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Title: A Key into the Language of America, or an Help to the Language - of the Natives in that part of America Called New-Engliand
Author: Williams, Roger
Language: English
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  This book was originally published in 1643. The reprinted edition
  of 1827 retained the errors and misspellings of the original book,
  and this etext has made only a few minor changes to the English
  text, which are noted at the end of the book. No changes have been
  made to accents or (mis)spelling of the native American words.

  Punctuation in the two-column dictionary tables has been made more
  consistent; missing commas or periods have been silently added to the
  end of table entries. Inconsistent use of question marks has been
  left unchanged.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Footnote anchors are denoted by [number], and the two footnotes have
  been placed at the end of the ‘Sketch of the Life of Roger Williams’.

  The Table of Contents can be found at the back of the book, the same
  placement as in the original book.


                               OF THE


                         HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

                               VOL. I.

                  [Illustration: (Decorative separator)]

                        PRINTED BY JOHN MILLER.


In presenting to the public the first volume of the Collections of
the Rhode-Island Historical Society, some account of the rise and
progress of the Society may not be deemed inappropriate. It may
vindicate the society from the charge of remissness in performing
the duties it has assumed, and at the same time, remove some of the
prejudices which it has had to encounter.

There have not been wanting, at any time, individuals who have been
anxious that the history of this State, and the deeds and sufferings
and opinions of the first settlers, should not be handed down to
posterity by tradition alone, or that future generations should
learn them from the erroneous and imperfect statements of prejudiced

Much was effected by these individuals in collecting together the
scattered fragments and perishing memorials of our early history.
But the field was too large and the labor too great to be compassed
by the exertions of any individuals, however ardent their zeal.
And besides this, many persons who held highly valuable documents,
received in most instances from their ancestors, were unwilling to
part with them until a secure place of deposite was provided, under
the authority of a regularly organized association.

These feelings, aided by various concomitant circumstances, gave rise
to the Rhode-Island Historical Society, in the year 1822. In the
summer of the same year, a charter of incorporation was obtained,
and in July the Society was organized. Since that time, unremitting
exertions have been made in effecting its objects, and many valuable
documents, both printed and manuscript have been collected. The
number of resident members is at present about fifty.

The subject of publishing a Series of Collections was agitated
soon after the establishment of the Society. Various circumstances
served to retard this project until ZACHARIAH ALLEN, Esq. a member,
presented to the Society a manuscript copy of Roger Williams’ Key
to the Indian Language which he had procured from the printed copy
in the Bodliean Library at Oxford. This manuscript has since been
carefully compared with the printed copy of the same work, in the
possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society. At this time,
when philosophers are engaged in searching for the origin, and
philanthropists, in meliorating the condition, of the aborigines,
it was thought by the Society that the publication of this curious
and valuable relick of the venerable founder of the State would
be particularly acceptable and appropriate; and in the hope that
both pleasure and profit may be derived from its perusal, it is now
respectfully commended to the attention and favor of the public.



Whereas Jeremiah Lippitt, William Aplin, Charles Norris Tibbitts,
Walter R. Danforth, William R. Staples, Richard W. Greene, John
Brown Francis, William G. Goddard, Charles F. Tillinghast, Richard
J. Arnold, Charles Jackson, and William E. Richmond, have petitioned
this General Assembly to incorporate them into a society, by the name
of the Rhode-Island Historical Society: Therefore,

Section 1. _Be it enacted by the General Assembly, and by the
authority thereof it is enacted_, That the aforesaid persons,
together with such others as they shall hereafter associate with
them, and their successors, are hereby constituted, ordained
and created a body corporate and politic, by the name of _The
Rhode-Island Historical Society, for the purpose of procuring and
preserving whatever relates to the topography, antiquities, and
natural, civil and ecclesiastical history of this State_; and by
the name aforesaid shall have perpetual succession; and by the same
name are hereby made able and capable in law, as a body corporate,
to have, hold and enjoy goods, chattels, lands and tenements, to the
value of five thousand dollars, exclusive of their library, cabinet
and historical collections and antiquities, and the same at all times
to dispose of; to have a common seal, and the same at pleasure to
change and destroy; to sue and be sued, to plead and to be impleaded,
to answer and to answer unto, to defend and to be defended against,
in all courts of justice and before all proper judges; and to do, act
and transact all matters and things whatsoever, proper for bodies
corporate to do, act and transact; and to establish and enact such
a constitution and such by-laws as shall be deemed necessary and
expedient, provided that they be not repugnant to the laws of this
State, or of the United States; and to annex to the breach of those
laws such fines as they may deem fit.

Sec. 2. _And be it further enacted_, That the said corporation be
further authorized and empowered to elect and qualify such officers
as may by them be deemed necessary; to be chosen at such time, and
to hold their offices for such period, as the constitution of said
corporation shall prescribe; and to appoint and hold such meetings as
shall be thought proper.

Sec. 3. _And be it further enacted_, That said society shall
establish two cabinets for the deposit and safe-keeping of all
the ancient documents and records illustrating the history and
antiquities of this State; one of said cabinets in the town of
Newport, for the safe keeping of the records of the early history
of the southern section of the State, and the other in the town of
Providence, for the safe-keeping of the historical records of the
northern section thereof; and that the anniversary of said society be
holden in said Providence.

SEC. 4. _And be it further enacted_, That Jeremiah Lippitt
be authorized and empowered to call the first meeting of the
corporation, within three months from the granting of this charter,
giving public notice of the same.

[Illustration: (Decorative separator)]


_Article 1._ The Rhode-Island Historical Society shall consist of
resident and honorary members, the former of whom shall be resident
in the State of Rhode-Island.

_Art. 2._ The annual meeting of the society shall be holden at
Providence on the 19th day of July, in every year: _And provided_,
That when that day shall fall on a Sunday, the meeting shall be
holden on the Tuesday following: other meetings of the society shall
be called at any other time by the President, or other senior officer
in the society, by giving notice of the same in at least one public
newspaper in Providence and Newport, fourteen days previous to the
time proposed, upon application of five members in writing.

_Art. 3._ The officers of the society shall be--a president, two
vice-presidents, a secretary, treasurer, two cabinet-keepers, one
for the northern and one for the southern section, and thirteen[1]
trustees, of whom the president, two vice-presidents, and treasurer,
shall be four.

_Art. 4._ All the officers of the society shall be chosen at the
annual meeting of the society, and shall hold their offices for one
year, and until others be elected in their stead: _Provided_, That
when the society shall not meet on the day of their annual meeting,
they may elect their officers at any other meeting called pursuant
to the article preceding: _And provided also_, That when any vacancy
in any office shall happen during the year, the society, at any such
meeting, may fill the same.

_Art. 5._ It shall be the duty of the trustees to receive donations,
and to manage and superintend all the concerns of the society; they
shall hold meetings as often as occasion shall require, any five
being present, public notice being given by the secretary fourteen
days previous in a public newspaper of the time and place of meeting,
and shall have power to fill any vacancy in their board until the
next meeting of the society; they shall at the annual meeting make
report in writing of their doings, to the society: the president,
and in his absence the senior officer present, shall preside at all
meetings of the society and board of trustees: the secretary shall
keep a record of all the proceedings of the society, shall be ex
officio secretary of the board, and as such, keep a record of their
doings, and shall be the organ of communication of the society:
the cabinet-keepers shall safely keep all books, papers, ancient
memorials, and every thing else belonging to the society, relating
to the objects of the society, in such places as may hereafter be
designated by the society or board of trustees; they shall also keep
catalogues of all donations to the cabinets of the society, with the
donor’s name affixed to each, unless otherwise requested by the donor
himself; they shall also report in writing at the annual meeting, at
which time, the treasurer shall report the state of the treasury.

_Art. 6._ The society shall have power to lay such taxes on the
members as may be requisite, provided that they do not exceed the sum
of three dollars per year.

_Art. 7._ No person shall be admitted a member of this society unless
by ballot, at the annual meeting, by a majority of the members
present, and unless he shall be recommended by the board of trustees.

_Art. 8._ Seven resident members, including either the president, one
of the vice-presidents, the secretary or treasurer, shall constitute
a quorum for doing business.

_Art. 9._ No alteration or amendment whatever shall be made to this
constitution but by vote of two thirds of the members present at the
annual meeting, which alteration or amendment shall be reduced to
writing by the mover before it shall be acted upon.

[Illustration: (Decorative separator)]

  The Society would call the attention of members and correspondents
to the following subjects:

1. Topographical sketches of towns and villages, including an
account of their soil, agriculture, manufactures, commerce, natural
curiosities and statistics.

2. Sketches of the history of the settlement and rise of such towns
and villages, and of the introduction and progress of commerce,
manufactures and the arts, in them.

3. Biographical notices of original settlers, revolutionary patriots,
and other distinguished men who have resided in this State.

4. Original letters, and documents, and papers illustrating any of
these subjects, particularly those which shew the private habits,
manners or pursuits of our ancestors, or are connected with the
general history of this State.

5. Sermons, orations, occasional discourses and addresses, books,
pamphlets, almanacs and newspapers, printed in this State; and
manuscripts, especially those written by persons born or residing in
this State.

6. Accounts of the Indian tribes which formerly inhabited any part
of this State, their numbers and condition when first visited by the
whites, their general character and peculiar customs and manners,
their wars and treaties and their original grants to our ancestors.

7. The Indian names of the towns, rivers, islands, bays and other
remarkable places within this State, and the traditional import of
those names.

8. Besides these, the society will receive donations of any other
books, pamphlets, manuscripts and printed documents; with which any
gentleman may please to favor them.

[Illustration: (Decorative separator)]




ELECTED JULY 19, 1826.

  His Excellency _James Fenner_, Esq. President.

  _Henry Bull_, Esq. 1st. Vice-Pres.

  Hon. _Theodore Foster_, Esq. 2d Vice Pres.

  _William R. Staples_, Esq. Sec’ry.

  _John Howland_, Esq. Treasurer.

  _Albert G. Greene_, Esq. Cabinet Keeper of the Northern District.

  _Stephen Gould_, Cabinet Keeper of the Southern District.

Hon. Job Durfee, John B. Francis, John Pitman, Richard W. Greene,
Philip Crapo, William E. Richmond, Christopher E. Robbins, Nathaniel
Bullock, Hon. Tristam Burges, Hon. William Hunter, Esq’s. Rev. David
Benedict, and William G. Goddard, Esq. _Trustees_.

_Publishing Committee._

John Howland, William G. Goddard and William R. Staples, elected by
the Trustees Feb. 7, 1827.




Roger Williams was born of reputable parents, in Wales, A. D. 1598.
He was educated at the University of Oxford; was regularly admitted
to orders in the Church of England, and preached for some time,
as a Minister of that Church; but on embracing the doctrines of
the Puritans, he rendered himself obnoxious to the laws against
non-conformists and embarked for America, where he arrived with his
wife, whose name was Mary, on the 5th of February, 1631. In April
following, he was called by the Church of Salem, as teaching Elder,
under their then Pastor, Mr. Skelton. This proceeding gave offence to
the Governor and Assistants of the Massachusetts Bay, and in a short
time, he removed to Plymouth, and was engaged as assistant to Mr.
Ralph Smith, the pastor of the Church at that place. Here he remained
until he found that his views of religious toleration and strict
non-conformity gave offence to some of his hearers, when he returned
again to Salem, and was settled there, after Mr. Skelton’s death in
1634. While here and while at Plymouth, he maintained the character
he had acquired in England, that “of a godly man and a zealous
preacher.” He appears, however, to have been viewed by the government
of that colony with jealousy from his first entrance into it. He
publicly preached against the patent from the king, under which they
held their lands, on the ground that the king could not dispose of
the lands of the Natives without their consent--he reprobated “the
calling of _natural_ men to the exercise of those holy ordinances
of prayers, oaths, &c.” and “the frequenting of Parish Churches,
under the pretence of hearing some ministers;”[2] but that, without
doubt, which rendered him most obnoxious, was his insisting that the
magistrate had no right to punish for breaches of the first table;
or in other words, “to deal in matters of conscience and religion.”
These causes conspiring with others of less importance, finally
procured a decree of banishment to be passed against him, in the
autumn of 1635, and he was ordered to depart the jurisdiction, in six
weeks. Subsequently to this, he was permitted to remain until spring,
on condition that he did not attempt to draw any others to his
opinions; but “the people being much taken with the apprehension of
his godliness,” in the January following the Governor and Assistants
sent an officer to apprehend him and carry him on board a vessel then
lying at Nantasket, bound to England. But before the officer arrived,
he had removed and gone to Rehoboth. Being informed by Governor
Winslow of Plymouth, that he was then within the bounds of the
Plymouth patent, in the spring he crossed the river, and commenced
the settlement of Providence. The field that he first planted
composes “Whatcheer,” the present residence of his Excellency, James
Fenner, Governor of Rhode-Island, and the land originally set off to
Williams adjoining this field, has continued to the present day, in
possession of his descendants.

He afterwards embraced some of the leading opinions of the Baptists,
and in March 1639, was baptized by immersion, at Providence, by
Ezekiel Holliman, whom he afterwards baptized. He formed a Society
of this order, and continued preaching to them for several months,
and then separated from them, doubting, it is said, the validity of
all baptism, because a direct succession could not be traced from the
Apostles to the officiating ministers.

In 1643, Williams went to England as agent for the colonies at
Providence, Rhode Island, and Warwick, to solicit a charter of
incorporation, which he finally procured, signed by the Earl of
Warwick, then Governor and Admiral of the English plantations,
and by his Council--bearing date March 14, 1644. On the 17th of
September, 1644, he returned from England and landed at Boston,
bringing a letter of recommendation to the Governor and Assistants
of the Massachusetts Bay, from some of the most influential members
of the Long Parliament. This saved him from the penalty incurred by
him on entering their bounds, which he avoided at his departure, by
taking ship at New-York. In 1651, serious difficulties having been
raised in the colony, by Coddington’s procuring a Charter, which
gave him almost unlimited authority over the Islands of Narragansett
Bay, Williams and Clarke were despatched as agents of the colony,
to procure a revocation of it. This they effected in October 1652.
Williams returned in 1654, but Clarke remained in England, and
procured the second Charter of 1663. While in England at this time
Williams resided a principal part of the time, at Belleau, a seat
of Sir Henry Vane, in Lincolnshire; and on his return, brought a
letter from him, recorded in the records of Providence, inviting the
planters to a closer union with one another. This letter, aided by
the urgent and constant solicitations of Williams, finally restored
peace and union to the colony, which, during his absence, had been
rent by many divisions. He was several times both before and after
this period, elected to the office of President or Governor of this
colony, by the “free vote of the freemen.” He died in April, 1683, at
Providence, and was buried under arms, in his family burying ground,
with every testimony of respect that the colony could manifest. He
was the father of six children: viz. Mary, Freeborn, Providence,
Mercy, Daniel, and Joseph; the descendants of whom, at this time,
amount to several thousands.

Very few incidents in his life, are to be collected from the writings
of Williams, and the prejudices of contemporary and even later
historians who have mentioned him, render it difficult to form a true
estimate of his character. Facts, which in the estimation of the
writers of those days, would have raised a more orthodox man almost
above the level of humanity, are slightly mentioned; and opinions
which all protestant nations and even the descendants of his enemies
have since fully adopted, in him were heretical and subversive,
not only of church but of civil government. From these slight and
prejudiced statements must the character of Williams be drawn. They
prove him to have been a man of unblemished moral character and of
ardent piety, unyielding in opinions which he conceived to be right,
and not to be diverted from what he believed to be duty, either by
threats or by flattery.

One fact speaks volumes in favor of his Christian temper. After he
was banished, he conceived himself to be an injured, persecuted
man, but with all the opportunities which his intimacy with the
neighboring Indians gave him, no purpose of revenge seems ever to
have been harbored by him. Instead of that, the next year after his
banishment, he gave to his very persecutors, information of the
Indian plot, which would have destroyed their whole settlement.
He concluded treaties for them, which ensured their peace and
prosperity, “employing himself continually in acts of kindness to his
persecutors, affording relief to the distressed, offering an asylum
to the persecuted”

He is accused, and not unjustly, of frequent changes in his
religious sentiments. These changes must have been the effect of
sincere conviction--they could not have arisen from a time-serving
policy. For had he remained an Episcopalian, England and all her
comforts, and undoubtedly as due to his Learning, some of the honors
of the Church were before him; and had he continued a lukewarm
non-conformist, Massachusetts and Plymouth, the society of his former
friends and especially that of Hooker and Cotton, might have solaced
him in his residence in this new country. But these were all resigned
for what he conceived to be his duty to his God. He was however at
all times and under all changes, the undaunted champion of Religious
Freedom. It was openly professed by him, on his arrival among those
who sought in America, a refuge from persecution and strange as it
may seem, it was probably the first thing that excited the prejudices
of the Massachusetts and Plymouth rulers against him. He was
accused of carrying this favorite doctrine so far as to exempt from
punishment any criminal who pleaded conscience. But let his own words
exculpate him from this charge.

“That ever I should speak or write a tittle that tends to such an
infinite liberty of conscience, is a mistake, and which I have ever
disclaimed and abhorred. To prevent such mistakes, I at present
shall only propose this case. There goes many a ship to sea with
many hundred souls in one ship, whose weal and woe is common; and
is a true picture of a common-wealth, or an human combination or
society. It hath fallen out, some times, that both Papists and
Protestants, Jews and Turks, may be embarked into one ship. Upon
which supposal, I affirm that all the liberty of conscience, that
ever I pleaded for, turns upon these two hinges, That none of the
Papists, Protestants, Jews or Turks, be forced to come to the ship’s
prayers or worship; nor compelled from their own particular prayers
or worship, if they practice any. I further add, that I never denied,
that notwithstanding this liberty, the commander of this ship ought
to command the ship’s course; yea, and also command that justice,
peace and sobriety be kept and practiced, both among the seamen and
all the passengers. If any of the seamen refuse to perform their
service, or passengers to pay their freight; if any refuse to help in
person or purse, toward the common charges or defence; if any refuse
to obey the common laws and orders of the ship concerning their
common peace or preservation; if any shall mutiny and rise up against
their commanders and officers; if any should preach or write, that
there ought to be no commanders nor officers, because all are equal
in Christ, therefore no masters nor officers, no laws nor orders,
no corrections nor punishments; I say, I never denied but in such
cases, whatever is pretended, the commander or commanders may judge,
resist, compel and punish such transgressors, according to their
deserts and merits.”

And in Williams’ political transactions, self interest does not
appear to have had any influence, in opposition to the public good.
The title to Providence Plantations, from the Indians, was in him and
in him alone, by their deed. Yet almost his first act was to divide
it among his “loving neighbors” reserving to himself only an equal
right with them. In the charter procured by him, no office of trust
or profit was conferred on him. Of what other agent employed on such
business, can the same be said? Well might Calender call him, “the
most disinterested man that ever lived.”

The publications of Williams, that have reached us, are not
voluminous. The public services in which he was engaged, and the
private difficulties which he had to encounter, undoubtedly prevented
them from being so. The first, in order of time, is his “Key to the
Language of America,” now republished. This, it would seem, was
composed during his voyage to England in 1643, and was printed at
London soon after his arrival. It preceded Elliot’s publications on
the same subject, and was highly commended by the Board of Trade, at
the time it was published. Very few copies of the original edition
are now extant. The one belonging to the Massachusetts Historical
Society is the only one known to be in this country. A strain of
ardent piety runs through this work which cannot fail to recommend
both itself and its author to the reader. It presents the character
of the Natives in a new and favorable light, and appears to have been
admirably calculated to facilitate that intercouse with them, which
the safety of the settlers and the interests of both settlers and
natives imperiously demanded.

The next work was his “Bloody Tenent,” written in answer to Cotton’s
work upholding the right and enforcing the duty of the civil
magistrate to regulate the doctrines of the Church. This work called
forth a reply from Cotton, entitled “The Bloody Tenent, Washed and
made White in the blood of the Lambe.” And this was followed by
a rejoinder from Williams, entitled “The Bloody Tenent yet more
Bloody, by Mr. Cotton’s endeavor to Wash it White.” In these works of
Williams the doctrine of religious liberty and unlimited toleration
are illustrated in strong language and supported by stronger
arguments--arguments that preceded those of Locke, Bayle and Furneau.
The character and standing of Cotton made him an antagonist, with
whom to contend, was glorious, even though vanquished, but with
truth on his side, and supported and strengthened by a sense of it,
Williams entered the contest, and was not vanquished. Accompanying
this last, are two letters, one to Gov. Endicott and the other to the
Clergy of Great-Britain and Ireland. The first of which, if it had
been read with the spirit in which it appears to have been written,
would have stayed the arm of Persecution in New-England. These were
published in London in 1652. About twenty years after, Williams had
a controversy with the Quakers. He maintained a public dispute with
them at Newport, on the 9th, 10th and 12th, and at Providence, on the
17th August, 1672. Afterwards he published his “George Fox digged out
of his Burrows,” in answer to a work of Fox. This is a rare book.

In regard to the literary attainments of Roger Williams it is
deemed proper to say but little. The readers of this work will be
principally such as chuse to form their _own_ opinions. It will
be, however, generally admitted, that his Style, abounds with
the Beauties and Defects, peculiar to the Literature of his own
Times. It is no small praise to say of him, that, as an author, he
compares well with his great opponent, COTTON. Both indulge in the
same apposite, but somewhat profuse use of Scripture allusion and
Phraseology; both are at home in the Classics and the Fathers, and
surprise us with quaint erudition; both fight with the same weapon of
controversy--the ancient scholastic Logic.

Those who have a partiality for Williams will justify that
partiality, by the conciliating liberality of his doctrines, and the
philosophic philanthropy of his sentiments, which impart a peculiar
amenity to his diction, and to his reasoning, an air of common sense
deduction and equitable and rational conclusion, more satisfactory
than the most refined subtilties of dialectic skill.

No description of the person of Williams has reached us, but
Rhode-Islanders will always remember his name and his deeds, and
revere him as the father of their State, and the world will ever
regard him as the earliest and boldest champion of the right of all
men “fully to have and enjoy their own judgments and consciences, in
matters of religious concernments.”


[1] Amended at the annual meeting A. D. 1826, and three trustees

[2] This censure refers to those who had not separated from the
Established Church, before they left England, as well as to those who
on visiting England, attended the Parish Churches there.

                                A KEY
                               INTO THE
                          LANGUAGE OF AMERICA,

                                OR AN

                      THAT PART OF AMERICA CALLED



                        _On all which are added_,

                      THOSE PARTS; YET PLEASANT AND
                        PROFITABLE TO THE VIEW OF
                                ALL MEN.

                            By ROGER WILLIAMS,
                      Of Providence, in New-England.

                        PRINTED BY GREGORY DEXTER.


I present you with a Key; I have not heard of the like, yet framed,
since it pleased God to bring that mighty continent of America to
light: others of my Countreymen, have often and excellently, and
lately written of the Countrey (and none that I know beyond the
goodnesse and worth of it.)

This Key, respects the native language of it, and happily may unlocke
some Rarities concerning the natives themselves, not yet discovered.

I drew the materialls in a rude lumpe at Sea, as a private helpe to
my owne memory, that I might not by my present absence lightly lose
what I had so dearely bought in some few yeares hardship and charges
among the Barbarians; yet being reminded by some, what pitie it were
to bury those Materialls in my Grave at land or sea; and withall,
remembring how oft I have been importun’d by worthy friends of all
sorts, to afford them some helps this way.

I resolved (by the assistance of the most High) to cast those
Materials into this Key, pleasant and profitable for All, but
specially for my friends residing in those parts:

A little Key may open a Box, where lies a bunch of Keyes.

With this I have entred into the secrets of those Countries, where
ever English dwel about two hundred miles, betweene the French and
Dutch Plantations; for want of this, I know what grosse mistakes my
selfe and others have run into.

There is a mixture of this Language North and South, from the place
of my abode, about six hundred miles; yet within the two hundred
miles (aforementioned) their Dialects doe exceedingly differ; yet
not so, but (within that compasse) a man may by this helpe, converse
with thousands of Natives all over the Countrey: and by such converse
it may please the Father of Mercies to spread civilitie (and in his
owne most holy season) Christianitie; for one Candle will light ten
thousand, and it may please God to blesse a little Leaven to season
the mightie lump of those Peoples and Territories.

It is expected, that having had so much converse with these Natives,
I should write some little of them.

Concerning them (a little to gratifie expectation) I shall touch upon
foure Heads:

First, by what Names they are distinguished.

Secondly, Their Originall and Descent.

Thirdly, their Religion, Manners, Customes, &c.

Fourthly, That great Point of their Conversion.

To the first, their Names are of two Sorts:

First, those of the English giving: as Natives, Savages, Indians,
Wild-men, (so the Dutch call them Wilden) Abergeny men, Pagans,
Barbarians, Heathen.

Secondly, their names, which they give themselves.

I cannot observe, that they ever had (before the comming of the
English, French, or Dutch amongst them) any Names to difference
themselves from strangers, for they knew none; but two sorts of names
they had, and have amongst themselves.

First, generall, belonging to all Natives, as Nínnuock,
Ninnimissinûwock, Eniskeetompaûwog, which signifies Men, Folke or

Secondly, particular names, peculiar to severall Nations of them
amongst themselves, as Nanhigganêuck, Massachusêuck, Cawasumséuck,
Cowwesêuck, Quintikóock, Quinnipiéuck, Pequttóog, &c.

They have often asked mee, why wee call them Indians, Natives, &c.
and understanding the reason, they will call themselves Indians in
opposition to English &c.

For the second Head proposed, their Originall and Descent.

From Adam and Noah that they spring, it is granted on all hands.

But for their later Descent and whence they came into those parts,
it seemes as hard to finde, as to finde the well head of some fresh
Streame, which running many miles out of the Countrey to the salt
Ocean, hath met with many mixing Streames by the way. They say
themselves, that they have sprung and growne up in that very place,
like the very trees of the wildernesse.

They say that their Great God Cowtantowwit created those parts, as
I observed in the Chapter of their Religion. They have no Clothes,
Bookes, nor Letters, and conceive their Fathers never had; and
therefore they are easily perswaded that the God that made Englishmen
is a greater God, because Hee hath so richly endowed the English
above themselves: But when they heare that about sixteen hundred
yeeres agoe, England and the Inhabitants thereof were like unto
themselves, and since have received from God, Clothes, Bookes, &c.
they are greatly affected with a secret hope concerning themselves.

Wise and judicious men with whom I have discoursed, maintaine their
originall to be Northward from Tartaria: and at my now taking
ship, at the Dutch Plantation, it pleased the Dutch Governour (in
some discourse with mee about the natives) to draw their Line from
Iceland, because the name Sackmakan (the name for an Indian Prince,
about the Dutch) is the name for a Prince in Iceland.

Other opinions I could number up: under favour I shall present (not
mine opinion, but) my observations to the judgement of the wise.

First, others (and myselfe) have conceived some of their words to
hold affinitie with the Hebrew.

Secondly, they constantly anoint their heads as the Jewes did.

Thirdly, they give Dowries for their wives as the Jewes did.

Fourthly (and which I have not so observed amongst other nations as
amongst the Jewes, and these) they constantly seperate their women
(during the time of their monthly sicknesse) in a little house alone
by themselves foure or five dayes, and hold it an Irreligious thing
for either Father or Husband or any Male to come neere them.

They have often asked me if it bee so with women of other nations,
and whether they are so separated: and for their practice they plead
Nature and Tradition. Yet againe I have found a greater affinity of
their language with the Greek tongue.

2. As the Greekes and other nations, and our selves call the
seven starres (or Charles Waine, the beare,) so doe they Mosk, or
Paukunnawaw the beare.

3. They have many strange Relations of one Wétucks, a man that
wrought great Miracles amongst them, and walking upon the waters, &c.
with some kind of broken resemblance to the Sonne of God.

Lastly, it is famous that the Sowwest (Sowaniu) is the great subject
of their discourse. From thence their Traditions. There they say (at
the South west) is the Court of their Great God Cautántouwit: at the
South-west are their forefathers soules: to the South west they goe
themselves when they dye; From the South west came their Corne, and
Beanes out of their great God Cautántowwits field: and indeed the
further Northward and Westward from us their Corne will not grow, but
to the Southward better and better. I dare not conjecture in these
Vncertainties, I believe they are lost, and yet hope (in the Lords
holy season) some of the wildest of them shall be found to share in
the blood of the Son of God. To the third head, concerning their
Religion, Customes, Manners &c. I shall here say nothing, because in
those 32 chapters of the whole book, I have briefly touched those of
all sorts, from their birth to their burialls, and have endeavoured
(as the nature of the worke would give way) to bring some short
observations and applications home to Europe from America.

Therefore fourthly, to that great point of their conversion so much
to bee longed for, and by all New-English so much pretended, and I
hope in Truth.

For my selfe I have uprightly laboured to suite my endeavours to
my pretences: and of later times (out of desire to attaine their
Language) I have run through varieties of Intercourses with them Day
and Night, Summer and Winter, by Land and Sea, particular passages
tending to this, I have related divers, in the Chapter of their

Many solemne discourses I have had with all sorts of nations of them,
from one end of the Countrey to another (so farre as opportunity, and
the little language I have could reach.)

I know there is no small preparations in the hearts of multitudes of
them. I know their many solemne confesions to my self, and one to
another of their lost wandring conditions.

