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Title: Veterinary Medicines - Their Actions, Uses and Dose
Author: Korinek, George F.
Language: English
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  VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
  OF AMERICA

  VETERINARY MEDICINES

  THEIR
  ACTIONS, USES AND DOSE

  BY

  GEORGE F. KORINEK, V. S., B. V. S.

  _Graduate of the Ontario Veterinary College. Graduate from
  the Veterinary Department of the University of Toronto, Canada.
  Member of the Science Association of the Ontario Veterinary
  College. Registrar of the Veterinary Science Association
  of America. Ten years of Practical Experience in Veterinary
  Medicine and Surgery._

  [Illustration]

  PUBLISHED BY THE

  VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
  OF AMERICA


  COPYRIGHT 1917
  by the
  VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
  OF AMERICA



PREFACE


There is no scarcity of excellent works on Veterinary materia medica and
Therapeutics.

Many of these will well repay the student for the time spent in
mastering them, but none seem to meet the wants of the Veterinary
Practitioner and Student for whom this work is primarily intended.

It has been my endeavor to find, and bring together in available form,
some of the facts regarded as of value to those upon whom the stockman
must depend, to a great extent, for important services when sickness
comes upon our dumb friends--the domestic animals.

A few publications have been consulted, and in some instances quoted. It
has not been practicable to give proper credit for use of ideas and
language in each instance, but a general acknowledgment is here made.

  List of publications consulted and in some instances quoted:

  United States Dispensatory (by Wood).

  Veterinary Medicines (by Dun).

  Veterinary Materia Medica and Therapeutics (by Winslow).

  Veterinary Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Toxicology (by Quitman).

  GEORGE F. KORINEK, V. S., B. V. S.



SUMMARY OF VETERINARY MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS AND TOXICOLOGY


MATERIA MEDICA, derived from two _Latin_ words signifying medical
material, the science which treats with medicine, their source or
origin, their derivatives, physical and chemical properties, their
method of preparation and administration, their dose, physiological and
toxicological effects.

THERAPEUTICS, derived from the Greek, _Therapevo_, meaning to serve or
attend the sick, is that branch of knowledge which treats of the
application of all means--medical or otherwise--to the cure of disease
or relief of pain.

TOXICOLOGY, derived from the Greek _Toxikon_, a poison, is that branch
of knowledge which treats of the nature, actions, detection and
treatment of poisons.

A _medicine_ is an agent of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin used
for the cure of disease or relief of pain.

DRUG, derived from the Dutch, _Droog_, meaning dry, is now used
synonymously with medicine although originally referring to an herb or
dried medical plant.



GENERAL ACTIONS OF MEDICINES


ALTERATIVE.--A medicine that alters the process of nutrition, so as to
overcome morbid conditions of the body as Arcenous Acid, Potassium
Iodide, etc.

ANAESTHETIC.--Medicines used to produce insensibility to pain, and they
are divided into Local and General Anaesthetics.

GENERAL ANAESTHETICS.--Are inhaled and carried by the blood to the brain
and spinal cord, where they paralyze the nerve centers, cause muscular
relaxation and finally produce entire suspension of sensation and power
of motion, together with a loss of consciousness, and apparent life,
except breathing and the action of the heart. They comprise Nitrous
Oxide Gas, Ether and Chloroform, etc.

LOCAL ANAESTHETICS.--As a rule, are injected hypodermically or applied
to open wounds. They cause temporary loss of local or circumscribed
sensation by paralyzing the sensory nerves. When applied in the form of
liniments they resemble anodynes, but act more promptly and profoundly.
They comprise Cocaine, Eucaine, etc.

ANALGESIC.--A medicine used to relieve pain, as Opium, etc.

ANAPHRODISIAC.--A medicine used to produce absence or impairment of
sexual appetite, as Potassium Bromide, etc.

ANHIDROTIC.--A medicine that diminishes the secretion of perspiration as
Belladonna, etc.

ANODYNE.--A medicine that lessens sensibility to pain, by diminishing
the excitability of nerve centers, as Cannabis Indica, Chloral Hydrate,
etc.

ANODYNES LOCAL.--Are drugs that diminish pain by acting locally on
sensory nerves, and are applied in the form of a liniment over painful
swellings, as Belladonna, Aconite, Opium, hot and cold packs, etc.

ANTACID.--A medicine that counteracts or neutralizes acidity of the
stomach or intestines as liquor Potassium, Sodium Carbonate and
Bicarbonate, etc.

ANTAGONISTIC.--A medicine which counteracts the action of another
medicine in the system, as would Potassium Bromide and Nux Vomica or
Strychnine.

ANTHELMINTIC.--A medicine efficiently destroying or expelling worms or
preventing their development, as Santonin, Arecae Nut, etc.

ANTIDOTE.--A substance preventing or counteracting the action of a
poison. Antidotes are distinguished as: chemical, those that change the
chemical nature of the poison; mechanical, those that prevent absorption
of poison; physiologic, those that counteract the effects of poison by
producing other effects.

ANTIEMETIC.--A medicine which prevents or arrests vomiting, as Bismuth
Subnitrate.

ANTIFEBRILE.--A medicine that reduces temperature, as Acetanilid, etc.

ANTIFERMENT.--A medicine which prevents the formation of gases, as
Sodium Bicarbonate, Turpentine, etc.

ANTIGALACTIC.--A medicine which lessens the secretion of milk, as
Belladonna, Tannin, etc.

ANTIPARASITIC.--An agent which destroys and repels insects, as essential
oils, powdered tobacco, sulphur and naphthalin, etc.

ANTIPERIODIC.--A medicine that tends to prevent the periodic recurrence
of a disease, as Quinine Sulphate, Arsenous Acid, etc.

ANTIPERISTALTIC OR ANTIPERISTALSIS.--Are medicines that produce
compression of peristalsis or the worm-like movement of the intestines
by which method the alimentary canal propels its contents, as Opium.

ANTIPHLOGISTIC.--A medicine or agent subduing or reducing inflammation
or fever, as in bloodletting, applications of cold packs or the
administration of Aconite, Acetanilide, etc.

ANTIRHEUMATIC.--A medicine that prevents or cures rheumatism, as Sodium
Salicylates, etc.

ANTIPYRETIC.--A medicine which reduces body temperature in fever, as
Quinine Sulphate, Salicylic Acid, etc.

ANTISEPTIC.--A medicine which arrests putrefaction on or in the body, or
hinders septic decomposition by killing the germs that produce it or by
checking their development, as Carbolic Acid, Zinc Sulphocarbolates,
etc.

ANTISPASMODIC.--A medicine which prevents or removes spasmodic
contraction of voluntary or involuntary muscles, as Belladonna,
Valerian, Chloral Hydrate, etc.

ANTITOXIN.--A counter poison or antidote generated within the body to
counteract the toxins of bacteria. Antitoxins are frequently injected
hypodermically in the treatment of certain infectious diseases and also
to immunize against disease, as Tetanus Antitoxin for the treatment of
tetanus or lockjaw, etc.

ANTIVENENE.--A name applied to blood-serum of animals rendered immune
against snake-poison owing to its antidotal properties.

ANTIZYMOTIC.--A medicine preventing fermentation, as Salicylic Acid,
etc.

APERIENT.--A medicine possessing a mild laxative or purgative effect, as
Rochelle Salts, etc.

APHRODISIAC.--A medicine which stimulates sexual appetite, as
Cantharides, Nux Vomica, Phosphorus, Alcohol and general tonics, etc.

AROMATIC.--A medicine characterized by a fragrant taste or odor, as
Aromatic Spiritus of Ammonia, Ginger and the essential oils, etc.

ASTRINGENT.--A medicine which contracts vessels and arrests discharges,
as Tannic Acid, Ergot, etc.

AUXILIARY.--A medicine that assists the action of another, as Chloral
Hydrate would assist Bromide of Potassium in checking excitability.

BITTER.--A medicine with a bitter taste, stimulating the
gastro-intestinal secretions without materially affecting the general
system, as Qussia Gentian, etc.

BLENNORRHAGIC.--A medicine which increases the secretions of mucus, as
Eucalyptus, Balsam Tulo, etc.

BLISTER.--An agent which, when applied over the skin, produces vesicles
resulting from local inflammatory exudate of serous fluid between the
epidermis and true skin, as applications of Cantharides, etc.

BOLUS.--A large pill or a round mass of food prepared by the mouth for
swallowing.

BOUILON.--A nutritive medium for the culture of micro-organisms prepared
from finely chopped beef or beef extract.

CACHEXIA.--A deprived condition of general nutrition, due to serious
diseases, as Tuberculosis, Scrofula, Syphilis, Cancer, etc.

CALEFACIENT.--A medicine applied externally to produce a sensation of
warmth to the part to which it is applied, as Turpentine, Mustard,
Capsicum, etc.

CALMANT.--A medicine that reduces functional activity, as Bromide of
Potassium, Aconite, etc.

CALMATIVE.--A medicine which has a quieting or a sedative effect, as
Morphine, Cannibus Indica, etc.

CALORIFACIENT OR CALORIFIC.--A heat producing substance which has the
power of developing heat in the body, as Cod Liver and Olive Oil, Fats,
etc.

CARDIAC DEPRESSANT OR SEDATIVE.--A medicine which lessens the force and
frequency of the heart’s action as Aconite, Potassium Nitrate, etc.

CARDIAC STIMULANT.--A medicine that increases the force and frequency of
the heart’s action when in a depressed condition, as Alcohol, Nux
Vomica, Ether, etc.

CARDIAC TONICS.--Are medicines that do not act as quickly as cardiac
stimulants, but they strengthen the heart muscles which regulate
pulsation, as Digitalis, Nux Vomica, etc.

CARMINATIVE.--A medicine that allays pain by causing the expulsion of
gases from the alimentary canal, as Aromatic Spiritus of Ammonia,
Asafetida, Turpentine, etc.

CATALEPTIC.--A medicine causing animals to lose control of their
muscles, as Cannibus Indica, etc.

CATALYTIC.--A medicine supposed to break down, destroy or counteract
morbid agencies existing in the blood, as Calomel, Arcenous Acid, etc.

CATHARTIC.--A medicine which hastens the evacuation of the bowels, as
Aloes, Castor Oil, etc.

CATHARTIC CHOLAGOGUE.--A medicine that stimulates the evacuation of the
intestines and the flow of bile at the same time, as Podophyllin, etc.

CATHARTIC DRASTIC.--A medicine which produces violent action of the
intestines with griping and pain, as Jalap, Arecoline, etc.

CATHARTIC HYDRAGOGUE.--A medicine that causes abundant watery discharges
of feces, as Common Elaterium, etc.

CATHARTIC SALINE.--A medicine which increases intestinal secretions and
prevents re-absorption, and mechanically excites peristaltic action, as
Magnesium Sulphate, etc.

CATHARTIC SIMPLE.--A medicine that is more active then a laxative, but
is accompanied by some griping; it causes active peristalsis and larger
and softer stools than laxatives, as Rhubarb, Aloes, etc.

CAUSTIC.--A medicine or agent used to destroy living tissue, as Caustic
Potash, Silver Nitrate, etc.

CAUTERY.--An agent used to sear or burn living tissue, with a cautery or
a caustic, as a hot iron or Nitric Acid, etc.

CAUTERY ACTUAL.--A metal instrument heated by an electric current or by
flame, used to destroy bone or muscular tissue or for producing
counter-irritation, much preferred to setons in diseases of the bones
especially of their joints, as in Bone Spavin, Ringbone, etc., also
valuable in the treatment of sprained tendons. The methods used are
either puncture or line firing.

CAUTERY POTENTIAL.--A chemical used for destroying or cauterizing flesh,
as Nitric Acid, etc.

CHALYBEATE.--A medicine containing iron, as Tincture Chlorid of Iron.

CONDIMENT.--A medicine used to improve palatability of food, as
Fenugreek, Aniseed, Salt, Pepper, etc.

CONSERVATIVE.--A medicine or substance used for the preservation of
other medicines without loss, as Alcohol, Honey, etc.

CONSTRINGENT.--A medicine which causes contraction of organic tissues,
as Tannin, etc.

CONVULSANT.--A medicine which causes violent and unnatural contractions
of muscles (convulsions) as Nux Vomica or its derivative, etc.

CORDIAL.--A medicine which increases the strength and raises the
vitality when depressed, as Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia, Alcohol, etc.

CORRECTIVE or CORRECTANT.--A substance used to modify or make pleasant
the action of a cathartic or other medicines, as Acacia, Coriander, etc.

CORROSIVE.--A substance that destroys organic tissue either by direct
chemical means or by causing inflammation and suppuration, as Mercuric
Chloride, Nitric Acid, etc.

COUNTER IRRITANT.--A substance or medicine which produces superficial
inflammation artificially in order to exercise a good effect, by
stimulating functional activity of a part, thus promoting repair upon
some adjacent or deep-seated morbid process, as Blistering or Firing,
etc.

CUMULATIVE POISON.--A medicine which finally acts as a poison after
several successive doses have been taken with little or no apparent
effect, as Arsenic, Strychnine, etc.

DEBILITANT.--A medicine which diminishes the energy of organs, as
Bromide of Potassium, Lobelia, etc.

DEFERVESCENT.--A medicine that reduces temperature, as Quinine Sulphate,
Aconite, etc.

DELIRIANT OR DELIRIFACENT.--A medicine which produces delirium, as
Opium, Stramonium, Alcohol, etc.

DEMULCENT.--A mucilaginous or oily, soothing blend to protect irritated
skin or mucous membranes, as Carron Oil, White of an Egg, etc.

DEOBSTRUENT.--A medicine which removes functional obstructions in the
body, as Castor Oil, Magnesium Sulphate, Aloes, etc.

DEODORANT OR DEODORIZER.--A substance to conceal or destroy foul odors,
as Crude Carbolic Acid, Chloride of Lime, etc. Noxious odors may also be
destroyed and absorbed with freshly burnt charcoal or dry earth.

DEPLETORY.--A medicine which diminishes the quantity of liquid in the
body, as Iodide or Nitrate of Potassium, etc.

DEPRESSANT.--A medicine which lessens vital power, as Opium, Aconite,
etc.

DEPRESSO-MOTOR.--A medicine that depresses motor activity, as Sodium or
Potassium Bromide, etc.

DEPURANT.--A medicine for cleaning foul wounds and abscesses, as
Hydrogen Peroxide, etc.

DEPURATORY.--A medicine which purifies the blood, as Sulphur, Iodide
Potassium, etc.

DERMATIC.--A medicine used in diseases of the skin, as Resorcinol, Zinc
Oxide, etc.

DERIVATIVE.--A substance used in drawing away blood or liquid exudates
from diseased parts by creating an extra demand for them in some other
part of the body, as Mustard, Capsicum, Cantharides, etc.

DESICCANT.--A medicine used for drying up sores, as Tannic Acid, Boric
Acid, etc.

DESICCATIVE.--A medicine which dries up secretions, as Zinc Oxide,
Camphor, etc.

DESICCATORY.--A medicine used externally to dry up moisture or fluids
from wounds, as Tannic Acid, Starch, etc.

DESQUAMATION.--A medicine which removes scales from the skin, bones and
mucous membranes, as Potassium Iodide, etc.

DETERGENT.--A substance for purifying and cleansing wounds, ulcers, as
Hydrogen Peroxide, Soap and Water, etc.

DIAPHORETIC.--A medicine which causes an increased amount of
perspiration, as Pilocarpine, Ginger, etc.

DIARRHETIC.--A substance or medicine which causes increased frequency
and lessened consistency of fecal evacuations, as Mandrake.

DIETETIC.--A medicine having nutritious properties, as Olive or Cod
Liver Oil, etc.

DIGESTANT.--A medicine that assists digestion of food, in the mouth,
stomach or intestines, as Pancreatin, Pepsin, etc.

DIGESTIVE.--A medicine which promotes the process of digestion, as
Gentian, Qussia, Nux Vomica, etc.

DILUENT.--A medicine that dilutes the secretions of organs, as Magnesium
Sulphate, Gamboge, Arecoline, etc.

DISCUTIENT.--A substance or medicine having the power of causing an
exudation to disappear, as Iodide of Potassium, Red Iodide of Mercury,
etc.

DISINFECTANT.--A medicine which destroys septic poisons of communicable
diseases; its special function is to kill or hinder the development of
those germs or bacteria which produce diseases, as Carbolic Acid,
Chloride of Lime, Formaldehyde, etc.

DISSOLVENT.--A medicine that promotes solution of tissues of the body,
as Potassium Iodide, etc.

DIURETIC.--A medicine that increases the secretions of the urinary
organs, as Potassium Nitrate, Buchu, Turpentine, Spirits Ether Nit, etc.

DRASTIC.--A medicine having a severe purgative or cathartic effect on
the bowels, as Croton Oil, etc.

EBOLIC.--A medicine causing contraction of the uterus, and thus
producing abortion, as Ergot, etc.

ELECTUARY.--A substance used to lessen irritability or increase the
palatability of medicines, as Sugar, Honey, Molasses, Water, etc.

ELIMINATIVE.--A medicine having power of expelling or casting out,
especially waste products, as Arecoline, Magnesium Sulphate, etc.

EMETIC.--A substance or medicine having the power to induce vomiting, as
Apomorphine, Ipecac, etc.

EMMENAGOGUE.--A medicine which stimulates menstrual flow, as Potassium
Permanganate, etc.

EMOLLIENT.--A substance used externally to soften, sooth and relax parts
to which they are applied as vegetable poultices, oils, etc.

EPISPASTIC.--A medicine producing a blister, as Cantharides, Aqua
Ammonia Fort, etc.

ERRHINE.--A medicine that increases nasal secretions, as Formalin,
Capsicum, etc.

EVACUANT.--A medicine which causes the emptying of an organ, especially
the bowels, as Magnesium Sulphate, Aloes, etc.

EXCITANT.--A medicine that arouses functional activity, as Nux Vomica,
Alcohol, etc.

EXHILARANT.--A medicine which cheers or stimulates the mind, as
Strychnine, Alcohol, etc.

EXPECTORANT.--A medicine that acts upon the pulmonary mucous membranes
to increase or alter its secretions, as Lobelia, Chloride of Ammonia,
etc.

FEBRIFUGE.--A medicine which lessens bodily temperature, as Quinine,
Acetanilid, Aconite, etc.

FUMIGATION.--Is a process of disinfection by exposure to the fumes of a
vaporizing disinfectant, as Formaldehyde.

GALACTAGOGUE.--A medicine or substance which stimulates the secretions
of the mammary glands, thereby increasing the flow of milk, as
Senegaroot, Pilocarpine, etc.

GERMICIDE.--A medicine which destroys germs of any kind whether bacilli,
spirilli or micrococci, as Bichloride Mercury, Carbolic Acid, etc.

HEMATINIC.--A medicine that increases the proportion of hematin or
coloring matter in the blood, as Iron, Arsenic, etc.

HEMOLYTIC.--A medicine which causes the breaking down of the blood
corpuscles, as Mineral Acids.

HEMOSTATIC.--A medicine which stops bleeding, as Tincture Chloride of
Iron, Ergot, etc.

HEPATIC DEPRESSANT OR SEDATIVE.--A medicine that decreases the function
of the liver, as Plumbi Acetate, Morphine, etc.

HEPATIC STIMULANT.--A medicine which increases the functions of the
liver, as Calomel, Podophyllin, etc.

HIDROTIC OR HYDROTIC.--A medicine that stimulates perspiration (sweat),
as Pilocarpine, Spirits Ether Nit., etc.

HYDRAGOGUE.--A medicine which causes full watery evacuations from the
bowels, as Arecoline, Gamboge, etc.

HYPNOTIC.--A medicine which produces sleep, as Chloral Hydrate,
Morphine, Potassium Bromide, etc.

HYPOSTHENIC.--A medicine which causes weakness, debility, as Lobelia.

IDIOSYNCRASY.--A peculiarity of constitution that makes one person or
animal react differently to medicines or other influences from most
persons or animals.

INSECTICIDE.--A substance used to destroy insects, as unrefined carbolic
acid, benzine, etc.

INTOXICANT.--A drug which excites or stupifies, as alcohol, etc.

IRRITANT.--A medicine or agent causing heat, pain and tension due to the
increased flow of blood to the part, as heat, mustard, etc.

LACTAGOGUE.--A medicine which increases the flow of milk, as extract of
malt, jaborandi, etc.

LAXATIVE.--A medicine that loosens the bowels; a mild cathartic or
purgative, as potassium nitrate, sulphur, etc.

LENITIVE.--A substance having the quality to relieve pain or protecting
tissues from the actions of irritants, as fats, oils, etc.

LIQUEFACIENT.--A medicine which promotes the liquefying processes of the
system, as potassium iodide, etc.

LITHAGOGUE.--A medicine which expels calculi (or stones) from the
kidneys or bladder, as benzoic acid, etc.

LITHOLYTIC or LITHONTRIPTIC.--A medicine to dissolve calculi (or stones)
as benzoate of ammonia, carbonate of potassium, etc.

LUBRICANT.--A substance which soothes irritated surfaces of the throat
and their fauces, as honey, olive oil, etc.

MEDICAMENT.--Any medicine used in the treatment of diseases or wounds.

MEDICINE.--Any substance for the cure of disease.

MYDRIATIC.--An agent which dilates or enlarges the pupil of the eye,
whether used internally or externally, as atrophine.

MYOTIC.--Any agent that contracts the pupil of the eye, whether applied
to the eye or taken by the mouth, as eserine, arecoline, etc.

NARCOTIC.--A medicine which produces sleep and relieves pain, but first
cause cerebral excitement, as chloroform, ether, belladonna and alcohol,
etc.

NEPHRITIC.--A medicine used in diseases of the kidneys, as buchu, uva
ursi, etc.

NERVINE.--A medicine that calms nervous excitement or acts favorably in
nervous diseases, as potassium bromide, chloral hydrate, etc.

NUTRIENT.--A medicine which builds up the waste tissues of the system,
as cod liver oil, general tonics, etc.

OBTUNDENT.--Any agent which relieves irritation or reduces sensibility,
as opium, poultices, etc.

ODONTALGIC.--Any substance for the relief of toothache, as oil of
cloves, morphine, etc.

ODORANT.--Any substance with a pronounced odor, as naphthaline,
asafoetida, etc.

OPIATE.--A drug which causes sleep, as chloral hydrate, opium, etc.

OXYTOCIC.--Any agent that produces parturition, as cotton root, ergot,
etc.

PANACEA.--A medicine curing all diseases; a cure all, as some patent
medicines.

PARASITICIDE.--A substance that destroys various animal and vegetable
organisms or parasites which live upon the surface of the body, as
mercurial and sulphur ointment, etc.

PARTURIENT or PARTURIFACIENT.--Any agent assisting in the birth of the
young, as ergot.

PERISTALTIC.--A medicine which increases the movements of the
longitudinal and transverse muscular fibers of the intestines and
assists them in expelling their contents as nux vomica, arecoline, etc.

PLACEBO.--Any medicine or inert substance given for the purpose of
satisfying the patient, rather than for its medical effects, as sugar,
fenugreek, anise, etc.

POISON.--An agent that when introduced into the body either destroys
life or impairs seriously the functions of one or more of its organs, as
potassium cyanide, hydrocyanic acid, etc.

POTENTIAL.--A medicine which possesses restorative effects, but is
delayed in its effects, as potassium iodide, arsenic, etc.

PRESERVATIVE.--A substance which prevents decomposition of another
substance, as acetanilid, boric acid, etc.

PREVENTIVE or PROPHYLACTIC.--A medicine or method that tends to prevent
disease, as quinine for the prevention of malaria, vaccine, hygienics,
etc.

PROTECTIVE.--A substance used for protecting the parts to which it is
applied, as collodion, etc.

PUNGENT.--Any substance producing a sharp, pinching, penetrating effect,
as ammonia.

PURGATIVE.--A medicine causing copious evacuations of the bowels. (See
Cathartics.)

PUSTULANT.--A medicine which irritates and gives rise to the formation
of pustules, as cantharides, croton oil, etc.

RECUPERATIVE.--A medicine which restores health and energy, as extract
of malt, cod liver oil, etc.

REFRIGERANT.--A medicine or agent having cooling properties or the power
of lowering internal or external temperature, as potassium nitrate,
aconite, cold water, etc.

RELAXANT.--A substance which causes relaxation of muscular tissues, as
chloroform, chloral, etc.

REPARATIVE.--A substance used to restore debilitated tissues of the
body, as general tonics, nitrogenous foods, etc.

RESOLVENT.--A substance indicated in the treatment or absorption of
hard, callous tissue, as iodine and its preparations.

RESTORATIVE.--A medicine that aids in restoring the health, as nux
vomica, arsenic, etc.

REVULSANT or REVULSIVE.--An agent which produces irritation and draws
fluids from other parts diseased, as poultices, cantharides, etc.

RUBEFACIENT.--A medicine or agent causing irritation and redness of the
skin, as turpentine, mustard, etc.

SEDATIVE.--A medicine which diminishes functional activity, as potassium
or ammonium bromide, etc.

SEPTIC.--An agent causing poisoning resulting from the absorption of
products of putrefaction, as bacteria.

SIALOGOGUE.--A medicine stimulating the flow of saliva, as pilocarpine,
arecoline, ginger, capsicum, etc.

SOMNIFACIENT or SOPORIFIC.--A medicine which produces drowsiness and
sleep, as morphine, chloral hydrate, potassium, bromide, etc.

SORBEFACIENT.--A medicine used to produce abortion, as ergot.

SPECIFIC.--A medicine or agent which has a distinct curative influence
on an individual disease, as potassium iodide in actinomycosis (Lumpy
Jaw) or oxygen in milk fever, etc.

STIMULANT.--A medicine which quickens or increases functional activity,
as strychnine, ammonium carbonate, alcohol, etc.

STOMACHIC.--A medicine which increases functional activity of the
stomach, as quassia gentian, etc.

STOMATIC.--A medicine used in diseases of the mouth, as boric acid,
potassium chlorate, alum, etc.

SUPERFACIENT.--A medicine causing unconsciousness from which the patient
can be roused, as opium, bromide of potassium, etc.

STYPTIC.--An agent that checks bleeding by causing contraction of the
blood vessels, as tincture chloride of iron, ergot, etc.

SUCCEDANEUM.--A medicine which may be substituted for another possessing
similar properties, as chloral hydrate for potassium bromide, or aloes
for linseed oil, etc.

SUDORIFIC.--A medicine or agent which produces an increased quantity of
perspiration (sweat) as ginger, pilocarpine, Dover’s powders, etc.

SUPPURANT.--A medicine or agent promoting pus formation, as poultices,
cantharides, croton oil, etc.

SYNERGIST.--A medicine which co-operates or assists the action of
another, as chloroform with ether, cantharides with red iodide of
mercury, etc.

TAENICIDE.--A medicine which destroys tape worms, as extract of male
fern.

TAENIFUGE.--A medicine which expels tape worms, as areca nut, pumpkin
seed, oil of turpentine, etc.

TETANIC.--A medicine or agent which increases the irritation of the
spinal cord or muscles producing spasms, as strychnine, etc.

TONIC.--A medicine promoting nutrition and giving strength to the body,
as arsenic, cod liver oil, etc.

TOPIC or TOPICAL.--A substance or agent for external use, applied
locally, as a liniment.

TOXIC.--A condition produced by a poison, as a result of an over-dose of
medicine or the absorption of bacterial products.

TRICOPHYED.--A medicine promoting the growth of hair, as pilocarpine,
cantharides, capsicum, etc.

UTERINE.--A medicine acting upon the uterus, as ergot.

VEHICLE.--A medicine or agent used as a medium or base for the
administration of medicines, as syrups, oils, water, etc.

VERMICIDE.--A medicine which destroys parasitic worms, as turpentine,
iron sulphate, tobacco, creosote, etc.

VERMIFUGE.--A medicine which expels parasitic worms, as arecoline,
aloes, etc.

VESICANT.--A medicine which forms pustules containing white serum, as
cantharides.

VIRUS.--A poison of an infectious disease, especially one found in the
system of an animal suffering from an infectious disease, as hog
cholera, cowpox or rabies virus, etc.

VULNERARY.--Any medicine or compound used in the treatment of wounds, as
ointments, liniments, etc.



ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES


The following methods of administering medicines in order of their
rapidity of absorption, beginning with the method by which absorption is
most rapid, and following with those by which absorption is less rapid
and finally least rapid: 1. Intravenous, by injection into veins. 2. By
inhalation (volatile drugs). 3. Subcutaneous, by injection into
subcutaneous tissue. 4. Intratracheal, by injection into the trachea (or
wind pipe). 5. Oral, by the mouth. 6. Rectal, by the rectum. 7.
Inunction, by the skin. 8. Intramammary injections.



WHEN MEDICINES SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED


The curative effects of medicines may be restrained, changed in form or
prevented by untimely administration.

Medicines intended to act on the mucous membrane of the stomach should
only be given when that organ is empty. If distant parts are to be
affected in the most prompt and efficient manner and the medicine is
free from distinct irritating qualities, it should be taken on an empty
stomach; as when digestion is going on, the contents of the stomach are
acid in reaction and if alkalies are given combinations take place and
salts are formed. If alkalies are given before digestion begins,
diffusion of the acid-forming constituents of the blood takes place, and
in this way the acidity of the gastric juice is promoted; likewise acids
given before meals increase the diffusion of the alkaline constituents
of the blood.



METHODS OF ADMINISTERING MEDICINES


Drenching, bit, balling gun, capsule gun, bottle, dose syringe and
hypodermic syringe.

Anaesthetics administered in feed bags or proper inhaler.



TABLES USED IN PRESCRIPTION WRITING


APOTHECARIES OR TROY WEIGHT.

  20 Grains (Granum)                (Gr. or Grs.) = 1 Scruple.
   3 Scruples (Scrupulum)           (Sc.) = 1 Drachm (60 Grs.)
   8 Drachms (Drachma)              (ʒ) = 1 Ounce.
  12 Ounces (Uncia)                 (℥) = 1 Pound (℔)

In prescription writing the pound sign should not be used; always
express large quantities by ounces.


APOTHECARIES’ LIQUID MEASURE.

  60 Minims (Minimum)               (M. or Ms.) = 1 Fluid Drachm.
   8 Fluid Drachms (Fluid Drachma)  (fl. ʒ) = 1 Fluid Ounce.
  16 Fluid Ounces (Fluid Uncia)     (fl. ℥) = 1 Pint.
   2 Pints (Octarius)               (O.) = 1 Quart.
   4 Quarts or 8 Pints = 1 Gallon   (congius--C.)

In prescribing liquids the abbreviation for Quarts (Qts.) is never used.
If a quart is desired it is expressed as two pints (Oij).


APPROPRIATE EQUIVALENTS OF WINE UNITS IN DOMESTIC MEASURES.

  Teaspoon      = ʒi.
  Dessert spoon = ʒii.
  Table spoon   = ℥ss.
  Cup           = ℥iv.
  Tumbler       = ℥viii.



TABLES FOR REGULATING THE DOSES FOR YOUNG ANIMALS


HORSES.

  3 years old and upward, full dose.
  From 1¹⁄₂ years old to 3 years, ¹⁄₂ dose.
  From 9 to 18 months old, ¹⁄₄ dose.
  From 4¹⁄₂ to 9 months old, ¹⁄₈ dose.
  From 1 to 4¹⁄₂ months old, ¹⁄₁₆ dose.


CATTLE.

  2 years old and upward, full dose.
  From 1 to 2 years old, ¹⁄₂ dose.
  From ¹⁄₂ to 1 year, ¹⁄₄ dose.
  From 3 to 6 months, ¹⁄₈ dose.
  From 1 to 3 months, ¹⁄₁₆ dose.


SHEEP.

  2 years old and upward, full dose.
  From 1 to 2 years old, ¹⁄₂ dose.
  From ¹⁄₂ to 1 year, ¹⁄₄ dose.
  From 3 to 6 months, ¹⁄₈ dose.
  From 1 to 3 months, ¹⁄₁₆ dose.


PIGS.

  1¹⁄₂ years and upward, full dose.
  From 9 to 18 months old, ¹⁄₂ dose.
  From 4¹⁄₂ to 9 months, ¹⁄₄ dose.
  From 2¹⁄₂ to 4¹⁄₄ months, ¹⁄₈ dose.
  From 1 to 2¹⁄₂ months, ¹⁄₁₆ dose.


DOGS.

  From ¹⁄₂ to 1 year old, full dose.
  From 3 to 6 months, ¹⁄₂ dose.
  From 1¹⁄₂ to 3 months, ¹⁄₄ dose.
  From 20 to 45 days, ¹⁄₈ dose.
  From 10 to 20 days, ¹⁄₁₆ dose.


THE ART OF PRESCRIBING

The prescription should be as brief and simple as possible. It should be
explicit and clearly written. It may be expressed either in Latin or in
English. The manner in which the medicine is to be used should be
specified. Important instructions as to the rule, systematic regulations
or diet of the patient are sometimes necessary.

Prescriptions usually contain two or more of the following four
representative constituents: (1) The _basis_ or active ingredients. The
practice of conjoining several active medicines has wisely been
abandoned. Occasionally, however, it may be advantageous to give
together two medicines producing their effects in somewhat different
ways. Thus, spasms of the bowels are more often effectually controlled
by the conjunction of a stimulant like ether and an anodyne like opium
than by either given alone. Pain which is not alleviated by either
morphine or atropine is sometimes abated by giving them together. (2)
The _adjuvant_ is introduced in order to increase, moderate or modify
the action of the basis. Frequently its chief object is to insure
solubility and ready absorption. (3) A _corrective_ is occasionally
required to temper the effects of the basis. Thus a small dose of opium
is prescribed with oil or other laxative in cases of diarrhoea; ginger
is generally added to the aloetic mass to prevent its griping. (4) The
_vehicle_ generally consists of some comparatively inert substance,
added to facilitate administration, such as the treacle, linseed meal or
licorice powder used as an excipient for boluses and pills, the
benzoated lard or vaseline used for making ointments, and the water
given in drenches.

Example:

  ℞
    Barb. Aloes                  ℥i.
    Calomel                      ʒi.
    Ginger                       ʒii.
    Molasses                     ℥ss.
  M. et fiat massa, in bolus 1.
    Sig. Give at once.
                                --John Jones.

In the above prescription aloes is the basis; calomel as an adjuvant,
ginger as a corrective, molasses as an excipient.

       *       *       *       *       *

A prescription is composed of several parts, which may be considered as
follows:

  1. Heading.
  2. Names and quantities of drugs.
  3. Directions to compounder.
  4. Directions to attendant.
  5. Signature of writer.

  1. For Gray Tom. July 22, 1916.
    ℞
      { Cupri sulph.,
  2.  { Ferri. sulph. exsic., aa. ℥iss.
      { Pulv. belladonna fol.,
      { Pulv. gentian rad. aa. ℥iii.
  3. M. Ft. Chart No. XII.
  4. Sig.--One powder three or four times daily in syrup.
                                                    --John Jones.



ABBREVIATIONS


PRESCRIPTION WRITING.

Words, phrases and abbreviations commonly used in prescription writing.

  ℞--means take thou.
  M.--Misce, mix.
  Fiat--make.
  Ad.--add, to make.
  Et.--means and.
  Sig.--Signa, label, or write thus.
  Numerus--number.
  O.--Octarius, a pint.
  Ter.--thrice.
  C. or Cong.--Congius, gallon.
  Dies.--diem, day.
  Q. S.--Quantum sufficiat. Sufficient quantity.
  Bene--well.
  q. s. ad.--quantity sufficient to make certain amount.
  Q. h.--quaqua-hora, every hour.
  aa.--ana. Of each.
  S.--Semis, means half.
  S. S.--Semi or Semissis means one-half.
  Cum.--with.
  Stat.--statim, immediately.
  B. I. D.--Bis in die. Twice daily.
  T. I. D., or T. D.--three times daily, Ter in die.
  Q. D.--quarter in die; four times daily.
  P. Æ.--Partes æquales, equal parts.
  Div.--divide.
  Gtt.--Guttæ, drops.
  Grs.--Grains.
  ʒ--Drachma, dram.
  ℥--Uncia, ounce.
  M.--Minims about a drop.
  ℈--Scruple.
  M. ft.--mistura fiat; let a mixture be made.
  Pil.--Pilula; pill.
  Destil.--Destilla; distill.
  Liq.--liquor a solution.
  Pulv.--Pulvis; powder.
  Fl.--fluidus, fluid.
  Bol.--Bolus, large pill.
  Cola--strain.
  Filtra--filter.
  Capsula--cap. A capsule.
  Charta--chart. A paper (medicated).
  Dosis--Dos. A dose.
  Massa--Mass. A pill--mass.
  Unguentum--Ungt. An ointment.
  Syrups--Syr. A syrup.
  Vinum.--Vin. A wine.
  Aqua fontana--Aq. font.--Spring water.
  Aqua destillata--Aq. dest.--Distilled water.



ACIDUM BORICUM--BORACIC ACID--BORIC ACID


DERIVATION.--Made by evaporation and crystallization of a solution
obtained by passing steam issuing from rocks in volcanic regions of
Italy, through water; or by the action of hydrochloric or sulphuric
acids upon borax. Recovered by filtration and recrystallization.

PROPERTIES.--Transparent colorless scales, of a somewhat pearly luster,
six-sided tricline crystals, or a light white, very fine powder,
slightly unctuous to the touch; odorless, having a faintly bitterish
taste, and permanent in air. Soluble in water, alcohol, glycerine, etc.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 drs.; foals and calves, 20 to 30 grs.;
sheep and pigs, 30 to 40 grs.; dogs, 5 to 20 grs.


