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Title: Knott's pop-corn book - Dedicated to the health the happiness the wealth of all people
Author: - To be updated
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "Knott's pop-corn book - Dedicated to the health the happiness the wealth of all people" ***

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    Pop-Corn, the Grain and its Handling
    The Popping of Corn
    Factory Planning
    The Right Way to Handle the Batch
    What to do with Corn that Does Not Pop
    Raw Materials
    Paper and Packages
    The Cooking of Syrup
    Recipes and Formulas
    National Confectioners’ Association
    How to Figure Costs
    Pop-Corn Machinery

    E. R. KNOTT


    Copyrighted, 1920
    _By_ E. R. KNOTT

    [Illustration: ‡(In color)
    ‡Styles of pop-corn made on Knott’s Pop-Corn Machines

    E. R. KNOTT


    The Illustration in Colors

You see a few of the many attractive styles in which you can put up
pop-corn made on Knott’s Pop-Corn Machines.

The top package, a pop-corn brick, is extensively sold from Maine to
New Jersey along the Atlantic coast at beaches and parks in summer.

The center picture of bar pop-corn, either ground or whole, is a New
England favorite. The top bar has the paper folded back as it is held
while eating by biting off the bar.

The lower left is a package of whole corn fritters or crispettes, while
at the right is shown a crispette on top of some ground corn fritters.

The center upper piece is called “two-fers” because it sells two for a
penny. It is a New England piece. The lower center is a penny cake.

These last four pieces are winter goods.

The flavors are Molasses (yellow), Chocolate (brown), Vanilla (white),
Checkerberry or Wintergreen (pink).

    This Book has been Printed:--

(1) Because now is the time to enter into the manufacture of pop-corn.

(2) Because every district will soon have its pop-corn factory.

(3) Because your customers will realize that only goods of local
manufacture and high quality, under your trade-mark, are dependably
fresh and wholesome.

(4) Because people are buying more pop-corn than ever before.

(5) Because the demand for pop-corn ground and whole, in squares, bars,
fritters, etc., in New England is as substantial as the demand for

(6) Because pop-corn has great possibilities.

(7) Because pop-corn may be put before the public in many ways.

(8) Because if one style is not salable in a certain locality there are
enough that will be, as there are plenty of styles to choose from.

(9) To show that you should trade-mark your goods.

(10) To show that the “price toboggan” had better coast empty.

(11) To give you guidance, so that no matter what may be your problem
you may eventually achieve success.

(12) Because pop-corn makers are scarce as compared to the demand for
them, and it is hoped that this will assist in the training of capable

(13) Because pop-corn made on quality builds business.

(14) Because we want to increase the consumption of pop-corn.

This is the kind of a book that you get properly balanced in your mind
if you READ IT THREE TIMES, one after the other. Even after the third
time you will find something that you passed over without noticing at
the other readings.



AFTER every man, woman and child gets to know its pleasant taste and
its food value, the world consumption of pop-corn is going to be
something tremendous.

Consider that pop-corn contains the whole of the grain, and that the
grain is thoroughly cooked. It is a healthful, nourishing food. It
is pure. It is a poor man’s confection and food combined. It is too
palatable for the rich man to ignore. It is considered by “Uncle
Sam” to be such a valuable article that through the United States
Agricultural Department, he has published two pamphlets for free
distribution, Farmers’ Bulletins No. 553, “Pop-corn for the Home,” and
No. 554, “Pop-corn for the Market.” By permission of the department we
avail ourselves of some of the information there given.

    [Illustration: The ear]

    Unpopped Kernels and Popped Kernels of White Rice Pop-Corn
    (With Permission of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.)]

Out of the more than twenty varieties of pop-corn you are advised to
use White Rice, as that makes the largest popped kernel compared to the
size of the raw kernel, and it is the most common commercial pop-corn.

As it is the expanding of the moisture in pop-corn by turning into
steam that explodes and cooks the grain, it is necessary to have the
right quantity of moisture, about twelve per cent., and to have that
moisture evenly distributed throughout the kernel, and the kernel
otherwise in fit condition for popping.

Some of the things that spoil the popping quality of corn are:

Seed from which the crop is raised not being acclimated to the locality
in which it is planted.

Other kinds of corn growing near the pop-corn.

Picking before the pop-corn has fully ripened, or picking after the
coming of frost.

Not sufficient ventilation while curing.

Too much drying out; shelled corn dries out faster than corn on the cob.

Shelling the corn too long before popping.

Defects in the kernel itself.

Damage from moths which produce weevils.

Insufficient heat, giving poor popping results.

You see that it is really a delicate proposition to deliver pop-corn to
you that will give you the best results. Therefore, it is not safe for
you to buy pop-corn of any but reliable dealers.

Seventy pounds of ears, air-dried, constitute a bushel.

Fifty-six pounds of shelled pop-corn make a bushel.

One hundred pounds of ears should give eighty pounds of shelled

There are the same number of food units in:--

    One brick of Pop-corn.
    One-fifth of a pound of Roast Beef.
    Four servings of Oatmeal.
    Four Eggs.
    One-third pound Roast Lamb.
    One pint Milk.

To be more accurate, here is the percentage of proteid, fat,
carbohydrates and the number of calories in one pound of each of the
foods noted.

                  Proteid   Fat   Carbohydrates   Calories
 Peanuts,           25.8    38.6       24.4         2560
 Sugar,             00      00        100           1857
 Pop-corn,          11      11         78           1860
 Cocoanut,           4      77         19           2800
 Raisins,            3       9         88           1600
 Oatmeal (boiled),  18       7         75            300
 Roast Beef,        18      82         00           1800
 Eggs,              32      68         00            760
 Roast Lamb,        40      60         00            900
 Milk,              19      52         29            300

    [Illustration: ‡Two round cakes of pop-corn]

                Chart of Manufacturing Procedure

                      MOLASSES     SUGAR
                          |     CORN SYRUP
                          |          |         RAW
                          |          |         CORN
                          |          |          |
         GREASE          STOCK     STOCK        |
         SALT            TANK      TANK      POPPING
         COCOANUT            \    /          MACHINE
         CHOCOLATE --------- STOVE           /  |
         COLOR                 |   _________/   |
                               |  /             |
                 FLAVOR ---- MIXER ------- GRINDER
                ____________/ |  \
               /           /  |   \
              /           /   |    \
                     |        |     DODGER
                     |      PRESS   BRICKS, BISCUITS
                     |        |     OR BALL
                     |        |     /
                     |    CUTTING  /
                     |    MACHINE /
                     |        |  /     PAPER
                    PACKING TABLE ---- BOXES

This chart of manufacturing process shows at what point each ingredient
enters the batch.

It shows the arrangement of operations.

It shows what type of goods is the easiest to make and what takes the
most machinery to complete. It condenses on one page the underlying
principles of pop-corn confection manufacture.

Study it carefully. In this chart you will find the answer to your
question of how to arrange your factory--at what point in the work a
certain material is added to the confection.

It shows what materials are required to manufacture pop-corn confection
and shows what set of machines are necessary to make a particular type
of corn confection.

It shows what machines are the essential ones in the business.


  Salted Pop-Corn                  |×|×| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  Buttered Pop-Corn                |×|×| | | |×|×| | | | |×| | | | | |
  Crispettes, various colors       |×|×|×|×| |×|×|×| | | | |×| | | | |
    and flavors                    | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  Dodgers, various colors          |×|×|×|×| |×|×|×|×| | | |×| | | | |
    and flavors                    | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  Biscuits, various colors         |×|×|×|×| |×|×| |×|×| | | |×|×| | |
    and flavors                    | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
  Penny Squares and Bars           |×|×|×|×| |×|×| |×|×|×| | | | | |×|
  Bricks                           |×|×|×|×| |×|×| |×|×|×| | | | | |×|×
  Sticks                           |×|×|×|×| |×|×| |×|×|×| | | | |×| |
  Brittle                          |×|×|×|×| |×|×| | |×| | | | | | | |


 =A= Popper No. 2002-3 Page 19
 =B= Sifter No. 112 Page 20
 =C= Two Stock Tanks No. 2013-1 Page 25
 =D= Measure 2 qt. Graduated
 =E= Paddle No. 2006-1 Page 41
 =F= Stove No. 113-1 Page 25
 =G= Mixer No. 114-2 Page 29
 =H= Crispette Machine S F 3 Page 38
 =I= Grinder No. 109-1 Page 22
 =J= Press No. 110-1 Page 33
 =K= {Cutting Machine No. 111 Page 35
     {Cutting Machine No. 115 Page 37
 =L= Buttered Corn Tank No. 2019-1 Page 41
 =M= Wrapping Form Page 31
 =N= Biscuit Mould No. 2002-1 Page 31
 =O= 5 Biscuit Pans No. 2007-2 Page 31
 =P= 5 Stick Pans No. 2007-3 and Mould No. 2002-4 Page 39
 =Q= 5 Pans No. 2007-1 Page 31
 =R= 5 Transfer Racks No. 2022-1 Page 35

This schedule illustrates in a different way from the “Chart of
Manufacturing Procedure” on page 9 what you require as an equipment for
the manufacture of any one of the regular types of Pop-Corn Confection.

Pop-Corn Bars, “Penny Squares and Bars” as the line is called, requires
as you see by the ×’s, these machines--Popper, Sifter, Stock Tanks,
Measure, Stove, Mixer, Grinder, Press, Cutting Machine, 5 Pans--thus
you get a definite list of the tools for a complete plant, for the
particular product.



YOU, when you first tasted a delicious brittle kernel of Pop-corn,
coated thinly with candy, you did not think of the skill attained by
practise, the skill that was necessary in order that your piece of
pop-corn confection might have the right amount of candy on each kernel
of pop-corn and the kernel be of its original full-sized fluffiness.

It is an operation that appeared to you as simple and easy of
accomplishment when you first saw it performed in the hands of an
expert. Then when you tried it? Well, you had “An experience.”

You found that somehow the corn did not act for you the same as for him.

It did just what you did not expect it to do. It formed into one big
ball of condensed pop-corn. Or it became cold before you got it really
mixed and you could not then mould it into confection; or instead of
the kernels being of their natural large, fluffy nature, you probably
found you had ground them to one-half their natural bulk. In other
words, you found you had something to learn and you were up against a
man’s job. No, you did not give up, but you “cleared for action,” or in
other words you stripped off the coat from your mind as well as from
your back and studied and tried, studied and tried, until you had the
principles, then by practise you acquired speed.

Pop-corn confection is made from the starting of a batch to the
completed confection while the original heat is in that batch. A batch
of candy is solid compared to a batch of pop-corn, so that a batch of
candy may be held to a working temperature by keeping the batch near
a fire, while pop-corn cannot be so handled, it must be worked in
small batches at a speed to reach the finished confection while the
original heat lasts. The working of candy and the heat in it has a
tendency to turn the candy back to sugar--that is, to grain it. Candy
coated pop-corn, to get the brittle, perfect confection--that is not
grained--must be finished confection, while the candy coating is still
hot. You see, then, the great advantage to be realized in using the
quickest method. Knott’s machines are recognized as the best for the
speed that produces quality.

As one item in the process of manufacture, consider the mixing of the
corn and candy.

Hot air rises and cold air descends; you know that, but did you ever
consider that it has a lot to do with your results in making pop-corn?

You know that popped corn is light and fluffy and air passes through
the collection of kernels easily. Think of how hot a kernel must be
to pop and yet you know that it is hardly any time at all before the
kernel is cold. The air surrounding the kernel is heated by the hot
kernel: that air rises and is replaced by cooler air which in turn
extracts the heat from the kernel and so the process continues with
speed until the kernel is the same temperature as the air.