I know strong Convictions upon the Consciences of many of them, and
their desires uttred that way.

I know not with how little Knowledge and Grace of Christ the Lord may
save, and therefore neither will despair or report much.

But since it hath pleased some of my worthy Countrymen to mention (of
late in print) Wequash, the Pequt Captaine, I shall be bold so farre
to second their relations, as to relate mine own hopes of him (though
I dare not be so confident as others.)

Two dayes before his death, as I past up to Quinnihticut River it
pleased my worthy friend Mr. Fenwick whom I visited at his house in
Say-Brook Fort at the mouth of that River, to tell me that my old
friend Wequash lay very sick: I desired to see him, and Himselfe was
pleased to be my Guide two mile where Wequash lay.

Amongst other discourse concerning his sicknesse and Death (in which
hee freely bequeathed his son to Mr. Fenwick) I closed with him
concerning his Soule: Hee told me that some two or three yeare before
he had lodged at my House, where I acquainted him with the Condition
of all mankind, and his own in particular, how God created Man and
All things: how Man fell from God, and of his present Enmity against
God, and the wrath of God against Him until Repentance: said he,
“your words were never out of my heart to this present;” and said
hee “me much pray to Jesus Christ.” I told him so did many English,
French and Dutch, who had never turned to God, nor loved Him: He
replyed in broken English: “me so big naughty Heart, me heart all one
stone!” Savory expressions using to breath from compunct and broken
Hearts, and a sence of inward hardnesse and unbrokennesse. I had many
discourses with him in his Life, but this was the summe of our last
parting untill our generall meeting.

Now because this is the great Inquiry of all men what Indians have
been converted? what have the English done in those parts? what hopes
of the Indians receiving the knowledge of Christ!

And because to this Question some put an edge from the boast of the
Jesuits in Canada and Maryland, and especially from the wonderfull
conversions made by the Spaniards and Portugalls in the West-Indies,
besides what I have here written, as also, besides what I have
observed in the Chapter of their Religion; I shall further present
you with a brief additionall discourse concerning this Great Point,
being comfortably perswaded that that Father of Spirits, who was
graciously pleased to perswade Japhet (the Gentiles) to dwell
in the Tents of Shem (the Jewes) will in his holy season (I hope
approaching) perswade these Gentiles of America to partake of the
mercies of Europe, and then shall bee fulfilled what is written by
the Prophet Malachi, from the rising of the Sunne (in Europe) to the
going down of the same (in America) my name shall be great among the
Gentiles. So I desire to hope and pray,

  Your unworthy Country-man,


1. A dictionary or Grammer way I had consideration of, but purposely
avoided, as not so accommodate to the benefit of all, as I hope, this
forme is.

2. A Dialogue also I had thoughts of, but avoided for brevities sake,
and yet (with no small paines) I have so framed every Chapter and the
matter of it, as I may call it an implicite Dialogue.

3. It is framed chiefly after the Narrogánset Dialect, because most
Spoken in the Countrey, and yet (with attending to the variation of
peoples and Dialects) it will be of great use in all parts of the

4. Whatever your occasion bee either of Travell, Discourse, Trading
&c. turne to the Table which will direct you to the Proper Chapter.

5. Because the Life of all Language is in the Pronuntiation, I
have been at the paines and charges to Cause the Accents, Tones or
sounds to be affixed, (which some understand according to the Greeke
Language, Acutes, Graves, Circumflexes) for example, in the second
Leafe in the word Ewò He: the Sound or tone must not be put on E, but
Wò, where the grave accent is.

In the same Leafe, in the word _Ascowequássin_, the sound must not
be on any of the Syllables, but on _quáss_, where the Acute or Sharp
sound is.

In the same leafe, in the word Anspaumpmaûntam, the Sound must not be
on any other Syllable but Maûn where the Circumflex or long sounding
Accent is.

6. The _English_ for every _Indian_ word or phrase stands in a
straight line directly against the _Indian_: yet sometimes there
are two words for the same thing (for their Language is exceeding
copious, and they have five or six words sometimes for one thing) and
then the English stands against them both; for example in the second

  and                                  I pray your favour.






_Of Salutation._--Observation.

The natives are of two sorts (as the English are) some more rude
and clownish, who are not so apt to salute, but upon salutation
resalute lovingly. Others, and the generall, are sober and grave,
and yet cheerfull in a meane, and as ready to begin a salutation as
to resalute, which yet the English generally begin, out of desire to
civilize them.

What cheare _Nétop_ is the general salutation of all English toward
them. _Nétop_ is friend. _Netompaûog_, Friends.

They are exceedingly delighted with Salutations in their own Language.

  Neèn, Keèn, Ewò,                     I, you, he.

  Keénkaneen,                          You and I.

  Ascowequassunnúmmis,                 Good morrow.

  Askuttaaquompsín,                    Hou doe you?

  Asnpaumpmaúntam,                     I am very well.

  Taubút paump maúntaman,              I am glad you are well.

  Cowaúnckamish,                       My service to you.


This word upon speciall Salutations they use, and upon some offence
conceived by the _Sachim_ or Prince against any; I have seen the
party reverently doe obeysance, by stroking the Prince upon both his
sholders, and using this word,

  Cowaúnckamish and
  Cuckquénamish,                       I pray your favour.

  Cowaúnkamuck,                        He salutes you.

  Aspaumpmáuntam Sachim,               How doth the Prince?

  Aspaumpmaúntam commíttamus,          How doth your wife?

  Aspaumpmaúntamwock                   How doth your children?

  Konkeeteâug,                         They are well.

  Táubot ne paump maunthéttit,         I am glad they are well.

  Túnna Cowâum?                        Whence came you?

  Yò nowaum,                           I came that way.

  Náwwatuck nóteshem,                  I came from farre.

  Mattaâsu nóteshem,                   I came from hard by.

  Wêtu,                                An House.

  Wetuômuck nóteshem,                  I came from the house.

  Acâwmuck nóteshem,                   I came over the water.

  Otàn,                                A Towne.

  Otânick nóteshem,                    I came from the Towne.


In the Narigánset Countrey (which is the chief People in the Land) a
man shall come to many townes, some bigger, some lesser, it may be a
dozen in 20 miles travell.


_Acawmenóakit_, old England, which is as much as _from the Land on
t’other side_: hardly are they brought to believe that that water is
three thousand English mile over or thereabouts.

  Tunnock kuttòme,                     Whither goe you?

  Wékick nittóme,                      To the house.

  Nékick,                              To my house.

  Kékick,                              To your house.

  Tuckowêkin,                          Where dwell you?

  Tuckuttîin,                          Where keep you?

  Matnowetuómeno,                      I have no house.


As commonly a single person hath no house, so after the death of a
Husband or Wife, they often break up house, and live here and there a
while with Friends to allay their excessive sorrowes.

  Tou wuttîin?                         Where lives he?

  Awânickuchick,                       Who are these?

  Awaùn ewò?                           Who is that?

  Túnna úmwock,
  Tunna Wutshaûock,                    Whence come they?

  Yo nowêkin,                          I dwell here.

  Yo ntiîn,                            I live here.

  Eîu or Nnîu?                         Is it so?

  Nùx,                                 Yea.

  Matnippompitámmen,                   I have heard nothing.

  Wésuonck,                            A name.

  Tocketussawêitch,                    What is your name?

  Taantússawese?                       Doe you aske my name.

  Ntússawese,                          I am called, &c.

  Matnowesuónckane,                    I have no name.


Obscure and meane persons amongst them have no names: _nullius
numeri_ &c. as the Lord Jesus foretells his followers that their
names should be cast out, Luk. 6. 22. as not worthy to be named &c.
Againe, because they abhorre to name the dead (Death being the King
of Terrours to all naturall men: and though the natives hold the
Soule to live ever, yet not holding a Resurrection they die and mourn
without Hope.) In that respect I say, if any of their Sáchims or
neighbours die who were of their names, they lay down those Names as

Now ánnehick nowésuonck--I have forgot my name. Which is common
amongst some of them, this being one Incivilitie amongst the more
rusticall sort, not to call each other by their names, but Keen, You,
Ewo, He &c.

  Tahéna,                              What is his name?

  Tahossowêtam,                        What is the name of it?

  Tahéttamen,                          What call you this?

  Teáqua,                              What is this?

  Yò néepoush,                         Stay or stand here.

  Máttapsh,                            Sit down.

  Non ânum,                            I cannot.

  Tawhitch Kuppee Yaúmen,              What come you for?

  Téaqua Kunnaúnta men,                What doe you fetch?

  Chenock cuppeeyâu mis?               When came you?

  Maish Kitummâyi,                     Just even now.

  Kitummâyi nippeéam,                  I came just now.

  Yò commíttamus,                      Is this your wife?

  Yò cuppáppoos,                       Is this your child?

  Yò cummúckquachucks,                 Is this your son?

  Yò cuttaûnis,                        Is this your daughter?

  Wunnêtu,                             It is a fine child.

  Tawhich neepou weéye an,             Why stand you?

  Pucqúatchick?                        Without dores.

  Tawhítch mat pe titeáyean?           Why come you not in?


In this respect they are remarkably free and courteous, to invite all
strangers in; and if any come to them upon any occasion, they request
them to come in, if they come not in of themselves.

  Awássish,                            Warme you.

  Máttapsh yóteg,                      Sit by the fire.

  Tocketúnnawem,                       What say you?

  Keén nétop,                          Is it you friend.

  Peeyàush nétop,                      Come hither friend.

  Pétitees,                            Come in.

  Kunnúnni,                            Have you seene me?

  Kunnúnnous,                          I have seen you.

  Taubot mequaun namêan,               I thank you for your kind

  Taûbotneanawáyean,                   I thank you.

  Taûbotne aunana mêan,                I thank you for your love.


I have acknowledged amongst them an heart sensible of kindnesses and
have reaped kindnesse again from many, seven yeares after, when I
myselfe had forgotten &c. Hence the Lord Jesus exhorts his followers
to doe good for evill; for otherwise sinners will do good for good,
kindnesse for kindnesse. &c.

  Cowàmmaunsh,                         I love you.

  Cowammaunûck,                        He loves you.

  Cowámmaus,                           You are loving.

  Cowáutam,                            Vnderstand you.

  Nowaûtam,                            I understand.

  Cowâwtam tawhitche nippeeyaûmen,     Doe you know why I come.

  Cowannántam,                         Have you forgotten?

  Awanagusàntowosh,                    Speake English.

  Eenàntowash,                         Speake Indian.

  Cutehanshish aùmo,                   How many were you in company?

  Kúnnishishem?                        Are you alone.

  Nníshishem,                          I am alone.

  Naneeshûumo,                         There be 2 of us.

  Nanshwishâwmen,                      We are 4.

  Npiuckshâwmen,                       We are 10.

  Neesneechecktashaûmen,               We are 20, &c.

  Nquitpausucko washâwmen,             We are an 100.

  Comishoonhómmis,                     Did you come by boate?

  Kuttiakewushaùmis,                   Came you by land?

  Meshnomishoon hómmin,                I came by boat.

  Meshntiauké wushem,                  I came by land.

  Nippenowàntawem,                     I am of another language.

  Penowantowawhettûock,                They are of a divers Language.

  Matnowawtauhettémina,                We understand not each other.

  Nummaûchenèm,                        I am sicke.

  Cummaúchenem,                        Are you sicke?

  Tashúckunne cummauchenaûmis,         How long have you been sicke?

    or                                 I will be going.

  Saûop cummauchêmin,                  You shall goe to-morrow.

    or                                 Be going.

  Kuttannâwshesh,                      Depart.

    or                                 He is gone.

  Kautanaûshant,                       He being gone.

    or                                 When they are gone?

  Kukkowêtous,                         I will lodge with you.

  Yò Cówish,                           Do lodge here.

  Hawúnshech,                          Farewell.

  Chénock wonck cup peeyeâumen,        When will you be here againe?

  Nétop tattà,                         My friend, I cannot tell.

From these courteous Salutations, observe in generall; here is a
savour of civility and courtesie even amongst these wild Americans,
both amongst themselves and towards strangers.

More particular:

      1. The courteous Pagan shall condemne
           Uncourteous Englishmen,
         Who live like Foxes, Beares and Wolves,
           Or Lyon in his Den.

      2. Let none sing blessings to their soules,
           For that they courteous are:
         The wild Barbarians with no more
           Then nature, goe so farre:

      3. If natures Sons both wild and tame,
           Humane and courteous be:
         How ill becomes it Sonnes of God
           To want Humanity?


_Of Eating and Entertainment._

  Ascúmetesímmis?                      Have you not yet eaten?

  Matta niccattuppúmmin,               I am not hungry.

  Niccàwkatone,                        I am thirstie.

  Mannippêno?                          Have you no water?

  Nip, or nipéwese,                    Give me some water.

  Namitch, commetesímmin,              Stay, you must eat first.

  Téaquacumméich,                      What will you eat?

  Nókehick,                            Parch’d meal, which is a
                                       readie very wholesome food,
which they eate with a little water, hot or cold; I have travelled
with neere 200 of them at once, neere 100 miles through the woods,
every man carrying a _little Basket_ of this at his _back_, and
sometimes in a hollow _Leather Girdle_ about his middle, sufficient
for a man for three or four daies.

With this readie provision, and their _Bow_ and _Arrowes_, are
they ready for _War_, and _travell_ at an _houres_ warning. With
a _spoonfull_ of this _meale_ and a _spoonfull_ of water from the
Brooke, have I made many a good dinner and supper.

  Aupúmmineanash,                      The parch’d corne.

  Aupúminea-nawsaùmp,                  The parch’d meale boild
                                         with water at their houses,
                                         which is the wholesomest
                                         diet they have.

  Msíckquatash,                        Boild corne whole.

  Manusqussêdash,                      Beanes.

  Nasàump,                             A kind of meale pottage,

From this the _English_ call their _Samp_, which is the _Indian_
corne, beaten and boild, and eaten hot or cold with milke or butter,
which are mercies beyond the _Natives_ plaine water, and which is a
dish exceeding wholesome for the _English_ bodies.

  Puttuckqunnége,                      A Cake.

  Puttuckqunnêgunash puttúckqui,       Cakes or loves round.

  Teâgun kuttie maûnch?                What shall I dresse for you?

  Assámme,                             Give me to eate.

  Ncàttup,                             I am hungrie.

  Wúnnancáttup,                        I am very hungry.

  Nippaskanaûn tum,                    I am almost starved.

  Pàutous notatàm,                     Give me drinke.

  Sókenish,                            Powre forth.

  Cosaúme sokenúmmis,                  You have powred out too much.

  Wuttáttash,                          Drinke.

  Nquitchetàmmin,                      Let me taste.

  Quítchetash,                         Taste.

  Saunqui nip?                         Is the water coole?

  Saun kopaûgot,                       Coole water.

  Chowhêsu,                            It is warme.

  Aquie wuttàttash,                    Doe not drinke.

  Aquie waúmatous,                     Doe not drinke all.

  Necáwni mèich teàqua,                First eat something.

  Tawhitch mat me chóan,               Why eat you not?

  Wussaúme kusópita,                   It is too hot.

  Teâguunnumméitch,                    What shall I eate?

  Mateàg keesitàuano?                  Is there nothing ready boyld?

  Ma teág mécho ewò,                   He eats nothing.

  Cotchikésu assamme,                  Cut me a piece.

  Cotchekúnnemi wee yoùs,              Cut me some meat.

  Metesíttuck,                         Let us goe eate.

  Pautíinnea méchimucks,               Bring hither some victualls.

  Numwàutous,                          Fill the dish.

  Mihtukméchakick,                     Tree-eaters. A people so
                                       called (living between three
and foure hundred miles West into the land) from their eating only
_Mihtúchquash_, that is, Trees: They are _Men-eaters_, they set no
corne, but live on the _bark_ of _Chesnut_ and _Walnut_, and other
fine trees: They dry and eat this _bark_ with the fat of Beasts, and
sometimes of men: This people are the _terrour_ of the neighbour
_Natives_; and yet these _Rebells_, the Sonne of God may in time

  Mauchepweéan,                        After I have eaten.

  Maúchepwucks,                        After meales.

  Maúchepwut,                          When he hath eaten.

  Paúshaqua múchepwut,                 After dinner.

  Wàyyeyant maúchepwut,                After supper.

  Nquittmaûntash,                      Smell.

  Weetimóquat,                         It smells sweet.

  Machemóqut,                          It stinks.

  Weékan,                              It is sweet.

  Machíppoquat,                        It is sowre.

  Aúwusse weékan,                      It is sweeter.

  Askùn,                               It is raw.

  Noónat,                              Not enough.

  Wusàume wékissu,                     Too much either boyled or rosted.

  Waûmet Taûbi,                        It is enough.

  Wuttattumútta,                       Let us drinke.

  Neesneecháhettit taúbi,              Eenough for twentie men.

  Mattacuckquàw,                       A Cooke.

  Mattacúcquass,                       Cooke or dresse.

  Matcuttassamíin?                     Will you not give me to eate?

  Keen méitch,                         I pray eate.

They generally all take _Tobacco_; and it is commonly the only plant
which men labour in; the women managing all the rest: they say they
take _Tobacco_ for two causes; first, against the rheume, which
cavseth the toothake, which they are impatient of: secondly, to
revive and refresh them, they drinking nothing but water.

  Squuttame,                           Give me your pipe.

  Petasínna, or, Wuttammasin,          Give me some Tobacco.

  Ncattaûntum, or, Ncattiteam,         I long for that.

  Màuchinaash nowépiteass,             My teeth are naught.

  Nummashackquneaûmen,                 Wee are in a dearth.

  Mashackquineâug,                     We have no food.

  Aúcuck,                              A Kettle.

  Míshquockuk,                         A red Copper Kettle.

  Nètop kuttássammish,                 Friend, I have brought you this.

  Quàmphash quamp homíinea,            Take up for me out of the pot.

  Eíppoquat,                           It is sweet.

  Teàqua aspùckquat?                   What doth it taste of?

  Nowètipo,                            I like this.

  Wenómeneash,                         Grapes or Rapsins.

  Waweècocks,                          Figs, or some strange sweet meat.

  Nemaùanash,                          Provisions for the way.

  Nemauanínnuit,                       A Snapsacke.

  Tackhùmmin,                          To grind Corne.

  Tackhumíinnea,                       Beat me parch’d meale.

  Pishquèhick,                         Unparch’d meale.

  Nummaùchip nup mauchepùmmin,         We have eaten all.

  Cowàump?                             Have you enough?

  Nowâump,                             I have enough.

  Mohowaùgsuck, or Mauquàuog,          The Canibals, or Men eaters,
    from móho to eate,                   up in to the West two, three
                                         or foure hundred miles from

  Cummóhucquock,                       They will eate you.

Whomsoever commeth in when they are eating, they offer them to eat
of that which they have, though but little enough prepar’d for
themselves. If any provision of _fish_ or _flesh_ come in, they make
their neighbours partakers with them.

If any stranger come in, they presently give him to eate of what they
have; many a time, and at all times of the night (as I have fallen
in travell upon their houses) when nothing hath been ready, have
themselves and their wives, risen to prepare me some refreshing.

_The observation generall from their eating &c._

It is a strange _truth_, that a man shall generally finde more free
entertainment and refreshing amongst these _Barbarians_, then
amongst thousands that call themselves Christians.

More particular:

      1. Course bread and water’s most their fare,
           O Englands diet fine;
         Thy cup runs ore with plenteous store
           Of wholesome beare and Wine.

      2. Sometimes God gives them Fish or Flesh,
           Yet they’re content without;
         And what comes in they part to friends
           And strangers round about.

      3. God’s providence is rich to his,
           Let none distrustfull be;
         In wildernesse, in great distresse,
           These Ravens have fed me.


_Concerning Sleepe and Lodging._

  Nsowwushkâwmen,                      I am weary.

  Nkàtaquaum,                          I am sleepie.

  Kukkovetoùs,                         Shall I lodge here?

  Yo nickowémen?                       Shall I sleepe here?

  Kukkowéti,                           Will you sleepe here.

  Wunnégin, cówish,                    Welcome, sleepe here.

  Nummouaquômen,                       I will lodge abroad.

  Puckquátchick nickouêmen,            I will sleepe without the doores,
                                       Which I have knowne them
contentedly doe, by a fire under a tree, when sometimes some
_English_ have (for want of familiaritie and language, with them)
been fearefull to entertaine them. In Summer-time I have knowne them
lye abroad often themselves, to make roome for Strangers, _English_,
or others.

  Mouaquómitea,                        Let us lye abroad.

  Cowwêtuck,                           Let us Sleepe.

  Kukkóuene?                           Sleepe you?

  Cowwêke,                             Sleepe, sleepe.

  Cowwêwi,                             He is asleepe.

  Cowwêwock,                           They sleepe.

  Askukkówene?                         Sleepe you yet?

  Takitíppocat,                        It is a cold night.

  Wekitíppocat,                        It is a warme night.

  Wauwháutaw ánawat, and               There is an alarme, or,
  Wawhautowâvog,                       there is a great shouting:

Howling and shouting is their Alarme; they having no Drums nor
Trumpets: but whether an enemie approach, or fire breake out, this
Alarme passeth from house to house; yea, commonly, if any _English_
or _Dutch_ come amongst them, they give notice of Strangers by this
signe; yet I have knowne them buy and use a Dutch Trumpet, and knowne
a _Native_ make a good Drum in imitation of the _English_.

  Mattannauke, or                      A fine sorte of mats to Sleep on.

  Maskítuash,                          Straw to ly on.

  Wuddtúckqunash, ponamáuta,           Let us lay on wood.

This they doe plentifully when they lie down to sleep winter and
summer, abundance they have and abundance they lay on: their Fire
is instead of our bedcloaths. And so, themselves and any that have
occasion to lodge with them, must be content to turne often to the
fire if the night be cold, and they who first wake must repaire the

  Mauataúnamoke,                       Mend the fire.

  Mauataunamútta,                      Let us mend the fire.

  Tokêtuck,                            Let us wake.

  Askuttokémis,                        Are you not awake yet.

  Tókish, Tókeke,                      Wake wake.

  Tókinish,                            Wake him.

  Kitumyái tokéan,                     As soone as I wake.

  Ntunnaquômen,                        I have had a good dream.

  Nummattaquômen,                      I have had a bad dream.

When they have had a bad Dreame, which they conceive to be a
threatening from God, they fall to prayer at all times of the night,
especially early before day: So _David’s_ zealous heart to the true
and living God: _At midnight will I rise_ &c. _I prevented the
dawning of the day_, &c. Psal. 119, &c.

  Wunnakukkússaquaùm,                  You sleep much.

  Peeyauntam,                          He prayes.

  Peeyâuntamwock,                      They pray.

  Túnna kukkowémis,                    Where slept you?

  Awaun wéick kukkouĕmis,              At whose house did you sleep?

I once travailed to an Iland of the wildest in our parts, where
in the night an Indian (as he said) had a vision or dream of the
Sun (whom they worship for a God) darting a Beame into his Breast
which he conceived to be the Messenger of his Death: This poore
Native call’d his Friends and neighbours, and prepared some little
refreshing for them, but himselfe was kept waking and Fasting in
great Humiliations and Invocations for 10 dayes and nights: I was
alone (having travailed from my Barke, the wind being contrary) and
little could I speake to them to their understandings especially
because of the change of their Dialect or manner of Speech from our
neighbours: yet so much (through the help of God) I did speake, of
the _True_ and _living only Wise God_, of the Creation: of Man, and
his _fall_ from God, &c. that at parting many burst forth, _Oh when
will you come againe, to bring us some more newes of this God?_

_From their Sleeping: The Observation generall._

Sweet rest is not confind to soft Beds, for, not only God gives his
beloved sleep on hard lodgings: but also Nature and Custome gives
sound sleep to these Americans on the Earth, on a Boord or Mat. Yet
how is _Europe_ bound to God for better lodging, &c.

More particular:

      1. God gives them sleep on Ground, on Straw,
           on Sedgie Mats or Boord:
         When English Softest Beds of Downe,
           sometimes no sleep affoord.

      2. I have knowne them leave their House and Mat,
           to lodge a Friend or stranger,
         When Jewes and Christians oft have sent
           Christ Jesus to the Manger.

      3. ’Fore day they invocate their Gods,
           Though Many False and New:
         O how should that God worshipt be,
           who is but One and True?


_Of their Names._

  Nquít,                                     One.

  Neèsse,                                    2

  Nísh,                                      3

  Yòh,                                       4

  Napànna,                                   5

  Qútta,                                     6

  Enada,                                     7

  Shwósuck,                                  8

  Paskúgit,                                  9

  Piùck,                                    10

  Piucknabna quìt,                          11

  Piucknab neèse,                           12

  Piucknab nìsh,                            13

  Piucknab yòh,                             14

  Piucknab napánna,                         15

  Piucknab naqútta,                         16

  Piucknab énada,                           17

  Piucknabna shwósuck,                      18

  Piucknab napaskúgit,                      19

  Neesnééchick,                             20

  Neesneéchicknabnaquít, &c.                21, &c.

  Shwínckeck,                               30

  Swìncheck nabnaquít, &c.                  31, &c.

  Yowínicheck,                              40

  Yowinicheck nabnaquìt, &c.                41, &c.

  Napannetashincheck,                       50

  Napannetashincheknabnaquìt,               51, &c.

  Quttatashìncheck,                         60

  Quttatashincheck nabnaquìt,               61, &c.

  Enadatashíncheck,                         70

  Enadatashincheck nabnaquít,               71, &c.

  Swoasuck ta shincheck,                    80

  Swoasuck tashincheck nabna qnít,          81, &c.

  Paskugit tashìncheck, &c.                 90

  Paskugit tashincheck nabnaquìt &c.        91 &c.

  Nquìt pâwsuck,                           100

  Nees pâwsuck,                            200

  Shweepâwsuck,                            300

  Yowe pâwsuck,                            400

  Napannetashe pâwsuck,                    500

  Quttatashe pâwsuck,                      600

  Enadatashe pâwsuck,                      700

  Shoasuchtashe pâwsuck,                   800

  Paskugit tashepâwsuck,                   900

  Nquittemittànnug,                       1000

  Neese mittànnug,                        2000

  Nishwe mittànnnug,                      3000

  Yowe mittànnug,                         4000

  Napannetashemittànnug,                  5000

  Quttátashe mittánnug,                   6000

  Enadatashe mittànnug,                   7000

  Shoasuck ta she mittànnug,              8000

  Paskugittashe mittánnug,                9000

  Piuckque mittànnug,                    10000

  Neesneecheck tashe mittànnug,          20000

  Shwinchecktashe mittánnug,             30000

  Yowincheck tashemittánnug,             40000

  Napannetashincheck tashe mittánnug,    50000

  Quttatashincheck tashemittánnug,       60000

  Enadatashincheck tashemittánnuck,      70000

  Shoashuck tashincheck tashe mittánug,  80000

  Pàskugit tashincheck tashe mittànnug,  90000

  Nquit pausuckéemittànnug &c.          100000

Having no Letters nor Arts, ’tis admirable how quick they are in
casting up great numbers, with the helpe of graines of Corne, instead
of _Europes_ pens or counters.

_Numbers of the Masculine Gender._

  Pâwsuck,                             1.
  Neéswock,                            2. Sketomp a Man.
  Shùog,                               3.
  Yówock,                              4.
                                              { Skeetom
  Napannetasúog,                       5. as, { Paúog.
                                              { Men.
  Quttasúog,                           6.
  Enadátasúog,                         7.
  Shoasuck tasúog,                     8.
  Paskugit tasúog,                     9.
  Piucksúog,                           10.
  Piucksúog nabnaquít,                 11.

_Of the Feminine Gender._

  Pâwsuck,                             1.
  Neénash,                             2.
  Swínash,                             3.
  Yowúnnash,                           4.
                                              { Wauchò.
  Napannetashínash,                    5. as, { Hill.
  Quttatashínash,                      6.     { Wauchóash.
                                              { Hills.
  Enadtashínash,                       7.
  Shoasucktashínash,                   8.
  Paskugittashínash,                   9.
  Píuckquatash,                        10.
  Puíckquatash nabnaquìt,              11.

From their Numbers, Observation Generall.

Let it be considered, whether Tradition of ancient _Forefathers_, or
_Nature_ hath taught them _Europes Arithmaticke_.

More particular:

      1. Their Braines are quick, their hands,
           Their feet, their tongues, their eyes:
         God may fit objects in his time,
           To those quicke faculties.

      2. Objects of higher nature make them tell,
           The holy number of his Sons Gospel:
         Make them and us to tell what told may be;
           But stand amazed at Eternitie.


_Of their relations of consanguinitie and affinitie, or, Blood and

  Nnìn-nnìnnuog &
  Skeétomp-aûog,                       Man-men.

  Squàws-suck,                         Woman-women.

  Kichize, &                           An old man,
  Kichizuck,                           Old men.

  Hômes, &                             An Old man,
  Hômesuck,                            Old men.

  Kutchínnu,                           A middle-aged man,
  Kutchínnuwock,                       Middle-aged men.

  Wuskeène,                            A youth,
  Wuskeeneésuck,                       Youths.

  Wénise, &                            An old woman,
  Wenîsuck,                            Old women.

  Mattaûntum,                          Very old and decrepit.

  Wâsick,                              An Husband.

  Weéwo, &                             A Wife.
  Mittúmmus, &

  Noweéwo,                             My Wife.
  Nummíttamus, &c.

