, {a letter}, 菜
ts’é, {vegetables}. In Pe-king mandarin. It is the lower first tone.

D. {Upper slow rising tone}. This is a prolonged intonation rising
more slowly than the last, and is not needed for the Sháng-háe
dialect.

E. {Upper short tone}. This is the intonation of syllables short in
quantity. Long and short quantity may be predicated of vowels or of
syllables. In Latin, the short {ă} of {m-ă-gis}, becomes long by
position in {magnus}. The converse of this example takes place in
Sháng-hái pronunciation, where the long and short {a} and {o} are
all found in a short tone.[2] In such cases, we write them all with
a final {h}; the presence or absence of the accent marking the
quantity of the vowel, while that of {h} marks the quantity of the
syllable; as in 濕 sáh, {wet}; 薩 sah, in {P}ú sah, {disciple of
Buddha}; 哭 k’óh {weep}; 悪 oh, {wicked}. This tone might be divided
into two, as it ascends or descends; but as only the former occurs
in Sháng-hái sounds, we count but one of these, to avoid too great
subdivision.

F. {Lower acute tone}. In proceeding to tones in a lower pitch of
voice, we enumerate them in an order corresponding to that followed
above; thus the same natural description, except as regards key,
will readily apply to them. The lower acute tone is not needed for
the Shánghái sounds, except in cases of combination. In the Sú-cheú
dialect, it represents the lower second tone, while in Fúh-kien, if
set very low, it will be the upper third tone.

G. {Lower even tone}. A low musical sound without deflection. It is
the lower first tone at Sháng-hái, as in 能 nung, {can}. 埋, má,
{bury}. In the mandarin of Nán-king, it is the upper first tone,
while in the dialect of Amoy, it is the lower third tone.

H. {Lower quick rising tone}. This intonation is nearly that of any
common word, when spoken interrogatively, as I? Yes? Indeed? It is
the lower third tone of Sháng-hái, and the lower first of Nán-king
and Amoy.

I. {Lower slow rising tone}. This is the intonation of remonstrance
as in “Et tù Brute,” if {tù} were spoken in a deep and rather
lengthened tone. So in many antithetical sentences, as “We seek not
yoùrs but yoú,” the former accented word is in a low slow rising
tone, and the latter in a quick falling tone. Writers on Elocution
mark them with the grave and acute, accents respectively.

J. {Lower short tone}. The remarks appended to the corresponding
upper tone apply also to this. 學習 {h}oh dzih, {to learn and
practice}.

K. {Upper circumflex}. This is an intonation high in key and having
two deflections, apparently ascending and descending. It may be
quick or slow in time. It is not used in Sháng-hái pronunciation.
When slow it is the second tone of Nán-king.

L. {Lower circumflex}. This corresponds to the preceding in
character and time, but differs from it in key. When, quick, it is
the lower first tone of the district east of Sú-cheú.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Shen yoh 沈約 was high in favour with the emperor Liang wu ti
  whose capital was Nanking. Nan shï 南史 c. 57.

  2. If different symbols were invented for the long and short
  vowels, so that syllables only should be considered long and
  short, this anomaly would disappear. All alphabets are deficient
  in vowel marks.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

9. While selecting most of their tones from those thus described,
some dialects would require a more minute subdivision, and perhaps
two high and two low divisions of each series might be found
necessary. The preceding arrangement however, will be sufficient to
give some conception of the variety of tonic effects, whether
harmonious or discordant the listener must judge, existing in the
speech of China. If it be recollected that independently of these
differences in tones, there are also numberless variations in the
alphabetic form of the sounds, an accurate knowledge of so Protean a
language might seem unattainable, were it not that the characters
are everywhere the same. What one pronounces in a high shrill
accent, and another in a prolonged whine, and another in a low
musical intonation, they all write in the same form; and if asked
what is its tone, they give the same reply.

The Chinese have themselves described the tones according to their
natural character. We quote the following translation of some verses
in K’áng-hí’s Dictionary, from Medhurst’s Hok-kien Dictionary.

“The even tone travels on a level road, neither elevated nor
  depressed.
“The high tone exclaims aloud, being fierce, violent, and strong.
“The departing tone is distinct and clear, gruffly travelling to a
 distance.
“The entering tone is short and contracted, being hastily gathered
 up.”[1]

This description must be taken as answering to the tones spoken by
the native writer from whom it is taken.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1.
    平聲平道莫低昂
    上聲高呼猛烈强
    去聲分明哀遠道
    入聲短促急收藏
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

10. The terms used by the Chinese to describe sounds in reference to
tones, are such as—

高 低, kau tí, {high} and {low} ({key of the tone}).

陰 陽, yun {y}áng, {high} and {low} ({key of the tone}).

緩 急, {w}én‘ kih, {slow} and {quick} ({time of the tone}).

平 仄 {p}ing tsáh, {even}, {deflected}. 仄 is further divided into
上 去 入 záng‘, k’ü‘, zeh, {rising}, {departing}, {entering}.

To these we add to express quantity apart from tone:—

長 短 dzáng, ’dö{n},[1] {long} and {short} ({time in reference to the
syllables}).

These terms include all the principles, on which our arrangement of
natural tones has been made: thus—

The first two pairs define the upper and lower tones.

The third pair embraces differences in time, the quick and slow tones.

The fourth pair includes even tones and those having deflections,
which may rise or fall, and be one or two in number.

The fifth pair distinguishes the three first tones from the fourth.

In an article in the Chinese Repository on the Birmese and Shán
languages (Vol. V. page 71), there are some facts respecting tones
as employed in those countries. The Sháns, inhabiting the country
that separates Birmah from China, have two deflected tones rising
and falling respectively, two tones short in quantity also rising
and falling, and a low even tone.

The Birmese have the two deflected tones, and one short tone.

The Shán language is fundamentally the same as the Siamese, which
also has tones.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. This is one of the words where d is heard in the upper series
  instead of t. Other cases of departures from the usual law will
  be subsequently pointed out.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

11. TABLE OF TONES IN SEVERAL DIALECTS.[1]

  i. MANDARIN TONES. 北音
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  Tones               |Nan-King|Pe-king     |Hó-nan   |Sz-ch’uen
                      |        |            |K‘ai-fung|
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  Upper First,    上平|l, e,   |u, e, or    |u, q, e, |u, e,
                      |        |u, q, f,    |
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  Second,           上|l, s, r,|l, q, r,    |l, q, r, |q, f,
  -----------------------------|---------------------------------
  Third,            去|q, f,   |l, q, f,    |l, q, f, |l, s, r,
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Fourth,           入|sh,     |u, e,       |u, q, e, |l, q, e, or
                      |        |----------------------|l, q, f,
                      |        |l, q, r,    |l, q, r, |
                      |        |------------|         |
                      |        |l, q, f, &c.|l, q, r, |
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Lower first,    下平|l, q, r,|l, q, r,    |u, q, r, |l, q, e, or
                      |        |            |         |l, q, f
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

  ii. KIANG-NAN AND CHEH-KIANG. 南音
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
        |Tones       |Sú-cheú |Sháng-hái |Ning-pó
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Upper |First,  上平|u, q, f,|u, q, f,  |u, q, f,
  Series|Second, 上上|u, e    |u, e,     |u, s, r,
        |Third,  上去|u, s, r,|u, q, r,  |u, e,
        |Fourth, 上入|u, sh,  |u, sh,    |u, sh,
  ------|------------|-------------------------------------------
  Lower |First,  下平|l, q, r,|l, e,     |l, s, c, q, f,
  Series|Second, 下上|l, q, f,|l, s, r,  |l, s, r,
        |Third,  下去|l, s, r,|l, q, r,  |l, s, r, or e,
        |Fourth, 下入|l, sh,  |l, sh,    |l, sh,
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

  iii. FUH-KIEN.
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Tones         |Amoy and Cháng-cheú
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Upper first,  |u, e,
   do. second,  |u, q, f,
   do. third,   |l, f,
   do. fourth.  |l, sh, f
  Lower first,  |l, q, r,
   do. second,  |u, q, f,
   do. third,   |l, e,
   do. fourth.  |u, sh, f
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. u, upper. l, lower. r, rising. f, falling. q, quick. s, slow.
  e, even. c, circumflex. sh, short.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

12. Nán-king is here placed among those that belong to the 北音 or
Northern Mandarin division. A native author[1] says, that this city
and two others 淮陽 Hwái {y}áng and 徐海 Sü hái use the northern
pronunciation.

The large Dictionaries are uniform in the adoption of the
pronunciation in our (ii.) division, as their basis of spelling.
They usually speak of only four tones, distinguishing the upper from
the lower by the initial letter. This is also the universal practice
among the educated class vivâ voce. They do not speak of 帝 ti‘
{emperor} and 地 di‘ {earth}, as different in tone, the one the upper
third tone, the other the lower, but as different in the
alphabetical form tí, dí.

The division into eight tones is preferable for a foreign reader,
because (1) there is a difference in elevation of voice, 帝 tí‘ being
at an interval of a fourth in the musical scale more or less, higher
than 地 dí‘. (2) Although the third and fourth tones, upper and
lower, are deflected at Sháng-hái in a similar way, so that they may
be regarded as the same tones, this is not the case with the first
and second, which differ decidedly in character.

The fourth tone in the 北音 Póh yun, class (i.) is in the Northern
provinces, long in quantity. The words included under it are
distributed among the other tones, and must be learnt separately, in
order that they may be correctly pronounced; e.g. of words written
{chúh}, some such as 竹, 竺, 燭 are at K’ai-fóng-fú in the upper first
tone, while 軸, 祝, 昨 are in the lower first tone.[2]

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Vide 李氐音鑑. The author was a native of Peking.


  2. The analogy between the Chinese tones and the Greek accents
  probably led the Catholic Missionaries to call the former
  {accentus}. The distinction between accent and quantity which
  existed in Greek, has been found also in Sanscrit in the Vedas.
  (Vide Bopp’s Sanscrit Grammar, section 80.) In both, there were
  three accents, acute, grave and circumflex. The grave is
  described as the negation of the acute and to be understood
  where that mark is not written. The acute was a rising in tone;
  while the circumflex is said to have raised and depressed the
  tone on the same syllable. (Vide Valpy’s, Greek Grammar.) Taking
  accent and quantity together, we obtain four distinctions of
  sound, which is the nominal number of tones in Chinese. The
  fundamental difference in the structure of polysyllabic and
  monosyllabic languages prevents the analogy from being carried
  far; the tones in one case being fixed to syllables, and in the
  other to words. But when it is remembered that those two
  branches of the great Indo-European stem are among the most
  ancient of languages, not much later in origin than the Chinese
  itself, and one of them its geographical neighbour, the fact of
  these delicate differences of sound existing till now in that
  language, becomes interesting as throwing light on some of the
  most precious remains of the literature of the past. Grammarians
  would not speak with such hesitation, as they do, when
  describing these peculiar intonations of the civilized races of
  the old world, if they had heard and could discriminate the
  Chinese tones. Late speculations on the change in
  language-forming power that has taken place in modern times,
  have referred to the gradual diminution of inflexions in new
  languages, and to other circumstances, as instances of it. From
  these has been argued the decay of a certain faculty once
  possessed by the human race. The limited use of accents fixed to
  words in newly-formed languages, may be viewed as another
  illustration of it. Clearly-marked alphabetical differences, as
  now preferred to those nicer distinctions of sounds, which
  perhaps were familiar alike to the most cultivated branches of
  the Great Arian family, and to the ancient and modern Chinese.
  It may be added that the use of many of the Hebrew accents is
  but imperfectly known in modern times.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------


               {Section} 3. {On the Shanghai Tones}.

13. We shall illustrate the tones one by one with numerous examples,
adding a translation for the use of those who wish to acquire at the
same time, a vocabulary of common phrases. We have hitherto regarded
tones as they are heard, when the sound is enunciated emphatically
and single. But there are certain changes which occur in
combinations of two or more words in rapid conversation, which can
be only explained by examples of such groups arranged in separate
columns. In the observations appended to each table, the more
prominent of these variations will be pointed out, and the place of
the accent determined.[1]

The vowel marks employed in this work are repeated here, that the
eye of the reader may be familiarized with them:—

  Long vowels. | Short vowels. | Other vowels.
  -------------------------------------------------
  á r{a}ther.  | a s{a}ng.     | au Pa{u}l.
  é r{ay}.     | e s{e}t.      | eu as in 頭 {t}eu.
  í r{ea}d.    | i s{i}ng.     | ö Göthe.
  ó r{o}ad.    | o s{o}ng.     | ü vert{u}.
  ú r{ud}e.    | u s{u}ng.     | û as in 書 s{û}.
  -------------------------------------------------

In writing mandarin, the following will also be used:—

  aú {á}, {ú}, combined. Prolongation of au.
  eú c{ow}.              Prolongation of eu.
  ei kine.               The Greek, ei.

The accents denote long vowels, and a symbol is never used for more
than one sound. This is the principle of the orthography usually
called Sir W. Jones’ system. It was proposed by the Hon. J. R.
Morrison in 1836, in the Chinese Repository, (vol, 5, page 22), for
application to the Chinese language. For this part of China,
modifications are needed in the details, and hence the differences
in the system here adopted, from that described by the writer of
that article, and in Williams’ Chinese Vocabulary, etc.

The long vowels all have, what is called in England, the Italian
pronunciation.

The sound eu is something like the French {eu} in dou{leu}r, or the
common short English u as in b{u}n prolonged ’or the corresponding
mandarin sound eú as in 口 ’k’eú, Premare uses eou, and Klaproth eu;
from them we have borrowed it. In the lengthened form, it is a
diphthong eú or uú, as in English cl{ou}d. The shorter form eu has
no exact English equivalent.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. In an Essay on the Hok-kien tones by the Rev. S. Dyer of
  Malacca, descriptions of them with a musical notation are given.
  Tables of examples for groups of two like those we now give, but
  without the Chinese characters, are annexed.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

14. {The upper first tone}. This is the common quick falling sound,
usually given in. English pronunciation, to any monosyllable when
standing alone, and spoken with emphasis.

  瓜 kwó, {melon}.     鍾 tsúng, {bell}.
  風 fóng, {wind}.     多 tú, {many}.
  輕 k’iung, {light}.  飛 fí, {to fly}.

That it may be readily compared with the other tones, by such as
have a native assistant at hand, some examples are here given of the
same alphabetical sound, varied according to the four upper tones.

  希喜戲歇 hí ’hí hí‘ hih
  多覩妒篤 tú ’tú tú‘ tóh,
  枯苦課哭 k’ú  ’k’ú  k’ú‘  k’óh,

In the fourth word of each series, the vowels change, í into i, and
ú into ó. The Chinese regard them as different only in tone; to a
foreign ear, the difference is one both of time, as the syllables
are long and short, and of vowels sound, as the long {i} becomes
short {i}, and long {u} becomes long {o}.

15. As examples of combination, take first those which have the
upper first tone in the penultimate, (p, s, k, j, in roman type,
represent the four upper tones in their order; in italic type, the
lower).

  Tones.                                  Place of the Accent.
  p.p.   今朝 kiun tsau, {to-day},                        ult.
         相公 siáng kóng, {sir}, {husband},                „
         工夫 kúng fú, {work},                            pen.
         當中 tong tsóng, {in the middle},                ult.
  p.s.   天頂 t’íe{n} ting, {the zenith},                  „
         多少 tú sau, {how many?}                          „
         恩主 un tsû, {benefactor},                        „
  p.k.   眞正 tsun tsung, {truly},                         „
         相信 siang sing, {believe}, {be fond of},         „
         聲氣 sáng kí, (c’h) {sound of voice},            pen.
  p.j.   中國 tsúng kóh, {China},                          „
         彎曲 wa{n} k’ióh, (c’h) {winding}, {crooked},    ult.
  p.{p}. 中原 tsóng niö{n}, {China},                       „
         天堂 t’íe{n} dong, {heaven},                      „
         差人 ts’á niun, {a messenger},                   pen.
  p.{s}. 天理 t’íe{n} lí, {heavenly reason},              ult.
         裝滿 tsong mé{n}, {to pack full},                 „
         新米 sing mí, {new rice},                        pen.
  p.{k}. 天地 t’íe{n} dí, {heaven and earth},             ult.
         天亮 t’íe{n} liáng, {daybreak},                   „
         鄕下 h’iáng {a}u, i{n the country},              pen.
  p.{j}. 風俗 fóng zóh, {custom},                         ult.
         新閘 sing zah, {village near Shanghai},          „

Obs. In this table, the tone preserves its natural character
throughout, but when followed by the quick rising tones, as in p, k,
and p, {k}, or by the short tones, or by a word hurried over without
emphasis on account of its unimportance, it is heard with a more
distinct accent than in other cases. When the accent is upon the
other word, this tone needs to have the voice rest upon it for a
time, to prevent its becoming the third tone.

The tone which is the same as this in the Amoy dialect, undergoes a
regular change, in combinations such as those in this table. When
standing first of two words, it becomes an upper quick rising tone.
Thus though a tone be identical when pronounced alone in two
dialects, it does not follow that its laws of combination are also
the same. For much important information on the Hok-kien tones, and
the laws of combination in that dialect, the writer is indebted to
Rev. J. Stronach of Amoy.

16. Examples of the upper first tone in the antepenultimate or when
first in a group of three.

  Tones.                                                        Accent.
  p.p.{p}.   蘇州人 Sú-tseu niun, {a Sú-cheú man},                  ult.
  p.s.{p}.   天主堂 t’íe{n}-tsû dong, {Roman Catholic Chapel},       „
  p.k.k.     挑過去 t’iau kú-k’í, {carry it past},                   ant.
  p.j.{k}.   當得住 tong tuh-dzû, {able to stand against},           „
  p.{p}.{p}. 朝辰頭 tsau-zun deu, {in the morning},                  „
  p.{s}.k.   千里鏡 ts’íe{n}-lí kiung, {telescope},                 ult.
  p.{k}.p.   三字經 sa{n}-zz’ kiung, {the Three Character Classic},  „
  p.{j}.{k}. 追勿上 tsûi veh-zong, {cannot overtake him},           ant.
  p.s.s.     多好狗 tú-hau keu, {a number of dogs},                  „

Obs. i. In the example standing last but two, if 經 is accented, it
preserves its proper character, but if, as is often the case, 三 is
accented, 經 becomes even and falls in pitch.

Obs. ii. The accent often varies between the first and the last
syllable. In regard to position, it is the latter that should
receive it. But in reference to tone, that now under illustration
admitting emphasis freely, overbears the accent of position.

17. Examples of upper first tone standing last in a combination of
two or three.

  Tones.                                               Accent.
  p.p.     當心 tong sing, {take care},                   pen.
           燒香 sau h’iáng, {burn incense},               ult.
  s.p.     祖宗 tsú tsóng, {ancestors},                   pen.
           頂多 ting tú, {greatest number of},              „
           講書 kong sû, {explain books},                   „
           水晶 sz tsing, {rock crystal},                 ult.
  k.p.     貴庚 kwé káng, {your honourable age?}            „
           放心 fong sing, {be content},                    „
  j.p.     插花 ts’ah hwó, {insert flowers},                „
           忒多 t’uk tú, {too many},                        „
  {p}.p.   明朝 ming tsau, {to-morrow},                   pen.
           良心 liáng sing, {good heart}, {conscience},     „
  k.{p}.p. 啥晨光 sá zun-kwong, {what time},              ant.
  {s}.p.   母親 mú ts’ing, {mother},                      ult.
           老兄 lau hiúng, {venerated brother},             „
  {k}.p.   地方 {t}í fong, {a place},                       „
           念經 nia{n} kiung, {chant sacred books},         „
  {j}.p.   逆風 niuh fóng, {contrary wind},                 „

Obs. In the groups p.p., s.p., and {p}.p. in this table, the tone of
the last word falls and becomes even. In such cases, the initial
consonants remain unaffected. Thus, 工夫 kúng fú cannot become kúng
vú, though, fú falls in key. The same change may sometimes be
observed after the third and fourth tones.

18. Examples of this tone, as the second in a group, of three.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  s.p.k.     小生意 siau sáng-í, {small retail trade},        pen.
  k.p.{p}.   雇工人 kú-kóng niun, {workman},                    „
  j.p.k.     束腰帶 sóh-yan tá, {waist-band},                   „
  {p}.p.{k}. 文昌殿 vun-ts’áng díen, {temple of the patron of
                 Literature},                                  „
  {s}.p.{p}. 軟心腸 niö{n} sing-dzáng, {merciful heart},      ult.
  {k}.p.j.   大英國 {t}a-yung kóh, {England},                 ant.
  {j}.p.{p}. 讀書人 {t}ók-sû niun, {educated man},            ult.

Obs. i. There is a secondary accent on some other syllable in groups
of three, which sometimes predominates over the other. We have not
attempted to record more than one. E.g. 讀 the antepenultimate of the
last example is often heard with a decided accent.

Obs. ii. An inspection of these tables will shew that the first tone
attracts the accent to itself in many instances, and that through
rapidity of pronunciation, or from the accent being placed on the
word before, it tends to fall in key and become even.

Obs. iii. In regard to position the accent prefers the last syllable.

19. {The upper second tone}. It is a high even tone without
deflection, and forms a principal element in producing that curious
singing effect in many dialects, which the foreigner notices in
first listening to Chinese pronunciation.

Ex.

     水 sz, {water}.        好 hau,    {good}.
     火 hú, {fire}.         討 t’au,   {beg}.
     許 hé, {promise}.      點 tíe{n}, {point} (verb or subs.)

20. Examples of the upper second tone standing last in a group of
two or three.

  Tones.                                               Accent.
  p.s.     恩典 un tíe{n}, {favour},                      pen.
           酗酒 h’iúng tsieu, {intoxicated},                „
  s.s.     滾水 kwun sz, {boiling water},                 pen.
           頂好 ting hau, {the best possible},              „
  k.s.     救火 kieú hú, {save from fire},                ult.
           要緊 yau kiun, {important},                      „
  j.s.     作主 tsok tsû, {to be master},                   „
           出首 ts’eh seu, {accuser},                       „
  {p}.s.   門口 mun k’eu, {door-way},                       „
           財主 dzé tsû, {rich man},                        „
  {s}.s.   勉强 míe{n} k’iáng, {by compulsion}, (c‘h)        „
           耳𦖋 ní tú, {ears},                              „
  {k}.s.   面孔 míe{n} k’óng, {face},                       „
  {j}.s.   折手 zeh seu, {maimed hand},                     „
           曆本 lih pun, {almanac},                         „
  p.{j}.s. 燒熱水 sau nyih sz, {prepare hot water},         „
  {p}.k.s. 唔要緊 {m} yau kiun, {not important},           ant.
  {j}.j.s. 勿缺少 veh k’iöh sau, {not deficient}, (c‘h)    ult.
  {j}.j.s. 實骨子 {s}eh kweh tsz, {in reality},            pen.

Obs. i. The last syllable, when preceded by a word in the upper
first tone, is usually heard to fall in key, as in the first two of
the above examples.

Obs. ii. In some examples, the tone under illustration often changes
into a quick falling tone, as in 救火 kieu‘ ’hú, pronounced kieu‘ hú,
and 勉强 pronounced míe{n}‘ k’iáng.

21. Examples of the upper second tone in the antepenultimate.

  Tones.                                                        Accent.
  s.p.p.     請先生 ts’ing síe{n}-sáng, {engage a teacher},         ant.
  s.s.{p}.   考舉人 k’au kü-niun, {be examined for Master of Arts
                 decree},                                          pen.
  s.s.{k}.   手低下 seu tí-{a}u, {under (my) control},              ant.
  s.j.k.     打磕瞌 táng k’eh-ts’óng, {nod the head when sleeping}, ult.
  s.{p}.{p}. 火輪船 hú-lun zé{n}, steamer,                           „
  s.{k}.{k}. 土地廟 t’ú-dí miau, {temple of the Lares arvales},      „
  s.{j}.s.   考勿起 k’au-veh-k’í, {cannot venture to be examined},   „

Obs. For purposes of accentuation 下, 打, and 勿 in the above examples
may be called {enclitics} or {proclitics}. As such they leave the
emphasis to rest on the {significant} words.

22. Examples of the second tone in the penultimate of a group of two.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  s.p.     小干 siau kû{n}, {a boy},                         ult.
           喜歡 h’í hwé{n}, {glad},                           „
  {j}.s.s. 白滾水 {p}áh kwun-sz, {simply boiling water}
               (weak tea),                                   „
           打窵 táng tiau, {shoot birds},                     „
           水手 sz seu, {sailors},                            „
  s.k.     寶貝 pau pé, {precious},                           „
           請教 ts’ing kiau, {will you inform me?}            „
           小菜 siau ts’é, {vegetables},                      „
  s.j.     可惜 k’ó sih, {alas!}                             pen.
           曉得 h’iau tuh, {understand},                      „
           打鐵 táng t’ih, {work in iron},                   ult.
  s.{p}.   水牛 sz nieu, {water buffalo},                     „
           保全 pau dzíe{n}, {preserve},                      „
           水桐 sz dóng, {water bucket},                      „
  s.{s}.   苦惱 k’ú nau, {unfortunate},                       „
           倒滿 tau mé{n}, {pour full},                       „
  s.{k}.   胆大 tan dú, {courageous},                         „
           體面 t’í míe{n}, respectable,                      „
           請坐 ts’ing zú, {please sit down},                 „
  s.{j}.   搶奪 ts’iáng döh, {rob and plunder},               „
           寶石 pau záh, {precious stone},                    „

Obs. The accent is usually on the last word, and it is especially
marked when that word is in the first or third tone. When the
penultimate assumes the accent, it frequently changes to the upper
rising tone, but this is apparently nothing more than an occasional
irregularity, produced by rapid pronunciation. Native assistants
generally deny the existence of these and all such changes; but on
having their attention drawn more closely to the subject, they admit
that there are exceptional cases.

23. Examples of the same tone standing second in a group of three.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  p.s.p.     齊祖宗 tsá tsú-tsóng, {sacrifice to ancestors},  ult.
  s.s.k.     比比看 pí-pí k’ö{n}, {compare them},              „
  k.s.{j}.   做好日 tsú hau-nyih, {keep a wedding},           pen.
  j.s.{p}.   一本頭 ih-pun deu, {just one volume},            ult.
  {p}.s.{p}. 秦如皇 dzing sz {w}ong, {the emperor who
                 burnt the books},                            „
  {k}.s.{j}. 字紙簏 zz-tsz lóh, {written-paper basket},        „
  {j}.s.{p}. 踛起來 lók k’í-lé, {stand up},                    „

Obs. i. The penultimate is heard higher in key than the others. The
last falls, but retains the principal accent more or less distinctly.

Obs. ii. The secondary accent is usually on the first word, except
in the example 做好日, where the penultimate word changes into an
upper rising tone, and receives the accent.

24. {The upper third tone}. This tone being both high in key and
deflected upwards, is difficult to imitate correctly.

Ex.

    葬 tsong, {bury}. 變 píe{n}, {change}.      四 sz,     {four}.
    寸 ts’un, {inch}. 姓 sing, {family name}.   店 tíe{n}, {shop}.

Examples of this tone in the penultimate of a combination of two.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  k. p.   意思 í sz, {object, idea},                         pen.
          看書 k’ö{n} sû, {to read},                         ult.
          種花 tsóng hwó, {plant cotton or flowers},          „
  k.s.    放火 fong hú, {set on fire},                       pen.
          禁止 kiung tsz, {forbid},                           „
  k.k.    富貴 fú kwé, {rich and honourable},                ult.
          教訓 kiau h’iün, {instruct},                        „
  k.j.    愛惜 é sih, {love and pity},                        „
          過歇 kú h’ih, {at present},                         „
  k.{p}.  算盤 sûn bén, {Chinese abacus},                     „
          教門 kiau mun, {form of instruction},               „
  k.{s}.  怕冷 p’ó láng, {afraid of cold},                    „
          快馬 k’wá mó, {a swift horse},                      „
  k.{k}.  對面 dé míe{n}, {the opposite},                    ult.
          算命 sû{n} ming, {to calculate destiny},            „
  k.{j}.  氣力 k’í lih, {strength},                          pen.
          做賊 tsú zuh, {be a thief},                        ult.

Obs. i. It may be useful as an aid to memory, to notice that verbs
are very numerous in this tone. The majority of the above examples
will illustrate this remark.

Obs. ii. In the first example 意 í is irregular, and is pronounced in
the first tone.

Obs. iii. When the accent is decidedly on the last word, as in most
of the examples, the penultimate is very short and pronounced with
the least possible emphasis.

Obs. iv. In the examples, k, k, penultimate word is in rapid
pronunciation, heard even, like the second tone. Thus 照‘ 應‘ is
pronounced ’tsau yung‘.

25. Examples of the same tone, as the antepenultimate of three words.

  Tones.                                               Accent.
  k.p.s.     照規矩 tsau kwé-kü, {follow the custom},          pen.
  k.s.k.     種小菜 tsóng siau-ts’é, {plant vegetables},        „
  k.k.{k}.   世界上 sz-ká long, {in the world},                ult.
  k.j.{p}.   派出來 p’á ts’eh-lé, {place in divisions},        ant.
  k.{p}.{k}. 啥時候 sá zz-{e}u, {what time?},                   „
  k.{p}.p.   做成功 tsú zung-kóng, {to complete},              ult.
  k.{s}.{s}  敬父母 kiung ’vú-mú,  {reverence parents},         „
  k.{j}.{k}. 帶勿動 tá veh-dóng, {cannot carry},               ant.

Obs. To keep the first word short in time, and deflected upwards, is
the chief requisite in examples of this kind, If the voice were
allowed to rest on it, it would necessarily become the first or
second tone.

26. Examples of the upper third tone standing last of two or three
words.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  p.k.      生意     sáng í, {trade},                        pen.
            東喊     tóng ha{n}, {eastwards},                 „
            爽快     song k’wá, {in good health},             „
  s.k.      寫信     siá sing, {write a letter},             ult.
            打算     táng sûh, {consider, plan},             pen.
  k.k.      正派     tsung p’á, {correct conduct},           ult.
            做戲     tsú h’í, {act a play},                   „
  j.k.      得意     tuh í, {obtain one’s wishes},            „
            失信     seh sing, {be unfaithful},               „
  {p}.k.    皇帝     {w}ong tí, {emperor},                    „
            回信     {w}é sing, {letter in answer},           „
  {s}.k.    禮拜     lí pá, {worship},                        „
            馬掛     mo kwó {jacket},                         „
  {k}.k.    造化     ’zau hwó, {fortunately, to create},      „
            地界     {t}í ká, {boundary of land},             „
            罪過     zé kú, {sin, an impropriety},           pen.
  k.{j}.k   看勿見    k’ö{n} veh-kíe{n}, {do not see},        ant.
  {p.j.}k.  搖勿過    {y}au veh-kú, {cannot row past},         „
  {j}.k.k.  勿要怕    veh-yau p’ó, {do not fear},             pen.
  {j}.j.k.  勿適意    veh suh-í, {not in health},             ult.
  {s}.s.k   冷小菜    láng siau ts’é, {cold vegetables},       „

Obs. i. The almost unbroken regularity of the accent in these
examples, arises partly from the last word being the proper place
for it, and partly from the tone under illustration being naturally
adapted to receive it.

Obs. ii. In the examples p, k, the last word falls in key, and its
upward deflection and initial consonant remain unaffected.

Obs. iii. The examples k, k, follow the same law as in Art. 24.
Obs. iv. In 打算 the former word being merely an auxiliary particle,
is short in time as if it were táng‘.

27. Examples of the upper third tone as the penultimate in a group
of three.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  p.k.{p}.    担過來 ta{n} kú-lé, {bring it over},            ant.
  s.k.k.      寫信去 siá-sing k’í, {send a letter},            „
  k.k.{s}.    細細哩 sí-sí lí, {accurately},                   „
  j.k.{k}.    忒過分 t’uk kú-vun, {excessive},                ult.
  {p}.k.j.    難過歇 na{n} kú-h’ih, {at present},              „
  {s}.k.{k}.  理性上 lí-sing long, {according to reason},     ant.
  {k}.k.{p}.  右半爿 yeu pé{n} ba{n}, {right-hand side},      ult.
  {j}.k.j.    勿見得 veh kíe{n} tuh, {it is not likely},      pen.

Obs. i. The middle word is always carefully shortened in tone.

Obs. ii. When the last word is one of less significance than the
others, it frequently loses the accent.

28. {The upper fourth tone}. This tone is a short syllable, high and
bent upwards. It has k final after the vowels á, ó, o, u, after
other vowels k is not heard.

Ex. 角 kok, {horn}; 刻 k’uk, {quarter of an hour}; 法 fah, {method}.

Examples in which it is the first of a group of two.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  j.p.    出身 ts’eh sun, {rank or profession},              ult.
          發風 fah fóng, {wind rising},                       „
  j.s.    爀顯 hok h’íe{n}, {lightning},                      „
          出產 ts’eh ts’a{n}, {field productions},            „
  j.k.    百姓 pák sing, {people} (hundred names,)            „
  j.j.    法則 fah tsuh, {method},                            „
  j.{p}.  出門 ts’eh mun, {to go from home},                  „
          客人 k’áh niun, {stranger, guest},                 pen.
          磕頭 k’eh deu, {to make a prostration},            ult.
  j.{s}.  瞎眼 hah nga{n}, {blind eyes},                      „
  j.{k}.  識字 suh zz, {able to read},                        „
          質地 tseh dí, {natural powers},                     „
  k.{j}.  濶狹 k’weh {a}h, {width}, (broad, narrow,)         pen.
          骨肉 kweh nióh, {blood relations},                  „

Words of the fourth tone naturally short, are here in a position
unfavourable for the accent. Even the few cases of exception marked,
do not take it exclusively on the penultimate.

29. Examples of the same tone in the antepenultimate.

  Tones.                                               Accent.
  j.p.{s}.  忒伊兩 t’eh-í liáng, {with him},              ult.
  j.s.{p}.  縮轉來 sók tsé{n}-lé, {return},                „
  j.k.j.    撥過歇 peh-kú-h’ih, {given},                  ant.
  j.{k.p.}  跌下來 tih ’{a}u-lé, {fall down},             ult.
  j.{p}.p.  織成功 tsuh zung-kóng, {completely woven},    ult.
  j.{s}.j.  搨顔色 t’ah gna{n} suh, {paint on colours},   pen.
  j.{j.p.}  角落頭 koh-loh deu, {corner},                 ult.

The secondary accent is on the first syllable in these examples.

30. Examples of this tone standing last of two or three words.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  p.j.      天色 t’íen suh, {weather},                       pen.
            分別 fun pih, {difference},                       „
  s.j.      手筆 seu pih, {hand-writing},                    ult.
            寶塔 pau t’ah, {pagoda},                          „
  k.j.      算法 sûn fah, {method of calculation},            „
  j.j.      吃粥 k’íuk tsóh, {eat rice water},                „
  {p}.j.    頭髮 {t}eu fah, {hair},                          pen.
            沉殺 dzun sah, {be drowned},                      „
  {s}.j.    顔色 gna{n} suh, {colour},                        „
            五十 {ng} seh,[1] {fifty},                        „
  {k}.j.    二十 ní seh {twenty},                             „
            吝嗇 ling sih {parsimonious},                     „
  {j}.j.    沒殺 meh sah {be drowned},                       ult.
            立刻 lih k’uh {immediately},                      „
  p.{p}.j.  骷髏骨 kú leu kweh {scull},                       „
  {p}.p.j.  龍華塔 lúng hwó t’ah {Lúng-hwá pagoda},           „

In the first two examples, the penultimate being in the upper first
tone, the last word may be heard to fall in key.

In those marked {k}, j, the first word is lengthened in pronunciation,
and thus passes into the lower second tone.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. The character 十 is read zeh The sound seh as heard in
  conversation is irregular.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

31. Examples of the upper fourth tone standing second in a group of
three.

  Tones.                                                   Accent.
  p.j.{p}.  推出來 t’é t’seh-lé, {investigate},               ult.
  s.j.p.    保國家 pau kók-kiá, {defend one’s country},        „
  k.j.j.    背脊骨 pé-tsih kweh, {back-bone},                  „
  j.j.{p}.  脚節頭 kiák tsih-deu, {toes},                      „
  {p}.j.k.  跑得動 {p}au tuh-dóng, {able to walk},            ant.
  {k}.j.s.  話得好 {w}ó tuh-hau, {well spoken},                „
  {j}.j.p.  額角頭 ngák koh-deu, {forehead},                  ult.

The secondary accent may often be distinctly heard on the first word
in these examples.

32. A few examples of large groups are here appended.

  Tones.
  p.p.s.s.          清清爽爽 ts’ing-ts’ing song-song, {distinct},
  p.k.j.{k}.        忠孝節義 tsóng-hiau tsih ní, {fidelity, filial piety,
                        chastity and uprightness},
  j.k.j.k.          各到落處 kok-tau-lok-ts’û, {everywhere},
  s.s.p.p.          喜喜歡歡 h’í-h’í hwé{n}-hwé{n}, {glad},
  k.k.k.k.          正正派派 tsung-tsung p’á-p’á, {good conduct},
  j.j.j.j.          瞎七瞎八 hah-t’sih hah-pah, {all in confusion},
  j.j.j.{s}.        七曲八裊 ts’ih-k’ióh pah-niau, {winding about},
  p.{j}.s.s.s.      金木水火土 kiun mók sûi hú t’ú, {metal, wood, water,
                        fire and earth},
  k.k.j.k.s.        看過歇個者 k’ön-kú-h’ih-k’ú-tsé, {have seen it},
  p.{p}.j.j.{j}.    青黃赤黑白 t’sing {w}ong t’suh huh {p}ah, {blue,
                        yellow, red, black, and white},
  p.p.{p}.j.p.      東西南北中 tung sí né{n} póh tsóng, {east, west,
                        south, north and middle},
  p.k.j.{s}.s.      聽過歇拉者 t’ing-kú-h’ih-lá-tsé, {I have heard it},

For analysing such groups as these, all that would seem to be
necessary, is to divide them into smaller combinations. Dissyllables
and trisyllables may thus be formed, and linked together by the
hyphen as above. They then fall under the same laws as preceding
examples, and the accent of position will be usually on the last word.

When a number of particles are collected, as in k’ön‘-kú‘-h‘ih-kú-’tsé,
they are heard like a word of five syllables with an accent in the
first and last syllables. The English words {acceptableness},
{peremptorily}, {necessarily}, may be compared with examples of
this kind; without the last two words, the accent would be on the
first and third.

In the last example, the first accent is on 聽 t’ing, the second on
拉 lá, which being in a long tone, attracts it.

When there is a string of substantives together, as in enumerating
the five colours, the five elements, the five constant virtues, etc.
more time is allowed for the pronunciation of each. The hyphen has
therefore been omitted in such cases.

33. Collecting these results, the following general remarks may be
made on the upper tones.

I. The principal accent prefers the last syllable, but enclitic
particles often reject it, while it is attracted most readily by the
first and third tones.

The reverse of this is true at Ch’á-p’ú and Hái-ning to the
South-west of Sháng-hái, where the penultimate takes the accent.

II. A secondary accent occurs in groups of three, which rests on the
most significant word, or on the tones naturally requiring most
stress of voice, the first and third.

III. An interchange takes places between the second and third tones,
when either of them stands before a word which is the same in tone.

IV. The first tone becomes the lower first, i e. even, low and
rising at the end, when standing last, if the word preceding takes
the accent. After the third tone, upper and lower, it does not vary.

V. The first tone is lengthened in time in the penultimate, when the
stress of the voice is on the last word, and the third, when in that
position, shortened.

VI. The upper tones tend to fall in key, where they come after the
first tone, and when they do so, always preserve their initial
consonants. After any other tone, they usually keep their proper
elevation.

34. In entering on the lower tones we meet with new consonants, G,
D, B, NG, N, M, L, R. The exceptions will be found noticed in Art. 56.

{Lower first tone}. This is a long low tone deflected upwards at the
end. East of the Hwáng-p’ú river and in the city of Sháng-hái, this
tone is as here described. But to the westward of that river, the
quick low circumflex very soon takes its place, and is met with to
the immediate neighbourhood of Sú-cheú and Háng-cheú. It appears to
consist of a quick rising and quick falling tone pronounced rapidly
together.

Ex. 篷 {p}óng, {sail}; 龍 lóng, {dragon}; 門 mun, {door}.

35. Examples of this tone in the penultimate of a combination of two.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  {p}.p.  唐詩 {t}óng sz’, {poetry of Táng dynasty},         pen.
          文章 vun tsáng, {essays composed by rule},          „
  {p}.s.  牙齒 ngá ts’z, {teeth},                             „
          常久 dzáng kieu, {long time},                       „
  {p}.k.  憑據 {p}íng kü, {evidence},                        ult.
          同姓 {t}óng síng, {of the same name},               „
  {p}.j.  頭髮 {t}eu fah, {hair},                             „
  {p.p.}  停船 {t}ing zé{n}, {stop a boat},                   „
  {p.p.}  窮人 {k}ióng niun, {poor man},                     pen.
  {p.s.}  文禮 vun lí, {elegance in style},                   „
          騎馬 {k}í mó, {to ride},                           ult.
  {p}.k.  和尙 {u} zong, {priest},                            „
          强盜 {k}iáng dau, {robber},                         „
  {p.j.}  題目 {t}í móh, {a theme},                          pen.
          牛肉 nieu nióh, {beef},                             „

Obs. i. The accent is predominantly on the penultimate word, and the
lower first tone is thus seen to be one of those, that attracts to
itself the stress of the voice. In this combination the penultimate
is always carefully enunciated in a low key.

Obs. ii. Where we have written {t, k, p}, the corresponding soft
consonants d, g, b, if the ear only were consulted, might sometime
be employed; but an orthography ought to be consistent, and it
appears to us that the best imitation on the whole of the native
sounds, will be secured by writing the latter symbols in the last
word of a combination, and the former in the penultimate. The only
case it is believed, where this method does not fully represent the
true pronunciation, is in such words as 窮, 强, {k}ióng, {k}iáng, and
others whose initial is in mandarin k’ and which are in the lower
first tone. There could be no objection to the use of g in those
cases, except the want of uniformity among the mute consonants;
keeping the letter {k}, it will be enough to inform the reader, that
there is a peculiar thickness of sound, and a consonant difficult to
write with any of our alphabetic symbols.

36. Examples of the lower first tone, as the antepenultimate in a
group of three.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  {p}.p.p.   黃昏星 {w}ong-hwun sing, {evening star},         ult.
  {p}.s.{p}. 神主牌 zun-tsû bá, {ancestral table},             „
  {p}.k.p.   前世寃 dzíe{n}-sz’ yön, {enemy of a former
                 life},                                       „
  {p}.p.j.   磨刀石 mu tau záh, {grinding hone},               „
  {p.p.j.}   如來佛 zû-lé veh, {title of Buddha},              „
  {p.s.j.}   前兩日 zíe{n} liáng-nyih, {two days ago},        ant.
  {p.k.}p.   堂弟兄 {d}ong {t}í-hiúng, {cousin on father’s
                  side},                                      „
  {p.j.p.}   擡勿來 dé veh-lé, {cannot carry it},             ult.

Obs. The first word in this table, as in the preceding, needs to be
studiously kept low, even, and undeflected.

37. Examples of the lower first tone standing last in a group of two
or three.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  p.{p}.    京城 kiung zung, {metropolis},                   ult.
            功勞 kúng lau, {merit},                           „
  s.{p}.    賞頭 song deu, {reward},                          „
  k.{p}.    進城 tsing dzung, {enter the city},               „
            性情 sing dzing, {disposition},                   „
  j.{p}.    北門 póh mun, {north gate},                       „
  {p.p.}    城頭 dzung deu, {city wall},                      „
            衙門 ngá mun, {mandarin’s office},                „
  {s.p.}    老爺 lau yá, {a title of respect},                „
  {k.p.}    養牛 yáng nieu, {keep buffaloes},                 „
            樹皮 zû bí, {bark of trees},                      ult.
  {j.p.}    月牙 niöh ngá, {moon’s horns},                    „
            木頭 móh deu, {wood},                             „
  j.p.{p}.  黑心人 huh-sing niun, {black-hearted man},        ant.
  k.{k.p.}  蓋地皮 ké {t}í-bí, {possess land},                ult.
  k.p.{p}.  算希奇 sû{n} hí-gí, {regard as remarkable},        „
  {j.p.p.}  木頭人 móh-deu niun, {wooden image},              ant.
  {k.j.p.}  舊木頭 {k}ieu móh-deu, {old wood},                ult.

Obs. In the groups not marked p, {p}, and {p, p,} the last word
changes to the upper quick falling tone. In the remaining instances
it preserves its even character. The way is prepared for reciprocal
changes between the upper and lower series, by the initial
consonants being different. The alphabetical distinction prevents
the confusion, that would arise from this intermingling of sounds.

38. Examples of the lower first tone, as the penultimate of three.

  Tones.                                                       Accent.
  p.{p}.s.  新房子 sing vong-tsz, {a new house},                  pen.
  s.{p}.p.  主人家 tsû niun-ká, {master of family},               ult.
  k.{p}.p.  做人家 tsú niun ká, {to be economical},                 „
  k.{p.p.}  要銅錢 yau dóng-die{n}, {he wants money},              ant.
  {s.p.}p.  老人家 lau niun-ká, {an old man},                      ult.
  {s.p.}p.  洞庭山 {t}óng-ding sa{n}, {island in the Great Lake},   „
  {j.p.k.}  十王殿 seh-{w}ong die{n}, {temple of the ten kings}.    „

Obs. After the deep deflected tone preceding it in {s}, {p}, p, the
penultimate in these examples is usually raised to the upper falling
tone.

39. {Lower second tone}. This tone properly a low protracted tone
rising at its close, contains in it a number of words whose
pronunciation is not fixed. These words, sometimes counted in this
tone, and at other times in the next in order, are in other parts of
China in the third tone. It will be better to consider them under
the heading to which they belong in other dialects, and present here
such examples as are free from this uncertainty in tone.

Ex. 有 yeu, {have}; 五 {ng}, {five}; 里 lí, {Chinese mile}.

40. Examples of the lower second tone in the penultimate of two words.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  {s}.p.  眼睛 nga{n} tsing, {eyes},                         ult.
          老君 lau kiün, {founder of Taúism},                 „
  {s}.s.  冷水 láng sz, {cold water},                        pen.
          鈕子 nieu tsz, {button},                            „
  {s}.k.  理性 lí sing, {reason},                            ult.
          買處 má ts’û, {means of buying},                    „
  {s}.j.  免脫 míe{n} t’eh, {forgive},                        „
  {s.p.}  領頭 ling deu, {neckband},                          „
          女人 nü niun, {woman},                              „
  {s.s.}  永遠 {y}úng {y}ö{n}, {very long time},              „
  {s.k.}  引誘 {y}un {y}eu‘, {to tempt},                      „
          領路 ling lú, {lead the way},                       „
  {s.j.}  擄掠 lú liáh, {rob},                                „

Obs. i. The tone under illustration, keeps its natural character
throughout. No initial letters occur but l, m, ng, n, r, and the
vowels. Words beginning with mutes and sibilants that were
originally in this tone, are in course of transition to the lower
third tone. V from w in mandarin, remains in the second tone.

Obs. ii. The low deflected tone in the penultimate of {s.p.} and
{s}.s. so affects the last words, that they are heard in the quick
falling tone.

Obs. iii. This tone is difficult to describe as distinct from the
preceding, from the fact that both tend upwards; the former deviates
slightly, after beginning even; the latter begins low and ascends
through its whole time. The first is in its general character even,
but when compared with the pure monotone in the Amoy dialect, to
which it is most nearly allied, there is a difference perceptible
that needs to be specified. It is heard we believe with this
peculiarity when pronounced alone, and when standing last in a
binary combination, if it does not then change to the upper first
tone. When first in order, it is even. It was before observed, that
the first upper tone, when last in order, changes to the first
lower. In the sound then heard, when enunciated with the true native
drawl, the same may be noticed.

Obs. iv. There is nothing even in the second tone when alone, except
when enunciated in a high key. When last in order it often rises to
the upper second tone, and is then heard even.

For ready comparison of the sounds, a few examples of words in the
lower tones are here appended:—

  良, 兩, 亮, liáng, in the tones {p.s.k.}
  埋, 買, 賣, má,                    „
  泥, 你, 義, ní,                    „
  人, 忍, 認, niun, (R. zun),        „
  油, 有, 佑, yeu,                   „
  題, 弟, 地, dí,                    „
  隨, 罪, 睿, zûe,                   „

The last two words here marked as in the second tone will be shewn
immediately to be so for this district.

41. Examples of the same tone as the antepenultimate in a group of
three.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  {s}.p.j.    冷天色 láng t’íe{n}-suh, {cold weather},        ult.
  {s}.s.s.    耳𦖋管 ní-tú kwé{n}, {ear cavity},               „
  {s}.k.{p}.  老太婆 lau t’á bú, {aged dame},                  „
  {s}.k.{p}.  買進來 má tsing-lé, {to buy},                    „
  {s.k.}s.    武藝子 vú-ní tsz, {capacity for an art or
                  business},                                 pen.
  {s.k.}p.    領事官 ling-zz kwé{n}, {foreign consul},        ult.

42. Examples of this tone as the last in a group of two or three
words.

  Tones.                                                   Accent.
  p.{s}.     杴米 k’íe{n} mí, {grind rice},                   ult.
  s.{s}.     小雨 siau {ü}, {small rain},                      „
  k.{s}.     囥籠 k’ong lóng, {to hide},                       „
  j.{s}.     搭鈕 tah nieu, {an iron hook},                    „
  j.{s}.     瞎眼 hah nga{n}, {blind},                         „
  {p.s.}     情理 dzing lí, {reasonable, reason},              „
  {s.s.}     美女 mé n{ü}, {beautiful woman},                  „
  {k.s.}     盡禮 dzing lí, {do everything properly},          „
  {j.s.}     落雨 loh {ü}, {it rains},                         „
             着冷 dzáh láng {catch cold},                      „
  p.p.{s}.   珍珠米 tsun-tsû mí, {Indian corn},                „
  k.s.{s}.   最苦惱 tsûe k’ú nau, {very miserable},            „
  {s.k.s.}   有道理 {y}eu ’dau-lí, {virtue},                  ant.
  {j.j.s.}   勿勒裡 veh leh-lí, {not at home},                 „
  {k.j.s.}   話勿理 {w}ó veh-lí, {will not listen},            „

Obs. In 情理 and 盡禮 where a difference of accent might have been
expected, the distinction is kept in the native pronunciation,
entirely by means of the tones. In many of these cases, the last
word rises and becomes even, i.e. passes into the upper second tone.
Thus, 眼 nga{n} and 理 lí, become high and even.

43. Examples of the same tone, as the penultimate in a group of three.

  Tones.                                                     Accent.
  p.{s}.p.  裝滿之 tsong-mén tsz, {having packed full},         ant.
  k.{s}.k.  看冷破 k’ö{n} láng p’ú, {despise others},           pen.
  {p.s.}s.  情理點 dzing-lí tíe{n}, {be more reasonable},       ant.
  {k.s.s.}  廿五里 nia{n}-{ng} lí, {twenty-five Chinese miles.}, „
  {j.s.k.}  洛眼淚 loh nga{n}-lí, {to weep},                    ult.
  {s.s.k.}  五里路 {ng}-lí lú, {five Chinese miles},             „

44. Before proceeding to those words whose tone is undecided, it may
be first observed, that in the Tonic Dictionaries,[1] there is a
large class of characters ranged under the second tone, not found
there, either in the dialects of the Southern provinces, or in the
Northern mandarin as registered by Prémare. These words have for
their initials, only the sibilant and mute consonants z, dz, zh, b,
d, g, with the vowels, and v from f. In the modern pronunciation of
Háng-cheú and Sú-cheú, they are also found as in other parts of the
empire in the third tone. It follows that they must have made the
transition, since the Dictionary system was completed. The earliest
works containing it, quoted in K’áng-hí, are said in the preface to
have been written in the Liáng and Táng dynasties,[2] and must
consequently be regarded as the tradition of at least a thousand
years. While this change has taken place in the sound of a large
class of very common words, through the greater part of China, it is
curious to notice, that the older pronunciation still lingers in the
colloquial practice of one part at least of central China.

Even if the inventors of the syllabic spelling confined themselves
in the first instance to the usage of the Kiáng provinces, whik
north and south of them a different pronunciation prevailed, still
this change has taken place in the large cities of Cheh-kiáng and
Kiáng-nán, which are now one with their neighbours. In our own
dialect it has not yet been completed. After a sufficient time
perhaps, this anomaly will have its term, and the boundaries of the
tones be as sharply defined, as according to the laws of Chinese
pronunciation they ought to be. There are moreover other
illustrations that may be drawn from the Dictionaries, of secular
changes (to adopt the phraseology employed in sciences of higher
mark) occurring in the tones of China.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. The names of some of the most commonly used are 詩韻集成, 詩韻含英.

  2. 自說文以後, 字書善者, 於粱則玉篇, 於唐則廣韻. “From the Shwóh-wun
  downward, the best Dictionaries, were Yúh-p’ien in the Liáng,
  and Kwáng Yün in the Táng dynasties,” etc. Liáng A.D. 502 to
  560, T’áng 617 to 917.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

45. {Lower third tone}. The words that were primarily in this tone,
are always heard with the quick rising pronunciation that properly
belongs to it. It is like “the tone given to some words, when spoken
ironically, or to the word ‘indeed!’ when used as an exclamation.”
(Medhurst’s Hok-kien Dictionary.)

The words referred to in the last article, are placed here rather
than in the second tone, because the other dialects are unanimous in
doing so. In fact, however, they are in Sháng-hái usage more in the
last tone than in this. The following words for example, when
pronounced alone, have the long sound.

  後 ’{h}eu,   上 ’záng,  動 ’{t}óng, 奉 ’vóng,  坐 ’zú,    部 ’{p}ú,
  禍 ’{h}ú,    是 ’zz,    弟 ’{t}í,   父 ’vú,    罪 dzûi,   緩 ’{h}wé{n},
  倖 ’{h}yung, 市 ’zz,    道 ’{t}au,  婦 ’vú,    造 ’zau,   罷 ’{p}ó,
  跪 ’{k}wé    緒 ’dzü,   蕩 ’{t}ong, 犯 ’va{n}, 重 ’dzóng, 下 ’{h}iá,
  近 ’{k}iun,  善 ’zé{n},             丈 ’dzáng, 在 ’dzé

⁂ In the department of 嘉興 Ka-hiung, occupying the space between
those of Háng-cheú and Súng-kiáng, these words are never in the third
tone.

Any of these words that occasionally become verbs in the books, being
commonly in other parts of speech, are in that case always marked as
belonging to the third tone in good editions of native works.
E.e. 上꜄ 下꜄ 善꜄ 弟꜄ 後꜄ when they become verbs, change from the second
to the third tone and are so marked. All the authorities are uniform
in these matters; and the Dictionaries specify the tones by name,
assigning the primary sense to the second tone, and the secondary
sense, in all these cases a verb, to the third tone.

46. These words though when standing isolated, they keep the old
dictionary tone, are liable to such frequent changes in combination,
that teachers who have not studied the subject, are at a loss to
affix their true tone. In the following examples, these variations
will be indicated as they occur, by the apostrophe on the left, and
inverted comma on the right, for the second and third tones
respectively.

  Tones.                                                      Accent.
  {k.k.}       坐坐 ’zú zú‘, {sit down},                          ult.
  s.{k}.       請坐 ts’ing ’zú, {please sit down},                pen.
  {k.p.}       上頭 ’zong deu, {above},                           ult.
  {p.k.}       皇上 {w}ong záng‘, {emperor},                       „
  p.{k}.       兄弟 h’iúng dí‘, {younger brother},                pen.
  {k}.p.       弟兄 ’tí h’iúng, {brothers},                       ult.
  {k.k.}       味道 mí dau‘, {taste},                              „
  {k.p.}       道臺 ’{t}au dé, {Revenue Commissioner},             „
  {k.p.}       道爺 {t}au‘ yá,           „                         „
  {k.k.}       罪過 zé‘ kú, {sin},                                pen.
  {k.k.}       定罪 {t}ing ’dzûe, {to condemn},                    „
  {k}.k.       是個 zz‘ kú, {it is so},                            „
  {j.k.}       勿是 veh ’zz, {it is not so},                      ult.
  {j.k.}       活動 {w}eh ’dóng, {living and moving},              „
  {k}.p.       動身 ’{t}óng sun, {move one’s-self},                „
  s.{k}.       寡婦 kwó ’vú, {a widow},                           pen.
  p.{k}.       夫婦 fu vú‘, {husband and wife},                   ult.
  {p.k.}       爲善 {w}é ’zé{n}, {be virtuous},                   pen.
  {k}.k.       善報 ’zé{n} pau, {reward of virtue},               ult.
  {p}.p.k.{k}. 明知過犯 ming tsz kú ’va{n}, {wilfully transgress}, „
  {k}.j.       犯法 va{n}‘ fah, {break the law},                   „
  {k.j.k.}     是勿是 zz‘ veh zz, {is it so or not?}               „
  {k.j.k.}     並勿是 {p}ing veh zz, {certainly not},             ant.
  {k}.j.       造屋 ’zau óh, {build a house},                     ult.
  {k.p.}s.     造完者 zau‘ wén tsé, {finished building},          pen.
  p.{k}.p.{k}. 街市頭上 ká ’zz deu long, {in the streets},        ult.
  {k.p.}       市頭 zz‘ deu, {the street},                         „
  {k.s.k.}     動咾動 ’{t}óng lau dóng’, {moving},                 „
  {k.p.}s.     重來死 dzóng‘ lé sí, {very heavy},                  „
  k.{k}.       看重 k’ö{n} ’dzóng, {value highly},                 „

Obs. It will be seen that among these examples, there are nearly as
many of the quick or third tone, as of the longer one. Taking the
usage all in all, the balance in cases of grouping is however, in
favour of the quicker form. When alone the original tone is used
almost exclusively. In reading there is about the same amount of
variation as in colloquial usage. The quicker tone usually, but not
exclusively, prefers to stand last, leaving the penultimate of a
combination to the longer tone.

47. In regard to the words that have always been in the lower third
tone, there is as much regularity of pronunciation as in any other
tone.

Ex. 病 {p}ing, {disease}; 話 {w}ó, {words, to speak}; 大 {t}ú, {great}.

The following are examples where this tone occurs in the penultimate
of a group of two.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  {k}.p. 順風 zun fóng, {fair wind},                         ult.
  {k}.s. 硯子 níe{n} tsz, {ink stone},                       pen.
  {k}.k. 定當 {t}ing tong, {to fix},                         ult.
  {k}.j. 外國 ngá kóh, {foreign state},                       „
         賣脫 má teh, {to sell off},                         pen.
  {k.p.} 浪頭 long deu, {waves},                             ult.
  {k.k.} 面貌 míe{n} mau, {countenance},                      „
  {k.k.} 謝謝 {s}iá ziá, {I thank you},                       „
  {k.j.} 念佛 nia{n} veh, {chant Buddhist classics},          „

48. Examples of this tone in the antepenultimate of three.

  Tones.                                                  Accent.
  {k}.p.{p}. 硬心腸 ngáng sing-dzáng, {hard heart},           ult.
  {k}.j.{p}. 外國人 ngá-koh niun, {foreigner},                ant.
  {k}.j.j.   靜出出 zing’ t‘seh t‘seh, {quiet and empty},      „
  {k.p.}j.   硬如鐵 ngáng zû t’ih, {hard as iron},            ult.
  {k.p.}s.   大娘子 {t}ú niáng-tsz, {wife},                   pen.
  {k.j.}j.   飯粒屑 vau{n} lih-sih, {rice crumbs},            ant.

Obs. In the fourth example 子 being an enclitic, throws back the
accent on the penultimate. In the last, the accent is on the first
word for a similar reason.

49. Examples of the lower third tone standing last in a group of two
or three.

  Tones.                                                    Accent.
  p.{k}.     街上 ká long, {in the streets},                    pen.
             多謝 tú ziá, {many thanks},                        ult.
             燒飯 sau va{n}, {cook rice},                        „
  s.{k}.     响亮 h’iáng liáng, {distinct in sound},             „
  k.{k}.     頂大 ting dú, {the greatest},                       „
             性命 sing ming, {life}                              „
  j.{k}.     看病 k’ö{n} bing, {cure diseases},                  „
  {p.k.}     國度 kóh dú, {a kingdom},                           „
             城外 dzung ’ngá, {outside the city wall},           „
  {s.k.}     隨便 dzûe bie{n}, {as you please},                  „
  {k.k.}     忍耐 zun (or niun) né, {patient},                   „
             話壊 {w}ó {w}á, {speak ill of},                     „
             命令 ming ling, {a command},                        „
  {j.k.}     月亮 niöh liáng, {moonlight},                       „
  s.s.{k}.   果子樹 kú tsz zû, {fruit-bearing tree},             „
  k.p.{k}.   送羮飯 sóng káng va{n}, {give away food},         pen.
  {j}.s.{k}. 瘧子病 ngok (R. niák) tsz bing, {fever and ague}, ult.

In the first example, {long} is always in the third tone. With 街上
ká long or 山上 sa{n} long, compare the English {convict, wisdom,
darkness}. If the last words however, were not a mere enclitic, the
comparison of pronunciation would fail, the accent being on the
ultimate.

50. Examples of the same tone in the penultimate of a group of three.

  Tones.                                                    Accent.
  p.{k.s.} 虛字眼 h’ü-zz nga{n}, {particles},                   ant.
  p.{k.k.} 多謝儂 tú ziá nóng, {many thanks to you},             „
  j.{k}.p. 執定之 tseh-ding tsz, {obstinate},                    „
  {p.k.p.} 城外頭 dzung ngá-deu, {outside the city},            ult.
  {s.k.}k. 兩樣個 liáng-yáng kú, {different},                   pen.
  {k.k.}k. 念念看 ’nia{n}-nia{n} k’ö{n}, {read a little aloud}, ant.
  {j.k.}k  勿碍啥 veh-ngé sá, {no matter},                      pen.
  {p.k.p.} 嘸用人 {m}-yúng niun, {a useless man},                „

Obs. When an enclitic stands last, as in the 3rd, 5th, and 7th
examples, the lower third tone preceding it takes the accent.

51. {Lower fourth tone}. While this may be described as the lower
short rising tone, and represented as short in {quantity}, it should
be observed, that two long vowels, and several diphthongs are also
admitted to it. The same is true of the short tone in the upper
scale. These vowels and diphthongs are á, ó, (vide art. 6,), and
iák, iah, iók, iöh, iuk, wák, wah, weh, wok.

Ex. 賊 zuk, {thief}; 挾 {k}áh, {to press}; 掘 {k}iöh, {to dig}.

52. Examples of this tone when standing last of two words.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  p.{j}. 遮沒 tsó meh, {cover over},                         ult.
  s.{j}. 土白 t’ú báh, {local dialect},                       „
  k.{j}. 對敵 dé dih, {oppose enemies},                       „
  j.{j}. 覺着 koh (g) záh, {become aware of},                pen.
         出力 t’seh lih (liuk), {exert strength},             „
  {p.j.} 明白 ming báh, {clear, to understand},              ult.
         重疊 dzóng deh, {tautology},                         „
  {s.j.} 煖熱 nö{n} nyih, {warm},                             „
  {k.j.} 樹木 zû móh, {trees},                                „
  {j.j.} 毒藥 {t}óh (g) yáh, {poison},                       pen.

Obs. The long tones preserve their character before the short tone
with great accuracy.

53. Examples of this tone in the penultimate of two words.

  Tones.                                                 Accent.
  {j}.p. 陌生 mák sáng, {strange, unknown},                  ult.
  {j.p.} 畧些 liák sü, {a little},                           ult.
  {j}.s. 落水 lok sz, {ebb tide},                             „
  {j}.k. 孛相 {p}eh siáng, {amusement, do nothing},           „
  {j}.j. 狭窄 {h}ah tsah, {narrow-minded},                    „
         落脫 lok t’eh, {let fall},                          pen.
  {j.p.} 別人 {p}ih niun, {another man},                     ult.
  {j.k.} 實在 {s}eh zé, {truly},                              „
  {j.j.} 目錄 móh (g) lóh, {table of contents},               „

Obs. The terminating consonants of the fourth tone, in some dialects
are three, k, t, p, corresponding to the final ng, n, m, of words in
the other tones. Only the first of these is audible in Shánghái
pronunciation. It occurs after á, ó, o, u. It is heard k before
consonants of the upper series, particularly s, t; and g before
those of the lower series, particularly z, d. Both will be found
exemplified in these two tables.

