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Title: A Select Glossary of the Texas Revolution
Author: Carefoot, Jean
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Select Glossary of the Texas Revolution" ***

                        A Select Glossary of the
                           _TEXAS REVOLUTION_

                              compiled by
                             Jean Carefoot

                           Archives Division
                          Texas State Library



The active period of the Texas Revolution lasted from October 2, 1835,
to April 22, 1836. The capture of General Santa Anna, coupled with the
decisive victory at San Jacinto, ended, for all practical purposes, the
war with Mexico. Mexico would mount two raids into Texas, each capturing
San Antonio temporarily. But never again did Mexico have permanent
control of any Texas territory north of the Rio Grande. The Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848, finally acknowledged Texas
independence from Mexico.

The information for this select glossary of the Texas Revolution is
drawn from a number of sources, but principally from the three-volume
_Handbook of Texas_. With few exceptions, information about persons or
places is confined to the period from October 1835 through April 1836.
Additional information about the men who fought for and against Texas
independence can be found in the _Handbook_ and in the books listed in
the bibliography.

                         _The Texas Revolution_

The summer of 1835 was filled with unrest. In June the colonists had
discovered that General Cos intended to use the military to force Texan
compliance with government regulations. William B. Travis and a body of
some 50 men responded to this threat in August by attacking and taking
the fort at Anahuac. The action, although universally condemned by the
Texans, strengthened Mexican determination to bring a military
peace-keeping force to Texas.

Texans feared that rights and liberties guaranteed by the Mexican
Constitution of 1824 were threatened by this action and the increasing
centralization of the government in Mexico. Mexican officials viewed
Texan opposition as a direct attack on Mexican national honor, an insult
to the government which had generously allowed the colonists to settle
in Texas.

The arrival of Mexican troops in Texas finally united the Texans in
opposition to Santa Anna’s government. When Colonel Ugartechea demanded
that a cannon at Gonzales be returned, the colonists refused. The first
battle of the Revolution took place. The Mexican commander was forced to

Gonzales fell on October 2; Goliad, on October 10. James Bowie and
William Barrett Travis captured Espada and Concepcion Missions in
October. Fort Lipantitlan surrendered in early November. Between
December 5 and December 10, after a month-long siege, San Antonio was
taken by the Texas Army and the Mexican troops remaining in Texas were
forced to retreat to Mexico. At year’s end, no “foreign” troops remained
on Texas soil.

The battles of 1835 were fought mainly by Texas settlers, men who had a
vested interest in defending Texas’ soil. By the end of the year,
however, they believed the war was over, and they returned to their
homes. The 1836 campaign would be conducted principally with volunteers
from the United States, a weakness that would hamper the war effort
throughout the rest of the Revolution.

While the Texan army drove out the Mexican forces, a “Consultation” of
delegates from each of the municipalities met to determine how best to
proceed. On November 7, they issued a declaration of causes for taking
up arms against Santa Anna. A vote of 33 to 15 favored the peace party:
Texas would fight to restore the Constitution of 1824 and to achieve
separate statehood for Texas within the Mexican confederation.

A government of sorts was set up by the Consultation. It consisted of a
governor, council, and lieutenant governor. None of the parties held
sufficient executive or legislative powers. Furthermore, the governor,
Henry Smith, favored complete independence for Texas; a majority of the
council favored continuing as part of Mexico. Within a month these
parties were fighting among themselves. Then, on January 10, Governor
Smith attempted to dismiss the council; the council impeached Smith and
replaced him with Lt. Governor James W. Robinson.

The split between Smith and the council was caused by attempts to mount
a Matamoros Expedition—an ill-favored plan to take the war outside of
Texas and to keep U. S. volunteers occupied. Although the Matamoros
Expedition never was organized, it drew off supplies and volunteers
desperately needed in Texas, and it divided the political and military
leaders at a time when unified action was essential.

As winter held Texas in its grip, Santa Anna mounted a counterattack.
Arriving in San Antonio on February 23, he laid siege to the Alamo,
where 150 Texans attempted to buy time for Texas. Only 32 volunteers
from Gonzales came to reinforce the men at the Alamo. All were killed
shortly after dawn on March 6.

While the Alamo was besieged, Texans met in Convention at
Washington-on-the-Brazos. On March 2, the Convention declared Texas
independence, and a Declaration to that effect was signed the following
day. Before the meeting adjourned, a constitution was drafted and an
interim government set up.

Texan reverses in the field continued. Learning of the fall of the
Alamo, Sam Houston and the undermanned and untrained Texas army began a
hasty retreat eastward.

F. W. Johnson was attacked at San Patricio on February 27, and only he
and four men survived. James Grant and his men were surrounded and
killed at Agua Dulce on March 2.

Refugio was attacked and Amon King and the garrison were killed on March
16. William Ward, who had been sent to relieve King, was captured with
his men on March 22. They were marched to Goliad where they were
executed on March 27.

Fannin, who had failed to respond to calls for help from the Alamo
because he lacked transport for his arms and supplies, finally began a
retreat on March 19. He and his men were caught outside Goliad at
Coleto. After fighting off several attacks, Fannin was finally forced to
surrender on the morning of the 20th. Returned to Goliad, Fannin and his
men awaited a decision about their fate. Gen. Urrea favored treating
them as prisoners of war; Santa Anna demanded that they be executed as
pirates. Santa Anna prevailed. His orders were carried out on Palm
Sunday, March 27.

Throughout April, the remaining Texas troops fled to the east. While
they retreated, panic seized the colonists. The Runaway Scrape saw
hundreds of families take to the roads fleeing from the oncoming Mexican
army. Even the Texas government was caught up in the frenzy as Santa
Anna moved steadily eastward. Indeed, the government narrowly escaped
being captured as its members prepared to sail to Galveston.

Finally, on April 20, the Mexican and Texan armies met at San Jacinto. A
brief skirmish was fought on April 20. Then, as the afternoon shadows
began to lengthen, on April 21 the Texan army advanced against Santa
Anna’s troops. What took place then was a slaughter of the Mexican army,
its men taken by surprise, cut off from escape.

The Texan victory was completed the next day when a poorly-dressed
soldier was brought in from the field. The prisoners’ reactions soon
revealed that this was, indeed, President-General Antonio Lopez de Santa
Anna. For all practical purposes, the war was at an end.


Ad Interim Government   The last act of the Convention of 1836 was to
      elect an interim government to serve until the people of Texas
      could ratify the Constitution and hold regular elections. David G.
      Burnet served as president; Lorenzo de Zavala, vice-president.
      This government acted from March 16 until October 16, 1836.

Agua Dulce, Battle of   Fought March 2, 1836. James Grant’s small body
      of men, a part of the Matamoros Expedition, and troops commanded
      by Jose Urrea met on a spot some 26 miles from San Patricio. Grant
      and most of his men were killed. Those who escaped death either
      were made prisoner by the Mexican army or were to join Fannin’s
      forces at Goliad, only to be executed in the Goliad Massacre.

Alamo Mission   The Mission San Antonio de Valero, known as the “Alamo,”
      was used as a fort by the Mexican army from 1821 until December
      1835. After a two-month siege, Texan troops took over San Antonio
      on December 10, and drove the Mexican army from the city. Texan
      soldiers hastened to the Alamo on February 23, 1836, as Santa
      Anna’s army entered San Antonio. After a 13-day siege, the Mexican
      army succeeded in taking the Alamo on March 6. None of the 187
      Texan soldiers survived the battle and its aftermath.

Almonte, Juan Nepumoceno   A colonel in the Mexican Army, Almonte
      accompanied Santa Anna as an aide-de-camp. He was captured at San
      Jacinto. Almonte’s report to the Mexican government in January
      1834 alerted the government to the possibility that Texas might be
      taken from Mexico by force or by diplomacy.

Anahuac   Angered over the arrest of Andrew Briscoe, citizens of
      Anahuac, led by William B. Travis, attacked the garrison on June
      29, 1835. Mexican troops under Antonio Tenorio were forced to
      surrender and were expelled on June 30. The action was condemned
      by most Texans, and numerous communities sent in protests to the
      Mexican government. Mexico retaliated by sending military forces
      under the command of General Cos to Texas to quell any future

Archer, Branch Tanner   Before joining the Consultation, Archer
      participated in the capture of Gonzales. He was the president of
      the Consultation, and he was appointed by that body to serve as
      one of three commissioners to the United States, empowered to
      secure men and money for the war effort.

Austin, Stephen Fuller   His speech at Brazoria on September 8, 1835,
      encouraged the colonists to seek independence from Mexican rule.
      Austin was elected commander-in-chief of the Volunteer Army in the
      field, and, as such, directed the operations of the Texan army
      before Bexar. In November 1835, the Consultation appointed him a
      Commissioner to the United States, where he worked throughout the
      remainder of the Revolution, negotiating for men and money to
      support the revolutionary forces.