PREPARATIONS


GLYCERITUM BOROGLYCERINI--GLYCERITE OF BOROGLYCERIN

Composed of boric acid, 310 parts; glycerin to make 1,000; prepared by
heat (303° F.).

ACTIONS.--Boric acid is a non-volatile, non-irritating antiseptic,
deodorant and astringent, it arrests fermentation of minute organisms,
free of irritating effects in solution, when applied to wounds; it
lessens suppuration, and is as effective as carbolic acid; can be used
in any strength from the pure powder or saturated solution to the
mildest form.

USES.--Boric acid is indicated for all purposes for which an antiseptic
is used; it is used in diarrhoea in foals, calves and dogs, combined
with other drugs; it has a slightly astringent action of itself; it is
excreted in the urine, consequently would exert its influence on the
bladder in cystitis, cystic catarrh; 1 part in 800 prevents the
development of anthrax-bacilli; useful in skin diseases, also used in
keratitis and catarrhal and purulent conjunctivitis, six to ten grains
to the ounce, with atropine or cocaine when very painful. Useful in
distemper of dogs where the bowels are affected, as an antiseptic.
Boric acid is preferred to carbolic acid as an antiseptic for dogs. On
account of the paralyzing effect of carbolic acid on the nerves, it
hinders the healing of wounds to a certain extent, while the boracic
acid does not.

Boric acid may be applied pure to wounds and sores or mixed with other
suitable drugs as a dusting powder. Equal parts of boric acid and zinc
oxide make a cheap and effective healing powder; to an itching wound the
addition of an equal quantity of acetanilide increases its value. A
saturated solution (four per cent) is useful as a vaginal and uterine
douche and to flush the bladder in cystitis.



ACIDUM CARBOLICUM CRUDUM--CRUDE CARBOLIC ACID


DERIVATION.--A liquid consisting of several different constituents of
coal tar, particularly creosol and phenol, obtained by fractional
distillation.

PROPERTIES.--A nearly colorless, or reddish-brown liquid of a strong
disagreeable and creosote-like odor, and gradually turning darker on
exposure to the air and light. Soluble in fifteen parts of water.



PHENOL--ACIDUM CARBOLICUM--CARBOLIC ACID


DERIVATION.--Obtained from crude carbolic acid by agitation with caustic
soda, heating to 338° F., and adding hydrochloric acid. Then by
agitation with sodium chloride, digestion with calcium chloride, and
distillation at a temperature between 336° F. and 374° F. and finally by
crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--Phenol in its pure state is a solid at ordinary
temperatures, crystallizing in minute plates or long rhomboidal needles,
white or colorless, of a peculiar odor recalling that of creosote, and
an acrid burning taste. It is likely to be colored pinkish or brown
under the influence of light and air. Soluble in about 19.6 parts of
water, and very soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, fixed
and volatile oils.

ACTIONS.--Phenol in large and undiluted doses is an irritant and
narcotic poison; it is used as an antiseptic, parasiticide, antiferment
and sometimes used as a local anaesthetic or anodyne in a 2 to 5 per
cent solution; also as a caustic, but should not be used as a caustic as
a burn from it heals very slowly.

USES.--Internally as a gastric sedative in small doses for vomiting in
dogs; is administered in various contagious and infectious diseases with
the view of preventing or arresting the development of micro-organisms;
it coagulates albumen, is not nearly so active as bichloride of mercury;
1 part to 500 parts of water prevents the growth of anthrax and other
bacilli. Full doses produce gastro-enteritis, and collapse, which may
end fatally; it is a muscular and nerve paralyzer, both internally and
externally, it kills by paralyzing the muscles of respiration and the
heart. It is chiefly eliminated from the system by the kidneys, giving
the urine a brownish color.

IN SURGERY.--A three to five per cent solution is used for washing out
wounds, a two to three per cent for hands, and for itching of the skin,
carbolic acid three or four drachms, glycerine two ounces to one pint of
water. Do not use over large surface on dogs and not at all on cats.

Phenol treatment for Tetanus, which has given very good results and I
would recommend one drachm in three ounces of water, injected
hypodermically in the region of neck and shoulder every two or three
hours until twelve injections were given and less frequently thereafter.

DOSES.--Of the phenol: Horses and cattle, 10 to 40 grs.; sheep and pigs,
5 to 10 grs.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 gr., well diluted.

TOXICOLOGY.--Dogs and cats are especially susceptible to the action of
carbolic acid, therefore great care must be exercised when washing,
especially cats, with any preparation containing carbolic acid.
Disinfecting and deodorizing cat’s quarters with any preparation
containing carbolic acid makes them sick.

ANTIDOTE.--Sulphates of soda or magnesia. Atropine sulphate
hypodermically is a very valuable antidote. Alcohol and vinegar have
been used with good results, both internally and externally.



ACIDUM SALICYLICUM--SALICYLIC ACID


An organic acid, existing naturally in combination in various plants,
but largely prepared synthetically from carbolic acid.

DERIVATION.--Made by passing carbonic dioxide through sodium carbolate
at a temperature of 428° F. (220° C.). 2 NaC₆H₅O (sodium carbolate) +
CO₂ = Na₂C₇H₄O₃ (sodium salicylate) + C₆H₆O (phenol). Sodium salicylate
is treated with hydrochloric acid when salicylic acid is precipitated.

PROPERTIES.--Light, fine, white, needle-shaped crystals, odorless,
having a sweetish, afterwards acrid taste; permanent in air. Soluble in
alcohol, ether and hot water; borax increases its solubility.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 to 6 drs.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep, 1 to 2 drs.;
pigs, 30 to 40 grs.; dogs, 5 to 20 grs.; should be given well diluted;
large doses are recommended for fevers, but smaller doses more often
repeated in rheumatism.



SODII SALICYLAS--SODIUM SALICYLAS


DERIVATION.--Made by the action of salicylic acid on sodium carbonate.
The solution is filtered and heated to expel carbon dioxide.

PROPERTIES.--A white amorphous or crystalline powder or scales; odorless
and having a sweetish, saline taste. Permanent in air. Soluble in water,
alcohol and glycerine.

DOSE.--Same as for salicylic acid.



PHENYLIS SALICYLAS--PHENYL SALICYLATE (Salol)


DERIVATION.--Made by heating salicylic and carbolic acids with
phosphorous pentachloride.

PROPERTIES.--A white crystalline powder; odorless, or having a faintly
aromatic odor, and almost tasteless. Permanent in air. Insoluble in
water, soluble in ten parts of alcohol and readily soluble in
chloroform.

DOSE.--Same as for salicylic acid.

ACTIONS.--Salicylic acid, sodium salicylate and phenyl salicylate are
powerful antiseptic, anti-rheumatic, diaphoretic, cardiac depressant,
antiferment and antipyretic. Salicylic acid is in addition irritant and
astringent, continued in large doses is apt to derange digestion; best
to be administered on a full stomach.

USES.--For acute rheumatism, influenza, strangles and purpura where
there is much sloughing; also as a surgical wash, salicylic acid one
part, borax one part to thirty or forty parts of water. Salicylic acid
is a more powerful antiseptic than carbolic acid. Salicylic of soda is
freely antiseptic. Salicylic acid is highly recommended in intestinal
flatulence, given in two drachm doses with one ounce of aromatic spirits
of ammonia. In gastric-flatulence give two drachms in capsule, repeat in
half hour if necessary.



ACONITUM--ACONITE--MONKSHOOD


DERIVATION.--Aconite is obtained from the root of aconitum napellus,
which grows in Northwestern North America, Europe and Asia in
mountainous regions, and cultivated in the United States for its
beautiful flowers.

PROPERTIES.--The fresh leaves have a faint narcotic odor, most sensible
when they are rubbed. Their taste is at first bitterish and herbaceous,
afterwards burning and acrid, with a feeling of numbness and tingling on
the inside of the lips, tongue and fauces, which is very durable,
lasting sometimes many hours. When long chewed they inflame the tongue.
The dried leaves have a similar taste, but the acrid impression
commences later. Their sensible properties and medical activity are
impaired by long keeping. They should be of a green color, and free from
mustiness. The root has a feeble earthy odor. Though sweetish at first,
it has afterwards the same effect as the leaves upon the mouth and
fauces. It shrinks much in drying and becomes darker, but does not lose
its acrimony. Those parcels, whether of leaves or roots, should always
be rejected which are destitute of this property. Aconite root is
officially described as being “slenderly conical, 4 to 10 cm. long, 10
to 20 mm. thick at the crown; occasionally split; longitudinally
wrinkled; dark brown and marked with coarse whitish root-scars; fracture
short, horny or mealy; internally whitish or light brown; the cambium
zone irregular and 5 to 7-angled; odor very slight; taste sweetish, soon
becoming acrid and developing a tingling sensation, followed by
numbness.”

Preparations of the leaves are not official in the U. S. P. The root is
five times stronger than the leaves.

CONSTITUENTS.--The alkaloid representing the action of the drug is
aconitine, which is precipitated by ammonia from an aqueous solution of
an alcoholic extract of the root of various species. It is a colorless,
crystalline or amorphous, gray powder, almost insoluble in water, and
soluble in 22 parts of alcohol, in 44 parts of ether and 1 part of
chloroform. Its salts are soluble in water. Aconitine or its solutions,
unless very dilute, are too poisonous to be tasted.

Commercial preparations vary in purity and strength, and since it is
extremely poisonous its internal administration is undesirable.
Pseudo-aconitine, aconitine and other alkaloids in combination with
aconitic acid have been obtained from aconite, but their identity and
chemistry are uncertain.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 to 20 grs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 3 grs.;
dogs, ¹⁄₁₀ to ¹⁄₁₁ gr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM ACONITI--FLUIDEXTRACT OF ACONITE

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water and
evaporation. Assayed so that each 100 c. c. contains 0.4 gm. aconitine.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 5 to 20 m.; sheep and pigs. 2 to 5 m.; dogs,
¹⁄₁₀ to 1 m.


TINCTURA ACONITI--TINCTURE ACONITE

Made by maceration and percolation of aconite, 100; with alcohol and
water to make 1000.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 20 m. to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 20 m.;
dogs, 2 to 10 m.

Fleming’s Tincture (non-official) (79 per cent).

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 8 to 20 m.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 m.


ACONITINA--ACONITINE

Not used to any extent in veterinary practice; is very unreliable and
varying in strength. Aconitine often contains a considerable proportion
of aconite and benzaconine, and so varies in activity, which is a great
objection to the use of one of the most powerful drugs known.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₃₀ to ¹⁄₅ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂₀₀ to ¹⁄₁₀₀ gr.
subcutaneously.

Actions of aconite, its preparations and derivative are anodynes and
sedatives, acting specially on the peripheral endings of the sensory
nerves, on the heart and on respiration. Aconite kills by respiratory
arrest.

Its physiological actions as a cardiac and respiratory sedative renders
it a febrifuge; it is also diaphoretic and diuretic. It is prescribed in
acute febrile conditions, and in the earlier stages of acute local
inflammation. It is used topically to relieve pain.

GENERAL ACTIONS.--Locally applied, in virtue of its action on sensory
nerves, aconite produces first irritation, tingling and twitching and
subsequently numbness and anesthesia. The tincture of aconite is
rapidly absorbed and quickly passed into the tissues, as is shown by
the blood of a poisoned dog five minutes after the drug has been
administered, being transferred into the veins of another dog without
producing the physiological action of the poison.

TOXIC EFFECTS.--One and one-half drachm of the tincture (equal to about
one drachm of aconite root) is given as the minimum fatal dose for the
horse, one-half drachm will occasionally cause very serious symptoms and
where an idiosyncrasy exists as little as fifteen minims will cause
toxic symptoms.

It causes great muscular weakness, dimness of sight; pupil at first may
be dilated or contracted, but as the end approaches remains dilated;
shallow irregular and labored respiration, a slow and small pulse,
becoming rapid and imperceptible near the end. Gulping, frothy saliva,
flatulence, belching, retching, nausea, etc. There is often a peculiar
clicking sound made from the constant attempts at swallowing.

Coldness of surface, clammy sweat, anxious countenance, extreme weakness
of the extremities, lowering of temperature 2 to 3 degrees, abolishment
of sensation, reflexes and motility and finally death from paralysis of
the heart and respiration, with or without convulsions, consciousness
being preserved until near the end, when carbon dioxide narcosis sets
in.

USES.--It antagonizes the fever process, when properly used is a most
valuable drug; it is indicated in all affections, characterized by high
resisting pulse, dry, hot skin and elevated body temperature; is useful
in acute throat affections as laryngitis, pharyngitis and perotiditis,
in small doses often repeated. Indicated in acute inflammation of the
organs of respiration. For pleurisy and perotiditis, at the outset, give
aconite with opium. Aconite is indicated in simple fevers or in
puerperal fever, inflammation of the brain; in acute or inflammatory
rheumatism, in acute local inflammation, as arthritis or inflammation
resulting from bruises, sprains, etc.

In lymphangitis, laminitis and enteritis, if called in first stages of
enteritis give 20 ms. of aconite and repeat with 10 or 15 ms. every hour
and between times gives fluid extract of belladonna 15 to 20 ms. every
hour and externally woolen blankets wrung out of hot water and wrapped
around the body.

In mammitis is also useful in large doses, combined with phytolacca; in
spasmodic colic brought on by drinking cold water, give 30 to 60 ms. of
the tincture of aconite with other colic mixture; in congestion of the
bowels or liver, or in congestion of any part, small repeated doses are
better than large ones. It is also advantageously used in lung
disorders.



AETHER--ETHER--PURE ETHER


A liquid composed of about 96 per cent, by weight, of absolute ether or
ethyl oxide, and about 4 per cent of alcohol containing a little water.

DERIVATION.--Prepared by distillation of alcohol with sulphuric acid.
There are two steps in the production of ether; sulphorvinic acid and
water are formed in the first step. Sulphorvinic acid is then further
acted upon by alcohol. The distillate is freed from water by agitation
with calcium oxide and chloride and subjected to redistillation.

PROPERTIES.--A transparent, colorless, mobile liquid, having a
characteristic odor and a burning and sweetish taste. Ether is highly
volatile and inflammable; its vapor, when mixed with air and ignited,
explodes violently. Miscible in all proportions with alcohol,
chloroform, benzine, benzol, fixed and volatile oils. Ether is a solvent
for fats, oils, alkaloids, resins, gutta percha and guncotton. Upon
evaporation ether should have no residue. Ether vapor is heavier than
air and consequently etherization should never be done above a light or
fire.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 ozs.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 drs.;
dogs, 10 ms. to 1 dr.

As an anaesthetic, horses and cattle require from 4 to 16 ozs. Smaller
animals from 4 drs. to 4 ozs. Chloroform is usually prescribed for
large animals and ether for smaller animals. Ether never paralyzes a
healthy heart, while chloroform sometimes does. For anaesthetic purposes
see anesthesia.


PREPARATIONS


SPIRITUS AETHERIS--SPIRIT OF ETHER

Composed of ether, 325 parts, alcohol to make 1000.

DOSE.--Same as ether.


SPIRITUS AETHERIS COMPOSITUS--COMPOUND SPIRIT OF ETHER--HOFFMAN’S
ANODYNE

Composed of ether, 325 parts; alcohol, 650 parts; ethereal oil, 25
parts.

DOSE.--Same as for ether.

ACTIONS.--Ether is anodyne, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic; a
cardiac, respiratory and cerebral stimulant, an anesthetic and a
narcotic poison; one of the best and quickest acting, diffusible,
general stimulants, acting on the heart reflexly from the stomach. It is
a powerful secretory stimulant, acting especially on the secretions of
the stomach, salivary glands and pancreas. On the cerebrum and the motor
and sensory nerves, its actions are similar to that of alcohol, but more
prompt and less protracted; it is eliminated quickly, chiefly by the
lungs.

When inhaled, it first causes irritation of the fauces, a sense of
strangulation and cough, then a stage of excitement in which the visible
mucous membranes are flushed and the respiration and pulse quickened; a
convulsive stage generally follows, with rigid muscles and respiration
stertorous; this subsides and complete insensibility is established, the
muscles being relaxed and the reflexes abolished; in fact all of the
functions of the body are suspended, except respiration and circulation.

If the inhalation be continued these too become paralyzed, death usually
resulting from slow paralysis of respiration (chloroform paralyzes
quickly); the heart pulsating long after breathing has ceased. Atropine
hypodermically is the best antagonist to the toxic effects of ether,
also artificial respiration and injections of brandy.

USES OF ETHER.--When mixed with alcohol, as the spirit, ether mixes
readily with water. It is excellent in indigestion with flatulence; it
checks gastric fermentation, expels the gas and overcomes irregular and
violent gastro-intestinal movements; hence, is also very good in
spasmodic colic. In spasmodic colic, best to combine with cannabis
indica or belladonna. When used as a vermifuge it should be followed by
a purge. Used diluted one to ten to dislodge worms in the rectum. A most
reliable remedy for collapse. Ether and alcohol are indicated in
parturient paresis, ether with aqua ammonia may be used intravenously
when the cow is unable to swallow. Sulphuric ether and alcohol or whisky
are also good in parturient eclampsia of bitches, though aromatic spirit
of ammonia is better; for chills, spirit of nitrous ether; also useful
in convalescence from debilitating disease. Ether is a very good remedy
in Thumps. Ether may be used for local anesthesia, applied as a spray,
from an atomizer, about one ounce, usually being enough for the painless
opening of abscesses or fistulae, but cocaine is better in our patients.
_As an anesthetic_ it should be used in preference to chloroform, for
the smaller and young animals, especially dogs, which are easily killed
by chloroform. Ether is less prompt in action but much safer than
chloroform, as it never paralyzes a healthy heart; it should be inhaled
in as concentrated a form as possible, very little air being allowed, so
it will exert its effects quickly, in the dog; a light or fire of any
kind should not be allowed near, as ether is very inflammable and its
vapor explosive. Always have a bottle of aqua ammonia fort. at hand as a
restorer.



ALCOHOL


Alcohol is derived directly from fruit sugar, and indirectly from
starch. The grains, as wheat, rye, corn; and potatoes, supply starch
most economically. The starch in these substances is converted into
glucose by heating with very dilute sulphuric acid, or by fermentation
with malt. Glucose is further acted upon by yeast containing the Torula
cerevisiae, which converts 15 per cent of glucose into alcohol and
carbonic dioxide. The weak alcohol resulting is subjected to repeated
distillation until sufficiently pure and concentrated. In the natural
fermentation of fruit sugar in grape juice, during the formation of
wine, the amount of alcohol is self-limited to 15, rarely 20 per cent,
since the ferment is killed by a larger amount of alcohol than this.

DERIVATION.--The official alcohol is derived from rectified spirits, by
maceration, first with anhydrous potassium carbonate, then freshly fused
calcium chloride, and finally by distillation.

PROPERTIES.--A liquid composed of about 92.3 per cent, by weight, or
94.9 per cent, by volume, of ethyl alcohol (C₂H₅OH) and about 7.7 per
cent, by weight, of water (U. S. P.). A transparent, colorless, mobile
and volatile liquid, of a characteristic rather agreeable odor and a
burning taste. Specific gravity about .816 at 15.6° C. (60° F.).
Miscible with water in all proportions and without any trace of
cloudiness. Also miscible with ether chloroform. It is readily volatile
at low temperature, and boils at 78° C. (172.4° F.). It is inflammable
and burns with a blue flame.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 3 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
1 to 2 dr. Diluted four to six times its bulk of water.


PREPARATIONS


ALCOHOL ABSOLUTUM--ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL

Ethyl alcohol, containing not more than one per cent, by weight, of
water.

DERIVATION.--Percolation of the purest alcohol through quicklime, out of
contact with the air, and redistillation in vacuo.

PROPERTIES.--Transparent, colorless, mobile and volatile liquid, of a
characteristic rather agreeable odor and a burning taste. Very
hydroscopic. Specific gravity not higher than 0.797 at 15.6° C. (60°
F.).


SPIRITUS FRUMENTI--WHISKY

DERIVATION.--An alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the
mash of fermented grain (usually of mixtures of corn, wheat and rye) and
at least four years old.

PROPERTIES.--An amber-colored liquid having a distinctive odor and
taste, and a slightly acid reaction. Its specific gravity should not be
more than 0.945, nor less than 0.924, corresponding, approximately, to
an alcoholic strength of 37 to 47.5 per cent, by weight, or 44 to 55 per
cent, by volume. Contains no more than traces of fusel oil. The
alcoholic liquors owe their flavor to bouquet to ethers which are only
developed in course of time. The amylic alcohol, or fusel oil, in whisky
is therefore converted into ethers, which give the characteristic flavor
to whisky.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and swine, 1 to 2 oz.; dogs,
1 to 4 dr., diluted three to four times its bulk in water.


SPIRITS VINI GALLICI--BRANDY

DERIVATION.--An alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the
fermented unmodified juice of fresh grapes, and at least four years old.

PROPERTIES.--A pale amber-colored liquid, having a distinctive odor and
taste and a slightly acid reaction. Its specific gravity should not be
more than 0.941, nor less than 0.925 at 15.6° C. (60° F.),
corresponding, approximately, to an alcoholic strength of 39 to 47 per
cent, by weight, or 46 to 55 per cent, by volume, of absolute alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as that for whisky.


SPIRITUS JUNIPERI COMPOSITUS--COMPOUND SPIRIT OF JUNIPER

DERIVATION.--Oil of juniper, 8; oil of caraway, 1; oil of fennel, 1;
alcohol, 1,400; water to make 2,000.

Compound spirit of juniper is similar to gin in its therapeutic action.
Contains about 15 per cent more alcohol. Gin is made by distillation of
fermented malt and juniper berries. Gin differs from the other alcoholic
preparations therapeutically in being more diuretic.

DOSE.--Same as that for whisky.


RUM (not official)

Rum is made from a fermented solution of molasses by distillation. It
contains, by weight, from 40 to 50 per cent of absolute alcohol. Rum
does not differ physiologically from alcohol. There is no authoritative
Latin name for rum.

DOSE.--Same as that for whisky.


VINUM ALBUM--WHITE WINE

DERIVATION.--An alcoholic liquid made by fermenting the juice of fresh
grapes, the fruit of Vitis vinifera, free from seeds, stems and skins.

PROPERTIES.--A pale amber or straw-colored liquid, having a pleasant
odor, free from yeastiness and a fruity, agreeable, slightly spirituous
taste, without excessive sweetness or acidity. The Pharmacopoeia (1890)
directs that the wine should contain from 7 to 12 per cent, by weight,
of absolute alcohol. California Hock and Reisling, Ohio Catawba, Sherry,
Muscatel, Madeira or the stronger wines of the Rhine, Mediterranean and
Hungary come within the pharmacopoeial limits. Wines containing more
than 14 per cent of alcohol are usually fortified, i. e., have alcohol
or brandy added to them, and much imported Sherry and Madeira contain 15
to 20 per cent, by weight, of absolute alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as that for whisky.


VINUM RUBRUM--RED WINE

DERIVATION.--An alcoholic liquid made by fermenting the juice of fresh
colored grapes, the fruit of Vitis vinifera, in presence of their
skins.

PROPERTIES.--A deep red liquid, having a pleasant odor, free from
yeastiness, and a fruity moderately astringent, pleasant and slightly
acidulous taste, without excessive sweetness or acidity. Should contain
not less than 7 nor more than 12 per cent, by weight, of alcohol. Native
Claret, Burgundy, Bordeaux and Hungarian wines may be included within
the pharmacopoeial limits of vinum rubrum. Port (vinum portense) is
fortified with brandy during fermentation, and contains 15 to 25 per
cent, by weight, of absolute alcohol. Port is astringent from tannic
acid in the grapes, skin and stalks, or the astringency may be due to
logwood. Red wines are said to be rough, contain tannic acid and
therefore are astringents. Dry wines are those which contain little
sugar. The wines develop ethers with age and these improve their flavor
and action.

Champagne contains about 10 per cent of absolute alcohol and carbonic
acid gas, which acts as a local sedative upon the stomach. Ale, stout
and beers contain from 4 to 8 per cent of alcohol, together with bitters
and malt extracts.

Cider contains 5 to 9 per cent of absolute alcohol. Imported sherry (B.
P.) contains 15 to 20 per cent of absolute alcohol.

Alcohol is the solvent most commonly employed in pharmacy, dissolving
alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, balsams, oleo-resins, tannin, sugar,
some fats and fixed oils.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 to 6 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 3 oz.; dogs,
2 dr. to 1 oz.

ACTIONS.--Alcohol is a cerebral excitant and finally becomes a
depressant and a narcotic poison.

It is anesthetic, antiseptic, antiparasitic, rubefacient (if confined),
mild astringent, coagulate albumen; a local refrigerant by virtue of its
rapid evaporation, unless confined by bandage, oiled silk, etc., when it
is absorbed by the tissues and causes a sensation of warmth.

In medical doses it is a powerful general stimulant; it is very
diffusible, and is partly oxidized by the organism, and partly excreted;
thus alcohol acts as a food.

Small doses relax the blood vessels, stimulate the gastric glands,
promote appetite and digestion; lessen the elimination of waste
products, by preventing rapid tissue waste; causes a feeling of warmth,
and temporarily, though slightly, raises the body temperature. It
stimulates the heart and increases the functional activity of all
organs, especially the kidneys and skin.

Large or too long continued doses derange the appetite and digestion,
congest or inflame the stomach and liver. Eight ounces of alcohol killed
a horse. Alcohol is poisonous and should be used with caution.

USES.--Are numerous, used principally as a stimulant, either in one
large dose, 2 to 3 ounces of alcohol, or better, in small repeated
doses, 1 ounce every 1, 2 or 3 hours, can be conjoined with other
stimulants such as sulphuric ether, aromatic spirits of ammonia,
digitalis, etc.

It is used in anesthetic mixtures, such as alcohol, ether and
chloroform, combined in different proportions; in snake bites it is
administered in very large doses.

In blood poisoning alcohol is a most potent drug, sustaining the heart,
lowering the temperature and acting as a germicide. Alcohol makes an
excellent dressing for wounds; applied locally to threatened bed-sores,
frequently prevents their formation. It is useful in colds at their
outset, or in a chill to restore the balance of the circulation and
prevent or overcome internal congestion by relaxing the blood vessels of
the periphery.

All alcoholic liquors are useful in debilitating diseases, such as
influenza, in two or three ounce doses repeated every three or four
hours. One-half to one drachm of quinine to one ounce of alcohol, for
influenza or febrile diseases in general, excepting brain and spinal
disease; useful in convalescence. In colic alcohol can be used with a
great degree of success; it will act as a carminative antispasmodic and
stimulant, used in collapse and weak heart; in septicaemia and pyaemia
it has notable antiseptic and antipyretic effects. Useful in carbolic
acid poisoning, alcohol, or alcoholic liquors, act as a chemical
antidote besides overcoming the shock produced by the acid. It may also
be used locally for carbolic acid burns.

The effects of alcohol are noticed in ten or fifteen minutes after
administration and will be shown by a better condition of the pulse, the
weak pulse becoming stronger and firmer; the quick pulse slower, the
breathing becomes more natural, eyes brighten up and in fact a general
improvement is shown.

Externally alcohol is used alone as a strengthening application to weak
tendons and muscles; or after a race, is used to rub on the legs,
combined with other drugs as a liniment, as alcohol, soap-liniment and
witch hazel; can be used in surgery as an antiseptic.

To toughen the skin of tender or thin skinned horses who gall or chafe
easily under the collar and saddle, alcohol will be found a most
satisfactory application.



ALOE BARBADENSIS--BARBADOES ALOES


The thickened juice of the leaves of Aloe vera, Linn., Aloe chinensis,
Bak., and probably other species, evaporated to dryness.

HABITAT.--The Barbadoes Island.

PROPERTIES.--In hard masses, orange, brown, opaque, translucent on the
edges; fracture waxy or resinous; odor saffron-like; taste strongly
bitter. Almost entirely soluble in alcohol; most used in veterinary
medicine.

CONSTITUENT.--Aloin; a resin; volatile oil; gallic acid.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.;
pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; 20 gr. to 1 dr.



ALOE SOCOTRINA--SOCOTRINE ALOES


The juice that flows from the transversely cut leaves of Aloe Perryi,
Baker, evaporated to dryness.

HABITAT.--Eastern Africa.

PROPERTIES.--In hard masses, occasionally soft in the interior; opaque,
yellowish-brown, orange-brown or dark ruby-red, fracture resinous. When
moistened it emits a fragrant saffron-like odor; taste peculiar,
strongly bitter. Almost entirely soluble in alcohol and four parts of
boiling water. The powdered socotrine aloes is brighter and redder, and
the odor less disagreeable than that of Barbadoes Aloes.

CONSTITUENTS.--About the same as Barbadoes Aloes.

DOSE.--Same as Barbadoes Aloes.



ALOINUM--ALOIN


A neutral principle obtained from several varieties of aloes, chiefly
from Barbadoes and Socotrine Aloes.

DERIVATION.--Obtained by pulverizing and macerating aloes in cold water,
and evaporating the resulting solution in vacuo. Aloin crystallizes out
and is dried between folds of bibulous paper. It is purified by repeated
solution in hot water, filtration, recrystallization, and finally by
solution in hot alcohol and crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--A micro-crystalline powder or minute acicular crystals,
lemon yellow or dark yellow in color, possessing a slight odor of aloes
and intensely bitter taste. Soluble in water and alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 3 dr.; sheep, 20 to 60 gr.; pigs, 10 to
40 gr.; dogs, 11 to 20 gr.; combined with other purgatives.


PREPARATIONS


TINCTURA ALOES ET MYRRHAE--TINCTURE OF ALOES AND MYRRH

Made by maceration and percolation of purified aloes, 100 parts; myrrh,
100 parts, and liquorice root, with alcohol and water to make 1000.

DOSE.--Dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTION.--Aloes is a purgative, acting chiefly on the large intestines;
small doses are bitter tonics; it stimulates both peristalsis and
secretion, increases secretion of bile; is also diuretic; applied
externally it is stimulant and desiccant; the Barbadoes is the most
active and uniform in its effects.

Aloes should be kept in lumps in tin cans or other good containers, only
powdered for immediate use; in melting aloes don’t let the temperature
rise above 120 degrees as it impairs the activity by converting the
active aloin into inert resin. Aloes operate in from 12 to 24 hours
after administration; don’t repeat an aloetic purge until 24 hours have
elapsed. It also does not cause catharsis. In about 15 hours, the
patient should be exercised, but returned to the stall as soon as the
desired effect is evident. If it fails to act in 24 hours, linseed oil
may be given. Aloin appears to contain the active principles of aloes,
and is usually as operative, but some manufactures are ineffective.

USES INTERNAL.--In dyspepsia with capricious appetite, irregularity of
the bowels, hide-bound horses, worms; is used in colic, both spasmodic
and flatulent, for overloaded condition of the bowels; to promote
excretion of waste products from the bowels and the blood, and
consequently relieve febrile symptoms; rheumatic attacks, skin
irritation, swollen limbs and inflamed joints; in lymphangitis to
prevent and aid in curing. By attracting the blood to the bowels, it is
useful in congestion or inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, full
doses being necessary; in paralysis, paraplegia or hemiplegia or
reflexed paralysis due to indigestion, give full doses. Aloes should not
be used in irritation or inflammation of the alimentary canal or piles.
It is not advisable to give an aloetic purge when the temperature is
above 102° F. Nor in hemorrhage from the rectum; in high fevers it is
apt to cause superpurgation, also should not be used where there is
great debility or weakness. In influenza the bowels are apt to be
irritable and oil is preferable to aloes. Don’t use during pregnancy;
may cause abortion. For young foals or other animals, the gentler
purgative, such as linseed or castor oil should be used. The medical
value of aloes being large, it is impossible to enumerate all the
diseases in which it is useful. Externally the tincture of aloes and
myrrh is sometimes applied as a stimulant to wounds, and powdered aloes
is mixed with plaster of paris in making splints for dogs to prevent
these animals from biting and tearing them off. Internally aloes should
be combined with ginger, nux vomica and given in capsule or bolus.



ALUMEN--ALUM


DERIVATION.--From alum slate, shale, schist, a native mixture of
aluminum silicate and iron sulphide. This is roasted and exposed to the
air, when the sulphur is oxidized into sulphuric acid and combined in
part with aluminum and iron to form sulphates. The mass is lixiviated
with water, and aluminum and iron sulphates together with sulphuric acid
are recovered in solution. The solution is concentrated and to it is
added potassium chloride. The double sulphate of potassium and aluminum
(alum) is formed, which crystallizes out on cooling, while potassium
sulphate and ferric chloride remain as by-products. Alum is purified by
recrystallization.

PROPERTIES.--Large, colorless, octahedral crystals, sometimes modified
by cubes or crystalline fragments; without odor, but having a sweetish
and strongly astringent taste. On exposure to the air the crystals are
liable to absorb ammonia and acquire a whitish coating. Soluble in nine
parts of water, insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 20 gr. to 1 dr.;
emetic for dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.


ALUMEN EXSICCATUM--DRIED ALUM

Commonly termed burnt alum, is alum deprived of its water of
crystallization by heat.

PROPERTIES.--A white granular powder, odorless, having a sweetish
astringent taste, soluble in twenty parts of water at 60° F. Is a
powerful astringent and escharotic.


ALUMINI HYDROXIDUM--ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE

DERIVATION.--Made from alum, 100 parts; monohydrate sodium carbonate, 43
parts; water, a sufficient quantity. Mix hot, boiling solutions of alum
and sodium carbonate. Precipitate strained, washed and dried.

PROPERTIES.--A white, light, amorphous powder; odorless and tasteless;
permanent in dry air; insoluble in water or alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as alum.


ALUMINI SULPHAS--ALUMINUM SULPHATE

DERIVATION.--Aluminum hydroxide is dissolved in diluted sulphuric acid,
and the solution is filtered and evaporated to dryness.

PROPERTIES.--A white, crystalline powder, without odor, having a
sweetish and afterwards astringent taste; permanent in the air; soluble
in one part of water; insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as alum.

ACTIONS.--Astringent, at first excites flow of saliva, then markedly
decreases it; coagulates pepsin, thus it would derange or entirely
arrest digestion; it also stops peristalsis and produces constipation,
though sometimes it induces diarrhoea by irritation. It arrests
secretions in general and in the circulation contracts the capillaries;
it is in this way it arrests secretions, especially those of mucous
surfaces, and stops capillary hemorrhage. The sulphate of aluminum is
mildly caustic, astringent and antiseptic. Dried alum is caustic and
astringent.

EXTERNALLY.--Dried alum is a caustic, in contact with raw sores, on
account of its affinity for water. Alum has no action on unbroken skin,
but applied to mucous membranes or denuded parts it is antiseptic and
astringent; coagulates albumin of discharges; precipitates or coagulates
albumin of the tissues; squeeze blood out of the vessels; reduces
inflammation and makes the part whiter, brings together and denser. Alum
is a hemostatic, stopping bleeding by compression of the structures
surrounding the vessels and by causing blood to clot.

USES.--In diarrhoea and dysentery, but other astringents are safer and
better, as it may lock the bowels too tight, may be used in weeping
sores or weeping skin diseases; in long standing nail wounds by putting
one-half to one pound into the soaking tub, also in same way for injured
coronets, with raw bulging surfaces that bleed easily, also for sore
mouth, sometimes mix a little boric acid; useful in bleeding piles, and
in mild solution alum one ounce to water one pint for sore throat; also
used internally for bloody urine (haematuria) and for open joints apply
the powdered alum to arrest the flow of joint oil (synovia). For
catarrhal ophthalmia, after the acute stage, an alum lotion five grains
to one ounce of water is very serviceable; for granular lids rub with a
crystal of alum. Alum should never be used too strong over the eye as it
seems to have the power of dissolving the cornea; a solution containing
ten grains of alum to the ounce of water may be used in canker of the
ear of dogs; also for leucorrhoea and prolapsus of the rectum; dried
alum may be used as a caustic whenever a caustic is indicated, but is
not recommended for this purpose. For a powerful drying powder,
especially useful when excessive granulation exists. It causes sloughing
of the dead tissues and is indicated when the use of the knife is
inadmissible.



AMYLIS NITRIS--AMYL NITRITE


A liquid containing about 80 per cent of amyl nitrite, together with
variable quantities of undetermined compounds.

DERIVATION.--Obtained through distillation of nitric and amylic alcohol.
Distillate purified by sodium carbonate.

PROPERTIES.--A clear, yellow or pale yellow liquid, oily, very volatile,
peculiar and very diffusive ethereal odor and a pungent aromatic taste.
Insoluble in water, but soluble in all proportions in alcohol, ether and
chloroform.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 15 ms.;
dogs, 2 to 5 ms.; amyl nitrite is very seldom given internally;
hypodermically, one-half this dose. By inhalation, same as given
internally. It should be fresh as it rapidly deteriorates.

ACTIONS.--It stimulates the heart’s action, greatly dilates the
arterioles by paralyzing their muscular coats; causes a sense of
fullness in the brain with vertigo, fall of blood pressure due to
dilation of the arterioles, lowering of temperature; when the vapor is
applied direct to muscular or nerve tissues it suspends or completely
arrests its functional activity; it depresses the nervous system and
unstriped muscular fiber. Overdoses cause death by respiratory failure.

USES.--Epileptic attacks may be warded off by its being inhaled;
spasmodic asthma, used either internally, hypodermically or best by
inhalation; in strychnine poisoning, angina pectoris in tetanus, and as
a heart stimulant. It is useful as an inhalation in bringing about
recovery from deep chloroform and anesthesia.