54. Examples of combinations of three.

  Tones.                                                    Accent.
  {j}.p.s.   學生子 {h}ok-sáng tsz, {scholar},                  pen.
  {j}.j.{k}. 勿一定 veh ih ding, {not necessarily},             ant.
  j.{k.p.}   落下來 loh ’{a}u-lé, {fall down},                   „
  {j.k.j.}   白話脫 {p}áh (g) {w}ó-t’eh, {speak to no purpose}, pen.
  {p.j.}s.   担勿起 ta{n} veh-k’í, {cannot lift},               ant.
  {p.j.j.}   尋勿着 dzing-veh-dzáh, {cannot find},              ult.

Obs. The first of these may be compared to a trissyllable with an
accent on the penultimate, as “convicted,” i.e. if 生 sáng be
pronounced high. The syllables adjacent to the accent in English are
so contracted in time as to sound more like words in short tones or
enclitics, than in long tones. Should 生 fall to the lower first tone
as it often does, the similarity would not hold.

55. Examples of larger groups in the lower tones.

  男男女女 né{n}-né{n} ’nü-’nü, {men and women}.
  明明白白 ming-ming báh-báh, {perfectly clear}.
  綾羅緞疋 ling-lú dön‘ p’ih, {silks and satins}.
  風調雨順 fóng diau ’{ü} zun‘, {wind and rain favourable}.
  日月星辰 zeh, {y}öh, sing, dzun, {sun, moon, and stars}.
  仁義禮智 zun ní‘ ’lí tsz‘ sing‘, {five cardinal virtues}.
  天地萬物 t’íe{n}-dí‘ va{n}‘-veh, {heaven and earth and all things}.
  書裡有黃金 sû-’lí {y}eu-{w}ong-kiun, {there is gold in books}.
  家常白話 ká-dzáng {p}áh-{w}ó‘, {household words}.
  一眼大一眼 ih-’nga{n}-dú ih-’nga{n}, {increase little by little}.
  謀衣謀食 meu-í meu-zuh, {seek food and clothing}.

56. General remarks on the lower tones.

I. The initial consonant is a test for any word being in the upper
or lower series. Thus, all the broad mutes and sibilants, the weak
aspirate, with the liquids and nasals are in the lower tones. The
other consonants with the strong aspirate are in the upper series.
The following in the higher tones are exceptions.

Ex. 端, 短, 斷, 對, 答, 鬥, 躭, dön, ’dön, dön‘, dé‘, deh, deu‘, dé{n}.
拉, 咯, lá, lóh. Yet 對 is heard té‘ in té‘ deu, {adversary}. This is
caused by the accent falling on 頭 deu.

This furnishes the principle of the orthography adopted in the
present work. The initial letter being an index to the tone, it is
needless to employ distinct tonal marks for the upper and lower
series. In the same way, the Fan t‘sieh or native syllabic spelling
marks the series by the first word, and the particular tone by the
sound. Thus 夫 fú is spelt with 方徒 fang dú. The initial F of the
first word combined with the U final of the second, gives the sound
fu in the first tone. We add an example or two from K’áng-hí:—

  正 is spelt with 章並 cháng {p}ing‘, giving ching‘.
  學    „      „   行酌 {h}ing chóh,   „  {h}ióh.

The first word tells us, whether the sound required is high or low,
and the second to which of the four tones it belongs. The
pronunciation of the words borrowed for this purpose is supposed
known.

II. The orthography is in many instances not fixed. Words sometimes
heard g, d, b, are at other times heard {k}, {t}, {p}. The sounds g,
d, b, occur after a word in combination; while {k}, {t}, {p} occur
when no word precedes. To indicate that they are always low in
pitch, they are printed in italics. V, z, come partially under the
same rule. The rest dz, dzz, are scarcely heard in the thin form at
all, and are therefore spelt with d in this work. Another
peculiarity is that z and dz are interchangeable. Z is more common
in conversation; dz in reading.

III. There are many words having sibilants or mutes, or the weak
aspirate for their initial consonants, of which the tone is
uncertain, being sometimes in the second, and at other times in the
third. The liquids and vowels have not this peculiarity, and it only
belongs to words that were originally in the second tone.

IV. The first tone, when last in a binary combination, rises to the
upper first, except when preceded by the first tone, upper or lower.
The initial consonant remains broad as in other cases.

V. The other tones also frequently rise to the upper series when
standing last, each to its corresponding tone, and the initial
consonant is unaffected.

VI. The laws of accent are the same as in the upper tones. The last
word of a combination being usually accented, affords the best
opportunity for the discrimination of the tones.

57. {Relation of Tones to Music}. It is only when they are even,
that a musical notation can fully and correctly represent the tones.
For deflection, so essential to the latter, is not allowed in music,
being destructive of harmony. The short and quick tones may however
be described as {staccato} notes, and the violin may be made in
passing from one note to another, to produce a continuous sound,
which has been adduced in “The Chinese as they are,” to illustrate
the deflections. In regard to time, so minutely subdivided in music,
there do not appear be more than two classes of tones, the quick and
the slow. Kircher supposed that the five tones were the first five
notes in an octave do, re, mi, fa, sol; but in reality, differences
of elevation are usually not more than two for one dialect. The
interval between the two series varies, it being greater for
example, in some parts of the north of China, than in Kiáng-nán,
where it is about half an octave.

58. {Relation of Tones to Accents in other languages}. So far as
accent only means the distinction of loud and soft, there seems no
analogy. For the Chinese tones may be pronounced as gently or
sonorously as the speaker pleases, and loudness in this language
also constitutes accent as distinct from tone. In the common accents
of English conversation however, there is usually a difference in
deflection, or as it is called by some writers, modulation. There is
one tone (1) for assertion and determination, and another (2) for
asking questions; and these differ not in time, or in loudness, but
in the fact that they are deflected downwards and upwards
respectively. Again, the tone of interrogation (2) is commonly
quick, while that of sarcasm (3) is often slow. Those who read
aloud, too often confine themselves almost exclusively to the
monotone, a fourth variation (4). Now it is these very distinctions
of deflection and time that form the essence of the Chinese tones,
and they are in daily use in our own language, as aids in expressing
the feelings, as marks of emphasis, and as a means of relieving the
voice by interchange. All that a foreigner has to do then in
imitating the Chinese tones is to apply forms of utterance, to which
he is already accustomed, to those words in which the Chinese employ
them, and to treat the tone thus individualized, whichever it may
be, as a part of the word, to be learned contemporaneously with the
vowels and consonants. With regard to the doubly deflected tones,
and those that are less familiar to us, the ancient Greeks would
have had an advantage we do not possess. Their circumflex was made
up of two tones, the acute and grave combined. (Buttman Gr. Gram.
Sect. 9.) Every syllable had a tone, and the tones were placed on
either long or short vowels. There seem also to have been dialectic
and secular varieties. These four facts are all suggestive of a
similarity in their enunciation to that of China. Mr. Lay in the
work alluded to above, has pointed out to what tones the Greek
accents appeared to him to correspond. But our data are so scanty on
the subject of classical pronunciation, that nothing certain can be
said, when we attempt to detail their individual differences.

59. Examples are here annexed of words, which differing slightly, as
in a tone or an aspirate, may be mistaken for each other if
mispronounced.

  鏡子 kiung‘ ’tsz, {a mirror}.
  景致 ’kiung tsz‘, {beautiful scenery}.
  浪頭 long‘ deu, {waves}.
  榔頭 ’long deu, {a hammer}.
  此地 ’t’sz dí‘, {here}.
  次第 t’sz‘ dí‘, {regularity}.
  進教 tsing‘ kiau‘, {enter a religious order}.
  請教 ’t’sing kiau‘, {please inform me}.
  第頭 {t}í‘ deu, {here}.
  剃頭 t’í‘ deu, {shave}.
  最多 tsûe‘ tú, {very many}.
  最大 tsûe‘ dú‘, {very great}.
  第八 {t}í‘ pah, {the eighth}.
  提拔 {t}í bah, {to save}.
  大細 {t}ú‘ sí‘, {young son}.
  圖死 {t}ú ’sí, {wish to die}.
  勿通 veh t’óng, {without reason or proof}.
  勿懂 veh ’tóng, {not to understand}.
  勿同 veh dóng, {not the same}.
  勿動 veh ’dóng, {not moving}.

Note. For some words of constant occurrence, the following
contractions will in future be used. C. or S.C. Shánghái, colloquial
form. M. Northern mandarin pronunciation, R. or S.R. Shánghái
reading sound.


    {Section} 4. {Alphabetical form of the Shánghái sounds}.

i. {Initials}.

60. In grammatical works on other languages, more or less is said on
orthography, or orthography according as the alphabetical symbols
are controlled by more or fewer laws. The Chinese sounds are few,
and regulated by laws which are easily laid down. A section
therefore may properly be devoted to the romanized form of the sounds.

From the time that the Buddhist priests introduced the Sanscrit
system, and the initials and finals, the Chinese have had an
imperfect method of spelling words. The division of each sound into
two parts, represented by two characters, the initial 毋 ’mú, and the
final 韻 yün‘, constitutes the method.

The 字彙 zz‘ {w}e‘, a Dictionary of the Ming dynasty, says 韻學自沈
約始, 而釋神琪, 繼以等韻, 列爲三十六毋, 分爲平仄四聲, yün‘ {y}áh, zz‘ sun‘ {y}ah
’sz, rh suh zun kóng, kí ’í ’tung yün‘, lih {w}é sa{n} {s}eh
lóh ’mú’, fun {w}é {p}ing tsuh sz‘ sung. “{The doctrine of arranging
sounds by their rhymes began with Shin-yoh, and the Buddhist priests
Shin-k’ong continued it, forming the rhymes into classes, and the
initials into thirty six divisions, and placing them all under the
four tones.}”

61. From the sixth century of our era, the system whose origin is
thus recorded, has been preserved in the Dictionaries successively
made, with apparently few variations. The thirty six initials
referred to are contained in the following table:—

  {Native table of Initials.}
  k    見  kíen
  k’   溪  k’í
  g    郡  giun
  ng   疑  ngi
  t    端  twan
  t’   透  t’eú
  d    定  ding’
  n    泥  ní
  ch   知  ch
  ch’  徹  ch’eh
  j    澄  jing
  ni   娘  niáng
  p    幫  páng
  p’   滂  p’áng
  b    並  bing
  m    明  ming
  f    非  fí
  f’   敷  f’ú
  v    奉  vóng
  w    微  ví
  ts   精  tsing
  ts’  淸  ts’ing
  dz   從  dzóng
  s    心  sin
  z    邪  zié
  tsh  照  tshaú
  t’sh 穿  t’shuen
  dj   狀  jwang
  sh   審  shin
  zh   禪  zhen
  y    影  ying
  h    曉  hiáu
  {y}  喩  {y}ü
  {h}  匣  {h}iáh
  l    來  lái
  rh   日  jih

62. From the table it will be seen, that the division into an upper
and lower series of initial consonants, the one embracing thin and
clear sounds, with strong aspirates, the other including the broader
consonants with the liquids and nasals, meets us not only in the
study of the tones of a dialect as shewn in the former section, but
in the accredited Dictionaries of the general language. This may be
readily accounted for from the Kiáng provinces having been the chief
seat of literature and political power, when the sounds of the
language were first represented by double characters. Since the
growth of the modern pronunciation there has been no attempt in any
imperial work to form a new system of spelling.[1] The difference of
the old system and the new will be understood if it be mentioned
that 魚 ü, is spelt ngü, and that 外, 月, wái‘, yöh, are also in the
column headed NG. More details on this subject will be found in the
appendix. In the 五方元音 a small portable Dictionary on the
alphabetic plan, and containing about 10,000 characters, the modern
mandarin is followed in the initials and finals.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. In Káng-hí’s Dictionary many words in the lower first tone,
  formerly in the g, d, b, columns, have been transferred to the
  aspirate column, to be in conformity with northern
  pronunciation. Words in the short tone having k, t, p, as finals
  in the old system, have also been classed as terminating in
  {vowels}, for the same reason. These changes however are only
  found in Káng-hí’s {second} table, and the older classification,
  denoted by a circle round the examples placed where they
  formerly stood, is retained with the new.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

63. In eight of the nine divisions above, the second initial is the
strong aspirate either alone or following, the letters k, t, ch, p,
f, ts and tsh. Of these the palatal ch, and sibilant tsh, are not
needed in Shánghái pronunciation. Ts takes their place. In double
initials the aspirate is between t and s, or t and sh.

  (ch)  知道 M. ch táú‘ S. tsz dau‘, {to know}.
  (tsh) 出來 M. ch’uh lái S. ts’eh lé, {come out}.

F‘ is the same as f. In other instances the aspirate is always
preserved.

  吹進吹出 t’sz tsing‘ t’sz t’séh, {blow in and out}.
  看歇戲否 k’ö{n}‘ h’ih h’í‘ ’vá, {have you seen the play}?
  開口 k’é ’k’eu, {begin speaking}.

In other cases, all these letters with and without aspirates, are
the same with mandarin.

64. The third initial of the same eight divisions is wanting for
Shánghái, only in the case of those headed ch and tsh. Their place
is supplied by z. 形狀 {y}uug zong‘, {visible form}. Sh and zh in the
seventh, are replaced by s and z.

  一隻手 M. ih chih ’sheú S. ih tsáh ’seu, {one hand}.
  時物 M. sh wúh S. zz veh, {things in season}.
  扇子 M. shen‘ tsz S. sé{n}‘ tsz, {fan}.
  受領 M. sheú ling S. ’zeu ’ling, {receive}.

65. The h of mandarin is never heard before w or y in the lower
tones:—

  三魂六魄 sa{n} {w}ung lóh p’áh, {three mental, and six physical
                                  principles of human life}.
  無形無像 vú {y}ung vú ziáng‘, {invisible}.
  縣分꜄ {y}ö{n}‘ vun‘, {what belongs to a district city}.
  效法別人 {y}iau‘ fah {p}ih niun, {imitate others}.

In other examples among the lower tones, a slight aspirate is retained
for the strong hissing sound of mandarin.

  紅格紙頭, {h}óng kák ’tsz deu, {red ruled paper}.
  閒書 {h}a{n} sû, {light reading},  鞋子 {h}á ’tsz, {shoes}.

This slight aspirate is lost in a word standing last in a combination.

  那能修行 ’ná nung sieu {a}ng? {how shall I grow virtuous?}
  幾許闊狹 ’kí hau‘ kweh {a}h? {how wide?}

The English aspirate is between the two aspirates here distinguished,
and is the same as that of Fúh-kien. We have no parallel in our
pronunciation, to that hissing guttural sound, which in the mandarin
provinces, belongs to all the five tones, and in Kiáng-nán to the
upper series. Hence Morrison speaks of it as SH. Nor can the weak
aspirate of the Kiáng-nán lower series, disappearing as it does so
frequently, be regarded an equivalent to the English H.

66. With regard to the thick mutes and sibilants (g, d, b, v, z,) in
the lower tones, it may be remarked generally, that foreigners in
learning colloquial phrases, usually acquire the habit of
pronouncing these consonants thin, when first in a combination, and
broad, when some word precedes. This is so frequently true, that no
further proof is needed of the pronunciation being variable.

  第個 {t}í‘ kú‘, {this}.
  次第 t’sz‘ dí‘, {good order}.
  提拔 {t}í bah, {rescue}.
  拔草 {p}ah ’ts’au, {to weed}.
  罷勿得 {p}á‘ veh tuh, {indispensable}.
  勿罷拉 veh ’bá ’lá, {more than that}.
  大同小異 {t}á‘ dóng ’siau {í}, {differing but little}
  勿大好 veh dá‘ ’hau, {not good}.

For {t} and {p}, there is no difficulty in spelling as is here done,
but {k}, {s}, {f}, are not so easily disposed of. The initial {k} or
g is enunciated thickly before the vowels i and ü, though according to
the system of the Dictionaries, the initial is the same in all cases.
Some foreign students regard it as an aspirated consonant. Others
write it dj or d. This anomaly of pronunciation, so difficult to
express, does not occur before w, a and é. Limited thus to í and ü, it
is thought preferable not to depart from the analogy, by inventing a
new symbol for the few words in use that contain this unmanageable
consonant.

  插旗 t’sah gí, {set up a flag}.  顯轎 ’h’ie{n} giau‘, {mountain chair}.
  葵花 {k}wé hwó, {sunflower}.     求告 {k}ieu kau‘, {pray}.

67. The lower f and s, are often heard v, z, even without a word
preceding. Thus the actual pronunciation cannot be fairly
represented by the law that answers for the other letters, and the
only resource is to follow the natives in each case. This v, as well
as that from w (M.) are pronounced w on the eastern side of the
Hwáng-p’ú.

  服事 {f}oh zz‘, {to serve}.
  牢實 lau zeh, {honesty}.
  謝謝 {s}iá‘ ziá‘, {I thank you}.
  俗字眼 {s}óh zz‘ nga{n}, {colloquial expressions}.
  尙書 zong‘ sû, {the Historical Classic}.
  飯吃曼 va{n}‘ k’iuh ma{n}‘, {have you dined?}
  邪派 siá p’á‘, {depraved customs}.
  罰咒 vah tseu‘, {to swear}.
  實在 {s}eh zé‘, {truly}.

68. The initials z and dz correspond, though somewhat irregularly,
to the tabular initials z, zh, and j, dz, dj.

  樹丫枝 zû‘ au tsz, {branches of trees}.
  若使 zák sz‘, {if}.
  炰茶 p’au‘ dzó {make tea}.
  傳下來 dzé{n} ’{a}u lé, {deliver down}.
  聚攏來 dzü‘ ’lóng lé, {collect}.

The d is often dropped, both, in reading and in the conversational
form.

  勿會寫字 veh {w}é‘ siá zz‘, {cannot write} (M. tsz‘).
  擺渡船 ’pá dú‘ zé{n},[1] {ferry-boat} (M. ch’uen).
  養蠶 yáng‘ zé{n}, {keep silkworms}, (M. t‘sán).

The d is in some words retained in reading, when dropped in the
colloquial form.

  豺狼虎豹 zá (R. dzé) long ’hu pau‘, {wolves and tigers}.
  稻柴 {t}au zá (C.) {rice straw}.
  柴門 dzé (R.) mun, {wooden gate}.
  造完 ’zau (R. dzau) wé{n}, {finish building}.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. 船 The Dictionary pronunciation is 食川切 zhuen.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

69. Words beginning with a vowel, belong to the thirty-first or
thirty-third initials (y, {y},) according as they are high or low in
tone. In giving the romanized form, a more extended subdivision of
the vowels must of necessity be adopted. In the present work, the
initial vowel is italicized, when its word belongs to the lower
series.

  遠來死 ’{y}ö{n} lé ’sí, {very far off}.
  寃枉 yö{n} ’wong, {falsely accuse}.

Those words in the dialect that begin with n, m, v, while in northern
mandarin they have only a vowel as their initial, are placed in the
Dictionary system under those consonants, and they are all in the
lower tones.

  原是 ’niö{n} ’zz, {well then it is}—
  千山萬水 t’síe{n} sa{n} va{n}‘ ’ss, {a long distance}
  一百萬 ih páh ma{n}‘, {a million}.

Words in the upper series beginning with a vowel, which in northern
mandarin take the sound {ng} before them, never have it in the
Shánghái dialect, nor in the Dictionary system. E.g.[1] 愛 ngái‘,
惡 ngóh,[2] are pronounced é‘ and oh.

  愛伊樣物事 é‘ í {y}áng‘ meh zz‘, {love that thing}.

In the lower tones the initial ng is always preserved.

  勿碍啥 veh ngé‘ sá‘, {no matter}.
  一眼勿硬 ih ’nga{n} veh ngáng‘, {not in the least hard}.
  咬牙切齒 ’ngaú ngá t’sih ’t’sz, {grind teeth with rage}.
  我勿餓 ’ngú veh ngú‘ {I am not hungry}.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. 安 M. ngan, S. ö{n}, 恩 ngun, S. un, 哀 ngai, S. é, 暗 ngán‘,
  S. én‘. The true sound as heard in the provinces where mandarin
  is spoken, is a guttural to which the English alphabet has no
  equivalent. NG is employed for want of a better symbol.

  2. In the mandarin Dictionary 五方元音, the initial NG is placed
  with U and A under W; I is placed with ǔ under Y.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

70. The remaining initials are ng, n, ni, m, v, l, and j. They
belong with few exceptions to the lower tones.

NG, I. Many words classed in the Dictionaries under this initial are
pronounced differently in this dialect. Thus 堯 {y}au, 言 {í}en, have
no initial consonant, 疑 ní, 爾 ’nü, 義 ní‘, belong to the tooth nasal
(N),  午五魚 are read {ü}, ú, but spoken {ng}. Ng precedes a, e, o, ö,
u, but not i, ü.

II. Other words as 月 niöh, 牛 nieu, 願 niö{n}, belong more properly
to the class headed ni, or the Spanish circumflexed n. The Sú-cheú
dialect agrees better with the Dictionaries in this class of words,
than that of Shánghái.

III. All the words in Morrison with the initial G belong to this
class, except such as are in the upper tones. Such words as he
writes aou, ae, yae, follow the same rule.

71. N, NI. These though distinguished in some alphabets as in
Sanscrit and Spanish, may be for our purpose more usefully regarded
as identical, the i being considered to belong to the final.
Accordingly such words as 女 ’nü 你 ’né, 鈕 nieu, though placed under
the palatal nasal NI in the native system, will be regarded as
belonging to the tooth nasal N, and the remainder of the sound
reckoned as the final. Even in the tables, these two consonants are
in intentional juxtaposition. The consonants T, CH, to which they
respectively belong are also naturally allied, as may be illustrated
from our dialect, where CH becomes TS.

Many words written by Morrison yǔh, yin, yen, ying, yŏ, yu, yuen,
yuĕ, take this initial, when they are in the lower tones. N, when
thus prefixed, precedes no vowel but i, ü. The following are
examples:—

  玉 niók,    硯 níe{n}‘, 獄 niók, 源 niö{n},
  銀 niun,    騐 nie{n}‘, 語 ’nü,  願 niön‘,
  諺 níe{n}‘, 迎 niung, 愚 nü, 月 niöh, R. yöh.

72. M. V. The class headed M includes not only the mandarin words in
m, but some that in mandarin begin with W. They are therefore placed
together in the Dictionary system. Words thus transformed have V in
reading as an intermediate sound, and often retain that form in the
colloquial. If they are not words in very common use, they do not
assume M as their initial. The following are examples:—

  夫 mí and ví, C. ví, R.             襪 mah, 蚊 mun, C. and R.
  萬 ma{n}‘ and va{n}‘, C. va{n}‘, R. 文, 武 vun, ’vú, C. and R.

Also 問忘網望味物 are spoken mun‘, &c., and read vun‘, etc. In early
Chinese these words all began with b.

73. L. J. The former of these, as used in our dialect, agrees with
the native system, and with the northern mandarin, and calls for no
remark except that a very few words as before noted belong to the
upper series. See Art. 56.

Under the initial j, are found all the Shánghái words in ni (C), and
z (R), which are j, in Mandarin. E.g. 譆饒熱染日忍軟閏絨認撚 are spoken
niáng, &c., and read záng, &c.

Thus,

  人 niun, C. zun, R. jin, M. {a man}.
  肉 nióh, C. zóh, R. júh, M. {flesh}.

Words that are {semi-colloquial}, or only used in combination
retain z. E.g. 惹仁仍弱乳 are read and spoken ’zá, zun, etc.

Thus,

  自然 zz‘ zé{n}, C. and R. tsz‘ jen, M.

⁂ Words in z from sh, or s in mandarin, never change into ni. Thus,
the natural separation between distinct classes of words is
maintained, when their reading sounds are identical.

74. This class also includes R.H. The native tables make no
difference between J and RH, and in some parts of China the initial
J is in jih, {sun}, and some other words pronounced like R.

  而且 rh ’t’siá, {perhaps}.

When thoroughly colloquialized, however, these words pass into ní,
and must be placed under n or ng.

  二 ní‘, C. rh‘ R. {two}.
  兒子 ní ’tsz, or {ng} ’tsz, C. rh, R. {son}.
  耳朶 ’ní ’tú, C. rh tó, R. {ears}.

ii. {Finals}.

75. The Shánghái finals are about 60 in number. According to the
native system, the whole of a word except the initial letter and the
aspirate if there be one, is included in the final. In the
Dictionaries, the finals, which unlike the initials differ but
slightly from modern mandarin pronunciation, are less numerous. The
字彙 tsz‘ hwei‘ has 44. The short tones which should be considered
independent rhymes are counted with the corresponding long ones, and
thus the number is diminished. The first table in K’áng-hí
has sixteen, and the second, twelve. Under each are several
subdivisions. Another small and very convenient Dictionary, the
五方元音 ’Wú fáng yuen yin, taking the five tone mandarin dialect for
its guide both in initials and finals, adopts twenty of the one, and
twelve of the other, and arranges them under five tones. In reducing
them to this small number, some violence is done to the sounds. All
words beginning with a vowel, or NG are arranged under W and Y. In
the finals, expedients are also employed to diminish the number of
headings.

76. In the finals, the departures from the mandarin type are
numerous, but they are according to system, and the knowledge of one
variation is usually a key to the pronunciation of many tens of
other words. The variations are usually the same for one long tone
as for all.

In the following table which consists of words without a diphthong,
the first column contains the final according to Shánghái
pronunciation; the second, all the examples of it having different
rhymes in mandarin; the third, the mandarin spelling; and the
fourth, the Shánghái reading sound.

  P. I. S. IV. TABLE OF FINALS.
  Finals.  Shánghái colloquial.    Mandarin.   Shánghái reading sound.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  á        拉 lá (upper series)    lá
           拜 pá‘                  pái            pé
           家 ká                   kiá            kiá
           解 ’ká                  kiái, kiè      kiá
           快 k’á                  k‘wai          k‘wé
           惹 ’zá                  jé
  ah       法 fah                  fáh, fá
           瞎 hah                  hiáh, hiá
           隔 kah                  kuh, kó        kuh
  ák       百 pák                  puh, ’pá       puh
           若 zák                  jóh, jó‘
           目 mák, mok             múh, mú‘       mok
           石 zák                  shǐh,[1] sh
  a{n}     但 {t}an‘               tán
           簡 ’ka{n}               kian           kíe{n}
  áng      張 tsáng                cháng
           生 sáng                 sung           sung
           宕 {t}áng‘              táng           {t}ong
           行 {h}áng, {y}ung       hing, háng
  au       好 ’hau                 háú
           下 ’{h}au, {h}ó         hiá‘           {y}á
           呌 kau‘                 kiáú           kiau
  é        海 ’hé                  hái
           雷 lé                   lei, lui
           衰 sé                   shwái
           倍 {p}é‘                pei
  eh       雜 dzeh                 tsáh, [1]tsá
           實 zeh                  shih, [1]sh
           沒 meh                  múh, [1]mú
           說 seh                  shwoh          söh
           活 {w}eh                hwóh, [1]hwó
  é{n}     半 pé{n}‘               pwán
           船 zé{n}                ch’uen
           善 ’zé{n}               shen
  eu       溝 keu                  keú
  í        理 ’lí                  lí
           非 fí                   fei
           去 k’í‘                 k’ü            k’ü
           死 ’si                  sz             sz
           些 sí                   sie
  ih       立 lih                  lih, lí‘
           切 ts’ih                ts’ieh, t’sié
           雪 sih                  siöh, ’sió
           恤 sih                  siuh, sió
  ing      循 dzing                siün
           心 sing                 sin
           信 sing‘                sing
  ó        怕 p’ó‘                 p’á
           遮 tsó                  ché            tsó
           赦 só‘                  shé            sé
  öh       奪 {t}öh                tóh, [1]tó
  ók       獨 {t}óh                túh, [1]tú
           木 móh, mok             múh, mú
           國 kóh, kweh            kwóh, [1]kwó
  ok       薄 {p}ók, {p}ok         póh,[1] pó
           樂 lok                  lóh, ló‘
           角 kok, kók             kióh, chió     kiák
  ö{n}     端 dö{n} (upper series) twán
           岸 ngö{n}‘              ngán
  óng      松 sóng, súng           sóng, súng
  ong      喪 song                 sáng
           雙 song                 shwáng
           夢 mong‘                móng, múng     móng
           紅 ’kong                kiáng          kiáng
  ú        所 ’sú                  só
           大 {t}ú‘                tá             {t}á
           古 ’kú                  kú
  ü        句 kü‘                  kü
           歸 kü                   kwei           kwé
  û (ü)    主 ’tsû tsü             chú
  uk       直 dzuk                 chih, [1]ch
  ûe (üe)  雖 sûe (ü)              súi
  un (ng)  根 kun (g)              kun
           身 sun (g)              shin (un)
           尊 tsun (g)             tsün
  û{n}     杆 kû{n}                kán
           算 sû{n}‘               swán
  óng (ú)  龍 lóng (ú)             lóng (ú)
  ung      亨 hung                 hung
           門 mung (n)             mun
  {m}      無 vú, {m}              wú             vú
  {ng}     恒 {h}ng                hung
  rh       而 rh                   rh
  sz       思 詩 sz                sz, sh and shí
           鼠 ’sz                  shú            sû
           水 ’sz                  shúi           sûe
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. When there are two modes of spelling in the column of
  mandarin pronunciation, the second is taken from the work
  小氏音鑑 which contains the Peking pronunciation of words in the
  short tone, spelled according to the syllabic system. Those to
  which on asterisk is prefixed are all in the lower first tone.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

76. The intermediate vowel i forms the following finals:—

  --------------------------------------------------------
  iá       邪 {s}iá                sié            {s}ié
  iah      甲 kah                  kiáh, kiá      kiah
  iák      畧 liah                 lióh, liáú‘
  ia{n}    念 nian‘                nien
  iau      教 kiau‘                kiáu
  iáng     强 ’k’iang              k’iáng
  ié       且 ’t’siá               t’sié          t’síe
  íe{n}    選 síe{n}               siuen
           田 {t}íe{n}             t’ien
           全 dze{n}               t’siuen        dzíe{n}
  ieu      求 {k}ieu               k‘ieú
           宿 sieu                 süh
  iih      熱 nyih                 jeh            zeh
  ióh      曲 k’óh                 k’iúh, ’k’ü
  iöh      月 niöh                 yueh           yöh
  iö{n}    權 {k}iö{n}             k’iuen
  ióng     窮 {k}ióng              k’iong (ú)
           官 kióng                kúng           kóng
  iú       靴 hiú                  hiö
  iuk      逆 niuk                 nih
  iun (ng) 勤 {k}iun (ng)         k’in
  iung (n) 今 kiung (n)            kin
           京 kiung                king
  iúng     兄 h’iúng               h’iung
  iün      訓 h’iün‘               h’iün
  --------------------------------------------------------

77. The other intermediate vowels u, occurring only after k, g,
forms the following finals:—

  --------------------------------------------------------
  uá       乖 kwá                  kwái           kwé
  uah      括 kwah                 kwáh
  na{n}    關 kwa{n}               kwán
  wé{n}    官 kwé{n}               kwán
  wó       瓜 kwó                  kwá
  wok      槨 kwok                 kwóh, ’kwó
  wong     光 kwong                kwáng
  wun (ng) 滾 kwun (ng)            kwun
  --------------------------------------------------------

Obs. i. For {óng} and {úng}, Morrison writes úng; Prémare óng. It
will be seen that in our dialect they are both in use. When a word
is pronounced alone, or when last in order, ó is more common,
while ú prefers the first place in combination; 松紅 Súng-kong,
{Súng-kiáng}; 吳淞 {Ng sóng, Wú-súng}; 中國人 tsúng kóh niun,
{Chinaman}; 勿拉當中 veh ’lá tong tsóng, {not in the centre}.

Obs. ii. Words in é from M. ái have two sounds. Some employ the
Scotch {ae} in {sae}, {nae}, etc. nearly like e before r in the
English words {there}, {where}. Others pronounce the English {a} in
{cake}, {same}, i.e. in our orthography é. Ex. 來海 lé, ’hé, are
constantly heard with both these sounds.

Obs. iii. Words in é{n}, beyond 黃渡 {W}ong dú‘, and 朱家閣 Tsû ká
koh, 25 and 30 miles to the west of Shánghái, change into ö{n}.

Obs. iv. On {án}, {wán}. The second of these mandarin finals passes
into é{n} or ö{n}. The former retains a for á. Ex. 滿洲 Mé{n} tseu,
{Manchu}; 五六萬 ’{ng} lóh ma{n}, 50,000 or 60,000.

78. If the old native tables of finals could be reduced to a fixed
Roman orthography, our dialect would be found to bear more
similarity to that pronunciation as its maternal stem, than to its
northern relative the modern mandarin. The final k in the short tone
was recognized, and many sub-divisions of a final into two or more
branches agree with our usage; i.e. kwán into kwön and kwan. Some
southern dialects preserve some parts and some others parts of this
traditional pronunciation. The work before referred to, Lé‘ sh‘ yin
kíen‘ says, in the 凡例 Fán lieh, {Introductory Notes}, 南音於剜彎,
官關, 般班, 分之甚細。 北或合面爲一, Né{n} yun ü wé{n} wa{n}, kwé{n} kwa{n}
pé{n} pa{n}, fun tsz zun‘ sí‘. Poh {w}óh {h}eh rh wé ih. “In
the south (Kiáng-nán. etc.), the pronunciation of the words pé{n}
pa{n}, etc. is carefully separated, while in the north, they combine
in one (á) sound.”

Another instance there given, of difference between the north and
south in the final, is in such words as 銀盈, 勤檠, 神繩, 林靈, 貧平,
金京, M. yin ying, k’in k’ing, shin shing, lin ling, p’in p’ing, kin
king. These the author says, are carefully distinguished in the
north, while in the south they are identical in sound.

The rule of Shánghái pronunciation is this. Those words that end in
NG in mandarin keep it. Those words that end in UN change N into NG,
while such as terminate in UN take N or NG indifferently. Thus the
above examples are read niun (g) yung, {k}iun (g) {k}iung, zun (g)
zung, ling ling, {p}ing {p}ing, kiun (g) kiung.

Both of this writer’s observations are exemplified in the table. It
is there shewn how far precisely this coalescing and subdividing of
rhymes extends. One rhyme in either of the dialects, may branch off
in the other into four or even six independent finals.

79. The most curious fact deducible from the table is, the affinity
of certain vowels for the terminating consonant k (g before words in
the lower tones) found in the short tone; a peculiarity which
disappears a little south-west of Shánghái, and is not noticed at
Ningpo.

The principal forms of words in the short tone in mandarin,
according to different systems of orthography in common use are as
follow:—

  ---------------------------------------------------
  Morrison & Medhurst ă  ĕ  eĕ  eǐh ih uĕ  ǐh ǔh ŏ
  Prémare             ă  ĕ  iĕ  ĭ      uĕ  ĕ  ǔh ŏ
  Williams            áh eh ieh ih     ueh eh uh óh
  This work           áh eh ieh ih     iöh uh úh óh
  ---------------------------------------------------

Most words in the short tone ending in k, are of the last three of
these finals u, ú, ó. Of the others, those in ih if they take k
often insert a short u. E.g. 力 is heard lik or liuk. Similarly when
words in úh and óh do not take k, they change úh and óh into eh.
Thus, 末 móh becomes meh, Many words in conformity with this law,
change their places among the finals, and the collocation of a and
e, with k is carefully avoided, while u, ú, ó, retain it with equal
consistency.[1] It should be observed however, that the á of
mandarin becomes a in the short tone, and the longer a is only used
as the colloquialized form of u. E.g. 百 C. pák, R. puk. Thus in
Shánghái usage, á, u, ó, o take k in the short tone, a, e, ö, admit
m terminating consonant, while i remains common.

This law is much simpler than that of the Fúh-kien and other
dialects of the south of China. But while in those dialects, there
are found as in the dictionaries three terminating consonants, k, t,
p, similar affinities to vowels are traceable. In Fúh-kien with the
exception of á, which, all three share between them, k usually
prefers one set of vowels, and t and p another.

The native rule in the southern dialects, that k, t, p, are merely
the form assumed by the final letters ng, n, m, in the short tone,
is inapplicable to dialects, so far north as this. In the native
system of finals, this limitation is found indeed, but is not
rigidly adhered to. Some words in t are placed under ng as well as
n. Others in k occur under vowel finals. The cases of conformity
however, are so much more numerous than the exceptions, that the
rule is indubitable. Since here only k is in use, the modern seat of
the old pronunciation of the dictionaries must lie in part farther
south. It embraces indeed the seaboard provinces, from Shánghái to
Canton with parts of Kiang-si and Hu-nan.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Words in k frequently interchange. Uk and ák do so
  throughout, while ók, ok are often both in use for the same words.

    Ex. 木行 moh {h}ong or móh {h}ong, {a timber yard}.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

80. The letter n is also affected by the preceding vowel.
After a, e, ö, û, it is almost unheard when no word follows,
and though a well-defined consonant in the next word brings
it into notice, it is still only audible as a slight nasal sound.
The vowels i, o, refuse to be associated with it, and when u
precedes, it only holds its position in common with ng. After ü
it is as in mandarin.

81. Out of 63 finals, there are twenty that vary their sound in
reading. In all these, there is an approach to the mandarin
pronunciation, and they are therefore employed, by those born within
the limits of the dialect, when they wish to make themselves
intelligible to strangers. In such cases, they are usually under the
delusive impression that it is mandarin they speak. Such is the
advantage of the alphabetic system, with its all-versatile and
exhaustive applicability, that a foreigner can pass from one dialect
to another so far as sound is concerned, with much greater quickness
than a native. The latter has no ready method of writing new sounds
down, nor is he practised in the art of separating them into their
alphabetical elements. No thing but a long residence in the region
of another pronunciation, and some natural flexibility of organs,
can give him a different set of tones, and a new arrangement of
vowels and consonants. The sight of a character suggests to him the
sound, that he learnt in his childhood, and having always regarded
each, sound as a unity not separable into alphabetic parts, any
variation is too confusing and difficult of appreciation to be
readily adopted.

The total number of sounds in our dialect independent of tones, is
about 570. Morrison counts those of mandarin at 411, The difference
is due to the broad initials B, G, D, V, Z.

82. {Irregularities of Pronunciation}. Words that do not conform in
sound to the rules given in this section are few.

  十五 só‘ ’{ng}, (for seh ng), {fifteen}.
  錢 dzíe{n}, R. is pronounced díe{n}‘, C.
  逐軸 dióh, R. They should be dzóh.
  打 ’tá, to {strike}, in reading and colloquial is ’táng.[1]
  那 R. ná, C. {á} in {á lí}, {where.}
  所在 R. ’sú ’dzé, C. ’sû zé, {a house}.

To these may be added the tendency of the initial K to be
pronounced, when standing before I, like T in the upper series,
and like D or DJ in the lower.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. The sound tang is the older. The phonetic 丁 ting points to a
  final ng as having formerly existed,
  -----------------------------------------------------------------


                         PART II.

                 {ON THE PARTS OF SPEECH}.


              {Section} 1. {Native divisions}.

83. Common teachers of the language in distinguishing words, only
use two pairs of terms, viz. 實, 虛 zeh, h’ü, and 死, 活 ’sz, {w}eh.
The former signifies words that have a meaning (full) and such as
have not (empty). All substantives are 實字眼 {s}eh zz‘ ’nga{n}.
Auxiliary words or particles receive the name of 虛字眼 h’ü zz‘
’nga{n}. Verbs and adjectives are placed by some writers in the
first of these classes, and by others in the second. Remusat, says
that verbs are 實字 zeh zz‘; a native author 畢華珍 Pih {w}ó tsun
treats, all words except substantives, as in the second class.

84. The other pair of terms views words as nouns, which are spoken
of as 死字眼 ’si zz‘ ’nga{n}, or verbs which are 活字眼 {w}eh zz‘
’nga{n}. The usual sense of 活 is {living}, but by an extension of
meaning, it is applied to anything not fixed to its place, or liable
to change in its appearance or form. Hence, verbs as dependent on
circumstances of time, will, etc. are termed {moving} or
{transferable} words, while substantive are said to be {fixed} or
{dead}.

85. The native writer just referred to, in a recent work, 衍緖草堂筆記
’íe{n} ’zü ’t’sau dong pih kí‘, on the parts of speech and
construction of sentences, has extended these divisions, by forming
the 虛字 h’ü zz‘, or words not substantives, into four classes:—

1. Adjectives 呆虛字 ngé h’ü zz‘:—

  Ex. 高 kau, {high}. 多 tú, {many}.  大 {t}á‘, {great}.
      低 tí, {low}.   少 ’sau, {few}. 小 ’siau, {small}.

2. Verbs 活虛字 {w}eh h’ü zz‘:—

  Ex. 作 tsok, {to do}. 傳 dzé{n}, {to deliver down}.

3. 口氣語助虛字 ’k’eu k’i‘ ’nü ’dzú h’ü zz‘. Under this head he
gives as examples:—

Interrogative and other finals.

  焉 {í}e{n},? 乎 {ú},?
  哉 tsé,? 也 ’{y}é,.

Pronouns and the sign of the possessive.

  此 ’t’sz, {this}. 所 ’sú, {which}.
  其 gí, {he}.      之 tsz, {of}.

Adverbs & auxiliary verbs.

  甚 zun‘, {very}.  可, ’k’ó, {can}.
  最 tsûe‘, „       爲 {w}é, {be}.

4. 空活虛字 k’óng {w}eh h’ü zz‘.

Obs. The word {w}eh is apparently employed, because conjunctions
like verbs connect what goes before with what follows. Similarly, in
English grammar the verb is the {copula}, while a large class of
conjunctions consists of such as are termed {copulative}. The word 空
is prefixed to distinguish these particles from verbs. The examples
he gives are—

Conjunctions.

  雖 sûe, {although}. 如 zû, {like}.
  但 {t}an‘, {but}.   若 zák, {as}.
  而 rh, {further}.   乃 né, {then}.

Negative and interrogative adverbs.

  非 fí {it is not}.  何 {ú}, {what?}
  不 peh, {not}.      豈 ’k’í, {how?}

{These examples are from the language of books. The corresponding
words in the dialect will be found in their places}.

86. The frequent interchange of the parts of speech, and the
rhythmical construction of sentences, have almost kept in
concealment among the natives, the classification of which words
naturally admit. Much attention has been given to the successive
forms of the characters; the changes that have occurred in them, and
the principles of their original formation have been carefully
chronicled; but etymological studies have been comparatively
neglected.

The rules of the Wun-cháng, or exercises in fine writing, law indeed
been laid down, but they do not constitute the grammar of the
language. While grammar is a science still unknown to the Chinese,
it is a mark of the intelligence of our author that he has
approached so nearly, as the preceding article shews to a western
classification, and that he has defined with precision, all the
principal parts of speech.

The division into parts of speech, and simple and compound words,
gains in distinctness as we leave the books and restrict our
illustrations to the language of conversation, and much more when
instead of embracing the universal mandarin medium, we aim to
exhibit the dialect of a single district.

For example the words 過 kú‘, 能 nung, 生 sáng, are in the books verbs
or nouns according to their position, their tones remaining
unchanged. In the Shánghái dialect they are all verbs, viz. to pass,
can, to produce, If they stand alone; but the combinations of which
they form part are often substantives. Ex. 過失 kú‘ seh, {a fault};
能力 nung lih, {strength}; 生活 sáng {w}é{h} work. Ming, 明 which in
the books is an adjective or verb, must if used as a verb in the
colloquial have 白 {p}áh appended to it, otherwise it is an
adjective. Thus instead of terminations invented to carry a root
through two or more parts of speech, we have two roots in opposition
for the same purpose. In the following pages accordingly, the terms
noun; adjective, etc. will be predicated of the combined forms each
as a whole, and not of its constituent words except when viewed
independently.


 {Section} 2. {Relation of the dialect to the written language, and
                    to other dialects}.

87. In comparing the dialect with the language of books, it will be
best to go at once to the oldest. The earliest portions of the
Shú-king, {Book of History}, date from a period that must have been
at least 3000 years ago if not previous to that of Moses. The
occurrence of many of the commonest words now found in the
colloquial {media} of China in records so ancient, is a sufficient
illustration of the remarkable persistence of the language. It thus
appears that many of the nouns and pronouns, adjectives and verbs,
that formed the staple of conversation in the days of Yáu and Shun,
are found not merely in the pages of an old world literature, but
are still “familiar household words,” among the whole Chinese race.
The selected examples which follow are all of constant use in the
Shánghái dialect.

88. Examples of single words used in combination or singly.

Names of natural objects, animals, &c.

  天 t’íen, {heaven}.           月 niöh, {moon}.      馬 ’mó, {horse}.
  地 {t}i‘, {earth}.            星 sing, {stars}.     牛 nieu, {ox}.
  人 niun, {man}.               山 sa{n}, {mountain}. 羊 yáng, {sheep}.
  水 ’sz, {water}.              海 ’hé, {sea}.
  火 ’hú, {fire}.               草 ’t’sau, {grass}.

Divisions of time.

  春 t’sun, {spring}.           日 nyih, {day}.
  夏 ’{h}au, {summer}.          月 niöh, {month}.
  秋 t’sieu, {autumn}.           歲 sûe‘, {solar year}.
  冬 tóng, {winter}.            夜 yá‘ {night}.

Meteorological terms.

  風 fóng, {wind}.              雷 lé, {thunder}.     雨 ’{ü}, {rain}.

Numbers.

  一 ih, {one}.                 六 lóh, {six}.
  二 ní‘, {two}.                七 t’sih, {seven}.
  三 sa{n}, {three}.            八 pah, {eight}.
  四 sz‘, {four}.               九 ’kieu, {nine}.
  五 ’ng, {five}.               十 zeh, {ten}.

Cardinal points.

  東 tóng, {east}.              南 né{n}, {south}.
  西 sí, {west}.                北 póh, {north}.

Verbs.

  定 {t}ing‘, {to fix}.         能 nung, {can}.
  歸 kwé, {return home}.        有 ’{y}eu, {have}.

Adjectives.

  大 {t}á‘, {great}.            希 hí, {few}.
  遠 ’{y}ön, {distant}.         直 dzuk, {straight}.

Nouns.

  罪 zûe, {sin}.                禮 ’lí, {ceremony}.
  門 mun; {door}.               詩 sz, {poetry}.

Pronoun.

  我 ’ngú, {I}.

89. Examples of nouns composed of two characters, or as they may be
termed, dissyllabic forms.

  百姓 pák-sing‘, {the people}.    上帝 záng‘-tí‘, {God}.
  天下 t’íe{n}-’{a}u, {the world}. 鳳凰 vóng {w}ong‘ {phœnix}.
  正月 tsung‘-niöh, {1st month}.   法度 fah-dú‘, {mode of government}.
  聰明 ts’óng-ming, {intelligent}.

90. Examples of words used in combinations in the dialect, but not
singly.

  鳥 as in 窵鳥 ’tiau-niau, {birds}.
  帝 as in 皇帝 {w}ong-tí‘, {emperor}.
  神 as in 神明 zun-ming, {the inferior divinities}.
  位 as in 地位 {t}í‘-{w}é‘, {station}.
  事 as in 事體 zz‘-’t’í, {matter}.
  可 as in 可以 ’k’ó-’í, {may, can}.
  日 as in 日頭 nyih-deu, {the sun}.
  聞 as in 新聞 sing-vun, {intelligence}.
  說 as in 說書 söh-sû, {relate stories}.

91. These examples, which might if it were necessary, be extended to
a much greater length, will be sufficient to exhibit how the most
ancient forms of speech, the primitive words of the Chinese race,
have maintained their position to the present time. In a similar way,
the later classics contemporary with Hebrew literature, and the most
flourishing part of the Greek, might be shewn to possess in a still
greater abundance, the materials from which this and other dialects
have grown into their existing form. But there are also many new
words; the passage of time must witness changes, even in the language
of a people so devoted to antiquity as that of China. It has been
shewn that there has been variation in tones, by referring to the
pronouncing Dictionaries made long since. The natives recognize great
differences In modern and ancient sounds, as seen in the rhymes of
the Book of Odes. Words also have changed; many expressions once
common have become antiquated, and new ones have appeared. A
reference ta colloquial mandarin will illustrate this statement, and
bring before us another large portion of the materials of the dialect.

{Relation to colloquial Mandarin}. 92. The earliest examples of this
form of Chinese, are found in works of the Sung dynasty and in the
historical novels. Mencius so remarkable among the classic authors,
for his picturesque imagery and the animation of his style, sometimes
uses combinations, such as 朋友 {p}áng {y}eu‘, {friend}; 自己 zz‘ ’kí,
{self}; seldom found in ancient books, and which may be considered as
conversational.

93. The following are examples selected from the San kwoh chi 三國志,
and Lieh kwoh chi 烈國志, works now five hundred years old, of new
words not found in the classics, and all in common use in our dialect.

  樹 zû‘, {tree}.                會 {w}é‘, {am able to}.
  脚 kiáh, {roof}.               吃 k’iuh, {eat}.
  船 zé{n} {boat}.               呌 kiau‘, {call a person}.
  撇 p’ih, {stroke to the left}. 攏 ’lóng, {bring together}.
  埃 á, {take in order}.         惹 ’zá, {provoke}.
  敲 k’au, {knock}.              揪 t’sieu, {restrain by holding}.
  撑 t’sáng, {pole a boat}.      瞧 dziau, {to look}.
  抄 t’sau, {to copy}.           抖 ’teu, {shiver}.
  喝 höh, {call to}.             拖 t’ú, {to pull}.
  爬 {p}ó, {to scratch}.         勦 tsiau‘, {destroy}.

94. Of the following new pronouns, and interrogative adverbs first
found in the historical novels, there is scarcely any use made in the
Shánghái dialect.

  甚麽 M. shen‘ ’mó? {what?} 那裡 M. ’ná ’li? {where?}
  什麽 shih ’mó? {what?}     這箇 ché‘ kó‘, {this}.
  怎麽 ’tsun ’mó? {how?}     他 t’á, {he}.

Obs. The Shánghái pronouns are all different from those, except the
mutilated form 那裡 ’{a} ’lí? {where?} So for the most part those of
Fúh-kien; which again differ entirely from those of the Canton
dialect as contained in Bridgman’s Chrestomathy. Some pronouns are
widely spread. Thus, ngó 我 I, exists in all these dialects. As a
class however, they are among the words most liable to variation in
colloquial Chinese.

95. The following examples of double words taken from the same works,
will further illustrate the extent to which mandarin phraseology
agrees with that of our dialect. They are all such combinations as
are not found in the classics, and might be increased indefinitely.

      人家 niun ká, {a man}.
      低頭 tí deu, {lower the head}.
      開船 k’é zén, {unmoor a boat}.
      時辰 zz zun, {an hour}, i.e. {twelfth of a day}.
      招架 tsau ká‘, {shield one’s-self}.
  (C) 幫助 pong dzú‘, {to assist}.
      容易 {y}úng {í}‘, easy.
      船隻 (C) ze{n} tsáh, {boats; or a boat}.
      𢬵命 ’p’ing ming‘, {throw away life}.
      看見 k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}‘, {to see}.
      踅手 zeh ’seu, {maimed hand}.
      利害 lí {é}‘, {dangerous, severe}.
  (C) 仔細 ’tsz sí‘, {minutely}.
      解說 ’ká seh, {explanation}.
      撞倒 dzong‘ ’tau, {push down}.
      敬重 kiung‘ dzóng, {revere}.
      最好 tsûe‘ ’hau, {very good}.
      認得 niun‘ tuh, {know a person}.
      唱喏 (C) t’song‘ ’zó, {join one’s hands in respect}.
      倒竪 ’tau ’zû, {set up on end}.

The characters marked (C) are those that were invented, to represent
colloquial words written for the first time. The rest are old
classical characters, but they are not found in these combinations.

97. On comparing the old historical novels, with mandarin colloquial
tales of the present dynasty, such as the well-known 紅樓夢 {Dream of
the Red Chamber}, no closer analogy with our dialect appears. The
style indeed is much more diffuse, being a faithful copy of what real
conversation is, and so far it is more like provincial dialects. But
as to words, the auxiliary particles (in which the chief changes
occur), are peculiar to mandarin, and the verbs and nouns are the
same as those of earlier works.

Thus, 的 occurs constantly instead of 之 ch, which is the most common
sign of the possessive in the {Three Kingdoms}. As the third personal
pronoun, 那 ’ná takes the place of 其 gí The word for {said}, 曰 {y}öh,
a term not used in conversation, is replaced by 說道 shwóh táú, either
together or apart.

98. Having thus briefly considered the historical division that the
dialect admits of, into primitive and modern words, something should
be added on local terms, constituting the remainder. On examination
it will be found that the words, single and compound, not in
mandarin, are few. They can scarcely be many more than a hundred. In
a list drawn up for the purpose by a native, of about 100, a third
part consisted of verbs, another third part of particles, the rest
comprised substantives, adjectives, and words imitative of sounds.

Many of these belong also to the dialects of the neighbouring cities.
In the histories of Sú-cheú and Súng-kiáng, the short chapter devoted
to the subject of colloquialisms, enumerates several that belong
equally to Shánghái. They appear to have been copied in great part
from one work into another, and the whole number recorded in each does
not reach fifty. Those contained in the history of Shánghái, will be
found in the following pages under the parts of speech to which they
belong. In Medhurst’s Dictionary of the Fúh-kien dialect, there are
classified lists of about 250 phrases peculiar to that province. Some
of these however are corrupted forms of expressions used in the other
parts of China.

99. The neighbouring dialect of Sú-cheú may be expected to have much
in common with that of Shánghái, The system of pronunciation is in
general the same, the initial consonants forming a hard and soft
series, corresponding to the upper and lower tones in the southern
provinces. The following are examples of phrases, the same as those of
Shánghái.

  那哼 ’ná háng? {how?}         弗是 veh zz‘, {it is not}
  自家 zz‘ ká, {self}.          多許 tú hau‘, {very many}.
  弟个 veh kú‘, {not so}.       慢點 ma{n}‘ ’tíe{n}, {little slower}.
  做啥 tsú‘ sá‘? {what do you?} 個頭 kú‘ deu, {there}.
  個歇 kú‘ h’ih, {at present}.  個个 kú‘ kú‘, {that}.

  哉 tsé     (M. 了), sign of completion.
  子 ’tsz    (M. 了), sign of past participle.
  个 kú‘     (M. 的), sign of possessive.
  勿 veh     (M. 不), simple negative.
  全 dsíe{n} (M. 都), {all}.
  啥 sá‘     (M. 甚麽)? {what?}
  好好能 ’hau ’hau nung, {well, in a good manner}.
  想着之 ’siáng záh ’tsz, {having thought of}.
  拉屋裡 ’la óh ’lí, {at home}.
  是介  zz‘ ké‘ (S. {s}eh ké nung), {thus}.

In some words very commonly occurring, that dialect differs from
Shánghái and agrees with mandarin.

  This, M. 道个 ché‘ kú‘.  S. 第个 {t}í‘ kú‘.
  He,   M. 他 t’á.         S. 伊 í.
  How?  M. 怎麽樣 ’tsun ’mó yáng‘?


              {Section} 3. {On the Substantive}.

100. The native grammarian already introduced to the reader defines
substantives, or rather substances, thus 天地名物, 象數事理 T’íe{n} dí‘
ming veh‘ ziáng‘ sú‘ zz‘ ’{l}i, “Heaven, earth, names and things,
images, numbers, facts and principles;” 凡有形有質, 有氣有聲 va{n} ’{y}eu
{y}iung ’{y}eu tseh ’{y}eu k’i ’{y}eu sung, “all things that have
form, material substances, breath and sound;” 一切有端可指者 ih t’sih
’{y}eu tön ’k’ó ’{t}sz ’tsé, “all things having any property that can
be pointed out;”  皆謂之實字 kia {w}é‘ tsz {s}eh zz‘, “are called
substantives.”

“The names of substances,” he adds, “may consist of one or several
characters, which must be arranged in classes, brought under the
dominion of the rhythmus, and stored in the memory for use when
required.” Such nouns as express the properties of substances he calls
子字 ’tsz zz‘, “son characters,” while the names of the substances
themselves are termed 毋字 ’mú zz‘, “mother characters.” Attributes he
further subdivides into “universal,” 公共子字 kóng góng‘ ’tsz zz‘, and
“special,” 實在子字 {s}eh zé ’tsz zz‘.

{Combined and uncombined substantives}. 101. One of the most striking
peculiarities of Chinese words, whether nouns, verbs or particles, is
the strictness with which the laws of combination and order are
observed. Each dialect has many words that can be used with or without
an adjunct, and may be regarded as purely monosyllabic; another large
class embraces such as are never used by the natives, except in
apposition with some other word, and constituting for that dialect,
what may be considered dissyllables. Of the former or monosyllabic
kind are the following examples (s. C).

  飯 va{n}‘, {cooked rice}. 貓 mau‘, {cat}. 狗 ’keu, {dog}.
  雲 yün, {clouds}.         墨 muh, {ink}.  藥 {y}áh, {medicine}.
  理 ’lí, {moral law}.      煤 mé, {coal}.  雪 sih, {snow}.

102. In construction, these and similar words may be observed to
remain in an uncombined state. The first word in each, of the
following sentences exemplifies this remark.

  米糴好否 ’mi {t}ih ’hau ’vá? {have you brought rice?}
  人是一樣个 niun ’zz ih {y}áng‘ kú, {I am a man as you}.
  袖要大 dzien‘ yau‘ dú‘, {let the sleeve be large}.

These words may all of them be used in combination, according to some
of the laws described in the succeeding paragraphs. Thus they appear
in dissyllabic forms such as—

  米價 ’mí ká‘, {price of rice}. 大人 {t}ú‘ niun, {father}.

103. The other class consists of those words that are never used
without an adjunct. For example 衣 í {dress}, not used alone, is found
among other combinations in the following.

  衣裳 í zong, {clothes}. 布衣 pú‘ í, {cotton clothes}.

So also 猪 tsz, 日 zeh, 房 vong, 禮 ’lí, are found in combination only.

  猪驢 tsz lú, {a pig}.     過房 ku‘ vong, {adopted child}.
  江猪 kong tsz, {the river pig} (a fish).
  禮物 ’lí veh, {presents}. 日食 nyih zuh, {eclipse of the sun}.

104. In construction, the adjuncts unless the rhythmus requires it,
cannot be omitted.

  着衣裳 tsáh í zong, {put on clothes}.
  殺猜驢个 sah tsz lú kú‘, {pork butcher}.
  日頭落山 nyih deu lok sa{n}, {sun is setting}.
  租房子 tsú vong ’tsz, {let a house}.
  送禮物 sóng‘ ’lí  veh, {offer presents}.

{Combination}. 105. Substantives are formed of two or more
substantives combined in various ways. If the collocation consists of
species and genus, the former precedes.

  柏樹 páh zû‘, {cypress}.
  茶壺 dzó {ú}, {teapot}.
  松樹 sóng zû‘, {pine}.
  鐵蛋 t’ih da{n}‘, {iron bullet}.
  酒壺 tsieu {ú}, {wine chalice}.
  雞蛋 kí da{n}‘, {hen’s egg}.
  牡丹花 mau‘-ta{n}‘ hwó, {moutan pœny}.
  孛相船 {p}eh-siáng‘ zén {pleasure boat}.
  堦沿石 ká-{í}en záh, {first door-step}.
  磨刀石 mú tau záh, {grind-stone}.
  紅緯帽子 {h}óng {w}é‘ mau‘-’tsz, {red tasselled hat}.

Obs. In the last five examples, the first two words constitute the
species. The word 石 záh requires 頭 as its appendage, if there is no
specific term prefixed. When compounds are formed, the auxiliary word
is omitted. In the last case 子 tsz, the auxiliary is retained, or
dropped at pleasure.

106. When the compound substantive formed by juxtaposition, consists
of whole and part, or substance and accident or attribute, the former
precedes.

  手心 ’seu sing, {palm of the hand}.
  手套 ’seu t’au‘, {gloves}.
  樹根 zû‘ kun, {root of a tree}.
  樹葉 zû‘ ih, {leaves of a tree}.
  頭髮 {t}eu fah, {hair}.
  首飾 ’seu seh, {head ornaments}.

107. When two or more substantives, cognate in meaning, or in some
logical relation, are in apposition, their order depends on native
usage.

  親眷 t’sing kiö{n}‘, {relations}.
  信息 sing‘ sih, {letters and news}.
  街路 ká lu‘ {the road}.
  貨色 hú‘ suh, {goods}.
  榮光 {y}óng kwong, {glory}.
  財帛 dzé báh, {money and silk}.
  福祿壽 fóh loh zeu‘, {happiness, affluence and age}.
  酒色財氣 ’tsieu suh dzé k’í‘ {wine, lust, riches and anger}.

Obs. i. The primary reason of the order in which these words are used,
may have been a real or fanciful sequence of ideas, convenience of
pronunciation, rhythm or caprice; but whatever it was, it is strictly
preserved. Should another order be adopted, the meaning would not be
conveyed. To these and other fixed combinations, found in all parts of
speech, must in great part be attributed, the facility with which a
language of monosyllables and tones such as the Chinese, is employed
as a conversational medium.

Obs. ii. Many words found in compounds of this sort are inseparable.
Thus 眷 kiö{n}‘ has no other use in the dialect, than to form these
combinations. As a verb {to compassionate} its use is limited to the
books.

Obs. iii. Under this head may be included antithetical substantives
(Literæ oppositæ, Premare), of which there are several in common use
without a particle between them. 姊妹 tsí ({elder sister}) mé‘
({younger do.}) sisters; 禽獸 {k}iun ({birds}), seu‘ ({beasts}),
{animals}; 天地 t’íe{n} dí‘, {heaven and earth}; 夫婦 fú vú‘, {husband
and wife}; 山水人物 sa{n} ’sz niun veh, {mountains, water, men and
things:} 銅錢銀子 {t}óng díe{n} niung ’tsz, {copper and silver money}.

Obs. iv. Phrases of this sort are not coined {ad libitum}. They are
old forms, and the modern Chinese do not allow themselves to make new
ones. Each dialect has its own traditional arrangement of words, as
well as its particular mode of enunciating the tones, and its
alphabetical variations. But there is in all the dialects, so large a
majority of phrases as well as words, common to the rest of China,
even in that of Fúh-kien, that the identity of the language is in no
district brought into question by these differences.

108. Some of these combined forms consist of a substantive and an
enclitic. Of the auxiliary words thus used 子 ’tsz, 頭 {t}eu, are the
most common.

  鴿子 keh ’tsz, {a pigeon}.
  席子 {s}ih ’tsz, {matting}.
  刮法子 {k}wah fah ’tsz, {machinery}.
  罐頭 kwé{n}‘ deu, {saucepan}.
  流頭 lieu den, {pulley}.
  甎頭 tsé{n} deu, {bricks}.
  話頭 {w}ó‘ deu, {words}.
  骨耳頭 kweh- ’rh deu, {an axle}.

These enclitics are never used in the classics; they form a leading
characteristic of colloquial Chinese. ’Tsz and {t}eu give
individuality and definiteness to the term they qualify. Their proper
meaning, {son}, {head}, is in these cases lost; they help also to fill
the rhythm of the sentence, and to distinguish the words to which they
are appended from other terms like them in sound. The enclitic 兒 rh,
so common in the mandarin provinces, and also in the dialect of
Háng-cheú, has its place supplied by 子 ’tsz. Nyih ’tsz 日子 {day} is
distinguished from nyih deu 日頭 {the sun} by the enclitic.