Austin, William Tennant   At the beginning of hostilities, he sent
      supplies to the Texas army from the mouth of the Brazos. He
      participated in the siege of Bexar and later served as an aide to
      Stephen F. Austin, Edward Burleson, and Sam Houston.


Baker, Moseley   A leader of the war party in Texas before the
      Revolution, Baker went into east Texas with F. W. Johnson to
      recruit soldiers for Texas in August 1835. Baker fought in the
      battle of Gonzales and the Grass Fight. He was elected captain of
      his company on March 1, 1836. His command prevented the Mexicans’
      crossing the Brazos during the Texas Army’s retreat. After burning
      San Felipe, he rejoined Houston’s army and was wounded in the
      battle of San Jacinto. In that engagement, Baker commanded Company
      D, 1st Regiment of the Texas Volunteers.

Barrett, Don Carlos   Barrett served as president of the Mina Committee
      of Safety and Correspondence and represented that community at the
      Consultation. Barrett was instrumental in framing the Declaration
      of November 7, 1835. After the session, Barrett became a member of
      the General Council. He was elected judge advocate general of the
      Texas Army, but resigned because of ill health shortly after Henry
      Smith’s impeachment.

Bean, Peter Ellis   Bean had served in the Mexican wars for independence
      from Spain, and, for that reason, was regarded with suspicion by
      the colonists. However, he is credited with having kept the Indian
      tribes from interfering with the Texan army throughout the
      Revolution. Neither side fully trusted him during the war.

Beason’s Ferry   Crossing on the Colorado River, south of Burn(h)am’s
      Ferry. Santa Anna’s army crossed the river at this point on April
      5, 1836.

Bexar   The term encompasses both the presidio of San Antonio de Bexar
      and the villa of San Fernando de Bexar, which became present-day
      San Antonio. It also includes the municipality of Bexar which
      eventually became Bexar county.

Benavides, Placido   Benavides organized a band of Mexican soldiers to
      fight for the Texan cause at the outbreak of hostilities. In
      February 1836, he was with James Grant at the battle of Agua Dulce
      Creek. Grant ordered him to escape and to report the news of
      Urrea’s arrival to Fannin at Goliad.

Bonham, James Butler   Bonham was commissioned a lieutenant of cavalry
      on December 20, 1835. He arrived at the Alamo some time between
      January 18 and 23, possibly with James Bowie. At the beginning of
      Santa Anna’s siege, Travis sent Bonham to Goliad to request
      reinforcements from Fannin. On Bonham’s return, he was sent to
      Goliad and Gonzales to raise volunteers. In spite of the danger,
      Bonham forced his way back into the Alamo on March 3 and died
      there on March 6.

Borden, Gail Jr.   Borden published the _Telegraph and Texas Register_,
      beginning the publication on October 10, 1835. The press had to be
      moved from San Felipe to Harrisburg and then to Columbia as the
      Texans retreated before Santa Anna’s advance.

Borden, John P.   Borden fought under Collinsworth at Goliad, October 7,
      1835. Along with five other men, he signed a protest addressed to
      S. F. Austin, demanding that the men of Goliad be allowed to
      choose their own commander. He served under Dimmitt, but was
      discharged January 11. He rejoined the army on February 29, and,
      as a member of Moseley Baker’s company, he fought in the battle of
      San Jacinto.

Bowie, James   A leader in the battle of Concepcion and the Grass Fight,
      Bowie also participated in the siege of Bexar and the surrender of
      General Cos. He commanded the volunteer forces in San Antonio when
      William B. Travis arrived with regular army troops. After James C.
      Neill left the San Antonio on February 14, 1836, Bowie and Travis
      shared command of the army: Travis in charge of the regular
      forces; Bowie, of the volunteers. He was stricken with “typhoid
      pneumonia” on February 24 and remained confined to his cot
      throughout the siege and fall of the Alamo.

Bowles, Chief (The Bowl)   Chief of the Cherokee tribes in East Texas,
      Bowles was reported to have accepted a Mexican commission during
      the Revolution. However, he signed a treaty of peace with the
      Texas government on February 23, 1836, and the war ran its course
      with no organized Indian interference.

_Bravo_   A Mexican war vessel blockading the Texas coast in early
      November, the _Bravo_ participated in the capture of the American
      ship, the _Hannah Elizabeth_. The _Bravo_, with two other Mexican
      ships, fought an engagement with the Texan man-of-war
      _Independence_ in April 1836.

  Another ship, formerly called the _Montezuma_ but rechristened the
  _Bravo_ was engaged in battle by the _Invincible_, commanded by
  Captain Jeremiah Brown. The battle took place at the mouth of the Rio
  Grande, about 35 miles from Matamoros. The _Bravo_ grounded and was
  crippled by a broadside fired from the _Invincible_.

Brazoria   Most men from Brazoria had joined the Texan army at the
      outbreak of the war. Nearly all of the remaining population had
      fled in the Runaway Scrape when Jose Urrea burned the town on
      April 22, 1836.

_Brutus_   The _Brutus_ was bought and equipped as a privateer by
      Augustus C. and John K. Allen. The brothers sold the ship to the
      Texas Navy on January 25, 1836. The ship did not see action in the
      war, however.

Bryan, Moses Austin   While Stephen F. Austin commanded the Texan
      volunteers in the field, Bryan served as his secretary. After
      Austin’s retirement from the army, Bryan joined the army as
      private and fought in Moseley Baker’s company in the battle of San
      Jacinto. At the time, he was serving as Thomas J. Rusk’s
      aide-de-camp. He was an interpreter at the conference between
      General Houston and Santa Anna.

Bryan, William   A New Orleans merchant, Bryan furnished men and money
      to the Revolution. He was appointed general agent for Texas by the
      General Council on January 26, 1836, and, with his partner Edward
      Hall, he served as purchasing agent for the revolutionary

Buffalo Bayou   This stream flows east from Fort Bend County to the San
      Jacinto River. On April 20, 1836, Sam Houston’s army crossed the
      San Jacinto River at Lynch’s Ferry and camped on the south bank of
      Buffalo Bayou. On April 21, the battle of San Jacinto was fought
      on its banks, near the point where the stream flows into the San
      Jacinto River.

Burleson, Edward   At Gonzales, on October 10, 1835, Burleson was
      elected colonel of the only regiment raised under Stephen F.
      Austin’s command. He succeeded Austin in the command of the
      volunteer army in November. On December 3, Burleson was forced to
      order a withdrawal of the army to Goliad, but Milam’s support of
      an advance against Bexar countermanded that move. On December 18,
      Burleson succeeded Philip Sublett as colonel of infantry. At San
      Jacinto he commanded the 1st Regiment of Texas Volunteers.

Burnam’s Ferry   Also spelled “Burnham’s,” the ferry was at the La Bahia
      Road crossing of the Colorado River. Sam Houston’s army crossed
      the river at this point on March 17, 1836. The ferry was destroyed
      on March 19 to prevent its being used by the Mexican army.

Burnet, David Gouverneur   Burnet represented the Municipality of
      Liberty in the Consultation. The Convention of 1836 elected him
      president of the interim government, a position he held until
      October 16, 1836.


Centralists   A Mexican political party which supported a strong central
      government (instead of a federal system). Although Santa Anna had
      originally gained the presidency of Mexico by supporting the
      federal cause, he had decided in 1834 that Mexico was not yet
      ready for democracy. He dissolved the state legislatures in
      October 1835, putting the nation under a single, central governing

Chambers, Thomas Jefferson   Chambers took an active part in the events
      leading to the Revolution. He offered his land for security to
      raise men and money for the war. The provisional government
      commissioned him a major general of reserves and sent him to the
      United States to secure volunteers and munitions.

Childress, George Campbell   Childress was elected a delegate to the
      Convention of 1836 shortly after he arrived in Texas. There, he
      called the assembly to order and, after permanent organization,
      moved that a committee of five be appointed to write a declaration
      of independence. The document reported out by the committee was
      written by Childress.

Coleto, Battle of   Fought March 19-20, 1836, this battle was the
      culmination of the Goliad campaign. James W. Fannin and some 400
      men from Goliad were falling back toward Guadalupe Victoria when
      they were attacked by Urrea’s men near Coleto Creek. Although the
      Texans countered three attacks, they were forced to surrender when
      their water supplies ran out and Urrea’s main army arrived on the
      March 20.

Collinsworth, George Morse   Collinsworth raised a company of 52 men
      from Matagorda, and, along with additional troops under Ben Milam,
      took Goliad on October 9, 1835. He was in command at Goliad until
      November 18. The General Council appointed him collector of
      customs for the port of Matagorda on December 10, 1835.

Collinsworth, James   The General Council elected Collinsworth captain
      of the Texas Regiment of Infantry (probably never organized). He
      represented Brazoria in the Convention of 1836, where he nominated
      Sam Houston for commander-in-chief. In the army, he assisted the
      families fleeing in the Runaway Scrape. He was made a major and
      appointed an aide-de-camp to Houston on April 8. His conduct in
      the battle of San Jacinto was commended by both Houston and Thomas
      J. Rusk in their reports.

