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Title: The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Vol. 06 [of 13]
 - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the houses of Orleans and Burgundy, of the possession of Paris and Normandy by the English, their expulsion thence, and of other memorable events that happened in the kingdom of France, as well as in other countries
Author: Monstrelet, Enguerrand de
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Vol. 06 [of 13]
 - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the houses of Orleans and Burgundy, of the possession of Paris and Normandy by the English, their expulsion thence, and of other memorable events that happened in the kingdom of France, as well as in other countries" ***

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MONSTRELET, VOL. 06 [OF 13] ***





 _H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London_














 _Beginning at the Year_ MCCCC. _where that of Sir JOHN
 FROISSART finishes, and ending  at the Year_ MCCCCLXVII. _and
 continued by others to the Year_ MDXVI.











  CHAP. I.

  Charles VI. king of France, dies in his hôtel
  of St Pol, and is interred at Saint Denis
  with his ancestors                                          1


  Information of the death of king Charles
  the well-beloved is carried to his only son
  Charles the dauphin. Other matters                          8


  Charles the dauphin is crowned king of
  France, in consequence of his father's
  death                                                      11


  The Parisians send an embassy to England, to
  young king Henry and to his ministers.
  Other matters                                              13

  CHAP. V.

  The captains of king Charles assemble in
  great numbers to raise the siege of Meulan.
  The duke of Bedford treats with
  the garrison                                               17


  A copy of the treaty of Meulan                             19


  The French take the fortress of Dommart in
  Ponthieu by scalado. And many other
  events                                                     24


  The dukes of Bedford, Burgundy and
  Brittany, meet at Amiens, and form a
  triple alliance                                            29


  Poton de Saintrailles and Lyonnel de Wandonne
  perform a combat at arms at Arras,
  in the presence of the duke of Burgundy                    35

  CHAP. X.

  The earl of Salisbury besieges the castle of
  Mont-Aquilon, which surrenders to him.
  Other matters                                              39


  King Charles of France has the town of
  Crevant besieged by the constable of
  Scotland and the count de Ventadour                        43


  Many events briefly spoken of                              51


  Sir James de Harcourt holds a conference
  with sir Raoul le Bouteiller for the surrender
  of Crotoy                                                  55


  Several events briefly touched upon                        62


  The town of Compiègne is delivered up to
  the English. The town and castle of
  Crotoy are surrendered to the duke of
  Bedford                                                    69


  Two masters of arts are sent to Tournay to
  admonish the people, and to keep alive
  their affection to king Charles                            73


  Sir John de Luxembourg besieges the castle
  of Wiege. He lays an ambush, in which
  Poton de Saintrailles and his companions
  are made prisoners                                         76


  A large body of English arrive at Calais.
  Sir John de Luxembourg besieges the
  town of Guise. Other matters briefly
  spoken of                                                  78


  The lord de Longueval and many other
  French lords turn to the party of king
  Charles                                                    83


  The duke of Bedford marches a large army
  to keep his appointment before Ivry.
  That town and castle surrender to him                      86


  The duke of Bedford combats the French
  before Verneuil                                            90


  The inhabitants of Tournay rebel against
  their magistrates                                          97


  The garrison of Guise capitulate to sir John
  de Luxembourg and sir Thomas Rampstone                     98


  The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy
  endeavour to make up the quarrel between
  the dukes of Glocester and of
  Brabant                                                   109


  The duke and duchess of Glocester leave
  Calais for Hainault, to receive the allegiance
  of the principal towns of that
  country. The duke of Burgundy makes
  preparations to aid his cousin the duke of
  Brabant                                                   113


  The duke of Glocester sends a letter to the
  duke of Burgundy. A copy thereof                          117


  Copy of the answer of the duke of Burgundy
  to, the letter from the duke of
  Glocester                                                 122


  Copy of the second letter sent by the duke
  of Glocester to the duke of Burgundy                      128


  The duke of Burgundy returns to Flanders,
  whence he sends his answer to the duke
  of Glocester's letter. A copy thereof                     132


  The town of Braine in Hainault taken and
  destroyed by the allies of the duke of
  Brabant                                                   136


  Pope Martin sends his bull to duke John of
  Brabant. Its contents                                     144


  After the departure of the duke of Glocester,
  a war takes place in Hainault. The
  duchess Jacquiline writes to the duke of
  Glocester for assistance. The contents
  of her letter                                             146


  The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy
  meet in the town of Dourlens. Other
  matters                                                   156


  The sultan of Egypt and Saracens determine
  to conquer the whole kingdom of Cyprus                    159


  The duke of Burgundy makes great preparations
  to combat the duke of Glocester.
  Other matters                                             162


  The duchess Jacqueline of Bavaria escapes
  in disguise from Ghent, and goes to
  Holland                                                   166


  The duke of Bedford prevents the combat
  between the dukes of Burgundy and
  Glocester. Other events                                   168


  The lord Fitzwalter arrives in Holland to
  the aid of the duchess Jacquiline                         172


  The duke of Burgundy returns to Holland,
  and besieges the town of Zeneuberche,
  which surrenders to him. Other matters                    178


  The Saracens return to Cyprus. A battle
  between them and the Cypriots, in which
  the king is made prisoner, and carried to
  the sultan                                                181