109. To express a place where persons come and go, the words 頭 deu
and 塲 dzáng are appended to substantives.

  粒屑 lih sih, or sih alone, expresses {small fragments of}.
  局頭 {k}ióh deu, {place of carrying on trade}.
  橋頭 {k}iau deu, {landing place of a bridge}.
  碼頭 ’mó deu,      „      „    {of a ferry}.
  賭場 ’tu dzáng, {place of gaming}.
  戲場 h’í dzáng, {place of seeing plays}.
  牛場 nieu dzáng, {place of tethering cattle}.
  柴粒屑 zá lih sih, {small fragments of firewood}.

110. Verbs and adjectives form compound substantives, by taking after
them such auxiliaries as 頭 {t}eu, 法 fah and 處 t’sû‘.

  有辦頭 ’{y}eu pa{n}‘ deu, {there is a way of doing it}.
  唔坐處 {m} ’zú t’sû‘, {no place to sit down}.
  有啥做法 ’{y}eu sá‘ t’sû‘ fah? {is there a way of doing it?}
  唔啥好處 {m} sá‘ ’hau t’sû‘, {no benefit in it}.
  那能好法 ’ná nung ’hau fah? {how is it good?}
  長頭 {dzáng deu}, {overplus}.
  剩頭, 餘頭 dzung‘ deu, {û} deu, {remainder}.
  牢實頭 lau zeh deu, {a simple, honest person}.
  苦惱子 ’k’u ’nau ’tsz, {one very poor and wretched}.

111. Many of the auxiliary substantives treated of in the next
section, whose office it is to stand between numerals and their nouns,
often follow their substantives without a numeral. A compound is thus
formed, in which the sense of the classifying particle is often
preserved, {A piece of} is expressed by k’wé. {A bar of} by {t}iau.

  冰塊 ping k’wé‘, {piece of ice}. 鋼條 kong diau, {steel spring}.
  船隻 zé{n} tsáh, {boats}.        人頭 niun deu, {a man}.
  書本 sû ’pun, {books}.           紙張 ’tsz tsáng, {sheet of paper}.

112. The words 夫 fú, 手 ’seu, 做 tsoh, 匠 ziáng‘, 司務 sz‘ vú‘, 家 ká,
人 niun, are appended to substantives to denote agents, trades and
professions.

  脚夫 kiák fú, {a porter}. 兇手 h’iúng ’seu, {murderer}.
  本作, 木匠 mok tsoh, or móh ziáng‘, {carpenter}.
  水作, 泥水匠 ’sz tsoh, or ní ’sz ziáng‘, {bricklayer}.
  鞋匠司務 {h}á ziáng‘ sz‘ vú‘, {shoemaker}.
  裁縫司務 dzé vóng sz‘ vú‘, {tailor}.
  店家 tié{n} ká, {shop-keeper}. 船家 zé{n} ká, {boatman}.
  捉魚人 tsoh {ng} niun. {fisherman}.
  拾柴人 {s}ih zá niun, {wood gatherer}.
  東家 tóng ({east}) ká, {master} ({who places his guests on the right}).
  禮生 ’lí sáng, {director of rites}. 先生 síe{n} sáng, {teacher}.

Obs. In the longer examples, some verbs will be found which enter into
composition, as those in Art. 113.

113. Verbs and adjectives are frequently compounded in the same way as
substantives.

  屏風 {p}ing ({to screen}) fóng ({the wind}), {a screen}.
  扶手 vú ({to support}) ’seu ({the hand}), {hand-rail}.
  吃局 k’iuh ({eat}) gióh ({food}), {food}.
  小姐 ’siau tsiá, {young lady}.
  古董 ’kú ({old}) ’tóng, {curiosities}.
  夥計 ’hú ({combine}) kí‘ ({plans}), {partner in business}.
  辮子 {p}íe{n}‘ ({to plait}) ’tsz, {the queue}.
  黃狼 {w}ong ({yellow}) long ({wolf}), {weasel}.
  抽㔸 t’seu ({to draw out}) t’í‘ ({drawer}), {a drawer}.
  生梨 sáng ({raw}) lí ({pears}), {pears}.
  花紅 hwó ({flower}) {ó}ng ({red}), {small apples}.
  金箔 kíun boh, ({thin}) {gold-leaf}.
  相好 siáng ({mutual}) hau ({good}) {intimate friends}.

114. The word 阿, merely euphonic, is joined to the names of persons,
both relative and proper. Thus instead of 哥哥 kó kó, {elder brother},
we have in Shánghái 阿哥 ah (R. á.) kú also 阿爹 or 爹爹 tiá tiá,
{father}. When applied to the names of children and others in humble
life, either word in the proper name may annexed.

115. Some examples of foreign words used in the dialect,
and of colloquial substantives, extracted from the history of
Shánghái are here appended.

  鴉片 á p’íe{n}‘, {opium}.
  袈裟  ká só, {Buddhist priest’s robe}. Sanscrit Kashaya.
  記 (C) 翼 (C) kí‘ lih, {wings}. M. ’ch pang rh.
  尾杷 (C) ní‘ pó, {tail}. (尾) R. ’vi) M. i pa.
  小囝 (C) ’siau nö{n}, {little boy}.
  鱟 (C) heu‘, {the king-crab, rainbow}. M. kang‘, R. 虹 hung.
  簷凙 (C) {y}ien doh, {icicles}. M. ping chiu‘ ’tsz.
  羊乳 (C) {y}áng ’ná, {goat’s milk}.
  筷 (C) k’wa{n}, {chopsticks}. M. k’wai tsz.
  烟囪 (C) íe{n} t’sóng, {chimney}. M. yen ’t’ung.
  爺娘 {y}á niáng, {father and mother}. M. tie niang.

Obs. Characters followed by (c) are such as are borrowed, to represent
purely colloquial words.

New and colloquial words are usually written on the phonetic
principle, as may be noticed in the first three examples. Natives
differ much in their way of writing purely colloquial words, and being
never made use of in books, it matters little what character is
adopted.

116. The last way of forming compound substantives to be exemplified,
is by the particle 個 kú‘, which coming after a verb and noun expresses
an agent.

  吃糧箇 k’iuh liáng kú, ({living on imperial rice}), {soldiers}.
  撐船箇 t’sáng zé{n} kú‘, {those who work boats}.
  管賬個 ’kwé{n} tsáng‘-kú‘, {account-keeper}.
  賣花個 má‘ hwó kú‘, {flower-seller}.
  擺渡個 ’pá dú‘ kú‘, {ferryman}.

Obs. The common word 的 tih and in books 者 ’tsé is not used in this
dialect its place being supplied by 個 kú‘ as in these examples.

{Repetition}. 117. Substantives are in some cases repeated.
Forms indicative of diminutiveness are such as occur in the
following examples.

  嘵一星星 ’nau ih sing sing, {look! there is a star}.
  要一點點 yau‘ ih ’tíe{n} ’tíe{n}, {I want a very little}.

118. A few repeated forms occur, with am adjective preceding in
opposition.

  暗洞洞 é{n}‘ dóng dóng, {a dark place}.
  亮晃晃 liáng ’kwong ’kwong, {a glimmer of light}.

Obs. Such forms of repetition are rare, except when they express
plurality (v. Art. 129). In the adjective and verb, they are much more
common. See also Part III. Repetition.

119. The formation of compound substantives, by the simple apposition
of two or more roots, is also found in other languages. English and
German contain many examples. Substantives, adjectives, and verbs all
enter into these forms. E.g. hearsay (v. v.), sunset (s. v.), windfall
(s. v.), footstool (s. s.), farewell (v. adv.), lebewohl (do. German),
adieu (prep. s. Fr. Eng.), addio (do. Ital.), safeguard (a. s.),
white-bait (a. s.), Rath-haus (s. s.), council-house (s. s.). Though
many of these words are written without a break, the accent on the
penultimate indicates, for those that are English, that they are
compounds. In languages that have an extensive system of terminations
such as Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit, when composition occurs, the
constituent roots become one word, and the affix of declension, &c. in
the word that precedes is usually omitted. Thus, in {αὐτάδελφος} and
{αὐτόχειρ} the simple root {aut} precedes the word to which it is
joined, in one case with no adjunct, and in the other with the
connecting vowel {o}. In the Latin word {respublica}, {reipublicæ} we
have two roots in apposition, without the process of declension being
interrupted. Cases of simple juxtaposition such as this, are much
rarer in the ancient languages than in the modern, where the root
admits of few variations in its form.

120. In the development of a language consisting of monosyllabic
roots, where nothing can be added or altered, some equivalent for
terminations and compounds must be expected. This want is met in the
Indian languages of America, by combining several independent roots
into one word. If for these agglutinated syllables, separate
characters were reserved, it would be a system resembling the Chinese.
We have in the latter (1), simple apposition of roots, as exemplified
in articles 105, 106, 107. Second, there is a change of certain
substantives into mere particles which are appended, deprived of their
primitive meaning, to large classes of words, as seen in articles 108,
109, 110. Forms of this second kind are usually expressive of simple
ideas only; the others may be simple or compound. The terminations of
tense and case in the classical languages came from the simple
apposition of separate words. Those of the first, second, and third
persons of a verb are derived for example, from the three
corresponding personal pronouns. Obsolete forms preserved in the
oldest writers countenance this theory. Whether the primitive speech
of mankind was of this sort, may be matter of controversy, but there
can be no doubt that the Chinese language has this peculiarity.

121. Variation in tone might be enumerated as a third mode of
supplying the want of inflexions. Examples in the spoken language are
however extremely few. In 種 tsóng‘, {to sow}, and 種子 ’tsóng ’tsz,
{seed}, the tone differs. But even here the enclitic 子 is an
inseparable appendage to the noun. Some other examples here follow:—

  一囘 ih {w}é‘, {one time}.         囘來 {w}é lé, {come back}.
  磨子 mú‘ ’tsz, {a mill}.           磨麥 mú máh, {grind wheat}.
  牽繩 k’íe{n}‘ zung, {towing-rope}. 牽船 k’íe{n} zé{n}, {tow a boat}.
  鐵釘 t’ih ting, {iron nail}.       釘牢 ting‘ lau, {nail fast}.
  應該 yung ké, {ought}.             應許 yung‘ ’hü, {a promise}.
  相幫 siáng pong, {to assist}.      宰相 tsé‘ siáng‘, {chief mandn}.

Obs. The superior comma on the right shows where the words whose tone
varies should receive the quick rising tone, or Shánghái {k’u shing}.

{Gender}. 122. Gender is expressed by auxiliary words set apart for
the purpose. It being thus merely an instance of adjectives and
substantives in apposition, the arrangement requires the words
descriptive of sex (男 né{n}, 女 ’nü), or gender (雌 t’sz, 雄  {y}ióng)
to precede.

  雄鷄雌鷄 {y}ióng-kí t‘sz-kí, {a cock and hen}.
  一隻雄獅子 ih tsáh {y}ióng sz-tsz, {a male lion}.[1]
  男人 né{n} niun, {husband}.  女囝 ’nü nö{n}, {a girl}.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. In the books {y}óng, t’sz, are restricted to birds, and 牝
  {p}ing‘ and 牡 meu‘ to animals. In the colloquial of this part of
  China, the pair of words above are used in all cases.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

123. Among the words used in the Shánghái dialect to express family
relationship are the following:—

  爹爹 tiá tiá, {father}.            姊夫 tsí fú, {brother-in-law}.
  阿媽 ah ’má, {mother}.             孫女 sun ’nü, {grand daughter}.
  阿奶 ah ’ná, {grandmother}.        外甥 ngá‘ sáng, {sister’s son}.
  伯伯 páh páh, {eldest uncle}.      女壻 ’nü sih, {son-in-law}.
  爺叔 {y}á sóh, {younger do}.       姑媽 kú mó, {husband’s sister}.
  娘舅 niáng gieu‘, {mother’s        姑娘 kú niáng, {father’s sister}.
      brother}.                      阿姨 ah {í}, {wife’s sister}.
  丈人 dzáng‘ niun, {father-in-law}. 阿嫂 ah sau, {brother’s wife}.
                                     阿姆 dzáng‘ {m}, {mother-in-law}.
  媳婦 sing vú, {daughter-in-law}.   阿姪 ah dzeh, {brother’s son}.
                                     外公 ngá‘ kóng, {mother’s father}.
  阿姊 ah tsí, {elder sister}.
  妹妹 mé‘ mé‘,{younger do}.         外婆 ngá bú, {mother’s mother}.

{Number}. 124. The form of the substantives in the singular and plural
is the same. The auxiliary adjectives and adverbs used to express
plurality are placed some before and some after their words. {Tsóng‘},
{tú hau‘} {’hau ’kí}, and {tá} precede their noun. {Dzén}, t{’óh},
invariably follow their words.

125. 衆 tsóng‘ precedes its noun and expresses universality.

  衆百姓 tsóng‘ pák sing‘, {all the people}.
  衆位阿 tsóng‘ {w}é‘ á, {all you persons}.

126. 多許 tú hau‘ and ’hau ’ki 好幾 describe {a great number or
several}. Being double inseparable particles, they form a complete
member of a sentence alone, and therefore can be separated from their
words, and placed afterwards with a copula and a terminating particle.

  多許物事  tú hau‘ meh zz‘, {a great many things}.
  物事有多許拉 meh zz‘ ’{y}eu tú hau‘ lá, {there are very many things}.
  好幾个人 ’hau ’kí kú‘ niun, {a good many men}.
  人有好幾个 niun ’{y}eu ’hau ’kí ku‘, {there are several men}.

127. 多 tú, several, like tsóng‘ cannot form a complete member of a
sentence alone, and therefore precedes its word. It is used
extensively with, the specific substantive particles already alluded
to. The word tu, {many}, retains its old sound ta for this use.

  買之大斤者 ’má tsz tá kiun ’tsé, {have bought several catties}.
  多囘 tá {w}é‘, {several times}.
  多個國度 tá k個‘ kóh dú‘, or tá kóh, {several kingdoms}.
  多句說話 tá kü‘ seh {w}ó‘, {many sentences}.

128. The words 全, 禿 dzé{n}, t’óh foil following their substantives,
usually from the first word in the concluding member of the
proposition.

  米咾肉禿有 ’mí lau niók t’óh {y}eu, {there are both rice and meat}.
  人全拉看戲 niun dzé{n} ’lá k’ö{n}‘ hí‘, {they are all looking at the
      play}.

Obs. Pronunciation places these auxiliary particles in closer union
with the following word, than with their own noun. Yet the rhythmus
often attracts the two members into one sentence. E.g.

  男女禿有 né{n} ’nü t’oh ’{y}eu, {the men and women are all there}.
  官府全好 kwé{n} ’fú dzé{n} ’hau, {the mandarins are all good}.

129. The plural is also formed by repetition.

  人人來者 niun niun lé ’tsé, {the men are all come}.
  國國太平 kók kók t’á‘ bing, {nations all at peace}.
  世世代代 sz‘ sz‘ dé‘ dé‘, {age after age}.

{Case}. 130. The genitive or possessive case is expressed by 個 kú‘. It
corresponds to 的 tih, M. 个 gé, é, Fúhkien, 個 kó‘, Canton.

  伊个聲氣 í kú‘ sáng k’í‘, {his voice}.
  花个蘂頭 hwó kú‘ ’nü deu, {the buds of flowers}.
  人个面孔 niun kú‘ míe{n}‘ ’k’óng, {the human voice}.

Obs. When the possessive particle is omitted, a compound substantive
is formed, as hwó ’nü deu, {flower buds}. Here no transposition is
necessary, the predicated part standing last in both cases. English
idiom placing the subject after the possessive particle, also requires
the definite article to begin the sentence, “the buds of flowers.”
When the constituent words are not adapted to form a compound
substantive, as in the first of the examples above, the particle is
always retained.

131. The objective case has no particle to mark it. It is known by
position, coming after the verb. The nominative always precedes the
verb.

  我告訴㑚 ’ngú kau‘ sú‘ ná‘, {I tell you}.
  送我一本 sóng ’ngú ih ’pun, {give me a book}.
  勿要駡人 veh yau‘ mó‘ niun, {do not rail at people}.
  告訴伊拉者 kau‘ sú‘ í ’lá ’tsé, {I have told him}.

132. Only the verb 話 {w}ó‘, {to say}, requires a particle to precede
the objective noun. The words 替, 對, 忒, t’í‘, té‘, t’eh, may either of
them be employed.

  吾替㑚話 ’ngú t’í‘ ná‘ {w}ó‘, {I tell you}.
  忒伊話末者 t’eh í {w}ó‘ meh ’tsé, {tell him}.
  對伊話拉者 té‘ í {w}ó‘ ’lá ’tse, {have told him}.

Obs. This verb being intransitive, and standing last, leaves the
substantive ungoverned, and renders a preposition necessary. So in
English {say} requires {to} after it. In Latin, the noun is put in the
dative without a preposition, as {dico vobis}.

133. The sign of the dative in {da mihi}, and {give it to me} is
omitted. The euphonic particle ’lá 拉 is used to fill up the rhythmus.

  撥我一箇 peh ’ngú ih kú‘, {give me one}.
  撥飯拉我 peh va{n} ’lá ’ngú, {give me rice}.
  撥飯我吃 peh va{n}‘ ’ngú k’iuh, {ditto}.
  撥之我末者 peh tsz ’ngú meh ’tsé, {give it to me}.
  撥拉伊拉者 peh ’lá í ’lá ’tsé, {have given it him}.

Obs. i. In English {to} is omitted or not at pleasure. Such datives as
occur in {Gloria Patri, dedicated to the interests of truth, my love
to you} cannot be expressed.

Obs. ii. In the example peh ’ngú ih kú‘, the dative comes next to the
verb, while in the following sentence, the object precedes it. These
differences of position are occasioned by the rhythmus.

134. {To a place} is expressed by 到 tau‘, usually with a verb of
motion following the substantive.

  到蘇州去者 tau‘ Sú-tseu k’i‘ ’tsé, {gone to Sú-cheú}.
  幾時到上海 ’kí zz tau‘ Zóng‘ ’hé, {when did you come to Shánghái?}
  到此地来做啥 tau‘ ’t’sz dí‘ lé tsú‘ sá? {what do you come to do?}

135. {Motion from} or {by} (ablative) is expressed by 自 zz‘, 從 zóng,
由 {y}eu or 打, ’táng. The last of these is most frequently employed.

  打啥户堂來 ’táng sá‘ {ú} dong lé? {whence do you come?}
  打故邊走 ’táng kú‘ píe{n} ’tseu, {go that way}.
  從第搭到屋裡 dzóng dí‘ dah tau‘ óh ’lí, {from hence home}.

136. The sense of {for}, {instead of} is given by several particles,
替, 代, 代替, 忒, 爲, t’í, dé, dé t’í, t’uh and {w}é‘, are all in use.

  忒我去買 t’uh ’ngú k’í‘ ’má, {go and buy for me}.
  爲之我咾 {w}é‘ tsz ’ngú lau— {on my account}—.
  替儂做生活 t’í‘ nóng tsú‘ sáng {w}eh, {do work instead of you}.

137. {In} and {at} (locative case) are expressed by 勒拉 leh ’lá and 拉
’lá before, and 裏 ’lí or 裏向 ’lí h’iáng‘, after the substantives, (M.
在 tsai‘ prefixed, 裏, 内, 中, ’lí, núi‘, chóng suffixes).

  勿拉屋裏 veh ’lá óh ’lí, {not at home}.
  勿拉上海 veh ’lá Zóng‘ ’hé, {not at Shánghái}.
  勒拉勿勒拉 leh ’lá veh leh ’lá, {at home or not?}
  勿勒裏 veh leh ’lí, {not at home}.
  嘴裏工夫 tsz‘ lí kúng fú, {mere words}.
  心裏向 sing ’lí h’iáng, {in the mind}.

138. {With}, {of} (instrumental case) are expressed by the verb, ta{n}
(also na{n} west of Shánghái), or nó, {to bring}, preceding the noun
and a verb following it. (M. 將 tsiáng, 把 pa; in books, 以 ’í and by
the suffix 個 kú‘, which usually takes a verb between it and the noun.

  担刀來割 ta{n} tau lé kweh (köh), {cut it with a knife}.
  錫做个 sih tsú‘ kú‘, {made of tin}.

139. In expressing {by} (instrumental case), the auxiliary verb peh 撥
precedes the instrumental noun, and the principal verb with or without
its regimen follows (M. 彼 pei):—

  撥拉爺娘責備 peh lá {y}á niáng tsah bé‘, {he was reproved by his
      parents}.

140. {Along with} is expressed by t’eh 忒, 替 t’í and 同 {t}óng. The
governed noun is followed by ih dau 一淘 together. This appendage is
sometimes omitted, when 同 is used.

  忒伊一淘去 t’eh í ih dau k’í‘, {go with him}.
  同我你跑 {t}óng ’ngú ’ní pau‘, {go with us}.
  替我一淘去 t’í‘ ’ngú ih dau k’í‘, {go with me}.
  我忒儂做朋友 ’ngú t’eh nóng tsú‘ {p}áng ’yeu, {I will be your friend}.

141. As a sign of the vocative, the suffix 呵 á is sometimes used.
老兄阿 lau h’iung á, {brother} (addressed to strangers as friendly
salutation).

142. {Case particles in other languages}. Prepositions standing
before the noun, and terminations making up one word with the root,
are used together in the classical languages to express case; and
very frequently the suffixes alone. In the modern European languages,
suffixes are much less used, prepositions performing the office of
case particles. In the Tartar languages, the particles called in
other languages prepositions, come after their words, and are
therefore called postpositions. In Manchu, the oblique cases, four in
number, are formed by suffixes selected from this class of particles.
When written they are joined to the noun or not at pleasure, and may
all be used independently as particles. Thus it appears that the
Chinese in using separate case particles, some before and some after,
the nouns to which they belong, do not depart from the practice
common to other races.

143. Premare’s method of illustrating one by one, the words most
important in a grammatical view, by numerous examples, is here
followed in regard to some commonly used nouns.

  口 ’k’eu, {mouth, an opening}. It is only used in combination.
  口音 ’k’eu yun, {speech}.
  口才 ’k’eu dzé, {fluency}.
  口是心非 ’k’eu ’zz sing fí, {plausible but not sincere}.
  三叉路口 sa{n} t’só lú‘ ’k’eu, {where three roads meet}.
  口頭言語 ’k’eu deu {í}e{n} ’nü, {colloquial particles}.
  一口土白 ih ’k’eu ’t’ú báh, {all he says is in the dialect}.
  門口 mun ’k’eu, {opening.}
  海口 ’hé ’k’eu, {sea-port}.
  乍浦口嘴 Dzó‘ p’ú‘ ’k’eu tsz‘, {Háng-cheú bay}.
  口說無憑 ’k’eu söh {m} {bing}, {words without foundation}.
  有口無心 ’{y}eu k’eu {m} sing, {speaking without thinking, mere words}.
  一口咬定 ih ’k’eu ngau ding‘, {spoke decisively}.

144. 氣 k’í‘.

1. {Breath, vapour}.

  透氣 t’eu k’í‘, {to breathe}.  地氣 {t}í‘ k’í‘, {climate}.
  濕氣 sák k’í‘, {moisture}.     斷氣 dö{n}‘ k’í‘, {to die}.

2. {Anger}.

  惹氣儂 ’zá k’í‘ nóng‘, {provoke you}.
  勿要動氣 veh yau‘ dóng‘ k’í‘ {do not be angry}.
  氣殺我 k’í‘ sah ’ngú, {provoke me greatly}.

3. {Manner, expression, meaning}.

  陽氣來咾 {y}áng k’í‘ lé lau, {beautifully ornamented}.
  神氣宛然 zun k’í‘ {w}é{n} zé{n}, {likeness to perfect}.
  勿要客氣 veh yau‘ k’ák k’í‘, {do not stand on ceremony}.
  大有福氣 {t}ú‘ ’{y}eu fóh k’í‘, {has great happiness}.

145. 心 sing, {heart, mind}.

  心拉書上 sing ’lá sû long‘, {attend to your book}.
  心裏明白個 sing ’lí ming bák kú‘, {has an intelligent mind}.
  摳心挖胆 k’eu sing wah ’ta{n}, {mind set on schemes}.
  當心,留心,小心 tong sing, lieu sing, ’siau sing, {pay attention}.
  盡心竭力 dzing‘ sing gih lih, {do your utmost}.
  兩條心思 ’liáng diau sing sz, {double-minded}.
  白費心思 {p}ak fí‘ sing sz, {planning in vain}.
  一心一念 ih sing ih nia{n}‘, {all intent upon}.
  直心直肚腸 dzuh sing dzuh tú dzáng, {honest, sincere}.
  心心主念 sing sing ’tsû nia{n}, {resolutely intent on}.
  赤胆忠心 t’suk ’ta{n} tsóng sing, {faithful}.

146. 手 ’seu, {hand, an artisan}.

  上手下手 zong‘ ’seu ’{a}u ’seu, {superior and inferior workmen}.
  動手勿得 ’{t}óng ’seu veh tuh, {may not put hand to it}.
  手忙脚亂, ’seu mong kiáh lö{n}, {confused and wrong}.
  親手 t’sing ’seu, {with his own hand}.
  一手難遮天下目 ih ’seu na{n} tsó t’íe{n} ’{a}u móh, {one hand cannot
      cover the eyes of all the world}.
  白手求財 {p}ák ’seu gieu dzé, {want money without earning it}.
  幫手 pong ’seu, {assistant}.
  傳手 dzé{n} ’seu, {from hand to hand}.

147. 分 vun‘, {duty, divisions}.

  十分裏一分 {s}eh vun‘ ’lí ih vun‘, {one tenth}.
  名分, 本分 ming vun‘, ’pun vun‘, {duties}.
  職分 tsuh vun‘, {an office}.
  一生安分 ih sáng ö{n} vun‘, {do my duty a whole lifetime}.
  分所當然 vun‘ ’sú tong zé{n}, {as in duty bound}.

148. 頭 {t}eu, {head}.

  唔頭唔腦 {m} deu {m} ’nau, {without order}.
  頭二百里 {t}eu ní‘ páh ’lí, {about 200 Chinese miles}.
  幾許人頭 ’kí hau‘ niun deu? {how many men?}
  起頭 ’k’í deu, {at the beginning}.
  頭頭是道 {t}eu deu ’zz dau‘, {it is all reasonable}.

149. 眼 nga{n} {eye, a point, a small hole}.

  一眼勿差 ih nga{n} veh t’só, {quite right}.
  眼睛勿好 nga{n} tsing veh ’hau, {his eyes are bad}.
  只得—眼 tseh tuh ih ’nga{n}, {only a very little}.
  眼底無人 ’nga{n} tí {m} niun, {thinks none so good as he}.

150. 目 moh, {eye}.

  頭目 {t}eu móh, {chief}.
  賬目 t’sáng‘ móh, {accounts}.
  眼目 ’nga{n} moh, {eyes}.
  數目 sú‘ moh, {numbers}.
  大關節目 {t}á‘ kwa{n} tsih móh, {important doctrine}.

151. 底 ’tí, {bottom}.

  月底 niöh ’tí, {end of the month}.
  年底 níe{n} ’tí, {end of the year}.
  私底下 sz ’tí ’{a}u, {secretly}.
  底裡 ’tí ’li, {at the bottom}.
  底下挽通 ’tí ’{a}u ’wa{n} t’óng, {to inform secretly}.
  底面不和 ’tí míe{n}‘ peh {ú}, {heart and looks not agreeing}.
  直到底 dzuk tau‘ ’tí, {to the end}.
  脚底下 kiák ’tí ’{a}u, {under the feet}.

152. The following substantives combine with the cardinal points to
form nouns of place. They are arranged in the order of their
frequency. 沿, 半爿, 面, 邊, 首, 頭, 方, ha{n}‘, pé{n}‘ ba{n}, míe{n}‘,
píe{n}, ’seu, {t}eu, fong. One or two examples will suffice to explain
this usage.

東半爿, 東面 tóng pé{n}‘ ba{n}, tóng míe{n}‘, {on the eastern side}.

The combinations with 裏 ’lí, {within}, include two other words
which here appended, 向, 勢, 面, 邊, 頭, h’iáng‘, sz‘, míe{n}‘,
píe{n}, {t}eu.

Thus, 裏向, 裏面, ’lí h’iáng‘, ’lí míe{n}‘, inside.

Obs. Other words, such as the demonstrative pronouns, and some of the
prepositions form similar combinations, as will be afterwards seen.


  {Section} 4. {On numeral particles and auxiliary substantives}.

153. Under his head, are included the classifying particles, called by
some writers numerals, with weights and measures, and any parts not
being themselves full appellative nouns, into which substantives admit
of being divided.

Obs. i The distinctive numeral particles applied to different
substantives, belonging as they do themselves to that class of words,
could not be placed with propriety among or after the adjectives; yet
their Syntax is sufficiently unlike that of the substantive to require
them to be placed apart.

Obs. ii. A comprehensive classification of substantives has been
presented to philologists, by Dr. Legge in his “Letters on the
rendering of the name God in Chinese,” Hongkong, 1850. Several useful
terms are there introduced, partly from Nordheimer, but a place for
the nouns now under discussion is not provided for except under class
(4). The classes into which common or nouns not proper are there
divided, are—

1. “Appellative or generic nouns, or names of species of individual
existence, e.g. man, mountain, tree, house, garment.” Here shape and
substance are both included, and the indefinite article can be
prefixed in all cases.

2. “Material nouns, e.g. corn, gold, water.” Here matter only is
embraced, while the limitation of form must be supplied by other
words, as “a bushel of corn,” “a handful of gold,” “a cup of water,”
“a sceptre of iron.” Nordheimer, Hebrew Grammar, vol. II. 796, invents
no name for the former words in these cases, merely saying that the
second limits the first in meaning. He considers them all concrete
nouns.

3. “Collective nouns, or nouns which though singular in form, yet
express a multitude.”

4. “Abstract nouns or names of qualities or modes of existence,
abstracted from the object with which they are in combination.”
Numeral particles and nouns of measure and shape must be placed here,
although they are thereby associated with a multitude of mental and
moral terms, with which they have little in common. Abstract nouns
might form two classes distinguished as material and moral.

5. “Relative nouns, e.g. father, king.” Since the second class
material nouns furnishes the matter of which the words ‘bushel,’
‘handful’, ‘cup,’ etc. supply the form, perhaps these auxiliary words
should be called formal nouns, and form a sixth class.

154. The classes (1), (2), (5) and part of (4), are embraced in the
preceding section; The remainder form the subject of the present. With
regard to their use, combined with the numeral, they cover the ground
of the article {a}, {an} in the class, and of the auxiliary words in
the second.

  Thus, a mountain,     一座山 ih zú‘ sa{n}.
  Call a man,           告一个人來 kau‘ ih kú‘ niun lé.
  Two measures of rice, 二斗米 ní‘ ’teu ’mí.
  A cup of cold water,  一碗冷水 ih ’wé{n} ’láng ’sz.

Obs. In Hebrew no word like {of} is necessary, e.g. shébet (constr.)
barzel, {a sceptre of iron}. Lat. {virga ferrea}.

155. The number and the auxiliary word are both necessary to the
idiom, but the latter is sometimes used alone after the substantive,
as noticed in Art. 111. Yet in this case, the same construction is
admissible. Thus we have,

  兩間房間 ’liáng ka{n} vong ka{n}, {two rooms}.
  兩條鋼條 ’liáng diau kong diau, {two steel springs}.
  三隻船隻 sa{n} tsáh zé{n} tsáh, {three boats}.

156. The distinctive numeral particles, or those employed with the
appellative or generic nouns, here follow.

  箇 kú‘ (keu‘), of men, fish, cash, dials, collars, and all relative
      terms.
  顆 ’k’ú, of pearls.
  根 kun (root), of candles, hairs, trees, masts, bamboos.
  管 kwé{n} (pipe), of flutes, pencils.
  口 ’k’eu (mouth), of coffins, men (as consumers).
  科 k’ú, of plants, trees, roots, 三科樹 sa{n} k’ú zû‘, 3 {trees}.
  塊 k’wé‘, of stones, bricks, dollars.
  件 {k}íe{n}‘, of garments, affairs, news, things.
  頭 {t}eu, of men, of cattle (when reckoned by heads).
  頂 ’ting, of sedan chairs, hats, umbrellas, curtains.
  朶 ’tú, of single flowers.
  燈 tung, of candles, lights, 一燈火 ih tung ’hú, {a light}.
  堵 ’tú, of walls, 一堵牆 ih ’tú dziáng, {a wall}.
  條 {t}iau, of snakes, dragons, bridges, ropes, roads.
  把 ’pó (hold in hand); of chairs, knives, fans, wine bowls.
  本 ’pun (root), of books, account books, plays.
  匹 p’ih, of horses (隻 is more common.)
  面 míe{n}, of mirrors, brass and skin gongs.
  幅 fóh, of pictures, maps.
  對 fóng, of letters, 一封信 ih fóng sing‘, {a letter}.
  文 vun, of cash, (個 is more common).
  隻 tsáh, of birds, quadrupeds, tables, temples, hands, feet,
      watches, shoes, clocks, eyes, ears, vessels.
  盞 ’tsa{n}, of lamps.
  樁 tsong, of matters.
  種 ’tsóng, of matters.
  枝 tsz, of pencils, branches, stalks.
  座 zú‘, of houses, mountains, pagodas.
  乘 zung, of carriages.
  圓 yö{n}, of dollars.
  樣 {y}áng‘, of affairs, matters.
  項 {h}áng‘, of things, matters. Also 星 sing, of things.

Obs. i. The office of these substantive particles is simply
indicative. The reason of their application to particular words is
custom only, but etymological connection is sometimes traceable as in
封 {to close up}, 頭 is applied to men only as a suffix.

Obs. ii. All generic and relative nouns are here included. They are
distinguished in English from material nouns by taking the plural, and
admitting {a}, {an}, before them.

Obs. iii. These words differ frequently, in their application to
particular nouns, from the usage of other parts of the country. A
native of Fúh-kien would laugh to hear 隻 tsáh, instead of 枝 tsz,
applied to hands and feet. In mandarin 尾 vi‘, is the distinctive
particle for fish instead of 箇 kú‘, which is employed in this dialect.

Obs. iv. Most of these particles are employed in mandarin. They are
used sparingly in the historical novels, because the semi-colloquial,
semi-literary style of those works only occasionally expands into full
conversational idiom. When it does so, they are always found.

157. The next class of the auxiliary substantives are such as are
significant, or retain their meaning when translated into English,
giving to their substantives, which are either material nouns or are
construed as such, limitations of form and quantity.

Obs. Weights and measures, names of vessels, divisions of books, etc.,
though belonging to the significant auxiliary particles, will be
placed separately (see Art. 158–160).

  間 ka{n}, {a room of} a house, ih ka{n} vong deu, {a room}.
  口 ’k’eu, {mouthful of} breath, words, rice.
  句 kü‘, {a sentence of} speech, ih kü seh {w}ó‘.
  竿 kû{n}, {rod of} bamboo for fishing, ih kû{n} diau‘ kû{n}.
  科 k’ú, pluck up {a heap of} grass, {p}ah ih k’ú ’t’sau.
  塊 k’wé‘, {a piece of} land, meat, silver.
  捆 ’k’wun (to roll), {a faggot of} wood.
  局 {k}ióh, play {a game at} chess, tsoh ih gióh gí.
  眼 ’nga{n} (eye) {holes in} nets, of nails, cash, {a little of any
      thing}.
  担 ta{n}‘(to carry), {a load} of anything, ih ta{n}‘ meh zz‘.
  點 ’tíe{n} {drop of} ink, {little of} anything.
  湯 t’ong, how many {kinds of} food, ’kí t’ong va{n}‘.
  墩 tun, {heap of} earth, rubbish.
  檯 {t}é, {a stage of} plays, {table of} wine, food.
  頭 {t}eu, bring {an end of} rope, ta{n} ih deu zung.
  條 {t}iau, {long piece of} iron, wood, {string of} cash.
  段 {t}ön, {piece cut off}, of wood, string, etc.
  板 ’pa{n}, {half sheet of} paper.
  包 pau (to wrap) {a parcel}, {bundle of} cotton, sugar.
  把 ’pó, {handful of} rice, ih ’pó ’mí.
  派 p’á‘, {division of} things, {kind of} men, customs.
  篇 p’íe{n}‘, {a piece of} elegant composition, ih p’íe{n} vun tsáng.
  片 p’íe{n}, {piece of} gold, ih p’íe{n} kiun ’tsz.
  疋 p’ih, {piece of} cloth.
  鋪 p’ú (to spread), {covering of} carpets, coverlids.
  門 mun (touch-hole), {piece of} artillery.
  紐 ’nieu, sa{n} ’nieu zung, three {skeins} of string.
  方 fong (square), {a piece of} cloth, land, ih fong {t}í bí.
  封 fóng, {a packet of} silver, ih fóng niung ’tsz.
  手 ’seu, ih ’seu ni, {handful of} earth.
  張 tsáng (to extend), {sheet of} paper.
  節 tsih, {knot of} bamboo, {joint of} finger.
  串 t’sé{n}, {string of} flowers, cash, beads.
  餐 t’sö{n}, {meal of} rice.
  軸 dzóh (rollers), map {on rollers}, ih gióh {w}ó‘, {a picture}.
  席 dzih (mat), {party at} dinner.
  扇 sé{n}‘, open {one leaf of} the door, ih sé{n}‘ mun, k’é k’é.
  重 zóng, {layers of} books, dress.
  層 zung, {story of} pagodas, {steps of} ladders.
  陣 dzun‘, {gust of} wind, {shower of} rain.
  葉 ih, {leaf of} grass, flowers, ih ih ’t’sau, {a blade of grass}.
  圓 {y}ön, {small cake of} meat, medicine.
  粒 lih, {seed of} corn.

Obs. i. Words expressing {kind of}, {sort of} such as 種樣星 tsóng
{y}ang‘ sing, have been placed with those particles that are simply
indicative, because they are applied to nouns complete in their form
and organization, e.g. 伊種人 í ’tsóng niun, {that sort of man}; 第星
事體 {t}í‘ sing zz‘ ’t’i, {this sort of thing}. Having a significance
of their own, they should also be mentioned here.

Obs. ii. Material nouns often in English become generic, assuming the
plural termination, and when singular the indefinite article,
e.g. earth, stone, etc. In Chinese, if we wish to speak of {a} stone,
the affix 頭 must be used, and 塊 prefixed. Some words need only the
auxiliary prefix, e.g. 一塊煤 ih k’wé‘ mé, {a piece of coal}.

Obs. iii. Some auxiliaries as 塊 are found both in the significant and
simply indicative class; a circumstance which suggests that all the
particles in the former table had a meaning of their own originally,
though now in some instances not to be traced.

Obs. iv. A few verbs are found among these words, viz. 把, 捆, 担, 包,
張, 鋪; they are here to be construed as substantives. In English,
verbs construed as nouns are very numerous, e.g. {hold, handle, touch,
walk, roll}.

Obs. v. The examples given in the table, are sufficient to shew that
for this class of nouns English usage is similar, except that the
particle {of} must be inserted. It is different with the words of the
former table, for which there is no equivalent idiom in English. These
two kinds of auxiliaries should therefore be keep distinct.

158. The definite subdivisions of material nouns will now be noticed.
It is not only the numeral particles and the other auxiliaries, as
registered in the two preceding articles, that intervene between
numbers and their substantives. Many nouns are divisible into several
parts, which have appropriate names and may be used as the words of
the preceding table. The most useful names of divisions are here
given, and first those of books and characters.

Divisions of books.

  句 kü‘, {sentence}.
  節 tsih, {verse}.
  大 {t}á‘, {column}.
  行 {h}ong, {column}.
  張 tsáng, {leaf}.
  頁 {y}ih, {a leaf}.
  章 tsáng, {section}.
  首 ’seu, {ode}.
  篇 p’ie{n}, {chapter}.
  本 ’pun, {volume}.
  都 {p}ú‘, {a whole work}.

Strokes of characters.

  點 ’{t}íe{n} ㇔
  劃 {w}áh     ㇐
  𥪡 ’zû       ㇑
  剔 t’iuh     ㇂
  撇 p’ih      ㇒
  捺 nah       ㇏
  挑 t’iau     ㇀
  拂 fah       ㇓
  圏 k’iö{n}, small circle. 〇

Obs. These words do not take any numeral particle. Thus in giving
directions to a scholar to write the character 受 ’zeu, a teacher
would say 一撇, 三黯, 帽下又字 ih p’ih, sa{n} tíe{n}, mau‘, ’{a}u ’tí
{y}eu‘, zz‘. The eight strokes given above are all contained in the
character 永. Information on this subject is given in Dr. Bridgman’s
Chinese Chrestomathy and other works.

159. The most common names of vessels of capacity are the following.

  碗 wé{n}, {bowl}.            盤 pé{n}, {tray}.
  盞 tsa{n}, {ib}.             桶 ’tóng, {bucket}.
  盆 {p}un, {a plate}.         匣 {h}ah, {casket}.
  缸 kong, {large jar}.        箱 siáng, {chest}.
  㼦 {p}áng‘, {pitcher}.       籃 la{n}, {basket}.
  瓶 {p}ing, {bottle, jar}.    簍 ’lieu, {small hamper}.

Obs. These words are used as the auxiliary particles of that which is
contained in them. But if they are construed as independent
substantives they all take 隻 as their distinctive particle. Thus we
find, 一隻碗, 一碗茶, ih tsáh wé{n}, {a cup}; ih wé{n} dzó‘, {a cup of
tea}.

160. Of definite measures, the following are in common use.
Land and Long Measure.

  畝 meu, 240 {square} pú‘}.
  站 dza{n}‘, 90 {’lí}.
  里 ’lí, 360 {p}ú‘.
  步 {p}ú‘, {five feet}.
  丈 záng‘, {ten feet}.
  尺 t’sáh, {foot} (14 Eng. in. taylor’s ft., 10⅞in. carpenter’s ft.)
  寸 t’sun‘, {tenth of a foot}.
  分 fun, {tenth of a t’sun‘}.

Dry Measure.

  石 {s}áh, 10 {teu}.
  斗 ’teu, 10 {sung}.
  升 sung, {a pint}.
  合 keh, {tenth of a pint}.
  抄 t’sau, 100{th of keh}.

Weights.

  担 ta{n}‘, {pecul}.
  斤 kiun, {catty}.
  兩 ’liáng, {tael}.
  錢 dzíe{n}, {mace}.
  角 koh, 10 {cents}.
  分 fun, 1 {cent}.
  毫 {h}áu, {tenth of fun}.
  釐 lí, {tenth of hau}.

Measures of time.

  代 dé‘, {generation}.
  世 sz‘, {ib}.
  年 níe{n}, {year}.
  歲 sûe‘, {ib}.
  日 nyih, {day}.
  點 ’tíe{n}, {hour} (with 鐘).
  刻 k’uh, ¼ {hour}.
  分 fun, {minute}.
  杪 miau, {second}.
  歇 h’ih, {instant}.

Obs. 時 zz, hour, and 月 niöh, month, are here omitted, because they
usually take 箇 before them. This must be to distinguish them from
words similar in sound, or from their own other senses.

161. Collective auxiliary nouns varying through all the forms of
plurality, from {a pair} to {a multitude}, here follow:—

  句 kü‘, {sentence of} words.
  聯 líe{n}, {pair of} corresponding sentences of poetry.
  雙 song, {pair} of shoes.
  對 té‘, {opposite pair of} candles, geese, ih dé‘ kí, {pair of fowls}.
  股 ’kú, 2 or 3 {in trade}; sa{n} ’ku k’é, {divide between three}.
  排 {p}á, {a pile or raft of} timber, {row of} trees.
  隊 {t}é‘, {a rank of} soldiers, ih dé ping.
  帖 t’ih, {parcel of ten} pencils, ih t’ih pih.
  刀 tau, 100 {sheets of} paper, ih tau ’tsz.
  炷 tsû, {bundle of} incense, ih tsû h’iáng.
  套 t’au‘, {coverful of} books, ih t’au‘, sû.
  串 t’sé{n} {chain of} 1,000 cash.
  羣 {k}iün, {flock of} birds, beasts, ih giün ’tiau.
  副 fú‘, {suit of} clothes, ih fú‘ í zong.
  行 {h}ong, {rows of} birds flying, trees.

162. From the list here given, it appears that there are at least 130
of these imperfect substantives, almost all in common use. They admit
of a fourfold division.

I. Of the first kind, whose office is simply indicative of appellative
nouns, or distinctive to some extent of classes, there are upwards of
30. A few examples are appended.

  一口棺材 ih ’k’eu kwé{n} zé, {a coffin}.
  造一條橋 ’zau ih diau giau, {build a bridge}.
  殺一隻雞 sah ih tsáh kí, {kill a fowl}.
  一枝大筆 ih tsz dú‘ pih, {a large pencil}.

Obs. i. At first sight, these words look like a capricious superfluity
of articles, arising merely from a fondness for multiplying words.
They appear appropriate in a language, where there is so much
arbitrary classification, and so little exhibition of the power of
generalizing by means of deep and comprehensive principles. Here are
thirty words made use of, where one would be sufficient. It should
however be remembered, that when used as adverbs there is great
clearness given to the conception they express, and that they diminish
the confusion that arises from similarities of sound.

Obs. ii. When an adjective is used, it comes between the particle and
the noun, as in the last example. This is also true of the other
particles that are the subject of this chapter.

II. Of the significant particles, or those that are applied to
material nouns, and define quantity and form, apart from number, there
are about 40. E.g.

  一張紙頭 ih tsáng ’tsz deu, {a sheet of paper}.
  二十担泥 ní‘ seh ta{n}‘ ní, {twenty loads of earth}.
  九層塔 ’kieu zung t’áh, {pagoda of nine stories}.

Obs. i. When they become parts of compound appellative nouns, one of
the distinctive particles precedes.

  一个面孔 ih ku‘ míe{n}‘ ’k’óng, {one face}.
  一隻節頭 ih tsáh tsih deu, {one finger}.

Obs. ii. 點, 眼, tíe{n}, nga{n}, are applied to any material noun in
the sense of {a little of}. Ih 一 precedes them.

III. The subdivisions or definite parts of material nouns, form the
most numerous class of the auxiliary substantives. Upwards of 50 are
here collected. They take no particle after the number preceding, and
must therefore be classed as imperfect substantives. Thus the
construction in the following examples is similar.

  (III.) 一斤花 ih kiun hwó, {pound of cotton}.
  (II.)  一包花 ih pau hwó, {bundle of cotton}.
  (II.)  一粒米 ih lih ’mí, {a grain of rice}.
  (III.) 一斗米 ih ’teu ’mí, {a peck of rice}.

IV. Collectives compose the remaining, and smallest class of
qualifying particles applied to substantives. The use of words in the
four classes of particles may be seen in the following examples.

  一隻羊 ih tsáh {y}áng, {a sheep}.
  一塊羊肉 ih k’wé {y}áng nióh, {a piece of mutton}.
  一斤羊肉 ih kiun {y}áng nióh, {catty of mutton}.
  一羣羊 ih giün {y}áng, {flock of sheep}.

163. Another small class of auxiliary substantives, consists of those
that are used with verbs, expressing like our word {times}, the number
of times the action has been performed. They are 次, 烫, 囘, 轉, 記;
their use will be understood by examples.

  來過兩次 lé kú‘ ’liáng t’sz‘, {I have come twice}.
  去之一烫 k’í‘ tsz ih t’ong, {having gone once}.
  要讀兩囘 yau‘ dóh ’liáng {w}é‘, {you must read it twice}.
  走兩轉就定 ’tseu ’liáng ’tsé{n} dzieu‘ ding‘, {after going round twice
      he stops}.
  打三十記 ’táng sa{n} seh kí‘, {received 30 blows}.


          {Section} 5. {On the Adjective}. 呆 虛 字.

164. The native writer before alluded to says, the office of
adjectives is “to describe the attributes and appearance of things.”
“In apposition with nouns, they express their qualities,” (與實字相加,
以形容實字如何樣.) “Some adjectives consist of two words which are
inseparable. Thus, repetition of the initial, the rhyme, and the whole
character, frequently occurs.” (有兩字折不開者, 如雙聲, 疊韻, 疊字等類.)
“There are not more than a few tens of characters that are adjectives.”

{Antithesis}. 165. In substantives, the principle of combination came
prominently to view, and it will be found to belong though not so
extensively, to the other parts of speech. That of antithesis belongs
especially to adjectives. Most of the single-worded adjectives in
daily use will illustrate this.

  輕重 k’iung, ’dzóng, {light}, {heavy}.
  大小 {t}ú‘, ’siau, {great}, {little}.
  多少 tú ’sau, {many}, {few}.
  長短 dzáng, ’tö{n}, {long}, {short}.
  厚薄 ’{h}eu, {p}óh, {thick}, {thin}.
  闊狹 k’weh, {h}ah, {broad}, {narrow}.
  高低 kau, tí, {high}, {low}.
  深淺 sun, ’t’síe{n}, {deep}, {shallow}.
  冷暖 ’{l}áng, ’nö{n}, {cold}, {warm}.
  清濁 t’sing, dzóh, {clear}, {muddy}.
  快慢 k’wá‘, ma{n}‘, {quick}, {slow}.
  好孬 (C) ’hau, k’ieu, {good}, {bad} (k’ieu = 歹 ’té).
  淡濃 {t}a{n}‘, nióng, {pale}, {deep}.
  早晚 ’tsau, a{n}‘, {early}, {late}.
  硬軟 ngáng‘, ’niön, {hard}, {soft}.
  曲直 k’ióh, dzuh, {crooked}, {straight}.
  正斜 tsung‘, {s}iá, {right}, {bent}.
  壯瘦 tsong‘, seu‘, {fat}, {lean}.
  生熟 sáng, zóh,  {ripe}, {unripe}.
  鬆緊 só{n}g, kiun, {loose}, {tight}.
  粗細 t’sú, sí‘, {coarse}, {fine}.
  新舊 sing, ’{k}ieu, {new}, {old}.
  稀綳 (C) h’í, ’máng, {few}, {crowded} (máng = 密 mih).
  貴强 (C) kü‘, giáng, {dear}, {cheap} (giáng = 賤 dzíe{n}).
  眞假 tsun, ’ká, {true}, {false}.
  亮暗 liáng‘, e{n}‘, {light}, {dark}.

Obs. i. Those words only that are marked (C) are not used in literary
compositions. There is no class of words more extensively spread
through all Chinese, spoken and written, than the majority of these
adjectives.

Obs. ii. Antithetical substantives of one character each, are rare in
the colloquial. See 107. Obs. iii.

Obs. iii. In Premare’s list of antithetical characters, more than
fifty of 117 are adjectives. Many also of those that belong to other
parts of speech, have the antithesis less strongly marked.

Obs. iv. Many abstract substantives are formed by the union of these
antithetical adjectives, in the order in which they stand above; e.g.
{how long}? ’kí hau‘ dzáng ’dö{n}? {to say nothing about speed}, veh
’kong k’wá ma{n}‘ v. Syntax. Part III. §2.

166. Sometimes in the antithesis, one member is a single, and the
other a double form.

  佳 {k}iá, {capable}.     唔用 {m} {y}úng‘, {useless}.
  亂 lö{n}‘, {disturbed}.  太平 t’a‘ bing, {peaceful}.

167. Other words having no obvious antithesis form it by assuming the
sign of the negative.

  勿像我能 veh ziáng‘ ’ngú nung, {not like me}.
  勿肯做 veh ’k’ung tsú‘, {not willing to do it}.
  勿便當 veh bíe{n}‘ tong‘, {not convenient}.

Obs. The negative here just corresponds to our English prefix {un},
e.g. {unlike}, {unwilling}.

{Combination}. 168. Many adjectives are formed by the apposition in a
fixed order, of two adjectives, and in these compounds many book words
occur.

  淸爽 t’sing ’song, {clear}.     忠厚 tsóng ’{e}u, {faithful}.
  懶惰 la{n} dú‘, {lazy}.         謙虛 k’íe{n} h’ü, {humble}.
  乾淨 kû{n} zing‘, {clean}.      煩難 va{n} na{n}, {difficult}.
  聰明 t’sóng ming, {clever}.     須少 sü ’sau, {few}.
  毛草 mau ’t’sau, {rough}.       許多 ’hü tú, {many}.
  冷靜 ’láng ’zing, {solitary}.   新鮮 sing síe{n}, {new}.
  粗疎 t’sú sú, {coarse}.         呆笨 ngé bun‘, {stupid}
  窮苦 {k}ióng ’kú, {poor}.       兇狠 h’iúng ’hun, {fierce}.

Obs. The antithesis that occurs in examples of this sort is
sufficiently indicated by the sense.

169. In addition to compounds such as those already given, formed by
two adjectives, substantives and verbs make part of many.

  小器 ’siau ({small}) k’í‘, ({vessel}), {parsimonious}.
  雪白 sih báh, {snow-white}.
  厚道 ’{h}eu ({thick}) dau‘ ({doctrine}), {liberal}.
  大量 {t}û‘ (great) liáng‘, ({capacity}), generous.
  刻薄 k’uh ({to cut}) bóh ({thin}), {exacting}.
  認眞 niung‘ tsun, {diligent}.
  拗强 au‘ ({to bend}) giáng, {unyielding}.
  完全 {w}é{n} ({finish}) zíe{n}, {complete} (R. dzíe{n}.)
  氣悶 k’í‘({anger}) mun‘ ({sad}), {secretly sad}.
  高興 kau ({wish}) h’iung‘ ({ready for}), {willing}.
  難過 na{n} ({hard}) ku‘ ({to pass}), {painful, sad}.
  胆大 ’ta{n} ({liver}) dú‘ ({great}), {bold}.
  出客 t’seh ({outside}) k’áh, ({visitor}), {handsome}.
  好笑 ’hau ({good}) siau‘ ({laugh}), {ridiculous}.

Obs. There are also triple forms, in which other parts of speech
enter, e.g. 壁立直, pih lih dzuh, {straight as a wall}; 的溜圓 tih lieu‘
{y}ö{n}, {very round}. In these examples, the adjective which stands
last is qualified by the preceding words.

170. Some adjectives of two words are exclusively local in their use,
and present no etymology in their characters, being written
phonetically. They are always inseparable.

  𨅓跎 sá dú, {tired}.       豪燥 {a}u sau‘, {active, sharp}.
  齷齪 ok t’soh, {dirty}.    㾑𤺥 keh dah, {blind to reason}.
  囫圇 {w}eh lun, {entire}.  𨰵𨐃 h’iá tsá, {skillful}.
  葛列 köh lih, {clean}.     玲瓏 ling lóng, {intelligent}. M.

171. Combinations of three are also numerous, in which the first word
contains the principal meaning. The second is repeated, and as will be
seen in the examples, sometimes conveys only sound. The phonetic
formation of the characters will usually serve to indicate this.

  瞎搭搭 P. hah tah tah, {irregular}.
  硬𨅘𨅘 P. ngáng‘ báng báng, {hard and stiff}.
  軟滋滋 ’niö{n} tsz tsz, {soft}.
  滑澾澾 P. {w}ah t’ah t’ah, {slippery}.
  閙嚷嚷 ’nau záng záng, {noisy, humming}.
  毛萋萋 mau ts’í ts’í, {rough}.
  暖筒筒 P. ’nö{n} dóng dóng, {warm}.
  直條條 dzuh diau diau, {straight}.
  矮矬矬 ’{á} t’sú t’sú, {dwarfish}.
  短悠悠 ’tö{n} {y}eu {y}eu,   „
  白雪雪 {p}ak sih sih, {snow-white}.
  黑搨搨 P. huk t’ah t’ah, {black}.

Obs. i. In examples not marked P. the repeated word has an independent
sense, in agreement with that of the leading word, and is so used in
the books.

Obs. ii. These phonetic appendages, destitute of any significance of
their own, are interesting to the comparative etymologist as
corresponding to adjectival terminations in other languages.

172. Combined forms of four words, often consisting of adjectives and
either substantives or verbs, and still more frequently of double
adjectives repeated are, such as follow.

  正大光明 tsung‘ dá‘ kwong ming, {upright and wise}.
  寬弘大量 k’wé{n} {ó}ng dú‘ lián{g}‘, {generous}.
  井井有條 ’tsing ’tsing ’{y}eu diau, {very regular}.
  希奇古怪 h’i gi ’kú kwá‘, {extraordinary}.
  長長遠遠 dzáng dzáng ’{y}ön ’{y}ön {long in time}.
  高高低低 kau kau tí tí, {irregular in height}.
  忙忙碌碌 mong mong lóh lóh, {busy}.
  胆胆大大 ’ta{n} ’ta{n} dú‘ dú‘, {boldy}.

Obs. The monosyllabic adjectives are not repeated. These double forms
when repeated, are also correctly translated as adverbs in almost all
cases. It will be seen in subsequent sections, that repetition is used
most extensively among verbs and adverbs.

173. The place of the adjective is before its noun if they go into
combination, but with the substantive verb as copula or an equivalent,
it may become a supplementary member of the sentence.

  好人 ’hau niun, {good man}.
  人是好個 niun ’zz ’hau kú‘, {the man is good}.
  白糖 {p}áh dong, {white sugar}.
  清水 t’sing ’sz, {clear water}.
  快馬 k’wá‘ ’mó, {swift horse}.
  冷飯 ’láng va{n}‘, {cold rice}.
  舊書 {k}ieu‘ sû, {old books}.
  馬倒勿快 ’mó ’tau veh k’wa‘, {yet the horse goes slowly}.
  水淸是清個 ’sz t’sing ’zz t’sing ku‘, {the water is clear}.

174. Substantives become adjectives to other substantives, if placed
before them in combination.

  洋刀 yáng tau, {foreign knife}. 石路 zah lú‘, {stone road}.
  牛奶 nieu ’ná, {buffalo milk}.  海船 ’hé zé{n}, {sea junk}.

Obs. Compounds of this kind have come under notice before, Art. 106.
Thus it appears that cases occur which prevent the accurate defining
of the parts of speech. For the words standing first in these
examples, while they may well be claimed as adjectives, according to
the grammar of the classical languages, are unquestionably
substantives when alone. As roots they are substantives. It is by
position that they are changed into adjectives. For corresponding
examples in English, see Art. 119.

175. Verbs with the particle 個 or 拉個, become adjectives to the
following noun.

  種拉个稻 tsóng‘ ’lá kú‘ ’dau, {the sown rice}.
  死个人多 ’sí kú‘ niun tú, {those that die are many}.
  愛拉个囝 é‘ ’lá kú‘ ’siau nö{n}, {a dear child}.
  活个物事 {w}eh kú‘ meh zz‘ {living thing}.

Obs. i. In examples like the second of these, the sense is also
complete without the noun as ’sí kú‘ tú. We have in English {a
darkened} room, {a beloved} child. Participles are here construed as
adjectives, a usage similar to the Chinese.

Obs. ii. Some verbs enter into combination as adjectives, without the
intervention of any particle. 死人 ’sí niun, {dead man}; 孝子  h’iau‘
’tsz, {filial son}; 孝女 h’iau‘ ’nü, {filial daughter}.

176. A few adjectives are also employed as transitive verbs. The
second and fourth of the following sentences are examples. In the 1st
and 3rd, the same words are adjectives.

  喜歡得極 ’h’í hwé{n} tuh giuh, {exceedingly glad}.
  牛喜歡水 nieu ’h’í hwé{n} ’sz, {buffaloes are fond of water}.
  快快活活 k’a‘ k’a‘ {w}eh {w}eh, {very glad}.
  伊總快活儂 í tsóng k’a‘ {w}eh nóng‘, {he will certainly be pleased
      with you}.

{Comparison of adjectives}. 177. The comparative is expressed in
several ways, as by—

{a}. 再 tsé‘, {again}, which precedes the adjective it qualifies.

  勿能再少 veh nung tsé‘ ’sau, {I cannot say less}.
  再大無沒 tsé‘ dú‘ {m} méh, {there are none larger}.
  再强有否 tsé‘ giáng ’{y}eu ’vá? {have you any cheaper?}

{b}. 點 ’tíe{n}, {a little}, follows the word that it qualifies.

  第本書好點 {t}í‘ ’pun sû ’hau ’tíe{n}, {this book is better}.
  快點走 k’wá‘ ’tíe{n} ’tseu, {walk a little faster}.
  多點末者 tú ’tíe{n} meh ’tsé, say {a little more}.

{c}. 一眼 ih ’nga{n}, {a little}, is similar in use to the last.

  倒好一眼 ’tau ’hau ih ’nga{n}, {this is however something better}.
  高大一眼 kau dú‘ ih ’nga{n}, {let it be better and more}.

{d}. 還 {w}a{n} {still}, {further}; this word combined with 要 yau‘,
{to want}, makes the adjective that follows comparative.

  還要好 {w}a{n} yau‘ ’hau, {I want better yet}.
  工力還要細 kúng fú {w}a{n} yau‘ sí‘, {I want the work finer}.

{e}. 比 ’pí, {compare}; this word makes the adjective that follows
comparative. When 比 is in the negative form, the adjective may be
omitted.

  上海勿比蘇州 Zong‘ ’hé veh ’pí Sú tseu, {Shanghai cannot be compared
      to Sú-cheú}.
  比我還好 ’pí ’ngú {w}a{n} ’hau, {he is better than I}.
  比我好 ’pí ’ngú ’hau,                    {do}.
  勿算比我好 veh sû{n} ’pí ’ngú ’hau, {he is not to be thought better
      than I}.

{f}. 更 kung‘, better. Sometimes 加 ká, {to add}, follows it.

  勿去更好 veh k’í‘ kung‘ hau, {not to go would be better}.
  更加勿對 kung‘ ká veh té‘, {still more wrong}.
  更加無用 kung‘ ká {m} {y}úng‘, {much more useless}.

{g}. 越 {y}öh repeated. The use of this particle repeated is to place
the two members of a sentence in strong antithesis; sometimes 發 fah,
{to express} follows it.

  越多越好 {y}öh tú {y}öh ’hau, {the more the better}.
  越發窮越發要生病 {y}öh fah gióng {y}öh fah yau‘ sáng bing‘, {the
      poorer men are, the more liable they are to sickness}.
  越發明白末越發要喜歡 {y}öh fah ming báh meh, {y}öh fah yau‘ ’h’í hwé{n},
      {the more you understand it, the better you will be pleased with
      it}.

{h}. 又 í‘, {again}, is a very common form. 比 ’pí, often commences the
sentence.

  第个人又好 {t}í‘ kú‘ niun {í}‘ ’hau, {this man is better}.
  落雨又多 loh ’{ü} {í}‘ tú, {it rains still more}.

{i}. 又加 {í}‘ ká, {still more} is often preceded by 比 ’pí.

  比我又加明白 ’pí ’ngú {í}‘ ká ming báh, {he is still more
      intelligent than I}.

{k}. 加, 添, 放大 ká or tíe{n} {add} or fong‘ dú‘, {increase}.

  加伊個膽量 ká í kú‘ ’ta{n} liáng‘, {grew more courageous}.
  今朝風加大 kiun tsau fóng ká dú‘, {the wind is higher to-day}.
  鞋子要放大 {h}á ’tsz yau‘ fong‘ dú‘, {make the shoes larger}.
  銅錢要添點 {t}óng díe{n} yau‘ t’íe{n} ’tíe{n}, {you must give more
      money}.

{l}. The comparison is intensified by adding 得多 tuh tú after the
adjective.

  昨日好得多者 zoh nyih ’hau tuh tú ’tsé, {yesterday he was much better.}
  第根竹頭比伊根長学得多 {t}í‘ kun tsóh-deu ’pí í kun dzang tuh tú, {this
      bamboo is much larger than that}.
  第二隻鷄重得多 {t}í‘ ní‘ tsáh kí dzóng‘ tuh tú, {the second fowl is
      much heavier}.

{m}. Beside the formation of the comparative by particles, it is
expressed by the positive standing first, when the difference of the
compared objects is mentioned.

  高六寸 kau lók t’sun‘, {taller by six inches}.

Obs. i. The verb 比 is however in examples of this last kind,
understood as going before, and is often expressed, as in 第隻船此伊隻闊
二尺 {t}i‘ tsáh zé{n} ’pí í tsáh k’weh ní‘ ts’ah, {this boat is two
feet wider than that}. 我娘個病比前日子好得多者 ’ngú niáng kú‘ bing‘ ’pí
zie{n} nyih ’tsz ’hau tuh tú ’tsé, {my mother is much better than the
day before yesterday}.