ANISUM--ANISE


ORIGIN.--The anise plant is a native of Egypt and the Levant, but has
been introduced in various parts of that continent. It is also
cultivated occasionally in the gardens of this country. The fruit is
abundantly produced in Malta and Spain; in Romagna, in Italy, whence it
is largely exported through Leghorn, and in Central and Southern Russia.

DESCRIPTION.--Ovoid, laterally compressed, 4 to 5 m. m. long; carpels
usually cohering and attached to a slender pedicel; grayish or
greenish-gray to grayish brown; each with a flat face and five light
brown filiform ridges and about 16 oil-tubes; odor and taste agreeable
and aromatic. The anise berries are dried and ground, this being the
form in which it is usually used.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 3 dr.; dogs,
10 to 30 gr.


OLEUM ANISI--OIL OF ANISE

A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of star anise.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless or pale yellow, thin and strongly refractive
liquid, having the characteristic odor of anise, and a sweetish, mildly
aromatic taste. Specific gravity about 0.975 to 0.985. Soluble in an
equal volume of alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 20 to 30 m.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 10 m.; dogs
and cats, 1 to 5 m.

ACTIONS.--Anise is an aromatic stimulant, stomachic and carminative. It
is used to relieve indigestion and flatulence, to communicate an
agreeable flavor to many medicines, and to diminish the griping of
purgatives. Oil of anise resembles in action other volatile oils.

USES.--The oil of anise is employed with olive oil or alcohol to kill
fleas or lice on dogs, rubbed over the skin; and one drop of the pure
oil may be placed on the feathers of fowl to cause destruction of lice.
The oil of anise is sometimes prescribed to disguise the odor of drugs,
and is ordered in cough mixtures for its expectorant properties.

The fruit is given all animals (generally powdered) on their
food--frequently with sodium bicarbonate and ginger--to relieve mild
forms of indigestion and flatulence through its stomachic and
carminative effects.



ANTIMONII ET POTASSII TARTARS--ANTIMONY AND POTASSIUM TARTRATE--TARTAR
EMETIC


DERIVATION.--Make a white paste with cream of tartar, antimony trioxide
and water. Set aside 24 hours, boil in water 15 minutes and crystallize.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent crystals of the rhombic system,
becoming opaque and white on exposure to the air, or a white granular
powder without odor and having a sweet, afterwards disagreeable,
metallic taste. Soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep, 2 to 5 gr.; pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1
gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₁₀ to ¹⁄₂ gr. As an emetic for pigs, 4 to 10 gr.; dogs, 1
to 2 gr.

ACTIONS.--Tartar emetic is a systemic and local emetic, a diaphoretic,
cardiac and arterial sedative and a gastro-intestinal irritant. It is a
powerful waste producer and stimulates the secretions of the stomach,
intestines, salivary glands, liver and pancreas. Large doses cause
nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, while toxic doses are followed by
vomiting (in animals that can vomit), serious blood purging, great
depression of the circulation and respiration weakness, collapse and
death. Tartar emetic is also a vermifuge.

USES.--Tartar emetic is too mild as an emetic in poison cases. In asthma
of dogs it may be used in from ¹⁄₁₀ to ¹⁄₂ grain doses to relax spasm
and promote secretion. For horses its most valuable use is to expel the
common round worms from the intestines, for which it is very
efficacious; given in two drachm doses once or twice daily in the feed
for four to six days, or one-half ounce dissolved in water is given on
an empty stomach followed by a full dose of linseed oil.



ANTIPYRINA--ANTIPYRIN


Phenyl-hydrazine is acted upon by aceto-acetic ether, when
phenyl-monomethyl-pyrazolon, ethyl alcohol and water results.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, odorless, scaly crystals, of a bitterish taste.
Soluble in water, ether and chloroform.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 to 4 drs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 grs.

ACTIONS.--Powerful antipyretic, anodyne and local anesthetic,
antiseptic, cardiac depressant; it reduces temperature very quickly,
usually within half an hour and the effects continue two or more hours.
It can be administered by the mouth, hypodermically or intertracheally;
as an antiseptic it diminishes oxidation, and promotes heat loss by
dilating the cutaneous vessels, but more probably by depressing the
activity of the calorifacient centers.

USES.--Used in high fever where the temperature must be reduced quickly,
as in sun-stroke, acute rheumatism; in man a solution of antipyrine from
four to ten per cent strength up, is sprayed into the nostrils for
hay-fever. Acetanilide is a better and safer and much cheaper drug for
febrile diseases.



AQUA AMMONIAE FORTIOR--STRONGER AMMONIA WATER


An aqueous solution of ammonia containing twenty-eight per cent, by
weight of the gas.

DERIVATION.--Evolve ammonia gas by heating ammonium chloride with
calcium hydrate and pass it into water.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless, transparent liquid, having an excessively
pungent odor and a caustic alkaline taste.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 drs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 10 m. Should be diluted one drachm to one pint of water.


AQUA AMMONIAE--AMMONIA WATER

An aqueous solution containing ten per cent by weight of ammonia gas.

DERIVATION.--Same as strong ammonia water.

PROPERTIES.--The taste is not so caustic and the odor is less pungent
then the stronger water of ammonia.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.;
dogs, 10 to 20 m. Should be diluted one drachm to half pint of water.


SPIRITUS AMMONIAE--SPIRIT OF AMMONIA

An alcoholic solution containing ten per cent., by weight of the ammonia
gas.

DERIVATION.--A solution of caustic ammonia in alcohol.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless liquid, having a strong odor of ammonia. This
preparation of ammonia possesses properties of ammonia and alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.;
dogs, 10 to 20 m. Should be diluted in water.


SPIRITUS AMMONIAE AROMATICUS--AROMATIC SPIRIT OF AMMONIA

DERIVATION.--Ammonium carbonate 3.4%, aqua ammonia 9%, oil of lemon 1%,
oil of lavender flowers 0.1%, oil of nutmeg 0.1%, alcohol 70%, and
distilled water to make 100 parts. Diluted in water.

PROPERTIES.--A nearly colorless liquid when first prepared, but
gradually acquires an amber color. It has a pungent ammoniacal odor and
taste.

ACTIONS.--These four proportions of ammonia are gastric and general
stimulants. They stimulate the cardiac respiratory and spinal systems.
They irritate the nose when inhaled, but reflexly they stimulate the
circulation and respiration, they are good stimulants as they do not
affect the brain. The aromatic spirits of ammonia is also a carminative.
Externally they are rubefacients, and when confined are vesicants.

USES.--Its antacid and stimulant properties recommend ammonia in
indigestion, tympanites, and spasmodic colic, especially in cattle and
sheep. Stimulating the spinals and respiratory systems, it is valuable
in the treatment of influenza, pneumonia, pleurisy and similar
complaints. The fumes of ammonia are occasionally used to arouse animals
from shocks, collapse, or chloroform intoxication, but must be used
cautiously, lest excessive irritation of the respiratory mucous membrane
be produced. It is a promptly acting antidote in poisoning by opium,
aconite, digitalis, and ether narcotic and sedative drugs. It may be
administered much diluted in the usual way, injected subcutaneously and
intravenously, and also applied externally, in the treatment of
snake-bites. On account of its producing bronchial secretion, and
assisting in its expulsion, ammonia is serviceable as a stimulating
expectorant. To develop its more general effects its alcoholic
proportions should be prescribed as spirit of ammonia or the aromatic
spirit of ammonia. Externally used in the form of liniment of ammonia,
with oils, camphor, etc., proves useful as a stimulant in rheumatism,
stiff-joints, muscular strains, sore throat, pleurisy, pneumonia and
influenza, and for preventing the rapid chilling of fomented surfaces.
It relieves the irritation caused by nettles, and by bites and stings of
insects.


LINIMENTUM AMMONIAE--AMMONIA LINIMENT

Is made by mixing ammonia water, 350; cottonseed oil, 570; alcohol, 50;
oleic acid, 30. The above is recognized by the U. S. P. and is
advantageously used on muscular strains and where an external stimulant
is indicated.


LIQUOR AMMONII ACETATIS--SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE

An aqueous solution of ammonium acetate containing about seven per cent
of the salt, together with small amounts of acetic acid and carbon
dioxide.

DERIVATION.--Ammonium carbonate is gradually added to cold, dilute
acetic acid until the latter is materialized.

PROPERTIES.--A clear, colorless liquid, mildly saline and acidulous
taste, and an acid reaction.

Incompatible with acids and alkalies.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.;
dogs, 2 to 6 drs.

ACTIONS.--Diaphoretic, antipyretic, mild stimulant, mild diuretic, mild
expectorant and stomachic.

USES.--Its uses are recommended in febrile and inflammatory attacks,
especially in influenza, distemper, etc., combined with other medicines,
improves the appetite; can be used externally as a refrigerant over
swollen and inflamed tendons.


AMMONII CARBONAS--AMMONIUM CARBONATE

DERIVATION.--A mixture of ammonium chloride or sulphate, and calcium
carbonate, is sublimed and resublimed. Ammonium carbonate, so-called, is
a mixture of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate.

PROPERTIES.--White translucent masses, having a strongly ammoniacal
odor, and a sharp saline taste. On exposure to air it loses both ammonia
and carbonic dioxide, soluble one part in four parts of water.

DOSES.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 3 drs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₄ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 2 to 8 grs. Larger doses are recommended when a antispasmodic or
carminative is desired the dose for horses and cattle can be increased
to an ounce, but only two doses should be administered, well diluted in
water or in ball or capsule.

ACTIONS.--Ammonium carbonate is decomposed by acid in the stomach and
escapes in the urine. It stimulates gastric secretion, vascularity and
motion, and exciting intestinal peristalsis. It is, therefore, a
stomachic and carminative. It is also an antacid, and, in large doses,
an emetic for dogs. It is given in capsules or in solution in cold
water, to avoid irritating fumes; also with syrup or gruel. It is often
prescribed with other stimulants and antispasmodics, as alcohol,
camphor, capsicum and asafoetida. The action of ammonium carbonate is
almost identical with that of ammonia water in stimulating the heart and
respiration, but it has more power in augmenting the bronchial
secretions.

USES.--It is given to all animals in indigestion; conjoins the actions
of an antacid and diffusible stimulant; in small doses promotes
secretion of gastric juice, and in larger, relieves flatulence and
spasm. In diseases of the air passages it is used as an expectorant; is
contra-indicated in purpura haemorrhagica, as it lowers the oxygen
carrying power of red blood corpuscles, and dissolves fibrin. As a
stimulant it can be combined with alcohol and sulphuric ether. Ammonia
is recommended where a clot, thrombi or embolism is supposed to exist on
account of its defibrinating power. Ammonium carbonate is used
extensively in the treatment of spasmodic and flatulent, colic and acute
indigestion conjoined with either asafoetida, capsicum, camphor, nux
vomica and alcohol.


AMMONII CHLORIDIUM--MURIATE OF AMMONIA--SAL AMMONIAC

DERIVATION.--This salt may be formed by neutralizing crude solution of
ammonia or ammonium carbonate with hydrochloric acid and purifying the
product.

PROPERTIES.--A white, crystalline powder without odor, having a cooling,
saline taste, and permanent in the air. Soluble in two parts of water;
in fifty parts alcohol.

DOSES.--Horses, 1 to 2 drs.; cattle, 4 drs. to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 15
grs. to 1 dr.; dogs, 5 to 10 grs.

ACTIONS.--Internally it is an expectorant, alterative, feebly
diaphoretic and diuretic. When ingested, ammonium chloride is a feeble
heart and respiratory stimulant, and is not comparable to the ammonia
compounds or ammonium carbonate in this respect. It is eliminated in
great part unchanged by the urine, but also by the other channels. In
its excretion it stimulates the mucous membranes, increases their
secretion generally, and is thought to improve their nutrition. Ammonium
chloride both excites the secretion of the bronchial mucous membrane and
renders it less viscid in inflammatory conditions. Externally it is a
refrigerant.

USES.--Useful in all diseases where an expectorant is indicated,
catarrhal condition, pneumonia, coughs, influenza, chronic congestion of
the liver, etc. Used externally one part ammonium chloride dissolved in
ten parts of water as a refrigerant lotion for inflammatory swellings,
bruises and sprains.



ARGENTI NITRAS--SILVER NITRATE


DERIVATION.--Dissolve silver in nitric acid with heat. Evaporate and
crystallize.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, tubular, rhombic crystals, becoming
gray, or grayish-black on exposure to light in the presence of organic
matter; without odor, but having a bitter, caustic and strongly metallic
taste; soluble in water and alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 5 to 10 grs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 grs.;
dogs, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₂ gr.


ARGENTI NITRAS MITIGATUS--MITIGATED SILVER NITRATE

DERIVATION.--Melt silver nitrate, 30 parts, with potassium nitrate, 60
parts, in a crucible at as low a temperature as possible. Mix and cast
into suitable moulds.

PROPERTIES.--A white, hard, solid, generally in the form of pencils or
canes of a finely granular fracture; becoming gray or grayish-black on
exposure to light in the presence of organic matter; odorless, having a
caustic, metallic taste. Soluble in water and alcohol.


ARGENTI NITRAS FUSUS--MOULDED SILVER NITRATE--LUNAR CAUSTIC

DERIVATION.--Melt silver nitrate, 100 parts, with hydrochloric acid, 4
parts at as low a temperature as possible. Mix and pour into suitable
moulds.

PROPERTIES.--Practically same as mitigated silver nitrate. Use only
externally.

ACTIONS.--Silver nitrate combines with the albumen of the tissues, and
is a limited caustic; causes superficial inflammation and stains the
parts black; small doses increase secretion and stimulate the heart. It
promotes nutrition, and is said to be a nerve tonic. Its continued
administration causes waste, gastro-intestinal catarrh, fluidity of the
blood, slate colored lines about the gums, and similar discoloration of
the skin and mucous membrane, followed by nervous disorder, paralysis,
convulsions and death.

USES.--A solution of forty grains to one ounce of spirit of nitrous
ether is said to abort superficial inflammation, if early applied; used
for erysipelas, twenty grains to one ounce of distilled water, applied
around margin to limit the area; also used in ulceration of the throat;
used with a spray or swab, in strength of from ten grains to one-half to
drachm to one ounce of distilled water. For dysentery, internally and as
an enema it is very good; used in conjunctivitis one to five grains to
one to two ounces of distilled water, is the average strength, and
should only be applied to the conjunctiva or lids, and should not be on
the cornea, as it may form an insoluble chloride of silver and cause
permanent opacities. Nitrate of silver is used in the form of lunar
caustic to stimulate indolent ulcers, and to burn off warts.

To stimulate ulcers, touch in spots around the edge; also used in chorea
epilepsy and chronic spinal disease, foot rot in sheep; a piece of the
caustic is placed in sinuses of fistulous withers, quittors, etc. It
causes a slough, followed by healthy granulation; used for sore teats in
cows.



ARNICAE--ARNICA


ORIGIN.--Arnica is obtained from the flower roots of a plant that grows
in mountainous countries of Central Europe, Asia and America.

COMPOSITION.--An active principle called arnicin. The root contains an
essential oil, on which depends in great part its physiological
activity.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM ARNICAE RADICIS--EXTRACT OF ARNICA ROOT (NON-OFFICIAL)

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 15 grs. to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 10
grs.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 grs.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM ARNICAE RADICIS--FLUIDEXTRACT ARNICA ROOT (NON-OFFICIAL)

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 3 drs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 2 to 10 ms.


TINCTURA ARNICAE--TINCTURE OF ARNICA

This is the best and most used preparation of Arnica.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 drs.; sheep and pigs, 15 ms. to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 30 ms. This dose can be given every three hours to maintain
the circulation of the skin; as a diaphoretic, the dose can and may be
increased and combined with other diaphoretics.

INCOMPATIBLES.--Its action is antagonized by ammonia, alcoholic
stimulants, opium, camphor, etc.

SYNERGISTS.--Aconite, veratrum viride, digitalis and arterial sedatives,
generally increase the effects of arnica.

ACTIONS.--Arnica is irritant, stimulant, depressant; antipyretic,
diuretic, diaphoretic and is used as a vulnerary, it dilates the
circular blood vessels. It irritates the gastro-intestinal tract. In
alcoholic solutions (as tincture of arnica) it inflames the skin when
used full strength.

In small doses it increases the action of the heart, raises arterial
tension and stimulates the action of the skin and kidneys.

Large doses produce a transient excitement, followed by depressed
circulation, respiration and temperature.

USES.--It is a very efficient diaphoretic for horses in one or two ounce
doses diluted in one pint of water; one-half ounce of fluid extract
pilocarpus may be added at the outset of inflammatory diseases of any
kind, such as lymphangitis, laminitis, pulmonary diseases, etc.
Excellent to stop a chill and prevent the following fever or
inflammatory action. It does this by dilating the blood vessels of the
skin, thus attracting the blood to the surface and away from congested
internal organs. It is indicated in sthetic fever of any kind; azoturia,
rheumatism, especially inflammatory or articular; congestion of the
brain, kidneys, etc., externally much used, but of little value on hairy
animals.



ARSENUM--ARSENIC


ORIGIN.--The world’s supply of arsenic and arsenic compounds at the
present time is obtained from Germany, Spain, England, Canada and
portions of the United States, as Montana and Washington, where
considerable quantities of arsenic are being produced as a by-product in
the smelting of copper ores. Arsenic ore is roasted and purified by
sublimation, before it is used for medical purposes.


  ARSENI TRIOXIDUM--ARSENIC TRIOXIDE
  ACIDUM ARSENOSUM--ARCENOUS ACID
  (White Arsenic)

DERIVATION.--Arsenical ores are roasted or conducted into condensing
chambers and purified by sublimation.

PROPERTIES.--A heavy solid, occurring either as an opaque, white powder,
or in irregular masses of two varieties; the one amorphous, transparent
and colorless, like glass; the other crystalline, opaque, and white,
resembling porcelain. Frequently the same piece has an opaque, white
outer crust enclosing the glassy variety. Contact with moist air
gradually changes the glassy into the white opaque variety. Both are
odorless and tasteless. The glassy variety dissolves slowly in thirty
parts of water; the porcelain-like in eighty parts of water. Arcenous
acid is sparingly soluble in alcohol, but soluble in glycerin,
hydrochloric acid and solutions of the alkali hydrates and carbonates.
When heated to 424°, arcenous acid is completely volatilized without
melting.

INCOMPATIBLES.--Lime water, salts of iron and magnesia.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 5 grs.; cattle, 2 to 8 grs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
grs.; dogs, ¹⁄₃₀ to ¹⁄₁₀ gr.


LIQUOR POTASSII ARSENITIS--SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM ARSENITE (Fowler’s
Solution)

DERIVATION.--Arcenous acid, potassium bicarbonate, compound tincture of
lavender and distilled water. Strength one part of arcenous acid in 100.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 drs. to 1 oz.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ ozs.; sheep and
pigs, 10 to 40 ms.; dogs, 2 to 5 ms. Average dose for horse is ¹⁄₂ oz.
usually given three times daily in drinking water or bran mash.


LIQUOR ACIDI ARSENOSI--SOLUTION OF ARCENOUS ACID

DERIVATION.--Arcenous acid, diluted hydrochloric acid, and distilled
water. Strength one part arcenous acid in 100.

DOSE.--Same as liquor potassii arsenitis.


LIQUOR ARSENI ET HYDRARGYRI IODIDI (Donovan’s Solution)

DERIVATION.--Arcenous iodide, red mercuric iodide, and distilled water,
which should contain not less then one per cent of arcenous iodide and
one per cent of mercuric iodide.

DOSE.--Same as liquor potassii arsenitis.

ACTIONS.--Arsenic and its compounds are gastro-intestinal and pulmonary
tonic, a stimulant and alterative, acting particularly on the digestive
and respiratory mucous membranes and skin. It is antiperiodic and tonic;
also antispasmodic in diseases of the nervous system, and is a nervine
tonic. In large doses it is a corrosive-irritant poison, killing either
by gastro-enteritis, or nervous paresis. Continued doses produce fatty
degeneration. On account of its being a stomachic, small doses promote
the appetite and digestion. Large doses inflame the stomach and derange
digestion. It increases the cardiac action, respiratory power, and
secretion of the intestines. It also stimulates peristalsis. When
tolerance is established, large doses are taken with impunity.

EXTERNALLY.--Arsenic is a very painful escharotic, exciting violent
inflammation. It is a caustic, antiseptic, and parasiticide, and is
frequently used as a sheep dip. It is eliminated chiefly by the kidneys,
skin and saliva and milk of nursing animals.

USES.--It should not be given in acute diseases. It is given as a
general tonic after debilitating diseases especially when the lungs are
involved, as in pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy. Arsenic combined
with bran mashes is beneficial in stocking or swelling of the legs. As
for its use in chronic indigestion, other medicines had better be
resorted to. It assists in the expulsion of worms. Useful in chronic
diseases of the air passage. Arsenic relieves irritable chronic coughs,
and roaring in early stages, as well as thick and broken wind and
heaves. As an alterative modifying tissue change it is prescribed in
early stages of tuberculosis, chronic rheumatism, chorea and epilepsy.
It prevents periodically returning fevers. In anaemia it increases both
red and white blood corpuscles. For chorea in dogs, commence with a
small dose, three times daily and increase a minimum per dose every
third or fourth day until the physiological limit is reached as
described under (Toxicology of Arsenic).

ACTIONS ON THE SKIN.--Administered internally it stimulates the dermis
and hastens the removal of epidermal cells; hence it is useful in all
chronic skin diseases, as chronic eczema, scab, mange and warts. To
remove warts that occur in the mouth and on the muzzle of animals, give
internally and apply locally Fowler’s solution. In chronic skin diseases
use Donovan’s or Fowler’s solution or acidum arsenosum and sulphur mixed
in the feed. Useful internally in successive eruptions of the skin boils
and in chronic urticaria.

EXTERNAL USES.--The white arsenic or arcenous acid is used to slough out
tumors, fistulae, quittors, etc. But I would not recommend it as it is
too painful. It is valuable in the treatment of foot-rot. The affected
animals should be slowly driven through a trough containing a solution
of arsenic. It is used extensively for sheep and cattle to destroy
ticks. In this way, animals are sometimes poisoned, as it drips on the
grass and other animals eat it.

TOXICOLOGY OF ARSENIC.--Full medical doses if long continued, cause
edema and itching of the eyelids, increased flow of saliva nausea,
diarrhoea or dysentery, weak heart, soreness to the touch over the
region of the stomach, itchy skin with small eruptions, jaundice and
albuminuria. In long continued doses it diminishes exudation, decomposes
albuminoid tissues and produces fatty degeneration; also lessens the
glycogenic functions of the liver.

CHRONIC ARSENICAL POISONING.--Is common in the vicinity of either tin
or copper smelting plants. The symptoms are as follows: indigestion,
thirst, wasting, chronic diseases of joints and bones, the knee joints
swell, the animal becomes lame and hide-bound, hair falls off, skin gets
rough and scurfy, teeth get black and fall out and necrosis of the bones
follow.

ANTAGONISTS AND INCOMPATIBLES.--The salts of iron, magnesia, lime, and
astringents, are chemically incompatible. The hydroxide of iron, or as
it is also known, hydrate sesquioxide of iron, freshly made and in soft
magma is the antidote to arsenic. To dogs give from half to one
tablespoonful every five or ten minutes. From eight to twenty grains of
the antidote are required to each grain of arsenic swallowed (when it
can be determined). The stomach should first be emptied by the use of
cathartics or stomach pump and then give the antidote, and follow with
demulcents as oil, milk and mucilaginous drinks. Also administer
diluents, as weak alkaline water. Iodide of potassium is valuable as a
antidote of arsenical poisoning and should be administered to promote
elimination of the poison. In the absence of the antidote, chalk,
magnesia and lime water may be freely given. These agents act
mechanically by developing the poison and preventing absorption.
Dialysed iron is recommended as efficacious as an antidote in doses of
five to fifteen minimums for dogs.



ASPIDIUM--MALE FERN


DERIVATION.--The rhizome of Aspidium Filix-mas. Collected late in the
autumn, divested of its roots, leaves and dead portions, and carefully
dried. Male fern should not be kept more than a year.

HABITAT.--The male fern grows wild throughout most temperate regions, on
the sides of roads and in open woods, especially where the soil is
light.

PROPERTIES.--Its root stock is perennial, about a foot long and two
inches thick; is scaly, tufted, greenish-brown, and firmly fixed in the
ground by numerous black root fibers. The dried root has a disagreeable
odor, and a sweet, astringent, nauseous taste. Powdered male fern should
be freshly prepared and have a bright green color.

DOSE.--The powdered male fern is given to horses and cattle in doses of
4 to 6 ozs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 4 ozs.; dogs and cats, ¹⁄₂ to 2 ozs.
The powder is bulky, and less certain than the oleoresin of aspidium.


PREPARATIONS


OLEORESINA ASPIDII--OLEORESIN ASPIDIUM--OLEORESIN MALE FERN

Made by percolation with ether, distillation and evaporation of the
ether.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 to 6 drs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.; dogs
and cats, 15 ms. to 1 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Male fern is irritant, vermicide laxative, large doses
of the drug cause hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis, tremors, weakness,
stupor, coma, acute nephritis and cystitis. Oleoresin of male fern is
one of the most effectual remedies for tapeworm, particularly those
inhabiting dogs.



BELLADONNAE FOLIA--BELLADONNA LEAVES


ORIGIN.--Belladonna is the leaves of a plant known as deadly nightshade.
It grows wild in some parts of Great Britain, and is also cultivated to
a great extent. The dried leaves of atropa belladonna yield, when
assayed by the U. S. P. process, not less than 0.35 per cent of
mydriatic alkaloids. Usually of a dull brownish-green color, the leaves
much wrinkled and matted together, frequently with the flowering tops
intermixed; odor distinctly narcotic, especially on moistening; taste
somewhat bitter and acrid. Contains not less than 0.5 per cent atropine.
The powdered leaves are characterized by few hairs and numerous small
arrow-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate.

DOSE.--Of the powdered leaves, horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep
and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 dr.; dogs, 1 to 5 grs.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM BELLADONNAE FOLIORUM--EXTRACT OF BELLADONNA LEAVES

Made by percolation with dilute alcohol and evaporation to pilular
consistence. Used in preparing the unguentum belladonnae. Contains 1.4
per cent of mydriatic alkaloids.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 10 to 20 grs.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 grs.;
dogs, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₂ gr.


TINCTURA BELLADONNAE FOLIORUM--TINCTURE OF BELLADONNA LEAVES

Belladonna leaves 100, dilute alcohol to make 1,000, made by maceration
and percolation. (Strength 10%.)

DOSE.--Dogs, 3 to 30 ms.


UNGUENTUM BELLADONNAE--BELLADONNA OINTMENT

Extract of belladonna leaves, 10; dilute alcohol, 5; hydrous wool fat,
20; benzoinated lard, 63.



BELLADONNAE RADIX--BELLADONNA ROOT


DERIVATION.--The dried root of atropa belladonna yielding, when assayed
by the U. S. P. process not less than 0.5 per cent of mydriatic
alkaloids.

CONSTITUENTS.--Same as leaves. Contains not less than 0.5 per cent
atropine.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM BELLADONNAE RADICIS--FLUIDEXTRACT OF BELLADONNA ROOT

Made by maceration with alcohol and water and evaporation. One cc. of
the extract = one gm. of belladonna root. Standardized so that 100 cc.
of the fluidextract contain 0.5 gm. of mydriatic alkaloids. This is one
of the most reliable preparations of belladonna.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 2 dr.; cattle, 2 to 3 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 15
ms.; dogs, 1 to 3 ms.


LINIMENTUM BELLADONNAE--BELLADONNA LINIMENT

Made by adding camphor, 50 parts to fluidextract of belladonna to make
1,000 parts (U. S. P.).


ATROPINAE SULPHAS--SULPHATE OF ATROPHINE

An alkaloid obtained from belladonna. As it occurs in commerce, it is
always accompanied by small proportion of hyoscyamine extracted along
with it, from which it cannot readily be separated.

DERIVATION.--Atropine is obtained from a strong tincture of the root.

PROPERTIES.--A white crystalline powder, very soluble in water and
alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ grs.; cattle, 1 to 2 grs.; sheep and pigs,
¹⁄₂₀ to ¹⁄₁₂ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₁₅₀ to ¹⁄₅₀ gr. The doses should be
considerably reduced when used with morphine.

INCOMPATIBLES.--Caustic alkalies; antagonize physiologically by
pilocarpine and physostigma throughout almost whole range of its
influence, and opium within a certain limitation, prevents the
respiratory failure, which is the cause of death.

ACTION.--Belladonna is an irritant narcotic, a mydriatic, an
antispasmodic and anodyne. In small doses a cardiac, respiratory and
spinal stimulant; in large doses a paralyzer of the sensory and motor
nerve endings and a stimulator of the entire sympathetic system.

It produces dryness of the mucous membrane of the throat, mouth, nose
and pharynx, and at first lessens the gastric and intestinal secretions,
but soon produces them in large quantities. It is anti-galactogogue,
that is, it arrests secretion of milk.

The heart rate is at first slowed, but soon becomes very rapid and
vigorous, the pulse being doubled in rapidity; arterial tension is
raised and the circulation greatly increased.

The pupils are dilated by the local or systemic use of the drug.

The brain is congested by belladonna, a busy delirium being produced,
and hallucinations with mental disorder, due to a selective action on
the cell of the gray matter.

The spinal cord is stimulated from the second cervical vertebrae to the
tenth dorsal, resulting in paralysis of the motor nerves, both central
and peripheral, power being lost in hind extremities first. The
respiration is increased and the temperature is raised by the increased
circulation; metamorphosis is greatly promoted.

Belladonna and atrophine are rapidly diffused and quickly eliminated by
the kidneys. By its paralyzing effect on the terminal nerve filaments,
it relaxes the bronchial tubes and checks the secretion of the bronchial
mucous membrane; it checks secretion of saliva and milk in the same way
and causes dryness of the skin.

USES.--Belladonna and atrophine is indicated anywhere that an
antispasmodic and anodyne is needed. Is serviceable in catarrh,
pharyngitis and bronchitis to check secretion in second stage; heaves,
especially asthmatic heaves, combined with gelsemium and lobelia,
followed by Fowler’s Solution; in influenza, it stimulates the weakened
heart, besides having other good effects.

In the first stage of respiratory diseases, belladonna alone, or
combined with aconite or other febrifuges and expectorants; in cough,
especially spasmodic or when due to irritation of the throat; in heart
failure or heart weakness, hypodermic injections of atrophine are
beneficial; in spasmodic colic one to two drachms of the fluid extract
to a dose, but one drachm is usually sufficient; as a powerful
antispasmodic and anodyne, atropine and morphine combined; small doses
are given in constipation of the bowels, combined with nux vomica; small
doses with purgatives are said to aid their action.

In tetanus give one to two drachms of the extract two or three times
daily; in paralysis of the throat of tetanus the fluid extract combined
with soap liniment or used alone externally; in cerebro-spinal
meningitis, belladonna and ergot alternated with aconite is rational
treatment, conjoined with the external treatment. It allays irritations
of the bladder, rectum, and uterus, especially if combined with cannabis
indica.

In contraction or rigid os the extract applied directly, quickly relaxes
and allows parturition; it is well to see if this is necessary before
giving ergot.

Used extensively in examinations and diseases of the eye.

Atrophine sulphate is used locally to dilate the pupil, assisting in the
detection of cataracts or other disorders of the eye and testing the
condition of the refracting media; for dilating pupil use a solution of
four grains of the atrophine to one ounce of distilled water; a few
drops are placed into the eye, for inflammation of the eye with great
irritation; belladonna may be combined with cocaine; in iritis.

ANTIDOTE.--In poisoning, tannic acid should be used.



BENZOINUM--BENZOIN


A balsamic resin obtained from styrax benzoin dryander, and another
unidentified species of styrax. It contains benzoic acid in the
proportions 12 to 20 per cent to which it probably owes its action.

HABITAT.--Southern Asia.

PROPERTIES.--In pebble-like bodies or tears, slightly flattened,
straight or curved, yellowish to rusty-brown externally, milky-white on
fresh fractures internally. Odor agreeable, balsamic; taste slightly
acrid. It is almost wholly soluble in five parts of moderately warm
alcohol, and in solutions of the fixed alkalies. When heated it gives
off fumes of benzoic acid.

CONSTITUENTS.--Benzoic acid, cinnamic acid; resins and a volatile oil.


PREPARATIONS


ADEPS BENZOINATUS--BENZOINATED LARD

Made by melting lard 1,000, with benzoin 20, and straining; used as an
ointment itself, and as a base for other ointments.


TINCTURA BENZOINI--TINCTURE OF BENZOIN

Made by maceration of benzoin 200, in alcohol; filtration and addition
of alcohol to make 1,000.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 drs.;
dogs, 30 to 60 ms.


TINCTURA BENZOINI COMPOSITA--COMPOUND TINCTURE OF BENZOIN

Commonly known as Friar’s Balsam. Benzoin, 100; purified aloes, 20;
storax, 80; balsam of tolu, 40; alcohol to make 1,000. Made by digestion
and filtration.


ACIDUM BENZOICUM--BENZOIC ACID

DERIVATION.--Obtained from benzoin by sublimation, or artificially
prepared.

PROPERTIES.--White feathery crystals of a peculiar, agreeable odor, and
warm acidulous taste, sparingly soluble in cold water (1 to 500), more
soluble in boiling water, 1 in 15, and in 2 parts of alcohol; borax
renders it more soluble.

INCOMPATIBLES.--Alkalies, ammonium carbonate.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 drs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 15 grs.


AMMONII BENZOAS--AMMONIUM BENZOATE

Made by the action of benzoic acid and ammonia water. In white crystals.
Soluble in 10.5 parts of water; in 25 parts of alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as benzoic acid.


SODII BENZOAS--SODIUM BENZOATE

Made by the action of a hot solution of sodium carbonate of benzoic
acid. Occurs in a white powder. Soluble in 1.6 parts of water; in 43
parts of alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as benzoic acid.


LITHII BENZOAS--LITHIUM BENZOATE

Made by decomposing lithium carbonate with benzoic acid. It should
contain not less than 98.5 per cent of pure lithium benzoate, and
should be kept in a well stopped bottle. Soluble in 3 parts of water,
and in 13 parts of alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as benzoic acid.

ACTIONS.--Benzoin is a mild stimulant, expectorant and antiseptic;
benzoic acid is quite powerful; it renders alkaline urine acid; it is
used to dissolve phosphatic calculi.

USES.--The tincture and compound tincture are used as stimulants and
antiseptics for wounds and sores. Benzoic acid, when administered
internally, acts mildly as an antiseptic to the bladder; useful in
catarrh of the bladder. Benzoate of soda is used in bronchial catarrh.
Benzoate of ammonia is used to dissolve phosphatic calculi. Lithium
benzoate has been highly recommended as a remedy for rheumatic
affections.



CALAMUS--SWEET FLAG


The unpeeled, dried rhizome of acorus calamus Linne.

HABITAT.--United States, Europe, Western and Southern Asia, including
India and Japan.

PROPERTIES.--The leaves as well as the root have an aromatic odor; but
the root only is employed. It should be collected late in the autumn, or
in the early spring. After removal from the ground, the roots are
washed, freed from their fibers, and dried with moderate heat. By drying
they lose nearly one-half their diameter, but are improved in odor and
taste.

CONSTITUENTS.--Acorin, a liquid, yellow glucoside, having a bitter
taste; a volatile oil; calamine; choline.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 ozs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 3 drs.;
dogs, 15 grs to 1 dr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM CALAMI--FLUIDEXTRACT OF CALAMUS

Made by maceration, percolation and evaporation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 ozs.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 3 drs.;
dogs, 15 ms. to 1 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Calanus is a feeble aromatic bitter, and is therefore
useful in loss of appetite and indigestion associated with mild forms of
flatulence. The powdered root is used as a base in powders, balls and
electuaries. It is harmless, and the dose is therefore unimportant.



CALX LIME--CALCIUM OXIDE


DERIVATION.--Prepared by burning white marble, oyster shells, or the
purest varieties of natural calcium carbonate; to expel carbon dioxide.

PROPERTIES.--Lime is in hard, white or grayish-white masses, which in
contact with air gradually attract moisture and carbon dioxide and fall
to a white powder; odorless; of a sharp caustic taste. Soluble in water;
insoluble in alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Antacid, gastric sedative, intestinal astringent, desiccant.

USES.--Its principal use is in diarrhoea, combined with opium tannic
acid, also antiseptics; makes a very good dusting powder over abraded
surfaces. Lime water and milk equal parts and sweetened is very good for
puppies raised on a bottle as it is easily digested.


LINIMENTUM CALCIS--LIME LINIMENT (Carron Oil)

Composed of lime water and raw linseed oil equal parts; is very good for
burns. Carron oil given internally is a good, mild laxative and antacid
for horses with heaves. It is given on the food. It is also an excellent
purgative for foals and calves in the treatment of diarrhoea and
indigestion.



CALUMBA


The dried transversely cut slices of the root of Jateorhiza Calumba.

HABITAT.--Mozambique, East Africa. Cultivated in the East Indies.

PROPERTIES.--Odor slight, taste bitter. It contains calumbin, a neutral
bitter, crystalline substance; an alkaloid, berberine; calumbic acid and
starch.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.;
dogs, 5 to 30 grs.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM CALUMBAE--FLUIDEXTRACT OF CALUMBA

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water, and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Same as calumba.