Committee on Military Affairs   Created by the General Council, the
      Committee on Military Affairs, through its recommendations and its
      immediate supervision of military matters, did much to influence
      the conduct of the war from November 1835 through January 1836.
      Its members included Wyatt Hanks, J. D. Clements, and R. R. Royal.

Committees of Safety and Correspondence   On May 8, 1835, Mina organized
      a Committee of Safety and Correspondence, and Gonzales and Viesca
      followed suit a few days later. By the end of the summer, most
      communities in Texas had such organizations. Their purpose was to
      keep people in touch with developments that affected the

Concepcion, Battle of   James Bowie and James W. Fannin, with a
      detachment of 90 men were scouting for a secure campground when,
      on October 28, they were attacked by a Mexican cavalry force about
      a mile from Concepcion Mission. The battle lasted some thirty
      minutes, ending when the main body of the Texan army joined the
      fight. The army took over the mission grounds for a campsite.

Consultation   Called for October 16, 1836, at San Felipe de Austin, the
      Consultation failed to convene a quorum until November 3. Although
      sharply divided between the “war hawks” and the “peace doves,” the
      body issued its “Declaration of November 7, 1835,” stating that
      the war’s aim was to restore the Mexican Constitution of 1824 and
      to make Texas an independent state within the Mexican
      Confederation. Sam Houston was made commander-in-chief of the
      regular army, a government was set up, authorized by the Organic
      Law, and three commissioners were sent to the United States to
      seek money and soldiers. The Consultation adjourned on November

Convention of 1836   The General Council, over Governor Smith’s veto,
      called for a Convention to assemble at Washington-on-the-Brazos on
      March 1, 1836. The Convention adopted a declaration of
      independence, wrote a constitution, and elected a provisional
      government before adjourning hastily on March 17.

Cos, Martin Perfecto de   Cos was Santa Anna’s brother-in-law, sent to
      Texas in September 1835 to investigate the colonists’ refusal to
      pay duties at Anahuac. Cos landed 500 men at Matagorda Bay and
      then established headquarters at San Antonio. He intended to expel
      all who had come to Texas since 1830 and anyone opposed to Santa
      Anna. Forced to surrender San Antonio on December 10, Cos and his
      men were allowed to return to Mexico on their pledge never to take
      up arms against Texas again. However, Cos returned, commanding a
      column at the assault on the Alamo. He crossed Vince’s Bridge with
      reinforcements for Santa Anna just before Deaf Smith destroyed the
      bridge on April 21, 1836. He was captured after the battle of San

Crockett, David   He came to Texas “to fight for his rights.” Crockett
      and some of his “Tennessee boys” joined William B. Travis at the
      Alamo, where he and his men were killed. Contemporary reports from
      both Texan and Mexican sources claim that Crockett survived the
      assault on the Alamo, only to be executed on Santa Anna’s order.

Cuellar, Jesus “Comanche”   Cuellar served as a guide for Ugartechea in
      November 1835 and fought under Cos during the siege of Bexar. He
      deserted the Mexican forces, reported to Edward Burleson the
      weaknesses in the defenses, and guided the Texans into San
      Antonio. He joined James Grant for the proposed Matamoros
      Expedition, but attached himself to James W. Fannin’s command at
      Goliad. He devised a plan for defeating Urrea’s army, but Fannin
      was unable to put it into effect. Cuellar was sent to Refugio to
      warn Ward of Mexican army operations, and from there he joined the
      Texas Army.


de Zavala, Lorenzo   A prominent Mexican Federalist and a Texas
      empresario, de Zavala moved his family to a home on Buffalo Bayou
      in December 1835. He supported the colonists in both their attempt
      to restore the Constitution of 1824 and in their later move for
      independence. He represented Harrisburg in the Consultation and in
      the Convention of 1836. He was elected interim vice president on
      March 17, 1836. His home was used as a hospital for the wounded
      after the battle of San Jacinto.

Declaration of Independence   Issued by the Convention of 1836, the
      document called for complete independence from Mexico. Written by
      George Childress, the declaration was approved by the Convention
      on March 2 and was signed on March 3, 1836. The original document
      was deposited in the United States Secretary of State’s office;
      five other copies were sent out to cities in Texas. The five
      copies were lost, but the original document was returned to Texas
      in 1896.

Declaration of November 7, 1835   Adopted by the Consultation, the
      document set out the reasons for making war against Santa Anna.
      Among its provisions were 1) Texas pledged support of the
      Constitution of 1824, whose terms Santa Anna had violated; 2)
      Texas was no longer bound by the compact of union because of this
      violation; and 3) Texas had the right to set up an independent
      government within the federation, and it would support any other
      Mexican state willing to take up arms in defense of federal

Dickinson, Mrs. Almeron (Suzanna A.)   Mrs. Dickinson and her daughter
      were in the Alamo with her husband Almeron Dickinson when the
      Alamo fell. One of the few survivors, Mrs. Dickinson was given a
      Mexican escort when she and her child left San Antonio after the

Dimmitt, Philip   Dimmitt (also spelled “Dimitt” and “Dimmit”) joined
      George M. Collinsworth in the assault on Goliad in October 1835.
      He remained at Goliad as captain, but Stephen F. Austin replaced
      him after receiving complaints about Dimmitt’s conduct from the
      alcalde of Goliad and former Governor Agustin Viesca. He
      participated in the siege of Bexar, then returned to Goliad.
      Dimmitt helped to frame the Goliad Declaration of Independence. He
      resigned his command on January 17, 1836. Dimmitt left the Alamo
      on February 23 and returned to Dimmitt’s Landing where he
      maintained a small force of men throughout the Revolution.

Duval, Burr H.   Duval gathered a band of Texas sympathizers, called the
      Kentucky Mustangs, and set out for Texas in November 1835.
      Arriving at Quintana, the men set out for Goliad where they joined
      James W. Fannin’s command. He fought in the battle of Coleto, and
      was executed on March 27.

Duval, John Crittenden   Duval joined his brother’s volunteer force and
      was with him in the battle of Coleto. John Duval, however, was
      able to escape. His description of the Goliad massacre, his escape
      and subsequent adventures became a Texas classic.


Eleven League Grants   Under the Mexican Law of March 24, 1825, the
      government of Coahuila and Texas could sell eleven league grants
      only to Mexicans—an attempt to place some restrictions on land
      speculation by Anglo American settlers and to reward loyalty to
      the Federalist cause. However, the colonists found it easy, once a
      grant was issued, to transfer these titles to themselves. Traffic
      in eleven league grants increased markedly after 1830.

Espada Mission   Pursuant to an order by General Stephen F. Austin,
      James Bowie and James Fannin proceeded to San Francisco de la
      Espada Mission to gather information and supplies. On October 22,
      after a short engagement with the enemy, men in Bowie and Fannin’s
      detachment captured the mission. They were able to repel a Mexican
      attack on the 24th successfully.


Fannin, James Walker, Jr.   Fannin participated in the battle of
      Gonzales as captain of the Brazos Guards. With James Bowie, Fannin
      led the Texan forces in the battle of Concepcion and the capture
      of the Espada Mission. Fannin was offered the position of
      Inspector General of the Texan forces by the General Council, but
      he took, instead, an honorable discharge on November 22, 1835. He
      then spent time campaigning for a larger army. On December 7, Sam
      Houston commissioned Fannin a colonel in the regular army; on
      December 10, the General Council ordered him to enlist
      reinforcements and contract for war supplies. As agent for the
      government, Fannin began recruiting forces for the proposed
      Matamoros Expedition on January 9. He was elected colonel of the
      Provisional Regiment of Volunteers at Goliad on February 7, and he
      acted as commander-in-chief of the army from February 12 to March
      12, 1836. Learning that Urrea had occupied Matamoros, Fannin and
      his men fell back on Goliad and began fortifying the city. Ordered
      to relieve William B. Travis at the Alamo, Fannin made a
      short-lived effort to transport supplies and ammunition. When the
      transport wagons broke down, the soldiers voted to return to
      Goliad. After the fall of the Alamo, Houston ordered Fannin to
      retreat to Guadalupe Victoria. Fannin delayed, however, staying in
      Goliad until March 19. Urrea’s forces surrounded Fannin’s troops
      at Coleto Creek, and, after two days of pitched fighting, Fannin
      was forced to surrender. He and his men were executed at Goliad on
      March 27.

Federalists   A Mexican political party which supported a federal system
      of government. The federalists opposed Santa Anna’s proposal to do
      away with the Mexican Constitution of 1824. The party also
      advocated separate statehood for Texas. These men assisted the
      Texans during the 1835 campaign, abandoning the Texan cause only
      when the colonists declared independence from Mexico.