You have often used the pouring of a liquid to more rapidly cool it.
You have lifted spoonful after spoonful of coffee letting it run off
the spoon to cool it. Did it ever occur to you that the pouring of the
hot, boiling syrup onto the pop-corn in a mixing tank is a cooling
process? Because of hot air ascending and cool air descending, that
candy that you would thus pour onto the pop-corn will cool at a most
rapid rate while you are getting the candy kettle out of the way and
your paddle down into the batch to mix the corn and candy. The doing
away with this pouring of the candy is necessary to the production of
the best goods. You can eliminate it by cooking the candy in a deep
kettle and pouring the pop-corn into that kettle on top of the candy
and mixing the batch in that kettle.

    [Illustration: ‡Man stirring contents of a bucket]

To coat a kernel of pop-corn with candy is not only for the purpose of
tickling the sense of taste, but by the use of that thin covering of
candy you keep the dampness out of the kernel. To be most effective,
the coating must completely enclose each kernel and yet for the
confection to be of the most delicate and brittle texture you must have
but the least film of a coating of candy covering each kernel and every
kernel the same as every other. To get the best results, you must use
the one best method of manufacture.

If without any time passing, that is, instantaneously, you could
distribute the candy at the instant it reached the point to which you
boil it, the candy then being at its most liquid state, if you could
distribute the candy thus instantly over the kernels, you would have
the ideal thin coating of candy over each kernel of pop-corn. You would
have the most delicious piece of confection you ever set your teeth

When mixing by hand, one-half of the time is used in the down stroke
of the paddle, which, of course, is necessary before you can make the
up stroke, or lift the paddle to mix the corn. Yet, of course, that
uses valuable time during which the batch is cooling. A machine so
constructed as to have a rotating paddle always under the corn to lift
the corn up the sides of the kettle and guiding it to fall down the
center of the kettle, such a machine uses no time in return strokes and
mixes the batch almost instantaneously.

At this point in our consideration of the subject, let us see what we
have learned.

It is best to mix the candy and pop-corn in the way that will be the
=quickest=, =the quickest way= being to boil the candy in a deep kettle
and mix the batch in that same kettle by the use of a pop-corn mixing

    [Illustration: ‡Man operating a mechanical mixer]

Now suppose you use this method for mixing the batch, what size batch
will produce the greatest profit?

You know with pop-corn confection, =the lighter it is, the better it
is=. Of course the lighter it is the less material to the piece and
the greater the profit. The size of batch you make has an important
effect on the lightness of the confection.

Candy coating of the pop-corn must be soft when the cakes are pressed
in order to have the cake well held together when cooled. You are
cooking above 280 degrees, so your candy must be at a high temperature
when the cakes are pressed to attain the result. At that temperature,
the candy changes quickly from a plastic to a brittle condition. A
batch is too large when the last of it to be moulded is too cool to
produce good light confection.

The batch may be kept from cooling so fast by keeping it enclosed in a
heated tank, but watch the results and don’t expect this to help much.
You must have the tank open to take out the corn to fill the moulds and
while it is open there is bound to be a rush of hot air out of the tank
and a rush of cold air into it on the principle discussed in the first
part of this article. This movement of air takes the heat out of the
batch at a fast rate so that it counteracts the effect of the heating
of the tank.

One good way is to use the hot kettle you mix your batch in to hold the
batch while you scoop the corn out onto the moulds. The quickest way
if you are using a set of moulds is for you to arrange the moulds on
the bench, make a batch just the right size, dump the batch on top of
the moulds and fill them. Then put them through the press. This has the
advantage of getting the corn into the moulds at once while the candy
coating is soft.

When the candy coating of the kernels is too cool when put in the
moulds and pressed, the whole kernels will be broken and you will get
so much corn into each mould that the cake will be solid, hard to bite
into and heavy.

You see it pays better to run small batches. Your cakes will be light
and fluffy and therefore better liked by the consumer. Your materials
will make more goods. A day’s work on this plan will show the greatest

Consider the utensils used by this method.

Only two kettles, so you have one on the fire while you are mixing in
the other. You have no jacket tank to clean, to grease, with the cost
of the grease, to heat by gas, with the cost of the gas. The use of the
pop-corn mixing machine in this method assures the same sized cakes
being made of less material. The same material produces at least 20
per cent. more finished confection because of the quick and complete



    [Illustration: ‡Diagram showing layout of plant]

YOU will agree with me that unless you have your outfit arranged right
you will be wasting steps, and that one worker will be in the way of

The best way is to have the room arranged so that the raw corn starts
down one side of the room and the finished goods come back on the
other, so that the process of manufacture passes around the room in a
continuous progress toward the shipping point.

This sketch gives you an arrangement to consider. You should make your
Popper and Mill Stand, Stock Tank Stand, Kettle Stirring Stand and
Bench so that you can move them, and thus try various distances and
arrangements to fit the particular line of goods that becomes your

It is just as bad to have machines too close together as to have them
too far apart, even when arranged in good working order. In the plan
above, room is left for barrels to stand in front of the popper, at
the side of and in front of the mill and room for two at the Kettle
Stirring Stand, one for whole corn and one for ground corn.


Several conditions of manufacture are changed as the quantity of
production is increased.

You should pop your corn in a separate room from the place in which the
cooking is done. The heat from the poppers--even with the windows open
in summer--is very uncomfortable and the escaping gas and burning dust
makes the air very unhealthy. Have your poppers so arranged that the
bad air will rise and escape without disturbing the workers. Ordinary
windows are not enough. Put a ventilator over the poppers. Place a
hood, or canopy over your stoves connected by pipe to outdoors, so that
when any syrup or molasses gets on the stove and creates a smoke, it
will pass off without making the workers uncomfortable.

The arrangement of your factory space as to the location of the doors,
windows, stairs and elevator will effect your placing machinery.

Whether you use individual motor drive, or shaft driven machines, will
effect the arranging of your plant.

What you intend to manufacture and what machines you buy will also
determine how you use your floor space to the best advantage.

Individual motor drive enables you to locate your machines to better
manufacturing advantages.

As your business changes in what you make, as you increase or change
your goods and as you add more machines, you can more easily move
machines to keep the best manufacturing arrangement.

As to cost of operation, it is hard to say under modern conditions
whether one way is cheaper than another. With separate motor to each
machine, you have no overhead shafts and belts to drop oil and dust and
compel you to locate by them. You are not liable to have your plant
idle because the one motor is out of order, or one belt has parted, you
can keep making something if one machine is out of order, for all the
others will be running.


Many manufacturers make a stand for their popper out of three-quarter
inch gas pipe, which is fireproof, clean, simple and cheap. It is best
to have three pipes for the popper to rest on, one across near the
front and two across near the back. These two project to the right
twelve inches for the shelf for mill (Stock No. 2001-1). By the use of
elbows, tees, flanges and piping you can make a stand to rest on the
floor or hang from the ceiling and bring the popper to the right height
for your barrels. When hung from the ceiling it leaves the floor clear,
and in every way is to be preferred if you make the construction rigid.
Determine the height of the barrel you are to use under your Knott
Rotary Sifter (Stock No. 112) and have the top of the stand for popper
twelve and one-half inches higher than that.

Use an iron box or barrel under the popper to catch the unpopped
kernels. In that way you risk no fire should a blazing kernel fall into
it. A blaze in pop-corn is easily smothered by stirring up the corn.

You are urged to use an iron barrel under the Knott Rotary Sifter
(Stock No. 112) to catch the siftings.

Order your popper made ready to attach Knott’s Rotary Sifter, it costs
no more.

=To Operate Popper.=

Remove the pop-corn popper cylinder.

=Directions for Gasoline Fuel.=

See that the valves are closed.

Use only the best gasoline.

Do not fill the tank while the burners are lighted, nor remove the tank
to fill it. Do not let the tank run dry.

If gasoline burners should leak at any time at the hexagon stuffing
box on the valve stem, tighten with pliers. Repeat this operation if
any further trouble occurs from this source. If this doesn’t overcome
the trouble remove the stuffing box and wrap some cotton cord or linen
thread well saturated with common soap around the valve stem. Then
tighten stuffing box.

To prevent smoking up the cylinder you are recommended to use alcohol
(denatured or wood) in generating cups; light and allow to burn out,
then turn on gasoline and light at the perforated cone at top of
burner; turn low.

If you are not used to gasoline burners, get some one who knows how to
show you.

=Directions for Gas Fuel.=

It is essential to have an uninterrupted and sufficient supply of gas.

Do not use a rubber tube to carry gas to the popper if you can connect
the popper directly by pipe. The tubing greatly reduces the pressure.
Run a three-quarter-inch pipe to a small sized Popper; and an inch pipe
to the large sized Poppers. See that the gas comes to this through no
smaller pipe.

Light the burner and turn low.

The distance the pop-corn cylinder is away from the burner is very
important. If your cylinder is too near the burner, your corn will be
really under the heat and not in it. If the cylinder is too far away
from the burner, the corn will be too far away from the hottest part of
your fire. This will show by your corn being roasted instead of popped
and by your popped kernels being small. The distance between cylinder
and the burner should be about 1 inch. This does not mean ¼ inch or ½
inch, neither does it mean 1¼ inch or 1½ inch. The pressure of the gas
may require that you make a new adjustment of the burner up or down to
get absolutely the best results with the gas you must use.

=To Pop the Pop-Corn.=

Make yourself thoroughly familiar with the motions of operating the
popper with raw corn without fire before trying to pop corn.

A power-driven machine should have the power turned on before the
burner is lighted. This prevents the liability of your forgetting to
keep the cylinder revolving over the fire. If the cylinder is not in
motion, the fire will burn a hole in it or get it out of shape.

Having oiled the shaft with heavy oil, replace the cylinder.

Put in a scoopful of corn.

    [Illustration: This illustrates method of placing corn in cylinder]

Turn up the fire and revolve the cylinder clockwise, eighteen or twenty
revolutions to the minute.

The popping should begin in one and one-half to two and one-half

After the popper has been running a little while and becomes thoroughly
warmed up, popping may begin in one and one-half minutes.

When the popping is about two-thirds completed, if you are using
gasoline fuel, turn down the inside burner only. When gas is used turn
the valve off about half-way.

In case pop-corn catches fire in the cylinder, put in a scoop of raw
corn, which will extinguish the blaze.

After a little practice you will know from the discharging corn just
what moment to turn the cylinder slowly backward and stop to dump the
unpopped kernels. On the power machines you must draw the bolt on the
crank before you can turn it backwards.

Put in another scoopful of corn.

Turn up the burner, and if you are using gasoline, first the outside
and then the inside one, so that the lighting will be from the outside.

Proceed as before.


This machine may be used as a peanut roaster by using a special peanut
cylinder in place of the pop-corn cylinder. These cylinders are carried
in stock at the factory and will fit your popper.

=To Roast Peanuts.=

Open the slide, insert the funnel and put in peanuts until the cylinder
is three-quarters full. Then close the slide; remove the pop-corn
cylinder; light the burners; put the peanut cylinder in the machine,
then revolve the cylinder at the same speed as the pop-corn cylinder,
about eighteen to twenty revolutions per minute.

Test the peanuts by running a tryer in the hole in the cylinder.

It will require twenty to thirty minutes to roast.

Empty the cylinder by drawing it part way out, turning it hole downward
and swaying it back and forth.

