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Title: Valperga Volume 2 (of 3) - or, The life and adventures of Castruccio, prince of Lucca
Author: Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Valperga Volume 2 (of 3) - or, The life and adventures of Castruccio, prince of Lucca" ***

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_Conference of Castruccio and Galeazzo Visconti--of
Castruccio and the Bishop of Ferrara._

_Parentage of Beatrice.--She is arrested by
the Inquisition._

_Judgement of God.--Revolution of Ferrara._

_Fall of Beatrice._

_Visit to Pepi at Cremona._

_Galeazzo Visconti at Florence.--Castruccio and
Euthanasia meet at Valperga: Doubts and

_Castruccio exiles three hundred Families from
Lucca--Visits at Valperga--His Character
further developed._

_Beatrice, disguised as a Pilgrim, visits Valperga.--Castruccio
relates her Story._

_Castruccio plots the Assassination of Robert
King of Naples.--Made Prince of Lucca.--Declares
War against Florence.--Plot
for a Revolution in Lucca defeated.--Castruccio
summons Valperga._

_Castruccio reconnoitres for a Surprise.--Embassy
of Tripalda._

_Valperga taken._

_Euthanasia at Lucca._



_Conference of Castruccio and Galeazzo Visconti--of
Castruccio and the Bishop of Ferrara._

When Castruccio and Euthanasia arrived at Florence, they found the
citizens celebrating a festival: the bells were ringing; the country
people were flocking into the town; and the youths of both sexes, of the
highest rank, and richly dressed, were parading the streets, covered
with wreaths of flowers, and singing the poems of Dante, or his friend
Guido, to the accompaniment of many instruments. Castruccio said: "I
must ask you, fair Euthanasia, who are so learned in Florentine customs,
to inform me of the meaning of this gaiety."

"Indeed, I am entirely ignorant. I know that during peace joyful
meetings take place every May, among the young nobility; but this seems
a general festivity. Let us ask that grave gentleman in the black
capuchin, if he knows the reason of a merriment, which at least has not
communicated itself to his face."

The man, on being asked, replied: "You must be but lately arrived, not
to have heard of the cause of our rejoicings; the Florentines, Madonna,
are celebrating the occurrence of a most favourable omen with which God
and St. John have blest our city. Yesterday one of the lionesses kept at
the expence of the republic, brought forth five whelps."

"And is this the momentous occasion of so much serious amusement?" asked
Castruccio, laughing.

"My lord," said the man, "you are a stranger in this town; or you would
not find cause for laughter in this event. The Florentines keep a number
of lions, as the signs and symbols of their strength; and God and St.
John have plainly manifested on many occasions, that the prosperity of
Florence, and the welfare of the lions are bound together. Three of the
finest and largest died on the eve of the fatal battle of Monte Catini."

"So these wise republicans, whom you, dear Euthanasia, so much vaunt,
believe in these childish omens. I would wager my best charger, that
their records are full of the influence of stars, and the appearance of

"And I do not at all know that you would lose: indeed their noblest
citizens have a great faith in astrology and portents. If you speak of a
scarcity, they will tell of a meteor; if you say that the king of France
has lost a battle, they will assure you that the whole kingdom has
become, by the will of God and St. John, weaker and more miserable, ever
since Philippe le Bel seized upon the Florentine usurers. We love to
find a cause for every event, believing that, if we can fit but one link
to another, we are on the high road for discovering the last secrets of
nature. You smile at the celebration of the birth of these lion's
whelps; yet I own that it pleases me; how innocent, yet how active, must
the imagination of that people be, who can find cause for universal joy
in such an event!

"It is this same imagination more usefully and capaciously employed,
that makes them decree the building of the most extensive and beautiful
building of modern times. The men who have conceived the idea, and
contributed their money towards the erection of the Duomo, will never
see its completion; but their posterity will, and, if they be not
degenerate, will glory in the noble spirit of their ancestors. Many
years ago, when the Florentines warred with the Siennese, they took by
storm a tower of great strength, which commanded a most important pass.
They destroyed the tower; and, when half demolished, they filled it up
with earth, and planted there an olive tree, which still flourishes, an
emblem of the peace which would follow their conquests."

Castruccio staid only a few days at Florence; and, recommending himself
to the constancy and love of Euthanasia, he took an affectionate leave
of her, and hastened on his journey to Rovigo, where he had promised to
join Galeazzo Visconti.

Galeazzo, having now succeeded to his father in the tyranny of Milan,
was the most powerful chief of Lombardy. He was about thirty-five years
of age: he had all the characteristics of an Italian face, arched brows,
black eyes, an aquiline nose, and a figure where there was some strength
and little grace. He had a great portion of talent, quickness in the
combination of plans, yet not sufficient patience to watch their
progress, or perseverance to carry them through. He was crafty,
ambitious, and vain; yet, where his own interests were not concerned, he
was good-natured, and on all occasions exceeded even the Italians in the
courtesy of his demeanour. He had seen much of the world, and suffered
many misfortunes; this gave him a pliancy of disposition, as well as of
manner, which made him appear more kind-hearted than he really was; for
in truth he never for a moment lost sight of his own interest; and, if
he sometimes wandered from the path which led to its attainment, want of
judgement, and not of inclination, caused the error.

He wished to attach Castruccio to his party and designs. He saw in him
the head of the Ghibeline faction in Tuscany, and the tamer of his
Florentine enemies. He felt that his own situation was precarious; but,
if he could gain Castruccio for his ally, he hoped to awe his enemies.
More than all, he desired the destruction of the Guelph strong-hold,
Florence; and Castruccio was to become its destroyer. He heard of his
peace with that city with dismay; he trusted it could not last; but the
very name of it blasted his hopes. He wished to see the consul, and to
win him to the plan which he had conceived would conduct to the full
ascendancy of the Ghibelines; and, circumstances leading him to Rovigo,
he had intreated Castruccio to visit him there, making the intended
restoration of Ferrara to the marquess of Este the pretence of this

The friends met with every demonstration of regard. Galeazzo watched
with care every word, by which Castruccio might reveal his intentions,
before he would venture to communicate his own wishes. Their first topic
of conversation was the immediate business before them, the restoration
of the marquess Obizzo to the sovereignty of Ferrara. "This town," said
Galeazzo, "which so long obeyed the Este family, is now in the hands of
the Guelphs, and the vicar of the Pope, with a couple of hundred Gascon
soldiers for a garrison, keeps possession of it. The people, fleeced by
the excellent policy of the Roman court, whose first, second, and third
maxim is to fill its own coffers, eagerly desire the restoration of
their rightful prince. We have often thought of besieging the town; but
that would be a long and expensive business, and even its success would
be doubtful; for, if the Ghibelines raised their war-cry, all the Guelph
foxes would unearth themselves and have at them, and you know that our
lands are much overstocked by this vermin. Stratagem is a surer and a
far easier mode of warfare, and not half so bloody as the regular way;
we have so many friends within the walls, that I doubt not we should
succeed, if a proper communication were established between us. The
bishop, who, though a churchman, is our sure friend, sent us a message
some days ago, which, although mystically worded, seemed to say that he
would betray the town into our hands, if we would commission one of our
chiefs to treat with him; for he refused to disclose his project to an
underling. Now, you, my good friend, must undertake this task; we are
all of us too well known to get admission into the city; but a slight
disguise will take you safely past their guards, and I doubt neither of
the bishop Marsilio's power or inclination."

Castruccio acceded to his friend's request; and in the evening he was
introduced to the marquess of Este, who received him with deference and

The next morning, when he and Galeazzo rode out together, Galeazzo said:
"I am sure, my dear Castruccio, I can never shew myself sufficiently
grateful for your kindness in quitting Lucca at my request, and
wandering away from your government, which I ardently hope will not
suffer from your absence. But I feel less remorse, since the truce you
have concluded with Florence must afford you some leisure."

"Not a truce, but a better thing; I have concluded a peace."

"Aye, a truce, or a peace; it is the same thing; either will be
sufficiently short-lived."

"Are you then so deep-read in the counsels of the enemy, that you know
how and when this peace will change to war?"

"I am deep-read in nothing, my friend, but the politics and changes of
Italy; and I have suffered by them enough, and mixed with them
sufficiently, to foresee their issue a long way off. Fire and water will
make as kindly coalition as Guelph and Ghibeline, Bianchi and Neri.
Their interests are at war, and therefore so must they be. But why do I
say this to you, who have every prospect of being Imperial Vicar in
Tuscany; and think you that peace is the pilot to that haven?"

"My dear Galeazzo, let us understand one another; I am a Ghibeline,
faithful to my party and the emperor; and, if I thought there were a
fair chance of suppressing the Neri, by the Holy Face of Lucca[1], I
would make a crusade against them, such as has not been seen in the
world since the days of Saladin. Let the emperor come to Italy, and
something may be done; but why carry on a petty warfare, which destroys
the country, and starves the peasant, while it hardly takes a florin
from the coffers of the Florentine merchants, or advances us one inch
nearer the goal we desire to reach?"

"And is this the end of the dreams of triumph and dominion with which
you entered Lucca three years ago? And now that you have the government
of that town of oranges and lemons, the mighty aim of your life is
accomplished, and you are ready to sleep upon your acquisition, calling
yourself a great man?"

"In truth there is little time or place to sleep at Lucca. Do you think
that I shall be idle, while a dozen rebel castles hold out against me
which must be subdued? Let me conquer them first; let me see no enemy
for many miles round; and then we will talk of Florence."

"Nay, my friend, you must leave nothing to the decision of
circumstances; a wise man foresees and provides for all. Florence must
one day be yours; and you, prince of Tuscany, of Italy, if you will,
will give laws to us all. Do not start; among so many prophecies as we
have of Merlin and the rest, I venture to make one more; and, like most
others, let its announcement contribute to its completion. My dear
Castruccio, this is no child's play; for men are both our die and our
stake: put forth your hand, and you must win. In Lombardy the Ghibelines
flourish; but, except Pisa, and your Lucca, the Guelphs domineer
throughout Tuscany. But this must not continue; the Popes are out of
Italy, and Rome, become a mere resort of robbers, is a blank in our
account. Naples and Florence are our only enemies; the emperor must
conquer one, and you the other. Let all your efforts tend to that; you
talk of rebel castles near Lucca,--aye, subdue those first, that without
dread you may hunt down the Florentines; let your will be as a wind to
drive all before it: at first, it will pause, collecting its force in
the horizon; and then it breaks forth sweeping every thing along with
it: Florence must fall before it--I swear it shall; but give me your
hand, your faith, Castruccio, and swear that you also will have it so."

"Nay, by the Virgin! I will not be backward in doing my part to tame the
cubs of this wild lioness: if Florence ever can be mine, she shall, and
may God's will and your prophecy be fulfilled."

"That is well.--At present you are at peace with them; but it must be a
peace to crush, and not to invigorate them. You are freshly entered into
your lordship, your authority is new, perhaps unstable; but form your
troops, be a prince among your own people, and then fall upon these
enemies of all princes. Oh! believe me, give up this old fashioned name
of consul; it is tainted by the idea of that which I abhor--a
commonwealth: make yourself a prince, and then so pure and ardent a
hatred of Florence will arise in your mind, that you will not need my
spurring to ride them to their destruction. The contagion of liberty is
dangerous;--the Ghibelines must fall in Lucca, if the Guelphs be not
destroyed in Florence. Think you, if your people are allowed free
intercourse with this republic, that the plague of liberty will not
spread to your state? For no quarantine will eradicate that spot, if
once it has entered the soul: plots, rebellions will be formed against
you; Florence, the watchword, the rallying point for all. Choose; for
that choice alone is left you, to quell that city, or depart once more
to exile."

These were the lessons with which Galeazzo awakened the latent flame in
the soul of Castruccio; a flame, covered, but not extinguished, and
which now burned more fiercely than ever. He swore the destruction of
the Guelphs, and interminable war to Florence; and his blood flowed more
freely, his eyes shone brighter, his soul was elevated to joy, when he
thought that one day he might be the master of that proud city.

In the mean time the marquess of Este occupied their attention; and
Castruccio prepared for this embassy to the bishop of Ferrara. He took
no papers with him that might be dangerous, if discovered; but, habiting
himself like a merchant from Ancona, and taking such documents as might
enable him to support this character, he left Rovigo for Ferrara, which
was about twenty miles distant, and entering that town at ten o'clock in
the morning he hastened, unquestioned by any, to the episcopal palace.
The bishop was an old man of the most benign physiognomy, and a sweet,
mild tone of voice; he was tall, and upright in figure, with an air of
dignity and benevolence, that won, yet awed every one; his temples were
slightly shaded by his silver locks, and his white beard, reaching to
his girdle, increased the dignity of his appearance. Castruccio, who by
his intercourse with the world had learned always to honour age,
approached him with respect, and disclosed to him his rank and mission.
The bishop replied:

"My noble lord, the marquess has done that which I have long desired, in
sending to me one to whom I may intrust the important secret, which I do
not doubt will be the means of his re-establishment in his government.
This evening my friends will assemble at my palace; with their counsel
all shall be arranged, the means disclosed to you by which I propose to
deliver Ferrara into the hands of its rightful prince, and the day fixed
for the commencement of the enterprize."

The bishop and Castruccio continued together the whole day, both
mutually delighted with each other; and, as is often the case where
sympathy of opinion and feeling exists, they became as intimate in a few
hours, as in other circumstances an intercourse of years would have
effected. Castruccio had a great taste for theological knowledge, and
the bishop, as a man of the world, was delighted with the conversation
and remarks of one who had passed through so many scenes, and visited so
many nations. Confidence quickly arose between them; so well did each
seem to understand the feelings and character of the other. The bishop
was a Ghibeline; but his motives were pure: his indignation at the
corruptions of the Papal court, and his disapprobation of the faction
and brawls which appeared to him inseparable from a republic, attached
him strongly to the Imperial party, and to those lords who, reigning
peacefully over a people who loved them, seemed to him to ensure the
quiet of Italy.

In the evening the partizans of the marquess of Este assembled at the
episcopal palace to deliberate on their projects. Castruccio was
introduced among them, and received with cordiality and respect by all.
The assembly consisted of nearly the whole nobility of Ferrara, chiefly
indeed Ghibelines, but there were even some Guelphs, disgusted by the
introduction of foreign troops, and the haughtiness and tyranny of their
governors. The government however was formidable; they possessed the
gates, and the fortress; their armed guard was numerous and faithful;
and the restoration of Obizzo could be achieved by stratagem alone.

In one corner of the vast apartment in which the assembly sat, were two
women. One was old, and dressed in the fashion of an age gone by: she
was in black as a widow; her vest was close and strait, trimmed with
beads, and made of black cloth; a black veil covered her head, and her
capuchin thrown aside discovered the years and wrinkles of the venerable
wearer. It was impossible to judge of the age, and hardly of the sex, of
the figure that sat beside her; for her capuchin was wrapped closely
round her form, and the hood drawn over her face, as she sat silently,
turned away from the company, in the darkest part of the room.

The bishop at length addressed Castruccio: "My lord," said he, "you now
possess the details of our plan, and may perceive the sincerity of our
intention, and the eagerness of our desire to receive again our rightful
prince: it alone remains to shew you the secret entrance of which I
spoke, and to fix the day for our attempt."

The old lady, who had been hitherto silent, now turned quickly round,
and said: "My brother, Beatrice ought to name the fortunate day on which
we may undertake this work. Speak, my child, and may the holy Virgin
inspire your words!"

As she spoke, she threw back the hood of her young companion; and
Castruccio gazed on her exquisite and almost divine beauty. Her deep
black eyes, half concealed by their heavy lids, her curved lips, and
face formed in a perfect oval, the rising colour that glowed in her
cheeks which, though her complexion was pure and delicate, were tinged
by the suns of Italy, formed a picture such as Guido has since imagined,
when he painted a Virgin or an Ariadne, or which he copied from the life
when he painted the unfortunate Beatrice Cenci. Her jet hair fell in
waving luxuriance on her neck and shoulders below her waist; and a small
silver plate was bound by a white riband on her forehead. Castruccio
could only gaze for a moment on this lovely being; for, turning a
supplicating look on her aged friend, she again drew the hood over her
face, speaking in so low a tone, that he could not distinguish the words
she uttered; the elder lady acted as interpreter, and said: "Beatrice
intreats you not to fix the day until to-morrow, and then she hopes, by
the grace of God and the Virgin, to name such a one as will bring your
enterprize to an happy issue."

Castruccio turned quickly round to see what effect these words would
produce upon the bishop; he thought that he saw a slight smile of
derision hover on the old man's lip; but he replied: "Be it so; my lord
Castruccio, you will accompany my sister, Madonna Marchesana, to her
palace; she will disclose to you the secret entrance, and acquaint you
with the means by which you may find it, when you return with the
marquess Obizzo and his troops."

The assembly broke up; and Castruccio followed Madonna Marchesana and
her beautiful companion. His horse was brought to the door; they mounted
their white palfreys, and attended by several esquires and pages
carrying torches, arrived at a magnificent palace close to the eastern
gate of Ferrara. When they had entered, Madonna Marchesana dismissed her
servants, and led Castruccio into a room, hung with tapestry, and
furnished with the rich and heavy furniture of the age. She lifted up
the hangings; and, while Castruccio supported them, she pushed back a
pannel in the wainscot, and discovered a long, dark gallery; then,
taking up a torch that lay within, and lighting it at a lamp which hung
from the ceiling of the room, she presented it to Beatrice, saying: "Do
you, my child, light us, and lead us the way, that success may attend
our steps."

A small snow white hand and taper wrist were put out from beneath the
capuchin; and Beatrice silently took the torch, and led the way, along
the gallery, down several flights of stairs, and then along numerous
vaults and corridors, until they arrived at what appeared the end of
these subterraneous passages. "You, my lord," said the lady Marchesana,
"must help me." She pointed to a large stone, which Castruccio rolled
away, and discovered behind it a small, low door. The lady drew back the
bolts, and bade Beatrice hide the light, which she did, placing it
within a kind of recess in the passage that seemed formed for the
purpose of receiving it; the lady then opened the door; and Castruccio,
creeping out, found himself in an open country, covered with bushes, and
surrounded by marshy land, at some distance from the strong
fortifications of the town. Castruccio smiled: "Ferrara is ours!" he
cried; and the old lady with a countenance expressive of the greatest
delight, said: "I intreat you, my lord, to lay my respectful submission
and zealous fidelity at the feet of the marquess Obizzo; tell him the
joy and triumph that I feel, in being the humble instrument of restoring
him to his sovereignty and inheritance. When you mention the name of the
viscountess di Malvezzi he may distrust my professions; since the
viscount, my late husband, was his bitter and determined enemy. But he
is no more; and I have been brought to a true knowledge of the will of
God by this divine girl, this _Ancilla Dei_, as she is truly called, who
is sent upon earth for the instruction and example of suffering

Castruccio listened with astonishment; while the gifted damsel stood,
her face covered by her cowl, and her arms crossed over her breast: the
eyes of the old lady beamed with joy and pride. "I do not entirely
fulfil my commission," she continued, "until I have taught you how you
may again discover this place. Do you see those straggling sallows that
skirt that stagnant drain, and which, although they appear to be without
order, are the clue by which you will be guided thither? Four miles
distant from Ferrara, on the right-hand side of the road, you will find
a mulberry tree, a poplar, and a cypress, growing close together; strike
from the road at that point, and follow the line of sallows, however
they may lead, until you come to that where the line ends. You must then
mark the drains of the marsh, remembering to follow only those which are
bordered by dwarf myrtles, and which at every turn have a cross carved
in a low stone on their banks; that line will lead you hither; and you
will stop at that cross of wood which you see half buried in the tall
grass and bulrushes, until this door is opened for your entrance."

The viscountess di Malvezzi repeated her instructions a second time in
the same distinct manner; and, finding that Castruccio fully apprehended
them, she led the way back to her subterranean passages; and with quick
steps they regained the tapestried apartment. Beatrice remained a moment
behind to extinguish the torch; and, when she re-appeared, she had
thrown off her capuchin, and shone in the light of her divine beauty.
Her dress was of the finest white woollen; and in fashion it partook of
the usual dress of the age, and of the drapery of the antient statues:
it was confined at her waist by a silken girdle, and fell about her
figure in thick and rich folds; a golden cross glittered upon her bosom,
on which lay also the glossy ringlets of her hair; on the silver plate
bound to her forehead Castruccio could distinguish the words, _Ancilla
Dei_. Her black eyes beamed as with inspiration, and the wide sleeves of
her vest discovered her white and veined arm, which she threw up in
eager gesticulation as she spoke:

"Mother, I promised that to-morrow I would name the day for my
sovereign's enterprize; I feel the spirit coming fast upon me; let this
noble gentleman inform your revered brother, that to-morrow in the
church of St. Anna I shall speak to my countrymen, and in the midst of
the people of Ferrara tell in veiled words the moment of their

With a light step Beatrice glided out of the room, and the viscountess,
not regarding the surprize of Castruccio, said to him: "Fail not, my
lord, to convey the message of my Beatrice to the bishop. God has been
gracious to us, in bestowing on us his visible assistance through this
sacred maiden, who by her more than human beauty, the excellence of her
dispositions, and, above all, by her wisdom beyond that of woman, and
her prophecies which have ever been fulfilled, demonstrates, even to the
unbeliever and the Gentile, that she is inspired by the grace and favour
of the blessed Virgin."

[Footnote 1: A portrait of Christ, said to have been painted
by Nicodemus.]


_Parentage of Beatrice.--She is arrested by
the Inquisition._

Thus dismissed, Castruccio returned, burning with curiosity and
admiration, to the bishop. He delivered the message with which he had
been intrusted, and then eagerly asked who this enchanting Beatrice
really was, and if it were true that she was an angel descended upon
earth for the benefit and salvation of man. The bishop smiled.

"My lord," he replied, "so much have you won my confidence and esteem,
that I am willing to satisfy your curiosity on this subject also. But
you must recollect, that neither my sister, nor even the lovely girl
herself, knows what I shall now reveal, and that I shall tell it you
under the most solemn vow of secrecy."

Castruccio readily promised discretion and silence, and the bishop then
related the following particulars.

"Have you never heard of a heretic and most dangerous impostor, of the
name of Wilhelmina of Bohemia[2]? This woman appeared first in Italy in
the year 1289: she took up her residence at Milan, with a female
companion, called Magfreda. Outwardly professing the Catholic religion,
and conforming in the strictest manner to its rules, she secretly formed
a sect, founded on the absurd and damnable belief, that she was the Holy
Ghost incarnate upon earth for the salvation of the female sex. She gave
out that she was the daughter of Constance, queen of Bohemia; that, as
the angel Gabriel had descended to announce the divine conception to the
blessed Virgin, so the angel Raphael announced to her mother the
incarnation of the Holy Spirit in favour of the female sex; and that she
was born twelve months after this heavenly annunciation. Her tenets were
intended entirely to supersede those of our beloved Lord Jesus, and her
friend Magfreda was to be papess, and to succeed to all the power and
privileges of the Roman pontiff. Wilhelmina died in the year 1302 in the
odour of sanctity, and was buried in the church of St. Peter at Milan:
she had led so holy a life, and kept her heresy so profound a secret,
except from her own sect, that she was followed as a saint, and even
priests and dignitaries wrote homilies in praise of her piety, her
abstinence, and modesty.

"I was at Milan two years after, when the Dominican inquisitors first
discovered this lurking pestilence; and the terror and abomination of
the discovery filled the town with horror. Magfreda, and her principal
follower, Andrea Saramita, were led to prison; the other disciples who
threw themselves on the mercy of the priests, being commanded to perform
several pilgrimages, and give large alms to the church, were absolved. I
had just then become a _Padre_, and filled the confessor's chair: I was
young, full of zeal, eloquent in the cause of truth, and tainted by an
enthusiastic bigotry against heretics and schismatics. I preached with
animation against this new heresy; it appeared to me so impious, so
absurd, so terrifically wicked, that I was touched by an holy impulse as
I declaimed against its followers. Having thus distinguished myself, the
father inquisitors intreated me to use my fervid arguments to persuade
the obstinate Magfreda to recant. They had exhausted every reason, and
had had recourse even to torture, to convert this woman from her
damnable impieties; but she with haughty insolence declared that she was
in readiness to perish in the flames, but that her last breath should be
spent in the praise of her divine mistress, and an exhortation to her
tormentors to repent and believe.

"I was filled with worldly vanity, and fancied that my learned
sentences, my anathemas, and eloquent exorcisms could not fail of their
desired effect, and that by the aid of God and truth I should be covered
with the glory of success in this holy warfare. Thus secure, I entered
the dungeon of the heretic: it was a low, damp vault, where she had been
confined for several weeks without even straw for her bed. She was
kneeling in one corner, praying fervently, and for a moment I stopped to
contemplate a heretic, a monster I had never before seen. She was an
aged, respectable woman, in the dress of a nun, and with an appearance
of sanctity and modesty that astounded me. When she perceived me, she
rose, and said with a faint smile: 'Is my condemnation passed? or is a
new scene of torture prepared?'

"'Daughter,' I replied, 'I come indeed to torture, not your body, but
your mind; to torture it with a knowledge of itself; to hold a mirror
before it, wherein you will contemplate its blots and deformities, of
which by the grace of the Virgin you may repent and be purified.'

"'Father, you are the master, I a slave, and I am willing to listen. But
your benevolent countenance, so different from those to which I have
been long accustomed, fills me with such confidence, that I dare hope
for your indulgence, when I intreat you to spare yourself a useless
labour, and to leave in peace the last hours of my life. I know that I
must die; and God and She know how willing I am to expire for Her
justification, even in pain and burning: but my spirit is worn, my
patience, which I have cherished with determined zeal, as the sacred
flame of my religion and the life of my heart, now begins to wane; do
not bring on my soul the sins of anger and intolerance;--leave me to
prayer, to repentance, and to my hopes of again seeing my beloved
mistress, there where there is no sorrow.'

"She spoke with dignity and mildness, so that I felt my spirit subdued;
and, although almost angry at the stubbornness of her impiety, I
followed her example in speaking with gentleness. Our conversation was
long; and the more it continued, the more my animation in the cause of
truth, and zeal for the conversion of the heretic, increased. For her
manner was so sweet and winning, her words so soft yet firm, that it lay
like a sin on my heart that I could not save her from eternal

"'You did not know Her,' she cried, 'you never saw my Wilhelmina. Ask
those who have seen her, even the vulgar, whose eyes are horn, and whose
hearts are stone, whether they were not moved to love and charity, when
she passed like an angel among them. She was more beautiful than aught
human could be; more gentle, modest and pious than any woman ever was,
though she were a saint. Then her words possessed a persuasion that
could not be resisted, and her eyes a fire, that betrayed even to the
unknowing that the Holy Spirit lived within her.

"'Father, you know not what you ask, when you desire me to leave my
faith in her Divinity. I have felt my soul prostrate itself before her;
the very blood that vivifies my heart has cried to me, so that, if I had
been deaf, I must have heard, that she was more than human. In my dreams
I have seen her arrayed in divine light; and even now the sacred
radiance that announces her presence fills my dungeon, and bids me for
her sake submit with patience to all that ye, her enemies, can inflict.'

"I repeat to you the mad words of Magfreda, that you may judge of the
excess of insanity that possessed this unfortunate woman. I combated
with the evil spirit within her for eight hours, but in vain; at length
I was retiring in despair, when she called me back. I returned with a
look of hope, and saw that she was weeping violently and bitterly. As I
approached, she seized my hand, and kissed it, and pressed it to her
heart, and continued pouring forth, as it were, a fountain of tears. I
believed that she was now touched by true repentance, and began to thank
divine mercy, when she waved her hand impatiently, beckoning me to be
silent. By degrees she calmed her tears; but she was still agitated by
passion, as she said: "'Kneel, father, kneel, I intreat you, and by the
cross you wear swear secrecy. Alas! if I die, another must perish with
me, one whom I have vowed to protect, one whom I love far,--far beyond
my own life.'

"She paused, endeavouring to overcome the tears, that, in spite of
herself, she shed: I comforted her, and pronounced the desired oath,
when she became calmer. 'Father, you are good, benign and charitable;
and I do believe that She has manifested Her will in sending you to me
in my distress; you, who are so unlike the wolves and harpies that have
of late beset me. There is a child--Her child:--but, father, before I
reveal further, promise me, swear to me, that she shall be educated in
my faith and not in yours.'

"I was indignant at this proposal, and said angrily: 'Woman, think you
that I will sacrifice the soul of an infant to your monstrous unbelief
and vicious obstinacy? I am a servant of the Lord Jesus, and, believe
me, I will never discredit my holy calling.'

"'Must it be so?' she cried; 'yet grant me a few moments to resolve.'

"She knelt down, and prayed fervently for a long time; and then arose
with a smiling aspect, saying: 'Father, you wish to convert me; methinks
at this moment I could convert you, if indeed faith did not come from
God, and not from the human will. She has revealed Her will to me, and
by Her command I now confide to you the treasure of my soul.

"'Two years before the death of Wilhelmina, she had a child. I cannot
tell you who was the father of this child; for, although I believed that
her conception partook of the divinity, she never confirmed my faith, or
said aught against it: but with her heavenly smile bade me wait until
the hour of knowledge should arrive. I alone knew of the birth of this
infant; and it has ever been under my care: it was brought up in a
cottage five miles hence by a good woman, who knew not to whom it
belonged; and I visited it daily, gazing with wonder on its beauty and

"'After its birth Wilhelmina never saw it. She always refused to visit
the cottage, or to have it brought to her, but would sit for hours, and
listen to my descriptions and praises. I have ever believed that this
separation, whatever was its cause, shortened the life of my divine
mistress; for she pined, and wept, and faded like a flower unwatered by
the dews of heaven. The last words she uttered, were to recommend her
infant to my care. I have fulfilled my task, and now, by her command,
deliver up my charge to you.

"'A year ago the nurse of the child died; and I took her secretly to my
own home, and tended her, and preserved her as her mother had commanded.
No love can equal mine for the divinity, her mother: it is a burning
affection, an adoration, which no words can express:--I shall never see
her more, until we meet in heaven, but I submit with patience to the
will of God.