TINCTURA CALUMBAE--TINCTURE OF CALUMBA

Made by maceration and percolation of calumbae, with alcohol and water.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 ozs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.;
dogs, 1 to 2 dr.

ACTIONS AND USES.--Calumba is a bitter, gastric stimulant and
carminative. It promotes secretion of gastric juice and improves the
appetite. As it contains no tannin it is devoid of astringency and may
be prescribed with preparations of iron. Like qussia, calumba infusion
may be used to destroy worms in the horse’s rectum.



GAMBOGIA--GAMBOGE


A gum-resin obtained from garcinia hunburii Hooker filius (nat. ord.
guttiferae).

HABITAT.--Southern Asia.

PROPERTIES.--In cylindrical pieces, usually hollow in the center,
externally grayish orange-brown, longitudinally striate; fracture
conchordal, orange-red, waxy and somewhat porous; inodorous; taste very
acid. Powder bright yellow, sternutatory, containing few or no starch
grains. Not more than 25 per cent should be soluble in alcohol; ash not
more than 3 per cent.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 1¹⁄₂ oz.; sheep and pigs, 20
grs. to 1 dr.; dogs, 5 to 10 grs.

ACTIONS.--Gamboge is a drastic, hydragogue purgative, and slightly
diuretic. Its action is uncertain and often violent, with production of
griping pains. Large doses cause vomiting in the dog and
gastro-enteritis in all that cannot vomit. Gamboge is dissolved by the
bile and alkaline intestinal juices and some of it is absorbed, since it
colors the urine yellow in its elimination and occasions diuresis.

USES.--Gamboge should never be prescribed alone. It has been recommended
in obstinate constipation, indigestion, impaction of the third stomach,
and brain diseases of cattle, conjoined with salts, or rubbed up with
water and an equal amount of aloes (each one ounce).



CAMPHORA--CAMPHOR--GUM CAMPHOR


DERIVATION.--Camphor is obtained from a tree known as Laurel Camphor.
The branches are cut and boiled in water and the camphor rises to the
top in the form of gum.

HABITAT.--Japan, China and Sunda Islands.

PROPERTIES.--White translucent masses, of a tough consistence and a
crystalline structure, readily pulverizable in the presence of a little
alcohol ether or chloroform; having a penetrating characteristic odor,
and a pungent aromatic taste. Very sparingly soluble in water, but
readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide,
petroleum, benzine and in fixed and volatile oils. On exposure to the
air, it evaporates more or less rapidly at ordinary temperatures, and
when moderately heated, it sublimes without leaving a residue.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 3 drs.; cattle, 2 to 4 drs.; sheep and pigs, 15 grs.
to 1 dr.; dogs, 3 to 30 grs.


PREPARATIONS


AQUA CAMPHORAE--CAMPHOR WATER

Tincture camphor 8, with alcohol 8 and purified talc 15; then with water
to make 1000 filter.

Camphor water has this advantage over camphor in substance, that the
latter is with difficulty dissolved by liquids of the stomach; but it is
too feeble a preparation for use when a decided effect is desired; it
is, however, an excellent vehicle for the administration of more active
substances.

DOSE.--Ad lib.


SPIRITUS CAMPHORAE--SPIRIT OF CAMPHOR

Made by dissolving gum camphor, 100, in alcohol, 800; filter and add
alcohol to make 1000.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
30 grs. to 1 dr. Spirit of camphor is frequently prescribed in colic
mixtures.


LINIMENTUM CAMPHORAE--CAMPHOR LINIMENT--CAMPHORATED OIL

Made by adding camphor, 200 parts to cottonseed oil, 800 parts.

It is a mild rubefacient; is used in cough mixtures, also used locally
in liniments.


CERATUM CAMPHORAE--CAMPHOR CERATE

Composed of camphor liniment, 100 parts, white wax 350 parts, white
petrolatum 150 parts, lard 400 parts.

For external use only.


LINIMENTUM SAPONIS--SOAP LINIMENT

Composed of soap 60 parts, camphor 45 parts, oil of rosemary 10 parts,
alcohol 725 parts, water to make 1000 parts; for external use only, as a
mild stimulating and anodyne liniment, usually combined with other
medicines and used for its stimulating properties.


CAMPHORA MONOBROMATA--MONOBROMATED CAMPHOR

DERIVATION.--Made by heating camphor and bromine in the proper chemical
proportions for three hours in a sealed tube, in a water bath. The
crystalline masses washed with water, recrystallized from alcohol after
treatment with animal charcoal, washed with an alcoholic solution of
potassium hydroxide, then with much water and finally recrystallized
from a mixture of alcohol and ether. It is very easy to prepare the
monobromide on a small scale in this way.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, prismatic needles or scales, permanent in air,
almost soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform
and fixed and volatile oils; used frequently as an anaphrodisiac.

DOSE.--Dogs, 2 to 10 gr.

ACTIONS.--Antispasmodic or nerve stimulant, anodyne, antiseptic,
diaphoretic, a stimulant, expectorant, a cerebral excitant or narcotic,
a gastro-intestinal irritant, a rubefacient or counter-irritant and also
carminative. It has an acrid hot taste, irritates the skin and mucous
membrane, large doses causing gastro-intestinal inflammation.

Medical doses stimulate the vaso-motor system and the cardiac-motor
ganglia, and lessens the influence of the pneumogastric (inhibitory
nerve); afterwards stimulates the accelerator apparatus, thus increasing
the circulation and raising arterial tension; it also stimulates
respiration, and in man stimulates mental activity even to intoxication.

USES.--In catarrhal conditions, cough mixtures, acute and chronic
bronchitis, pneumonia. The spirits of camphor is used in colic mixtures;
also locally to stop secretions of milk applied frequently; in cardiac
weakness; strangury may be relieved by one to two ounce doses of the
spirits for the horse. Spirits of camphor is used in Thumps.

Camphor is a valuable medicine in diarrhoea, particularly in serious
variety, and in that form following exposure to cold. It is not useful
in inflammatory conditions, but checks secretions and pain.

Spirit of camphor and nitrous ether are efficient in relieving
irritation of the genito-urinary tract. Camphor has proven of service in
purpura hemorrhagica of horses given three times daily in capsules or
pills.



CANTHARIS--CANTHARIDES--SPANISH FLY--BLISTER BEETLES


DERIVATION.--Cantharides is obtained from flies which receive the name
Spanish Fly on account of so many of them coming from Spain, but they
are also imported from Germany and Russia; living chiefly on climbing
shrubs and trees.

DESCRIPTION.--About 20 to 25 m. m. long and about 6 mm. broad, flattish
cylindrical, with filiform antennae, black in the upper part, and with
long wing-sheaths, and ample membranous, transparent, brownish wings,
elsewhere of a shining, coppery-green color. The powder is
grayish-brown, and contains green shining particles. Odor strong and
disagreeable; taste slight, afterwards irritating. Cantharides
deteriorate with age and should be kept unpowdered in tightly stoppered
bottles.

DOSE.--Of the powdered fly, horses and cattle, 5 to 10 gr.; sheep and
pigs, 3 to 6 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 gr.


TINCTURA CANTHARIDIS--TINCTURE OF CANTHARIDES

Prepared by percolation of powdered cantharides, 100 parts, with alcohol
to make 1000 parts.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 15 to 30 m.; dogs,
2 to 15 m.

ACTIONS.--Externally, is rubefacient, irritant, vesicant, according to
the strength used, it promotes water blister; counter-irritant, etc.
Cantharides acts more powerfully on the skin of horses and dogs than on
that of cattle and swine. If applied over an extensive surface,
absorption and poisoning may occur.

Internally cantharides is an irritant, and produces its effects on any
part which the free cantharidin is brought into contact. When swallowed
it irritates the digestive mucous membrane; large doses produce
gastro-enteritis. The active cantharidin is absorbed, and in the blood
forms a non-irritant albuminoid, but in the kidneys is again liberated,
developing its characteristic irritation, medical doses stimulating the
urino-genital tract, causing diuresis, and in some animals increases
sexual appetite; full doses induce inflammation, slow and painful
discharge of bloody urine.

USES.--Externally cantharides is employed as a blister rubefacient or as
a counter-irritant; blisters are formed in from two to eight hours. If
repeatedly used it may cause sloughing of the tissue; cantharides may be
used wherever a blister or counter-irritant is required, except in
inflammation of the urinary organs, as it is absorbed and will increase
the inflammation. Cantharides conjoined with red mercurous iodide and
adeps is usually employed in the treatment of diseases of the bones,
joints, bursae, ligaments and tendons. In exostoses, as bone spavin and
ring bone, used most effectively after the actual cautery, to secure
absorption and resolution, or anchylosis. Always clip off the hair close
before applying a blister, tie or muzzle the animal so he cannot bite
it; leave blister on forty-eight hours, then wash and grease the parts
daily. A cantharides blister is sometimes beneficial in hastening the
formation of abscess (distemper); also to stimulate indolent ulcers or
wounds; it causes swelling and closes the opening of small umbilical
hernias of foals and calves. It is also valuable in closing and sealing
punctured wounds into joints and synovial cavities. The tincture of
cantharides can be applied once or twice daily, full strength, when the
exudation of much serum is desired. Cantharides is seldom used
internally except in incontinuence of urine from debility or partial
paralysis of the bladder. Seldom used to increase sexual desire. The
tincture of cantharides should be employed when the drug is administered
internally.



CAPSICUM--RED PEPPER--CAYENNE PEPPER


The dried ripe fruit of Capsicum fastigiatum Blume deprived of its
calyx.

HABITAT.--Tropical America; cultivated also in other tropical countries.

PROPERTIES.--Capsicum when ground has a hot, pungent, spicy taste.

CONSTITUENTS.--Capsicum contains capsaicin, a crystallizable, acrid
body; capsicin, a volatile alkaloid; a fixed oil; fatty matter; resin.

DOSE.--Horses, 20 gr. to 1 dr.; cattle, 1 to 2 dr., sheep and pigs, 5 to
10 gr.; dogs, 1 to 5 gr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM CAPSICI--FLUID EXTRACT OF CAPSICUM

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol, and evaporated, so that
1 cc. equals 1 gm. of the crude drug.

DOSE.--Horses, 10 m. to 1 dr.; cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to
10 m.; dogs, 1 to 5 m.


TINCTURA CAPSICI--TINCTURE OF CAPSICUM

Made by percolation of capsicum, 100, with alcohol and water to make
1,000.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 to 4 dr.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 20 m.
to 1 dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 m.


OLEORESINA CAPSICI--OLEORESIN OF CAPSICUM

Made by percolation with acetone, distillation and evaporation of the
residue.

DOSE.--Horses, 10 to 30 m.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 5
m.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 m.

ACTION AND USES.--Capsicum and its preparations are irritants,
stimulating stomachics, carminatives and rubefacients. Large doses,
especially in carnivora and omnivora, are irritant poisons, inflaming
the alimentary and sometimes also the urino-genital mucous membranes.
Properly regulated doses are indicated in atonic indigestion and
flatulent colic in horses combined with ammonium carbonate. It may be
advantageously combined with bitters, as nux vomica. Capsicum is a
favorite stimulant and tonic remedy--to the digestion--with poultry
fanciers. It also increases the laying of eggs when given to hens.
Externally capsicum is rubefacient and counter-irritant, producing
about the same degree of irritation as mustard, but causing considerable
pain. It ought not be used for blistering ointments or for setons.



CHLOROFORMUM--CHLOROFORM


A liquid consisting of 99 to 99.4 per cent, by weight, of absolute
chloroform, and 0.6 to 1 per cent alcohol.

DERIVATION.--Alcohol and water are heated in a still to 37.70° C. (100°
F.), when chlorinated lime is added and chloroform is evolved.

PROPERTIES.--Chloroform is a heavy, clear, colorless, mobile and
diffusible liquid, of a characteristic ethereal odor, and a burning
sweet taste. Specific gravity not below 1.476 at 25° C. (77° F.).
Soluble in 200 times its volume of cold water, and in all proportions in
alcohol, ether, benzol, benzine and the fixed and volatile oils.
Chloroform is not inflammable. Chloroform should be kept in dark amber
colored well stoppered bottles in a cool and dark place.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 20 to 40 m.; dogs,
2 to 8 m. Should be well diluted with glycerine, syrup, eggs or diluted
alcohol; the above dose can be repeated every two or three hours.


PREPARATIONS


AQUA CHLOROFORMI--CHLOROFORM WATER

A saturated solution of chloroform and distilled water, it should
contain one-half per cent of chloroform. Chloroform water has been
proven to be an excellent vehicle for administering active remedies,
and, owing to its antiseptic properties, mixtures having it for a basis
resist decomposition longer than those made with ordinary water. Used
extensively as a vehicle in cough and diarrhoea mixtures.


LINIMENTUM CHLOROFORMI--CHLOROFORM LINIMENT

Made from chloroform, 300 parts, soap liniment 700 parts.


SPIRITUS CHLOROFORMI

Made from chloroform 60 parts, alcohol, 940 parts.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
20 to 40 m.


CHLOROFORM EMULSUM--EMULSION OF CHLOROFORM

Made from chloroform, expressed oil of almond, tragacanth and water.
Should contain four per cent of chloroform. A good agent and vehicle for
diarrhoea and vermifuge mixtures for small animals.

DOSE.--Dogs, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; cats, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTIONS.--Chloroform is a topical irritant, antiseptic, parasiticide,
carminative, antispasmodic and analgesic. Full doses quickly and
powerfully paralyze the cerebro-spinal nervous system; chloroform kills
by paralyzing the heart and respiration; the latter effects are most
rapidly produced when the drug is inhaled. Chloroform is the general
anaesthetic most used for veterinary purposes except for dogs.

Externally it is rubefacient if confined or even suppurant. It also acts
as a refrigerant, anodyne and local anaesthetic if not confined. It
penetrates the skin very readily and on this account is commonly used in
liniments to aid in the absorption of other medicines.

Chloroform compared to ether is much more irritating to the mucous
membrane, and causes violent gastro-enteritis, if swallowed undiluted;
it is less stimulating and more depressing to the heart and circulation.
For inhalation it requires much more air; is less irritant to the air
passages than ether; is uninflammable, more pleasant, more prompt in
action, has a shorter stage of excitement, causes a more profound
narcosis, and is not so nauseating as ether and is cheaper. Statistics
show it to be five times more fatal than ether.

The results of various experiments show that chloroform and ether both
act in the same manner upon the heart and respiration, paralyzing the
latter first; but chloroform acts much more quickly and powerfully than
ether in both directions. But when chloroform is inhaled in a
concentrated form it generally paralyzes the heart first.

USES.--Chloroform should be used as an aid in painful and prolonged
cases of parturition, especially where you have tumultuous contraction
of the uterus, or rigid contraction of the os. Use just enough by
inhalation to dull the pain and relax the parts; it will aid you in your
efforts to rectify abnormal presentations by relaxing the parts.

Internally it is used in spasmodic and flatulent colic as it is an
antispasmodic carminative and anodyne in its effects; chloroform
combined with belladonna and opium is very beneficial in spasmodic
coughs, given in linseed gruel or water, well diluted; in liniments
about one or two ounces to the pint. Chloroform is used in chronic
diarrhoea with other medicines, such as morphine, capsicum, camphor, oil
of peppermint and ether. It is also a good taeniacide.



ANESTHESIA


Anesthesia is divided into three stages; the stimulant, anaesthetic and
paralytic.

_In the first stage_ there is struggling and excitement, due partly to
the action of the drug and partly to fright. The local irritant action
of the vapor causes choking and coughing, which also induces struggling.

The respiratory and cardiac centers are temporarily stimulated, as a
consequence of which the pulse and respiratory movements are increased
in force and frequency and blood tension is raised.

The smaller animals, particularly the dog, may vomit during the first
stage of anaesthesia. In the first stage the dog may bark, whine or
howl, the horse neighs and groans; other animals give expression to
sounds more or less characteristic to their species.

_The second or anesthetic stage_ is characterized by loss of
consciousness, sensation, motion and partial loss of reflex action and
is that state suitable for operations. The stimulating action of the
anesthetic has passed and there is now depression of the cerebral
functions, the motor centers. The voluntary muscles are completely
relaxed, the sphincters occasionally, the patient lies absolutely
motionless, the cornea fails to respond to irritation, i. e., winking is
not produced when the cornea is lightly touched with the finger.
Sometimes the muscles are rigid and twitching during this stage of
anesthesia, though sensation and consciousness are absent. In the
anesthesia stage the pulse is slow, full and strong, due to lowered
blood pressure, the breathing is slow and shallow but regular.

_The third or paralytic stage_, which must be carefully watched against,
poisoning is beginning and there is depression of the three great
medullary centers controlling the heart, respiration and vascular
tension and also the posterior reflex centers of the spinal cord, so
that the urine and faeces are passed involuntarily. The passage of urine
frequently occurs in the first stages of anesthesia and should not of
itself be considered a danger mark. When the pulse becomes rapid, feeble
and irregular, the breathing is at first stertorous and then the
respiratory movements become shallow and weak, with long intervals
intervening between them; this irregularity is a most important danger
sign. The skin and mucous membrane often become cold and clammy. The
pupils are usually widely dilated, though death may occur with either
dilated or contracted pupils and consequently no dependence should be
put in this sign unless there has been a sudden change from one
condition of the pupils to the other. The three above mentioned stages
are conventional, and are not in any case so clearly defined in practice
as they are described theoretically upon paper. The first stage may be
either absent or prolonged, and the last stage should not be reached at
all.


COMPARISON OF ETHER WITH CHLOROFORM

          Ether.                          Chloroform.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | More diffusible.              | Less diffusible; vapor
  |                               | heavier.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Inflammable and explosive.    | Not inflammable, but vapor
  |                               | decomposes when exposed to a
  |                               | light and causes irritation
  |                               | and some times death.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Stimulant to heart, except    | Depresses  powerfully the
  | in enormous quantities.       | heart respiratory and
  |                               | vaso-motor centers in large
  |                               | doses.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Irritating (due to exclusion  | Less irritating (on account
  | of air), may induce           | of more air being required
  | bronchitis and nephritis.     | for dilution.)
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Respiratory centers not       | Three to five times more
  | so easily or suddenly         | dangerous (deaths) than
  | depressed as by chloroform.   | ether.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Larger quantities required.   | Smaller quantities required.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Less rapid.                   | Acts quickly.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | More expensive.               | Cheaper.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------
  | Kills by respiratory failure. | Death from respiratory
  |                               | failure, combined with
  |                               | cardiac depression.
  +-------------------------------+-----------------------------

Consequently you can see considering both drugs to be properly
administered, all the advantages are in favor of chloroform except
safety.

Ether is to be preferred for dogs, cats and other small animals.

Chloroform is especially dangerous for dogs, though horses stand it
exceptionally well and it is preferable to ether in large animals. The
safety with which chloroform may be administered to large animals
frequently makes veterinarians careless; that is, they “force” the drug;
they do not allow sufficient air for dilution, and though the patients
may not die from the immediate effects of the drug their existence may
be terminated in a few days from pneumonia or broncho-pneumonia
(mechanical), due to the irritating effects of the drug.

ANAESTHESIA.--It is best to cast the large animals; after complete
anaesthesia remove the hobbles.

For dogs make a cone of a towel and paper, put a sponge in the bottom,
allowing a small opening in the end to admit air; pour in ether a little
at a time.

In brain diseases or tumors of the brain, chloroform is dangerous.
Horses with heaves or emphysema should not take chloroform; it is also
dangerous in fatty degeneration of the heart. Operations during
incomplete anaesthesia, especially with chloroform, are dangerous;
always produce complete anaesthesia, have the stomach empty, but don’t
fast animals for more than two or three meals.

_Things to remember when administering an anaesthetic:_

The operator must be skilled and give his attention exclusively to the
production of anaesthesia, watching the respiration and pulse for signs
of failure.

Do not commence operation until anaesthesia is profound, until reflex
action is abolished, which can be told by touching the eye with the
finger; obey this, no matter how slight the operation. The utmost care
should be exercised if the patient is very old or has fatty degeneration
of the heart, or lung diseases.

Great care should be exercised in operations about the mouth or trachea.
See that no blood passes down the trachea. The stomach and bowels should
be empty. This will cause less nausea and feed may be regurgitated and
run down the trachea.

When purchasing chloroform or ether for anaesthetic purposes insist on
the best; it must be pure.

Ether can be used almost pure, only a little air being necessarily
allowed for dilution; chloroform must have a large amount of air.

In all classes of patients the head should be slightly raised, and watch
the tongue so that it does not fall back over the larynx and suffocate
the animal.

Anaesthesia should be started very slowly; don’t force either chloroform
or ether.

It is a good practice to have restoratives ready for use before
commencing anaesthesia, as aqua ammonia fort., a hypodermic syringe and
nitro-glycerin.



CINCHONA


ORIGIN.--Cinchona is obtained from the bark of a tree (Cinchona
Calisaya), which grows in South America, East Indies and Jamaica. It
contains at least five per cent of its peculiar alkaloids, of which not
less than one-half should be quinine sulphate, which is the most
important.

ACTIONS.--Cinchona is an astringent. Other than that cinchona and its
alkaloids possess the same actions, that being, bitter tonic, stimulant,
antiseptic, antiperiodic, antipyretic, antiphlogistic, antimiasmatic,
stomachic and antiferment. Large doses are general depressants.

USES.--Cinchona and its alkaloids are recommended for all classes of
patients as bitter stomachic and tonics. They stimulate the appetite,
check abnormal gastro-intestinal fermentation and counteract relaxed
conditions of the intestines and the accumulations of mucus, which prove
favorable to the development of worms.

In troublesome cases of atonic indigestion in horses respond rapidly
when quinine sulphate is frequently given in thirty to forty grain doses
with half a drachm of dilute nitric or hydrochloric acid. Weak foals and
calves suffering from relaxed condition of the bowels, following a dose
of castor oil are often much benefited by a few doses of cinchona bark,
hydrochloric acid dilute and brandy.

Few medicines are so effectual as cinchona bark or quinine sulphate in
improving appetite and muscular strength and hastening convalescence
from debilitating disease.

They are advantageous in anaemia joined with iron salts.

Good results are obtained from cinchona or quinine in the earlier stages
of tuberculosis, in septicaemia and pyaemia in all animals; in
influenza, protracted cases of strangles, purpura and other similar
diseases of the horse; in septic metritis in cows and ewes and in
lingering cases of distemper in dogs. Their beneficial effects in these
and other diseases probably depending on the action of quinine on
micro-organisms or their products. It is often useful in rheumatism
conjoined with salicylic acid or potassium iodide. Administered with
cathartics, like other bitter tonics, it generally increases their
activity. Alternated with cod liver or olive oil and iron, quinine is
the best tonic for weak dogs and those suffering from chorea.

Quinine and urea hydrochloride has recently come into use as local
anaesthetic. One per cent solutions make a satisfactory substitute for
cocaine, etc. It also has advantages over cocaine. It is non-toxic, it
may be exposed to a boiling temperature and its anaesthetic effect for
dogs after an operation, therefore aiding in dressing of wounds. Its
anaesthetic effect comes on within five minutes to half an hour after
being injected into the intended seat of operation.

Speaking from practical experience, I prefer quinine and urea
hydrochloride to cocaine or any of its allies.

DOSE.--Of the powdered cinchona bark: Horses, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; cattle, 1
to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 4 dr.; dogs, 10 gr. to 1 dr.


ALKALOIDAL SALTS OF CINCHONA--QUININAE SULPHAS--SULPHATE OF QUININE

DOSE.--As a tonic: Horses, 15 gr. to 1 dr.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ dr.;
sheep and pigs, 5 to 10 gr.; dogs and cats, 1 to 2 gr. As antipyretic
Dose: Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 15 gr to 1 dr.;
dogs and cats, 5 to 10 gr.


QUININAE ET UREAE HYDROCHLORIDUM--QUININE AND UREA HYDROCHLORIDE
(NON-OFFICIAL)

Soluble in 18 parts of water. Use hypodermically as a local anesthetic.



COCAINAE HYDROCHLORIDUM--COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE


“The dried leaves of Erythroxylon Coca Lamarck (Fam. Erythroxylaceae),
known commercially as Huanuco Coca, or of E. Truxillense Rusby, known
commercially as Truxillo Coca, yielding when assayed not less than 0.5
per cent of the ether-soluble alkaloids of coca.” U. S. “The dried
leaves of Erythroxylum Coca, Lam., and its varieties.”

HABITAT.--Cultivated in Peru and Bolivia and introduced into medicine by
Koller in 1884.

DERIVATION.--Cocaine hydrochloride is recovered by agitating an
acidulated alcoholic solution of coca leaves with ether. The etheral
liquid is made alkaline with sodium carbonate and evaporated. The
residue is purified, deodorized, neutralized with hydrochloric acid and
finally crystallized.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless, transparent, monoclinic prism, flaky, lustrous
leaflets or a white crystalline powder; permanent in air, containing no
water of crystallization; odorless; of a saline, slightly bitter taste,
and producing on the tongue a tingling sensation followed by numbness of
several minutes’ duration. Soluble in 0.4 part of water, 2.6 parts of
alcohol and in 18.5 parts of chloroform at 25° C. (77° F.); soluble in
benzine, petroleum benzine and ether. It leaves no residue on
incineration. Its aqueous solution is neutral to litmus paper.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 5 to 20 gr.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 3 gr.; dogs,
¹⁄₈ to 1 gr. Not much used internally.

ACTION.--Cocaine in small doses is a cerebral, cardiac, respiratory and
nervous stimulant and dieuretic; overdoses cause delirium with cardiac
and respiratory failure. Cocaine is a powerful local anaesthetic; used
for all animals in 4 to 10 per cent solution, usually a 4 to 6 per cent
solution is strong enough for ordinary operations. Inject under the
skin, into the muscular tissue or over nerve trunks for minor
operations. Applied to such structures as the eye, penis, tongue and
other delicate mucous surfaces as the uterus, vagina, rectum, etc. It
causes profound but temporary anaesthesia over a small area; it causes
rapid and extreme dilation of the pupil.

Cocaine is injected for minor operations to prevent pain, such as
neurectomy, removing tumors, operations on the eyes, tongue, fistulae,
firing, etc. For dogs it should be used with great caution, a two per
cent solution usually being enough and as little as possible being used.

For the horse, as a rule, not more than two drachms of a five per cent
solution should be injected subcutaneously, lest restlessness,
excitement, etc., ensue, which though not necessarily dangerous, may
interfere with the operation.

In using cocaine as a diagnostic agent for lameness, the fact must not
be lost sight of that it is a cerebral stimulant and that if a large
quantity is injected it may cause such a degree of excitement as to make
the patient forget his lameness, thus leading the operator to believe
that the improvement is due to anaesthesia below the point of injection,
when the apparent remission from the lameness is of physical origin.
Cocaine is advantageously used in painful eye affections. Its effects
may be prolonged and the danger of its use lessened by dissolving the
cocaine in a 1 to 1000 adrenalin chloride solution.



CRETA PRAEPARATA--PREPARED CHALK


DERIVATION.--Native calcium carbonate, freed from most of its impurities
by elutriation.

PROPERTIES.--A white, amorphous powder, often molded into conical drops;
odorless and tasteless; permanent in the air. Almost insoluble in water;
insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 2 oz.; cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4
dr.; dogs, 10 gr. to 1 dr.


PREPARATIONS


PULVIS CRETAE COMPOSITUS--COMPOUND CHALK POWDER

Composed of chalk, 30 parts; acacia, 20 parts; sugar, 50 parts.

DOSE.--Dogs, 10 gr. to 1 dr.; cats, 1 to 5 gr.


MISTURA CRETAE--CHALK MIXTURE

Composed of compound chalk powder, 20 parts; cinnamon water, 40 parts;
water to make 100.

DOSE.--Dogs, 1 to 2 oz.; cats, 1 to 2 dr.

ACTIONS.--Internally, chalk is the slowest acting antacid, because of
its comparative insolubility and is of value when it can exert its
long-continued influence throughout the digestive tract. It resembles
bismuth in mechanically coating or protecting inflamed or irritable
surfaces. It is not so astringent nor antiseptic as the bismuth salts,
and these are generally preferable to chalk for the smaller animals. It
is excreted unchanged in the feces. Externally it is a dessicant and
slightly astringent powder, also protective.

USES.--Chalk forms a dusting powder for moist eczema, slight burns and
intertrigo; zinc oxide and starch (one to four) is, however, a better
preparation. Chalk is the most useful antacid for diarrhoea accompanied
by fermentation of the intestinal contents, while its local astringent
and protecting influence assists in overcoming the trouble. It is
especially good for foals and calves given in flour gruel and often
conjoined with catechu, ginger and opium.

Chalk may be given to dogs in pills or powder; to other animals in
powder, capsules or electuary. Chalk is frequently prescribed suspended
in flour, gruel, milk or mucilage to the larger animals. The chalk
preparations are suitable for dogs and cats.



CUPRI SULPHAS--COPPER SULPHATE--BLUE VITRIOL--BLUE STONE


DERIVATION.--Boil metallic copper and sulphuric acid together. Dissolve
product in hot water and crystallize.

PROPERTIES.--Large, transparent, deep blue, triclinic crystals;
odorless, of a nauseous, metallic taste; slowly efflorescent in dry air;
soluble in water; almost insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 20 to 40 gr.;
dogs, 1 to 2 gr.

As a tonic and astringent, repeat two or three times daily; given either
in capsule or in some mucilagenous solution, or in powder form, with
some inert substance; when given as a tonic should be given at time of
feeding, or right after eating.

ACTIONS.--Gastro-intestinal irritant, astringent, tonic, emetic in large
doses; acts directly on the stomach; antiseptic and vermifuge.

USES.--Internally used as emetic, antidote for phosphorus, atony of the
bowels, diarrhoea, especially combined with dilute sulphuric acid opium;
is supposed to prevent the development of farcy and glanders in exposed
animals. Used externally as a caustic and stimulant; styptic, also used
for foot-rot; for granular eyelids, touch lightly over the granular
surface with the sulphate of copper.



DIGITALIS--FOXGLOVE


The dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea Linne (Fam. Scrophulariaceae),
collected from plants of the second year’s growth, at the commencement
of flowering.

HABITAT.--Foxglove grows wild in the temperate parts of Europe, where it
flowers in the middle of summer. In this country it is cultivated for
ornamental and for medical use.

PROPERTIES.--Foxglove is without odor in the recent state, but acquires
a faint narcotic odor when dried. The color of the dried leaf is a dull
pale green, modified by the whitish down upon the under surface; that of
the powder is a fine deep green.

CONSTITUENTS.--Digitalein, Digitonin, Digitalin and Digitoxin, the
latter is most poisonous and active. Said to be cumulative.

DOSE.--Digitalis leaves, horses, 15 gr. to 1 dr.; cattle, 30 gr to 1¹⁄₂
dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 15 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 gr.

ACTIVE PRINCIPLES.--Digitoxin--It occurs in crystals, soluble in alcohol
and chloroform, slightly in ether, and insoluble in water; said to be
cumulative.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₄ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂₅₀ to ¹⁄₅₀ gr.

Digitalein, an amorphous, bitter substance, soluble in water and alcohol
and non-cumulative.

DOSE.--Same as digitoxin.

Digitalin, a very bitter, crystalline substance, soluble in alcohol, and
slightly soluble in water and ether.

DOSE.--Same as for digitoxin.

Digitonin, resembling or identical with saponin of senega. White,
amorphous powder, soluble in water. It is a heart depressant, muscular
paralyzant and powerful irritant, besides being antagonistic to
digitalis. In addition to these principles there are: Digitin, an
inactive substance. Digitalic and antirrhinic acids. Tannin coloring
matter, starch, sugar, gum, a volatile oil, salts, etc., common to most
vegetables.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM DIGITALIS--EXTRACT OF DIGITALIS

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water; distillation
of alcohol and evaporation to pilular substance.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 5 to 10 gr.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 gr.;
dogs, ¹⁄₈ to 1 gr.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM DIGITALIS--FLUID EXTRACT OF DIGITALIS

Prepared by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water, and
evaporating so that 1 c. c. equals 1 gm. of the crude drug.

DOSE.--Horses, 10 m. to 1 dr.; cattle, 30 m. to 1¹⁄₂ dr.; sheep and
pigs, 5 to 15 m.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 m.


TINCTURA DIGITALIS--TINCTURE OF DIGITALIS

Composed of powdered digitalis 100 parts with sufficient alcohol and
water to make 1000 parts. By maceration and percolation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 m.


INFUSUM DIGITALIS--INFUSION OF DIGITALIS

Composed of digitalis 15 parts, alcohol 100 parts, cinnamon water 150
parts, boiling water 500 parts, cold water to make 1000 parts. By
maceration.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.;
dogs, 1 to 4 dr.

There are several substitutes for digitalis found in commerce.

ACTIONS.--A cardiac and vascular tonic and stimulant, a motor excitant,
paralyzant, anaphrodisiac, it is an indirect diuretic and an emetic,
irritates the mucous membrane.

The heart is slowed but the force is increased; digitalis stimulates the
cardiac motor ganglia, the inhibitory apparatus and the vaso-motor
centers, contracting the arterioles and thereby greatly raising the
arterial tension; large doses exhaust and paralyze the heart.

Its diuretic action is very complex, one of the active principles,
digitalin, increases the arterial pressure by contracting the blood
vessels of the body, while the large renal arteries are dilated by two
of its active principles, digitoxin and digitalein. On this account
digitalis is an ideal diuretic.

USES.--It is used as a cardiac stimulant in full doses, followed by
small ones; used in heart and cardiac debility from any cause,
irregularity of the heart due to debility; used in dropsical conditions,
combined with acetate or nitrate of potash; it is useful in congestion
of organs, useful in the first stages of pneumonia and scarlatina; as a
diuretic over the region of the kidneys this can be used two or three
times daily; when internal remedies fail to increase the action of the
kidneys this is very effectual. Useful in palpitation of the heart due
to overexertion. Digitalis is occasionally employed with good results as
a poultice of the leaves, applied over the loins to promote diuresis, or
in local inflammation, to contract blood vessels.



FERRUM REDUCTUM--REDUCED IRON


DERIVATION.--Hydrogen gas is passed over freshly made and carefully
washed ferric oxide in a hot and closed tube.

PROPERTIES.--A very fine grayish-black, lustreless powder, without odor
or taste; permanent in dry air; insoluble in water or alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 2 dr.; cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 20 to 30
gr.; dogs, 1 to 5 gr.



FERRI SULPHAS--FERROUS SULPHATE--COPPERAS--GREEN VITRIOL


DERIVATION.--Iron wire is dissolved by boiling in dilute sulphuric acid.

PROPERTIES.--Large, pale bluish-green, monoclinic prisms, without odor
and having a saline styptic taste; efflorescent in dry air. On exposure
to moist air the crystals rapidly absorb oxygen and become coated with
brownish-yellow, basic ferric sulphate; soluble in water, insoluble in
alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as reduced iron.


FERRI SULPHAS EXSICCATUS--DRIED FERROUS SULPHATE

DERIVATION.--Allow ferrous sulphate, 100 parts, to effloresce at a
temperature of 104° F., then heat on a water bath until the product
weighs 65.

PROPERTIES.--A greyish-white powder, slowly but completely soluble in
water, without odor, and having a saline styptic taste.

DOSE.--Same as reduced iron.



FERRI CARBONAS SACCHARATUS--SACCHARATED FERROUS CARBONATE


DERIVATION.--Ferrous sulphate, 50; sodium bicarbonate, 35; sugar and
distilled water. Made by solution, precipitation and washing.

PROPERTIES.--Greenish-brown powder, without odor; sweetish taste;
becomes oxidized on exposure to the air.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 to 4 dr.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to
1 dr.; dogs, 2 to 10 gr.



SYRUPUS FERRI IODIDI--SYRUP OF FERROUS IODIDE


Contains five per cent, by weight, of ferrous iodide.

PROPERTIES.--Transparent, pale green liquid; sweet, ferruginous taste.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 m. Given when you want the combined action of iron
and iodine.

ACTION.--Tonic, alterative, diuretic and emmenagogue.



FERRI CHLORIDUM--FERRIC CHLORIDE


Ferric chloride should contain not less than 22 per cent of metallic
iron in the form of chloride.

PROPERTIES.--It is in orange-yellow, crystalline pieces, odorless or
having a faint odor of hydrochloric acid and a strong styptic taste;
deliquescent; soluble in water and alcohol; not used internally.

Used almost exclusively in the form of tincture or liquor, and in
reference to its effect and application I refer you to Tincture Ferri
Chloridi and Liquor Ferri Chloridi.


LIQUOR FERRI CHLORIDE--SOLUTION OF FERRI CHLORIDE

DERIVATION.--Dissolve iron wire, 125, in hydrochloric acid, 680, nitric
acid and water to make 1000.

PROPERTIES.--A reddish-brown liquid, having a faint odor of hydrochloric
acid, an acid, strongly styptic taste.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 20 m.; dogs,
2 to 10 m. All liquid preparations of iron should be well diluted with
water or oil.


TINCTURA FERRI CHLORIDI--TINCTURE OF FERRIC CHLORIDE

Composed of ferric chloride, 350 parts; alcohol to make 1000.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 20 to 30 m.; dogs,
5 to 30 m.



LIQUOR FERRI SUBSULPHATIS--SOLUTION OF FERRIC SUBSULPHATE--MONSEL’S
SOLUTION


A solution of sulphate of iron, sulphuric and nitric acids.

PROPERTIES.--A dark reddish-brown liquid, odorless or nearly so; of an
acid, strongly styptic taste; miscible in water and alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 20 m.; dogs,
2 to 10 m. This is used almost entirely for external use as an
astringent and styptic.