Obs. ii. Three kinds of auxiliary words appear in the examples given.

1. Substantive particles which follow the adjective they qualify, and
imply a slight variation only. This variation may be increase or
diminution, according to the sense of the adjective compared.

2. Verbs. Of these, the verb 比 {compare} is in constant use. It is
found with other particles, or without any particle, and retains its
syntax as a verb, unaffected by its use as an auxiliary in the
comparison of adjectives. The other verbs employed express addition.
Their opposites are used in a similar manner; e.g. 減少 ’ka{n} ’sau,
減脫 ’ka{n} t’eh, {subtract}.

3. Conjunctions and adverbs form the remainder of the particles
employed in comparison. They imply a {difference} without specifying
whether it be greater or less, so that they correspond more nearly to
the English suffix {er} than to the particle {more}. The repeated form
越, 越 just answers to the particle {the}, in “the sooner the better.”
Such English forms as this are usually regarded as elliptical, and in
explaining them, words supposed to be omitted are supplied. In the
corresponding Chinese phrases, there is no ground for the hypothesis
of an ellipsis.

178. The subjoined auxiliary particles supply the place of a
superlative. The first three are placed before the adjective they
qualify. The rest follow their word.

{a}. 頂 ’ting, {highest, top}.

  天狼心頂亮 t’íen long sing ’ting liáng‘, {Sirius is a very bright star}.
  頂强者 ’ting giáng ’tsé, {at the lowest price}.
  伊个人頂明白 í kú‘ niun ’ting ming báh, {that man is very intelligent}.
  頂大頂多, ’ting dú‘, ’ting tú, {very great, very many}.

{b}. 最 tsûe‘, {exceedingly, the most}.

  老虎最利害 ’lau ’hú ’tsûe‘ lí‘ {é}‘, {the tiger is very fierce}.
  窵鳥當中鳳凰最好看 ’tiau ’niau tong tsóng, vóng {w}ong‘ tsûe‘ ’hau
      k’ö{n}‘, {among birds, the phoenix is the most beautiful}.
  天地當中人最玲瓏 t’íe{n} dí‘ tong tsóng, niun tsûe‘ ling lóng, {of all
      things in heaven and earth, man is the most intelligent}.

{c}. 極, {k}iuh, {extremely}; this particle is used before or after
the adjective which it qualifies.

  聰明得極 t’sóng ming tuh giuh, {extremely intelligent}.
  極深奧 {k}iuh sun au‘, {extremely profound}.
  有文理得極 ’{y}eu vun ’lí tuh giuh, {very beautifully written}.
  斯文得極 sz vun tuh giuh, {extremely polite and elegant}.

{d}. 野 ’yá, {wild, great}; this word requires one of the auxiliary
verbs 來 or 得 verbs before it.

  黃浦裡險得野 {W}ong-p’ú‘ ’lí ’híe{n} tuh ’{y}a, the Hwang-p’u is very
      dangerous.
  天高來野拉 t’íe{n} kau le ’{y}á ’lá, {heaven is very high}.

{e}. 死 ’sí, {to die}; this word takes the auxiliary verb 來 between
it and its adjective.

  米行情貴來死 ’mí {h}ong zing kü‘ lé ’sí, {the price of rice
      is very high}.
  年勢好來死 níe{n} sz‘ ’hau lé ’sí, {it is a very good year}.
  今朝風大來死 kiun tsau fóng dú‘ lé ’sí, {to-day the wind
      is very high}.

{f}. 嘸做 {m} tsú‘, {there is nothing that can be done}; this
form of expression also requires 來 lé.

  風大來嘸做 fóng dú‘ lé {m} tsú, {the wind is very high}.
  日頭旺來嘸做 nyih deu {y}ong‘ lé {m} tsú‘, {the sun is very bright}.
  學問深來嘸做 {h}oh vun‘ sun lé {m} tsú‘, {his learning is very
      profound}.

{g}. 煞 sah, {very}. lit. {a twinkling}. (Premare has this particle,
though it is certainly rare in mandarin. Many prefer 殺 [1]sah,
{kill}).

  强盜靈多煞 {k}iáng dau‘ tú sah, {the robbers are very many}.
  勿輕煞 veh k’iung sah, {not very light}.

{h}. 頭一 {t}eu ih, {the first in importance}.

  頭一要緊 {t}eu ih yau‘ ’kiun, {the most important}.
  敬父母頭一 kiung‘ ’vú ’mú deu ih, {filial piety is most important}.

{i}. 了勿得 ’liau veh tuh,  {remarkably}, {exceedingly}.

  好來了勿得 ’hau lé ’liau veh tuh, {exceedingly good}.

{j}. 了反勿得 ’liau fan veh tuh,         ib.

  重來了反勿得 ’dzóng lé ’liau fa{n} veh tuh, {extremely heavy}.

{k}. 話勿得 {w}ó‘ veh tuh, or 話勿來 {w}ó‘ veh lé, {very}, {unspeakable}.
勿了事 veh ’liau zz‘, {endlessly}.

  大來話勿得 {t}ú‘ lé {w}ó‘ veh tuh. {unspeakably great}.
  話勿來個苦惱 {w}ó‘ veh lé kú‘ k’ú ’nau, {unspeakably wretched}.

{l}. 得利害 tuh lí‘ {é}‘, {severe}, {dangerous}.

  重得利害 ’dzóng tuh lí‘ {é}‘, {exceedingly heavy}.

Obs. i. Among the words admitted here are many forms of expression
equivalent to our qualifying adverbs {very}, {extremely}, etc.
In actual usage no distinct line is kept between the adjectival and
adverbial sense; e.g. 最好 tsûe‘ ’hau, may mean {best}, or {very good}.
It seemed therefore preferable to give in one view, the more common
forms for framing an absolute or modified superlative. Most of these
particles are also used to qualify verbs, as will be shown. They are
therefore true adverbs.

Obs. ii. Here may be distinguished four modes of forming the
superlative.

1. By particles appropriated to this use 是, 頂, 極,  tsûe‘, ’ting,
{k}iuh. The two former stand before the adjective, the third is found
both before and after its word.

2. The ordinal 頭一 {t}eu ih, in mandarin 第一 {t}í ih, {the first},
also places the adjective it precedes in the superlative.

3. Auxiliary verbal particles 得, 來, tuh, lé, with the appendages 野,
極, 利害, ’{y}á, {k}iuh and lí‘ {é}, to the former, and 野, 死, 唔, 做,
’yá, ’sí, and {m} tsú‘, to the latter, form a third class.

4. The forms 了勿得, ’liau veh tuh or ’liau fa{n} veh tuh, {wonderful},
{very}, 話勿得 {w}ó‘ veh tuh (lé), {unspeakable}, and 勿了事 veh ’liau
zz‘, {endlessly}, when appended to an adjective with 來 intervening,
also convey a superlative sense.

Obs. iii. The verb 完 {w}én, {finish} is also applied to adjectives
with the same force as the preceding intensitive particles. 畫來像完者
{w}ó‘ lé ziáng‘ {w}én ’tsé, {painted extremely like}; 容貌黃完 {y}óng
mau‘ {w}ong {w}én, {countenance very sallow}.

Obs. iv. Extreme excellence is also predicated of an adjective by the
phrases 十分 {s}eh fun, {ten parts} and 十二分 {s}eh ni‘ fun, {twelve
parts}; 物事十分好 meh zz‘ zeh fun ’hau, {the thing is thoroughly good}.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. That 殺 sah is the word seems probable because ’si, {die}, a
  word like it in meaning is much used in a similar manner.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

179. Ordinal numbers are often expressed by the cardinal numbers, when
on rhythmical grounds, there is no empty place in the sentence for a
particle.

  今朝念一 kiun tsau nia{n}‘ ih, {to-day is the 21st of the month}.
  咸豐二年 {y}a{n} fóng ní‘ níe{n}, {the 2nd year of Hien-fúng}.

Obs. In regard to the cardinal numbers (for which see page 61), a few
examples only need to be added 五十三 ’ng zeh sa{n}, {fifty three}; 九
十二 ’kieu zeh ní‘, {ninety two}. From a hundred to a hundred and ten,
零 ling is inserted, 一百零四 ih páh ling sz‘, {a hundred and four}.
Instead of saying 一百三十 ih páh sa{n} seh, it is more frequent to omit
十 seh. Thus, ih páh sa{n}, {a hundred and thirty}, and so for other
numbers. The omission of 一 ih, {one}, sometimes occurs 百八 pák pah,
{a hundred and eighty}; {one thousand four hundred} is 千四 t’sie{n}
sz‘; fourteen thousand is 萬四 ma{n}‘ sz‘.

180. Days of the month take 初 t’sú before them as a numeral particle,
but it is omitted when the number consists of two characters. Ordinal
numbers are regularly formed by prefixing 第 {t}í‘ to the cardinal
numbers.

  正月初一 tsung‘ niöh t’sú ih, {the 1st day of the 1st month}.
  明朝初幾 ming tsau t’sú ’kí, {what day of the month is to-morrow}.
  後日初一者 ’{h}eu nyih t’sú ih ’tsé, {the day after to-morrow is the
      first}.
  考歇第一百名 ’k’au h’ih {t}í‘ ih páh ming, {he has passed the
      examination as the one hundredth}.
  第三十本 {t}í‘ sa{n} seh ’pun, {the thirtieth volume}.
  是儂第幾個兒子 ’zz nóng‘ {t}í‘ ’kí kú‘ ní ’tsz? {which son are you?}
  排行第幾 {p}á {h}ong dí‘ ’kí? {which are you in order}.

Obs. First is translated 頭一 {t}eu ih.

181. The numeral of multiplication is expressed by means of 倍 {p}é‘,
{times}; 要加倍 yau‘ ká bé‘, {make it twice as large}; 加長四倍 ká dzáng
sz‘ bé‘, {make it four times as long}.

182. Distributive numbers are formed by the addition of 個 kú‘, or any
other auxiliary substantive particles.

  一个一个 ih ku‘ ih ku‘, {one by me or one after another}.
  兩个兩个 ’liáng kú‘ ’liáng kú‘, {two and two}.
  一行一行 ih {h}ong ih {h}ong, {row by row}.
  一條一條 ih diau ih diau, {in successive lengths}.

183. Indefinite numbers are expressed 百 páh, 100; 千 t’síe{n}, 1,000;
萬 ma{n}‘, 10,000, with or without 論 lun.

  論千論萬 lun t’síe{n} lun ma{n}‘, {thousands and myriads}.
  萬百樣物事 va{n}‘ pah {y}áng‘ meh zz‘, {all things}.
  論千來者 lun t’síen lé ’tsé, {many thousands are come}.
  文武百官 vun ’vú pák kwé{n}, {all officers civil and military}.
  會醫百病 {w}é í páh bing‘, {can cure all diseases}.
  百花生日 pák hwó sáng nyih, {the flowers’ birth-day}.
  萬國九州 va{n}‘ kóh ’kieu tseu, {all countries}.

184. Numbers enter into many common phrases.

  三心兩意 sa{n} sing ’liáng í‘, {vacillating in opinion}.
  三轉九囘頭 sa{n} ’tsen ’kieu {w}é deu, {constantly turning back}.
  七橫八豎 t’sih {w}áng pah ’zû, {lying in all directions}.
  三伸四縮 sa{n} sun sz‘ soh, {timidly advancing and retreating}.
  瞎七瞎八 hah t’sih hah pah, {all in confusion}.

Obs. Though not commonly occurring in English and other languages,
examples similar to these are not wanting; e.g. {at sixes and sevens}.

185. Examples of some adjectives, extensive in their use and varied in
their meaning, are here appended.

  一 ih, {one, whole, immediately upon}.
  獨一無二 {t}óh ih vú rh‘, {there is only one}.
  一切說話 ih t’sih seh {w}ó‘, {all he said}.
  一統天下 ih ’t’óng t’íe{n} ’{a}u, {the whole empire}.
  一言旣出 ih {í}e{n} kí‘ t’seh, {the words have been said}.
  一定不易 ih ding‘ peh {y}uh, {certainly unchangeable}.
  一念囘頭 ih nia{n}‘ {w}é deu, {sincerely repent}.
  一居一動 ih kü ih ’dóng, {all he does}.
  一動就打 ih ’dóng dzieu‘ ’táng, {at the least thing, he fights}.
  一走就跌 ih ’tseu dzieu‘ {t}ih, {the moment he begins to walk, he
      falls}.

186. 全 dzie{n}, {complete, all}.

  勿完全 veh {w}é{n} dzíe{n}, {not complete}.
  人全拉上 niun zé{n} ’lá long‘, {they are all there}.
  全關着 zé{n} kwa{n} zah, —{they are all connected with}—

187. 大 {t}á‘, {great, very}.

  國度是大個 kóh dú‘ ’zz dú‘ kú‘, {it is a large kingdom}.
  要大呢小 yau‘ dú‘ {n}í ’siau, {will you have it large or small?}
  勿大煞個 veh dú‘ sah kú‘, {it is not very large}.
  大人小囝 {t}ú‘ niun ’siau nö{n}, {parents and children}.
  大勿喜歡 {t}ú‘ veh ’h’í hwé{n}, {much displeased}.
  勿大哩好 veh dá‘ ’lí ’hau, {not very good}.
  勿大哩吃個 veh dá‘ ’lí k’iuh kú‘, {seldom eat it}.

188. 好 ’hau, {good, well, that I may, it may}.

  禿是勿好 t’óh ’zz veh ’hau, {all are bad}.
  頂勿好 ’ting veh ’hau, {worst of all}.
  恰好 hah ’hau, {fortunately, just at the time}.
  勿好意思 veh ’hau í‘ sz‘, {ashamed}.
  好拉否 ’hau ’lá ’vá, {are you well?}
  醫勿否 í veh ’hau, {he cannot be cured}.
  勿能好 veh nung ’hau, {I cannot recover}.
  好去囘頭 ’hau k’í‘ {w}é deu, {that I may go and inform him}.
  好做個 ’hau tsú‘ kú‘, {it may be done}.

189. 靈 ling, {efficacious, intelligent}.

  勿靈個 veh ling kú‘, {powerless, inefficacious}.
  唔沒靈處 {m} meh ling t’sú‘, {having no efficacy}.
  靈性勿拉心裏 ling sing‘ veh ’lá sing ’lí, {always forgetting}.
  魂靈勿拉身上 {w}ung ling veh ’lá sun long‘,   {ib}.

190. 快 k’wá‘, {fast}, (adv.) {near, soon, lively}.

  快快搖 k’wá‘ k’wá‘ {y}au, {row quickly}.
  夜快者 {y}á‘ k’wá‘ ’tsé, {it will soon be night}.
  死快者 ’sí k’wá‘ ’tsé, {he is dying}.
  快活, 快樂 k’wá‘ weh, or k’wá‘ loh, {glad}.
  爽爽快快 ’song ’song k’wá‘ k’wá‘, {well in health}.


                {Section} 6. {On the Pronoun}.

191. The pronouns are regarded by the Chinese as part of the auxiliary
particles that with nouns and verbs make up sentences, and they have
not proceeded to separate them from the rest of that numerous family
by a peculiar denomination.

They are chiefly single words, but frequently admit of the dissyllabic
form. Other pronouns, or particles having no meaning of their own
(e.g. 是, 個), are prefixed or affixed to give them this form. The
details will be found below.

Among the many simple and compound forms used as pronouns, the
following may be distinguished as properly and originally such for
this dialect.

  1. Personal, 我, 儂, 其, 伊, 㑚, 你, ’ngú, nóng‘, gí, í, ná‘, ’ní,
     {I, thou, he, you}.
  2. Reflexive, 自 zz‘, in combination.
  3. Demonstrative, 第, 伊, 個, {t}í‘, í, kú‘, {this, that}; also 彼此
     pé ’t’sz, occasionally used.
  4. Interrogative, 啥, 幾 sá‘, ’kí, {what? how many?} inseparable, and
  何 {h}ú, {what?} 那 ’ná (pron. ’á), {which?} inseparable.
  5. Relative. There is no separable relative pronoun, its place being
     supplied by 個 kú‘, 所 ’sú is inseparable, and very limited in its
     use.
  6. Possessives. None. Their place is supplied by 個 kú‘, following the
     personal pronoun.
  7. Distributives. 各, 每, 逐, koh, ’mé, dzóh, {each}, {every}.
  8. Reciprocal. None. The borrowed form 大家 is the substitute.
  9. Indefinite. 某, 啥, 幾, 多, ’meu, sá‘, ’kí, tá, {some, several}.
  10. Correlatives or adjective pronouns. 禿, 全, 別, t’oh, dzé{n}, bih,
      {all, other}, separable and 凡 va{n}, inseparable.

{Personal pronouns}. 192. The first personal pronoun in the singular
is ’ngú, 我 {I}; the second, 儂 nóng‘ or 那 ná‘, thou; the third, 伊 í
or 其 {k}í, {he}.

  我去者 ’ngú k’í‘ ’tsé, {I am now going}.
  呌儂就來 kau‘ nóng‘ dzieu‘ lé, {I told you to come at once}.
  撥拉伊者 peh ’lá í ’tsé, {I have given it him}.
  其撥拉我 {k}í peh ’lá ’ngú, {he gave me}.

In the plural 你 ’ní or 我你 ’ngú ’ní, express {we}; 那 ná or 儂那 nóng‘
ná‘, {you}; and 伊 í, {they}.

  我你兩个 ’ngú ’ní ’liáng kú‘, {we two}.
  那多許人 ná‘ tú hau‘ niun, {all you men}.

When the pronoun consists of one word only, the vacant place is often
filled up by 是 ’zz.

  是我 ’zz ’ngú, {I}.
  是伊是其 ’zz í ’zz gí, {he}.
  是那衆人 ’zz ná‘ tsóng‘ niun, {all you men}.

Obs. i. The personal pronoun is often omitted, as 拾蓋看起來 {s}eh
ké k’ö{n}‘ ’k’í lé, {thus you see}; 勿來末總勿好 veh lé meh tsóng veh
hau, {if you do not come it will be unfortunate}.

Obs. ii. The impersonal pronoun in English {it}, is not expressed, as
落雨者 loh ’{ú} ’tsé, {it is raining}.

Obs. iii. In mandarin 我, 你, 他, ’ngó, ’ní, t’á, {I, thou, he}, all
form their plural by taking 們 mun, as a suffix.

Obs. iv. Sometimes 我 ’ngú, may stand for the third person {he}, This
occurs, when two persons in relation to each other are the subject of
conversation. The nominative is then considered as {I}, and the third
person, {he}. Thus, 兄弟曉得呵哥勿喜歡我, h’iúng dí‘ ’hiau tuh á kú
veh ’h’í hwé{n} ’ngú, {the younger brother knows that the elder is
displeased with him}. This is not the case when no confusion of
persons is likely to happen; e.g. 眼睛𥆝之伊個男人 ’nga{n} tsing sú tsz
í kú‘ né{n} niun, {she looked on her husband}.

193. The idea of self is expressed by 自家 zz‘ ká, for all persons,
generally preceded by the appropriate pronoun.

  伊自家話 í zz‘ ká {w}o‘, {he himself said}.
  儂自家要去個 nóng‘ zz‘ ká yau‘ k’í‘ kú‘, {you must go yourself}.

Obs. i. In mandarin 自己 tsz‘ ’ki; Fúh-kien, 家己 ká ’kí.

Obs. ii. The pronoun 自 zz‘, {self}, though not used out of
combination, occurs in several fixed phrases. 自殺自 zz‘ sah zz‘, {to
kill one’s-self}; 自害自 zz‘ {h}é‘ zz‘, {to injure one’s-self}, These
concise forms are more agreeable and impressive to the native ear,
than the equivalent long forms 自家殺脫自家 zz‘ ká sah t’eh zz‘ ká;
自家害脫自家 zz‘ ká {h}é‘ t’eh zz‘ ká.

{Demonstratives}, 194. The demonstrative pronouns are 第個 {t}í‘ kú‘,
{this}, and 個個 kú‘ kú‘ or 伊個 í kú‘, {that}.

  第个事體 {t}í‘ ku‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {this matter}.
  故个物事 kú‘ kú‘ meh zz‘ {that thing}.
  伊个小囝 í kú‘ ’siau nö{n}, {that boy}.
  伊歇辰光 í h’ih zun kwong, at that time.

Obs. i. When these words combine with any of the auxiliary
substantives to form demonstrative adverbs, the particle 個 kú‘ is
omitted.

  第頭好包 {t}í‘ deu ’hau pau‘, {here it is good walking}.
  故搭去住 kú‘ tah k’í‘ dzû‘, {go and live there}.
  伊塊人少 í k’wé‘ niun ’sau, {the people there are few}.

Obs. ii. Some of the mandarin demonstratives 那此彼 ’ná, t’sz, pé,
{that}, {this}, {that}, though not belonging to our dialect in their
monosyllabic form are found in some combinations. 那裏 ’{á} ’lí,
{where?} 此地 ’t’sz dí‘, {here}; 彼此 pé ’t’sz, {that and this}. Facts
of this sort illustrate the necessity for distinguishing between words
of one or more syllables, and between roots in apposition, as
separable and inseparable.

{Interrogatives}. 195. The interrogative forms are 啥 sá‘, {what?} 那裏
’{á} ’lí, {where? and which?} and 幾 ’kí, {what? which?} also ’kí hó‘
(hau‘), {how many}.

  啥人拷門 sá‘ niun k‘au mun, {who knocks at the door?}
  啥物事 sá‘ meh zz‘, {what is the matter}.
  儂要啥事體 nóng‘ yau‘ sá‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {what do you want?}
  啥所去 sa‘ sü k’í‘, {where are you going?}
  爲啥實盖能 {w}e‘ sá‘ {s}eh ké‘ nung, {why do you do so?}
  到那裏去 tau‘ ’{á} ’lí k’í‘, {where are you going}.
  那裏堂 ’{á} ’lí dong, {where?}
  那裏个戶堂 ’{á} ’lí kú‘ {ú} dong, {which place?}
  那裏个人 ’{á} ’lí kú‘ niun, {which man?}
  那裏條路 ’{á} ’lí diau lú‘, {which road?}
  幾時 ’kí zz, {what time?}
  幾時辰 sa‘ zz zun, {what time?}
  幾點鐘 ’ki ’tíe{n} tsóng, {what it is o’clock?}
  幾許銅錢 ’kí hó‘ (hau‘) dóng díe{n}, {how many cash?}
  轎夫幾家頭 {k}iau‘ fú ’kí ká deu, {how many chair-bearers?}

Obs. i. In the compound forms here exhibited, 裏 may be taken to
indicate {place}; 許 hó‘ is a meaningless particle used to complete the
rhythmus.

Obs. ii. The interrogative of the books 何 {h}ú, {what?} is found in
combinations, such as 沒奈何 meh né‘ {h}ú, {there is nothing I can do}.
But it is not used alone.

{Relative pronouns}. 196. The regular relative pronoun 所 ’só, is only
used in combination with 以 ’í in the sense {therefore}, and with
’dzé, 所在 as a noun substantive, {house}.

  新所在 sin sû ’dzé, {a new house}.
  所以要預備 ’só ’í yau‘ {ü}‘ bé‘, {therefore you must prepare}.

The place of the relative particle 所, used in books and in some
dialects, is supplied by the particles 拉 個 ’lá kú‘, or 個 alone,
coming after the verb.

  買拉个米就擔來撥拉窮人 ’má ’la ku‘ mí dzieu‘ ta{n} lé peh ’lá gióng niun,
      {bring the rice you have bought at once, and give it to the
      poor}. M. ’só ’mái tih ’mí.
  網咾機檻咾坑坎咾禿是捉禽獸個 ’mong lau kí ’k’a{n} lau k’áng ’k’é{n} lau,
      t’óh ’zz tsoh giun seu‘ kú‘, {nets, traps and covered pits, are
      all for catching animals}. M. chúh k’in sheu‘ tih.
  儂造拉個房子 nóng ’zau ’lá kú‘ vong ’tsz, {the house which you have
      built}. M. ’ní ’só kæ‘ tih fáng ’tsz.
  皇帝賞個俸祿 {w}ong tí‘ ’song kú‘ fóng lóh, {the emoluments which are
      conferred by the emperor}.

{Possessive pronouns}. 197. The possessive pronouns are expressed by
the personal pronouns, with the auxiliary particle 個 kú‘.

  我個兒子 ’ngú kú‘ ní ’tsz, {my son}.
  儂个宗祖 nóng‘ kú‘ ’tsú tsóng, {your ancestors}.
  第塊地皮是㑚个 {t}í k’wé dí‘ bí ’zz ná‘ kú‘, {this piece of land is
      yours}.

Obs. i. In mandarin, 的 tih. The southern Fúh-kien dialect, besides
having two distinct plural forms for the personal pronouns 恁 ’lin,
{you}, 咱 ’lán, {we} has also separate possessive forms for all the
three persons 恁 ’lin, {your}; 阮 ’gwan, {mine}, 咱 ’lán, {ours}; 因
in, {their, his}. The intervening particle 個 is thus rendered
unnecessary for that dialect. It is however often inserted. When these
forms ’gwán, ’lin, in, are compared with the personal pronouns 我 你
伊 ’gwá, ’li or ’leu, í, the termination N looks extremely like an
appendage to the root in each case.

Obs. ii. After the personal pronouns, when a preposition of motion
precedes, a substantive of place is required; e.g. 到我喊頭來 tau‘
’ngú ha{n}‘ deu lé, {come to me}. This is generally true in all
instances, where place is left to be understood in English. 㑚塲好個狗
ná‘ dzáng hau‘ kú‘ ’keu, {one of your dogs}. It will be seen that the
pronouns in these examples are possessive, though in the former, the
corresponding English word is a personal pronoun.

{Distributive pronouns}. 198. The words corresponding to our
distributive pronouns, each, every, etc. are the following 每逐各 ’mé,
dzóh, k’oh.

每 ’mé, {each}.

  每人撥一塊 ’mé niun peh ih k’wé‘, {give one piece to each}.
  每家兩个人 ’mé ká ’liáng kú‘ niun, {in each family there are two}.

逐 dzóh, {each in succession}.

  逐一个殺一干 dzóh ih kú‘ sah ih kû{n}, {let each person kill one}.
  逐日出門一囘 dzóh nyih t’seh mun ih {w}é‘, {go out once day}.
  逐樣菜拔脫一科 dzóh {y}áng t’sé‘ bah t’eh ih k’ú, {of each kind of
      vegetable, pull up one plant}.
  逐科花採一朶 dzóh k’ú hwó ’t’sé ih ’tú, {of each plant pluck one
      flower}.

各 koh, {each, every}.

  各樣書買一部 koh {y}áng‘ sû ’má ih bú‘, {buy a book of every sort}.
  各樣顔色要 koh {y}áng‘ ’ngán suh yau‘, {I want every kind of colour}.
  各人良心勿差 koh niun liáng sing veh t’só, {men’s consciences tell
      them what is right}.
  各管各 koh ’kwé{n} koh, {each attends to his own affairs}.
  各處風俗不同 koh t’sû‘ fóng zóh peh dóng, {different places have
      different customs}.

Obs. i. Like the Greek {pas}, {all} or {each}, 各 koh is also an
adjective {all}; e.g. 各處 koh t’sû‘, {all places}.

Obs. ii. 每 mé, means {always}, in such phrases as 每要望望儂 ’mé
yau‘ mong‘ mong‘ nóng‘, {I wish constantly to come and see you}; 每每
’mé ’mé, {always}.

{Reciprocal pronouns}. 199. Phrases such as {one another} are
expressed by 大家 {t}á‘ ká and 家家 ká ká, {mutually}; or by 相 siáng,
{together}, in combination.

  總要家家相帮 ’tsóng yau‘ ká ká siáng pong, {you ought to help one
      another}.
  我忒儂相遇 ’ngú t’eh nóng‘ siáng nü‘, {you and I meet}.
  大家吃茶 {t}á‘ ká k’iuh dzó, {take tea together}.

{Indefinite pronouns}. 200. The word {some} in {some one},
{something}, is expressed either by 某 ’meu, or by the verb 有 ’{y}eu,
{have}. {Anything} is expressed by sá‘, usually with 有 ’{y}eu
preceding; in the negative, 唔 {m} takes the place of ’{y}eu.

  某處某人 ’meu t’sû ’meu niun, {a certain man of certain place}.
  某書某人做個 ’meu sû ’meu niun tsú‘ kú‘, {such a book written by such
      a person}.
  有人來話 ’{y}eu niun lé {w}ó‘, {some one came and said}.
  有是有個 ’{y}eu ’zz ’{y}eu kú‘, {there is some}.
  唔啥事體 {m} sá‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {it is nothing}.
  有啥信息否  ’{y}eu sá‘ sing‘ sih ’vá, {is there any news}.

201. {Several} is expressed by ’kí kú‘, 好幾個 hau‘ ’kí kú‘, 大 tá, and
the borrowed form 多許 tú hau‘; 幾許 ’kí hó‘[1] is also used.

  來之幾個人 lé tsz ’kí kú‘ niun, {several men have some}.
  好幾囘數 hau‘ ’kí {w}é‘ sú‘, {several times}.
  大日勿來 tá nyih veh lé, {it is long since you come}.
  唔啥幾許 {m} sá ’kí hô‘, {not many}.

Obs. The Greek {tis} is either interrogative {who?} (Lat. {quis?}) or
indifinite {some one}, (Lat. {aliquis}.) In the same way, 幾 ’kí is
sometimes {how many?} and at other times {several}. In the latter
sense however, 好 is usually prefixed. So also sá‘ means either
{what?} or {any thing}.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Compare use of 幾許 in the following verses 花枝出建章 “Flowers
  grow in the Kien-chang palace” 風管發昭陽 “The sound of pipes
  issues from the palace of Chau-yang,” 借問承恩者 “I beg to ask in
  regard to those who receive favour” 雙蛾幾許長 “How long are
  their eyebrows?” These words are put in the mouth of a secondary
  wife of the emperor Han wú-ti when jealous of imperial favour
  extended to some inferior court women. The last line means “are
  their eyebrows so much longer than mine?”.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

{Correlatives or adjective pronouns}. 202. The pronouns used as signs
of the plural, as already illustrated in the section on substantives
are 禿 全 t’óh, dzé{n}, {all} or {both}, and 總 ’tsóng, {all}. {None}
and {neither} are also expressed by t’óh, and dzé{n} with a negative.

  兩個人禿去者 ’liáng kú‘ niun t’óh k’í‘ ’tsé, {the two men are both gone}.
  全勿是 dzé{n} veh ’zz, {it is neither of them}.
  全是笨個 dzé{n} ’zz bun‘ kú‘, {they are all stupid}.
  對否禿對個 té‘ ’vá, t’óh té‘ kú‘, {are they right? they are all right}.

{Any one you please, whoever, whatever}, are expressed by several
borrowed phrases.

a. 大凡 {t}á‘ va{n}, {generally speaking, whoever}.

  大凡人做好個就有好報 {t}á‘ va{n} niun tsú‘ ’hau kú‘, dzieu‘ ’{y}eu ’hau
      pau‘, {whoever does well, will be at once rewarded}.

Obs. 凡 va{n} and sá‘ are the only true pronouns among these forms.

b. 勿拘 veh kü, {does not matter what}.

  勿拘多少 veh kü tú ’sau, {however many}.
  勿拘早晚 veh kü ’tsau a{n}‘, {however early or late}.
  行事勿拘那能總勿局 {h}áng zz‘ veh kü ’ná nung ’tsóng veh gióh, {whatever
      he does it is never right}.

c. 隨便 dzûe bíe{n}, {as you please, whatever}.

  隨便啥辰光 dzûe bíe{n}‘ sá‘ zun kwong, {at whatever time}.
  隨便啥人肯个 dzûe bíe{n}‘ sá‘ niun ’k’ung kú‘, {any one would be willing
      to do it}.

d. 勿論 veh lun‘, {whatever}.

  勿論啥日脚 veh lun‘ sá‘ nyih kiáh, {on whatever day}.
  勿論幾時儂要就有 veh lun‘ ’kí zz, nóng‘ yau‘ dzieu‘ ’{y}eu, {at whatever
      time, when you want it, you have it at once}.

e. sá‘ {whatever}.

  想啥話啥, ’siáng sá‘ {w}ó‘ sá‘, {whatever he thinks, he says}.

Obs. i. Buttman, Greek Grammar, section 78, says “Correlatives are
words in connection with each other, of which one contains a certain
question, and the corresponding one expresses the simplest relation
which answers that question.” Thus, the question 啥人 sá‘ niun, {who?}
may be answered by 第個人 {t}í‘ kú‘ niun, {this man}; 隨便啥人, dzûe
bíe{n}‘ sa‘ niun, {any one whatever}; 唔啥人 {m} sá‘ niun, {no one}; 多
許人 tú hau‘ niun, {many men}. So also, 那裏隻船 ’{á} lí tsáh zé{n},
{which boat?} may be answered by 第隻 {t}í‘ tsáh, {this one}; 勿論那裏隻
veh lun‘ ’{á} lí tsáh, {any one whatever}; 禿勿是 t’óh veh ’zz, {it is
neither}; 不過第搭幾隻船裏 peh kú‘ {t}í‘ dah ’kí tsáh zé{n} ’lí, {it must
be one of those that are here}; 是別隻船 ’zz bih tsáh zé{n}, {it it
another}; 忒前頭一樣個船 t’eh zíen deu ih {y}áng‘ kú‘ zé{n}, {the same
boat as before}. Several of these questions are answered by particles
already presented under other denominations. The remainder not finding
a place readily under any one class, are collected under the name of
correlatives.

Obs. ii. The corresponding forms in Latin. {Omnis, neuter, nullus,
alter, alius}, are classed with adjectives; Zempt calls them
{pronominalia}. Buttman says, that the line between the corresponding
words in Greek, as adjectives and as pronouns, cannot be clearly
drawn. Marshman says, the Sanscrit grammarians call all these words
pronouns. If they can stand without a substantive, they should be
called pronouns, otherwise they are adjectives.

Obs. iii. 總 ’tsóng, {all}, is found only in the compounded forms, 共總
{k}óng‘ ’tsóng, 攏總 ’lóng ’tsóng {in all}; 攏總个百性 ’lóng ’tsóng kú‘
pák sing‘, {all the people}. The substantive must accompany 衆
’tsóng‘, as in 衆弟兄 tsóng‘ ’ti h’iúng, {all the brothers}, and
therefore, it must be considered an adjective. 衆 is not found
compounded.

Obs. iv. {All} is also expressed by repetition of the substantive,
處處有個 t’sû‘ t’sû‘ ’{y}eu ku‘, {every-where they are to be had}.
v. Art, 129. Another mode is by phrases, such as 一共 ih góng‘, 一切 ih
t’sih, {the whole}.

Obs. v. Another translation of {all} is by 大凡 {t}a‘ va{n}. Va{n} is
used in the sense of {all} in books, but in the dialect of Shánghái is
only met with in this form.

203. {Other different}, are expressed by {p}ih 別 or by 勿同 veh dóng,
or by 兩樣 ’liáng {y}áng‘, {not the same}, or by the particle 又
proceeding the substantive verb or by 另 ling‘. {The same} is ih
{y}áng‘ 一樣, or 相同 siáng dóng.

  要呌別人 yau‘ kau‘ bih niun, {call another man}.
  總是別樣 ’tsóng ’zz bih {y}áng‘, {is certainly different}.
  到別塲化去 tau‘ bih dzáng hau‘ k’í, {go elsewhere}.
  別個國度 bih kú‘ kóh dú, {another nation}.
  道理勿同個 ’{t}au ’lí veh dóng kú‘, {different in principle}.
  話頭兩樣個 {w}ó‘ deu ’liáng {y}áng‘ kú, {what he says is different}.
  勿一樣個 veh ih {y}áng‘ kú‘, {not the same}.
  又是一個 {í}‘ ’zz ih kú‘, {that is another}.
  另呌一個 ling‘ kiau‘ ih kú‘,  {call another}.
  一樣個否 ih {y}áng‘ kú‘ ’vá, {is it the same?}
  相同個 siáng dóng kú‘, {the same}.

{Words used as pronouns}. 204. The use of some other words in
combinations, where they occur instead of the pronouns will now be
illustrated.

{a}. 本 ’pun; {belonging to this place}, as demonstrative pronoun.

  本地人 ’pun dí‘ niun, {people of this place}.
  本地話 ’pun dí‘ {w}ó‘, {dialect of this place}.
  本廟是和尙管個 ’pun miau‘ ’zz {ú} zong‘ kwé{n} kú‘, {this temple to which
      I belong, is superintended by Buddhist priests}.
  本國個規矩 ’pun kóh kú‘ kwé ’kü, {custom of this country}.

{b}. 今 kiun, {now, the present}. As demonstrative pronoun, {this} in
reference to time.

  今朝今日 kiun tsau, kiun nyih, {to-day}.
  今月今年 kiun niöh, kiun níe{n}, {this month, this year}.

{c}. 親 t’sing, {one’s own}, as reflexive pronoun {self}; 親身
t’sing sun, {himself}; 親口 t’sing ’k’eu, {his own mouth}.

{d}. 多少 tú ’sau, {how many?} as an interrogative pronoun.

  多少年総 tú ’sau níe{n} ’kí, {how many years old}.

205. The adjectives that follow, are used to avoid the personal
pronouns. Those that describe the speaker are depreciatory in their
meaning, while if others are addressed, the adjectives employed are
respectful.

尊 tsun, {honoured}, 貴 kwé‘, {ib}. 高 kau, {high}, combine with
姓 sing, {family name}, 國 kóh, {kingdom, etc}.

  尊姓 tsun sing‘, 貴姓 kwé‘ sing‘, 高姓 kau sing‘, {your name?}
  尊庚 tsun káng,  貴庚 kwé‘ káng,  高壽 kau zeu‘, {your age?}
  尊處 tsun t’sû‘, 貴處 kwé‘ t’su‘, {where do you live?}
  尊府 tsun ’fu,   貴府 kwé‘ ’fu, {where is your residence?}

Obs. i. 府 ’fú, also forms part of the combination 府上 ’fú long‘,
{residence}; e.g. 府上那裏 ’fú long‘ ’{a} ’lí, {where do you reside?}

Obs. ii. 貴國 kwé‘ kóh ask {of what honoured country are you?} 貴地
kwé‘ dí‘, {what is your place of residence?} 高徒 kau dú is translated
{your scholar}; 尊駕 tsun ká‘ and 相公 siáng‘ kóng, are used in place
of {you}, among those who are not in an inferior social position.

206. 令 ling, {honoured, good}, applied to persons, enters into many
combinations, where it represents the possessive {your}.

  令尊 ling tsun, {your father}.
  令堂 ling dong, {your mother}.
  令兄 ling h’iung, {yr. eld. bro}.
  令姪 ling dzeh, {your nephew}.
  令弟 ling dí‘ {yr. younger bro}.
  令郎 ling long, {your son}.
  令夫人 ling fú zun, {your wife}.
  令高徒 ling kau dú, {your scholars}.

207. 老 ’lau and 大 {t}á‘ are found in similar combinations.

  老(大)爺 ’lau ({t}ú‘) {y}á, {sir}.
  大人 {t}á‘ zun, {ib}.
  老(大)兄 ’lau ({t}á‘) h’iúng, {elder brother}.
  老(大)哥 ’lau ({t}á‘) kú, {ib}.

Obs. i.老 ’lau is also prefixed to 先生 síe{n} sáng and 夫子 fú ’tsz,
addressed to teachers, and to 相公 síang‘ kong, addressed by servants
to masters. The form of address to priests, is 老師太 ’lau sz t’á‘, and
to instructors 老師 ’lau sz.

Obs. ii. Some other terms are employed in a similar way, instead of
the pronouns of the second person; 台 t’é, {honoured} with 甫 ’fú or 篆
dzé{n}‘, {what it your honoured name?} In the plural are found 衆位
tsóng‘ {w}é‘ or 列位 lih {w}é‘, {all you gentlemen!}

208. Self depreciatory phrases employed instead of pronouns of the
first person are equally numerous. 寒 {h}ö{n}, {cold}; 敝 {p}í,
{spoilt, inferior}; 賤 dzíe{n}, {poor, cheap}, form such groups, as—

  寒門(家) {h}ö{n} mun (ka), {my house}.
  寒荆 {h}ö{n} kiung, {my wife}, (kiung is {thorn}.)
  敝處(地)(鄕) {p}í t’sû‘ (dí‘) (h’iáng), {my abode}.
  敝(賤)姓 {p}í (dzíe{n}) sing‘, {my family name}.
  賤名 dzíe{n} ming, {my proper name}.
  賤内 dzíe{n} né‘ {my wife}.

Obs. One’s wife is also denominated 拙荆 tseh kiung, {stupid thorn}.

209. The antithesis of 令 ling, is usually 舍 só‘, {a cottage}. Among
the groups into which it enters, are—

  舍弟 só‘ dí‘, {my brother}. 舍姪 só‘ dzeh, {my nephew}.
  舍下 só‘ ’{a}u, {my house}. 舍親 só‘ t’sing, {my relations}.

210. Many groups take 小 ’siau, {small}, 家 ká, {family}, both being
regarded as sufficiently depreciatory to represent the pronoun {my}.

  小兒 ’siau rh, {my boy} or {my son}. 小犬 ’siau k’iön, {small dog}.
  小徒 ’siau dú, {your mother}.        小孫 ’siau sun, {grandchild}.
  小弟 ’siau dí‘, {I}.                 小女 ’siau ’nü, {my daughter}.
  家兄 ká h’iúng, {my brother}.        家母 ká ’mú, {my mother}.
  家父 ká ’vú, {my father}.            家叔 ká sóh, {my uncle}.

Obs. i. These words form a principal part of the complimentary style
of speech, or 客氣個說話 k’áh k’í‘ kú‘ seh wó‘. In the every day
colloquial of the lower class, i.e. the majority of the people,
they are little used. {Thou} and {I}, {thine} and {mine} are prefixed.

Obs. ii. While these words are given as substitutes for the pronouns,
it should be remembered that the tendencies of the language are
against the introduction of the pronouns, whether there be a
substitute or not. Thus instead of asking, “Is your eye better?” The
Chinese say 眼睛好點否 ’nga{n} tsing ’hau ’tíe{n} ’vá, {eye better, eh?}
So, for “what is your name?” 姓啥 sing‘ sá‘, {name, what?} While the
pronoun is thus entirely omitted, room is left for the speaker to
introduce whatever terms of adulation or humility he may think fit.
Those of the former kind are for convenience taken to mean {you} and
{your}, while their opposites are {I} and {mine}.

Obs. iii. Many other phrases of the same kind are used in letters, but
as they do not occur in conversation they are here omitted. Many of
them are collected in Gutzlaff’s “Notices of Chinese Grammar.”


          {Section}. 7. {On the verb}, 活虛字.

211. Pih Hwa-tsun says, “One use of verbs is to connect the parts
of proposition” 活虛字之用, 一以聯綴上下, “Thus if it be said, books
instruct mankind,” 如云文傳世 (lit. writings delivered down to
mankind); “the word books is the subject, mankind the predicate,
and instruct the copula.” 文爲主字, 世爲賓字, 而以傳字, 聯綴上下也. “Another
use is to express actions.” 一以寫出人事. “Thus if it be said, write a
book, or correct an essay,” 如云作文評文之類. “write and correct are
both actions;” 作字,評字,皆人事也. “for both these uses, verbs are
indispensable.” “Verbs are very numerous; of those in constant use,
there are about two thousand.” “There are also verbs of two inseparable
characters; e.g. 婆娑 {p}ú sú, {move confusedly}, and 盤桓 {p}é{n}
{w}é{n}, {to linger}.”

Where our author speaks of 2,000 verbs, he means from among the single
characters commonly used in writing. Many of these are, in colloquial
dialects, expressed only in a dissyllabic form; thus, 慕 mú‘, {to
desire}, is only used in common conversation in such compounded forms,
as 愛慕 é‘ mú‘, {to love}. The number of inseparable compounds is thus
rendered greater in the colloquial than in the written style. With
regard to monosyllabic verbs, there are many in the books which are
not in the colloquial, and vice versâ. For examples of verbs found in
written colloquial mandarin, v. page 63.

Verbs will be treated (1.) according to their modes of grouping; (2.)
according to their most general nature, as transitive, intransitive,
or substantive (voice); (3.) according to the particular modes in
which their sense may be conveyed (moods); (4.) according to time
(tenses).

(1.) {Grouping of verbs}.

{Simple and compound verbs}. 212. Examples of verbs of one word have
been already given. A few more will be sufficient here.

  放 fong‘, {let go}.          鑽 tsû{n}, {to bore}.
  切 t’sih, {cut in pieces}.   修 sieu, {to prune}.
  刋 t’síe{n}, {cut away}.     鑤 {p}au‘, {to plane}.
  剸 tsa{n}, {chop small}.     搭 tah, {pitch tents}.
  砟 tsoh, {to reap}.          拆 t’sáh, {pull down}.
  挖 wah, {scoop out}.         撞 dzong‘, {meet}.

213. Many combinations of two words consist of verbs similar in
meaning, but with no reason except custom for the order in which they
are employed.

  埋葬 má tsong‘, {to bury}.      哀憐 é líe{n}, {to pity}.
  遮瞞 tsó mé{n}, {conceal}.      禱告 ’tau kau‘, {to pray}.
  咒罵 tseu‘ mó‘, {revile}.       保庇 ’pau pí‘, {protect}.
  調換 tiau {w}é{n}, {exchange}.  指點 ’tsz tíe{n}, {point to}.
  加添 ká t’íe{n}, {add}.         煩勞 va{n} lau, {importune}.
  話壞 {w}ó‘ {w}á‘, {calumniate}. 稱讚 t’sung tsa{n}‘, {to praise}.

Obs. i. The tautology existing in examples of this sort is no
objection whatever to their use. Thus, 埋 má and 葬 tsong‘, may be used
separately or together, as the speaker pleases. There is an advantage
to the foreigner in using the compounded forms, because a
mispronunciation of the tone of a single word is nearly compensated by
the repetition of the idea. So also for natives speaking different
dialects.

Obs. ii. The principle of antithesis may be noticed in some of these
dissyllabic combinations; e.g. 往來 ’wong lé, {go and come}; 買賣
’má má‘, {buy and sell}.

214. In many instances the first verb governs the second,
as a verb does a substantive.

  惹笑 ’zá siau‘, {cause to laugh}.
  怕打 p’ó ’táng, {fear being beaten}.
  怕死 p’ó ’sí, {fear dying}.
  開講 k’é ’kong, {begin speaking}.

Obs. In these examples, were the language one that admitted
grammatical forms, the second verb in each case would become either a
substantive, or an infinitive, (i.e. they would be always
substantives, infinitives as destitute of time, person and number,
being not true verbs). In reality 笑, 打 siau‘, ’táng, etc. are
according to the principles of classical grammar, neither verbs nor
substantives, not being able to take the necessary changes of form.
They are bare roots, and their grammatical sense is determined by
position. Verb however, is the most convenient denomination for them,
because when taken alone, they are necessarily translated as verbs.

215. In some of these dissyllabic forms, the first verb qualifies the
second; as in other languages, participles and adverbs qualify verbs.

  歸去 kü k’í‘, {return home} (lit. {return go}).
  跑來 {p}au lé, {come running}, (lit. {run come}).
  殺來 sah lé, {come fighting}.
  抄寫 t’sau ’siá, {to copy in writing} (lit. {copy write}).

Obs. i. The verb of more general meaning 去 k’í‘, {go}, is limited by
that which precedes, 歸 kü, to the sense of returning home. If the
idiom be compared with the English phrase {go back}, 歸 kü is the
adverb placed before instead of after its verb. In 轉來 ’tsé{n} lé,
{come back}; the verb ’tsé{n} is also best translated in English, as
an adverb {back}.

Obs. ii. Substantives sometimes by ellipsis stand for verbs, as
qualifying the following verb. 馬來呢轎子來 ’mó ({horse}) lé ní, giau‘
’tsz ({sedan}) lé, {did you ride or come in a chair?}

216. The order of the words in many of these phrases, may also
properly be referred to priority and sequence in time. That is, two
actions are successively expressed.

  打敗 t’áng bá‘, {fight and be defeated}.
  敲開 k’au ({to beat}) k’é ({to open}), {to knock open}.
  咬破 ’ngau p’u‘, {break by biting}.
  請坐 ’t’sing ’zú, {please sit down}.
  寫完 ’siá {w}é{n} {finish writing}.
  做停 tsú‘ ding, {finish making}.
  吊死 tiau‘ ’sí, {die by strangling}.

Obs. The English verb {open}, which is an adjective, verb, or adverb,
like the Chinese, has evidently nothing to indicate to which part of
speech it belongs, but position. It is on the principle of position,
that in such phrases as {an open door}, {knock open a door}, and {to
open a door}, the word is referred to its proper place in the parts of
speech. There is this difference; (1) that in k’au k’é 敲開, the latter
word is still a verb, while in the corresponding English example, it
becomes a true adverb; (2) the Chinese word cannot be used as an
adjective. The qualifying notion contained in the adjective, is
expressed as a separate proposition; e.g. {for an open door}, 門開拉
mun k’é ’lá, {the door is open}.

217. In verbs of two syllables, many auxiliary words occur, which have
nearly or quite lost their primary meaning as independent verbs. In
the following examples, it will be observed, that these enclitics or
proclitics, as they may be termed, often add nothing to the meaning of
the principal verb. They are 得 tuh, 脫 t’eh, 打 ’táng, 見 kíe{n}‘, 着
záh, 住 dzû‘.

{a}. 得 tuh, {get, may}.

  聽得 t’ing tuh, {hear}.    曉得 ’hiau tuh, {know}.
  記得 kí‘ tuh, {remember}.  認得 niung‘ tuh, {be acquainted}.

Obs. This term, though here it has no meaning, will be seen to be a
very important word among the mood particles, as giving a permissive
sense to the principal verb. Such is its most common signification is
such phrases as 做得 tsú‘ tuh, {it may be done}.

{b}. 脫 t’eh, {let go, escape, remove out of the way}.

  去脫 k’í‘ t’eh, {remove}.               除脫 dzû t’eh, {to remove}.
  滅脫 mih t’eh, {destroy}.               放脫 fong‘ t’eh, {let go}.
  漏脫 leu t’eh, {to leak}.               走脫 ’tseu t’eh, {escape}.
  踢脫 t’ih (or t’iuh) t’eh, {kick away}. 卸脫 {s}iá t’eh, {flow away}.
  斷脫 dö{n}‘ t’eh, {sweep away}.         奪脫 {t}öh t’eh, {rob of}.

Obs. This word may be regarded as forming a derivative verb. Its
primary meaning is seen in 脱衣裳 t’öh í zong, {take off one’s
clothes}, where the book sound t’öh is employed.

{c}. 打 ’táng, {to beat, apply one’s-self to}.

  打掃 ’táng ’sau, {to sweep}.   打聽 ’táng t’ing, {to inquire}.
  打發 ’táng fah, {to send}.     打扇 ’táng sé{n}‘, {to fan}.
  打算 ’táng sö{n}‘, {consider}. 打結 ’táng kih, {tie a knot}.

Obs. The primary meaning of 打 ’táng, is seen in such phrases as 打樁
’táng tsong, {drive piles}; 打火 ’táng ’hú, {strike a light}.

{d}. 見 kíe{n}‘, indicates a single act of perception.

  看見 k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}‘, {see}.
  聽見 t’ing kíe{n}‘, {to hear}.
  望見 mong‘ kíe{n}‘, {see}.

{e}. 着 dzáh. This word expresses that the object implied in the verb
is effected.

  碰着 {p}áng‘ záh, {to meet}.
  遇着 nü záh, {ib}.
  捉着 tsoh záh, {catch}, or {succeed in catching}.
  擒着 {k}iun záh, {ib}.
  摸着 móh záh, {rub}, or {can be rubbed}.
  奪着 döh záh, {succeed in robbing}.
  得着 tuh záh, {succeed in getting}.
  買着 ’má záh, {succeed in buying}.

Obs. i. In these examples, this meaning of the auxiliary is preserved,
and must be regarded as additional to the sense of the principal verb,
except in the first two instances.

Obs. ii. In 想着 ’siáng záh, {think of}, the word 着 záh limits 想 think
to the sense of {think of some particular thing}. In 覺着 koh záh,
{become aware of}, the verb 覺 koh, cannot in our dialect be used
separately. It is however found in 勿知勿覺 veh tsz veh koh, {not be
aware of}.

{f}. 殺 sah, {to kill}.

  勿話殺 veh {w}ó‘ sah, {he did not say decisively}.

{g}. 住 dzû‘, {resist, take firm hold}. This word always preserves its
meaning, but it occurs so frequently in union with verbs of resistance
and interruption, that it deserves a place with the preceding
enclitics.

  阻住 ’tsú dzû‘, {resist}.
  鎖住 ’sú dzû‘, {prevent motion by locking up}.
  縛住 vóh dzû‘ {ib. by tying up}.
  咬住 ’ngau dzû‘, {hold with the teeth}.
  揑住 niah dzû‘, {hold in the hand}.
  揪住 t’sieu dzû‘, {hold with the hand}.

{h}. 到 tau‘, {arrived}.

  用到 {y}úng‘ tau‘, {employ to the utmost}.
  做到 tsú‘ tau‘, {do to perfection}.
  走到 ’tseu tau‘, {complete a journey on foot}.
  昨日跑到 dzoh nyih {p}au‘ tau‘, {he arrived yesterday}.

218. In many cases a substantive follows the verb, when it is
unnecessary in English.

  走路 ’tseu lú‘, {to walk}.      織布 tsuh pú‘, {to weave}.
  射箭 zok tsie{n}‘, {to shoot}.  紡紗 ’fong só, {to spin}.
  搖船 {y}au zé{n}, {to scull}.   活命 {w}eh ming‘, {to live}.

Obs. i. So also 話說話 {w}ó‘ seh {w}ó‘, {to speak}. The words seh
{w}ó‘, {words}, are as to sense superfluous. Yet many of these
examples may be closely translated; e.g. 領路 ’ling lú‘, {lead the
way}; 燒飯 sau va{n}‘, {to boil rice, to cook}.

Obs. ii. When the substantive comes under the government of another
verb its usual companion is frequently appended; e.g. 尋飯吃 dzing
va{n}‘ k’iuh, {seek for food}, where 吃 is superfluous.

Obs. iii. When the sense does not require a substantive, the reason of
its introduction must be sought in the rhythmical construction of
sentences, peculiar and essential to the Chinese language.

219. Compound verbs are formed by the apposition of a transitive verb
and adjective.

  加長 ká, ({add}) dzáng ({long}), {to lengthen}.
  親近 t’sing ({to make near}) ’giun, ({near}), {become near, to approach
      closely}.
  掘深 {k}iöh, ({dig}) sun ({deep}), {to deepen}.
  減輕 ’ka{n} ({subtract}) k’iung ({light}), {subtract from}.
  填高 {t}íe{n} ({place layers}) kau ({high}), {raise by layers}.
  話大 {w}ó‘ ({speak}) dú‘ ({great}), {speak highly of}.
  佈滿 ’pú ({to cover}) ’mé{n} ({full}), {fill up}.
  教差 kau‘ ({instruct}) t’só ({wrong}), {teach wrong}.
  改正 ’ké ({change}) tsung‘ ({correct}), {to correct}.
  捉牢 tsoh ({catch}) lau ({firm}), {catch and retain}.

Obs. i. The word 好 ’hau, {good}, is found appended to many verbs,
giving to them the sense of completeness, 做好 tsú‘ ’hau, {complete the
making of}.

Obs. ii. These examples shew how in Chinese, compensation is made for
that class of words called derivatives in languages possessing a
system of terminations. Instead of a formation like {prolongare}, {to
lengthen}, from {longus} or {long} in Latin, or {lengthen} from
{length} in English, we have a separate word prefixed to the adjective
{dzáng}, {long}. Many English phrases are compounded in the same
manner; e.g. {rub smooth, rub dry}, which are equivalent in sense and
grammatical construction to the Chinese forms, 磨光 mú kwong, 揩乾
k’á kû{n}.

Obs. iii. 差 t’só, {wrong}, is found after many other verbs; e.g. 懂
’tóng, {understand}; 聽 t’ing, {to hear}; 待 {t}é‘ {treat any one}. In
every case, it is predicated of the action, that it is wrong.

220. In some dissyllabic verbs used transitively, one of the
constituent words is a substantive.

  囘頭 {w}é ({turn}) deu ({head}), {to answer, to tell}.
  弄神 lóng‘ ({trick}) zun ({spirits}), {to deceive}.
  到手 tau‘ ({reach to}) ’seu ({hand}), {have in possession}.
  算計 sö{n}‘ ({calculate}) kí‘ ({a plan}), {to plan}.

Obs. These may be seen to be transitive, in such sentences as 勿好弄
神朋友 veh ’hau lóng‘ zun báng ’{y}eu, {you should not deceive
friends}; 就來囘頭我 dzieu lé {w}é deu ’ngú, {come at once and tell me}.

221. Some colloquial verbs, with examples of the manner in which they
combine with other words, are here inserted.

  踛上去 lóh ’zong k’í, {go up} (M. 升 shíng, 足 p‘a).
  跑出來 {p}au‘ t’seh lé, {walk out} (M. 走 ’tseu).
  搿住拉 geh dzû‘ ’lá, {held by the arm} (M. 挾 hieh).
  碰着 {p}áng‘ záh, {meet} (M. 遇 ü‘ and p‘eng choh).
  挬輔 {p}eh ’tsé{n}, {turn around} (M. 囘 hwei).
  担到此地 ta{n} tau‘ ’t’sz dí‘, {bring here} (M. 拿 ná 端 twan).
  甩脱 hwah t’eh, {throw away} (M. 扔下 jeng‘ hia‘).
  孛相 {p}eh siáng‘, {to ramble} (M. 遊桄 yeu kwang‘).
  坍銃 t’a{n} t’sóng, {to be ashamed}.
  撥拉我 peh ’lá ’ngú, {give it me} (M. 給 ki‘, ’kei).
  做唆 tsu‘ sú‘, {to deceive}.

Obs. At Súng-kiáng ’pun, is used for peh, in the sense of {give}. 跑
has two pronunciations, ’{p}au {run}, and pau‘ {walk}.

222. Some adverbs enter into combination with verbs.

  預備 {ü}‘ ({before}) bé‘ ({prepare}), {to prepare}.
  相打 siáng ({mutually}) ’táng ({beat}), {to fight}.
  相罵 siáng ({mutually}) mó‘ ({rail}) {rail at one another}.

Groups of three. 223. Propositions and words equivalent to them
combine with 來 lé, {come}, and 去 k’i‘, {go}, to express the direction
of the action of verbs.

  敲進去 k’au tsing‘ k’í, {knock in}.
  担上來 ta{n} ’zong lé, {bring forward}.
  走下來 ’tseu ’{a}u lé, {walk down}.
  殺前去 sah zíe{n} k’í‘, {fight on before}.
  踛起來 lók ’k’í lé, {stand up}.
  坐下來 ’zú ’{a}u lé, {sit down}.
  做進去 ’zú tsing‘ k’í, {sit farther up}.
  飛出來 fí t’seh lé, {fly out}.
  走過來 ’tseu kú‘ lé, {come through}.
  拉過去 ’lá kú‘ k’í‘, {drag past}.
  掇起來 töh ’k’í lé, {lift up}.
  縮轉來 sók ’tsé{n} lé, {turn back}.
  丟下來 {k}wa{n}‘ ’{a}u lé, {throw down}.
  走開來 ’tseu k’é lé, {walk away}.

Obs. i. Thus we have an idiom similar to the English, except that the
verbs of motion are added. The common prepositions annexed to verbs
(and therefore sometimes called adverbs), follow the verbs in both
instances. Of the Chinese five are verbs, which are all used as
prepositions, 出 t’seh, {to go out, outward}; 進 tsing‘, {to go in,
inward}; 起 ’k’í, {to raise up, upward}; 過 kú‘, {to pass, through,
across}; 轉 ’tsé{n}, {to return, back}; 開 k’é, {to open, away}. Of the
prepositions 上 ’zong, {forward}, 下 ’{a}u {backward, downward}, 前
zíe{n}, {before}, the two former are also frequently employed as verbs
in the dialect as well as in books; e.g. 上蘇州 ’zong Sú-tseu, {go to
Sú-cheú}; 下船 ’{a}u zé{n}, {to enter a boat}.

Obs. ii. In the classical languages, the prepositions were put before
the verbs instead of after them, as in the derived words {ascend},
{descend}; and another numerous class of terms belonging to our
western tongues, is thus seen to have its equivalent compound form in
the Chinese language.

224. The {beginning} and {completion} of an action are expressed by
appending, 起來 ’k’í lé, {begin} and 成功 zung kóng, {complete} to the
verb 起 ’k’í is also used alone, and the words 完, 停, {w}é{n}, ding,
{finish}, and 好 ’hau, {well}, stand for {completion}.

  寫起來 ’siá ’k’í lé, {begin writing}.
  做成工 tsú‘ zung kóng, {to finish making}.
  畫成工 {w}ó zung kóng, {finish painting.}
  今朝做起 kiun tsau tsú ’k’í, {begin to-day}.
  幾時做完 ’kí zz tsú‘ {w}é{n}, {when will you finish?}
  勿曾話停 veh zung {w}ó ding, {has not done speaking}.
  造好者 ’zau ’hau ’tsé, {finished building}.

Obs. i. In examples with 起, ’k’í, we have an equivalent to that class
of Lat. derivative verbs called Inchoative or Inceptive; e.g. calesco,
{I grow warm}, from {calco}.

Obs. ii. 起 ’k’í is sometimes omitted e.g. 做來勿好 tsú‘ lé veh ’hau,
{do a thing badly}. But then the sense of {beginning} is lost also.

Obs. iii. This form is also assumed by adjectives, as 熱起來 nyih ’k’í
lé, {becomes hot}; 熱來話勿得 nyih lé {w}ó veh tuh, {it is excessively
hot}. In the dialects west of Shánghái 熱得來 nyih tuh lé, is used for
{it is hot}.

Obs. iv. The substantive governed is place between 起 ’k’í and 來 lé;
e.g. 動起手來 ’{t}óng ’k’í ’seu lé, {to move ones hand}. The same thing
occurs with some of the other groups. 挬輔身體來 peh ’tsé{n} sun ’t’í
lé, {turn one’s body round}: 担出洋錢來 ta{n} t’seh {y}áng díe{n} lé,
{bring out dollars}.

225. Collective and separating verbs are formed by 攏 ’lóng, {collect},
and 開 k’é, {open}.

  聚攏來 dzü ’lóng lé, {collect together}.
  幷攏來 ’ping ’lóng lé, {add together}.
  散開來 sa{n} k’é lé, {scatter}.
  拆開來 t’sáh k’é lé, {undo}.
  分開來 fun k’é lé, {divide}.
  解開來 ’ká k’é lé, {untie}.

226. Reflexive action is expressed by placing 自 zz‘ before and after
the verb.

  自嚇自 zz‘ háh zz‘, {frighten one’s-self}.
  自騙自 zz‘ p’ie{n}‘ zz‘, {deceive one’s-self}.

Obs. In examples of this sort, the constituent words are pronounced
closely together and might be written with hyphens. They correspond in
their sense, to the Hithpahel conjugation of Hebrew verbs, and the
middle voice of Greek and Sanscrit. In a monosyllabic agglutinating
language, no nearer approach, could well be made to an equivalent of
those forms, than is exhibited in such groups as these.

{Groups. Affirmative and negative}. 227. The groups formed by help of
the affirmative and negative particles are very numerous, so much so,
that they constitute of themselves a feature of the language. The
Chinese colloquial idiom is very much indebted to them, for the force
and precision which it is acknowledged to possess.

In these groups 得 tuh and 勿 veh (不 púh M.), take the centre, and
certain auxiliary words, with some adjectives and verbs stand last.
The sense of the principal verb is thus limited and modified in
various ways. 得 tuh and 勿 veh being opposite in sense, the
modifications they produce in the sense of the verb must be opposed
also. They may be reduced to the following pairs of terms.