  The castle of Moyennes in Champagne surprised
  by the French. The pope gives
  sentence in favour of the duke of Brabant.
  The fortress of Oripecte in Provence
  won by treachery                                          196


  The duke of Bedford lays siege to Montargis.
  The siege is raised by the French.
  Other events briefly touched on                           199


  The castle of Malmaison, belonging to the
  bishop of Cambray, is taken by sir John
  Blondel. Other events                                     205


  Sir John Blondel surrenders the castle of
  Malmaison, which he had taken from the
  bishop of Cambray                                         208


  The duke of Burgundy returns to Holland,
  and attacks the town of Hermontfort.
  Other events                                              211


  The sultan of Babylon writes letters to the
  princes in Christendom. The tenour of
  these letters                                             214


  The English invade Brittany, where they do
  great damages. Other matters                              216


  Sir John de Luxembourg besieges Beaumont
  in Argonne                                                224


  A treaty concluded between the duke of
  Burgundy and the duchess Jacquiline,
  which ends the war in Holland. The
  contents of this treaty.                                  226

  CHAP. L.

  The earl of Salisbury arrives in France with
  great reinforcements to the duke of Bedford.
  The duke of Burgundy escorts
  the duchess Jacquiline into Hainault                      228


  The townsmen of Tournay again rebel                       231


  The earl of Salisbury conquers Gergeau and
  other places near Orleans. The duke of
  Bedford wants to lay hands on the revenues
  of the church                                             232


  The earl of Salisbury lays siege to the town
  of Orleans. He is there slain                             234


  A preacher called friar Thomas, converts
  many persons, and inveighs against the
  extravagant dresses of the women, in
  different places                                          239


  A grand tournament in the city of Brussels                244


  The count de Namur dies, and makes the
  duke of Burgundy his heir                                 246


  The English, marching to reinforce the
  siege of Orleans, are met and attacked by
  the French                                                249


  A maiden, named Joan, waits on king
  Charles at Chinon, where he resided.
  The king retains her in his service                       254


  Ambassadors are sent by king Charles, and
  the burghers of Orleans, to Paris, to negotiate
  a treaty with the regent, that
  the town of Orleans may remain in
  peace                                                     257


  The maid with many noble French captains
  of great renown reinforce and revictual
  the town of Orleans, and afterward raise
  the siege                                                 260


  The king of France, at the requests of the
  maid Joan and the noble captains in Orleans,
  sends them a large reinforcement
  of men at arms to pursue his enemies                      265


  The maid Joan, with the constable of France,
  the duke d'Alençon, and their men, conquer
  the town of Gergeau. The battle
  of Pataye, when the French defeat the
  English                                                   268


  The duke of Burgundy, at the request of
  the duke of Bedford, comes to Paris,
  when they renew their alliances                           276


  King Charles of France takes the field with
  a numerous body of chivalry and men
  at arms. Many towns and castles submit
  to him on his march                                       280


  King Charles of France with a noble chivalry
  and a numerous body of men at arms,
  arrives at Rheims, where he is crowned
  by the archbishop of Rheims                               283


  The duke of Bedford assembles a large army
  to combat king Charles. He sends a
  letter to the king                                        287


  The armies of Charles king of France and
  of the regent duke of Bedford meet near
  to Mont Epiloy                                            292


  King Charles of France sends ambassadors
  to the duke of Burgundy at Arras                          296


  The lord de Longueval conquers the castle
  of Aumale from the English                                299


  The town of Compiègne surrenders to the
  French. The return of the French embassy
  which had been sent to the duke of
  Burgundy                                                  301


  The king of France makes an attack on the
  city of Paris                                             303


  The duke of Burgundy sends ambassadors
  to Amiens, to keep up his interest with
  the inhabitants                                           307


  Charles king of France returns to Touraine
  and Berry                                                 309


  Duke Philip of Burgundy conducts his sister
  back to Paris, in great pomp to her lord
  the duke of Bedford                                       310


  The French and Burgundians attack each
  other, notwithstanding the truce                          315


  The lord de Saveuses and the bastard de St
  Pol are made prisoners by the French,
  near to Paris. A party of French gain the
  town of St Denis by scalado                               318


  The English make many conquests                           321


  The duke of Burgundy marries, for the
  third time, the lady Isabella, daughter to
  the king of Portugal                                      325


  Estienne de Vignolles, surnamed La Hire,
  surprises and takes the town of Louviers,
  in Normandy                                               327


  The duke of Burgundy institutes, this year,
  the order of the golden fleece                            328


  The lord de Crevecoeur and sir Robert de
  Saveuses are attacked by the French on
  their march to Clermont in the Beauvoisis                 331


  Five Frenchmen combat five Burgundians at
  Arras, and other matters                                  332


  The duke of Burgundy quarters his army at
  Gournay sur Aronde                                        336


  The duke of Burgundy lays siege to the
  castle of Choisy, which he conquers in a
  few days                                                  339


  Joan the maid overthrows Franquet d'Arras,
  and has his head cut off                                  342


  Réné duke of Bar lays siege to Chappes,
  near to Troyes in Champagne                               343


  The maid is taken prisoner by the Burgundians
  before Compiègne                                          345


  Young king Henry of England disembarks
  at Calais and comes to France                             348


  After the capture of the maid, the duke of
  Burgundy encamps his army before Compiègne                349


  The Liegeois raise a large army, and invade
  the country of Namur                                      352