Filisola, Vicente   An Italian general, second in command to Santa Anna,
      Filisola supervised the troop crossings at the Colorado after the
      army left San Antonio. He joined Gaona in the march eastward. On
      April 23 Filisola received news of Santa Anna’s capture. Ordering
      the men under his command to congregate near Fort Bend, Filisola
      tried to surrender command. When his fellow generals refused to
      accept the resignation, Filisola led the Mexican retreat.

_Flash_   The _Flash_ was a privateer fitted out for Texas in the spring
      of 1836. The ship picked up victims of the Runaway Scrape on the
      Brazos and took them to Morgan’s Point. At Morgan’s Point, the
      _Flash_ took on the Texan provisional government and transported
      its members to Galveston, narrowly escaping capture by Almonte’s

_Flora_   An American schooner, the _Flora_ took Sam Houston to New
      Orleans for medical treatment after the battle of San Jacinto.

Fort Bend   Santa Anna transported his troops across the Brazos at this
      point. Later, as the Mexican forces retreated before the Texan
      army, Filisola gathered his available forces here and attempted to
      resign command.

Fort Defiance   James Fannin wrote the government in February to say
      that the men of Goliad, after strengthening the fort there, had
      elected to rename it “Fort Defiance.”

Fort Jessup   The federal fort across the border in Louisiana. Secret
      messages from the fort’s commander, E. P. Gaines, to Sam Houston
      offered assistance in the pursuit of the war. Troops from Fort
      Jessup did, in fact, come onto Texan soil when rumors of Indian
      uprisings in the Nacogdoches area were received.

Four Hundred League Grant   The Coahuila and Texas legislature passed an
      act on March 14, 1835, authorizing the government to sell 400
      leagues of land without regard to the size of individual grants—a
      violation of previously legislated limitations on the amount of
      land which could be purchased by one individual. The scandal
      divided Texans throughout much of the Revolution. Attempts to
      protect these extensive land purchases were the basis for repeated
      efforts to mount a Matamoros Expedition.


Gaines, Edmund Pendleton   At Stephen F. Austin’s invitation, General
      Gaines led a troop of United States soldiers into east Texas to
      quell a threatened Indian uprising. They remained in the
      Nacogdoches area until the Texan government had been organized
      after the end of the war.

Galveston   Members of the _ad interim_ government fled to Galveston in
      April 1836. It became the temporary capital of the Republic, until
      the government was sworn in at Columbia in October 1836.

Gaona, Antonio   Gaona was a general in the Mexican army. Santa Anna
      ordered him to march to Nacogdoches by way of Bastrop. These
      orders were changed on April 15. Gaona was to proceed from Bastrop
      to San Felipe to join Santa Anna’s forces. Gaona’s men became lost
      in the “desert” around Bastrop, causing them to miss their
      rendezvous with Santa Anna and participation in the battle of San

Goliad   Formerly called La Bahia, Goliad was a major point of military
      operations in both 1835 and 1836. Texans captured Goliad on
      October 9, 1835. Supplies captured in this battle allowed Stephen
      F. Austin and his men to carry on the siege of Bexar. James W.
      Fannin marched his command to Goliad and set up headquarters near
      the presidio. He remained committed to the defense of Goliad,
      seeing it as the most suitable location for a supply depot for the
      Texan forces in the field. James B. Bonham’s arrival from the
      Alamo, requesting men and supplies to relieve William B. Travis,
      caused Fannin to attempt a rescue mission. The effort failed, and
      Fannin remained at Goliad until March 19. As Urrea’s forces neared
      Goliad, they fought a number of skirmishes with troops under the
      command of Johnson, Ward, King, and Grant. The survivors of these
      conflicts—when there were any—rallied to Goliad, only to be
      captured at Coleto, marched back to Goliad and executed.

Goliad Declaration of Independence   A document drafted by Philip
      Dimmitt and Ira Ingram, the Declaration was read to the citizens
      of Goliad on December 20, 1835. 91 signatures were attached, and
      the document was sent to the General Council. It arrived just as
      the government was deep in negotiations with sympathetic
      Federalists. The Declaration did not have any immediate effect on
      the Texan’s conduct of the war or their reasons for fighting. It
      did, however, alienate popular Mexican support for the Texan

Goliad Massacre   James W. Fannin’s men captured at Coleto along with
      survivors of units commanded by Ward and Grant were returned to
      Goliad after the battle of Coleto. When Fannin surrendered, he
      understood that the men would be treated as prisoners of war, and
      Urrea did request that the prisoners be so regarded. The Mexican
      government, however, had passed the Black Decrees. Anyone taking
      up arms against the Mexican government was to be considered a
      pirate and was subject to immediate execution. Santa Anna wrote
      back ordering immediate execution, and he backed that order up
      with a similar one to Nicolas de la Portilla, the commander at
      Goliad. On Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836 unwounded Texans were
      divided into three columns and were marched down three roads to
      points about a half mile outside Goliad. Ordered to halt, the men
      were cut down by firing squads. Men from two of the columns,
      halted near wooded areas, were able to make an escape and to carry
      the news of the slaughter. Fannin, who had been wounded at Coleto,
      and about 40 men were killed at the fort.

Gonzales, Battle of   An engagement fought four miles above Gonzales,
      the battle took place on October 2, 1835. When, in the latter part
      of September, Domingo de Ugartechea demanded the city surrender
      its cannon, the colonists refused. They buried the cannon in
      George W. Davis’s peach orchard on September 29. When the men
      under Francisco Castaneda marched on the town, the colonists dug
      up the cannon, mounted it, and fired the first shot of the
      Revolution. When the Mexican army learned that the unit sent to
      capture the cannon was taken prisoner, it stopped west of the

Gonzales, Jose Maria   A federalist colonel, Gonzales escorted former
      governor Agustin Viesca in his flight to Texas. In San Antonio,
      Gonzales issued a proclamation calling on Mexicans to support the
      Texan cause and to restore the Constitution of 1824. In January,
      he led a force against the Mexican town of Mier. Urrea marched to
      intercept the army, and, although he captured 24 federalist rebels
      on January 22, Gonzales and the rest made their escape. The
      captives were used as guides and scouts for Urrea’s army as they
      marched through Texas.

Grant, James   Dr. Grant joined the siege of Bexar. He was elected the
      Goliad representative to the consultation, but remained in the
      field during that body’s deliberations. In early spring 1836,
      Grant and F. W. Johnson organized a Matamoros Expedition and
      proceeded as far as San Patricio. Grant and a party of 15
      volunteers were attacked at Agua Dulce Creek on March 2. Grant was
      killed, and most of his men who escaped were taken prisoner and
      marched to Goliad where they were executed on March 27.

Grass Fight   On the afternoon of November 26, James Bowie with about
      100 men attacked a pack train believed to be carrying supplies and
      pay for the Mexican troops in San Antonio. The engagement took
      place about a mile from San Antonio. Seeing the battle in
      progress, Cos began firing from the Alamo. Bowie’s detachment was
      joined by the main army. The Mexicans eventually retreated to San
      Antonio. The packs, when opened, were found to contain only grass
      for the Mexican cavalry horses.

Groce’s Landing   Located on the site of the Bernardo Plantation at the
      Maelina or Coushatta Crossing of the Brazos in present-day Waller
      County. Leonard H. Groce was operating the plantation at the
      outbreak of the Revolution. The Texas Army camped there on the
      west bank of the river, one-half mile from the ferry, from March
      31 to April 14, 1836.


Hall, Warren D. C.   Hall was a member of the Committee of Safety at
      Columbia. David G. Burnet appointed him adjutant general, and he
      served as secretary of war while Thomas J. Rusk was in the field
      with the Texas army.

_Hannah Elizabeth_   On November 19, 1835, the American schooner _Hannah
      Elizabeth_ was attacked by the Mexican armed vessel _Bravo_. On
      November 21, the Texan privateer _William Robbins_, which had
      received letters of marque and reprisal from the Texas government,
      landed 20 volunteers, the captain and 3 crew members. They took
      the _Hannah Elizabeth_ from the Mexican captors. Considering the
      ship as salvage, the Texans eventually sold its cargo at auction,
      an action which led to considerable criticism from other Texans as
      well as protests from the United States.

Harrisburg   The General Council designated Harrisburg as the seat of
      government for the newly-created Municipality of Harrisburg. On
      April 16 Santa Anna burned the entire town, leaving only John W.
      Moore’s residence standing.

Horton, Albert Clinton   Horton came to Texas with the Mobile Grays in
      late December 1835. In the spring, Horton raised a cavalry unit to
      go to James W. Fannin’s relief. They arrived at Goliad on March
      16, and on March 17, the unit fought a brief skirmish with Urrea’s
      troops. His men were sent out to investigate the crossing at
      Coleto Creek on March 19, but when they returned, they found
      Fannin already surrounded by Urrea’s forces. Horton fell back,
      seeing the hopelessness of rendering any practical aid to Fannin.

Horton, Alexander   Horton served in the Consultation as the
      representative of Ayish Bayou. After Sam Houston was named
      commander-in-chief of the Texas Army in 1836, Horton became his
      aide-de-camp. He fought in the battle of San Jacinto.