  Osh,                                 A Father.

  Nósh,                                My father.

  Cŏsh,                                Your father.

  Cuttóso?                             Have you a father?

  Okásu, &                             A mother.

  Nókace, níchwhaw,                    My mother.

  Wússese,                             An Unckle.

  Nissesê,                             My Unckle.

  Papoòs,                              A childe.

  Nippápoos, &                         My childe.

  Nummuckquâchucks,                    My sonne.

  Nittaûnis,                           My daughter.

  Non ânese,                           A sucking child.

  Muckquachuckquêmese,                 A little boy.

  Squasese,                            A little girle.

  Weémat,                              A brother.

They hold the band of brother-hood so deare, that when one had
committed a murther and fled, they executed his brother; and ’tis
common for a brother to pay the debt of a brother deceased.

  Neémat,                              My brother.

  Wéticks, &                           A sister.

  Wematíttuock,                        They are brothers.

  Cutchashematitín?                    How many brothers have you?

  Natóncks,                            My cousin.

  Kattòncks,                           Your cousin.

  Watòncks,                            A cousin.

  Nullóquasso,                         My ward or pupill.

  Wattonksíttuock,                     They are cousins.

  Kíhtuckquaw,                         A virgin marriageable.

Their Virgins are distinguished by a bashful falling downe of their
haire over their eyes.

  Towiùwock,                           Fatherlesse children.

There are no beggars amongst them, nor fatherlesse children
unprovided for.

  Tackqíuwock,                         Twins.

Their _affections_, especially to their children, are very strong;
so that I have knowne a Father take so grievously the losse of his
_childe_, that he hath cut and stob’d himselfe with _griefe_ and

This extreme _affection_, together with want of _learning_, makes
their children sawcie, bold and undutifull.

I once came into a _house_ and requested some _water_ to drinke;
the _father_ bid his sonne (of some 8 yeeres of age) to fetch some
_water_: the _boy_ refused, and would not stir; I told the _father_
that I would correct my _child_, if he should so disobey me, &c. Upon
this the father took up a sticke, the _boy_ another, and flew at
his father: upon my perswasion, the poor _father_ made him smart a
little, threw downe his stick, and run for _water_ and the _father_
confessed the benefit of _correction_, and the evil of their too
indulgent _affections_.

_From their Relations._--Observation generall.

In the _minds_ of depraved mankinde, are yet to be founde _Natures
distinctions_, and _Natures affections_.

More particular:

      The Pagans wild confesse the bonds
        Of married chastitie:
      How vild are Nicolâitans that hold
        Of Wives communitie?
      How kindly flames of nature burne
        In wild humanitie?
      Naturall affections who wants, is sure
        Far from Christianity.
      Best nature’s vaine, he’s blest that’s made
        A new and rich partaker
      Of divine Nature of his God,
        And blest eternall Maker.


_Of the Family and Businesse of the House._

  Wetu,                                An House.

  Wetuômuck,                           At home.

  Nékick,                              My house.

  Kékick,                              Your house.

  Wékick,                              At his house.

  Nickquénum,                          I am going;

Which is a solemne word amongst them; and no man will offer any
hinderance to him, who after some absence is going to visit his
Family, and useth this word _Nicquénum_, (confessing the sweetness
even of these short temporall homes.)

  Puttuckakàun,                        A round house.

  Puttuckakàunese,                     A little round house.

  Wetuomémese,                         A little house;
                                       which their women and
maids live apart in, foure, five, or six dayes, in the time of their
monethly sicknesse, which custome in all parts of the Countrey they
strictly observe, and no _Male_ may come into that house.

  Neés quttow,                         A long house with two fires.

  Shwíshcuttow,                        With three fires.

  Abockquósiuash,                      The mats of the house.

  Wuttapuíssuck,                       The long poles,
                                       which commonly men get and
fix, and then the women cover the house with mats, and line them with
embroydered mats which the women make, and call them _Mannotaúbana_,
or _Hangings_, which amongst them make as faire a show as Hangings
with us.

  Nòte, or Yòte,
  Chíckot, &                           Fire.

  Notáwese & chickautáwese,            A little fire.

  Púck,                                Smoke.

  Puckíssu,                            Smokie.

  Nippúckis,                           Smoke troubleth me.

  Wuchickapêuck,                       Burching barke. And
                                       _chesnut barke_ which they
dresse finely, and make a Summer-covering for their houses.

  Cuppoquiíttemin,                     I will divide house with you,
                                         or dwell with you.

Two Families will live comfortably and lovingly in a little round
house of some fourteen or sixteen foot over, and so more and more
families in proportion.

  Núckqusquatch,                       I am cold.

  Potouwássiteuck,                     Let us make a fire.

  Wúdtuckqun,                          A piece of wood.

  Wudtúckquanash                       Lay on wood.

  Pawacómwushesh,                      Cut some wood.

  Maumashinnaunamaûta,                 Let us make a good fire.

  Npaacómwushem,                       I will cut wood.

  Aséneshesh,                          Fetch some small sticks.

  Wònck, &                             More.

  Wonckataganash nàus,                 Fetch some more.

  Netashin & Newuchásinea,             There is no more.

  Wequanántash,                        A light fire.

  Wequanantig,                         A Candle, or Light.

  Wequanantiganash,                    Candles.

  Wékinan,                             A light fire.

  Awâuo?                               Who is at home?

  Mat Awawanúnno,                      There is no body.

  Unháppo Kòsh,                        Is your father at home?

  Túckiu Sáchim,                       Where is the Sachim?

  Mat-apeù,                            He is not at home.

  Peyáu,                               He is come.

  Weche-peyàu hee mat,                 Your brother is come with him.

  Pótawash,                            Make a fire.

  Potâuntash,                          Blowe the fire.

  Peeyâuog,                            They are come.

  Wâme, paúshe,                        All-some.

  Tawhìtch mat peyá yean,              Why came, or, come you not.

  Mesh noónshem peeyaùn,               I could not come.

  Mocenanippeéam,                      I will come by and by.

  Aspeyàu, asquam,                     He is not come yet.

  Yò aútant mesh nippeéam,             I was here the sunne so high.

And then they point with the hand to the Sunne, by whose highth they
keepe account of the day, and by the Moone and Stars by night, as wee
doe by clocks and dialls, &c.

  Wùskont peyâuog,                     They will come.

  Teaqua naúntick ewò,                 What comes hee for?

  Yo áppitch ewò,                      Let him sit there.

  Unhappo kòsh,                        Is your father at home.

  Unnàugh,                             He is there.

  Npépeyup náwwot,                     I have long been here.

  Tawhitch peyáuyean,                  Why doe you come?

  Téaguun kunnaúntamun?                What come you for?

  Awàun ewò?                           Who is that?

  Nowéchiume,                          He is my servant.

  Wécum, nàus,                         Call, fetch.

  Petiteaûta,                          Let us goe in.

  Noonapummin autashehéttit,           There is not roome for so many.

  Taubapímmin,                         Roome enough.

  Noónat,                              Not enough.

  Asquam,                              Not yet.

  Náim, nàmitch,                       By and by.

  Moce, unuckquaquêse,                 Instantly.

  Máish, kittummây,                    Just, even now.

  Túckiu, tíyu,                        Where.

  Kukkekuttokâwmen,                    Would you speake with him?

  Nùx,                                 Yea.

  Wuttammâun tam,                      He is busie.

  Nétop notammâuntam,                  Friend, I am busie.

  Cotámmâuntam,                        Are you busie?

  Cotámmish,                           I hinder you.

  Cotammmúme, Cotamme,                 You trouble me.

Obs: They are as full of businesse, and as impatient of hinderance
(in their kind) as any Merchant in _Europe_.

  Nqussûtam,                           I am removing.

  Notámmehick ewò,                     He hinders me.

  Maumacníuash,                        Goods.

  Aúqiegs,                             Householdstuffe.

  Tuckìiuash,                          Where be they?

  Wenawwêtu,                           Rich.

  Machêtu,                             Poore.

  Wenawetuónckon,                      Wealth.

  Kúppash,                             Shut the doore.

  Kuphómmin,                           To shut the doore.

  Yeaùsh,                              Shut doore after you.

Obs: Commonly they never shut their doores, day nor night; and ’tis
rare that any hurt is done.

  Wunêgin,                             Well, or good.

  Machit,                              Naught, or evill.

  Cowaûtam?                            Do you understand?

  Machâug,                             No, or not.

  Wunuàug,                             A Tray.

  Wunnaugánash,                        Trayes.

  Kunàm,                               A Spoone.

  Kunnamâuog,                          Spoones.

Obs: Insteed of shelves, they have severall baskets, wherein they put
all their householdstuffe; they have some great bags or sacks made of
Hempe which will hold five or sixe bushells.

  Tácunck, or Wéskunck,                Their pounding Morter.

Obs: Their Women constantly beat all their corne with hand: they
plant it, dresse it, gather it, barne it, beat it, and take as much
paines as any people in the world, which labour is questionlesse one
cause of their extraordinary ease of child birth.

  Wunnauganémese,                      A little Tray.

  Téaqua cunnàtinne,                   What doe you looke for?

  Natínnehas,                          Search.

  Kekíneas,                            See here.

  Machage cunna miteôuwin?             Doe you find nothing.

  Wónckatack,                          Another.

  Tunnatì,                             Where.

  Ntauhaunanatinnehómmin,              I cannot looke or search.

  Ntauhaunanamiteoúwin,                I cannot find.

  Wíaseck, Eiassunck,
  Mocôtick, Punnêtunck,                A Knife.

Obs: Whence they call _Englishmen_ Cháuquaquock, that is,
_Knive-men_, stone formerly being to them instead of _Knives_, _Awle
blades_, _Hatchets and Howes_.

  Namacówhe,                           Lend me your Knife.

  Wonck Commêsim?                      Wil you give it me again?

  Mátta nowáuwone,                     I knew nothing.
  Matta nowáhea,

  Mat meshnowáhea,                     I was innocent.

  Paútous, Pautâuog,                   Bring hither.

  Maúchatous,                          Carry this.

  Niâutàsh, &
  Wéawhush,                            Take it on your backe.

Obs: It is almost incredible what burthens the poore women carry of
_Corne_, of _fish_, of _Beanes_, of _Mats_, and a childe besides.

  Awâùn,                               There is some body.

  Kekíneas,                            Goe and see.

  Squauntâumuck,                       At the doore.

  Awàun keèn?                          Who are you?

  Keèn nétop,                          Is it you?

  Pauquanamíinnea,                     Open me the doore.

Obs: Most commonly there houses are open, their doore is a hanging
_Mat_, which being lift up, falls downe of itselfe; yet many of
them get _English_ boards and nailes, and make artificiall doores
and bolts themselves, and others make slighter doores of _Burch_ or
_Chesnut_ barke, which they make fast with a cord in the night time,
or when they go out of town, and then the last (that makes fast) goes
out at the Chimney, which is a large opening in the middle of their
house, called:

  Wunnauchicómock,                     A chimney.

  Anúnema,                             Helpe me.

  Neenkuttánnúmous,                    I will helpe you.

  Kuttánnummi?                         Will you helpe me?

  Shookekíneas,                        Behold here.

  Assótu and Assóko,                   A foole.

  Nummouekékineam,                     I come to see.

  Tou autég,                           Know you where it lies?

  Tou núckquaque,                      How much.

  Yo naumwâuteg,                       Thus full.

  Aqúíe,                               Leave off, or doe not.

  Waskéche,                            On the top.

  Náumtuck,                            In the bottome.

  Aŭqunnish,                           Let goe.

  Aukeeaseíu,                          Downewards.

  Keesuckqíu,                          Upwards.

  Aumàunsh,                          }
  Ausàuonsh,                         } Take away.
  Aumáunamòke,                       }

  Nanóuwetea,                          A Nurse, or Keeper.

  Nanowwúnemum,                        I looke to, or Keepe.

Obs: They nurse all their children themselves; yet, if she be an high
or rich woman, she maintaines a Nurse to tend the childe.

  Waucháunama,                         Keep this for me.

  Cuttatashíinnas,                     Lay these up for me.

Obs: Many of them begin to be furnished with _English_ chests;
others, when they goe forth of towne, bring their goods (if they live
neere) to the _English_ to keepe for them, and their money they hang
it about their necks, or lay it under their head when they sleepe.

  Peewâuqun,                           Have a care.

  Nnowauchâunum,                       I will have a care.

  Kuttaskwhè,                          Stay for me.

     and                               Have you this or that?

     and                               It is broke.

  Mat Coanichégane,                    Have you no hands?

  Tawhìtch?                            Why aske you?

  Nóonshem Pawtuckquámmin,             I cannot reach.

  Aquie Pokesháttous,                  Doe not breake.

  Pokesháttouwin,                      To breake.


They have also amongst them naturall fooles, either so borne, or
accidentally deprived of reason.

  Aquie assókish,                      Be not foolish.

  Awanick,                             Some come.

  Niáutamwock,                         They are loden.

  Mattapeu and                         A woman keeping alone in
  Qushenáwsui,                           her monethly sicknesse.

  Moce ntúnnan,                        I will tell him by and by.

  Cowequetúmmous,                      I pray or intreat you.

  Wunniteôuin,                         To mend any thing.

  Wúnniteous, or                       Mend this.
  Wússiteous,                          Mend this.

  Wúskont nochemuckqun,                I shall be chidden.

  Nickúmmat,                           Easie.

  Siúckat,                             Hard.

  Cummequâwname?                       Do you remember me?

  Mequaunamíinnea,                     Remember me.

  Puckqúatchick,                       Without doores.

  Nissawhócunckewò,                    He puts me out of doores.

  Kussawhóki?                          Doe you put mee out of doores?

  Kussawhocowóog,                      Put them forth.

  Tawhítch kussawhokiêan?              Why doe you put mee out?

  Sáwwhush,                            Goe forth.

  Wussauhemútta,                       Let us goe forth.

  Matta nickquéhick,                   I want it not.

  Machagè nickquehickômina,            I want nothing.


Many of them naturally Princes, or else industrious persons, are
rich; and the poore amongst them will say, they want nothing.

  Páwsawash,                           Drie or ayre this.

  Pawsunnúmmin,                        To drie this or that.

  Cuppausummúnnash,                    Drie these things.

  Apíssumma,                           Warme this for me.

  Paucótche,                           Already.

  Cutsshitteoùs,                       Wash this.

  Tatágganish,                         Shake this.

  Naponsh,                             Lay downe.

  Wuchè machaùg,                       About nothing.

  Puppucksháckhege,                    A Box.

  Paupaqúonteg,                        A Key.

  Mowáshuck,                           Iron.

  Wâuki,                               Crooked.

  Saûmpi,                              Strait.

  Aumpaniímmin,                        To undoe a knot.

  Aúmpanish,                           Vntie this.

  Paushinúmmin,                        To divide into two.

  Pepênash,                            Take your choyce.

  Nawwuttùnsh                          Throw hither.

  Negáutowash,                         Send for him.

  Negauchhúwash,                       Send this to him.

  Negáuchemish,                        Hee sends to mee.

  Nowwêta,                             No matter.

  Mâuo,                                To cry and bewaile.

Which bewailing is very solemne amongst them morning and evening,
and sometimes in the Night they bewaile their lost husbands, wives,
children, brethren, or sisters &c. Sometimes a quarter, halfe, yea,
a whole yeare, and longer if it be for a great Prince. In this time
(unlesse a dispensation be given) they count it a prophane thing
either to play (as they much use to doe) or to paint themselves for
beauty, but for mourning; or to be angry and fall out with any &c.

  Machemóqut,                          It stincks.

  Machemóqussu,                        A vile or stinking person.

  Wúnnickshaas,                        Mingled.

  Wúnnickshan,                         To mingle.

  Nésick, & nashóqua,                  A Combe.

  Tetúpsha,                            To fall downe.

  Ntetúpshem,                          I fall downe.

  Tou anúckquaque?                     How big?

  Wunnáshpishan,                       To snatch away.

  Tawhìtch wunnashpisháyean,           Why snatch you.

  Wuttùsh,                             Hitherward, and give me.

  Enèick, or áwwusse,                  Further.

  Nneickomásu, and awwassése,          A little further.

  Wuttushenaquáish,                    Looke hither.

  Yo anaquáyean,                       Looke about.

  Máuks, maugoke,                      Give this.

  Yo comméish,                         I will give you this.

  Qussúcqun-náukon,                    Heavie, light.

  Kuckqússaqun,                        You are heavie.

  Kunnaùki,                            You are light.

  Nickáttash, _singular_,              Leave, or depart.
  Nickáttammoke, _plur._

  Nickattamútta,                       Let us depart.

  Yòwa,                                Thus.

  Ntowwaukâumen,                       I use it.

  Awawkáwnì,                           It is used.

  Yo awáutees,                         Vse this.

  Yo wéque,                            Thus farre.

  Yo mèshnowékeshem,                   I went thus farre.

  Ayatche, and                         As Often.

  Ayatche nippéeam,                    I am often here.

  Pakêtash,                            Fling it away.

  Npaketamúnnash,                      I will cast him away.

  Wuttammásim,                         Give me Tobacco.

  Matnowewuttámmo,                     I take none.

Obs: Which some doe not, but they are rare Birds; for generally all
the Men throughout the Countrey have a Tobacco-bag with a pipe in it,
hanging at their back; sometimes they make such great pipes, both
of wood and stone, that they are two foot long, with men or beasts
carved, so big or massie, that a Man may be hurt mortally by one of
them; but these commonly come from the _Mauquáuwogs_, or the men
eaters, three or foure hundred miles from us: They have an excellent
Art to cast our Pewter and Brasse into very neate and artificiall
Pipes: They take their _Wuttamâuog_ (that is, a weake Tobacco) which
the Men plant themselves, very frequently; yet I never see any take
so excessively, as I have seene Men in Europe; and yet excesse were
more tolerable in them, because they want the refreshing of Beare and
Wine, which God hath vouchafed Europe.

  Wuttámmagon,                         A Pipe.

  Hopuónck,                            A Pipe.

Chicks, a cocke, or hen: A name taken from the English chicke,
because they have no hens before the English came.

  Chícks ánawat,                       The Cocke crowes.

  Neesquttónckqussu,                   A babler, or prater.

  Cunneesquttonck quessimmin,          You prate.

Obs: Which they figuratively transferre from the frequent troublesome
clamour of a Cocke.

  Nanótateem,                          I keepe house alone.

  Aquìe kuttúnnan,                     Doe not tell.

  Aquìe mooshkisháttous,               Doe not disclose.

  Teàg yo augwháttick?                 What hangs there?

  Yo augwháttous?                      Hang it there.

  Pemisquâi,                           Crooked, or winding.

  Penâyi,                              Crooked.

Nqussútam--I remove house: Which they doe upon these occasions: From
thick warme vallies, where they winter, they remove a little neerer
to their Summer fields; when ’tis warme Spring, then they remove to
their fields, where they plant Corne. In middle of Summer, because
of the abundance of Fleas, which the dust of the house breeds, they
will flie and remove on a sudden from one part of their field to a
fresh place: And sometimes having fields a mile or two, or many miles
asunder, when the worke of one field is over, they remove house to
the other: If death fall in amongst them, they presently remove to
a fresh place: If an enemie approach they remove into a Thicket, or
Swampe, unlesse they have some fort to remove unto.

Sometimes they remove to a hunting house in the end of the yeare, and
forsake it not until Snow lie thick and then will travell home, Men,
women and children, thorow the snow, thirtie, yea, fiftie or sixtie
miles; but their great remove is from their Summer fields to warme
and thicke woodie bottomes where they winter: They are quicke; in
halfe a day, yea, sometimes at few houres warning to be gone and the
house up elsewhere, especially, if they have stakes readie pitcht for
their Mats.

I once in travell lodged at a house, at which in my returne I hoped
to have lodged againe the next night, but the house was gone in that
interim, and I was glad to lodge under a tree:

The men make the poles or stakes, but the women make and set up, take
downe, order and carry the _Mats_ and householdstuffe.

Observation in generall.

The sociablenesse of the nature of Man appears in the wildest of
them, who love society; families, co-habitation, and consociation of
houses and towns together.

More Particular.

      1. How busie are the sonnes of men?
           How full their heads and hands?
         What noyse and tumults in our own,
           And eke in Pagan lands?

      2. Yet I have found lesse noyse, more peace
           In wilde America,
         Where women quickly build the house,
           And quickly move away.

      3. English and Indians busie are,
           In parts of their abode;
         Yet both stand idle, till God’s call
           Sets them to worke for God.


_Of their Persons and parts of Body._

  Uppaquóntup,                         The head.

  Nuppaquóntup,                        My head.

  Wésheck,                             The hayre.

  Wuchechepúnnock,                     A great bunch of hayre
                                         bound up behind.

  Múppacuck,                           A long locke.

Obs. Yet some cut their haire round, and some as low and as short as
the sober English; yet I never saw any so to forget nature it selfe
in such excessive length and monstrous fashion, as to the shame of
the English Nation, I now (with grief) see my Countrey-men in England
are degenerated unto.

Wuttip, The Braine.--Obs. In the braine their opinion is, that the
soule (of which we shall speake in the Chapter of Religion) keeps her
chiefe seat and residence:

For the temper of the braine in quick apprehensions and accurate
judgements (to say no more) the most high and soveraign God and
Creator, hath not made them inferiour to Europeans.

The Mauquaûogs, or Men-eaters that live two or three hundred miles
West from us, make a delicious monstrous dish of the head and
brains of their enemies; which yet is no barre (when the time shall
approach) against Gods call and their repentance and who knowes (but)
a greater love to the Lord Jesus? great sinners forgiven love much.

  Mscáttuck,                           The fore-head.

  Wuskeésuck-quash,                    Eye, or eyes.

  Tiyùsh kusskeésuckquash?             Can you not see or where
                                         are your eyes?

  Wuchaûn,                             The nostrills.

  Wuttóvwog, quàsh,                    Eare, eares

  Wuttòne,                             The mouth.

  Wéenat,                              The tongue.

  Wépit-teash,                         Tooth, teeth.

  Pummaumpiteùnck,                     The tooth-ake.

Obs: Which is the onely paine will force their stout hearts to cry;
I cannot heare of any disease of the stone amongst them (the corne
of the Countrey, with which they are fed from the wombe, being an
admirable cleanser and opener:) but the paine of their womens child
birth (of which I shall speake afterward in the Chapter of Marriage)
never forces their women so to cry, as I have heard some of their Men
in this paine.

In this paine they use a certaine root dried, not much unlike our

  Sítchipuck,                          The necke.

  Qúttuck,                             The throat.

Timeqúassin, To cut off or behead.--Which they are most skilfull to
doe in fight: for whenever they wound, and their arrow sticks in the
body of their enemie, they (if they be valorous, and possibly may)
they follow their arrow, and falling upon the person wounded and
tearing his head a little aside by his Locke, they in the twinckling
of an eye fetch off his head though but with a sorry knife.

I know the Man yet living, who in time of warre, pretended to fall
from his owne campe to the enemie, proffered his service in the
front with them against his owne Armie from whence he had revolted.
Hee propounded such plausible advantages, that he drew them out to
battell, himselfe keeping in the front; but on a sudden, shot their
chiefe Leader and Captaine, and being shot, in a trice fetcht off
his head, and returned immediately to his owne againe, from whom in
pretence (though with this treacherous intention) hee had revolted:
his act was false and treacherous, yet herein appeares policie,
stoutnesse and activitie, &c.

  Napànnog,                            The breast.

  Wuppíttene énash,                    Arme, Armes.

  Wuttàh,                              The heart.

  Wunnêtunita,                         My heart is good.

Obs: This speech they use whenever they professe their honestie; they
naturally confessing that all goodnesse is first in the heart.

  Mishquínash,                         The vaines.

  Mishquè, néepuck,                    The blood.

  Uppusquàn,                           The backe.

  Nuppusquànnick,                      My back, or at my back.

  Wunnícheke,                          Hand.

  Wunniskégannash,                     Hands.

  Mokássuck,                           Nayles.

Obs: They are much delighted after battell to hang up the hands and
heads of their enemies: (Riches, long Life, and the Lives of enemies
being objects of great delight to all men naturall; but Solomon
begged Wisedome before these.)

  Wunnáks,                             The bellie.

  Apòme, Apòmash,                      The thigh, the thighs.

  Mohcònt, tash,                       A legge, legs.

  Wussètte, tash,                      A foot, feet.

  Wunnichéganash,                      The toes.

  Touwuttínsin,                        What manner of man?

  Tonnúckquaque,                       Of what bignesse?

  Wompésu,                           } White
  Mowêsu, and                        } Blacke or Swarfish.
  Suckêsu,                           }

Obs: Hence they call a Blackamore (themselves are tawnie, by the
Sunne and their annoyntings, yet they are borne white:)

Suckáuttacone, a cole blacke Man. For, _sucki_ is black, and
_Waûtacone_ one that weares clothes, whence English, Dutch, French,
Scotch, they call _Wautaconâuog_, or Coatmen.

  Cummínakese,                         You are strong.

  Minikêsu,                            Strong.

  Minioquêsu,                          Weake.

  Cummmíniocquese,                     Weake you are.

  Qunnaúqussu,                         A tall man.

  Qunnauqussítchick,                   Tall men.

  Tiaquónqussu,                        Low and short.

  Tiaquonqussíchick,                   Men of lowe stature.

  Wunnêtu-wock,                        Proper and personall.

_The generall observation from the parts of the bodie._

Nature knowes no difference between Europe and Americans in blood,
birth, bodies, &c. God having of one blood made all mankind. Acts 17.
and all by nature being children of wrath, Ephes. 2.

More particularly:

      Boast not proud English, of thy birth and blood
      Thy Brother Indian is by birth as Good.
      Of one blood God made Him, and Thee, and All.
      As wise, as faire, as strong, as personall.
      By nature, wrath’s his portion, thine, no more
      Till Grace his soule and thine in Christ restore.
      Make sure thy second birth, else thou shalt see
      Heaven ope to Indians wild, but shut to thee.


_Of Discourse and Newes._

  Aunchemokauhettíttea,                Let us discourse, or tell newes.

  Tocketeáunchim?                      What newes?

  Aaunchemókaw,                        Tell me your newes.

  Cuttaunchemókous,                    I will tell you newes.

  Mautaunchemokouêan,                  When I have done telling
                                         the newes.

  Cummautaunchemókous,                 I have done my newes.

Obs: Their desire of, and delight in newes, is great, as the
_Athenians_, and all Men, more or lesse; a stranger that can relate
newes in their owne language, they will stile him _Manittóo_, a God.

  Wutauichéocouôog,                    I will tell it them.

  Awaun mesh aunchemókau,              Who brought this newes?

  Awaun mesh kuppíttouwaw,             Of whom did you heare it?

  Upparáunchim,                        Your newes is true.

  Cowavwunnâunchim,                    He tells false newes.

  Nummautanùme,                        I have spoken enough.

  Nsouwussanneme,                      I am weary with speaking.

Obs: Their Manner is upon any tidings to sit round, double or treble
or more, as their numbers be; I have seene neere a thousand in a
round, where _English_ could not well neere halfe so many have
sitten: Every Man hath his pipe of their _Tobacco_, and a deepe
silence they make, and attention given to him that speaketh; and
many of them will deliver themselves, either in a relation of news,
or in a consultation, with very emphaticall speech and great action,
commonly an houre, and sometimes two houres together.

  Npenowauntawâumen,                   I cannot speake your language.

  Matta nippánnawen,                   I lie not.

  Cuppánnowem,                         You lie.

  Matntianta compaw,                   I am no lying fellow.

  Achienonâumwem,                      I speake very true.

  Kukkita,                             Hearken to me.

  Kukkakittoùs,                        I heare you.

Obs: They are impatient (as all Men and God himselfe is) when their
speech is not attended and listened to.

  Cuppítous,                           I understand you.

  Machagenowâutam,                     I understand not.

  Matnowawtawatémina,                  Wee understand not each other.

  Wunnáumwash,                         Speake the truth.

  Coanâumwen,                          You speake true.

Obs: This word and the next, are words of great flattery which they
use each to other, but constantly to their Princes at their speeches,
for which, if they be eloquent, they esteeme them Gods as _Herod_
among the _Jewes_.

  Wunnâumwaw ewò,                      He speaks true.

  Cuppannawâutous,                     I doe not believe you.

  Cuppannawâuti?                       Doe you not believe?

  Nippannawâutunck ewò,                He doth not believe me.

  Michéme nippauna wâut am,            I shall never believe it.

Obs: As one answered me when I had discoursed about many points of
God, of the creation of the Soule, of the danger of it, and the
saving it, he assented; but when I spake of the rising againe of the
body, he cryed out, I shall never believe this.

  Pannóuwa awaun, awaun                Somebody hath made this lie.

  Tattâ Pitch,                         I cannot tell, it may so
                                         come to passe.

  Nni, eíu,                            It is true.

  Mat enâno, or mat eâno,              It is not true.

  Kekutto kâunta,                      Let us speake together.

  Kuttókash,                           Speake.

  Tawhitch mat cuttôan,                Why speake you not?

  Téaqua ntúnnawen, or,                What should I speake.

  Wetapímmin,                          To sit downe.

  Wetapwâuwwas,                        Sit and talke with us.

  Taúpowaw,                            A wise speaker.

  Enapwáuwwaw,                         He speakes Indian.