  The duke of Burgundy sends the lord de
  Croy to the county of Namur against the
  Liegeois                                                  355


  The earl of Huntingdon comes to the aid of
  the duke of Burgundy before Compiègne                     357


  An adventurer named Toumelaire, with
  some of the townsmen of Rheims, lays
  siege to the castle of Champigneux                        361


  The death of Philip duke of Brabant. The
  duke of Burgundy takes possession of his
  duchy                                                     362


  Sir John de Luxembourg takes the command
  of the siege of Compiègne. The orders
  he gives, and other events                                366


  The prince of Orange is conquered by the
  French                                                    370


  The French march to Compiègne and raise
  the siege                                                 373


  The marshal de Bousac lays siege to the castle
  of Clermont in the Beauvoisis                             387


  A large body of English and Burgundians,
  on their march to besiege Guerbigny, are
  attacked and conquered by the French                      388

  CHAP. C.

  The French offer battle to the duke of Burgundy
  and his army, which the duke, by
  advice of his council refuses                             393




In these days, Charles king of France was confined to his bed by
illness; and on the 22d day of October, the feast of the eleven
thousand virgins, he departed this life at his hôtel of St Pol. Only
his chancellor, his first chamberlain, his confessor, almoner, and a
very few of his household, were present at his decease.

Shortly after his death was made public, the lords of his council, the
members of his parliament, the chamber of accounts, the university of
Paris, many of the colleges, the sheriffs, burghers, and multitudes of
the common people, went to see him as he lay on his bed.

His attendants placed the body in a leaden coffin, when it was very
reverently borne by knights and esquires to the chapel within his
hôtel, where it remained for twenty whole days, until the duke of
Bedford were returned to Paris from Normandy in the following month of
November. During these twenty days, masses were daily celebrated in the
king's chapel, in the same manner as in his lifetime by the priests
attached to it,--after which, the service for the dead was celebrated.
The four orders of mendicant friars, and the canons from the different
colleges, daily performed alternate services. The university caused one
grand one to be celebrated, as did the college of the Quatre Nations,
and in general this was done by all the parishes in Paris.

On the 10th of November, the king's body was carried from his hôtel of
St Pol to the cathedral of Nôtre Dame, in grand procession, preceded
by the members of the different churches dressed in their robes, each
according to his rank. The prelates were on the right hand, namely,
the bishops of Paris, of Chartres, of Terouenne,--the abbots of St
Magloire, of St Germain des Pres, of St Maur, and of St Genevieve. On
the left hand were the heads of the universities and doctors, equally
near as the prelates to the body, which was borne by the king's
foresters and by those of his stable. Then followed the maitres d'hôtel
and the esquires of the stable.

On the left of the body were the provosts of Paris and of the
merchants, having sergeants at arms between them; and near to the body
was the king's first valet de chambre. The members of the court of
parliament bore the pall, at the head of which was the king's first
chamberlain, and the others in succession. After them came the king's
pages, and then at a little distance, the duke of Bedford, as regent
of the Kingdom. None of the princes of the royal blood of France
attended the funeral, which was a melancholy consideration, when it was
remembered what great power and prosperity the king had enjoyed during
the early part of his reign.

Then came, after the duke of Bedford, the chancellor of France,
the masters of requests, the members of the chamber of accounts,
secretaries, notaries, burghers, and a great multitude of the
commonalty of Paris.

The body was placed on a handsome litter, over which was a canopy of
cloth of gold on a ground of vermilion and azure, besprinkled with
flowers de luce. Over the coffin was an image of the late king, bearing
a rich crown of gold and diamonds, and holding two shields,--one of
gold, the other of silver: the hands had white gloves on, and the
fingers were adorned with very precious rings. This image was dressed
with cloth of gold on a vermilion ground, with close sleeves, and a
mantle of the same lined with ermine: the stockings were black, and the
shoes of blue velvet besprinkled with flowers de luce.

In this state was he solemnly carried to the church of Nôtre Dame,
where a mass for the defunct was chaunted by the patriarch of
Constantinople. When the service was finished, the procession moved to
St Denis. The body was borne by the attendants of his stable as far as
a cross, half way between Paris and St Denis, when the measurers and
carriers of salt in Paris took it from them, having each a flower de
luce on his breast. They carried the body to a cross near St Denis,
where the abbot, attended by his monks and all the clergy of the town,
with great multitudes of people bearing lighted torches, received it.
Thence with chaunting and singing, recommending his soul to God, was it
carried to the church of St Denis.

During this whole time, neither the duke of Bedford nor any of
those before mentioned quitted the body. On the body being placed
in the church, another service was celebrated by the patriarch of
Constantinople; but a night intervened between the two services. No one
but the duke of Bedford went to the offering.

There were full twenty thousand pounds of wax expended at these two
services; and sixteen thousand persons attended the almsgiving, when
three blancs of royal money were given to each.

When the last service had been performed in the church of Saint Denis,
and the king's body laid in the sepulchre of his forefathers, the
patriarch gave his benediction in the usual manner,--on which the
late king's ushers at arms broke their staves and threw them into the
grave, and turned their maces downward. Then Berry, king at arms,
attended by many heralds and poursuivants, cried over the grave, 'May
God shew mercy and pity to the soul of the late most puissant and most
excellent Charles VI. king of France, our natural and sovereign lord!'
Immediately after Berry cried, 'May God grant long life to Henry by the
grace of God king of France and of England, our sovereign lord!' which
cry he again repeated. After this, the sergeants at arms, and ushers,
returned their maces, and shouted together, 'Long live the king! long
live the king!'