Houston, Sam   A delegate to the Consultation, Houston was elected major
      general of the regular Texas Army by the General Council on
      November 12. He left to join the Texas forces at Goliad and
      Refugio on January 8. When he arrived, however, the volunteers
      refused to serve under him because of Houston’s opposition to the
      Matamoros Expedition. Houston went to east Texas and spent
      February negotiating peace treaties with the Indians. He
      represented Refugio in the Convention of 1836, and he was
      appointed commander-in-chief of all army units—regular, volunteer,
      and militia—by that body. He took command at Gonzales on March 11.
      Two days later he ordered a retreat eastward after receiving news
      of the fall of the Alamo. Finally halting at Groce’s Landing,
      Houston spent the next month training the raw recruits who made up
      the remaining Texas Army. On April 14 he then began the march
      which culminated in the battle of San Jacinto on April 21. Houston
      was severely wounded in the ankle in that engagement, and on May 5
      he went to New Orleans for medical treatment.


_Independence_   This Texas Navy schooner was formerly the United States
      Revenue Cutter _Ingham_. The _Independence_ was flagship of the
      Texas Navy, and on January 10, 1836, took her first cruise to
      Mexico under the command of Captain Charles E. Hawkins. On March
      20, she undertook a second cruise to Mexico, during which she
      destroyed a number of small Mexican vessels. In early April, she
      exchanged fire with the Mexican brigs of war _Urrea_ and _Bravo_,
      but the Mexican ships withdrew before the _Independence_’s fire.
      She returned to Galveston on April 28. On May 5, Santa Anna,
      President Burnet and the Cabinet sailed on the _Independence_ for
      Velasco, arriving there on May 8.

_Invincible_   McKinney and Williams purchased the _Invincible_ and sold
      her to the Texas government on January 5, a move strongly opposed
      by Governor Smith. Jeremiah Brown was commissioned as her captain
      on March 12. The _Invincible_ engaged the _Bravo_ and wrecked her
      on April 3. During this fight, the American ship _Pocket_ sailed
      up and was captured by the _Invincible_. For this action, the
      United Stated declared the _Invincible_ a pirate ship. The U. S.
      sloop _Warren_ captured her and took the ship and crew to New
      Orleans on May 1. They were tried on May 4, but were not


Jack, William H.   He was a member of the Committee of Safety from
      Brazoria. During the revolution, Jack participated in the Grass
      Fight and the battle of San Jacinto. From April 2 to October 22,
      1836, he was Secretary of State under President Burnet.

Jameson, Green B.   Jameson served under Bowie as aide and chief
      engineer. At the Alamo he was responsible for strengthening the
      defenses and remounting the cannon. He was killed in the fall of
      the Alamo, March 6.

Johnson, Francis White   At the beginning of the Revolution Johnson was
      appointed adjutant and Inspector General under Stephen F. Austin
      and Edward Burleson. He led one of the divisions into San Antonio
      during the siege of Bexar and was in command at the taking of the
      Alamo in December. In January, he ordered an expedition to
      Matamoros, in spite of opposition from Governor Smith and General
      Houston. On February 27, Johnson with a detachment of fifty men
      was surprised by Urrea at San Patricio. All but Johnson and four
      men were killed.


Karnes, Henry Wax   Karnes fought in the battle of Concepcion and in the
      siege of Bexar. He organized a company of cavalry at Gonzales on
      March 20, 1836. Before the battle of San Jacinto, Karnes was sent
      on a spy mission with Erastus (Deaf) Smith to report on Mexican
      troop movements around Harrisburg. He and Juan N. Seguin followed
      the Mexican army’s retreat to protect Texan property.

Kimbro, William   Kimbro raised a company of volunteers for the army in
      September 1835. This company fought under his command in the
      battle of San Jacinto.

King, Amon Butler   Kings came to Texas in 1835 with the Paducah
      Volunteers, formed from Peyton S. Wyatt’s Huntsville Company.
      After reporting to Sam Houston, he was sent to Refugio in January.
      In March, King and his company were ordered to Goliad. They
      returned to Refugio on March 10 to bring stranded families and
      supplies back to Goliad. The group was attacked by _rancheros_,
      but King succeeded in getting the families to Refugio mission on
      March 12. Surrounded by the _rancheros_, King sent to James W.
      Fannin for relief. William Ward’s company was able to break up the
      siege on March 13. King, however, refused to return to Goliad with
      Ward, insisting instead on attacking the _rancheros_. Ward
      remained at Refugio to await King. On March 14, King’s return to
      Refugio was blocked by Urrea’s company. After a day-long battle,
      King’s men attempted to make their way back to Goliad, but soaked
      their guns and powder in the river as they undertook a crossing.
      They were captured on March 15 by Captain Carlos de la Garza and
      returned to the mission, along with stragglers from Ward’s
      company. They were taken out to be shot, but German officers in
      the Mexican army heard some of the prisoners speaking German. The
      group of 33 were returned to Refugio, where the Germans and some
      others of the prisoners were released. King and the remaining
      prisoners were marched out on March 16 and shot. Their bodies were
      left unburied on the plain.


La Bahia   The settlement which grew up around the presidio of La Bahia
      also took the name “La Bahia.” On February 4, 1829, the Congress
      of Coahuila y Texas declared it a town and changed the name to
      Goliad. In correspondence and reports during the Texas revolution,
      the terms “La Bahia” and “Goliad” are used more or less

Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte   Lamar joined the Texas army as it retreated
      eastward after the fall of the Alamo. At San Jacinto, on April 20,
      Lamar’s quick action saved the lives of Thomas J. Rusk and Walter
      P. Lane when they were surrounded by the enemy. He was
      commissioned a colonel on the following day and assigned the
      command of the cavalry in the battle of San Jacinto.

_Liberty_   Formerly the _William Robbins_, the _Liberty_ was purchased
      from McKinney and Williams. Its name was changed in January, 1836,
      when it began a cruise to seek out Mexican vessels of war. On
      March 3, it captured the _Pelicano_ at Sisal, Yucatan.

Lipantitlan   Mexican fort on the Nueces captured by the Texans under
      the command of Ira Westover on November 4, 1835.

Lockhart, Byrd   Lockhart commanded a company at the siege of Bexar. In
      March he was sent from the Alamo to get supplies and
      reinforcements. As a result, he survived the fall of the Alamo and
      later joined a spy company in the Texas Army.


Martin, Wylie   Martin was the political chief of Gonzales in 1835.
      Although he thought the Declaration of Independence premature, he
      raised a company and joined Houston at Columbus. He was sent to
      guard river crossings on the Brazos, but his force was unable to
      prevent the Mexican army’s crossing at Richmond. Martin returned
      to headquarters, surrendered his command, and went to aid families
      caught up in the Runaway Scrape.

Matagorda   Captured by Urrea on April 13, the town had been deserted,
      although some of its inhabitants could be seen on Culebra Island,
      south of Matagorda. Urrea took the supplies housed there and
      ordered the pier fortified.

Matamoros Expedition   First proposed by the Consultation on November
      13, 1835, the Matamoros Expedition was a disrupting factor
      throughout the Revolution. James Bowie was ordered to lead an
      expedition on December 17; later, the General Council ordered
      Houston to undertake the mission. Houston declined the command;
      Bowie never received his orders. In January 1836, the General
      Council ordered both James W. Fannin and F. W. Johnson to command
      a Matamoros Expedition. Johnson, with James Grant, took troops to
      Goliad and Refugio. However, at Refugio, Sam Houston’s protests
      against the legality of the Expedition caused considerable
      desertion. The remaining men were attacked by Urrea’s army at San
      Patricio and at Agua Dulce. Fannin, meanwhile, marched to Goliad
      where he remained until March 19. He and his men were attacked at
      Coleto and defeated on March 20.

McKinney, Williams and Company   Thomas F. McKinney and Samuel May
      Williams provided much-needed supplies and money during the
      revolution. The Texas government purchased the _William Robbins_
      (which was renamed the _Liberty_) and the _Invincible_ from the
      firm. From the United States, Williams supplied arms and
      ammunition. The company provided some $99,000 worth of goods and
      services to Texas during the war. The government also authorized
      McKinney, Williams and Company to raise up to $100,000 on Texas
      lands for the war effort. Although Williams preferred fighting to
      support the Mexican Constitution of 1824, he came to accept the
      war for Texas independence. McKinney, on the other hand, continued
      to work for Texas but remained opposed to Texas independence for
      years after the war had ended.

Mexia, Jose Antonio   In November 1835, Mexia sailed from New Orleans
      for Tampico with a group of 150 men. Their attempt to capture the
      city failed, and, after remaining in the fort at Tampico for
      twelve days, he and most of his men retreated. They returned to
      Texas in December. He attempted to raise a Matamoros Expedition,
      but opposition by Governor Henry Smith and lack of funds prevented
      the project from materializing. Mexia declined orders to proceed
      with his troops to San Antonio, declaring that his services would
      be better used in recruiting. He returned to New Orleans where he
      spent the remainder of the war.