"'When I heard that Andrea Saramita and our other disciples were taken,
I was transported with terror for the fate of this infant. I expected
every moment to hear the steps of the blood-hounds on the stairs, to
seize me, and discover this flower of paradise, which I cherished thus
secretly. When suddenly a thought, an inspiration, came over me, and I
cried aloud, Better are the wild beast of the forest, and the tempests
of heaven, even when they shake us most; better are plague and famine,
than man hunting after prey! So I took the infant in my arms, a small
purse of gold, and a bag of such provisions as I had in the house; and,
it being already dark, I hastened from Milan to the forest that skirts
the road to Como: I walked fast, and in two hours arrived at my goal. I
knew that one afflicted with leprosy[3] lived in the depth of the
forest, a miserable wretch, who with his wooden spoon and platter,
collected alms at the road side. Thither I went fearlessly;--mistake me
not; this man is not my disciple, he had never seen me before; but I
knew not whether the blood-hunters were acquainted with the existence of
the divine child, this I knew, that they would not dare seek her in a
leper's dwelling. I dreaded not the contagion; _for is not her mother
above all the saints in heaven?_

"'I wandered long among the tangled paths of the wood, ere I could
discover his hut; the babe slept, cherished near my heart, which bled
with anguish. To me in all the world there existed but this little
creature; the earth seemed to reel under me; yet still I felt her warm
breath upon my bosom, and heard the regular heaving of her gentle
breast. At length I found the cavern of the leper: it was half-built in
the earthy hill against which it rested, and half of the boughs of trees
plastered with mud, which was hardened in the sun; black, dilapidated,
and filthy, it was worse than a manger for the reception of my poor

"'The wretched possessor of this sty slept on his miserable straw as I
entered. I roused him, put gold into his hand, and, placing food before
him, I said--Protect this child, and God will reward you. Feed it, wash
it, and above all keep it from the sight of man: deliver it not except
to one who may come to ask for it in the name of the Holy Wilhelmina. In
one month I hope to return for it, and will reward you as you have
obeyed my charge.--I then, with a heart bursting with agony, embraced
the daughter of my Wilhelmina for the last time: I blest her, and tore
myself away.

"'I have now been five weeks imprisoned, and I dread lest the leper
should have thrust her from his abode. Will you not, father, preserve
and love this child?'

"The discourse of Magfreda moved me strangely. I felt a wonder, a pity,
an excess of commiseration, I could not express: but kissing the cross I
wore, I said: 'Listen to me, unhappy woman, while I swear never to
desert this innocent; and may God so help me, as I keep my faith!'

"Magfreda poured forth warm and joyful thanks; then, with a heavy heart,
I recommended her to the mercy of God, and left her dungeon.

"As soon as I could tear myself from the questions and childish
curiosity of the inquisitors, I hastened to the place that Magfreda had
indicated. In the tumult of my soul, I only thought of the danger of the
lovely babe in the hands of this outcast of man and nature. I was
possessed with a passionate sense of pity, which I cannot now explain,
but for which I do not reproach myself; at length, about four miles from
the town, I heard the sound of the beggar as he struck his platter with
his spoon in token of his wants, and I turned aside from the road to
seek him. At that moment the spirit of God almost deserted me, and I was
overcome by fear--the fear of disease, and a nameless horror at the
expectation of meeting one whom all wholesome life had deserted: but I
made the sign of the cross, and approached. The wretch was seated under
a tree eating some crusts of bread; miserable, filthy, deformed, his
matted hair hung over his eyes and his ragged beard half concealed the
lower part of his visage; yet there was to be seen a savage eye, and an
appearance of brutal ferocity, that almost staggered me. I made a sign
that he should not approach, and he dropped on his knees, and began to
gabble _pater-nosters_, so that the word that God himself had spoken
seemed the jargon of the devil. I stopt at some distance from him:
'Bring me,' I cried, 'to the child who was confided to you in the name
of Wilhelmina of Bohemia.'

"The wretch, who had almost forgotten human speech, jumped up, and led
the way among the tangled underwood, along savage paths, overgrown with
rank herbage, and bestrewn with stones, till we came to his miserable
hut,--a low, dark, squalid den, which I dared not enter; 'Bring me the
child,'--I cried.

"Oh; it was a woful sight, and one which to death I shall remember, to
see this child, this morning star of beauty and exceeding brightness,
with eyes shining with joy, rosy lips melted into the softest smiles,
her glossy hair strewn upon her lovely neck, her whole form glowing with
the roseate hues of life, led by the leper from his hut; his body wrapt
in a ragged blanket, his grizzly hair stretched stiffly out, and his
person and face loathsome beyond words to describe. The lovely angel
took her hand from his, and coming up to me, said: 'Take me to mamma;
lead me from this ugly place to mother.'

"This was Beatrice; and need I say how much I have ever loved this
hapless girl, and cherished her, and tried to save her from the fate to
which her destiny has hurried her?

"I returned to Milan, and found that in the morning, while I had been
absent, Magfreda had been burnt, and her ashes scattered to the winds,
so that I had become this poor babe's only guardian. I placed her under
the care of a pensioner of the church in the neighbourhood of Milan; and
when I was promoted to the see of Ferrara, I brought her with me, and
intreated my sister to receive her, and cherish her as her own. The
lovely little being won all hearts, and Marchesana soon became attached
to her with maternal fondness. She was educated in the Holy Catholic
faith; and I hoped that, untainted by her mother's errors, she would
lead an unblamed and peaceful life, unmarked and unknown; God has
ordered it otherwise.

"Beatrice was always an extraordinary child. When only six and seven
years of age, she would sit alone for hours, silently contemplating;
and, when I asked her of what she thought, she would weep, and
passionately desire me not to ask her. As she grew older, her
imagination developed; she would sing extempore hymns with wild, sweet
melody, and she seemed to dwell with all her soul on the mysteries of
our religion; she then became communicative, and told me how for hours
she meditated upon the works of nature, and the goodness of God, till
she was filled with a sentiment that overwhelmed and oppressed her, so
that she could only weep and sigh. She intreated me to unfold to her all
I knew, and to teach her to read in the sacred book of our religion.

"I was fearful that her ignorance and enthusiasm might lead her astray,
since, in her accounts of her meditations, she often said things of God
and the angels that were heretical; and I hoped that a knowledge of the
truth would calm her mind, and lead her to a saner devotion. But my
labours had a contrary effect; the more she heard, and the more she
read, the more she gave herself up to contemplation and solitude, and to
what I cannot help considering the wild dreams of her imagination. It
seemed to me as if her mother's soul had descended into her; but that,
regulated by the true faith, she had escaped the damnable heresies of
that unhappy woman. She delighted to read, and pretended to explain the
prophecies of the sacred writings, and the modern ones of Merlin, the
abbot Joachim and Methodius: beside these studies, she grew wonderfully
familiar with all vulgar superstitions, holy trees and fountains, lucky
and unlucky days, and all the silly beliefs that jugglers and impostors
encourage for their own profit. At length she began to prophesy; some of
her prophecies were interpreted as true, and since that time her fame
has been spread through Ferrara. Her followers are numerous; and my poor
sister is the first of her disciples: Beatrice herself is wrapt up in
the belief of her own exalted nature, and really thinks herself the
_Ancilla Dei_, the chosen vessel into which God has poured a portion of
his spirit: she preaches, she prophesies, she sings extempore hymns, and
entirely fulfilling the part of _Donna Estatica_[4], she passes many
hours of each day in solitary meditation, or rather in dreams, to which
her active imagination gives a reality and life which confirm her in her

"Thus, my lord, I have revealed the birth of this extraordinary girl,
which is unknown to every one else. Why I have done this I can hardly
tell; for I have done it without premeditation or foresight. But I am
glad that you know the truth; for you seem humane and generous; and I
wish to secure another protector for my poor Beatrice, if I were to die,
and she fell into any misfortune or disgrace."

Castruccio and the good bishop passed almost the whole night in
conversation concerning this wonderful creature; and, when the consul
retired to rest, he could not sleep, while the beauty of Beatrice was
present to his eyes, and her strange birth and fortunes to his memory.
In the morning he went to the church of St. Anna: mass was performed,
but he looked in vain for the prophetess;--yet, when the service was
finished, and the people assembled in the porch of the church, she
appeared among them with her aged protectress at her side. She wore her
capuchin of light blue silk, but her cowl was thrown back, and her eyes,
black as the darkness which succeeds a midnight flash of lightning, full
and soft as the shy antelope's, gleamed with prophetic fire.

She spoke; her words flowed with rich and persuasive eloquence, and her
energetic but graceful action added force to her expressions. She
reproached the people for lukewarm faith, careless selfishness, and a
want of fervour in the just cause, that stamped them as the slaves of
foreigners and tyrants. Her discourse was long and continued, with the
same flow of words and unabated fervour: her musical voice filled the
air; and the deep silence and attention of her numerous auditors added
to the solemnity of the scene. Every eye was fixed on her,--every
countenance changed as hers changed; they wept, they smiled, and at last
became transported by her promises of the good that was suddenly to
arise, and of the joy that would then await the constant of
heart;--when, as this enthusiasm was at its height, some Dominican
inquisitors came forward, surrounded her, and declared her their
prisoner. Until that moment Castruccio had observed her only,--her
flashing eyes and animated manner; the smiles and then the tears, that,
as the sunshine and clouds of an April day, succeeded each other on the
heaven of her countenance. But, when the inquisitors surrounded her, her
voice was silent, and the mute deference of the multitude was no more.
All became clamour and confusion; screams, vociferation, ejaculations
and curses burst from every tongue;--they declared that the prophetess,
the _Ancilla Dei_ should not be torn from them,--she was no heretic,--of
what crime had she been guilty?--The inquisitors had with them a guard
of Gascon soldiers, and this inflamed the multitude still more; it was
plain that her adherence to the party of the marquess Obizzo, and the
prophecy of his restoration were her only crimes. The noise of her
arrest spread through the town, and all Ferrara flocked to the church of
St. Anna; the crowd, transported with rage, seemed prepared to rescue
the prisoner, who, silent and resigned, stood as one unconcerned in the
animated scene. The people armed themselves with stones, sticks, knives,
and axes; the inquisitors sent for a reinforcement of Gascon troops, and
every thing appeared to menace violence, and bloodshed, when one of the
priests attempted to take the hand of Beatrice as if to lead her away;
she looked at him with a steady glance, and he drew back, while she made
a sign as if about to speak, and the multitude hushed themselves to
silence, and were as still, as when a busy swarm of bees, buzzing and
flying about, all at once drop to silence, clinging round their queen,
who is the mistress of their motions.

She said, "I appeal to the bishop."

"Yes, to the bishop,--to the good bishop; he is just,--take her to
him,--he shall decide the cause."

The inquisitors were prepared to resist this appeal: but the will of the
people became a torrent not to be stemmed by them, and it hurried them
away. They led the prophetess to the episcopal palace, surrounded by the
Gascon soldiery, and followed by an immense multitude, which rent the
sky with the cries of their anger and despair.

The bishop received the appeal with deep sorrow. Beatrice stood before
him, her arms crossed on her breast, her eyes cast down; but on her
face, although the gentlest modesty was depicted, there was no trace of
fear; she looked intrepid, yet as if she relied not on her own strength,
but on that of another. The inquisitors accused her of being an
impostor, a misleader of the people, a dangerous and wicked enthusiast,
whom the penitence and solitude of a cloister must cure of her
extravagant dreams. They talked long and loud, uninterrupted either by
the judge or the prisoner, although the lady Marchesana who stood near
could not always restrain her indignation.

At length they were silent; and Beatrice spoke: "You call me an
impostor,--prove it! I shrink from no trial, I fear no danger or
torture,--I appeal to the _Judgement of God_,--on that I rest the truth
or falsehood of my mission."

She looked around her with her flashing eyes and glowing cheeks; she was
all loveliness, all softness; yet there was a spirit within her, which
elevated her above, although it mingled with the feminine delicacy of
her mind and manners, and which inspired all who saw her with reverence
and tenderness. But a small part of the multitude had found their way
into the hall of the bishop's palace; but these could no longer contain
themselves; the _Judgement of God_ was a thing suited to their vulgar
imaginations, as a strange and tremendous mystery, that excited their
awe, their pity, and their admiration: they cried, "God can alone judge
of this! let the trial be made!" and their screams overpowered every
other sound. The inquisitors joined in the clamour, whether to consent
or dissent it was impossible to distinguish; at length the scene became
calmer, and the bishop interposed his mild voice, but vainly,--the
inquisitors repeated the words, impostor! heretic! madwoman! and
Beatrice disdainfully refused all composition. It was finally agreed,
that she should be confined for that night in the convent of St. Anna,
and on the following morning, under the auspices of the monks of the
adjoining monastery, should undergo the _Judgement of God_, to be
pronounced guilty or innocent as that should declare.

Both the inquisitors and Beatrice retired in security and triumph,
followed by the multitude, who were careless of the dismay but too
plainly painted on the faces of the prophetess's friends. The lady
Marchesana was in dreadful agitation, fluctuating between her faith in
the supernatural powers of Beatrice, and her dread lest the trial should
bring ruin upon her: she wept, she laughed, she was in a state
approaching to madness; until her brother, bidding her confide in God,
soothed her to resignation and some degree of confidence. She then
retired to pray, leaving the bishop and Castruccio overwhelmed with
pity, horror, and indignation.

Then the old man for the first time gave vent to his sorrow:--"Ill-fated
victim! headstrong, foolish girl! what are thy prophecies now? thy
inspirations and divine aid? alas! alas! the hand of God is upon thee,
born in an evil day of a guilty and impious mother! His wrath wraps thee
as a cloud, and thou art consumed beneath it;--my love is as bitter
ashes,--my hopes are extinct;--oh, that I had died before this day!"

Castruccio was at first too much confounded to offer consolation; but,
when he spoke, and bade his friend not despair, the bishop replied: "My
lord, she has won my whole soul, and all my affections; why this is, I
know not;--is she not beautiful? and she is as good as she is beautiful.
She calls me father, and loves me with the tenderness of a child; day
and night I have offered up my prayers to God, not to visit on her the
sins of her mother;--for her sake I have fasted and prayed,--but all is
vain, and she must perish."

"Not so, father; say not that so lovely a being shall perish under the
fangs of these cruel hell-hounds. Do not, I earnestly intreat you,
despair: flight! flight is her only safety; father, you have authority,
and must save her. I will take charge of her, when she has quitted the
walls of the convent, and I will place her in safe and honourable
guardianship. Let her fly,--by the sun in heaven she shall escape!"

The bishop remained silent for some time; the same ardent blood did not
warm his veins, which boiled in those of Castruccio: he saw all the
difficulties; he feared for the success of their scheme; but he resolved
to make the attempt. "You are right," said he; "flight is her only
safety: yet it will be rather a rape, than a flight; for willingly she
will never consent to desert the high character she has chosen to
assume. Did you not mark her triumph, when the Judgement of God was
agreed upon Mad, wild girl!--Let me consider our plan, and weigh our
powers. The abbess is a Guelph; but the abbot of the visiting monastery
is a Ghibeline; besides the edicts of the church pronounce against these
temptations of God's justice. I will exert myself; and she may be

When night closed in, these two anxious friends, alone and wrapt up from
observation, hastened to the monastery. Castruccio remained in the
parlour; and the prelate entered the interior of the convent. He
remained two hours; while Castruccio, full of anxiety, continued alone
in the parlour, which looked on an interior court with no object to call
off his attention, in silent and anxious expectation. He thought of the
beauty of the prophetess, her animation and numberless graces, until he
almost believed in the divinity of her mission: but he shuddered with
horror, when he reflected upon her danger, that her ivory feet should
press the burning iron, that, if she fell, she would fall on the hot
metal, and expire in misery, while the priests, the accursed,
self-constituted distributors of God's justice, would sing hymns of
triumph over her untimely and miserable fate;--he felt tears gather in
his eyes, and he would have devoted himself for her safety. At length
the bishop reappeared, and they silently returned to the palace.

"Well! where is she?" were the first words of Castruccio.

"Safe I hope, I trust that I shall not be deceived. I endeavoured to
move the abbot to let her escape; I would have gone to the abbess, whose
consent I must have obtained, and have used all the influence my station
would have given me with her; but the abbot stopped me;--he assured me
that he would take care that no harm befel the devoted victim; he begged
me not to ask an explanation;--that he and his monks had the charge of
the preparation for the Judgement, and that much was in their power;
again and again he assured me that she should receive no injury.

"I do not like this:--she must be protected by falsehood and perjury, a
lying and blasphemous mockery of the name of God. The abbot, who was a
servant of the Popes at Avignon, laughs at my scruples; and I am obliged
to yield. She will be saved, and God, I hope, will pardon our human
weaknesses. Let the sin lie on the souls of those blood-hounds, who
would pursue to destruction the loveliest creature that breathes upon

[Footnote 2: See Muratori, _Antichristà Italiane_, No. 60.]

[Footnote 3: This disease was then common in Italy. The person affected
with it, was accustomed to retire and dwell in a cave in a forest, from
whence he resorted to the road-side, and with beating a wooden spoon
upon a platter, demanded alms of travellers, which, when they were
retired to a convenient distance, he came and took from a stone upon
which it was to be deposited.]

[Footnote 4: These inspired women first appeared in Italy after the
twelfth century, and have continued even until our own days. After
giving an account of their pretensions, Muratori gravely observes, "We
may piously believe that some were distinguished by supernatural gifts,
and admitted to the secrets of heaven; but we may justly suspect that
the source of many of their revelations, was their ardent imagination,
filled with ideas of religion and piety."]


_Judgement of God.--Revolution of Ferrara._

The old man was gloomy and depressed; he retired early to prayer.
Castruccio had not slept the preceding night, and he felt his eyes
weighed down, although in mind he was agitated and restless; he slept
some hours, starting from feverish dreams, in which Euthanasia and poor
Beatrice, alike in danger, alike weeping and imploring his aid, filled
him with agony. He was awaked before day-break by the bishop's servant;
he repaired to the bed-chamber of the prelate, who was sitting on a
couch, with haggard looks, and eyes red and inflamed with watching.

"My dear lord," cried the bishop, "I pray you pardon me that I disturb
your rest; I cannot sleep. In two hours this ceremony--this mockery
begins. I shall not be there; it becomes not my character to be present
at such temptations of God's justice: this is my excuse. But I could not
go; I should die if I were to behold Beatrice bound and suffering. Yet,
do you go, and come quickly back to tell me of her success;--go, and
see, if the abbot keeps his word, and if ever I shall behold my child

Castruccio endeavoured to console his unhappy friend; but the strong
affection and fears of the good man would listen to no comfort. "Let her
be saved," he said, "and I am content; but this doubt, this pause of
horrid expectation, is more than I can bear; I love her more than father
ever loved a child, and she was mine by every tie;--I feel my very
life-strings crack, sometimes I am apprehensive I shall die in the agony
of doubt; go, go, my dearest lord, go and return quickly, if you love

The bell of the church now began to toll, and announced that the monks
were occupied in the prayers that were to precede the ceremony;
Castruccio hurried to the scene. It was to take place in a large square
of Ferrara, under the walls of the garden of the convent of St. Anna,
and before the gates of the monastery to the care of whose monks the
Judgement was intrusted. As Castruccio approached, he found every avenue
choked up by the multitude, and the house-tops covered with
people,--even on towers, whence the square could only appear a confused
speck, the people crowded in eager expectation. He joined a few nobles
who were admitted through the garden of the monastery; as he passed the
sacred precincts, he saw the chapel filled with the brothers, who were
praying, while high mass was performed to sanctify their proceedings,
and the eucharist was distributed as a pledge of their truth.

The square presented a busy, but awful scene; the houses, the windows of
the monastery, the walls of the convent, were covered by people; some
clinging to the posts, and to the walls; fixing their feet upon small
protuberances of stone, they hung there, as if they stood on air. A
large part of the square had been railed off in a semicircle round the
door of the monastery, and outside this the people were admitted, while
it was guarded on the inside by Gascon soldiers, that with drawn swords
kept in awe the eager spectators, whose fury of hope and fear approached
madness: their voices it is true were still, for the solemn tolling of
the bell struck them with awe, and hushed them, as the roar of the lion
in the forest silences the timid herd; but their bodies and muscles were
in perpetual motion; some foamed at the mouth, and others gazed with
outstretched necks, and eyes starting from their sockets.

Within this inclosure one part was assigned for the Dominican brothers,
who, in their black habits and red crosses, at an early hour occupied
their seats, which were raised one above another in the form of a small
amphitheatre; another part was assigned to some of the nobles of both
sexes, the spectators of this piteous scene. Within this inclosure was
another small one, close to the gate of the monastery; it had two
corresponding entrances, near one of which a large cross was erected,
and near the other a white standard with the words _Agnus Dei_
embroidered on it. This inclosure was at first empty, except that in one
corner a pile of wood was heaped.

Half an hour passed in tremendous expectation: Castruccio felt sick with
dread; the heavy and monotonous tolling of the bell struck on his soul,
his head ached, his heart sunk within him. At length the gates of the
monastery were thrown open, and a number of monks came forward in
procession, carrying lights, and chaunting hymns. They saluted the
cross, and then ranged themselves round the outside of the inner
inclosure; after a pause of few moments, another party came out with
Beatrice in the midst of them; she was wrapt in her capuchin, the cowl
drawn over her face; the crowd spoke not as she appeared, but a sound,
as of the hollow north-wind among the mighty trees of a sea-like forest,
rose from among them; an awful, deep and nameless breath, a sigh of many
hearts; she was led to the cross, and knelt down silently before it,
while the brothers continued to chaunt alternately the staves of a
melancholy hymn.

Then came forth a third party of monks; they bore ploughshares and
torches, mattocks and other instruments, that again spread a groan of
horror through the multitude. The pyre was lighted; the shares thrown in
among the blazing wood; while other monks threw up the soil of the
inclosure with their mattocks, forming six furrows, two feet distant one
from the other. At length the bell, which had been silent for a few
minutes, began again to toll, in signal for the ceremony to begin. At
the command of the monks Beatrice arose, and threw off her capuchin; she
was drest in a short vest of black stuff, fastened at the waist with a
girdle of rope; it was without sleeves, and her fairest arms were
crossed on her breast; her black and silken hair was scattered on her
shoulders; her feet, whiter than monumental marble, were bare. She did
not notice the crowd about her, but prayed fervently: her cheek was
pale, but her eyes beamed; and in her face and person there was an
indescribable mixture of timidity, with a firm reliance on the aid of a
superior power. One of the monks bound her arms, and tied a scarf over
her eyes: the shares, white with their excessive heat, were drawn from
the fire with large tongs, and the monks crowded round, and fixed them
in the furrows; the earth seemed to smoke with the heat as they were
laid down.

Then the barrier of the entrance to the inclosure was thrown down; the
monks quitted it at the opposite end, and one of them with a loud voice,
recommending Beatrice to the justice of God, bade her advance. Every
heart beat fast; Castruccio overcome by uncontrolable pity, would have
darted forward to save her, but some one held him back; and in a moment,
before the second beating of his heart, before he again drew breath,
horror was converted to joy and wonder. Beatrice, her eyes covered, her
arms bound, her feet bare, passed over the burning shares with a quick
light step, and reaching the opposite barrier, fell on her knees,
uttering an exclamation of thanksgiving to God. These were the first
words she had spoken: they were followed by a long and deafening shout
of triumph from the multitude, which now manifested its joy as wildly,
as before they had painfully restrained their pity and indignation. They
were no longer to be contained by the palings of the inclosures; all was
broken through and destroyed; the inquisitors had slunk away; and the
Gascon troops galloped off from the ground.

Immediately on the completion of her task, Beatrice had been unbound,
and her capuchin was thrown over her; the noble ladies who were present
crowded round her; she was silent and collected; her colour indeed was
heightened by her internal agitation, and her limbs trembled with the
exertion of her fortitude; but she commanded her countenance and
spirits, and at least wore the appearance of serenity. She received the
congratulations and respectful salutation of her friends with
affectionate cordiality; while the air resounded with the triumphant _Te
Deum_ of the monks, and the people pressed around, awed, but joyful.
They endeavoured to touch the garment of the newly declared saint;
mothers brought her their sick children; the unhappy intreated for her
prayers; and, however bashful and unwilling, she was obliged to bestow
her blessing on all around. Suddenly a procession of nuns came forth
from the garden-gate of the convent; covered with their long veils, and
singing their hymns, they surrounded Beatrice, and led her, attended by
the other ladies in company, to their cloisters, where her maternal
friend the viscountess Marchesana waited to clasp her in her arms.

Castruccio had already returned to the bishop; yet he came not so
quickly, but that the news of the success of his Beatrice, passing from
mouth to mouth, had reached him. His first emotions were joy, gratitude,
and wonder; but these subsided; and the good old man kneeled humiliated,
trembling and penitent, when he considered that God's name had been
called on in vain, that his consecrated servants were perjured, and that
falsehood was firmly established, on foundations where truth alone ought
to rest. He listened to the account of Castruccio with interrupted
exclamations and tears; and when it was ended he exclaimed, "This is the
most miserable--the happiest day of my life!"

In the evening the palace of the prelate was crowded by his friends,
who, knowing the interest he took in Beatrice, came to congratulate him
on her victory, and to express their delight that God had thought their
town worthy of this manifestation of his grace. The bishop, joyful, but
full of shame, listened in silence to their conjectures, exclamations,
and long relations of the morning's scene; his heart was glad, but he
was angry with himself for feeling pleasure at the triumph of falsehood;
and, although a smile played on his lips, a blush spread itself over his
aged cheeks.

The viscountess Malvezzi, radiant with delight, and the lovely Beatrice
blushing under her newly acquired honours, now entered; the nobles
pressed round the prophetess, kissing her hand, and the hem of her
garment; while she, modest, half abashed, yet believing in her right to
the reverence of her friends, smiled upon all. Castruccio was not among
the last of her worshippers; she had never appeared so beautiful; her
eyes, sparkling with the light of triumph, were yet half hid by their
heavy lids, her cheeks glowing, her graceful person, clothed in her
modest garb of white woollen, moved with gestures ever new and
beautiful:--she seemed another being from her he had before seen, as
inspired, as ethereal, but more lovely.

After the crowd of visitors had retired, a few of the intimate friends
who formed the council of the bishop remained; the lady Marchesana
invited them immediately to adopt some plan for the entrance of their
prince into the city; she continued: "I speak but the words of my child,
when I say this; pardon me, saintly Beatrice, that I call you thus. It
is sweet to me to fancy that you are my daughter, although I am much
unworthy of such a child, and you are the offspring of heaven alone."

Beatrice kissed the hand of her excellent friend with respect and
gratitude; the bishop was much troubled at his sister's expression; the
remembrancer of her heretic mother, and his prison-scene with Magfreda,
was full in his recollection, and he looked up to heaven, as if to ask
God to pardon him, and to avert the punishment of deceit from the
guileless Beatrice.

One of the nobles present asked the sacred maiden, to name the day when
the prince should enter the town. She said in a gentle voice: "My lords,
the hour of victory is at hand: the Popes, in despite of their duty,
have deserted their sacred city, have relinquished their lawful rule,
and would now establish tyranny among us,--it will not be. Four days
hence, on the evening of Monday, we shall receive our sovereign, and on
the following morning his banner will be unfurled on the battlements of
this city."

"On Monday," cried a noble, "my heart misgives me; methinks it is an
Ægyptian day; has no one a calendar?"

"It is an Ægyptian day," exclaimed Beatrice, with vivacity; "but the
adverse aspect of the stars falls on our adversaries; for us there is
joy and victory."

"Monday is an early day," said Castruccio; "but as the holy Beatrice
commands, so shall it be. And, my honoured lord, I shall leave you at
day-break to-morrow. I shall not see you again, divine prophetess, until
I come with your prince, to assert his right. I pray you therefore to
bless my arms, and cause, that I may be doubly valiant, approved by one
whom heaven has sent us."

Castruccio kneeled to the beautiful girl; he looked up at her with his
ardent eyes, his passion-formed lips, and countenance of frank and noble
beauty; she blushing placed her hand on his raven hair, and said, "May
God bless and prosper thee and thy cause!"--Then, beckoning her aged
friend, she silently saluted the company, and withdrew, abashed,
confused, but her heart beating with a new and strange sense of

The plan for the entrance of the marquess was now arranged. On the night
of the fourth of August he was to pass Lago Scuro, and halt with his
troops, at the path which led to the secret entrance to the Malvezzi
palace. The marquess, Castruccio, and a small party were to enter the
house of the viscountess; and Galeazzo to lead the greater part of the
remainder to the gates of the town by day-break the following morning; a
part was to remain as a _corps de reserve_, if the small escort of the
marquess should prove insufficient to force the opening of the gates,
and the entrance of Galeazzo. In that case this more numerous troop was
to enter the city through the house of the viscountess, and bring the
necessary succour to their prince.

The assembly then broke up; and Castruccio, wearied by the events of the
day, fatigued with want of rest, his spirits sinking after their
relaxation from the powerful excitements they had sustained, retired
early to repose. He took an affectionate leave of the good old prelate,
who charged him with many messages of fidelity and attachment to his

The dawn of day beheld Castruccio on the road to Rovigo. The wide plain
of Lombardy awoke to life under the rising sun. It was a serene morning;
the cloudy mists that settled on the horizon, received the roseate
glories of the rising sun, and the soft clouds of gold and pink that
awaited his appearance in the east, would have pictured forth to a
Grecian eye the chariot of Aurora, or the golden gates which the Hours
threw back as Phœbus entered upon his diurnal path.

And does the beauteous prophetess seek her tower to behold the glories
of the morn? Beatrice is on the _donjon_ of the palace; and it is true
that her eyes are directed towards the rising sun; but there is a casque
which flashes under its first beams, a horseman who gallops away from
Ferrara, whose form her eyes strain to behold, even when he appears only
as a black spot in the distance. She leans her cheek upon her hand, and,
lost in meditation, she, most unfortunate, mistakes for the inspirations
of Heaven the wild reveries of youth and love: but still her heart was
hidden even from herself by a veil she did not even wish to throw aside.
She felt gently agitated, but happy; a kind of Elysian happiness, that
trembled at change, and wished only for a secure eternity of what it

Castruccio was hailed with joy by his friends at Rovigo; and, when the
intelligence he brought was heard, every voice was busy in
congratulation, every hand in preparation. The knights assisted the
squires in furbishing their arms, and securing the various joints and
fastenings of their heavy armour, in looking that the trusty blade of
the sword was well fixed in the pummel, in selecting the stoutest
lances, and in attending to all the other equipments of war; while the
fair hands of the ladies prepared the scarfs, which, tied over the
hearts of their knights, would preserve them from every wound. No
thought of danger and death,--this was to be rather a tournament,
wherein with blunted lances they tilted for a sovereignty; and the idea
of the Pope, and of their priest-ridden opponents and their foreign
guards excited derision alone.

The sun set on the fourth day, and the troops of the marquess Obizzo to
the number of four hundred were drawn out before the gates of Rovigo.
The expedition was ordered as it had been arranged; and in the depth of
night the viscountess, opening the low door of her secret entrance,
found the marquess, Castruccio, and their followers, waiting in silence
round the short half-buried cross on the marshy moor. A few whispered
words of recognition having been spoken, she led them along her
galleries, and up the staircase to the inhabited rooms of the palace,
lifting up the tapestry of the first apartment; Castruccio did not again
know the old, neglected chamber with its decaying furniture. It was hung
with silk, festooned with flowers, and lighted by a hundred wax lights;
a table was spread with wines, and fruits, and sweetmeats, and other
more substantial refreshments; several couches also were placed round
the room for the convenience of those who wished to repose.