When the ceremony was over, the lords returned to Paris, which had been
placed under the guard of sir Guy le Bouteiller and the bastard de
Thian, with a very large body of men at arms. They had also under their
command different detachments in the environs, with able captains, to
prevent any surprise or attempts of the Dauphinois.

The duke of Bedford was now regent and sole governor of the realm, in
the name of his nephew the young king Henry, in so far as to those
parts under his obedience.

Thus ended the life of the most noble king Charles in the 43rd year of
his reign, during great part of which the kingdom was sorely troubled
and ruined by the continual quarrels of the princes of his blood with
each other. May God, through his infinite goodness, have mercy on and
receive his soul!



News of the death of king Charles the well-beloved was soon carried
to his only son the dauphin, then residing at a small castle called
Espally, near to Puy in Auvergne, and belonging to the bishop of
that place. The dauphin was very much grieved on receiving this
intelligence, and wept abundantly.

By the advice of his ministers, he instantly dressed himself in
mourning, and on the morrow, when he heard mass, was clothed in a
vermilion coloured robe, attended by several officers at arms, in
their emblazoned coats. The banner of France was then displayed in the
chapel, and all present shouted 'Vive le Roi!' After this, the service
of the church was performed without any other ceremony; but henceforth
all that were attached to the party of the dauphin styled him King of

When the duke of Burgundy was returned to Artois, after the death of
the king of England, he held a council of his captains in Arras, when
it was determined, that sir John de Luxembourg should assemble a body
of men at arms to subdue the Dauphinois in the county of Guise and in
the adjacent parts,--for they were harassing greatly the Cambresis and
the Vermandois. Sir John therefore fixed his place of rendezvous for
his men at and about Peronne.

At this time, the lord de l'Isle-Adam obtained his liberty, through
the solicitations of the duke of Burgundy. He had been for a long time
prisoner in the bastille of St Anthony, by orders of the late king
of England. He was restored to his possessions, and, in part, to the
offices he had held.

Many knights and esquires of Picardy were now sent to St Valery to
summon sir James de Harcourt to surrender the place according to his
promise. The gates of the town were thrown open to their summons,--and
sir John de Blondel was made governor thereof.

On Martinmas-night, by means that had been practised before, the town
of Rue was given up to sir James de Harcourt, and the inhabitants swore
allegiance to the dauphin, thus violating the peace that had been made.
Sir James appointed the lord de Verduisant governor; and, as his force
was inadequate for its defence, he sent for a reinforcement from the
county of Guise, which, on its arrival, oppressed the country much.

About this same time, the lord de Bosqueaux, who had long been most
active to serve the Dauphin and Orleans-party, was made prisoner in the
castle of Thoisy-sur-Oise and carried to Paris, where he was beheaded
and quartered, for having, some time past, maliciously murdered sir Guy
de Harcourt, bailiff of the Vermandois.



After the death of the king of France, his only son Charles the
dauphin, by the advice of the nobles of his party, was crowned king, in
the town of Poitiers,--and from that day was called King of France by
his adherents, as his father had been before him. A short time prior to
this, he had narrowly escaped being killed; for while he was holding
a council in the town of la Rochelle, part of the chamber in which he
was sitting fell in, when John de Bourbon, lord of Prèaux, and some
more were killed. The dauphin was slightly wounded; but his attendants
hastily extricated him from his danger, and carried him to a place of
security, where he soon recovered his health.

In this year, sir Mansart d'Esne was made prisoner in the castle of
Vitry, of which he was governor, by la Hire, both of them being
adherents to the dauphin, and notwithstanding they had long been
intimate friends. Sir Mansart, however, was deprived of all his
effects, of his castle, and a high price withal fixed for his ransom,
while he was kept in close confinement for a length of time. It was
commonly reported, that John Raoullet was a party concerned with la
Hire in playing this trick.

When sir John de Luxembourg had collected his men at arms at Peronne,
he entered the country of Guise, and having soon subdued the forts
of Buissy-sur-Fontaines, Proisy and some others, and conquered that
country, he returned homeward, and disbanded his troops, when they all
retired to the places they had come from.



In this year, the Parisians sent a solemn embassy to king Henry, and to
the queen of England, to request they would speedily order a sufficient
force to France, to oppose the daily advances of the party of the new
king of France, the late dauphin of Vienne.

The ambassadors were, the bishop of Terouenne, master John de Mailly,
sir Bourdin de Salignies, Michault Lallier, and other persons of note.
They took their road through Lille, to have a conference with the duke
of Burgundy, and thence to Calais, where they embarked for England.

They were joyfully received by the king and queen, and promised
effectual and speedy succours by their ministers. Having thus
accomplished the object of their embassy, they returned to France.

On the 14th of January in this year, the fortress on the bridge of
Meulan was surprised by the French under the command of sir John de
Grasville. He had with him some able captains and a body of five
hundred combatants who slew all the English they found there, and used
great diligence to put the place in better repair, and to revictual it;
for they intended to defend the town and castle against their enemies.