1st. It is predicted of the {agent}, that he is {able} or knows how to
effect the action of the verb and the contrary; e.g. 做得來 tsú‘ tuh
lé, {able to do or make}; 做勿来 tsú‘ veh lé, {unable to do or make}.

2nd. It is predicated of the agent, that circumstances allow
him to effect the action and the contrary. Thus, 當得起 tong
tuh ’k’í, {in circumstances to bear}; 讀勿起 {t}óh veh ’k’í,
{cannot afford to learn to read}; 拖勿起 t’ú veh ’k’í, {not strength to
drag}.

3rd. It is predicated of the action, that it can, or does {succeed},
and the opposite; e.g. 尋得着 zing tuh záh, {can find} (尋 zing
{seek}); 打勿着 ’táng veh záh, {it did not}, or {cannot hit}.

4th. It is predicated of the action, that it can, or cannot be
performed in a particular {direction}; e.g. 走勿進 ’tseu veh tsing‘,
{cannot go inside}.

5th. Of verbs of {motion}, {resistance} and {destruction}, it is
predicated, with the help of auxiliary verbs cognate in meaning, that
the act they represent, can or cannot take place. 走得動 ’tseu tuh
’dóng {can walk}; 阻勿住 ’tsú veh dzû‘, {unable to resist}; 解勿脫 ’ká
veh t’eh, {cannot get rid of}.

6th. It is predicated of a verb followed by an adjective, that the act
is or can be performed, to the extent indicated the adjective or the
contrary; e.g. 醫得好 í (cure) tuh ’hau (good) {can be cured}; 填勿滿
{t}íe{n} veh ’mé{n} {cannot be filled by layers}.

228. Of the auxiliary words, used in affirmative and negative groups,
verbs are the most numerous.

{a}. 來 lé, {come}, 出 t’seh, {go out}, express {able to}.

  寫勿來 ’siá veh lé, {do not know how to write}.
  聽勿來 t’ing veh lé, {have not the power to hear}.
  呌勿出 kiau‘ veh t’seh, {know not what to call it}.
  講得出 ’kong tuk t’seh, {can discourse on it}.

Obs. A group of four is sometimes made by introducing an adverb.

  聽大勿出 t’ing dá‘ veh t’seh, {I do not hear very well}.

{b}. 起 ’k’í, {rise}, expresses {in circumstances to}.

  板勿起 ’pa{n} veh ’k’í, {it is not for me to look angry}.
  睏勿起 k’wun‘ veh ’k’í, {afraid to sleep}.
  染勿起 ’níe{n} veh ’k’í, {will not bear to be dyed}.
  印勿起 {y}un‘ veh ’k’í, {will not bear impressions}.
  見勿起 kíe{n}‘ veh ’k’í, {do not dare meet him}.

{c}. 着, 出, 見, záh, t’seh, kíe{n}‘, express success in any single
action; verbs of striking and seeking take záh; while verbs of
thinking and perception take t’seh and kíe{n}‘.

  呌得着 kiau‘ tuh záh, {succeed in calling him}.
  殺勿着 sah veh záh, {not succeed in killing}.
  懂勿出 ’tóng veh t’seh, {cannot understand}.
  看勿出 k’ö{n}‘ veh t’seh, {I do not} (or {cannot}) {see it}.
  看勿見 k’ö{n}‘ veh kíe{n}‘, {ib}.

{d}. 進, 出, 落, 過, 轉, 開, express {direction} as in the examples.

  進得進 tsing‘ tuh tsing‘, {able to enter}.
  行勿出 {h}áng veh t’seh, {cannot pass out}.
  吃勿落 k’iuh veh loh, {cannot swallow} or {eat}.
  跑勿過 pau‘ veh kú‘, {cannot pass by}.
  縮勿轉 sóh veh ’tsé{n}, {cannot return}.
  打得開 ’táng tuh k’é, {can beat open}.
  睏勿落 k’wun‘ veh loh, {cannot lie down (either through pain or want
    of room)}.

{e}. 脱, 動, 住, t’eh, ’{t}óng, dzû‘, express {destruction}, {motion},
and {resistance}. e.g.

  滅勿脱 mih veh t’eh, {cannot destroy}.
  做勿動 tsú‘ veh ’dóng, {disabled from work}.
  跑勿動 {p}au veh ’dóng, {unable to walk}.
  免勿脱 ’mie{n} veh t’eh, {unable to avoid}.
  立勿住 lih veh dzû‘, {not able to stand}.
  當得住 tong tuh dzû‘, {able to resist}.

{f}. 得 tuh, expresses {permission} and {prohibition}.

  動勿得 {t}óng veh tuh, {may not do it}.
  去得 k’i‘ tuh, {may go}.
  逃走勿得 {t}au ’tseu veh tuh, {may not flee}.

{g}. 停, 完, express the {cessation} of an act.

  呌勿停 kiau‘ veh ding, {not cease to call}.
  哭勿停 k’óh veh ding, {not cease to weep}.
  用勿完 {y}úng‘ veh {w}é{n}, {cannot exhaust by using}.
  痛勿停 t’ong‘ veh ding, {not cease to pain}.

{h}. 成功, 盡, 到, express {perfection} of an act.

  做勿成功 tsú‘ veh dzung kóng, {cannot complete}.
  走得到 ’tseu tuk tau‘, {can walk to}.
  想勿到 ’siáng veh tau‘, {cannot reach in thought}.
  及勿到 {k}ih veh tau‘, {cannot come up to or equal}.
  報答勿盡 pau‘ tah veh dzing‘, {unable to shew sufficient gratitude}.

{i}. 及 {k}ih or {k}í, expresses {there is time for}.

  抄勿及 t’sau veh gí, {not time to copy}.
  追得及 tsûe tuh gí, {time to overtake}.
  來勿及 lé veh gí, {not time for it}.

{j}. 落 loh, expresses {room for}.

  擱得落 koh tuh loh, {room to pack}.
  安勿落 ö{n} veh loh, {not room to place}.
  坐勿落 ’zú veh loh, {not room to sit}.

{k}. 過 kú‘, indicates that the verb it qualifies will give superiority.

  打也打伊勿過, 話也話伊勿過, ’táng {’á} ’táng í veh kú‘, {w}ó‘ {’á} {w}ó‘ í
      veh kú‘, {cannot conquer him by beating, nor by using the tongue}.
  敵得過 {t}ih tuh kú‘, {can oppose him successfully}.

{l}. 理 ’lí, {to control}, ’long, {bring together}, 殺 sah, {kill} and
應 {y}ung‘, {answer}, add their own sense to the verb.

  話勿理 {w}o‘ veh ’lí,  {not attend to what is said}.
  喊得理 ha{n}‘ tuh ’lí, {will come when called}.
  合勿攏 {h}eh veh ’lóng, {cannot agree together}.
  呌勿應 kiau‘ veh {y}ung‘, {not answer a call}.

Obs. i. In some instances, the sense of the auxiliaries varies from
that assigned to them here; e.g. 看勿起 kön‘ veh ’k’i, {to despise};
買勿動 ’má veh ’dóng, {not succeed in buying}; 相信勿過 siáng sing‘ veh
kú‘, {incredible}; 意勿過 í‘ veh kú‘, {cannot but pity}; 罷勿得 {p}á‘
veh tuh, {indispensable}.

Obs. ii. 有 ’{y}eu, {have} and 嘸 {m}, {not to have}, form with {tuh}
a few groups; e.g. 有得吃 ’{y}eu tuh k’iuh, {have something to eat};
嘸得着 {m} tuh tsáh, {have nothing to wear}.

Obs. iii. Examples are rare in the case of 見, 脱, 動, 應 and 理,
The rest are all extensively used.

229. Prepositions similarly employed in these negative and affirmative
groups are rare. Those that are used may also be construed as verbs.

{a}. 前 zíe{n} {before}.

  殺勿前 sah veh zíe{n}, {does not go forward fighting}.

{b}. 上 ’zong, {forward}.

  踛勿上 lóh veh ’zong, {cannot be climbed}.
  鎖勿上 ’sú veh ’zong, {(key) cannot be turned (cannot lock.)}
  門關勿上 mun kwa{n} veh ’zong, {door will not shut}.

{c}. 下 ’{a}u, {down}.

  踛勿下 lóh veh ’{a}u, {cannot climb down}.
  吃勿下 k’iuh veh ’{a}u, {cannot swallow}.

230. Several adjectives are found in these combinations; e.g. 全, 直,
多, 好, 滿, 完, 全, 通, 明 白, etc.

  讀勿全 {t}óh veh dzíe{n}, {cannot be read through}.
  伸勿直 sun veh dzuh, {cannot stretch out straight}.
  差勿多 t’só veh tú, {differs little}.
  話得好 {w}ó‘ tuh ’hau, {well spoken}.
  補得滿 ’pú tuh ’mé{n}, {can be filled up}.
  走勿通 ’tseu veh t’óng, {no thoroughfare}.
  話勿明白 {w}ó‘ veh ming báh, {cannot be made to understand}.

Obs. In the third and fourth examples, and others like them such as
跑得快 pau‘ tuk k’wá‘, the proposition is not one of possibility, {he
can walk fast}, but of fact, {he walks fast}.

{Repetition and Antithesis}. 231. These occur extensively among the
verbs. The meaning of the word repeated remains unaffected.

{а}. Many single intransitive verbs, or verbs used intransitively are
repeated.

  坐坐 ’zú zú‘, {sit down}.     看看 k’ö{n}‘ k’ö{n}‘, {look}.

{b}. Transitive verbs are repeated before the word they govern.

  寫寫字 ’siá ’sia zz‘, {write}.
  種種田 tsóng‘ tsóng‘ díe{n}, {work in the fields}.
  候候儂 {h}eu‘ {h}eu‘ nóng‘, {I come to see you}.

{c}. k’ö{n}‘, {see}, occurs after a repeated verb, in a metaphorical
sense.

  睃睃看 sú sú k’ö{n}‘, {see what it is}.
  聽聽看 t’ing t’ing k’ö{n}‘, {listen to it and see}.
  試試看 sz‘ sz‘ k’ö{n}‘, {try it and see}.
  做做看 tsú‘ tsú‘ k’ö{n}‘, {make it as a trial}.

Obs. K’ö{n}‘ also follows other groups, as 念起來看 nia{n}‘ ’k’í lé
k’ö{n}‘, {read and let me hear}.

{d}. The components of dissyllabic verbs are often repeated.

  談談說說 {t}a{n} da{n} söh söh, {conversing}.
  啼啼哭哭 {t}í dí k’óh k’óh, {weeping}.
  來來去去 lé lé k’í‘ k’í‘, {coming and going}.

{e}. Some dissyllabic verbs repeat themselves, not their component
parts.

  攀談攀談 p’a{n} da{n} p’a{n} da{n}, {talking}.
  恭喜恭喜 kúng ’h’í, kúng ’h’í, {I congratulate you}.

{f}. When a dissyllabic from consists of a verb and its subject, a
group of four is formed by repeating the former, and supplying the
place of the latter by a synonymous or contrasted word.

  嘸邊嘸岸 {m} píe{n} {m} ngö{n}‘, {not having a shore}.
  動手動脚 ’{t}óng ’seu ’dóng kiáh, {move hands and feet}.
  有憑有據 ’{y}eu bing {y}eu kü‘, {there is evidence}.

{g}. Sometimes both the verb and its object are varied by synonymous
or contrasted words.

  求天拜地 {k}ieu t’íe{n} pá‘ dí‘, {pray to heaven and worship earth}.
  幷心竭力 {p}ing‘ sing gih lih (or liuh), {employ one’s whole mind and
      strength}.

{h}. Some verbs are repeated with a pair of antithetical verbs in
alteration.

  跑来跑去 ’{p}au lé ’{p}au k’í‘, {walking about}.
  搖進搖出 {y}au {t}sing‘ {y}au t’seh, {row in and out}.

232. The verb is repeated with the intervention of 個 kú‘, or of 一 ih
to represent {a little} of the act in question.

  走一走 ’tseu ih ’tseu, {walk a little}.
  等一等 ’tung ih ’tung, {wait a little}.
  待個待 {t}é‘ kú‘ dé‘, {wait}.
  做個做 ’zú kú‘ ’zú, {sit down}.

Obs. Sometimes auxiliary substantives supply the place of the repeated
verb; e.g. 加一倍 ká ih bé‘, {make it as large again}. Other
auxiliaries are 次, 燙, 囘,  t’sz‘, t’ong‘, {w}e‘, applied to any verb
in the sense of {times}. For going round in a circle 轉 ’tsé{n} with
the numeral expresses the number of times. For beating 記 kí‘
expresses the number of blows. See Art. 163.

(2.) {Different kinds of verbs}.

{Substantive verb}. 233. The verb {to be} used as a copula is often
omitted.

  我你讀書個 ’ngú ’ní {t}ók sû kú‘, {we are persons of education}.
  第個人長 {t}í kú‘ niun dzáng, {this man is tall}.
  今朝最冷 kiun tsau tsûe‘ ’láng, {to-day it is very cold}.

234. The words 是[1] ’zz and 做 tsú‘ are employed as substantive verbs,
and 在 ’dzé, 勒拉 leh ’lá, 勒裏 leh ’lí when existence in place is
spoken of. They are put in the negative by prefixing 勿 yeh.

  是儂個否 ’zz nóng‘ kú‘ ’vá, {is it yours?}
  是個勿是個 ’zz ku‘, veh ’zz ku‘, {it is; it is not}.
  我做裁縫 ’ngú tsú‘ dzé vóng, {I am a tailor}.
  做兒子要孝 tsú‘ ní ’tsz yau‘ h’iau‘, {he who is a son should be filial}.
  勿勒拉此地 veh leh ’la ’t’sz di‘, {he is not here}.

Obs. i. The verb 呌 kiau‘, {to call} is sometimes so used that is may
be translated as a substantive verb; e.g. í {y}áng‘ ’{t}au ’lí veh
kiau‘ ’hau, 伊樣道理勿呌好 {that mode of action is not good}, or {is not
what may be called good}.

Obs. ii. The words 當, 爲, and 作 are used in fixed phrases, from which
they cannot be disengaged. 自家作主 zz‘ ká tsok ’tsû, {be your own
master}; 改惡爲善 ’ké oh {w}é ’zé{n}, {repent and be virtuous}; 强盜作反
{k}iáng dau‘ tsok ’fa{n}, {the robbers are rebelling}; 當兵 tong ping,
{to be a soldier}.

Obs. iii. 做 is also used as a transitive verb {make} or {do}, which
is its primary meaning.

Obs. iv. 有 {to have} when no object follows affirms existence and is
to be translated by the impersonal substantive verb in English; e.g.
魚有否 {ng} ’{y}eu ’vá, {are there any fish?} 豈有此理 ’k’í ’{y}eu ’t’sz
’lí, {how can this be?} ({It snows now}, is 落雪者 lok sih ’tsé.) Its
negative is 嘸 {m} or 嘸沒 {m} meh.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. The substantive verb either simply affirms 是 ’zz or it
  affirms action 做 tsú‘ or it affirms existence in {place} 在
  ’zé, 勒拉 leh ’lá, or it affirms {existence} 有 ’{y}eu.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

235. Transitive verbs take the object after them, while the nominative
precedes.

  官府刻薄百姓 kwé{n} ’fú k’uh bóh pák sing‘, {the mandarins exact from
      the people}.
  兵搶物事 ping ’t’siáng meh zz‘,  {the soldiers commit robberies}.

236. When there are two objects as in verbs of {giving}, the nearer
comes next to the verb, and the more remote stands last, usually with
拉 ’lá.

  送禮物拉儂 sóng‘ ’lí veh ’lá nóng‘, {present you with gifts}.
  撥飯拉儂吃 peh va{n}‘ ’lá nóng‘ k’iuh, {give you rice}.

Obs. This is the same as Remusat’s rule, “Dans les verbes à double
rapport’ le complément direct se place après le verbe, et est suivi du
complément indirect” 天子能薦人於天 t’íe{n} ’tsz nung tsíe{n}‘ zun ü
t’íe{n}, {the emperor can propose a person to Heaven}; the order is
not however confined to this one form; e.g. 送拉儂個物事 sóng‘ ’lá nóng‘
kú‘ meh zz‘, {I bring you a present}, is the same as, sóng‘ meh zz‘
’lá nóng‘; 送儂兩個物事 sóng‘ nóng‘ ’liáng kú‘ meh zz‘ {I bring you a
few things}, is just as proper as sóng‘ ’liáng kú‘ meh zz‘ ’lá nóng.

237. The object is made to precede the transitive verb, by the use of
the auxiliary 担 ta{n}, which is also the sign of the instrument.

  担蠟燭火吹隱 ta{n} lah tsóh ’hú t’sz ’yun, {blow out the candle}.
  担竹爿來打 ta{n} tsók {p}a{n} lé ’táng, {strike with a bamboo}.
  担門關子 ta{n} mun kwa{n} tsz, {shut the door}.

238. Intransitive verbs when not followed by a preposition or another
verb, prefer the last place.

  此地坐 ’t’sz dí‘ ’zú, {sit here}.
  第頭跑 {t}í‘ deu pau‘, {walk here}.
  幾時來 ’kí zz lé, {when did you come}.
  我船上來 ’ngú zé{n} long‘ lé, {I come from the boat}.

Obs. When a preposition is employed to connect an intransitive verb
with a substantive, the verb may precede or follow; e.g. 到此地來 tau‘
’t’sz dí‘ lé, {come here} is equivalent to lé tau‘ ’t’sz dí‘. So also
坐拉第搭, ’zú ’lá {t}í‘ tah, {sit here}, is the same as ’lá {t}í‘ tah
’zú.

239. The passive is formed by prefixing the auxiliary verb 撥 peh,
{give}, with the substantive that represents the agent, to the
transitive verb.

  撥別人打 peh bih niun ’táng, {was beaten by others}.
  撥伊做唆我 peh í tsú sú ’ngú, {I was deceived by him}.

Obs. i. This auxiliary particle 撥 peh, {give}, has in all four uses:—
Active, 撥三兩個銅錢拉伊 peh sa{n} ’liang kú‘ {t}óng die{n} ’lá í, {give
him two or three cash}. Passive, 撥拉父母責備 peh ’lá ’vú ’mú tsah bé‘,
{he was rebuked by his parents}. 我個帽子撥拉人偷之去者 ’ngú kú‘ mau‘ ’tsz
peh ’lá niun t’eu tsz k’í‘ ’tsé, {my hat has been stolen by some one}.
Causative, 撥拉伊死 peh ’lá í ’sí, {cause him to die}; 伊撥拉我喫虧者 í
peh ’lá ’ngú k’iuh k’ü (k’wé) ’tsé, {he has caused me to suffer}.
(M. 使 shï‘ 呌 kiau‘, chiau‘.) Permissive, 啥人肯撥拉別人欺負呢 sá‘ niun
’k’ung peh ’lá bih niun c‘hi vú‘ ni? {who is willing to allow others
to insult him?} 勿要撥拉別人哄騙儂 veh yau‘ peh ’lá bih niun hóng‘ p‘ien‘
nóng‘, {do not allow others to deceive you}.

Obs. ii. In mandarin it is not the common word to {give}, that is
chosen for the passive auxiliary, but a word set apart for this
purpose 被 pei‘.

Obs. iii. ’Zeu 受 {to receive}, is often used as a passive, e.g. 勿肯受
別人罵 veh ’k’ung ’zeu bih niun mó‘, {unwilling to be spoken ill of by
others}. K’iuh 吃 is found in combination as in the next examples.
When separated from the groups where it is the sign of the passive, it
recovers its transitive sense {to eat}.

240. Verbs are made causative By prefixing kau‘, {to call}, or peh,
{to give}.

  呌我吃虧 kau‘ ’ngú k’iuh k’ü, {causing me to suffer loss}.
  勿要呌吾白送脫 veh yau‘ kaú ngú báh sóng‘ t’eh, {do not cause me to give
      it away} (or {say it}) {in vain}.
  呌水勿要滾 kiau‘ ’sz veh yau‘ ’kwun, {prevent the water from boiling}.
  撥拉我吃官司 peh ’lá ’ngú k’iuh kwé{n} sz, {causing me to be the subject
      of a lawsuit}.

Obs. i The English auxiliary verb {must} is expressed by ’tsóng, as in
總要牢實’tsóng yau‘ lau zeh, {you must be upright}.

Obs. ii. The derivative verbs which have been already illustrated are
the following:— Inchoative, 提起筆來 {t}i ’k’í pih lé, {take up the
pen}; Reflexive, 自怨自 zz‘ yö{n}‘ zz‘, {be one’s own enemy};
Collective, 合攏來 {h}eh ’lóng lé, {combine together}; Separative, 折開
來 t’sák k’é lé, {pull open}; Completing, 造完 ’zau wé{n}, {finish
building}; Resisting, 擋住 tong dzû‘, {stand against}; Destroying, 丢脫
tieu t’eh, {throw away}. There are also forms for the various
directions indicated by prepositions, v. Art. 223.

(3.) {Modes of verbs}.

241. In very many cases the mood is determined entirely from the
sense, and has no particular sign.

  我去買 ’ngú k’í‘ ’má, {I will go and buy}. (Indicative.)
  是儂去還便當 ’zz nóng‘ k’í‘ wa{n} bíe{n}‘ tong‘, {if you should go, it
      would be more convenient}. (Subjunctive.)
  儂去買 nóng‘ k’í‘ má, {do you go and buy}. (Imperative.)
  買是容易 ’má ’zz yúng {í}‘, {to buy is easy}. (Infinitive).

Obs. Here the four principal moods of Latin grammar are exemplified
without any distinctive sign.

242. The particle 者 ’tsé and 末 meh, at the end of the clause often
mark {indicative} and {conditional} prepositions respectively.

  現在落雨末年世好者 {h}íe{n}‘ ’dzé loh ’{ü} meh, níe{n} sz‘ ’hau ’tsé,
      {should it now rain, it will be a good year}.
  年紀大末勿要者 níe{n} ’kí dú‘ meh veh yau‘ ’tsé, {if old, they are not
      wanted}.

Obs. i. The conditional clause always precedes.

Obs. ii. These particles may in many cases be omitted without
affecting the sense.  勿落雨百姓要苦惱 veh loh ’{u} pák sing‘ yau‘ ’k’ú
’nau, {if it does not rain, the people must suffer}.

Obs. iii. In any two connected clauses, whether the former be
conditional or not, these particles are frequently used; e.g. k’ö{n}‘
kíe{n}‘ tsz ’t’au va{n}‘ kú‘ meh, dzieu‘ ’táng ’k’í lé ’tsé. 看見之討飯
個末就打起來者 {when he saw the beggars, he began beating them}. Both
these clauses are in the past time.

Obs. iv. An indicative clause standing alone often takes 者 ’tsé. Thus
來者 lé ’tsé, {I am come}, or {I come}; 去者 k’i‘ ’tsé, {I go}.

243. Another particle found in conditional sentences, is 之 tsz,
appended to the verb. This marks the past participle of the verb.

吾吃之飯就來者 ngú k’iuh tsz va{n}‘ dzieu‘ lé ’tsé, {having dined I came
      at once}.

244. A {potential} mood is formed by many of the groups already
illustrated. Both kinds of ability, absolute or natural, and limited
or moral, are found in them. For examples of the former kind:—

  寫勿來 ’siá veh lé, {I cannot write}.
  講究得來 ’kong kieu‘ tuh lé, {I can discuss it}.
  彎勿轉 wa{n} veh ’tsé{n}, {cannot turn round}.

Obs. 會 {w}é‘, prefixed to verbs makes them potential 念勿來 nia{n}‘
veh lé, {I cannot read}, is equivalent to veh {w}é‘ nia{n}‘.

245. The limited potential mood is formed by 起’k’í, e.g.

  當勿起 tong veh ’k’í, {I do not deserve to receive it}.
  牽勿起 k’íe{n} veh ’k’í, {not able to pull}.
  磨勿起 mú veh ’k’í, {will not bear rubbing}.
  吃勿起 k’iuh veh ’k’í, {cannot afford to eat it}.
  打勿起 ’táng veh ’k’í, {cannot bear beating}.
  手硬勿起 ’seu ngáng‘ veh ’k’í, {could not use my hand roughly}.

246. A {permissive} and {prohibitive} mood is formed by, —

{a}. 得 tuh.

  看得 k’ö{n}‘ tuh, {you may look at}.
  看勿得 k’ö{n}‘ veh tuh, {you may not look}.

{b}. 好 ’hau, and 可以 ’k’ó ’í, also give a permissive sense.

  好進去杏 ’hau tsing‘ k’i‘ ’vá, {may I enter?}
  勿好出去 veh ’hau t’seh k’i‘, {you must not go out}.
  可以吃得 ’k’ó ’í k’iuk tuh, {you may eat it}.

247. An {optative} mode of the verb is formed by pó veh tuh, and
{h}ng‘ veh tuh. (恨 {h}ng‘, west of Shánghái {h}ung‘).

  我巴勿得快點到 ’ngú pó veh tuh k’wa‘ ’tíe{n} tau‘, {would that I could
      arrive quickly}.
  恨勿得做好 {h}ng‘ veh tuh tsú‘ ’hau, {I wish I could do it}.

248. The {imperative} (1) in its negative form takes 要 yau‘, {want},
with the common negative particle 勿 veh.

  勿要閙 veh yau‘ nau‘, {do not be noisy}.

(2.) The affirmative form of the {imperative} is expressed by the verb
alone, or by 末者 meh ’tsé, or 罷 {p}á‘ appended sometimes to a few verbs.

  走末者 ’tseu meh ’tsé, {go}.   去罷 k’í bá‘, {go}.

Obs. All the verbs single and grouped, except those with the
affirmative and negative, may be used as imperatives without a
particle. 走過來 ’tseu kú‘ lé, means either {I am passing you} or {pass
over to me}.

249. the {Infinitive} it may be remarked, (1.) that it stands first in
many negative groups not potential. v. Art. 228. g.

  念勿停 nia{n}‘ veh ding, {does not cease io recite}.
  吵閙勿停 t’sau nau‘ veh ding, {does not cease to be noisy}.

(2) That when a verb is made the subject of a proposition, while the
predicate follows with a copula, the verb is translated in the
infinitive, e.g.

  去是容易 k’í‘ ’zz yóng í‘, {it is easy to go}.

250. When a verb takes a case particle, it is construed as a present
participle or gerund.

  物事勒拉來 meh zz‘ leh ’lá lé, {the things are coming}.
  吃飯個辰光 k’iuh va{n}‘ kú‘ zun kwong, {time for dining}.
  我拉寫字 ’ngú ’lá ’siá zz‘, {I am writing}.
  吃個物事 k’iuh kú‘ meh zz‘, {things to eat}

Obs. The supine {in order to} has no sign, 買點啥去者, ’má ’tíe{n} sá‘
k’í‘ ’tsé, {he is gone (in order) to buy something}; 我來望望㑚 ’ngú lé
mong‘ mong‘ ná‘, {I come to see you}. v. 252. f.

251. The forms of interrogation are of two kinds.

1. By the interrogative particles ma{n}‘ and ’vá.

  飯好曼 va{n}‘ ’hau ma{n}‘, {is dinner ready?}
  去否 k’í‘ ’vá, {will you go?}

2. By putting the question in the form of an affirmative and negative,
side by side. The particle ní is often placed between.

  肯去勿肯去 ’k’ung k’í‘ veh ’k’ung k’í‘, {will you or not?}
  曉得勿曉得 ’h’iau tuh veh ’h’iau tuh, {do you know?}
  買呢勿買 ’má ní veh ’má, {will you buy?}

Obs. After ní, the second clause is sometimes supplied by sa‘; e.g.

  要打呢啥 yau ’táng ní sá, {do you want to fight, or what is it you want
      to do?}

(4) {Particles of time, forming tenses of verbs}.

252. For the expression of present time, no auxiliary word is
necessary.

  我勿做啥 ’ngú veh tsú‘ sá‘, {I am doing nothing}.
  來呢勿來 lé ní veh lé, {is he coming or not?}
  懂勿懂 ’tóng veh ’tóng, {do you understand or not?}
  怕冷否 p’ó‘ ’láng ’vá, {do you fear cold?}
  勿能勿怕冷 veh nung veh p’o‘ ’lang; {I cannot but fear cold}.

Obs. Instead of considering the rest of the tenses in their order, it
will be better to take the particles in succession, and show what
tenses they may be used for.

{a}. 歇 h’ih, {a moment}; this particle gives a past sense to the
phrases in which it occurs, and is perhaps most accurately designated
an {aorist}.

  看歇戲否 k’ö{n}‘ h’ih h’í‘ ’vá, {have you seen the play?}
  去歇兩囘 k’í‘ h’ih ’liáng {w}é‘, {I have gone twice}.

{b}. 者 ’tsé, 哩 ’lí; these particles express that the action is
completed, or determined on. M. 了 ’liaú. Their English grammatical
equivalent is usually the passive participle joined with the auxiliary
verb {to be}.

  買好拉者 ’má ’hau ’lá ’tsé, {they are bought}.
  賣脱者 má‘ t’eh ’tsé, {it is sold}.
  我去者 ’ngú k’í‘ ’tsé, {I am going}.

{c}. 過 kú‘, {past}; this particle has the sense of the preterite tense.

  到過兩囘 tau‘ kú‘ ’liáng {w}é‘, {I have gone twice}.
  花種過多少 hwó tsóng‘ kú‘ tú ’sau, {how many flowers have you planted?}
  路跑過幾化里 lú‘ pau‘ kú‘ ’ki hó‘ ’li, {how many miles of road have we
      walked?}

Obs. 有 ’{y}eu and 可 ’k’ó, employed in some dialects as signs of the
past, are never so used in this.

{d}. 歇者 h’ih ’tsé or h’ih ’lá ’tsé, express perfect time.

  認得過歇者 niung‘ tuh kú‘ h’ih ’tsé, {have known him}.
  忒伊話歇者 t’eh í {w}ó‘ h’ih ’tsé, {have told him}.
  鐘敲歇拉者 tsóng k’au h’ih ’lá ’tsé, {bell has rung}.
  托撥歇者 t’ok peh h’ih ’tsé, {have entrusted to him}.

{e}. 過歇 kú‘ h’ih, form a perfect farther in the past than the above.

  來過歇者 lé kú‘ h’ih ’tsé, {I have come formerly}.
  勿曾去過歇 veh zung k’i‘ kú‘ h’ih, {I have yet gone}.
  學過歇拉者 {h}ok kú‘ h’ih ’lá ’tsé, {I have learnt it before}.

{f}. 要 yau‘ expresses future time; sometimes {tsiáng} precedes.
要 may often be translated {in order to} (supine).

  要落雨者 yau‘ loh ’{ü} ’tsé, {it will rain}.
  明朝要去 ming tsau yau‘ k’í‘, {I will go to-morrow}.

{g}. 將 tsiáng, is frequently used for the future.

  將有閙事 tsiáng ’yeu nau‘ zz‘, {there will be a disturbance}.

Obs. These particles give the affirmative future. The form for the
negative is different as is shown below.

{h}. 之 tsz; this particle appended to a verb, gives it the
time of a past participle. English auxiliary participle {having}.

  看之書末曉得者 k’ö{n}‘ tsz sû meh, ’h’iau tuh ’tsé, {when you have read it,
      you will know}.
  懂之末好講 ’tóng tsz meh ’hau ’kong, {when you understand it, you can
      explain it}.
  做之兵咾打帳去者 tsu‘ tsz ping lau ’táng tsáng‘ k’í‘ ’tsé, {having
      become a soldier, he has gone to fight}.

Obs. As a relative tense particle, this word may be used in past or
future time. In the former case, it is the sign of the narrative
participle; e.g. 看見之山高咾走上去者 k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}‘ tsz sa{n} kau lau,
’tseu ’zong k’í‘ ’tsé, {seeing the hill was high, he went up}. In the
latter case it forms a future perfect, such as is introduced in
English with “when,” 寫好之撥拉我看 ’sia ’hau tsz peh ’lá ’ngú k’ö{n}‘,
{when you have written it, let me see it}. The conditional particle
末 meh, is frequently introduced at the end of the first clause.

{i}. 曾 zung; as 之 tsz expresses the past in affirmative sentences,
so zung in those that are negative.

  勿曾看歇 veh zung k’ö{n}‘ h’ih, {I have not seen it}.
  勿曾來 veh zung lé, {he has not come}.

Obs. In a negative reply to a question, this particle is introduced,
when in English the present tense is employed; 勿曾去 veh zung k’í‘,
{he is not gone}.

253. Adverbs of time often render these particles unnecessary.

  昨日去個 zoh (g) nyih k’í‘ kú‘, {he went yesterday}.
  我後日去 ’ngú ’{h}eu nyih k’í‘, {I shall go on the day after
      to-morrow}.

254. The particles for future time are not used in the negative form.

  我勿去, ’ngú veh k’í‘, {I shall not go}.

Obs. i. If yau‘ 要 is employed in a negative sentence whose time is
future, it is in the sense of {wish} or {must}; e.g. 我勿要去 ’ngú veh
yau‘ k’í‘, {I do not wish to go}. 將 tsiáng, when it occurs, must
stand first, so that when 勿 veh introduces the sentence, it cannot
form a part of it.

Obs. ii. 勿見得 veh kíe{n}‘ tuh, {it is not likely}, is very commonly
employed as a negative future; e.g. 勿見得落雨 veh kíe{n}‘ tuh loh ’{u},
{it is not likely to rain}, or {it will not rain}.

255. Examples of some verbs that require illustration are here
appended.

{а}. 當 tong in combination {ought}, {receive}: tong‘ {regard as,
to pawn}. N. B. The tone differs in the last two senses.

  當之年撥草伊吃 tong‘ tsz nieu peh ’t’sau í k’iuh, {regard him as a
      buffalo, and feed him on grass}.
  輕個當之重個 k’iung kú‘ tong‘ tsz ’dzóng kú‘, {what is light regard as
      heavy}.
  該當個 ké tong kú‘, {ought}.
  勿敢當 veh ’ké{n} tong, {not dare receive it}.
  當衣裳去 tong‘ í zong k’í’, {am going to pawn clothes}.

{b}. 打 ’táng, {beat, set in operation}.

  打官司 ’táng kwé{n} sz, {go to law}.
  打官話 ’táng kwé{n} {w}ó‘, {speak mandarin}.
  打秋風 ’táng t’sieu fóng, {make presents in hope of gain}.

{c}. 待 {t}é‘, {to treat, wait}.

  待慢 {t}é‘ ma{n}‘, {treat contemptuously}.
  待人接物 {t}é‘ niun tsih veh, {treat persons respectfully}.
  待我來 {t}é‘ ’ngú lé, {wait till I come}.

{d}. 銷 siau, {consume, melt}.

  開銷 k’é siau, {to expend}.
  銷烊 siau {y}áng, {to melt}.

{e}. 對 té‘ (d) {correspond, opposite}.

  總勿對境 ’tsóng veh té‘ ’kiung, {nothing pleases him}.
  更加勿對 kung‘ ká veh té‘, {still more wrong}.
  對面看起來 té‘ míe{n}‘ k’ö{n}‘ ’k’í lé, {on the other hand you see}.

{f}. 弄 lóng‘, {meddle with, play with}.

  弄壞 lóng‘ {w}á‘, {spoil}.
  作弄 tsoh lóng‘, {deceive}.
  弄假成眞 lóng‘ ’ká zung tsun, {make-believe becomes truth at last}.
  弄孛相 lóng‘ beh siáng‘, {amuse one’s-self with}.

{g}. 費 fí‘, {to expend}.

  費用 fí‘ yúng‘, {expenses}.
  費神 fí‘ zun, 費心 fí‘ sing, {may I trouble you}.

{h}. 是 ’zz, {it is, it is right, right}.

  是非 ’zz fí, {right and wrong}.
  是得極 ’zz tuh giuh, {very right}.
  嘸啥勿是 {m} sá veh ’zz, {not at all untrue}.

{i}. 話 {w}ó‘, {say} (M. ’kiáng, or shwóh), in combination, {words}.

  話勿轉 {w}ó‘ veh ’tse{n}, {will not listen to words, or he keeps his
      words}.
  話定當 {w}ó‘ ding‘ tong‘, {said decisively}.
  啥話頭 sá‘ {w}ó‘ deu, {why use such words?}

{k}. 可 ’k’ó, {can, may}.

  可恨 ’k’ó {h}ng‘, {a thing to be hated, hateful}.
  實在可愛 {s}eh zé‘ ’k’ó é‘, {truly to be loved, (truly loveable.)}

Obs. These forms with ’k’ó, might also, if construed as dissyllables,
be placed among the adjectives, as derivatives from verbs.

{l}. 倒 ’tau, {to overturn}.

  推倒 t’é ’tau, {to turn over}.
  推倒傅來 tíe{n} ’tau tsé{n} lé, {place upside down}.
  倒勿是 ’tau veh ’zz, {and yet it is not}.

{m}. 生 sáng, {produce, be by nature, be born}.

  耳𦖋生得好 ’ní ’tú sáng tuh ’hau, {has handsome ears}.
  生來好看 sáng lé ’hau k’ö{n}‘, {naturally handsome}.
  未生之前 ví‘ sung tsz zíe{n}, {before birth}.
  生出果子來 sáng t’seh ’ku ’tsz lé, {bear fruit}.


         {Section} 8. {Prepositions and Postpositions}.

256. The words that express the relations (cases) of nouns to one
another are placed, some of them before and some after the governed
substantive. The case particles that are used for the dative and
ablative are prepositions, as also those that express {motion towards}
and {substitution}.

  打 ’tang, {from, by}.    對 té‘, {to, towards}.
  從 zóng, {from}.         到 tau‘, {to arrive at}.
  拉 ’lá (M. 於), {to}.     替 t’i‘, {to, with, instead of}.
  搭 tah, {with}.          忒 t’eh, {to, for, with}.
  同 {t}óng, {with}.       代 {t}e‘, {instead of}.
  聯 líe{n}, {ib}.         由 {y}eu, {by}.

Obs. i. 勒拉 leh lá, a locative particle also precedes its noun. 在
zé‘, its M. equivalent is in our dialect only used in fixed
collocations, as 實在 zeh zé‘, {certain}.

Obs. ii. 自 zz‘ is an inseparable preposition used in combination with
zóng, {from}. 當 a locative preposition, preceding its noun, is also
only found in fixed groups; e.g. 當初 tong t’sú, {formerly}.

Obs. iii. Several of these words are also used as verbs with a cognate
sense, viz. 徒, 到, 對, 而, {to follow, to arrive at, to correspond, to
take origin from}.

Obs. iv. 爲 {w}é‘, {on account of}, is found with the particles 之 tsz,
or 着 záh; 搭 tah also very frequently takes 之 tsz.

Obs. v. 連 líe{n}, {together with}, is also used as a verb to
{connect}. It frequently takes 搭 tah, after it; e.g. 連搭一家屋裏人
líe{n} tah ih ká óh ’lí niun, {together with all his family}.

257. The particles that are used for the locative case are
postpositions.

  裏 ’lí, {inside}.             前 zíe{n}, {before}.
  外 ngá‘, {outside}.           後 ’{h}eu, {behind}.
  上 long‘, {above}, R. ’zong.  下 ’{hau}, {below}.

Obs. i. 裏 ’lí, forms the compound 裏向 ’lí h’iáng, M. 中 chóng; 以 ’í,
combines with 外 ngá‘, 前 zíe{n} and 後 ’heu, in the sense of
{beside}, {before} and {after}, or {since}; e.g. 今朝以後 kiun tsau ’í
’{h}eu, {after to-day}. Numerous compounds of these words, which will
be found among the adverbs, are also often used as prepositions. See
Section 9.

Obs. ii. The mandarin 中 chóng, {inside}, is found in some compounds;
e.g. 空中 k’óng tsóng, {in the air}.

258. Forms borrowed from other parts of speech, compensate for the
absence of several prepositions.

1. {Of}, the particle of the genitive case is compensated for either
by juxtaposition, or by the particle 個 kú‘.

  中國規矩 Tsúng kóh kwé ’kü, {custom of China}.
  別人個事體 {p}ih niun kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {what concerns others}.

2. {With}, (instrumental) by, are expressed by 担 ta{n}, and peh ’la or
peh.

 担篙子撐 ta{n} kau ’tsz t’sáng, {pole the boat with the bamboo}.

3. {Except} is expressed by the verb 除脫 dzû t’eh, usually with 以外 ’í
ngá‘, or 外頭 ngá‘ deu, ending the clause.

  除脫之儂個外頭就是我 dzû t’eh tsz nóng‘ kú‘ ngá‘ deu, dzieu‘ ’zz ’ngú,
      {excepting you, there is only myself}.

4. {Beside} is expressed by, 勿算 veh sö{n}‘, at the end of the clause.

  小末勿算共總有一百 ’siau meh veh sö{n}‘, {k}óng‘ ’tsóng ’{y}eu ih páh,
      {without counting the small, there are 100 in all}.

5. {Beyond} takes 過去 kú‘ k’í‘, or 外頭 ngá deu.

  廣東過去 ’Kwong tóng kú‘ k’i‘, {beyond Canton}.

6. {Through} or {pass by} is expressed by kiung kú‘ or kú‘ alone.

  路上經過去杭州 lú‘ long‘ kiung kú‘ {H}ong-tseu, {go through Háng-cheú on
      the way}.

7. {Towards} is expressed by the verbs 朝, 望, 對 zau, mong‘, té‘.

  朝西轉灣朝南 zau sí ’tsé{n} wa{n} zau né{n}, {go to the west, and turn
      to the south}.
  朝第邊走 zau dí‘ píe{n} ’tseu, {go this way}.
  望之第邊走 mong‘ tsz dí‘ píe{n} ’tseu, {ib}.
  對故塊走 té‘ kú‘ k’wé‘ ’tseu, {go that way}.

Obs. Some of these prepositions in English, are easily reduced to
verbs and substantives. The author of the Diversion of purley would
readily find an etymology for them all. In common English grammars,
such words as {regarding} and {respecting}, are set down among the
prepositions, without a word to tell the juvenile student, how it is
that prepositions come to be formed by the termination {ing}.


                {Section} 9. {On Adverbs}.

{Quality}. 259. Adverbs of manner are formed by affixing zé{n}, {h}ú,
nung and ’lí, to repeated adjectives.

  隱隱然 ’yung ’yung zé{n}, {not clearly}.
  興興然 h’iung h’iung zé{n}, prosperously.
  約約乎 yáh yáh {h}ú, {indistinctly}.
  幾幾乎 ’kí ’kí {h}ú, {very near}.
  稀稀能 h’í h’í nung, {seldom met with}.
  險險能 ’h’ie{n} ’h’ie{n} nung, {dangerously}.
  快快裏 k’wá‘ k’wá‘ ’lí, {quickly}.

Obs. i. Zé{n} and {h}ú, are found in book phrases transferred to the
dialect. Expressions formed with nung and ’lí, are pure colloquial,
and are very numerous.

Obs. ii. Kiau‘ is used in one instance 慢慢敎 ma{n}‘ ma{n}‘ kiau‘,
{slowly}.

Obs. iii. Long adjective groups are more frequently used as adverbs
than as adjectives. They do not take the formative particles zé{n},
nung etc. 走路一門心思 ’tseu lú‘ ih mun sing sz, {he walks eagerly}.

260. The numerals 一 ih, 兩 ’liáng, combine with certain words,
principally adjectives, to form adverbs.

  一直 ih dzuh, {straight}.
  一連 ih líe{n}, {joined together}.
  一氣 ih k’í‘, {together}.
  兩氣 ’liáng k’í‘, {separate}.
  一樣 ih {y}áng‘, {the same}.
  兩樣 ’liáng {y}áng‘, {different}.
  一向 ih h’iáng‘, {hitherto}.
  一齊 ih dzí, {together}.
  一切 ih t’sih, {the whole}.
  一淘 ih dau, {ib}.
  一般 ih pé{n}, {the same}.

Obs. These may be shown by examples to be adverbs. 放拉兩起個
fong‘ ’lá ’liáng k’í‘ kú‘, {place them apart}; 當伊父母一般 tong‘ í ’vú
’mú ih pé{n}, {treats him in the same way that he does his parents}.

261. Repeated adjectives standing before verbs, are used as adverbs.

  早早來 ’tsau ’tsau lé, {come early}.
  慢慢走 ma{n}‘ ma{n}‘ ’tseu, {walk slowly}.

Obs. Sometimes the adjective is not repeated, as in 慢去 ma{n}‘ k’í‘,
{be slow to go, good bye}, In 走好 ’tseu ’hau, {walk carefully}, the
adverb follows the verb as in English.

262. Repeated forms imitative of natural sounds are in frequent use.

  丁冬了冬 ting tóng ting tóng, {sound of drum} (’kú).
  鎟鋃鎟鋃 song long song long, {ib. horse bells} (ling).
  帖塌帖塌 t’ih t’ah t’ih t’ah, {sound of shoes}.
  結怪結怪 kih kwá kih kwá, {calling of crows}.
  刮臘刮臘 kwah lah kwah lah, {wind blowing on reeds}.
  兵兵浜浜 ping ping páng páng, {noise of beating ice}.
  以列以列 ’í lih ’í lih, {braying of asses}.
  以挨以挨 ’í á ’í á, {creaking of doors}.
  胡盧胡盧 {ú} lú {ú} lú, {sound of piping}.
  㷸爆㷸爆 pih póh pih póh, {sound of splitting bamboo as by fire}.

Obs. Words of this sort occur so frequently in conversation, that at
the risk of their being thought too amusing for a serious book they
are here noticed. The second and third tones scarcely occur in these
onomatopœia. The forms used in other dialects differ from these.

263. Adverbs of manner applied to qualify actions, and not reducible
to the heads already given are such as,—

  白白裏 {p}áh báh ’lí, {in vain}; or, {p}áh alone, e.g. {p}áh sóng‘ t’éh.
  特特裏 {t}uh duh ’lí, {on purpose}.
  特意 {t}uh í‘, {intentionally}.
  偷伴子 t’eu bé{n} ’tsz, {secretly}.
  假佯頭 ’ká {y}áng deu, {falsely}.
  倖喜 {y}ung‘ ’h’í, {luckily}.
  造化 ’zau hó‘, 恰好 hah ’hau, {fortunately}.

264. There is a large number of primitive adverbs, applied to qualify
adjectives.

{а}. 更 kung‘, 還 {w}a{n}, 又 {i}‘, 再 tse‘, signify {more}. They
precede their word, and form the comparative degree, v. Art. 177.

{b}. 頂 ’ting, 最 tsûe‘, 極 {k}iuh, 蠻 ma{n}, 怪 kwá‘, 好 ’hau, 狠 ’hun,
{very}. These words precede their word and form the superlative. v.
Art 178.

{c}. 些 ’sí,  煞 sah, 極 {k}iuh, 野 ’yá, come after their word and form
a superlative.

{d}. 忒 t’uh, gives to adjectives the sense of {too}; e.g. 忒大 t’uh
dú‘, {too large}.

Obs. i. These words which in English qualify only adjectives,
sometimes qualify verbs whether construed as participles or not. 頂愛拉
個 ’ting é‘ ’lá kú‘, {the most beloved}; 蠻會做 ma{n} {w}é‘ tsú‘,
{extremely well able to do it}; 話煞 {w}ó‘ sah, {say decisively}; 極有文
理 {k}iuh ’{y}eu vun ’lí, {has very (great) literary beauty}; or {it
has extreme beauty}.

Obs. ii. The mandarin intensitive particle 好 ’hau is found only in
the phrase 好幾 ’hau ’kí, {very many}.

Obs. iii. It has been seen in illustrating the comparison of
adjectives, that some verbs, single and grouped with the auxiliaries
tuh and lé, (得, 來,) are applied to adjectives. In addition to the
examples there given, may be noticed 熱勿過 nyih veh kú‘, {unbearably
hot}.

{Correlative Adverbs}. 265. The questions how? how much? how many? why?
when? and where? are formed by interrogative pronouns with the most
general words for manner, place and time, and a mere particle for the
rest.

  那能 ná‘ nung, {how?}                     幾時 ’kí zz, {when?}
  幾許 ’kí hó‘, {how much?}  {how many?}    那裏 ’{á} ’lí, {where?}
        „      {how many?}                 啥所 sá‘ sü,      „
  啥咾 sá‘ lau, {why?} Also 為啥 {w}é‘ sá‘,  有啥 ’{y}eu sá‘.

Obs. i. {How may parts in ten?} is 十分裏幾分 {s}eh vun‘ ’lí ’kí vun‘.
The answer might be 十分裏有三分 {s}eh vun‘ ’lí ’{y}eu sa{n} vun‘,
{three tenths}. Questions and replies may be framed in the same way
with any numerals.

Obs. ii. For other examples, see section on pronouns, to which
etymologically these words belong.

Obs. iii. {How much more used as a logical particle}, is expressed by
何况於 {h}ú hwong‘ ü.

266. The adverbs corresponding to these, {thus, however, whenever,
wherever} are expressed in various ways.

  什蓋能 {s}eh ké‘ nung, {thus}, {s}eh ké‘, {ib}.
  隨便那能 zûe bíe{n}‘ ná‘ nung, {which ever way you please}.
  勿論幾許 veh lun‘ ’kí hó‘, {however much}.
  勿拘那裏 veh kü {á} ’lí, {wherever you please}.
  要那能就那能 yau‘ ná‘ nung dzieu‘ ná‘ nung, {however you want it, it
      shall be so}.
  我那能做勿要問 ’ngú ná‘ nung tsú‘ veh yau‘ mun‘, {do not ask how I do
      it}.

Obs. i. Other examples may be seen in the section on pronouns. The
answers to {when? where? how many?} will be found among the adverbs of
time, place and number. {Why?} is answered by any direct statement,
with or without the conjunction 因爲 yung {w}é‘.

Obs. ii. Dzûe bíe{n}‘, veh lun‘, veh kü, are properly verb
combinations. They mean {following your convenience, without
regarding, not constraining}.

{Quantity}. 267. The forms for {about, enough, much, little,
together}, etc. are such as follow:—

{a}. {About}, is expressed by pó, kwong ’kiung, after their word, and
yáh, {t}eu, before.

  約歸一百 yáh kwé ih páh, {about a hundred}.
  約畧, 約摸 yáh liáh, yáh máh, both signify {about}.
  約數幾許 yáh sú‘ ’kí ’hau, {about how many?}
  里巴 ’lí pó, {about a le}.
  尺巴 t’sák pó, {about a foot}.
  步巴 {p}ú pó, {about a step}.
  寸巴 t’sun‘ pó, {about an inch}.
  桶巴 ’{t}óng pó, {a bucket-ful}.
  本巴 ’pun pó, {about a volume}.
  半夜巴 pé{n}‘ {y}á pó, {about midnight}.
  半托巴 pé{n}‘ t’ok pó, {two arms length} (t’ok, {stretch out both arms}).
  頭二百 {t}eu ní‘ páh, {about two hundred}.
  約百錢 yák páh díe{n}, {about 100 cash}.
  約有二十 yáh {y}eu ní‘ seh, {there are about 20}.
  一千光景 ih t’síe{n} kwong ’kiung, {about 1000}.

Obs. A very common form is 差勿多 t’só veh tú, {not far wrong}, which
is used in the same sense as the above words.

{b}. {Enough} and {not enough} are expressed by keu‘, veh tsóh, veh
kû{n} zz‘, k’iöh ’sau and some verbs with the negative.

  彀哩, 干事者 keu‘ ’lí, kû{n} zz‘ ’tsé, {enough}.
  勿彀, 勿干事 veh keu‘, veh kû{n} zz‘, {not enough}.
  有哩 ’{y}eu ’lí, {it is enough}.
  勿足 veh tsóh, {not enough}.
  勿到三十 veh tau‘ sa{n} seh, {not so many as 30}.
  勿滿三十 veh ’mé{n} sa{n} seh, {ib}.
  勿缺少個 veh k’iöh ’sau kú‘, {not insufficient}.
  第個裏少一錢 {t}i‘ kú‘ ’lí ’sau ih die{n}, {this is deficient one cash}.
  第籃桶子裡缺十隻 {t}i‘ la{n} kiöh ’tsz ’lí k’iöh seh tsáh, {this basket
      of oranges in ten short}.

Obs. These words might be divided between adjectives and verbs, and no
place reserved for them here, were it not that their equivalents in
English and other languages are adverbs.

{c}. {Much, more, many} are all expressed by the adjective
多 tú. If tú precedes it is {more} (adv.): if it follows its word,
it is {much} or {many} (adj.) Other words for {more} are 還 {w}a{n},
越 yöh, and the verbs ká, t’íe{n}, ’tíe{n}, etc.

  多撥點 tú peh ’tíe{n}, {give more}.
  第袋米多二斤 {t}i‘ dé‘ ’mi tú ni‘ kiun, {this bag of rice is two catties
      more} (or {over}).
  人多個 niun tú kú‘, {the men are many}.
  越加勿好 {y}öh ká veh ’hau, {much worse}.
  加點, 添點 ká ’tíe{n}, t’íe{n} ’tíe{n}, {give more}.
  一錢勿加 ih díe{n} veh ká, {I will not give one more cash}.
  勿罷一百 veh bá‘ ih páh, {there are more than a hundred}.
  也勿罷 ’{á} veh bá‘, {and more too}.
  銅錢還要 {t}óng díe{n} {w}a{n} yau‘, {I want more cash}.

Obs. For examples of such forms as 好幾 ’hau ’kí, 多許 tú hau‘, {many}.
See section on pronouns. The only words here adduced that can claim to
be adverbs are 越 {still more}, 也 {too}, and {w}a{n} 還. {Too} is an
adverb in English, but its equivalent 也 becomes by its position a
conjunction, and {w}a{n} when it is not an adverb of time {still}, may
often fairly be considered a conjunction.

{d}. {Less, few} are represented by 少 ’sau, standing before its word,
and by such borrowed phrases as veh siau, {not necessary, less}:
’{y}eu {h}ie{n}‘ k’ú‘, {few, not much}.

  兩日勿消 ’liáng nyih veh siau, {in less than 2 days}.
  少吃點 ’sau k’iuh ’tíe{n}, {eat less}.
  減脱點 ’ka{n} t’eh ’tíe{n}, {take less, subtract a little}.
  勿能減少 veh nung ’ka{n} ’sau, {cannot take less}.
  人有限個 niun ’{y}eu {h}íe{n}‘ kú‘, {of men there are few}.

{e}. {A little, any}, are used sometimes adverbially in English. Their
representatives in our dialect are liák sü, ’sau {w}é, sü ’sau with
the auxiliary substantive forms ih ’nga{n}, ’tíe{n}, etc.

  畧須曉得 liák sü ’h’iau tuh, {know it a little}.
  須為明白 sü {w}é ming báh, {understand it a little}.
  須稍懂得 sü ’sau ’tóng tuh, {ib}.
  些須加點 ’sí sü ká ’tíe{n}, {add a little}.
  稍為要個 ’sau {w}é yau‘ kú‘, {I want it a little}.
  稍為便宜點 ’sau {w}é bie{n}‘ ni ’tíe{n}, {a little cheaper}.
  脚有一眼酸 kiáh ’{y}eu ih ’nga{n} sû{n}, {my feet are a little tired}.
  有點怕個 ’{y}eu ’tíe{n} p’ó‘ kú‘, {he is a little afraid}.
  一點點 ih ’tíe{n} ’tíe{n}, {a very little}.
  有點𨅓跎 ’{y}eu ’tíe{n} sá dú, {I am a little tired}.
  有點會飛 ’{y}eu ’tíe{n} {w}é‘ fí‘, {can fly a little}.

Obs. ’Tíe{n}, ih ’nga{n}, when they follow an adjective, while placing
it in the comparative degree, preserve their own sense {a little};
e.g. 好一眼多謝 ’hau ih ’nga{n} tú zia‘, {a little better thank you};
快點走 k’wá‘ ’tíe{n} ’tseu, {walk a little faster}.

{f}. {Not very, very much, too much} are expressed by the derivative
adverb, veh da‘ ’lí, and the forms {s}eh ní‘ fun, kú‘ vun‘, t’uh kú‘
vun‘.

  勿大哩要 veh da‘ ’lí yau‘, {he does not much want it}.
  勿大哩多 veh da‘ ’lí tú, {not very many}.
  十分要 {s}eh fun yau‘, {wants it very much}.
  十二分好 {s}eh ní‘ fun ’hau, {very good}.

{g}. {Not at all, not in the least}, are translated in several ways.

  一無用頭 ih vú {y}úng‘ deu, {of no use}.
  萬無好處 va{n}‘ vú ’hau t’sû‘, {of no use at all}.
  絲毫勿對 sz {h}au veh té‘, {not in the least agreeing}.
  嘸啥蹉跎 {m} sá‘ sá dú, {not at all tired}.
  一眼勿差 ih ’nga{n} veh t’só, {just so, not at all wrong}.

{h}. To {altogether} correspond ’lóng ’tsóng, {k}óng ’tsóng, tseu sun,
’lóng ’t’óng.

  共總二百 {k}óng‘ ’tsóng ni‘ páh, {in all two hundred}.
  週身幾許 tseu sun ’kí hau‘, {in all how many?}
  盡行勿好 dzing‘ {y}ung veh ’hau, {altogether wrong}.
  一氣賣完 ih k’í‘ má‘ {w}é{n}, {altogether sold off}.
  攏統三萬 ’lóng ’t’óng sa{n} ma{n}‘, {altogether 30,000}.

{i}. {Mostly, chiefly}, are expressed by pronominal forms, which have
been already partially illustrated.

  大一半, {t}ú‘ ih pé{n}‘, {the greater part}.
  大凡人勿懂 {t}á‘ va{n} niun veh ’tóng, {men mostly do not understand}.
  大槩百姓 {t}á ké pák sing‘, {most people}.
  大凡人什蓋寫個多, {t}a‘ va{n} niun seh ké ’sia kú‘ tú, {most persons
      write it thus}.
  第能貸色是好個多 {t}i‘ nung hú‘ suh ’zz ’hau kú‘ tú, {articles of this
      kind are mostly good}.
  吃鴉片烟個人勿牢寔個多 k’iuh {á} p’ie{n} ye{n} kú‘ niun veh lau zeh kú‘
      tú, {opium smokers are for the most part dishonest}.

{j}. {Half} is sometimes used in English as an adverb; so also it is
in Chinese, as in the following phrases.

  半死半活 pé{n}‘ ’sí pé{n}‘ {w}eh, {half dead half alive}.
  半假半眞 pé{n}‘ ’ká pé{n}‘ tsun, {half false half true}.
  半推半愛 pé{n}‘ t’é pé{n}‘ é‘, {refuse and yet wish for}.
  半吞半吐 pé{n}‘ t’un pé{n}‘ t’ú‘, {cease from saying a thing when half
      through it}.

Obs. The other proportional parts, such as 四分裏一分 si‘ vun‘ ’lí
ih vun‘, {a quarter}; 十分裏一分 {s}eh vun‘ ’lí ih vun‘, {one tenth},
are much too long to enter into such groups.

{k}. {only, alone} are represented by {tseh}, {t}ók, ta{n}, {t}a{n}‘
and forms into which they enter.

  只得一眼 tseh tuh ih ’nga{n}, {only a little}.
  獨一干 {t}ók ih kû{n}, {only one}.
  獨干子 {t}ók kû{n} ’tsz, {alone}.
  勿但一個 veh da{n}‘ ih kú‘, {not only one}.
  惟獨兩個人 ví‘ dóh ’liáng kú‘ niun, {only two men}.
  勿獨之一個 veh dók tsz ih kú‘, {not only one}.
  一干子 ih kû{n} ’tsz, {alone}.
  單單一個 ta{n} ta{n} ih kú‘, {a single one}.
  不過一個 pih ({should be} peh) kú‘ ih kú‘, {only one}.
  獨獨哩我會做 {t}óh dóh ’lí ’ngú {w}é‘ tsú‘, {only I can do it}.

Obs. i. Ta{n}, is also an adjective, as in the question, 花單個呢雙個
hwó ta{n} kú‘ ní song kú‘, {is the flower single or double?} {T}óh
and {t}a{n}‘ are both conjunctions, when joined to ’zz, as 但是, 獨是
{t}a{n}‘ ’zz, {t}óh ’zz, {but}.

Obs. ii. The numeral adverbs {once, twice}, etc. translated by 一次 ih
t’sz‘, etc. may be seen in section 4. on auxiliary substantives, Art.
163.

{Negative and Affirmative}. 268. One of the most common negative
particles is 嘸 {m}, to which 沒 meh, the same in meaning is frequently
appended. 嘸 {m} is properly a verb {not to have}.

  嘸啥事體 m sá‘ zz‘ t’í, {it is nothing}.
  嘸形嘸踪 m {y}ung m tsóng, {there is no trace of him}.
  嘸沒啥話頭 m meh sá‘ {w}ó‘ deu, {there is nothing to say}.
  嘸憂嘸慮 m yeu m lü‘, {having no grief or care}.

269. The literary word that corresponds to this particle is 無 vú,
which is also in common use in colloquial phrases derived from the
books or formed on book models.

  無財無勢 vú dzé vú sz‘, {having no riches or influence}.
  無親無戚 vú t’sing vú t’sih, {having no relations}.
  無冬無夏 vú tóng vú ’{y}á, {having neither winter nor summer}.

270 The negative particle in most general use is 勿 veh. It is not
prohibitive as in the books, but simply denies like 不 peh in mandarin.

  勿會度日 veh {w}é‘ dú‘ nyih, {I cannot live on}.
  勿三勿四 veh sa{n} veh sz‘, {neither this nor that}.
  勿聲勿嚮 veh sung veh ’h’iáng, {he said nothing}.
  勿薦拉儂 veh tsíe{n}‘ ’lá nóng‘, {I shall not recommend him to you}.
  勿是, 勿個 veh ’zz, veh kú‘, {it is not so} (or veh alone).

271. The particles 惟 ví, 不 peh and 非 fí, are used in a few
combinations.

  惟獨 ví dóh, {only}.
  惟我一人 ví ’ngú ih zun, {only I}.
  不止一人 peh ’tsz ih zun, {not one man only}.
  不知下落 peh tsz ’{y}á loh, {do not know where he is}.
  眼不能見 ’nga{n} peh nung kíe{n}‘, {not to be seen}.
  非獨之我 fí dók tsz ’ngú, {not only I}.

272. The simplest affirmative is 是 ’zz; certain auxiliary particles
are often appended or prefixed.

  是個, 是拉個 ’zz kú‘, ’zz ’lá kú‘, {it is so}.
  就是, 是者 dzieu‘ ’zz, ’zz ’tsé, {ib}.

273. When some quality is affirmed, an adjective of opposite meaning,
with the negative particle prefixed, is often employed.

  勿孬 veh k’ieu, {that is good}.
  倒勿對 ’tau veh té‘, {but that is wrong}.
  勿差 veh t’só, {you are right}.

274. The emphasis of positive certainty is conveyed by phrases such as
tsun tsung‘, {s}eh zé‘, etc., and the double negation 無非 prefixed to
the proposition affirmed.

  眞正嘸沒 tsun tsung‘ m meh, {certainly there is none}.
  畢竟勿曾到 pih kiung‘ veh zung tau‘, {certainly he has not come}.
  實在有個 {s}eh zé ’{y}eu kú‘, {there certainly is}.
  斷斷乎是個 tö{n}‘ tö{n}‘ ú ’zz kú‘, {it certainly is so}.
  果然勿差 ’kú ze{n} veh t’só, {it is certainly right}.

Obs. The interrogative final {mó}, is often used to express the same
sense with these words, 小囝蠻麽 ’siau nö{n} ma{n} mó, {the boys are
wild indeed}.

275. Some phrases imply a moral certainty or necessity ({must}), and
with the negative, the absence of that necessity ({need not}).