The viscountess with courtly grace welcomed the marquess to her palace.
"My lord," she said, "for a few hours you must be imprisoned in this
apartment; I have endeavoured to decorate your poor dungeon to the best
of my power, and indeed shall ever hold this room honoured, since it
affords refuge and protection to my sovereign."

The old lady received the marquess's heartfelt thanks, and then retired
satisfied, to recount to Beatrice the arrival of her guests, and the
whispered enquiry of Castruccio concerning the health of the prophetess.
But, although she had gilt their cage, the hours passed heavily to the
imprisoned chiefs; they watched the stars as they still burned brightly
in the sky, and almost uttered a cry of joy when they first perceived
them, one by one, fading in the morning light. At length the steps of
men were heard about the streets; and the horses which the bishop had
provided for the troop came to the door of the palace. The trampling of
these horses as they were led to their destination, attracted a small
crowd along with them; and, when the strange knights mounted them, and
advanced in slow procession along the streets, the crowd increased, and
the name of the marquess was whispered, while every one gazed in wonder.
At length, when the troop had reached the principal street of Ferrara,
they put their horses to the gallop, and raising the Ghibeline war-cry,
rode through the town calling on the people to join them, and invoking
downfal to the foreign tyrants: a band of citizens, who had been already
prepared, obeyed the summons, and they were followed by others, who
espoused the party of the prince in their hearts, and joyfully aided his

The trampling of the steeds, the clash of arms, as the knights struck
their shields with their spears, the war-cry of the troops, and the
_vivas_ of the crowd, awoke the papal governor, who called out the
Gascon soldiery. But it was too late; the marquess reached the gate of
the town, put the sentinels to flight, and admitted Galeazzo into the
city: then, joined by all the nobility of Ferrara, he rode towards the
palace of the governor. The Gascons were drawn up in the great square of
the town, but they were unable to withstand the first onset of Obizzo's
party; they fled, and shut themselves up in Castel Tealdo, the fortress
of the town, where they were at least safe from sudden attack. The
marquess drew his troops around, and threw up his works to prevent their
egress; and, leaving to his principal captain the care of the siege,
returned to his palace to receive the congratulations of his delighted

Now joy was the order of the day; the Italians, who had been intrusted
with the charge of some of the gates of the town, brought the keys to
the feet of their sovereign; the others were broken open; every
magistrate brought in his resignation, and many of them petitions for
mercy; and lying traitors, who assured him that their faith had never
been broken, crowded to the presence-chamber. His throne was erected in
the great square, covered with the richest cloth, and surmounted by a
magnificent canopy; the troops were marshalled before him, the standards
brought and lowered to his feet. A deputation of the noblest counts and
knights of Ferrara were sent to convoy the caroccio[5] to the throne of
the prince. They went to the cathedral; and the monks led it forth,
adorned with its splendid trappings and standards, the gold cross and
white flag of the Popes waving above all. They yoked to it four
beautiful dove coloured oxen, on whom they cast rich trappings of
scarlet cloth; and then, to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by the
knights, and followed by a procession of priests singing a _Te Deum_, it
was drawn to the square before the throne of Obizzo; then with a
triumphant flourish, the standard of the Pope was lowered, and that of
the house of Este raised to its ancient eminence. Festivities of every
kind followed this joyful event, triumphant festivities, untarnished
with blood; for few of the subjects of the marquess were hostile to his
return, and these either went into voluntary exile, or joined the
refugees in Castel Tealdo.

[Footnote 5: The Caroccio was introduced after the tenth century. It was
a large car, painted red, adorned with numerous standards, the spoils of
vanquished enemies, and surmounted by the banner of the _commune_ to
which it belonged. It made a considerable figure in the wars of Frederic
Barbarossa. Its loss was an indelible disgrace, and its capture the
greatest of triumphs.]


_Fall of Beatrice._

Castruccio was no inactive partaker in this busy scene. But, after the
combat was finished, and he perceived that Obizzo was engaged in acts of
peaceful sovereignty alone, he hastened to the palace of the bishop; for
he was painfully surprised in not seeing him among the nobles who waited
on the prince. The old man was ill: he had been dreadfully agitated by
the scenes of the preceding days, and his health for a while sunk under
it. Castruccio was introduced into his chamber, where he lay peacefully
sleeping on a magnificent couch, his adopted child, the lovely Beatrice,
watching before him, who, when she beheld Castruccio, blushed deeply,
while, in spite of every effort, a smile of delight spread itself over
her expressive countenance.

"He is not very ill," she said in a low voice, in answer to Castruccio's
enquiries; "the fever has left him entirely; he is weak, but recovering.
He sleeps sweetly now: look at him; at his reverend grey hairs strewn
over his naked temples; look at his eyes, sunken with age, yet, when
open, beaming with benevolence and affection: look what a gentle smile
there is upon his pale lips; there he sleeps, affection, benevolence,
matchless virtue, and excelling wisdom, all cradled by the baby Sleep;
I have been contemplating him for more than an hour; he draws his breath
as regularly as a sleeping infant who has sucked its fill, and his heart
heaves slowly, but calmly. It is a heavenly sight to look on the repose
of this good old man; it calms wild passion, and sheds the fresh dew of
healthful meditation over the strange reveries of youth."

She spoke in a whisper; but her countenance was all animation. The old
man moved; and, pressing her finger on her lips, she paused. "Beatrice,
my child," he said, "I have slept long and soundly, and feel quite well.
Who is that stranger? does he bring news from the marquess? Aye, I
remember this is the day,--I am strangely confused; I recollect now that
I heard of his success before I slept."

"Father, it is my lord Castruccio, who, after having reinstated our
prince in his sovereignty, visits your sick chamber."

Castruccio remained several hours conversing with the bishop; he gave
him an account of the action of the morning, and Beatrice listened with
her whole soul in her eyes; yet, attentive as she was to the narration,
she watched with sweet earnestness her sick friend, turning her looks
from him to the animated face of Castruccio; and again, as she crept
near her adoptive father, she adjusted some pillow, or performed some
little office that marked her earnest observation.

"How beautiful she is!" thought Castruccio, "and what will become of
her?" he fixed his eyes on the silver plate on her forehead. "Yes, she
is the _Ancilla Dei_, a maiden vowed to God and chastity; yet her eyes
seem penetrated with love; the changeful and blooming colours of her
face, her form, which is all that imagination can conceive of perfect,
appear not like those of a cloistered nun. Ah! Beatrice, if you would be
sacred to your God, you ought to hide your surpassing loveliness with
thick veils, behind treble grates. But she is a prophetess; something
more than human;--a character unapproachable even in thought."

Thus Castruccio tried to disentangle his perplexed thoughts, still
looking on the maiden, who, suddenly raising her eyes, and meeting his
which were fixed on her silver plate, blushed even till the tips of her
fingers became a rosy red; and then, complaining in an hesitating voice,
that the plate hurt her brow, she untied it; while her silken hair, no
longer confined, fell on her neck.

Thus many hours passed, and when at length the prophetess retired, it
was to feverish meditation, and thoughts burning with passion, rendered
still more dangerous from her belief in the divine nature of all that
suggested itself to her mind. She prayed to the Virgin to inspire her;
and, again giving herself up to reverie, she wove a subtle web, whose
materials she believed heavenly, but which were indeed stolen from the
glowing wings of love. Kneeling, her eyes raised to heaven, she felt the
same commotion in her soul, which she had felt before, and had
recognised as divine inspiration; she felt the same uncontrolable
transport and burst of imaginative vision, which she believed to flow
immediately from the invisible ray of heaven-derived prophecy. She felt
her soul, as it were, fade away, and incorporate itself with another and
a diviner spirit, which whispered truth and knowledge to her mind, and
then slowly receding, left her human nature, agitated, joyful, and
exhausted;--these were her dreams,--alas! to her they were realities.

The following morning she again met Castruccio in the chamber of the
bishop. She now looked upon him fearlessly; and, if the virgin modesty
of her nature had not withheld her, her words would have been as frank
as she innocently believed them to be inspired. But, although she was
silent, her looks told that she was changed. Her manner the day before
had been soft, concentrated, and retiring; now she was unconstrained;
her eyes sparkled, and a joyous expression dwelt in every feature. Her
manner towards her guardian was endearing, nor was the affectionate
modulation of her voice different when she addressed his guest:
Castruccio started to hear it. It reminded him of the accents of
Euthanasia, whom for a while he had forgotten; and, looking at Beatrice,
he thought, "How lovely she is, and yet how unlike!"

Several days passed thus; Beatrice became embarrassed; it seemed as if
she wished to speak to Castruccio, and yet dared not: when she
approached, she blushed, and again drew back, and would again seek him,
but again vainly. She had framed the mode of her address, conned and
reconned the words she should say; but, when an opportunity occurred to
utter them, her voice failed her, the memory of what she was about to
utter deserted her, and it was not until the approach of a third person
took from her the possibility of speaking, that speech again returned,
and the lost occasion was uselessly lamented. At night she sought the
counsels of heaven, and gave herself up to her accustomed extasies; they
always told her the same things, until to her bewildered and untamed
mind it seemed as if the spirit that had power over her, reprimanded her
hesitation, her little trust in the promises of heaven, and her
reluctance to follow the path it pointed out.

"Surely, oh! most certainly," she thought, "thus I am commanded by the
Power who has so often revealed his will to me. Can I penetrate his
hidden designs? can I do more than execute his decrees? did I not feel
thus, when with prophetic transport I foretold distant events that
surely came to pass? when I foresaw yet afar off the death of Lorenzo,
that lovely child blooming in health, when every one called me a false
prophet? And yet he died. And now, the marquess's return? nay, am I not
approved by heaven? did I not escape from the malice of my enemies
through its miraculous interposition? Oh! I will no longer scan with
presumptuous argument, purposes that are ruled by mightier hands than
mine; I will resign myself to the guidance of what has ever conducted me
aright, and which now points out the path to happiness."

The next morning, her cheeks flushed, her eyes weighed down, trembling
and abashed, she sought Castruccio. It is impossible that there should
not have been much tenderness in his manner towards this lovely girl;
her history, her strange and romantic contemplations and impulses, and
the great intimacy which had arisen between them, were sufficient for
this. He regarded her also as a nun; and this made him feel less
restraint in the manner of his address, since he feared not to be
misconstrued; while at the same time it gave an elevation and unusual
tone to his ideas concerning her, that made him watch her every motion
with interest. She now approached; and he said playfully; "Where is thy
mark, prophetess? art thou no longer the _Maiden of God?_ For some days
thou hast cast aside the hallowed diadem."

"I still have it," she replied; "but I have dismissed it from my brow; I
will give it you; come, my lord, this evening at midnight to the secret
entrance of the viscountess's palace." Saying these words, she fled to
hide her burning blushes in solitude, and again to feel the intoxicating
delusions that led her on to destruction.

Castruccio came. If it were in human virtue to resist the invitation of
this angelic girl, his was not the mind, strictly disciplined to right,
self-examining and jealous of its own integrity that should thus weigh
its actions, and move only as approved by conscience. He was frank and
noble in his manner; his nature was generous; and, though there lurked
in his heart the germ of an evil-bearing tree, it was as yet undeveloped
and inanimated; and, in obeying the summons of Beatrice, he passively
gave himself up to the strong excitements of curiosity and wonder.

He went again and again. When the silent night was spread over every
thing, and the walls of the town stood black and confused amidst the
overshadowing trees, whose waving foliage was diversified by no gleam of
light, but all was formless as the undistinguishable air; or if a star
were dimly seen, it just glistened on the waters of the marsh, and then
swiftly the heavy web of clouds hid both star and water; when the watch
dogs were mute, unawakened by the moon, and the wind that blew across
the plain alone told to the ear the place of the trees; when the bats
and the owls were lulled by the exceeding darkness; it was on such
nights as these, that Castruccio sought the secret entrance of the
viscountess's palace, and was received by the beautiful Beatrice,
enshrined in an atmosphere of love and joy.

She was a strange riddle to him. Without vow, without even that slight
shew of distrust which is the child of confidence itself; without
seeking the responsive professions of eternal love, she surrendered
herself to his arms. And, when the first maiden bashfulness had passed
away, all was deep tenderness and ardent love. Yet there was a dignity
and a trusting affection in her most unguarded moments, that staggered
him: a broken expression would sometimes fall from her lips, that seemed
to say that she believed him indissolubly hers, which made him start, as
if he feared that he had acted with perfidy; yet he had never solicited,
never promised,--what could she mean? What was she? He loved her as he
would have loved any thing that was surpassingly beautiful; and, when
these expressions, that intimated somewhat of enduring and unchangeable
in their intercourse, intruded themselves, they pained and irritated
him: he turned to the recollection of Euthanasia, his pure, his
high-minded, and troth-plight bride;--she seemed as if wronged by such
an idea; and yet he hardly dared think her purer than poor Beatrice,
whose soul, though given up to love, was imbued in its very grain and
texture with delicate affections and honourable feelings; all that makes
the soul and living spark of virtue. If she had not resisted the
impulses of her soul, it was not that she wanted the power; but that,
deluded by the web of deceit that had so long wound itself about her,
she believed them, not only lawful, but inspired by the special
interposition of heaven.

Poor Beatrice! She had inherited from her mother the most ardent
imagination that ever animated a human soul. Its images were as vivid as
reality, and were so overpowering, that they appeared to her, when she
compared them to the calm sensations of others, as something superhuman;
and she followed that as a guide, which she ought to have bound with
fetters, and to have curbed and crushed by every effort of reason.
Unhappy prophetess! the superstitions of her times had obtained credit
for, and indeed given birth to her pretensions, and the compassion and
humanity of her fellow creatures had stamped them with the
truth-attesting seal of a miracle. There is so much life in love!
Beatrice was hardly seventeen, and she loved for the first time; and all
the exquisite pleasures of that passion were consecrated to her, by a
mysteriousness and delusive sanctity that gave them tenfold zest. It is
said, that in love we idolize the object; and, placing him apart and
selecting him from his fellows, look on him as superior in nature to all
others. We do so; but, even as we idolize the object of our affections,
do we idolize ourselves: if we separate him from his fellow mortals, so
do we separate ourselves, and, glorying in belonging to him alone, feel
lifted above all other sensations, all other joys and griefs, to one
hallowed circle from which all but his idea is banished; we walk as if a
mist or some more potent charm divided us from all but him; a sanctified
victim which none but the priest set apart for that office could touch
and not pollute, enshrined in a cloud of glory, made glorious through
beauties not our own. Thus we all feel during the entrancing dream of
love; and Beatrice, the ardent, affectionate Beatrice, felt this with
multiplied power: and, believing that none had ever felt so before, she
thought that heaven itself had interfered to produce so true a paradise.
If her childish dreams had been full of fire, how much more vivid and
overpowering was the awakening of her soul when she first loved! It
seemed as if some new and wondrous spirit had descended, alive,
breathing and panting, into her colder heart, and gave it a new impulse,
a new existence. Ever the dupe of her undisciplined thoughts, she
cherished her reveries, believing that heavenly and intellectual, which
was indebted for its force to earthly mixtures; and she resigned herself
entire to her visionary joys, until she finally awoke to truth, fallen,
and for ever lost.

In the mean time peace was entirely restored to Ferrara: on the
fifteenth of August Castel Tealdo surrendered, and the Pope's governor,
with his foreign guard, quitted the territories of the marquess of Este.
Galeazzo Visconti returned to Milan, but still Castruccio lingered: he
wished to go; he found himself out of place as a dangling courtier in
the train of Obizzo; but how could he leave Beatrice? What did she
expect or wish? The passionate tenderness that she evinced, could not be
an ephemeral spark of worthless love; and how often did the _We,_ she
used in talking of futurity, make him pause when he wished to speak of
their separation! She seemed happy; her words flowed in rich abundance,
and were adorned with various imagery and with delicate thoughts,
shewing that her soul, at rest from fear, wandered as it was wont amidst
the wilds of her imagination. He found her untaught, undisciplined, but
so sincere, so utterly forgetful of self, so trusting, that he dared not
speak that, which each day shewed more clearly would be as a dagger to
her heart. A thousand times he cursed himself for having mistaken her,
and imagining, inspired as she believed herself to be, that her actions
and feelings had not been dictated by the loftiest impulses. But the
time arrived, when he was obliged to undeceive her; and the hand, that
tore away the ties her trusting heart had bound round itself, at the
same time tore away the veil which had for her invested all nature, and
shewed her life as it was--naked and appalling.

They sat in her apartment at the Malvezzi palace; she radiant,
beautiful, and happy; and, twining her lovely arms around Castruccio,
she said: "The moon will set late to-morrow-night, and you must not
venture here; and indeed for several nights it will spread too glaring a
beam. But tell me, are you become a citizen of Ferrara? They averred
that you were the head of a noble city; but I see they must have been
mistaken, or the poor city must totter strangely, so headless as your
absence must make it. How is this, my only friend? Are you not
Antelminelli? Are we not to go to Lucca?"

Castruccio could not stand the questioning of her soft yet earnest eyes;
he withdrew himself from her arms, and taking her hands in his, kissed
them silently. "How is my noble lord?" she repeated, "have you had ill
news? are you again banished? that cannot be, or methinks my heart would
have told me the secret. Yet, if you are, be not unhappy:--your own
Beatrice, with prophetic words, and signs from heaven that lead the
multitude, will conduct you to greater glory and greater power than you
before possessed. My gentle love, you have talked less about yourself,
and about your hopes and desires, than I should have wished:--Do not
think me a foolish woman, tied to an embroidery frame, or that my heart
would not beat high at the news of your success, or that with my whole
soul I should not enter into your plans, and tell you how the stars
looked upon your intents. In truth my mind pants for fitting exertion;
and, in being joined to thee, dearest love, I thought that I had found
the goal for which heaven had destined me. Nay, look not away from me; I
do not reproach thee; I know that, in finding thee, in being bound to
thy fate, mine is fulfilled; and I am happy. Now speak--tell me what has
disturbed thy thoughts."

"Sweetest Beatrice, I have nothing to tell; yet I have for many days
wished to speak; for in truth I must return to Lucca."

The quick sensations of Beatrice could not be deceived. The words of
Castruccio were too plain; she looked at him, as if she would read the
secret in his soul,--she did read it:--his downcast eyes, confused air,
and the words he stammered out in explanation, told her every thing. The
blood rushed to her face, her neck, her hands; and then as suddenly
receding, left even her lips pale. She withdrew her arms from the soft
caress she had bestowed; playfully she had bound his head with her own
hair and the silken strings entangled with his; she tore her tresses
impatiently to disengage herself from him; then, trembling, white, and
chilled, she sat down, and said not a word. Castruccio looked on with
fear; he attempted consolation.

"I shall visit thee again, my own Beatrice; for a time we must
part;--the viscountess--the good bishop--you cannot leave them,--fear
not but that we shall meet again."

"We shall meet again!" she exclaimed with a passionate voice; "Never!"

Her tone, full of agitation and grief, sunk into the soul of Castruccio.
He took her hand; it was lifeless; he would have kissed her; but she
drew back coldly and sadly. His words had not been those of the heart;
he had hesitated and paused: but now compassion, and the memory of what
she had been, awoke his powers, and he said warmly, and with a voice
whose modulations seemed tuned by love: "You mistake me, Beatrice;
indeed you do. I love you;--who could help loving one so true, so
gentle, and so trusting?--we part for a while;--this is necessary. Does
not your character require it? the part you act in the world? every
consideration of honour and delicacy:--Do you think that I can ever
forget you? does not your own heart tell you, that your love, your
caresses, your sweet eyes, and gentle words, have woven a net which must
keep me for ever? You will remain here, and I shall go; but a few suns,
a few moons, and we shall meet again, and the joy of that moment will
make you forget our transient separation."

How cold were these words to the burning heart of the prophetess; she,
who thought that Heaven had singled out Castruccio to unite him to her,
who thought that the Holy Spirit had revealed himself to bless their
union, that, by the mingled strength of his manly qualities, and her
divine attributes, some great work might be fulfilled on earth; who saw
all as God's command, and done by his special interposition; to find
this heavenly tissue swept away, beaten down, and destroyed! It was to
his fortunes, good or bad, that she had bound herself, to share his
glory or soothe his griefs; and not to be the mistress of the passing
hour, the distaff of the spinning Hercules. It was her heart, her whole
soul she had given; her understanding, her prophetic powers, all the
little universe that with her ardent spirit she grasped and possessed,
she had surrendered, fully, and without reserve; but alas! the most
worthless part alone had been accepted, and the rest cast as dust upon
the winds. How in this moment did she long to be a winged soul, that her
person heedlessly given, given only as a part of that to the whole of
which he had an indefeasible right, and which was now despised, might
melt away from the view of the despiser, and be seen no more! The words
of her lover brought despair, not comfort; she shook her head in
silence; Castruccio spoke again and again; but many words are dangerous
where there is much to conceal, and every syllable he uttered laid bare
some new forgery of her imagination, and shewed her more and more
clearly the harsh reality. She was astounded, and drank in his words
eagerly, though she answered not; she was impatient when he was silent,
for she longed to know the worst; yet she dared not direct the course of
his explanations by a single enquiry: she was as a mother, who reads the
death-warrant of her child on the physician's brow, yet blindly trusting
that she decyphers ill, will not destroy the last hope by a question.
Even so she listened to the assurances of Castruccio, each word being a
fresh assurance of her misery, yet not stamping the last damning seal on
her despair.

At length grey dawn appeared; she was silent, motionless and wan; she
marked it not; but he did; and rising hastily he cried, "I must go, or
you are lost; farewel, Beatrice!"

Now she awoke, her eyes glared, her lovely features became even
distorted by the strength of her agony,--she started up--"Not yet, not
yet--one word more! Do you--love another?"

Her tone was that of command;--her flashing eyes demanded the truth, and
seemed as if they would by their excessive force strike the falsehood
dead, if he dared utter it: he was subdued, impelled to reply:--

"I do."

"Her name?"


"Enough, I will remember that name in my prayers. Now, go! seek not to
come again; the entrance will be closed; do not endeavour to see me at
the house of the bishop; I shall fly you as a basilisk, and, if I see
you, your eyes will kill me. Remember these are my words; they are as
true, as that I am all a lie. It will kill me; but I swear by all my
hopes never to see you more. Oh, never, never!"

She again sank down pale and lifeless, pressing her hands upon her eyes,
as if the more speedily to fulfil her vow. Castruccio dared stay no
longer, he fled as the dæmon might have fled from the bitter sorrows of
despoiled Paradise; he left her aghast, overthrown, annihilated.

He quitted Ferrara that day. He was miserable: careless of the road, he
sought solitude alone. Before night he was among the wild forests of the
Apennines,--and there he paused; he was surrounded by the dark
pine-forests that sung above him, covered by a night which was cloudy
and unquiet, for the swift wind drove the rack along the sky, and
moaned, and howled; while the lightnings of a distant storm, faint, but
frequent, displayed the savage spot on which he rested. He threw himself
from his horse, and abandoned himself to sorrow: it stung him to
reflect, that he was the cause of sharpest pain to one who loved him;
and the excuses he fondly leaned upon before his explanation, broke as a
reed under the wild force of Beatrice's despair. He had heard her story,
he knew her delusions, and ought not to have acted towards her, as to a
fellow-being who walked in the same light as himself, and saw objects
dressed in the same colours: a false sun made every thing deceptive for
her eyes,--and he knew it.

Yet what could he now do? Go again to Beatrice? Wherefore? What could he
say? but one word--"forget me!" And that was already said. His early
vows, his deepest and his lasting hopes, were bound up in Euthanasia:
she depended on him alone; she had no father, no relation, none to love
but him. She had told him that she gave up her soul to him, and had
intreated him not to cast aside the gift. Beatrice had never demanded
his faith, his promise, his full and entire heart; but she believed that
she had them, and the loss sustained by her was irretrievable.

Yet she would soon forget him: thus he reasoned; hers was one of those
minds ever tossed like the ocean by the tempest of passion; yet, like
the ocean, let the winds abate, and it subsides, and quickly again
becomes smiling. She had many friends; she was loved, nay, adored, by
all who surrounded her: utter hopelessness of ever seeing him again
would cause her to forget him; her old ideas, her old habits would
return, and she would be happy. His interference alone could harm her;
but she, the spoiled child of the world, would weep out her grief on
some fond and friendly bosom, and then again laugh and play as she was

He spent the following day and night among these forests; until the
tempest of his soul was calmed, and his thoughts, before entangled and
matted by vanity and error, now flowed loose, borne on by repentance, as
the clinging weeds of a dried-up brook are spread free and distinct by
the re-appearance of the clear stream. He no longer felt the withering
look of Beatrice haunt even his dreams; it appeared to him that he had
paid the mulct of remorse and error; the impression of her enchantments
and of her sorrows wore off; and he returned with renewed tenderness to
Euthanasia, whom he had wronged; and, in the knowledge that he had
shamed her pure lessons, he felt a true and wholesome sorrow, which was
itself virtue. Yet he dared not go back to her; he dared not meet her
clear, calm eye; and he felt that his cheek would burn with shame under
her innocent gaze. He suddenly remembered his engagement to visit Pepi,
the old Ghibeline politician, who, without honesty or humanity, snuffed
up the air of self-conceit, and who, thus inflated, believed himself
entitled to cover others with the venom of sarcasm and contempt.

"Yes, old fox!" he cried, "I will unearth you, and see if there is aught
in your kennel worth the labour. Methinks you would give out as if gold
were under the dirt, or that power and wisdom lurked beneath your
sheep-skin and wrinkles; but believe me, my good friend, we Italians,
however base our politics may be, are not yet low enough to feed from a
trough with you for the driver."

The recollection of something so low and contemptible as Benedetto of
Cremona, relieved Castruccio from a load of dissatisfaction and remorse.
Comparing Pepi with himself, not directly, but by inference of infinite
contempt, he felt that he could again unabashed raise his eyes. This was
not well; far better was the blush of humiliation which covered him in
comparing his soiled purposes and strayed heart to something high and
pure, than the ignoble heavings of self-consequence in matching himself
with such a blotted specimen of humanity as Pepi. So, as we are wont,
when we return from the solitude of self-examination to the company of
fellow-sinners, he twisted up again the disentangled tresses of his
frank and sincere thoughts into the million-knotted ties of the world's
customs and saintly-looking falsehoods; and, leaving the woods of the
Apennines, something wiser in self-knowledge, and but little improved in
generous virtue, and the government of his passions, he put spurs to his
horse, and turned his steps towards Cremona.


_Visit to Pepi at Cremona._

It was on the evening of the tenth of September that Castruccio arrived
at the bridge which Pepi had indicated. No one was there, except an old
woman spinning with a distaff, who from her age and wrinkles might have
served for a model of the eternal Fates; for her leathern and dry, brown
skin, did not seem formed of the same frail materials as the lily cheek
of a high-bred dame. She looked full at Castruccio; so that he laughing
asked her, whether she would tell him his fortune.

"Aye," replied the beldame, "though no witch, it is easy for me to tell
you what you are about to find. Say the word you were bid repeat here,
and I will conduct you where you desire to go."


"Enough; follow me. He of whom you wot, will be glad that you come

She led him out of the high road, by numberless lanes through which his
horse could hardly break his way, among the entangled bushes of the
hedges. The woman trudged on before, spinning as she went, and screaming
out a few notes of a song, returning to them again and again with a
monotonous kind of yell, as loud as it was discordant. At length they
arrived at a mean suburb of Cremona; and, traversing a number of dirty
alleys and dark streets, they came to one bounded on one side by the
high, black, stone wall of a palace. The old woman knocked at a small,
low door in this wall, made strong with iron clamps, and which, when
cautiously opened, appeared not less in thickness than the wall of the
palace itself. It was Pepi's muscular, but withered hand, that turned
the massy key, and forced back the bolts of three successive doors that
guarded this entrance. After having admitted Castruccio (the old woman
being left behind with the horse, to lead him to the front gate of the
palace), he closed the doors with care; and then, it being quite dark
within the passage, he uncovered a small lamp, and led the way through
the gallery, up a narrow staircase, which opened by a secret door on the
great and dreary hall of the palace. This vast apartment was hardly
light, although at the further end a torch, stuck against the wall,
flared with a black and smoky flame.

"Welcome again, noble Castruccio, to my palace," said Pepi: "I have
waited anxiously for your arrival, for all my hopes appear now to depend
upon you. At present, since you appear wet and cold, come to the further
hall, where we shall find fire and food: and pardon, I intreat you, my
homely fare, for it is by œconomy and privation that I have become that
which I am."

The manners of Pepi were unusually inflated and triumphant; and
Castruccio wondered what new scene a being, whom he considered as half a
buffoon, and half a madman, intended to act. A large fire blazed in the
middle of the second hall, and a pot hung over it containing the supper
of the family: Pepi took Castruccio's cloak, and spread it carefully on
the high back of a chair; and then he pushed a low bench close to the
fire, and the two friends (if so they might be called) sat down. There
was no torch or lamp in the room; but the flame of the burning wood cast
a broad glare on Benedetto's face, which Castruccio observed with
curiosity; his brows were elevated, his sharp eyes almost emitted sparks
of fire, his mouth was drawn down and compressed with a mixed expression
of cunning and pride; he threw another log on the blazing hearth, and
then began to speak:--

"My lord Castruccio, I think it were well that we should instantly enter
on our business, since, when we have agreed upon our terms, no time must
be lost in our proceeding. My proposition last May, was, as you may
remember, to restore this town to the Ghibelines; and this is in my
power. Cane, the lord of Verona, is I know about to approach with an
army to besiege it, and it rests with me whether he shall succeed or
not. If he do not agree to my terms, he must fail, as I may well say
that the keys of this town rest with me. It is true, that when I spoke
to you in May, I did not know that Can' Grande would attempt the town,
and in that case I should have needed no more aid from you than your
mere interposition: but in affairs of importance a mediator's is not a
humble task; and I hope that you will not disdain to act a friendly part
towards me."

Pepi paused with an inquisitive look; and Castruccio, assuring him of
his amicable dispositions, intreated him to continue his explanation,
and to name what he called his terms. Benedetto continued: "My terms are
these, and truly they may easily be fulfilled; of course Cane only
wishes to take the town out of the hands of the Guelphs, and to place it
in trust with some sure Ghibeline; now let him make me lord of Cremona,
and I will engage, first to put the town into his hands, and afterwards
on receiving the investiture, to aid him with men during war, and pay
him a tribute in time of peace. If he agree to this, let him only lead
his troops to the gate of the town, and it shall be his without costing
him one drop of blood."