At this time, the countess-dowager of Hainault was defied by a noted
plunderer of the name of L'Escremont Castel, a native of Ligny, in the
Cambresis, and then captain of the tower of Beaumont under sir John
de Luxembourg. Having sent his defiance to the countess, he attacked
many of her towns, and made war on her subjects and vassals for a
considerable space of time.

About Christmas in this year, some of the burghers of Paris formed a
conspiracy against king Henry, with the intent to deliver up Paris to
the Dauphinois; but it was discovered, and many arrested, some of whom
were beheaded. A woman that had been concerned therein was burnt:
the rest saved themselves by flight (among the latter was Michault
Lallier), and their property was confiscated to king Henry.

At this period, the town of La Ferté-Milon was won by the French, with
the consent of the inhabitants; but the castle was well defended by the
garrison, who sent in haste for succour to the lord de l'Isle-Adam,
to the lord de Castillon, and to the bastard de Thiam. The lord de
l'Isle-Adam collected a force of five or six hundred men, and marched
them secretly in the rear of the castle, whence, at an hour previously
agreed on with the garrison, they made a joint attack on the town,
which was soon gained without any great resistance being made; and the
greater part of those found within it were put to death without mercy,
and all their effects carried off.

Shortly after the capture of Meulan, the duke of Bedford, who styled
himself regent of France, assembled a large body of combatants,
English, Normans, Picards and others, and led them to lay siege to the
bridge of Meulan on each side of the river. He had bombards, and other
warlike engines erected against the gates and walls to destroy them,
and continued this siege with great perseverance from the beginning
of January until the following March, when the besieged offered to

In the month of February, while this siege was carrying on, sir John
de Luxembourg conquered the forts of Franquemez, Neufville, Endorans,
Vironfosse and Canaple. He had with him the lord de Saveuses, sir
Daviod de Poix, and many expert and tried men at arms. After these
conquests, he returned before the town of Guise, and had a grand
skirmish with its garrison. Having thus succeeded, sir John returned to
his castle of Beaurevoir, where he dismissed his captains and men at



Toward the end of February, a large body of combatants attached to
king Charles, from the country of Berry, assembled under the command
of the count d'Aumarle, the earl of Buchan, a Scotsman, the viscounts
de Narbonne, d'Annechy, de Châtel Breton and others: they amounted
to about six thousand men, and were marched to within six leagues of
Meulan, where they formed themselves in battle-array; but a quarrel
arose among their leaders, so that they broke up in a very disorderly
manner, and departed without advancing farther. They lost great numbers
of men from the sallies made by the garrisons of Chartres, and other
places in the hands of the English, while retreating in such disorder.

The besieged in Meulan, hearing of what had happened, were exceedingly
enraged that they had failed of having the promised succour. In their
rage, they tore down the banner of king Charles that had been displayed
over the gate, and flung it to the ground. Many gentlemen ascended the
battlements, and in sight of the English tore to pieces the crosses
they had worn as badges of king Charles, and loudly abused those who
had been sent to their relief for perjured traitors.

The garrison was not long before they held a parley with the duke's
officers; and persons were chosen on each side to conclude a treaty.
On the part of the English were deputed the earl of Salisbury, sir
John Fastolfe, sir Pierre de Fontenay, sir John de Poulligny lord
de la Motte, Richard Widville, Nicholas Bourdee, grand butler of
Normandy, and Pierre le Verrad. The deputies from the town were sir
John de Grasville, sir Louis Martel, sir Adam de Croisines, knights,
John d'Estainbourg, Jean de Mirot, Roger de Boissie, Oudin de Boissie
and Jean Marie, esquires. These deputies having met several times, at
length agreed to a treaty, the terms whereof were as follow.



In the first place, the besieged shall surrender the bridge and
fortress into the hands of my lord duke of Bedford, or to his
commissaries, fully repaired, and with all its cannons, powder,
cross-bows and all other warlike stores, without fraud or deceit, and
without committing any damages to these articles. The said bridge and
fort shall be thus honestly surrendered three days after to-morrow;
that is to say, on the 5th day of this present month of March.

Secondly, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan,
whatever may be their rank, shall submit themselves, with the utmost
humility, to the will of my lord the regent, who, in consideration
of this their very humble obeisance, and from motives of mercy and
religion, in honour of God, and with due reverence to this holy time
of Lent, shall grant them their lives, excepting those who shall have
formerly been subjects to the late king of England, (whose soul may God
pardon!) and such as shall have sworn to the observance of the last
peace between the kingdoms of France and England; those who shall have
been in any way accomplices in the murder of duke John of Burgundy; all
Welsh, Irish and Scots, should any there be, are also excepted; and
more particularly so, John Dourdas, Savary, a bernardine monk, Olivier
de Launoy, the cannoneers, and those who formed the ambuscade by which
the bridge was surprised: all these last are to remain at the disposal
of the lord regent.

Thirdly, it is agreed, that if any gentleman or others (excepting such
as have been before excepted) be willing to submit themselves to the
obedience of the king our sovereign lord of France and of England,
and to my lord regent, as true and loyal subjects, and carry on a war
against his enemies, in the manner they had done against the king,--my
lord regent will receive them into his favour, and acquit them of all
imprisonment and ransom, provided they give sufficient pledges for
their future good conduct.