Milam, Benjamin Rush   Milam assisted in the capture of Goliad and was
      in charge of the officer prisoners sent to General Austin at
      Gonzales. Austin put Milam in charge of a scouting party to
      determine conditions at and best means of attack on San Antonio.
      When the main army arrived at San Antonio, Milam, James Bowie, and
      William B. Travis were sent on a scouting mission to the Rio
      Grande. Returning to San Antonio, Milam found the army about to
      fall back without making an attack on the city. He convinced some
      300 volunteers to “follow old Ben Milam.” They began their attack
      on December 5. Milam’s command occupied the Veramendi house. One
      December 7, while crossing the courtyard, Milam was shot by a

Miller, Thomas R.   One of eighteen men who delayed the Mexican troops
      sent to seize the cannon at Gonzales, Miller also represented
      Gonzales at the Consultation. He was a member of the Gonzales
      Volunteers who arrived at the Alamo on March 1. He was killed in
      the massacre on March 6.

Miller, Washington Parsons   Miller enlisted in the Texas Army in
      September 1835 and was appointed a major in the Regular Army on
      December 20. Miller and a body of volunteers from the United
      States were captured on March 2, 1836, when they landed at Copano
      Bay. They were marched to Goliad, but they were not among those
      massacred on March 27, since none of them had yet taken up arms
      against Mexico. He and his men were imprisoned at Matamoros.

Morton’s Ferry   Near the present site of Fort Bend or Richmond, the
      ferry was an important crossing on the Colorado River.


Navarro, Jose Antonio   A delegate from Bexar to the Convention of 1836,
      Navarro was one of three native-born signers of the Texas
      Declaration of Independence. He also served on the select
      committee to draft the Constitution of 1836.

Neill, James Clinton   Neill joined the Texas army in September 1835. He
      was appointed a lieutenant colonel by the General Council on
      December 7. He commmanded an artillery company at the siege of
      Bexar. On December 21, Sam Houston ordered Neill to take charge of
      San Antonio and the Bexar district. He remained there until
      granted a furlough on February 14, when he left the Alamo because
      of illness in his family. Neill participated in the skirmish at
      San Jacinto on April 20 and was wounded in that engagement.


Old Mill   The Old Mill was situated on the San Antonio River, about
      one-half mile north of San Antonio’s main plaza. It was
      headquarters for Stephen F. Austin’s army after the battle of

Organic Law   The Plan and Powers of the Provisional Government, a
      document hastily drawn up by the Consultation. Although the
      Organic Law set up a provisional government, there was no coherent
      separation of executive and legislative powers. The powers of the
      commander-in-chief extended over only the (as yet nonexistent)
      regular army. Volunteer soldiers already in the field refused to
      serve under the Organic Law’s provisions.


Padilla, Juan Antonio   Padilla joined the Texas Army on October 22,
      1835. He later served on the General Council.

_Pelicano_   Mexican vessel captured by the Texas navy ship _Liberty_
      outside Sisal, Yucatan, on March 3, 1836.

Permanent Council   The Permanent Council served as the governing body
      of Texas from October 11, 1835, to early November, when the
      Consultation achieved a quorum. It was made up of the Committee of
      Safety of San Felipe and representatives from the other Texas

_Pocket_   An American brig bound from New Orleans to Matamoros, the
      _Pocket_ was captured by the _Invincible_. Taken to Galveston, the
      ship’s cargo was appropriated by the Texas authorities. A Texas
      court later condemned the _Pocket_ as a lawful prize on the
      grounds that it was sailing under false papers and was carrying
      supplies and messages for Santa Anna. To calm U. S. indignation
      over the brig’s capture, William Bryan, and Toby and Brothers
      Company paid $35,000 for the ship and $8,000 in damages.

Portilla, Jose Nicolas de la   Lieutenant colonel under Urrea, Portilla
      was put in charge of James W. Fannin and his men after the defeat
      at Coleto. On March 26, Portilla received orders from Santa Anna
      to execute all prisoners; he received orders from Urrea to treat
      the men as prisoners of war and to set them to rebuilding Goliad.
      Deciding that Santa Anna’s orders took precedence, Portilla, on
      March 27, took the prisoners out of Goliad in three columns and
      had them shot.

Potter, Robert   Potter joined the Nacogdoches volunteers commanded by
      Thomas J. Rusk. Until November 21, 1835, he worked with Dr. Grant
      to arm and equip the siege of Bexar. On November 30, he was
      commissioned in the Texas Navy. Potter represented Nacogdoches in
      the Convention of 1836, and he was appointed interim secretary of
      the Navy. Burnet appointed him commander of the port of Galveston
      on April 20, 1836.

Provisional Government   Set up by the Consultation, the Provisional
      Government served from November 15, 1835, to March 1, 1836. The
      body consisted of the governor, lieutenant governor, and General
      Council. From the beginning, the governor and the Council were at
      odds over their respective powers. By January 10, the governor had
      dismissed the Council, and the Council had impeached the governor,
      replacing him with the lieutenant governor. From January 17 on,
      the Council was unable to convene a quorum, and Texas remained
      without a functioning government until the Convention of 1836 met
      on March 1.


Ramirez y Sesma, Joaquin   Sesma commanded the brigade sent in advance
      of the main army under Santa Anna’s command. He joined forces with
      General Cos at Laredo, then merged with Santa Anna’s forces at the
      Rio Grande as it marched to Bexar. After the fall of the Alamo,
      Sesma was ordered to San Felipe, then to proceed to Anahuac by way
      of Harrisburg. On April 13, Sesma’s army crossed the Brazos at
      Thompson’s Ferry. He was camped on the east bank of the Brazos,
      near the Old Fort settlement on April 21.

Refugio, Battle of   William Ward was sent to relieve Amon B. King and
      his men, surrounded by Urrea’s troops. Ward arrived at Refugio on
      March 13, but he and King immediately began arguing over the
      command. King and a body of men left the Mission, spent two days
      wandering in the vicinity before being captured and executed by
      the Mexican army. At Refugio mission, meanwhile, Ward was attacked
      on March 14. He and his men escaped from the mission that night,
      but they were captured at Victoria, marched to Goliad, and
      executed on March 27.

Robbins’ Ferry   In operation since 1821, the ferry was located at
      Thomas Ford crossing of the Old San Antonio and La Bahia Roads
      over the Trinity River. It was named for Nathaniel Robbins.

Regular Army   Units, other than militia, authorized by any of the
      provisional governments, particularly those commanded by
      commissioned officers were considered part of the regular army.
      Volunteer units, on the other hand, elected their officers from
      their own ranks. Throughout much of the war, volunteer forces
      would refuse to serve under commissioned officers.

Robinson, James W.   Robinson was a delegate from Nacogdoches to the
      Consultation in 1835. That body appointed him lieutenant governor
      of the General Council. As such, he took Governor Henry Smith’s
      place when the Council impeached Smith in January 1836. After the
      General Council resigned their office, Robinson left for the army,
      serving from March 12. He fought at San Jacinto as a private in
      William H. Smith’s cavalry company.

Ruiz, Jose Francisco   A native Texan, he was one of four
      representatives from Bexar to the Convention of 1836 where he
      signed the Declaration of Independence. As alcalde of San Antonio,
      he identified the bodies of William B. Travis, James Bowie, and
      David Crockett after the fall of the Alamo. He stopped the Mexican
      soldiers who were throwing the bodies into the San Antonio River,
      and gathered wood and ordered the bodies to be burned.

Runaway Scrape   Texans fled from their homes before the advancing
      Mexican army. The pace of the refugee traffic increased as news of
      the fall of the Alamo, Houston’s retreat, and the massacre at
      Goliad circulated. Washington-on-the-Brazos, Richmond, and
      settlements on both sides of the Brazos were abandoned.
      Settlements between the Colorado and the Brazos followed, and then
      Nacogdoches and San Augustine. The panic was increased by reports
      of Mexican-inspired Indian uprisings. The panic ended only after
      the news of the battle of San Jacinto became widespread.

Rusk, Thomas Jefferson   Rusk organized a company of volunteers in the
      fall of 1835 at Nacogdoches and joined the army at San Antonio. He
      left before the siege of Bexar, appointed a contractor for the
      army. He was Inspector General of the army from December 14, 1835,
      until February 26, 1836. A delegate to the Convention of 1836, he
      was elected Secretary of War on March 17. He left to join the army
      on April 1 and remained with the regular forces under Houston’s
      command, participating in the Battle of San Jacinto.


San Antonio   Captured by the Texan army after active fighting from
      December 5 to 10, the town was retaken by Santa Anna on February
      23. It remained in Mexican hands until after the battle of San

San Felipe   The Consultation met in San Felipe, November 1835, making
      San Felipe one of the first capitals of the Republic (until the
      Convention of 1836 met at Washington-on-the-Brazos). It was burned
      on March 29, 1836, when retreating Texan soldiers were unable to
      prevent the Mexican army’s crossing the Brazos.