    Stock No. 2003-2. Kingery Popper: “The One Liked the Best”]

 Stock No. 2003-1  Kingery No. 50, gas fuel and motor without blower
 Stock No. 2003-2  Kingery No. 58, gas fuel with motor and blower
 Stock No. 2003-3  Kingery No. 51, gas fuel with 24-inch pulley
 Stock No. 2003-4  Kingery No. 250, gas fuel and motor attached.
                       Nickel plated
 Stock No. 2003-5  Kingery No. 258, gas fuel with motor and blower.
                       Nickel plated
 Stock No. 2003-6  Kingery No. 59, gas fuel, 24-inch pulley and blower
 Stock No. 2003-7  Similar to No. 2003-2, but without stand
 Stock No. 2003-8  Similar to No. 2003-2, but without stand or motor
 Stock No. 2003-9  Popping machine of 4 bushel per hour capacity,
                       with motor and with atmospheric gas burner
 Stock No. 2003-10 Similar to No. 2003-9, but with gas burner and blower

=Stock No. 2003-2.= Capacity, 12 bushels per hour. Dimensions of body,
37 inches high, 28 inches wide, 14 inches deep; gas machine, 18 inches

Smaller machines or machines arranged in series.

We recommend this machine, we know it is right.

Kingery poppers are generally used in factory production because of
their efficiency. The best popper is Kingery No. 58, arranged with gas
fuel, electric motor and a blower that forces air into the burner,
which mixing with the gas gives a much cleaner, hotter fire with less
gas. A fire that pops corn into larger kernels, pops a larger per cent.
of the corn and does it in a shorter time.


About fifty, more or less, of unpopped kernels will be blown
out by the popping corn or carried out with it at each popping.

These must be sifted out of the popped corn before you make up your
confection. You do not want to bite down on a hard kernel and break a
tooth, so that it is necessary for you to make certain that every hard
kernel is eliminated.

The pop-corn cannot get by without being sifted and every hard kernel
is taken out.

The screen does not clog because it turns over twenty times a minute.
No pop-corn kernels are broken, as the pop-corn tumbles over and over
in a veritable cascade seven times in passing from the hopper through
the cylinder.

By a long series of experiments the construction was determined that
positively took out every hard kernel.

    [Illustration: ‡Sifting machine
    Stock No. 112. Model C
    (Patent applied for)]

With the sifter and driving parts as shown on page 20 you receive
drills and tap for bit-stock so you may put up the machine yourself by
following the direction sheet.

Screen 12 inches in diameter by 19 inches long with baffle plates that
compel the corn to travel in a cascade over 21 feet of screen before
it gets out, the pop-corn tumbling over itself so there is nothing to
break it up.

Built on cast iron frame, rigid construction, cannot clog, ample
capacity, cannot choke, does not break up pop-corn, you can take it
away and put it back while popper is running.

Ample capacity to handle pop-corn from large popper.

Siftings must all fall inside of your barrel whether it be 18 inches or
21 inches in diameter.

The power it takes is so small you need not think of it.

Stock No. 112 Knott’s Rotary Pop-corn Sifter with driving parts complete


Grinding pop-corn is not the same as crushing raw grain. Pop-corn
should be torn apart when it is ground and not mashed, as it is the
fluffy, light texture you desire to maintain.

Knott’s Mills (Stock No. 2001 and Stock No. 109) accomplish the same
work in different ways, but the former is of disc construction and the
latter of the cylinder type. The former is slower but uses much less

In case of Mill, Stock No. 2001-1 (see page 24), which is power-driven,
the construction is such that it will make no great difference whether
the pop-corn is put in before or after the mill is started.

Adjustment is made by the thumb screw in the hub of the pulley. Turning
in causes the mill to grind finer.

In case the pop-corn does not feed in the hopper a stick run down in
the Hopper (Stock No. 2020-1) or a common knife stuck in between the
machine and the Hopper will cause the machine to start grinding again.

Hopper (Stock No. 2020) for this mill holds a bushel of pop-corn.

Knott’s Grinder, Stock No. 109 is the machine for efficient work. Every
last bit of pop-corn put in the hopper will be ground without attention.

Never open the slide to let the pop-corn to the grinder until after the
power is on. If the power is put on after the pop-corn is let into the
machine it will choke, in which case you will have to shut the slide
and turn the machine over by hand to clear it.

Adjustment is made by the thumb screw on the side of the machine.
Screwing it in causes finer grinding. By tightening up the lock nut on
the adjusting screw you lock the adjustment.

    [Illustration: ‡Grinding machine
    Stock No. 109-1

    The interchangeable burrs that do the work.]

Illustrations on page 23 show how the stationary burr bracket is swung
out to drop out nails or gravel.

Use this grinder with legs to straddle a barrel and hopper that holds a
barrel of pop-corn and place on the stand by the side of the grinder an
electric motor totally enclosed type Stock No. 2016-5, No. 2016-6, No.
2016-11, No. 2016-12.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 109-4--Knott’s Pop-Corn Grinder

    This shows the stationary burrs swung out to drop out nails or gravel,
    without changing the grinding adjustment.]

    [Illustration: Stock No. 109-4--Knott’s Pop-Corn Grinder

    Showing stationary burr in position for grinding.]

Your pop-corn is pulled apart--not mashed. Adjustable; no dust. Uniform
grinding. All metal. Will last a lifetime. Large quantity capacity.

    CAPACITY      | 10 bbls. per hour
    POWER         | ½ H.P.
    SPEED         | 500 R.P.M.
    PULLEY        | 7″ × 2″
    MEASUREMENTS  | 11½″ × 16½″ × 10″
    THROAT        | 7¼″ × 1½″
    WEIGHT        | 75 lbs.

Use our motors either Stock No. 2016-5, or No. 2016-6, or No. 2016-11,
or No. 2016-12.

 Stock No. 109-1  Knott’s Pop-corn Grinder with legs to straddle
                      a barrel and galvanized iron hopper
                      of one barrel capacity
 Stock No. 109-2  Knott’s Pop-corn Grinder with hopper, without legs
 Stock No. 109-3  Knott’s Pop-corn Grinder with legs, without hopper
 Stock No. 109-4  Knott’s Pop-corn Grinder without legs or
 Stock No. 109-10 Revolving Burrs, each section
 Stock No. 109-11 Stationary Burrs, each section

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2001-1
    Knott’s Pop-Corn Mill]

Your pop-corn is pulled apart--not mashed. Adjustable. No dust. Uniform
grinding. All metal. Will last a lifetime. Small quantity capacity.

    CAPACITY      | 2 bbls. per hour
    POWER         | ⅙ H.P.
    SPEED         | 500 R.P.M.
    PULLEY        | 7″ × 1½″
    MEASUREMENTS  | 12″ × 8½″ × 17¼″
    THROAT        | 3″ × 2″
    WEIGHT        | 45 lbs.

May be driven with one of our Stock No. 2016-1, or No. 2016-2, or No.
2016-7, or No. 2016-8 electric motors.

 Stock No. 2001-1 Knott’s Pop-corn Mill with 7-inch pulley
                      for 1½-inch flat belt
 Stock No. 2001-2 Knott’s Pop-corn Mill with hand crank
 Stock No. 2020-1 Hopper of galvanized iron of 1 bushel capacity
                      for Knott’s Pop-corn Mill


For greater output consider our Stock No. 109 Mill.

    Knott’s Molasses and Syrup Tanks

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2013-1]

The time saver, clean way, heavy sheet steel, with steel band top
and bottom, electric welded, galvanized after manufacture; Stebbins’
side-opening molasses gate, screwed in; 14 inches in diameter and 17
inches deep.

Stock No. 2013-1 Knott’s Stock Tank galvanized

You make the stand so your two quart measure (Stock No. 2010-1) may be
stood on a shelf under the gate, thus giving clean, quick method of
filling measure.

One tank is for the purpose of holding molasses and the other you
should have for syrup made by melting, just bringing to a boil your
sugar and corn syrup in the proportions the recipes you are using call
for. Use a thermometer and see that it registers 220 degrees, no more
or less.

Placing the syrup right off the stove in the covered tank causes it to
hold the heat so as you draw it for each batch, you start each batch
with hot syrup, which saves time in cooking and accuracy in measuring,
aids much toward uniform products.

    Knott’s Pop-Corn Stove

    [Illustration: Stock No. 113-1]

Stove top of seven rings, drum of heavy sheet steel, with steel band
top and bottom.

Burners of ample capacity and interchangeable.

19 inches in diameter, 25 inches high and weighs 57 pounds.

 Stock No. 113-1 Knott’s Pop-corn Gas Stove
 Stock No. 113-2 Knott’s Pop-corn Gasoline Stove
 Stock No. 113-3 Knott’s Pop-corn Gas Stove with Electric blower

The Knott Pop-corn Stove is made to be used especially with the Knott
Pop-corn Kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) which fits into just the right
position so that the fire may boil the syrup for a batch in a few

These stoves are made so that if you want the other fuel burner you can
get it from us and put it in by the aid of a screw-driver.

Read the directions under Pop-corn Popper for generating the gasoline
burners and follow them in using gasoline stoves.

The gas stove burner you can regulate for air supply and for gas. This
burner is a special one which we recommend because the heat is drawn
to the center in a revolving shape like a whirlwind, concentrating the
heat on the bottom of the kettle where you want it.

The Electric Blower Stove gives a much hotter fire and the cost of
running it is small.

    Knott’s Pop-Corn Kettle

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2004-2]

Copper kettle, 19 inches in diameter by 17 inches deep, with single
grip handles.

Special sizes. If you want them tell us.

Made light for lifting, but especially strong and durable to stand the
stirring of pop-corn.

Weight about 14½ pounds.

Knott’s kettle is the right one to use for all around factory pop-corn
work. It is the style used in the pop-corn factories of New England,
because they find this method requires the least labor and because it
uses less candy to cover the corn. It enables you to cook the candy
higher than other methods and thus increases the keeping quality of the
pop-corn confection.

You boil your syrup in this kettle. Because you are boiling for each
batch less than a gallon of stock, it is not convenient when working
fast to use a thermometer. Pop-corn makers use one of four tests,
according to their experience in the business. 1.--The so-called “water
test,” half a teaspoonful of syrup dropped in cold water. 2.--The
test by the color of the syrup. 3.--The test by how it leaves the
paddle when scooped up on it. It will string off or come off in lumps,
so-called “ragging off the paddle.” 4.--A test by the steam or smoke
which rises from the kettle.

You are advised to get a confectioner’s thermometer and make the other
tests at the same time you use the thermometer, doing it with syrup
over a slow fire and in that way learn how the syrup you finally
determine to use will act at the temperature you require.

Practical experience is the one way to learn. Do not expect to make
a good batch the first time nor the third time, but you need have no
discouragement if you have not reached perfect results on your twelfth

In beginning, you are likely to cook candy too high to be easily worked
into shape.

Efficient pop-corn making is not to be learned very easily; it comes
with practice.

When you are running on one kind of pop-corn as a specialty so that you
want to get out one batch after another as fast as possible, it is well
to use two fires and two kettles. One kettle with syrup may be warming
up while you are boiling the other.

You will find it well to use a cover on your kettle, part of the time,
one of Stock No. 2005-1, or one that you can make yourself out of thin
wood. The object is to let the condensing steam run down and thus clean
the sides of the kettle.

Copper or wood covers are best, an iron cover rusts out quickly.

 Stock No. 2005-1 Copper Steaming Cover for kettle
 Stock No. 2005-2 Nickeled Copper Steaming Cover for kettle

These covers will last you a long time because they are of heavy
material and handle riveted with copper rivets.


Take the kettle off of the fire and set it in your stirring stand. The
stirring stand may be made of a band of iron supported on three or four
angle iron legs, or you can cut off a barrel to fit your height and
use that as a stirring stand. Put some stones or sand in the bottom to
steady it.