Item, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan who may
hold any towns or castles, by themselves or others, against our said
king, shall deliver them up to the lord regent, or to his commissioners
deputed for that purpose; and they shall exert themselves to the utmost
that their relations or friends shall in like manner surrender all
castles or towns they may be possessed of. And until all these things
shall be done, they are to remain at the disposal of the regent, who
engages, on their due accomplishment, to restore them to liberty.

Item, if any persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan
shall detain there, or elsewhere, any prisoners, english, french or
burgundians, or merchants having sworn allegiance to the king of
England, they shall release them without calling on them or their
securities for any ransom whatever.

Item, it is agreed, that the besieged shall, the day after to-morrow,
either by themselves or others, carry to one or more appointed places,
all their armours, without any way damaging the smallest article of
them; and they will also have carried to another part all gold and
silver plate, money, jewels, and every article of value within the said
fortress, without concealing any part thereof or destroying it. They
will deliver to the commissaries of the lord regent exact lists of the
same without fraud or deception, under pain of forfeiting all benefit
of this treaty, and of the grace of the lord regent.

Item, they will also deliver up their horses at an appointed place in
the state they are now in, with their armours, to the said commissaries
of the lord regent, on pain of forfeiture as above.

Item, under similar penalty, the besieged shall not, until the full
accomplishment of the treaty, suffer any person or persons to depart
from, or to enter the said fortress, without the express leave of the
lord regent first had and obtained.

Item, under pain of the above, they shall denounce and deliver up to
the said commissioners all those who have been especially named. And
in order that all these articles may be fully complied with, the
commissioners and deputies of either party have thereto set their
seals, this first day of March; in the year 1422.

This treaty was fully completed; and in consequence of it, the
fortresses of Marcoussy, of Montlehery, and several others held
by the besieged were yielded up to the regent. On the day Meulan
was surrendered, one hundred gentlemen, and two hundred others of
the garrison, took the oaths before required, and swore faith and
allegiance to the lord regent: even the lord de Grasville took these
oaths: when they were conducted prisoners to Rouen, until all the
articles of the treaty should be accomplished. The lord de Grasville
certified to the regent's commissioners, that king Charles was in full
health when he parted from him to come to Meulan,--but that he had been
hurt by the falling in of a room at la Rochelle, where he was holding a
council, as has been before mentioned.



On the 20th day of March in this year, the French escaladed and won the
castle of Dommart in Ponthieu,--in which were the borgne de Fosseux,
knight, and Jacques de Craon his son-in-law, who made their escape,
with a few attendants, by a postern, on hearing the tumult and the
numbers of the enemy. Sir Simon de Boulenviller, John de Douceure, and
others within the castle, with the lady of de Fosseux, were detained

All the effects, which were very abundant, were seized as lawful prey
and carried off.

Shortly after, the lord de Crotoy, with three or four hundred
combatants, fixed his quarters at a castle belonging to the bishop of
Amiens, called Pernois, about a league distant from Dommart, to make
head against and oppose the farther progress of the French. A treaty
was concluded with the French some days after the lord de Crotoy's
arrival, by which they were to return unmolested, with their plunder,
on condition they surrendered Dommart. The chief of this expedition was
one called Dandonet.

At this period, the duke of Glocester married Jacqueline duchess of
Bavaria, countess of Hainault and of Holland, who had for some time
resided in England, notwithstanding that Jacqueline had been married
to duke John of Brabant, then living. This marriage astonished many

In this same year, the king of Arragon went to Italy, at the request
of queen Johanna, wife to sir James de Bourbon, as her elected heir.
On his arrival he drove the duke of Anjou, who styled himself king of
Sicily, and all his people, out of that country. He then attached to
his service all the great captains of the queen of Naples, namely,
Sforza, Braccia-Monte and Tartaglia, with others of the leading men in
Italy, who, uniting with the king of Arragon, made the queen Johanna
prisoner. Thus was she punished in the same way she had treated her
former lord sir James de Bourbon. The king of Arragon, by these means,
remained for a considerable time master of great part of Italy: even
the pope joined his party, and sent the cardinal of St Angelo to
conclude a treaty of friendship with him. This cardinal, while on the
journey, fell from a plank, as he entered a fort, into the ditch, and
was so grievously bruised that he died soon after.

News was now brought to France that the heretics at Prague were in
great force, and attempting to subdue all the Christian castles and
fortresses. Their heresy was more powerful and extended than it had
ever been, in so much that the emperor, unable to resist them, was
returned to Hungary without effecting any thing.

About this time also, sir James de Harcourt's men made several secret
inroads to the countries of Vimeu, Ponthieu and Artois, and seized and
carried away many ploughs from the farmers of Mont St Eloy, near to
Arras, which they sold, with other booty, in the town of Crotoy, so
that the farmers were afraid of residing on or working their lands.

On the other hand, the French, quartered at Guise, made frequent visits
to Crotoy and Rue, by which the country was sorely harrassed by each
party,--and justice was no where obeyed.

The Burghers and commonalty of Tournay had, at this time, great
dissentions, and assembled in arms under the banners of the different
trades, that is to say, the great against the small. The commonalty
admitted the lord de Moy into the town, who was attached to the party
of king Charles, as well as themselves; and they elected several men
of low degree for their captains, in place of the provost and their
rulers. This time, however, the quarrel was appeased without coming
to blows; but similar agitations and changes frequently took place
afterward within the town of Tournay.