Jacinto, Battle of   On April 17 Sam Houston led his army south to
      Harrisburg, finally abandoning his retreat eastward. On April 19,
      learning that Santa Anna and his army had crossed Vince’s Bridge
      to the west bank of the San Jacinto River, Houston and his men
      crossed Buffalo Bayou. On April 20, the Texans encamped. That
      afternoon, Sidney Sherman with a small detachment of cavalry
      fought a brief skirmish with the Mexican infantry in an attempt to
      capture the Mexican cannon. Santa Anna was joined in his camp,
      three-quarters of a mile from the Texan army, by a 540-man unit
      commanded by Martin Perfecto de Cos on the evening of April 20. On
      Thursday morning, Houston ordered Erastus (Deaf) Smith to destroy
      Vince’s Bridge secretly so that no further reinforcement could
      cross nor could either army retreat. The Texans formed their
      battle line about 3:30 in the afternoon. Surging over the
      battlefield shouting “Remember the Alamo!” and “Remember Goliad!”,
      the Texans caught the Mexican army unawares. The battle ended with
      a decisive victory eighteen minutes after it began. Sam Houston
      was seriously wounded in the battle. General Santa Anna was
      captured the next day.

San Patricio, Battle of   Francis W. Johnson and James Grant used San
      Patricio as their headquarters during the Goliad Campaign of 1836.
      There Johnson and his men were attacked by Urrea’s army on
      February 27, 1836. Only Johnson and three or four men survived.

Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez de   President Santa Anna was appointed
      Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Army of Operations in November
      1835 by President pro-tem Miguel Barragan. In December he joined
      Vicente Filisola at San Luis Potosi and began to organize the army
      for the Texas Campaign. On January 2, 1836, he began his march for
      Texas, crossing the Rio Grande on February 16. On February 23, his
      army joined the force commanded by Ramirez y Sesma, and by the
      afternoon, Santa Anna occupied San Antonio and had begun besieging
      the Texan army in the Alamo. At dawn on March 6, he began the
      assault of the fortress, which was subdued by 8 a.m. On March 31,
      he left San Antonio for San Felipe de Austin. A surprise attack on
      April 7 failed to reduce the town. On April 9 he left San Felipe
      and began a forced march for the river crossing at Marion, hoping
      to surprise the Texan army. His army did cross the river at
      Marion, but failed to capture any Texans. From there, his army was
      transported to Thompson’s Crossing on a captured flat boat. Santa
      Anna reached Harrisburg on the night of April 15, only to find it
      deserted. On the following day, after burning Harrisburg, his army
      marched on to Lynchburg. Waiting for reinforcements commanded by
      Cos, aware of the nearness of the Texan army, Santa Anna decided
      to make camp on the west bank of the San Jacinto River. There, on
      April 20, the army fought a skirmish with Sidney Sherman’s cavalry
      detachment, but full battle was not engaged until the following
      day. Captured by Texan soldiers on April 22, Santa Anna ordered
      General Filisola to begin a retreat across the Rio Grande. On May
      14, he signed the treaties of Velasco and prepared to be returned
      to Mexico. But on June 1, Texans under the leadership of Thomas J.
      Green interfered, threatening to capture or to kill the Mexican
      leader. Finally, at the end of November, President Houston sent
      him under guard to Washington, D.C., to meet with President Andrew

Seguin, Juan Nepumoceno   Seguin and his recruits joined Austin near San
      Antonio in October 1835. He participated in the capture of
      Concepcion Mission, the siege of Bexar, and was on duty in the
      Alamo in 1836. He escaped death only because he had been sent out
      of the Alamo as a messenger. Seguin was in charge of the rear
      guard of the army in its retreat east from Gonzales, and he helped
      Moseley Baker in his attempt to prevent Santa Anna’s crossing the
      river at San Felipe. Seguin rejoined Houston’s army and fought in
      the battle of San Jacinto. He was ordered, along with Henry
      Karnes, to follow the Mexican Army during its retreat in order to
      protect the property of Texans.

Sherman, Sidney   In 1835, Sherman raised money to equip a company of
      Kentucky volunteers. The force arrived in Texas in time to vote in
      the election for delegates to the Convention of 1836, then
      proceeded to San Felipe. Sherman was lieutenant colonel in the
      regiment raised by Houston at Gonzales in March. On April 20, he
      led a sortie to try to capture the Mexican cannon at San Jacinto.
      On the following day, he commanded the left wing of the Texan
      attack. After the battle of San Jacinto, Sherman served as
      president of the board of officers which distributed the Mexican
      spoils among the Texas soldiers.

Smith, Benjamin Fort   Smith commanded a company at the battle of
      Gonzales, relieved J. M. Collinsworth at Goliad, and later joined
      Austin in the siege of Bexar. He was a delegate to the
      Consultation, but he did not attend. However, he put eleven
      leagues of land at the government’s disposal on November 8, 1835.
      Smith left for Mississippi to recruit volunteers in late November.
      Returning to Texas in March, he reentered the army as a private.
      He was quartermaster and acting adjutant to General Houston during
      the retreat from Gonzales. At the battle San Jacinto, he served in
      Henry Karnes’s cavalry company.

Smith, Erastus (Deaf)   Neutral at the beginning of the war, Deaf Smith
      joined the Texans when Mexican officials refused him permission to
      visit his family in San Antonio. He joined Austin’s volunteer army
      and became prominent as a scout. He participated in or gave
      information valuable to Texan forces at the battle of Concepcion
      and the Grass Fight. He led F. W. Johnson’s troops into San
      Antonio on December 5, 1835. After Cos’ surrender, Smith moved his
      family to Columbia then joined Houston at Gonzales. He was sent to
      reconnoiter the Alamo and returned with Mrs. Almeron Dickinson.
      Deaf Smith commanded a company in the reorganized army and was
      ordered to destroy Vince’s Bridge secretly before he took part in
      the battle of San Jacinto.

Smith, Henry   From the beginning of the Revolution, Smith was a
      supporter of independence from Mexico. He was a delegate to the
      Consultation, participated in drafting the organic law, and was
      chosen provisional governor. His opposition to the peace party
      members of the General Council, as well as his suspicion of all
      offers of help from Mexican supporters brought Governor Smith into
      conflict with the rest of the government. On January 10 he
      dismissed the General Council, claiming it had no further
      function. The Council impeached Smith, replacing him with
      Lieutenant Governor James W. Robinson.

Stewart, Charles Bellinger   Stewart was elected secretary of the
      Permanent Council on October 1, 1835. He later served as secretary
      to the executive and enrollment clerk by the General Council on
      November 18. He represented Austin at the Convention of 1836.


Tampico Expedition   Commanded by Jose Antonio Mexia, 150 volunteers
      sailed from New Orleans November 6, 1835. Hoping to take the fort
      and the town of Tampico by surprise, they arrived at Tampico on
      November 14. Secrecy was impossible, however. The garrison’s
      commandant had aroused official suspicions, and he was arrested on
      November 13. And, when the ship attempted to approach the landing
      at night, it ran aground on the bar, and the men were forced to
      wade ashore. On November 15, they took up the march to Tampico,
      arriving there about midnight. Troops commanded by Gregorio Gomez
      attacked and wounded several of the expedition members. Mexia
      retreated to the bar and took refuge in the garrison, remaining
      there for twelve days. On November 26, what remained of the force
      embarked on the _Halcyon_. They arrived at the mouth of the Brazos
      on December 3. Three of the 31 prisoners left behind in Tampico
      died of their wounds; the rest were tried by court martial and
      shot on December 14, in spite of vigorous efforts by Texas and the
      United States to ransom the men.

Thompson’s Ferry   River crossing on the Brazos, three miles above
      Richmond. Houston’s army crossed at this point on April 14, 1836.

Tolsa, Eugenio   Tolsa commanded the second brigade of Santa Anna’s
      forces. He was ordered to reinforce General Sesma at the Colorado,
      and, on March 31, to operate against the
      Bolivar-Harrisburg-Lynchburg area as far as the San Jacinto River.

Tornel, Jose Maria   Mexican Minister of War and Marine.

Travis, William Barret   Travis organized a company of volunteers in
      June 1835 which expelled the Mexican garrison at Anahuac. He
      commanded a scouting company as part of the Volunteer Army before
      San Antonio. He was appointed a major of artillery in December,
      but later took a commission as lieutenant colonel of cavalry. Sent
      out to recruit volunteers, he was ordered to proceed to San
      Antonio with such troops as he could muster. He arrived there on
      February 2, 1836. Command fell to him when James Neill left, but
      by mid-February he was sharing command with James Bowie. After
      February 24, because of Bowie’s illness, Travis held sole command.
      Refusing to surrender the garrison to Santa Anna, Travis died in
      the assault on March 6.