  Mattanowawwâuon, matta               I know nothing of it.

  Pitchnowáuwon,                       I shall know the truth.

  Wunnaumwáyean,                       If he say true.

Obs: Canounicus, the old high Sachim of the Nariganset Bay (a wise
and peaceable Prince) once in a solemne oration to myself, in a
solemne assembly, using this word, said, I have never suffered any
wrong to be offered to the English since they landed: nor never
will: he often repeated this word, Wunnaunewayeán, Englishman; if
the Englishman speake true, if hee meane truly, then shall I goe
to my grave in peace, and hope that the English and my posteritie
shall live in love and peace together. I replied, that he had no
cause (as I hoped) to question Englishmen’s Wunnaumwaúonck, that is,
faithfulnesse, he having had long experience of their friendlinesse
and trustinesse. He tooke a stick and broke it into ten pieces,
and related ten instances (laying downe a stick to every instance)
which gave him cause thus to feare and say; I satisfied him in some
presently, and presented the rest to the Governours of the English,
who, I hope, will be far from giving just cause to have Barbarians to
question their Wunnaumwâuonck, or faithfulnesse.

  Tocketannántum,                    }
  Pocketunáname,                     } What doe you thinke?
  Pocketeántam?                      }

  Ntunnántum,                          I thinke.

  Nanick nteeâtum,                     I thinke so too.

  Nteatammowonck,                      That is my thought, or opinion.

  Matntunnantámmen,                    I thinke not so.

  Nowecóntam,                          I am glad.

  Coanáumatous,                        I believe you.

Obs: This word they use just as the Greeke tongue doth that verbe,
πιςέυειν: for believing or obeying, as it is often used in the new
Testament, and they say Coannáumatous, I will obey you.

  Yo aphéttit,                         When they are here.

Yo peyáhettit. When they are com. This Ablative case absolute
they much use, and comprise much in little; Awaunagress, suck.
English-man, men. This they call us, as much as to say, These
strangers. Waútacone-nûaog Englishman, men. That is, coat-men, or

  Cháuquaqock,                         English-men, properly sword-men.

  Wautacónisk,                         An English woman.

  Wautaconémese,                       An English youth.

  Wáske peyáeyan,                      When you came first.

  Wáske peyáhetit,                     When Englishmen came first.

  Táwhitch peyáhettit,                 Why come they hither?

Obs: This question they oft put to me: Why come the _Englishmen_
hither? and measuring others by themselves; they say, it is because
you want firing; for they, having burnt up the _wood_ in one place,
(wanting draughts to bring _wood_ to them) they are faine to follow
the _wood_; and so, to remove to a fresh new place for the _woods_

  Matta mihtuckqunnunno?               Have you no trees?

  Máunetash,                           Great store.

  Wussaumemaunâuog,                    They are too full of people.

  Noonapúock,                          They have not roome one
                                         by another.

  Aumáumuwaw,                          A messenger comes.

  Wawwhawtowâuog,                      They hollow.

  Wauwhaûtowawánawat,                  ’Tis an alarme.

Obs: If it be in time of _warre_, he that is a _Messenger_ runs
swiftly, and at every towne the _Messenger_ comes, a fresh
_Messenger_ is sent: he that is the last, comming within a mile or
two of the Court, or chiefe house, he hollowes often, and they that
heare, answer him: untill by mutuall _hollowing_ and answering hee is
brought to the place of _audience_, whereby this meanes is gathered a
great confluence of people to entertaine the _newes_.

  Wussuckwhèke,                        A letter, which they so
  Wussúckwhonck,                         call from Wussuck-whómmen,
                                         To paint; for, having no
                                         letters, their painting
                                         comes the neerest.

  Wussúckquash,                        Write a Letter.

  Wussúckwheke, yimmi,                 Make me a letter.

Obs: That, they have often desired of me upon many occasions; for
their good and peace, and the _English_ also, as it hath pleased God
to vouchsafe opportunitie.

  Quenowâuog,                          They complaine.

  Tawhitch quenawáyean?                Why complaine you?

  Muccò,                               It is true you say.

  Tuckawntéawem?                       What should I say to it.

_The generall Observation from their Discourse and Newes._

The whole race of _Mankind_ is generally infected with an _itching
desire_ of hearing _Newes_.

More particular:

      1. Mans restlesse soule hath restlesse eyes and eares,
         Wanders in change of sorrows, cares and feares.
         Faine would it (Bee like) suck by the ears, by the eye
         Something that might his hunger satisfie:
         The Gospel, or glad tidings onely can
         Make glad the English and the Indian.


_Of the time of the day._

Obs: They are punctuall in measuring their Day by the Sunne, and
their Night by the Moon and the Starres, and their lying much abroad
in the ayre; and so living in the open fields, occasioneth even the
youngest amongst them to be very observant of those _heavenly_ lights.

  Mautàbon, Chicháuquat wompan,        It is day.

  Ampatâuban,                          It is broad day.

  Touwuttúttan?                        How high is the Sunne? that is,
                                         What is’t a clocke?

  Páshisha,                            It is Sunne-rise.

  Nummáttaqúaw,                        Fore-noone.

  Yahen Paushaqúaw,                    Allmost noone.

  Páweshaquaw,                         Noone.

  Quttùkquaquaw,                       After dinner.

  Nawwâuwqaw,                          After-noone.

  Yo wuttúttan,                        The Sunne thus high.

  Yahen wàiyàuw,                       Allmost Sun-set.

  Wayaàwi,                             The Sun is set.

  Wunnáuquit,                          Evening.

  Póppakunnetch, auchaugotch,          Darke night.

  Túppaco, and Otematíppocat,          Toward night.

  Nanashowatíppocat,                   Midnight.

  Chouóeatch,                          About Cockcrowing.

  Kitompanisha,                        Breake of day.

  Yó Tàunt nipéean,                    The Sun thus high, I will come.

Obs: They are punctuall in their promises of Keeping time; and
sometimes have charged mee with a lye for not punctually keeping
time, though hindred.

  Yo tàunt cuppeeyâumen,               Come by the Sunne thus high.

  Anamakéesuck,                        This day.

  Saûop,                               To morrow.

  Wussâume tátsha,                     It is too late.

  Tiaquockaskéesakat,                  A short day.

  Quawquonikéesakat,                   A long day.

  Quawquonikeesaqútcheas,              Long dayes.

  Nquittakeesiquóckat,               } One dayes walke.
  Nquíttakeespúmmishen,              }

  Paukúnnum,                           Darke.

  Wequâi,                              Light.

  Wequáshim,                           Moon-light.

_The general Observation from their time of the Day._

The Sunne and Moone, in the observation of all the Sonnes of Men,
even the wildest, are the great Directors of the day and night; as it
pleased God to appoint in the first Creation.

More particular.

      1. The Indians find the Sun so sweet,
           He is a God they say;
         Giving them light, and heat, and fruit,
           And guidance all the day.

      2. They have no helpe of Clock or Watch,
           And Sunne they overprize.
         Having those artificiall helps, the Sun
           We unthankfully despise.

      3. God is a sunne and shield,
           A thousand times more bright
         Indians, or English, though they see
           Yet how few prize his light.


_Of the Season of the Yeere._

  Nquittaqúnnegat,                     One day.

  Neesqúnnagat,                        2 dayes.

  Shuckqunóckat,                       3 dayes.

  Yowunnóckat &c.                      4 dayes.

  Piuckaqúnnagat,                      10 dayes.

  Piuckaqunnagat nabnaquìt,            11 dayes.

  Piuckaqunnagat nabneeze &c.          12 dayes.

  Neesneechektashuck qunnóckat,        20 dayes.

   qunnockat-nabnaquít &c.             21 dayes.

  Séquan,                              The Spring.

  Aukeeteámitch,                       Spring, or seed-time.

  Néepun, &
  Quaqúsquan,                          Summer.

  Taquònck,                            Fall of leafe and Autumne.

  Papóne,                              Winter.

  Saséquacup,                          This Spring last.

  Yo neepúnnacup,                      This Summer last.

  Yò taquónticup,                      This Harvest last.

  Papapôcup,                           Winter last.

  Yaûnedg,                             The last yeere.

  Nippaûus,                            The Sunne.

  Nanepaûshat,                         The Moone.

  Nquitpawsuckenpaûus,                 1 Moneth.

  Neespausuck npaûus,                  2 Moneths.

  Shwe pausuck npaûus &c.              3 Moneths.

  Neesneáhettit,                       2 Moneths.

  Shwinneáhettit,                      3 Moneths.

  Yowinneáhettit, &c.                  4 Moneths.

Obs: They have thirteen Moneths according to the severall Moones; and
they give to each of them significant names: as,

  Sequanakéeswush,                     Spring moneth.

  Neepunnakéeswush,                    Summer moneth.

  Taquontikéeswush,                    Harvest moneth, &c.

  Paponakéeswush, &c.                  Winter moneth, &c.

  Nquittecautúmmo,                     1 Yeere.

  Tashecautúmmo?                       How many Yeeres?

  Chashecautúmmo cuttáppemus?          How many yeeres since you
                                         were borne?

  Neesecautúmmo,                       2 Yeere.

  Shwecautúmmo,                        3 Yeere.

  Yowecautúmmo,                        4 Yeere.

  Piukquecautúmmo,                     10 Yeere.

  Piuck quecautúmmo, nabnaquìt, &c.    11 Yeere, &c.

Obs: If the yeere proove drie, they have great and solemne meetings
from all parts at one high place, to supplicate their Gods, and
to beg raine, and they will continue in this worship ten dayes, a
fortnight, yea, three weekes, untill raine come.

  Tashínash papónash?                  How many winters?

  Aháuqushapapòne,                     A sharpe winter.

  Kéesqush keesuckquâi,                By day.

  Náukocks nokan-náwi,                 By night.

_Generall Observation from their Seasons of the Yeere._

The Sunne, and Moone, and Starres and Seasons of the yeere doe preach
a God to all the sonnes of men, that they which know no letters, doe
yet read an _eternall Power_ and _Godhead_ in these.

More speciall:

      1. The Sun and Moone and Stars doe preach,
         The Dayes and Nights sound out
       Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter eke,
         Each Moneth and Yeere about.

      2. So that the wildest sonnes of men
         Without excuse shall say,
       God’s righteous sentence past on us,
         (In dreadfull judgement day.)
       If so, what doome is theirs that see,
         Not onely Nature’s light,
       But Sun of Righteousnesse, yet chose
         To live in darkest Night?


_Of Travell._

  Máyi,                                A way.

  Mayúo?                               Is there a way?

  Mat mayanúnno,                       There is no way.

  Peemáyagât,                          A little way.

  Mishimmáyagat,                       A great path.

  Machípscat,                          A stone path.

Obs: It is admirable to see, what paths their naked hardned feet have
made in the wildernesse in most stony and rockie places.

  Nnatotemúckaun,                      I will aske the way.

  Kunnatótemous,                       I will inquire of you.

  Kunnatotemì?                         Doe you aske me?

  Tou nishin méyi?                     Where lies the way?

  Kokotemíinnea méyi,                  Shew me the way.

  Yo áinshick méyi,                    There the way lies.

  Kukkakótemous,                       I will shew you.

  Yo cummittamáyon,                    There is the way you must goe.

  Yo chippachâusin,                    There the way divides.

  Maúchatea,                           A guide.

  Maûchase,                            Be my guide.

Obs: The wildernesse being so vast, it is a mercy, that for a hire
a Man shall never want guides, who will carry provisions, and such
as hire them over the Rivers and Brookes, and find out oftentimes
hunting houses, or other lodgings at night.

  Anóce wénawash,                      Hire him.

  Kuttánnoonsh,                        I will hire you.

  Kuttaúnckquittaunch,                 I will pay you.

  Kummuchickónckquatous,               I will pay you well.

  Tocketaonckquittíinnea,              What wil you give me?

  Cummáuchanish,                       I will conduct you.

  Yò aûnta,                            Let us goe that way.

  Yò cuttâunan,                        Goe that way.

  Yo mtúnnock,                         The right hand.

  Yo nmúnnatch,                        The left hand.

  Cowéchaush,                          I will goe with you.

  Wétash,                              Goe along.

  Cowéchaw ewò,                        He will goe with you.

  Cowechauatimmin,                     I will goe with you.

  Wechauatíttea,                       Let us accompany.

  Taûbot wétayean,                     I thanke you for your company.

Obs: I have heard of many English lost, and have oft been lost my
selfe, and my selfe and others have often been found, and succoured
by the Indians.

  Pitchcowáwwon,                       You will lose your way.

  Meshnowáwwon,                        I lost my way.

  Nummauchèmin,                        I will be going.

  Mammauchêtuck,                       Let us be going.

  Memauchêwi, anittui,                 He is gone.

  Memauchegushánnick,                  They are gone.

  Tunnockkuttoyeâim,                   Whither goe you?

  Nnegónshem,                          I will goe before.

  Cuppompáish,                         I will stay for you.

  Negónshesh,                          Goe before.

  Mittummayaûcup,                      The way you went before.

  Cummáttanish,                        I will follow you.

  Cuppahímmin,                         Stay for me.

  Tawhich quaunquaquêan?               Why doe you run so?

  Nowecóntum púmmishem,                I have a mind to travell.

  Konkenuphshâuta,                     Let us goe apace.

  Konkenúppe,                          Goe apace.

  Michéme nquaunquaquêmin,             I have run alwayes.

  Yo ntoyamâushem,                     I goe this pace.

Obs: They are generally quick on foot, brought up from the breasts
to running; their legs being also from the wombe stretcht and bound
up in a strange way on their Cradle backward, as also anointed; yet
have they some that excell: So that I have knowne many of them run
betweene fourescoure or an hundred miles in a Summers day, and back
in two dayes: they doe also practice running of _Races_; and commonly
in the Summer, they delight to goe without shoes, although they have
them hanging at their backs: they are so exquisitely skilled in all
the body and bowels of the Countrey (by reason of their huntings)
that I have often been guided twentie, thirtie, yea, sometimes fortie
miles through the woods, a streight course, out of any path.

  Yò wuchê,                            From hence.

  Tounúckquaque yo wuchê,              How far from hence?

  Yò anúckquaque,                      So farre.

  Yo anuckquaquêse,                    So little a way.

  Waunaquêse,                          A little way.

  Aukeewushaûog,                       They goe by land.

  Mìshoon hómwock,                     They goe or come by water.

  Naynayoûmewot,                       A horse.

  Wunnia naynayoûmewot,                He rides on Horse-back.

Obs: Having no horses, they covet them above other Cattell, rather
preferring ease in riding, then their profit and belly, by milk
and butter from Cowes and Goats, and they are loth to come to the
_English_ price for any.

  Aspumméwi,                           He is not gone by.

  Aspumméwock,                         They are not gone by.

  Awanick payánchick?                  Who come there?

  Awanick negonshachick?               Who are these before us?

  Yo cuppummesicómmin,                 Crosse over into the way there.

  Cuppì-machàug,                       Thick wood: a Swamp.

Obs: These thick Woods and Swamps (like the Boggs to the _Irish_) are
the Refuges for women and children in Warre, whilst the Men fight. As
the Country is wondrous full of Brookes and Rivers, so doth it also
abound with fresh ponds, some of many miles compasse.

  Níps-nípsash,                        Pond, Ponds.

  Wèta wétedg,                         The woods on fire.

  Wussaumpatámmin,                     To view or looke about.

  Wussaum patámoonck,                  A Prospect.

  Wuttocékemin,                        To wade.

  Tocekétuck,                          Let us wade.

  Tou wuttáuqussin?                    How deepe?

  Yò ntaúqussin,                       Thus deep.

  Kunníish,                            I will carry you.

  Kuckqússuckqun,                      You are heavy.

  Kunnáukon,                           You are light.

  Pasúckquish,                         Rise.

  Anakish, maúchish:                   Goe.

  Quaquìsh,                            Runne.

  Nokus káuatees,                      Meet him.

  Nockuskauatítea,                     Let us meet.

  Neenmeshnóckuskaw,                   I did meet.

Obs: They are joyfull in meeting of any in travell, and will strike
fire either with stones or sticks, to take Tobacco, and discourse a
little together.

  Mesh Kunnockqus kaua tímmin?         Did you meet? &c.

  Yo Kuttauntapímmin,                  Let us rest here.

  Kussackquêtuck,                      Let us sit downe.

  Yo appíttuck,                        Let us sit here.

  Nissówanis,                          I am weary.

  Nickqússaqus,                        I am lame.

  Ntouagonnausinnúmmni,                We are distrest, undone or
                                         in misery.

Obs: They use this word properly in wandring toward Winter night, in
which case I have been many a night with them, and many times also
alone, yet alwayes mercifully preserved.

  Teâno wonck nippéeam,                I will be here by and by againe.

  Mat Kunníckansh,                     I will not leave you.

  Aquie Kunnickkatshash,               Doe not leave me?

  Tawhítch nickatshiêan?               Why doe you forsake me?

  Wuttánho,                            A staffe.

  Yó úsh Wuttánho,                     Use this staffe.

Obs: Sometimes a man shall meet a lame man or an old Man with a
Staffe: but generally a Staffe is a rare sight in the hand of the
eldest, their Constitution is so strong, I have upon occasion
travelled many a score, yea many a hundred mile amongst them, without
need of stick or staffe, for any appearance of danger amongst them:
yet it is a rule amongst them, that it is not good for a Man to
travell without a Weapon nor alone.

  Paquáttin,                           Frost.

  Auke taquátsha,                      The ground is frozen.

  Séip taquáttin,                      The river is frozen.

  Nowánnesin,                          I have forgotten.

  Nippittakúnnamun,                    I must goe back.

Obs: I once travelled with neere 200 who had word of neere 700
Enemies in the way, yet generally they all resolved that it was a
shame to feare and goe back.

  Nippanishkokómmin,                   I have let fall something.
  Npussago kommìn,

  Mattaâsu,                            A little way.

  Naûwot,                              A great way.

  Náwwatick,                           Farre of at Sea.

  Ntaquatchuwaûmen,                    I goe up hill.

  Taguatchòwash,                       Goe up hill.

  Waumsu,                              Downe hill.

  Mauúnshesh,                          Goe slowly or gently.

  Mauanisháuta,                        Let us goe gently.

  Tawhìtch chechequnnuwáyean?          Why doe you rob me?

  Aquie chechequnnuwásh,               Doe not rob me.

  Chechequnnuwáchick,                  Robbers.

  Chechequnníttin,                     There is a Robbery committed.

  Kemineantúock,                       They murder each other.

Obs: If any robbery fall out in Travell, between Persons of diverse
States, the offended State sends for Justice; If no Justice bee
granted and recompence made, they grant out a kind of Letter of Mart
to take satisfaction themselves, yet they are carefull not to exceed
in taking from others, beyond the proportion of their owne losse.

  Wúskontawaúnn kemineiucqun,          I feare some will murther mee.

Obs: I could never heare that Murthers or Robberies are comparably so
frequent, as in parts of Europe amongst the English, French, &c.

  Cutchachewussímmin,                  You are almost there.

  Kiskecuppeeyáumen,                   You are a little short.

  Cuppeeyáumen,                        Now you are there.

  Muckquétu,                           Swift.

  Cummúmmuckquete,                     You are swift.

  Cussásaqus,                          You are slow.

  Sassaqushàuog,                       They are slow.

  Cuttinneapúmmishem,                  Will you passe by?

  Wuttineapummushâuta,                 Let us passe by.

  Keeatshaûta,                         I come for no business.

  Ntinneapreyaûmen,                    In vaine or to no purpose.

  Ntackówvvepeyaùn,                    I have lost my labour.

  Cummautússakou,                      You have mist him.

  Kihtummâyi-wussáuhumwi,              He went just now forth.

  Pittúckish,                          Goe back.

  Pittuckétuck,                        Let us goe back.

  Pónewhush,                           Lay downe your burthens.

_Generall Observations of their Travell._

As the same Sun shines on the Wildernesse that doth on a Garden! so
the same faithfull and all sufficient God, can comfort, feede, and
safely guide even through a desolate howling Wildernesse.

More particular:

      1. God makes a path, provides a Guide,
           And feeds in Wildernesse!
         His glorious name while breath remaines,
           O that I may confesse.

      2. Lost many a time, I have had no Guide;
           No house, but hollow tree!
         In stormy winter night no Fire,
           No Food, no Company.

      3. In him I have found a House, a Bed,
           A Table, Company;
         No cup so bitter, buts’ made sweet,
           When God shall sweetning be.


_Concerning the Heavens and Heavenly Lights._

  Kéesuck,                             The Heavens.

  Keesucquíu,                          Heavenward.

  Aúke, Aukeaseíu,                     Downwards.

  Nippâwus,                            The Sun.

  Keesuckquànd,                        A name of the Sun.

(Obs:) By which they acknowledge the Sun, and adore for a God or
divine power.

  Munnánnock,                          A name of the Sun.

  Nanepaùshat, and                   } The Moone.
  Munnànnock,                        }

  Wequáshim,                           A light Moone.

  Pashpíshea,                          The Moone is up.

  Yo wuttúttan,                        So high.

Obs: And so they use the same rule, and words for the course of the
Moone in the _Night_, as they use for the course of the Sun by _Day_,
which wee mentioned in the Chapter of the Houre, or time of the Day
concerning the Sunnes rising, course, or Sunne setting.

  Yò Ockquitteunk,                     A new Moone.

  Yo wompanámmit,                      Halfe Moone.

Obs: The Moone so old, which they measure by the setting of it,
especially when it shines till

  Wómpan,                              or day.

  Anóckqus, anócksuck,                 A starre, starres.

Obs: By occasion of their frequent lying in the Fields and Woods,
they much observe the Starres, and their very children can give Names
to many of them, and observe their Motions, and they have the same
words for their rising, courses and setting, as for the Sunne or
Moone, as before.

Mosk or Paukúnawaw the great Beare, or Charles Waine, which words
Mosk or Paukúnnawwaw signifies a Beare, which is so much the more
observable, because, in most Languages that signe or Constellation is
called the Beare.

  Shwishcuttowwáuog,                   The Golden Metewand.

  Mishánnock,                          The morning Starre.

  Chippápuock,                         The Brood-hen, &c.

_Generall Observations of the Heavenly Bodies._

The Wildest sons of Men heare the preaching of the Heavens, the Sun,
Moone, and Starres, yet not seeking after God the Maker are justly
condemned, though they never have nor despise other preaching, as the
civiliz’d World hath done.

More particular:

      1. When Sun doth rise, the Starres doe set,
           Yet there’s no need of light,
         God shines a Sunne most glorious,
           When creatures all are Night.

      2. The very Indian Boyes can give,
           To many Starres their name,
         And know their Course and therein doe,
           Excell the English tame.

      3. English and Indians none enquire,
           Whose hand these Candles hold:
         Who gives these stars their names himself
           More bright ten thousand fold.


_Of the Weather._

  T Ocke tussinnámmin kéesuck,         What thinke you of the Weather?

  Wekineaûquat,                        Faire Weather.

  Wekinnàuquocks,                      When it is faire Weather.

  Tahkì or tátakki,                    Cold Weather.

  Tahkèes,                             Cold.

Obs. It may bee wondred why since _New-England_ is about 12 degrees
neerer to the Sun, yet some part of Winter, it is there ordinarily
more cold then here in _England_: the reason is plaine: all Ilands
are warmer then maine Lands and Continents, England being an Iland,
Englands winds are Sea winds, which are commonly more thick and
vapoury, and warmer winds: the Nor-West wind (which occasioneth
New-England cold) comes over the cold frozen Land, and over many
millions of Loads of Snow: and yet the pure wholsomenesse of the Aire
is wonderfull, and the warmth of the Sunne, such in the sharpest
weather, that I have often seen the Natives Children runne about
starke naked in the coldest dayes, and the _Indians_ Men and Women
lye by a Fire, in the Woods in the coldest nights, and I have
been often out myselfe such nights without fire, mercifully and
wonderfully preserved.

  Taúkocks,                            Cold weather.

  Káusitteks,                          Hot weather.

  Kussúttah,                           It is hot.

  Núckqusquatchnnóonakom,              I am a cold.

  Nickqussittâunum,                    I sweat.

  Mattáuqus,                           A cloud.

  Máttaquat,                           It is overcast.

  Sókenun, ánaquat,                    Raine.

  Anamakéesucksókenun,                 It will raine to day.

  Sókenitch,                           When it raines.

  Sóchepo, or Cône,                    Snow.

  Animanâukocksóshepo,                 It will snow to night.

  Sóchepwutch,                         When it snowes.

  Mishúnnan,                           A great raine.

  Pâuqui pâuquaquát,                   It holds up.

  Nnáppi,                              Drie.

  Nnáppaquat,                          Drie weather.

  Tópu,                                A frost.

  Missittópu,                          A great frost.

  Capàt,                               Ice.

  Néechipog,                           The Deaw.

  Míchokat,                            A Thaw.

  Míchokateh,                          When it thawes.

  Missuppâugatch,                      When the rivers are open.

  Cutshâusha,                          The Lightning.

  Neimpâuog,                           Thunder.

  Neimpáug pesk hómwock,               Thunderbolts are shot.

Obs: From this the Natives conceiving a consimilitude between
our Guns and Thunder, call a Gunne _Péskunck_, and to discharge
_Peskhommin_ that is to thunder.

_Observation generall of the Weather._

That judgement which the Lord Jesus pronounced against the
Weather-wise (but ignorant of the God of the Weather) will fall most
justly upon those Natives, and all Men who are wise in Naturall
things, but willingly blind in spirituall.

      English and Indians spie a storme
        And seeke a hiding place:
      O Hearts of stone that thinke and dreame,
        Th’ everlasting stormes t’out face.
      Proud filthy Sodome saw the Sunne
        Shine ore her head most bright;
      The very day that turn’d she was
        To Stincking heaps, ’fore night.
      How many millions now alive,
        Within few yeeres shall rot?
      O blest that Soule, whose portion is
        That Rocke that changeth not.


_Of the Winds._

  W Aûpi,                              The Wind.

  Wâupanash,                           The Winds.

  Tashínash waupanash,                 How many winds are there?

Obs: Some of them account of seven, some eight, or nine; and in
truth, they doe upon the matter reckon and observe not onely the
foure but the eight Cardinall winds although they come not to the
accurate division of the 32: upon the 32 points of the compasse as we

  Nanúmmatin, &                        The North wind.

  Chepewéssin,                         The North east.

  Sáchimoachepewéssin,                 Strong North east wind.

  Nopâtin,                             The East wind.

  Nanóckquittin,                       The South east wind.

  Touwúttin,                           South wind.

  Papônetin,                           West wind.

  Chékesu,                             The Northwest.

  Chékesitch,                          When the wind blowes Northwest.

  Tucketunnántum?                      What thinke you?

  Nqénowhick wouttín,                  I Stay for a wind.

  Tou pìtch wuttin,                    Where will the wind be?

  Yo pìtch wuttìn Sàuop,               Here the wind will be to morrow.

  Pitch Sowwanishew,                   It will be Southwest.

Obs: This is the pleasingest, warmest wind in the Climate, most
desired of the _Indians_, making faire weather ordinarily; and
therefore they have a _tradition_, that to the Southwest, which they
call _Sowwainiù_ the Gods chiefly dwell; and hither the soules of all
their Great and Good Men and women goe.

This Southwest wind is called by the _New-English_ the sea turne,
which comes from the Sunne in the Morning, about nine or ten of the
Clock Southeast, and about South, and then strongest Southwest in the
after-noone, and towards night, when it dies away.

It is rightly called the Sea turne, because the wind commonly all the
Summer, comes off from the North and Northwest in the night, and then
turnes againe about from the South in the day: as _Solomon_ speaks of
the vanitie of the Winds in their changes, _Eccles._ 1. 6.

  Mishâupan,                           A great wind.

  Mishitáshin,                         A storme.

  Wunnágehan, or                       Faire wind.
  Wunnêgin waúpi,

  Wunnêgitch wuttìn,                   When the wind is faire.

  Mattágehan,                          A crosse wind.

  Wunnágehatch,                        When the wind comes faire.

  Mattágehatch,                        When the wind is crosse.

  Cowunnogehúckamen,                   You have a faire wind.

  Cummattagehúckamen,                  The wind is against you.

  Nummattagehúckamen,                  The wind is against mee.

_Generall Observations of the Wind._

God is wonderfully glorious in bringing the _winds_ out of his
Treasure, and riding upon the wings of those _winds_ in the eyes of
all the sonnes of men in all Coasts of the world.

More particular.

      English and Indian both Observe
        The various blasts of wind:
      And both I have heard in dreadfull stormes
        Cry out aloud, I have sinn’d.
      But when the stormes are turn’d to calmes
        And seas grow smooth and still;
      Both turne (like swine) to wallow in,
        The filth of former will.
      ’Tis not a storme on sea, or shore,
        ’Tis not the Word that can;
      But ’tis the spirit or Breath of God
        That must renew the Man.


_Of Fowle._

  NPesháwog,                         } Fowle
  Pussekesesuck,                     }

  Ntauchâumen,                         I goe a fowling or hunting.

  Auchaûi,                             Hee is gone to hunt or fowle.

  Pepemôi,                             He is gone to fowle.

  Wómpissacuk,                         An Eagle.

  Wompsacuckquâuog,                    Eagle.

  Néyhom, mâuog,                       Turkies.