  柴總有個 zá ’tsóng ’yeu kú‘, {there must be fire wood}.
  銀子一定有 niung ’tsz ih ding‘ ’{y}eu, {there must be silver}.
  總要解說個 ’tsóng yau‘ ’ká seh kú‘, {you must explain it}.
  必定要去 pih ding‘ yau‘ k’i‘, {you must go}.
  板定要來者 ’pa{n} ding‘ yau‘ lé ’tsé, {he must necessarily come}.
  板要做個 ’pan yau‘ tsu‘ kú‘, {you must do it}.
  善终有善報 ’zé{n} tsóng ’yeu ’zé{n} pau‘, {virtue will surely have a
      good reward}.
  做生意總要用心 tsú‘ sang i‘ ’tsóng yau‘ yúng‘ sing, {in transacting
      business you must apply the mind}.

276. There are several phrases to express that the thing affirmed is
naturally so, and that nothing else ought to be expected.

  本來什蓋能 ’pun lé {s}eh ké‘ nung, {it is originally so}.
  本者來自家要來 ’pun ’tsé lé zz‘ ka yau‘ lé, {he originally wished to
      come himself}.
  自然者 zz‘ zé{n} ’tsé, {as might be expected}.
  自然而然 zz‘ zé{n} rh zé{n}, {spontaneously}.
  原來嘸啥 niö{n} lé {m} sá‘, {it is really nothing}.
  本者乎勿肯 ’pun ’tsé {ú} veh ’k’ung, {by nature unwilling}.
  良心本底子有個 liáng sing ’pun ’tí ’tsz ’{y}eu ku‘, {conscience belongs
      to us by nature}.

277. Different words are usually appropriated to the affirmative and
negative forms of assertions. Thus (1) absolute certainty in the
negative is expressed by,—

  並勿是 {p}ing‘ veh ’zz, {certainly it is not}.
  决勿好做 kiöh veh ’hau tsu‘, {it ought surely not to be done}.
  切勿可以 t’sih veh ’k’ó ’í, {you certainly may not}.

(2). The denial of necessity (need not) is conveyed in such
expressions as the following.

  勿必得去 veh pih tuh ’k’í, {you need not go}.
  勿必多 veh pih tú, {do not need many}.

Obs. The Imperative also, as in 勿要去 veh yau‘ k’í‘, {do not go}; 去
末者 k’í‘ meh ’tsé, {go} has distinct auxiliary words for the
affirmative and negative forms.

278. There are some adverbs appropriated to express affirmative and
negative propositions in the interrogative form.

  豈勿是頂好 ’k’i veh ’zz ’ting ’hau, {how is it not admirable}.
  難道儂勿曉得我 na{n} dau‘ nóng‘ veh ’h’iau tuh ’ngú, {it can hardly be
      that you do not know me}.
  有啥勿識字 ’{y}eu sá‘ veh suh zz‘, {why should I not know how to read}.

Obs. i. The final interrogative 麽 mau, or 呢 ní, is appended
frequently to any sentences of this sort.

Obs. ii. Affirmative questions implying a strong denial are also
occasionally asked by these particles; e.g. 豈有此理 k’í ’{y}eu ’t’sz
’lí, {how can this be?} 難道我哄騙儂否 na{n} dau‘ ’ngú hóng‘ p’ie{n}‘
nóng‘ ’vá, {could I deceive you?}

{Adverbs of place}. 279. Demonstrative adverbs are derived from
pronouns, as adverbs of manner from adjectives. Thus {here and there},
are translated by compounds formed from the three pronouns {t}í‘, kú‘,
í.

  第塊, 第搭, 第頭, {t}í‘ k’wé‘, {t}í‘ tah, {t}í‘ deu, {here}.
  故塊, 故搭, 故頭, kú‘ k’wé‘, kú‘ tah, kú‘ deu, {there}.
  伊塊, 伊搭, 伊頭, í k’wé‘, í tah, í deu, {there}.

Obs. From 此 ’t’sz is formed 此地 ’t’sz dí‘, {here}; 堂 {t}ong, also
forms {t}í‘ dong, {here}, etc.

280. {On this}, and {on that side} are formed in a similar manner with
the auxiliaries míe{n}‘, {face}, and píe{n}, {side}.

  第面, 第邊, {t}í‘ míe{n}‘, {t}í‘ píe{n}, {on this side}.
  第半爿, {t}í‘ pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {ib}.
  故面, 故邊, kú‘ míe{n}‘, kú‘ píe{n}, {on that side}.
  故半爿, 伊半爿, kú‘ pé{n}‘ ba{n}, í pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {ib}.
  伊面, 伊邊, í míe{n}‘, í píe{n}, {ib}.

281. The postpositions or case particles corresponding to our locative
prepositions enter into similar forms.

  上面, 上頭 ’zong míe{n}‘, ’zong deu, {above}.
  上邊, 上半爿 ’zong píe{n}, ’zong pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {on the upper side}.
  上首, 上肩, 上底頭 ’zong ’seu, ’zong kíe{n}, ’zong ’tí deu, {on the
      upper side}.
  前面, 前頭, 前底 zíe{n} míe{n}‘, zíe{n} deu, zíe{n} ’tí, {before}.
  後面, 後頭, 後首 ’{h}eu míe{n}‘, ’{h}eu deu, ’{h}eu ’seu, {behind}.
  後底, 後底頭 ’{h}eu ’tí, ’{h}eu ’tí deu, {behind}.
  裏頭, 裏厮, 裏面 ’lí deu, ’lí sz, ’lí míe{n}‘, {inside}.
  裏向, 裏邊 ’lí h’iáng‘, ’lí píe{n}, {ib}.
  裏半爿 ’lí pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {ib}.

Obs. i. 下 ’au forms the same compounds as 上 ’zong, with one other
下底 ’au ’tí, all of them with the sense {below}. 外 ngá‘, forms the
same compounds as 裏 ’lí (excepting that with 向 h’iáng‘), in the
sense of {outside}.

Obs. ii. For similar groups of nouns, with the points of the compass,
see Art. 152.

282. The adjectives ’tsú {y}eu‘, {right and left}, form some groups.

  右邊, 右半爿, {y}eu‘ píe{n}, {y}eu‘ pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {on the right-hand}.
  左邊, 左半爿, tsí‘ (ú) píe{n}, tsí‘ pé{n}‘ ba{n}, {on the left-hand}.

283. The adverbs of place and direction that remain are few.

  週圍, 四週圍, tseu {w}é, sz‘ tseu {w}é, {all round}.
  當中 tong tsóng, {in the middle}.
  空中 k’óng tsóng, {in the air}.
  橫肚裏 {w}áng ’tú ’lí, {obliquely}.
  射角  dzák kok, {obliquely}.
  對直 té‘ dzuh, {straight before}.
  那裏那裏堂 ’{á} ’lí, ’{á} ’lí dong, {where?}
  各處, 處處, 到處, kok t’sû‘, t’sû‘ t’sû‘, tau‘ t’sû‘, {everywhere}.
  各道落處 kok tau‘ lok t’sû‘, {everywhere}.

284. {W}áng and ’zû form with verbs many groups of four characters, in
which the action is said to be done in various ways, literally {across
and perpendicularly}.

  橫做𥪡做 {w}áng tsú‘ ’zû tsú‘, {do this and that}.
  橫勿是𥪡勿是 {w}áng veh ’zz, ’zû  veh ’zz, {wrong in this and in that}.

Obs. In weaving, the cross thread is 芉紗 ü‘ só, the other 經紗 kiung
só; here ü‘ is used for wei 緯.

285. The adverbs {in and out, up and down, here and there}, etc. are
translated in Chinese by repeated verbs.

  飛進飛出 fí tsing‘ fí t’seh, {fly in and out}.
  跳上跳下 t’iau‘ ’zong t’iau‘ ’{a}u, {jump up and down}.
  搖來搖去 {y}au lé {y}au k’í‘, {row about}.

{Adverbs of time}. 286. The following are the primitive adverbs of
time employed in the dialect.

  曾 zung, {already}; 勿曾 veh zung, {not yet}.
  向 h’iáng‘, 一向 ih h’iáng‘, {hitherto}; (it embraces the whole of the
      past time), 向來 h’iáng‘ lé, 向係 h’iáng‘ {í}‘, {ib}.
  已 ’í, {already}; e.g. 已經 ’í kiung, {already}.
  昨 zoh (zóh, zog), in 昨日 zoh nyih, {yesterday}.
  先 síe{n}, {first}; 第個先要做 {t}í‘ kú‘ síe{n} yau‘ tsú‘, {this must be
      done first}.
  暴 {p}au‘, {at first}; e.g. 暴時 {p}au‘ zz, {at first}; 暴時間 {p}au‘ zz
      ka{n}, {ib}.
  預 ü‘, {beforehand}; 預先防備 ü‘ síe{n} bong bé‘, {guard against
      beforehand}. (防 {guard against}; M. {fang}; S.R. {vong}).
  初 t’sú, {at first}, is only found as an adverb in the phrase 當初 tong
      t’sú, {formerly}.
  今 kiun, {now}; e.g. 目今 mók kiun, 刻今 k’uk kiun, 現今 {h}íe{n}‘ kiun,
      {now}; 今朝 kiun tsau, {to-day}; 今曰 kiun nyih, {ib}.; 今月 kiun niöh,
      {this month}; 今年 kiun níe{n}, {this year}.
  難 na{n}, {now}; 難故歇 na{n} kú‘ h’ih, {at the present moment}; 難朝後
      na{n} dzau ’eu, {from this time forward}; 難下來 na{n} ’{a}u lé,
      {ib}.;  難末 na{n} meh, {then}.
  正 tsung‘, (or 淮 ’tsung) {just}; 正勒拉 tsung‘ leh ’lá, {just while};
      貼正 t’ih (or t’eh) tsung‘, {just at the moment}.
  現 {h}íe{n}‘ {now}; 現在  {h}íe{n}‘ dzé‘, {now}; 現時 {h}íe{n}‘ zz, {ib}.
  暫 dza{n}‘, {temporarily}; e.g. 暫時 dza{n}‘ zz, {for a short time}; 暫為
      dza{n}‘ {w}e‘, {ib}.
  將 tsiáng, {about to be}; 將來 tsiáng lé, {it will happen that}.
  卽 tsiuk (tsih) just; 隨卽 zûe tsiuk, {just}; 卽刻 tsih k’uh, {ib}. 卽鉛
      tsih k’a{n}, {ib}.
  再 tsé‘, {again}; 再會 tsé‘ {w}é‘, {we shall meet again}.
  鉛 k’a{n} {just}; 鉛鉛 k’a{n} k’a{n} {ib}.; 鉛起始 k’a{n} ’k‘í ’sz, {at the
      beginning}.
  又 {í}‘, 又來者 {í}‘ lé ’tsé, {come again}.
  還 {w}a{n}, {still}; 還要來 {w}a{n} yau‘ lé, {come again}.
  就 dzieu‘, {immediately}; 就轉來 dzieu‘ ’tsé{n} lé, {return directly} 就此
      dzieu‘ ’t’sz, {immediately}.
  一 ih followed by 就 dzieu‘ {the moment that}; 一睏就覺 ih k’wun‘ dzieu‘
      kau‘, {the moment he went to sleep he awoke}.

Obs. i. Of these words, only 難, 將, 再, 又, 還, 就, na{n}, tsiáng, tsé‘,
{í}‘, {w}a{n}, dzieu‘, are separable from the groups in which they are
found. 未 as in 未哩 mí‘ ’lí, {not yet}, is a negative adverb of time.

Obs. ii. All these adverbs are book words, except {p}au‘, na{n}, and
k’a{n}.

287. The demonstrative pronouns 第, 伊, 故, {t}í‘, í, kú‘, and some
other words combine with the substantives 歇, 刻, 時, h’ih, k’uh, zz, {a
short time}, to form adverbs of time.

  第歇故歇 {t}í‘ h’ih, kú‘ h’ih, {at this moment}.
  故歇頭上 kú‘ h’ih deu long‘, {at that time}.
  伊歇頭上 í h’ih deu long‘, {ib}.
  一時頭上 ih zz deu long‘, {all at once}.
  立刻 lih k’uh, {immediately}.
  立時立刻 lih zz lih k’uh, {ib}.
  立時三刻 lih zz sa{n} k’uh, {ib}.

歇 h’ih, also helps to form 大歇 tá h’ih, 爽歇 zong h’ih, {after a
little time}; 少歇 ’sau h’ih, {ib}.

288. Several adjectives and prepositions are borrowed to form compound
adverbs of time.

{a}. 明 ming, {bright}. 明朝 ming tsau, {to-morrow}; 明日 ming nyih,
{ib}.; 明天 ming t’íe{n}, {ib}.; 明年 ming níe{n}, {next year}.

{b}. 早 ’tsau, {early}; 早早 ’tsau ’tsau, {early}; 老早 ’lau ’tsau,
{early}.

{c}. 古 ’kú {ancient}. 古時間 ’kú zz ka{n}, {in ancient times}; 古時節
’kú zz tsih, {ib}.; 古來 ’kú lé, {from ancient times}.

{d}. 新 sing, {new}. 新年 sing níe{n}, {new year}; 從新 dzóng sing,
{afresh}.

{e}. 近 ’{k}iun, {near}. 近年 ’{k}iun níe{n}, {of late years}; 近時
’{k}iun zz, {lately}; 近來 ’{k}iun lé, {ib}. 近今 ’{k}iun kiun, {ib}.
近世 ’{k}iun sz‘, {in modern times}.

{f}. 舊 ’{k}ieu, {old}. 舊年 ’{k}ieu níe{n}, {last year}; 仍舊 zung
’gieu, {as before}; 照舊 tsau‘ ’gieu, {ib}.  依舊 í‘ ’gieu, {ib}.

{g}. 常 dzáng, {constant}. 常庄 dzáng tsong, 打常 ’táng dzáng,  常常
dzáng dzáng  不常 peh dzáng, {always}; 常時 dzáng zz, {sometimes}; 日常
nyih dzáng, {daily}.

{h}. 前 zíe{n}, {former}. 前日子 zíe{n} nyih ’tsz, {day before
yesterday}; 目前 móh zíe{n}, {now}.  前年 zíe{n} níe{n}, {year before
last}. 從前 dzóng zíe{n}, {formerly}. 以前 ’í zíe{n}, {before};
前代 zíe{n} dé‘, {the former dynasty}. 前朝 zíe{n} zau, {ib}.;
前世 zíe{n} sz‘, {in a former life}.

{i}. 後 ’{h}eu, {after}. 後來 ’{h}eu lé, 以後 ’í {h}eu‘, {after};
後月 ’{h}eu niöh, {next month}; 後年 ’{h}eu níe{n}, {year after next};
後日 ’{h}eu nyih, {day after to-morrow}.

{j}. 下 ’{h}au, 目下 móh ’{h}au, {at present}.

{k}. 多 tú, 日多 nyih tú, {daily}.

Obs. Zie{n} deu, ’{h}eu deu, {before}, {after}, and the cognate
adverbs of place are used also for time.

289. Sometimes verbs take the place of what in English are adverbs.
They are 來, 過, 歇, 隔 lé, kú‘, h’ih, káh.

  自古以來 zz‘ ’kú ’í lé, {from ancient times till now}.
  周朝以來 Tseu dzau ’í lé, {from the Cheú dynasty till now}.
  歇之兩日 h’ih tsz ’liáng nyih, {after two days}.
  隔之幾十年 kák tsz ’kí zeh níe{n}, {after several tens of years}.
  再過一月 tsé‘ kú‘ ih niöh, {after another month}.

290. There are some provincial adverbs of time, whose etymology is
uncertain, or at least not referable to words of time.

  做慣 tsok (kwa{n}‘) kû{n}‘, {constantly (in the habit of)}.
  只管 tseh ’kwé{n}, {ib}. or {my only concern is}, etc. (M.)
  冷陌生頭 ’láng mák sáng deu, {suddenly}.
  難板 na{n} ’pa{n}, {seldom (difficult to fix)}.

291. The adjective pronouns combine with substantives of time to form
common phrases, which are often used as adverbs.

  多 tá, {several}; 多歇 tá h’ih, {after a little time}; 多日 tá nyih,
      {after some days}; 多年 tá níe{n}, {after some years}; 多時 tá
      zz, {a considerable time} (多 {tú} in this sense is generally
      pronounced {tá}.)
  幾 ’kí, {several};  連幾日 líe{n} ’kí nyih, {during several days}.
  多 tú, {many}; 介多 ká‘ tú, {mutually}.
  逐 dzóh, {each}; 日逐 nyih dzóh, {daily}; 逐點逐點高 dzók ’tíe{n} dzók
      ’tíe{n} kau, {gradually growing higher}.

292. Substantives of time, when repeated, are adverbs.

  日日 nyih nyih, {daily}.
  年年 níe{n} níe{n}, {yearly}.
  時時刻刻 zz zz k’uh k’uh, {constantly}.
  歇歇 h’ih h’ih, {ib}.
  出出變, 囘囘變 t’seh t’seh pie{n}‘, {w}é {w}é pie{n}‘, {constantly
      changing}.

Obs. Succession in time is frequently represented in English by
repetition of a noun with an adverb inserted. Thus, {day by day}
corresponds to 日日 nyih nyih. Such phrases as {year after year, one
after another} are other examples, and have their Chinese equivalents
in the next article.

{Order and Succession}. 293. Succession of periods of time is
represented by repetition, and the intervention of the verb 過 kú‘,
{pass} (English adverb {after}).

  一世過一世 ih sz‘ kú‘ ih sz‘, {age after age}.

294. The particles {and}, {after}, {by}, in {one by one}, {two and
two}, {in rows}, etc. are not represented, succession being expressed
by mere repetition of the numeral and its particle.

  一個一個出去者 ih kú‘ ih kú‘ t’seh k’i‘ ’tsé, {one after another they went
      out}.
  要種個一行一行個 yau‘ tsóng‘ kú‘ ih {h}ong ih {h}ong kú‘, {plant them in
      rows}.

Obs. For the repetition of verbs, in phrases such as 站一站
dza{n}‘ ih dza{n}‘, {stand waiting a little}; 研一研 níe{n} ih níe{n},
{rub a little ink}; 冷個冷 ’láng kú‘ ’láng, {cool it a little}; 調個調
diau kú‘ diau, {stir it a little}; 淘個淘 dau kú‘ dau, {wash it} (of
rice); 净個净 zing‘ kú‘ zing‘, {wash it} (of clothes); 我要辨個辨清爽
’ngú yau‘ bíe{n}‘ kú‘ bíe{n}‘ t’sing ’song, {I wish to distinguish
clearly}; see also Art. 232.

295. Gradual increase by little and little, is expressed by repeating
the auxiliary phrases ih ’nga{n}, ih ’tíe{n}, with the adjective in
the centre. When the gradual change is in time, words of time form
similar phrases.

  一眼高一眼 ih ’nga{n} kau ih ’nga{n}, {to become gradually higher}.
  一點大一點 ih ’tíe{n} dú‘ ih ’tíe{n}, {grow gradually greater}.
  一歇大一歇 ih h’ih dú‘ ih h’ih, {greater every moment}.
  一日小一日 ih nyih ’siau ih nyih, {grow less every day}.

296. Many adverbial phrases are formed by verbs and other words. Thus,
the adverb {when} is often supplied by a noun of time following the
verb with the connecting particle 個 kú‘.

  覺個辰光 kau‘ kú‘ zun kwong, {when you awake}.
  出門個時候 t’seh mun kú‘ zz {h}eu‘, {when on a journey}.

297. {Never}, is expressed by 一向 ih h’iáng‘, with a negative phrase
following it.

  一向勿曾讀書 ih h’iáng‘ veh zung {t}ók sû, {I have never gone to school}.

298. The questions why? and how? are often asked by verbs with the
pronoun {what?} thus rendering an adverb unnecessary.

  昨日想啥咾勿來 zóh nyih ’siáng sá‘ lau veh lé, {why (thinking of what) did
      you not come yesterday?}.
  聽之啥咾曉得個 t’ing tsz sá‘ lau ’h’iau tuh kú‘, {how (having heard what)
      do you know?}

{Adverbs of Similarity and Reciprocity}. 299. The adverb 恰 hah, and
adjective 像 {s}iáng‘, {like}, assist in forming several compound
phrases in the sense {like}.

  恰像 hah ziáng‘, 恰替 hah t’í‘, {like}.
  好像 hau ziáng‘, {very like}.
  恰得小囝能個 hah tuh ’siau nö{n} nung kú‘, {like a child}.
  倒像 ’tau ziáng‘, {or rather it is like}.

Obs. 能 nung, is usually appended to the noun that follows these words,
in the sense of {like}; 一樣 ih {y}áng‘, 一般 ih pé{n}, are also
employed in the sense {in the same manner}.

300.The adverbs of reciprocity are 大介 {t}á‘ ká‘, 介家 ká‘ ká, 介多 ká‘
tú, {mutually, one to another}, and 相 in combination with verbs and
adjectives; e.g. siáng ziáng‘, 相像 {like one another}.

Obs. {Together with}, is expressed by means of certain adverbs 一淘,
ih dau, 一氣 ih k’í‘, following the preposition and its noun. 忒我一氣進
城 t’eh ’ngú ih k’i‘ tsing‘ zung, {go with me into the city}. v. Art.
140.

301. The primitive adverbs are not repeated, except in one or two
instances. It is different with those that are derived. Some examples
in addition to these already given are here appended.

  自自在在 zz‘ zz‘ ’zé ’zé, {at ease}.
  活的活的 {w}eh tih {w}eh tih, {constantly moving}.
  什蓋什蓋 {s}eh ké‘ {s}eh ké‘, {thus}.
  適適意意 suh suh í‘ í‘, {comfortably}.

Obs. It has been shown that adjectives, and also substantives of time,
become adverbs by repetition.

302. Some verbs combine intimately with adverbs, so as to form
compound adverbs.

  加 ká, {add}, forms {y}öh ká, 越加; {í}‘ ká, 又加; kung‘ ká,
      更加 {still more}.
  發 fah, {produce}, forms 越發 {y}öh fah; {still more}.
  隨 zûe, {follow}, 隨時 zûe zz, {always}; 隨處 zûe t’sû‘, {everywhere}.

303. It will be seen in the next section, that some words marked as
adverbs are also conjunctions. The converse is also true. For some
words, such as 越, 且, 如 {y}öh, ’t’síe, zû regarded in this work as
primitive conjunctions, form adverbial phrases.

  並且勿是 {p}ing‘ ’t’síe veh ’zz, {it certainly is not so}.
  如同皇帝能 zû dóng {w}ong {t}í‘ nung, {like the emperor}.

304. The foregoing analysis shows that adverbs qualifying verbs, and
expressive of place and quantity are for the most part derived. On the
other hand, those adverbs that qualify adjectives, and express time
are usually primitive. In our own language, the adverbs that qualify
affirmations, e.g. assuredly, certainly, etc. are derived, while here
they are primitive. The old division of this part of speech by western
grammarians into two parts, viz. primitive and derivative, thus
appears to be properly applicable to a language, that has been often
supposed to present no resemblance in etymological development to the
speech of the rest of mankind. The Romans made their adverbs of place
out of demonstrative pronouns, and prepositions, in a manner very
similar to the Chinese, (e.g. hic {here}, supra {above}, etc.)
Adjectives with particular terminations supplied them with adverbs of
manner, (cito, bene, omnino.) Nunc, jam, are examples of primitive
adverbs of time, while the root stá {stand}, in statim, exactly
corresponds to 立 lih, {stand}, in 立刻 lih k’uh, {immediately}. It may
be added that zé{n}, {h}ú, etc. in Art. 259 form appendages to the
root, of the same value as the terminations -{ly}, -{like}, to which
we are accustomed. What is new, is the extensive use of repetitions,
the great number of fixed phrases, and the peculiarities in the laws
of grouping.


               {Section} 10. {Conjunctions}.

305. The primitive conjunctions may be thus classed:—

{a}. Connectives, 咾 lau, 也 ’{á}, {and}; 且, ’t’siá, 而 rh. {and,
further}.

{b}. Adversatives 但 da{n}‘. Forms like 但是 da{n}‘ ’zz 獨是 {t}óh ’zz,
{but}, etc. are compounded of adverbs, verbs, etc.

{c}. Illative 故 kú‘, 蓋 ké‘ (keh), {therefore}.

{d}. Causal. 因 yung, 為 {w}é‘, {because}.

{e}. Conditional. 末 meh, 若 záh, 倘 ’t’ong.

{f}. Antithetical, 雖 sûe, 然 zé{n}, 或 {w}óh, 越 yöh, 也 ’{á}, 又 {i}‘.

Obs. The compounds formed by these words, and words and phrases used
as conjunctions derived from other parts of speech, will most of them
be found in the following articles.

{Connectives}. 306. The particle that connects words like the English
{and}, is 咾 lau.

  進咾出 tsing‘ lau t’seh, {going in and out}.
  中牲咾窵咾魚 tsóng sáng lau ’tiau lau {n}g, {beasts, bird, and fishes}.

Obs. The preposition tah, t’eh, {with}, often serve the same purpose,
e.g. 儂忒我 nóng‘ t’eh ’ngú, {you and I}; 日頭搭之月 nyih deu tah tsz
niöh, {the sun and moon}.

307. Clauses are connected by 也 ’{á} and 還 {w}a{n}. They are also
frequently used merely as introductory particles.

  南京去過之末, 我也要上北京去 Né{n} kiung k’í‘ kú‘ tsz meh, ’ngú ’{á} yau‘
      ’zong Poh kiung k’í‘, {after going to Nanking, I also wish to go
      to Peking}.
  明朝我也要歸去 ming tsau ’ngú ’{á} yau‘ kü k’í‘, {to-morrow, I wish to go
      home.} (introductory).
  也要買否 ’{á} yau‘ ’má ’vá, {do you wish to buy?}

Obs. i. If the ’{á} or {w}a{n} is emphasized it means {also}. If
pronounced without emphasis, it is simply introductory.

Obs. ii. The adverbs dzieu‘, niö{n}, are used as introductory
particles to affirmative prepositions: 就是我 dzieu‘ ’zz ’ngú, 原是我
niön ’zz ’ngú, {it is I}.

308. Another circumstance to be considered, in addition to what has
preceded, is introduced 而且 rh ’t’siá, {and further} 尙且 zong‘ ’t’siá,
{and what is still more}.

  今朝路勿好跑個而且我脚跑勿動  kiun tsau lú‘ veh ’hau pau‘ kú‘, rh ’t’siá
      ’ngú kiáh pau‘ veh ’dóng, {it is bad walking to-day, and besides
      I am lame}.
  有個朋友話昨日來, 尙且勿曾來 ’{y}eu kú‘ báng ’{y}eu {w}ó‘ zóh nyih lé,
      zong‘ ’t’siá veh zung lé, {a friend told me he would come
      yesterday, and still he has not yet come}. (adverbial).
  前頭借過歇銅錢, 而且勿曾還哩, 難又要借否 zie{n} deu tsiá‘ kú‘ h’ih dóng
      díe{n}, rh ’t’siá veh zung {w}a{n} ’lí, na{n} {í}‘ yau‘ tsiá‘ ’vá,
      {you borrowed money before, and further you have not returned it,
      and do you wish to borrow again?} (adverbial).
  水深而且渾 ’sz sun rh ’t’siá {w}un, {the water is deep and also muddy}.

309. A new subject of remark is introduced by 再者 tsé‘ ’tsé, {again,
to proceed}; 還有 {w}a{n} ’{y}eu, {there is another thing}; 那裏曉得 ’á
’lí ’h’iau tuh, {meantime; who could have thought it? strange to say!}

  托儂買蒔菇, 再者呌船一隻 t’oh nóng‘ ’má zz kú, tsé‘ ’tsé kiau‘ zé{n} ih tsáh,
      {I commission you to buy fruit, and also to call a boat}.
  還有一樣事體 {w}a{n} ’{y}eu ih {y}áng‘ zz‘ ’t’i, {there is another thing
      I have to say}.

{Adversatives}. 310. {But} is represented by 但 {t}a{n}‘ 但是 {t}a{n}‘
’zz, 獨是 {t}óh (g) ’zz; {however} is 到底 tau‘ ’tí, or 究竟 kieu‘ kiung‘.

  說話好聽, 但是道理嘸啥好 seh {w}ó ’hau t’ing, {t}a{n}‘ ’zz ’{t}au ’lí {m}
      sá‘ ’hau, {his words are plausible but his doctrine bad}.
  現在還勿起到底要還儂個 {h}íe{n}‘ zé {w}a{n} veh ’k’í tau‘ ’tí yau‘ {w}a{n}
      nóng‘ kú‘, {I cannot pay you now, but I intend to do so in the
      end}. (adverbial).

Obs. Of these words, tau‘ ’tí is the most common. It sometimes
preserves its etymological meaning {in the end}, as in the example
given.

311. {Lest} is expressed 常怕 dzáng p’ó‘. The compounded phrase 只怕
tseh p’ó‘, {I am only afraid that}, has come to mean {I suppose that}.

  要打伊隻夠常怕要咬 yau‘ ’táng í tsáh ’keu dzáng p’ó‘ yau‘ ’ngau, {beat that
      dog lest he should bite}.
  伊個話頭只怕虛個 í kú‘ ’{w}ó‘ deu tseh p’ó‘ h’ü kú‘, {that account is I
      suppose false}. (or 恐怕 ’k’úng p’ó‘).

Obs. 恐怕, ’k’úng p’ó‘ is {I fear that}; 只怕 tseh p’ó‘ has sometimes a
similar meaning. 燈旺來些只怕燙壞之手 tung {y}ong‘ lé ’sí tseh p’ó‘
t’ong‘ {w}á‘ tsz ’seu, {the lamp is very hot (bright) I fear it will
burn your hand}.

312. The conjunctional phrases {and yet, on the other hand}, are
expressed by 倒 ’tau and 偏 píe{n}, {perversely}.

  第個事體呌儂做, 儂倒撥拉別人做 {t}í kú‘ zz ’t’í kau‘
      nóng‘ tsú‘, nóng‘ ’tau peh ’la bih niun tsú‘, {I called you to
      do this, and yet you have given it to some one else to do}.
  打伊倒勿痛 ’táng i ’tau veh t’óng‘, {he is beaten and yet feels no pain}.
  勸儂好偏勿肯好 k’iö{n}‘ nóng‘ ’hau p’íe{n} veh ’k’ung ’hau,
      {when exhorted to be good, you on the other hand will not}.

313. Such conjunctional phrases as {it would be better to}, are
represented by 勿如 veh zû, {not so good as}, or 𡨴可 niung ’k’ó, {I
would rather}, 勿比 veh ’pí, {it cannot be compared with}.

  勿如轉去更好 veh zû ’tsé{n} k’í‘ kung‘ ’hau, {it would be better to go
      back}.
  讀勿熟勿比再讀 {t}óh veh zóh veh ’pí tsé‘ dóh, {not having learned it
      perfectly, it would be better to study it again}.
  惡事𡨴可死勿做 oh zz‘ niung ’k’ó ’sí veh tsú‘, {I would rather die than
      do what is wrong}.

{Illative or Transitional Conjunctions}. 314. {Therefore} is
represented by 所以 ’sú ’í, 故此 kú‘ ’t’sz, 故所以 kú‘ ’sú ’í, 𡀽咾 keh
lau.

  心裏勿忘記儂故此又來 sing ’lí veh mong‘ kí‘ nóng‘, kú‘ ’t’sz {í}‘ lé,
      {I have not forgotten you, and therefore have come again}.

315. {Then} is expressed by 𡀽末 ké‘ (keh) meh, when it denotes a
logical consequence, and by 難末 na{n} meh, when the transition is one
of time.

  撥勒儂勿要, 𡀽末要啥 peh ’lá nóng‘ veh yau‘, ké‘ meh yau‘ sá‘, {I give
      it and you do not want it, then what do you want?}
  懂之道理難末好者 ’tóng tsz ’dau ’lí na{n} meh ’hau ’tsé, {the doctrine
      being understood, then all is well}.

Obs. Na{n} meh, has also been placed among the adverbs as a particle
of time. Its book equivalent 於是 ü ’zz, {consequently}.

{Causal Conjunctions}. 316. 因爲 {y}ung {w}é‘, 爲 {w}é‘ and 爲之 {w}é‘
tsz correspond to our word {because}.

{Conditional particles}. 317. 末 meh, {if}, is placed at the
end of the clause.

  賤末要買, 貴末勿要買 {k}iáng (zíe{n}‘) meh yau‘ ’má, kü‘ meh veh yau‘
      ’má, {if it is cheap buy it, but not if it is dear}.

318. 若使 zák sz‘, 若是 zog ’sz, 若然 zog zé{n}, 倘或 ’t’ong {w}óh, 倘使
’t’ong sz‘, 倘然 ’t’ong zé{n}, are used in the sense of {if}: 旣然 kí‘
zé{n} is {if it was already so}.

  若使勿看見末, 就歸來 zák sz‘ veh k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}‘ meh, dzieu‘ kü lé, {if you
      do not see him, return at once}.

Obs. The verbs 使, 是, and adverb 然 lose their primary sense, and form
in colloquial usage merely a terminating syllable to the conjunction
with which they combine.

319. {Even if} is expressed by 就是 dzieu‘ ’zz, 也怕 ’{á} p’ó‘ 那裏怕
’{á} ’lí p’ó‘.

  就是其哭, 也勿要憑其 dzieu‘ ’zz gí k’óh, ’{á} veh yau‘ bing gí, {even if
      he cries, do not yield to him}.
  也怕嘸末銅錢, 總勿要去偷人家 ’{á} p’ó‘ m meh dóng díe{n}, ’tsóng veh yau‘
      k’í‘ t’eu niun ká, {even if you have no money, you must not
      steal from others}.

320. {If}, with the negative is represented 勿然 veh zé{n}, or 再勿然
tsé‘ veh zé{n}, {should it not be so}.

  快點撥勒我, 勿然我要去者 k’wá ’tíe{n} peh ’lá ’ngú, veh zé{n} ’ngú yau‘
      k’í‘ ’tsé, {If you do not give it me quickly, I shall go}.
  再勿然我自家去 tsé‘ veh ze{n} ’ngú zz‘ ká k’í‘, {if is so, I shall go
      myself}.

Obs. This amounts to an entire omission of the {if}, for 然 zé{n} is
an adverb {so}. In fact, the {if} is often not used in affirmative
sentences as well as negative.

321. The conjunctional phrases {suppose that, for instance, for
example}, are expressed by 比方 ’pí fong, 譬如 p’í zû, 猶如 {y}eu zû, etc.

  比方死之末那能 ’pí fong ’sí tsz meh ná‘ nung, {if you should die, what
      then?}
  猶之乎 {y}eu tsz {h}ú, {just as if}.
  猶如 {y}eu zû, {ib}.

Obs. The adverbs of likeness (see Art. 299) are also similarly
employed. 好像日頭忒旺, 眼睛勿好對之伊咾看 ’hau ziáng‘ nyih deu t’uh {y}ong‘,
’nga{n} tsing veh ’hau té‘ tsz í lau k’ön, {just as the sun
is too bright for our eyes to gaze on him}.

{Antithetical Conjunctions}. 322. Clauses with the particles
{although, yet}, are formed by 雖然 sûe zé{n} and 然而 zé{n} rh, etc.

  雖然巧個, 然而勿牢實個 sûe zé{n} ’k’iau kú‘, zé{n} rh veh lau zeh kú‘,
      {although clever, he is not trustworthy}.
  好是好個, 到底本事平常 ’hau ’zz ’hau kú‘ tau‘ ’tí ’pun zz‘ bing dzáng, {he
      is well disposed, but his abilities are not great}.
  雖然路遠, 究竟走得到 sûe zé{n} lú‘ ’yö{n}, kieu‘ kiung‘ ’tseu tuh tau‘,
      {although it is a long way, yet I can walk it}.

Obs. {Although} is very frequently omitted, as in the second example.

323. {Either,—or} are expressed by 或者 {w}óh ’tsé, 或者 {w}óh ’tsé, or
by 勿是, 就是 veh ’zz—dzieu‘ ’zz.

  勿是打贏, 就是打敗 veh ’zz ’táng {y}ung, dzieu‘ ’zz ’táng bá‘, {you must
      either conquer, or be vanquished}.
  或在東, 或在西 {w}óh ’dzé tóng, {w}óh ’dzé sí, {it is either east or west}.
  勿是儂, 就是儂個兄弟 veh ’zz nóng‘, dzieu‘ ’zz nóng‘ kú‘ h’iung dí‘, {it
      is either you or your brother}.
  或是姓張, 或是姓李 {w}óh ’zz sing‘ tsáng, {w}óh ’zz sing‘ lí, {it must be
      some one named Cháng or Lí}.

324. {Neither,—nor} are represented both by 也—也 ’{á}—’{á},
and by 又—又 {í}‘—{í}‘, with a negative.

  也勿會飛, 也勿會走 ’{á} veh {w}é‘ fí, ’{á} veh {w}é‘ ’tseu. {he
      can neither fly nor walk}.
  口也勿開, 手也勿動 ’k’eu ’{á} veh k’é, ’seu ’{á} veh ’dóng,
      {he neither opens his mouth, nor moves his hands}.
  又勿賤, 又勿貴 {í}‘ veh giáng, {í}‘ veh kü‘, {it is neither cheap nor dear}.

325. When the first clause is interrogative, and the second commences
with {or}, the equivalent form is ní, the interrogative particle at
the end of the first clause, and 還是 {w}a{n} ’zz beginning the second.
Sometimes 也 ’{á} alone is used.

  明朝要去呢, 還是要待兩日 ming tsau yau‘ k’í‘ ní, {w}a{n} ’zz yau‘ dé‘ ’liáng
      nyih, {will you go to-morrow, or wait for a few days?}
      (See also Art. 251).

326. {Because,—therefore} are expressed by 因爲 yung {w}é‘, or 爲之
{w}é‘ tsz, in the first clause, and any of the illative particles in
the second.

  因爲勿曾熟哩, 所以還要燒 yung {w}é‘ veh zung zóh ’lí, ’sú ’í {w}a{n} yau‘ sau,
      {since it is not yet well done, you must boil it longer}.
  爲之儂勿快活咾, 故此我勿來 {w}é‘ tsz nóng‘ veh k’á‘ {w}eh lau, kú‘ ’t’sz ’ngú
      veh lé, {because you were displeased, I did not come again}.

327. {Why—? because—}are expressed by any of the adverb forms for
{why?} and the casual conjunctions in the answering clause.

  爲啥要眠檣因爲要過橋拉 {w}é‘ sá‘ yau‘ míe{n} dziáng? yung {w}é‘ yau‘ kú‘
      giau ’lá, {why do you take down the mast? because there is a
      bridge to pass}.

328. {On the one hand, on the other hand}, are expressed by ih míe{n}‘
or ih deu repeated.

  一面近河咾要沉殺, 一面兵過來咾要嚇昏 ih míe{n}‘ ’giun {h}ú lau yau zung sah,
      ih míe{n}‘ ping kú‘ lé lau yau‘ háh hwun, {on the one side it is
      near the river, and they will be drowned, on the other side
      soldiers are coming who fill them with fear}.
  一半哭一半笑 ih pé{n}‘ k’oh, ih pé{n}‘ siau‘, {partly crying and partly
      laughing}.
  一頭走一頭想 ih deu ’tseu, ih deu ’siáng, {while he walks he thinks}.

329. {Not only—but even},— are expressed by 勿獨之 veh dók tsz, 惟獨
ví {t}ók, {not only}, or 勿但不過 veh {d}an‘ peh kú‘ in the first
clause, 就是 dzieu‘ ’zz, or 連 líe{n} or 連搭 líe{n} tah, in the second.

  勿獨之朋友什蓋, 就是陌生人也什蓋 veh dók tsz {p}áng ’{y}eu {s}eh ké‘, dzieu‘
      ’zz mák sáng niun ’á zeh ké‘, {it is not only friends that are
      so, but  even strangers too}.
  勿獨自家, 連搭子孫 veh dók zz‘ ká, líe{n} tah ’tsz sun, {not only himself,
      but even his children also}.
  非獨逆風, 連水也逆個 fí dók niuk fóng, líe{n} ’sz ’á niuk kú‘, {not only
      is the wind contrary, but the tide is also against us}.

330. {The—the—}are expressed by 越 yöh repeated, 越早越好 yöh ’tsau
yöh ’hau, {the earlier the better}.

Obs. Similar phrases are formed with 越發 yöh fah, {the more}, in each
clause, also with 越加 yöh ká.

331. When the supplementary clause is, {how much more}, 何况于 {h}ú
hwong‘ ü, 况乎 hwong‘ {ú}, 而况 rh hwong‘ or 况且 hwong‘ ’t’siá, are
employed.

  天好勿看見, 而况雨落 t’íe{n} ’hau veh k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}’, {h}ú hwong’ ’{ü}
      loh, {when the weather is fine you cannot see it, how much more
      when it rains}.
  小個做勿來, 况且大個 ’siau kú‘ tsú‘ veh lé, hwong‘ ’t’siá dú‘ kú‘, {if
      you cannot do a little thing, how much more impossible for you
      to do a greater}.
  自家尙且勿會做, 何况于別人 zz ká zang‘ ’t’siá veh {w}é tsú‘, {h}ú hwong‘ ü
      bih niun, {since you cannot do it yourself, much more cannot
      others do it}.


        {Section} 11. {Expletives and Interjections}.

332. There are some words which though they have important grammatical
uses cannot be conveniently set down among the preceding parts of
speech and they are therefore placed here. Such are 個, 之, 者, 哩, kú‘,
tsz, ’tsé, ’lí.

{a}. 個 kú‘, besides its use as a numeral particle (Art. 156), as the
sign of the possessive (130) and in relative pronoun sentences, also
takes its place as a final after a verb, or adjective in any
indicative proposition.

  好個好拉個 ’hau kú‘, ’hau ’lá kú‘, {it is good, well}.
  勿能做個 veh nung tsú‘ kú‘, or veh nung kú‘ tsú‘, {I cannot do it}.

{b}. 之 tsz is the sign of the past or past participle, but as will be
seen in the first three examples, it is often indicative.

  前年做之宰相者 zíe{n} níe{n} tsú‘ tsz tsé‘ siáng‘ ’tsé, {the year before
      last, he was prime minister}.
  本地白也會話之 ’pun dí‘ {p}ah ’{á} {w}é‘ {w}ó‘ tsz, {he can speak in the
      dialect of this place}.
  明朝要寫好之末者 ming tsau yau‘ ’siá ’hau tsz meh ’tsé, {finish writing
      it to-morrow}.
  做之十年官咾告老者 tsú‘ tsz zeh níe{n} kwé{n} lau kau‘ ’lau ’tsé, {after
      having been in office for ten years, he retired on the plea of
      old age}.

{c}. 者 ’tsé is the sign of an action completed, or in course of being
done, whether expressed by a verb or adjective; also of the imperative.

  做拉者, 好者  tsú‘ ’lá ’tsé, ’hau ’tsé, {it is done, it is right}.
  去拉個者 k’í‘ ’lá kú‘ ’tsé, {he is gone}.
  吾拉做者 ngú ’lá tsú‘ ’tsé, {I am doing it}.

{d}. 哩 ’lí and 拉 ’lá, are used like ’tsé and kú‘, as finals
to any indicative proposition. 拉 ’lá is also a preposition
(Art. 256).

  好哩, 勿好拉哩, 好個哩 ’hau ’lí, veh ’hau ’lá ’lí, ’hau kú‘ ’lí, {good,
      it is not well, it is well}.

{e}. 咾 lau, the particle that connects a string of substantives,
occurs at the end of sentences that require something to complete
their sense.

  已經話拉者咾, 有啥再話 ’í kiung {w}ó‘ ’lá ’tsé lau, ’{y}eu sá‘ tsé‘
      {w}ó‘, {I have said it, and why should I say it again}.

Obs. 𫡄 ná is a final expletive used with 者 ’tsé.

讀者𫡄 {t}ók ’tsé ná, I am reading.

333. The final interrogatives are 呢, 否, 蠻, 麽, ní, ’vá, ma{n}‘, mó.
Characters are borrowed for ’vá and ma{n}‘.

{a}. 呢 ní is used either at the end of the first clause in an
interrogative antithesis, or at the end of a single clause. It is
sometimes pronounced ’nia{n}.

  做呢勿做 tsú‘ ní veh tsú‘, {will you do it or not?}
  好勿好呢 ’hau veh ’hau ní, {is it right or not?}
  勿懂呢啥 veh ’tóng ní sa‘, {do you not understand?}
  物事忒貴個呢 meh zz‘ tuh kü‘ kú‘ ní, {are the things too dear?}

{b}. 否 ’vá and 蠻 ma{n}‘ are appropriated to direct interrogations,
where not antithetical. They are colloquialisms.

  飯用蠻 va{n}‘ {y}úng‘ ma{n}‘, {have you dined?}
  還要再來否 wa{n} yau‘ tsé‘ lé‘ vá, {shall you come again?}
  曉得否 ’h’iau tuh ’vá, {do you understand?}

{c}. 麽 mó (mau), besides expressing direct and indirect interrogation,
also implies a strong affirmative. (Art. 278).

  第個稀奇個物事有磨 {t}í‘ kú‘ h’í gí kú‘ meh zz‘ ’{y}eu mó, {is there this
      remarkable thing?}
  倒勿是十分壞良心麽 ’tau veh ’zz {s}eh vun {w}á‘ liáng sing mó? {is it not
      most wilfully unconscionable!}
  是否, 是麽 ’zz ’vá, ’zz mó, {is it so? indeed it is?}
  第個價錢大麽 {t}í‘ kú‘ ká‘ díe{n} dú‘ mó, {the price of this is great
      indeed} (亦通嗎).

334. The initial interrogatives 豈 ’k’í, {how?} 幾 ’kí, {how many?}
with 那 ’ná, forming ’{á} ’lí, 那裏 {where? which?} and 那能 ’ná nung,
{how?} have already been illustrated among the pronouns and adverbs.

335. The interjections properly so called are such as—

  噯 é, {ah!} 噯動勿得個 é ’{t}óng veh tuh kú‘, {ah! you must not do such
      a thing}.
  呔 t’é, {ho!} 呸 ’p’é, {it is bad}.
  阿唷 ah yóh, {alas! oh!}
  㕭 au‘, indicates assent, {yes}, or {I understand}. In the first tone,
      it calls attention or conveys a warning, 當心㕭 tong sing au, {be
      careful and mind what I say}.
  呀 á, 喲 yá, as in 是呀 ’zz á, 是喲 ’zz yáh, {it is so}.
  哇 vá, {is it not so?} 哈 hé, {ah!}


                         PART III.

                        {ON SYNTAX}.


                {Section} 1. {On Government}.

336. The rules for the relative position of the parts of speech are
few and simple. They will be first considered without reference to
grouping, repetition, etc.; the syntax of words used under those forms
will be presented in subsequent sections.

A substantive that governs another as an attributive genitive always
precedes it, and the particle 個 kú‘ is inserted.

  牛個角比之鹿個角短 nieu kú‘ koh ’pí tsz lók kú‘ koh ’{t}ö{n}, {the horns
      of oxen are short compared with those of deer}.
  羊咾牛個皮有多許用頭拉 {y}áng lau nieu kú‘ bí ’{y}eu tú hau‘ {y}úng‘ deu
      ’lá, {the skin of sheep and oxen has many uses}.
  鷄個聲氣最响 kí kú‘ sáng k’í‘ tsûe‘ ’h’iáng, {the cock crows very loud}.

Obs. i. Thus substance precedes accident or attribute, and the whole
its part.

Obs. ii In English this order is reversed, when the particle {of} is
employed; e.g. {affairs of the nation} is in our dialect, 國家個事體
kók kiá kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í. When a possessive case is formed with ’{s}, the
order agrees with that of the Chinese; e.g. {the emperor’s palace},
皇帝個宮殿 {w}ong {t}í‘ kú‘ kóng díe{n}‘.

Obs. iii. 個 kú‘ is omitted in some instances where it would incommode
the rhythmus; e.g. 外國人總要來帮助此地咸豐皇帝 ngá‘ koh niun ’tsóng yau‘
lé póng ’zú ’t’sz dí‘ Ya{n} fóng {w}ong {t}í‘, {foreigners must come
and assist Hien Fung, the emperor of this country}; 一向嘸沒興旺辰光 ih
h’iang‘ {m} meh h’iung {w}ong‘ zun kwong, {it has never had a time of
prosperity}.

337. Adjectives precede their substantives with or without 個 kú‘.

  大地方 {t}ú‘ {t}í‘ fong, {a large place}.
  西國 sí kóh, {western nations}.
  黑天 huk tíe{n}, {black sky}.
  晒拉旺日頭裏 só ’lá {y}ong‘ nyih deu ’lí, {dry it in the hot sun}.
  利害個物事 lí‘ {h}é kú‘ meh zz‘, {a dangerous thing}.

Obs. Numbers take the auxiliary word (Part II. section 4.)
appropriated to the substantive they precede, between them and the
substantive. An adjective if needed, is inserted after the auxiliary,
e.g. 一座大房子 ih zû‘ dú‘ vong ’tsz, {a large house}; 匹匹白馬 sz‘ p’ih
báh ’mó, {four white horses}.

338. Transitive verbs precede their objects.

  生火 sáng ’hú, {light a fire}.
  染布 ’níe{n} pú‘, {dye cloth}.
  買紅紙頭做帖子, ’má {h}óng ’tsz deu tsú‘ t’ih ’tsz, {buy red paper to
      make cards}.

Obs. i. If there is a dative and accusative, the latter comes next to
the verb. For examples, see Art. 236 and 133.

Obs. ii. Impersonal verbs take a substantive after them as transitive
verbs; e.g. 難開花者 na{n} k’é hwó ’tsé, {now the flowers open} (lit.
{open the flowers}); 落雨 loh ’{ü}, {it rains} (lit. {falls rain}).

339. Adverbs are placed for the most part before the adjectives and
verbs that they qualify.

  忒認眞 t’uh niung‘ tsun, {unnecessarily industrious}.
  廟裏最興 miau‘ ’lí tsûe‘ h’iung‘, {in the temple, it is most crowded}.
  此地寫 ’t’sz dí‘ ’siá, {write it here}.
  歇兩日再會 h’ih ’liáng nyih tsé‘ {w}é‘. {after a few days, we shall
      meet again}.
  又是一氣 {í} ’zz ih k’í‘, {that is a different set}.

Obs. The adverbs that follow their adjectives, such as 近煞 ’{k}iun
sah, {very near}, 好極 ’hau giuh, {very good}, will be found in their
places, where the comparison of adjectives and adverbs of quality are
treated of.

340. Of the prepositions, some forming the locative case follow their
words; the rest inclusive of 在 ’dzé, 勒拉 leh ’lá, 勒裏 leh ’lí, all
meaning {being at} or {in}, precede their substantives. 勿在鄕下 veh
’dzé h’iáng ’{a}u, {not down in the country}.

Obs. Prepositions of motion and direction preceding the personal
pronouns require a substantive of place to follow. 到我堂來 tau‘ ’ngú
dong lé, {come to me}; 拉㑚堂勿有 ’lá ná‘ dong veh ’{y}eu, {where you
come from, there are none}. See also Art. 197.


      {Section} 2. {Interchange of the Parts of Speech}.

341. Under this heading, will be exhibited examples of the manner in
which words by a change in position, must be construed as included in
parts of speech, different from those to which when alone, they
obviously belong. First, there are three principal changes of
position, by which {adjectives} become {substantives}.

{а}. Adjectives when they follow a substantive with 個 kú‘ are to be
construed as substantives.

  心裏向個勿好, 總要改正 sing ’lí h’iáng‘ kú‘ veh ’hau, ’tsóng yau‘ ’ké
      tsung‘, {the evil of the heart must be rectified}.
  泰山個高量勿出 t’é‘ sa{n} kú‘ kau liáng veh t’seh, {the height of
      T’ai-shan cannot be measured}.
  房間個闊狹勿清爽 vong ka{n} kú‘ k’weh {h}ah veh t’sing ’song, {the width
      of the room, I do not know}.
  吾個相好死者 ngú kú‘ siáng ’hau ’sí ’tsé, {my friend is dead}.

Obs. i. Compare In English “the theory of the beautiful,” etc.

Obs. ii. Sometimes 處 t’sû‘ is added to the adjective, as also 頭 deu
and fah 發,  compound substantives are thus formed; cf. Art. 110. The
same words also form substantives from verbs.

{b}. Adjectives are frequently the objects of transitive verbs, and in
consequence are necessarily translated in such cases as substantives.

  學好 {h}oh ’hau, {to grow good (to learn good)}.
  講和 ’kong {h}ú, {treat for peace}.
  學壞 {h}oh {w}á‘, {to grow bad}.

Obs. These examples differ from compounds, such as 加大 ká dú‘, {make
larger}; 開闊 k’é k’weh, {to extend in width} (see Art. 219), which in
their combined form, constitute transitive verbs with a regimen.
These on the other hand contain the verb and its object within them.

勿論大咾小, 全是一樣個 veh lun‘ dú‘ lau ’siau, dzé{n} ’zz ih {y}áng‘ kú‘,
    {without taking account of the great and the small, all are the
    same}.
勿要話別人個長短 veh yau‘ {w}ó‘ bih niun kú‘ dzáng ’tö{n}, {do not speak
    of the faults of others}.

Obs. 短處 ’tö{n} t’sû‘ is also used for {faults}.

  第條河開多少闊 {t}í‘ diau {h}ú k’é tú ’sau k’weh, {how wide is this
      river?}

Obs. Adjectives with the interrogatives {how much? how many?}
preceding them, the verb being understood, are in common use; e.g.
幾許深淺 ’kí hó‘ sun ’t’síe{n}, {how much depth is there?} or
{how deep is it?} 多少深 tú ’sau sun {ib}.; 勿知多少高低 veh tsz tú
’sau kau tí, {I do not know how high it is}.

{c}. When one adjective is qualified by another, it becomes a
substantive; with this, English usage agrees, as in the following
names of colours.

  濃黑 nióng huh, {deep black}.
  淡紅 ’{t}a{n} {h}óng, {light red}.
  老黃 ’láu {w}ong, {faded yellow}.
  嫩黃 nung‘ {w}ong, {fresh yellow}.
  重藍 ’dzóng la{n}, {deep blue}.
  淺藍 ’t’síen la{n}, {light blue}.

{Verb as Substantive}. 342. Construing verbs as substantives is common
to many languages. The infinitive and gerund forms are used for this
purpose, as also the present participle. In Chinese these are all
identical, being the root itself.

{a}. The verb as {subject} of a proposition with a predicate following
(inf. and pres, part.).

  活命難 {w}eh ming‘ na{n}, {it is hard} (predic.) {to live}. (subj.)
  會得勝總好個 {w}é‘ tuk sung‘ ’tsóng ’hau kú‘, {to be able to conquer
      must be a good thing}.
  行篷船走得快個 {h}áng bóng, zé{n} ’tseu tuk k’wá‘ kú‘, {by using a sail,
      the boat will go quickly}.
  國度亂做生意勿便當個 kóh dú‘ lö{n}‘ tsú‘ sáng í‘ veh bíe{n}‘ tong‘ kú‘,
      {the country is disturbed and in consequence, it is hard}
      (pred.) {to carry on trade}. (subj.)
  兵勿好咾, 打仗勿見得成功 ping veh ’hau lau, ’t’áng tsáng‘ veh kíe{n}‘ tuh
      zung kóng‘, {the soldiers are bad, and consequently fighting}
      (subj.) {is not likely to be successful}. (pred.)

{b}. The verb as {subject}, with a noun as {attribute} (in Latin
grammar, the genitive of the gerund).

  種田個家生有鋤頭鐵咾還有多許 tsóng‘ díe{n} kú‘ ká sáng ’{y}eu zz deu, t’ih
      tah lau, {w}a{n} ’{y}eu tú hó‘, {the implements of husbandry are
      the spade, the spiked hoe, and such like} (arma colendi).
  嘸沒反个意思 {m} meh ’fa{n} kú‘ í‘ sz‘, {he has not the intention of
      rebelling} (consilium deficiendi).
  敎書个本事勿有 kau‘ sû kú‘ ’pun zz‘ veh ’{y}eu, {the ability to
      instruct, he does not possess}.

{c}. The verb preceded by or followed by case particles.

  我現在拉做 ’ngú {h}íe{n}‘ dzé‘ ’lá tsú‘, {I am now doing it}.
  勒拉吃茶 leh ’lá k’iuh dzó, {drinking tea} ({inter bibendum}).
  勒裏打算 leh ’lí ’táng sö{n}‘, {he is considering} ({inter putandum}).
  做官裏向也有辛苦 tsú‘ kwé{n} ’lí h’iáng‘ ’{á} ’{y}eu sing ’k’ú, {in the
      office of mandarin, there is much care and anxiety} (in
      magistrato gerendo).
  寫字裏向也有法則 ’siá zz‘ ’lí hiáng‘ ’{á} ’{y}eu fah tsuh, {in writing,
      there is a method}.

{d}. The verb as regimen of another verb.

  斷絕往來 ’{t}ö{n} dzih ’{w}ong lé, {cease to have communications}.
  嘸啥做 {m} sá‘ tsú‘, {I have nothing to do}.
  勿曾有啥爭論 veh zung ’{y}eu sá‘ tsáng lun‘, {there has not been any
      quarreling}.
  我勿想去 ’ngú veh ’siáng k’í‘, {I do not think of going}.
  勿要討我厭 veh yau‘ ’t’au ’ngú {y}íe{n}‘, {do not make me displeased}.

{e}. The verb as the {instrument} of effecting an action.

  問之咾曉得 mun‘ tsz lau ’h’iau tuh, {you would know by asking}.
  開之砲咾攻破城頭 k’é tsz p’au‘ lau kóng p’ú‘ zung deu, {he made a breach
      in the wall by firing cannon}.
  勿留心咾忘記脱者 veh lieu sing lau mong‘ ki‘ t’eh ’tsé, {though not
      attending to it, I have forgotten it}.

Obs. Some verbs are found among substantives and adjectives too.
孝 h’iau‘ is a substantive in 百善孝爲先 puh ’zé{n} h’iau‘ {w}é‘ síe{n},
{of all the virtues, filial piety is the chief}; an adjective in 孝子
h’iau‘ ’tsz, {a filial son}, and a verb in 孝順父母 h’iau‘ zun‘ ’vú
’mú, {to reverence parents}. In the books such variations of
grammatical character in the same words are very numerous. In the
verse 庶民子來 sû ming ’tsz lé, {all the people came as if they were
his sons}, 子 ’tsz is used adverbially.

{Verb as Adjective}. 343. The passive gerund of Latin is related to
adjectives as the active gerund is to substantives. The corresponding
forms in our dialect are compounds which may be translated either as
adjectives or passive gerunds.

  可惡 ’k’ó ú‘, {to be hated}, or {hateful}.
  可殺 ’k’ó sah, {ought to be killed}.
  好笑 ’hau siau‘, {laughable, fit to be laughed at}.
  好種个 ’hau tsóng‘ kú‘, {capable of cultivation}.

Obs. The examples given In Art. 246, as in the {permissive} mood,
might also be explained as verbs construed as adjectives.

344. Many of the longer verb groups are translated most conveniently
as verbal adjectives.

  耐勿過 né‘ veh kú‘, {unbearable}.
  話勿來 {w}ó‘ veh lé, {unutterable}.
  數勿明白 sú‘ veh ming báh, {incalculable}.

Obs. i. For a classification of these phrases v. Art. 227.

Obs. ii. Adjectives coming after verbs, with 得 tuh and 來 lé are best
translated as adverbs; 做來勿好 tsú‘ lé veh ’hau, {it is done badly};
寫來通極 ’siá lé t’ong giuh, {it is written exactly to the purpose};
燕子飛起來頂快 ’íen ’tsz fí ’k’í lé ’ting k’wá‘, {the swallow flies
very swiftly}; 幅子戴得齊整 mau‘ ’tsz tá‘ tuh zí tsung‘, {he wears his
hat properly}.

345. Many verbs are used as prepositions. They are 從 zóng, 由 {y}eu, 到
tau‘, 連 líe{n}, 朝 zau, 望 mong‘, 對 té‘, 上 ’zong, 下 ’{h}au. Examples
of both uses are given.

  由儂末哉 {y}eu nóng‘ meh tsé‘, {it will be as you decide}.
  由那裏一條路 {y}eu ’{á} ’lí ih diau lú‘, {by which way?}
  字眼要連下來 zz‘ ’nga{n} yau‘ líe{n} ’{a}u lé, {words and expressions
      should be connected}.
  紙頭連筆全勿有 ’tsz deu líe{n} pih dzé{n} veh ’{y}eu, {paper and pencil
      are both wanting}.

{Adverb as Substantive}. 346. Adverbs of time and place precede
substantives with 個 kú‘, just as one substantive precedes another.

  此地個百姓 ’t’sz dí‘ kú‘ pák sing‘, {people of this place}.
  什蓋能個人 {s}eh ké‘ nung kú‘ niun, {people of that sort}.
  明朝個事體測度勿出 ming tsau kú‘ zz‘ ’t’i t’suh doh veh t’seh, {the
      things of to-morrow cannot be known by thinking}.

Obs.先 síe{n}, is an adverb in síe{n} yau‘ ’tsung ’tung ’hau, 先要整頓
好, {you must first make preparations}, and an adjective in 出世最先
t’seh sz‘ tsûe‘ síe{n}, {he was born very early}.

347. When the adverbs take case particles, they must be regarded as
substantives.

  轎子拉前頭 {k}iau‘ ’tsz ’lá zíe{n} deu, {the chair is before}.

{Adverb as Adjective}. 348. The derivative adverbs like the pure
adjectives, form the predicate of a proposition.

  人是好好能個 niun ’zz ’hau ’hau nung kú‘, {the man is good}.

Or they qualify substantives.

  做私底下個事體 tsú‘ sz ’tí ’{á}u kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {to do underhand things}.

{Adjective as Adverb}. 349. Some adjectives precede verbs, and must in
such cases be regarded as adverbs.

  多話兩句 tú {w}ó‘ ’liáng kü‘, {say a few sentences more}.
  好聽來些 ’hau t’ing lé, {very pleasant to hear}.
  酒要少吃 ’tsieu yau‘ ’sau k’iuk, {drink sparingly of wine}.
  好走進去 ’hau ’tseu tsing‘ k’í‘, {you are quite at liberty to enter}.

Obs. 前 zíe{n} is an adjective in 前門 zíe{n} mun, {the front door}; a
post-position in 門前 mun zíe{n}, {before the door}: and an adverb in
前兩日 zíe{n} ’liáng nyih, {a few days ago}: 大 is usually an adjective,
but in 大兩樣個 {t}ú‘ ’liáng {y}áng‘ kú‘, {very different} and in 勿大哩
興 veh dá‘ ’lí h’iung‘, {not very crowded}, it is an adverb.

{Postposition as Adjective}. 350. When the locative case particles 外
ngá‘, 上 ’zong, 下 ’{h}au, 前 zíe{n}, 後 ’{h}eu, precede their words,
they are adjectives. When they follow them, they are postpositions.

  外國 ngá‘ kóh, {foreign nations}.
  城外 zung ngá‘, {outside the city}.
  下手 ’{h}au ’seu, {an under workman}.
  手下 ’seu ’{a}u, 手底下 ’seu ’tí ’{a}u, {another’s authority}.
  後門 ’{h}eu mun, {back door}.
  飯後 va{n}‘ ’{h}eu, {after breakfast}.

Obs. The words for north, south, east and west, are employed in the
same manner, and may be regarded as postpositions. 北斗星 póh ’teu sing,
{north star}; 江北 kong póh, {north of the river}; 浦東 p’u‘ tóng, {east
of the Hwáng-p’ú river}. In the last two examples, 北 and 東 may be
considered locative case particles.

{Substantive as Adjective}. 351. When one substantive qualifies
another, it may be regarded as an adjective.

  窵籠 ’tiau lóng, {bird-cage}.
  牛棚 nieu báng, {cow shed}.
  花園 hwó {y}ö{n}, {flower garden}.
  玻璃窻 pú lí t’song, {glass window}. (See Art. 174).


  {Section} 3. {Government of words in groups or combinations}.

{Inseparable groups}. 352. In the closest kind of combinations, when
words of different parts of speech form a dissyllabic word, one of
them loses its proper grammatical validity by becoming a syllabic
appendage to the other.