There are 36 official preparations of iron and a number of unofficial
preparations, quite a few of which are impracticable for use in
veterinary medicine, consequently we have considered only those which
are practicable for use. Some are more irritating than others and some
have special actions due to other drugs combined with the iron.



GENERAL ACTION OF IRON AND ITS SALTS


Iron is not a foreign substance to the organism. It is constantly
present in the blood, gastric juice, lymph, bile, pigment of the eye and
traces of it in the milk and urine. In man there is 1 part of iron to
230 red blood corpuscles, and in cattle 1 to 194 red globules. That it
performs a very important part is shown in the rapid construction of red
globules when iron is administered in anaemia. Without it haematin is
not formed and red globules diminish in number. By its medicinal use we
furnish to the blood a material which it needs. The action of iron is
not limited merely to the construction of red blood. It also promotes
the appetite and invigorates the digestion when there is no intolerance
to its presence in the stomach. By increasing the disposition for food
and the ability to dispose of it, iron acts as a stomachic, consequently
when given in the healthy state or when administered for too long a
period during disease the gastric glands become exhausted by
over-stimulation; then it is said that iron disagrees. Being a
restorative its use is contra-indicated in a condition of plethora
(fullness of the blood vessels). In large doses the soluble preparations
of iron give rise to nausea and vomiting, some of them possessing more
or less toxic activity. The iodide chloride and sulphate are the most
active. Large doses will produce gangrene of the stomach and intestines.
Certain salts of iron, as the sulphates, nitrates and chlorides, possess
a high degree of astringency, hence they produce constipation when taken
internally. When brought into contact with blood they coagulate it,
forming a tough brownish magma, and as the albuminous elements of the
tissues are also solidified they are powerful haemostatics. Iron is
eliminated chiefly by the intestinal route, partly by the liver into the
bile, thence into the intestines, some by the kidneys also. The tincture
of the chloride being especially diuretic.

Iron is a haematinic, stomachic, styptic, astringent or haemostatic. The
tincture chloride in addition is diuretic. The sulphate is in addition
vermicide. The iodide is alterative and resolvent as well as tonic. A
medicine used in combination with iron may modify or enhance its action.
Externally iron salts contract tissue by coagulating albumen when
applied to raw surfaces or mucous membranes, and through this means by
compressing the blood vessels from without and plugging them from within
with clotted blood, arrest hemorrhage. The astringent salts may also
induce some contraction of the vessels besides. Iron in the form of
liquor ferri chloridi or liquor ferri subsulphatis is the most powerful
of the metallic hemostatic agents we possess.

USES INTERNALLY.--The saccharated carbonate is staple, non-irritating to
the stomach, and especially suited to dogs. It has the same uses as the
sulphate. It is also used for the other animals when the stomach is
weak.

Sulphate of iron is used locally as an astringent and internally as a
haematinic and tonic in anaemia. It improves the appetite and abates
exhausting discharges, as in nasal gleet and leucorrhoea. In atonic
torpidity of bowels it is prescribed with aloes; also in the same way
for intestinal worms. Conjoined with iodine it is the best prescription
for diabetes insipidus. It is also prescribed with good results in the
first stages of liver rot in sheep. Chorea and epilepsy when with
anaemia are benefited by iron. Combined iron and arsenic for chorea.
Septicaemia, pyaemia and all forms of blood poisoning, as purpura,
haemorrhagica, scarlatina, etc., with quinine. The tincture chloride is
prescribed in blood poisoning. In red water of cattle, after bowels are
freely opened. In convalescence from debilitating diseases it is a
valuable tonic combined with other medicines as nux vomica, quinine,
etc. Such diseases as influenza, chest diseases and chronic catarrh
should be followed with iron and other tonics.

Iodide of iron is used when an alterative as well as a tonic action is
desired. It is given to promote the absorption of glandular enlargements
in young and weakly animals, and in swelling of the joints. It is useful
in polyuria or diabetes insipidus, also nasal gleet.

Tincture chloride of iron acts as a haematinic, tonic, antiseptic,
astringent, styptic, diuretic and local irritant or caustic. It is
serviceable in most cases in which the sulphate is recommended. It is
used in atonic dyspepsia and for the removal of intestinal worms, in
relaxed and sore throat.

Tincture Chloride of iron is also used in anaemia combined with arsenic
or quinine, and in blood poisoning combined with quinine. It also
promotes absorption of inflammatory material when associated with
debility and anaemia. It is the most serviceable preparation of iron for
influenza, purpura and scarlatina, as it has a tonic effect on both the
blood and arterioles. In these cases it is prescribed with turpentine,
quinine and oil. It is used in rheumatism in weakly patients alternated
with salol, salicylic acid or salicylate of soda. Also used as an
astringent and stimulant for the genito-urinary mucous membrane. The
tincture being excreted by the kidneys, is preferred to watery solution.
It is particularly suited for distemper and rheumatic lameness in weakly
dogs.

USES.--Externally: Liquor ferri chloridi and liquor ferri subsulphatis
are sometimes used to stop bleeding from wounds or natural cavities of
the body. They may be injected, applied by swab, or on absorbent
material, which is packed into the wound or cavity. As a local
application in pharyngitis, we use one part of the solution of ferric
chloride with four parts of glycerine. In the same strength, diluted
with water, the chloride may be injected into the uterus to stop
hemorrhage. Again, a solution in the strength of two drachms to the pint
of water, is employed as an enema to destroy ascarides. The objection to
these solutions of iron is that they form heavy, nasty, tenacious clots
when employed to arrest hemorrhage, and the clots are apt to decompose
and favor sepsis. Therefore they should not be used if other means, as
ligature, pressure, heat or cold can be utilized. Iron is regarded as a
specific for erysipelas. It is given both internally and externally.

ADMINISTRATION OF IRON.--The fluid preparations should be freely
diluted; the solid preparations should be combined with protectives or
inert remedies, either in powder or capsule form, or with stomachics as
gentian root. Iron causes less gastric irritation and enters the blood
more readily if given with or immediately after meals. In anaemia it
should be given in increased doses. Overcome constipation by giving when
necessary or combining iron with laxatives as linseed oil.



GAMBIR--CATECHU


An extract prepared from the leaves and twigs of Ourouparia Gambir
(Hunter), Ballon (Fam. Rubiaceae). U. S. “An extract of the leaves and
young shoots of the Uncaria Gambir, Roxb.”

HABITAT.--Africa and Southern Asia.

DESCRIPTION.--Irregular masses or cubes; reddish-brown, pale
brownish-gray or light brown; fracture dull-earthy; friable,
crystalline; inodorous, bitterish, very astringent, with a sweetish
after-taste; free from starch. Not less than 70 per cent should be
soluble in alcohol.

CONSTITUENTS.--Catechutannic acid (about 45 per cent) is the active
principle; it is converted into the isomeric inactive catchnic acid, or
catchin, by the saliva and by boiling, a red color being developed.
There is also pyrocatechin or catechol.

INCOMPATIBLES.--Alkalies, metallic salts and gelatine.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 gr.


PREPARATIONS


TINCTURA GAMBIR COMPOSITA--COMPOUND TINCTURE OF GAMBIR

Composed of gambir, 50; cinnamon, 25; alcohol to make 1000.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 2 oz.; cattle, 1 to 3 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to
1 oz.; calves and foals, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; lambs, 10 to 30 m.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to
1 dr. The above doses can be considerably increased and are good in
cases of diarrhoea of small and young animals.

ACTION AND USES.--Gambir is administered to all classes of domestic
animals for the arrest of chronic catarrhal discharges and haemorrhage,
especially from the alimentary canal. The insoluble catechnic acid
beneficially exerts its astringency on the relaxed, over-secreting
surfaces alike of small and large intestines. In chronic diarrhoea and
in dysentery it is combined with aromatics to allay flatulence; with
opium to relieve irritability and spasm; with alkalies, magnesia, or
chalk to counteract acidity.

If there is much mucus in the fecal discharges, showing a catarrhal
state of the intestinal mucous membrane, it is advisable to give oil,
salts or calomel before checking up the bowels with an astringent.



GENTIANA--GENTIAN


Gentian is obtained from the root Gentiana lutae.

HABITAT.--Mountainous parts of Southern and Central Europe.

PROPERTIES.--Odor strong, characteristic; taste slightly sweetish,
strongly and persistently bitter. The powder is free from starch grains
and sclerenchymatic tissues.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 gr.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM GENTIANAE--EXTRACT OF GENTIAN

Made by maceration and percolation with water and evaporated.

DOSE.--Horses, 30 gr. to 1 dr.; cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 20
to 40 gr.; dogs, 1 to 3 gr.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM OF GENTIANAE--FLUIDEXTRACT OF GENTIAN

Made by maceration and percolation with dilute alcohol and evaporated,
so that 1 c. c. equals 1 gm. of the crude drug.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 m.


TINCTURA GENTIANAE COMPOSITA--COMPOUND TINCTURE OF GENTIAN

Composed of gentian, 100 parts; bitter orange peel, 40 parts; cardamon,
10 parts; made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 dr. to 1 oz.;
dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Gentian is a pure bitter, and is prescribed as a
stomachic and tonic for all classes of animals. Gentian improves the
appetite and general tone. In atonic indigestion it is particularly
useful amongst young animals, and in such cases is often conjoined with
ginger and sodium bicarbonate. In relaxed and irritable states of the
bowels and where intestinal worms are suspected, after administration of
a laxative, gentian and dilute hydrochloric acid are of service. For
horses suffering from simple catarrh few combinations are more effectual
than an ounce of powdered gentian, two drachms potassium nitrate with
two ounces of magnesium sulphate, dissolved in a pint of linseed tea,
repeated morning and night. Where more general tonic effects are sought,
iron sulphate is alternated with the gentian and salines. Gentian proves
an excellent stomachic and stimulating tonic in influenza and other
epizootics, helps convalescence from exhausting disorders and is a
useful restorative for horses, overworked or suffering from loss of
appetite or slight cold. The powdered gentian should be added to aloes
when given in full cathartic doses to horses.



HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSIVUM--CORROSIVE MERCURIC CHLORIDE--BICHLORIDE
OF MERCURY--CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE


ORIGIN.--Bichloride of mercury is obtained as a sulphate by heating a
mixture of mercuric sulphate, sodium chloride and a little black oxide
of manganese.

PROPERTIES.--Heavy, colorless masses; soluble one in sixteen of water,
one in three of alcohol; hydrochloric acid or muriate of ammonia
increases its solubility.

ACTIONS.--It is a corrosive, irritant poison; it is occasionally
prescribed as an alterative, antiseptic and hepatic stimulant; repeated
doses or long continued produce mercurialism. Externally, it is used as
an antiseptic, astringent, caustic and parasiticide. It is a most
powerful antiseptic when five parts of tartaric acid are added to one
part of bichloride of mercury, which prevents the formation of insoluble
albuminates of mercury in the tissues which checks any further action of
the drug. Hydrochloric acid equal parts serves the same purpose.

USES.--For internal use milder preparations of mercury are preferred,
and it is dangerous to use it for the production of mercurialism. For
horses it has been prescribed in tetanus, chronic skin eruptions and
swollen oedematous legs following repeated attacks of lymphangitis. Its
chief use is that of an antiseptic externally for many surgical
purposes, usually in the strength of one to five hundred, one to one
thousand; for uterine injections, one to five thousand or one in ten
thousand. Seven and a half grains to a pint of water makes a one to one
thousand solution. Seven and a half grains to a quart of water makes a
one to two thousand solution. Fifteen grains to a pint of water makes a
one to five hundred solution. Instruments, sponges, towels as well as
the hands are disinfected by washing in a one thousandth solution. But
it is injurious to most metal instruments and irritates and roughens the
operator’s hands. Best antiseptic for foul wounds, thrush, poll-evil,
quittor and fistulous withers and nail punctures of the feet, a one in
five hundred to one in one thousand solution to destroy the cryptogamic
growths of ringworm, to kill lice and allay the itching of puritis and
urticaria. Bichloride of mercury one part in one or two thousand parts
of water is injected into the uterus in metritis, and in cases of
abortion with good results. Contagious abortion is satisfactorily
prevented by washing the aborted animal’s tail and external genital
organs twice daily. All pregnant cows should be treated in the same
manner. Warm solutions are much more active than cold.

A one in three to five thousand solutions are used in purulent
conjunctivitis or wounds of the eye and lids, by frequently saturating
absorbent cotton in the solution and holding over the eye by means of a
clean cloth or bandage.

DOSES.--Horse, 1 to 5 gr.; cattle, 2 to 8 gr.; sheep, ¹⁄₂ to 1 gr.; pigs
¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₂ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₆₀ to ¹⁄₁₀ gr. Not often given internally. It is
the best of all the preparations of mercury for hypodermic use in
syphilitic diseases.

ANTIDOTES.--The white of eggs, stomach pump for horses and emesis for
dogs; wheat flower, milk, etc.


HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE--MILD MERCUROUS CHLORIDE--CALOMEL

ORIGIN.--Calomel is obtained by heating a mixture of mercurous sulphate
and sodium chlorid. Calomel is found native in Spain and Carniola, but
in too small quantities for commercial value.

PROPERTIES.--Calomel is a dull-white heavy powder. It is inodorous,
insoluble in water, alcohol or ether.

ACTIONS.--Calomel is a cathartic, laxative, alterative, diuretic and
vermifuge. Small doses are laxatives when repeated, large doses are
cathartics, full doses irritate the stomach and produce emesis in man
and dog. By stimulating the urea functions of the liver diuresis are
produced, its action on the liver does not directly increase the
secretion of bile, but removes it from the duodenum which reflexly
increases its secretion. Repeated doses produce mercurial poisoning. It
is an alterative when combined with opium, laxative in small repeated
doses and cathartic in larger doses.

USES.--Calomel is useful in gastric and intestinal catarrh, bilious
diarrhoea, influenza lymphangitis and liver disorders which show
themselves by a yellowness of the visible mucous membranes. It is a
useful adjuvant cathartic conjoined with aloes or other cathartics. As
a laxative or cathartic for horses give aloes and calomel; cattle and
sheep, magnesium and sodium sulphate; for pigs, dogs and cats with
jalap. Pure calomel is a specific for thrush. It is also useful in the
treatment of moist skin and raw sores, mixed in equal parts with bismuth
subnitrate it quickly dries the flesh and prevents itching.

DOSES.--As a laxative vermifuge and alterative horses and cattle take 20
to 40 grs.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 20 grs.; dogs and cats, ¹⁄₁₆ to 1 gr.,
given two or three times a day with equal weight of opium which prevents
griping and a too rapid removal by the bowels. As a cathartic, calomel
is best conjoined with other medicines regulated by that of the medicine
with which it is conjoined. A full cathartic for horses should consist
of calomel 1 to 1¹⁄₂ drs. with aloes 4 to 6 drs.; cattle, 1¹⁄₂ to 2 drs.
with magnesium sulphate or sodium sulphate 1 to 1¹⁄₂ pounds; sheep, 5 to
30 grs. with magnesium sulphate 4 to 8 ounces; pigs, 5 to 30 grs. with
sodium bicarbonate ¹⁄₂ to 1 ounce; dogs and cats ¹⁄₈ to 10 grs. with
jalap 10 to 30 grains.


HYDRARGYRI IODIDUM RUBRUM--RED IODIDE OF MERCURY--BINIODIDE OF MERCURY

ORIGIN.--Red iodide of mercury is obtained by dissolving in water
separately bichloride of mercury and potassium iodide, and pour both
solutions slowly and stirring actively.

PROPERTIES.--A scarlet-red, amorphous powder; odorless and tasteless;
permanent in air, insoluble in water; soluble in one hundred and
twenty-five parts of alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Red iodide of mercury is a stimulant irritant, resolvent
pustulant antiseptic and parasiticide.

USES.--Mixed with one to eight parts of lard it is a blister used to
reduce bony enlargements or bone-tumors as in splints, bone spavin,
ringbone, sidebone and actinomycosis; it is also used with good results
in reducing soft swellings, to arrest chronic inflammation and promote
absorption of inflammatory deposits, as seen in sprained tendons, curbs,
enlarged joints, bursae, etc. It is frequently used as a
counter-irritant in sore throat, chronic cough and roaring. Mixed with
cantharides the strength can be reduced as an irritant and less apt to
permanently destroy the hair bulbs. It is used internally to arrest the
growths of actinomycoses and scirrhous cord, but in those cases the
benefits are derived from the potassium iodide which it contains, and I
would recommend administering internally without the mercury.


HYDRARGYRI OXIDUM FLAVUM--YELLOW MERCURIC OXIDE

ORIGIN.--Yellow mercuric oxide is obtained by the interaction of
mercuric chloride and sodium hydroxide.

PROPERTIES.--Mercuric oxide is of a yellow color, similar to that of the
yolk of egg, and is a completely amorphous powder; odorless, and having
a somewhat metallic taste; permanent in the air, but turning dark on
exposure to light; insoluble in water or alcohol.

ACTIONS.--A stimulant caustic and anesthetic.

USES.--The official ointment of yellow mercuric oxide is prescribed as a
stimulant and anesthetic in chronic inflammation and ulceration of the
eye (4 gr. of yellow mercuric oxide to 1 oz. of vaseline). It is also
employed on skin diseases, indolent ulcers, swollen glands and
granulated wounds.



HYDRASTIS--GOLDEN SEAL


The rhizome and roots of hydrastis canadensis Linne, yielding not less
than 2.5 per cent of hydrastine.

HABITAT.--North America in woods west to Missouri and Arkansas.

PROPERTIES.--Externally brownish-gray to yellow-brown; fracture short,
wood wedges bright yellow, pith large, light yellow, the roots thin,
brittle, with a thick yellow bark and a somewhat quadrangular wood; odor
distinct; taste bitter.

CONSTITUENTS.--Berberine, an alkaloid occurring in yellow crystals;
hydrastine, a colorless crystalline alkaloid, soluble in alcohol and
ether; canadine occurring in white, acicular crystals.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 dr.;
dogs, 5 gr. to 1 dr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM HYDRASTIS--FLUIDEXTRACT OF HYDRASTIS

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol, glycerin and water and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 drs. to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.;
dogs, 5 gr. to 1 dr.


TINCTURA HYDRASTIS--TINCTURE OF HYDRASTIS

Made by maceration and percolation of hydrastis, with diluted alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 drs.; dogs,
¹⁄₂ to 2 drs.


GLYCERITUM HYDRASTIS--GLYCERITE OF HYDRASTIS

Made by maceration and percolation of hydrastis, 1000 parts add water to
the percolate and evaporate. Add water to the residue, set aside 24
hours and filter; add enough water to the filtrate to make 500 parts;
then add glycerin 500.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 drs. to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 drs.;
dogs, 5 m. to 1 dr.


HYDRASTINNAE HYDROCHLORIDUM--HYDRASTINE HYDROCHLORIDE

The hydrochloride of an artificial alkaloid derived from hydrastine.

PROPERTIES.--Light, yellow, amorphous granules, or a pale yellow
crystalline powder; odorless and having a bitter, saline taste;
deliquescent on exposure to damp air. Very soluble in cold and hot water
and in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 6 grs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ grs.;
dogs, ¹⁄₁₂ to ¹⁄₄ gr.

ACTION AND USES.--It acts like the simple bitters, promotes appetite and
aids digestion, increases nutrition and stimulates secretion, especially
of the intestines and liver. It is a stomach tonic, laxative, slightly
diuretic and hepatic stimulant. It is also said to promote uterine
constructions, and has some power as an antispasmodic. Externally it is
an antiseptic and astringent. Useful in conjunctivitis, nasal gleet and
leucorrhoea; one to two drachms of the fluid extract or glycerite to the
ounce of distilled water. One to two drachms of the fluidextract of
hydrastis to one ounce of water is useful as a gargle for sore throat.
Equal parts of fluidextract of ergot and fluidextract of hydrastis is
useful in ulceration of the uterus, vagina and in eversion of the
rectum. Useful internally during convalescence after debilitating
diseases, as in influenza and distemper, or whenever a bitter tonic is
indicated, as in dyspepsia, chronic gastric catarrh, catarrhal jaundice,
constipation from chronic nephritis and chronic cystitis. The glycerite
applied locally for fissure of teats, cracked heels. Where there is a
tendency to constipation it should be used as a bitter in preference to
gentian, etc.



IODUM--IODINE


DERIVATION.--Iodine exists in certain marine vegetables, particularly
the fuci or common sea weeds, which have long been its most abundant
natural source. Iodine is also found in the animal kingdom, as in the
sponge, oysters, cod liver oil and eggs, and in the mineral kingdom, in
sea water in small quantities, in certain salt springs. It is obtained
commercially from one of these sources.

PROPERTIES.--Iodine is heavy, bluish-black color, dry and friable,
rhombic plates, having a metallic luster, a distinctive odor, and a
sharp and acrid taste. Iodine imparts a deep brown, evanescent stain to
the skin, and slowly destroys vegetable colors. Soluble in about 5000
parts of water and in 10 parts of alcohol at 77° F., freely soluble in
ether, chloroform or carbon disulphide; its solution in alcohol or in an
aqueous solution of potassium iodide has a reddish color; its solution
in chloroform or carbon disulphide has a violet color.

ACTIONS.--Iodine internally is an antiseptic, alterative, resolvent and
irritant. Full doses persisted will produce a state of debility and
emaciation termed iodism. Externally it is applied as an antiseptic,
disinfectant, parasiticide, deodorant, stimulant, desquamatic, absorbent
and counter-irritant. Iodine is one of the best antiseptics for surgical
purposes. The tincture iodine especially kills all disease producing
bacteria in one minute, whereas it takes a one in one thousandth
solution of bichloride of mercury more than half an hour to destroy the
same micro-organisms. The tincture of iodine also possesses unusual
penetrating power on the dry skin, finding its way into the hair
follicles and cutaneous glands. Iodine must not be applied to the wetted
skin because the wetting causes the skin cells to swell and thus prevent
the iodine from penetrating into the sebaceous and sudoriparous glands,
the very action upon which the special germicidal action depends.

USES.--Iodine is of most value applied externally, or locally. In
sterilizing the skin for an emergency operation the hair should be
clipped and shaved dry and the tincture of iodine applied without
washing the skin. For other operations the skin may be scrubbed with
soap and shaved and dried before applying the tincture. The tincture
should always dry on the skin before the operation is begun.

The method used in human surgery for sterilizing the skin, and
recommended by leading surgeons, consists in first of cleansing the skin
with gasoline to remove the grease and then applying the tincture of
iodine in full or half strength.

Tincture of iodine applied is of some value in the treatment of
periostitis with osseous deposits, as splints, bone-spavin, ringbone,
sidebones, etc. It is used for enlargements of glands as goiter in dog.



LINUM--LINSEED--FLAXSEED


Ground linseed (linseed meal or flaxseed meal) should be recently
prepared and free from unpleasant or rancid odor. It is a grayish-yellow
powder containing brownish fragments.

ACTION AND USES.--It is nutrient, tonic, laxative, emollient and
demulcent. Linseed meal and the cake are valuable foodstuffs in small
quantities. It is two and one-half times as fattening as starch or
sugar. It causes the hair of an animal to become slick and glossy and
induces shedding in the spring, but is very heating in summer. Linseed
gruel is a food, being palatable and easily digested, for horses, cattle
and sheep, not only good in health, but in debilitating diseases, also
in chronic skin diseases. It acts in such cases both as food and
medicine. In febrile diseases horses will often sip or drink cold
linseed tea (linseed meal two ounces to one pint of water) when they
will not touch anything else. When a patient is exhausted the linseed
tea is given with milk, eggs and whisky. Horses that are poor feeders,
having harsh scurvy skins, or being affected with roaring, thick wind or
heaves, are usually much benefited with linseed in some form. A
mucilaginous demulcent in the proportion of about one to two ounces to a
pint of warm water, is useful in irritable conditions of the throat,
alimentary canal, kidneys and bladder.

For linseed poultices, take the best grade of linseed meal, pour hot
water over it until it becomes pasty. Charcoal and antiseptics are often
mixed with it. When used as a poultice on the foot in nail pricks,
always put on a poultice that will cover the whole foot.


OLEUM LINI--LINSEED OIL--OIL OF FLAXSEED

A fixed oil expressed from flaxseed without the use of heat.

PROPERTIES.--A yellowish or yellow, oily liquid, having a slight,
peculiar odor and bland taste. Soluble in about ten parts of absolute
alcohol and in all proportions in ether, chloroform, benzine or oil of
turpentine.

Linseed oil for medicine should always be used raw.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 2 pints; cattle, 2 to 4 pints; sheep and pigs, 5 to
10 ozs.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 ozs.; cats, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Linseed oil cannot be used as a diet on account of its
being too laxative; it is laxative in small doses, but in large doses
produces copious discharges of faeces, having a distinct linseed oil
smell. The oil is also emollient, soothing and softening to inflamed and
indurated surfaces. As a laxative it usually produces tolerably full and
softened evacuations, without nausea, griping or superpurgation and with
decided odor of oil. It is the best physic to administer to pregnant
animals and in irritable conditions of the bowels; also in cases of
influenza, purpura and other debilitating diseases, where the usual
purgatives would be too severe, irritating and exhausting. It is also
used as an enema; two to four ounces of the oil or meal given daily in
mash often suffices to maintain the bowels in a relaxed condition
throughout febrile attacks, where there is a tendency to constipation.
An ounce or two of oil given daily often relieves broken wind in horses.
For burns and scalds the well known _carron oil_, composed of equal
parts of linseed oil and lime water, cannot be surpassed. This oil is
also used as a vehicle for acrid medicines and to act as a protective to
the alimentary tract in poisoning of corrosive medicines, also to sweep
them out. Carron oil in two to four ounce doses two to three times daily
will often relieve “heaves” in horses.

Linseed oil is frequently given to ruminants, although Epsom salts is
generally the best purge for them. It is indicated for these animals
when a milder operation than that obtained by a full dose of salts is
required, and for its demulcent action in irritable states of the
digestive organs.



MAGNESII SULPHAS--MAGNESIUM SULPHATE--EPSOM SALTS


DERIVATION.--Magnesium sulphate is a constituent of sea water and of
some saline springs. It also occurs native, either crystallized in
slender, prismatic, adhering crystals, or as an efflorescence on certain
rocks and soils which contain magnesia and a sulphate or sulphide. In
the United States it is found in the great caves so numerous to the west
of the Alleghany Mountains.

PROPERTIES.--Small, colorless, rhombic prisms, or acicular crystals,
without color and having a cooling, saline and bitter taste; slowly
efflorescent in dry air; .85 part of water; insoluble in alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Magnesium sulphate is a hydragogue and cholagogue cathartic;
alterative and febrifuge and is also feebly diuretic and diaphoretic. As
a cathartic it resembles common and glauber salts, and is more active
than potassium bitartrate or sodium phosphate. When magnesium sulphate
is administered it causes outpouring of secretion from the walls of the
small intestines, most quickly and abundantly when the bowels have been
partially emptied by several hours’ fasting. Neither pancreatic fluid
nor bile is materially increased. But magnesium sulphate has a low
diffusing power. It is slowly absorbed, and moreover, retards diffusion
and absorption of fluid present in the bowels. In this twofold action by
increased secretion and retarded absorption the fluid contents of the
bowels are increased, producing more or less mechanical distension and
provoking, like other salines, slight peristalsis. The retarded removal
of accumulating liquid is apt to produce the formation of gases in the
bowels, which is relieved by conjoining carminatives, as ginger or
capsicum, while effectual removal of the intestinal fluids is attained
by using with magnesium sulphate aloes, calomel or oil. It acts in from
twelve to sixteen hours; in small doses it stimulates the secretions of
the kidneys and skin. In febrile diseases it is used in small repeated
doses. It is valuable in treating animals suffering from reflex skin
irritation, combined with large doses of bicarbonate of sodium,
generally gives relief, especially in urticaria of the horse. It is
quite commonly used as a cathartic for horses, but most often for cattle
and sheep.

DOSES.--When repeated two or three times as a laxative and alterative
horses take 2 to 4 ounces, cattle 3 to 6 ounces, sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
drachms. As a cathartic cattle take 1 to 2 pounds, calves two to three
months old 3 to 4 ounces, sheep 4 to 6 ounces, dogs 1 to 4 drachms.
Aloes is a much better cathartic for horses, and castor or linseed oil
acts much better as a cathartic in pigs.



NAPHTHALENUM--NAPHTHALENE


A by-product of gas manufacture.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, shining rhombic crystals of an aromatic acrid
taste, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether and oils.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 3 dr.; cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 15
gr.; dogs, 1 to 10 gr. These doses can be doubled in severe cases of
intestinal flatulence.

ACTIONS AND USES.--A true intestinal antiseptic and antiferment, is also
expectorant, antiseptic and parasiticide. Used in intestinal flatulence,
dissolved in tincture capsicum; in diarrhoea and dysentery, is of great
value in these ailments, quickly allays foul odor of the evacuations of
the bowels; large doses irritate the kidneys and cause bloody urine
which ceases upon withholding the drug. When powdered on a wound as wire
cuts, etc., will keep away flies and other insects, besides it is a
powerful antiseptic and promotes the healing of wounds. Used as an
ointment it is very effective in parasitic skin diseases.



NUX VOMICA--QUAKER BUTTON


The dried ripe seeds of Strychnos nux vomica, yielding when assayed by
the process given below, not less than 1.25 per cent of strychnine.

HABITAT.--The tree is a native of the East Indies, growing in Bengal,
Malabar, on the Coromandel Coast, in Ceylon, in many islands of the
Indian Archipelago, in Cochin-China and in other neighboring countries.

DESCRIPTION.--Orbicular, nearly flat, sometimes irregularly bent, about
three-quarters of an inch in diameter and two in thickness; externally
grayish or greenish-gray, the surface covered with short closely
oppressed, satiny hairs; rounded or somewhat acute at the margin, with a
slight ridge extending from the center of one side to the edge;
internally whitish-gray, horny, very tough, the endosperm in two more or
less regular concavo-convex halves, between which, at one end, lie the
heart-shaped, palmately nerved cotyledons; inodorous; taste intensely
and persistently bitter.

CONSTITUENTS.--Two alkaloids. 1. Strychnine, 0.2-0.6 per cent. 2.
Brucine, 0.5-1.0 per cent. Similar in action to strychnine, but weaker
and slower. Both alkaloids exist in combination with igasuric acid.
Brucine occurs in rectangular octohedral crystals; it is soluble in
alcohol, in 7 parts of chloroform, and possesses a bitter taste. With
sulphuric and nitric acids a beautiful blood-red color is developed.
There are also: 4. Igasuric acid with which strychnine and brucine are
combined. 5. Loganin, an inert glucoside occurring in colorless prisms.

DOSE.--Of the ground seeds, horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep, 20 to
40 gr.; pigs, 10 to 20 gr.; dogs, 1 to 2 gr.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM NUCIS VOMICAE--EXTRACT OF NUX VOMICA

Made by maceration with alcohol, water and acetic acid; percolation with
alcohol and water and evaporation. Standardized to contain 5 per cent of
strychnine.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 5 to 15 gr.; sheep, 2 to 5 gr.; pigs, 1 to 2
gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₄ gr.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM NUCIS VOMICAE--FLUIDEXTRACT OF NUX VOMICA

Made by digestion and percolation with alcohol and water and acetic
acid. The alcohol is distilled off and the solution evaporated. Alcohol
and water are added so that the fluid extract shall contain one per cent
of strychnine.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep, 20 to 30 m.; pigs, 10 to 20
m.; dogs, 1 to 2 m.


TINCTURA NUCIS VOMICAE--TINCTURE OF NUX VOMICA

Made by solution of the extract of nux vomica, 20 in alcohol, and water
to make 1000. Standardized to contain 0.1 per cent strychnine.


STRYCHNINA--STRYCHNINE

An alkaloid obtained from nux vomica, and also obtainable from other
plants of the natural order Loganiaceae.

DERIVATION.--Nux vomica seeds are powdered and strychnine is extracted
with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid. The solution is
concentrated and strychnine precipitated with lime. It is then
redissolved in boiling alcohol and the crystals are deposited upon
concentration of the solution.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, prismatic crystals, or a white
crystalline powder; odorless, having an intensely bitter taste,
perceptible even in solutions of 1 in 700,000. Strychnine should be
tasted with extreme caution. Permanent in the air, soluble in water,
alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzine and amyl alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as strychnine sulphate.


STRYCHNINAE SULPHAS--STRYCHNINE SULPHATE

Made by the action of sulphuric acid on strychnine.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless or white, prismatic crystals, odorless and having
an intensely bitter taste. Efflorescent in dry air. Soluble in water and
alcohol. Almost soluble in ether.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ gr.; cattle, 1 to 3 gr.; sheep, ¹⁄₄ to ¹⁄₂
gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₁₂₀ to ¹⁄₄₀ gr. The small doses are to be used when
strychnine is given subcutaneously.

ACTIONS.--Nerve tonic, stomach tonic, stimulates respiration, secretion,
appetite and digestion; it increases peristalsis, stimulates both the
motor and inhibitory apparatus of the heart, and raises arterial tension
by stimulating the vaso-motor centers, thus contracting the arterioles,
though full doses relax the arterioles and thus lower blood pressure.

Strychnine exalts all functions of the spinal cord, reflex, motor,
vaso-motor and sensory, the latter being the least affected; it does not
affect the brain directly.

TOXICOLOGY.--Large doses cause trembling and twitching of the voluntary
and involuntary muscles with violent clonic spasms, lasting one or two
minutes, gradually getting more frequent and severe in form involving
the glottis, diaphragm and other muscles of respiration; causes death
usually from asphyxia. Very large doses may paralyze the cord as from a
blow, and cause almost instant death.

USES.--Nux vomica or strychnine is indicated in any condition in which
there is a paralysis or depressed state of the nerves or nervous system;
atonic dyspepsia, broken wind, relaxed condition of the bowels due to
lack of tone, in small doses.

In weak condition of the heart give with small doses of digitalis; it
stimulates sexual organs. Give it in convalescence from debilitating
diseases, also as an aid to recovery during their progress; in collapse
and for narcotic poisoning strychnine hypodermically in paralysis,
whether of limbs, intestines or bladder.

In diarrhoea, due to lack of tone of muscular coat of the bowels
combined with astringents; for anaemia, strychnine combined with iron
and quinine; nervous coughs use strychnine with sedatives; also in
incontinuence of urine and chorea, in dogs after distemper.

ANTIDOTE FOR STRYCHNINE POISONING.--Tannic acid or vegetables containing
it should be freely administered, for the tannate of strychnine which is
formed is very insoluble; an emetic or the stomach pump must be used
promptly. The tetanic spasms are best controlled by chloral hydrate or
very large doses of potassium bromide (2 dr. to ¹⁄₂ oz. for man) or 4 to
8 ounces for the horse as antidote for strychnine poisoning. Inhalations
of ether are also recommended. Chloral hydrate may be used per rectum or
intravenously. Inhalations of amyl nitrate are also of value. The
administration of melted lard seems to exert peculiar antidotal
properties to strychnine poisoning. As an emetic for dogs apomorphinae
hydrochloras ¹⁄₂₀ to ¹⁄₅ grain, given hypodermically, is the best and
may have to be pushed as emetics act tardily in poisoning by this drug.



OLEUM MORRHUAE--COD LIVER OIL


A fixed oil obtained from the fresh livers of cod fish.

HABITAT.--North Atlantic Ocean.

PROPERTIES.--A pale yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar
slightly fishy but not rancid odor, and a bland, slightly fishy taste.
Cod liver oil is often adulterated with the oil of other fish. Brown
oils are not desirable therapeutically.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 oz.; cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep, 1 oz.; pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1
oz.; dogs, 1 to 4 dr.; cats, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Nutrient, tonic and alterative; on account of its
biliary constituents is easily emulsified and digested. It is indicated
in all cases of malnutritions and where the digestive organs are weak;
also in animals recovering from debilitating diseases, such as distemper
and influenza. It is good in catarrh and bronchitis, as it appears to
furnish suitable material for repair of the inflamed mucous membranes.
Like other oils it relieves broken wind and is given to man in
consumption. It is particularly used for the smaller animals. It is
given to dogs and cats during distemper, also in eczema, epilepsy,
chorea, rickets and chronic rheumatism.



OLEUM OLIVAE--OLIVE OIL--SWEET OIL


A fixed oil expressed from the ripe fruit of Olea europaea Linne. It
should be kept in well stoppered bottles in a cool place.

HABITAT.--Southern Europe and Asia.

PROPERTIES.--A pale yellow, or light greenish-yellow, oily liquid,
having a slightly peculiar odor and a nutty oleaginous taste, with a
faintly acrid after-taste. Very sparingly soluble in alcohol, but
readily soluble in ether and chloroform.

DOSE.--As a laxative--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 pt.; dogs, 2 to 4 oz.



OLEUM GOSSYPII SEMINIS--COTTON SEED OIL


A fixed oil expressed from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum Linne and of
other species of Gossypium and subsequently purified.

HABITAT.--Southern United States and other semitropical countries;
cultivated.

PROPERTIES.--A pale yellow, oily liquid, without odor and having a bland
nut-like taste. Very sparingly soluble in alcohol, but readily soluble
in ether, chloroform or carbon disulphide.

DOSE.--Same as olive oil.

ACTION AND USES.--Both olive and cotton seed oil are laxative tonics,
demulcents and emollients. Sweet oil, not used internally to any extent,
but is used externally for soothing and healing irritated wounds. It may
be used in its pure state or be mixed with carbolic acid, 20 m. of the
carbolic acid to 4 oz. of sweet oil.