  Paupock, sûog,                       Partridges.

  Aunckuck, quâuog,                    Heath cocks.

  Chógan èuck,                         Black-bird, Black-birds.

Obs. Of this sort there be millions, which are great devourers of
the _Indian_ corne as soon as it appeares out of the ground; unto
this sort of Birds, especially, may the mysticall Fowles, the Divells
be well resembled (and so it pleaseth the Lord Jesus himselfe to
observe _Matth._ 13.) which mysticall Fowle follow the sowing of the
Word, and picke it up from loose and carelesse hearers, as these
Black-birds follow the materiall seed.

Against the Birds the _Indians_ are very carefull, both to set their
corne deep enough that it may have a strong root not so apt to be
pluckt up (not too deep lest they bury it, and it never come up:) as
also they put up little watch-houses in the middle of their fields,
in which they, or their biggest children lodge, and early in the
Morning prevent the Birds, &c.

  Kokókehom,                           An Owle.

  Kaukont-tuock,                       Crow, Crowes.

Obs: These birds, although they doe the corne also some hurt, yet
scarce will one _Native_ amongst an hundred will kil them, because
they have a tradition, that the Crow brought them at first an
_Indian_ Graine of Corne in one Eare and an _Indian_ or _French_
Beane in another, from the Great God _Kautántouwits_ field in the
Southwest from whence they hold came all their Corne and beanes.

  Hònck, hònckock,                     Goose, Geese.

  Wómpatuck-quâuog,                    Swan, Swans.

  Munnûcks-munnûcksuck,                Brants, or Brantgeese.

  Quequécum-mâuog,                     Ducks.

Obs: The Indians having abundance of these sorts of Foule upon their
waters, take great paines to kill any of them with their Bow and
Arrowes; and are marvellous desirous of our English Guns, powder and
shot (though they are wisely and generally denied by the English) yet
with those which they get from the French, and some others (Dutch
and English) they kill abundance of Fowle, being naturally excellent
marks-men; and also more hardned to endure the weather, and wading,
lying, and creeping on the ground, &c.

I once saw an exercise of training the English, when all the English
had mist the mark set up to shoot at, an Indian with his owne piece
(desiring leave to shoot) onely hit it.

  Kitssuog,                            Cormorants.

Obs: These they take in the night time, where they are asleepe on
rocks, off at Sea, and bring in at break of day great store of them:

  Yo aquéchinock,                      There they swim.

  Nipponamouôog,                       I lay nets for them.

Obs: This they doe onshore, and catch many fowle upon the plaines,
and feeding under okes upon akrons, as Geese, Turkies, Cranes, and
others &c.

  Ptowéi,                              It is fled.

  Ptowewushánnick,                     They are fled.

  Wunnùp, pash,                        Wing, Wings.

  Wunnúppaníckánawhone,                Wing-Shot.

  Wuhóckgockánwhone,                   Body-Shot:

  Wuskówhàn,                           A Pigeon.

  Wuskowhánannûaog,                    Pigeons.

  Wuskowhannanaûkit,                   Pigeon Countrie.

Obs: In that place these Fowle breed abundantly, and by reason of
their delicate Food (especially in Strawberrie time when they pick
up whole large Fields of the old grounds of the Natives), they are a
delicate fowle, and because of their abundance, and the facility of
killing them, they are and may be plentifully fed on.

_Sachim_: a little Bird about the bignesse of a swallow, or lesse,
to which the Indians give that name because of its _Sachim_ or
Princelike courage and Command over greater Birds, that a Man shall
often see this small Bird pursue and vanquish and put to flight the
Crow and other Birds farre bigger than itselfe.

  Sowwanakitauwaw,                     They go to the Southward.

That is the saying of the Natives, when the Geese and other Fowle
at the approach of Winter betake themselves in admirable Order and
discerning their Course even all the night long.

  Chepewâukitaûog,                     They fly Northward.

That is when they returne in the Spring. There are abundance of
singing Birds whose names I have little as yet enquired after, &c.

The Indians of Martins vineyard, at my late being amongst them,
report generally, and confidently, of some Islands, which lie off
from them to Sea, from whence every Morning early, certaine Fowles
come and light amongst them, and returne at Night to lodging, which
Island or Islands are not yet discovered, though probably, by other
Reasons they give, there is Land, &c.

  Taûnek-kaûog,                        Crane, Cranes.

  Wushówunan,                          The hawke.

Which the Indians keep tame about their houses to keepe the little
Birds from their Corne.

_The generall Observation of Fowle._

How sweetly doe all the severall sorts of Heavens Birds, in all
Coasts of the World, preach unto men the prayse of their Makers
Wisedome, Power, and Goodnesse, who feedes them and their young ones
Summer and Winter with their several sorts of Foode: although they
neither sow nor reape, nor gather into Barnes?

More particularly:

      If Birds that neither sow nor reape
        Nor store up any food,
      Constantly find to them and theirs
        A maker kind and good!
      If Man provide eke for his Birds,
        In Yard, in Coops, in Cage.
      And each Bird spends in songs and Tunes,
        His little time and Age!
      What care will Man, what care will God
        For’s wife and children take?
      Millions of Birds and Worlds will God
        Sooner than his, forsake.


_Of the Earth, and the Fruits thereof, &c._

  Aûke, and                            Earth or Land.

  Níttauke,                            My Land.

  Wuskâukamuck,                        New ground.

  Aquegunnítteash,                     Fields worne out.

  Mìntúck-quash,                       Trees.

  Pauchautaqunnêsash,                  Branch, Branches.

  Wunnèpog-guash,                      Leafe, leaves.

  Wattáp,                              A roote of Tree.

  Séip,                                A River.

  Toyùsk,                              A bridge.

  Sepoêse,                             A little River.

  Sepoêmese,                           A little Rivulet.

  Takèkum,                             A Spring.

  Takekummûo?                          Is there a Spring.

  Sepûo,                               Is there a River.

  Toyusquanûo,                         Is there a Bridge.

Obs: The Natives are very exact and punctuall in the bounds of their
Lands, belonging to this or that Prince or People, (even to a River,
Brooke,) &c. And I have knowne them make bargaine and sale amongst
themselves for a small piece, or quantity of Ground: notwithstanding
a sinfull opinion amongst many that Christians have right to Heathens
Lands: but of the delusion of that phrase, I have spoke in a
discourse concerning the Indians Conversion.

  Paugáutemisk,                        An Oake.

  Wómpimish,                           A Chesnut Tree.

  Wómpimineash,                        Chesnutts.

Obs: The Indians have an Art of drying their chesnuts, and so to
preserve them in their barnes for a daintie all the yeare.

  Anáuchemineash,                      Akornes.

These Akornes also they drie, and in case of want of Corne, by much
boyling they make a good dish of them: yea sometimes in plentie of
Corne doe they eate these Acornes for a novelty.

  Wússoquat,                           A Wallnut Tree.

  Wusswaquatómineug,                   Wallnut.

Of these Wallnuts they make an excellent Oyle good for many uses, but
especially for their anoynting of their heads. And of the chips of
the Walnut Tree (the barke taken off) some English in the Countrey
make excellent Beere both for Tast, strength, colour, and inoffensive
opening operation:

  Sasaunckpâmuck,                      The Sassafrasse Tree.

  Mishquáwtuck,                        The Cedar Tree.

  Cówaw-ésuck,                         Pine, young Pine.

  Wenomesíppaguash,                    The Vine-Tree.

  Micúckaskeete,                       A Medow.

  Tataggoskìtuash,                     A fresh Medow.

  Maskituash,                          Grasse or Hay.

  Wékinash-quash,                      Reed, Reeds.

  Manìsimmin,                          To cut or Mow.

  Qussuckomineânug,                    The Cherry Tree.

  Wuttáhimneash,                       Strawberries.

Obs: This Berry is the wonder of all the Fruits growing naturally in
those parts: it is of itselfe Excellent: so that one of the chiefest
Doctors of England was wont to say, that God could have made, but God
never did make a better Berry: In some parts where the Natives have
planted, I have many times seen as many as would fill a good ship
within a few miles compasse: The Indians bruise them in a Morter, and
mixe them with meale and make Strawberry bread.

  Wuchipoquámeneash,                   A kind of sharp fruit like
                                         a Barbary in tast.

Sasémineash, another excellent sharp cooling Fruit growing in fresh
waters all the winter, Excellent in conserve against Feavers.

  Wenómeneash,                         Grapes.

  Wuttahimnasíppaguash,                Strawberry leaves.

  Peshaûiuash,                         Violet leaves.

  Nummoúwinneem,                       I goe to gather.

  Mowinnee-aûog,                       He or they gather.

  Atáuntowash,                         Clime the Tree.

  Ntáuntawem,                          I clime.

  Punnoûwash,                          Come downe.

  Npunnowaûmen,                        I come downe.

  Attitáash,                           Hurtle-berries,

Of which there are divers sorts sweete like Currants, some opening,
some of a binding nature.

Saûtaash are these Currants dried by the Natives, and so preserved
all the yeare, which they beat to powder, and mingle it with their
parcht meale, and make a delicate dish which they call Sautáuthig;
which is as sweet to them as plum or spice cake to the English.

They also make great use of their Strawberries having such abundance
of them: making Strawberry bread, and having no other Food for many
dayes, but the English have exceeded, and made good Wine both of
their Grapes and Strawberries in some places, as I have often tasted.

  Ewáchim neash,                       Corne.

  Scannémeneash,                       Seed Corne.

  Wompiscannémeneash,                  White seed-corne.

Obs: There be diverse sorts of this Corne, and of the colours: yet
all of it either boild in milke, or buttered, if the use of it were
knowne and received in England (it is the opinion of some skillfull
in physic) it might save many thousand lives in England, occasioned
by the binding nature of the English wheat, the Indian Corne keeping
the body in a constant moderate loosenesse.

  Aukeeteaûmen,                        To plant Corne.

  Quttáunemun,                         To plant Corne.

  Anakáusu,                            A Labourer.

  Anakáusichick,                       Labourers.

  Aukeeteaûmitch,                      Planting time.

  Aukeeteáhettit,                      When they set Corne.

  Nummautaukeeteaûmen,                 I have done planting.

  Anaskhómmin,                         To how or break up.

Obs: The Women set or plant, weede, and hill, and gather and barne
all the corne and Fruites of the Field: yet sometimes the man
himselfe, (either out of love to his Wife, or care for his Children,
or being an old man) will help the Woman which (by the custome of the
Countrey) they are not bound to.

When a field is to be broken up, they have a very loving sociable
speedy way to dispatch it: All the neighbours men and Women forty,
fifty, a hundred, &c. joyne, and come in to helpe freely. With
friendly joyning they breake up their fields, build their Forts, hunt
the woods, stop and kill fish in the Rivers, it being true with them
as in all the World in the Affaires of Earth or Heaven: By concord
little things grow great, by discord the greatest come to nothing.
_Concordiâ parvæ res crescunt, discordiâ magnæ dilabuntur._

  Anáskhig-anash,                      How, Howes.

  Anaskhómwock,                        They how.

  Anaskhommonteâmin,                   They break for me.

  Anaskhomwáutowwin,                   A breaking up How.

The Indian women to this day (notwithstanding our Howes), doe use
their naturall Howes of shells and Wood.

  Monaskúnnemun,                       To weede.

  Monaskunnummaûtowwin,                A weeding or broad How.

  Petascúnnemun,                       To hill the Corne.

  Kepenúmmin, &                        To gather Corne.

  Núnnowwa,                            Harvest time.

  Anoûant,                             At harvest.

  Wuttùunemitch,                       When harvest is in.

  Pausinnummin,                        To dry the corne.

Which they doe carefully upon heaps and Mats many dayes, before they
barne it up, covering it up with Mats at night, and open it when the
Sun is hot.

  Sókenug,                             A heap of corne.

Obs: The women of the Family will commonly raise two or three heaps
of twelve, fifteene, or twentie bushells a heap, which they drie in
round broad heaps; and if she have helpe of her children or friends
much more.

  Pockhómmin,                          To beat or thrash out.

  Npockhómmin,                         I am threshing.

  Cuppockhómmin?                       Doe you thrash?

  Wuskockkamuckómeneash,               New ground Corne.

  Nquitawánnanash,                     One basket full.

  Munnòte, tash,                       Basket, Baskets.

  Máûseck,                             A great one.

  Peewâsick,                           A little one.

  Wussaumepewâsick,                    Too little.

  Pokowánnanash,                       Halfe a basket full.

  Neesowannanash,                      Two baskets full.

  Shéanash,                            Three.

  Yowanannash,                         Foure, &c.

  Aníttash,                            Rotten corne.

  Wawéekanash,                         Sweet corne.

  Tawhìtch quitchemáuntamen?           Why doe you smell to it?

  Auqúnnash,                           Barnes.

  Necawnáuquanash,                     Old barnes.

Askútasquash, their Vine apple.--Which the English from them call
Squashes about the bignesse of Apples of severall colours, a sweet,
light, wholesome refreshing.

  Uippakumíneash,                      The seed of them.

_The Observation generall of the Fruits of the Earth._

God hath not left himselfe without wit in all parts and coasts of the
world; the raines and fruitfull seasons, the Earth, Trees, Plants,
&c. filling mans heart with food and gladnesse, witnesseth against
and condemneth man for his unthankfullnesse and unfruitfullnesse
towards his Maker.

More particular.

      Yeeres thousands since, God gave command
        (As we in Scripture find)
      That Earth, and Trees and Plants should bring
        Forth fruit each in his kind.
      The wildernesse remembers this
        The wild and howling land
      Answers the toyling labour of,
        The wildest Indians hand.
      But Man forgets his Maker, who,
        Fram’d him in Righteousnesse.
      A paradise in Paradise, now worse
        Than Indian wildernesse.


_Of Beasts, &c._

  Penashímwock,                        Beasts.

  Netasûog,                            Cattell.

Obs: This name the Indians give to tame Beasts, yea, and birds also
which they keepe tame about their houses.

  Muckquashím-wock,                    Wolves.

  Moattôqus,                           A blacke Wolfe.

  Tummòckquaûog,                     } Beaver, Beavers.
  Nóosuppaûog,                       }

  Súmhuppaûog,                         Beaver, Beavers.

Obs: This is a beast of wonder; for cutting and drawing of great
pieces of trees with his teeth, with which and sticks and earth I
have often seen, fair streams and rivers damm’d and stopt up by them:
upon these streames thus damm’d up, he builds his house with stories,
wherein he sits drie in his chambers, or goes into the water at his

  Mishquáshim,                         A red Fox.

  Pequawus,                            A gray Fox.

Obs: The Indians say they have black Foxes which they have often
seen, but never could take any of them: they say they are Manittóoes,
that is, Gods; Spirits or Divine powers, as they say of every thing
which they cannot comprehend.

  Aûsup-pánuog,                        Racoone, Racoones.

  Nkéke, nkéquock,                     Otter, Otters.

  Pussoúgh,                            The wildcat.

Ockqutchaun-nug, A wild beast of a reddish haire about the bignesse
of a Pig, and rooting like a Pig; from whence they give this name to
all our Swine.

  Mishánneke-quock,                    Squirrell, Squirrils.

  Anéqusanéquussuck,                   A little coloured Squirril

  Waûtuiiques,                         The Conck.

Obs: They have a reverend esteeme of this Creature, and conceive
there is some Deitie in it.

  Attuck, quock,                     } Deere.
  Nóonatch noónatchaug,              }

  Moósquin,                            A Fawn.

  Wawwúnnes,                           A young Bucke.

  Kuttíomp & Paucottâuwaw,             A great Bucke.

  Aunàn-quunèke,                       A Doe.

  Qunnequáwese,                        A little young Doe.

  Naynayoûmewot,                       A Horse.

  Côwsnuck,                            Cowes.

  Gôatesuck,                           Goates.

  Pìgsuck,                             Swine.

Obs: This Termination _suck_, is common in their language and
therefore they adde it to our English Cattell, not else knowing what
names to give them;

  Anùm,                                A Dog.

Yet the varietie of their Dialects and proper speech within thirtie
or fortie miles each of other, is very great, as appears in that word.

  Anùm, The Cowweset.                }
  Ayím, The Narriganset.             } Dialect.
  Arúm, The Qunnippiuck.             }
  Alùm, The Neepmuck.                }

So that although some pronounce not L, nor R, yet it is the most
proper Dialect of other places, contrary to many reports.

  Enewáshim,                           A Male.

  Squáshim,                            A Female.

  Moòs-sóog,                           The great Oxe, or rather a
                                         red Deere.

  Askùg,                               A Snake.

  Móaskug,                             Black Snake.

  Sések,                               Rattle Snake.

  Natúppwock,                          They feed.

  Téaqua natuphéttit?                  What shall they eat?

  Natuphéttitch yo sanaukamick,        Let them feed on this ground.

_The generall Observation of the Beasts._

The Wildernesse, is a cleere resemblance of the world, where gredie
and furious men persecute and devoure the harmlesse and innocent as
the wilde beasts pursue and devoure the Hinds and Roes.

More particular.

      1. The Indians, Wolves, yea, Dogs and Swine
           I have knowne the Deere devoure,
         Gods children are sweet prey to all;
           But yet the end proves sowre.

      2. For though Gods children lose their lives,
           They shall not loose an haire;
         But shall arise, and judge all those,
           That now their Judges are.

      3. New-England’s wilde beasts are not fierce
           As other wild beasts are:
         Some men are not so fierce, and yet
           From mildnesse are they farre.


_Of the Sea._

  Wechêkum,                          } The Sea.
  Kítthan,                           }

Paumpágussit, the Sea-God, or that name which they give that Deitie
or Godhead which they conceive to be in the Sea.

Obs: Mishoòn, an Indian Boat, or Canow made of a Pine or Oake, or
Chesnut-tree: I have seene a Native goe into the woods with his
hatchet carrying onely a Basket of Corne with him, and stones to
strike fire when he had felled his tree (being a Chesnut) he made him
a little House or shed of the bark of it, he puts fire and followes
the burning of it with fire, in the midst in many places: his corne
he boyles and hath the Brook by him, and sometimes angles for a
little fish: but so hee continues burning and hewing untill he hath
within ten or twelve dayes (lying there at his worke alone) finished,
and (getting hands,) lanched his Boate; with which afterward hee
ventures out to fish in the Ocean.

  Mishoonémese,                        A little Canow.

Some of them will not well carry above three or foure: but some of
them twenty, thirty, forty men.

  Wunnauanoûnuck,                      A shallop.

  Wunnauanounuckquèse,                 A skiffe.

Obs: Although themselves have neither, yet they give them such names,
which in their Language signifieth carrying Vessells.

  Kitônuck,                            A Ship.

  Kitónuckquese,                       A little Ship.

  Mishíttouwand,                       A great Canow.

  Peeswàsu,                            A little one.

  Paugautemissaûnd,                    An Oake Canow

  Kowawwawaûnd,                        A pine Canow.

  Wompmissaûnd,                        A chesnut Canow.

  Ogwhan,                              A boat adrift.

  Wuskon-tógwhan,                      It will goe adrift.

  Cuttunnamíinnea,                     Help me to Launch.

  Cuttunnummútta,                      Let us launch.

  Cuttúnnamoke,                        Launch.

  Cuttánnummous,                       I will help you.

  Wútkunck,                            A paddle or Oare.

  Namacóuche cómishoon,                Lend me your Boate.

  Paûtousnenótehunck,                  Bring hither my paddle.

  Comishoónhom?                        Goe you by water?

  Chémosh-chémeck,                     Paddle or row.

  Maumínikish and                      Pull up, or row lustily.

  Sepâkehig,                           A Sayle.

  Sepagehommaûta,                      Let us saile.

  Wunnâgehan,                          We have a faire wind.

Obs: Their owne reason hath taught them, to pull off a Coat or two
and set it up on a small pole, with which they will saile before a
wind ten, or twenty mile &c.

  Wauaúpunish,                         Hoyse up.

  Wuttáutnish,                         Pull to you.

  Nókanish,                            Take it downe.

  Pakétenish,                          Let goe or let flie.

  Nikkoshkowwaûmen,                    We shall be drown’d.

  Nquawu pshâwmen,                     We overset.

  Wussaûme pechepaûsha,                The sea comes in too fast
                                         upon us.

  Maumaneeteántass,                    Be of good courage.

Obs: It is wonderfull to see how they will venture in those Canoes,
and how (being oft overset as I have myselfe been with them)
they will swim a mile, yea two or more safe to Land: I having
been necessitated to passe Waters diverse times: with them, it
hath pleased God to make them many times the instruments of my
preservation; and when sometimes in great danger I have questioned
safety, they have said to me: Feare not, if we be overset I will
carry you safe to Land.

  Paupaútuckquash,                     Hold water.

  Kínnequass,                          Steere.

  Tiáckomme kínniquass,                Steere right.

  Kunnósnep,                           A Killick, or Anchor.

  Chowwophómmin,                       To cast over-board.

  Chouwóphash,                         Cast over-board.

  Touwopskhómmke,                      Cast anchor.

  Mishittashin,                        It is a storme.

  Awêpesha,                            It caulmes.

  Awêpu,                               A calme.

  Nanoúwashin,                         A great caulme.

  Tamóccon,                            Floud.

  Nanashowetamóccon,                   Halfe Floud.

  Keesaqúshin,                         High water.

  Taumacoks,                           Upon the Floud.

  Mishittommóckon,                     A great Floud.

  Maùchetan and skàt,                  Ebb.

  Mittâeskat,                          A low Ebb.

  Awánick Paûdhuck?                    Who comes there?

Obs: I have knowne thirty or forty of their Canowes fill’d with Men,
and neere as many more of their enemies in a Sea fight.

  Caupaûshess,                         Goe ashoare.

  Caupaushâuta,                        Let us goe ashoare.

  Wusséheposh,                         Heave out the water.

  Asképunish,                          Make fast the Boat.

  Kspúnsh & Kspúnemoke,                Tie it fast.

  Maumínikish,                         Tie it hard.

  Neene Cuthómwock,                    Now they goe off.

  Kekuthomwushánnick,                  They are gone already.

_Generall Observations of the Sea._

How unsearchable are the depths of the Wisedome and Power of God in
separating from Europe, Asia and Africa such a mightie vast continent
as America is? and that for so many ages? as also, by such a Westerne
Ocean of about three thousand of English miles breadth in passage

More particular:

      They see God’s wonders that are call’d
        Through dreadfull Seas to passe,
      In tearing winds, and roaring seas,
        And calmes as smooth as glasse.

      I have in Europes ships, oft been
        In King of terrours hand;
      When all have cri’d, Now, now we sinck,
        Yet God brought safe to land.

      Alone ’mongst Indians in Canoes,
        Sometime o’return’d, I have been
      Halfe inch from death, in Ocean deepe,
        Gods wonders I have seene.


_Of Fish and Fishing._

  Namaùus,-suck,                       Fish, Fishes.

                                     } Cod, Which is the first
  Pauganaùt, tamwock,                }   that comes a little before
                                     }   the Spring.

                                     } Lampries, The first that
  Qunnamáug-suck,                    }   come in the Spring into
                                     }   the fresh Rivers.

  Aumsûog, & Munnaw-hatteaûg,          A Fish somewhat like a Herring.

  Missúckeke-kéquock,                  Basse.

The Indians (and the English too) make a daintie dish of the
Uppaquontup, or head of this Fish; and well they may, the braines and
fat of it being very much, and sweet as marrow.

  Kaúposh-shaûoog,                     Sturgeon.

Obs: Divers part of the Countrey abound with this Fish; yet the
Natives for the goodnesse and greatnesse of it, much prize it,
and will neither furnish the English with so many, nor so cheape,
that any great trade is like to be made of it, untill the English
themselves are fit to follow the fishing.

The Natives venture one or two in a Canow, and with an harping Iron,
or such like Instrument sticke this fish, and so hale it into their
Canow; sometimes they take them by their nets, which they make strong
of Hemp.

Ashòp, their nets. Which they will set thwart some little River or
Cove wherein they kill Basse (at the fall of the water) with their
arrows, or sharp sticks, especially if headed with Iron, gotten from
the English, &c.

  Aucùp,                               A little Cove or Creeke.

  Aucppâwese,                          A very little one.

  Wawwhunnekesûog,                     Mackrell.

  Mishquammaùquock,                    Red fish, Salmon.

  Osacóntuck,                          A fat sweet fish, something
                                         like a Haddock.

  Mishcùp-paûog,                       Breame.

Obs: Of this Fish there is abundance, which the Natives drie in the
Sunne and smoake; and some _English_ begin to salt, both wayes they
keepe all the yeere; and it is hoped it may be as well accepted as
Cod at a Market, and better, if once knowne.

  Taut-aúog,                           Sheeps-heads.

  Neeshaúog,                         }
  Sassammaúquock,                    } Eeles.
  Nquittéconnaúog,                   }

  Tatackommmâúog,                      Porpuses.

  Pútop-paúog,                         Whales.

Which in some places are often cast up; I have seene some of them,
but not above sixtie foot long: The Natives cut them out in severall
parcells, and give and send farre and neere for an acceptable
present, or dish.

  Missêsu,                             The whole.

  Poquêsu,                             The halfe.

  Waskèke,                             The Whalebone.

  Wussúckqun,                          A taile.

  Aumaûog,                             They are fishing.

  Ntaûmen,                             I am fishing.

  Kuttaûmen?                           Doe you fish?

  Nnattuckqunnûwem,                    I goe a fishing.

  Aumáchick,                         } Fishes.
  Natuckqunnuwâchick,                }

  Aumaûi,                              He is gone to fish.

  Awácenick kukkattineanaûmen?         What doe you fish for.

  Ashaûnt-teaûg,                       Lobsters.

  Opponenaûhock,                       Oysters.

  Sickíssuog,                          Clams.

Obs: This is a sweet kind of shellfish, which all Indians generally
over the Countrey, Winter and Summer delight in; and at low water the
women dig for them: this fish, and the naturall liquors of it, they
boile, and it makes their broth and their Nasaúmp (which is a kind
of thickened broth) and their bread seasonable and savoury, in stead
of Salt: and for that the English Swine dig and root these Clams
wheresoever they come, and watch the low water (as the Indian women
do) therefore of all the English Cattell, the Swine (as also because
of their filthy disposition) are most hatefull to all Natives, and
they call them filthy cut throats, &c.

  Séqunnock,                         } A Horse fish.
  Poquaûhock,                        }

Obs: This the English call Hens, a little thick shell fish which
the Indians wade deepe and dive for, and after they have eaten the
meat there (in those which are good) they breake out of the shell,
about halfe an inch of a blacke part of it, of which they make their
Suckaúhock, or blackmoney, which is to them pretious.

  Meteaûhock,                          The Periwinkle.

Of which they make their Wómpan or white money, of halfe the value of
their Suckáwhock, or blacke money, of which more in the Chapter of
their Coyne.

  Cumménakiss,                       }
  Cummenakíssamen,                   } Have you taken store?
  Cummuchickinneanâwmen?             }

  Numménakiss,                         I have taken store.

  Nummuchikineanâwmen,                 I have killed many.

  Machàge,                             I have caught none.

  Aúmanep,                             A fishing line.

  Aumanapeash,                         Lines.

The Natives take exceeding great paines in their fishing, especially
in watching their seasons by night; so that frequently they lay their
naked bodies many a cold night on the cold shoare about a fire of
two or three sticks, and oft in the night search their Nets; and
sometimes goe in and stay longer in frozen water.

  Hoquaùn aûnash,                      Hooke, hookes.

  Peewâsicks,                          Little hookes.

  Maúmacocks,                          Great hookes.

  Nponamouôog,                         I set nets for them.

  Npunnouwaûmen,                       I goe to search my nets.

  Mihtúckquashep,                      An Eele-pot.

  Kunnagqunneûteg,                     A greater sort.

  Onawangónnakaun,                     A baite.

  Yo onawangónnatees,                  Baite with this.

                                     } A little sort of fish, halfe
  Moamitteaúg,                       }   as big as Sprats, plentifull
                                     }   in Winter.

  Paponaumsúog,                        A winter fish,

which comes up in the brookes and rivulets; some call them Frost
fish, from their comming up from the Sea into fresh Brookes, in times
of frost and snow.

  Qunôsuog,                            A fresh fish,

which the Indians break the ice in fresh ponds, when they take also
many other sorts: for, to my knowledge the Country yeelds many sorts
of other fish, which I mention not.

_The generall Observation of Fish._

How many thousands of Millions of those under water, sea inhabitants,
in all Coasts of the world, preach to the sonnes of men on shore,
to adore their glorious Maker, by presenting themselves to Him as
themselves (in a manner) present their lives from the wild Ocean, to
the very doores of men, their fellow creatures in New-England.

More particular.

      What Habacuck once spake, mine eyes
        Have often seene most true,
      The greater Fishes devoure the lesse,
        And cruelly pursue.
      Forcing them through coves and creekes
        To leape on driest sand,
      To gaspe on earthie element, or die
        By wildest Indians hand.
      Christs little ones must hunted be
        Devour’d; yet rise as Hee.
      And eate up those which now a while
        Their fierce devourers be.


_Of their Nakednesse and Clothing._

  Paúskesu,                            Naked.

  Pauskesítchck,                       Naked men and women.

  Nippóskíss,                          I am naked.