Stirring pop-corn is not as easy as it looks. A beginner’s courage
is tested sometimes by giving him a batch to stir in which there
is no grease. He makes no start at all. Again he may be tried on a
wintergreen-flavored batch with an extra dose of flavor. His eyes run
so with water that usually he does not finish the batch.

Try this plan: Put the corn in the kettle, then with your left hand
on the middle of the paddle (Stock No. 2006-1) and your right hand
over the end, make strokes down against the side of the kettle and up
through the middle of the batch, at the same time walking around the
kettle. Efficient stirring will come with practice.

Stir the pop-corn quickly, but have the batch light, not soggy.


The use of the Knott Pop-Corn Mixing Machine has been well considered
and yet the mechanical mixing of pop-corn cannot be emphasized too much.

Many failures in the pop-corn confection business are due to poor
mixing. Soggy confection, “hot spot,” that is spots in the confection
where there is much more candy than anywhere else. Uneven appearance
and texture to the confection, due to slow mixing.

See that you make the best, and only by using Knott’s Pop-Corn Mixing
Machine can the best be made.

You must realize that a dough mixer is not a cake mixer, is not an egg
beater, is not a concrete mixer, is not a pop-corn mixer.

You know the materials are not alike and the result wanted in each case
is different.

You see why you should use a machine specially developed for pop-corn,
to distribute the hot syrup quickly and evenly over the pop-corn and
give a light fluffy mixture.

Knott’s Pop-Corn Mixing Machine is made specially for Pop-corn, to give
the result you want.

Use this method for quality and economy. Mix your Pop-corn in the hot
kettle, in which you have just boiled your syrup, and use Knott’s
Pop-corn Mixing Machine.

You mix all kinds of pop-corn on this machine better than it can be
done any other way.

Whole pop-corn is mixed without breaking the kernels.

Goods are mixed up light, fluffy, thoroughly, evenly.

You distribute the syrup so quickly over the pop-corn that you can cook
it higher.

The goods eat better.


You do away with hand mixing entirely.

Make more goods with less labor.

Not so many containers.

The cook makes no difference.

You get more cakes from the same batch; that is, you save in any case
more than fourteen per cent. on your bills for material.

Stirs a bushel of pop-corn without throwing any out of the kettle.

Mixes different kinds of batches without any change of adjustment of
either paddles or speed.

Nothing to wear the kettles.

So quickly is the syrup distributed that it takes less syrup to cover
the pop-corn.

    Patented Nov. 4, 1919, No. 1320766
    Stock No. 114-2]


    CAPACITY      | One bushel
    POWER         | ½ H.P.
    SPEED         | Pulley 500 R.P.M.
                  | Paddle 125 R.P.M.
    BELT          | 2″ Belt
                  | 7″ dia. Pulley
                  | 9 ft. of Head Room
    MEASUREMENT   | 24″ wide
                  | 43″ deep
    WEIGHT        | 700 lbs. net
                  | 800 lbs. crated

 Stock No. 114-1. Knott’s Pop-corn Mixing Machine
                      with two Stock No. 2004-2 Kettles
 Stock No. 114-2. Knott’s Pop-corn Mixing Machine with
                      motor attached, with two Stock No. 2004-2 Kettles


    [Illustration: Showing the easy way]

In regard to swinging the kettle to dump the batch. Pop-corn kettle
(Stock No. 2004-2) is not heavy, weighing but fourteen and one-half
pounds, and with the pop-corn batch in it, it weighs but a few pounds
more. The kettle is swung away from the face thus: take hold of the
two handles, swing the kettle underneath from left to right, upward,
still keeping the left hand away from yourself and the right hand near
you, until the kettle is more than half-way up. Then hold the two
handles the same distance away from you. That rotates the kettle upon
its center axis while you are swinging up the rest of the way to the
top position, at which you stop to dump the batch. You will notice by
this motion that the kettle bottom comes nowhere near your face. During
the swinging you are moving the kettle so that when you stop the batch
falls out right upon the bench or machine just where you want it.

The first two or three times you try this feat, all the pop-corn may
not go where you want it, but after that you will have no difficulty.

    PANS. STOCK No. 2007-1

You see, in making square corn cakes, bricks or bars, there are three
operations: panning, pressing and cutting; each quickly performed,
but the tools used must be right in detail in their dimensions or the
greatest difficulty will be experienced, even to the point that you
will not be able to make the goods at all.

The kettle of pop-corn, all stirred, yet hot, is dumped into the pans
arranged together on the bench. You pan the corn evenly and quickly by
hand. Now turn each pan of corn upside down on the bench. Take off the
pan and slip it under the pop-corn. The pop-corn is then in the pan
bottom-side up so as to present a more even surface to the pressing
plate in the press.

Stock No. 2007-1 pans are the right size for you to pan the corn, by
moving your two hands toward you across the pan, with a side motion
of your wrists, leaving an even pan of corn and taking to the next
pan whatever surplus comes over in your hands. This is certainly the
quickest pan to use.

These pans are made from heavy galvanized sheet steel with heavy wired
rim. The clearance of the sides is right. This is the pan that will
stand considerable usage.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2007-1]


 Stock No. 2007-1 Measurement inside on bottom, 16 inches by
                      9 inches, Pop-corn Pan
 Stock No. 2007-2 12 inches by 18 inches, Pop-corn Pan
                  Special sizes at your request.

    [Illustration: CRISPETTE WRAPPING FORM. STOCK No. 2018-1]

Place a paper wrapper across the top of the form and put the
crispettes, four, five or six, in the paper into the form. Bring the
paper together over the corn, fold it a couple of times, then tuck
down the ends, fold them in and crease the bottom to hold them. See
illustration in colors.


Arrange moulds side by side on bench, dump your mixed batch on the
moulds, fill the moulds with the corn. Slide moulds under the press.
The number of moulds used for each batch is determined by the space you
have to work in and the quantity you want to make.

Stock No. 2002-3 Crispette Round Cake Moulds and Plunger for hand press


    Stock No. 110-2 with screws for fastening to the bench,
    and plate for pan work]

This hand press is rugged, simple and efficient.

You bolt it to a bench with the arch twenty inches from the front edge
of the bench. Slip in the plate for pan work, and fasten it in place by
means of cap screw. Slide a pan under and screw down plate into pan.
This locates the pan so that you can bring against it the three guides,
two sides and back; tighten them in place so that you can slide the pan
in between them and bring the press down without danger of the plate
coming down on the edge of pan.

Do not press your pop-corn too solid; it does not eat as well and takes
more stock per box.

Put the three sets of round cake plungers on the press cross-bar,
locating them by putting the mould plate under the press and fastening
them by tightening the cap screws. Adjust and clamp the guides each
side and at the back of mould plate, so that when you fill it you can
slide it in and bring the plungers down without their striking on the

You may put a block under each end of the press cross-bar against the
inside of the arch as a stop to regulate the thickness of your cakes.

Three plunger castings are made with small cap screws to fasten them on
top of the bench.

Use them to push the cakes out of the mould plate, by pushing this
plate down over them.


    [Illustration: Stock No. 110-1
    Knott’s Pop-Corn Press.]

The press that does not hesitate.

    PULLEY   | 7 inches
    BELT     | 2-inch flat
    SPEED    | 500 R.P.M.
    POWER    | ½ H.P.
    WEIGHT   | 350 lbs.

You will find this press is durable and easily operated. It is
adjustable as to thickness of cake from zero inches to two inches.

The press is started and stopped by the treadle on the floor; putting
down your foot starts the press, lifting your foot stops it. A positive
lock is arranged so that when the treadle is released the machine locks
against operation, preventing accidents.

Power press may be driven by our motor (Stock No. 2016-13, No. 2016-14,
No. 2016-15, or No. 2016-16.)

Speed, twenty-five strokes per minute.

Capacity. It will take our 16 × 9-inch or 18 × 12-inch pans of pop-corn
and press the corn without hesitating.

 Stock No. 110    Power Press with foot trip, one plate 16 × 9
                      inches, and adjustable guides
 Stock No. 2002-1 Plate for “Two-fers,” 12 × 18 inches, with fins
                      to cut pan of corn into 56 pieces. Made
                      of special non-sticking metal
 Stock No. 2002-2 Press casting for holding “Two-fers” plate
                      or Pressing Pans 12 × 18

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2008-1]


These are the very best style of hand cutting rack you can use, made of
maple. Nickel-plated handle on straight edge. This rack is made to stay
in shape and give long service.

 Stock No. 2008-1 Rack, to match pan 16 inches by 9 inches for
                      cutting package corn
                  Special racks for bars, squares, etc.
                  Prices at your request.

On the bench, about two feet to the right of the press, fasten a board
two feet long to the edge, letting it project an inch above the bench.

Place your cutting rack frame against this board on the bench with the
bottom board in it and the end toward you.

Take the pan of pressed corn, and turn it upside down on the bench
between the press and this cutting rack. A sharp rap will drop the corn
out of the pan.

Lift this sheet of corn, put the back end into the cutting rack, bend
the sheet into a bow shape so that the front end will go into the rack.
Then press down the center.

Hold the straight edge by the handle in the left hand and draw quickly
a well sharpened knife (Stock No. 2009-1) toward you along the straight
edge to make the cut, passing it through the slots in the sides of the
rack. To cut the other way, turn the rack around.

To remove the pop-corn from the rack, lift up the rack frame, leaving
the bottom board. The corn will fit tight enough to be lifted with the
frame. Set the frame down on the bench to the right. Place your right
hand on the pop-corn and lift off the rack with your left hand.


    [Illustration: Stock No. 111]

    [Illustration: TRANSFER RACK STOCK No. 2022-1
    Showing cutting rack with transfer rack on it
    and showing transfer rack separate]

 Stock No. 111-1   Knott’s Pop-Corn Brick and Bar Cutting
                      Machine for 16 × 9-inch pans with one cutting rack
 Stock No. 2017-1  Extra Rack for cutting 19 × 9-inch pans of pop-corn
 Stock No. 2022-1  Transfer Rack for cutting machine

Special Cutting Racks for cutting 16 × 9-inch pans into any size cakes
made to order.

This gives the pop-corn brick finished for wrapping, five cakes of
different flavors all cut together, making a much better package than
hand cutting.

Cuts five sheets in the time it takes to cut one by hand. Pushes five
sheets out of rack in one-eighth time that it takes to push five sheets
out of hand cutting rack and register one on top of the other for

Does away with the hand tiring work of cutting with a knife.

Cut your corn with machine accuracy.

Save seventy-five per cent. of your cutting labor.

Increase output per day of pop-corn bricks one hundred per cent.

Drive this by belting from overhead or from motor under the bench. Made
with tight and loose pulleys and belt shipper.

    MEASUREMENTS  | 63 in. × 27 in. plus
                  |   overhang of 18 in.
    PULLEY        | 12 in.
    BELT          | 2½ in. flat
    SPEED         | 500 R.P.M.
    POWER         | 1 H.P.
    WEIGHT        | 450 lbs.

In the making of assorted flavor bricks of pop-corn, you run five
batches and fill five pans out of each batch.

First batch, white, vanilla flavor. Second batch, molasses. Third
batch, chocolate. Fourth batch, molasses. Fifth batch, pink with
wintergreen flavor.

You use five transfer racks and put them in a row on the bench. Turn a
pressed pan of corn right from the press upside down on the table to
get out the sheet of corn; take the sheet of corn and put it in the
transfer rack by putting the back end down first, bend sheet in the
middle, put the front end down and then press down the middle. You have
five sheets, or pans from a batch; put one in each transfer rack. Do
the same with each of the five batches. Sheets being made each one inch
thick, the transfer racks will be just filled.