OLEUM RICINI--CASTOR OIL


DERIVATION.--Castor oil is expressed from the seeds of a plant (Ricinus
communis) which grows in the East Indies and Africa in the character of
a tree and rises sometimes thirty or forty feet. It also grows in the
temperate latitudes of North America and Europe.

PROPERTIES.--Pure castor oil is a thick, viscid, colorless liquid, with
little or no odor and a mild though somewhat nauseous taste.

ACTION AND USES.--Good castor oil is a mild and speedy cathartic,
usually operating within four to five hours with little griping or
uneasiness, and evacuating the contents of the bowels without much
increasing the alvine secretions. Hence it is particularly applicable to
constipation from collections of abnormally hard faeces, and to cases in
which irritating substances have been swallowed or irritating substances
have accumulated in the bowels. From its mildness it is also especially
adapted to diseases of the bowels, as colic, indigestion, diarrhoea,
dysentery and enteritis. It is also indicated in overloaded bowels in
pregnancy combined with anodynes and antispasmodics to prevent griping.
Castor oil in two or three ounce doses conjoined with gruel and five or
six drops of oil of peppermint is suitable for foals and calves affected
with gastro-intestinal disorders. Castor oil is specially applicable in
canine practice, to evacuate the bowels, and in irritated conditions of
the digestive tract, in ounce doses mixed with equal parts of glycerine
and adding two or three drops of oil of wintergreen.

Castor oil may be given to horses in sixteen ounce doses conjoined with
oil of peppermint, twenty drops, or tincture opium, one ounce and
fluidextract of belladonna, one to two drachms, flour gruel, etc.

Castor oil in one to two drachm doses is especially valuable for
poultry.

Castor oil is used with equal success in the treatment of
gastro-intestinal disorders of cattle, sheep and pigs.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 12 to 16 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 6 oz.; dogs
and cats, ¹⁄₂ to 2 oz.; poultry, ¹⁄₂ to 2 dr.



  OLEUM TEREBINTHINAE--OIL OF TURPENTINE
  Erroneously Called Spirits of Turpentine


DERIVATION.--A concrete oleo-resin from Pinus palustris Miller, and from
other species of Pinus. The oil is distilled, usually by the use of
steam, from the oleo-resin.

HABITAT.--Southern United States, from Virginia to the Gulf of Mexico.

PROPERTIES.--A thin, colorless liquid, having a characteristic odor and
taste. Soluble in three times its volume of alcohol; also soluble in an
equal volume of glacial acetic acid.

DOSE.--Carminative--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to
4 dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 m. Best given in 8 to 10 times its bulk of cotton
seed oil, linseed oil or milk. Anthelmintic--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4
oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 4 dr. Diuretic--Horses
and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.


PREPARATIONS


LINIMENTUM TERBINTHINAE--TURPENTINE LINIMENT

Composed of resin cerate, 650 parts; oil of turpentine, 350 parts; melt
the resin cerate and add the oil of turpentine.


OLEUM TEREBINTHINAE RECTIFICATUM--RECTIFIED OIL OF TURPENTINE

Made by slaking oil of turpentine with an equal volume of Solution of
Sodium Hydroxide, and distillation.

PROPERTIES.--A thin, colorless liquid, having the same properties as oil
of turpentine and should be the one used for internal use.


DERIVATIVES OF TURPENTINE


TEREBENUM--TEREBENE

Made by the action of sulphuric acid on oil of turpentine and by
distillation.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless, or slightly yellowish, thin liquid, having a
rather agreeable thyme-like odor, and an aromatic, somewhat
terebinthinated taste. Only slightly soluble in water, but soluble in
three times its volume of alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs, 5 to 15 m. Dilute same as
oil of turpentine.


TERPINI HYDRAS--TERPIN HYDRATE

The hydrate of the diatomic alcohol Terpin.

DERIVATION.--Rectified oil of turpentine, alcohol and nitric acid are
mixed together in a shallow porcelain dish, and after three or four days
terpin hydrate crystallizes out. The crystals are collected, drained,
dried on absorbent paper and purified by recrystallization in alcohol.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, crystals, odorless, having a somewhat bitter
taste. Soluble in 200 parts of water, 10 parts of alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Externally--Oil of turpentine is rubefacient, irritant and
counter-irritant; vesicant if rubbed in or confined, also a powerful
antiseptic and disinfectant; is absorbed by the unbroken skin.

Internally--Is diuretic, stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic,
hemostatic and anthelmintic; it is irritant, and large undiluted doses
may cause gastro-enteritis and paralysis of nerve centers.

USES.--In colic, both spasmodic and flatulent; for worms, give full
doses, septic fevers; gangrene of the lungs; catarrhal conditions,
pneumonia and bronchitis; as a diuretic, but others not as irritant are
better.

For local gangrene remove the dead tissue and then apply the turpentine
direct to the affected parts by means of absorbent cotton or cloth
saturated with it; the offensive odor is removed and sloughing arrested.
For tape worm it is given with oleo-resin of aspidium, in oil. As an
inhalation in pulmonary diseases one-half ounce is added to three quarts
of boiling water. In two drachm doses every three hours, if frequently,
aborts suppuration in parotiditis of horses. In purpura haemorrhagica,
turpentine is a valuable medicine as a vaso-motor stimulant and
diuretic, given in two drachm doses every four hours with tincture
chloride of iron and linseed oil.



OLEUM TIGLII--CROTON OIL


A fixed oil expressed from the seed of Croton Tiglium Linne.

HABITAT.--Asia, India, Indian Archipelago and Philippine Islands.

PROPERTIES.--A pale yellow or brownish-yellow, somewhat viscid, and
slightly fluorescent liquid, having a slight fatty odor, and a mild,
oily afterwards acrid and burning taste (great caution is necessary in
tasting). Specific gravity 0.935 to 0.950 at 25° C. (77° F.).

CONSTITUENTS.--Crotonoleic acid is the purgative principal. A small
amount is free in the oil but it is mostly formed within the bowels. It
resembles acid of castor oil in its chemistry; crotonol is a
non-purgative body causing irritation of the skin; tiglinic acid and
other volatile acids existing as glycerides and accounting for the odor
of croton oil; it also contains free and combined fatty acids.

DOSE.--Horses, 15 to 30 m.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to
10 m.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 m.

ACTIONS.--It is a powerful irritant and pustulant, is a drastic
hydragogue cathartic; full doses cause gastro-enteritis and much
prostration; undiluted it seriously and deeply inflames the skin,
causing severe blemishes and by absorption it may cause fever and
superpurgation. The purgative action is probably due in part to direct
irritation of the intestinal mucous membrane; in part to absorption and
elimination of the purgative principle by the bowels.

USES.--Cattle are the only animals for which it can be used with any
degree of safety; it can be used for dogs and pigs if used with great
caution. For horses and sheep it is too irritating and depressing; it is
used in cattle as an active hydragogue purgative when they suffer from
lodgment of fecal matter in the third stomach and other forms of
constipation, and from torpidity of the bowels. Should not be used in
debilitated, delicate or young animals. If an over-dose has been given
combat with demulcents, opium and stimulants. It should not be used as a
counter-irritant or applied to the skin in any form or for any purpose.
Croton oil (in a pint of linseed oil) is valuable in assisting the
action of salts in obstinate constipation of cattle. It may be given to
horses when a powerful derivative and purgative action is indicated, as
in acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord with calomel and
aloes in a capsule.



OPIUM


DERIVATION.--The concrete, milky exudate obtained by incising the unripe
capsules of Papaver somniferum Linne, and yielding in its normal, moist
condition, not less than nine per cent of crystallized morphine when
assayed by the official process. Opium is imported from Turkey, Asia
Minor, Persia, India and Egypt. The Smyrna, or Turkey opium, is the more
common variety used in the United States. It occurs in irregular,
globular masses, covered with poppy leaves and capsules of a species of
dock, weighing from one-half to one pound.

PROPERTIES.--In irregular, flattened, more or less rounded masses of
variable size, externally grayish-brown, covered with particles of poppy
leaves and with occasional fruits of a species of Rumex; more or less
plastic when fresh, but becoming hard on keeping; internally dark brown,
somewhat lustrous; odor strong, narcotic; taste bitter and
characteristic. It yields its medical properties to water, alcohol and
dilute acids, forming dark brown solutions. Ether extracts its
principles in part.

CONSTITUENTS.--There are about nineteen or twenty alkaloids derived from
opium, but only a few are of any importance so far as their medical
value is concerned.

DOSE.--Of the crude opium--Horses, 1 to 2 dr.; cattle, 2 to 4 dr.;
sheep, 10 to 30 gr.; pigs, 5 to 10 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 gr.


PREPARATIONS


OPII PULVIS--POWDERED OPIUM

This is opium dried at a temperature not exceeding 85° C. (185° F.) and
powdered and should not contain less than 12 per cent nor more than
12¹⁄₂ per cent morphine.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ dr.; cattle, 1 to 3 dr.; sheep, 5 to 30 gr.;
pigs, 5 to 15 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₄ to 3 gr.


EXTRACTUM OPII--EXTRACT OF OPIUM

Composed of powdered opium, 100 parts; distilled water, 1000 parts;
sugar of milk, a sufficient quantity. Made by trituration, filtration
and evaporation. Assayed to contain 20 per cent of morphine.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep, 5 to 15 gr.;
pigs, 3 to 10 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₄ to 2 gr.


PULVIS IPECACUANHAE ET OPII--POWDER OF IPECAC AND OPIUM--DOVER’S POWDER

Composed of ipecac, 10 parts; powdered opium, 10 parts; sugar of milk,
80. The most diaphoretic and expectorant compound of opium.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; dogs, 2 to 12 gr.


TINCTURA IPECACUANHAE ET OPII--TINCTURE OF IPECAC AND OPIUM--LIQUID
DOVER’S POWDER

Composed of tincture of deodorized opium 100, evaporated to 80, fluid
extract of ipecac 10, diluted alcohol sufficient quantity to make 100.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; dogs, 3 to 12 m.


  TINCTURA OPII--TINCTURE OF OPIUM
  Popularly Known as Laudanum

Composed of granulated opium, 100 parts; alcohol, 400 parts; water, 400
parts; diluted alcohol to make 1000. Made by trituration, maceration
with precipitated calcium phosphate and percolation. Assayed and
standardized to contain between 1.2 and 1.25 gm. of morphine in 100 c.
c.

DOSE.--Horses, 1 to 2 oz.; cattle, 2 to 3 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4
dr.; dogs, 3 to 20 m.


TINCTURA OPII CAMPHORATA--CAMPHORATED TINCTURE OF OPIUM

  Well Known as Paregoric

Composed of powdered opium, 4 parts; benzoic acid, 4 parts; camphor, 4
parts; oil of anise, 4 parts; glycerine, 40 parts; diluted alcohol to
make 1000 parts. Made by maceration and filtration.

DOSE.--Dogs, 1 to 4 dr.; puppies and cats, 2 to 10 m.


OPIUM DEODORATUM--DEODORIZED OPIUM

Composed of powdered opium, 500 parts; purified petroleum, q. s. Made by
repeated maceration, agitation and percolation with purified petroleum
benzine. The petroleum benzine removes narcotic and odorous principles,
which cause nausea and disagreeable after-effects in opium. Contains 12
to 12.5 per cent of morphine.

DOSE.--Same as powdered opium.


VINUM OPII--WINE OF OPIUM

Composed of opium, cloves, cinnamon and sherry wine. Recommended for
dogs suffering from diarrhoea.

DOSE.--Same as the tincture of opium.


MORPHINA--MORPHINE

An alkaloid obtained from opium.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless or white, shining prismatic crystals, or fine
needles, or crystalline powder; odorless and having a bitter taste;
permanent in the air; soluble in 3330 parts of water. The latter are
preferable owing to their greater solubility.


MORPHINAE HYDROCHLORIDUM--MORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE

Morphine is stirred with hot distilled water, to which hydrochloric acid
is gradually added. Morphine hydrochlorate crystallizes out on cooling.

PROPERTIES.--White silky, glistening needles or microcrystalline cubes,
or a white, crystalline powder, odorless and having a bitter taste;
permanent in the air. Soluble in water and alcohol; insoluble in ether
and chloroform.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 3 to 10 gr.; sheep, ¹⁄₂ to 2 gr.; pigs, ¹⁄₁₀
to ¹⁄₂ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₂ gr. About one-half of these doses for
hypodermic use.


MORPHINAE ACETAS--MORPHINE ACETATE

Morphine is dissolved in acetic acid and water and the solution
evaporated and crystallized.

PROPERTIES.--A white or faintly yellowish-white, crystalline, amorphous
powder, having a faint, acetous odor and bitter taste. Soluble in water
and alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as morphine hydrochloride.


MORPHINAE SULPHAS--MORPHINE SULPHATE

Morphine is stirred into boiling distilled water; diluted sulphuric acid
is added until neutralization is attained, and the sulphate crystallizes
out on cooling.

PROPERTIES.--White, feathery, acicular, silky crystals, or in cubical
masses, odorless, permanent in the air, and having a bitter taste.
Soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and ether.


CODEINA--CODEINE

An alkaloid obtained from opium by evaporation of the ammoniacal liquid,
after the precipitation of morphine. The residue is added to water,
precipitated by potassium hydrate, and redissolved in ether, from which
codeine crystallizes out on evaporation.

PROPERTIES.--White or nearly translucent, orthorhombic prisms,
octahedral crystals, or a crystalline powder; odorless and having a
faintly bitter taste; slightly efflorescent in warm air. Soluble in
water, alcohol, ether and chloroform.

DOSE.--Dogs, ¹⁄₄ to 1¹⁄₂ gr.


HEROIN--DIACETYLMORPHINE

This drug is a derivative of morphine, and is now used extensively in
human medicine as a substitute for morphine and codeine.

PROPERTIES.--White or colorless, crystalline powder, possessing a
slightly bitter taste. Insoluble in water, but readily soluble in weak
acidous solutions. Heroin hydrochloride is a white, crystalline powder,
odorless, soluble in 2 parts of water. Heroin surpasses both morphine
and codeine therapeutically in many ways. It increases markedly the
inspiratory and expiratory force, while lessening the number of the
respiratory movements and exerts a special sedative influence on the
respiratory mucous membranes. The drug acts also as a general motor
depressant, hypnotic and analgesic, but is not comparable to morphine in
these respects. Heroin is about five times more toxic for dogs than
morphine. Heroin is particularly valuable in the treatment of all
varieties of coughs affecting the dog. The after-effects of small doses
are not as nauseating or constipating as morphine.

Heroin can be given in powder, pill or tablet, the Heroin hydrochloride
in solution, every three or four hours.

DOSE OF EITHER.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 2 gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂₄ to ¹⁄₆ gr.

ACTIONS.--Opium is analgesic, hypnotic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic,
narcotic; also cardiac and respiratory depressant after primary brief
stimulation.

MEDICAL DOSES.--It dries all secretions except the mammae and skin. The
latter being increased, it produces dryness of the mouth and throat,
arrests gastric secretions, retards digestion and causes anorexia (loss
of appetite); it stimulates the brain by increasing the blood supply; in
man it stimulates the mental activity, while in animals it stimulates
motor activity; it does not affect the conductivity of nerves, but it
prevents the consciousness to pain by paralyzing the nerve centers; the
action of the heart is increased and arterial tension is raised; the
pupil slightly contracted; the mind at first stimulated, becomes calm,
sleep follows, disturbed by dreams and headache; constipation and some
depression follows.

LARGE DOSES.--Arrest digestion, cause nausea and vomiting, greatly
increase perspiration, prevents the conductivity of nerves, depresses
the heart and circulation, impairing oxidation and lowering temperature;
it contracts the pupil by stimulating the motor nerve of the eye (in
horses it dilates the pupil) and causes intense puritis (itching),
especially of the nose, often retention of the urine and soon profound
sleep; in some cases coma or delirium, leaving as after-effects nausea,
depression, constipation, vertigo, anorexia, nasal puritis and fetid
pathological secretions.

_Morphine and codeine compared with the action of opium._ Morphine is
more anodyne and hypnotic; it causes more intense puritis (itching) is
less stimulant, less convulsant, less constipating and diaphoretic.

Codeine is a motor paralyzant; it exalts the spinal cord more than
morphine and affects the cerebrum less, producing muscular tremors in
excess of sedation; it reduces the urinary sugar in diabetes and has a
selective sedative influence on the pneumogastric nerve, thus a better
sedative in cough.

_Indications for the use of Opium_:

  1. To relieve pain and spasm.
  2. To produce sleep.
  3. To abort inflammation.
  4. To check excessive secretions.
  5. To act as a stimulant and supporting agent.
  6. As a sudorific (not so active in animals as in man).

Sulphuric ether administered with opium prevents its drying up effects
as well as the nauseating and depressing effects. Used for pain from any
cause except acute inflammation of the brain. Used in low fevers to
support the system when sufficient food cannot be taken, also in
irritation of bronchi, bladder, stomach and bowels, as well as the
uterus.

In inflammation of the serous membranes which line the abdominal walls
(peritonitis) opium can be used freely; combined or alternated with
aconite and diuretics is very highly recommended and tends to prevent
dropsical conditions.

In inflammation of the serous membrane investing lungs and lining the
thorax (pleurisy) opium and aconite will often arrest its development if
administered in its first stages.

In diarrhoea and dysentery opium is said to be one of the best medicines
we have, it can be combined with acetate of lead, prepared chalk, etc.

In inflammation of the bowels, owing to its effect in binding up the
bowels, belladonna alternated with aconite is preferred to opium.

In colds administer Dover’s Powder, or opium, ammonium carbonate,
quinine sulphate and camphor.

In spasmodic colic do not use opium, but give hypodermically three to
four grains of morphine sulphate; it is non-constipating; also use
anodynes, such as cannabis indica, hyoscyamus, etc., are preferable.

In gastritis, opium conjoined with bismuth subnitrate and hydrastis.

In eversion of the rectum or uterus, administer morphine hypodermically
to prevent straining.

In muscular spasms opium is very effective.

In cerebro-spinal meningitis opium should be administered early, before
exudation has set in, with belladonna and ergot, alternated with
aconite.

In diabetes mellitus, codeine is said to be best, as it lessens the
amount of sugar in the urine and should be administered by the mouth; if
given hypodermically it exerts no influence on the sugar.

In catarrhal diseases administer opium to lessen the discharge.

In Thumps administer full doses of morphine subcutaneously.

In inflammation of the eyes morphine sulphate is very efficient combined
with zinc sulphate and distilled water.

TOXIC DOSES.--Produce cold clammy sweat, very slow heart, diminished
quantity of urine, abolished reflexes, coma, the pupil minutely
contracted (except in the horse) but dilated as the end approaches and
death by suspension of respiration, due to direct action of the poison
on the respiratory centers in the medulla.

In case of poisoning. Emetics, stomach pump, permanganate of potassium,
grain for grain of morphine, or 10 to 15 grains dissolved in 8 ounces of
water, given by the mouth for large dogs, and 1 to 2 drachms of
permanganate of potassium in 2 or 3 pints of water for horses.
Artificial respiration, striking the body, keep patient moving, empty
bladder to prevent absorption.


APOMORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDUM--APOMORPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE

DERIVATION.--The hydrochloride of an artificial alkaloid, obtained by
heating morphine or codeine in hermetically closed tubes with an excess
of pure hydrochloric acid.

PROPERTIES.--Minute, grayish-white, shining monoclinic prisms, without
odor, having a faintly bitter taste and acquiring a greenish tint upon
exposure to light and air. It should be kept in small, dark,
amber-colored vials. Soluble in water, alcohol, ether and chloroform.

DOSE.--As an emetic for dogs, ¹⁄₈ to ¹⁄₅ gr., by the mouth, and ¹⁄₂₀ to
¹⁄₁₀ gr., subcutaneously.

DOSE.--As an expectorant, subcutaneously, horses, ³⁄₄ gr.; foals, ¹⁄₂
gr.; cattle, 1¹⁄₂ gr.; sheep and calves, ¹⁄₂ gr.; dogs, ¹⁄₁₀ to ¹⁄₅ gr.
By the mouth, dogs, ¹⁄₄₀ to ¹⁄₂₅ gr. as an expectorant.

ACTION AND USES.--It is a prompt and effectual emetic in animals that
vomit, acting on the vomiting centers. When ¹⁄₅ gr. dissolved in water
is swallowed by either man or dog repeated vomiting occurs, but is not
followed by so much nausea as usually follows the use of tartar emetic.
Increases bronchial, intestinal and pancreatic secretions. Chronic dry
bronchitis of dogs is benefited by apomorphine. In pica cattle, 1¹⁄₂
gr. may be given on three consecutive days, or in recent cases, 3 gr.
are given subcutaneously in the same way. It relieves choking in animals
by its relaxing spasm and increasing secretion of the gullet.
Three-quarters of a grain may be injected under the skin in horses. It
should be tried before using a probang, as, if successful, it will act
within fifteen or twenty minutes. The alkaloid decomposes in crystal and
rapidly in solution, becoming toxic and of a green hue. Solutions should
be freshly prepared.



PETROLATUM LIQUIDUM--LIQUID PETROLATUM


DERIVATION.--A mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marshgas series,
obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from
petroleum and purifying the residue when it has the desired consistence.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless, or more or less yellowish, oily transparent
liquid without odor or taste; or giving off, when heated, a faint odor
of petroleum. Insoluble in water; scarcely soluble in cold or hot
alcohol, or cold absolute alcohol; but soluble in ether, chloroform,
carbon disulphide, oil of turpentine, benzine, benzol and fixed and
volatile oils.


PETROLATUM--VASELINE--COSMOLINE

DERIVATION.--A mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marshgas series,
obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from
petroleum and purifying the residue when it has reached the desired
melting point.

PROPERTIES.--A fat-like mass of about the consistence of an ointment
varying in color from yellowish to light amber, having not more than a
slight fluorescence, even after being melted; transparent in thin
layers, completely amorphous and without odor or taste, or giving off
when heated a faint odor of petroleum. In other respects soft petrolatum
has the solubility of liquid petrolatum.


PETROLATUM ALBUM--WHITE PETROLATUM

DERIVATION.--A mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the methane series,
obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from
petroleum and purifying the residue.

PROPERTIES.--A white, unctuous mass, of about the consistency of an
ointment, transparent in thin layers, completely amorphous; without odor
or taste. Otherwise it resembles, in solubility, petrolatum.

ACTION.--All preparations of petrolatum are valuable emollients. They
soothe, protect and soften parts to which they are applied and are
superior to animal or vegetable fats or oils in not becoming rancid.

USES.--Petrolatum may be used alone, or as an excipient in the
preparation of ointments, but does not aid the absorption of drugs (as
do alcohol, glycerine, chloroform, animal oils and fats), for it is not
itself absorbed even when administered internally. Petrolatum exerts a
demulcent action upon the mucous membrane of the alimentary tract, and
may be prescribed in electuary or capsule in inflammation thereof.
Liquid petrolatum is useful given internally in piles (dogs one-half
ounce twice daily) to soften the feces. It is also very serviceable with
menthol and camphor (equal parts, fifteen grains to one ounce) dropped
in the nostrils (with a medicine dropper) for dogs with acute nasal
catarrh. Petrolatum is sold universally under the proprietary names of
vaseline and cosmoline, and is often combined with antiseptics for
medical and surgical purposes in skin diseases and upon inflamed mucous
membranes, blisters and abraded surfaces and sores. It is one of the
most useful agents in lubricating instruments, protecting metal from
rust, and is sometimes employed as a vehicle for electuaries. It should
not be used as a base for blisters or other ointments where absorption
is desired.



PIX LIQUIDA--TAR


An empyreumatic oleo-resin obtained by the destructive distillation of
the wood of various species of pines, especially that of Pinus
palustris.

HABITAT.--United States.

PROPERTIES.--Thick, viscid, semi-fluid, blackish-brown; heavier than
water, transparent, in thin layers, becoming granular and opaque with
age; odor empyreumatic terebinthinated; taste sharp empyreumatic. Tar is
slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, fixed or volatile oils
and solutions of potassium or sodium hydrate.

CONSTITUENTS.--Oil of turpentine; methylic alcohol; creosote; guaiacol;
phenol; pyrocatechin; toluol; xylol; acetic acid; acetone; resins.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 dr.;
dogs, ¹⁄₄ to 1 dr. Oil of tar should be diluted with alcohol, glycerine,
syrup or mucilage.


PREPARATIONS


UNGUENTUM PICIS LIQUIDAE--TAR OINTMENT

Composed of tar, 500; yellow wax, 150; lard, 350.

Used alone as a healing ointment or as a base.


OLEUM PICIS LIQUIDAE--OIL OF TAR

A volatile oil distilled from tar.

PROPERTIES.--An almost colorless liquid when freshly distilled, but soon
acquiring a dull, reddish brown color, and having a strong tarry odor
and taste. Soluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
¹⁄₂ to 2 dr.

ACTIONS.--Internally, is an antiseptic stimulant expectorant.
Externally, it is rubefacient and if continually rubbed in may cause
papules and pustules.

USES.--Tar or the oil is commonly used in cough mixtures and in
subacute and chronic bronchitis. By inhalation (which is done by pouring
tar on a heated shovel or a shovel containing live coals or by adding a
pint of tar to a gallon of water, heating the mixture by placing hot
bricks or stones in the solution) either method is excellent for its
local antiseptic and stimulating effects in the various catarrhal
diseases; bronchitis, distemper, strangles, etc. Care should be used so
that the vapor be not inhaled too hot.

Externally, it is a very useful agent in various skin diseases, both
parasitic and non-parasitic; for this the official ointment may be used,
or if used on a large surface on dogs it should be diluted with an equal
amount of zinc ointment.



PLUMBI OXIDUM--LEAD OXIDE


DERIVATION.--Made by roasting lead in the air.

PROPERTIES.--A heavy, yellowish or reddish-yellow powder, or minute
scales, without odor or taste. Almost insoluble in water; insoluble in
alcohol. Lead oxide is only valuable for its preparations.


PREPARATIONS


PLUMBI ACETAS--LEAD ACETATE--SUGAR OF LEAD

DERIVATION.--Heat lead oxide in acetic acid and water. Lead acetate
crystallizes on cooling.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, shining, transparent; monoclinic prisms or
plates, or heavy, white crystalline masses, or granular crystals, having
a faintly acetous odor and a sweetish, astringent, afterwards metallic
taste. Efflorescent and absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure to the air.
Soluble in two parts of water and in thirty parts of alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 15 to 20 gr.;
dogs, 1 to 2 gr. Given in capsule or solution.


LIQUOR PLUMBI SUBACETATIS--SOLUTION OF LEAD SUBACETATE--GOULARD’S
EXTRACT

An aqueous liquid, containing in solution about 25 per cent of lead
subacetate.

DERIVATION.--Made from acetate of lead, 180 parts; oxide of lead, 110
parts; boiled together in water to make 1000 parts.

PROPERTIES.--A dense, clear colorless liquid, sweet, astringent taste,
decomposed by exposure to the air.

ACTIONS.--The lead compounds are powerful astringents, haemostatics,
styptics, anodynes, local sedatives and desiccants; they coagulate
albumen and form a protective coat, also contract small vessels. In
large or continued doses they irritate, then paralyze voluntary and
involuntary muscles, and also the central nervous system.

USES.--Plumbi acetate is administered internally to check haemorrhages,
especially of the stomach and lungs, has been used in purpura in horses
with varying results; it is said to be very good in red water of cattle;
also used in diabetes insipidus; for diarrhoea, lead acetate with opium
is very good, also in dysentery, chronic scouring and bronchorrhoea; it
is occasionally prescribed as a gargle.

Externally used in solution to check superficial inflammation; used on
burns, bruises and ulcers, also to cool and relieve strained and
inflamed tendons and joints, it is also used as a wash to abate the
itching of nettle-rash and erythema and other skin diseases; also
serviceable in eczema and grease-heel; used in eye wash but should not
be used when there is an abrasion of the cornea, as insoluble compounds
are formed; the acetate may be used as an ointment or powder or in
solution dissolved in twenty to forty parts water, a little vinegar or
acetic acid increases its solubility; it is used in white lotion
combined with zinc sulphate and water.

Goulard’s Extract, four ounces to a pint of water, is used for sprains,
bruises, cuts, burns, scratches, grease-heel, etc. For painful
affections, tincture of opium, four to six ounces to one pint, or
belladonna, two ounces to the pint, are added. Goulard’s Extract, one
part, lard oil, four parts, makes a good dressing for blistered or
bruised surfaces, grease-heel and other ailments of that class; for skin
diseases, eczema, canker of ear in dog, etc.



POTASSII ACETAS--POTASSIUM ACETATE


DERIVATION.--Add acetic acid in excess to potassium carbonate. Evaporate
to dryness and fuse residue.

PROPERTIES.--White, deliquescent, satiny, neutral masses of a peculiar
odor; also in a granular form. Soluble in water and alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 gr.


POTASSII CITRAS--POTASSIUM CITRATE

DERIVATION.--Neutralize potassium carbonate with a solution of citric
acid and evaporate to dryness.

PROPERTIES.--White, granular, deliquescent powder, saline taste, neutral
reaction. Soluble in water.

DOSE.--Same as potassium acetate.

ACTIONS.--Potassium acetate and citrate are the least irritant to the
stomach of all the potassium salts. They are neutral and have no action
on the gastric juice: are not antacid. They are changed into the
carbonate of potassium and as such circulate in the blood. Are powerful
direct diuretics, stimulate the renal cells direct and increase both the
water and the solids of the urine, also diaphoretic; the citrate more
than the acetate. They have a slight depressing action on the heart, and
slightly expectorant.

USES.--Potassium acetate and citrate are indicated in irritation or
inflammation of the kidneys and bladder and cause absorption of
exudations (pleural effusion, for example) through their diuretic power.
They are sometimes prescribed in fever on account of slight diaphoretic
and powerful diuretic properties. They also stimulate bronchial
secretions and make it thinner and are recommended accordingly in
bronchitis. They are used in gouty conditions, Bright’s disease, fevers
of all kinds, azoturia, dropsical conditions, pleurisy, ascites oedema
of the legs, sheath, udder, etc., combined with tonics, as iron, etc.


POTASSII BROMIDUM--POTASSIUM BROMIDE

DERIVATION.--Potassium bromide may be obtained by adding a slight excess
of bromide to a strong solution of potassium hydroxide, evaporating the
potassium bromide and bromate to dryness, decomposing the bromate by
fusing the mixture with charcoal and purifying the crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, or white, cubical crystals, or granules;
odorless and having a strong saline taste. Permanent in the air. Soluble
in about fifteen parts of water and in about one hundred and eighty
parts of alcohol.


SODII BROMIDUM--SODIUM BROMIDE

DERIVATION.--Sodium bromide may be obtained in the same manner as
potassium bromide, sodium hydroxide being used in place of potassium
hydroxide.

PROPERTIES.--It occurs in colorless or white, cubical crystals, or a
white, granular powder, odorless and having a saline, bitter taste. The
salt absorbs moisture from the air without deliquescing. Soluble in one
and seven-tenths parts of water and in twelve and a half parts of
alcohol.

ACTION OF POTASSIUM AND SODIUM BROMIDE.--They are distinguished
depressants of the cerebral and spinal functions, also hypnotic,
anaphrodisiac, antispasmodic and alterative. The bromide of potash, like
all other potassium salts, is especially a cardiac and muscular
paralyzant. They are very diffusible and slowly eliminated; long
continued doses produce gastric catarrh. They reduce the number of
respirations and the heart’s action and force; lessen activity of brain
cells, producing sleep; diminish sensibility of peripheral nerves,
causing anesthesia of the skin and mucous membrane.

USES.--The bromides, being particularly useful in the treatment of
functional nervous diseases, do not possess nearly the value in
veterinary medicine that they have in human practice. Consequently their
use is limited mainly to canine disorders, as bromides have little
influence upon diseases of horses. They are sometimes used as sedatives
to the nervous system, to lower reflex activity, to produce sleep, to
subdue excitement of the genital apparatus and to antagonize congestion
of the brain. Used extensively in fits of dogs, twenty or thirty grain
doses of the bromide of potash or bromide of soda dissolved in a
tablespoonful of water; may be used per rectum if necessary in any
convulsive or spasmodic condition. In strychnine poisoning, the bromide
of potash may be used as an antidote in place of chloral hydrate or
conjoined with it.

DOSES.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
5 to 60 gr.; average dose, 20 gr.


POTASSII CARBONAS--POTASSIUM CARBONATE--SALTS OF TARTAR

DERIVATION.--The solution resulting from the lixiviation of wood ashes
is boiled to dryness and the resultant mass is the potash of commerce.
This is purified to some extent by burning in ovens, forming pearlash, a
mixture of the hydrate and carbonate. Water dissolves mainly the
carbonate which is obtained by evaporation of the aqueous solution.

PROPERTIES.--A white, granular powder, odorless and having a strongly
alkaline taste; very deliquescent. Soluble in water; insoluble in
alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 gr.


POTASSII BICARBONAS--POTASSIUM BICARBONATE

DERIVATION.--Potassium bicarbonate is obtained by saturating a strong
aqueous solution of potassium carbonate and carbonic anhydride.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, odorless and
having a saline and slightly alkaline taste. Permanent in the air.
Soluble in water. Almost soluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as potassium carbonate.

ACTION AND USES.--They stimulate the production of gastric juice when
administered before meals with bitter tonics, or after meals to overcome
excessive acidity of the stomach; used in rheumatism and gouty condition
to make blood alkaline and overcome lactic acid. Useful as an antacid in
nettle-rash and other itching skin diseases. Internally and externally
as a mild wash, two to four drachms to the pint. A solution of the same
strength is injected to overcome acidity of the uterus in leucorrhoea,
etc. Calculus made up of ammonium, magnesium and phosphates occur in the
bladder and urethra of highly fed rams and wethers. For this use
potassium bicarbonate one-half to one drachm, well diluted, conjoined
with laxative diet and belladonna to dilate urethra; it is less certain
as a diuretic than the acetate or nitrate of potassium.


POTASSII HYDROXIDUM--POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE--CAUSTIC POTASH

DERIVATION.--A solution hydrate is evaporated, and this is fused and run
into moulds.

PROPERTIES.--White, translucent pencils or fused masses, hard and
brittle, showing a crystalline fracture; odorless or having a faint odor
of lye and a very acid and caustic taste. Very deliquescent in air.
Soluble in water and alcohol.

Not used in this form to any extent.


LIQUOR POTASSII HYDROXIDI--SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE

A solution of potassium hydroxide (caustic potash) containing about five
per cent of the hydroxide.

DERIVATION.--Boiling a solution of potassium carbonate with calcium
hydrate leaves potassium hydrate in solution, while calcium carbonate is
precipitated.

PROPERTIES.--A clean, clear colored liquid, odorless, having a very
acrid and caustic taste.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 10 m.

ACTION AND USES.--Externally potassium hydroxide and the solution of
potassium hydroxide are irritant and caustic, when applied they abstract
water from the parts. They dissolve fatty matters, antacids and if well
diluted acts as a sedative. Internally not used to any extent, as milder
salts of potassium are preferred, is antacid, alterative, febrifuge and
diuretic. Large undiluted doses corrode and inflame the alimentary
tract, cause colicy pains, great depression and sometimes perforations.
Caustic potash is sometimes used to destroy warts and fungous growths. A
dilute solution is used to cauterize poisoned wounds, but is dangerous,
as it may penetrate too deeply and spread. This can be overcome by
washing with vinegar.


POTASSII IODIDUM--POTASSIUM IODIDE

DERIVATION.--Potassium iodide may be prepared in the same manner as
potassium bromide iodine, being used in place of bromine.

PROPERTIES.--It is a colorless, transparent, translucent, or opaque
white, cubical crystals, or white granular powder, having a peculiar,
faint, iodine-like odor and a pungent, saline, afterwards bitter, taste.
Permanent in dry air and but slightly deliquescent in moist air. Soluble
in 0.7 parts of water, and in about 12 parts of alcohol at 77° F., in
0.5 parts of boiling water, in 6 parts of boiling alcohol; also soluble
in 2.5 parts of glycerine.

ACTIONS.--Potassium iodide closely resembles iodine but is less
powerful and devoid of local irritant action. Medical doses are
antiseptic, desquamatic, deobstruent, expectorant, alterative and
diuretic. It stimulates the lymphatic system. It is readily soluble, and
is quickly absorbed in the tissues, where it undergoes decomposition;
the iodine, when liberated, apparently combines with albuminoids and
acts specially on the lymphatic glands and vessels, modifying nutrition,
hastening metabolism and promoting absorption. It is doubtless in this
way that it also unites with lead and mercury deposited in the tissues,
renders them soluble, carries them into the circulation and causes their
elimination.

It is quickly excreted by the mucus and skin surfaces, but chiefly by
the kidneys.

USES.--Potassium iodide is useful in promoting absorption of enlarged
lymphatic glands, and its action should be assisted by the application
of iodine or red iodide of mercury externally. Potassium iodide in small
doses diminishes congestion and increases the fluidity and amount of
secretions in acute laryngitis, acute and subacute bronchitis, and
appears to possess an alterative action in improving the condition and
nutrition of the bronchial mucous membranes. It is also of some value in
asthma, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, unassociated with
copious secretion. Chronic pleuritis, pericarditis and ascites are
treated with potassium iodide, which assists absorption and occasionally
exerts a diuretic effect. Tardy resolution of pneumonia consolidation is
hastened by potassium iodide. Endocarditis with cardiac hypertrophy is
said to be benefited by potassium iodide and digitalis.