Castruccio listened with uncontrolable astonishment. He looked at the
wrinkled and hardly human face of the speaker, his uncouth gait and
manners, and could scarcely restrain his contempt; he remembered Pepi's
want of every principle and his boasted cruelty; and disgust overcame
every other feeling; but, considering that it was as well to understand
the whole of the man's drift, after a moment's pause he replied: "And
where are the keys of the town which you say are in your possession?"

"Would you see them?" cried Pepi, starting up with a grin of triumph;
"follow me, and you shall behold them."

He called his old woman, and, taking the lamp from her hand, he bade her
prepare the supper; and then with quick steps he conducted Castruccio
from the apartment: they crossed the court into the second hall, and he
opened the door of the secret staircase. After Pepi had again carefully
closed it, he opened another door on the staircase, which Castruccio had
not before observed, and which was indeed entirely concealed in the
dirty plaster of the wall. "Even she," said Pepi, pointing towards the
hall, "even my old witch, does not know of this opening."

After closing it, he led the way through a dark gallery, to another long
and narrow flight of stairs, which seemed to lead to the vaults
underneath the castle. Castruccio paused before he began to descend, so
deeply was he impressed with the villainy of his companion; but,
remembering that they were man to man, and that he was young and strong,
and his companion old and weak, and that he was armed with a sword,
while Pepi had not even a knife at his girdle, he followed his conductor
down the stairs. Flight after flight succeeded, until he thought they
would never end; at length they came to another long gallery, windowless
and damp, which by its close air indicated that it was below the surface
of the ground, and then to various dreary and mildewed vaults in one of
which stood two large chests.

"There," cried Pepi, "are the keys of the town."

"Where?" asked Castruccio, impatiently, "I see them not."

Pepi turned to him with a grin of joy; and, taking two keys from his
bosom, he knelt down, and exerting his strength, turned them in their
locks, and threw back the lids of the chests, first one, and then the
other: they were filled with parchments.

"I do not understand this mummery; how can these musty parchments be the
keys of your town?"

Pepi rubbed his hands with triumphant glee; he almost capered with
delight; unable to stand still, he walked up and down the vault, crying,
"They are not musty! they are parchments of this age! they are signed,
they are sealed;--read them! read them!"

Castruccio took up one, and found it to be a bond obliging the signer to
pay the sum of twenty thousand crowns on a certain day, in return for
certain monies lent, or to forfeit the sum of thirty thousand, secured
on the lands of a noble count of Cremona.

"They are usurious bonds," said Castruccio, throwing it down angrily.

"They are," replied Pepi, picking up the deed, and folding it carefully;
"said I not well that I had the keys of the town? Every noble owes me a
part, many the best part, of his estate. Many bonds are forfeited; and
the mulct hangs over the signer by a single thread. There is count
Grimaldi, whose bond was due the very day after his castle was plundered
and burned, and his lands laid waste by the Germans; he owes me more
than he can ever pay, though his last acre with his patent of nobility
went with it, and he after with his brats, to beg at the doors of the
Guelphs, his friends. There is the marquess Malvoglio who bought the
life of his only son, a rank traitor, from the emperor by the sums which
I lent him, which have never been repaid. This box is full of the bonds
made before the siege of Cremona; it was concealed above in my tower
when you last visited me; and this is full of those made since that
time; you see the harvest the good emperor brought me. When the Germans
quitted the town, my halls were filled with the beggarly Guelph
nobility--'Messer Benedetto, my wife has not a garment to cover her!
Messer Benedetto, my palace is in ruins! Messer Benedetto, my beds are
destroyed, my walls are bare of furniture!'--'Oh! Messer Benedetto,
without your aid my children must starve!'

"'Aye, my friends,' said I, 'I will help you most willingly; here are
parchments to sign, and gold to spend!--For in the interim I had called
in my debts from various other towns, and had two chests of gold ready
for the gaping hounds; some read the bonds, and complained of the
conditions; the greater number signed without reading them; none have
been paid; now they are all mine, body and soul; aye, with these bonds,
the devil himself might buy them."

"And this is the trade by which you have become rich, and to support
which you have sold your paternal estate?"

"Ah! Messer Castruccio," replied Pepi, his countenance falling; "not
only have I sold every acre, but I have starved myself, exposed myself
by my beggarly garb to the jeers and mocks of every buffoon and idiot,
who had been weaned but a year from his mother's milk: a knight in
sheep-skin was an irresistible subject for ridicule; I have been patient
and humble, and by my submissive mien have lulled my debtors into
security, till the day of payment passed; then I have come upon them,
received no payment, but got fresh bonds, and then with renewed
hypocrisy, blinded them again till I have drawn their very souls from
their bodies;--and they and theirs are mine. Why, Cane is himself my
debtor, here is his bond for ten thousand florins of gold, which I will
burn with my own hands, when by his exertions I am made lord of

Castruccio, who had steadily curbed his contempt, now, overcome by
indignation, burst forth like thunder on his host: "Thou vile Jew," he
exclaimed, "utter not those words again! Thou, lord of Cremona! A
usurer, a bloodsucker!--Why all the moisture squeezed from thy miserable
carcase would not buy one drop of the noble heart's tide of your
debtors.--And these parchments! Thinkest thou men are formed of straw to
be bound with paper chains? Have they not arms? have they not swords?
Tremble, foolish wretch! Be what thou art,--a sycophant.--No, thou art
not human; but in these filthy vaults thou hast swollen, as a vile toad
or rank mushroom; and then, because thou canst poison men, thou wouldst
lord it over them! Now, thou base-minded fellow, be advised to cast off
these presumptuous thoughts, or with my armed heel I will crush thee in
the dust!"

Pepi was pale with rage; and, with a malignant, distorted smile, which
his quivering lips could hardly frame, he said, "Fair words, my lord of
Lucca; remember this is my palace, these vaults are mine, and of these
passages I alone have the key, know alone of their existence."

"Slave! do you threaten?"

Castruccio had scarcely uttered these words, when he perceived Pepi
gliding behind him; with eyes that flashed fire, he darted round, and
transfixed by their gaze the wretched traitor; as he cast up his arm
with the passionate gesture of indignation and command, Pepi grew pale
with terror; it seemed to him, as if he already felt the menaced
vengance of his youthful enemy; his sharp eyes became glazed, his knees
trembled, his joints relaxed, and the dagger that he had already drawn
from his bosom fell from his nerveless hand. All had passed so silently,
that the fall of the weapon seemed to strike like thunder on the
pavement, and it re-echoed along the vaults. Castruccio smiled with a
feeling too lofty even to admit contempt; it was the smile of power
alone.--Pepi fell upon his knees; when, suddenly perceiving that
Castruccio glanced his eye from the lamp to the parchments, and then to
the lamp again, the fear of losing his precious documents overcame every
other feeling, and he tried, prostrate as he was, to dart past his foe,
and blow out the light; Castruccio waved his hand to keep him off and
the miserable traitor again shrunk back, and fell upon the ground in an
agony of impotent rage and terror.

Castruccio now spoke in a restrained and firm tone: "Fear not; I came
hither as a friend; and, though you have broken your faith with me, yet
will I not mine with you:--I promised not to betray your secret, and I
will not. But remember; if by these or any other means you attempt to
oppress your townsmen, I will raise such a nest of hornets about you,
that then, as now, you may intreat my mercy. Now give me the keys of
your vaults and passages; and then up, and shew me the way from this
infernal den."

Trembling and aghast, his strait lips white with fear, Pepi gathered
himself from the pavement; with unwilling hand he gave up the keys of
his vault, cast one lingering glance on his treasure, and then, followed
by Castruccio, who held the lamp, he quitted his den with a hesitating
and unequal gait; for his late terror made him halt, and even his coward
fear lest Castruccio should yet stab him in the back as they ascended
the stairs. The doors were unlocked and thrown open; for no time was
allowed, as in descending, for the careful drawing of bolts and turning
of locks in their progress. Castruccio was eager to leave the
pestilential air of the place, and to bid farewel to his treacherous and
loathsome host. They at length arrived at the head of the staircase; and
Pepi would have opened the door that led to the hall.

"Down, villain!" cried Castruccio, "let me go the shortest way from your
devilish abode."

"But your cloak; you left your cloak in the further hall."

"It is my legacy to thee, old fox;--it will serve to wrap your crazed
limbs, and to remind you of my promises when you descend again to your

Pepi went down stairs, and opened the several doors of his palace; and
Castruccio hastened past him, feeling new life as he breathed the fresh
air of the open street. His enemy, now seeing him on the other side of
the gates, threw off his terrors, and collecting all his malice from his
heart to his miserable physiognomy, he said: "My lord Castruccio, might
I say one word to you?"

"No, not one syllable: remember this night, and so farewel."

"Yet not farewel without my curse; and that I will spit after thee, if
thou hadst the speed of an eagle."

The impotent wretch grinned and stamped with rage, when he saw his enemy
pass on unheeding, and quickly disappear. Yet anger was not a passion
that could long hold possession of the heart of Benedetto; he remembered
that his dear chests were safe; and, although he still shuddered at
their imminent peril, yet he satisfied himself with the deep contempt he
felt towards his foe, who had allowed him, while thus in his power, to
escape unhurt.

As he ascended the stairs he gazed on the lamp, and with a ghastly
smile, said: "Thou wert the instrument he purposed to use, and I will
tread thee to dust. His time will come, and his heart's blood and his
soul's agony shall repay me for my wrongs; and so will I wind my snares,
that he himself shall proclaim me lord of Cremona."

In a journey that Castruccio made to Lombardy some years after, he
enquired concerning his old enemy; and, hearing that he was dead, he
listened with curiosity to the relation of the last scenes of
Benedetto's life. Ten days after their interview (in the September of
the year 1317), Cane della Scala approached Cremona to besiege it; but,
after passing some weeks before the walls, the rains, and the ravages
which had been effected in the territory of his allies, the Modenese,
obliged him to withdraw. Whether Pepi were terrified by the warning of
Castruccio, or feared a similar reception to his propositions from Can'
Grande, cannot be known: but it is certain that he made no effort to
enter into a treaty with him at that time.

In the month of March of the following year Cane received a visit from
the ambitious usurer at his palace in Verona. Pepi had grown wise by
experience, and in this interview managed his treaty with great skill.
He bought for the occasion a vest of scarlet silk and boots of Tartarian
fur; fastening on his gilt spurs, throwing his gold fringed cloak over
his shoulders, and putting on his head a conical cap of the newest
fashion, encircled with a golden band, he mounted a good horse; and,
thus caparisoned, he appeared, in his own and in his old woman's eyes,
as accomplished and noble a knight as by the stroke of a sword it were
possible to dub; nor did he, in his conference with Cane, mention what
his means were by which he intended to betray the city, but merely
boasted of his power of admitting the army of the lord of Verona, if it
should appear before the gates, and named, as the condition of this
service, his being instituted its lord in vassalage to Cane, if his
Ghibeline townsmen should agree to receive him as their chief. The
veteran commander easily acceded to these stipulations; and, the time
and other circumstances being agreed upon, Pepi returned to Cremona to
prepare for his future government.

His great art consisted in attacking all the nobles for their debts at
the same time; and these were so numerous, and of so considerable an
amount, that it created much confusion in a town which had been
enfeebled by perpetual wars. The nobles, as Castruccio had predicted,
reflected that they had arms in their hands, and that their debts being
all due to one man, they could by his death easily free their shoulders
from a heavy burthen. It was then that Pepi began to disclose to each
separately his readiness to destroy their bonds, if through their means
he was admitted to be lord of Cremona. The Ghibelines objected the
strong opposition they should meet with from the Guelphs; to these he
confided the hopes he entertained of aid from Cane della Scala. The
Guelphs, now much enfeebled, appeared more tractable, since he
endeavoured to persuade them that it would be wholly in his power to
prevent the Ghibelines from exiling them; and he promised to act as a
moderator between the parties. He was listened to, and many promised him
their assistance, each in his heart despising the usurer, but believing
that each by his single vote would be of no service to raise him to the
sovereignty, and that by fair words they should discharge their heavy

Pepi had so managed, that he had got the keys of one of the gates into
possession; he admitted the troops of the lord of Verona; but he found
that after all he did not possess the influence he had hoped over the
minds of his townsmen. When the Ghibeline war-cry was raised, all the
Guelphs of the city, distrusting either the promises or the power of
their creditor, assembled in arms; and a tumult ensued, which ended in
the defeat of the popular party, and the triumphant entrance of Cane
into the town.

Pepi fell in that tumult: whether by a chance-blow, or by the resolved
dagger of one of his debtors, cannot be ascertained. But his dead body
was discovered among the slain; and, so great was the enmity of his
townsmen against him, that, although Cane and his troops had already
entered the city, the whole population rushed in fury towards his
palace, and in a few hours the massy walls, the high tower, and all the
boasted possessions of Pepi were, as himself, a loathsome and useless
ruin. The hidden and unknown vaults were undisturbed; and the paper
wealth of the usurer lay buried there, to rot in peace among the mildews
and damps of those miserable dungeons.


_Galeazzo Visconti at Florence.--Castruccio and
Euthanasia meet at Valperga: Doubts and

Immediately after the restoration of the marquess of Este to the
government of Ferrara, Galeazzo Visconti returned to Milan; and thence,
after a short delay, he made a journey to Florence. The apparent motive
of this visit was to accompany a younger brother, who had been long
betrothed to a Florentine lady; and the period had now arrived for the
celebration of their marriage. But he had other secret views: he had
heard of the engagement of Castruccio to the countess of Valperga; and,
this name being famous as belonging to a Guelph family, he thought that
he had now discovered the cause of the peace concluded by Castruccio
with Florence, and he resolved to ascertain the motives and plans of his
friend; and if the countess were really the jealous Guelph fame gave her
out to be, he determined to spare neither artifice nor falsehood to
disturb their union.

The destined bride of young Azzo Visconti was a near relation of
Euthanasia. The family of Adimari to which she belonged, although
originally Guelphs, had been united to the party of the _Bianchi_, and
had been expelled with them; with the exception of that branch which
adhered to the _Neri_, of which the father of Euthanasia was the chief.
But the children of several of these exiles continued with those of
their relations who remained in Florence; and Fiammetta dei Adimari,
although the daughter of an exile of the faction of the _Bianchi_, had
continued to reside in Florence under the protection of an aunt. Her
father had made himself famous in the wars of Lombardy; and it was there
that the union between her and Azzo Visconti had been projected.

When the youth came with Galeazzo to celebrate the marriage, Fiammetta
removed to the palace of Euthanasia, it being from her abode, as the
head of the family, that the bride ought to be taken, when her husband
should come to demand her. Galeazzo calculated on the frequent occasions
of meeting that this circumstance would afford, to commence the plot he
had formed on the mind of Euthanasia.

These illustrious visitors were received with honours by the magistrates
of Florence: a palace was assigned for their abode, and several nobles
were commissioned to shew them all that was curious in the city.
Florence was then one of the finest towns in Italy; yet certainly its
beauty must have been far inferior to that which it boasts at present.
Its chief ornaments were palaces of massy stone, surmounted by high
towers, each able to sustain a siege: some specimens of this
architecture, the Palazzo Strozzi, and the Palazzo Pitti, now a ducal
residence, exist to this day. They are grand and imposing; but the
sombre air which they give to the streets, was better suited to those
warlike and manly times, than to the taste of the present age, when the
Italian heaven shines on few who would defend their own home, though its
strength were that of an impregnable fortress. The Cathedral, or Duomo,
afterwards the pride of Florence, was then just commenced; but the
extent of its area, and the solidity of its foundations, justified the
high tone of the public decree for its erection, which declared that it
should surpass in beauty every other building then existing in Italy,
and be the wonder of the modern world. Among other curiosities, Galeazzo
was conducted to the dens of the numerous lions and lionesses kept at
the expence of the republic: there were nearly an hundred of these
animals, that lived sumptuously, maintained by the superstition of the
Florentines, who believed their welfare to be symbolical of that of the

In their visits to these wonders of Florence the Visconti were
accompanied by many of the young nobles of both sexes, and Euthanasia
and Fiammetta were among the number. Galeazzo, from the moment of his
arrival, had directed his entire attention to the unravelling the
character of Euthanasia, and from all that he heard and saw, became
convinced that she was the cause of the fluctuations of Castruccio's
mind, and that their union must be prevented; otherwise he would never
proceed against the Guelphs with the vigorous hostility which was
necessary to their suppression. At first Galeazzo kept apart from
Euthanasia; he was unwilling to enter into conversation with her, until,
finding out the secret chords of her mind, he might play upon them with
a master's hand.

They visited among the other curiosities of Florence the tomb of the
family of the Soldanieri. This vast receptacle for the dead was built
under ground, and received but small light from a grated window which
opened into one of the cloisters of the church: it was the custom of
this family to coffin their dead in brazen statues, apparently armed
_cap-à-pié_; and these statues were mounted on brazen figures of
horses, so that the population of the cemetery resembled a party of
armed knights ready for action. The tomb was viewed by the light of
innumerable torches; and there was a grim solemnity in the appearance of
this troop of bronze horses, each carrying the brazen statue which
imitated the living form and mien of the corpse therein coffined, that
might well strike the spectator with awe; each voice was hushed as they
gazed, and the younger part of the assembly hastened to quit a place
which damped all their hilarity. The lights disappeared with them; and
for a while Euthanasia lingered behind almost in the dark; for the
solitary torch that remained, could hardly do more than make darkness
visible; and the sunbeam which had strayed from its right path into the
abode of the dead, tinged with its light a few of the casques of the
knights, who, though their eyes and brain were within the case, neither
saw nor felt the ray. Such a sight must have impressed any one with
melancholy; all was still;--Euthanasia, apparently surrounded by an
armed band on horseback, for the twilight gave life to the figures, yet
felt about her the silence of death; her own step, her own breath, were
noisy intruders in the cavern:--nor did her mute companions rest in an
enchanted sleep--they were dead,--decay was at work among their frames,
and the chill of mortality exhaling from the brass, made the vault as
cold as it was silent.

She left the tomb with slow steps; and, at the foot of the stairs by
which she would mount to daylight, Galeazzo was waiting to conduct her.
Her companions were already far distant; their voices even had died
away; and, as she traversed the cloisters, she appeared little inclined
to break the silence between herself and her companion. At length
Galeazzo spoke; and, after a few trivial remarks on the scene which they
had visited, he said:

"I have long sought the opportunity now afforded me, Madonna Euthanasia,
to introduce myself more particularly to your notice. As the friend of
Castruccio, I hope to find myself already recommended to some portion of
your kindness and regard."

Euthanasia replied with courtesy to this speech; and Galeazzo continued:
"Being at the head of the Ghibelines of Lombardy, it is not wonderful
that an intimacy should subsist between Castruccio and myself;--for our
interests are the same; and, if by his alliance I hope to extend my
dominion in the north of Italy, I trust that my name as his friend and
ally, will aid him in his future designs even on this town itself."

"His designs on this town!" repeated Euthanasia.

"Aye; for in truth he encourages the hope, whether it be wild or
practicable I hardly know, of overthrowing this nest of republicans, and
making himself prince or imperial vicar of Tuscany. But why should I
talk of his plans to you, Madonna, who must know them far better than I?
Besides, it may be dangerous to speak here, even in whispers, of such
things; who knows if some Guelph may not overhear me?"

"Indeed, my lord," replied Euthanasia, with a faint smile, "you divine
like an astrologer; for truly I overhear you, and I am a Guelph."

"A Guelph!" repeated Galeazzo, with well feigned astonishment;--"Are you
not an Adimari? Madonna Euthanasia dei Adimari?"

"I am also countess of Valperga; and that name will perhaps unravel the
enigma. Yes, my lord, I am a Guelph and a Florentine; it cannot
therefore be pleasing to me, to hear that Castruccio has formed such
designs upon my native town. Yet I thought that I knew him well; and, if
you had not seen him since our separation, I should believe that your
information was founded on some mistake. As it is--tell me, if you be
not bound to secrecy, what you know of his plans."

"Madonna, Castruccio honours me with the title of his friend, and
secresy and faith are the bonds of friendship. When I spoke so
unguardedly of his designs, I thought I spoke to one who knew them far
better than myself: if I have unawares betrayed the concealed counsels
of Antelminelli, I do most bitterly repent me; and do you graciously
remit to me my fault, by laying no stress on my foolish words."

Euthanasia was silent; her mind was too much disturbed to know
immediately what part to take. She had believed in Castruccio's promises
of peace; and the foundations of her very life seemed to give way, when
his faith appeared tainted with falsehood. She knew him to be ambitious;
and suddenly the thought struck her, that Galeazzo alluded only to his
romantic conception of future union among the Italian states, into which
she also had entered, and which might easily be mistaken for schemes of
war and conquest. Upon this belief she renewed the conversation, and
told her companion that he must have mistaken the meaning of Castruccio;
that it was that chief's wish, as it was of all patriotic Italians, to
unite the factions that caused so much bloodshed and misery to their
country; but that war was not the measure he intended to adopt to bring
about a pacific termination.

It was now Galeazzo's turn to be silent; he looked down, and answered in
monosyllables, and seemed to wish to make Euthanasia believe, that she
might have divined well the plans of Castruccio, though he could not
himself believe they were of so peaceful a nature. Euthanasia continued
to talk; for she seemed to gather faith in what she desired from her own
words. Galeazzo remained silent, and replied with downcast eyes to her
appealing words and looks;--at length, after a pause, he appeared to
make a struggle to throw off the embarassment of his demeanour; and
looking up, "Madonna," said he, "let me intreat you to mention this
subject no more. If I thought that your conjectures were right, I would
frankly say so; but I do not;--each word that you utter makes me believe
that Antelminelli conceals his true designs from you; and, since he has
chosen me as the depositary of his secret, I should be a traitor to
friendship and honour, if I disclosed it. You will see him soon, and
then you can unravel the mystery; in the mean time, I pray you rest
content with my assurance, that Castruccio meditates nothing unworthy
his name and glory."

These few words destroyed the peace of Euthanasia. She became sorrowful
and disturbed; her countenance, betraying the secret of her heart, no
longer displayed that calm and softness which were before its
characteristics; the brightness of her eyes, if it was not quenched,
only shone forth at intervals, and she mingled most unwillingly in the
festivities of the nuptial ceremony. Galeazzo watched her carefully; he
perceived the effect his words had had on her; and he determined to
follow them up by a system of conduct, which should leave no doubt in
her mind as to the truth of his assertions. Instead of avoiding
Euthanasia, he now sought her society on all occasions, and often talked
to her of Castruccio, whom he always mentioned in a style of excessive
praise; yet with this he contrived to mix words, hints, or looks, which
seemed to say that he followed other counsels, and devised other schemes
than those of which she was aware; meanwhile all this was done in so
light a manner, touched on so cursorily, and then dismissed, that, as
she listened, the clue of truth slipt from her, and she felt as if lost
in a pathless wilderness.

The preparations for the marriage were sumptuous. Every day large
parties assembled at the palace of Euthanasia; and, when the day
declined, song and dance passed away the hours of darkness. The day at
length arrived, when Fiammetta should first be led to church, and thence
to the palace where her husband resided. Early in the morning she and
her noble friends of her own sex prepared for the ceremony, by attiring
themselves in the most magnificent manner. Gold and jewels sparkled on
their robes, and their dark hair twisted with pearls, hung in tresses on
their shoulders; married ladies only were admitted to the nuptial
procession and feasts; and Euthanasia alone, as an independent
chieftainess and sovereign, claimed an exemption from this rule.

This day, so gay in appearance, and full of joyous demonstrations,
Euthanasia had passed more sadly, than if she had spent it in silence
and solitude, where she would not have been obliged to hide the sorrow
she felt at her heart. In the evening Galeazzo informed her, that a
courier, coming from Ferrara, had brought a letter to him from
Castruccio; and he appeared with difficulty to yield to her intreaties
to shew it to her. It contained merely excuses for his delay at Ferrara,
and mentioned his speedy return:--"Yet," added he, "I shall not meet you
in the cave of the Lioness[6], for you will surely be gone before my
return. Were it not for a pearl which the wild animal guards for me, I
would never enter her den but as her enchainer. But no more of this: you
know my plans; and, if the viper and the eagle unite in firm accord,
surely both her heel and her head may receive a deadly wound."

The meaning of these words was too plain; the viper was the crest of the
Visconti, the eagle of the Antelminelli, and union between them was to
destroy fair Florence, her native city. Euthanasia felt sick at heart;
she gave back the letter in silence, and looked as a lily bent by the
wind, which bows itself in patience and suffering to the storm. She
remembered her vow not to unite herself to the enemy of Florence; and
she resolved to abide by it. Her residence of these few weeks in her
native town had endeared its inhabitants to her; she had renewed her
early friendships; she was again among them, one of them;--and could she
unite herself to a man who would bring havoc upon her best friends? She
dreaded the reproachful voice of her conscience; and, in her well
regulated mind, the fear of self-condemnation would have been sufficient
to deter her from incurring such a penalty: but all the feelings of her
heart here interposed; her youthful friendships; her daily habits of
intercourse and mutual kindness. The favourite companion of her younger
days was now married to the chief of one the citizen-bands of Florence,
who would be exposed foremost to the swords of Castruccio's soldiers;
the dearest friend of her father would lead his troop also against them.
Her marriage with him, on condition of being a party in his victories
over the Florentines, and rejoicing in the death of those she loved,
would be as if she united herself to the rack, and bound herself for
life, body and soul, to the ever renewing pangs of some tyrant-invented
torture. It could not be: her resolution was made; and the energy of her
soul qualified her to complete the sacrifice.

The following day Galeazzo and his brother returned with Fiammetta to
Milan. They took a kind leave of Euthanasia; and the last words of
Galeazzo were, "Forget, Madonna, all that I may have said to pain you;
let not Castruccio find that I have done him an ill office in your
favour; and be assured that my sorrow will be most poignant, if you find
that I have infused _erroneous_ ideas into your mind as to his plans and

Shortly after their departure, news arrived that Castruccio would return
to Florence in two days. Euthanasia heard this with trembling;--but a
short time before she had earnestly desired to see him, that she might
clear up all her suspicions, and that certainty of good or evil might
decide her fate;--now she feared the death that might suddenly come to
all her hopes; and she felt as if but to gain a day, or a few hours, of
doubt and expectation, were to gain so much of life: to insure this she
took the hasty resolution of quitting Florence, and returning to her
castle before the arrival of her suitor. Accordingly, attended by her
domestics alone, after having taken a sudden leave of her friends, she

How different was her present journey from that undertaken with
Castruccio but a few months before! She was then happy and confiding;
but now anxious doubt pervaded her, and fears that would not sleep. She
had resolved, if the ambition of Castruccio could not content itself
except with the destruction of the liberties of Florence, that she would
never be his; but this resolution gave her no calm; the seal neither of
life nor death was placed on her hopes: and she strove to expect good;
while the fear of evil flushed her cheek, and filled her eyes with
unshed tears. The year was on its decline; the myrtle flowers had faded
from the mountains, and the chesnut-woods were tinged with brown and
yellow; the peasants were busy among the vines; and the trellised
arbours they had formed, and the sweet shades of green among which the
purple grapes hung, were now pulled down, defaced and trodden upon: the
swallows were collecting for their flight, and the chill mornings and
evenings announced the near approach of hoary winter. The sluggish
scirocco blotted the sky with clouds, and weighed upon the spirits,
making them dull and heavy as itself.

Euthanasia saw all this with the observant eye of grief, which refers
all things to itself, and forms omens for its own immortality from
combinations more unsubstantial than the Sybilline leaves. The autumnal
rains threatened nigh at hand; and the year had been much curtailed of
those sweet days which follow the hot Italian summer, when the hunter
feels his bow injured by the heavy dews of night, but when the noonday
sun shines with tempered heat, and sets leaving the downcast eyelids of
night heavy with tears for his departure; when we feel that summer is
gone, and winter is coming, but the fresh-looking evergreens, the
stately cypress, the fruit-burthened olive, and the dark ilex, tell us
that nature is not merely a fair-weather friend. Our sorrowing traveller
compared the quick advance of winter that she now witnessed, with its
long delay of the preceding year, and sighed.

She arrived at her castle on the first of October; and the moment she
had arrived, the storm, which for many days had been collecting from the
south the force of autumnal rains and thunders, broke over her head. The
white lightning sped in forked chains around the sky, and without pause
or interval, deluged the midnight heaven with light, which shewed to
her, as she stood at the window of her apartment, the colours of the
trees, and even of the few flowers which had survived to witness the
advent of the storm. The thunder broke in tremendous and continued
peals, and the rain awoke in a moment the dried up sources of the
mountain torrents; yet their liquid career was not heard amidst the
tumult: for, if the thunder paused, the echoes prolonged the sound, and
all nature seemed labouring with the commotion. Euthanasia watched the
progress of the tempest; and her ear, filled with its almost deafening
noise, could not distinguish the sounds, which at other times would have
been audible, of horses' hoofs as they ascended the rock of Valperga, or
the clang at the castle-gate, or the letting down of the draw-bridge;
the first sound alien to the storm that visited her sense, was her own
name pronounced in a well known and soft voice:


"Castruccio! you here?"

"Yes, it is I,--Castruccio;--yet I will instantly depart, if you
command. I have followed fast upon your steps;--but why are you here?
Why did you not remain at Florence?"

For nearly two years Euthanasia had cherished, unblamed by herself, the
most fervent love for Castruccio. The union had been delayed; but the
sentiment continued as a deep and clear stream, or rather like a pure
lake, which in its calmness reflects more vividly and enduringly the
rock that hangs eternally above it, than does the tempest-shaken water.
They had been separated nearly three months; and, now that she saw and
heard him again, her first impulse was, clasped in his arms, to seal
with one caress a joyous forgiveness; but she checked herself.
Confounded by his sudden appearance, and distracted by the many feelings
that pressed upon her, she wept:--she wept long and silently; while her
lover stood near her without speaking, looking at her by the glare of
the continued lightnings, as they flashed in fast succesion, and made
day in the chamber.

After a long pause, he spoke with less impetuosity: "Why did you not
remain at Florence?"

She looked up at him, and her voice quivered, as she replied: "I cannot
tell you now; I am confused, and words refuse themselves to me: my heart
is full, and I am most unhappy,--to-morrow I will explain all."

"Now or never;--Euthanasia, you must not trifle with me,--are you mine?"

"If you are your own."

"What does this mean?" cried Castruccio, starting. "Of what then do you
accuse me? You speak in riddles: understand, I intreat you, a plain
speech, and answer me with frankness. I love you; I have long loved you;
and you alone have so long delayed the union which God knows how much I
desire. Now you have brought it to a crisis:--Will you be mine?"