Ugartechea, Domingo de   Military commandant of Coahuila and Texas, he
      was put in charge of the forces at San Antonio in 1835. He ordered
      Lt. Francisco Castaneda to attempt to reclaim the cannon at
      Gonzales, thus setting off the organized resistance of the Texan
      colonists. He arrived in San Antonio with reinforcements for
      General Cos on December 9, just in time to take part in the
      surrender of the city. He retreated with Cos’s army to Laredo.

Urrea, Jose   On January 2, 1836, Santa Anna ordered Urrea to march to
      Matamoros to prevent the expected invasion by Texans. On February
      18, Urrea left Matamoros and forced marched to San Patricio. There
      he surprised F. W. Johnson and his men at San Patricio on February
      27, killing all but a handful. He attacked and defeated James
      Grant at Agua Dulce on March 2, then began the advance to Goliad
      on March 12. He attacked the mission at Refugio on March 14,
      occupying it on the following day. He laid siege to Goliad from
      March 16 to 20, finally defeating James Fannin at Coleto Creek on
      March 20. Urrea continued his march, capturing Texans at Victoria
      and on the Guadalupe River on March 21. On March 22 he captured
      the 100-man unit led by William Ward. Units under his command
      captured W. P. Miller and his men when they landed at Copano Bay.
      Urrea captured Matagordo on April 13, Columbia on the 21, and
      Brazoria on the 22. He was preparing to invade Velasco when
      ordered to retreat. Urrea strongly opposed executing the Goliad
      prisoners. The March 27 Massacre was carried out by Nicolas de la
      Portilla in obedience to Santa Anna’s orders.


Velasco, Treaties of   Two treaties, one public, the other secret, were
      signed by Santa Anna and interim president David G. Burnet on May
      14, 1836. In the public treaty, Santa Anna agreed to cease all
      hostilities against Texas, then and in the future. Mexican troops
      would be withdrawn south of the Rio Grande, confiscated property
      would be restored to the Texan owners, and prisoners would be
      exchanged. Texas agreed to return Santa Anna to Mexico as soon as
      possible, and Texas army units would approach no nearer than five
      leagues to the retreating Mexican army. In the secret treaty,
      Santa Anna agreed to secure Mexican recognition of Texas
      independence and a permanent end to the war. The Mexican cabinet
      would receive a Texas mission to conclude a treaty of commerce and
      limits, Texas boundaries to extend no further south than the Rio
      Grande. Although the Mexican retreat was begun almost immediately,
      the Texas Army refused to allow Santa Anna’s return to Mexico. On
      May 20, the Mexican government declared all Santa Anna’s acts as a
      captive to be null and void.

Victoria   Urrea’s army, marching east after the battle of Coleto Creek,
      captured Victoria on March 21, a few hours after it had been
      burned by the Texans.

Viesca, Agustin   Former governor of Coahuila and Texas, Viesca arrived
      at Goliad on November 11, 1835. His ill treatment by Phillip
      Dimmitt led Viesca to protest to Texan leaders, particularly to
      Stephen F. Austin. The affair at Goliad threatened to upset all
      Mexican support for the revolution.

Vince’s Bridge   Crossing Vince’s Bayou, the bridge was the only viable
      crossing at that point on the San Jacinto River. Erastus (Deaf)
      Smith secretly destroyed the bridge on the morning of April 21, at
      Houston’s orders, and all retreat for either Texan or Mexican army
      was cut off.


Ward, Thomas William   Ward joined the New Orleans Greys in 1835 and was
      at the siege of Bexar. On the day Milam was killed, Ward’s right
      leg was shot off by cannon fire. He returned to New Orleans and
      recruited a company of volunteers.

Ward, William   Ward helped recruit and defray the travel expenses of
      the Georgia Battalion of volunteers. On December 20, 1835, he
      reported to Henry Smith and was elected major of the battalion
      when it was mustered into Texas service. Ward was elected
      lieutenant colonel after James W. Fannin reorganized the battalion
      at Goliad. He was sent to relieve Amon B. King at Refugio on March
      13. Encountering the Mexican army commanded by Urrea, Ward joined
      King in the mission. After battling Urrea on March 14, Ward and
      his men escaped on March 15. They were overtaken on March 22, as
      they retreated toward Dimmitt’s Landing. Returned to Goliad, Ward
      and his men were executed on March 27.

Washington-on-the-Brazos   The General Council of the Provisional
      Government and the Convention of 1836 met at
      Washington-on-the-Brazos. By March 20, the town was evacuated as
      the interim government retreated to Harrisburg.

Westover, Ira   Westover led a group of men to join the force assaulting
      Goliad in October 1835. He remained at Goliad and was its first
      adjutant. He commanded the successful expedition against
      Lipantitlan in November. Although praised by Austin and the
      General Council for this action, Westover was relieved of duty by
      Philip Dimmitt. He became a member of the General Council’s
      committee on naval affairs. On December 6, Westover was made
      captain of artillery, resigning on December 17. Recommissioned by
      the Convention of 1836, he recruited a company from Refugio and
      San Patricio. It was the only regular army unit under James W.
      Fannin’s command. Westover and his men were killed in the Goliad
      Massacre, March 27.

Wharton, William Harris   Active in the independence movement, Wharton
      was one of the leaders of the war party in Texas. He became judge
      advocate of the army and served at the siege of Bexar. He was
      appointed a Commissioner to the United States in November 1835,
      and served in that capacity throughout the war.

_William Robbins_   Purchased from McKinney, Williams and Company for
      $3,500 by the Texas government, this schooner was renamed the
      _Liberty_ in January 1836. Before its purchase, it had been used
      by William Hurd as a privateer against the Mexicans.

Williamson, Robert McAlpin (Three-Legged Willie)   Crippled by illness
      in his childhood, Williamson nevertheless took active part in the
      war. He was a delegate from Mina to the Consultation and was
      commissioned a major by the provisional government on November 19,
      1835. He was ordered to raise a corps of rangers. At the battle of
      San Jacinto, he served in William H. Smith’s cavalry company.

Woll, Adrian   Woll was Quartermaster General in Santa Anna’s army.
      General Filisola sent him to the San Jacinto battlefield to find
      out the results of the engagement on April 21. Woll was captured
      and held prisoner throughout the peace negotiations.

Wyatt, Peyton S.   Wyatt brought the Huntsville Volunteers from Alabama
      in 1835. The unit was mustered into the Texas army on December 25
      and sent to relieve Phillip Dimmitt’s company at Goliad. Because
      Wyatt had been sent to Alabama on a recruiting mission, he escaped
      death in the Goliad Massacre.


_Yellow Stone_   The steamboat _Yellow Stone_, purchased by McKinney and
      Williams and registered to Toby and Brother Company in New
      Orleans, transported the Mobile Greys to Texas on December 31,
      1835. In February, Captain J. E. Ross took the _Yellow Stone_ up
      the Brazos to San Felipe. It anchored later at Groce’s Landing,
      and General Houston commandeered the boat to transport his men
      across the river. The steamboat continued down the Brazos,
      narrowly escaping capture by the Mexican army at Fort Bend. It
      transported a load of supplies and muskets to Galveston on April
      25, then picked up the government to take it to the San Jacinto
      battlefield on May 4.


  Barker, Eugene C.
  _Mexico and Texas, 1821-1835_
  New York: Russell and Russell, 1965

  Bercerra, Francisco
  _A Mexican Sergeant’s Recollections of the Alamo and San Jacinto_
  Austin: Jenkins Company, 1980

  Binkley, William Campbell
  _The Texas Revolution_
  Austin: Texas Historical Association, 1979

  Castaneda, Carlos E.
  _The Mexican Side of the Revolution_
  Salem NH: Ayer Company Publications, 1976

  Ehrenberg, Hermann
  _With Milam and Fannin_
  Austin: Pemberton Press, 1968

  Henson, Margaret S.
  _Juan Davis Bradburn, a Reappraisal of the Mexican Commander of
  College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1982

  Huson, Hobart
  _Captain Phillip Dimmitt’s Commandancy of Goliad_
  Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones, 1974

  Kilgore, Dan
  _How Did Davy Die?_
  College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1978

  Newell, Chester
  _History of the Revolution in Texas_
  Salem NH: Ayer Company Publications, 1973

  Pena, Jose Enrique de la
  _With Santa Anna in Texas_
  Translated by Carmen Perry
  College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1975

  Pruett, Jakie L. and Everett B. Cole
  _The Goliad Massacre: A Tragedy of the Texas Revolution_
  Burnet: Eakin Press, 1985

  Santos, Richard G.
  _Santa Anna’s Campaign Against Texas, 1835-1836_
  Salisbury NC: Documentary Publications, 1982

  Smithwick, Noah
  _The Evolution of a State or Recollections of Old Texas Days_
  Austin: University of Texas Press (Barker Texas History Center Series
              #5), 1983

    [Illustration: Texas State Library]

                          Transcriber’s Notes

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Silently corrected a few typos.

—In the text versions only, underlined text is delimited by

—In the HTML version only, underlined text is shown in italics.

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