Champignon, or scirrhous cord in horses, is sometimes cured by the
sorbefacient powers of potassium iodide in full doses. Potassium iodide
is of value in goiter of dogs, calves and sheep when tincture of iodine
is used externally. “Roaring” and “thick wind” may be cured by the
administration of potassium iodide. It is the best medicine known for
actinomycosis. Potassium iodide has a clinical reputation for its power
to aid absorption and resolution in inflammation or effusions of the
brain or spinal cord, in paralysis of the body or limbs and inflammation
of the membranes covering the brain.

DOSES.--Horses, 2 to 4 dr.; cattle, 3 to 6 dr.; sheep and pigs, 15 to 30
gr.; dogs, 1 to 10 gr.

It should be given to the larger animals in doses of three drachms
daily, until iodism appears, which shows itself by loss of appetite, an
irritable, catarrhal condition of the mucous membranes of the nostrils,
eyes, throat and digestive organs, a vesicular skin eruption, abstinence
from water, diminished secretions of urine, temperature elevated and
emaciation.


POTASSII NITRAS--POTASSIUM NITRATE--NITRATE OF POTASH--NITER--SALTPETRE

DERIVATION.--Nitrate of potash may be obtained by purifying crude niter,
or by the interaction of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, six-sided, rhombic prisms, or a
crystalline powder, odorless and having a cooling, saline and pungent
taste. Permanent in the air. Soluble in water; very sparingly soluble in
alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 6 dr.; dogs,
5 to 20 gr.

ACTIONS.--Large doses irritate the stomach, bowels and kidneys; medical
doses are alterative, febrifuge, diuretic and feebly laxative. Excreted
by the bronchial glands, skin and kidneys, increasing secretions of
these organs; is a cardiac depressant and mild refrigerant and
diaphoretic.

Nitrate of potash is more frequently prescribed than any other potash
salt in veterinary medicine, and is commonly considered one of the best
febrifuges. Its only service in fevers is as a diuretic.

USES.--In certain febrile conditions; in oedema of legs should be
combined with digitalis and general tonics. For dropsical conditions the
acetate and citrate are better.

Nitrate of potash is highly recommended in acute laminitis, two to four
ounces once or twice daily is given by some veterinarians.


POTASSII CHLORAS--POTASSIUM CHLORATE

DERIVATION.--Pass chlorine into a mixture of potassium carbonate and
calcium hydrate; dissolve the result in boiling water and recover the
chlorate by crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, lustrous, monoclinic prisms or plates, or white
powder, odorless, having a cooling, saline taste. Permanent in the air.
Soluble in water. Insoluble in absolute alcohol, but slightly soluble in
mixtures of alcohol and water. Explodes readily when rubbed with sugar,
sulphur, charcoal, glycerine and many other substances.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 6 dr.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 gr.

ACTION.--Chlorate of potash is antiseptic, antacid, alterative,
sialagogue, diuretic, febrifuge, and cardiac depressant; irritant to the
gastro-intestinal tract and kidneys. Externally, antiseptic, mild
stimulant and refrigerant. Is a protoplasmic poison, as is the nitrate;
disintegrates the red blood corpuscles.

USES.--Chlorate of potash is valuable as a wash or gargle, it stimulates
the salivary and buccal glands, moistening the dry, parched mouth. It
soothes and heals aphthous eruptions and ulcerations of the mouth and
throat; while in catarrh, sore throat and bronchitis it thins the
secretions and promotes expectoration. Like other salines, in febrile
and inflammatory diseases, whether in horses or cattle, it is believed
to lower pulse and temperature, clean the tongue, improve appetite,
gently stimulate the bowels and render the evacuations more natural and
less coated with mucus. It is frequently prescribed with good results in
horses suffering from catarrhal conditions of the bowels. In epizootic
catarrh, purpura, it is very beneficial prescribed with iron salts, as
it increases the coagulability of the blood. It is also prescribed with
other salines, bitter tonics or stimulants. Most animals of their own
accord will take an ounce daily, dissolved in their drinking water or
gruel. Pine tar is a soothing electuary for sore throat, it is conjoined
with camphor, belladonna and treacle.


POTASSII BITARTRAS--POTASSIUM BITARTRATE--CREAM OF TARTAR

DERIVATION.--Obtained from crude tartar deposited on the sides of wine
casks during fermentation of grape juice, by purification.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless or slightly opaque, rhombic crystals, or a white,
somewhat gritty powder; odorless and having a pleasant, acidulous taste.
Permanent in the air. Soluble in water; very sparingly soluble in
alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.;
dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.

ACTIONS.--Potassium bitartrate is a non-irritating purgative in large
doses. It is a hydragogue cathartic and has a strong affinity for water;
abstracting it from the blood vessels in the bowels, holding the same in
solution and thus flushing out the intestines.

USES.--Is used for liver disease, chronic constipation, skin disease and
as a refrigerant in febrile conditions. It should be given in solution
and is useful in dropsies, more particularly of renal origin; also in
catarrhal jaundice, and as a laxative for foals and calves. In cases
where the urine of the horse is thick, stringy and high colored, it will
cause it to regain its normal state. It may easily be administered in
either food or drinking water, and its diuretic effect is enhanced when
given with a large amount of water.


POTASSII PERMANGANAS--POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE--PERMANGANATE OF POTASH

ORIGIN.--Potassium permanganate may be obtained by the interaction of
potassium chlorate, potassium hydroxide and manganese dioxide.

ACTIONS.--Potassium permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and
readily yields up its oxygen in the form of ozone; hence it is an
antiseptic and deodorizer. Full strength it is a mild caustic. Diluted
it is astringent.

USES.--Potassium permanganate is advantageously used to deodorize and
disinfect foul smelling wounds, the nostrils in eczema, nasal gleet, the
mouth in aphthae, throat when ulcerated, diphtheria, the uterus in
metritis, retention of placenta and leucorrhoea. It is sometimes given
internally in puerperal, erysipelas and septicaemia, also to cleanse
hands or instruments. Potassium permanganate is used as a prophylactic
in solutions of one in five thousand in poultry.

Potassium permanganate acts as an oxidizant much more freely upon some
organic substances than upon others, by virtue of which fact it is a
valuable antidote, notably in the treatment of morphine-poisoning and of
snake-poisoning. In the former condition it acts only upon the alkaloid
in the stomach, but should be given frequently during the continuance of
the symptoms in order to destroy any morphine which may have been
eliminated from the blood into the stomach. In snake-poisoning a
concentrated solution of it should be injected freely and immediately
into the part which has been bitten. Potassium permanganate is one of
the best medicines with which to sterilize the hands before operating. A
saturated solution is used for this purpose and the stains may be
removed from the hands by washing them in saturated solution of oxalic
acid, or in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 15 gr. to 1 dr. in one pint of water; sheep
and pigs, 5 to 10 gr. in half pint of water; dogs and cats, ¹⁄₂ to 11
gr. in capsule with kaolin. For poultry it should be diluted one part to
five thousand parts of water.

As an antiseptic and deodorizer for disinfecting newly cut or old foul
smelling wounds and for surgical purposes one drachm to half an ounce of
the drug to one pint of water.

As an eye wash use about one in two thousand to one in one thousand.

For uterine injections use one in five thousand to one in two thousand.

As an antidote for opium, morphine or weed-poisoning it can be
administered by the mouth or hypodermically. When given for these
purposes the amount of potassium permanganate should equal that of the
poison taken.



QUSSIA--BITTER WOOD


Qussia is obtained from chips or shavings from a tall tree 70 to 100
feet high.

HABITAT.--Jamaica and other West Indian Islands.

PROPERTIES.--Qussia has no odor, but an intensely bitter taste,
dependent on a neutral crystalline principle, quassin. There is also a
volatile oil, but no tannin.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM QUASSIAE--EXTRACT OF QUSSIA

Made by percolation with water, boiling and evaporation to pilular
consistence.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 15 to 30 gr.;
dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 gr.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM QUASSIAE--FLUIDEXTRACT OF QUSSIA

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
15 m. to 1 dr.


TINCTURE QUSSIAE--TINCTURE OF QUSSIA

Made by maceration and percolation of qussia, 200 parts; with alcohol
and water to make 1000.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.;
dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Qussia is a bitter stomachic and tonic. It resembles
gentian and calumba. It is prescribed for the several domestic animals
in dyspepsia, loss of appetite and convalescence from debilitating
disorders. Qussia is the most efficient vermicide in our possession for
the destruction of Oxyuris curvula, horse; and O. vermicularis, dog, in
the lower bowel. An infusion is employed for this purpose, made by
soaking qussia chips in cold water (two drachms of the qussia to one
pint of water) for half an hour. The rectum should be first thoroughly
washed out with soap and water and one-half pint of this infusion is
given in enema to dogs; two quarts to horses. The infusion is a narcotic
poison for flies and other insects.


JALAPA--JALAP

The dried tuberous roots of Exogonium Purga Bentham, yielding not less
than eight per cent of total resin, but not more than one and a half per
cent of the resin soluble in ether.

HABITAT.--Southern United States and Mexico.

PROPERTIES.--The root is dark brown, with numerous concentric circles
composed of small resin cells; fracture resinous, lustrous, not fibrous;
odor slight, but peculiar, smoky and sweetish; taste sweetish and acrid.

DOSE.--Pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs, 1 to 2 dr.; cats, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.


RESINA JALAPA--RESIN OF JALAP

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol, partial distillation;
precipitation with water; washing and drying.

PROPERTIES.--Yellowish-brown powder, having a slight, peculiar odor, and
a somewhat acrid taste. Permanent in air. Soluble in alcohol, ether,
fixed and volatile oils.

DOSE.--Pigs, 30 gr. to 1 dr.; dogs, 15 to 30 gr.; cats, 5 to 15 gr.

ACTION AND USES.--Jalap is a hydragogue cathartic, a vermifuge and
cholagogue. By adding calomel to jalap its power is increased; jalap is
more active than senna, but is less powerful and irritating than gamboge
or podophyllum. Jalap may be given to expel round and thread worms; in
torpidity of the liver, and in chronic constipation in dogs.


PREPARATIONS


PULVIS JALAPA COMPOSITUS--COMPOUND POWDER OF JALAP

Composed of jalap, 35 parts; potassium bitartrate, to make 100.

DOSE.--Dogs, 15 to 30 gr.



RHAMNUS PURSHIANA--CASCARA SAGRADA--CALIFORNIA BUCKTHORN--CHITTEM BARK


The bark of Rhamnus Persiana de Candolle (nat. ord. Rhamnaceae).
Collected at least one year before being used.

HABITAT.--United States from Northern Idaho west to the Pacific Ocean.

PROPERTIES.--Externally the bark is reddish-brown. Internally yellowish
to light brownish, becoming dark with age. Odor distinct; taste bitter
and slightly acrid.

CONSTITUENTS.--Three resins; a neutral body; a volatile oil; malic and
tannic acids.

DOSE.--Dogs, 5 to 30 gr.; cats, 1 to 5 gr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM RHAMNI PURSHIANAE--FLUIDEXTRACT OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA

Made by maceration and percolation with diluted alcohol, and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Dogs, 5 to 30 m.; cats, 1 to 5 m.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM RHAMNI PURSHIANA AROMATICUM--AROMATIC FLUIDEXTRACT OF
CASCARA SAGRADA

DOSE.--Dogs, 5 to 30 m.; cats, 1 to 5 m.

ACTION AND USES.--Used as a non-irritant tonic laxative or cathartic;
small doses are stomachic; to overcome chronic constipation, give small
repeated doses; very useful in canine practice. The aromatic
fluidextract is the best preparation, and is occasionally given to dogs
and cats with castor oil.


RHEUM--RHUBARB

The dried roots of Rheum, of which there are several species.

HABITAT.--China and Thibet.

PROPERTIES.--When powdered it is of a bright orange-yellow, odor
characteristic; taste bitter, astringent; gritty when chewed.

DOSE.--As a stomachic--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 ozs.; sheep, 1 dr.;
dogs and cats, 5 to 10 gr.

As a mild purgative--Foals and calves, 1 to 2 dr.; dogs and cats, ¹⁄₂ to
2 dr.; poultry, 5 to 10 gr., in pill.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM RHEI--FLUIDEXTRACT OF RHUBARB

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol and water, and
evaporated.

DOSE.--Same as that of rhubarb.


PULVIS RHEI COMPOSITUS--COMPOUND POWDER OF RHUBARB--GREGORY’S POWDER

Composed of rhubarb, 25 parts; magnesia, 65 parts; ginger, to make 100.

DOSE.--Foals and calves, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 dr.


TINCTURE RHEI AROMATICA--AROMATIC TINCTURE OF RHUBARB

Composed of rhubarb, cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg.

DOSE.--Calves, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; foals, 2 to 6 dr.; sheep, 4 dr. to 1 oz.;
lambs, ¹⁄₂ to 2 dr.; dogs, ¹⁄₂ to 3 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Rhubarb is a stomachic, tonic, astringent, mildly
cathartic and cholagogue. Rhubarb is useful where there is a lack of
tone to the bowels; used in diarrhoea in small doses, for its
stimulating tonic action; as a laxative in large doses or may be
combined with other laxatives, to prevent griping in milk-fed animals,
or may be combined with bismuth, opium or sulphuric acid, to stop
diarrhoea; as a laxative or purgative. The fluidextract or powdered root
may be combined with calomel, jalap, etc.



SALICINUM--SALICIN


A neutral principle (glucoside) obtained from several species of the
willow and poplar tree.

HABITAT.--Europe, but cultivated in North America.

DERIVATION.--Obtained from a decoction of willow bark. Salicin
crystallizes on evaporation, after removal of tannin by agitation with
lead oxide. It is purified by repeated solution and crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--A white, silky, shining crystalline needle, or colorless
crystalline powder; odorless, and having a very bitter taste. Permanent
in air. Soluble in 28 parts of water and 30 parts of alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; sheep, 1 to 4 dr.; pigs, ¹⁄₂
to 1 dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 gr.

ACTIONS.--Bitter tonic, antipyretic, antiferment and antiseptic,
somewhat antiperiodic resembling quinine in its actions, but not as
powerful.

USES.--Used in febrile conditions about the same as quinine, its chief
use is in acute rheumatism, for which it is a very good remedy; as a
diaphoretic is used in large doses.



SINAPIS ALBA--WHITE MUSTARD


DERIVATION.--The dried ripe seeds of Sinapis alba Linne.

HABITAT.--Southern Europe and Asia; cultivated in temperate climates.

DESCRIPTION.--Globular, with a circular hilum; shell yellowish, finely
pitted, hard; embryo oily, with a curved radicle and two cotyledons, one
folded over the other; free from starch; inodorous; taste pungent and
acrid.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 to 4 dr.; cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2
dr.; dogs, 10 to 15 gr.



SINAPIS NIGRA--BLACK MUSTARD


DERIVATION.--The dried ripe seeds of Sinapis Nigra Linne.

HABITAT.--Same as White Mustard.

DESCRIPTION.--Globular, with a circular hilum; shell blackish-brown, or
grayish-brown, finely pitted, hard; embryo oily, with curved radicle and
two cotyledons, one folded over the other; free from starch; inodorous
when dry, but when triturated with water, of a pungent, penetrating,
irritating odor; taste pungent and acrid.

CONSTITUENTS.--In the presence of water the latter converts the former
into the acrid, volatile, official oil of mustard.

DOSE.--Same as white mustard. Commercial form of mustard is a mixture of
black and white mustard, and constitutes Sinapis.


PREPARATIONS


OLEUM SINAPIS VOLATILE--VOLATILE OIL OF MUSTARD

DERIVATION.--A volatile oil obtained from black mustard by maceration
with water and subsequent distillation.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless or pale yellow, and strongly refractive liquid,
having a very pungent and acrid odor and taste. Freely soluble in
alcohol, ether or carbon disulphide, the solution being neutral to
litmus paper. Specific gravity 1.013 to 1.020.

ACTIONS.--Is irritant or counter-irritant, rubefacient, vesicant or
suppurant, according to the manner in which it is used; it acts much
quicker than cantharides, but its action is not so prolonged; the paste
made with water and rubbed into the skin of horses, produces its effects
within twenty minutes; in two to six hours vesication occurs, pustules
may occur where the paste is used very strong or closely repeated, or
too much has been used.

The volatile oil of mustard is a very powerful vesicant and acts very
quickly.

USES.--It is used as a counter-irritant in laryngitis, pharyngitis,
bronchitis, pneumonia and pleurisy, or wherever a counter-irritant is
indicated; applied in the early congested stages it lessens the pain and
relieves difficult breathing, besides reflexly limiting the amount of
blood in the parts; it thus limits or decreases the inflammatory action;
also useful in the exudative stages of these diseases; to promote the
absorption of the exudate and thus hasten resolution, or where these
diseases remain dormant; also arouse a depressed nervous system and
reflexly stimulates the heart; can be used in spinal diseases or in
congestion of the kidneys.

It acts best when applied and left on 20 or 30 minutes, then washed off
and repeat in an hour or two; also used in acute indigestion, applied to
the abdomen; also in colic, enteritis and peritonitis; in phlebitis
mustard can be used, but a cantharides blister is better. In making a
mustard plaster, take the pure powdered mustard and gradually pour in
warm water (not hot); can also be made with cold water or vinegar; rub
in with moderate friction.

As an emetic for dogs one to two teaspoonfuls in one or two ounces of
warm water is very effective.



SODIUM BICARBONATE--BICARBONATE OF SODA


ORIGIN.--Bicarbonate of soda may be obtained by exposing crystals of
sodium carbonate to carbonic anhydride, or by the interaction of sodium
chloride and ammonium bicarbonate.

PROPERTIES.--Bicarbonate of soda is a white, opaque powder, odorless and
having a cooling, mildly alkaline taste. It is permanent in dry, but
slowly decomposes in moist air. Soluble in twelve parts of water at 15°
C. (59° F.); above this temperature the solution gradually loses carbon
dioxide, and at boiling heat the salt is entirely converted into normal
carbonate, insoluble in alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Antacid, peristaltic stimulant, carminative, alterative and
mildly anodyne externally. It also increases fluidity of and secretion
of gastric juice.

USES.--In disorders of the digestive organ administered half hour before
meals, to increase the flow of gastric juice, or as an antacid after
meals. Young calves when fed on stale skim milk, suffering from
dyspepsia, are benefited by one to two drams of bicarbonate of soda,
dissolved in each meal of milk. Bicarbonate of soda has become a very
popular medicine in the treatment of azoturia in about four ounce doses
every four hours. Bicarbonate of soda is used to lessen the irritation
of itching skin disorders, as nettle-rash and urticaria, one ounce to a
quart of water. Also used as an injection for leucorrhoea. It is an
antidote for acid poisoning.

DOSES.--Horses, 2 dr. to 4 oz.; cattle, 2 dr. to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs,
¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; dogs, 10 to 30 gr.



SODII CHLORIDUM--SODIUM CHLORIDE--COMMON OR TABLE SALT


ORIGIN.--Mined in a native state and obtained by evaporation of brine,
spring or sea water.

PROPERTIES.--It is officially described as in “colorless, transparent,
cubical crystals, or a white, crystalline powder, odorless and heavy, a
purely saline taste.” Permanent in dry air. Soluble in two and
eight-tenths parts of water at 25° C. (77° F.), and in two and a half
parts of boiling water; almost insoluble in alcohol.

ACTIONS.--Sodium chloride in small doses is a condiment, restorative,
tonic, stomachic, antiferment, alterative, laxative, anthelmintic
antiseptic emetic for dogs and used as an injection for pin worms.

Animals deprived of salt do not thrive as it is an essential constituent
of food necessary to the composition of HCl in the gastric juice, and of
blood plasma, from which it is constantly eliminated in the urine. As an
emetic for dogs one to four drams of salt, and one dram of powdered
mustard dissolved in four ounces of tepid water. Common salt as an
eye-wash is a tonic to the eyes; one dram to a pint of water. Feed
animals refined salt, as rocksalt contains irritating properties due to
its great impurity. A cooling and stimulating lotion for sprains and
bruises may be made by dissolving two ounces of common salt, nitrate of
potash and chloride of ammonia in a quart of water.

Use pure cooking salt in _normal salt solution_, which contains six of
one per cent (about fifty grains to a pint), or may be made at once by
adding a heaping teaspoonful of pure salt into a quart of sterilized
water at a temperature of 100° to 110° F. In cases of azoturia give
plenty of salt; it acts as a diuretic, makes the horse thirsty and
causes him to drink water freely and flushes the kidneys.

DOSE.--Horse, ¹⁄₂ to 1 oz.; cattle, 2 to 3 oz.; sheep, 2 to 4 dr.; pigs,
1 to 2 dr.; dogs, 5 to 20 gr. These doses are stomachic alterative; when
used for cattle as a cathartic and vermifuge give 10 to 20 ounces in
water, usually combined with magnesium or sodium sulphate.



SODII SULPHAS--SODIUM SULPHATE--GLAUBER’S SALTS


ORIGIN.--Sodium sulphate effloresces on the soil in various parts of
Europe. It also exists in solution in many mineral springs in the United
States. Sodium sulphate is also produced artificially in several
chemical operations.

PROPERTIES.--Sodium sulphate is in large, colorless, transparent,
monoclinic prisms, or granular crystals; odorless, and having a bitter,
saline taste. It effloresces rapidly in the air, and finally loses all
its water of crystalization. Soluble in three parts of water at the
temperature of 59° F., insoluble in alcohol, soluble in glycerine.

ACTIONS.--Saline cathartic, cholagogue, hepatic stimulant, slightly
diuretic and febrifuge. When the effects of a hepatic stimulant is
required it should be given in small repeated doses.

USES.--It is advantageously used as a cathartic in congestion of the
liver, in small repeated doses, also useful in dropsical conditions,
influenza, especially where the liver is involved; tetanus and febrile
diseases, where the bowels are apt to be constipated. Give two to four
ounces in a bucket of water. It is successfully used in itching skin
diseases in full doses combined with bicarbonate of soda two to four
ounces.

DOSES.--As a cathartic, well diluted in water at about 59° F.; horses,
16 to 24 ounces; cattle, 1 to 2 pounds; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 ounces.
Where repetition is necessary the dose should be reduced one-eighth of
the above. Best results are obtained when administered with capsicum or
ginger, as it prevents griping and assists its action.



SODII THIOSULPHAS--SODIUM THIOSULPHATE--SODIUM HYPOSULPHITE


ORIGIN.--Sodium hyposulphite is prepared by dissolving sulphur in
boiling aqueous solution of sodium sulphite.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms; odorless and
having a cooling, afterwards bitter taste. Permanent in air 91.4° F.,
but efflorescent in dry air above that temperature; slightly
deliquescent in moist air. Soluble in about 0.35 parts of water at 77°
F. At boiling heat the solution is rapidly decomposed; insoluble in
alcohol, slightly soluble in turpentine.

ACTIONS.--Sodium hyposulphite is an antiseptic, deodoriser and
insecticide. In the presence of acids, without and also within the body,
it gives off sulphurous acid, which it therefore resembles. It is
thought to destroy ferments and bacteria, and removes offensive smells.
Its properties are greatly increased when used along with the tar acids.
When standing long in contact with water the sulphite decomposes and
gives off hydrogen sulphide.

USES.--Sodium hyposulphite is recommended in indigestion, fermentation,
flatulence and foul smelling feces and in general septic conditions, but
have proven as useless as most other medicines in their latter stages.
It is used externally in parasitic affections of the skin and mouth in
the form of an ointment or solution.

DOSES.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1¹⁄₂ ozs.; sheep and pigs, ¹⁄₂ to 1
dr.; dogs, 5 to 30 gr.



SPIRITUS AETHERIS NITROSI--SPIRIT OF NITROUS ETHER--SWEET SPIRITS OF
NITER


An alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrate, yielding when freshly prepared
not less than four per cent of ethyl nitrate.

DERIVATIVE.--Mix sulphuric acid (40 c. c.) with water (120 c. c.), cool
and add alcohol and water each, (85 c. c.) and place in (1000 c. c.)
flask surrounded by ice and water. Dissolve sodium nitrate (100 gm.) in
water (285 c. c.), filter and allow filtrate to drop slowly into the
flask above. Wash ethyl nitrate formed with sodium carbonate solution,
to remove acid, and agitate with potassium carbonate, to remove water.
Add ethyl-nitrate to 22 times its weight of alcohol.

PROPERTIES.--A clear, mobile, volatile, inflammable liquid, of a
pale-yellowish or faintly greenish-yellow tint, having a fragrant
ethereal and pungent odor, free from acidity, and a sharp burning taste.
Mixes freely with water and alcohol.

DOSES AS A STIMULANT AND ANTISPASMODIC.--Horses, 1 to 3 oz.; cattle, 1
to 4 ozs.; sheep, 2 to 4 dr.; pigs, 1 to 2 dr.; dogs, 15 m. to 1 dr. As
a febrifuge and diuretic horses take from 4 dr. to 1 oz.; 4 dr. is
sufficient as a rule every two, three or four hours, usually combined
with other medicines for all of its purposes, in fever and colic cases.

ACTIONS.--Spirit of nitrous ether conjoins the action of the alcohol and
ethyl nitrite of which it consists. It is hence a general stimulant and
a relaxer and paralyzer of non-striped muscle. It relieves acute fever
and the difficult breathing of bronchitis and asthma. It is
antispasmodic, diaphoretic and diuretic. Large doses are narcotic.

USES.--Consisting of strong spirit and a saline ether, when swallowed it
stimulates the stomach and intestines; is hence stomachic, carminative
and antispasmodic, and is prescribed to animals in indigestion,
tympanites, colic and convalescence from debilitating disorders. But its
properties as a diffusible nitrite, relaxing spasm of involuntary
muscles, also come into operation. It dilates arterioles, thus decreases
arterial tension, and hence is of special value in the acute stages of
fever, whether depending upon specific conditions or local inflammation.
It relaxes the muscular fibers of the bronchial tubes, and thus relieves
the spasmodic contraction and difficulty of breathing, which
characterise catarrh, bronchitis and some forms of asthma. It is
specially indicated when the heart action is weak and there is
difficulty of breathing--conditions frequently concurring in influenza
of horses. During excretion, notably by the skin and kidneys, its
twofold constitution is further useful as the alcohol stimulates
secretion, while the ethyl nitrate dilates the lumen of contracted
vessels, and thus diaphoresis and diuresis are promoted in fevers, local
inflammations, rheumatism and other disorders. As it is readily
decomposed, even by water, it should be diluted or mixed with other
medicines or water only immediately before it is administered. It is
usually given in cold water, beer or linseed tea.



SPIRITUS GLYCERYLIS NITRATIS--SPIRIT OF GLYCERYL TRINITRATE--SPIRIT OF
GLONOIN


An alcoholic solution containing one per cent, by weight, of
nitroglycerine. It is probably decomposed in the formation of potassium
and sodium nitrite.

DERIVATION.--Nitroglycerine is prepared by dropping pure glycerine upon
a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids, kept cool by ice, and purified
by washing with water. The official one per cent solution is not
explosive unless it becomes concentrated by evaporation to an extent
exceeding ten per cent.

PROPERTIES.--A clear, colorless liquid, possessing the odor and taste of
alcohol. Caution should be exercised in tasting it, since even a small
quantity is liable to produce violent headache.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, ¹⁄₂ to 1 dr.; sheep and pigs, 5 to 20 m.;
dogs, 1 to 2 m. It is administered hypodermically, intravenously,
intracheally or by the mouth according to the emergency of the case. For
hypodermic injections one-half drachm is usually sufficient and should
be diluted with one or two parts of water. It may be repeated in 15 or
20 minutes if necessary, then every hour or two if required. Care should
be exercised not to repeat oftener than is necessary, or to give too
large a dose as violent headache is produced by the drug in animals as
well as in man.

ACTIONS.--Are the same as amyl nitrite, but more prolonged.

Spirit of nitroglycerine is the most prompt and powerful of all heart
stimulants, showing its effects usually within three to five minutes.

USES.--It is best used in the official solution, but for dogs may be
carried in tablets or pills containing ¹⁄₁₀₀ of a grain of glonoin. The
spirit, however is more dependable. It is a good plan in cases of
cardiac weakness to brace up the heart with Spirit of Glonoin, then
maintain the effect with Tincture Strophanthus.



SULPHUR SUBLIMATUM--SUBLIMED SULPHUR--FLOWERS OF SULPHUR


DERIVATION.--Obtained from native sulphur by sublimation.

PROPERTIES.--A fine, yellow powder, having a slightly characteristic
odor and a faintly acid taste. Insoluble in water; slightly soluble in
absolute alcohol; more readily soluble in benzine, benzol, oil of
turpentine and many other oils; also in ether, chloroform and in boiling
aqueous solutions of alkaline hydrates.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to 2 oz.; dogs,
1 to 4 dr.


PREPARATIONS


SULPHUR LOTUM--WASHED SULPHUR

DERIVATION.--Obtained from sublimed sulphur, which is treated with
diluted ammonia water to wash out sulphurous and sulphuric and ether
impurities.

PROPERTIES.--A fine, yellow powder, without odor or taste. Solubility
same as sublimed sulphur.

DOSE.--Same as sublimed sulphur.


SULPHUR PRECIPITATUM--PRECIPITATED SULPHUR

DERIVATION.--Obtained from a solution of sublimed sulphur, 100; in
boiling calcium hydrate, 50; by precipitation with hydrochloric acid.

PROPERTIES.--A fine, amorphous powder, of a pale yellow color, without
odor or taste. Solubility same as sublimed sulphur.

DOSE.--Same as sublimed sulphur.


UNGUENTUM SULPHURIS--SULPHUR OINTMENT

Composed of washed sulphur, 150; benzoinated lard, 850.

ACTIONS.--Sulphur applied to skin or mucous surfaces is a feeble,
mechanical stimulant, and hence relieves chronic passive congestion. It
destroys parasitic infestation of the skin. Administered internally it
is a laxative and alterative. It destroys fungi on vines and kills
similar parasites affecting plants and animals. How much of this toxic
effect depends on the sulphur acting as sulphur, and how much on the
alkaline sulphides, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid into which
it is gradually converted, has not been determined. Sulphur when
swallowed is slowly acted upon by the alkaline secretions of the
intestines, and small quantities are converted into sulphides, which
stimulate the intestinal mucous membrane. A further change liberates
sulphuretted hydrogen, which imparts its disagreeable smell to the
breath, secretions of the skin and bowels. The greater part of the
sulphur swallowed is removed unchanged by the bowels, but a portion is
excreted in the urine as sulphates. Over-doses given to horses and other
animals cause colic, purging, prostration and sometime fatal
gastro-enteritis.

USES.--Sulphur is given to the several domestic animals as a laxative
where more powerful purgatives might irritate--as in pregnancy,
convalescence from acute diseases in young animals, and in piles.

Its alterative and stimulant effects on the skin have led to its use in
rheumatism, eczema and cutaneous diseases. Some veterinarians affirm
that it benefits dry congested conditions of the respiratory membrane by
stimulating its epithelial cells and increasing movements of the cilia.
It has no special vermicide action. Sulphur dusted on the skin slightly
stimulates, but when dissolved by admixture with an alkali or oil, and
smartly rubbed in, it more actively stimulates the cells of the rete
Malpighi and thus hastens desquamation; while it also increases
contractility of the muscular textures, and hence overcomes passive
cutaneous hyperaemia. It thus promotes a healthier action in chronic
eczema and psoriasis, and in such cases sulphur dressings are used with
benefit combined or alternated with iodine or tar acids, and are aided
by the internal use of sulphur and arsenic. Infriction of sulphur
ointment is stated to relieve the pain of rheumatic muscles and joints.
Sulphurous gas from burning sulphur is used for husk or hoose of sheep
and calves; this is a disease in which worms affect the bronchial tubes,
due to strongylus micrurus in calves and strongylus filaria in sheep.
The patients are placed in a loose box and sulphur is burned about six
feet away from them, so that air may dilute the fumes before being
inhaled by the animals; let them inhale the fumes for ten or twenty
minutes or longer, unless irritation is too great.



TARAXACUM--DANDELION ROOT


The fresh and dried roots of Taraxacum officinale, collected in the
autumn.

HABITAT.--United States and Europe.

PROPERTIES.--The root is about six to twelve inches long, half an inch
to an inch thick, is dark brown externally and white within. It breaks
with a short fracture; from the fractured surface a milky juice exudes,
which is inodorous, but has a bitter taste.

CONSTITUENTS.--Taraxacin, a bitter, soluble, crystalline substance;
inulin, taraxacerin, resin causing milky juice, asparagin of no medical
value.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
1 to 2 dr.


PREPARATIONS


EXTRACTUM TARAXACI--EXTRACT OF TARAXACUM

Made by percolation of powdered taraxacum with alcohol and water, and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 4 dr.; sheep and pigs, 30 gr. to 1 dr.;
dogs, 5 to 20 gr.


FLUIDEXTRACTUM TARAXACI--FLUIDEXTRACT OF TARAXACUM

Made by maceration and percolation with dilute alcohol, and
evaporation.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 oz.; sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 dr.; dogs,
1 to 2 dr.

ACTION AND USES.--Taraxacum is a simple stomachic and bitter and may be
employed in place of gentian or calumba. It has been generally taught
that taraxacum is a hepatic stimulant and increases the secretion of
bile. This has been proven valueless. The extract is often used as a
base in preparing masses.



ZINGIBER--GINGER


The scraped and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale.

HABITAT.--East and West Indies and India; cultivated in tropical
climates.

PROPERTIES.--Ginger owes its taste to a pungent resin, its aroma to a
volatile oil, and its medicinal and flavoring properties to both
constituents, which are chiefly found in the delicate felted layer lying
between the starchy, mealy parenchyma and the brown, horny, external
covering.

DOSE.--Horses, 2 dr. to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 to 4 oz.; sheep and pigs, 1 to
2 dr.; dogs, 5 to 15 gr.


PREPARATIONS


FLUIDEXTRACTUM ZINGIBERIS--FLUIDEXTRACT OF GINGER

Made by maceration and percolation with alcohol, and evaporated so that
1 c. c. equals 1 gm. of the crude drug.

DOSE.--Same as for ginger.


TINCTURE ZINGIBERIS--TINCTURE OF GINGER

Made by percolation of ginger with alcohol and water.

DOSE.--Horses, ¹⁄₂ to 2 oz.; cattle, 1 to 4 oz.; sheep, 2 dr. to 1 oz.;
pigs, 1 to 2 dr.; dogs, 15 to 30 m.


OLEORESINA ZINGIBERIS--OLEORESIN OF GINGER

DOSE.--Horses, 30 m. to 1¹⁄₂ dr.; dogs, 1 to 5 m.

ACTION AND USES.--Ginger is an aromatic stimulant, and is used as a
stomachic and carminative for all animals, notably for cattle and sheep.
Ginger is administered internally, promotes gastric secretion, digestion
and appetite. It is prescribed in atonic dyspepsia, often along with
antacids and laxatives. Conjoined with purgatives it diminishes their
tendency to nauseate and gripe, and also somewhat hastens their effects.
The powder or fluidextract should be added to magnesium and sodium
sulphate when given in full purgative doses to cattle or sheep.



ZINCI PHENOLSULPHONAS--ZINC SULPHOCARBOLATE


DERIVATION.--Zinc sulphocarbolate may be obtained by heating a mixture
of phenol and sulphuric acid and saturating the product with zinc oxide.

PROPERTIES.--Colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms or tabular crystals;
odorless and having an astringent, metallic taste. Soluble in water and
alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr.; foals and calves, 5 to 10 gr.;
sheep and pigs, 20 to 40 gr.; dogs, 4 to 6 gr.

ACTION AND USES.--Zinc sulphocarbolate has been employed as an
antiseptic astringent stimulant to indolent or foul wounds, and in
subacute inflammations of the mucous membrane. The solution used may be
a little stronger than those of zinc sulphate employed for similar
purposes. It is also used as an intestinal antiseptic.


ZINCI SULPHAS--ZINC SULPHATE

DERIVATION.--Prepared by dissolving zinc in sulphuric acid. Iron and tin
exist as impurities and are removed by chlorine solution and zinc
carbonate.

PROPERTIES.--A colorless, transparent, rhombic crystal, without odor and
having an astringent, metallic taste. Efflorescent in dry air; soluble
in water and glycerine; insoluble in alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 20 gr.;
dogs, 2 to 3 gr. As an emetic for dogs, 10 to 15 gr.

ACTIONS.--Irritant, emetic, astringent, antiseptic and nerve tonic.
Externally it is used as stimulant, astringent and antiseptic; in dogs
it is a prompt and efficient emetic, causes no depression and acts both
on the stomach nerve centers; poisonous or long continued large doses in
the horse dry up the secretions, cause nausea, colic and efforts to
vomit; dogs cannot be poisoned by it as it causes vomiting.

USES.--As a tonic it is inferior to iron; chief use is externally as an
astringent; it is used in white lotion combined with lead acetate;
sometimes used internally with opium to stop excessive sweating in
frequent small doses. Used as a safe and prompt emetic for dogs and
pigs.

Externally in solution as an astringent and stimulant for wounds,
ulcers, simple ophthalmia and irritable conditions of the mucous
membrane of the uterus or vagina and urethra, vesicular and pustulant
skin eruptions. Proper strength, one ounce to one quart of water in
ophthalmia, one-half to one drachm to one pint of water.


ZINCI CARBONAS PRAECIPITATUS--PRECIPITATED ZINC CARBONATE

DERIVATION.--Solutions of nearly equal weight of sodium carbonate and
zinc sulphate are boiled together; dry precipitate. This salt is in
reality a mixture of zinc carbonate and oxide, in varying proportions,
with water of crystallization.