Two thousand five hundred English were now assembled in Normandy
under the command of the lord de la Pole, sir Thomas Berry and other
captains, who marched them through the country of Maine, wasting every
part they passed through, to Angers, where they did much damage, and
made numbers of prisoners. They returned with them and their plunder to
a large town, called Busignes de la Graville, where they halted many

While these things were passing, John count d'Aumarle, who had received
from the country people intelligence of this expedition together with
the baron de Colilouvre, the lord de Fontaines in Anjou, and sir Peter
le Porc, collected a large body of men at arms and common people, and
lay wait for the enemy in handsome array not far from La Graville. When
the English perceived them, they dismounted, and posted the baggage in
their rear. The French were mounted, and began the attack with great
vigour, but the English defended themselves with such courage, the
conflict was very severe and doubtful; but at length the English were
conquered, and left full twelve hundred men on the field. The lord de
la Pole, was made prisoner, and thirty other gentlemen at the least.
Of the commonalty on the side of the French, six score persons were

[A.D. 1423.]



In the beginning of this year, the dukes of Bedford, Burgundy and
Brittany, met in the town of Amiens, attended each by a large company
of knights and esquires. With the duke of Bedford, who styled himself
regent of France, came the great council of the young king Henry of
England; and with the duke of Brittany was his brother Arthur count de

These princes, on their arrival at Amiens, paid each other the utmost
respect, and every outward symptom of affection; and the duke of
Bedford splendidly and royally entertained them at dinner at the
bishop's palace, where he lodged. When this had been done, they formed
a triple alliance, in the form and manner following, signed with their
hands and sealed with their seals.

'John, governor and regent of the kingdom of France, Philip duke of
Burgundy, and John duke of Brittany, to all to whom these presents
shall come, greeting.

'Know ye, that in consideration of our friendships, and the approaching
near connection about to take place by the marriages concluded between
us, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, on the one part, with our
very dear and well-beloved companion and cousin Anne of Burgundy on the
other part; and between our very dear and well-beloved brother Arthur
count de Richemont, de Montfort and of Ivry, on one part, with our
very dear and well-beloved sister and cousin, Margaret of Burgundy,
on the other part; and for the general welfare of the king our lord,
and of his kingdoms of France and England, for ourselves and for our
lordships, lands and vassals, do faithfully swear and promise to
each other eternal friendship and love so long as we shall live, as
affectionate brothers ought to do; and we will defend the honour of
each both publicly and in private, without fraud or any dissimulation,
and we will mutually inform each other of whatever may be for the
advantage or disadvantage, the glory or disgrace, of ourselves or of
our territories and subjects.

'Should any persons make evil reports to us of either in his absence,
we will not put any belief in such reports, but detain all those who
shall make such in safe custody, and give immediate notice to him of
whom such reports shall have been made.

'Should either of us feel himself bound in honour, or for the safeguard
of his inheritances, to make war, each of us binds himself to aid
the other, when called upon, with five hundred men at arms, or with
an equivalent number of archers, according to the will of the person
making such demand for aid. He who shall send the succour shall be
obliged to pay them for the first month, and the supplicant to pay
them for so long as they shall remain with him more than the time of
one month.

'Should a greater number of men be required by either of us, the others
shall furnish him therewith to the utmost of their power, without,
however, leaving their countries defenceless.

'Item, we engage to exert ourselves to the very utmost to the relief
of the poor of this realm who have suffered, and are now suffering
greatly, from poverty,--and to the driving out all foreign bands from
the kingdom, so that peace and tranquillity may be restored, that God
may be properly served and honoured, and commerce and labour be renewed.

'We, and each of us, do loyally promise, on the word of a prince, to
fulfil all the above articles of alliance so long as we shall live,
without doing any one thing to the contrary, under pain of forfeiting
our honour in this world and our salvation in the next. In testimony of
which, we have set our respective seals to these presents, and signed
the same with our own hands, in the town of Amiens, this 27th day of
April, in the year 1423.'

With this treaty, the intended marriages were confirmed, between the
duke of Bedford, regent, with Anne sister to the duke of Burgundy,--and
Arthur of Brittany with Margaret, sister also to the said duke, who had
been before married to the eldest son of the late king Charles, duke of
Acquitaine and dauphin of Vienne.

In truth, the duke of Burgundy gave with his sister Anne, the county of
Artois, with all its dependancies, to the duke of Bedford, to inherit
for ever, in case he had by this marriage legal heirs.

When all these things had been settled, the dukes of Bedford and
Burgundy quitted Amiens, and returned together to Paris. The count de
Richemont went to Arras; and the duke of Brittany, having received six
thousand crowns to defray the expenses of his journey, by orders from
the regent returned home with his Bretons.

During the time these dukes were at Amiens, the duke of Burgundy
requested of the regent, that in case the castlewicks of Peronne, Roye
and Mondidier were placed under subjection to king Henry, he might have
the towns of Amiens, Abbeville, Montrieul, Dourleans, Beauquesne, with
all their appurtenances, given to him in exchange. The regent replied,
that he would lay the matter before the grand council.