It is difficult to answer the language of passion with that of reason:
besides Euthanasia was not herself passionless, and there was a feeling
in her heart that pleaded more strongly in Castruccio's favour than all
his arguments. She felt subdued; yet she was angry with herself for
this, and remained a long time silent, endeavouring to collect herself.
At length she replied:

"Why do you press me to answer you now? or rather, consult your own
heart, and that will answer for me. You have known mine long.--I love
you;--but I have other duties besides those which I owe to you, and
those shall be fulfilled. My father's lessons must not be forgotten,
when the first occasion arrives for putting them in practice; nor must I
be wanting to that sense of duty, which until now has been the rule of
my life. I am a Florentine; Florence is my native country; nor will I be
a traitor to it."

"Well,--and what do you conclude from this?"

"Are you not the enemy of Florence? Are you not contriving war and
chains for its happy and free state? You turn away impatiently;
to-morrow I will see you again, and you will then have reflected on my
words: my fate depends on your true and frank reply to my question. Now
leave me; I am worn out and fatigued, and to-night I cannot support the
struggle into which you would lead me. To-morrow I shall see you;
farewel; the storm has now passed, and the rain has quite ceased. Good

"You leave me thus; and thus you reward me for suspense, jealousy and
despair. Good night, Euthanasia. You sacrifice me to a bubble, to the
shadow of a bubble,--be it so! Great God! that you should be influenced
by such a chimæra! Well, you decide; and I shall expect your award with
what patience I may. Again, good night."

He left her to doubt, suspense and grief. But her high mind bore her
through all; and, having marked for herself the line of duty which she
believed she ought to pursue, the natural enthusiasm of her character
aided her to struggle with the misery which her sensibility inflicted
upon her. Castruccio himself came to her aid; and the events which
followed fast on the scene of this night, served to strengthen her
resolution, and, if they did not make the sacrifice more easy, they
rendered its necessity more palpable.

[Footnote 6: Florence.]


_Castruccio exiles three hundred Families from
Lucca--Visits at Valperga--His Character
further developed._

During his absence Castruccio had reduced in his own mind his various
political plans to a system. He no longer varied either in the end which
he desired to attain, or the means by which he resolved to accomplish
it. He thought coolly on the obstacles in his way; and he resolved to
remove them. His end was the conquest of Tuscany; his means, the
enslaving of his native town; and, with the true disposition of a
conqueror and an usurper, he began to count heads to be removed, and
hands to be used, in the furtherance of his designs. He had no sooner
returned to Florence, than messengers brought him intelligence of a
plot, which would speedily break out in Lucca to deprive him of his
government; and this information, joined to the departure of Euthanasia,
determined him instantly to return to the Lucchese territory.

He was no longer the same as when he had quitted it; he returned full of
thought,--with a bent brow, a cruel eye, and a heart not to be moved
from its purpose by weakness or humanity. The change might appear
sudden, yet it had been slow;--it is the last drop that overflows the
brimming cup,--and so with him the ambition, light-heartedness, and
pride which he had long been nourishing, now having made for itself a
form, "a habitation and a name," first manifested itself in its true
colours to the eyes of man. Ambition, and the fixed desire to rule,
smothered in his mind the voice of his better reason; and the path of
tyranny was smoothed, by his steady resolve to obtain the power, which
under one form or other it had been the object of his life to seek.

The morning after his return to Lucca he reviewed his troops: they were
devoted to him, and by their means he intended to secure his power. He
assembled the senate, and surrounded the palace of government with his
soldiers; he took his seat at its head, with the countenance of one who
knows, and can punish his enemies. He addressed the assembly in few
words, saying, that it was by their power he had been raised to the
government, and that it now behoved them to support him in its exercise.
"I know," he cried, "I have many enemies here,--but let any one of them
step forth, and say the ill that I have done to the republic;--I who
have fought its battles, secured its prosperity, and raised it from the
being the servant of proud Florence to be its rival. What, will none of
you come forward to denounce me, now that I appear, face to face, to
answer your accusations? Randolfo Obizzi, I call upon you, who would
despoil me of the power this senate conferred upon me;--and you, Aldino,
who have plotted even my death;--can ye whisper as traitors, and cannot
ye speak as men? Away!--the moment of mercy is short:--three hours hence
the gates of Lucca will be shut, and whoever among you or your partizans
are found within its walls, will pay the forfeit of his life for his

The senate would now have broken up; but, when Castruccio saw that his
enemies had all departed, he called on the rest to stay, and aid him on
this momentous occasion. The decree for banishing the conspirators was
then formally passed, and another for demolishing three hundred towers
of so many palaces, which were as strong holds and fortressess within
the town. The senate was then dismissed,--the troops paraded the
streets, and before night-fall three hundred families, despoiled of
their possessions, and banished their native town, passed through its
gates in mournful procession. The soldiers were employed in demolishing
the towers; and the ruins were carried to the eastern quarter of the
city, to be used in the erection of a new wall. Castruccio, now master
of Lucca, and triumphant over his enemies, felt that he had taken the
first step in the accomplishment of his plans.

Euthanasia had remained in her castle in anxious expectation of a visit
or a message from Castruccio;--neither came: but late in the afternoon
Teresa Obizzi, one of her dearest friends, was announced to her.

"Why so mournful, dear Teresa?" asked her friend. "What has happened?
Are you also unfortunate?"

"I hardly know what has happened, or where I am," replied Teresa.
"Methinks the thunder of heaven has fallen among us; all the Obizzi
family is banished Lucca, and not these alone, but the Bernardi, the
Filippini, the Alviani, and many more, are exiled, and their possessions

"Why, how is this? What new change has occurred in Lucca?"

"Nothing new, dear countess. In truth I believe there was a plot against
Antelminelli, and that some of the Obizzi were concerned in it. But
Castruccio examines nothing; and, including us all in one general
sentence, has wrapt us like a whirlwind, and carries us, God alone knows
whither. And my poor father! I threw myself at the consul's feet; yes,
I, the wife of the proud Galeotto Obizzi, and prayed that my poor father
might be allowed to remain."

"And he refused?"

"He said, 'You have heard the sentence; he best knows whether he be
implicated in it; I have sworn by God and St. Martin that this nest of
Guelphs and _Neri_ shall be rooted out of Lucca, and that the will of
the senate shall be obeyed. Let him look to it; for after three hours
the life of a partizan of the Obizzi will be held no dearer than the
earth on which I tread.'"

"Castruccio said this? Did he answer you thus, Teresa?"

"He did, dear Euthanasia; but I must away; I came to bid you farewel,--a
long farewel; my father and my husband wait for me; pray God to pity

"Not so, Teresa. This castle is not his, and may afford an asylum to his
victims. Come here; repose here awhile at least. Bring your father, your
babes; come and teach me what sorrow is, and learn from me to bear it
with fortitude."

As the evening advanced, others of her friends arrived, and confirmed
all that Euthanasia had before heard. She was confounded, and unable to
believe that it was indeed Castruccio who had caused these evils. Whence
arose this sudden change in his character? Yet, was it sudden? or, was
there indeed any change? She remembered words and looks, before
forgotten, which told her that what now took place was the offspring of
deep thought and a prepared scheme. Yet again, unable to believe the
full extent of the evil that she heard, she sent to Lucca to intreat
Arrigo Guinigi to hasten to her. Arrigo was with Castruccio when the
message came.

"Go, my dear boy," said the latter; "her woman's heart trembles perhaps
at this day's work. Shew her the necessity of it; and make her think as
little unkindly of me as you can. Notwithstanding her coldness and
perplexing ideas about duty, I love her, and must not have her be my
enemy. If she would be content with any thing except the peace with
Florence for her _morgincap_, all my power and possessions were at her

Arrigo went to Valperga: Euthanasia saw him alone; and, pale and almost
breathless, she asked what had caused this change, and whether he knew
what the schemes of Castruccio were?

"Indeed, Madonna," replied Arrigo, "I do not; I believe that he aims
only at the security of his own state; and many of those he has exiled
had plotted against his government."

"It is possible; tyrants ever have enemies; but it were as well to raze
the city, as to banish all her citizens. There cannot be less than a
thousand souls included in his edict; women and infants, torn from all
the comforts, all the necessaries of daily life, cast upon the world to
weep and call down curses on him. What does he mean?"

"He suspects all whom he has banished, and has strong secret reasons for
his conduct; of that, Euthanasia, you may be sure. When I asked him why
he banished so many of his fellow-citizens, he replied laughing,
'Because this city is not big enough for them and me.' And then he told
me seriously, that his life was alone preserved by the vigorous measures
of this morning."

"Be it so; I wish I could believe him; I do indeed trust that there is
nothing wanton in his severity; yet methinks he had better have banished
himself, than so many families, who now go as beggars through the world.
He also was banished once; they say that princes learn from adversity; I
believe it; they learn a cunning in cruelty the prosperous can never

"Nay, dear countess, speak not so hardly of him. Castruccio was born to
rule; he is noble-minded, but firm of resolution; and can you blame him
for securing a life on which the welfare of Lucca, perhaps of Italy,

Euthanasia did not reply; she knew, although from the gentleness of her
nature she had never participated in it, that there was then in Italy a
spirit of cruelty, a carelessness for the life and pain of others, which
rendered it less wonderful that Castruccio should have adopted a mode of
conduct similar to that of most of his contemporaries. It is strange,
that man, born to suffering, and often writhing beneath it, should
wantonly inflict pain on his fellows; but however cruel an individual
may be, no one is so remorseless as a ruler; for he loses even within
himself the idea of his own individuality, and fancies that, in
pampering his inclinations, and revenging his injuries, he is supporting
the state; the state, a fiction, which sacrifices that which constitutes
it, to the support of its mere name. Euthanasia knew that she ought not
to apply the same rule of conduct to a prince, as to a private
individual; yet that Castruccio should have tainted himself with the
common vices of his tribe, was a shock, that unsettled the whole frame
of her mind; it unveiled at once the idol that had dwelt in the shrine
of her heart, shewed the falseness of his apotheosis, and forced her to
use her faculties to dislodge him from the seat he had usurped.

A few days after, Castruccio came himself to the castle of Valperga. He
came at a time when many other visitors were there, and among them
several whom he knew to be his secret enemies. He took no notice of
this; but, with the frankness of manner for which he was remarkable, he
entered into conversation with them, and treating them as on a perfect
equality with himself, he soon softened the angry mood with which they
had at first regarded him. All political discussion was avoided; and the
conversation turned on one of those domestic tragedies which were then
too common among the petty courts of Italy, where each little lord
possessing supreme power, and unrestrained by principle, was ever ready
to wash supposed dishonour from his name in the blood of those who had
caused the stigma. The one at present under discussion was of peculiar
horror, and was the more singular, since nature had vindicated her
violated laws on their infringer, and he who boasted of his morality in
indulging his passionate revenge, was now pursued by remorse and
madness, and the ghosts of his victims hunting him through the world,
gave him no rest or hope. One of the company, a Milanese, said, that it
was impossible that remorse could have caused the madness of Messer
Francesco; since in revenging the injury his wife had done him, he only
followed the example set him by hundreds of his countrymen; and if he
had gone beyond them in cruelty, it merely proved that his love, and his
sense of honour transcended theirs.

Castruccio replied; "Far be it from me to plead for those childish
notions, which would take the sword out of the hand of princes, and make
them bind men of iron with chains of straw. But it does surprize me,
that any man should dare so to idolize himself, as to sacrifice human
victims at the shrine of his pride, jealousy or revenge. Francesco was a
monster, when he tortured and murdered his wife; he is now a man, and
feels the fitting remorse for so foul a deed. Man may force his nature,
and commit deeds of horror; but we are all human beings, all the
children of one common mother, who will not suffer that one should
agonize the other, without suffering in his turn a part of the anguish
he has inflicted[8]."

After a time the other visitors departed; and Euthanasia was left alone
with Castruccio. For a while they were silent; the changeful colours of
her cheek might shew, that love had not forgotten its accustomed course,
but rushed in a warm flood to her heart, and then ebbed, commanded by a
power hardly less strong than that which bids the ocean pause; the power
of virtue in a well formed human heart. Castruccio watched her; but, in
the returning calmness of her eye, and in her unhesitating voice when
she did speak, he read all of female softness, but none of female

"Will you pardon me," she said, at length, "if I speak frankly to you;
and not take in ill part the expression of those reflections to which
your late words have given rise?"

Castruccio smiled, and replied, "Madonna, I know already what you are
about to say; but you are mistaken in your conclusions. I said that no
man could with impunity sacrifice the lives of his fellow-creatures to
his own private passions; but you must not torture my meaning; the head
of a state is no longer a private man, and he would act with shameful
imbecility, if he submitted to his enemies because he dared not punish

Euthanasia replied to this, and drew a lively picture of the sufferings
of the exiles; but Castruccio answered laughing, "You speak to one wiser
on that subject than yourself. Have not I been an exile? and do you
think that I forget our mournful procession, when we poor Ghibelines
left Lucca nearly twenty years ago? And do you think that the _Neri_
would have reigned, if they had not turned us out; and how should I
reign, if I permitted this horde of Guelphs to sit here, and plot in my
citadel? Their very number is an argument against them instead of being
one in their favour. But let us leave this discussion, my too
compassionate Euthanasia, and for a moment cast our thoughts on our own
situation. There must be some end put to the riddle, some crown to a
work, which seems as if it were to have no conclusion. I will be frank
with you; I am neither going to turn hermit, and, laying down my
sceptre, to take up with a crucifix: nor like your friends, the holy
fathers of the church, am I going to war with money and falsehood,
instead of with my sword. I am lord of Lucca, and shall continue so as
long as God permits me. I am at the head of the Ghibelines in Tuscany,
and my design is that the Ghibelines should put down their old enemies;
and, seeing a fair prospect of success, I shall neither spare words nor
blows against those who would oppose me in this undertaking. You are a
Guelph; but surely, my dear girl, you will not sacrifice your happiness
to a name, or allow party-spirit to get the better of all the more noble
feelings of your nature."

Euthanasia listened with attention, and answered in mild sadness; "It
does not appear to me, Castruccio, that I sacrifice any thing noble in
my nature, when I refuse to unite myself to the enemy of my country. As
a Ghibeline you know that I loved you; and it is not words alone that
cause my change; fight the Florentines with words only, and I am still
yours. But more than I love Florence, or myself, or you, Castruccio, do
I love peace; and my heart bleeds to think that the cessation of
bloodshed and devastation which our poor distracted country now enjoys,
is to be of short duration. Have you not lived in a country suffering
from war? Have you not seen the peasants driven from their happy
cottages, their vines torn up, their crops destroyed, often a poor child
lost, or haplessly wounded, whose every drop of blood is of more worth
than the power of the Cæsars? And then to behold the tears and despair
of these poor creatures, and to find men who would still inflict
them,--and for what? The bubble is yours, Castruccio.--What would you
have? Honour, fame, dominion? What are these if peace do not purchase
them, but contempt, infamy and despotism! Oh! rule your own heart;
enthrone reason there, make virtue the high priest of your divinity; let
the love of your fellow-creatures be your palace to dwell in, and their
praises your delicate food and costly raiment; and, as all sovereigns
have dungeons, so do you have them, in which your pride, ambition, and,
forgive the word, your cruelty, may be enchained; and then the
purple-clad emperors of Constantinople may envy your state and power.

"Why do you cause this cruel combat? or, why would you increase the
struggle in my heart? As the enemy of Florence I will never be yours; as
the deliberate murderer of the playmates of my infancy, of the friends
of my youth, of those to whom I am allied by every tie of relationship
and hospitality that binds mankind, as such, I will never be yours. Here
then is the crown of the work; the sea in which the deep and constant
stream of my affections loses itself,--your ambition. Let these be the
last words of contest between us: but if, instead of all that I honour
and love in the world, you choose a mean desire of power and selfish
aggrandizement, still listen to me. You are about to enter on a new
track, yet one on which the course of thousands of those that have gone
before you is to be seen: do not follow these; do not be sanguinary like
them;--the Italians of the present day have all a remorseless cruelty in
them, which will stain the pages of their history with the foulest
blots; let yours be free from these!

"Pardon me that I speak to you in this strain. From this moment we are
disjoined; whatever our portions may be, we take them separately. Such
is the sentence you pronounce upon us."

Castruccio was moved by the fervour of Euthanasia; he tried to alter her
determination, to argue her from the point of difference between them,
but in vain; he moved her to tears. She wept, but did not reply: her
purpose was fixed, but her heart was weak; she loved for the first and
only time; and she knew that she sacrificed every hope and joy in life,
if she sacrificed Castruccio. But she was firm, and they parted; a
parting that caused every nerve in Euthanasia's frame to thrill with

She tried to still these feelings, to forget that she loved; but tears,
abundant tears, alone eased the agony of her heart, when she thought,
that the soft dreams she had nourished for two years were vain, gossamer
that the sun of reality dissipated. Sometimes she schooled herself as
being too precise and over-wise, to sacrifice all her hopes to the
principles she had set up. But then the remembrance of the grief she had
endured during the last war with Florence, and the worse struggles she
would feel, if she dared unite herself to an enemy, if, by binding her
fate to his, she might neither pray for the cause of her husband, nor
for that of her beloved country; when to wish well to Castruccio would
be to desire the success of tyranny and usurpation; and to have given
her vows to the Florentines in their necessary defence, was to wish the
overthrow of the companion of her life--the idea of these struggles gave
her courage to persevere; and she hoped, that the approbation of her own
heart, and that of her dearest and most valued friends, would in some
degree repay her for her sufferings. She thought of her father and his
lessons; and her heart again swelled with the desire of the approbation
of the good, with the warm and ardent love of right which ever burned
within her soul. Hers had been a natural and a lawful passion; she could
not live, believing that she did wrong; and the high independence and
graceful pride of her nature would never permit her, to stoop beneath
the mark she had assigned as the object of her emulation.

Yet when, in the silence of night and of solitude, she consulted her own
heart, she found that love had quenched there every other feeling, and
not to love was to her to die. She looked on the quiet earth, where the
trees slept in the windless air, and the only sound was the voice of an
owl, whose shriek now and then with monotonous and unpleasing sound
awoke the silence, and gave a melancholy life to what else were dead;
she looked up to the sky where the eternal lamps of heaven were burning;
all was unchanged there; but for her all was different. It was on a
night, in an Italian autumn, that she sat under her acacia tree by the
basin of the fountain of the rock. To look on the hues of sunset, to see
the softened tints of the olive woods, the purple tinge of the distant
mountains, whose outline was softly, yet distinctly marked in the orange
sky; to feel the western breeze steal across her cheek, like words of
love from one most dear; to see the first star of evening penetrate from
out the glowing western firmament, and whisper the secret of distant
worlds to us in our narrow prison; to behold the heaven-pointing cypress
with unbent spire sleep in the stirless air; these were sights and
feelings which softened and exalted her thoughts; she felt as if she
were a part of the great whole; she felt bound in amity to all; doubly,
immeasurably loving those dear to her, feeling an humanizing charity
even to the evil. A sweet scent coming from the lemon-flowers, which
mingled with the gummy odour of the cypress trees, added to the
enchantment. Suddenly,--list! what is that? Music was heard, and sweeter
than all other instruments, the human voice in chorus singing a national
song, half hymn, half warlike; Euthanasia wept; like a child she
wept,--but there was none near to whom she could tell the complicated
sensations that overpowered her: to speak to those we love in such
moments, exhilarates the spirits; else the deep feeling preys on the
heart itself. She became sad, and looked up to the many-starred sky; her
soul uttered silently the bitter complaint of its own misery.

"Must I then forget to love? Oh! sooner shall that restless lamp, which
walketh up the heavens, and then descendeth, and abideth no where, Oh!
sooner shall that forget its path which it hath ever traced, since God
first marked it out, than I forget to love! The air still surrounds the
earth, filling the recesses of the mountains, and even penetrating into
their caverns; the sun shines through the day, and the cloudless heavens
of night are starred with the air's fire-bearing children; and am not I
as unchanged and unchangeable as nature's own, everlasting works? What
is it then that startles every nerve, not as the sound of thunder or of
whirlwind, but as the still, small voice, that clings to me, and will
not be made silent, telling me that all is changed from that which it
once was?

"I loved! God and my own heart know how truly, how tenderly! How I dwelt
on his idea, his image, his virtues, with unblamed affection: how it was
my glory, my silent boast, when in solitude my eyes swam in tears, and
my cheek glowed, to reflect that I loved him, who transcended his kind
in wisdom and excellence! Is this a dream? Oh! then all is a dream; and
the earth, and the fabric of the adamantine sky are as the gossamer that
may not endure! Yet, oh, ye stars, ye shine! And I live. Pulse, and
breath, and thought, and all is changed; I must no longer love,--so let
me suffer the living death of forgetfulness.

"Surely my heart is not cold, for I feel deep agony; and yet I live. I
have read of those who have pined and died, when the sweet food of love
was denied to them; were their sensations quicker, deeper, more
all-penetrating than mine? Their anguish greater? I know not; nor do I
know, if God hath given this frame a greater capacity for endurance than
I could desire. Yet, methinks, I still love, and that is why I live. A
dark, blank, rayless, motionless night is before me, a heavy,
overwhelming annihilation is above me, when for a moment I imagine that
hope is not for me. But for an instant does that idea live within me,
yet does it come oftener and stay longer that it was wont. The knowledge
that I have nought to expect but death, must become a part of my mind.
When a dear friend dies, what painful throes does one undergo, before we
are persuaded to know that he is no more! So now that hope dies; it is a
lesson hard for my heart to learn; but it will learn it; and that which
is now reality, will be as a dream; what is now a part of me will be but
a recollection, a shadow thrown upon life, from which I at length shall
emerge. And what is the state of being that shall follow?

"Yet will I arouse all the pride and all the nobility of my nature; I
will not sink beneath this trial; the great and good of past ages have
left their lessons for me to meditate, and I will be no indocile pupil;
the honey of the cup is exhausted, but all is not gall that remains."

The winter passed on thus: Euthanasia feared Castruccio as the enemy of
_Florence_; but she avoided Florence as _his_ enemy. Disappointed in her
dearest hopes, her very heart destroyed, she hated society, and felt
solace in the contemplation of nature alone; that solace which the mind
gathers, in communing with its sorrows, and, having lost every other
resource, clings as to a friend, to the feelings of woe with which it is

The winter was chill; the mountains were covered with snow; yet, when
the sun gleamed on them, the Serchio, taking life from his smiles, sped
down in his course, roaring and howling, as if, pursued by innumerable
and overflowing streams, he hurried to find repose in his home among the
waters of the boundless ocean. The air was filled with his turmoil; and
winter, asleep among the icy crags of the mountains, feared a sound,
which he had not power to silence, and which was the dirge that tolled
out his passing hour: the cold northern wind swept along the plain of
Lucca, and moaned as a repulsed beggar about the walls of Euthanasia's
castle. Within those walls, late the scene of content and joy, sat the
disconsolate mistress, a prey to all those sad, and sometimes wild
reveries, which utter hopelessness had made her companions. Duty, and
the associations of her early youth, had breathed in her ear the
terrible command to love no more; but her soul rebelled, and often she
thought that, in so mad a world, duty was but a watch-word for fools,
and that she might unblamed taste of the only happiness she should ever

But, in one who had so long submitted her very thoughts to the control
of conscience, such ideas found brief habitation; and her accustomed
feelings returned to press her into the narrow circle, whence for her
all peace was excluded. Duty, patriotism, and high religious morality,
were the watch-dogs which drove her scattered thoughts, like wandering
sheep, into their fold: alas! the wolf nestled in the pen itself. If for
a moment her will paused, and love, breaking every bank she had
carefully built up to regulate her mind's course, burst in at once, and
carried away in its untameable course reason, conscience, and even
memory, Castruccio himself came to repair the breach, and to restrain
the current; some castle burnt, some town taken by assault, some friend
or enemy remorselessly banished, filled her with shame and anger, that
she should love a tyrant; a slave to his own passions, the avenger of
those of others. Castruccio was ever at war; peace subsisted between him
and Florence; but the siege of Genoa by the Ghibelines of Lombardy, gave
him occasion to turn his arms on that side; and, his march extending
from Lucca to beyond the Magra, he deluged the country in blood, and
obtained that which he desired, dominion and fame.

It were curious to mark the changes that now operated in his character.
Every success made him extend his views to something beyond; and every
obstacle surmounted, made him still more impatient of those that
presented themselves in succession. He became all in all to himself; his
creed seemed to contain no article but the end and aim of his ambition;
and that he swore before heaven to attain. Accustomed to see men die in
battle for his cause, he became callous to blood, and felt no more
whether it flowed for his security on a scaffold, or in the field of
honour; and every new act of cruelty hardened his heart for those to

And yet all good feelings were not dead within him. An increased ardour
in friendship seemed to have taken the place of innocence and general
benevolence: virtue, as it were seeking to build her nest in his heart,
and thrust out of her ancient one, taking up with the resting-place
whose entrance still was free. Bravery and fortitude were to him
habitual feelings: but, although he were kind and bounteous to his
friends, so that he was loved with ardour, and served with fidelity,
there was no magnanimity, and little generosity in his character. His
moderate habits, abstemiousness, and contempt of luxury, often gave him
the appearance of self-sacrifice; for he bestowed on others what they
greatly valued, but what he himself contemned. But, when it came to the
sacrifice of his own inclinations, his boundless ambition, and love of
sway, then no obstacle either of nature or art could stop him; neither
compassion which makes angels of men, nor love which softens the hearts
of the gods themselves, had over him the slightest power,--he fixed his
whole soul on the point he would attain, and he never either lost sight
of it, or paused in his efforts to arrive there.

It were difficult to tell what his sensations were with regard to
Euthanasia; he had loved her, tenderly, passionately; and he considered
her refusal of his offers as a caprice to be surmounted. Sometimes he
was deeply grieved, sometimes angry; yet he ever loved her, and believed
that she would relent. Sometimes he thought of poor Beatrice, her form,
beaming with beauty, and alive with the spirit of the sybil; or again,
pale, struck to the heart as a poor deer in the forest, and sinking
beneath the wound:--he then felt that he would give the world to assuage
her sorrows. On returning through Bologna, he had sent to Ferrara, and
heard that she was alive, that no change in her situation had taken
place; and, satisfied with this, he sought no further. Ambition had
become the ruling passion of his soul, and all bent beneath its sway, as
a field of reeds before the wind: love himself had brief power in his
mind; and, although this passion sometimes caused him pain, and the
sickness of disappointed hope, yet this was short, and yielded to the
first impulse that occurred, which hurried him along to new designs and
new conquests.

Once indeed he had loved, and he had drank life and joy from the eyes of
Euthanasia. His journey to Lombardy, his connexion with Beatrice,
although indeed he loved her little, yet was sufficient to weaken the
bonds that confined him; and love was with him, ever after, the second
feeling in his heart, the servant and thrall of his ambition.

His military exploits were now bounded to the entire reduction of the
territory around Lucca; Sarzana, Pontremoli, Fucecchio,
Fosedenovo,--castles even beyond the Magra, Valdinera, Aquabuona, La
Valle, fortified villages among the Apennines, which had hitherto been
under the jurisdiction of the lords of Lombardy, now submitted to the
Lucchese consul. During the winter he was for some time confined by the
floods to the town of Lucca itself, where he employed himself in
establishing a vigorous system of police, in discovering and punishing
his enemies, and in the design and foundation of public edifices. He was
beloved by the nobles of his own party, and by the common people, whose
taxes he lightened, and whom he relieved in a great measure from the
tyranny of their superiors; he was beloved even by the clergy, for,
although an enemy to the temporal usurpations of the Popes, he valued
the learning, and respected the persons of the priests. He was hated by
all the rich not immediately connected with his person and faction, for
they were deprived of power; despised by his followers, and watched by
himself, they could find no asylum from the suspicion and severity of a
tyrant who felt himself insecure on his seat of power.

[Footnote 7: The _morgincap_ was a boon granted by the husband to the
wife the morning after the nuptials. It consisted generally of a gift of
part of his possessions, sometimes of the half, often of a quarter of
his property. Laws were made in some states to restrain this excessive
generosity, but the custom of the _morgincap_ continued a long time in

[Footnote 8: The story here alluded to, is told by Bandello, and is
related with that air of truth which this writer delights to give to his


_Beatrice, disguised as a Pilgrim, visits Valperga.--Castruccio
relates her Story._

Spring advanced, and the mountains looked forth from beneath the snow:
the chesnuts began to assume their light and fanlike foliage; the dark
ilex and cork trees which crowned the hills, threw off their burthen of
snow; and the olives now in flower starred the mountain paths with their
small fallen blossoms; the heath perfumed the air; the melancholy voice
of the cuckoo issued from the depths of the forests; the swallows
returned from their pilgrimage; and in soft moonlight evenings the
nightingales answered one another from the copses; the vines with
freshest green hung over the springing corn; and various flowers adorned
the banks of each running stream. Euthanasia beheld the advance of
summer with careless eyes: her heart was full of one thought, of one
image; and all she saw, whether it were the snow-clad mountains of
winter, or the green and flowery fields of spring, was referred by her
to one feeling, one only remembrance. She determined to think no more of
Castruccio; but every day, every moment of every day, was as a broken
mirror, a multiplied reflection of his form alone.

They had often met during the winter in the palaces of the Lucchese
nobles, and sometimes at her own castle; he was ever gentle and
deferential to her, and sometimes endeavoured to renew the courtship
that had formerly subsisted between them. Euthanasia had not strength of
purpose sufficient to avoid these meetings; but each of them was as the
life-blood taken from her heart, and left her in a state of despair and
grief that preyed like fever upon her vitals. To see him, to hear him,
and yet not to be his, was as if to make her food of poison; it might
assuage the pangs of hunger, but it destroyed the principle of life. She
became pale, sleepless, the shadow of what she had been; her friends
perceived the change, and knew the cause; and they endeavoured to
persuade her to go to Florence, or to take some journey, which might
occupy her mind, and break the chain that now bound her to sorrow. She
felt that she ought to comply with their suggestions; but even _her_
spirit, strong and self-sustaining as it had been, sank beneath the
influence of love, and she had no power to fly, though to remain were
death. Tears and grief were her daily portion; yet she took it
patiently, as that to which she was doomed, and hardly prayed to have
the bitter cup removed.

A circumstance that occurred just at this crisis, when she seemed to
stand on the sharp edge which divides life from death, saved her from
destruction, and led her back to taste for a few more years the food of
sorrow and disappointment which was doled out to her.