Place a full transfer rack of pop-corn in place on the cutting rack
and push the pop-corn down into the cutting rack. Remove the transfer
rack. Now run the full cutting rack of pop-corn under the knife in the
cutting machine.

The push-out stand should be placed conveniently on the bench, so that
you put the cutting rack of cut pop-corn on this push-out stand. As the
rack goes down over the stand, the bottom board goes up with the corn
on it, so it may be lifted off and the corn slid off onto the packing


    [Illustration: Stock No. 115]

In the manufacture of penny-pop-corn, it is good to cut them one sheet
at a time, then when the goods have become cold pack them. It is
necessary to cut them while warm. When the sheets are piled up and cut
together as in the Brick and Bar cutting machine, Stock No. 111, they
stick together and in the case of the assorted brick, that is just what
is wanted. When cutting penny goods, the cakes are wanted separated.

This machine cuts one sheet at a time, but at many times the speed of
hand cutting. The sheet is put in the rack and passed through one way,
cutting the corn in strips, then the rack is turned and passed through
the second part of the machine, which completes the cutting by severing
the strips into blocks.

You arrange this machine on your bench in the position as above in the
picture. It is best to drive it from a motor on the bench by a chain,
but it may be driven from a shaft overhead by belt.

    MEASUREMENTS  | 48″ × 80″
    PULLEY        | 5″
    BELT          | 2″
    SPEED         | 500 R.P.M.
    POWER         | 1 + 1 H.P.
    WEIGHT        | 200 lbs.

Machine complete with 5 racks as shown, may be made to handle sheets of
corn 12 inches × 18 inches, Stock No. 2007-2 12-inch pans, and cut the
corn 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 divisions on the 12-inch side and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7 or 8 divisions on the 18-inch side. You see a large variety of sizes
are possible by having racks for each.

The machine may be made to cut 9 × 16 sheets, pan 2007-1.

 Stock No. 115-1 Knott’s Two Way Cutting Machine, with two
                     1 H.P. motors, one to drive each set of knives
 Stock No. 115-2 Knott’s Two Way Cutting Machine, with
                     countershafts for belt drive


    [Illustration: S. F. 3 Machine Making Crispettes]

Driven by one-horse motor, then no belt is in the way.

S. F. 3 Machine makes three crispettes at a stroke, 50 strokes per
minute, 150 cakes per minute, 2 5-16 inch diameter cakes with the
thickness of cake adjustable.

S. F. 6 Machine makes six crispettes at a stroke, 50 strokes per
minute, 300 cakes per minute, 2 5-16 inch diameter cakes with the
thickness of cake adjustable.

Specify what electricity your motor should be and how long you want the
conveyor. 20 feet is good length.

You see at last we have a machine that will make the mixed corn into
cakes faster than you can get the batches to it. No longer need you
blister your hands filling corn into moulds and make your cakes too
solid, or have the batch get cold before all are moulded. As the name
says, this machine is a “self filling” machine. You simply place the
freshly mixed corn in the hopper on the feed rolls and the machine lays
the finished cakes on the conveyor.

Not alone is this machine making in many places the round whole corn
fritters, but it works well on ground pop-corn.

It is made up special for cakes of square and oblong shape. It is also
used in putting out strips of corn marked to be broken into penny
pieces. In fact new applications of this machine are being found
constantly. Even a ball of pop-corn is one of the products this machine
can be made to produce.

With this automatic means of moulding corn, you can now make at a
profit small and thin cakes of corn that could not be made by hand.


    [Illustration: The Dainty Pop-Corn Confection]

 Vanilla Brittle Bitts
 Chocolate Brittle Bitts
 Wintergreen Brittle Bitts
 Molasses Brittle Bitts
 Orange Brittle Bitts
 Lime Brittle Bitts
 Sassafras Brittle Bitts

    [Illustration: Moulds for Making Brittle Bitts]

 Stock No. 2007-3 Pans for Brittle Bitts
 Stock No. 2002-4 Pressing Plate for Brittle Bitts
 Special Racks for cutting Brittle Bitts

=YOU make Brittle Bitts=

Use formula No. 5 on page 51 of Knott’s Pop-Corn Book for the syrup in
your stock tank.

To make a batch to fill five pans, Stock No. 2007-1 for =half round=
shape, try 1¼ quarts stock and ¾ peck of Ground Pop-Corn, then vary the
proportions the next time to suit you.

To make a batch to fill five pans Stock No. 2007-3 for =round= shape,
try 2½ quarts stock and 1½ pecks of Ground Pop-Corn, then vary the
proportions the next time to suit you.

Each pressed sheet of Brittle Bitts is 9 inches wide by 16 inches long
and composed of 12 sticks 16 inches long.

You may cut them into any length that will divide into 16 inches
without waste. Thus, you cut 16 pieces 1 inch long, or 4 pieces 4
inches long.

You can break them apart so as to have each cake made up of two sticks,
three sticks or four sticks without waste.

The mechanical handling of sheet Pop-Corn is well described elsewhere
in Knott’s Pop-Corn Book.

Popping, Page 6; Sifting, Page 20; Grinding, Page 21; Boiling, Page 48;
Mixing, Page 28; Panning, Page 30; Pressing, Page 34; Cutting, Page 34.
Look at index, Page 60.

=You Sell Brittle Bitts=

 Put up in quarters, halves, pound boxes.
 Put up in glass front boxes same as crackers.
 Pack in 10-pound boxes same as crackers.
 Price 50 cents per pound.

=You Display a Placard=


 Take home a pound to eat with your apple sauce.
 Eat Brittle Bitts with ice-cream.
 Take Brittle Bitts as a lunch on an outing.
 Munch Brittle Bitts while you read the evening paper.
 Eat Molasses Brittle Bitts with milk for breakfast.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2019-1]

    Knott’s Counter-high Buttered Pop-Corn Tank

Water jacketed, gas burner, galvanized sheet steel

Retail business where buttered pop-corn is sold fast must handle the
making in the way to produce the best buttered pop-corn at the lowest
price for materials.

Make by recipe on page 49. Mix on Knott’s Pop-corn Mixing Machine and
sell from the buttered corn tank where the buttered corn is kept hot by
the hot water jacket.

From the time the kettle comes off of the fire to the time the corn is
buttered ready for customers, is twelve (12) seconds. That is why this
method makes the best, every kernel of pop-corn has a drop of butter on
it. Delicious, why, you cannot refuse coming back for more.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2006-1]

Stock No. 2006-1 Knott’s Pop-corn Stirring Paddle, 36 inches long

This paddle is turned and finished from one piece of stock of straight
and close grain. Made to our special design, you will find it will take
less strokes to mix your batch than is possible with any other.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2009-1]

Stock No. 2009-1 Knott’s Pop-corn Knife

This is the knife to use with racks (Stock No. 2008-1) for cutting the
corn into Bricks, Bars, etc.

It is a quality product. Hand forged from the best grade of cast steel,
hand ground and carefully tempered.

    [Illustration: ‡Motor
    Stock No. 2016-7]

Individual Motor Drive is the most flexible and economical method of
driving pop-corn machines. No shafting, no belts, no dirt or grease.

We have found by experience that this type of motor can be relied on at
all times. Cheaper motors may be bought, but they are not cheap to run.
Here are the motors you should have:

 Stock No. 2016-1   ⅙ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 115 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-2   ⅙ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 230 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-3   ¼ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 115 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-4   ¼ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 230 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-5   ½ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 115 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-6   ½ H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 230 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-13  1 H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 115 v. D.C.
 Stock No. 2016-14  1 H.P. 1700 R.P.M. 230 v. D.C.

 Stock No. 2016-7   ⅙ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 110 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-8   ⅙ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 220 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-9   ¼ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 110 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-10  ¼ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 220 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-11  ½ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 110 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-12  ½ H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 220 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-15  1 H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 110 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.
 Stock No. 2016-16  1 H.P. 1800 R.P.M. 220 v. 60 cy. 1 phase A.C.

 Also three phase Motors



MEASURE your raw materials accurately for every batch. Have your
color, flavor, salt, butter, etc., put up in bottles or wax paper, the
measured quantity for each batch, and thus maintain uniform quality.
Buy these of a Confectioners’ Supply House.

=Pop-Corn.=--Use only the best, for in the end that is cheapest at any
cost. That does not mean that you must pay high prices, nor that high
prices assure the best quality. You must judge the quality of the goods
by testing them.

Write the E. R. Knott Machine Company for a list of Pop-corn dealers.

Use the best of White Rice Pop-Corn. Secure samples from the dealers
and test them in your popper for quality in size of popped kernels, for
quantity popped from a scoopful, for length of time it takes to pop,
for the amount of waste or unpopped kernels.

Pop-corn of one year’s crop should not be used before the next June and
pop-corn from that crop should be used up by the following June. The
corn maintains its popping quality best by being kept on the cob, so
that corn ought not to be shelled long before it is popped.

Pop the day’s supply of corn the same day you intend to use it.

Use the best. Keep your barrels covered and clean.

=Corn Syrup= is used not only because it is cheaper than sugar but
principally to prevent the candy from graining. The amount of dextrine
in it will have a direct effect upon the graining results. Corn syrup
varies in the amount of dextrine it contains, ranging from zero per
cent. to forty per cent. Twenty-five per cent. at least is required in
corn syrup in order to use it with sugar and stop graining, that is, to
prevent the syrup from turning back to sugar. Too great a proportion of
corn syrup will cause the candy to be tough.

For various kinds of goods and for the same goods in different seasons
and climates you will vary the proportion of corn syrup.

You must experiment with the materials that you have available, but you
may take this as a basis to start from: seventy-five per cent. of sugar
and twenty-five per cent. or less of corn syrup. This will grain and
not be sticky or tough, and you may use water on your tools to prevent

Seventy-five per cent. of sugar and twenty-five per cent. or more of
corn syrup will not grain.

Wet your hand before picking up corn syrup so that it will not stick.
This method works well in cold weather, but in warm weather use a
dipper or let the corn syrup run out of the barrel.

Butter and Substitutes.

Nothing will spoil the quality of your goods so quickly as a low
quality of butter. Exercise great care to see that the butter is fresh,
pure and sweet. Put the butter into your candy in the kettle with your

There are substitutes for butter that may be used in some goods with
good results, but be careful, for the keeping quality of the goods is
important, as well as the taste when freshly made. Many a business has
been a failure because quality was neglected. Quality means freshness,
appearance, keeping value, wholesomeness, and the power to stand heat
or cold.


Some brands of salt create chemical action and the result is poor
goods. Do not use any low-grade salt.

Use salt every batch. Most candy and pop-corn makers do not use enough


Different grades of molasses will give different flavors to the
product. “New Orleans” is good. After once adopting a grade be sure to
hold to it and not disturb your trade by radically changing the flavor
of your goods. Molasses is graded by its sugar content.


This does not receive the attention which it should.

You know that the chemical analysis of water from two local situations,
not to mention water from distant points, often varies widely.
Therefore, water certainly has considerable to do with the quality of
your candy.

Some manufacturers do not use water in their recipes because they say
it all has to be boiled out and that the chemical action is not good.

Cream of Tartar.

Cream of tartar is used to prevent the sugar returning to sugar or
graining, as it is called. A cream of tartar killed batch is short and


Soda used with molasses makes the candy a lighter color by generating
gas, which expands it.

Colors and Flavors.

The pure food law requirements must be followed and you can secure from
your supply dealer the right articles.


You may add your coloring to the batch in the kettle on the fire. Put
up in measured amounts beforehand just what you want to use in your
batches, then all batches will be alike.


Use the best. By putting it into small bottles, each containing enough
for a batch, your goods will all be alike.


There are several styles of raisins to be had; seeded and seedless, and
of course, several brands of each. Don’t consider using raisins with
seeds in them, as these will not please your trade. Try the different
kinds to be found in your local market.