They have a two-fold nakednesse:

First, ordinary and constant, when although they have a Beasts skin,
or an English mantle on, yet that covers ordinarily but their hinder
parts and all the foreparts from top to toe, (except their secret
parts, covered with a little Apron, after the patterne of their and
our first Parents) I say all else open and naked.

Their male children goe starke naked, and have no Apron untill they
come to ten or twelve yeers of age; their Female they, in a modest
blush cover with a little Apron of an hand breadth from their very
birth. Their second nakednesse is when their men often abroad and
both men and women within doores, leave off their beasts skin, or
English cloth and so (excepting their little apron) are wholly naked;
yet but few of the women but will keepe their skin or cloth (though
loose) or neare to them ready to gather it up about them.

Custome hath used their minds and bodies to it, and in such a freedom
from any wantonnesse, that I have never seen that wantonnesse amongst
them, as, (with griefe) I have heard of in Europe.

  Nippóskenitch,                       I am rob’d of my coat.

  Nippóskenick ewò,                    He takes away my Coat.

  Acòh,                                Their Deere skin.

  Tummóckquashunck,                    A Beavers coat.

  Nkéquashunck,                        An Otters coat.

  Mohéwonck,                           A Rakoone-skin coat.

  Natóquashunch,                       A Wolves-skin coat.

  Mishannéquashunck,                   A Squirril-skin coat.

  Neyhommaûashunck,                    a coat or Mantle,

curiously made of the fairest feathers of their Neyhommaûog or
Turkies, which commonly their old Men make; and is with them as
velvet with us.

  Maúnek: nquittiashíagat,             An English Coat or Mantell.

  Cáudnish,                            Put off.

  Ocquash,                             Put on.

  Neesashíagat,                        Two coats.

  Shwíshiagat,                         Three coats.

  Piuckquashiágat,                     Ten coats, &c.

Obs: Within their skin or coat they creepe contentedly, by day or
night, in house, or in the woods, and sleep soundly, counting it
a felicitie, (as indeed an earthly one it is;) _Intra pelliculam
quemque tenere suam_, That every man be content with his skin.

  Squáus aúhaqut,                      A Womans Mantle.

  Muckíis auhaqut,                     A childs Mantle.

  Pétacaus,                            An English Wastecoat.

  Petacawsunnése,                      A little wastecoat.

  Aûtah & aútawhun,                    Their apron.

  Caukóanash,                          Stockins.

  Nquittetiagáttash,                   A paire of stockins.

  Mocússinass, &
  Mockussinchass,                      Shooes.

Obs: Both these, Shoes and Stockins they make of their Deere skin
worne out; which yet being excellently tann’d by them, is excellent
for to travell in wet and snow; for it is so well tempered with
oyle, that the water cleane wrings out; and being hang’d up in their
chimney, they presently drie without hurt as myselfe hath often

  Noonacominash,                       Too little.

  Taubacóminash,                       Big enough.

  Saunketíppo, or, Ashónaquo,          A hat or Cap.

                                     } The skin of a great beast
  Moôse,                             }   as big as an Ox, some
                                     }   call it a red Deere.

  Wussuckhósu,                         Painted.

They also commonly paint these Moose and Deere skins for their
Summer wearing, with varietie of formes and colours.

  Petouwássinug,                       Their Tobacco-bag,

which hangs at their necke, or sticks at their girdle, which is to
them instead of an English pocket.

Obs: Our English clothes are so strange unto them, and their bodies
inured so to endure the weather, that when (upon gift &c.) some of
them have had English cloathes, yet in a showre of raine, I have seen
them rather expose their skins to the wet, than their cloaths, and
therefore pull them off, and keep them drie.

Obs: While they are amongst the English they keep on the English
apparell, but pull off all, as soone as they come againe into their
owne Houses, and Company.

_Generall Observations of their Garments._

How deep are the purposes and Councells of God? What should bee the
reason of this mighty difference of One mans children that all the
Sonnes of men on this side the way (in Europe, Asia and Africa,)
should have such plenteous clothing for Body, for soule! and the rest
of Adams sonnes and Daughters on the other side, or America (some
thinke as big as the other three,) should neither have nor desire
clothing for their naked Soules, or Bodies.

More particular:

      1. O what a Tyrant’s custome long,
           How doe men make a push,
         At what’s in use, though ne’re so fowle,
           Without once shame or blush?

      2. Many thousand proper Men and Women,
           I have seen met in one place:
         Almost all naked, yet not one,
           Thought want of clothes disgrace.

      3. Israell was naked, wearing clothes!     }
           The best clad English-man,            }
         Not cloth’d with Christ, more naked is  } Ex. 32.
           Than naked Indian.                    }


_Of Religion, the Soule, &c._

  Manìt-manittówock,                   God, Gods.

Obs: He that questions whether God made the World, the Indians will
teach him. I must acknowledge I have received in my converse with
them, many Confirmations of those two great points, Heb. 11. 6. viz:

1. That God is.

2. That hee is a rewarder of all them that diligently seek him.

They will generally confesse that God made all: but then in speciall,
although they deny not that Englishmans God made English Men, and the
Heavens and Earth there! yet their Gods made them, and the Heaven,
and the Earth where they dwell.

  Nummus quauna-mùckqun manit,         God is angry with me.

Obs: I heard a poore Indian lamenting the losse of a child at
break of day, call up his Wife and children, and all about him to
Lamentation, and with abundance of teares cry out! O God thou hast
taken away my child: thou art angry with me: O turne thine anger from
me, and spare the rest of my children.

If they receive any good in hunting, fishing, Harvest, &c. they
acknowledge God in it.

Yea, if it be but an ordinary accident, a fall, &c. they will say God
was angry and did it.

  Musquantum manit,                    God is angry.

But herein is their Misery.

First, they branch their Godhead into many Gods.

Secondly, attribute it to Creatures.

First, many Gods: they have given me the Names of thirty-seven, which
I have, all which in their solemne Worships they invocate: as,

  Kautántowwit,                        The great South West God,

to whose House all soules goe, and from whom came their Corne,
Beanes, as they say.

  Wompanànd,                           The Easterne God.

  Chekesuwànd,                         The Westerne God.

  Wunnanaméanit,                       The Northerne God.

  Sowwanànd,                           The Southerne God.

  Wetuómanit,                          The house God.

Even as the Papists have their He and Shee Saint Protectors as St.
George, St. Patrick, St. Dennis, Virgin Mary, &c.

  Squàuanit,                           The Womans God.

  Muckquachuckquànd,                   The Childrens God.

Obs: I was once with a Native dying of a wound, given him by some
of the murtherous English (who rob’d him and run him through with
a Rapier,) from whom in the heat of his wound, he at present
escaped from them, but dying of his wound, they suffered Death at
new Plymouth, in New England, this Native dying call’d much upon
Mackquachuckquànd, which of other Natives I understood, (as they
believed) had appeared to the dying young man, many yeares before,
and bid him whenever he was in distresse call upon him.

Secondly, as they have many of these fained Deities: so worship they
the Creatures in whom they conceive doth rest some Deitie:

  Keesuckquànd,                        The Sun God.

  Nanepaûshat,                         The Moone God.

  Paumpágussit,                        The Sea.

  Yotáanit,                            The fire God.

Supposing that Deities be in these, &c.

When I have argued with them about their Fire-God: can it say they
be, but this fire must be a God, or Divine power, that out of a stone
will arise in a Sparke, and when a poore naked Indian is ready to
starve with cold in the House, and especially in the Woods, often
saves his life, doth dresse all our Food for us, and if it be angry
will burne the House about us, yea if a sparke fall into the drie
wood, burnes up the Country, (though this burning of the Wood to them
they count a Benefit, both for destroying of vermin, and keeping
downe the Weeds and thickets?)

_Præsentem narrat quælibet herba Deum._

      Every little Grasse doth tell,
      The sons of Men, there God doth dwell.

Besides there is a generall Custome amongst them, at the apprehension
of any Excellency in Men, Women, Birds, Beasts, Fish, &c. to cry out
Manittóo, that is, it is a God, as thus if they see one man excell
others in Wisdome, Valour, Strength, Activity &c. they cry out

  Manittóo,                            A God.

And therefore when they talke amongst themselves of the English
ships, and great buildings, of the plowing of their Fields, and
especially of Bookes and Letters, they will end thus: Manittôwock,
They are Gods: Cummanittôo, You are a God, &c. A strong Conviction
naturall in the soule of man, that God is filling all things, and
places, and that all Excellencies dwell in God, and proceed from him,
and that they only are blessed who have that Jehovah their portion.

  Nickómmo,                            A Feast or Dance.

Of this Feast they have publike, and private and that of two sorts.

First in sicknesse, or Drouth, or Warre, or Famine.

Secondly, After Harvest, after hunting, when they enjoy a caulme of
Peace, Health, Plenty, Prosperity, then Nickómmo, a Feast, especially
in Winter, for then (as the Turke saith of the Christian, rather the
Antichristian,) they run mad once a yeare in their kind of Christmas

  Powwáw,                              A Priest.

  Powwaûog,                            Priests.

Obs: These doe begin and order their service, and Invocation of
their Gods, and all the people follow, and joyne interchangeably in
a laborious bodily service, unto sweating, especially of the Priest,
who spends himselfe in strange Antick Gestures, and Actions even
unto fainting.

In sicknesse the Priest comes close to the sick person, and performes
many strange Actions about him, and threatens and conjures out the

They conceive that there are many Gods or divine Powers within the
Body of a Man: In his pulse, his heart, his Lungs, &c. I confesse to
have most of these their customes by their owne Relation, for after
once being in their Houses, and beholding what their Worship was,
I durst never be an eye witnesse, Spectatour, or looker on, least
I should have been partaker of Sathans Inventions and Worships,
contrary to Ephes. 5. 14.

  Nanouwétea,                          An over-Seer and Orderer
                                         of their Worship.

  Neennanowwúnnemun,                   I will order or oversee.

They have an exact forme of King, Priest, and Prophet, as was in
Israel typicall of old in that holy Land of Canaan, and as the Lord
Jesus ordained in his spirituall Land of Canaan his Church throughout
the whole World: their Kings or Governours called Sachimaûog, Kings
and Atauskowaûg Rulers doe govern: Their Priests performe and manage
their Worship: Their wise men and old men (of which number their
Priests are also,) whom they call Taupowauog they make solemne
speeches and Orations, or Lectures to them, concerning Religion,
Peace or Warre and all things.

  Nowemasúitteem,                      I give way at the Worship.

He or she that makes this Nickòmmo Feast or Dance, besides the
feasting sometimes twenty, fifty, an hundredth yea I have seene
neere a thousand persons at one of these Feasts: they give I say a
great quantity of money, and all sort of their goods, (according to
and sometimes beyond their Estate) in severall small parcells of
goods, or money, to the value of eighteen pence, two Shillings, or
thereabouts to one person: and that person that receives this Gift,
upon the receiving of it, goes out and hollowes thrice for the health
and prosperity of the Party that gave it, the Mr. or Mistris of the

  Nowemacaûnash,                       Ile give these things.

  Nutteaugûash,                        My money.

  Nummaumachiúwash,                    My goods.

Obs: By this Feasting and Gifts, the Divell drives on their worships
pleasantly (as he doth all false worships, by such plausible earthly
Arguments of uniformities, universalities, antiquities, immunities,
Dignities, Rewards unto Submitters, and the contrary to Refusers) so
that they run farre and neere and aske

  Awaun Nákommit,                      Who makes a feast?

  Nkekinneawaûmen,                     I goe to the Feast.

  Kekineawûi,                          He is gone to the Feast.

They have a modest Religious perswasion not to disturb any man,
either themselves English, Dutch, or any in their conscience, and
worship, and therefore say:

  Aquiewopwaûwash,                     Peace, hold your peace.

  Peeyaûntam,                          He is at Prayer.

  Peeyaúntamwock,                      They are praying.

  Cowwéwonck,                          The Soule,

derived from Cowwene, to sleep, because say they, it works and
operates when the Body sleepes. Michachunck, the soule, in a higher
notion which is of affinity, with a word signifying a looking glasse,
or cleere resemblance, so that it hath its name from a cleere sight
or discerning, which indeed seemes very well to suit with the nature
of it.

  Wuhóck,                              The Body.

  Nohòck, cohòck,                      My body, your body.

  Awaunkeesitteoûwincohòck,            Who made you?

  Tunna-awwa                           Whether goes your soule
    commitchichunckkitonckquéan?         when you die?

  Anan sowanakitaûwaw,                 It goes to the South West.

Obs: They believe that the soules of Men and Women goe to the
South-west, their great and good Men and Women to Cautantouwit his
house, where they have hopes (as the Turkes have of carnall Joyes):
Murtherers, thieves and Lyers, their soules (say they) wander
restlesse abroad.

Now because this Book (by Gods good Providence) may come into the
hand of many fearing God, who may also have many an opportunity of
occasionall discourse with some of these their wild Brethren and
Sisters, and may speake a word for their and our glorious Maker,
which may also prove some preparatory Mercy to their Soules: I shall
propose some proper expressions concerning the Creation of the world,
and mans Estate and in particular theirs also, which from myselfe
many hundredths of times, great numbers of them have heard with
great delight, and great convictions: which who knowes (in Gods holy
season) may rise to the exalting of the Lord Jesus Christ in their
conversion and salvation?

  Nétop Kunnatótemous,                 Friend, I will aske you a

  Nntótema,                            Speake on.

  Tocketunnántum?                      What thinke you?

  Awaun Keesiteoûwin Kéesuck?          Who made the Heavens?

  Aûke Wechêkom?                       The Earth, the Sea.

  Mittauke,                            The World.

Some will answer Tattá, I cannot tell, some will answer Manittôwock,
the Gods.

  Tà suóg Manittowock,                 How many Gods bee there?

  Maunaúog Mishaúnawock,               Many, great many.

  Netop macháge,                       Friend, not so.

  Paúsuck naúnt manìt,                 There is onely one God.

  Cuppíssittone,                       You are mistaken.

  Cowauwaúnemum,                       You are out of the way.

A Phrase which much pleaseth them, being proper for their wandring in
the Woods, and similitudes greatly please them.

  Kukkakótemous, wachitquáshouwe,      I will tell you, presently.

  Kuttaunchemókous,                    I will tell you newes.

  Paûsuck naúnt manít kéesittin        One onely God made the
     keesuck, &c.                        Heavens &c.

  Napannètashèmittan                   Five thousand yeers agoe,
    naugecautúmmonabnshque,              and upwards.

  Naúgom naúnt wukkesittinnes          He alone made all things.

  Wuche mateâg,                        Out of nothing.

  Quttatashuchuckqunnacaus             In six dayes he made all things.

  Nquittaqúnne,                        The first day hee made
  Wuckéesitin weqâi,                     the Light.

  Neesqunne,                           The second day Hee made
  Wuckéesitin Keésuck,                   the Firmament.

  Shúckqunne wuckéesitin               The third day hee made
    Aúkekà wechêkom,                     the Earth and sea.

  Yóqunne wuckkéesitin                 The fourth day he made
    Nippaúus kà Nanepaúshat,             the Sun and the Moon.

  Neenash-mamockíuwash                 Two great Lights.

  Kà wáme anócksuck,                   And all the Starres.

  Napannetashúckqunne                  The fifth day hee made
    Wuckéesittinpussuckseesuckwâme,      all the fowle.

  Keesuckquíuke,                       In the Ayre or Heavens

  Kawámeaúmúasuck, Wechekommiuke,      And all the Fish in the Sea.

  Quttatashúkqunne Wuckkeésittin       The sixth day hee made
    penashímwock wamè,                   all the Beasts of the Field.

  Wuttàke wuckèwuckeesittin            Last of all he made one
    pausuck Enìn, or,                    Man.

  Wuche mishquòck,                     Of red Earth.

  Kawesuonckgonnakaûnes                And call’d him Adam,
    Adam, túppautea mishquòck,           or red Earth.

  Wuttáke wuchè                        Then afterward, while
    Câwit mishquock,                     Adam or red Earth slept.

  Wuckaudnúmmenes manit                God tooke a rib from Adam,
    peetaúgonwuche Adam,                 or red Earth.

  Kà wuchè peteaúgon                   And of that rib he made
    Wukkeessitínnes pausuck squàw,       One woman.

  Kà pawtouwúnnes Adâmuck              And brought her to Adam.

  Nawônt Adam wuttunnawaun             When Adam saw her, he
    nuppeteâgon ewò,                     said, this is my bone.

  Enadatashúck qunneaquêi              The seventh day hee rested

  Nagaû wvchè quttatashúckqune         And therefore Englishmen
    anacaúsuock, Englishmánnuck,         worke six days

  Enadatashuckqunnóckat-               On the seventh day they
    taubataumwock,                       praise God.

Obs: At this Relation they are much satisfied, with a reason why (as
they observe) the English and Dutch, &c. labour six dayes and rest
and worship the seventh.

Besides, they will say, Wee never heard of this before; and then
will relate how they have it from their Fathers, that _Kautántowwit_
made one man and woman of a stone, which disliking, he broke them
in pieces, and made another man and woman of a Tree, which were the
Fountaines of all mankind.

They apprehending a vast difference of Knowledge betweene the English
and themselves, are very observant of the English lives: I have heard
them say to an Englishman (who being hindred, broke a promise to
them) you know God, will you lie Englishman?

  Nétop kíhkita,                       Hearken to mee.

  Englishmánnuck,                      Englishmen.

  Dutchmánnuck, keenouwin              Dutch men, and you and all
    kà wamé mittaukêkukitonck            the world when they die.

  Mattux swowánna                      Their soules goe not to
    kit aûog michichónckquock,           the Southwest.

  Wàme, ewò pâwsuck,                   All that know that one God.
  Manit wáwóntakick,

  Ewò manìt waumaûsachick              That love and feare Him.
    kà uckqushánchick,

  Keesaqut aùog,                       They goe up to Heaven.

  Michéme weeteantámwock,              They ever live in joy.

  Naûgom manìt wêkick,                 In Gods owne House.

  Ewo manìt mat wauóntakick,           They that know not this God.

  Matwaumaûsachick,                    That love.

  Màt ewò uckqushánchick,              And feare him not.

  Kamóotakick,                         Thieves.

  Puppannouwâchick,                    Lyers.

  Nochisquauónchick,                   Vnclean persons.

  Nanompaníssichick,                   Idle persons.

  Kemineíachick,                       Murtherers.

  Mammaúsachick,                       Adulterers.

  Nanisquégachick,                     Oppressors or fierce.

  Wame naûmakiaûog,                    They go to Hell or the Deepe.

  Michem maûog,                        They shall ever lament.

  Awaum kukkakotemógwunnes?            Who told you so?

  Manittoowussuckwheke,                Gods booke or writing.

Obs: After I had (as farre as my language would reach) discoursed
(upon a time) before the chief Sachim or Prince of the Countrey, with
his arch priests, and many other in a full assembly; and being night,
wearied with travell and discourse I lay down to rest; and before I
slept I heard this passage: A Qunnihticut Indian (who had heard our
discourse) told the Sachim Miantunnómu that soules went up to Heaven,
or downe to Hell; For, saith he, our Fathers have told us, that our
soules go to the Southwest. The Sachim answered, But how doe you know
yourselfe, that your soules goe to the Southwest; did you ever see a
soule goe thither? The Native replied; when did he (naming my selfe)
see a soul goe to Heaven or Hell? The Sachim againe replied: He hath
books and writings, and one which God himselfe made, concerning mens
soules, and therefore may well know more than wee that have none, but
take all upon trust from our forefathers.

The said Sachim, and the chiefe of his people, discoursed by
themselves, of keeping the Englishmans day of worship, which I could
easily have brought the Countrey to, but that I was persuaded, and
am, that Gods way is first to turne a soule from its Idolls, both of
heart, worship and conversation, before it is capable of worship,
to the true and living God, according to 1. Thes. 1. 9. You turned
to God from Idolls to serve or worship the living and true God. As
also, that the two first Principles and Foundations of true religion
or Worship of the true God in Christ, are Repentance from dead
workes, and Faith towards God, before the Doctrine of Baptisme or
washing and the laying on of hands, which containe the Ordinances and
Practises of worship; the want of which, I conceive is the bane of
million of soules in England, and all other Nations professing to be
Christian Nations, who are brought by publique authority to Baptisime
and fellowship with God in Ordinances of worship, before the saving
worke of repentance, and a true turning to God, Heb. 6. 2.

  Nétop kitonckquêan kunnúppamin       Friend when you die you
    michéme,                             perish everlastingly.

  Michéme cuppauqua neímmin,           You are everlastingly undone.

  Cummusquauna múckqun manìt,          God is angry with you.

  Cuppauquanúckqun,                    He will destroy you.

  Wuché cummanittó wockmanâuog,        For your many Gods.

  Wame pitch chíckauta                 The whole world shall
    mittaúke,                            ere long be burnt.

Obs: Upon the relating that God hath once destroyed the world by
water; and that he will visit it the second time with consuming fire:
I have been asked this profitable question of some of them, What then
will become of us? Where then shall we be?

  Manít ánawat Cuppittakûnnamun        God commandth, that all
    wèpe wáme,                           Men now repent.

_The generall Observation of Religion, &c._

The wandring Generations of Adams lost posteritie, having lost the
true and living God, their Maker, have created out of the Nothing of
their own inventions many false and fained Gods and Creators.

More particular.

      Two sorts of Men shall naked stand,
        Before the burning ire
      Of him, that shortly shall appeare,
        In dreadfull flaming fire.
      First, Millions know not God, nor for
        His knowledge care to seeke:
      Millions have knowledge store, but, in
        Obedience, are not meeke.
      If woe to Indians, where shall Turk,
        Where shall appeare the Jew?
      O, where shall stand the Christian false?
        O blessed then the true.


_Of their Government and Justice._

  Sâchim-maûog,                        King, Kings.

  Sachimáûonck,                        A kingdome or Monarchie.

Obs: Their Government is Monarchicall, yet at present the chiefest
government in the countrey is divided betweene a younger Sachim,
Miantunnnômu, and an elder Sachim, Caunoúnicus, of about fourscore
yeeres old, this young Mans uncle; and their agreement in the
Government is remarkable. The old Sachim will not be offended at what
the young Sachim doth; and the young Sachim will not doe what hee
conceives will displease his Uncle.

  Saunks,                              The Queen, or Sachims Wife.

  Sauncksquûaog,                       Queenes.

  Otàn,-nash,                          The towne, townes.

  Otanick,                             To the towne.

  Sachimmaacommock,                    A Princes house,
                                       which according to their
condition is farre different from the other house, both in capacity
or receit, and also the finenesse and quality of their Mats.

  Ataúskawaw-wauog,                    Lord, Lords.

  Wauóntam,                            A Wise man or Counsellour.

  Wauóntakick,                         Wise men.

  Enàtch or eàtch Keèn anawáyean,      Your will shall be law.

  Enatch neèn ánowa,                   Let my word stand.

  Ntínnume,                            He is my man.

  Ntacquêtunck ewò,                    He is my subject.

  Kuttackquêtous,                      I will subject to you.

Obs: Beside their generall subjection to the highest Sachims to
whom they carry presents: They have also particular Protectors,
under Sachims, to whom they also carry presents and upon any injury
received, and complaint made, these Protectors will revenge it.

  Ntannôtam,                           I will revenge it.

  Kuttannótous,                        I will revenge you.

  Miâwene,                             A Court or meeting.

  Wépe cummiâwene,                     Come to the meeting.

  Miawêtuck,                           Let us meet.

  Wauwhàutowash,                       Call a meeting.

  Miawêmucks,                          At a meeting.

  Miawéhettit,                         When they meet.

Obs: The Sachims, although they have an absolute Monarchie over the
people: yet they will not conclude of ought that concernes all,
either Lawes, or Subsidies, or warres, unto which the People are
averse, and by gentle perswasion cannot be brought.

  Peyaùtch naûgum,                     Let himselfe come here.

  Pétiteatch,                          Let him come.

  Mishaúntowash,                       Speake out.

  Nanántowash,                         Speake plaine.

  Kunnadsíttamenwèpe,                  You must inquire after this.

  Wunnadsittamútta,                    Let us search into it.

  Neen pitch-nnadsittamen,             I will inquire into it.

  Machíssu ewò,                        He is naught.

  Cuttiantacompáwwem,                  You are a lying fellow.

  Cuttiantakiskquâwquaw,               You are a lying woman.

  Wèpe cukkúmmoot,                     You have stole.

  Mat méshnawmônash,                   I did not see those things.

  Màt mèshnummanmenash,                I did not take them.

  Wèpekunnishquêko cummiskissawwaw,    You are fierce and quarrelsome.

Obs: I could never discerne that excesse of scandalous sins amongst
them, which Europe aboundeth with. Drunkennesse and gluttony,
generally they know not what sinnes they be; and although they have
not so much to restraine them (both in respect of knowledge of God
and Lawes of Men) as the English have, yet a man shall never heare of
such crimes amongst them of robberies, murthers, adulteries, &c. as
amongst the English: I conceive that the glorious Sunne of so much
truth as shines in England, hardens our English hearts; for what the
Sunne softeneth not, it hardens.

  Tawhìtch yó enêan?                   Why doe you so?

  Tawhìtch cummootóan?                 Why doe you steale?

  Tawhìtch nanompaniêan?               Why are you thus idle or base?

  Wewhepapúnnoke,                      Bind him.

  Wèpe kunnishaûmis,                   You kild him.

  Wépe kukkemineantín,                 You are the murtherer.

  Sasaumitaúwhitch,                    Let him be whipt.

  Upponckquittaúwhitch,                Let him be imprisoned.

  Níppitch ewó,                        Let him die.

  Niphéttitch,                         Let them die.

  Niss-Nìssoke,                        Kill him.

  Púm-púmmoke,                         Shoot him.

Obs: The most usuall Custome amongst them in executing punishments,
is for the Sachim either to beate, or whip, or put to death with
his owne hand, to which the common sort most quietly submit: Though
sometimes the Sachim sends a secret executioner one of his chiefest
Warriours to fetch off a head, by some sudden unexpected blow of a
Hatchet, when they have feared Mutiny by publike execution.

  Kukkeechequaûbenitch,                You shall be hanged.

  Níppansínnea,                        I am innocent.

  Uppansínea-ewo,                      He is innocent.

  Matmeshnowaûwon,                     I knew nothing of it.

  Nnowaúntum,                          I am sorry.

  Nummachiemè,                         I have done ill.

  Aumaúnemoke,                         Let it passe, or take away
                                         this accusation.

  Konkeeteatch Ewo,                    Let him live.

  Konkeeteáhetti,                      Let them live.

_Observation generall, of their Government._

The wildest of the Sonnes of Men have ever found a necessity, (for
preservation of themselves, their Families and Properties) to cast
themselves into some Mould or forme of Government.

More particular.

      Adulteries, Murthers, Robberies, Thefts,
        Wild Indians punish these!
      And hold the scales of justice so,
        That no man farthing leese.
      When Indians heare the horrid filths,
        Of Irish, English Men
      The Horrid Oaths and Murthers late,
        Thus say these Indians then,
      We weare no Cloaths, have many Gods,
        And yet our sinnes are lesse.
      You are Barbarians, Pagans wild,
        Your land’s the wildernesse.


_Of Marriage._

  Wuskéne,                             A young man.

  Keegsquaw,                           A Virgin or Maide.

  Segaúo,                              A widdower.

  Segoúsquaw,                          A widdow.

  Wusséntam,                           He goes a wooing.

  Nosénemuck,                          He is my sonne in Law.

  Wussenetûock,                        They make a match.

Obs: Single fornication they count no sin, but after Marriage (which
they solemnize by consent of Parents and publique approbation
publiquely) then they count it hainous for either of them to be false.

  Mammaûsu,                            An Adulterer.

  Nummammógwunewò,                     He hath wronged my bed.

  Pallé nochisquaûaw,                  He or she hath committed

Obs: In this case the wronged party may put away or keepe the party
offending: commonly, if the woman be false, the offended Husband will
be solemnly revenged upon the offender, before many witnesses, by
many blowes and wounds, and if it be to Death, yet the guilty resists
not, nor is his Death revenged.

  Nquittócaw,                          He hath one Wife.

  Neesócaw,                            He hath two Wives.

  Sshócowaw,                           He hath three.

  Yocowaw,                             Foure wives &c.

Their Number is not stinted, yet the chiefe Nation in the Countrey,
the Narrigansets (generally) have but one Wife.

Two causes they generally alledge for their many wives.

First desire of Riches, because the Women bring in all the increase
of the Field, &c. the Husband onely fisheth, hunteth &c.

Secondly, their long sequestring themselves from their wives after
conception, until the child be weaned, which with some is long after
a yeare old, generally they keep their children long at the breast.

  Commíttamus, Cowéewo,                Your wife.

  Tahanawatu? ta shincommaúgemus,      How much gave you for her.

  Napannetashom paûgatash,             Five fathome of their Money.

  Qutta-énada shoasuck ta              Six or seven or eight fathome.

If some great Mans daghter, Piuckquompaúgatash, ten fathome.

Obs: Generally the Husband gives these payments for a Dowrie, (as it
was in Israell) to the Father or Mother, or guardian of the Maide.
To this purpose if the Man be poore, his Friends and Neighbours doe
pummenumminteáuguash, that is contribute Money toward the Dowrie.

  Nummíttamus Nullógana,               My Wife.

  Waumaûsu,                            Loving.

  Wunnêkesu,                           Proper.

  Maânsu,                              Sober and chast.