The summer solstice had passed, and Castruccio had been absent during
several months, carrying his conquests along the shore beyond the Magra,
while every day brought the news of some fresh success he had obtained.
This was the season of pilgrimages to Monte San Pelegrino, a wild and
high Apennine in the neighbourhood of Valperga. It is said, that a king
of Scotland, resigning his crown to his son, and exiling himself from
his country, finished his days in penitence and prayer on this mountain.
In Italy every unknown pilgrim was a king or prince: but this was a
strange tradition; and it would seem as if the royal penitent,
disdaining the gladsome plains of Italy, sought for the image of his
native country on this naked peak among the heaped masses of the

His memory was there canonized, and many indulgences were the reward of
three successive visits to his rocky tomb; every year numberless
pilgrims flocked, and still continue to flock thither. Straining up the
rugged paths of the mountain, careless of the burning sun, they walk on,
shadowed by their broad pilgrim's hats, repeating their _pater-nosters_,
and thus, by the toil of the body, buy indulgence for the soul's
idleness. Many on their return visited the castle of Valperga, and
partook its hospitality. One party had just withdrawn, as the _Ave
Maria_ sounded from the vale below; and they chaunted the evening hymn,
as they wound down the steep. Euthanasia listened from her tower, and
heard the last song of the sleepy cicala among the olive woods, and the
buz of the numerous night insects, that filled the air with their slight
but continual noise. It was the evening of a burning day; and the breeze
that slightly waved the grass, and bended the ripe corn with its quick
steps, was as a refreshing bath to the animals who panted under the
stagnant air of the day. Amid the buzzing of the crickets and dragon
flies, the agiolo's monotonous and regular cry told of clear skies and
sunny weather; the flowers were bending beneath the dew, and her acacia,
now in bloom, crowning its fan-like foliage with a roseate crest, sent
forth a sweet scent. A few of the latest fire-flies darted here and
there, with bright green light; but it was July, and their season was
well nigh past. Towards the sea, on the horizon, a faint lightning
shewed the over-heated state of the atmosphere, and killed by its
brightness the last glories of the orange sunset; the mountains were
losing their various tints in darkness; and their vast amphitheatre
looked like a ponderous unformed wall, closing in Lucca, whose lights
glimmered afar off.

Euthanasia was awaked from the reverie, half painful, half pleasing,
that engaged her as she sat at her window; for she was too true a child
of nature, not to feel her sorrows alleviated by the sight of what is
beautiful in the visible world;--she was roused, I say, by her servant
who told her that a female pilgrim was at the gate, and desired to see
the lady of the castle. "Receive her," said Euthanasia, "and let her be
led to the bath, I will see her when she is refreshed."

"She will not enter," replied the servant, "but desires earnestly, she
says, to see you: she absolutely refuses to enter the castle."

Euthanasia descended to the gate; her quick light steps trod the
pavement of the hall, her long golden tresses waved upon the wind, and
her blue eyes seemed to have drunk in the azure of departed day, they
were in colour so deep, so clear. The pilgrim stood at the door leaning
on her staff, a large hat covered her head, and was pulled down over her
brows, and her coarse cloak fell in undistinguishing folds round her
slim form; but Euthanasia, accustomed to see the peasantry alone resort
to this mountain, was struck by the small white hand that held the
staff, and the delicately moulded and snowy feet which, shod in the
rudest sandals, seemed little used to labour or fatigue.

"I intreat you," she said, "to come into the castle to rest yourself;
the _Ave Maria_ is passed, and your toils for the day are ended; you
will find a bath, food and rest; will you not enter?" Euthanasia held
forth her hand.

"Lady, I must not. I intreat you only to bestow your alms on a pilgrim
going to Rome, but who has turned aside to perform a vow among these

"Most willingly; but I also have made a vow, which is, not to suffer a
tired pilgrim to pass my gates without rest and food. Where can you go
to-night? Lucca is six long miles off; you are weak and very weary:
come; I ask you for alms; they are your prayers which must be told on
the soft cushions of a pleasant bed amid your dreams this night. Come
in; the heavy dews that fall from the clear sky after this burning day
may hurt you: this is a dangerous hour in the plain; can you not be

Euthanasia saw quick drops fall from the flashing and black eyes of the
poor pilgrim: she raised them to heaven, saying, "Thy will be done! I am
now all humbleness."

As she threw up her head Euthanasia looked on her countenance; it was
beautiful, but sunburnt and wild; her finely carved eyes, her lips
curved in the line of beauty, her pointed and dimpled chin still beamed
loveliness, and her voice was low and silver-toned. She entered the
castle, but would go no further than the outer hall. The eloquence of
Euthanasia was wasted; and she was obliged to order cushions and food to
be brought to the hall: they then sat down; the pilgrim took off her
hat, and her black and silken ringlets fell around her face; she parted
them with her small fingers, and then sat downcast and silent.

Euthanasia placed fruit, sweetmeats and wine before her; "Eat," she
said, "you are greatly fatigued."

The poor pilgrim tried; but her lips refused the fruit she would have
tasted. She felt that she should weep; and, angry at her own weakness,
she drank a little wine, which somewhat revived her; and then, sitting
thus, overcome, bent and sorrowing, beside the clear loveliness of
Euthanasia, these two ladies entered into conversation, soft and
consoling on one part, on the other hesitating and interrupted. At first
the pilgrim gazed for a moment on the golden hair and bluest eyes of
Euthanasia, her heavenly smile, and clear brow; and then she said: "You
are the lady of this castle? You are named Euthanasia?"

"Most true: and might I in return ask you who you are, who wander alone
and unhappy? Believe me I should think myself very fortunate, if you
would permit me to know your grief, and to undertake the task of
consoling you. If you mourn for your faults, does not a moment of real
repentance annihilate them all? Come, I will be your confessor; and
impose on you the light penances of cheerfulness and hope. Do you mourn
your friends? poor girl! weep not; that is a sorrow time alone can cure:
but time can cure it, if with a patient heart you yield yourself to new
affections and feelings of kindness. Sweet, hush the storm that agitates
you: if you pray, let not your words be drops of agony, but as the
morning dew of faith and hope. You are silent; you are angry that I
speak; so truly do I prize the soft peace that was for years the inmate
of my own heart, that I would bestow it on others with as earnest a
labour, as for myself I would try to recal it to the nest from which it
has fled."

"How! and are you not happy?" The eyes of the pilgrim glanced a sudden
fire, that was again quenched by her downcast lids.

"I have had my share of tranquillity. For five-and-twenty years few
sorrows, and those appeaseable by natural and quickly dried tears,
visited me; now my cares rise thick, while, trust me, with eager
endeavour, I try to dissipate them. But you are young, very young; you
have quaffed the gall, and will now come to the honey of your cup.
Wherefore are you bound for Rome?"

"It were a long tale to tell, lady, and one I would not willingly
disclose. Yet, methinks, you should be happy; your eyes are mild, and
made for peace. I thought,--I heard,--that a thousand blessed
circumstances conduced to render you fortunate beyond all others."

"Circumstances change as fast as the fleeting clouds of an autumnal sky.
If happiness depends upon occasion, how unstable is it! We can alone
call that ours which lives in our own bosoms. Yet those feelings also
are bound to mutability; and, as the priests have doubtless long since
taught you, there is no joy that endures upon earth."

"How is this! He is not dead!--he must be--" The pilgrim suddenly
stopped, her cheek burning with blushes.

"Who dead? What do you mean?"

"Your father, your brother, any one you love. But, lady, I will intrude
no longer; the dews are fallen, and I find the air of the castle close
and suffocating. I long for the free air."

"You will not sleep here?"

"I must not; do not ask me again; you pain me much; I must pursue my

The pilgrim gathered up her raven locks, and put on her hat; then,
leaning on her staff, she held forth her little hand, and said in a
smothered voice, so low that the tone hardly struck the air, "Your alms,

Euthanasia took out gold; the pilgrim smiled sadly, saying, "My vow
prevents my receiving more than three soldi; let that sum be the limit
of your generous aid."

Euthanasia found something so inexplicable, reserved, and almost
haughty, in the manner of her guest, that she felt checked, and ill
disposed to press her often rejected services; she gave the small sum
asked, saying, "You are penurious in your courtesies; this will hardly
buy for me one _pater-noster_."

"It will buy the treasure of my heart in prayers for your welfare;
prayers, which I once thought all powerful, may be as well worth perhaps
as those of the beggar whom we fee on the road-side. Farewel!"

The pilgrim spoke earnestly and sweetly; and then drawing her cloak
about her, she left the castle, winding slowly down the steep. After she
had awhile departed, Euthanasia sent a servant to the nunnery of St.
Ursula, which was on the road the pilgrim was to follow, with a loaded
basket of fruits, wine and other food, and a message to the nuns to
watch for and receive the unhappy stranger. All passed as she desired.
The pilgrim entered the convent; and, after praying in the chapel, and
silently partaking a frugal meal of fruit and bread, she went to rest in
her lowly cell. The next morning the abbess had intended to question
her, and to win her to some comfort; but, before the dawn of day, the
pilgrim had left the convent; and, with slow steps and a sorrowing
heart, pursued her way towards Rome.

This occurrence had greatly struck Euthanasia. She felt, that there was
something uncommon in the visit of the stranger, and that, although
unknown to her, there must be some link between them, which she vainly
strove to discover. It happened, that, about a fortnight after, she was
at the Fondi palace in Lucca, where Castruccio was in company; and she
related this incident, dwelling on the beauty of the pilgrim, her
graceful manners, and deep sorrow. When she described her form and
countenance, Castruccio, struck by some sudden recollection, advanced
towards Euthanasia, and began to question her earnestly as to the very
words and looks of the stranger; then, checking himself, he drew back,
and entered into conversation with another person. When however
Euthanasia rose to depart, he approached, and said in a low tone: "I am
afraid that I can solve the riddle of this unfortunate girl; permit me
to see you alone to-morrow; I must know every thing that passed."

Euthanasia assented, and waited with impatience for the visit.

He came; and at his request she related minutely all that had happened.
Castruccio listened earnestly; and, when he heard what had been her last
words, he cried, "It must be she! It is the poor Beatrice!"

"Beatrice!--Who is Beatrice?"

Castruccio endeavoured to evade the question, and afterwards to answer
it by the relation of a few slight circumstances; but Euthanasia, struck
by his manner, questioned him so seriously, that he ended by relating
the whole story. Euthanasia was deeply moved; and earnest pity succeeded
to her first astonishment; astonishment for her powers and strange
errors, and then compassion for her sorrows and mighty fall. Castruccio,
led on by the memory of her enchantments, spoke with ardour, scarcely
knowing to whom he spoke; and, when he ended, Euthanasia cried, "She
must be followed, brought back, consoled; her misery is great; but there
is a cure for it."

She then concerted with Castruccio the plan for tracing her steps, and
inducing her to return. Messengers were sent on the road to Rome, who
were promised high rewards if they succeeded in finding her; others were
sent to Ferrara to learn if her friends there had any knowledge of her
course. These researches occupied several weeks; but they were
fruitless: the messengers from Ferrara brought word, that she had left
that city early in the preceding spring in a pilgrimage to Rome, and
that she had never since been heard of. The lady Marchesana,
inconsolable for her departure, had since died; and the good bishop
Marsilio, who had not returned from France, where he had been made a
cardinal, was at too great a distance to understand the circumstances of
her departure, or to act upon them. Nor were the tidings brought from
Rome more satisfactory; she was traced from Lucca to Pisa, Florence,
Arezzo, Perugia, Foligno, Spoletto, and even to Terni; but there all
trace was lost. It appeared certain that she had never arrived in Rome;
none of the priests had heard of her; every church and convent was
examined; but no trace of her could be found. Every exertion was vain:
it appeared as if she had sunk into the bowels of the earth.

During the period occupied by these researches, a great change had taken
place in the mind of Euthanasia. Before, though her atmosphere had been
torn by storms, and blackened by the heaviest clouds, her love had ever
borne her on towards one point with resistless force; and it seemed as
if, body and soul, she would in the end be its victim. Now the tide
ebbed, and left her, as a poor wretch upon one point of rock, when the
rising ocean suddenly subsides, and restores him unexpectedly to life.
She had loved Castruccio; and, as is ever the case with pure and exalted
minds, she had separated the object of her love from all other beings,
and, investing him with a glory, he was no longer to her as one among
the common herd, nor ever for a moment could she confound him and class
him with his fellow men. It is this feeling that is the essence and life
of love, and that, still subsisting even after esteem and sympathy had
been destroyed, had caused the excessive grief in which she had been
plunged. She had separated herself from the rest as his chosen one; she
had been selected from the whole world for him to love, and therefore
was there a mighty barrier between her and all things else; no sentiment
could pass through her mind unmingled with his image, no thought that
did not bear his stamp to distinguish it from all other thoughts; as the
moon in heaven shines bright, because the sun illumines her with his
rays, so did she proceed on her high path in serene majesty, protected
through her love for him from all meaner cares or joys; her very person
was sacred, since she had dedicated herself to him; but, the god
undeified, the honours of the priestess fell to the dust. The story of
Beatrice dissolved the charm; she looked on him now in the common light
of day; the illusion and exaltation of love was dispelled for ever: and,
although disappointment, and the bitterness of destroyed hope, robbed
her of every sensation of enjoyment, it was no longer that mad despair,
that clinging to the very sword that cut her, which before had tainted
her cheek with the hues of death. Her old feelings of duty, benevolence,
and friendship returned; all was not now, as before, referred to love
alone; the trees, the streams, the mountains, and the stars, no longer
told one never-varying tale of disappointed passion: before, they had
oppressed her heart by reminding her, through every change and every
form, of what she had once seen in joy; and they lay as so heavy and sad
a burthen on her soul, that she would exclaim as a modern poet has since

Thou, thrush, that singest loud, and loud, and free,
Into yon row of willows flit,
Upon that alder sit,
Or sing another song, or choose another tree!
Roll back, sweet rill, back to thy mountain bounds,
And there for ever be thy waters chained!
For thou dost haunt the air with sounds
That cannot be sustained.

* * * *

Be any thing, sweet rill, but that which thou art now

But now these feverish emotions ceased. Sorrow sat on her downcast eye,
restrained her light step, and slept in the unmoved dimples of her fair
cheek; but the wildness of grief had died, the fountain of selfish tears
flowed no more, and she was restored from death to life. She considered
Castruccio as bound to Beatrice; bound by the deep love and anguish of
the fallen prophetess, by all her virtues, even by her faults; bound by
his falsehood to her who was then his betrothed, and whom he carelessly
wronged, and thus proved how little capable he was of participating in
her own exalted feelings. She believed that he would be far happier in
the passionate and unquestioning love of this enthusiast, than with her,
who had lived too long to be satisfied alone with the affection of him
she loved, but required in him a conformity of tastes to those she had
herself cultivated, which in Castruccio was entirely wanting. She felt
half glad, half sorry, for the change she was aware had been operated in
her heart; for the misery that she before endured was not without its
momentary intervals, which busy love filled with dreams and hopes, that
caused a wild transport, which, although it destroyed her, was still
joy, still delight. But now there was no change; one steady hopeless
blank was before her; the very energies of her mind were palsied; her
imagination furled its wings, and the owlet, reason, was the only
dweller that found sustenance and a being in her benighted soul.


_Castruccio plots the Assassination of Robert
King of Naples.--Made Prince of Lucca.--Declares
War against Florence.--Plot
for a Revolution in Lucca defeated.--Castruccio
summons Valperga._

The ambitious designs of Castruccio were each day ripening. The whole
Ghibeline force in Italy was now turned to the siege of Genoa, which was
defended by Robert, king of Naples, at the head of the Guelphs.
Castruccio had never actually joined the besieging army. But he had
taken advantage of the war, which prevented the Genoese from defending
their castles on the sea-coast, to surprise many of them, and to spread
his conquests far beyond the Lucchese territory; and he was ever
attentive to the slightest incident that might contribute to the
exaltation of the Ghibelines. He aided his Lombard friends, by annoying
the enemy as much as was in his power, and did not hesitate in using the
most nefarious arts to injure and destroy them. He now fully subscribed
to all the articles of Pepi's political creed, and thought fraud and
secret murder fair play, when it thinned the ranks of the enemy.

Robert, king of Naples, was at the head of the Guelph army at Genoa. The
siege had now lasted with various fortune for two years; and every
summer the king visited this city to conduct the enterprizes of the
campaign. Castruccio, urged by Galeazzo Visconti, and by his own belief
in the expediency of the scheme, conspired to destroy the king: a
foolish plan in many ways; for a legitimate king, like a vine, never
dies; and when you throw earth over the old root, a new sprout ever
springs up from the parent stock.

The king of Naples had fitted out a fleet to go and attack the king of
Sicily, who was a protector of the Ghibelines. Castruccio sent two
desperate, but faithful fellows, to set fire to the ship in which the
king himself sailed. The men got admittance on board the royal galley,
which, swifter than the rest, sped on through the waves, while the rest
of the fleet hung like a cloud on the far horizon. At night the smell of
fire was perceived in the vessel, and a small flame issued from one of
the windows: the affright and confusion were terrible, when they found
that they were burning thus on the desert sea, while the other vessels
were too distant to afford them aid. All hands were at work to
extinguish the flames; and it was then that the hired incendiaries were
perceived, as they tried to fire another part of the ship. It was found
that they were provided with floats of cork, by which they hoped to
preserve themselves in the water, until by some accident they might be

The fire was seen by the galley, in which the eldest son of king Robert
was embarked, and which bore down to his relief. The youthful prince, in
an agony of terror, lent his own hand to the oar that they might arrive
more speedily. The whole crew was saved; and the criminals were reserved
for torture and death.

The news of this detestable plot was spread through all Italy, nor was
it much blamed. It was then that Euthanasia, the living spirit of
goodness and honour, amidst the anguish that the unworthiness of
Castruccio occasioned her, felt a just triumph, that she had overcome
her inclinations, and was not the bride of a suborner and a murderer.
Even now, remembering that it was known that she once loved
Antelminelli, she was penetrated with shame, and her cheeks burned with
blushes when she heard the tale. But, careless of an infamy which he
shared with many of his countrymen, and sorry only that his design had
not succeeded, Castruccio did not attempt to conceal the part he had
taken in the plot, and loudly declared that all his enemies might expect
the same measure as king Robert, while in return he permitted them to
try the like arts against him.

In the mean time he prosecuted the war with redoubled vigour. In the
winter of the year 1320, the Ghibelines reinforced their armies before
Genoa, and called upon their allies for their utmost assistance; and
Castruccio among the rest was to advance to their aid with all his
forces. But the Guelphs were not idle: Florence had sent soldiers every
campaign to reinforce the Genoese, and entered with spirit into all the
enterprizes undertaken against the imperial party; although a wish to
preserve their territory free from the horrors of war, and to repair by
a long peace the injury done to their vines and olive woods, had caused
them to preserve a shew of peace with Lucca.

Castruccio considered all his present successes as preliminaries only to
his grand undertaking; and, having now reduced not only the territory of
Lucca, but many castles and strong holds, which before had either been
independent, or had paid tribute to Genoa, or to the lords of Lombardy,
he planned a more vigorous system of warfare for the ensuing campaign.
His first step was to increase his security and power in Lucca itself.

Having grown proud upon his recent successes, he began to disdain the
name of consul, which he had hitherto borne. He assembled the senate;
and, at the instance of his friends, who had been tutored for the
purpose, this assembly bestowed upon him the government of Lucca for
life, with the title of prince. He afterwards caused this grant to be
confirmed by an assembly of the people; his warlike achievements, joined
to the moderate expenditure of his government, had made him a great
favourite with the inferior classes of the community, and they cordially
entered into the projects of his ambition. Soon after, through the
mediation of his friend Galeazzo Visconti, he obtained from Frederic,
king of the Romans, the dignity of Imperial Vicar in Tuscany.

All this passed during the winter; and in the spring he assembled his
troops, intent upon some new design. He had now been at peace with
Florence for the space of three years, although, fighting under opposite
banners, the spirit of enmity had always subsisted between him and them.
Now, without declaring war, or in any way advising them of their peril,
he suddenly made an incursion into their territory, burning and wasting
their land as far as Empoli, taking several castles, and carrying off an
immense booty; he then retreated back to Lucca.

This violation of every law of nations filled the Florentines at first
with affright, and afterwards with indignation. They had sent their best
troops to Genoa; and they found themselves attacked without warning or
time for preparation. When the Lucchese retreated, anger and complaint
succeeded. Castruccio replied to the reproaches of the Florentines by a
declaration of war, and then immediately marched with his forces to join
the besieging army before Genoa.

When the Florentines found that they could obtain no redress, they
turned their thoughts to revenge. They raised what fresh troops they
could among the citizens; and wishing to assist their small army by
other measures which were then rife in the Italian system of warfare,
they endeavoured to foment a conspiracy among the Lucchese for the
overthrow of their prince's government. Castruccio received in one day
letters from Giovanni da Castiglione, the general who commanded the few
troops which he had left to guard his own principality, to inform him,
that the Florentines had entered the Val di Nievole, burning and
spoiling every thing before them; and from Vanni Mordecastelli, his
civil lieutenant at Lucca, with information of a plot for the
destruction of his power which was brewing in that city. Castruccio
immediately left the Lombard army, and returned with his troops to
disconcert these designs.

Of the castles which were situated within a circuit of many miles round
Lucca, all were subject to Castruccio, except the castle of Valperga and
its dependencies. He had often solicited Euthanasia to place her
lordship under the protection of his government; and she had uniformly
refused. The castle of Valperga was situated on a rock, among the
mountains that bound the pass through which the Serchio flows, and
commanded the northern entrance to the Lucchese territory. It was a
place of great strength, and in the hands of an enemy might afford an
easy entrance for an hostile army into the plain of Lucca itself. The
Florentines, trusting to the affection which the countess bore their
city, sent ambassadors to her to intreat her to engage in an alliance
with them against Castruccio, and to admit a party of Florentine
soldiers into her castle; but she rejected their proposals, and
positively refused to enter into any league injurious to the existing
government of Lucca. The ambassadors had been selected from among her
intimate friends; and her _Monualdo_, Bondelmonti, was at the head of
them: they were not therefore intimidated by one repulse, but reiterated
their arguments, founded upon her own interest, and the service she
would render to her native town, in vain. She felt that the liberty in
which she had been permitted to remain, while, one after another, all
the castles around her had been reduced, could only have arisen from the
friendship and forbearance of the prince; and she judged that it would
be a sort of treason in her, to take advantage of his moderation to
introduce devastation into his country; at the same time she promised,
that no threats or intreaties should induce her to ally herself with, or
submit to, the enemy of Florence.

The ambassadors, who had been bred in the Italian school of politics of
that age, little understood, and by no means approved her scruples; they
found her however invincible to their arguments, and were obliged to
give up all expectation of her assistance. But they made the hope of
overcoming her objections the pretext for their protracted stay in her
castle; for they had other designs in view. The vicinity of Valperga to
Lucca, and the intercourse which took place between it and that town,
gave them an opportunity of becoming acquainted with several of the
discontented nobles, the remnants of the faction of the _Neri_, who had
been permitted to remain. Euthanasia, being a Guelph, had of course much
intercourse with the few of that party who were to be found in Lucca;
and from the conversation of these men the Florentine ambassadors
conceived the hope of weaving some plot which would produce the downfal
of Castruccio. And they believed, that in one of them they had found a
successor to his dignity, and a chief who would prove as faithful to the
papal party, as Castruccio had been to the imperial.

Among those of the faction of the _Neri_ who had remained in Lucca, was
a branch of the family of Guinigi, and one of the youths of this house
had married Lauretta dei Adimari, a cousin of Euthanasia. This connexion
had caused great intimacy between the families; and Leodino de' Guinigi,
the husband of Lauretta, was a young man of talent, spirit and ambition.
Being refused a command in the army of Castruccio, he was however forced
to expend his love of action and his desire of distinction, in hunting,
hawking and tournaments. He was a man of large fortune, and greatly
respected and loved in Lucca; for his manners were courteous, and his
disposition generous, so that every one blamed the prince for neglecting
a person of so much merit on account of his party. Every year however
added to the discontent of Leodino; and he used frequently at the castle
of his cousin Euthanasia, to bemoan his fate, and declare how he longed
for a change which should draw him from idleness and obscurity. Lauretta
was a beautiful and amiable girl; but, party feelings ran so high in
Lucca, that she was shunned as a Guelph and a Florentine, and therefore
she also entered eagerly into the complaints of her husband; while the
fear of the confiscation of his property withheld Leodino from serving
under some leader of his own party. Euthanasia esteemed him highly; his
mind was greatly cultivated; and the similarity of their tastes and
pursuits had given rise to a sincere affection and sympathy between
them. The Florentine ambassadors saw Leodino and his wife at the castle
of Valperga; they easily penetrated his character and wishes; and
Bondelmonti undertook to work on him to co-operate with them in their
design. Leodino required little instigation, and immediately set to work
in Lucca to gain partizans: every thing promised well. All this had been
carefully concealed from Euthanasia; who was too sincere of disposition
to suspect fraud in others. But their plot was now ripe; and the
ambassadors were on the eve of returning to Florence to lead their
troops to the attack; when the conspiracy was betrayed to Mordecastelli,
and Castruccio suddenly appeared in Lucca.

Bondelmonti and his associates instantly quitted Valperga; and several
of the conspirators, struck with affright, fled from Lucca; but Leodino,
trusting to the secrecy with which he had enveloped his name, resolved
to brave all danger and to remain. This imprudence caused his
destruction; and, the morning after the return of Castruccio, he and six
more of his intimate associates were arrested, and thrown into prison.
Lauretta fled in despair to the castle of Valperga; she threw herself
into the arms of Euthanasia, confessed the plot that had been carried on
with Bondelmonti, and intreated her intercession with the prince to save
the life of Leodino. Euthanasia felt her indignation rise, on
discovering that her hospitality had been abused, and her friendship
employed as the pretence which veiled a conspiracy. But, when the
weeping Lauretta urged the danger of Leodino, all her anger was changed
into compassion and anxiety; and she ordered the horses to be brought to
the gate, that she might hasten to Lucca. "I am afraid, my poor cousin,"
said she, "if the prince be not of himself inclined to mercy, that my
intreaties will have little effect: but be assured that I will spare no
prayers to gain the life of Leodino. His life! indeed that is far too
precious to be lightly sacrificed; I feel a confidence within me, which
assures me that he will be saved; fear nothing, therefore; I will bring
him back with me when I return."

She had covered her head with her veil, and folded her capuchin round
her; when an attendant announced the arrival of Castruccio himself at
the castle. This unexpected news made her turn pale; and again the
blood, flowing from her heart, dyed her cheeks and even her fingers with
pink; she hardly knew what caused her agitation; but she trembled, her
eyes filled with tears, her voice faultered;--Castruccio entered.

He was no longer her lover, scarcely her friend; no joy sparkled in the
eyes of either at this meeting after a separation of months; she had
loved him passionately, and still dwelt with tenderness on the memory of
what he had been; but she saw no likeness between the friend of her
youth, beaming with love, joy and hope, and the prince who now stood
before her; his brow was bent, his curved lips expressed disdain, his
attitude and gesture were haughty and almost repulsive. Euthanasia was
not to be daunted by this shew of superiority; she instantly recovered
her presence of mind, and advanced towards him with calm dignity,
saying, "My lord, I was about to visit you, when I find that you prevent
me by honouring my castle with your presence; I was coming as a
suppliant for the life of a dear friend."

"Countess, perhaps my errand is of more serious import,--at least to
yourself: and, since it may include an answer to your supplication, I
intreat you to hear me before we enter on any other subject."

Euthanasia bowed assent, and Castruccio continued.

"Madonna, you may remember that I have often in friendly terms intreated
you to place yourself under the protection of my government at Lucca;
you have ever refused me, and I indulgently acceded to your refusal. I
have subdued all the castles around, several stronger than this, but I
have left you to enjoy the independence you prized. I did this, trusting
to your promise, that, although you were not my ally, you would not
become my enemy, and that, in whatever war I might engage myself, you
would preserve a strict neutrality. On my return from Genoa, forced to
this hasty measure by the intimation of a plot being formed against me,
I find that you are at the head of my enemies, and that, in violation of
your faith, if you have not declared war, you have acted a more
injurious part, in fomenting a conspiracy, and giving traitors those
opportunities for maturing their plans, which, unless you had done this,
they could never have dreamed of."

Euthanasia replied earnestly; "My lord, your mistake would be
pardonable, had you not known me long enough to be assured that I am
incapable of acting the part you attribute to me. But, although you have
forgotten that treason and artifice are as foreign to my nature as
darkness to that of the sun, you will at least believe me, when I give
you my solemn assurance, that until this morning I knew nothing of the
conspiracy entered into against you. And now"----

"But how can this be? Did not Bondelmonti and his associates reside in
this castle for two months?"

"They did; they came to urge me to enter into the Florentine war against
you, which I refused."

"And was it necessary to hesitate during two months for your answer? or,
did it not rather enter into your plans, that they should remain as
spies and plotters for my destruction? but enough of this"----

"Enough, and far too much, my lord. You doubt my faith, and disbelieve
my word: these are outrages which I did not expect to receive from you,
but to which I must submit. And now permit me to speak to you on the
subject of my intended visit."

"Pardon me, but you may remember that we agreed I should be the first
heard; and I have not yet mentioned why I intrude myself into your
castle. I am at war with Florence; you are not; and you believe yourself
permitted, not only to hold correspondence with my enemies, but also to
afford them an opportunity through your means to carry on plots with my
traitorous subjects. This may have been done very innocently on your
part; but I cannot permit a repetition of the same mime, or of any
other, which, though differing in words, shall be the same in spirit. If
you have not taken advantage of my forbearance, you have at least shewn
yourself incapable of sustaining the trust I reposed in you. But,
Euthanasia, if you are indeed innocent, I am unmannerly in being thus
stern with you; and, since you deny that you entered into this plot, and
I would fain believe you, it is with repugnance that I enter upon the
subject of my visit. You must surrender your castle to me; prudence no
longer permits me to suffer you to enjoy independence; and, however
painful the alternative, you must submit to become my ally."

"It were of little moment to enter into a treaty with me," said
Euthanasia, with a bitter smile: "since, if I am capable of treason, I
may be more dangerous as an ally than an enemy."

"Not so; for the first article of our alliance must be the razing of
this castle; in exchange you shall have a site afforded you in the plain
for the erection of a palace, nor shall you incur any loss in fortune or
revenue; but you must descend to the rank of a private individual, and
this castle, and your power in this country, must be resigned into my

"My lord, I am afraid that we shall not agree on the first article of
our intended treaty. I will persevere in the neutrality I promised, and
endeavour to be more prudent than I was in this last unfortunate affair.
But I cannot surrender my castle, or permit the seat of my ancestors to
be razed to the ground. And now allow me to speak of what is nearer to
my heart. Leodino de' Guinigi has conspired against you, you have
discovered his plot, and have thrown him into prison. I know that you
consider his life a forfeit to your laws; but I intreat you to spare
him: if neither the generosity of your character, nor the impotence of
your enemy will incline you to mercy, I intreat you by our antient
friendship. His wife, Lauretta dei Adimari, is my cousin, and my friend;
Leodino, although your enemy, is a man distinguished by every virtue,
brave, generous and wise. If you would obtain a faithful and
trust-worthy friend, pardon him, confide in him; and his gratitude will
be to you as a guard an hundred strong: if you have not sufficient
magnanimity to trust your enemy, banish him; but for my sake spare his

Castruccio appeared somewhat moved by her earnestness, but he
replied;--"It cannot be; I am sorry to refuse you, but the example would
be too dangerous. Put aside this from your thoughts, and let me in treat
you to consider what I have just said. You answer me slightly; but be
assured that I have not mentioned this alternative of war or peace
between us, until my purpose was fixed: reflect seriously on the evils
that resistance may bring upon you, and send me your answer to-morrow."