Not enough raisins is better than too many.


Peanuts are to be preferred to other kinds of nuts for mixing with
pop-corn. Use the small, well-cleaned, roasted entire nuts with whole
or medium ground pop-corn. The small quantity of nuts will make the
separate pieces stand out and one poor nut spoils the appearance of the
cake and box. A bad nut will make a customer refuse your brand.

Peanuts broken up or ground to the size of half a pea is suggested as
one good way to use them.


Care must be exercised in the purchase of cocoanut to see that you are
getting quality. Cocoanut may be had either grated, shredded, thread
and sliced.


Use the bitter cake-chocolate and cut it up into small pieces.


Crispette wrapping paper is eleven inches long by twelve inches wide.
The best paper we know of for this purpose is a forty pound manila wax
paper, seventy sheets to the pound. Have it printed at the mill before
it is waxed, otherwise the printing will fade, or rub off. A good
method is to use a large type label to put inside to show through the
plain waxed paper.

Bricks are wrapped in wax paper, size 9 × 12 inches wide, and then a
blue paper band with your name upon it is put around to hold the wax
paper in place. The wax paper weighs one hundred and twenty-eight
sheets to the pound.

Bars are wrapped in wax paper measuring 7 × 16 inches. One hundred and
ninety sheets to the pound.

Layer paper, to be put into the boxes between unwrapped pop-corn, may
be had. Grade forty pound manila comes in sheets 24 × 36 inches, or cut
to the size you want. Twelve sheets 24 × 36 inches weigh one pound.
Write E. R. Knott Machine Co. for a list of Wax Paper Makers.


The size of your box must be determined by what you want to put in it.

Penny goods are packed 50, 72, 100, 144, etc., in a box; five-cent
package goods 20, 24, 50, 100 in a box.

Buy your boxes of some local supply.

If that is not possible, buy your boxes flat from the nearest
convenient maker and use a Corner Box Stitcher to put them together.

Boxes take up less storage space. You make them up as you need them.
Boxes are stronger. Other pop-corn manufacturers find this the best
way, so you should investigate the method.

Tin Cans.

Cans, with covers to keep out moisture or the cover put on with a
piece of wax paper under it, to exclude moisture, may be used to good
advantage by a retailer to protect his stock or by the manufacturer in
order to insure the keeping qualities of his corn in the retailer’s


Cases for shipping boxes of pop-corn may be made of corrugated paper or
fiber board. Use that which is the cheaper in your own locality.

Crates made of wood may be the best method for your shipping.

Put 10, 12, 20 or 24 boxes in a case or crate.

    [Illustration: Stock No. 2003-3 Popper]



POP-CORN must form the base of the confection; it is not a material
that can be added to a confection with any improving result.

The public when it buys a nut bar, wants a nut bar, and when it buys a
pop-corn bar, wants a pop-corn bar, and not a bar made up half and half.

In the use of cocoanut, raisins, or nuts in pop-corn, let the quantity
of these be very small in proportion to the pop-corn.

Sell your partly popped and unpopped kernels for chicken or pig feed at
one cent a pound. Do not harm your confectionery business by trying to
use them in that.

You can grind that product in your mill (Stock No. 2001) as fine as
coffee. Sell it as a breakfast food to be served with cream and sugar
or to be cooked and served like oatmeal. It will take more power to
grind it than it takes to grind pop-corn, so do not expect your popper
motor to do it.

An excellent breakfast dish is made by putting a little milk upon a
molasses fine pop-corn cake. Try it.

Grind sifted pop-corn to make your fine corn cakes, not the siftings.

If you desire to put up an extra fine grade of buttered pop-corn, or
pop-corn brittle, you may use a wire screen size one and one-third to
the inch and separate the largest popped kernels for these high-grade

You will find that a small amount of cocoanut will add to the quality
of pop-corn when made up in vanilla or molasses syrup in the form of
brittle or cakes.

Ground, shredded, thread or flaked cocoanut may be used to increase
variety and please various trade. In fact, all three styles of cocoanut
added to one style of pop-corn is a good thing.

The use of cocoanut in winter and in summer and its use in pop-corn
in different climates with the risk of its becoming rancid are to be

Fresh cocoanut will make a better tasting piece of confection, for it
gives a flavor all its own. You must cut it up, grate it and use it in
your confection on the same day in order to insure the quality of your
goods. If the cocoanut is enclosed in a coating of the candy it will
keep as well as the pop-corn.

Dried cocoanut will not become rancid, and will add to the quality of
your confection. You need not be afraid of its becoming rancid when you
do not get it completely incased with candy.

As to whether the cocoanut is ground, shredded or flaked, makes no
difference as far as its use is concerned, but it gives a different
flavor and appearance to the confection.

Butter should be cooked into the candy to get the best results.

Use a heaping tablespoonful of cream of tartar to ten pounds of sugar
to stop graining when you use no corn syrup. Cook it in the candy.

A little Konut cooked in the candy for coating whole pop-corn makes it
stir more easily. Use half as much as the recipe calls for butter.

Boiling or Cooking Syrup.

This is the most important operation. If you do it wrong nothing done
afterwards can correct it.

Boiling is to take out the water from your syrup.

The proportions of ingredients will affect the amount of boiling

The higher the altitude at which the boiling is done the lower is the
degree required to boil it, and the degree will vary to which the candy
must be cooked to have it harden in cold water.

You must cook your syrup higher in summer than in winter to attain the
same keeping qualities.

Sometimes it is advisable, especially in warm weather, to cook your
syrup high and then add molasses, which will set it back. Then boil to
your test.

Cooking your candy high may prevent you having time before it hardens
to get it well spread over the corn. At the same time you must carry
the various operations through as fast as possible so you may be able
to use high cooked candy.

Any time you let a batch cook too high you can set it back by adding a
little syrup or water.

The degree of cooking alone does not regulate the keeping. The
proportion of the materials also has to do with the keeping qualities.

If you are using too small a proportion of corn syrup to the sugar the
resulting candy will turn back to sugar, that is, it will grain just
the same, no matter to what degree you cook it, unless you use cream of

In some kinds of ground pop-corn penny goods, it is desirable to let
the candy grain in order to prevent stickiness. This is attained by the
use of a smaller proportion of corn syrup to sugar and by not letting
the goods cool off entirely before boxing. Boxing while warm induces

Candied pop-corn that it is intended should grain a little, may be kept
from sticking to the machines and tools by wiping them with a wet rag
or sponge. You can easily tell whether to use water or butter when the
other will not prevent sticking.

Grease is used in the candy to give the required elasticity and make it
less moisture attracting.

The coating of pop-corn with candy is done to keep the pop-corn from
absorbing moisture. Consequently the candy must be as moisture proof as
possible. And each kernel of pop-corn should be entirely enclosed in a
candy casing.

A recipe containing corn syrup and sugar may be boiled to a higher
degree than a recipe with molasses in it. Also a clear sugar batch may
be boiled to a higher degree than any other. It takes an expert to boil
sugar to 345 degrees over an open fire and not burn it. If you use a
lot of molasses you cannot boil high enough to prevent sticking and
spoiling. Use light molasses, New Orleans molasses. It costs more, but
gives quality.

Cooking to a high degree dries out the candy so that it attracts
moisture more unless other ingredients, such as grease, are put in to
counteract it.

Days when the air is heavy with moisture and the weather warm, it
is better not to make candy or make only what you cannot get along
without, for the reason that it becomes sticky so quickly that you
cannot wrap it before it is in condition to stick to the paper.

You see that you cannot be told just what proportions of materials,
cooked to a certain test, will result in a candy that will keep in your
territory. You must find that out for yourself. This book merely points
out the way.


When measuring pop-corn for these recipes a peck is a heaping peck

=1. Buttered Pop-Corn.=

Put one pound of best creamery butter into the pop-corn kettle (No.
2004-2) and set it on the stove. Melt and boil the butter. Considerable
steam will rise from it. When that steam has cleared away, which will
be in a very short time, the butter is boiled enough. Take the kettle
off the fire, set it on top of a barrel, and stir in a handful of salt.
Dump two pecks of whole pop-corn into the kettle. Mix it by a motion
of stirring and lifting the paddle (No. 2006-1) up through it. After
thoroughly mixing, bag from the kettle or put the corn in a water
jacketed buttered corn tank (No. 2019-1) from which it is sold hot.
After a batch or two you can make the proportions to suit your trade.
This article should be made fresh and sold retail at five cents for a ½
pound bag holding a pint. Use Knott’s Pop-Corn Mixing Machine and put
in four pecks of pop-corn to one pound of butter.

Never sell buttered corn made the day before. It will drive trade away.

=2. Sugared Pop-Corn.=

This is made in three flavors and put up in seven different styles. It
is sold extensively in Philadelphia and that section of the country. It
is generally made in three colors and flavors. Chocolate, white with
vanilla flavor, and pink with wintergreen flavor. Other flavors may be
made with colors to correspond, such as orange, lemon and sassafras.
When put into ¼-pound glacine bags to sell for five cents, or when put
into gelatine-covered boxes, so the corn will be protected but still
visible, you can have it in single flavors or any desired combinations.

Here is the way to make it:

Put in your kettle (No. 2004-2) on the stove (Stock No. 113) 25 pounds
sugar (12½ quarts), 2½ pounds corn syrup (1¼ quarts), 3 quarts water.
Bring to a boil and pour into syrup stock tank (Stock No. 2013-1).
Put in kettle on fire 2 quarts syrup and ½ ounce butter. Boil until
it hardens in cold water; set kettle on Mixing Machine; add a little
vanilla for flavor. Dump in one peck of whole pop-corn; stir until it
separates; add your chocolate or color over the fire and add the flavor
after the kettle is set on the stirring stand.

=3. Brittle.=

This may be made in different flavors and colors: chocolate, vanilla,
wintergreen, molasses, etc.

Use soda only in molasses brittle. The most common is molasses brittle
with cocoanut.

Place your kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) on the stove with 48 pounds sugar
(24 quarts), 18 pounds corn syrup (9 quarts), 2 gallons water (8
quarts), 1 quart molasses. Bring to a boil and pour into syrup stock
tank (Stock No. 2013-1).

Put in kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) 3 quarts syrup and ¾ pound butter and
heaping teaspoonful salt. Boil 320 degrees. Before entirely cooked put
in half a pound of long thread cocoanut.

Set the kettle on the Mixing Machine and stir in a heaping teaspoonful
of baking soda. Dump in two pecks of whole pop-corn. Stir well. Dump on
table while hot and spread out in open thin style to cool.

Put up in ½-pound, 1-pound bags, 5-pound, 10-pound boxes, or in barrels.

=4. Crispettes or Molasses Round Whole Pop-Corn Cakes or Fritters.=

=Recipe A.=

Place in your kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) 48 pounds sugar (24 quarts), 16
pounds corn syrup (8 quarts), 2 handfuls of salt (¼ quart), 2 gallons
of water (8 quarts), 2 quarts of molasses. Bring to a boil and pour
into syrup stock tank (Stock No. 2013-1).

Put in your kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) 1 quart of syrup, Konut half
size of a hen’s egg (Konut is a butter substitute) and butter size of
a large hen’s egg. Boil to 300 degrees. Set kettle on Mixing Machine.
Dump in two pecks of whole pop-corn. Stir thoroughly.

Scoop out onto crispette mould and proceed as instructed, page 31.

=Recipe B.=

Put into the kettle 18 pounds corn syrup (9 quarts), 1 gallon molasses
(4 quarts), 1 gallon water (4 quarts), 4 pounds butter, 4 pounds
parasub (a butter substitute), 10 pounds “C” (a grade of brown) sugar.
Bring to a boil. Melt in 40 pounds white sugar. Pour this in syrup
stock tank. Letting this syrup stand over night seems to season it so
it uses better.