{a}. Thus, 交 kiau, {to join}, in the noun 交界 kiau ká‘, {a boundary},
has not the property of governing a substantive, that belongs to it in
相交朋友總要實際 siáng kiau báng ’{y}eu ’tsong yau‘ zeh tsí‘, {in
treating friends you must be true}. So also other verbs, as—

  應 {y}ung‘, {to correspond}, in 應騐 {y}ung‘ níe{n}‘, {agreement with
      prediction}. (Sometimes also {to agree, etc}.)
  容 {y}úng, {to allow}, in 容易꜄ {y}úng {í}‘, {easy}.
  過 kú‘, {to pass}, in 過失 kú‘ seh, {a fault} (cf. {trans}gression).

{b}. In the same manner 功 kóng, {work}, 形 {y}ung, {form}, and 氣 k’í‘,
{anger}, in the following examples are not nouns, since they are
neither in the nominative or accusative, or any other case. They
simply add their primitive sense to the verbs they assist to form.

  勿會成功太平 veh {w}é‘ zung kóng t’á‘ bing, {he cannot establish peace}.
  形容出來 {y}ung {y}óng t’seh lé, {bring into visible form}.
  有啥要動氣我 ’{y}eu sá‘ yau‘ ’dóng k’í ’ngú, why are you angry with me?

{c}. Similarly, adjectives in composition, while retaining their
etymological sense, lose their individuality, and cease to qualify
substantives, or to form a predicate to a subject.

  討一個大娘子 ’t’au ih kú‘ dú‘ niáng ’tsz, {to take a wife}.
  燒小菜 sau ’siau t’sé‘, {to cook vegetables}.
  定牢個生意 {t}ing‘ lau kú‘ ’tsû í‘, {to fix one’s determination}.
  保全萬物 ’pau dzíe{n} va{n}‘ veh, {to preserve all things}.

Obs. In the first example 大 {great} is prefixed to the word for
{wife}, independently of any second wife, and is usually equivalent to
niáng ’tsz. In the third  牢 {firm} is joined with 定 {t}ing‘, and the
two words together govern the following substantive.

353. So in larger groups, when words of different parts of speech
combine, the predominant character of the group is communicated to
words, which alone have quite another kind of force; e.g. if 針 tsun,
{needle}; 線 síe{n}‘, {thread}; 情 zing, {feeling}, represent {actions}
not {things} in the sentences—

  女人認眞針線紡織 ’nü niun niung‘-tsun tsun-síe{n}‘-’fong-tsuh,
      {women diligently sew, spin and weave}.
  甘心情願 ké{n} sing zing niö{n}‘, {ready for and wishing}.

354. When words combine to form a new compound term, different in
sense from both of them, their grammatical validity is lost, and the
new phrase is recognized in its entirety as a noun, verb, etc.
according to its meaning. Thus, 引 ’{y}ung, to {lead}, and 線 síe{n}‘,
{thread}, form the compound 引線 ’{y}ung síe{n}‘, {a needle}; 方 fong,
{square}, and 便 {p}íe{n}‘ {convenient}, form 方便 fong bíe{n}‘,
{alms}; 裁 dzé, {to cut with scissors} and 縫 vóng‘, {a seam}, form 裁縫
dzé vóng, {tailor}; 招 tsau, {to call}, and 軍 kiün, {an army}, form
招軍 tsau kiün, {a trumpet}.

  開路先鋒 k’é lú‘ síe{n} fóng, {a herald}.
  牢頭禁子 lau deu kiun‘ ’tsz, {jailor}.
  地保 {t}í‘ ’pau, {village bailiff}.
  代書 {t}é sû, {notary}.

355. Coordinate words having the same grammatical power, arranged in
groups of from two to five or even more characters, form a numerous
class. In regard to the laws of position, the whole group is treated
as a single noun or verb, or adjective as the case may be. In the
examples, a hyphen connects the coordinate words.

  伊個行事, 全是仁義道德 í‘ kú‘ {h}áng-zz‘, dzé{n} ’zz zun-ní‘-’{d}au-tuh,
      {his actions are all based on benevolence, rectitude, reason and
      virtue}.
  做親個時候, 夫妻兩個板要拜天地神明 tsú‘ t’sing kú‘ zz-k’í‘, fú-t’sí ’liáng
      kú‘ ’pa{n} yau‘ pá‘ t’íe{n}-dí‘-zun-ming, {at the time of
      marriage, the husband and wife must worship heaven, earth and
      the inferior deities}.
  大細有啥事體, 爺娘要問醫卜星相要好勿要好 {t}ú‘ sí‘ ’{y}eu sá‘ zz‘ ’t’í,
      {y}á-niáng yau‘ mun‘ í-póh-sing-siáng‘ yau‘ ’hau veh yau‘ ’hau,
      {if there be anything that concerns their children, the parents
      will ask the doctor, the diviner, the astrologer, and the
      physiognomist, if all will be well}.
  勿能用之器皿傢生, 測量伊個長闊高深 veh nung {y}úng‘ tsz k’í‘-’ming-ká-sáng,
      t’seh liáng, í‘ kú‘ dzang-k’weh-kau-sun, {you cannot by taking
      instruments measure its length, breadth, height and depth}.
      (four adj. here form one substantive, viz. {dimensions}.)
  人勿好担兇來, 待之馬牛羊三樣中牲, 因備人用 niun veh ’hau ta{n} h’iúng lé,
      de‘ tsz ’mó-nieu-yáng sa{n} yáng‘ tsóng sáng, yung bé‘ niun
      {y}úng‘, {men ought not to be cruel in treating the three
      animals, horse, cow and sheep, because they are useful to man}.
  人嘸啥事體個辰光, 担琴碁書畫來, 消悶過日 niun {m} sá‘ zz‘ ’tí kú‘ zun
      kwong, ta{n}‘ giun-gí-sû-{w}ó‘ lé‘ siau mun‘ kó‘ nyih, {when men
      have nothing to do, they take to the harp, chess, writing and
      painting, to dissipate care and pass away the time}.
  被褥鋪盖 {p}í‘-niók-p’ú-ké‘, {coverlid and mattrass, for bedding}.
  鞋襪衣帽 {h}á-mah-í-mau‘, {shoes, stockings, clothes and hat}.
  順從 zun‘-zóng, {to yield to and follow}.
  等待 ’tung-dé‘, {wait for}.
  骨頭指節 kweh-deu-tsz tsih, {bones, limbs and joints}.
  廣大 ’kwong dú‘, {wide and great}.
  牢硬 lau ngáng‘, {firm and hard}.
  播揚奧妙個道理 pú‘-yáng au‘-miau‘ kú‘ ’{t}au-’lí,  {to propagate
      mysterious and wonderful doctrines}.

356. Another numerous class of compounds consist of words, which,
while helping to form a larger group, retain a grammatical relation to
each other.

  有一種爲非作歹個人 ’{y}eu ih ’tsóng {w}é-fí-tsok-’té kú‘ niun, {there is
      a sort of vicious mischief-making men}.
  一眼嘸情嘸義個 ih ’nga{n} {m}-dzing-{m}-ní‘ kú‘, {quite destitute of
      feeling and principle}.
  正管偷閑懶惰 tsung‘ ’kwé{n} t’eu {h}a{n} ’la{n} dú‘, {they do nothing
      but waste time and be lazy}.
  認差之假佯頭發囘往心 niung‘ t’só tsz ’ká {y}á deu fah {w}é ’wong sing,
      {he was misled by his pretend change of mind}.
  領之傳杯弄盞個朋友出去 ’ling tsz dzé{n} pé lóng‘ ’tsa{n} kú‘ {p}áng ’{y}eu
      t’seh k’í‘, {he led out his friends who were his drinking
      companions}.
  嘸沒出典 {m} meh t’seh ’tíe{n}, {has on classical authority}.

Obs. i. 出 governs 典 {ancient books}, and the two words together form
a substantive in the objective case, after the verb {m} meh. The whole
is equivalent 勿上書本 veh ’zong sû ’pun, {it is not used in books}.

Obs. ii. In phrases of this sort, we have government within
government. A transitive verb with its regimen, may form part of a
group, which is an elongated adjective, qualifying the following noun.
Compare in English, such phrases as “a luxurious, {do-nothing} life.”

Obs. iii. Verbs with their regimen are freely used as adjectives, and
connected by means of 箇, with the following noun; e.g. 養蠶咾種茶葉個百
姓, 今年苦惱者 {y}áng‘ zé{n} lau tsóng‘ dzó {y}ih kú‘ pká síng‘, kiun
níe{n} ’k’ú ’nau ’tsé, {the silk-worm breeders and tea cultivators
will this year suffer greatly}. So also other combinations, 拉廣東做個
物事, 全是巧個 ’lá ’kwong tóng tsú‘ kú‘ meh zz‘, dzé{n} ’zz ’k’iau kú‘,
{things made at Canton are all ingeniously worked}.

357. In many cases, while there is a common grammatical character
belonging to the whole group, only part of the constituent words give
the {sense}. Thus in 苦楚 ’k’ú ’t’sú, {miserable}; 福氣 fók k’í‘,
{happiness}; 恩典 un ’tíe{n}‘ {favour}; the second word in each has no
influence on the sense. So also 相 in 相信 siáng sing‘, {to believe in},
does not in colloquial usage retain the sense of reciprocity. To give
that idea, an adverb such as 大家 {t}á‘ ká, must be prefixed.

358. Some terms originally consist of two syllables, which are written
separately, only because the Chinese mode of writing requires each
character to be the sign of a monosyllable.

  吩咐 fun fú, {to command}.
  須張 sü tsáng,[1] {to nurse} (C).
  叮囑 ting tsóh, {give directions}.

Obs. Such words as these are construed as verbs, just as if they were
monosyllabic words.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. Or 張羅 tsáng lú, {to nurse} (also c.)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------

{Separable groups}. 359. Those combinations that admit of the
insertion of other words, so as to lengthen the group will now be
illustrated.

{a}. Those that consist of two coordinate words, admit of a qualifying
or governing term being applied to each word.

  飛禽走獸 fí giun ’tseu seu‘, {birds and beasts}.
  歡天喜地 hwé{n} t’íe{n} ’h’í dí‘, {exceedingly pleased}.
  通文達理 t’óng vun ta ’lí, {thoroughly understand literary composition}.
  心滿意足 sing ’mé{n} í‘ tsóh, {satisfied}.
  咬牙切齒 ’ngau ngá t’sih ’t’sz, {grinding the teeth in pain}.
  囘心轉意 {w}é sing ’tsé{n} í‘, {to change one’s mind}.
  思前想後 sz zíe{n} ’siáng {h}eu‘, {thinks of the past and future}.
  循規蹈矩 dzing kwé‘ dau‘ ’kü, {follow the rule of propriety}.
  求神拜佛 {k}ieu zun pá‘ veh, {pray to spirits and worship Buddha}.
  早思暮想 ’tsau sz mú‘ ’siáng, {meditate early and late}.

{b}. The groups formed by the numeral particles admit the insertion of
adjectives and adjective phrases, between those particles and their
substantives. Material nouns sometimes take their auxiliary after them.

  一根長銅絲 ih kun dzáng dóng sz, {a long piece of brass wire}.
  一片大鐵片 ih p’íe{n}‘ dú‘ t’ih p’íe{n}‘, {a large piece of iron}.
  一隻會白話個鸚𪃿 ih tsáh {w}é‘ báh {w}ó‘ kú‘ áng kú, {a talking parrot}.
  一根長竹頭 ih kun dzáng tsóh deu, {a long stick of bamboo}.
  一隻花狗 ih tsáh hwó ’keu, {a spotted dog}.
  一張厚紙 ih tsáng ’{h}eu ’tsz, {a thick sheet of paper}.
  一張薄紙張 ih tsáng bóh ’tsz tsáng, {a thin piece of paper}.
  一枝有鋒鋩個筆 ih tsz ’{y}eu fóng mong kú‘ pih, {a pencil that has a
    point}.

{c}. When a group consists of a transitive verb and its regimen (which
sometimes answer to a single verb in English), auxiliary words come
between the verb, and its object.

  上之檔者 ’zong tsz tong‘ ’tsé, {he has been entrapped}.
  專之權咾殺脱之皇帝者 tsé{n} tsz giö{n} lau sah t’eh tsz {w}ong tí‘ ’tsé,
      {relying on his influence, he killed the emperor}.
  惹有見識個笑  ’zá ’{y}eu kíe{n}‘ suh kú‘ siau‘, {causing the laughter of
      those who are intelligent}.
  叨儂光嗄 t’au nóng‘ kwong au, {I beg your favour} (light).

Obs. When a verb and adjective are combined, the tense particle
follows the adjective; e.g. 繩放鬆之末好 zung fong‘ sóng tsz meh ’hau,
{it would be better to slacken the rope}.

{d}. In the verb groups of direction and motion, the substantive
governed is sometimes inserted after the principal verb, sometimes
between the second and third auxiliaries when there are two, and
sometimes it is placed at the end.

  同壺滴水下來 {t}óng {ú} tih ’sz ’{a}u lé, {brazen urn dropping water}.
  放轎子下來 fong‘ giau‘ ’tsz ’{a}u lé, {let the chair down}.
  放我開來 fong‘ ’ngú k’é lé, {let me go}.
  赶兵出去 kû{n} ping t’seh k’í‘, {drive out soldiers}.
  挑担出來 t’iau ta{n} t’seh lé, {carry out a load}.
  打馬前去 ’táng ’mó zíe{n} k’í‘, {drive a horse forward}.
  併傢生攏來 ’ping ká sáng ’lóng lé, {collect domestic articles}.
  再活別人轉來 tsé‘ {w}eh bih niun ’tsé{n} lé, {call a man to life again}.
  轉水進去 ’tsé{n} ’sz tsing‘ k’í‘, {pour in water}.
  殺進城來 sah tsing‘ zung lé, {enter the city fighting}.
  赶出狗來 kû{n} t’seh ’keu lé, {drive out dogs}.
  担出衣裳來 ta{n} t’seh í zong lé, {bring clothes out}.
  反轉手來 ’fa{n} ’tsé{n} ’seu lé, {turn one’s hand over}.
  旋轉盤來 zíe{n}‘ ’tsé{n} bé{n} lé, {turn the tray round}.
  撐開船來 t’sáng ké‘ zé{n} lé, {pole the boat away}.
  推開窻來 t’é k’é t’song lé, {push the window open}.
  行起風來 {h}áng ’k’í fóng le, {take the wind to work the boat}.
  擎起刀來 {k}iung ’k’í tau lé, {lift up a knife}.
  放起炮來 fong‘ ’k’í p’au‘ lé, {commence firing cannon}.

Obs. Rarely the nominative is placed after the verb it governs, 走人下來
’tseu niun ’{a}u lé, {men are coming down}; 吹風進去 t’sz fóng tsing‘
k’i‘, {wind blows in}.

{e}. Negative verb groups sometimes admit of an adverb qualifying the
principal verb, and coming immediately after it.

  認大勿出 niun‘ dá‘ veh t’seh, {I scarcely recognize him.}
  話大勿來 {w}ó‘ dá‘ veh lé, {I cannot well talk}.
  看大勿見 k’ö{n}‘ dá‘ veh kíe{n}‘, {I can scarcely see it}.
  吃大勿落 k’iuh dá‘ veh loh, {I cannot well eat}.

{f}. Verb groups with the affirmative and negative particles, also
admit the objective case after the principal verb.

  呌伊勿出 kiau‘ í veh t’seh, {I do not know its name}.
  甩伊勿開 hwah í veh k’é, {I cannot throw him off}.
  拔伊勿起 {p}ah í veh ’k’í, {I cannot pull it up}.

Obs. In many cases, the object comes after the whole group; e.g. 當勿
住大兵 tong veh dzû‘ dá‘ ping, {he cannot resist the great army}; 做勿動
生活 tsú‘ veh ’dóng sáng {w}eh, {I cannot do any work}.

{g}. Repeated verbs with the tentative 看 k’ö{n}‘, take their
accusative case before 看 k’ö{n}‘.

  問問伊看 mun‘ mun‘ í k’ö{n}‘, ask him and see.
  做做文章看 tsú‘ tsú‘ vun tsáng k’ö{n}‘, {write an essay as a
      specimen}.


             {Section} 4. {On Repetition}.

360. The repetition of words frequently affects the grammatical sense
of the words repeated. At other times it is mere tautology adopted for
rhythmical reasons, or for the purpose of emphasis as in English.
Cases in which the repeating of a word has a grammatical value, will
be first considered.

Appellative and relative substantives, when repeated, are translated
by {all} or {every}.

  人人算日頭, 無價之寶 niun niun sö{n}‘ nyih deu, vú ká‘ tsz ’pau, {all men
      feel that the sun is inestimably precious}.
  處處反亂 t’sû‘ t’sû‘ ’fan lö{n}‘, {rebellion and disturbance everywhere}.
  君君臣臣 kiun kiun zun zun, {all princes and magistrates}.
  樹樹有皮, 人人有面 zû‘ zû‘ ’{y}eu bí, niun niun ’{y}eu míe{n}‘, {trees
      all have bark, and men all have faces}.

361. The numeral particles are all repeated, thereby giving the sense
of {all} and {every} to their substantives. Subdivisions of time, and
space, measures of material nouns, etc. are also repeated in the same
sense.

  店家家關者 tíe{n}‘ ká ká kwa{n} ’tsé, {the shops are all shut}.
  門扇扇鎖好拉 mun sé{n}‘ sé{n}‘ ’sú ’hau ’lá, {the doors are all locked}.
  羊隻隻要修 {y}áng tsáh tsáh yau‘ sieu, {the sheep all need to be shorn.}
  城裏向舖舖有小甲 zung ’lí h’iáng‘ p’ú‘ p’ú‘ ’{y}eu ’siau kah, {in the
      city every ward has a bailiff}.
  天天好日頭 t’íe{n} t’íe{n} ’hau nyih deu, {the sun shines every day}.
  物事斤斤缺少 meh zz‘ kiun kiun k’iöh ’sau, {each catty of articles is
      short}.
  把把刀磨快末者 pó pó tau mú k’wá‘ meh ’tsé, {grind all the knives}.
  間間房子坍脱者 ka{n} ka{n} vong ’tsz t’a{n} t’eh ’tsé, {every house is
      fallen}.
  今年菓子種種勿好 kiun níe{n} ’kú ’tsz ’tsóng ’tsóng veh ’hau, {this year
      all kinds of fruits have failed}.
  姊妹雙雙出來 tsí mé‘ song song t’seh lé, {the elder and younger sisters
      are come out in pairs}.
  寫字個法則是筆筆中鋒 ’siá zz‘ kú‘ fah tsuh pih pih tsóng fóng, {the
      method of writing is for each stroke to be made with the point
      of the pencil}.
  條條大路 {t}iau diau dá‘ lú‘, {they are all great roads}.
  句句眞話 kü‘ kü‘ tsun {w}ó‘, {every sentence is truth}.

Obs. i. The difference between full appellative or other nouns, and
the auxiliary nouns that define time, space, quantity, and form, is
here again prominently brought to view. Duplication serves to show
where the two classes of terms border on each other. Thus, 街 ká,
{a street} is not repeated; the form being, such as 街路條條沒滿之一寸高血
ká lú‘ diau diau meh ’mé{n} tsz ih t’sun‘ kau h’iöh, {the streets were
all covered with blood an inch high}. 衖 long‘, {a lane}, on the other
hand is treated as a subdivision in space, and takes no numeral
particle; e.g. 衖衖有十外家人家 lóng‘ lóng‘ {y}eu {s}eh ngá ká niun ká,
{in every lane there are ten families or more}.

Obs. ii. It has been shown in the section on adverbs, that
substantives of time when doubled are used in the sense {always}.
This is an instance in agreement with the broader principle, that all
names of subdivisions and auxiliary numeral particles are repeated,
and that the repetition implies universality.

362. Adjectives are sometimes repeated before a substantive, but much
more frequently when placed as predicate after it. No addition is
thereby made to the sense.

  做生活個人勞勞碌碌 tsú‘ sáng {w}eh kú‘ niun lau lau lóh lóh, {the workmen
      are tired}.
  好好物事 ’hau ’hau meh zz‘, {a good article}.
  小小個一圓鐵蛋 ’siau ’siau kú‘ ih {y}ön t’ih da{n}‘, {a small iron shot}.
  多多百姓 tú tú pák sing‘, {very many people}.
  花卉妖妖嬈嬈 hwó ’hwé yau yau zau zau, {the flowers are very beautiful}.
  樹林密密層層 zû‘ ling mih mih zung zung, {the wood is crowded with trees}.
  山頭玲玲瓏瓏 sa{n} deu ling ling lóng lóng, {the hill is picturesque}.
  若惆惆 ’k’ú tseu tseu, {unhappy}.
  聽見之書聲朗朗 t’ing kíe{n}‘ tsz sû sung long‘ long‘, {we heard the
      sound of reading pleasant and clear}.
  眼淚汪汪 ’nga{n} lí‘ wong wong, {tears flowing abundantly}.
  火星燄燄 ’hú sing {y}a{n}‘ {y}a{n}‘, {the sparks are very bright}.
  十指尖尖 {s}eh ’tsz tsíe{n} tsíe{n}, {ten sharp-pointed fingers}.

363. When doubled, adjectives follow verbs they are translated as
adverbs.

  物事安排舒舒徐徐個 meh zz‘ ö{n} bá sû sû zí zí kú‘, {the things were
      placed in admirable order}.
  做來潦潦草草 tsú‘ lé lau lau t’sau‘ t’sau‘, {it is done in a coarse way}.

Obs. It has been shown that repeated adjectives placed before verbs
qualify them like adverbs. We have also 攏攏總總有一百 ’lóng ’lóng
tsóng‘ tsóng‘ ’{y}eu ih páh, {altogether there are a hundred}. The
primitive adverbs are not repeated.

364. Several relative substantives are repeated without any alteration
in the sense.

  叔叔 sóh sóh, {uncle}.
  嫂嫂 ’sau sau‘, {sister-in-law}.
  爹爹 tiá tiá, {father}.
  第第 ’{t}í ’dí, {younger brother}.
  姊姊 ’tsí tsí‘, {sister} (ah tsí, {idem}).
  妹妹 mí‘ mí‘, {younger sister} (mé‘ mé‘).
  媽媽 má má, {mother} (or ah má).
  哥哥 kú kú, {elder brother} (ah kú, ib.).
  弟弟 {t}í‘ dí‘, {younger brother} (hiúng dí‘).

365. When verbs are repeated, it is for rhythmical reasons, and for
the sake of alliteration. In addition to the examples given in Art.
231, the following will serve to exhibit the use of these seeming
tautologies.

{a}. Single verbs are repeated with or without a regimen.

  要買點飯吃吃 yau‘ ’má ’tíe{n} va{n}‘ k’iuh k’iuh, {I wish to buy a
      little rice to eat}.
  我不過澆澆花咾, 修修丫枝 ’ngú peh kú‘ kiau kiau hwó lau, sieu sieu au tsz,
      {I am just watering the flowers, and pruning the branches of the
      trees}.

{b}. In a verb group of two, the second word is often repeated.

  孛相相 {p}eh siáng‘ siáng‘, {rambling for amusement}.
  笑嘻嘻 siau‘ h’í h’í, {laughing}.
  魚拉水裏活動動 ng ’lá ’sz ’lí {w}eh ’dóng ’dóng, {the fish are swimming
      actively in the water}.
  遊嬉嬉咾, 勿肯用必 yeu h’í h’í lau, veh ’k’ung {y}úng‘ sing, {he rambles
      about amusing himself, and will not attend to anything}.
  哭漓漓 k’óh lí lí, {he is weeping}.

{c}. Many groups of four contain a single repeated verb.

  打敗之咾紛紛各散 ’táng bá‘ tsz lau fun fun koh sa{n}‘, {being conquered,
      they divided and were all scattered}.
  打贏之咾歸來得意揚揚 ’tang {y}ung tsz lau kü lé tuh í‘ {y}áng {y}áng,
      {having conquered, he came back satisfied and elated}.
  衣袂飄飄 í mé‘ p’iau p’iau, {the shirts of clothes blowing about}.
  星光閃閃 sing kwong sé{n}‘ sé{n}‘, {the star-light twinkles}.
  枝葉洽洽 tsz ih {y}ah {y}ah, {the branches and leaves are waving}.

{d}. Many verb groups of two are extended by the repetition of each
word.

  事體定定當當 zz‘ t’í {t}ing‘ ding‘ tong‘ tong‘, {the thing is brought
      to a settlement}.
  勿必疑疑惑惑 veh pih ní ní {ó}h {ó}h, {you need not suspect}.
  牙齒活活落落 ngá ’t’sz {w}eh {w}eh loh loh, {his teeth are shaking and
      falling out}.
  走𨅓跎之咾興興夯夯  ’tseu sá dú tsz lau h’iung h’iung hong hong, {he has
      walked himself tired and is panting for breath}.
  碗盞相碰响咾歴歴碌碌 ’wé{n} ’tsa{n} siáng báng‘ ’h’iáng lau líh líh lóh
      lóh, {the cups and saucers are falling together and making a
      noise}.

{e}. Frequently in repeated groups of four, the constituent
words alternate.

  打算打算也勿對景 ’táng sö{n}‘ ’táng sö{n}‘ ’{á} veh té‘ ’kiung, {with all
      his meditating, he cannot satisfy himself}.
  留步留歩勿要送者 lieu bú‘ lieu bú‘ veh yau‘ sóng‘ ’tsé, {stay, stay, do
      not escort me out}.
  物事好吃有味有味 meh zz‘ ’hau k’iuh ’{y}eu mí‘ ’{y}eu mí‘, {this thing
      is very nice, it has a fine taste}.

{f}. The verb is repeated alternately with two accusatives.

  總要勞心勞力 ’tsóng yau‘ lau sing lau lih, {you must use your mind and
      all your efforts}.
  年成好者謝天謝地 níe{n} zung ’hau ’tsé ziá‘ t’íe{n} ziá‘ dí‘, {it is a
      good year, and we must thank heaven and earth for it}.
  爲皇爲帝 {w}é {w}ong {w}é tí‘, {to be an emperor}.
  做官做府 tsú‘ kwé{n} tsú‘ ’fú, {to be a mandarin}.

366. With regard to their syntax, groups consisting of repetitions
frequently form separate clauses of a sentence, but not exclusively
so. They also like other groups, obey the laws of position of section
1. in relation to neighbouring words, and in their internal structure,
and are construed as adjectives, verbs, or adverbs according to their
particular character and use as a whole.

{a}. As adjective, whether forming a predicate or in apposition.

  做一個人總要正正派派 tsu‘ ih kú‘ niun ’tsóng yau‘ tsung‘ tsung‘ p’á‘
      p’á‘, {as a man, you must be correct in conduct}.
  人住勒拉花花世界, 大有福氣拉 niun dzû‘ leh ’lá hwó hwó sz‘ kú‘, dú‘
      ’{y}eu fok kí‘ ’lá, {man living in a beautiful world, has great
      happiness}.

{b}. As verb.

  看看許多人跟拉 k’ö{n}‘ k’ö{n}‘ tú hau‘ niun kun ’lá, {see there is a
      great number of persons following}.

{c}. As verb.

  逃走脱者就快快活活接到船上 {t}au ’tseu t’eh ’tsé dzieu‘ k’á‘ k’á‘ {w}eh
      {w}eh tsih tau‘ zé{n} long‘, {when he had escaped, they gladly
      received him to the boat}.
  明明亮亮收受徒弟 ming ming liáng‘ liáng‘ seu ’zeu dú dí‘,
      {they openly received disciples}.
  詳詳細細考究實骨子那能個 ziáng ziáng sí‘ sí‘ ’k’au kieu‘ zeh kweh ’tsz
      ná‘ nung kú‘, {carefully examine how it truly is}.

Obs. Groups of four, whether formed by repeated words or not, very
commonly fall into separate clauses; e.g. 文理嘸啥好草草不工 vun ’lí {m}
sá‘ ’hau, ’t’sau ’t’sau peh kóng, {it is not at all well written, but
coarse and unpolished}.


             {Section} 5. {Order in groups}.

367. There are various principles of arrangement in the words of a
group. A group of four (1) may contain in itself an entire sentence;
e.g. 懂呢勿懂 ’tóng ní veh ’tóng, {do you understand?} (2) or it may
consist of verbs and their regimen, nouns and their adjectives, or
other combinations of the parts of speech; e.g. 伸冤理枉 sun yö{n} ’lí
’wong, {to redress injuries}. (3) Repetition direct and alternate,
forms many short phrases into longer groups, (4.) The principle of
arrangement in many groups is, the order of nature, species being
placed before genus, and the whole before its parts. (5.) The
constituent words may be coordinate in meaning, and alike in
grammatical character.

In addition to these varieties of structure, there are also mixed
groups in which repetition for instance forms one part, and words
combined grammatically, another; e.g. 念念不忘 nia{n}‘ nia{n}‘ peh
vong, {think of constantly}.

368. Complete sentences are here placed with the other groups, because
they fall into regular forms, and obey the laws of rhythm in a manner
similar the fixed phrases of two, three, four or more words here
referred to. Hence the predominance of short pithy sentences in common
conversation.

  有啥勿懂 ’{y}eu sá‘ veh ’tong, {why should I not understand?}
  勿曾曉得 veh zung ’h’iau tuh, {I do not know}.
  洋價大者 {y}áng ká‘ dú‘ ’tsé, {the price of the dollar is high}.
  那能辦法 ná‘ nung‘ {p}a{n}‘ fah, {how should we proceed?}
  要好就好 yau‘ ’hau dzieu‘ ’hau, {if you want it good, it is at once
      good}.

Obs. The order of the words in these phrases is regulated by the
rules of Part III, section 1, and the sections on propositions.

369. Many groups have an internal syntactical arrangement, and they
are so numerous, that although some examples have already been given,
more will here appended. They may be divided into (a), those in which
there is a repetition of the idea, and (b) where there is none.

  嘴尖舌快 ’tsz tsíe{n} zeh k’wá‘, {sharp lips and tongue}.
  靑天白日 t’sing t’íe{n} bah nyih, {clear sky and bright sun}.
  忘恩負義 vong un veu‘ ní‘, {forget kindness}.
  欺天瞞地 k’í t’íe{n} mé{n} dí‘, {deceive heaven and earth}.
  東倒西歪 tóng ’tau sí hwá, {all is in disorder}.
  話長話短 {w}ó‘ dzáng {w}ó‘ ’tö{n}, {very loquacious}.
  搬嘴弄舌 pé{n} ’tsz lóng‘ zeh, {fond of using the tongue}.
  呑飢忍餓 t’un kí ’niun ngú‘, {to endure hunger}.
  人面獸心 niun míe{n}‘ seu‘ sing, {in face a man, but in heart a wild
      beast}.
  苦口良言 ’k’ú ’k’eu líang {í}e{n}, {advice bitter but salutary}.
  山珍海味 sa{n} tsun ’hé mí‘, {delicacies from the mountain and the sea}.
  指東話西 ’tsz tóng {w}ó‘ sí, {advising this and then that}.
  藏頭露尾 dzong deu lú‘ ’ví, {act contrary to propriety}.
  喜富怕窮 ’h’í fú‘ p’ó‘ gióng, {pleased with riches but fearing poverty}.
  損人利己 ’sun niun lí‘ ’kí, {rob others to enrich one’s-self}.
  呼兄喊第 hú h’iúng ha{n}‘ dí‘, {to call brothers}.
  或三或四 {w}oh sa{n} {w}óh sz‘, {sometimes this and sometimes that}.
  引經據典 ’{y}ung kiung kü‘ ’tíe{n}, {to cite books and appeal to the
      classics}.
  吹哥唱曲 t’sz kú t’song‘ k’ióh, {to play airs and sing songs}.

370. Passing over repetition groups, as already sufficiently
illustrated, some examples will be given of those in which several
words coordinate in sense are placed in proximity. In many instances
such words as express relative superiority stand first.

  風雲雷雨 fóng {y}ün lé ’{ü}, {wind, clouds, thunder and rain}.
  雨雪霜露 ’{ü} sih song lú‘, {rain, snow, hail and dew}.
  賢良方正 {h}íen liáng fong tsung‘, {the wise, good, noble and upright}.
  柴米油鹽 zá ’mí {y}eu {í}e{n}, {fuel, rice, oil and salt}.
  荳穀米麥 {t}eu‘ kóh ’mí máh, {beans, rice and wheat}.
  始終本末 ’sz tsóng ’pun meh, {beginning and end, origin and conclusion}.
  牛羊犬馬 nieu, {y}áng, ’k’iö{n}, ’mó, {cattle, sleep, dogs and horses}.
  君親師友 kiün t’sing sz ’{y}eu, {king, parents, teacher and friends}.
  磚瓦石灰 tsé{n} ’ngó záh hwé, {bricks, tiles and lime}.
  禽獸昆蟲 {k}iun seu‘ k’wun dzóng, {birds, beasts and insects}.
  瓶甏罐頭 {p}ing báng kwé{n} deu, {pitchers, pots and pans}.
  耳目口鼻  ’rh móh ’k’eu bih, {ear eyes, mouth and nose}.
  魚鳞蝦蟹 ng ling hö{n} ’há, {fish, crabs and shrimps}.
  金銀銅錫 kiun niun dóng t’ih sih, {gold, copper, copper, iron and tin}.
  解釋 ’ká seh, {explain}.
  審斷 ’sun tö{n}‘, {to judge}.
  離散 lí sa{n}‘, {to be scattered}.
  偷竊 t’eu t’sih, {to steal}.
  圓滿 {y}ö{n} ’mé{n}, {round & full}.
  端方 tö{n} fong, {upright}.
  紡織 ’fong tsuh, {spinning and weaving}.

Obs. On presenting these examples to a Fuh-kien literary man, it was
found that half of the groups were in use in his dialect; of the
remainder, more than half were partially the same with collocations
familiar to him, while the rest were entirely different.

371. Species invariably precedes genus, and matter form, in groups
formed of words thus related.

  筆筒好插個 pih dóng ’hau t’sah kú‘, {you can stick it in the pencil
      holder}.
  嘸沒筆帽子 {m} meh pih mau ’tsz, {there is no top-case to the pencil}.
  蚊帳破個 mun tsáng, p’ú‘ kú‘, {the mosquito curtain is torn}.
  扇骨綠漆個 sé{n}‘ kweh lók t’sih kú‘, {the frame of the fan is painted
      green}.
  鐵店裏打拉個 t’ih tíe{n}‘ lí ’táng ’lá kú‘, {it was made in the
      blacksmith’s shop}.
  石馬 {s}áh ’mó, {stone horse}.
  蒲扇 {p}ú sé{n}‘, {broad-leaf fans}.
  砂皮 só bí, {sand paper}.
  瓦粒屑 ’ngó lih sih, {earthenware fragments}.

Obs. i. Substance precedes accident or attribute, and the whole its
part. This is sometimes the same with the proposition immediately
above, {genus} being only such part of {species} as happens to belong
commonly to several objects. We may fix our attention on either word
in the compound indifferently, considering it as the {essence}, while
the other is the {accident}. Thus, 屋基 óh kí, {foundation of a house};
屋頂 hó ’ting, {house roof}, are parts of the appellative substantive
{house}. So, if speaking of the articles into which bamboo is
manufactured, the second word in 竹牌 tsóh bá, {piece of flattened
bamboo}; 竹簾 tsóh líe{n}, {bamboo window-blinds}; 竹紙 tsóh ’tsz,
{bamboo paper}, is in each case that which expresses {form}, while the
first describes the {material}.

The latter may be viewed as accidental to the former, or if preferred,
the second word may called {genus}, while the first is considered as
limiting it to a particular {species}.

Obs. ii. In conformity with the principle, that the word in which the
substance of the noun inheres should stand first, the auxiliary
appendages 頭 deu, 子 ’tsz, 處 t’sû‘, 法 fah follow their words; e.g.
飯嘸尋處 va{n}‘ {m} zing t’sû‘, {there is no way of getting a living};
寫法總有個 ’siá fah ’tsóng ’{y}eu kú‘, {there must be some mode of
writing it}.

Obs. iii. The auxiliary substantives and numeral particles
appropriated to particular nouns, when they follow their words without
a numeral, exemplify the same law; e.g. 白話裏向勿要加出多許書句 {p}áh {w}ó‘
’lí h’iáng‘ veh yau‘ ká t’seh tú hau‘ sû kü‘, {do not mingle so many
book sentences in what you say}.

Obs. iv. In double substantives formed partly with a verb, the verb as
giving the species stands first; e.g. 算盤 sö{n}‘ bé{n}, {counting
board}; 印板 yun‘ ’pa{n}, {printing blocks}; 話柄 {w}ó ping‘, {a bon
mot} (See Art. 113.).

Obs. v. Many inseparable dissyllabic substantives, in which the
distinction of matter and form is not obvious in their daily use, if
viewed etymologically may be noticed to have the same order; e.g. 文章
vun tsáng, {literary compositions}; 地方 {t}í‘ fong, {a place}. The
word giving the matter stands in each case first.

372. If the action be gradual in a compound verb, the word first in
time is first in order. The word that concludes the action comes last.

  担來銷化 ta{n} lé siau hwó‘, {to take and burn}.
  燈點完者 tung ’tíe{n} {w}é{n} ’tsé, {the lamp is burnt out}.
  撥拉賊匪打輸 peh ’lá zuh fí‘ ’táng sû, {he was defeated by the rebels}.

Obs. i. Most of the auxiliary particles occurring in compound verbs
follow the principal word; v. Art. 217, 222, but 打 ’táng, and such
adverbs as help to form compound verbs precede the principal words;
e.g. 打緝打緝看 ’táng t’sih ’táng t’sih k’ö{n}‘, {make inquiries}.

Obs. ii. The auxiliary verbs of {power}, forming a potential mode,
precede their verbs. 勿會白話 veh {w}é‘ báh {w}ó‘, {he cannot talk};
勿能去 veh nung k’í‘, {he cannot go}. In English, there are also
auxiliaries of this kind preceding other verbs in apposition, without
the sign of the infinitive intervening; e.g. {may, can}.

{Variation in Order}. 373. The components of some groups admit of more
than one mode of arrangement. The following may be used in a direct or
inverted order.

  來往 lé ’wong, {communication}.
  氣力 k’í‘ lih, {strength}.
  笑談 siau‘ da{n}, {laughing and talking}.
  征戰 tsung tsé{n}‘ {to fight}.
  週身上下 tseu sun ’zong ’{a}u, {the whole body} (or 下上).
  歡喜 hwe{n} ’h’í, {pleased}.
  勿論損益 veh lun‘ ’sun yuh, {without regarding whether it be injurious
      or beneficial}.
  小大 ’siao dú‘, {small, great}.
  黑白 huh, báh, {black, white}.
  南北東西 né{n} póh tóng sí, {south, north, east and west}.
  靈魂 ling {w}ung, {the soul}.
  彎轉 wa{n} ’tsé{n}, {to turn around}.
  長短 dzáng ’tö{n}, {long and short}.

Obs. The number of groups variable in order, is comparatively
extremely small. The number of cases in English, where one particular
order of coordinate words is maintained, is by no means small; e.g.
{long and happy reign; far and near; kings and queens}.

374. The following principles of arrangement may be distinguished in
the apposition of verbs.

{a}. The auxiliaries of the future tense, and the imperative and
potential moods precede their verb. 要 yau‘, 會 {w}é‘, 能 nung.

  總要去 ’tsóng yau‘ k’í‘, {you must go}.
  我會寫 ’ngú {w}é‘ ’siá, {I can write}.
  勿能來 veh nung lé, {he cannot come}.
  勿要來 veh yau‘ lé, {I do not wish to come; or do not come}.
  勿會話要來 veh zung {w}ó‘ yau‘ lé, {I did not say, I should come}.
  儂也要來 nóng‘ ’{á} yau‘ lé, {you must come}.

{b}. When the object of a verb is an action, it is expressed by a
verb in Chinese, instead of a verbal derivative, or infinitive, or
gerund form, such as would be used in languages having grammatical
forms.

  勿免死 veh ’míe{n} ’sí, {cannot avoid dying}.
  勿想吃 veh ’siáng k’iuh, {I do not think of eating}.
  勿算逃走 veh sö{n}‘ dau ’tseu, {not to be regarded as flight}.
  勿敢做 veh ’ké{n} tsú‘, {he does not dare do it}.
  幾時想修 ’kí zz ’siáng sieu, {when do you think of reforming}.
  打算謀反 ’táng sö{n}‘ meu ’fa{n}, {to meditate a revolt}.
  愛吃酒 é‘ k’iuk ’tsieu, {to be fond of drinking wine}.

{c}. The auxiliary verbs expressive of direction and motion,
beginning and completion, etc. follow the principal verb.

  買進來 ’má tsing‘ lé, {to buy in}.
  抱進抱出 ’{p}au tsing‘ ’{p}au t’seh, {to carry in and out in one’s arms}.

{d}. Priority in time often determines the order of verbs.

  我去送 ’ngú k’í‘ sóng‘, {I will go and present it}.
  要來相幫 yau‘ lé siáng pong, {you must come and assist}.
  勸化世界上人 k’iö{n}‘ hwó‘ sz‘ ká‘ long‘ niung, {to exhort and convert
      mankind}.
  打殺別人 ’táng sah bih niun, {to beat persons to death}.

{e}. Coordinate verbs.

  保護𩻴寡孤獨 ’pau {ú}‘ kwa{n} kwó kú dóh, {to protect and save widows,
      orphans, and those who have no relatives}.


            {Section} 6. {Simple Propositions}.

375. The simplest sentence is that in which there is a single word,
forming the subject (主 ’tsû), and another the predicate (賓 ping). The
subject always precedes.

  馬來 ’mó lé, {a horse comes}.
  天熱 t’íe{n} nyih, {the weather is hot}.

Obs. i. Occasionally the predicate precedes, 出會 t’seh {w}é‘, {the
procession is out}; 落水 lok ’sz, {the tide is falling}. These forms
may also be explained as impersonal verbs with an accusative.

Obs. ii. An adjective forms of itself a complete predicate, and
usually has no copula to connect it with the preceding nominative.
桃子熟者 {t}au ’tsz zók ’tsé, {the peaches are ripe}.

376. The simple proposition in its full form has also a copula.

  是吾作主 ’zz ngú tsok ’tsû, {I act for myself}.
  海裏個水是深個 ’hé ’lí kú‘ ’sz ’zz sun kú‘, {the water of the sea is
      deep}.
  天來得熱 t’íe{n} lé tuh nyih, {the weather is hot}.

Obs. When the predicate is a verb, the copula may be always considered
as included in it. It is when the predicate is an adjective that a
vacuum becomes obvious to a foreign ear.

377. The subject may consist of a substantive, or a substantive group,
a pronoun, a verb or a verb group, or adverbs of place and time,
construed as nouns.

  日頭勿出來 nyih deu veh t’seh lé, {the sun does not come out}.
  菴堂寺院秃有燒香 é{n} dong zz‘ {y}ö{n}‘ t’oh ’{y}eu ’sau h’iáng, {in all
      convents and monasteries there is incense burning}.
  第個是好點個 {t}í‘ kú‘ ’zz ’hau ’tíe{n} kú‘, {this is better}.
  買是勿能 ’má ’zz veh nung, {to buy is impossible}.
  挑咾扛勿會個 t’iau lau kong veh {w}é‘ kú‘, {to act as porter alone or
      with others, is what I cannot do}.
  此地有雪 ’t’sz dí‘ ’{y}eu sih, {it snows here}.
  明朝初六 ming tsau t’sú lóh, {to-morrow is the sixth}.

Obs. i. Sometimes the subject is understood; e.g. 總要立定主意
’tsóng yau‘ lih ding‘ ’tsû í‘, ({you}) {must be resolute}.

Obs. ii. Adjectives also sometimes form a predicate. 好有好報, ’hau
’{y}eu ’hau pau‘, {goodness has a good reward}; 善咾惡總要辨出來
’zé{n} lau oh ’tsóng yau‘ bíe{n}‘ t’seh lé, {virtue and vice must
be distinguished}.

Obs. iii. Any word that qualifies a noun may be removed from its place
in apposition, and become a predicate. Thus, 第座房子是拉個 {t}í‘ zú‘
vong ’tsz ’zz ’lá kú‘, {this house is the right one}, may become,
是第座房子 ’zz dí‘ zú‘ vong ’tsz, {it is this one}; 兩條橋有, ’liáng
diau giau ’{y}eu, {there are two bridges}, or 橋有兩條 {k}iau ’{y}eu
’liáng diau, {of bridge there are two}.

378. When the copula is used, it takes the forms of 是 ’zz, 得 tuh, 來得
lé tuh, and 來 lé before adjective predicates, while 做 tsu‘, and in
some groups 爲 {w}é‘ and 作 tsoh precede substantives.

  道理是勿差個 ’{t}au ’lí ’zz veh t’só kú‘, {the doctrine, is right}.
  心裏來得笨 sing ’lí lé tuh {p}un‘, {in mind he is stupid}.
  我勿做兵 ’ngú veh tsú‘ ping, {I am not a soldier}.
  我勿為官 ’ngú veh {w}é kwé{n} ’fú, {I am not a mandarin}.
  寫來好看 ’siá lé ’hau k’ö{n}‘, {it is well written}.
  寫得勿好 ’siá tuh veh ’hau, {it is written badly}.

Obs. Educated men appear to avoid the use of 來 lé, as a substitute
for 得, but it is extremely common among the lower classes.

379. In the predicate are found, a substantive, adjective, verb, or
adverb, or a group of either.

  比我大個是阿哥 ’pí ’ngú dú‘ kú‘ ’zz á kú, {he who is
      older than I is called elder brother}.
  赦免小過失好個 só‘ ’míe{n} ’siau kú‘ seh ’hau kú‘, {to forgive little
      faults readily is good}.
  戲咾戲法咾啥勿看 h’í‘ lau h’í‘ fah lau sá‘ veh k’ö{n}‘, {plays, jugglery
      and such things, I do not go to see}.
  價錢最大個是珍珠八寶 ká‘ díe{n} tsúe‘ dú‘ kú‘ ’zz tsun tsû pah ’pau,
      {things of the highest price are pearls and the eight precious
      stones}.

Obs. The final expletives are usually appended to the predicate. 說話
好個 seh {w}ó‘ ’hau kú‘, {your words are good}.

380. In very many sentences, the predicate is a transitive verb with
an object, which in its simplest form is a substantive, monosyllabic
or consisting of a group.

  做好事就是周濟窮人 tsú‘ ’hau zz‘ dzieu‘ ’zz tseu tsí‘ gióng niun,
      {charity consists in giving to the poor}.
  伊勿能辦事體 í veh nung {p}a{n}‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {he cannot transact business}.
  有銅錢個人要吃燕窩咾魚翅, ’{y}eu dóng díe{n} kú‘ niun yau‘ k’iuh íe{n}‘
      {ú} lau ng t’sz‘, {those who are rich eat birds’ nests and
      sharks’ fins}.

381. Great variety is introduced into sentences, without the addition
of separate clauses, by applying qualifying words and groups to the
parts just enumerated. Extension by the apposition of words, alike or
contrasted in meaning, and in the same parts of speech, is also very
common. The subject is extended:—

{a}. By prefixing an adjective.

  聖人出世 sung‘ niun t’seh sz‘, {a wise man was born}.
  窮苦個人多 {k}ióng ’k’ú kú‘ niun tú, {poor men are very many}.
  好老個讀書人少 ’hau ’lau kú‘ {t}ók sû niun ’sau, {really good scholars
      are rare}.

{b}. By apposition of substantives with or without kú‘, whether in the
relation of species and genus, or subject and attribute.

  鄕下人告荒去者 h’iáng ’{a}u niun kau‘ hwong k’í‘ ’tsé, {the country
   people are gone to announce that there is a famine} (or 哭荒).
  上輩個好處要講拉子孫聽 ’záng pé‘ kú‘ ’hau t’sû‘ yau‘ ’kong ’lá ’tsz sun
      t’ing, {the goodness of their forefathers, you should tell to
      their descendants}.

{c}. By a transitive infinitive with its objective case.

  吃牛肉眞正罪過 k’iuh nieu nióh tsun tsung‘ ’zé kú‘, {to eat beef is an
      unquestionable sin}.

{d}. By the addition of nouns or verbs governed by case particles.

  屋裏向嘸沒人 óh ’lí h’iáng‘ {m} meh niun, {there is no one at home}.
  勒拉睏個辰光有賊偷之去者 leh ’lá k’wun‘ kú‘ zun kwong ’{y}eu zuh t’eu tsz
   k’í‘ ’tsé, {at the time of sleeping, thieves came and stole it}.

Obs. The so-called genitive with 個 kú‘, included under (b) as an
instance of apposition. It is the attributive genitive, or possessive
case of western grammars. The genitive sense is given by the relative
position of the words, and not by the connecting particle kú‘ often
omitted.

{e}. By prefixing numbers and numeral particles to substantives.

  兩個女人投井者 ’liáng kú‘ ’nü niun deu ’tsing ’tsé, {two women have
      thrown themselves into wells}.
  三隻廟燒毀完者 sa{n} tsáh miau‘ sau ’hwé {w}é{n} ’tsé, {three temples
      have been burnt to ashes}.

{f}. By prefixing demonstrative, possessive and other adjective
pronouns to substantives.

  是㑚個房屋勿穩足個 ’zz ná‘ kú‘ vong óh veh ’wun tsóh kú‘, {your house is
      not safe}.
  第部牛車了脱者 {t}í‘ ’bú‘ nieu t’só ’liau t’eh ’tsé, {this chain pump is
      broken}.
  各人個脾氣各樣個 koh niun kú‘ bí‘ k’í‘ koh {y}áng‘ kú‘, {each man has his
      own disposition}.

{g}. By prefixing adverbs of place or time with the sign of the
possessive, or with no intervening particle. It might also be said,
that these adverbs are here all treated as substantives.

  此地個水清個 ’t’sz dí‘ kú‘ ’sz t’sing kú‘, {the water of this place is
      clear}.
  蕩搭個人掉皮個 {t}ong tah kú‘ niun {t}iau‘ bí‘ kú‘, {the men of this
      place are not honest}.
  間壁房子火灼 kah pih vong ’tsz ’hú dzáh, {the house next door is on
      fire}.
  什蓋能個謠言拉城裏 {s}eh ké‘ nung kú‘ {y}au {í}e{n} ’lá zung ’lí,
      {there is a report of that sort in the city}.
  現在個百姓勿比古時間 {í}e{n} ’zé kú‘ pák sing‘ veh ’pí ’kú zz ka{n},
      {people of the present time are not to be compared to those of
      antiquity}.

382. Several of these adjuncts may concur in forming a subject.

  外國梳頭個規矩又是一樣者 ngá‘ kóh sz deu kú‘ kwé ’kü {í}‘ ’zz ih {y}áng‘
      ’tsé, {the foreign method of dressing the hair is different}.
  孝順父母恭敬祖宗原是一樣個道理 h’iau‘ zun‘ ’vú ’mú, kúng kiung‘ ’tsú tsóng,
      niön ’zz ih {y}áng‘ kú‘ ’{t}au ’lí, {filial regard to parents
      and reverencing ancestors are the same thing}.

383. The predicate is extended in a similar manner. It may assume the
following forms.

{а}. Substantive with its adjective.

  是其勿是正派人 ’zz gí veh ’zz tsung‘ p’á‘ niun, {he is not a man of good
      morals}.
  一日到夜做正經事體 ih nyih tau‘ {y}á‘ tsú‘ tsung‘ kiung zz‘ ’t’í, {all
      day long he does what is lawful and right}.

{b}. Substantives in apposition, in the relation of species and genus,
or subject and attribute, with or without 個 kú‘.

  伊話個勿是上海話 í {w}ó‘ kú‘ veh ’zz ’zong ’hé {w}ó‘, {what he speaks is
      not the dialect of Shánghái}.
  八月裏開個有桂花 pah niöh ’lí k’é kú‘ ’{y}eu kwé‘ hwó, {among the
      flowers that blossom in the eighth month is the olea fragrans}.

{c}. Verbs in apposition. Any verbs in English connected by {and},
{to} and {of} are translated by two corresponding verbs in apposition.

  我要走前去做 ’ngú yau‘ ’tseu zíe{n} k’í‘ tsú‘, {I wish to go forward and
      do it}.
  我勿想考 ’ngú veh ’siáng ’k’au, {I do not think of being examined}.
  我勿來打儂 ’ngú veh lé ’táng nóng‘, {I do not come to beat you}.

{d}. Verb with an object.

  別人恨伊拉 {p}ih niun {h}ung‘ í ’lá, {men hated him}.
  脚勿踏斜路 kiáh veh tah ziá lú‘, {his foot does not tread the path of
      evil}.
  早夜用功 ’tsau {y}á‘ {y}úng‘ kóng, {morning and night, he applies
      himself to study}.
  雲裏向看相殺 {y}ün ’lí h’iáng‘ k’ö{n}‘ siáng sah, {to take a bird’s-eye
      view of a battle} (相殺 is construed as a noun).

{e}. Verbs, nouns or adverbs of place and time in construction with 拉
or 在.

  東家勿拉屋裏 túng ká veh ’lá óh ’lí, {the master is not at home}.
  百姓勒拉掛墓 pák sing‘ leh ’lá kwó‘ {m}‘, {the people are hanging}
      (paper) {on the tombs}.

{f}. Adjective pronouns, and numbers with the particles appropriated
to the substantives contained in the subject.

  銀子有一百兩 niung ’tsz ’{y}eu ih páh ’liáng, {of silver, there are a
      hundred taels}.
  第把雨傘是吾個  {t}í‘ pó ’{ü} sa{n}‘ ’zz ngú kú‘, {this umbrella is mine}.

{g}. The verb is qualified by the various kinds of adverbs, either
preceding it in apposition, or following it with 得 tuh, or 來 lé, as
subordinate copula.

  件件事體禿是做得正經個 {k}íe{n} gíe{n} zz‘ ’t’í t’óh ’zz tsú‘ tuh tsung‘
      kiung kú‘, {everything is done as propriety requires}.
  菩薩一定曉得 {p}ú sah ih ding‘ ’h’iau tuh, {the gods will certainly know
      it}.

{h}. The cause, manner, instrument, place or time of the action are
expressed by nouns preceding the verb.

  黃衣裳是皇帝送個 {w}ong í zong ’zz {w}ong tí‘ sóng‘ kú‘, {yellow dresses
      are given by the emperor}.
  團扇是蘇州做個 {t}ön se{n}‘ ’zz Sú-tseu tsú‘ kú‘, {round (silk) fans are
      made at Sú-cheú}.
  人個過犯全是神道查察個 niun kú‘ kú‘ va{n} dzé{n} ’zz zun dau‘ dzó t’sah
      kú‘, {men’s sins are all watched and noted by the spiritual
      powers}.
  人全是一個祖宗傳下來 niun dzé{n} ’zz ih kú‘ ’tsú tsóng zé{n} ’{a}u lé,
      {men are all descended from one ancestor}.
  我下半晝轉來個 ’ngú ’au pé{n}‘ tseu‘ ’tse{n} lé kú‘, {I will return in
      the afternoon}.
  地皮是牛犂個 {t}í‘ bí ’zz nieu lí kú‘, {the ground is ploughed by oxen}.
  從小到大是爺娘照應 dzóng ’siau tau‘ dú‘ ’zz {y}á niáng tsau‘ yung‘,
      {from childhood till they are grown they are watched over by
      their parents}.

Obs. The number of prepositions omitted in examples similar to these
is very great. Few of them are so essential that they may not be
rejected. The remarkable conciseness of written and spoken Chinese is
due very much to the omission of prepositions in the manner here
illustrated. For that conciseness, there is however in many cases full
compensation, in the wordiness or richness, whichever term be
preferred, of the groups.

{j}. The same circumstances of cause manner, etc. are also expressed
with case particles attached to the noun.

  張舉人到蘇去者 Tsáng ’kü niun tau‘ Sú-tseu k’í‘ ’tsé, {the Master of
      Arts named Cháng, is gone to Sú-cheú}.
  第個砲架子替吳道台做個 {t}í‘ kú‘ p’au‘ ká‘ ’tsz t’í‘ {W}ú ’dau dé tsú‘
      kú‘, {this cannon-carriage is made for Wú the Taú-tái}.

{k}. Adjective with a qualifying adverb.

  是㑚飄流個人忒多 ’zz ná‘ p’iau lieu kú‘ niun t’uk tú, {you wandering
      people are too many}.
  打官司要速訊定當 ’táng kwé{n} sz yau‘ sók sin‘ ding‘ tong‘, {lawsuits
      should be quickly decided}.

384. The predicate is further enlarged by a combination of the above
forms of arrangement, by simple apposition as coordinates, or
according to the laws of position already detailed.

  生活要做到夜 sáng {w}eh yau‘ tsú‘ tau‘ {y}á‘, {work must be done till
      evening}.
  我白費脱之許多手脚 ’ngú {p}ák fí‘ t’eh tsz ’h’ü tú ’seu kiáh, {I do have
      gone through a great deal of labour to no purpose}.
  賭銅錢勿曉得敗脫之幾千幾萬個人家 ’tú dóng díe{n} veh ’h’iau tuh bá‘ t’eh
      tsz ’kí t’síe{n} ’kí ma{n}‘ kú‘ niun ká, {gaming has ruined I do
      not know how many thousands and myriads of men}.
  我看見伊出來 ’ngú (subj.) k’ö{n}‘ kíe{n}‘ í t’seh lé, {I saw him come
      out}.

385. The copula by a little extension of the meaning of the terms, may
be considered as embracing the emphatic adverbs, and the verb forms
for affirmation and negation. In conformity with this, the substantive
verb 是 is constantly used in the sense of {yes}, and with the negative
particle (勿是), {no}. The adverbs of emphasis precede the copula.

  新眞正來得硬 sing tsun tsung‘ lé tuh ngáng‘, {his heart is certainly
      hard}.
  一定是牢實 ih ding‘ ’zz lau zeh, {he is certainly trustworthy}.
  總是花頭花腦 ’tsóng ’zz hwó deu hwó ’nau, {it is surely false}.
  昨日來個就是我 zóh nyih lé kú‘ dzieu‘ ’zz ’ngú, {he who came yesterday
      was I myself}.

Obs. The verb {to have} 有 ’{y}eu (with its opposite 嘸沒 {m} meh)
describes existence, as in French the verb {avoir}. The adverbs of
emphasis precede it, as they do the other substantive verb; e.g.
一點嘸沒啥 ih ’tíe{n} {m} meh sá, or {m} sá‘, {there is nothing the
matter}; 第個道理實在有 {t}í‘ kú‘ ’{t}au ’lí zeh zé‘ ’{y}eu, {there
certainly is this doctrine}.

386. When there is a negative particle, the adverb of emphasis
precedes it.

  一眼勿疑心 ih ’nga{n} veh ní sing, {not at all incredulous}.
  伊並勿是要騙打㑚 í {p}ing‘ veh ’zz yau‘ p’íe{n}‘ ’táng ná‘, {he surely
      does not attempt to deceive you}.
  樹木倒勿曾發靑 zû‘ móh ’tau veh zung fah t’sing, {the trees have still
      not yet opened their buds}.

Obs. When the necessity is denied, the negative precedes the adverb
expressity; e.g. 勿必要去 veh pih yau‘ k’i‘, {you are not obliged to
go}.

387. There are several verbs, not having a full transitive power, that
are often to be taken as little more than an extension of the copula.
They are such as, 呌 kiau‘, 做 tsú‘, 爲 {w}é, 作 tsoh.

  第個勿呌公道 {t}í‘ kú‘ veh kiau‘ kúng ’dau, {that is not
      (or cannot be called) just} (or veh kúng ’dau), (or veh sö{n}‘
      kúng ’dau, {cannot be considered as just}).
  我做用人 ’ngú tsú‘ {y}úng‘ niun, {I am a servant}.
  謀反爲大事體 meu ’fa{n} {w}é dú‘ zz‘ ’t’í, {rebellion is a great matter}.
  女人勿好作主張 ’nü niun veh ’hau tsok ’tsû tsáng, {women should not be
      rulers}.

Obs. The equivalents of these words, in languages having forms of
declension, usually take the nominative case after them.

388. The correlative pronouns and sometimes adjectives, are placed
like the emphatic adverbs before the copula, the substantives they
represent being the subject.

  人秃是劃一個 niun t’óh ’zz {w}áh ih kú‘, {the men are all honest}.
  惡事體一切全要甩脫個 og zz‘ ’t’í ih t’sih dzé{n} yau‘ hwah t’eh kú‘, {bad
      actions are all to be abandoned}.
  字目大有用頭 zz‘ móh {t}ú‘ ’{y}eu {y}úng‘ deu, {great is the use of the
      written character}.

389. The most remarkable use of the copula is in the potential verb
groups, where 得 tuh and 勿 veh stand between two verbs; e.g. 打勿贏
’táng veh {y}ung, {fighting he does not conquer}; 話得出 {w}ó‘ tuh
t’seh, {speaking can express it}; 走得轉 ’tseu tuk ’tsé{n}, {walking you
can turn back}.

Obs. i. In colloquial use, these words mean {he cannot conquer, it
can be described in words, he can turn back}. If viewed alone as
separate sentences, the first verb is the subject, and the second the
predicate. So when the last word in these groups is an adjective, it
may be regarded as predicate to the verb which stands first. This is
particularly obvious where the potential force of 得 tuh and 勿 veh are
wanting, 推板勿多 t’é pa{n} veh tú, {there is no great difference}; 寫得
快 ’siá tuh k’wá‘, {he writes fast}. Where the potential force exists
in these phrases; e.g. 吹勿响 t’sz veh ’h’iáng, {it cannot be sounded}
(of a flute); 豎勿直 ’zû veh dzuh, {it cannot be set upright}; 改勿正
’ke veh tsung‘, {it cannot be corrected}; though the relation of
subject and predicate is less manifest, it is perhaps the best
explanation.

Obs. ii. When adjectives occupy both the first and last places, there
is no potential force, and the second adjective becomes comparative
高得多 kau tuh tú, {it is much higher}.

Obs. iii. Wherever the potential force is wanting, 來 lé is used
convertibly with 得 tuh; i.e. 寫來快 ’siá lé k’wá‘, {he writes fast}.
Of the two 得 is most used by the educated.

390. The subject and predicate are still further lengthened by
expletives. 末 meh belongs to the former, and 個, 拉, 哩, 者 kú‘, ’lá,
’lí, ’tsé to the latter.

Obs. Educated natives used these words much less frequently than the
common people, except when they modify the verb in time, or as in the
case of 末, give a conditional sense. The predicate if an adjective
has time given to it by these particles, just as if it were a verb.


        {Section} 7. {Subordinate Sentences}.

391. Sentences illustrative of verbs of knowing, saying and wishing,
etc. taking the initiatory particle {that} in English, usually follow
the proposition or verb they explain.

  不過聽見儂欵待讀書人 pih kú‘ t’ing kíe{n}‘ nóng‘ k’wé{n} dé‘ {t}ók sû
      niun, {I have merely heard that you treat with generosity
      literary men}.
  伊話勿能來 í {w}ó‘ veh nung lé, {he said he could not come}.
  我曉得伊難過日脚 ’ngú‘ ’h’iau tuh í na{n} ku‘ nyih kiáh, {I know that he
      lived on with difficulty}.
  我勿相信第隻船將要翻脫 ’ngú veh siáng sing‘ {t}í‘ tsáh zé{n} tsiáng yau‘
      ’fa{n} t’eh, {I do not believe this boat is going to overturn}.

Obs. i. The clause introduced with {that} is often placed first.
官府嘸没銀子是人人曉得個 kwé{n} ’fú {m} meh niung ’tsz ’zz niun niun
’h’iau tuh kú‘, {that the mandarins have no money is known by every
one}; 要進城話拉 yau‘ tsing‘ zung {w}ó‘ ’lá, {he said that he wished to
go into the city}. The educated usually place the verb 話 {w}ó‘ first.

Obs. ii. In Latin the construction of the explanatory clause, is that
of the accusative and infinitive.