"To-morrow, or to-day, it is the same. But you, Castruccio, reflect upon
the misery you cause, if you refuse to spare my unfortunate friend."

"Do not torment yourself or me any more on the subject of Leodino; your
intercession is fruitless; he is already dead; I gave orders for his
immediate execution before I left Lucca.--But why are you so pale?--What
agitates you?"

Euthanasia could not speak; the horror that she felt on hearing the
violent death of one she loved announced so coldly by his murderer,
overcame her: she struggled violently not to faint; but, when Castruccio
drew near to support her, he found her hand cold and lifeless; and her
trembling limbs alone shewed that she still felt: her lips were pale;
she stood as if changed to stone:--

"Euthanasia, speak!"

"Speak! What should I say? Leave me! You touch me, and your hands are
covered with blood, your garments are dripping with gore; come not near
me!--Oh! God, have pity on me, that I should know this misery! Leave me;
you are not a man; your heart is stone; your very features betray the
icy blood which fills your veins. Oh, Leodino!"

And then she wept, and her features relaxed from the rigid horror they
had expressed into softness and grief. After she had wept awhile, and
thus calmed her agitation, she said: "My lord, this is the last time
that we shall ever meet. You may attack my castle, if you will; you may
tear it down, and leave not a stone to shew where it stood; but I will
never voluntarily submit to a tyrant and a murderer. My answer is
brief;--Do your worst: it cannot be so bad as that which you have
already done! You have destroyed every hope of my life; you have done
worse, far worse, than my words can express; do not exasperate me, or
let me exasperate you, by a longer stay: I can never forgive the death
of Leodino; farewel!--we are enemies; do your worst against me."

She left him, unable to retain any longer even the patience to behold
him. But she had no leisure afforded her to indulge her grief or
indignation. Lauretta had heard of the death of her husband; and her
despair, and the convulsions it occasioned, entirely engrossed
Euthanasia's attention, so that she forgot her own feelings and
situation; nor did she recur to the threats of Castruccio, until they
were recalled to her recollection by other proceedings on his part.

He did not doubt in his own mind, that, when pushed to extremity, the
countess would surrender her castle. When he first heard that it had
been selected by the conspirators as their rendezvous, he believed that
she had had a principal share in the plot; but now, when assured of her
innocence (for it was impossible not to believe her words, so clearly
were truth and courageous sincerity painted on her noble countenance),
he did not for that relent in his purpose of depriving her of the
independence that she possessed, in the midst of a territory subject to
himself. Like many of his predecessors and successors in usurpation,
Castruccio had a method in his tyranny; and he never proceeded to any
act of violence, without first consulting with his council, and
obtaining their sanction to his measures. On his return from the castle
of Valperga, he called together this friendly assembly, and represented
to them the evil he incurred by permitting so violent a Guelph as the
countess Euthanasia, to preserve her power, and erect her standard, in
the very heart of his principality. His council replied to his
representations with one voice, that the castle must be reduced.

The following morning Castruccio bade Arrigo di Guinigi carry a message
to Euthanasia. Arrigo had always been a favourite with the countess; and
Castruccio thought that it would be more delicate and forbearing, to
send one so young and unpresuming as the bearer of his most displeasing
message. Euthanasia received the youth with kindness; they talked on
various subjects; but she carefully refrained from mentioning
Castruccio's name, or alluding to the late transactions at Lucca; and it
was long before Arrigo could summon courage to introduce the topic
himself; at length he said:

"Madonna, I bear a message to you from the prince."

Euthanasia changed colour when he was alluded to; he, whom she now
feared, as formerly she had dwelt on his idea with love. She replied
hastily; "What is Antelminelli's pleasure with me? Speak quickly, that
there may soon be an end of a subject, which I cannot even think upon
without agitation."

"Yet I must intreat your patience, for my message is neither short nor
unimportant; and you must pardon me that I am its bearer: you know by
what ties I am bound to Castruccio; and if I now obey him, do not,
dearest countess, condemn me too harshly. He intreats you to remember
what he said when he visited you two days ago; he has since discussed
the affair in council; and it is agreed that you can no longer be
permitted to retain your independence. You know that the prince is
all-powerful here; his army is well disciplined and formidable; his
commands every where submitted to unquestioned. Look at every castle and
village for miles around; they acknowledge his law; you cannot dream
therefore of resisting; and, if you refuse to submit, it is because you
believe that he will not proceed to extremities with you. My dear
Euthanasia, this is a grievous task for me, and one which no earthly
power but Castruccio could have persuaded me to undertake; pardon me, if
I appear unmannerly when I repeat his words.

"He says, that he does not forget the friendship that once subsisted
between you, and that he deeply regrets that your coldness and violence
caused a division between you; but this is a question of state, and not
a private altercation; and he would be unworthy of the trust reposed in
him, if he permitted his individual inclinations to interfere with his
duty towards the public. He is commanded by the ruling powers of his
country, to compel the submission of the castle and rock of Valperga;
and he is resolved to obey them: he intreats you to spare both yourself
and him the unhappiness you will inflict on him, and the blood that must
be shed, if you resist. It would be absurd to attempt to defend yourself
alone: to give your cause the least chance of success you must call in
foreign aid; and, by bringing the Florentines into the heart of this
valley, you not only introduce war and destruction into the abodes of
peace, but you act a treasonable part (forgive me if I repeat his word),
in taking advantage of the power which you hold through his indulgence,
to endeavour to bring ruin upon him. But, whatever you determine upon,
whether to hold out with your own small forces, or to call strangers to
your assistance, he is resolved to spare no exertion, and to be stopped
by no obstacle, until he has reduced into his own hands Valperga and all
its dependencies; at the same time that you, so far from being a loser,
except in nominal advantages, shall be fully compensated for your
present possessions."

Euthanasia listened attentively, although sometimes disdain hovered on
her lips, and at times her eyes flashed fire at the words she heard. She
paused a moment to collect her thoughts, and then she replied: "My dear
Arrigo, I pardon most freely all the part you take in these unfortunate
circumstances; I would that the prince had not so far degraded himself,
as to veil his tyranny with hypocrisy and falsehood; his is the power,
and not the senate's; to him I reply; and, casting away all the vain
pretexts with which he would hide, perhaps to himself, his injustice and
lawless ambition, I reply with plain words to his artful speech; and I
beg that without any alteration you faithfully deliver my message to

"I will never willingly surrender my power into his hands: I hold it for
the good of my people, who are happy under my government, and towards
whom I shall ever perform my duty. I look upon him as a lawless tyrant,
whom every one ought to resist to the utmost of their power; nor will I
through cowardice give way to injustice. I may be exasperated beyond
prudence; but right is on my side: I have preserved the articles of my
alliance with him, and I will hold them still; but, if he attack me, I
shall defend myself, and shall hold myself justified in accepting the
assistance of my friends. If I had not that right, if indeed I had
pledged myself to submit whenever he should call upon me to resign my
birthright, what an absurd mockery is it to talk of his moderation
towards me! I acknowledge that he might long ago have attempted, as now
he threatens, to reduce this castle to a frightful ruin; but then I
should have resisted as I shall now; resisted with my own forces, and
those of my allies. Valperga stands on a barren rock, and the few
villages that own its law are poor and unprotected; but this castle is
as dear to me as all his dominion is to him; I inherited it from my
ancestors; and if I wished to despoil myself of power, it would be to
make my people free, and not to force them to enter the muster-roll of a
usurper and a tyrant.

"My dear Arrigo, do not endeavour to persuade me to alter my purpose;
for it is fixed. I am not young nor old enough to be scared by threats,
nor happy enough to buy life on any terms Castruccio may choose to
offer. I am willing to lose it in a just cause; and such I conceive to
be the preservation of my inheritance."

Arrigo was too raw and inexperienced to contend in words with
Euthanasia; he was overcome by her enthusiasm, which, although serious
and apparently quiet, was as a stream that runs deep and waveless, but
whose course is swifter and stronger than that which wastes its force in
foam and noise.


_Castruccio reconnoitres for a Surprise.--Embassy
of Tripalda._

Arrigo returned sorrowfully to Lucca. He found Castruccio playing at
chess with Mordecastelli; while a priest, Battista Tripalda, sat
observing the game, and spoiling it by his interference.

"Nay, Vanni, I shall check-mate you next move," said Castruccio; "think
again if you cannot escape, and make better play. Well, Arrigo, is peace
or war the word you bring?"

"You must choose that, my lord; the countess wishes for peace, but she
will not submit."

"Not submit!" cried Tripalda, stalking with his tall, upright figure
into the middle of the room. "The woman is mad! I see that there is
something wrong in this, that I must set right."

"Aye," said Mordecastelli; "as you set my game right for me, and made me
lose two knights and a castle."

"I wish he could persuade Euthanasia to lose a castle, and then all
would go well. Are there no hopes, Arrigo? tell me what she said."

Arrigo repeated her message, endeavouring to soften her expressions; but
Castruccio was too experienced in the management of the human mind, not
to draw from the youth the very words she had uttered.

"A murderer and a tyrant! pretty words applied to me, because I put a
traitor to death, who otherwise would have placed my head on a
Florentine pike. To what extremities am I driven! I would give the world
not to go to open war about her miserable castle: yet have it I must,
and that quickly, before she can send for her Florentine friends. What a
spirit she has! I do not blame her; but, by St. Martin, I must tame it!
Vanni, send for Castiglione; I must give him instructions for the
conduct of the siege: I will have nothing to do with it personally; so
to-morrow I shall away to keep the Florentines in check, if not to beat

"My lord," said Tripalda, drawing himself up before Castruccio with an
air of the utmost self-consequence, "you have often found me of use in
occasions of this sort; and I intreat you to authorize me to go and
expostulate with the countess; I doubt not that I shall bring you a
favourable answer: she must hear reason, and from no one is she so
likely to hear it as from myself."

"You little know her disposition, friend Tripalda; but the most hopeless
effort is worth making, before I declare war, and take her possessions
by force. Go therefore to-morrow morning early; in the mean time I will
give Castiglione my instructions; that, if your persuasions are vain, he
may commence the attack the following day."

Tripalda then retired to meditate the speech by which he should persuade
Euthanasia to yield; while Castruccio, desperate of any composition,
gave his full directions for the conduct of the siege.

"If I were not in the secret of the place," said he to Castiglione, "I
might well believe the castle of Valperga to be impregnable, except by
famine; and that would be a tedious proceeding; but I know of other
means which will give you entrance before nightfall. Lead a detachment
of your most useless soldiers to the pathway which conducts to the main
entrance of the castle; that of course will be well guarded; and, if the
defence is directed with common judgement, the disadvantages under which
the assailants must labour would render the attempt almost insane. But,
as I said, let your more useless troops be employed there; they will
keep the besieged in play; while you will conduct a chosen band to sure
victory. You remember the fountain of the rock, beside which we were
feasted, when the countess held her court, and where she sustained the
mockery of a siege; to be conquered in play, as she now will be in
earnest. You remember the narrow path that leads from the fountain to
the postern, a gate, which, though strong, may easily be cut through by
active arms and good hatchets. I know a path which leads from this
valley to the fountain; it is long, difficult, and almost impracticable;
but I have scaled it, and so may you and your followers. To-night before
the moon rises, and it rises late, we will ride to the spot, and when
you are in possession of this secret, the castle is at your mercy."

It was now the beginning of the month of October; the summer, which had
been particularly sultry, had swiftly declined; already the gales which
attend upon the equinox swept through the woods, and the trees, who know

His voice, and suddenly grow grey with fear,
And tremble and despoil themselves,

had already begun to obey the command of their ruler: the delicate
chesnut woods, which last dare encounter the blasts of spring, whose
tender leaves do not expand until they may become a shelter to the
swallow, and which first hear the voice of the tyrant Libeccio, as he
comes all conquering from the west, had already changed their hues, and
shone yellow and red, amidst the sea-green foliage of the olives, the
darker but light boughs of the cork trees, and the deep and heavy masses
of ilexes and pines. The evening was hot; for the Libeccio, although it
shuts out the sun with clouds, yet brings a close and heavy air, that
warms, while it oppresses.

When evening came, Castruccio and his companion addressed themselves for
their expedition. They muffled themselves in their capuchins, and,
leaving the town of Lucca, crossed the plain, riding swiftly and
silently along. Who can descend into the heart of man, and know what the
prince felt, as he conducted Castiglione to the secret path, discovered
by his love, now used to injure and subdue her whom he had loved? The
white walls of the castle, half concealed by the cork and ilex trees
which grew on the platform before it, stood quietly and silent; and she
who dwelt within, whose heart now beat fast with fear and wretchedness,
was the lovely and beloved Euthanasia, whose sweet and soft eyes, which
shone as violets beneath a load of snow, had formerly beamed unutterable
love on him, and whose gentle and modulated voice had once pronounced
words of tenderness, which, though changed, he could never forget,--it
was she, the beautiful, who had lived on earth as the enshrined statue
of a divinity, adorning all places where she appeared, and adored by all
who saw her; it was she, whose castle he was about to take and raze, it
was against her that he now warred with a fixed resolution to conquer.
Castruccio thought on all this; he called to mind her altered mien, and
the coldness which had changed her heart from a fountain of burning love
to an icy spring: and this awakened a feeling which he would fain have
believed to be indignation. "Shall this false girl," he muttered, "enjoy
this triumph over me? And shall the love which she despises, save her
from the fate to which her own coldness and imprudence consign her? Let
her yield; and she will find the Castruccio whom she calumniates,
neither a tyrant nor a monster; but, if she resist, on her be the
burthen of the misery that must follow."

Yet still, as officious conscience brought forward excuses for her, and
called on him again and again to beware, he rode along side Castiglione,
and entered into conversation. "To-morrow at this hour," he said, "you
and your troop must come along this road, and hide yourselves in the
forest which we are about to enter. When morning is up, do not long
delay to scale the mountain, and enter the castle, for the sooner you
take it, the less blood will be shed: order the battle so, that the
troops you leave for the false attack may be fully engaged with the
besieged before you enter; and then, coming behind the garrison, you can
drive them down the mountain among their enemies, so that they may all
be taken prisoners, at small expence either of their lives or ours."

They now dismounted; and, leaving their horses to their servants, began
to ascend the acclivity. They moved cautiously along; and, if there had
been any to listen to their footsteps, the sound was drowned by the
singing of the pines, which moaned beneath the wind. Following the path
of a torrent, and holding by the jutting points of rock, or the bare and
tangled roots of the trees that overhung them, they proceeded slowly up
the face of the mountain. Then turning to the right, they penetrated a
complete wilderness of forest ground, where the undergrowth of the giant
trees, and the fern and brambles, covered every path, so that Castruccio
had need of all his sagacity to distinguish the slight peculiarities of
scene that guided him. They awoke the hare from her form; and the
pheasants, looking down from the branches of the trees, flew away with a
sharp cry, and the whiz of their heavy wings, as their solitude was

Their progress was difficult and slow; but, after their toil had
continued nearly two hours, Castruccio exclaimed, "Yes, I see that I am
right!" and he paused a moment beside a spring, near which grew a
solitary, but gigantic cypress, that seemed, as you looked up, to attain
to the bright star which shone right above it, and towards which its
moveless spire pointed; "I am right; I know this place well; mark it,
Castiglione; and now our journey is almost ended."

It was here, that in their childish days Castruccio and Euthanasia often
played; their names were carved on the rough bark of the cypress, and
here, in memory of their infantine friendship, they had since met, to
renew the vows they had formerly made, vows now broken, scattered to the
winds, more worthless than the fallen leaves of autumn on which he then
trod. The way to the rock which overlooked the fountain was now short,
but more difficult than ever; and both hands and feet were necessary to
conquer the ascent. At length they came to a pinnacle, which, higher
than the castle, overlooked the whole plain; and immediately under was
the alcove which sheltered Euthanasia's fountain.

"I see no path which may lead to the fountain, my lord," said

"There is none," replied the prince, "nor did I ever get into the castle
this way; but I have observed the place, and doubt not of the
practicability of my plan."

Castruccio drew from under his cloak a rope, and fastened it to the
shattered stump of a lightning-blasted tree; by the help of this rope,
and a stick shod with iron which he carried in his hand, he contrived
with the aid of Castiglione to reach a projecting ledge in the rock
about two feet wide, which ran round the precipice about ten feet from
its base; the fountain flowed from a crevice in this ledge, and steps
were hewn out of the rock, leading from the source to the basin.
Castruccio pointed out these circumstances to his companion, and made it
fully apparent that, with a little boldness and caution, they might
arrive by the means he had pointed out at the path which led to the
postern of the castle. A few questions asked by Castiglione, which the
prince answered with accuracy and minuteness, sufficed to clear all the
doubts which the former had entertained, and to explain the whole of his

As they returned, however, Castiglione said suddenly, "My lord, you
understand this path so much better than I, why will you not undertake
the attack?"

"I thank you," replied Castruccio, with a bitter smile; "but this
business falls to your share; I must away to keep off the aid the
countess expects from the Florentines."

They descended slowly; the moon had risen, which would have discovered
their path to them, but that she was hid behind so thick a woof of dark
and lightning-bearing clouds, that her presence sufficed only to dispel
the pitchy blackness, in which, but for her, they had been enveloped.
Every now and then the growling of distant but heavy thunder shook the
air, and was answered by the screeching of the owl, and the screams of
the birds whom it awoke from their sleep among the trees. The two
adventurers soon reached the valley; and, mounting their horses, crossed
the plain at full gallop; and the strong Libeccio against which they
drove, cutting the air with difficulty, warmed the spirits, and somewhat
dissipated the melancholy, which, in spite of all his efforts, oppressed
Castruccio. He arrived much fatigued at his journey's end; and, whatever
might be the revolutions in his feelings, or the remorse which stung him
when he reflected on the work for which he prepared, throwing himself on
his couch, deep sleep quickly overcame all; nor did he awake, until an
attendant came to announce to him, that the day was advanced, that the
troops had long quitted Lucca, and that his principal officers, waited
only for him to join them in their march towards the Florentine camp.
Castruccio then shook off sleep; and, having examined well that his
esquire had omitted no piece of his armour which another horse bore, and
having visited his charger which was to be led unbacked to the field, he
mounted a black palfrey; and, merely saying to Castiglione, as he passed
him in the palace court, "You understand all,"--he joined his officers,
and they rode off on the road to Florence.

As they quitted the town, they met Tripalda, who, accosting the prince,
told him, that he was now going to Valperga, and that he did not doubt
that his arguments would induce the countess to surrender. Castruccio
shook his head in disbelief, and, hastily wishing him good-success, put
spurs to his horse, apparently impatient to quit every thing that
reminded him of the odious task he had left his friends to perform.

Battista Tripalda, the ambassador of Castruccio on this occasion, was a
canon of the cathedral of St. Ambrose at Perugia. By this time the
colleges of canons, who had before lived in common like monks, had been
dissolved, and each member was permitted to live privately, receiving
his share of the yearly income which was before employed as a common
stock. But the canons had offices to perform in the church, which
obliged them to reside in the town, in which the cathedral to which they
belonged was situated; Tripalda had however been long absent from his
duties, nor did his bishop ever enquire after him, or require him to
return. He had appeared at Lucca about a year before this time, unknown
and unrecommended; but he had intruded himself into the palaces of the
nobles, and been well received: his eccentric manners made them pardon
his opinions, and the subtleties of his mind forced them to forgive his
uncouth and arrogant demeanour. Yet, although received by all, he was
liked by none, for there was a mystery about him that no one could
divine; and we seldom like what we do not comprehend. He was an
unbelieving priest, yet was permitted to exercise the clerical
functions; he was a man who cried out against the simony and wickedness
of the Roman religion, yet he was tolerated by all its members; he was
equally severe against tyrants and lords, yet he was received at every
court in Italy. He was an earnest panegyrizer of republics and
democracies; yet he was satisfied with no existing form of government,
because none was sufficiently free: he contended that each man ought to
be his own king and judge; yet he pretended to morality, and to be a
strict censor of manners and luxury. He had a deep insight into artful
and artificial character, and a kind of instinctive prudence in
extricating himself from the most embarrassing circumstances; so that
his penetration almost gave him the appearance of a tamperer in the
forbidden arts, which however he held in supreme contempt.

He was equally well received by the opposite factions, allying himself
with neither, but condemning both. When he first appeared at Lucca, he
was humble and mild, pretending to nothing but uncorrupted and
uncorruptible virtue, desiring none of the goods of fortune, except that
which she could not withhold from him, namely, the esteem and friendship
of all good men. But this was merely the prelude to what was to follow.
He was as those dwarfs we read of in fairy tales, who at first appear
small and impotent, but who on further acquaintance assume the form of
tremendous giants; so, when he became familiar with his new friends, he
cast off his modest disguise, and appeared vain, presumptuous and
insolent, delivering his opinions as oracles, violent when opposed in
argument, contemptuous even when agreed with: there was besides
something buffoonish in his manner, which he occasionally endeavoured to
pass off for wit and imagination, and at other times, served him as a
cloak for deep designs and dangerous opinions. The Guelphs declared that
they believed him to be a Ghibeline spy; the Ghibelines, that he was
under pay from the Pope; many said, that he tampered with both parties,
and betrayed both. Worse stories had been whispered concerning him, but
they were believed by few; it was said that the flagrant wickedness of
his actions had caused him to be banished from Perugia; but this was
disproved at once, for if so, why was he not deprived of his emoluments
in the church?

The first conjecture concerning him was that he was a spy; but, however
that might be, he escaped detection, and contrived to maintain his
confidence with the chiefs of the opposite factions, and among these was
Euthanasia. She admired his talents, believed him to be honest, and
refused to listen to the accusations advanced against him, since the
manner in which they were brought forward stamped them with the show of
unfounded calumnies. She was sometimes irritated by his impertinence,
and shocked at his want of delicacy; but she had heard that early
misfortunes had deranged his understanding, and she pitied and forgave
him. Indeed she had known him a very short time; and he had not yet
thrown off his mask of humility and virtue, which he ever wore on his
first appearance on a new scene.

Euthanasia waited with impatience to hear the result of her message to
Castruccio. She could not believe that he would put his threats in
execution; but, in case of the worst, she resolved to oppose his
pretensions, and to use every means to preserve her independence. She
had sent, the same night of her interview with Arrigo, to intreat the
Florentine general to dispatch a brigade for her defence, and to request
the assistance of an able officer in sustaining the siege she might
encounter. She called together the few militia of her villages. She
visited the works of the castle, and gave orders for the immediate
demolition of all roads and bridges on the first advance of the enemy;
and then, overcome by the sense of wretchedness which clung to her in
spite of the exalted state of her mind, she shrunk to solitude, and
tried to seek in the recesses of her own soul for the long-studied
lessons of courage and fortitude.

She believed herself justified, nay called upon to oppose the
encroachments of the prince of Lucca; she felt roused to resistance by
his menaces, and the implied accusation of treachery with which he had
endeavoured to brand her. Her innocence made her proud, her spirit of
independence, bold; she had ever refused to submit to his usurpations;
her castle had often been the asylum for his victims, and herself the
aider of the persecuted. "I may fall," she thought; "but I will not
stoop. I may become his victim; but I will never be his slave. I refused
to yield to him when I loved him, if he did not dismiss his ambitious
designs. Love, which is the ruling principle of my mind, whose power I
now feel in every nerve, in every beating of my heart, I would not
submit my conscience to the control of love; and shall fear rule me?"

She said this, and at the same moment Tripalda was announced. He
advanced towards Euthanasia with a serious and important look, yet at
the same time with an endeavour to appear courteous, if not humble. He
kissed her hand, and having gravely asked after her health, he soon
began to speak on the object of his visit, and to endeavour to persuade
her that all resistance to the will of the prince was useless, and that
in timely submission was the only hope left for her preservation.
Euthanasia felt her cheeks glow as he spoke, and once her eyes seemed to
flash lightning, when the word _Mercy_ escaped from the orator, who
talked on, appearing to observe little of what she felt, but to be
wholly engrossed in the winding up of his periods. "Madonna," said he,
"the prince has a true and sincere friendship for you, and he is
infinitely grieved at the idea of being at open hostility with you; but
he must obey the will of the senate and the council, and you must
ultimately submit to the forces sent against you. Listen then to one
older than yourself, who has lived longer in the world, and has grown
wise by experience: never, being, weak, contend with the strong; for it
is far more politic to yield at first upon conditions, than, falling
after combat, to receive the law from the conqueror."

"I am afraid, _Messer Canonico_," replied Euthanasia, calmly, but
somewhat haughtily, "that our opinions agree too little, to allow you to
be a fitting arbiter between me and the prince of Lucca. This castle,
and the power annexed to it, belonged to my ancestors; and when I
received it from my mother's hands, I vowed to exercise and preserve it
for the good of my people----"

"And is it for the good of your people to expose them to the desolation
of war, when you might conclude a satisfactory peace?"

"Messer Battista, I listened patiently while you spoke; and it boots
little to continue this discussion, if you will not also attend to me.
I will be very brief: Castruccio formed an alliance with me, and, as the
condition of my independence, I promised not to join his enemies. I have
preserved my part of the agreement; and, if he wishes to break his, I
have friends and allies, who will not permit that my situation should be
so hopeless as you imagine. It is the height of injustice to say that I
bring war into this territory; since every prayer and every wish of my
heart is for peace; but, if attacked, I will defend myself, and my right
must become both my sword and shield."

"You speak proudly, but foolishly, countess Euthanasia; for right was
never yet sword or shield to any one. It is well to talk in this manner
to women and children, and thus to keep the world in some degree of
order. You are a woman, it is true; but your rank and power have placed
you in a situation to know the truth of things; and, if you have not yet
learned the futility of the lessons of the priests, whose sole end to
all their speeches is to find a way, shorter or longer, into your purse;
learn it from me, who am both willing and able to teach you."

"I shall make a sorry pupil, I am afraid; but, if you please, I will
alter my phraseology, that my meaning may be more clear. I expect the
aid of the Florentines; and I depend upon the courage with which the
hatred of a usurper will inspire my soldiers, who love me, and will, I
doubt not, defend me to the last drop of their blood: if my right cannot
help me, my resolution shall. The prince of Lucca has called me, perhaps
he believes me to be, a traitor; I am none to him, nor will I be to the
party to which I belong. I promised my allies not to submit; and my word
is sacred. Messer Battista, I doubt not that the motives which urged
your visit, were honest, perhaps friendly; but cease to vex yourself and
me with fruitless altercation."

"I do not intend altercation, Madonna; but I wished to expostulate with
you, and to shew you the pit into which you seem obstinately resolved to
fall. I know that the wisdom of all ages tells us, that women will have
their will; I had hoped to find you superior to the foibles of your sex;
and my mistake becomes my crime: for in truth you are as headstrong as a
girl of fifteen, who hopes to cover her head with the nuptial veil. But
I have set my heart on carrying this point with you, and will not be
discouraged by a woman's eloquence or obstinacy."

"This is going too far," said Euthanasia, half angrily; "you imagine
perhaps that I am already the slave of your lord, that you no longer
preserve the respect which even then would be due to me. My mind is too
full both of grief and anxiety, to string sentences together in answer
to your arguments; but my purpose is firm, and you cannot shake it. If
you come from the lord Castruccio himself, my answer is ever the same. I
am at peace with him; but, if he attacks me, I know how to defend

Any man but Tripalda might have been awed by the dignity of Euthanasia,
and the restrained indignation, that glistened in her eyes, and flushed
her cheek. She rose to bid the priest farewel, and her serious manner
made him pause for an instant in his address; but his accustomed
impudence quickly overcame the momentary shame, and he said, "I came to
speak reason to the deaf, and to shew danger to the blind; but the deaf
man says, I hear better than you, and the sound of arms and trumpets is
yet far off;--and the blind man cries, Avaunt! I see my path better than
you: meanwhile the one falls into the hands of the enemy, and the other
tumbles into the pit round which I would have led him. You will repent
too late, that you did not follow my counsel; and then who will medicine
your wounds?"

"The God who inflicted them upon me. I fear not!"

Tripalda returned to Lucca. Castruccio had left the town; and
Castiglione, hearing the result of the priest's embassy, instantly
prepared for the attack. Heralds were sent in due form to demand the
surrender of the castle; and, when refused, war was immediately

In the mean time the Florentine army had advanced into the Lucchese
territory; but, when they heard of the march of Castruccio, they fell
back to Fucecchio, and pitched their tents on the banks of the river
Guisciana. Castruccio came up to them with his troops; but, being on
opposite sides of the river, and not caring to cross it in face of the
enemy, both armies remained observing each other's motions, each
preparing to attack the other on the first shew of fear or retreat. The
Florentine general had received the message of Euthanasia, but he found
it difficult to comply with her wishes; for any troops sent to her aid
must pass the Guisciana, and that was too well guarded to permit of any
but a general passage and attack. He communicated her situation to the
Florentine government, which sent her a small troop with Bondelmonti at
its head, who, making the circuit of Bologna and the Modenese mountains,
arrived on the eve of the attack, having with infinite difficulty
surmounted the fortified passages of the mountains; so that many of his
followers being made prisoners, and others left behind, he made his
appearance at Valperga with not more than fifty men.


_Valperga taken._

After the departure of Tripalda, Euthanasia remained long on the
battlements of her castle, watching the men who were employed in
repairing and erecting some outworks for its defence. Every now and then
she heard a murmuring near her, a slight noise, and then a voice which
said--"Aye, that will do; this helmet is still too large, I must find
some way to cut it round the edges."

Looking up, she saw at a small window of one of the projecting towers
the Albinois, who appeared furbishing and repairing arms. "Are we so
straitened for men," she said, "that you are obliged to turn armourer,
my poor Bindo?"

"Not an armourer, but a soldier, lady; to-morrow I gird on my sword for
your defence."

"You, and a sword! Nay, that is impossible; you must not expose yourself
to danger, where you can do no good."

"Countess, have firm hope; I have learned from the stars, that to-morrow
is a fortunate day for us. I have visited the holy fountain; and,
sprinkling its waters three times around, I have called on its saints to
aid us: to-morrow is named as a lucky day for us, and I will be among
your defenders."

He spoke earnestly; and so highly wrought were the feelings of
Euthanasia, that, although at another time she might have smiled, she
could now with difficulty repress her tears. "If you would defend me,"
she replied, "wait then near me; I will not indeed have you risk your
life to no end."