Put in the kettle 1 quart of syrup. Boil to 300 degrees. Drop in a
tablespoonful of salt just as you take the kettle off the fire. Put
kettle on Mixing Machine. Dump in two pecks of whole pop-corn. Stir

Scoop out onto crispette moulds and proceed as instructed, page 31.

The maker of this recipe claims that cooking the salt in the batch
makes the candy sticky.

=Recipe C.= (With soda.)

Put in kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) 75 pounds (37½ quarts) sugar, 25
pounds (12½ quarts) corn syrup. Bring to a boil and pour into syrup
stock tank (Stock No. 2013-1.)

Take ¾ quarts of stock in kettle on fire. Add ¼ quart molasses, ¼ pound
Konut, parasub or other good butter substitute. Put in ⅛ pound butter
and a tablespoonful of salt. Boil to 285 degrees. Set kettle on Mixing
Machine and put in pinch of soda. Dump in one peck of sifted whole
pop-corn. Stir thoroughly and quickly. Scoop out to fill crispette
moulds or dump batch on three pans and proceed as instructed on page 30.

=Recipe D.= (With cream of tartar.)

Put in kettle (Stock No. 2004-2) 60 pounds sugar (30 quarts), 2 gallons
water (8 quarts). Bring to a boil and pour into syrup tank (Stock No.

Put in kettle on fire 1 quart stock, ⅛ quart molasses, ¼ pound butter,
1 even teaspoonful cream of tartar. Boil until hard in cold water.
Set kettle on Mixing Machine. Dump in two pecks whole pop-corn. Stir
thoroughly and quickly; dump while hot on pans or fill moulds.

=5. Whole Pop-Corn.=

This may be made up in round sticks, bars, bricks, blocks, round cakes
and balls, any shape. Many flavors and colors may be used. The white
pop-corn yields well to using colors to represent various flavors.

Chocolate is its own color. Use pink color with wintergreen flavor,
vanilla with the natural white color of the pop-corn, molasses is its
own color, orange color with the orange flavor, etc. These five colors,
each in eight shapes, give forty varieties of pop-corn packages.

Use 60 pounds sugar (30 quarts), 40 pounds corn syrup (20 quarts), 2
gallons water (8 quarts). Bring to a boil and pour into syrup stock
tank (Stock No. 2013-1). Put in your kettle 1½ quarts of this stock.
The color, or chocolate, you may put in the batch on the fire, the
flavor (wintergreen, orange, vanilla, etc.) you must add to the batch
when you take the kettle off the fire, otherwise the flavor will boil
away. Add chocolate just before you take kettle off the fire. Put in
a teaspoonful of salt and a piece of butter size of half an egg. Boil
to 286 degrees. Take kettle off fire and set on Mixing Machine; add
flavor. Dump in one peck of sifted whole pop-corn and stir thoroughly.
Fill crispette moulds or dump on pans and proceed as instructed, page

Remember that a handful of fresh ground flaked or shredded cocoanut
adds a variety to the goods; also raisins and peanuts. Add these at the
time you set the kettle off the fire onto the stirring stand. These
increase the number of styles under this recipe over two hundred and

=6. Fine Pop-Corn.=

Follow the foregoing recipe for making fine or medium ground pop-corn

=7. Pop-Corn Sandwiches.=

Make pop-corn in sheets three-eighths or one-half inches thick.
Between two sheets put peanut butter, whole peanuts, raisins, etc. The
particular likes of your neighborhood may be catered to by the filling
you put into these sandwiches. You can cut them into various sizes,
even as small as a caramel if you wish.

=8. Pop-Corn Bricks.=

Make five batches: first, molasses; second, vanilla; third, chocolate;
fourth, wintergreen; fifth, molasses. Fine pop-corn. Each batch is
panned, pressed one inch thick and cut up in rack; make as many piles
as you run pans; place the vanilla on top of the molasses. The cutting
rack has a beveled edge so that it will easily slip over the previous
sheet to register the cut cakes one on top of the other. When the five
sheets are piled you can easily separate the bricks for wrapping. Use
Knott’s Brick and Bar Cutting Machine, it does the best work.

    Oh! What to Do When Materials Cannot Be Had.

Sugar in the shape of the good old white granulated sugar is not in
sight sometimes (as in 1919, or in the year 1917 all through the
Eastern States).

Consider brown sugar. Remember that brown sugar is not to be used
in white goods. It can be used in place of combined white sugar and
molasses; weight of brown sugar for weight of white sugar, plus
molasses, with nearly same results. There are several grades of brown
sugar and the price increases as the grade improves. If you use brown
sugar, where formerly you used white, reduce by from 10 to 20 per cent.
the quantity of corn syrup to a batch.

    No Sugar of Any Kind to Be Had?

Then get some grape or corn sugar. You will have to work out new
formulas, yes; but that is oftentimes better than going out of business.

Corn syrup? Yes, even get along without it. Before corn syrup was on
the market cream of tartar was used to cut the grain of sugar.

It needs more accurate handling of the batch and requires working with
cleaner kettles than is required with corn syrup. Try using an invert
sugar, or corn sugar. Water will cut the grain in sugar if enough is

Without cane sugar and without corn syrup, how is pop-corn to be made?
Do not forget there is honey, corn, or grape sugar, maple sugar,
molasses and sugar substitutes on the market. Molasses alone cooked as
high as it will go without burning will make a good winter corn cake.
Honey is a very fine flavor and of high sugar content.

Pop-corn cakes can be made, even without sugar or corn syrup and be
mighty nice in flavor and wholesome. When you do not get sugar, others
do not have it and if you can deliver goods, you make the price to
cover any increase in cost of materials.



BE afraid to have accounts receivable as well as accounts payable.
Well-made pop-corn keeps about as well as crackers. You can, therefore,
follow the cracker manufacturers’ distribution methods somewhat, the
taking of orders and delivery by wagon to retail stores, the packing in
tin cans, the wrapping in wax paper sealed packages, etc.

You must depend on the consumer to keep your factory in operation, so
always let the consumer take up most of your mind.

The methods used in getting your goods to the consumer will be chosen
according to where the consumers you want to serve are located.

    Mail Order.

You have the mail order method which will enable you to reach a large
market. You get the retail price for your goods, you can do your
business where rents are low, you can get the goods to the customer
fresh. However, you must secure a way of getting orders that will not
take all the profit. The package to insure delivery of the pop-corn in
perfect, wholesome condition must not be unreasonable as to its cost.


You may sell at retail over a store counter. Your sales in this case
depend on your location and your advertising to draw trade to the
store. Best locations in cities require the payment of big rent, which
pop-corn will not warrant. A good location in a center of population
at a fair rent, then advertising to your prospective customers with
samples is the best, but be sure your advertising is consistent with
your prospects. Now, in addition to this, send out pedlers on a
commission basis. Have your goods on sale at the moving-picture theatre
entrances, at the band concerts, at the ball games, at every picnic. In
fact, every time a crowd collects have your goods sold. When displaying
goods on counter, or when using cans or boxes to store the goods, be
sure the oldest goods are at the top of the can, or at the top of the
pile on the counter so that those will be sold first. Use tins to keep
pop-corn in; it keeps better.


Remember the consumer must get your goods under your trade-mark when
they are fit, to make him want more.

Besides making your goods so they will keep as long as possible, and
packing them so as to exclude dampness, you should endeavor to know
about the goods in the dealers’ hands so that the consumer may buy
nothing stale.

Seldom is it advisable to sell pop-corn through jobbers because they
merely provide another shelf for the goods to grow old on. Therefore,
sell to the retailer and follow him up every few days.

If a retailer does not sell a particular kind of pop-corn you have
sold him, take it back and give him another to try. If that does not
go, try another. His trade will like some kind of pop-corn. When you
have found the right kind, you have a steady customer adding to your
sales. Possibly his trade wants penny pieces, perhaps package goods;
five-cent, ten-cent, pound. Instead of one for a cent cake, maybe
there is sale for the same goods in smaller, two for a cent cakes.
Possibly raisins or nuts or cocoanut and pop-corn may be preferred. An
examination of his class of customers will help decide.

Include in the box of goods a small, neat price sign. If package goods,
include one glass-covered package for display. All these selling helps
work to your benefit.

Follow the experience of cracker, breakfast food and other
manufacturers. Advertise through window displays in prominent
locations, and give away samples. Furnish show-cases, shelves, racks,
counter displays, etc. Get your goods up, on top, in front, where the
public, the consumers, must see. Get samples into their mouths so they
may get a taste.

If you must sell through jobbers, number your packages. Keep a record
of the numbers on your shipping orders. Plainly print on your package
something like this: “To insure the public receiving our goods in
wholesome condition this number 2746 is on our shipping record. If you
receive this package in unfit condition, send it to us and you get
right back two fresh from our packing table. Only by satisfying the
public do we expect to have our business prosper.”

By shipping in tin cans, or waxed paper sealed packages, you increase
the keeping life of your goods.



This should be your association. Do you belong?


To advance the standard of confectionery in all practicable ways, and
to absolutely prevent adulterations.

To promote the common business interests and to establish and maintain
more intimate relations between its members.

To take united action upon all matters affecting the welfare of the

To promote uniformity between such National and State Laws and
Municipal Ordinances and Rules, Regulations and Standards governing
their enforcement as shall affect the industry.

To promote, in all practicable ways, sanitary conditions in the
manufacture and sale of confectionery and kindred products.


All manufacturing confectioners, all manufacturers of chocolate,
licorice, confections, pop-corn confectionery and chewing gum, of
reputable mercantile standing, selling to the wholesale trade, shall be
eligible to active membership.

     70 members 1884.
    863 members 1919.

General service rendered to the membership by the association is varied
and a great credit to it.

The departments maintained by the association and the sources of
information always available to members are the following:

    Chemistry Department.
    Sanitary Department.
    Legal Department.
    Traffic Department.
    Publicity Department.
    Trade-mark Department.

Circulars are issued from time to time by all of these departments
containing valuable information. Circulars containing information of a
general character are also issued from time to time by the Executive



YOUR costs are made up of three classes of items: Labor of making;
material they are made of; the container they are sold in. The other
expenses of the doing of business are the “overhead,” so called.

To arrive at the cost of goods by the box and to know what profit you
ought to expect, should be your first endeavor.

Selling is ninety per cent. of any business. To make sales enough
to keep your plant going to its full capacity and be able to refuse
undesirable business should be your constant aim. Then and only then
are you making the greatest profit possible from your investment.

Your labor cost of making any piece of goods is easily figured. If a
man, a boy and a girl turn out one hundred boxes in a day, the sum of
the wages you pay them divided by one hundred gives the labor cost per

The material cost per box is easily found by finding how much raw corn
it takes to give you pop-corn for a batch. Figure its cost. The candy
and other materials you mix with a batch cost you a certain amount.
Divide the sum of these by the number of boxes you get from a batch and
add the cost of paper, string and box, then you have the material cost.

“Overhead” contains a large number of items and is the class of
costs that is the worst to figure. It contains rent, heat, light,
power, shipping, freight, express, cartage, advertising, printing,
postage, stationery, insurance, taxes, repairs, depreciation, and all
non-productive labor, such as sweeping out shop, bookkeeping, managing,
etc. You must take these, figure the total for a week or a month,
divide by the number of working days in the week or month, then divide
by one hundred, the number of boxes made in a day. Then you have the
“overhead” cost per box.