  Muchickéhea,                         Fruitfull.

  Cutchashekeâmis?                     How many children have you had.

  Nquittékea,                          I have had one.

  Neesékea,                            Two &c.

Obs: They commonly abound with children, and increase mightily;
except the plague fall amongst them, or other lesser sicknesses, and
then having no meanes of recovery, they perish wonderfully.

  Katoû eneéchaw,                      She in falling into Travell.

  Néechaw,                             She is in Travell.

  Paugcót che nechaúwaw,               She is already delivered.

  Kitummâyi-mes-néchaw,                She was just now delivered.

Obs: It hath pleased God in wonderfull manner to moderate that curse
of the sorrowes of child bearing to these poore Indian women: So that
ordinarily they have a wonderfull more speedy and easie Travell,
and delivery than the women of Europe: not that I think God is more
gracious to them above other women, but that it followes, First from
the hardnesse of their constitution, in which respect they beare
their sorrowes the easier. Secondly from their extraordinary great
labour (even above the labour of men) as in the field, they sustaine
the labour of it, in carrying of mighty Burthens, in digging clammes
and getting other Shelfish from the Sea, in beating all their Corne
in Morters, &c. Most of them count it a shame for women in Travell to
make complaint, and many of them are scarcely heard to groane. I have
often knowne in one Quarter of an houre a Woman merry in the House,
and delivered and merry againe, and within two dayes abroad, and
after foure or five dayes at worke, &c.

  Noosâwwaw,                           A Nurse.

  Nòonsu Nonânnis,                     A sucking Child.

  Wunnunògan,                          A Breast.

  Wunnunnóganash,                      Breasts.

  Munnúnnug,                           Milke.

  Aumaúneman,                          To take from the breast,
                                         or weane.

Obs: they put away (as in Israell) frequently for other occasions
besides adultery, yet I know many Couples that have lived twenty,
thirty, forty yeares together.

  Npakétam,                            I will put her away.

  Npakénaqnn,                          I am put away.

  Aquiepakétash,                       Doe not put away.

  Aquèipokesháttous                    Doe not break the knot
  Awetawátuonck,                         of Marriage.

  Tackquiúwock,                        Twins.

  Towiû ûwock,                         Orphans.

  Ntouwiû,                             I am an Orphane.

  Wáuchaûnat,                          A Guardian.

  Wauchaúamachick,                     Guardians.

  Nullóquaso,                          My charge or Pupill, or Ward.

  Peewaûqun,                           Looke well to him, &c.

_Generall Observation of their Marriage._

God hath planted in the Hearts of the Wildest of the sonnes of Men,
an High and Honourable esteeme of the Marriage bed, insomuch that
they universally submit unto it, and hold the Violation of that Bed,
Abominable, and accordingly reape the Fruit thereof in the abundance
of posterity.

More particular.

      When Indians heare that some there are,
        (That Men the Papists call)
      Forbidding Marriage Bed and yet,
        To thousand Whoredomes fall:
      They aske if such doe goe in cloathes,
        And whether God they know?
      And when they heare they’re richly clad,
        Know God, yet practice so,
      No sure they’re Beasts not men (say they)
        Men’s shame and joule disgrace,
      Or men have mixt with Beasts and so,
        Brought forth that monstrous Race.


_Concerning their Coyne._

The Indians are ignorant of Europes Coyne; yet they have given a name
to ours, and call it Monèash from the English money.

Their owne is of two sorts; one white, which they make of the stem or
stocke of the Periwincle, which they call, Meteaûhock, when all the
shell is broken off: and of this sort six of their small Beads (which
they make with holes to string the bracelets) are currant with the
English for a Peny.

The second is black, inclining to blew, which is made of the shell of
a fish, which some English call Hens, Poquaûhock, and of this sort
three make an English peny.

They that live upon the Sea side generally make of it, and as many
make as will.

The Indians bring downe all their sorts of Furs, which they take
in the countrey, both to the Indians and to the English for this
Indian Money: this Money the English, French and Dutch, trade to the
Indians, six hundred miles in severall parts (North and South from
New-England) for their Furres, and whatsoever they stand in need of
from them: as Corne, Venison, &c.

  Nquittómpscat,                       1 peny.

  Neesaúmscat,                         2 pence.

  Shwaúmscat,                          3 pence.

  Yowómscat,                           4 pence.

  Napannetashaúmscat,                  5 pence.

  Quttatashaúmscat, or quttauatu,      6 pence.

  Enadatashaúmscat,                    7 pence.

  Shwoasuck tashaúmscat,               8 pence.

  Paskugittashaúmscat,                 9 pence.

  Piuckquaúmscat,                      10 pence.

  Piuckquaúmscatnabnaqùit,             11 pence.

  Piuck quamúscat nabnées, &c.         12 pence.

Obs: This they call Neén, which is two of their Quáttuatues, or six

  Piuckquaúmscat nabnashoàsuck,        18d.  3 quttáuatues.
    which they call Shwìn.

  Neesneecheckaúmscat nab yòh, or,     2s.  4 quttáuatues.

  Shwinchékaúmscat, or napannetashin,  2s. 6d.  5 quttáuatues.

  Shwinchekaúmscat,                    2s. 6d.  6 quttáuatues.

  Yow innchekaúmscat nab neèse,        3s. 6d.  7 quttáuatues.

  Yowinncheckaúmscat nabnashòasuck,    4s.  8 quttáuatues.

  Napannetashwincheckáumscat nab yòh,  4s. 6d.  9 quttáuatues.

  Quttatashincheck aumscat, or more    5s.  10 quttáuatues
    commonly used Puickquat,             or 10 six pences.

Obs: This Piúckquat being sixtie pence, they call Nquittómpeg, or
Nquitnishcaûsu, that is, one fathom, 5 shillings.

This one fathom of this their stringed money, now worth of the
English but five shillings (sometimes more) some few yeeres since
was worth nine, and sometimes ten shillings per Fathome: the fall is
occasioned by the fall of Beaver in England. The Natives are very
impatient, when for English commodities they pay so much more of
their money, and not understanding the cause of it; and many say the
English cheat and deceive them, though I have laboured to make them
understand the reason of it.

  Neesaumpaúgatuck,                    10 shil.  2 Fathom.

  Shwaumpáugatuck,                     15 shil.  3 Fathom.

  Yowompáugatuck, &c.                  20 shil.  4 Fathom

  Piuckquampáugatuck, or,              50 shil.  10 Fathom.
    Nquit pàusck,

  Neespausuckquompáugatuck,            5 lib’  20 Fathome.

  Shwepaûsuck, Yowe paûsuck, &c.       30 Fathome.

  Nquittemittannauganompáugatuck,      40 Fathome, or, 10 pounds.

  Tashincheckompaúgatuck?              How many Fathom?

Obs: Their white they call Wompam (which signifies white): their
black Suckauhock (Sácki signifying blacke.)

Both amongst themselves, as also the English and Dutch, the blacke
peny is two pence white; the blacke fathom double, or, two fathom of

  Wepekuttassamompatimmin,             Change my money.

  Suckaúhock nausakésachick,           The blacke money.

  Wauômpeg, or Wauompésichick-mèsim,   Give me white.

  Assawompatittea,                     Come, let us change.

  Anâwsuck,                            Shells.

  Meteaûhock,                          The Periwinckle.

  Suckauanaûsuck,                      The blacke shells.

  Suckauaskéesaquash,                  The blacke eyes, or,

that part of the shel-fish called Poquaûhock (or Hens) broken out
neere the eyes, of which they make the blacke.

  Puchwhéganash and Múcksuck,          Awle blades.

  Papuckakiuash,                       Brittle or breaking,
                                         which they desire to be
                                         hardened to a brittle

Obs: Before ever they had awle blades from Europe, they made shift to
bore this their shell money with stones, and to fell their trees with
stone set in a wooden staff, and used wooden howes; which some old
and poore women (fearfull to leave the old tradition) use to this day.

  Natouwúmpitea,                       A Coyner or Minter.

  Nnanatouwúmpiteem,                   I cannot coyne.

  Natouwómpitees,                      Make money or Coyne.

  Puckhûmmin,                          To bore through.

  Puckwhegonnaûtick,                   The awle blade sticks.

  Tutteputch anâwsin,                  To smooth them, which they
                                         doe on stones.

  Qussûck-anash,                       Stone, stones.

  Cauómpsk,                            A whetstone.

  Nickáutick,                          A kind of wooden Pincers
                                         or Vice.

  Enomphómmin,                         To thread or string.

  Aconaqúnnaûog,                       Thread the Beads.

  Enomphómmin,                         Thread, or string these.

  Enomphósachick,                      Strung ones.

  Sawhoog & Sawhósachick,              Loose Beads.

  Naumpacoûin,                         To hang about the necke.

Obs: They hang these strings of money about their necks and wrists;
as also upon the necks and wrists of their wives and children.

Máchequoce, a Girdle; which they make curiously of one, two, three,
foure and five inches thicknesse and more, of this money which
(sometimes to the value of ten pounds and more) they weare about
their middle and as a scarfe about their shoulders and breasts.

Yea, the Princes make rich Caps and Aprons (or small breeches) of
these Beads thus curiously strung into many formes and figures: their
blacke and white finely mixt together.

_Observations generall of their Coyne._

The sonnes of men having lost their Maker, the true and onely
Treasure, dig downe to the bowels of the earth for gold and silver;
yea, to the bottome of the sea, for shells of fishes, to make up a
Treasure, which can never truly enrich nor satisfie.

More particular.

      The Indians prize not English gold,
        Nor English, Indians shell:
      Each in his place shall passe for ought.
        What ere Men buy or sell.
      English and Indians all passe hence,
        To an eternall place,
      Where shels nor finest golds’ worth ought,
        Where noughts’ worth ought but Grace.
      This Coyne the Indians know not of,
        Who knowes how soone they may?
      The English knowing, prize it not,
        But fling’t like drosse away.


_Of their Buying and Selling._

       or                              Traders.

  Anaqushénto,                         Let us trade.

  Cuttasha?                            Have you this or that?

  Nítasha,                             I have.

  Nquénowhick,                         I want this, &c.

  Nowèkineam,                          I like this.

  Nummachinnámmin,                     I doe not like.

  Máunetash nquénowhick,               I want many things.

  Cuttattaúamish,                      I will buy this of you.

  Nummouanaquish,                      I come to buy.

  Mouanaqushaûog,                      Chapmen.

Obs: Amongst themselves they trade their Corne, skins, Coates,
Venison, Fish, &c. and sometimes come ten or twenty in a Company to
trade amongst the English.

They have some who follow onely making of Bowes, some Arrowes, some
Dishes (and the women make all their Earthen Vessells) some follow
fishing, some hunting: most on the Sea side make Money, and Store up
shells in Summer against Winter whereof to make their money.

  Nummautanaqúsh,                      I have bought.

  Cummanóhamin?                        Have you bought?

  Cummanohamoúsh,                      I will buy of you.

  Nummautanóhamin,                     I have bought.

  Kunnauntatáumish,                    I come to buy this.

  Comaunekunnuo?                       Have you any cloth?

  Koppócki,                            Thick cloth.

  Wassáppi,                            Thin.

  Súckinuit,                           Black, or blackish.

  Mishquinuit,                         Red Cloth.

  Wómpinuit,                           White cloth.

Obs: They all generally prize a Mantle of English or Dutch Cloth
before their owne wearing of Skins and Furres, because they are warme
enough and Lighter.

  Wompeqûayi,                          Cloth inclining to white,
                                       which they like not, but
desire to have a sad colour without any whitish haires suiting with
their own naturall Temper, which inclines to sadnese.

  Etouwawâyi,                          Wollie on both sides.

  Muckûcki,                            Bare without wool.

  Chechéke maútsha,                    Long lasting.

  Qúnnascat,                           Of a great breadth.

  Túockquscat,                         Of little breadth.

  Wùss,                                The Edge or list.

  Aumpácunnish,                        Open it.

  Tuttepàcunnish,                      Fold it up.

  Mat Weshegganùnno,                   There is no work on it.

  Tanógganish,                         Shake it.

  Wúskanuit,                           New Cloth.

  Tanócki, tanócksha,                  It is torne or rent.

  Eatawûs,                             It is Old.

  Quttaûnch,                           Feele it.

  Audtà,                               A paire of small breeches or

Cuppàmirh, I will pay you, which is a word newly made from the
English word pay.

  Tahenautu?                           What price?

  Tummòck cumméinsh,                   I will pay you Beaver.

  Teaûguock Cumméinsh,                 I will give you Money.

  Wauwunnegachick,                     Very good.

Obs: They have great difference of their Coyne as the English have:
Some that will not passe without Allowance and some again made of a
Counterfeit shell, and their very blacke counterfeited by a Stone and
other Materialls; yet I never knew any of them much deceived, for
their danger of being deceived (in these things of Earth) makes them

  Cosaúmawem,                          You aske too much.

  Kuttíackqussaûwew,                   You are very hard.

  Aquie iackqussaûme,                  Be not so hard.

  Aquie Wussaúmowash,                  Doe not aske much.

  Tashin Commê sim?                    How much shall I give you?

  Kutteaûg Commeinsh,                  I will give you your money.

  Nkèke Comméinsh,                     I will give you an Otter.

  Coanombuqusse,                       You have deceived,

Obs: Who ever deale or trade with them had need of Wisedome, Patience
and Faithfulnesse in dealing; for they frequently say Cuppánnawen,
you lye, Cuttassokakómme, you deceive.

  Misquésu Kunúkkeke,                  Your otter is reddish.

  Yò aúwusse Wunnêgin,                 This is better.

  Yo chippaúatu,                       This is of another price.

  Aagausaúatu,                         It is Cheap.

  Muchickaúatu,                        It is deare.

  Wuttunnaúatu,                        It is worth it.

  Wunishaúnto,                         Let us agree.

  Aquie neesquttónckqussish,           Doe not make adoe.

  Wuché nquittompscat,                 About a penny.

They are marvellous subtle in their Bargaines to save a penny; And
very suspicous that English Men labour to deceive them: Therefore
they will beate all markets and try all places, and runne twenty,
thirty, yea forty mile, and more, and lodge in the Woods to save

  Cummámmenash nitteaúguash?           Will you have my money?

  Nonânum,                             I cannot.

  Tawhitch nonanumêan?                 Why can you not?

  Macháge nkóckie,                     I get nothing.

  Tashaumskussayicommesim?             How many spans will you give me?

  Neesaumsqussáyi,                     Two spans.

  Shwaumscusscáyi,                     Three spans.

  Yowompscussáyi,                      Foure spans.

  Napannetashaumscussâyi,              Five spans.

  Quttatashaumskussáyi,                Six spans.

  Endatashaumscussâyì,                 Seven spans.

  Enadatashaumskuttonâyi,              Seven spans.

  Cowénaweke,                          You are a rich Man.

Obs: They will often confesse, for their own ends, that the English
are richer and wiser, and valianter than themselves; yet it is for
their own ends, and therefore they adde Nanoùe, give me this or
that, a disease which they are generally infected with; some more
ingenuous, scorne it, but I have often seene an Indian with great
quantities of money about him beg a Knife of an English man who
happily hath had never a penny of money.

  Akétash-tamòke,                      Tell my money.

  Now ánnakese,                        I have mis-told.

  Cosaûmakese,                         You have told too much.

  Cunnoónakese,                        You have told too little.

  Shoo kekíneass,                      Looke here.

  Wunêtu nitteaûg,                     My money is very good.

  Mamattissuôgkutteaûquock,            Your Beads are naught.

  Tashin mesh commaûg?                 How much have you given?

  Chichêgin,                           A Hatchet.

  Anaskúnck,                           A Howe.

  Maumichémanege,                      A Needle.

  Cuttatuppaúnamum,                    Take a measure.

  Tatuppauntúhommin,                   To weigh with scales.

  Tatuppauntúock,                      They are weighing.

  Netâtup,                             It is all one.

  Kaukakíneamuck,                    } A looking Glasse.
  Pebenochichauquânick?              }

Obs: It may be wondred what they doe with Glasses, having no beautie
but a swarfish colour, and no dressing but nakednesse; but pride
appeares in any colour, and the meanest dresse; and besides generally
the Women paint their faces with all sorts of colours.

  Cummanohamôgunna,                    They will buy it of you.

  Cuppittakûnnemous,                   Take your cloth againe.

  Cuppittakunnamì?                     Will you serve me so?

  Cosaumpeekúnneman,                   You have tore me off too
                                       little cloth.

  Cummachetannakunamous,               I have torn it off for you.

  Tawhìtch cuppíttakunamiêan?          Why doe you turne it up
                                         on my hand.

  Kutchichêginash, kaukinne            Your Hatchets will be soone
    pokéshaas,                           broken.

  Teâno wáskishaas,                    Soone gapt.

  Natouashóckquittea,                  A Smith.

  Kuttattaú amish aûke,                I would buy land of you.

  Tou núckquaque?                      How much?

  Wuchè wuttotânick,                   For a towne, or, Plantation.

  Nissékineam,                         I have no mind to seeke.

  Indiansuck sekineámwock,             The Indians are not willing.

  Noonapúock naûgum,                   They want roome themselves.

  Cowetompátimmin,                     We are friends.

  Cummaugakéamish,                     I will give you land.

  Aquìe chenawaûsish,                  Be not churlish.

_Generall Observation of Trade._

O the infinite wisedome of the most holy wise God, who hath so
advanced Europe, above America, that there is not a sorry Howe,
Hatchet, Knife, nor a rag of cloth in all America, but what comes
over the dreadfull Atlantick Ocean from Europe: and yet that Europe
be not proud, nor America discouraged; what treasures are hid in some
parts of America, and in our New English parts, how have foule hands
(in smoakie houses) the first handling of those Furres which are
after worne upon the hands of Queens and heads of Princes.

More particular:

      1. Oft have I heard these Indians say,
           These English will deceive us.
         Of all that’s ours, our lands and lives
           In th’ end they will bereave us.

      2. So say they, whatsoever they buy,
           (Though small) which shewes they’re shie
         Of Strangers, fearfull to be catcht
           By Fraud, deceipt, or lie.

      3. Indians and English feare deceits,
           Yet willing both to be
         Deceiv’d and couzen’d of precious soule
           Of Heaven, Eternitie.


_Of Debts and Trusting._

  Noónat,                              I have not money enough

  Noonamautuckquáwhe,                  Trust me.

  Kunnoonamaútuckquaush,               I will owe it you.

Obs: They are very desirous to come into debt, but then he that
trusts them must sustaine a two fold losse:

First, Of his Commoditie.

Secondly, Of his Custome, as I have found by deare experience:
Some are ingenuous, plaine hearted and honest; but the most never
pay unlesse a man follow them to their severall abodes, townes and
houses, as I my selfe have been forc’d to doe, which hardship and
Travells it hath yet pleased God to sweeten with some experiences and
some little gaine of Language.

  Nonamautuckquahéginash,              Debts.

  Nosaumautackquáwhe,                  I am much in debt.

  Pitch nippáutowin,                   I will bring it you.

  Chenock naquómbeg cuppauútiin        When will you bring mee
    nitteaûguash,                        my money?

  Kunnaúmpatous,                       I will pay you.

  Keéskwhim, teaugmésin,               Pay me my money.

  Tawhítch peyáuyean,                  Why doe you come?

  Nnádgecom,                           I come for debts.

  Machêtu,                             A poore man.

  Nummácheke,                          I am a poore man.

  Mesh nummaúchnem,                    I have been sicke.

  Nowemacaúnash niteaúquash,           I was faine to spend my
                                         money in my sicknesse.

Obs: This is a common, and (as they think) most satisfying answer,
that they have been sick: for in those times they give largely to
the Priests, who then sometimes heales them by conjurations; and also
they keepe open houses for all to come to helpe to pray with them,
unto whom also they give money.

  Mat noteaûgo,                        I have no money.

  Kekíneash nippêtunck,                Looke here in my bag.

  Nummâche maúganash,                  I have already paid.

  Mat coanaumwaûmis,                   You have not kept your word.

  Kunnampatôwinkeénowwin,              You must pay it.

  Machàge wuttamaûntam,                He minds it not.

  Machàge wuttammauntammôock,          They take no care about paying.

  Michéme notammaûntam,                I doe alwayes mind it.

  Mat nickowêmennaûkocks,              I cannot sleepe in the night
                                         for it.

_Generall Observations of their Debts._

It is an universal Disease of folly in Men to desire to enter into
not onely necessary, but unnecessary and tormenting debts, contrary
to the command of the only wise God: Owe nothing to any man, but that
you love each other.

More particular

      I have heard ingenuous Indians say,
        In debts, they could not sleepe;
      How far worse are such English then,
        Who love in debt to keepe?
      If Debts of pounds cause restlesse nights
        In trade with man and man,
      How hard’s that heart that millions owes
        To God, and yet sleepe can?
      Debts paid, sleep’s sweet, sins paid Death’s Sweet,
        Death’s night then’s turned to light;
      Who dies in sinnes unpaid, that soule
        His light’s eternall night.


_Of their Hunting, &c._

Wee shall not name over the severall sorts of Beasts which we named
in the Chapter of Beasts.

The Natives hunt two wayes: First, when they pursue their game
(especially Deere, which is the generall and wonderfull plenteous
hunting in the Countrey:) I say, they pursue in twentie, fortie,
fiftie yea, two or three hundred in a company, (as I have seene) when
they drive the woods before them. Secondly. They hunt by Traps of
severall sorts, to which purpose after they have observed, in spring
time and Summer, the haunt of the Deere, then about Harvest, they goe
ten or twentie together, and sometimes more, and withall (if it be
not too farre) wives and children also, where they build up little
hunting houses of Barks and Rushes (not comparable to their dwelling
houses) and so each man takes his bounds of two, three, or foure
miles, where he sets thirty, forty or fiftie Traps, and baits his
Traps with that food the Deere loves, and once in two dayes he walkes
his round to view his Traps.

  Ntauchaûmen,                         I goe to hunt.

  Ncáttiteam weeyoùs,                  I long for Venison.

  Auchaûtuck,                          Let us hunt.

  Nowetauchaûmen,                      I will hunt with you.

  Anúmwock,                            Dogs.

  Kemehétteas,                         Creepe.

  Pitch nkemehétteem,                  I will creepe.

  Pumm púmmoke,                        Shoote.

  Uppetetoúa,                          A man shot accidentally.

  Ntaumpauchaúmen,                     I come from hunting.

  Cutchashineánna?                     How many have you kild?

  Nneesnneánna,                        I have kild two.

  Shwinneànna,                         Three.

  Nyowinneánna,                        Foure.

  Npiuckwinneánna,                     Ten, &c.

  Nneesneechecttashínneanna,           Twentie.

  Nummouashàwmen,                      I goe to set Traps.

  Apè hana,                            Trap, Traps.

  Asháppock,                           Hempe.

  Masaûnock,                           Flaxe.

  Wuskapéhana,                         New Traps.

  Eataúbana,                           Old Traps.

Obs: They are very tender of their Traps, where they lie, and what
comes at them; for they say, the Deere (whom they conceive have a
Divine power in them) will soone smell and be gone.

  Npunnowwâumen,                       I must goe to my Traps.

  Nummíshkommin,                       I have found a Deere;

Which sometimes they doe, taking a Wolfe in the very act of his
greedy prey, when sometimes (the Wolfe being greedy of his prey)
they kill him: sometimes the Wolfe having glutted himselfe with the
one halfe, leaves the other for his next bait; but the glad Indian
finding of it prevents him.

And that wee may see how true it is, that all wild creatures, and
many tame, prey upon the poore Deere, (which are there in a right
embleme of Gods persecuted, that is, hunted people, as I observed in
the Chapter of Beasts according to the old and true saying:

  _Imbelles Damæ quid nisi præeda sumus?_

      To harmlesse Roes and Does
      Both wilde and tame are foes.)

I remember how a poore Deere was long hunted and chased by a Wolfe,
at last (as their manner is) after the chase of ten, it may be more,
miles running, the stout Wolfe tired out the nimble Deere, and
seasing upon it kill’d; In the act of devouring his prey, two English
Swine, big with Pig, past by, assaulted the Wolfe, drove him from
his prey, and devoured so much of that poore Deere, as they both
surfeited and dyed that night.

The Wolfe is an Embleme of a fierce blood-sucking persecutor.

The Swine of a covetous, rooting worldling, both make a prey of the
Lord Jesus in his poore Servants.

  Ncummóotamúck qun natóqus,           The Wolfe hath rob’d me.

Obs: When a Deere is caught by the leg in a Trap, sometimes there it
lies a day together before the Indian come, and so lies a pray to the
ranging Wolfe, and other wild Beasts (most commonly the Wolfe) who
seaseth upon the Deere and Robs the Indian (at his first devouring)
of neere halfe his prey, and if the Indian come not the sooner, hee
makes a second greedie Meale and leaves him nothing but the bones,
and the torn Deereskins, especially if he call some of his greedy
Companions to his bloody banquet.

Upon this, the Indian makes a falling trap called Sunnúckhig, (with a
great weight of stones) and so sometimes Knocks the Wolfe on the head
with a gainefull revenge, especially if it bee a blacke Wolfe, whose
Skins they greatly prize.

  Nonówwussu,                          It is leane.

  Wauwunockôo,                         It is fat.

  Weékan,                              It is sweet.

  Machemóqut,                          It smells ill.

  Anit,                                It is putrified.

  Poquêsu,                             Halfe a Deere.

  Poskáttuck & Missêsu,                A whole Deere.

  Kuttíomp,                            A Buck.

  Wawúnnes,                            A young Buck.

  Qunnèke,                             A Doe.

  Aunàm,                               A Fawne.

  Yo asipaúgon,                        Thus thick of fat.

  Noónatch, or, attuck ntíyu,          I hunt Venison.

  Mishánneke ntíyu,                    I hunt a Squirrill.

  Paukunnawaw ntío,                    I hunt a Beare, &c.

  Wusséke,                             The hinder part of the Deere.

  Apome-ichash,                        Thigh: Thighes.

  Uppèke-quòck,                        Shoulder, shoulders.

  Wuskàn,                              A bone.

  Wussúckqun,                          A taile.

  Awemaníttin,                         Their Rutting time.

  Paushinùmmin,                        To divide.

  Paushinummauatíttea,                 Let us divide.

This they doe when a Controversie falls out, whose the Deere should
bee. Causkashunck, the Deere skin.

Obs: Púmpom, a tribute skin when a Deere (hunted by the Indians or
Wolves) is kild in the Water. This skin is carried to the Sachim or
Prince, within whose territory the Deere was slaine.

  Ntaumpowwashaûmen,                   I come from hunting.

_Generall Observation of their Hunting._

There is a blessing upon endeavour, even to the wildest Indians; the
sluggard rosts not that which he tooke in hunting, but the substance
of the diligent (either in earthly or heavenly affaires) is precious.
Prov. 25.

More particular.

      Great paines in hunting th’ Indians wild,
        And eke the English tame,
      Both take, in woods and for rests thicke,
        To get their precious game.
      Pleasure and Profit, Honour false,
        (The World’s great Trinitie)
      Drive all men, through all wayes, all times,
        All weathers, wet and drie.
      Pleasure and Profits, Honour sweet,
        Eternall, sure and true,
      Laid up in God, with equall paines,
        Who seekes, who doth pursue?


_Of their Gaming, &c._

Their games (like the English) are of two sorts, private and publike;
A Game like unto the English Cards, yet, instead of Cards, they play
with strong Rushes.

Secondly, they have a kinde of Dice which are Plumb stones painted,
which they cast in a Tray with a mighty noyse and sweating: Their
publique Games are solemnized with the meeting of hundreds; sometimes
thousands, and consist of many vanities, none of which I durst ever
be present at, that I might not countenance and partake of their
folly, after I once saw the evill of them.

  Ahânu,                               Hee laughes.

  Tawhitchahânean,                     Why doe you laugh?

  Ahânuock,                            They are merry.

  Nippauochâumen,                      We are dancing.

  Pauochaúog,                          They are playing or dancing.

  Pauochaútowwin,                      A Bable to play with.

  Akésuog,                             They are at cards, or
                                         telling of Rushes.

  Pissinnéganash,                      Their playing Rushes.

                                     } I am a telling, or counting;
  Ntakèsemin,                        }   for their play is a
                                     }   kind of Arithmatick.

Obs: The chiefe Gamesters amongst them much desire to make their Gods
side with them in their Games (as our English Gamsters so farre also
acknowledge God) therefore I have seen them keepe as a precious stone
a piece of Thunderbolt, which is like unto a Chrystall, which they
dig out of the ground under some Tree, Thunder-Smitten, and from this
stone they have an opinion of successe, and I have not heard any
of these prove loosers, which I conceive may be Satans policie, and
Gods’ holy Justice to harden them for their not rising higher from
the Thunderbolt, to the God that sends or shoots it.

  Ntaquìe akésamen,                    I will leave play.

  Nchikossimúnnash,                    I will burne my Rushes.

  Wunnaugonhómmin,                     To play at dice in their Tray.

  Asaúanash,                           The painted Plumbstones
                                         which they throw.

  Puttuckquapuonck,                    A playing Arbour.