"Why, Madonna," said Bindo, "should you care more for my life, than for
those of the brave fellows who will to-morrow die for you? We shall
succeed; but death will be among us; and to-morrow many a child will
lose its father, and many a wife her husband, fighting for this heap of
stones which can feel neither defeat nor triumph. I will be among them;
fear not, St. Martin has declared for us."

There are moments in our lives, when the chance-word of a madman or a
fool is sufficient to cause our misery; and such was the present state
of Euthanasia's mind. She hastily retreated to solitude, and in earnest
thought tried to overcome the effect of the conscience-stricken wound
which the Albinois had inflicted. We are distrustful of ourselves; so
little do we depend upon our human reason, that on the eve of any
action, even the most praise-worthy, it will sometimes assume another
semblance, and that will appear selfish wilfulness, or at best a
distorted freak of the imagination, which, when we first contemplated
it, seemed the highest effort of human virtue. It had appeared to
Euthanasia her first duty to resist the incroachments of Castruccio, and
to preserve the independence of her subjects. Now again she paused, and
thought that all the shows this world presents were dearly bought at the
price of one drop of human blood. She doubted the purity of her own
motives; she doubted the justification which even now she was called
upon to make at the tribunal of her conscience, and hereafter before
that of her God; she stop, and shivered on the brink of her purpose, as
a mighty fragment of rock will pause shaking at the edge of a precipice,
and then fall to the darkness that must receive it.

"The earth is a wide sea," she cried, "and we its passing bubbles; it is
a changeful heaven, and we its smallest and swiftest driven vapours; all
changes, all passes--nothing is stable, nothing for one moment the same.
But, if it be so, oh my God! if in Eternity all the years that man has
numbered on this green earth be but a point, and we but the minutest
speck in the great whole, why is the present moment every thing to us?
Why do our minds, grasping all, feel as if eternity and immeasurable
space were kernelled up in one instantaneous sensation? We look back to
times past, and we mass them together, and say in such a year such and
such events took place, such wars occupied that year, and during the
next there was peace. Yet each year was then divided into weeks, days,
minutes, and slow-moving seconds, during which there were human minds to
note and distinguish them, as now. We think of a small motion of the
dial as of an eternity; yet ages have past, and they are but hours; the
present moment will soon be only a memory, an unseen atom in the night
of by-gone time. A hundred years hence, and young and old we shall all
be gathered to the dust, and I shall no longer feel the coil that is at
work in my heart, or any longer struggle within the inextricable bonds
of fate. I know this; but yet this moment, this point of time, during
which the sun makes but one round amidst the many millions it has made,
and the many millions it will make, this moment is all to me. Most
willingly, nay, most earnestly, do I pray that I may die this night, and
that all contention may cease with the beatings of my heart. Yet, if I
live, shall I submit? Is all that we prize but a shadow? Are tyranny,
and cruelty, and liberty, and virtue only names? Or, are they not rather
the misery or joy, that makes our hearts the abode of storms, or as a
smiling, flower-covered isle? Oh! I will no longer question my purpose,
or waver where necessity ought to inspire me with courage. One heart is
too weak to contain so overwhelming a contention."

While her melancholy thoughts thus wandered, and she seemed to range in
idea through the whole universe, yet no where found repose, it was
announced to her that Bondelmonti and his soldiers had arrived, and that
the chief desired to see her. There was something in the name of
Bondelmonti that struck a favourable chord in her heart; he had been her
father's friend; he was her guardian, and, although she had sometimes
run counter to his advice, yet she always felt most happy when his
opinion coincided with hers. His presence thus announced seemed to
cancel half her care; she collected all the courage she possessed, and
that was a mighty store, and descended, even smiling, to the hall; her
cares and regrets were leashed like dogs by the huntsmen, but they
neither bayed nor yelled, but cowered in silence. Bondelmonti was struck
by the serenity of her aspect; and his countenance changed from the
doubt it had before expressed, to a frank and gallant address.

"Madonna," said he, "the work we undertake is difficult; Castruccio
keeps our army in check, and guards the passes; and the fifty men that I
bring you, is all out of three hundred that could pass the Serchio. Have
good heart however, your castle walls are strong and will resist all the
stones with which their _battifolle_[9] can batter it, if indeed they
can scale the rock, which we must make as impracticable as we can. But
this is not fitting work for you, fair countess; do you retire to rest;
I would indeed that we could place you in safety in Florence out of all
danger, where you would not be able to hear the clash of arms that
to-morrow will resound in this castle. But I know that you have courage;
and I now see all the calm fortitude of your father shine in your clear
eyes; you are a good girl, Euthanasia, a good and a wise girl, and be
assured that every drop of blood that warms my heart, every faculty of
my body or my mind, are devoted to your cause."

Euthanasia thanked him in the warm language her feeling heart dictated,
and he continued; "I should have much to say to you, much encouragement
from your friends and messages of praise and affection; but my time is
short: believe then in one word, that all your Florentine friends love,
approve and admire you; and if you fall, which this good sword forbid,
we shall at least have this consolation, that our long absent Euthanasia
will reappear among us. But now to the works of war; I will apply to
your seneschal to know what food you have in the castle, and what
possibilities there are of increasing your stock; and your principal
officers shall shew me your works of defence, that I may concert with
them the plan for to-morrow's combat."

Euthanasia however undertook this task herself: she was too much
agitated, not to find some relief in the shew of composure which she
preserved with Bondelmonti, and in the exertion of explaining and
pointing out the various modes of defence which she had adopted, in
addition to those with which nature had furnished her habitation. The
castle was built, as I have before said, on the projecting platform of a
precipitous mountain: the wall of the edifice itself was thick and
strong; and but a small way removed from it was a lower wall, built with
corner towers and battlements, which at once defended the main building,
and sheltered the besieged, who could shower stones and arrows on the
assailants from the port-holes, and be in no danger of retaliation.
Before the gate of the castle was a green plot, about fifteen paces
across, planted with a few cork and ilex trees, and surrounded by a
barbican or low wall built on the edge of the precipice, which, high,
bare, and inaccessible, hung over the plain below. Between the wall and
the barbican, a path ran round one side of the castle, which was
terminated by massy gates and a portcullis; and it was there that,
crossing the chasm which insulated the castle, by means of a drawbridge,
you found the path that conducted to the plain. This path was defended
by various works; palisades, wooden towers to shelter archers, and more
by nature herself, for the rock and the trees were all so many asylums
whence the defenders could uninjured prevent the approach of an enemy.

"This is all excellent," said Bondelmonti; "it is impossible that all
the armies of Italy could force this pass, though it were defended only
by a handful. But, Madonna, is there no other entrance to your castle?
Is there no postern with a path up or down the mountain, whose secret
your enemies may learn, and thus attack you unawares?"

"None; the only postern is that which opens on a path conducting to a
small fountain about a hundred paces up the acclivity; but there it
stops, and the rock rising precipitously behind forbids approach."

"It is well. I will now review your soldiers, appoint their various
posts, and see that mine are refreshed; then, cousin, having tasted your
wine, I will go to rest, that I may awake betimes to-morrow. I am
resolved that all shall go well; Castruccio will be defeated; and you
shall ever be, as you deserve, the castellana of Valperga."

The tables were spread in the great hall of the castle, and heaped with
wine and food. After Euthanasia had seen every want of her guests
supplied, she retired to her own room at the eastern angle of the
castle, one window of which overlooked the whole plain of Lucca; and she
sat near this window, unable to rest or sleep, in that breathless and
feverish state, in which we expect a coming, but uncertain danger.

The veil of night was at length withdrawn; first Euthanasia saw the
stars wax faint, and then the western sky caught a crimson tinge from
the opposing sun. It was long ere he climbed the eastern hill; but his
rays fell upon the opposite mountains, and the windows of the castle of
Valperga shone dazzlingly bright. A _reveillée_ was sounded in the
court below, and roused the young countess from her waking dreams, to
the reality that yawned as a gulph before her. First, she composed her
dress, and bound the wandering locks of her hair round her head; then
for a moment she stood, her hands folded on her bosom, her eyes cast up
to heaven. At first her countenance expressed pain: but it changed; her
pale cheek began to glow, her brow became clear from the cloud that had
dimmed it, her eyes grew brighter, and her whole form gained dignity and
firmness. "I do my duty," she thought, "and in that dear belief do I
place my strength; I do my duty towards myself, towards my peasants,
towards Castruccio, from whose hands I detain only the power of doing
greater ill; God is my help, and I fear not."

Thinking and feeling thus, she descended to the hall of the castle; most
of the soldiers had gone to their posts; but Bondelmonti, and some of
those of higher rank in her party and household, were waiting her
appearance. She entered not gaily, but serenely; and her beauty, the
courage painted on her face, and her thrilling tone as she bade them
good morrow, inspired them with a simultaneous emotion, which they
almost expressed, and midway checked their voices. Bondelmonti kissed
her hand; "Farewel, my friends," she said; "you risk your lives for me,
and the sacrifice of mine were a poor recompense; my honour, my every
hope rests upon your swords; they are wielded by those who love me, and
I do not fear the result."

Bondelmonti addressed himself to the combat, ordered the men to their
posts, and took his own station on the drawbridge of the castle. The
winding path which led to the foot of the mountain, was lined with
archers and slingers, who were hid behind the projecting rocks or trees,
or within small wooden towers, erected for the purpose. A chosen band
armed with long spears was stationed in firm array at the most
precipitous part of the path, who, drawn up in close rank, and advancing
their arms, formed an outwork of iron spikes, impossible to be passed or
driven back. The foremost in the combat were the dependents of
Euthanasia; they were full of that loud, but undisciplined courage which
anger and fear inspire; Bindo was among them, and he harangued them,
saying, that every sign in the heavens, and every power of air, was
propitious to their mistress; at other times they had derided his
superstition; but now it acted as another incentive to their
indignation, and supporter for their courage.

In the mean time Euthanasia had retired to the apartment of Lauretta.
This unfortunate lady had remained in the castle since the death of her
husband; and such was the agony of grief she endured, that Euthanasia
had not communicated to her the threats of Castruccio, and the
approaching siege. The noise of arms, and the sound of many voices
alarmed her; and she wildly asked the cause. Her friend related to her
the events of the few last days, and endeavoured to calm her; Lauretta
listened in fear; she had suffered so much by the like contentions, that
every thing presented itself to her in the gloomiest point of view.
Grasping the countess's hand, she intreated her to submit; "You know not
what a siege is," she cried; "my father's castle was stormed, and
therefore I well know. Even if Castruccio were at the head of his
troops, he would in vain endeavour to restrain their fury; a triumphant
soldier is worse than the buffalo of the forest, and no humanity can
check his thirst for blood and outrage; they will conquer, and neither
God nor man can save us."

Euthanasia tried to soothe her; but in vain. She wept bitterly, and
prayed so earnestly that the countess would spare them both the utter
misery they would endure, that Euthanasia was for a moment startled by
her adjurations; but then, recalling her thoughts, she replied with
gentle firmness, and bade her lay aside her fears which were unfounded,
for there was nothing to dread save an easy imprisonment, if they should
be overcome.

And now, as they were talking thus, a messenger came from Bondelmonti.
"The general desires you to have good heart," he said; "the troops of
the enemy advance; and, if we may judge by their appearance, they are
few, and even those few the refuse of the prince's army."

Euthanasia listened incredulously; for she knew that however doubtful
the decision of the combat might be, the contention must be fierce. Soon
the war-cry arose from without the castle, and was echoed from the walls
and mountains; when it ceased, it was answered by the Ghibeline cry from
the assailants. But this only proved the truth of Bondelmonti's
assertion, that they were few, and of no note; for the shout was not
that exhilarating sound, that echoes the soul's triumph, and, borne
along the line, raises responsive ardour in every breast; it was loud,
but soon died away.

Wearied by the childish remonstrances of Lauretta, Euthanasia descended
to the platform of the castle, and leaned over the barbican; but she
could see nothing, though her ears were stunned by the cries, and clash
of arms, that rose from the valley. Returning to the inner court, she
met some men who were bearing the wounded from the field, and bringing
them for succour to the castle; for a moment her heart sunk within her,
for a moment she was pierced with grief, as she thought--"This is my
work!" But she recovered herself--"It must all be endured," said she; "I
have undertaken a part, and will not faint on the threshold. Spirit of
my father, aid me!"

Beds had been prepared in a large apartment of the castle, and
Euthanasia mingled with the women who ministered to the wounded; she
bound them with her own hands, cheered them with her voice, and
endeavoured, by supporting their minds, to alleviate the sense of bodily
pain. The men, who saw her flitting like an angel about them, aiding and
ministering to their wants, felt all the love and gratitude that such
unwonted, but gracious kindness might inspire. "Fear not, lady," they
said; "we are even more numerous than those who attack us; already they
are tired, and out of breath; fear not, the day is ours."

A messenger also came from Bondelmonti, to say, that the imprudence of
an under-officer had caused the few to fall who had fallen, but that her
troops were now all sheltered, and, that without the loss of a man they
would either destroy all the assailants, or drive them down the steep;
and this assertion appeared confirmed, since no more wounded were
brought in. Thus reassured, Euthanasia left the hall, and ascended to
her own apartment; her spirit was lightened of much of its burthen; the
first barrier had been passed; and she feared not, she would not fear,
the rest.

As she thought this, a sudden scream echoed through the castle; for a
moment she was transfixed; the scream was repeated, louder and nearer,
and she hastened to the window that overlooked the outer court. Thence
she saw a party of soldiers in the Lucchese uniform issue from the gate,
and run round the castle towards the drawbridge; as they came out in
file she thought their numbers would never end, and she recognized
several of the officers as those of the highest rank in Castruccio's
army; the last at length disappeared, and she looked around for an
explanation. The castle was silent; she stood alone in the room; and
even the echo of footsteps reached her not: she paused a moment; and
then, weary of further doubt, she hastened to the room of Lauretta, and
found it full of soldiers,--the enemy's soldiers; while the poor girl,
pale and trembling, sat bewildered and silent. Euthanasia entered from a
small door, leading from a private staircase: her first words were
addressed to her friend; "Fear not," she cried; "we are betrayed; but
fear not."

The soldiers, seeing her appear, had sent for their chief officer, who
came forward, saying, "The castle is ours; and, Madonna, it were well
that you ordered your people to yield; for further resistance would be
useless, and could only cause more bloodshed: we are commanded by our
general to act with the greatest moderation."

"It is enough," replied Euthanasia, quietly; "the commander will judge
of the necessity of submission: but see, you frighten this lady, who is
ill and delicate. I beseech you to leave this room awhile; if I find
that indeed no further resistance can be made, I shall soon be prepared
to obey what orders you may bring."

"Madonna, we withdraw as you desire: but permit me to add, that it is
the general's orders that we escort you to Lucca this evening: until
then we shall not intrude upon you."

The soldiers quitted the room; and Euthanasia, leaving Lauretta with her
servant, retired to her own apartment. Here she found several of her
attendants, who told with many tears that there was no longer any hope;
that the enemy, entering at the postern, had attacked her soldiers from
behind, and driven them down the mountain, and that the party left in
the castle having raised the drawbridge, were now in undisturbed
possession. Euthanasia heard all this with an unaltered mien, and, when
the melancholy tale was finished, she bade them leave her, and go to the
commanding officer of the troop to receive orders for their further
proceeding, but not to return to her, until she should command their

[Footnote 9: _Battifolle_, or _balestri_, machines for casting


_Euthanasia at Lucca._

The castle bell tolled the _Ave Maria_ for the last time, answering the
belfries of the various convents in the vale below. "There is my knell!"
cried Euthanasia. At first she thought that it would please her, in
quitting for ever the abode of her ancestors, to array herself in
mourning garments; but then the simplicity of her mind made her
instinctively shun any thing that had the appearance of affectation; so
she covered her head with a white veil, folded her capuchin about her,
and returned to the chamber of Lauretta to prepare for her removal.
Castiglione sent thither to desire admittance; when he came, he felt
awed by the deportment of Euthanasia, who received him with that slight
tinge of pride mingled with her accustomed dignity, which adversity
naturally bestows on the good. He announced that the escort had arrived
to convey them to Lucca; Euthanasia bowed her head in acquiescence; and,
supporting Lauretta, with an unfaltering step she left for the last time
the castle of her ancestors; she supported her friend with one hand, and
with the other folded her veil close to her face, that no rudely curious
eye might read in its expression the sorrow that she felt in her heart.
"My grief is my own," she thought; "the only treasure that remains to
me; and I will hoard it with more jealousy from the sight and knowledge
of others, than a miser does his gold."

She walked unhesitating through the hall, long the seat of her purest
happiness. Her infant feet had trodden its pavement in unreproved
gaiety; and she thought for a moment that she saw the venerable form of
her father seated in his accustomed place. But she proudly shook the
softening emotion from her, and looked with a tearless eye upon the
hearth, round which the soldiers of her enemy stood, profaning its
sacredness by their presence. The inner court of the castle was filled
by a number of women and children, the wives of the peasantry who
depended on her, who, as they saw her advance, raised one cry of grief;
she started, and said in a smothered voice, "Could I not have been
spared this?"

"Impossible," replied Castiglione, who overheard her; "nothing but the
most brutal force could have prevented them."

"Enough," said Euthanasia; "I am satisfied."

The women clung about her, kissing her hands, her garments, and throwing
themselves on their knees with all the violent gesticulation of
Italians. They tore their hair, and called on heaven to save and bless
their mistress, and to avenge her wrongs;--"God bless you, good people!"
cried their countess; "may you never be reminded of my loss by any
misfortune that may befal yourselves!"

And, disengaging herself from their grasp, she walked on, while they
followed crying and bewailing. She crossed the drawbridge, which was
guarded at each end by soldiers; ere she put her foot on the opposite
rock, Euthanasia paused for one moment; it seemed to her that all was
irretrievably lost, when once she had passed the barrier which this
bridge placed between her past and future life; she glanced back once
more at the castle, and looked up to the window of her apartment; she
had expected to find it desert and blank; but it was filled with
soldiers, who stood looking from it on her departure; she sighed deeply,
and then with quicker steps hastened down the mountain.

The idea that this path had been the scene of the morning's combat
affrighted her; and she dared not look round, fearing that she might see
some lifeless victim among the bushes and rocks on the road-side: and so
it might easily have been; for, when Castiglione had ordered the road to
be cleared of the dead, many had been cast behind the projections of
rock, or under the low wood, in their haste; and, as they passed, the
vulture arose from among the grass, scared from his prey, and told too
truly that he feasted upon limbs which that same morning had been
endowed with life. The very path on which she trod was slippery with
blood; and she felt as if she walked through one of the circles of
hell's torments[10], until she reached the foot of the rock.

Lauretta was placed in a litter; Euthanasia mounted her horse; and they
prepared to depart: but the women again raising a cry, threw themselves
about the horse, seizing the reins, and vowing that she should not leave
them. "God bless you!" cried the poor countess, who, although filled
with her own grief, yet sympathized with these good people; "but now go;
you may harm yourselves with your new master; you can do no good to me."

The soldiers interfered; and, opening the path before Euthanasia, she
gave the reins to her horse, and rode with speed out of the hearing of
the cry, which her people again sent up, when they saw that she had
indeed left them. She had outridden the rest of her party; and, finding
herself alone, she drew up her palfrey to wait their arrival. She looked
upon the castle, no longer hers; a few quick drops fell; she dried them
again; and, seeing her escort approach, she turned her horse's head,
and, without a word, proceeded slowly on her way to Lucca.

The city-gates were shut; but, on the word being given by her escort,
they were thrown open, and she entered the dark and narrow streets of
the town. "My prison!" thought Euthanasia. Here the company divided:
Lauretta, at her own request, was conveyed to the house of the mother of
Leodino; and Euthanasia was led to the palace prepared for her
reception. She took no notice of the streets through which she passed,
and cared little whether they conducted her to a palace or a prison;
indeed during the latter part of her ride, her strength both of mind and
body so much forsook her, that she could hardly keep her seat on her
horse, but rode like a veiled statue of despair.

Euthanasia was led to her chamber; her attendants came to her, but she
dismissed them all; and, her mind confused, her spirits and strength
quite exhausted by long watching during several of the preceding nights,
and by the exciting circumstances of the day, she threw herself dressed
as she was on a couch, and, kindly nature coming to her aid, sank
instantaneously into a heavy and dreamless sleep.

Day was far advanced, before she again awoke, and looked forth on the
light, with a sentiment, as if the slight refreshment of spirit and
strength she had received, were but a mockery of the sad weight that
oppressed her heart. She lifted her heavy head, like a water lily whose
cup is filled by a thunder shower: but, presently recalling her
scattered faculties, she sat for some time in deep meditation,
endeavouring to philosophize herself out of the unhappiness that she
felt. The palace to which she had been conducted, was a large and
magnificent one, near the outskirts of the town: it had belonged to one
of the victims of Castruccio's despotism, and had the desolate and
woe-begone appearance of a mansion which has lost its master. From the
chamber where she sat, she looked upon the garden; a square plot of
ground surrounded by four high walls, which had been planted in the
Italian taste, but which now ran wild; the small flower-beds were
overgrown with weeds, and the grass, a rude commoner, had thrust itself
into the untrod paths; the stone-pedestals for the lemon-pots were green
with moss and lichens; and here and there the wind-borne seed of some
delicate plant had sown a lovely flower in the midst of the moist,
coarse herbage which could ill claim its fellowship. A few cypress and
box trees, which had been cut into shape, now mocked the gardener's
knife with the unpruned growth of three years; and ivy darkened the
walls side by side with the orange trees, whose golden apples shone
amidst the dark foliage. A few lizards had crept from beneath the stones
to bask in the rays of the autumnal sun; and the frogs croaked in a
reservoir or cistern, which had once played as a fountain, but which was
now choked with weeds and dirt. Such was the desolate scene which
arrested the eyes of Euthanasia, as she looked from her window. "The
image of my fortunes;" she thought, and turned away, while a tear flowed
down her cheek.

Her servant now entered; and, while she arranged her dress, the woman
related the catastrophe of the siege. When the soldiers of Castruccio
had appeared behind her defenders coming down from the castle, they
threw themselves first on those who guarded the bridge, and took
Bondelmonti and the principal Florentines prisoners: but the dependents
of the countess, transported with fury, and elevated by the promises
which Bindo had held out of success, rushed out of their hiding-places,
and charging those at the foot of the rock, drove them with desperate
courage down the mountain path, unmindful of the enemies who pressed
upon their rear. The battle was bloody; many fell on each side; the
small troop of Valpergans were destroyed almost to a man, falling
voluntary sacrifices for their mistress's preservation. A few were taken
prisoners, and among them Bindo, who almost miraculously had escaped
unwounded. But, if he were not wounded in body, his mind was almost
frenzied with rage and disappointment, when he saw the Lucchese flag
wave from the donjon of the castle; he tried to break from those who
held him, and, weak as he appeared to be, he exerted such desperate
strength, using both hands, feet, and teeth, that the soldiers found it
necessary to bind him.--As they fastened the cords, Castiglione came up:
he remembered the Albinois; and, asking why it was that he was used so
roughly, he ordered them to set him free. As soon as his bonds were
loosened, without speaking or looking round, he darted off; and, running
across the country as swiftly as a deer from the hounds, was quickly out
of sight.

Euthanasia wept when she heard of the blood that had been spilt for her;
and self-reproach, who is ever ready to thrust in his sharp sting, if he
find that mailed conscience has one weak part, now tormented her that
she had not yielded, before one human life had been lost in so unhappy a
cause. "Do not evil that good may come," thought she. "Are not those the
words of the Teacher? I have done infinite evil, in spilling that blood
whose each precious drop was of more worth than the jewels of a kingly
crown; but my evil has borne its fitting fruit; its root in death, its
produce poison."

In the course of the day, Arrigo Guinigi came to visit her. He came with
a message from Castruccio, who intreated her to remain quietly in the
palace provided for her, until he should return to Lucca, which would be
in a few days, when he would learn from her own lips what her wishes
were with regard to her future life. Arrigo said all this with downcast
eyes and a heaving breast, hardly daring to speak, and much less raise
his eyes upon the countess; who replied that she would obey; that she
had much rather not see the prince; but that if he commanded it, she was
ready to submit. "You see me, my dear Arrigo, a prisoner, despoiled of
my possessions, a slave to your lord's will. Yet I hope and trust, that
these events would not have created the deep sorrow with which I feel
that my soul is filled, did not bitter sentiments of lost affections,
disappointed expectations, and utter hopelessness, fill up the measure
of my infelicity. My good youth, we are born to misery; so our priests
tell us, and there is more sooth in that lesson, than in early youth we
are willing to believe; yet fortitude is the virtue with which my father
endeavoured principally to imbue me, and I would fain not disgrace his
counsels; but indeed a poisoned barb has entered my heart, and I cannot
draw it out."

Arrigo endeavoured to comfort her.--"Your state is far from hopeless;
the prince has promised, and intends to keep his promise, that your
revenues shall not be injured by the loss of your castle. At Florence
you will be surrounded by friends, and every luxury and pleasure of
life; and there you may again be happy."

Autumn was now far advanced, and the rains came on. The Florentine and
Lucchese armies, which had remained looking at each other from opposite
sides of the river, were now further divided by the overflowing of its
waters; so each retreated to their several towns, and the campaign of
that year ended. Castruccio returned to Lucca. His first concern was a
long and private conversation with Castiglione; and immediately after he
dispatched Arrigo to prepare Euthanasia for a conference.

Poor girl! her heart beat, and the blood mounted to her before pale
cheeks, when she heard that she was to see him whom she had loved, and
to whose memory, as of what had been, she clung with tenacious
affection. It was a cruel task for her to behold his form, graceful as
it had been when she gazed on it in happier days, and his countenance,
which, but that more pride were mingled in the expression, was as
gloriously beautiful, as when it beamed love upon her; and more than
all, to hear his voice, whose soft and mellow cadences had wrapt her
soul in Elysium, now to be heard as the voice of an alien. But
indignation mingled itself with these feelings, and enabled her to
support the coming trial with greater courage; so, calling up all of
pride with which her delicacy might arm her, and all of fortitude which
her philosophy had taught, she awaited with patience the expected

She sat on a low sopha; her dress was dark; the vest, formed of purple
silk, and fastened at her waist by a silken cord, fell in large folds to
her feet; a cloak of sables hung on her shoulder; and her golden hair,
partly clustered on her neck, and partly confined by a ribbon, covered
with its ringlets her fair brow. When she heard the step of Castruccio
approaching, she became pale; her very lips lost their colour; and her
serious eyes, shorn of their beams, were as the deep azure of midnight,
where the stars shine not. He entered. When he had seen her last, he had
been haughty and imperious; but now his manner was all softness,
gentleness and humility; so that, when he spoke, in spite of the high
nobility of her spirit, her eyes were weighed down by the unshed tears.

"Countess," he said, "pardon me, if my intrusion upon you appear
ungenerous; but persons, that, like myself, are occupied in the affairs
of government, are apt to leave too much to underlings, who never do or
say that which it were exactly right to have said or done. Your future
peace is too dear to me, to permit me to hear from any but yourself what
are your wishes and your expectations."

He paused, waiting for an answer, and fixed on her his soft and full
eyes, which seemed to read her soul, while a gentle smile of compassion
and love played on his lips. After collecting her thoughts, she raised
her eyes to reply, and met those of her former lover, whose expression
seemed fraught with all that affection he had once vowed to her. She was
unable to speak; but then, angry at her own weakness, she rallied her
spirits, and replied,--"I have but one favour to intreat, which is your
permission to remove instantly to Florence."

"Your wishes in this respect, Madonna, are commands; yet I could have
desired that you would consent to stay awhile in Lucca. I know the
judgement that you have formed of me; you look on me as a wild beast
ravenous for blood, as a lawless monster, despoiled of all the feelings
of humanity. I could have desired that you would stay awhile, to find
and to avow your injustice; I could wish you to stay, until the deep
respect, and if you will permit the word, the love I feel for you,
should make such impression on your heart, that you would allow me to
assuage those sorrows of which I have unhappily been the cause."

"My lord, do not speak thus to me," replied Euthanasia, with a voice
which at first trembled, but which gained firmness as she continued; "We
are divided; there is an eternal barrier between us now, sealed by the
blood of those miserable people who fell for me. I cannot, I do not love
you; and, if a most frivolous and reprehensible weakness could make me
listen now, the ghosts of the slain would arise to divide us. My lord, I
cannot reason with you, I can hardly speak; the blood of the
slaughtered, the tears of the survivors, the scathed ruins of my castle,
are all answers, louder than words, to your present offers. If these
have been your acts of courtship, pardon me if I say, that I had rather
woo the lion in his den to be my husband, than become the bride of a
conqueror. But this is useless cavilling, painful to both of us; it
awakens in me the indignation I would fain repress; and it may kindle
resentment in your heart, which is already too apt to be inflamed with
that sentiment. You came, you say, to learn my wishes; you have now
heard them; let us part; we part in that peace every Christian believer
owes to his brother; I forgive you from my inmost heart; do not you hate
me; and thus farewel."

"You forgive me, Euthanasia? Is then your soul so pure? me, who indeed
have grievously wronged you; and, however necessary my actions have
been, yet have they been destructive to you. But, if indeed you forgive
me, and part in Christian amity, allow me once more to take your hand,
that I may know that it is not a mere form of words, but that you
express a feeling of the heart."

Euthanasia held out her hand, which he took in both his, and holding it
thus, he said: "Hear me, my loved girl; you whom alone in the world I
have ever loved. You despise, repulse, and almost hate me; and yet, God
knows, I still cherish you as tenderly, as when we told each other's
love-tale first in yonder unhappy castle. I do not ask you to love me,
you cannot;--but you are still young, very young, Euthanasia; and
fortune yet may have many changes in store for you. Remember, that,
through them all, I am your friend; and if ever in any misery you want a
protector, one to save and preserve you, Castruccio, the neglected,
mistaken, but most faithful Castruccio, will ever be ready to use his
arm and his power in your service. Now, Euthanasia, farewel."

"Oh God!" cried the unhappy girl, moved to her inmost heart, "could you
not have spared me this? leave me; farewel for ever!"

He kissed her hand, and left her; while she, her delicate frame yielding
under the many emotions she experienced, sank almost lifeless on the
couch. She had suffered much, and borne up through all. But this last
interview overcame her: her health, which had been weakened by watching,
and agitation, and tears, now entirely gave way. A fever
followed,--delirium, and utter deprivation of strength. The disease
seemed to feed on her very vitals; and death already tainted her cheek
with his fingers. But youth, and a constitution, nourished and
strengthened among mountains, and healthful exertions of body and mind,
saved her; and, after a confinement of several months, she again crept
forth, to see the sun of spring smile on his children, who laughingly
welcomed his genial beams.

Where during this time was the prophetess of Ferrara?

[Footnote 10: See Dante.]


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