392. Clauses expressing the object of an act, usually follow the
sentence that contain the act.

  領伊到學堂讀書 ’ling í tau‘ {h}oh dong {t}óh sû, {take him to school,
      that he may learn to read}.
  請和尙拜懺 ’t’sing {ú} zong‘ pá‘ tsa{n}, {invite Buddhist priests to
      perform a service}.
  呌畵工來畵小照 kiau‘ {w}ó‘ kong lé {w}ó‘ ’siau tsau‘, {call a painter to
      draw a likeness}.
  講鄕約勸士農工商做本分꜄ ’kong h’iáng {y}ah k’iö{n}‘ ’zz nóng‘ kóng song
      tsú‘ ’pun vun‘, {read the sacred edict (country regulations), to
      induce the reading, agricultural, artisan, mid mercantile
      classes to perform their duties}.

Obs. In English, the subordinate clause is introduced often by the
final {that}, as the previous examples are by the explanatory {that}.

393. The final {that} or {to} is often expressed by the auxiliary
verbs 要 yau‘, and 呌 kau‘.

  橫勸豎勸呌伊學好 {w}áng k’iö{n}‘ ’zû k’iö{n}‘ kau‘ í {h}oh ’hau, {use all
      kinds of exhortations to make him improve}.
  關窵拉籠裏要伊呌個 kwa{n} ’tiau ’lá ’lóng ’lí yau‘ í kiau kú‘, {shut
      birds in cages that they may sing}.

Obs. In examples such as those of the present, and the previous
article, the clauses may be inverted. 要捉魚咾出去登拉更舍裏 yau‘ tsoh ng
lau t’seh k’í‘ tung ’lá káng só‘ lí, {in order to catch fish, he goes
out to stay in the watch-hut}. 咾 lau must be appended to the clause
expressing the object of the action.

394. The final {that} being often omitted, or expressed by verbs, the
way is open to form one sentence out of the two component clauses, so
as to improve the general rhythmical effect. This is done in such
common sentences as the following.

  送勒儂看 sóng‘ ’lá nóng k’ö{n}‘, {I present it to you to look at}.
  講勒㑚聽 ’kóng ’lá ná‘ t’ing, {I speak that you may hear}.
  話撥㑚聽 {w}ó‘ peh ná‘ t’ing, {ib}.
  撥飯伊吃 peh va{n}‘ í k’iuh, {give him rice to eat}.
  斟酌起來看 tsun tsáh ’k’í lé k’ö{n}‘, {deliberate upon it and see}.

Obs. These examples differ from those of those of the next article,
only in being obviously pronounced as one sentence.

395. The clause expressing the object of the verb is often a single
verb repeated or not. (In Latin, often the supine).

  捨點物事拉我吃吃 só‘ ’tíe{n} meh zz‘ ’lá ’ngú k’iuh k’iuh,
      {give me something to eat}.
  要到店裏去買 yau‘ tau‘ tíe{n}‘ ’lí k’í‘ ’má, {go to the shop and buy it}.

396. The clause containing the action frequently consists of a
substantive, or substantive group, with any of the auxiliary verbs of
causing, or instrumentality, and the verb of motion 來, or 去
concluding the clause.

  呌瞎子來拜斗 kau‘ hah ’tsz lé pá‘ ’teu, {call a blind man to worship the
      north star}.
  担衣裳來晾 ta{n} í zong lé long‘, {take the clothes and hang them out to
      dry}.
  挪石灰漿來刷壁 nó záh hwé tsiáng lé seh pih, {bring lime to white-wash
      the wall.}
  担馬來騎到海灘去 ta{n} ’mó lé gí tau‘ ’hé t’a{n} k’í‘, {bring a horse and
      ride to the sea shore}.
  担棕來絞繩 ta{n} tsóng lé kau zung, {bring tsóng wood bark to make ropes}.
  担茄瓢舀水 ta{n} {k}á biau {y}au ’sz, {bring a cocoa-nut shell to lade
      water}.

Obs. The object of any transitive verb may be made to precede its verb
by prefixing some one of these auxiliary verbs and appending 來 lé 去
k’í‘.

397. Substantive groups of many words are inserted between the
instrumental verb, and the verb of motion.

  担合天底下個事體來講究明白 ta{n} {h}eh t’íe{n} ’tí ’{a}u kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í lé
      ’kong kíeu‘ ming báh, {he takes the affairs of the whole world
      and explains them clearly}.
  担各家人家個姓咾名頭寫拉人丁冊上 ta{n} kok ká niun ká kú‘ sing‘ lau ming
      deu ’siá ’lá niun ting t’sáh long‘, {take the names and surnames
      of every householder and write them in the register}.

398. A relative clause precedes its word as an adjective, and is
connected with it by the particle 個 kú‘.

  做慣拉個生活勿吃力個 tsú‘ kwa{n}‘ ’lá kú‘ sáng {w}eh veh k’iuh lih kú‘,
      {work to which one is accustomed does not fatigue}.
  行方便個人家子孫要多者 {h}áng fong bíe{n}‘ kú‘ niun ká ’tsz sun yau‘ tú
      ’tsé, {he who gives alms will have many descendants}.
  圍困拉個城頭有四五六個 {w}é k’wun‘ ’lá kú‘ dzung deu ’{y}eu sz‘ ’{n}g lók
      kú‘, {of besieged cities there are five or six}.

Obs. The relative or adjective clause standing thus in apposition with
a noun, may be considered as forming with it the subject of the
sentence, i.e. the {logical} subject as distinguished from the
{grammatical}, which consists of the substantive only.

399. Circumstances of cause, manner, instrumentality, etc. precede in
the same way, the words to which they belong.

  皇帝送個翎毛咾蟒袍總要看重個 {w}ong tí‘ sóng‘ kú, ling mau lau ’mong bau
      ’tsóng yau‘ k’ö{n}‘ ’dzóng kú‘, {peacock’s feathers and
      embroidered tunics presented by the emperor are sure to be
      highly valued}.
  祖宗傳下來個派頭勿好改換 ’tsú tsóng dzé{n} ’{a}u lé kú‘ p’á‘ deu, veh ’hau
      ’ké {w}é{n}‘, {customs delivered down by ancestors should not be
      changed}.
  聖人賢人講個道理莫非三綱五常 sung‘ niun {h}íe{n} niun ’kong kú‘ ’dau ’lí
      móh fí sa{n} kong ’{ú} dzáng, {the doctrine taught by sages and
      learned men is all on the three relations and five constant
      virtues}.
  山上泉眼出個水淸個 sa{n} long‘ dzíe{n} ’nga{n} t’seh kú‘ ’sz, t’sing kú‘,
      {water that comes from mountain springs is clear}.
  石頭造拉個房子堅牢個 záh deu ’zau ’lá kú‘ vong ’tsz kíe{n} lau kú‘,
      {houses built of stone are strong}.

Obs. Many such sentences admit of the clauses being inverted. Thus,
天定拉個數目人勿曉得 may also be read, niun veh ’h’iau tuh t’íe{n} ding‘
’lá kú‘ sú‘ máh, {man does not know the times decreed by heaven}.

400. There are some auxiliary verbs, and preposition forms employed to
introduce the subject, which then appears in the form of a subordinate
sentence.

  話到死過以後個事體難講 {w}ó‘ tau‘ ’sí kú‘ ’í {h}eu‘ kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í na{n}
      ’kong, {in reference to what happens after death, it is
      difficult discussion}.
  造到發大財是勿能個 ’zau tau‘ fah dú‘ ’dzé ’zz veh nung kú‘, {as to
      getting rich, I cannot}.
  講到登基坐江山勿見得實蓋能造化 ’kong tau‘ tung kí ’zû kong sa{n} veh
      kíe{n}‘ tuh zeh ké‘ nung ’zau hwó‘, {but as to ascending the
      throne, and taking his seat on the rivers and mountains, it is
      not likely he will be so fortunate}.

Obs. These words are not indispensable to the introduction of a
subject as a subordinate clause; e.g. 大是大個 {t}ú‘ ’zz dú‘ kú‘, {as
to size it is large}.

401. Similar to these is the construction of the verb forms prefixed
to interrogative pronouns which thereby become relatives.

  隨便那裏一樣事體要做差個 zûe bíe{n}‘ ’{á} ’lí ih {y}áng‘ zz‘ ’t’í, yau‘
      tsú t’só kú‘, {whatever thing it be, he will do it wrong}.
  勿論啥官總要得賄個 veh lun‘ sá kwé{n} ’tsóng yau‘ tuh ’hwé kú‘, {mandarins
      of all offices whatsoever will take bribes}.
  勿拘幾許兵卒總會戰敗 veh kü ’kí hó‘ ping tseh, ’tsóng {w}é‘ tsé{n}‘ bá‘,
      {however many soldiers there be, we are sure to conquer}.

402. Subordinate clauses expressive of time and place, are placed
before the principal clauses.

  住拉啥地方勿肯話 dzû‘ ’lá sá‘ {t}í‘ fong, veh ’k’ung {w}ó,
      {he is unwilling to say where he lives}.
  清明節氣幾時黃曆上有 t’sing ming tsih k’í‘ ’kí zz, {w}ong lih long‘
      ’{y}eu, {the time at which the Tsing-ming solar period occurs,
      is recorded in the calendar}.
  到明朝我又到伊壗頭去 tau‘ ming tsau ’ngú {í}‘ tau‘ í ha{n}‘ deu k’í‘,
      {on the next day I went to him again}.

403. The subject consisting of a verb and substantive, often takes the
form of a subordinate introductory clause.

  待別人要用禮貌 {t}é‘ bih niun yau‘ yung‘ ’lí mau‘, {in treating others,
      a man should be polite}.
  存心要存得好 dzun sing yau‘ dzun tuh ’hau, {in keeping the heart, a man
      should keep it well}.

404. Many subordinate circumstantial clauses are introduced by verbs
and precede the principal proposition.

  落大雨個辰光去者 loh dú‘ ’{ü} kú‘ zun kwong k’í‘ ’tsé,
      {while it was raining heavily he went}.
  照之我個想頭要換朝代者 tsau‘ tsz ’ngú kú‘ ’siáng deu, yau‘ {w}én‘ dzau dé‘
      ’tsé, {according to my idea, the dynasty needs to be changed}.
      (or, {will be}, &c.,).
  照之古聖王個話頭一心一德 tsau‘ tsz ’kú sung‘ wong kú‘ {w}ó‘ deu ih sing ih
      tuh, {according to the words of the ancient king, “one in heart
        and one in virtue.”}
  讀之七年書咾考之秀才 {t}ók tsz t’sih níe{n} sû lau ’kau tsz sieu‘ zé,
      {having studied seven years, he took his degree of Bachelor}.
  囂之書開來咾讀之兩張者 h’iau tsz sû k’é lé lau {t}ók tsz ’liáng tsáng ’tsé,
      {having opened the book, he read two sections}.
  得勝之多囘咾末脚死拉戰塲上 tuh sung‘ tsz tá {w}é lau meh kiáh ’sí ’lá
      tsé{n}‘ dzáng long‘, {after gaining many victories, he died at
      last on the field of battle}.

Obs. i. Sometimes the verb of the subordinate clause is when preceded
by the negative particle, put at the end; e.g. 兵丁勿算武官死有五十干
ping ting veh sö{n}‘, ’vú kwé{n} ’sí ’{y}eu {ng} seh kû{n}, {without
counting the common soldiers, fifty military mandarins died}.

Obs. ii. Circumstantial subordinate propositions often come between
the subject and predicate, 貪官已經受之姓張箇銀子就拿姓李箇放拉監牢裏 t’é{n} kwé{n}
’í kiung ’zeu tsz sing‘ Tsáng kú‘ niung ’tsz dzieu‘ nó sing‘
’Lí kú‘ fong‘ ’lá ka{n} lau ’lí, {the avaricious mandarin having
received money from Mr. Cháng, will take Mr. Li and put him in prison};
好人做之將官總勿瞎殺一個人 ’hau niun tsú‘ tsz tsiáng‘ kwé{n} ’tsóng veh
hah sah ih kú‘ niun, {the good man on becoming a general, will not
kill a single man without reason}.

405. Many subordinate clauses are causal, and are connected with the
principal sentence by the particle 咾 lau, or they are inserted in the
principal clause with 因爲 yung {w}é‘ to introduce them.

  做事體勿勸謹咾勿成功者 tsú‘ zz‘ ’t’í veh giun ’kiun lau veh zung kóng ’tsé,
      {not being diligent in performing his duty, he did not succeed}.
  家當敗完之咾做之窮人者 ká tong‘ bá‘ {w}é{n} tsz lau tsú‘ tsz giong niun
      ’tsé, {he wasted all his property and became poor}.
  打傷之人咾帶之枷者 ’táng song tsz niun lau tá‘ tsz ká ’tsé, {for beating
      and wounding a man, he was condemned to wear the cangue}.
  衣裳摜拉石頭上碎完者 í zong gwá{n}‘ ’lá záh deu long sé‘ {w}é{n} ’tsé,
      {the clothes from being beaten on stones are torn to pieces}.
  總督嘸奈何咾服毒者 tsóng‘ tóh {m} ’né {ú} lau vóg dók ’tsé, {the viceroy
      having no alternative, poisoned himself}.
  上司參之伊咾革脱之官者, ’zong sz t’sé{n} tsz í lau kák t’eh tsz kwé{n}
      ’tsé, {his superior having reported him as culpable, he was
      discharged}.
  勿要因為事體多咾勿盡心 veh yau‘ yung {w}é‘ zz‘ ’t’í tú lau‘ veh zing‘
      sing, {do not on the ground of having so much to do, pay no
      attention}.

Obs. Conjunctions may be prefixed to the introductory clause. 因爲三
代前頭題過第個名字勿可再題 yung {w}é‘ sa{n} dé‘ zíe{n} deu {t}í kú‘ {t}í‘
kú‘ ming zz‘ veh ’k’ó tsé‘ dí, {because three generations ago this
name was used, it could not be employed again}.

406. Conditional introductory clauses are formed by means of
particles, or they are understood to be conditional from their
position, or from the nature of the sentence.

{a}. Examples of conditional clauses without particles.

  勿敎訓個兒子伊總要入下流 veh kiau‘ h’iün‘ kú‘ ní ’tsz í ’tsóng yau‘ zeh
      ’{a}u lieu, {if you do not teach your son, he will certainly
      fall to the lowest grade of character}.
  勿呑金原要受皇帝個埋怨咾殺脱 veh tung kiun niö{n} yau‘ ’zeu {w}ong tí‘ kú‘
      má yö{n}‘ lau sah t’eh, {if he does not take gold and commit
      suicide, he must suffer the emperor’s displeasure and be put to
      death}.

{b}. Examples with 末 meh, at the end of the conditional clause.

  家裏窮末勿要怨恨爺娘勿發財 ká ’lí gióng meh veh yau‘ {y}ön‘ {h}ung‘ {y}á
      niáng veh fah dzé, {if you belong to a poor family, you should
      not be discontented that your parents are not rich}.
  發財發福末勿要怠慢脫時落運個人 fah dzé fah fóh meh veh yau‘ {t}é‘ ma{n}‘
      t’eh zz loh {y}ün‘ kú‘ niun, {if you grow rich, do not treat
      superciliously those who are unfortunate}.
  兒子話勿來末來巴勿得要伊會話 ní ’tsz {w}ó‘ veh lé meh, pó veh tuh yau‘ í
      {w}é‘ {w}ó‘, {if their son cannot speak, they wish much that he
      should be able}.
  要做好官末, 只要念頭動, 舌頭動, 筆頭動, 造出多許善事體 yau‘ tsú‘ ’hau kwé{n}
      meh, tseh yau‘ nía{n} deu ’{t}óng, zeh deu ’{t}óng, pih deu
      ’{t}óng, ’zau t’seh tú hau‘ ’zé{n} zz‘ ’t’í, {if you want to be
      a good magistrate, you have only to move your thoughts, tongue
      and pen, and you can do much good}.

{c}. Examples of the conditional clause as a case supposed, introduced
by conditional conjunctions.

  若使考過秀才要伊去鄕試 zák sz‘ ’k’au kú‘ sieu‘ zé yau‘ í k’í‘ h’iáng sz‘,
      {if he has taken his Bachelor’s degree, they wish him to go to
      the examination for that of Master}.
  若使勿高興讀書千方百計騙伊到學堂去 zák sz‘ veh kau hiung‘ dók sû, t’síe{n}
      fong pák kí‘ p’íe{n}‘ í tau‘ {h}oh dong k’í‘, {if he is
      unwilling to learn to read, they use a thousand arts to trick
      him into going to school}.
  若然勿聽好說話必定敗家蕩產 záh zé{n} veh t’ing ’hau seh {w}ó‘ pih ding‘ bá‘
      ká dong‘ ’t’sa{n}, {if you are unwilling to listen to good
      advice, you will certainly ruin your family and lose your
      property}.
  倘有婚喪喜慶應該請伊吃酒 ’t’ong ’{y}eu hwun song ’h’í k’iung‘, yung ké
      ’t’sing í k’iuk ’tsieu, {if there be marriages, funerals and
      rejoicing days, you ought to invite them to a feast}.

{d}. Examples of the conditional clause as a fact introduced by 旣然
kí‘ zé{n}, or 末 meh.

  旣然望雨落勿要惹厭日頭 kí‘ zé{n} mong‘ ’{ü} loh, veh yau‘ ’zá {í}e{n}‘
      nyih deu, {if you long for rain, still you should not murmur at
      sun-shine}.
  旣然嘸末勿要昨日話有 kí‘ zé{n} {m} meh veh yau‘ zóh nyih {w}ó‘ ’{y}eu,
      {there being none, you need not have said yesterday that there
      was any}.
  旣然要末再去買末者 kí‘ zé{n} yau‘ meh tsé‘ kí‘ ’má meh ’tsé, {since you
      want it, go again and buy it}.

{e}. Examples of conditional clauses introduced into the midst of the
principal clause.

  但是娘子雖然聰明勿好撥伊辦外頭個事務 {t}an‘ ’zz niáng ’tsz sûe zé{n} t’sóng
      ming veh ’hau peh í {p}a{n}‘ ngá‘ deu kú‘ zz‘ vú‘, {but your
      wife, although she be clever, you should not allow to act in
      matters beyond her sphere}.

Obs. Several illustrations have occurred in the preceding pages of the
fact that the laws of position often render particles superfluous.
Thus, in adverbial phrases of succession, {and}, {by}, etc. are
omitted in 一個一個 ih kú‘ ih kú‘ {one by one}; 一日大一日 ih nyih dú‘ ih
nyih, {greater and greater every day}. So, prepositions are usually
omitted in subordinate clauses of cause, manner, agent, etc. because
they precede their subject and are readily understood. The omission of
the conjunction, for the same reason does not affect conditional
clauses (a).

407. If the verb and adjective groups with 得, 勿, 來 are rightly
considered as originally forming independent propositions, including
in themselves a subject and its predicate, they must be regarded in
many instances as subordinate clauses.

{a}. One of these groups may form an adjective clause, or a
predicate to a subject.

  做勿來個事體多 tsú‘ veh lé kú‘ zz‘ ’t’í tú, {things that cannot be done
      are many}.
  禮體好得極 ’lí ’t’í ’hau tuh giuh, {the system of observances is
      excellent}.

{b}. A group may form the explanatory clause to the verb of a
preceding sentence.

  勿好話弄勿來 veh ’hau {w}ó‘ lóng‘ veh lé, {you must not say that you
     cannot do it}.

408. There are some fragmentary clauses placed at the end of a
proposition that need especial notice.

{a}. 罷 {p}á‘ {to end}, or {then there is no more to be said}.

  小銅錢換之末就罷哉 ’siau dóng díe{n} {w}é{n}‘ tsz meh dzieu‘ bá‘ ’tsé,
      {as to the small cash, you have but to change them, that is
      all}.
  身邊勿帶就罷 sun píe{n} veh tá‘ dzieu‘ bá‘, {if you have none, that is
      enough}.
  現在話明白就是哉 {h}íe{n}‘ ’dzé {w}ó‘ ming báh dzieu‘ ’zz ’tsé, {you
      have now made it all clear, and that is enough}.
  勿肯末罷哉 veh ’k’ung meh bá‘ ’tsé, {if you will not, there is an end
      of it}.

{b}. Several adverbial clauses used with adverbs of similarity.

  皇帝如同父母一般 {w}ong tí‘ zû dóng ’vú ’mú ih pé{n}, {the emperor is
      just like one’s parents}.
  兄第忒我一樣 h’iúng dí‘ t’eh ’ngú ih {y}áng‘, {my brother is just as I
      am}.
  恰像我能 hah ziáng‘ ’ngú nung, {like me}.

{c}. Some words with the negative.

  苦惱勿堪, ’k’ú ’nau veh k’é{n}, {intolerably wretched}.
  路上爛來勿堪 lú‘ long‘ la{n}‘ lé veh k’é{n}, {the road is exceedingly
      dirty}.

{d}. After substantives needing to be spoken of in the dual number 兩個
’liáng kú‘, or 兩個字 liáng kú‘ zz‘ are appended; the former is applied
to living agents, and the latter to {characters} as representatives of
abstract nouns.

  吾你弟兄兩個勿好爭論 ngú ’ní dí‘ h’iung ’liáng kú‘ veh ’hau tsáng lun‘,
      {we are brothers and ought not to quarrel}.
  善咾惡兩個字本來對面個 ’zé{n} lau oh ’liáng kú‘ zz‘ ’pun lé té‘ míe{n}‘
      kú‘, {virtue and vice are originally opposite terms}.

{e}. Prepositions of motion take after the nouns they govern, the
fragments 兩 ’liáng, 一淘 ih dau, separately or together.

  我忒儂出外兩日咾再來 ’ngú t’eh nóng‘ t’seh ngá‘ ’liáng nyih lau tsé‘ lé,
      {you and I will go out for two days and return}.
  伊忒我一淘牽兩隻牛睏拉水裏 í t’eh ’ngú ih dau k’íe{n} ’liáng tsáh nieu
      k’wun‘ ’lá ’sz ’lí, {he and I together led two oxen to lie down
      in the water} (or 一氣).

Obs. These are perhaps fragments of propositions, of which only the
predicate remains.


         {Section} 8. {Coordinate Sentences}.

409. In further illustration of the connection of groups and
propositions, it may be observed, that coordinate sentences often
occur in juxtaposition without any particle.

{a}. There may be several subjects to one predicate.

  文武百官鄕紳士庶禿出求雨 vun ’vú puh kwé{n}, h’iáng sun ’zz sû‘ t’ók
      t’seh lé gieu ’{ü}, {the civil and military mandarins, the
      gentry and common people are all come out to pray for rain}.
  按察司布政司撫臺各省有個 ö{n}‘ t’sah sz‘, pú‘ tsung‘ sz‘, ’fú dé, kok
      ’sáng ’{y}eu kú‘, {a judge, treasurer and lieutenant-governor
      belong to each province}.

{b}. There may be several predicates to one subject, or several
explanatory clauses to one proposition.

  多請朋友勿兔浪用錢財廢事失業 tú ’t’sing {p}áng ’{y}eu veh ’míe{n} long‘
      {y}úng‘ zíe{n} zé fí‘ zz‘ seh nyih, {if you invite friends much,
      you will not avoid wasting money and expending property}.
  風水兩個字池湖末水龍氣末風 fóng ’sz ’liáng kú‘ zz‘, dzz {ú} meh ’sz, lóng
      k’í‘ meh fóng, {in the phrase wind and water, the pond
      represents the water, and the winding path} ({dragon vapour})
      {the wind}.
  松江提督手下有前營後營左營右營中營一府裏五營 Súng kong dí toh ’seu ’{a}u
      ’{y}eu dzíe{n} {y}ung ’{h}eu {y}ung tsú‘ {y}ung {y}eu‘ {y}ung
      tsóng {y}ung ih ’fú ’lí ’{ng} {y}ung, {the general at Súng-kiáng
      as under him, the front, hind, left, right and central
      divisions, in all five for the whole prefecture}.

410. The connective 咾 lau is very frequently introduced between
groups; and the constituents of any group of coordinate words may be
broken up into separate subjects, or predicates or objects by the
insertion of this particle.

  墳墓週圍種個樹木咾築個籬笆 vun mú‘ tseu {w}é tsóng‘ kú‘ zú‘ móh lau tsók
      kú‘ lí pó, {round the grave are planted trees, and a hurdle
      hedge is erected}.
  一家裏向有爺咾娘咾小囝咾差囝咾丫頭 ih ká ’lí h’iáng ’{y}eu {y}á lau niáng
      lau ’siau nö{n} lau t’sá nö{n} lau au deu, {in one family there
      are the father and mother, children, men and women servants}.
  知縣要管個一縣裏個漕白犯法咾咾詞訟咾騐屍個事體 tsz {y}ö{n}‘ yau‘ ’kwé{n} kú‘
      ih {y}ö{n}‘ ’lí kú‘ zau báh ’va{n} fah lau lau zz zóng‘ lau
      níe{n}‘ sz kú‘ zz‘ t’i‘, {the city magistrate presides over the
      revenue, crimes, lawsuits and inquests of his district}.
  關稅咾兵丁咾啥是道臺管拉個 kwa{n} súe‘ lau ping ting lau sá‘ ’zz ’{t}au dé
      ’kwé{n} ’lá kú‘, {the customs and army matters are superintended
      by the Intendent of Circuit}.

Obs. It has been shewn in section 7, that 咾 lau also frequently
terminates causal subordinate sentences.

411. When there are two coordinate ideas to be expressed connectedly,
as with {both}—{and}—而且, 也 and 又 are employed.

  又是長又是闊 {í}‘ ’zz dzáng, {í}‘ ’zz k’weh, {it is both long and broad}.
  也要加長也要加闊 ’{á} yau‘ ká dzáng, ’{á} yau‘ ká k’weh, {you must make
      it both longer and broader}.

Obs. i. {Even} as an initiatory particle is expressed by 就是.
就是生意淸也勿要甩脱工夫 dzieu‘ ’zz sáng í‘ tsing ’{á} veh yau‘ hwah t’eh
kúng fú, {even if trade is slack, you must not waste time}.

Obs. ii. 也 is also used when no sentence precedes, as in 外國米也有否
ngá‘ kóh ’mí ’{á} ’{y}eu ’vá, {is there rice in foreign countries?}

Obs. iii. When the clauses are negative, the negative particle is
inserted after the conjunction, 也勿會開口也勿會動身 ’{á} veh {w}é‘ k’é
’k’eu, ’{á} veh {w}é‘ ’dóng sun, {he can neither speak nor move}.

412. When two objects are compared, they stand as coordinate clauses
with the verb 比 ’pí between them, and the attribute of comparison at
the end.

  生果子勿此熟果子甜個 sáng ’kú ’tsz veh ’pí zóh ’kú ’tsz díe{n} kú‘,
      {unripe fruit cannot be compared to ripe fruit in sweetness}.
  做生意勿此念書個好 tsú‘ sáng í‘ veh ’pí nia{n}‘ sû kú‘ ’hau, {to engage
      in trade is not so good as studying books}.
  儂比之我年紀大 nóng‘ ’pí tsz ’ngú níe{n} ’kí dú‘, {you are older than I}.

Obs. i. 又 {í}‘ is sometimes prefixed to the attribute; e.g. 伊比我又好
í ’pi ngú‘ {í}‘ hau, {he is still better than I}.

Obs. ii. 又 {í}‘ with the negative is thus seen to have the force of a
separative particle, while in the examples of the preceding article it
is clearly connective ({both—and—}) in one case, and separative in
the other ({neither—nor—}).

413. Propositions introduced by the adversative particles {only},
{but}, {yet}, etc. (v. Art. 310), form another class of coordinate
sentences.

  小道理聖人賢人勿屑為但是平常人全要曉得個 ’siau ’dau ’lí sung‘ niun {h}íen
      niun veh sih {w}é {t}a{n}‘ ’zz bing dzáng niun zé{n} yau‘ ’h’iau
      tuh kú‘, {small matters are not attended to by the wise and
      learned, but ordinary people must know them}.
  好人該當親近個倒要遠開伊 ’hau niun ké tong t’sing ’giun kú‘ ’tau yau‘
      {y}ö{n} k’é í, {you ought to attach yourself to good men, but on
      the contrary you avoid them}.
  爺娘個棺材勿可以常停拉家裏恐防火燒 {y}á niáng kú‘ kwé{n} zé‘ veh ’k’ó ’í
      dzáng ö{n} ’lá ká ’lí ’k’óng bong ’hú sau, {your parents coffins
      must not be long retained in the house, lest a fire should break
      out}.

414. Illative and causal sentences form another class of coordinate
sentences.

  故此嘸沒出頭個日子 kú‘ ’t’sz {m} meh t’seh deu kú‘ nyih ’tsz, {therefore
      there is no day of escape}.
  半個身體三個時辰浸拉水裏所以怪勿得有點勿自在 pé{n}‘ kú‘ sun ’t’í sa{n} kú‘ zz
      zun tsing ’lá ’sz ’lí ’sú ’í kwá‘ veh tuh ’{y}eu ’tíe{n} veh zz‘
      ’zé, {his body was up to the waist in water for 6 hours, and
      therefore it is not to be wondered at that he feels a little
      uncomfortable}.

415. In causal sentences, the causal conjunctions are used, or the
word for “cause” at the end of the sentence; sometimes both are
employed.

  勿能得勝兵丁勿好個緣故 veh nung tuk sung‘, ping ting veh ’hau ku‘ yö{n}
      kú‘, {he cannot conquer, because the soldiers are bad}.
  文理爲哈勿好因爲讀書少 vun ’lí {w}é‘ sá‘ veh ’hau yung {w}é‘ dók sû ’sau,
      {why is his style of writing bad? because he has read but
      little}.

Obs. The answer to a question requiring “because,” is very often ended
with 咾 lau, which then takes that sense. But this is an irregular
colloquialism, since {lau} as connective conjunction ought to be
followed by another clause. 船吹壞脫哉風大咾 zé{n} t’sz {w}á‘ t’eh ’tsé
fóng dú‘ lau, {the boat was broken to pieces, the wind being high}.

416. Conjunctions forming pairs of sentences, have already been
partially illustrated in Arts, 322–330. It may in addition be
observed, that short phrases sometimes take the place of conjunctions.

{a}. Thus for, {not only—even—}, we have 勿要話 veh yau‘ {w}ó‘ and
就是 dzieu‘ zz in the supplemental sentence.

  勿要話爺娘敎訓伊勿轉, 勿要話親友勸戒伊勿轉, 就是菩薩也點化伊勿轉 veh yau‘ {w}ó‘
      {y}á niáng kiau‘ h’iün‘ í veh ’tsé{n}, veh yau‘ {w}ó‘ t’sing
      ’{y}eu k’iö{n}‘ ká‘ í veh ’tsé{n}, dzieu‘ ’zz {p}ú sah ’{á}
      ’tíe{n} hwó‘ í veh ’tsé{n}, {do not say that his parents were
      unable to influence him by instruction, and his friends by
      exhortations; supernatural beings even could not reclaim him by
      their warnings}.

{b}. English initiatory phrases, such as {I suppose that}, {probably},
are represented by 只怕, 恐怕 tseh p’ó‘, ’k’ung p’ó‘, or by 我想 ’ngú
’siáng, {it appears to me that}.

  打殺之雄窵雌窵獨干子躱拉恐怕要氣殺 ’táng sah tsz {y}ióng ’tiau t’sz ’tiau
      {t}ók kû{n} ’tsz ’tú ’lá ’k’úng p’ó‘ yau‘ k’í‘ sah, {if the male
      bird were killed, the female from being solitary, would probably
      die of grief}.

Obs. i. {On the one side—on the other side—}are represented by the
common substantive for {side} with—ih {one} in both clauses. The
preposition and article are rejected as unnecessary, cf. Art. 328.

Obs. ii. Although is sometimes expressed by a verb, in the sense
{let it be that}, 憑儂地獄拉前面, 伊也勿肯囘心改念 bing nóng‘ {t}í‘ niók
’lá zie{n} míe{n}‘, í ’{á} veh ’k’ung {w}é sing ’ké nía{n}‘, {granting
you that hell were in sights, he would still be unwilling to repent}.
隨儂 sûe nóng‘, 但憑儂 ’{t}a{n} bing nóng‘, are also used in the same
sense.

417. Comparisons are introduced by several compounds of 如 zû, and some
fragmentary sentences, as 比方, ’pí fong, {for example}.

  病好爺娘十分快活猶如尋着之寶貝一般 {p}ing‘ ’hau ’{y}á niáng zeh fun k’á‘
      {w}eh {y}eu zû zing zák tsz ’pau pé‘ ih pé{n}, {when they
      recover from sickness, the parents are delighted just as if
      they had found a treasure}.
  如同樹木個根 zû dóng zû‘ móh kú kun, {it is like the root of a tree}.
  假如見之꜂長輩勿要忽畧伊 ’kiá zû kíe{n}‘ tsz ’tsáng pé‘ veh yau‘ hweh liáh í,
      {suppose that you see your elders, you must not treat them
      disrespectfully}.
  比如担別人家個祖宗認做自家個祖宗有第個道理否 ’pí zú ta{n} bih niun ká kú‘
      ’tsú tsóng, niun tsú‘ zz‘ ká kú‘ ’tsú tsóng, ’{y}eu {t}í‘ kú‘
      ’{t}au ’lí ’vá, {if for example you take the ancestors of
      others, and recognize them as your own, could this be right?}


               {Section} 9. {On Antithesis}.

418. Of antithesis there are three kinds; (a) that of words in the
formation of groups; (b) that which gives an interrogative force by
the juxtaposition of positive and negative clauses, (c) That of
sentences contrasted in sound or sense.

Obs. The first of these should be placed with the sections on groups,
but the other kinds (b) and (c) are naturally discussed after
propositions, and therefore they are all placed together here.

419. Substantives that are opposite in sense, when they combine into
groups are treated just as other coordinate words.

  晝夜 tseu‘ {y}a‘, {day and night}.
  山海 sa{n} ’hé, {land} (hills) {and sea}.

420. Adjectives and verbs when they form antithetic groups often lose
their proper character as attributives, and become substantives.

  斬絞流徒 ’tsan kau lieu dú, {beheading, strangling and banishment}.
  酸甜苦鹹 sû{n} díe{n} ’k’ú han, {sour, sweet, bitter, salt}.
  第條路多少遠近 {t}í‘ diau lú‘ tú ’sau ’{y}ön ’giun, {how far is it by
      this road?}

421. Antithesis in the formation of interrogatives has an important
grammatical use. Thus, a verb with or without its object expressed
successively in the affirmative and negative form, asks a question.

  去過勿曾去過 k’í kú‘ veh zung k’í‘ kú‘, {have you gone or not?}

Obs. The subject is prefixed and is not repeated; e.g. 遭蹋字紙㑚
想罪過勿罪過 tsau t’ah zz‘ ’tsz ná‘ ’siáng zé‘ kú‘ veh zé‘ kú‘, {do you
think the misuse of written-paper is a sin or not?}

422. Among instances of the antithesis of propositions, many consist
simply of a tautology of ideas by introducing opposite qualities or
actions with the negative particle.

  有銅錢就做, 嘸沒銅錢勿要做 ’{y}eu dóng díe{n} dzieu‘ tsú‘, {m} meh dóng
      díe{n} veh yau‘ tsú‘, {if you have money do it, if not you need
      not do it}.
  各人要心平勿要做怨恨 koh niun yau‘ sing bing veh yau‘ tsú‘ yö{n}‘ {h}ung‘,
      {every one ought to be contented, and not dissatisfied}.

Obs. This figure of speech would in many of its examples be
intolerable in English, but the brevity and rhythmical structure of
Chinese sentences make it agreeable. It gives an air of simplicity to
conversation, and allows the speaker time to prepare his next idea,
without forcing his thinking faculties to a too rapid productiveness.
The same advantage is obtained by the use of a long group, where in
English, one or two of its constituent words would be sufficient.

423. Of antithetical propositions some of the most ornamental are
those that consist of the words of a common group lengthened into
clauses.

  上有天理下合人情 ’záng ’{y}eu t’íe{n} ’lí, ’{h}au {h}eh niun zing, {it
      coincides with the law of heaven on one hand, and the natural
      sentiments of mankind on the other}.
  先有風後有雨 síe{n} ’{y}eu fóng ’{h}eu ’{y}eu ’{ü}, {wind comes first and
      rain after}.
  明醫家會救人, 笨醫家會殺人 ming í ká {w}é‘ kieu‘ niun, {p}un‘ í ká {w}é‘ sah
      niun, {a good physician can cure men, while an incompetent one
      can kill them}.
  遠水救勿得近火 ’{y}ön ’sz kieu‘ veh tuh ’giun ’hú, {distant water cannot
      save from a fire that is near}.
  前世無讐今世無寃 zíe{n} sz‘ vú zeu kiun sz‘ vú yö{n}, {if in a former life
      you were the enemy of no one, you will have no enemy in this}.
  東耳𦕰進西耳𦕰出 tóng ’ní ’tú tsing‘ sí ’ní ’tú t’seh, {enter by the left
      ear and disappear by the right}.
  推勿轉頭挬勿轉腦 t’é veh ’tsé{n} deu peh veh ’tsé{n} ’nau, {he cannot be
      brought to change for the better}.

Obs. This is a principal means of decorating the 文章 vun tsáng, the
literary compositions on which the educated class expend so much time
and effort. With the classics before them, and ten or twenty thousand
words at command, there is a wide field for variety. In addition to
the care required in the general structure of the essay, that all its
parts may be conformed to rule, the separate sentences must be framed
in obedience to the laws of grouping and antithesis, so that there may
be no infringement of the order of the words, as they stand in the
ancient books.

424. Another class of antithetical propositions consists of such as
correspond word for word with each other in structure and relative
meaning. Many proverbs are of this kind.

  債有生寃有頭 tsá‘ ’{y}eu ’tsû {y}ön ’{yeu} deu, {to every debt there is a
      creditor, and to every enemy a foe}.

Obs. Prémare has a large collection of such proverbs, to which the
reader is referred.


                {Section} 10. {On Rhythmus}.

425. Chinese sentences spoken or written are symmetrically arranged.
The same rhythmus that pleases and aids the reader, in such works as
the Historical Novels exists in a less elaborated form in the
colloquial medium of daily life. In the style of a fluent Chinese
speaker, clauses of four words each, will be found to occur more
frequently than of any other length. This measure may be called for
the Shánghái dialect the Double Iambus, the accent being on the last
syllable of a group of two words; e.g. 財主人家有喪事要請和尚道士做做攻德
ze-tsú-niun-ká ’{y}eu song zz‘ yau‘ ’t’sing {h}ú-zong‘-’{t}au-’zz
tsú‘-tsú‘ kúng-tuh, {rich men at a funeral will invite Buddhist and
Taúist priests, to perform a religious service}. Here there are 3
groups of four.

Obs. i. Chinese colloquial syntax might be divided into two heads,
treating of grammatical (or syntactical), and prosodial (or
rhythmical) relations respectively. Under the former might be placed,
government, propositions, and a part of the system of groups. Under
the latter would be properly found repetition, antithesis, and the
remainder of the system of grouping. The latter might be called
prosody, but that word is more properly applied to the laws of poetry.
In the present work it has been thought more convenient to mix these
divisions under a common heading.

Obs. ii. Words in the fourth tone are just as important in the groups
as other words, unless they happen to be enclitics; e.g. 大關節目 {t}á‘
kwa{n} tsih móh, {the general object}. The last two words have no less
emphasis of voice than the former, and 目 móh is distinctly accented.

Obs. iii. In dialects where the accent is on the penultimate syllable,
the four-word measure might be called a Double Trochee. These
classical names of feet are not strictly applicable, descriptive as
they are of the long and short syllables of poetry. They are here used
for want of better terms, just as is done by writers on English
versification, to express the pronunciation of words as accented or
not accented. At Súng-kiáng the fú city to which Shánghái belongs, the
accent changes to the penultimate.

Obs. iv. In 讀起來看 {read}, and {t}ók ’k’í lé k’ö{n}‘, {read it and
try}, the accent is on the first and last words of both these
sentences, the middle words being enclitic.

426. The three-word foot may be called, if it consists of two
unaccented, and one accented syllable, an {anapaest}; e.g. 壁立直 pih
lih dzuh, {exactly straight}; 敲敲鼓 k’au k’au ’kú, {to beat a drum};
梁惠王 liáng {w}é‘ {w}ong, {a king in Mencius}. If the accent is on the
first word of three, the foot might be called a {dactyl}; e.g. 做末者
tsú‘ meh ’tsé, {do it}. Instances of such dactyls are rare and are
chiefly confined to sentences containing enclitics, which reject the
accent. In some cases, the accent is on the middle word as in 放颻子
fong‘ yau‘ ’tsz, {to fly a kite}; 子 ’tsz as an enclitic throws back
the accent on the preceding word.

427. The number two occurs in innumerable combination, which may be
called iambs; i.e. 上山 ’zong sa{n}, {ascend a hill}.

428. Common recognized groups numbering more than four coordinate
words are not very numerous. They may be readily resolved into smaller
feet of two, three, or four words, by attending to the {cæsura}, which
will be always found in them; e.g. 喜怒哀懼愛惡欲 ’h’í nú‘ é gü‘ é‘ ú‘
{y}óh, {joy, anger, grief, fear, love, hatred, desire}. That mark of
division occurs after the fourth word for groups of seven, and after
the second for groups of five; others may be divided into groups of
two or three words each.

Obs. i. The cæsura of seven word and five word versification in good
poetry, and in street ballads, is generally after the fourth and
second words, but variations occur according to the taste of the
writer, and the exigencies of composition.

Obs. ii. By marking the cæsura, groups of four words may be divided
into smaller divisions of two, and those of three words into parts of
one and two words. Thus the secondary accent heard in the first part
of the group, and referred to in the sections on tones may be
accounted for, as properly belonging to the smaller groups, or single
word, to which it is affixed.

Obs. iii. The accent here spoken of is, that which is understood by
the word in English and French, viz. that emphasis which is
predominantly on the penultimate or antepenultimate in the former, and
on the last syllable in the latter language. It is one simply of
position, and is so far independent of tones on the one hand, and of
the quantity of vowels as long or short, on the other. English
versification is entirely regulated by the accent of position, and not
by the consideration of vowels and syllables being long and short.
Thus in the line “our voices keep tune, and our oars keep time,” the
quantity of “keep,” and “our” is long, yet they stand as short
syllables. Chinese poetry is like that of England in possessing
rhymes, and instead of a rhythmus of long and short vowel quantities,
such as formed the framework of Greek and Latin versification, it has
one of even and uneven tones.

Obs. iv. In some groups of four, the accent is on the first and fourth
words; e.g. 鄕下百姓 h’iáng ’{a}u pák sing‘, {country people}. But it
is most frequently on the 2nd and 4th, e.g. 富貴貧賤 fú‘ kwé‘ bing
dzíe{n}‘, {rich and poor}; 去邪歸正 k’í‘ ziá kwé tsung‘, {to abandon vice
and reform}. When it passes to the first or third, it is because the
word on which it should be is an enclitic or has a weak tone. Cf.
Part 1. section 3. for remarks on the accent of three-word groups.

429. From this analysis it may be concluded, that much of Chinese
prose falls spontaneously into groups of two, three and four words,
with an accent of position to mark them; enclitics do not usually take
the accent and are very often not to be counted as independent members
of the groups to which they are attached.

Obs. i. It has been already shown that the tones of a dialect are
affected by the rhythmus. This happens for example, in the Amoy
dialect particularly in the penultimate, where the second and seventh
tones change into the high quick rising, and high quick falling
respectively. In Chinese prose compositions, it is usual to end
sentences with a word in the first tone, and one of the three other
tones alternately. In their versification, words that rhyme have their
alphabetical sound, and their tones in harmony. For an account of the
use of tones in poetry, see Remusat’s grammar.

Obs. ii. The tendency of words as thus illustrated, to agglutinate
into groups numerically conditioned, is made the basis of all new
sentences, and insensibly regulates the composition of the native
speaker. He would be quite as likely to transgress the laws of
intergovernment among the parts of speech, as to overlook the rhythmus
of his words.



                         APPENDIX I.

      ON THE HIGHER COLLOQUIAL, CALLED VUN ’LI ’T’U BAH,
                           文理土白.

Occasionally in the preceding pages, examples have been introduced,
from the style of conversation prevailing among literary men. A common
knowledge of the books, and the existence of a universal mandarin
colloquial, have given rise to an enlarged vocabulary of phrases
bearing this name. The consideration of their etymological and
syntactical peculiarities belong to the grammar of the books and of
mandarin, the two sources from whence they are derived.

An example or two will be given. Among the verbs, the auxiliary of
destruction 脱 t’eh, is replaced by 掉 {t}iau‘. 殺掉 sah diau‘, {to
kill}; 滅掉 mih diau‘ {destroy}. Many new groups are also employed,
whose meaning would not be understood by the common people. 燈燭煇煌
tung tsóh hwé {w}ong, {the brightness of the candle in its lanthorn};
衣冠楚楚 í kwé ’t’sú ’t’sú, {his dress and hat look neat}.

In carrying on conversation with the educated, it is necessary to know
these phrases when they occur, and it is a great advantage to be able
to use them, but in an elementary work like the present, it is enough
to say that the path to that knowledge lies in the study of the books,
and of the general language. This part of the colloquial medium is
common ground to all dialects, where no distinction remains, but that
of pronunciation. In many cases, however, phrases not used in the
every-day dialect of this district, and which therefore, are
considered 文理 vun ’lí, are found in the colloquial of other parts of
China, much farther removed from mandarin.



                        APPENDIX II.

          ON THE NATIVE TABLES OF INITIALS AND FINALS.

Marshman long ago made a study of these tables, for which he was
peculiarly fitted from his knowledge of Sanscrit. On comparing the
alphabetic system of that language with the Chinese tables, now to be
considered, he at once pronounced them identical in principle. This
conclusion is fully confirmed by what Chinese authors say. The
explanation in K’áng-hí’s Dictionary of “the method of separating a
word into its component sounds,” (切字樣法) says, “now tabulated rhymes
are in the Sanscrit called 夫等韻者梵語悉曇. “Here we speak of mother
characters, the sounds from which all words originate,” 此云字母
乃是一切文字之母. “That which in Sanscrit is called p’í-k’á-lah is
here called the division of sounds, which constitutes the foundation
of the science of words,” 梵語毘佉囉此云切韻一切文字之根本 Remusat long since
pointed out that the language meant by the word 梵 Fan, is Sanscrit.
He says in his Life of the Grand Lama, Pa-sz-pa, translated
from the Chinese History of the Mongols in Remusat’s Melanges
Asiatiques, Vol. II. 145, “Ce sont les religieux Indiens qui l’ont
(the 36 initials) fait connaítre á notre empire.” “Nos prêtres chinais
ont retenu cet usage qu’ils avaient pris des Indiens.”[1]

The accompanying table is taken from Bopp’s Sanscrit grammar, the
characters of the Chinese tables being placed instead of the Sanscrit
characters.

  Gutturals,  見 ká,     溪 khá,    郡 gá,  ghá,  疑 ngá.
  Palatals,   知 chá,    徹 ch’á,   澄 djá, d’zá, 娘 niá.
  Linguals,   端 ta,     透 t’á,    定 dá,  dh’á, 泥 ná.
  Dental,        tá,       thá,       dá,  dhá,     ná.
  Labials,    幫 pá,     滂 phá,    並 bá,  bhá,  明 má.
  Semivocals, 影 já (y)  日 rá,     來 lá,           wá (v.)
  Sibilants,    sá(s’), 審 shá(s’), 心 sá(s),     曉 há.

Marshman possessed a genuine philological spirit, which often appears
in the midst of the somewhat extravagant theories in which he
frequently indulged. He saw in the present instance, that in the
Chinese spoken language, the consonants g, d, b, etc. should each
commence a series of words, and this led him to the remark “that a
further investigation of the Chinese pronunciation, would probably
discover some vestige of this existing at the present day.” Diss,
p. 37.

The passage cited in page 43, also ascribes the arrangement of these
tables to a Buddhist priest; he improved upon the system of finals
invented By Shin-yoh, who wrote one of the {twenty one histories},
viz. that of the northern Sóng dynasty.

It will now be shown that in a great part of central China such a
system prevails. Before attempting to sketch the boundaries of that
tract of country, a brief statement will be given of what conditions
must be fulfilled, in order to identify an existing pronunciation with
these relics of the Buddhist industry of former days.

By referring to the table in page 44, it will be seen that there are
in all 36 initials including, beside those whose Sanscrit equivalents
are now given, f, f’, v, w, z, zh, a lower h and y, and the compounds
of t and d, with s, z, sh and zh.

The required dialect should have therefore an extensive system of
initials, and as the modern tonic Dictionaries of Canton and
Cháng-cheú, very accurately represent the dialects of those places, it
may be assumed of the Dictionary tables, that they are no less careful
in exhibiting the pronunciation of their time.

Among the finals, ng, n and m, terminate words in the three long
tones, and the corresponding mutes k, t, p, are recognized as the
terminations of words in the short tone, few of them having a vowel
ending.

This is very clearly perceptible in the tables of the 字彙 a
Dictionary, which was published many years before that of K’áng-hí,
and in those of the Dictionary called 洪武正韻 {h}óng ’wú chung‘ {y}ün‘.
In the latter for example words in the short tone ending in k, are
classed under 屋, 藥, 陌. Those in t are found under 質, 曷, 轄, 屑.
Those in p are under 緝 合 葉 pron. tsip, etc.

The same careful separation of the finals ng, n and m is also found in
these Dictionaries. The modern mandarin sound kíen, is found
subdivided into the four words kíen, kiem, kan, kam; e.g. the 字彙
classes words in íen under the headings, 堅, 廉, 艱, 監. Mandarin words
in óng are found under two heads, 公 kóng and 弓 kióng respectively.
While the first medial i is thus affected, the other medial u is found
as it is in modern mandarin spelling, except that 戈 is spelt kwo, and
heads a class distinct from another which is ranged under 歌.[2]

The number of classes into which the finals are divided varies in
different Dictionaries. That of the 字彙, perhaps the must convenient
arrangement, consists of 44, This includes the 入聲 finals k, t, p, as
the same in sound with ng, n, m. The difference between these two sets
of letters, is supposed to be due only to rapid pronunciation
occasioned by the tone. In that work, the finals are as follow:—

l. Kóng 公, kí 基, kung 庚, kin 巾, kiün 鈞, kwáng 光, kwei 規, kwái 乖,
kwá 瓜, kié 迦, k{ó} 歌, kán 干, kwán 關 kiem 監, keú 鉤.

2. Káng 岡, kü 居, kun 根, kim 金, king 扃, kwung 觥, kú 姑, kái 該, kiá
嘉, k’iö 㵃, kwön 官, kíen 堅, kán 艱, kaú 高, kieú 鳩.

3. Kiaú 驅, kióng 弓, king 京, tshim 簪, kwun 裩, kiáng 江, tsz 貲, kiái
皆, ná 拿, kwó 戈, kiuen 絹, kiem 兼, kam 甘, kiaú 交.

The remaining principal element of these tables is their arrangement
according to tones; which are neither five, seven, nor eight, but
always four. Thus, 東, 通, 同 are all in the first tone 平聲, under the
initials t, t’, d. So also 兵評平明 are all in the first tone 平聲, under
the initials p, p’, b, m.

Among the words registered in the second tone, are many that are in
modern Chinese in the third tone. Such are—

  後上動奉坐部禍倖跪近是市緖善弟道父婦犯罪造重在緩罷下丈蕩牝舅社單被倍似曙柱拒忿殍抱竪

下 being in the second tone, we see the probable reason why it was not
chosen for the name of the third tone. The character 去 was preferred,
because it exemplified the tone of which it was the name.

The tables thus described are employed, to spell words throughout the
Chinese dictionaries from K’áng-hí and the 正字通, upwards to the T’áng
dynasty and even earlier. There is but one system and one set of
tones, the tone is included in the final, or second word in the 反切,
Fan t’sih while the first gives the initial, and both are in constant
accordance with the tables. The characters 犯 and 下 for example are
always given in the 上聲 second tone, but the latter is as a verb also
given in the 去聲 third tone. Different dictionaries choose different
words to spell with, but the system is one; e.g. 動 is spelt with 徒 dú
and 樬 ’tsóng, making ’dóng. It is added 𠀤同上聲, it is the same as
dóng read in the second tone.

In considering to which system of pronunciation now existing these
characteristics best apply, there occur several objections to the
modern mandarin.

The mandarin of Nán-king and Yáng-cheú in Kiáng-nan, of Ngán-k’ing in
Ngán-hwei, and of Ch’áng-shá in Hú-nan has five tones, viz. 上平, 下平,
上聲, 去聲, 入聲. In the northern parts of Kiáng-nan another system
begins. Words in the 入聲 júh shing become distributed among the other
four tones, and this peculiarity extends over the northern provinces
including the metropolitan city. The 上平 and 下平 differ as much from
each other, as they both do from the other tones, so that the
nomenclature of tones, when first invented, could not have referred to
the Nanking or Peking mandarin, as they are at present. Evidently the
literati speaking those dialects have taken their names of tones from
the dictionary system, and not vice versâ. Nor have these two modes of
pronunciation since the Yuen dynasty any such finals as {m} among the
long tones, or k, t, p in the júh shing. Not to insist on the
differences in the medial vowel i, the want of the initials g, d, b,
is another reason for our seeking elsewhere for the prototype of the
dictionary system. The western provinces of China are the same in
principle as to their pronunciation. Like the mandarin of northern
China, they always admit the aspirate after k, t, p, in the 下平, and
reject it, except in irregular instances, in all words that are in the
southern and eastern provinces in the 下上, 下去, and 下入.

Further, the irregularities of the initial consonants found in the
mandarin provinces, are not taken into account in the native tables.
Such are the changes of {ki} into {chi} at Peking; {l} into {n}, and
{n} into {l} in many dialects; the coalescing of ki and tsi in others.
The 下平 aspirates, and some other changes are included in the second
table formed to accompany K’áng-hí’s dictionary; yet that table is but
a modern and incomplete revision of the older system.

If any one desires native tables of the mandarin pronunciation, he
must look for them in the 五方元音 and such works, which give them with
great accuracy; though of course their authority is not equal to that
of the celebrated dictionaries already cited.

For investigating the sounds of Canton and Fúh-kien, every facility is
afforded by the careful dictionaries of those systems of pronunciation
that have been prepared by native authors. The Cháng-cheú dialect with
its fifteen initials, and its want of a lower 上聲 is definitely
marked. Although like the Canton pronunciation it contains the finals
m, p, t, k, admits a medial {i} in words such as 弓, and rejects it in
艱, thus agreeing with the tables in some of their peculiarities, it
can only be regarded so far as the tables are concerned, as an
isolated, out-lying member of the general system of dialects. The
finals, m, t, p, k, disappear on the Fúh-kíen coast at Hing-hwá.

The Canton dialect possesses very regular tones, none of them being
inverted in pitch as in Fúh-kíen and Kiáng-sí, and it has among them
the lower 上聲, or as it is usually called, the sixth tone. In this
tone are found perhaps half of the words, having the dictionary
initials, g, d, b, zh, z, some of which are given in page 218. But
they are pronounced k, t, p, etc. E.g. 似, 倍, 柱, 重, 婦, 牝. These
words with many others are in the Canton 分韻. marked lower 上聲. In
mandarin they are 去聲.

Nowhere do we find such an accurate general correspondence with the
tables, as in the pronunciation of the central parts of China. The
tones are such, that the dictionary system is seen at once on
examination to apply to them with accuracy. The alphabetical
peculiarities of the native tables are found with one or two doubtful
exceptions, to be embraced in a tract of country, which will now be
roughly indicated.

In the north, the thick series of consonants, g, z, etc. marking the
lower series, i.e. in southern China words in tones 5–8, makes its
appearance in 南通州 Nán T’óng-cheú, a prefecture lying along the
northern bank of the Yáng-tsz-kiáng, where it enters the ocean. The
transition from d, etc. where the region of the northern mandarin is
approached, is marked by the introduction of the aspirate.

Thus, 地 dí‘ becomes t’í‘, before it becomes tí‘. The two
pronunciations are mixed in Chun-kiáng fú 鎭江,  There the mandarin
system of five tones crosses the river to the south and extends to
Nanking. All round Háng-cheú bay, the two correlate series of
consonants, and the four-tone system mark the colloquial dialect.
Chu-san and Ningpo, Shaú-hing and Hang-cheú, on the south, are at one
with Sú-cheú, Ch’áng-cheú and Súng-kiáng, on the north. Perhaps the
whole of Cheh-kiáng province has substantially the same spoken medium.
Passing the point where the three provinces Cheh-kiáng, Fúh-kíen and
Kiáng-sí meet, the thick consonants are still found partially
prevailing in the two prefectures of the latter province Kwáng-sin and
Kíen-cháng, lying to the west of the Wú-í hills. But at 撫州 Fú-cheú, a
little farther westward they have entirely disappeared, and are
replaced by aspirates. Instead of dí‘ {earth}, they there say t’í, for
bing {sickness}, p’ing, and so through all words beginning with k, t,
p, in the lower series. The same peculiarity marks the Hakka dialect
and that of Kiá-ying cheú 嘉應侧, in the eastern part of Canton
province. Nothing can be said in the present notice of the southern
parts of Kiáng-sí, but Nán-ch’áng the provincial capital has the
aspirates only in the fifth tone where they should properly be, and in
the other lower tones has k, t, etc. distinguished from words in the
upper series, simply by difference in tone. Immediately north of this
city, on both sides of the Pó-yáng lake, the broad consonants occur
again. It might be expected that through Ngan-hwei, a connecting
chain of dialects should link the broad pronunciation of this region,
including the Potteries 景德鎮, and 南康府 on the other side of the lake,
with the similar system extending over Cheh-kiáng, and a great part of
Kiáng-sú. This line exists and extends through Ning-kwóh fú, but it is
so narrow that it does not reach the great river on the north, nor the
city of Hwei-cheú on the south. The last mentioned place has two
dialects within its walls, in one of which two sets of tones exist,
the tones of conversation being quite distinct from those of reading.
This is independent of the alphabetical differences of the reading and
the spoken sounds, which also here appear to reach their maximum. Near
this city, the pronunciation varies so fast that three dialects are
found in one {híen}. The belt of country across Ngan-hwei, where the
lower series of consonants is in use, is bordered on the north by
dialects containing the aspirates, that so frequently form the medium
of transition to the thin consonants and fewer tones of mandarin.

Beyond the Pô-yáng lake westward, are also found the g, d, lb,
initials on the banks of the 洞庭湖 Tóng t’ing hú, in Hú-nán. Boatmen
from the district of 安化, on the south of that celebrated lake, may be
readily conversed with by using the thick consonants in all words in
the lower series of tones. Round these two lakes, the favourite resort
of the Chinese muse, and from the natural beauty of which Lí Tái-puh
drew the inspiration of his poetry, the same system of pronunciation
with that of Háng-cheú and Sú-cheú, the most polished cities in China,
is found to exist. This consideration with the extent of the territory
thus delineated, may help to remove any strangeness in the assertion,
that the native tables of sounds made in the Liáng dynasty, and copied
into K’áng-Hí’s dictionary are not at all founded on the modern
mandarin pronunciation, but on what is now a provincial system.

In the territory thus delineated, there is not the same uniformity in
final that exists in initials. Of the three terminating consonants is
the 入聲 {k} only is developed at Shánghái, and even this is wanting in
all the large cities near, including those in the northern part of
Cheh-kiáng. N is not as a final in the long tones, clearly separated
from NG, and there is no representation of M.

On the other hand {t} and {p}, with their correlates {n} and {m} are
found at Fú-cheú fú, 撫州府 in Kiáng-sí but {k} does not appear. At
南康府 Nán-káng fú, at the western extremity of the same province, {p}
and {m} are distinctly represented, but there is no {k} or {t}, and
{ng} is confounded with {n}. {Kien} and {kan} are distinguished at
Shánghái, and in these more southerly cities. {Kóng} 公 is separated
from 弓 {kióng} at Fú-cheú fú.

In dialects farther south, while the initials differ from those of the
dictionaries, the consonantal terminations of the short tone are all
clearly marked, and are in harmony with the ancient system. Thus we
are led to the conclusion, that in regard to initials, the Kiáng-nan
and Cheh-kiáng pronunciation agrees best with the written
pronunciations as given in the native tables. But in reference to
finals, Kiáng-sí and the southern provinces best represent them.
Kiáng-sí appears to be the province that contains within its limits,
the greatest number of the peculiarities in question.

In K’áng-hí’s second table, the distinction between the finals, m and
n is neglected; e.g. 三 is spelt not {sam} but {san}. Further all words
in the short tone are spelt with vowel finals; k, t, p, not being
recognized, except as secondary forms retained out of respect to the
old system. They are cut in small circles. No change is made in the
tones or initials, except that words in 下平 are many of them placed in
the aspirate column.

The spelling of many words in W with an initial V, and of others in Y
with NG or N, will be found explained in Part I. section IV. With
respect to the two columns headed CH and TSH, which are the same to
our ears, it may be observed, that at Sú-cheú words under the former
heading are pronounced CH, and under the latter TS, indicating a
natural separation between the two columns.

The resumé of this appendix, and of what was said on the Dictionary
tables in the sections on the sounds at the commencement of the
present work may be stated thus:—

1. The peculiarities of the tabulated initials, finals and tones are
all explained, by bringing the different dialects of the three Kiáng
provinces together; the aspirated f column being the only prominent
anomaly that has not been illustrated.

2. The peculiarities of mandarin pronunciation, such as the
interchange of some initial consonants, the prefixing of NG to many
words in the upper tones (v. page 51), the coalescing of the upper and
lower tones in all cases except that of the {p’ing shung}, the uniform
occurrence of the aspirate after k, t, p, in the hiá‘ p’ing, and the
loss of the short tone in the northern provinces, are all unnoticed in
the old tables, while they are all recognized in modern works on
sounds.

It may be remarked generally on the two systems that the tendency of
words in mandarin is to coalesce in sound, while in the other system,
the tendency is to more minute subdivision. The mandarin is the most
widely spread, embracing two thirds of the 18 provinces.

It appears plain from the Corean and Japanese transcriptions of
Chinese sounds made contemporaneous with the dictionaries, that the
north of China must then have had the same dialect as that now
prevailing in the kiang provinces.

A. The circumflex tones in page 9, may be further divided. The bend of
the voice may be upward or downward. Perhaps the Sháng-hái fifth tone
may be best described, as sometimes a low slow falling circumflex,
(l.s.f.c.) and at other times as a low even tone (l.s.e.). There would
with this extension of the natural tones mentioned in section 2. be
seven starting from the same key, viz. The even, rising, falling,
rising circumflex, falling circumflex, rising short, and falling short
tones. If subdivided into an upper and lower key, they become
fourteen, and if considered according to their time as quick or slow,
we have in all (the short tones not admitting of this subdivision) 24
natural tones.

B. If Roman numerals i to viii be used for the eight tones, the
changes of tone occurring in combination in our dialect may be
represented as follows:—In the groups v—i, and viii—i, i become v. In
ii—ii; ii—vi, vi—vi and vi—ii, the last tone often becomes i, or else
former becomes iii or vii. In iii—iii, iii—vii, the former becomes ii.
In v—v, iv—v, v does not change, but in other cases v becomes i.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1. In Julien’s “Methode pour transcrire les noms Sanscrits dans
  les livres Chinois,” p. 2; he states that Remusat first
  published this discovery in 1811.

  2. For a general view of the changes undergone in vowels since
  the tables of sounds were made, for example changes from u to ú,
  o to ia, chi to ch, sí to sz, ui to ei, ü to ú, é to í, á to ó,
  ó to á, etc. v. Grammar of Mandarin Dialect, ch. 8, § 5.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------


Transcriber’s Notes:

  * Footnotes have been renumbered and placed at the end of the
    associated grammar article.

  * Obvious typographical errors have been corrected in this text.

  * Hyphenation variations are unchanged.

  * This book contains some rarely used forms of Chinese characters.
    Any eReader should contain as full a set of fonts as possible.

  * In the text version only, italicized letters are contained
    within braces {}.

  * Depending on available fonts, some tables may not line up
    vertically.

  * The original book is available at the HathiTrust Digital Library.





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