Obs: This Arbour or Play house is made of long poles set in the
Earth, four square, sixteen or twentie foot high, on which they hang
great store of their stringed money, have great staking towne against
towne, and two chosen out of the rest by course to play the Game at
this kind of Dice in the midst of all their abettors, with great
shouting and solemnity: beside, they have great meetings of foot-ball
playing, onely in Summer, towne against towne, upon some broad sandy
shoare, free from stones, or upon some soft heathie plot because
of their naked feet at which they have great stakings, but seldome

  Pasuckquakohowaûog,                  They meet to foot-ball.

Cukkúmmote wepe, You steale; as I have often told them in their
gamings, and in their great losings when they have staked and lost
their money, clothes, house, corne, and themselves (if single
persons) they will confesse it being weary of their lives, and ready
to make away themselves, like many an English Man: an Embleme of the
horrour of conscience, which all poore sinners walk in at last, when
they see what wofull games they have played in their life, and now
find themselves eternall Beggars.

Keesaqúnnamun, Another kind of solemne, publike meeting, wherein they
lie under the trees, in a kinde of Religious observation, and have
a mixture of Devotions and sports: But their chiefest Idoll of all
for sport and game, is (if their land be at peace) toward Harvest,
when they set up a long house called Qunnekamuck, which signifies
Long house, sometimes an hundred sometimes two hundred foot long,
upon a plaine neere the Court (which they call Kitteickaûick) where
many thousands, men and Women meet, where he that goes in danceth in
the sight of all the rest; and is prepared with money, coats, small
breeches, Knives, or what hee is able to reach to, and gives these
things away to the Poore, who yet must particularly beg and say,
Cowequetúmmous, that is, I beseech you: which word, (although there
is not one common beggar amongst them) yet they will often use when
their richest amongst them would fain obtain ought by gift.

_Generall Observations of their Sports._

This life is a short minute, eternitie followes. On the improvement
or disimprovement of his short minute, depends a joyfull or dreadfull
eternity; yet (which I tremble to thinke of) how cheape is this
invaluable jewell, and how many vaine inventions and foolish pastimes
have the sonnes of men in all parts of the world found out, to passe
time and post over this short minute of life, untill, like some
pleasant River, they have past into _mare mortuum_, the dead sea of
eternall lamentation.

More particular.

      Our English Gamesters scorne to stake
        Their clothes as Indians do,
      Nor yet themselves, alas, yet both
        Stake soules and lose them too.
      O fearfull Games! the divell stakes
        But Strawes, and Toyes and Trash,
      (For what is All, compar’d with Christ,
        But Dogs meat and Swines wash?)
      Man stakes his Jewell-darling soule,
        (His owne most wretched foe)
      Ventures, and loseth all in sport
        At one most dreadfull throw.


_Of their Warre, &c._

  Aquène,                              Peace.

  Nanoúeshin, &                        A peaceable calme; for
  Awêpu,                                 Awépu signifies a calme.

  Chèpewess, &,                        A Nothern storme of warre,
  Mishittâshin,                        as they wittily speake, and
which England now wofully, feeles, untill the Lord Jesus chide the
winds, and rebuke the raging seas.

  Nummusqâuntum,                       I am angry.

  Tawhìtch musquawnaméan?              Why are you angry?

  Aquie musquàntash,                   Cease from anger.

  Chachépissu, nishqûetu,              Fierce.

  Tawhitch chachepiséttit              Why are they fierce?

  Cummusquáunamuck,                    He is angry with you.

  Matwaûog,                            Souldiers.

  Matwaûonck,                          A Battle.

  Cummusquaúnamish,                    I am angry with you.

  Cummusquawnamé?                      Are you angry with me?

  Miskisaûwaw,                         A quarrelsome fellow.

  Tawhítch niskqúekean?                Why are you so fierce?

  Ntatakcómmuck qun ewò,               He strucke mee.

  Nummokókunitch,                      I am robbed.

  Mecaûtea,                            A fighter.

  Mecáuntitea,                         Let us fight.

  Mecaúnteass,                         Fight with him.

  Wepè cummécautch,                    You are a quarreller.

  Jûhettítea,                          Let us fight.

Jûhetteke, Fight, which is their word of incouragement which they use
when they animate each other in warre; for they use their tongues in
stead of drummes and trumpets.

  Awaùn necáwni aumpíasha?             Who drew the first bow, or
                                         shot the first shot?

  Nippakétatunck, Nummeshannántam,     He shot first at me.

  Nummayôntam,                         I scorne, or take it indignation.

Obs: This is a common word, not only in warre, but in peace also
(their spirits in naked bodies being as high and proud as men more
gallant) from which sparkes of the lusts of pride and passion, begin
the flame of their warres.

  Whauwhàutowawánowat,                 There is an Alarum.

  Wopwawnónckquat,                     An hubbub.

  Amaumuwaw paudsha,                   A Messenger is come.

  Keénomp,   }
  Mûckquomp, } paûog                   Captaines, or Valiant men.

  Negonshâchick,                       Leaders.

  Kuttówonck,                          A Trumpet.

  Popowuttáhig,                        A Drumme.

Obs: Not that they have such of their owne making; yet such they have
from the French: and I have knowne a good Drumme made amongst them in
imitation of the English.

  Quaquawtatatteâug,                   They traine.

  Machíppog,                           A Quiver.

  Caúquat tash,                        Arrow, arrowes.

  Onúttug,                             An halfe Moone in war.

  Pèskcunck,                           A Gunne.

  Saûpuck,                             Powder.

  Mâtit,                               Vnloden.

  Méchimu,                             Loden.

  Mechimuash,                          Lode it.

Shottash, Shot; a made word from us, though their Gunnes, they have
from the French, and often sell many a score to the English, when
they are a little out of frame or Kelter.

  Pummenúmminteáuquash,                To contribute to the warres.

  Askwhítteass,                        Keep watch.

  Askwhitteâchick,                     The Guard.

  Askwhitteaûg,                        It is the Guard.

Obs: I once travelled (in a place conceived dangerous) with a great
Prince, and his Queene and Children in company, with a Guard of
neeere two hundred, twentie or thirtie fires were made every night
for the Guard (the Prince and Queene in the midst) and Sentinells by
course, as exact as in Europe; and when we travelled through a place
where ambushes were suspected to lie, a speciall Guard, like unto a
Life Guard, compassed (some neerer, some farther of) the King and
Queen, myselfe and some English with me. They are very copious and
patheticall in Orations to the People, to kindle a flame of wrath,
Valour or revenge from all the Common places which Commanders use to
insist on.

  Wesássu,                             Afraid.

  Cowésass?                            Are you afraid?

  Tawhitch wesásean?                   Why feare you?

  Manowêsass,                          I feare none.

  Kukkushickquock,                     They feare you.

  Nosemitteúnckquock,                  They fly from mee.

  Onamatta cowaûta,                    Let us pursue.

  Nuckqusha,                           I feare him.

  Wussémo-wock,                        He flies, they flie.

  Npauchíppowem,                       I flie for succour.

  Keesaúname,                          Save me.

  Npúmmuck,                            I am shot.

  Chenawaúsu,                          Churlish.

  Waumaûsu,                            Loving.

  Tawhìtch chenawaûsean?               Why are you churlish?

  Aumánsk,                             A Fort.

  Cupshitteaûg,                        They lie in the way.

  Aumanskitteaúg,                      They fortifie.

  Kekaúmwaw,                           A scorner or mocker.

  Nkekaúmuck ewò,                      He scornes me.

  Aquiekekaúmowash,                    Doe not scorne.

Obs: This Mocking (beween their great ones) is a great kindling of
Warres amongst them; yet I have known some of their chiefest say,
what should I hazzard the lives of my precious Subjects, them and
theirs to kindle a Fire, which no man knowes how farre, and how long
it will burne, for the barking of a dog?

  Sékineam,                            I have no mind to it.

  Nissékineug,                         He likes not me.

  Nummánneug,                          He hates me.

  Maninnewauhettùock,                  They hate each other.

  Nowetompatimmin,                     We are friends.

  Wetom âchick,                        Friends.

  Nowepinnâtimin,                      We joyne together.

  Nowepinnâchick,                      My companions in War,
                                         or Associates.

  Nowechusettímmin,                    We are Confederates.

  Néchuse ewò,                         This is my Associate.

  Wechussittûock,                      They joyne together.

  Nwéche kokkéwem,                     I will be mad with him.

  Chickauta wêtu,                      An house fired.

Once lodging in an Indian house full of people the whole company
(Women especially) cryed out in apprehension that the Enemy had fired
the House, being about Midnight: The house was fired but not by an
Enemy: The Men ran up on the house top, and with their naked hands
beat out the fire: One scorcht his leg, and suddenly after they came
into the house againe, and undauntedly cut his leg with a Knife to
let out the burnt blood.

  Yo ánawhone,                         There I am wounded.

  Missínnege,                          A Captaine.

  Nummissinnám ewo,                    This is my captive.

  Waskeiûhettimmitch,                  At beginning of the fight.

  Nickqueintónckquock,                 They come against us.

  Nickqueintouôog,                     I will make warre upon them.

  Nippauquanaúog,                      I will destroy them.

  Queintauatíttea,                     Let us goe against them.

  Kunnauntatáuhuckqun,                 He comes to kill you.

  Paúquana,                            There is a slaughter.

  Pequttôog paúquanan,                 The Pequts are slaine.

  Awaun Wuttúnnene?                    Who have the Victory.

  Tashittáwho?                         How many are slaine?

  Neestáwho,                           Two are slaine.

  Puickqunneánna,                      Ten are slaine.

Obs: Their Warres are farre lesse bloudy, and devouring then the
cruell Warres of Europe; and seldome twentie slaine in a pitch
field: partly because when they fight in a wood every Tree is a
Bucklar. When they fight in a plaine, they fight with leaping and
dancing, that seldome, an Arrow hits, and when a man is wounded,
unlesse he that shot followes upon the wounded, they soone retire
and save the wounded: and yet having no Swords nor Guns, all that
are slaine are commonly slain with great valour and Courage: for the
Conquerour ventures into the thickest, and brings away the Head of
his Enemy.

  Niss-níssoke,                        Kill, kill.

  Kúnnish,                             I will kill you.

  Kunnìshickqun ewò,                   He will kill you.

  Kunnìshickquock,                     They will kill you.

  Siuckissûog,                         They are stout men.

  Nickummissúog,                       They are Weake.

  Nnickummaunamaûog,                   I shall easily vanquish them.

  Neene núppamen,                      I am dying.

  Cowaúnckamish,                       Quarter, quarter.

  Kunnanaumpasúmmish,                  Mercy, Mercy.

  Kekuttokaúnta,                       Let us parley.

  Aquétuck,                            Let us cease Armes.

  Wunnishaûnta,                        Let us agree.

  Cowammáunsh,                         I love you.

  Wunnêtu ntá,                         My heart is true.

  Tuppaûntash,                         Consider what I say.

  Tuppaûntamoke,                       Doe you all consider.

  Cummequaùnum cummíttamussussuck      Remember your Wives
    ka cummuckiaûg,                      and children.

  Eatch kèen anawâyean,                Let all be as you say.

  Cowawwunnaûwem,                      You speake truly.

  Cowauôntam,                          You are a wise man.

  Wetompátitea,                        Let us make Friends.

_Generall Observations of their Warres._

How dreadfull and yet how righteous is it with the most righteous
Judge of the whole World, that all the generations of Men being
turn’d Enemies against, and fighting against Him who gives them
breath and Being, and all things, (whom yet they cannot reach) should
stab, kill, burns, murther and devour each other?

More particular.

      The Indians count of Men as Dogs;
        It is no Wonder then,
      They tear out one anothers throats!
        But now that English Men,
      (That boast themselves Gods Children, and
        Members of Christ to be,)
      That they should thus break out in flames
        Sure ’tis a Mystery!
      The second seal’d Mystery or red Horse,
        Whose Rider hath power and will,
      To take away Peace from Earthly Men
        They must Each other kill.


_Of their Paintings._

1. They paint their Garments, &c.

2. The Men paint their Faces in Warre.

3. Both Men and Women for pride, &c.

  Wómpi,                               White.

  Mówi-súcki,                          Black.

  Msqùi,                               Red.

  Wesaûi,                              Yellow.

  Askáski,                             Greene.

  Peshaúi,                             Blew, &c.

Obs: Wunnàm, their red painting which they most delight in, and is
both the Barke of the Pine, as also a red Earth.

  Míshquock,                           Red Earth.

  Métewis,                             Black earth.

From this Métewis, is an Indian Towne, a day and a halfes Journey, or
lesse (West, from the Massachusetts) called Metewêmesick. Wussuckhósu
a painted Coat.

Of this and Wussuckwheke (the English Letters,) which comes neerest
to their painting, I spake before in the Chapter of their Clothing.

  Aunakêsu,                            He is painted.

  Aunakéuck,                           They are painted.

  Tawhìtch aunakéan?                   Why doe you paint your selfe?

  Chèskhosh,                           Wipe off.

  Cummachiteoûwunash                   You spoile your face.

  Mat pitch cowáhick,                  The God that made you
    Manìt keesiteónckqus,                will not know you.

_Generall Observations of their Paintings._

It hath been the foolish Custome of all barbarous Nations to paint
and figure their Faces and Bodies (as it hath been to our shame and
griefe, wee may remember it of some of our Fore-Fathers, in this
nation:) How much then are we bound to our most holy Maker for so
much knowledge of himselfe revealed in so much Civilty and Piety? and
how should we also long and endeavour that America may partake of our

More particular.

      Truth is a Native, naked Beauty; but
        Lying Inventions are but Indian paints.
      Dissembling hearts, their Beautie’s but a lye,
        Truth is the proper Beauty of Gods saints.
      Fowle are the Indians Haire and painted faces,
        More foule such Haire, such Face in Israel.
      England so calls her selfe, yet there’s
        Absoloms foule Haire and Face of Jesabell.
      Paints will not bide Christ’s washing Flames of fire,
        Fained Inventions will not bide such stormes:
      O that we may prevent him, that betimes
        Repentance Teares may wash of all such formes.


_Of Sicknesse._

  Nummaúchnem,                         I am sick.

  Mauchinaúi,                          He is sick.

  Yo Wvttunsín,                        He keepes his Bed.

  Achie nummaùchnem,                   I am very sick.

  Nóonshem metesímmin,                 I cannot eate.

  Mach ge nummete símmen,              I eat nothing.

  Tocketussinámmin?                    What think you?

  Pitch nkéeteem?                      Shall I recover?

  Niskéesaqush máuchinaash,            My eyes faile me.

  Ncussawóntapam,                      My head akes.

  Npummaumpiteunck,                    My teeth ake.

  Nchesammáttam,                       I am in paine.

Obs: In these cases their Misery appeares, that that they have not
(but what sometimes they get from the English) a raisin or currant or
any physick, Fruit or Spice, or any Comfort more than their Corne and
Water, &c. In which bleeding case, wanting all Meanes of recovery, or
present refreshing I have been constrained and beyond my power, to
refresh them, and I believe to save many of them from Death, who I am
confident perish many millions of them, (in that mighty continent)
for want of meanes.

  Nupaqqóntup                          Bind my head.

  Wauaúpunish                          Lift up my head.

  Mchósamam nsète,                     My Foot is sore.

  Nachàge nickow èmen,                 I sleep not.

  Nnanótissu,                          I have a Feaver.

  Wamekussópitanohock,                 My body burnes.

  Ntátupe nòte, or chíckot,            I am all on fire.

  Yo ntéatchin,                        I shake for Cold.

  Ntatuppe wunnêpog,                   I shake as a leafe.

  Puttuckhúmma,                        Cover me.

  Pautous nototam min,                 Reach me the drinke.

Obs: Which is onely in all their extremities a little boild water,
without the addition of crum or drop of other comfort: O Englands
mercies, &c.

  Tahaspunâyi?                         What ayles he?

  Tocketúspanem?                       What aile you?

  Tocketuspunnaúmaqûn?                 What hurt hath he done to you?

  Chassaqunsin?                        How long hath he been sick?

  Nnanowweteem,                        I am going to visit.

Obs: This is all their refreshing, the Visit of Friends, and
Neighbours, a poore empty visit and presence, and yet indeed this
is very solemne, unlesse it be in infectious diseases, and then all
forsake them and flie, that I have often seene a poore House left
alone in the wild Woods, all being fled, the living not able to bury
the dead, so terrible is the apprehension of an infectious disease,
that not onely persons, but the Houses and the whole Towne takes

  Nummòckquese,                        I have a swelling.

  Mocquêsui,                           He is swelled.

  Wàmewuhòck Mockquêsui,               All his body is swelled.

  Mamaskishaûi,                        He hath the Pox.

  Mamaskishaûonck,                     The Pox.

  Mamaskishaûmitch,                    The last pox.

  Wesauashaûi,                         He hath the plague.

  Wesauashaûonck,                      The plague.

  Wesauashaûmitch,                     The great plague.

Obs: Were it not that they live in sweet Aire, and remove persons and
Houses from the infected, in ordinary course of subordinate Causes,
would few or any be left alive, and surviving.

  Nmunnádtommin,                       I vomit.

  Nqúnnuckquus,                        I am lame.

  Ncúpsa,                              I am deafe.

  Npóckunnum,                          I am blind.

  Npockquanámmen,                      My disease is I know not what.

  Pésuponck,                           An Hot-house.

  Npesuppaûmen,                        I goe to sweate.

  Pesuppaûog,                          They are sweating.

Obs: This Hot-house is a kind of little Cell or Cave, six or eight
foot over, round, made on the side of a hill (commonly by some
Rivulet or Brooke) into this frequently the Men enter after they
have exceedingly heated it with store of wood, laid upon an heape
of stones in the middle. When they have taken out the fire, the
stones keepe still a great heat: Ten, twelve, twenty more or lesse,
enter at once starke naked, leaving their Coats, small breeches, (or
aprons) at the doore, with one to keepe all: here doe they sit round
these hot stones an houre or more, taking tobacco, discoursing and
sweating together; which sweating they use for two ends: First, to
cleanse their skin: Secondly, to purge their bodies, which doubtlesse
is a great meanes of preserving them, and recovering them from
diseases, especially from the French disease, which by sweating and
some potions, they perfectly and speedily cure: when they come forth
(which is matter of admiration) I have seen them runne (Summer and
Winter) into the brookes to coole them, without the least hurt.

  Misquineash,                         The vaines.

  Miqui, neépuck,                      Blood.

  Nsauapaushaûmen,                     I have the bloody Flixe.

  Matux puckquatchìck aûwaw,           He cannot goe to stool.

  Powwaw,                              Their Priest.

  Maunêtu,                             A Conjurer.

  Powwâw nippétea,                     The priest is curing him.

  Yo wutteantawaw,                     He is acting his cure.

Obs: These Priests and Conjurers (like Simon Magus) doe bewitch the
People, and not onely take their Money, but doe most certainly (by
the helpe of the Divell) worke great Cures, though most certaine it
is that the greatest part of their Priests doe merely abuse them and
get their Money, in the times of their sicknesse, and to my knowledge
long for sick times; and to that end the poore people store up
Money, and spend both Money and goods on the Powwâws, or Priests in
these times, the poore people commonly dye under their hands, for
alas, they administer nothing but howle and roar, and hollow over
them, and begin the song to the rest of the people about them, who
all joyne (like a Quire) in Prayer to their Gods for them.

  Maskit ponamíin,                     Give me a Plaister.

  Maskit,                              Give me some physicke.

  Cotatamhea,                          Drinke.

Both which they earnestly desire of the English and doe frequently
send to myselfe and others for, (having experimentally found some
Mercy of that kind (through God’s blessing)) from us.

  Nickeétem,                           I am recovered.

  Kitummâyi nickêekon,                 I am just now recovered.

_Generall Observation of their Sicknesse._

It pleaseth the most righteous and yet patient God to warne and
Summon, to try and arraigne the universall race of Adams sonnes
(commonly) upon Beds of sicknesse before he proceed to execution of
Death and Judgment: Blessed those soules which prevent Judgement,
Death and Sicknesse too, and before the eivill dayes come, Arraigne,
and Judge themselves, and being sick for love to Christ, find him
or seek him in his Ordinances below, and get unfained Assurance of
Eternall enjoyment of Him when they are here no more.

More particular.

      One step twixt Me and Death, (twas Davids speech.)
        And true of sick Folks all:
          Mans Leafe it fades, his Clay house cracks,
        Before its’ dreadfull Fall.
          Like Grashopper the Indian leapes,
        Till blasts of sicknesse rise:
          Nor soule nor Body Physick hath,
        Then Soule and Body dies.
          O happy English who for both,
        Have precious physicks store:
          How should (when Christ hath both refresht,)
        Thy love and Zeale be more?


_Of Death and Buriall._

  As Pummíssin,                        He is not yet departed.

  Neenè,                               He is drawing on.

  Paúsawut kitonckquêwa,               He cannot live long.

  Chachéwunnea,                        He is neere dead.

  Kitonckquéi,                         He is dead.

  Nipwì màw,                           He is gone.

  Kakitonckquêban,                     They are dead and gone.

  Sequttôi,                            He is in blacke;

That is, He hath some dead in his house, (whether wife or child,
&c.) for although at the first being sicke, all the Women and Maides
blacke their faces with soote and other blackings; yet upon the death
of the sicke, the Father, or husband and all his neighbours, the
Men also (as the English weare black mourning clothes) weare blacke
Faces, and lay on soote very thick, which I have often seen clotted
with their teares.

This blacking and lamenting they observe in most dolefull manner,
divers weeks and moneths; yea a yeere, if the person be great and

  Séqut,                               Soote.

  Michemesháwi,                        He is gone for ever.

  Mat wònck kunnawmòne,                You shall never see him more.

  Wunnowaúntam,                        Grieved and in bitternesse.

  Nnowantam, nloâsin,                  I am grieved for you.

Obs: As they abound in lamentations for the dead, so they abound in
consolation to the living and visit them frequently using this word,
Kutchímmoke, Kutchimmoke, Be of good cheere, which they expresse by
stroaking the cheeke and head of the Father or Mother, husband or
wife of the dead.

  Chepassôtam,                         The dead Sachim.

  Mauchaúhom,                          The dead man.

  Mauchaúhomwock chèpeck,              The dead.

  Chepasquâw,                          A dead woman.

  Yo ápapan,                           He that was here.

  Sachimaûpan,                         He that was Prince here.

Obs: These expressions they use, because they abhorre to mention the
dead by name, and therefore if any man beare the name of the dead he
changeth his name, and if any stranger accidentally name him, he is
checkt, and if any wilfully name him he is fined; and amongst States,
the naming of their dead Sachims, is one ground of their warres; so
terrible is the King of Terrors, Death, to all naturall men.

  Aquie míshash aquie mishommoke,      Doe not name.

  Cowewênaki,                          You wrong mee, to wit,
                                         in naming my dead.

  Posakúnnamun,                        To bury.

  Aukùck pónamun,                      To lay in the earth.

Wesquaubenan, to wrap up, in winding mats or coats, as we say winding
sheets. Mockkuttauce, One of chiefest esteeme, who winds up and
buries the dead; commonly some wise, grave, and well descended man
hath that office. When they come to the Grave, they lay the dead by
the Grave’s mouth, and then all sit downe and lament; that I have
seen teares run down the cheeks of stoutest Captaines, as well as
little children in abundance; and after the dead is laid in Grave,
and sometimes (in some parts) some goods cast in with them, they have
then a second lamentation, and upon the Grave is spread the Mat that
the party died on, the Dish he eat in, and sometimes a faire Coat of
skin hung upon the next tree to the Grave, which none will touch, but
suffer it there to rot with the Dead: Yea I saw with mine owne eyes
that at my late comming forth of the Countrey, the chiefe and most
aged peaceable Father of the Countrey, Caunoûnicus, having buried his
Sonne, he burned his own Palace, and all his goods in it (amongst
them to a great value) in a solemne remembrance of his sonne and in a
kind of humble Expiation to the Gods, who (as they believe) had taken
his sonne from him.

_The Generall Observation of their Dead._

O, how terrible is the looke the speedy and serious thought of Death
to all the Sons of Men? Thrice happy those who are dead and risen
with the Sonne of God, for they are past from Death to life, and
shall not see Death (a heavenly sweet Paradox or Ridle,) as the Son
of God hath promised them.

More particular:

      The Indians say their bodies die,
        Their soules they do not die;
      Worse are then Indians such, as hold
        The soules mortalitie.
      Our hopelesse Bodie rots, say they,
        Is gone eternally,
      English hope better, yet some’s hope
        Proves endless miserie.
      Two worlds of Men shall rise and stand
        ’Fore Christ’s most dreadfulle barre;
      Indians and English naked too,
        That now most gallant are.
      True Christ most Glorious then shall make
        New Earth, and Heavens new,
      False Christs, false Christians then shall quake,
        O blessed then the true.

Now, to the most High and most Holy, Immortall, Invisible, and onely
Wise God, who alone is Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending,
the First and the Last, who Was, and Is, and is to Come; from whom,
by Whom, and to whom are all things; by Whose gracious assistance
and wonderfull supportment in so many varieties of hardship and
outward miseries, I have had such converse with Barbarous Nations,
and have been mercifully assisted, to frame this poore Key, which
may, (through His blessing,) (in His owne holy season) open a Doore;
yea, Doors of unknowne Mercies to us and Them, be Honour, Glory,
Power, Riches, Wisdome, Goodnesse and Dominion ascribed by all His in
Jesus Christ to Eternity, Amen.



  CHAP.                                                   PAGE.

  I. Of Salutation,                                         27

  II. Of Eating and Entertainment,                          33

  III. Of Sleepe,                                           38

  IV. Of their Numbers,                                     41

  V. Of Relations of consanguinity, &c.                     44

  VI. Of House, Family, &c.                                 47

  VII. Of parts of body,                                    58

  VIII. Of Discourse and Newes,                             62

  IX. Of time of the day,                                   67

  X. Of Seasons of the Yeere,                               69

  XI. Of Travell,                                           72

  XII. Of the heavenly Lights,                              79

  XIII. Of the Weather,                                     81

  XIV. Of the Winds,                                        83

  XV. Of Fowle,                                             85

  XVI. Of the Earth and Fruits thereof,                     89

  XVII. Of Beasts and Cattell,                              95

  XVIII. Of the Sea,                                        98

  XIX. Of Fish and Fishing,                                102

  XX. Of their Nakednesse and clothing,                    106

  XXI. Of their Religion, Soule, &c.                       109

  XXII. Of their Government,                               120

  XXIII. Of their Marriages,                               124

  XXIV. Of their Coyne,                                    123

  XXV. Of their Trading,                                   133

  XXVI. Of their Debts and Trusting,                       139

  XXVII. Of their Hunting,                                 141

  XXVIII. Of their sports and Gaming,                      145

  XXIX. Of their Warres,                                   148

  XXX. Of their Paintings,                                 154

  XXXI. Of their sicknesse,                                156

  XXXII. Of their Death and Buriall,                       160

I have further treated of these Natives of New-England, and that
great point of their Conversion in a little additionall Discourse
apart from this.

I have read over these thirty Chapters of the American Language,
to me wholly unknowne, and the Observations, these I conceive
inoffensive; and that the Worke may conduce to the happy end intended
by the Author.


Printed according to this Licence; and entred into Stationers Hall.


  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

  Pg 5: ‘establish an enact’ replaced by ‘establish and enact’.
  Pg 6: ‘whom the preident’ replaced by ‘whom the president’.
  Pg 7: ‘an acconnt of’ replaced by ‘an account of’.
  Pg 12: ‘concluded treates’ replaced by ‘concluded treaties’.
  Pg 18: ‘Natives, Salvages’ replaced by ‘Natives, Savages’.
  Pg 19: ‘call themselues’ replaced by ‘call themselves’.
  Pg 31: ‘seaven yeares after’ replaced by ‘seven yeares after’.
  Pg 32: ‘lodge with yon’ replaced by ‘lodge with you’.
  Pg 34: ‘Is the water coo.’ replaced by ‘Is the water coole?’.
  Pg 41: ‘21’ replaced by ‘21, &c.’.
  Pg 41: ‘30, &c.’ replaced by ‘30’.
  Pg 44: ‘An Old mn,’ replaced by ‘An Old man,’.
  Pg 44: ‘Old men.a’ replaced by ‘Old men.’.
  Pg 45: ‘ars distinguished’ replaced by ‘are distinguished’.
  Pg 47: ‘of the Couutrey’ replaced by ‘of the Countrey’.
  Pg 55: ‘I use is.’ replaced by ‘I use it.’.
  Pg 55: ‘too foot long’ replaced by ‘two foot long’.
  Pg 62: ‘hey will stile’ replaced by ‘they will stile’.
  Pg 65: ‘Ablalive case’ replaced by ‘Ablative case’.
  Pg 78: ‘In stormy vvinter’ replaced by ‘In stormy winter’.
  Pg 93: ‘Doe you trash?’ replaced by ‘Doe you thrash?’.
  Pg 95: ‘Pig, and and rooting’ replaced by ‘Pig, and rooting’.
  Pg 113: ‘Men and Women men goe’ replaced by ‘Men and Women goe’.
  Pg 118: ‘the Ordiances’ replaced by ‘the Ordinances’.
  Pg 126: ‘then the women’ replaced by ‘than the women’.
  Pg 134: ‘of Eng- or Dutch’ replaced by ‘of English or Dutch’.
  Pg 151: ‘The honse was’ replaced by ‘The house was’.
  TABLE: ‘VIII. Of Of Discourse’ replaced by ‘VIII. Of Discourse’.

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