PROPERTIES.--An impalpable white powder, of somewhat variable chemical
composition, without odor or taste; insoluble in water or alcohol.


ZINCI OXIDUM--ZINC OXIDE

DERIVATION.--Zinc oxide, may be prepared by exposing zinc carbonate to a
dull red heat, or from metallic zinc by combustion.

PROPERTIES.--An amorphous, white powder without odor or taste. Insoluble
in water or alcohol.

DOSE.--Horses and cattle, 1 to 2 dr.; sheep and pigs, 10 to 20 gr.;
dogs, 5 to 10 gr. Not much used internally.


PREPARATIONS


UNGUENTUM ZINCI OXIDE--OINTMENT OF ZINC OXIDE

Composed of zinc oxide, 200 parts; benzoinated lard, 800 parts.

ACTIONS AND USES.--Used chiefly as a dusting powder for wounds and
excoriated surfaces; used alone or conjoined with boric acid, subnitrate
of bismuth, calomel or in the form of the zinc oxide ointment is
desiccant, mildly astringent and protective; it is sometimes used in
chorea, epilepsy and other nervous diseases; to check excessive sweating
and in diarrhoea. Used extensively in wounds and diseases of the cow’s
udder.


ZINCI ACETAS--ZINC ACETATE

DERIVATION.--Dissolve zinc oxide in diluted acetic acid and boil.
Evaporate and crystallize.

PROPERTIES.--Soft, white, six-sided monoclinic plates, of a pearly
lustre, having a faintly acidious odor and an astringent metallic taste.
Soluble in water and in alcohol.

DOSE.--Same as zinc sulphate.

ACTION AND USES.--The same as zinc sulphate; it is the acetate of zinc
which is the soluble agent in white lotion, caused by the acetate of
lead and sulphate of zinc changing their composition.


ZINCI CHLORIDUM--ZINC CHLORIDE

DERIVATION.--Dissolve zinc in hydrochloric acid by boiling. The solution
contains the zinc chloride with chlorides of iron and lead as
impurities. These are precipitated by adding first nitric acid then zinc
carbonate. Filter and finally evaporate.

PROPERTIES.--A white, granular powder, or porcelain-like masses,
irregular or moulded into pencils; odorless; of such intensely caustic
properties as to make tasting dangerous unless the salt be dissolved in
much water, when it has an astringent, metallic taste; very
deliquescent; soluble in water and alcohol.


LIQUOR ZINCI CHLORIDE--SOLUTION OF ZINC CHLORIDE

DERIVATION.--Made from zinc chloride and water. It should contain about
50 per cent, by weight, of the salt. Zinc chloride is used externally
only.

PROPERTIES.--A clear, colorless, liquid, odorless, having a very
astringent, metallic taste.

ACTION AND USES.--Is caustic and escharotic, used full strength or in a
strong solution; penetrates very deeply and causes deep sloughing; an
irritant and corrosive poison; mild medical solutions are antiseptic and
astringent; is also disinfectant and deodorizer. Can be used as a
caustic when indicated; used with caution, for granulations in chronic
ulcers and foot-rot in sheep; to slough out all kinds of fistula,
usually mixed with one or two parts of flour made into a paste with
water, two ounces in a pint of water is injected as a caustic into
fistulous tracts; two or three per cent solution or two to four drachms
to the pint of water is used for ordinary astringent purposes and as a
parasiticide.



VALUABLE DRUGS AND THEIR DOSES FOR DOMESTIC ANIMALS


In the list of doses, oz. stands for ounce, pt. for pint, lb. for pound,
gr. for grain, dr. for dram, dp. for drop.

  ==================+=========+=========+=========+=========+===========
     Name of Drug   |  Cattle |  Sheep  |  Horses |   Hogs  |   Dogs
  ------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-----------
  Alcohol           |4 oz.    |1-2 oz.  |2-4 oz.  |1-2 oz.  |1-4 dr.
  Alum              |3-4 dr.  |40 gr.   |2-4 dr.  |40 gr.   |15 gr.
  Ammonia Aromatic  |2 oz.    |1-2 dr.  |1-2 oz.  |1-2 dr.  |20-60 dp.
  Aniseed           |1-5 oz.  |1-2 dr.  |1 oz.    |1 dr.    |15 gr.
  Arnica Tincture   |1 oz.    |2 dr.    |.5-1 oz. |1 dr.    |7-20 dp.
  Asafetida Tincture|3 oz.    |.5 oz.   |2 oz.    |2 dr.    |1 dr.
  Boracic Acid      |3 dr.    |20 gr.   |1-3 dr.  |15 gr.   |8 gr.
  Brandy            |4 oz.    |1-2 oz.  |2-4 oz.  |1-2 oz.  |1-2 dr.
  Calomel           |1-2 dr.  |5-20 gr. |1 dr.    |5-20 gr. |1 gr.
  Camphor Spirit    |1 oz.    |2 dr.    |2-4 dr.  |15 dp.   |10 dp.
  Carbolic Acid     |1-2 dr.  |10-20 dp.|.5-2 dr. |5-15 dp. |3-8 dp.
  Castor Oil        |1 pt.    |2-4 oz.  |1 pt.    |2-4 oz.  |1-2 dr.
  Chalk             |2 oz.    |1-2 dr.  |.5-2 oz. |1 dr.    |.5-1 dr.
  Codliver Oil      |3-8 oz.  |3-8 dr.  |2-6 oz.  |2-6 dr.  |1-3 dr.
  Copperas          |2 dr.    |20 gr.   |1 dr.    |10 gr.   |4 gr.
  Copper Sulphate   |2-4 dr.  |20-30 gr.|2-4 dr.  |20-30 gr.|1-2 gr.
  Digitalis         |10-30 gr.|5-15 gr. |10-50 gr.|3-10 gr. |2 gr.
  Epsom Salts       |1 lb.    |1-4 oz.  |.5-1 lb. |1 oz.    |1-4 dr.
  Fowler’s Solution |5 dr.    |5-20 dp. |2-4 dr.  |5-20 dp. |1-5 dp.
  Gentian           |5-8 dr.  |1-2 dr.  |4-8 dr.  |1-2 dr.  |40 gr.
  Ginger            |5-8 dr.  |1-2 dr.  |2-8 dr.  |15-60 gr.|5-20 gr.
  Glauber Salts     |1-1.5 lb.|1-4 dr.  |.5-1 lb. |1 oz.    |1-4 dr.
  Iodide of Potash  |1-2 dr.  |10-25 gr.|.5-2 dr. |5-20 gr. |2-8 gr.
  Iron Sulphate.    |2 dr.    |25 gr.   |1-2 dr.  |25 gr.   |4 gr.
  Jamaica Ginger    |2 oz.    |.5 oz.   |1 oz.    |.5-1 dr. |¹⁄₄-¹⁄₂ dr.
  Laudanum          |2-5 oz.  |1-4 dr.  |1-4 oz.  |1-2 dr.  |20 dp.
  Lead Acetate      |1 dr.    |25 gr.   |1 dr.    |20 gr.   |1-2 gr.
  Lime Water        |4-6 oz.  |2 oz.    |4-6 oz.  |2 oz.    |1-8 dr.
  Linseed Oil       |1-2 pt.  |6-12 oz. |.5-1 pt. |5-10 oz. |1 oz.
  Mustard           |1 oz.    |1-2 dr.  |.5-1 oz. |1-2 dr.  |20 gr.
  Nitre             |3-8 oz.  |1 dr.    |1-2 oz.  |1 dr.    |5-20 gr.
  Nux Vomica        |2 dr.    |30-40 gr.|1-2 dr.  |10-20 gr.|1-2 gr.
  Olive Oil         |1-2 pt.  |3-8 dr.  |1-2 pt.  |2-6 dr.  |2-4 oz.
  Pepper            |2-4 dr.  |15-25 gr.|1-3 dr.  |10-20 gr.|4-10 gr.
  Potassium Bromide |2 oz.    |2-4 dr.  |1-2 oz.  |2-4 dr.  |5-50 gr.
  Quinine           |1-2 dr.  |5-10 gr. |50-60 gr.|5-10 gr. |1-2 gr.
  Rhubarb           |1-2 oz.  |1 dr.    |1-2 oz.  |1 dr.    |5-10 gr.
  Saltpeter         |1-3 dr.  |.5-1 dr. |2-4 dr.  |.5-1 dr. |2-10 gr.
  Soda              |2 oz.    |2-4 dr.  |1-1.5 oz.|1-3 dr.  |20-50 gr.
  Sulphur           |3-4 oz.  |1-2 oz.  |2-4 oz.  |1-2 oz.  |1-4 dr.
  Turpentine        |2 oz.    |1-4 dr.  |1-2 oz.  |1 dr.    |20-50 dp.
  ------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-----------



INDEX


  Abbreviations in Prescription Writing, 24
  Absolute Alcohol, 36
  Acetate of Lead, 131
  Acetate of Morphine, 123
  Acetate of Potassium, 133
  Acetate of Zinc, 162
  Acid Arcenous, 58
  Acid Benzoicum, 67
  Acid, Boric, 25
  Acid Boricum, 25
  Acid, Carbolic, 26
  Acid, Salicylic, 28
  Acidum Arsenosum, 58
  Acidum Carbolicum, 26
  Acidum Carbolicum Crudum, 26
  Acidum Salicylicum, 28
  Aconite, Fluidextract, 31
  Aconite, Tincture, 31
  Aconite, 29
  Aconitum, 29
  Aconitina, 31
  Aconitine, 31
  Actions of Iron, 93
  Adeps Benzoinatus, 66
  Administration of Medicines, 20
  Aether, 33
  Aloe Barbadensis, 11
  Aloe Socotrina, 41
  Aloes Barbadoes, 41
  Alcohol, 35
  Alcohol Absolutum, 36
  Alkaloidal Salts of Chichona, 84
  Aloin, 42
  Aloinum, 42
  Alum, 44
  Alum, Dried, 44
  Alumen, 44
  Alumen Exsiccatum, 44
  Alumini Hydroxidum, 44
  Alumini Sulphas, 45
  Aluminum Hydroxide, 44
  Aluminum Sulphate, 45
  Ammonia Aromatic Spirit, 51
  Ammonia Liniment, 52
  Ammonia Muriate, 54
  Ammonia Spiritus, 50
  Ammonia Stronger Water, 50
  Ammonia Water, 50
  Ammonii Benzoas, 67
  Ammonii Carbonas, 52
  Ammonii Chloridium, 54
  Ammonium Acetate Solution, 52
  Ammonium Benzoate, 67
  Ammonium Carbonate, 52
  Amyl Nitrate, 46
  Amylis Nitris, 46
  Anesthesia, 79
  Anise, 47
  Anise Oil, 47
  Anisum, 47
  Antimonii et Potassii Tartars, 48
  Antipyrin, 49
  Antipyrina, 49
  Antimony  and  Potassium Tartrate, 48
  Apomorphine Hydrochloride, 127
  Apomorphine Hydrochloridum, 127
  Aqua Ammoniae, 50
  Aqua Ammoniae Fortior, 50
  Aqua Camphorae, 71
  Aqua Chloroformi, 77
  Arcenous Acid, 58
  Argenti Nitras, 54
  Argenti Nitras Fusus, 55
  Argenti Nitras Mitigatus, 55
  Arnica, 56
  Arnica Root, Extract, 56
  Arnica Root, Fluidextract, 56
  Arnicae, 56
  Aromatic Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada, 146
  Aromatic Spirit Ammonia, 51
  Aromatic Tincture of Rhubarb, 147
  Arseni Trioxidum, 58
  Arsenic, 57
  Arsenic Trioxide, 58
  Arsenic, White, 58
  Arsenum, 57
  Art of Prescribing, 22-23
  Aspidium, 61
  Atropinae Sulphas, 64

  Barbadoes Aloes, 41
  Belladonna Extract, 63
  Belladonna Leaves, 62
  Belladonna Liniment, 64
  Belladonna Ointment, 63
  Belladonna Radix, 63
  Belladonna Root, 63
  Belladonna Tincture, 63
  Belladonnae Folia, 62
  Benzoate of Ammonia, 67
  Benzoate of Soda, 67
  Benzoic Acid, 67
  Benzoin, 66
  Benzoin Tincture, 67
  Benzoinated Lard, 66
  Benzoinum, 66
  Bicarbonate of Potassium, 136
  Bicarbonate of Soda, 150
  Biniodide of Mercury, 102
  Bi-Chloride of Mercury, 99
  Bitartrate of Potassium, 141
  Bitter Wood, 143
  Black Mustard, 148
  Blister Beetles, 74
  Blue Stone, 88
  Blue Vitriol, 88
  Boracic Acid, 25
  Boric Acid, 25
  Brandy, 37
  Bromide of Potassium, 134
  Bromide of Sodium, 134

  Calamus, 68
  Calamus Fluidextract, 68
  Calcium Oxide, 69
  California Buckthorn, 145
  Calomel, 101
  Calumba, 69
  Calumba Fluidextract, 70
  Calumba Tincture, 70
  Calx, 69
  Camphor, 71
  Camphor Cerate, 72
  Camphor Liniment, 72
  Camphor Water, 71
  Camphora, 71
  Camphora Monobromata, 72
  Camphorated Oil, 72
  Camphorated Tincture of Opium, 121
  Cantharis, 74
  Cantharides, 74
  Cantharides Tincture, 74
  Capsicum, 75
  Capsicum Fluidextract, 76
  Capsicum Oleoresin, 76
  Capsicum Tincture, 76
  Carbolic Acid, 26
  Carbolic Acid, Crude, 26
  Carbonate of Ammonia, 52
  Carbonate of Potassium, 135
  Carron Oil, 69
  Cascara Sagrada, 145
  Castor Oil, 115
  Catechu, 97
  Caustic Potash, 136
  Cayenne Pepper, 75
  Cerate of Camphor, 72
  Ceratum Camphorae, 72
  Chalk Mixture, 87
  Chalk, Prepared, 86
  Chichona, 83
  Chichona Alkaloids, 84
  Chittem Bark, 145
  Chlorate of Potassium, 140
  Chloride of Iron, 93
  Chloride of Mercury, Mild, 101
  Chloride of Sodium, 150
  Chloride of Zinc, 162
  Chloroform, 77
  Chloroform Compared with Ether, 81
  Chloroform Emulsum, 78
  Chloroform Liniment, 77
  Chloroform Spirits, 78
  Chloroform Water, 77
  Chloroformum, 77
  Citrate of Potassium, 133
  Cocaine Hydrochloride, 85
  Cocainae Hydrochloridum, 85
  Cod Liver Oil, 114
  Codeina, 123
  Codeine, 123
  Comparison of Ether with Chloroform, 81
  Compound Chalk Powder, 87
  Compound Powder of Jalap, 145
  Compound Powder Rhubarb, 146
  Compound Spirit of Ether, 34
  Compound Spirit of Juniper, 37
  Compound Tincture of Benzoin, 67
  Compound Tincture of Gentian, 99
  Compound Tincture of Gambir, 97
  Copper Sulphate, 88
  Copperas, 91
  Corrosive Mercuric Chloride, 99
  Corrosive Sublimate, 99
  Cosmoline, 128
  Cotton Seed Oil, 115
  Cream of Tartar, 141
  Creta Praeparata, 86
  Cretae Mistura, 87
  Cretae Pulvis Compositus, 87
  Croton Oil, 118
  Crude Carbolic Acid, 26
  Cupri Sulphas, 88

  Diacetylmorphine, 123
  Dandelion Root, 158
  Digitalein, 89
  Digitalin, 89
  Digitalis, 88
  Digitalis Infusion, 90
  Digitalis Extract, 89
  Digitalis Fluidextract, 90
  Digitalis Tincture, 90
  Digitonin, 89
  Digitoxin, 89
  Deodorized Opium, 122
  Donovan’s Solution, 59
  Dose Table of Valuable Drugs, 164
  Doses for Young Animals, 21-22
  Dover’s Liquid Powder, 121
  Dover’s Powder, 121
  Dried Ferrous Sulphate, 91

  Emulsion of Chloroform, 78
  Epsom Salts, 109
  Ether, 33
  Ether Compared with Chloroform, 81
  Ether, Pure, 33
  Extract of Arnica Root, 56
  Extract of Belladonna Leaves, 63
  Extract of Digitalis, 89
  Extract of Gentian, 98
  Extract of Nux Vomica, 111
  Extract of Opium, 121
  Extract of Quassia, 143
  Extract of Taraxacum, 158
  Extractum Arnicae Radicis, 56
  Extractum Belladonnae Foliorum, 63
  Extractum Digitalis, 89
  Extractum Gentianae, 98
  Extractum Nucis Vomicae, 111
  Extractum Opii, 121
  Extractum Quassiae, 143
  Extractum Taraxaci, 158

  Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus, 92
  Ferri Chloridum, 92
  Ferri Sulphas, 91
  Ferri Sulphas Exsiccatus, 91
  Ferric Chloride, 92
  Ferrous Sulphate, 91
  Ferrum Reductum, 91
  Flaxseed, 107
  Fluidextract of Aconite, 31
  Fluidextract of Arnica Root, 56
  Fluidextract of Belladonna Root, 63
  Fluidextract Calamus, 68
  Fluidextract of Calumba, 70
  Fluidextract of Capsicum, 76
  Fluidextract of Digitalis, 90
  Fluidextract of Gentian, 98
  Fluidextract of Ginger, 159
  Fluidextract of Hydrastis, 104
  Fluidextract Nux Vomica, 111
  Fluidextract of Quassia, 143
  Fluidextract of Rhamnus Purshiana, 145
  Fluidextract of Rhubarb, 146
  Fluidextract of Taraxacum, 158
  Fluidextractum Aconiti, 31
  Fluidextractum Arnicae Radicis, 56
  Fluidextractum Belladonnae Radicis, 63
  Fluidextractum Calumbae, 70
  Fluidextractum Calami, 68
  Fluidextractum Capsici, 76
  Fluidextractum Digitalis, 90
  Fluidextractum of Gentianae, 98
  Fluidextractum Hydrastis, 104
  Fluidextractum Nucis Vomicae, 111
  Fluidextractum Quassiae, 143
  Fluidextractum Rhamni Purshiana, 146
  Fluidextractum Rhamni Purshiana Aromaticum, 145
  Fluidextractum Rhei, 146
  Fluidextractum Taraxaci, 158
  Fluidextractum Zingiberis, 159
  Fowler’s Solution, 58
  Foxglove, 88

  Gambir, 97
  Gambir Tincture Compound, 97
  Gamboge, 70
  Gambogia, 70
  General Actions of Medicines, 5-19
  Gentian, 98
  Gentian Extract, 98
  Gentian Fluidextract, 98
  Gentian Tincture Compound, 99
  Gentiana, 98
  Ginger, 159
  Ginger Fluidextract, 159
  Ginger Oleoresin, 159
  Ginger Tincture, 159
  Glauber’s Salts, 151
  Glycerite of Boroglycerin, 25
  Glycerite Hydrastis, 104
  Glyceritum Boroglycerin, 25
  Glyceritum Hydrastis, 104
  Golden Seal, 103
  Goulard’s Extract, 132
  Green Vitriol, 91
  Gregory’s Powder, 146
  Gum Camphor, 71

  Heroin, 123
  Hoffman’s Anodyne, 34
  Hydrate of Turpin, 117
  Hydrastine Hydrochloride, 104
  Hydrastis, 103
  Hydrastis Fluidextract, 104
  Hydrastis Glycerite, 104
  Hydrastis Tincture, 104
  Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum, 103
  Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum, 99
  Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite, 101
  Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum, 102
  Hydrastinae Hydrochloridum, 104
  Hydroxide of Potassium, 136
  Hyposulphite of Sodium, 152
  Hydroxide of Aluminum, 44

  Infusion of Digitalis, 90
  Infusum Digitalis, 90
  Iodide of Mercury (Red), 102
  Iodide of Potassium, 137
  Iodine, 105
  Iodum, 105
  Ipecac and Opium, 121
  Iron Actions, 93
  Iron Chloride, 92
  Iron Reduced, 91

  Jalap, 144
  Jalap Compound Powder, 145
  Jalapa, 144
  Jalapa Resina, 144
  Jalap Resin, 144

  Lard Benzoinated, 66
  Laudanum, 121
  Lead Acetate, 131
  Lead Oxide, 131
  Lime, 69
  Lime Liniment, 69
  Liniment, Ammonia, 52
  Liniment Belladonna, 64
  Liniment Chloroform, 77
  Liniment Soap, 72
  Liniment of Turpentine, 117
  Linimentum Ammoniae, 52
  Linimentum Belladonnae, 64
  Linimentum Calcis, 69
  Linimentum Camphorae, 72
  Linimentum Saponis, 72
  Linimentum Terebinthinae, 117
  Linseed, 107
  Linseed Oil, 107
  Linum, 107
  Liquid Dover’s Powder, 121
  Liquid Petrolatum, 128
  Liquor Ammonii Acetatis, 52
  Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri Iodidi, 59
  Liquor Ferri Chloridi, 93
  Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis, 93
  Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis, 132
  Liquor Potassii Arsentis, 58
  Liquor Potassii Hydroxidi, 137
  Liquor Zinci Chloride, 163
  Lithii Benzoas, 67
  Lithium Benzoate, 67
  Lunar Caustic, 55

  Male Fern, 61
  Magnesii Sulphas, 109
  Magnesium Sulphate, 109
  Medicines, General Actions, 5-19
  Medicines, Administration, 20
  Mercury Bi-Chloride, 99
  Mercury Oxide (Yellow), 103
  Methods of Administering Medicines, 20
  Mild Mercurous Chloride, 101
  Mitigated Silver Nitrate, 55
  Monkshood, 29
  Monobromated Camphor, 72
  Monsel’s Solution, 93
  Morphina, 122
  Morphine, 122
  Morphinae Acetas, 123
  Morphinae Hydrochloridum, 122
  Morphinae Sulphas, 123
  Morphine Acetate, 123
  Morphine Hydrochloride, 122
  Morphine Sulphate, 123
  Moulded Silver Nitrate, 55
  Muriate of Ammonia, 54
  Mustard, Black, 148
  Mustard Oil, 148
  Mustard, White, 148

  Naphthalene, 110
  Naphthalenum, 110
  Nitrate of Potassium, 139
  Nitrate of Silver, 54
  Niter, 139
  Nitrite Amyl, 46
  Nux Vomica, 110
  Nux Vomica Extract, 111
  Nux Vomica Fluidextract, 111
  Nux Vomica Tincture, 112

  Oil of Anise, 47
  Oil Camphorated, 72
  Oil Carron, 69
  Oil of Castor, 115
  Oil of Cod Liver, 114
  Oil of Cotton Seed, 115
  Oil of Croton, 118
  Oil of Linseed, 107
  Oil of Mustard, 148
  Oil, Olive, 114
  Oil, Sweet, 114
  Oil of Turpentine, Rectified, 117
  Oil of Tar, 130
  Ointment of Tar, 130
  Ointment of Zinc Oxide, 162
  Oleum Anisi, 47
  Oleoresin Aspidium, 62
  Oleoresin Capsicum, 76
  Oleoresin Male Fern, 62
  Oleoresina Aspidii, 62
  Oleoresina Zingiberis, 159
  Oleoresina Capsici, 76
  Oleum Gossypii Seminis, 115
  Oleum Lini, 107
  Oleum Morrhuae, 114
  Oleum Olivae, 114
  Oleum Picis Liquidae, 130
  Oleum Ricini, 115
  Oleum Sinapis Volatile, 148
  Oleum Terebinthinae, 116
  Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum, 117
  Olive Oil, 114
  Oil of Turpentine, 116
  Oleum Tiglii, 118
  Opii Pulvis, 120
  Opium, 120
  Opium Deodoratum, 122
  Opium Extract, 121
  Opium and Ipecac, 121
  Opium, Powdered, 120
  Opium Tincture, 121
  Opium Tincture, Camphorated, 121
  Opium and Wine, 122
  Oxide of Lead, 131
  Oxide of Zinc, 161

  Paregoric, 121
  Pepper, Cayenne, 75
  Pepper, Red, 75
  Permanganate of Potash, 142
  Petrolatum, 128
  Petrolatum Album, 129
  Petrolatum Liquidum, 128
  Petrolatum White, 129
  Phenol, 26
  Phenyl Salicylate, 29
  Phenylis Salicylas, 29
  Pix Liquida, 130
  Plumbi Acetas, 131
  Plumbi Oxidum, 131
  Potassii Acetas, 133
  Potassii Citras, 133
  Potassii Bicarbonas, 136
  Potassii Bitartras, 141
  Potassii Bromidum, 134
  Potassii Carbonas, 135
  Potassii Chloras, 140
  Potassii Hydroxium, 136
  Potassii Iodidum, 137
  Potassii Nitras, 139
  Potassii Permanganas, 142
  Potassium Acetate, 133
  Potassium Bicarbonate, 136
  Potassium Bitartrate, 141
  Potassium Bromide, 134
  Potassium Carbonate, 135
  Potassium Chlorate, 140
  Potassium Citrate, 133
  Potassium Hydroxide, 136
  Potassium Hydroxide Solution, 137
  Potassium Iodide, 137
  Potassium Nitrate, 139
  Potassium Permanganate, 142
  Precipitated Sulphur, 156
  Precipitated Zinc Carbonate, 161
  Prepared Chalk, 86
  Prescribing, the Art of, 22-23
  Prescription Writing, Abbreviations, 24
  Prescription Writing Tables, 21
  Pulvis Ipecacuanhae et Opii, 121

  Quaker Button, 110
  Quassia, 143
  Quassia Extract, 143
  Quassia Fluidextract, 143
  Quassia Tincture, 144
  Quininae et ureae Hydrochloridum, 85
  Quininae Sulphas, 84
  Quinine Sulphate, 84
  Quinine and Urea Hydrochloride, 85

  Rectified Oil of Turpentine, 117
  Red Iodide of Mercury, 102
  Red Wine, 38
  Reduced Iron, 91
  Red Pepper, 75
  Resin of Jalap, 144
  Resina Jalapa, 144
  Rhamnus Purshiana, 145
  Rheum, 146
  Rhubarb, 146
  Rhubarb Compound Powder, 146
  Rhubarb Fluidextract, 146
  Rum, 38

  Saccharated Ferrous Carbonate, 92
  Sal Ammoniac, 54
  Salicin, 147
  Salicinum, 147
  Salicylas Sodium, 28
  Salicylic Acid, 28
  Salol, 29
  Saltpeter, 139
  Salts (Epsom), 109
  Salts of Tartar, 135
  Silver Nitrate, 54
  Sinapis Alba, 148
  Sinapis Nigra, 148
  Soap Liniment, 72
  Socotrine Aloes, 41
  Sodii Benzoas, 67
  Sodii Bromidum, 134
  Sodii Chloridum, 150
  Sodii Salicylas, 28
  Sodii Sulphas, 151
  Sodii Thiosulphas, 152
  Sodium, Salicylas, 28
  Sodium Benzoate, 67
  Sodium Bicarbonate, 150
  Sodium Bromide, 134
  Sodium Chloride, 150
  Sodium Sulphate, 151
  Sodium Thiosulphate, 152
  Solution of Ammonia Acetate, 52
  Solution of Ferri Chloride, 93
  Solution of Ferric Subsulphate, 93
  Solution of Lead Subacetate, 132
  Solution of Potassium Arsenite, 58
  Solution of Potassium Hydroxide, 137
  Solution of Zinc Chloride, 163
  Spanish Fly, 74
  Spirit Ammonia, 50
  Spirit of Camphor, 72
  Spirit of Chloroform, 78
  Spirit of Ether, 34
  Spirit of Glonoin, 155
  Spirit of Glyceryl Trinitrate, 155
  Spirit of Nitrous Ether, 153
  Spirits Vini Gallici, 37
  Spiritus Aetheris, 34
  Spiritus Aetheris Compositus, 34
  Spiritus Aetheris Nitrosi, 153
  Spiritus Ammoniae, 50
  Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 51
  Spiritus Camphorae, 72
  Spiritus Chloroform, 78
  Spiritus Frumenti, 37
  Spiritus Glycerylis Nitratis, 155
  Spiritus Juniperi Compositus, 37
  Stronger Ammonia Water, 50
  Strychnina, 112
  Strychnine, 112
  Strychnine Sulphate, 112
  Strychninae Sulphas, 112
  Sulphate of Aluminum, 45
  Sugar of Lead, 131
  Sulphate of Atrophine, 64
  Sulphate of Copper, 88
  Sulphate of Copper, 91
  Sulphate of Iron, Dried, 91
  Sulphate of Magnesium, 109
  Sulphate of Morphine, 123
  Sulphate of Quinine, 84
  Sulphate of Strychnine, 112
  Sulphate of Zinc, 160
  Sulphate of Sodium, 151
  Sulphur Flowers, 156
  Sulphur Lotum, 156
  Sulphur Ointment, 156
  Sulphur Precipitatum, 156
  Sulphur Sublimatum, 156
  Sulphur Sublimed, 156
  Sulphur Washed, 156
  Sweet Flag, 68
  Sweet Oil, 114
  Sweet Spirits of Niter, 153
  Syrupus Ferri Iodidi, 92
  Syrup of Ferrous Iodide, 92

  Tables used in Prescription Writing, 21
  Tables Regulating the Doses for Young Animals, 21-22
  Tables of Weights and Measures, 21
  Tar, 130
  Tar Oil, 130
  Tar Ointment, 130
  Taraxacum, 158
  Taraxacum Extract, 158
  Taraxacum Fluidextract, 158
  Tartar Emetic, 48
  Terebene, 117
  Terebenum, 117
  Terpin Hydrate, 117
  Terpini Hydras, 117
  Tinctura Aconiti, 31
  Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae, 42
  Tinctura Arnicae, 56
  Tinctura Belladonnae Foliorum, 63
  Tinctura Benzoini, 67
  Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 67
  Tinctura Cantharidis, 74
  Tinctura Capsici, 76
  Tinctura Digitalis, 90
  Tinctura Calumbae, 70
  Tinctura Gambir Composita, 97
  Tinctura Gentianae Composita, 99
  Tinctura Hydrastis, 104
  Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii, 121
  Tinctura Nucis Vomicae, 112
  Tinctura Opii, 121
  Tinctura Opii Camphorata, 121
  Tincture Aconite, 31
  Tincture of Aloes and Myrrh, 42
  Tincture of Arnica, 56
  Tincture of Belladonna Leaves, 63
  Tincture Benzoin, 67
  Tincture of Calumba, 70
  Tincture of Capsicum, 76
  Tincture Cantharides, 74
  Tincture of Digitalis, 90
  Tincture of Ferric Chloride, 93
  Tincture Hydrastis, 104
  Tincture of Ipecac and Opium, 121
  Tincture of Nux Vomica, 112
  Tincture of Opium, 121
  Tincture Quassiae, 144
  Tincture Rhei Aromatica, 147
  Tincture Zingiberis, 159
  Turpentine, 116
  Turpentine Liniment, 117
  Tincturus Ferri Chloridi, 93

  Unguentum Belladonnae, 63
  Unguentum Picis Liquidae, 130
  Unguentum Sulphuris, 156
  Unguentum Zinci Oxide, 162

  Vaseline, 128
  Vinum Album, 38
  Vinum Opii, 122
  Vinum Rubrum, 38
  Vitriol, Blue, 88
  Vitriol, Green, 91

  Weights and Measures Tables, 21
  Whisky, 37
  White Mustard, 148
  White Wine, 38
  Wine of Opium, 122
  Wine, Red, 38
  Wine, White, 38

  Yellow Mercuric Oxide, 103

  Zinc Acetate, 162
  Zinc Chloride, 162
  Zinc Chloride Solution, 163
  Zinc Oxide, 161
  Zinc Sulphate, 160
  Zinc Sulphocarbolate, 160
  Zinci Acetas, 162
  Zinci Carbonas Praecipitatus, 161
  Zinci Chloridum, 162
  Zinci Oxidum, 161
  Zinci Phenolsulphonas, 160
  Zinci Sulphas, 160
  Zingiber, 159



  Transcriber’s Notes


  Inconsistent, archaic and unusual spelling, hyphenation,
  capitalisation, etc. have been retained, except as mentioned below.
  This includes the use of Linne for Linné, atrophine for atropine,
  Qussia for Quassia, incontinuence for incontinence, Reisling and
  Resiling for Riesling; Chichona and Cinchona; chlorid and chlorate for
  chloride, etc. that may either be deliberately used alternative
  spellings or typographical errors.

  Individual medicines have been treated as sections, which were (when
  applicable) grouped together in chapters based on their common
  compound.

  The book has several sentences where a word (or some words) may be
  missing; these have not been corrected, unless mentioned below.

  Depending on the hard- and software used and their settings, not all
  elements may display as intended.

  Page 36, miscible with ether chloroform: presumably miscible with
  ether and chloroform.

  Page 37, owe their flavor to bouquet to ethers: as printed in the
  source document; possibly an error for ... to a bouquet of ethers.

  Page 41, 20 gr. to 1 dr.: the animal for this dose is not mentioned,
  but is possibly the dog.

  Page 46, distillation of nitric and amylic alcohol: possibly an error
  for ... nitric acid and amylic alcohol.

  Page 51, These four proportions of ammonia: possibly an error for
  These four preparations of ammonia; alcoholic proportions: possibly an
  error for alcoholic preparations.

  Page 85, 97, U. S.: presumably U. S. P. (for Pharmacopoeia) as
  elsewhere.


  Changes:

  Many minor obvious typographical errors have been corrected silently.

  Aquous and aqueous have been standardised to aqueous; columba and
  calumba to calumba; hydrastic to hydrastis.

  Page  Source document                 Changed to
    7   ANTIFEREMENT.                   ANTIFERMENT.
    9   Commony Elaterium               Common Elaterium
   10   seatons                         setons
        CAUTERY POTENTEAL.              CAUTERY POTENTIAL.
   12   Pancratin                       Pancreatin
   13   EPISPOSTIC.                     EPISPASTIC.
   14   Segenaroot                      Senegaroot
   17   borac acid                      boric acid (boracic acid might
                                        also be appropriate)
   24   quaqua--hora                    quaqua-hora
        Oclarius                        Octarius
        Unguntum                        Unguentum
   25   crystitis                       cystitis
   26   cresol                          creosol
        PHENO--ACIDUM CARBOLICUM--      PHENOL--ACIDUM CARBOLICUM--
        CARBOLIC ACID                   CARBOLIC ACID
   30   horney                          horny
   32   perotidities                    perotiditis (also called
                                        parotiditis elsewhere in the
                                        book)
   41   Aloe chinenisis                 Aloe chinensis
   50   AQUA AMMONIAE FORTOR            AQUA AMMONIAE FORTIOR
   53   the oxygens, carrying power     the oxygen carrying power
        intestinal paristalsis          intestinal peristalsis
   55   ARGENTE NITRAS MITIGATUS        ARGENTI NITRAS MITIGATUS
   56   senuses of fistulous withers    sinuses of fistulous withers
   58   ARSENIC TROXIDE                 ARSENIC TRIOXIDE
        LIQUOR POTASSII ARSENTIS        LIQUOR POTASSII ARSENITIS
   59   excharotic                      escharotic
   60   exidation                       exudation
        acidum arcenosum                acidum arsenosum
   61   Aspidum Filix--mas              Aspidium Filix-mas
   62   aspedium                        aspidium
   65   pharangitis                     pharyngitis
   66   stryrax                         styrax
   68   rheumatic effections            rheumatic affections
   69   abraided surfaces               abraded surfaces
   70   CAMBOGIA                        GAMBOGIA (this section is no
                                        longer in alphabetical order
                                        after the correction)
        TINCLURA CALUMBAE               TINCTURA CALUMBAE
   73   stangury                        strangury
   75   adaps                           adeps
   83   antonic indigestion             atonic indigestion
   84   the action of quinine or micro- the action of quinine on micro-
        organisms                       organisms
   86   neurectony                      neurectomy
   97   Uncaria Gembier, Roxb.          Uncaria Gambir, Roxb.
  100   albumenates                     albuminates
  101   emisis                          emesis
  103   GOLDEN ZEAL                     GOLDEN SEAL
  106   parasitide                      parasiticide
        disquamatic                     desquamatic
  110   Commandel Coast                 Coromandel Coast
  112   anyl alcohol                    amyl alcohol
  116   alvein secretions               alvine secretions
        Pinus paulstris                 Pinus palustris
  120   The Smyram, or Turkey opium     The Smyrna, or Turkey opium
  123   ammonical                       ammoniacal
  126   bismuth sub. nitrate            bismuth subnitrate
  129   electuries                      electuaries
  130   OLEUM PISIS                     OLEUM PICIS
  132   repeated header PREPARATIONS    deleted
  138   scirrhus                        scirrhous
  142   internally in purperal          internally in puerperal
  152   chologogue                      cholagogue
  153   All ethyl-nitrate to            Add ethyl-nitrate to
  157   psoriases                       psoriasis
  159   Zingiber officiale              Zingiber officinale
  162   acedious                        acidious
  165 ff., Index
        duplicate entry Acid, Carbolic  removed
        Argenti Nitras Fusus            moved to proper place
        Entry Ether                     moved from separate entry
                                        (directly before Chittem Bark)
                                        to the second line of entry
                                        Chloroform compared with
        Wand Measures Tables            Weights and Measures Tables
        Several typographical errors    corrected in order to conform to
                                        the text; when necessary the
                                        entries concerned were moved to
                                        their proper places after
                                        correction.





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