Add together the “overhead,” material and labor cost per box and you
have the total cost per box if you are running your shop to capacity on
that piece. Remember, in figuring your selling price and profit that
making several kinds in a day increases the cost per box because of the
time and labor lost in getting ready, and remember that some dull days
will come when your “overhead” continues on just the same, but you have
less boxes of goods to carry it.

Before you turn a wheel you should estimate your “overhead” expenses,
and then watch them close to see that you do not increase them.

The manufacturing retailer receives one hundred cents of the consumers’
dollar. The wholesale manufacturer must sell to the retailer at a price
at which the retailer can make a profit.

A wholesaler gets from sixty to seventy-five cents from the retailer
for goods sold by the retailer at one dollar.

Some goods are sold for less but only at a reduced quality, or the loss
of part of the legitimate profit.

When you put in new machinery that cuts cost you keep the saving in
your own business. Talk quality, maintain the selling price and put
part of your saving into selling endeavor to increase your business and
the other part into a bank account. Cutting prices pays no one a profit.

You ask how much profit there is in pop-corn?

You know of fortunes made in pop-corn; some from buttered pop-corn;
some from sugared pop-corn. Some from pop-corn cakes that sell for a
cent, some from pop-corn packages that sell for five cents. In one case
the goods were sold all retail, in another at wholesale. In one case a
local business, in another nation-wide business.

What is profit? Net profit is the return over and above all expenses.
Gross profit is the return over the cost of simply making the goods.

What is cost? Prime cost, which is the material plus the actual labor
of making, or it may be the total cost with all the expenses of doing
business added.

You might make a gross profit of two hundred per cent. of your prime
cost, which might be sixty per cent. of your sales and then you might
make twenty per cent. net profit on your sales, or sixty per cent.
net profit on your prime cost. But it is possible to come out with no
net profit in the end. In other words you must understand that the
part of the cost that will determine your profit is what is called the
“overhead,” meaning what is termed the operating expenses, something
that is up to you and you alone.

To prevent errors you should figure your profit percentage on your
selling price, because the sales figures are always handy to get at.

Thus if you find the gross cost of a box of pop-corn to be twenty-five
cents and you sell it for fifty cents, your twenty-five cents profit is
fifty per cent, of your sales.

A small net profit and turning your money over often will amount up big
in the run of a year.

If you make a net profit of twenty per cent. and turn your money over
twelve times a year you are making two hundred and forty per cent. upon
your working capital.

Returning to your question: “What profit is there in pop-corn?”

                                       Prime   Gross  Per Cent. Per Cent.
                     Selling Price     Cost    Profit   Sales    of Cost
 Salted Pop-corn      5c per bag        1 cts.  4 cts.    80        400
 Buttered Pop-corn    5c per bag        2  “    3  “      60        150
 Sugared Pop-corn     5c per small bag  1  “    4  “      80        400
 Pop-corn Brittle    50c per pound     20  “   30  “      60        150
 Pop-corn Bar        10c each           2  “    8  “      80        400
 Pop-corn Brick       5c per package    1½ “    3½ “      70        233
 Pop-corn Crispette   5c per package    1  “    4  “      80        400

Your costs will perhaps show some variation from these figures, for it
is not to be expected that costs will be the same everywhere.

The costs here given are figured from the formulas in this book using
the machinery herein described. They are not the lowest at which the
goods can be produced, and of course, you see that they contain no
“Overhead” and therefore are gross and not net profit.

No two men running business under identical conditions will have the
same prime cost, gross cost, or gross profit, but they may come out
with an equal net profit.

The only thing by which you can judge the future is the past. All
information and figures in this book are from records compiled from
years of experience and practice.


Every machine has grease cups, oil cups, or oil holes, and the
directions with each machine call attention to the particular places,
if any, that require particular attention.

Machine makers find ninety per cent. of customers’ troubles are
directly traceable to lack of attention of cleaning and oiling. Why is
it you expect a machine to oil itself and keep the dirt out of its way?
Dry bearings wear fast and once you let them get real dry and start to
cut, then oil will not bring them back, and sometimes does not stop the
cutting. You know dry bearings require more power to drive them.

Some of you clean your machines but you do not oil them enough. Again
you oil them without cleaning them.

One belt dressing I have found and used in my shop that keeps the belts
always in condition to pull the load. I use no soap or other emergency
so-called belt dressing; no use for it. This belt dressing is put on
once in three to six months. That is efficiency, a saving of time and

I would like an opportunity to show you real power plant efficient
management. I know of one where even the eight elevators automatically
indicate in the office on a time clock. Red tape? No, sir. It is a
check on the elevator boys and the watchman, and is an automatic record
of breakdowns. You see each elevator is in a separate part of the
building from the others. That indicator cannot misrepresent.

    [Illustration: 101. Twist End Wrapping Machine]

    [Illustration: 102. Stick Spinning Machine]

    [Illustration: 103. Kiss Sizer Cutter]

    [Illustration: 108. Potato Slicing Machine Continuous Feed]

    [Illustration: 116. Knott’s Candy Cooler is a Fast Cooler]


Write us about your requirements. If we do not have it, we can tell you
where to go for it.

    [Illustration: ‡Company Logo



 Advertise, 54.
 Agricultural Department, Bulletins, 6.
 Arranging Machines, 6, 7, 8, 15, 16.
 Association, National Confectioners’, 55.


 Balls, 39.
 Barrels, 16.
 Bench, 15.
 Boiling, 14, 48.
 Boxes, 45.
 Breakfast Food, 47, 54.
 Bricks and Bars, 8, 9, 10, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37.
 Brittle, Pop-Corn, 49.
 Brittle Bitts, 39, 40.
 Bulletins, 6.
 Butter, 43.
 Butter Substitutes, 43.
 Buttered Pop-Corn, 49.
 Buttered Pop-Corn Tank, 41.


 Candy Machines, 59.
 Cans, 46.
 Cases and Crates, 46.
 Charts, 8, 9, 10.
 Chocolate, 45.
 Cocoanut, 45.
 Colors, 44.
 Consumers, 53, 56.
 Costs, 56.
 Cover for Kettle, 27.
 Cream of Tartar, 44.
 Crispettes, 31, 50.
 Crispette Machine, 31, 38.
 Cutting, 34, 35, 36.
 Cutting Machine, 35, 36, 37, 59.
 Cutting Pack, 34, 35, 36, 37.


 Distribution, 53.
 Dumping Batch, 30.


 Ear, 6.
 Expenses, 56.


 Flavors, 44.
 Fire, 16, 18.
 Food Value, 6, 7.
 Fritters, 31, 38, 50.


 Gas Fuel, 17.
 Gasoline Fuel, 17.
 Grinder, 21, 22, 23, 24.
 Ground Pop-Corn, 51.


 Home, Pop-Corn in The, 6.
 Hopper for Mill, 24.


 Jobbers, 53, 54.


 Keeping Quality, 44.
 Kettle, 11, 12, 13, 14, 26, 30.
 Knife, 41.


 Labor, 56.
 Lubrication, 58.


 Mail Orders, 53.
 Measures, 25.
 Mill Stand, 15.
 Mixing, 11, 12, 13, 27, 28, 29.
 Molasses, 44.
 Motors, Electric, 16, 42.


 National Confectioners’ Association, 55.
 Nuts, 45.


 Oiling, 58.
 Overhead, 56.


 Paddle, 41.
 Panning, 30.
 Pans, 30, 31, 39.
 Paper, 45.
 Peanuts, 18.
 Penny Goods, 45, 51, 53.
 Popped Corn, 6, 17.
 Popping Machine, 15, 16, 19, 46.
 Popping Machine Stand, 16.
 Popping of Corn, 6, 7.
 Potato Slicer, 59.
 Press, 31, 32, 33, 34.
 Pressing, 31, 34.
 Prices, 56, 57.
 Process, 8, 9, 10, 11.
 Profit, 56.


 Quality, 44.


 Raisins, 44.
 Raw Grain, 6, 7, 43.
 Raw Materials, 43.
 Recipes and Formulas, 47, 49.
 Retail, 53.
 Round Cakes, 31, 38, 50.


 Salt, 44.
 Sandwiches, 51.
 Self Filling Machine, 38.
 Sifter, 16, 20.
 Soda, 44.
 Square Cakes, 8, 9, 30, 37.
 Stirring Pop-Corn, 11, 12, 13, 27, 28, 29.
 Stirring Stand, 15, 27.
 Stock Tanks, 25.
 Stock Tank Stand, 15, 25.
 Stove, 25.
 Sugar, 52.
 Sugared Pop-Corn, 49.
 Syrup, Corn, 43.
 Syrup, Stock, 25, 48.


 Thermometer, 25, 26.
 Transfer Racks, 35, 36.
 Two Way Cutting Machines, 37.


 Unpopped Kernels, 16, 18, 20, 47.


 Water, 44.
 Weight of Raw Corn, 7.
 Wholesale, 53.
 Wrapping Machine, 31, 59.


Some illustrations have been moved closer to relevant text, and some
section headings have been moved closer to the top of the relevant

The symbol ‡ denotes an illustration description that is not part of the
original work.

The following amendments have been made to tables, for legibility on
electronic devices:

    1. Page 10: the column headings in the table have been replaced by
                    letters and a key provided.
    2. Pages 23, 24, 29, 33, 36, 37: the small tables have been
                    transposed from horizontal to vertical layout.

The following further changes have been made to the text as printed:

    1. Page 10 (Key, Item E): Paddle No. 1006-1 changed to
                    Paddle No. 2006-1
    2. Page 14: 'must be at a high tempreature' changed to
                    ' ... temperature'
    3. Page 17: 'neither does if' changed to 'neither does it'
    4. Page 23 (table): The 'Throat' measurements have been shown
                    as inches (″)
    5. Page 24: 'No. 2016-6, or No. 2006-11' changed to ' ... or
                    No. 2016-11'
    6. Page 24: 'Stock No. 109-4 Knitt’s' changed to ' ... Knott’s'
    7. Page 24 (table): The 'Pulley' measurements have been shown
                    as inches (″)
    8. Page 24: 'Stock No. 2016-1, or No. 2106-2' changed to ' ... or
                    No. 2016-2'
    9. Page 26: 'so called “ragging off the paddle”' changed to
                    'so-called ...'
   10. Page 30: 'in making square corn-cakes' changed to
                    '... corn cakes'
   11. Page 32: 'made with small cap screws' changed to
                    '... cap-screws'
   12. Page 34: 'Twofors' changed to 'Two-fers' (two occurrences in
                    stock list)
   13. Page 37: 'Stock No. 2007-2-inch pans' changed to
                    'Stock No. 2007-2 12-inch pans'
   14. Page 40: 'Stock No. 1007-1' and 'Stock No. 1007-3' changed to
                    'Stock No. 2007-1' and 'Stock No. 2007-3'
   15. Page 43: period inserted after 'with your syrup'
   16. Page 45: 'a forty pound manilla wax paper' changed to
                    '... manila ...' in line with
                    'Grade forty pound manila' on same page
   17. Page 45: 'Boxes stronger.' changed to 'Boxes are stronger.'
   18. Page 49: comma inserted after 'corn syrup (1¼ quarts)'
   19. Page 50 (Recipe A): period changed to comma following 'Put in
                    your kettle ... 1 quart of syrup'
   20. Page 51: 'Put in teaspoonful of salt' changed to 'Put in a ...'
   21. Page 57: 'your your selling price' changed to
                    'your selling price'

The following anomalies in the printed text are noted, but no change has
been made:

    1. Page  7: 'proteid' is an earlier spelling of the word 'protein'
    2. Page 49 (Recipe 2): 'glacine' is more commonly spelt 'glassine'
                    (a type of wrapping paper).

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