The duke of Bedford, after a short stay in Paris, went to Troyes
in Champagne with a very grand attendance of English,--whither was
conducted, in a most honourable manner, from Burgundy, Anne sister to
duke Philip, magnificently attended by the lady of Rochefort and the
lady of Salins, the lord de St George, and many other great barons of
Burgundy. With them came one John de Quielong, whom the duke had sent
to the duchess-dowager, to make preparations for this ceremony. The
regent espoused the lady Anne on her arrival at Troyes, and the wedding
was celebrated solemnly and royally. After some days the ladies who had
accompanied the duchess, took their leaves, but not without many tears,
and returned to Burgundy. The duke and duchess of Bedford journeyed
towards Paris; but on the road he attacked the town of Pont-sur-Seine
with such courage it was taken by storm, and all the French within it
cruelly put to the sword. He then continued his journey, and resided a
considerable time in the hôtel des Tournelles in Paris, which he had
caused to be magnificently fitted up for his reception.



In these days, a combat at arms was performed at Arras, in the presence
of the duke of Burgundy as judge of the lists, between Poton de
Saintrailles and Lionnel de Wandonne. Poton had demanded of Lyonnel
to break six lances with him, and Lyonnel, in return, had required,
afterward, a combat with battle-axes so long as they should hold out.

When the preparations had been finished, and the day of combat was
arrived, Poton entered the lists first as the appellant, handsomely
accompanied by his friends, and having made his reverence to the duke,
who was seated as judge, he retired to his pavilion. Soon after,
Lyonnel, entered the lists, attended by sir John de Luxembourg, who,
during the fight, supplied him with lances, and some other lords and
friends. He, like Poton, went to make his bow to the duke, and then
retired to the end of the lists, when the combat began. Many strokes
were given with great vigour, and several lances broken and damaged on
both sides. However, toward the end, the helmet of Lyonnel was somewhat
fractured by the point of the lance of his adversary, and his head
slightly wounded. When the duke saw this, he put an end for this day to
any further combat on horseback.

On the morrow, the duke of Burgundy returned to the lists about ten
o'clock in the morning, accompanied by the count de Richemont and the
lords of his council, to be ready for the champions who were to fight
on foot. Shortly after came Lyonnel, attended, as before by sir John
de Luxembourg, and, having made his obeisance to the duke, withdrew to
his pavilion to wait for his opponent. Poton was not long in making his
appearance, and, saluting the duke retired to his pavilion also.

Upon this, the usual proclamation was made by an herald, for all
persons to clear the lists, and to give no hindrance to the champions
on pain of death. Lyonnel de Wandonne then, as appellant, issued from
his tent, his battle-axe on his wrist, and marched with long strides
toward his adversary, who, seeing him approach, advanced to meet him.
Lyonnel made a gallant attack, and gave Poton many back-hand strokes
with his battle-axe, without drawing breath. Poton coolly received and
parried them as well as he could; but, watching his opportunity, closed
with Lyonnel, and struck him such repeated blows with the point of his
axe under the vizor of his helmet that he broke it, and the face of his
opponent was clearly seen. On finding his danger, Lyonnel grappled and
seized the end of the axe under his arm, and Poton, taking hold of the
broken part of the helmet, scratched his face with his gauntlet. While
the struggle lasted, Lyonnel nearly replaced his vizor but the duke put
an end to the contest, by causing them both to be conducted to him by
those who had charge of the lists, and ordered them henceforth to be
good friends, for that they had well performed their combat. On this,
they returned to their lodgings, where Poton kept up a great expense
with his companions.

The next day a tilting took place with lances between Rifflard de
Champremy, attached to king Charles, and the bastard de Rosebecque.
They broke many lances, but, in the end, Rifflard was pierced through
his armour and side but not mortally hurt. The duke then put an end to
the business; and each party retired to his lodgings with his friends.
Within a few days after this last combat, Poton, with his companions
went back to the county of Guise.



At this period, the earl of Salisbury, by orders from the duke of
Bedford, who called himself regent of France, laid siege to the castle
of Mont Aquilon in Champagne. Lord Salisbury was then governor of the
countries of Champagne and of Brie.

This siege, notwithstanding the many attacks that were made, and the
warlike engines employed, lasted for six months, or thereabout. The
garrison consisted of full six score combatants, under the command of
the lords de la Bourbe, de Cotigny, and a man at arms named Bourghenon.
Very many of these six score left the place, so that toward the end no
more than about thirty remained, who were so much distressed that they
were forced to eat their horses.

At length, the earl of Salisbury accepted their surrender, on condition
that they paid twenty-two thousand saluts of gold for their lives being
spared; and for the payment of which, they were to give four of the
principal men at arms as pledges. The garrison now departed in their
bare pourpoints, under safe escorts, excepting those who had sworn
to the observance of the last peace between the kings of France and
England; and then the castle was demolished and razed to the ground.

About this same time sir Mauriod de St Leger was arrested in Arras,
by command of the duke of Burgundy, many complaints having been made
against him to the duke, and particularly for having plundered his
town of Auchin. He was carried prisoner to the castle of Chavetignes,
where he remained a whole year and was delivered therefrom by the
solicitations of his friends.

The duke of Bedford now caused the strong castle of Orsay, between
Paris and Montlehery, to be besieged by his English. It held out
for about six weeks and then was unconditionally surrendered. The
garrison were led to Paris bareheaded, in their under doublets, some
with cords round their necks, and others with the points of their
swords turned to their bosoms. In this manner they were brought before
the duke and duchess of Bedford, at the hôtel des Tournelles, when
the duke commanded them to be carried instantly to the Châtelet; but
the duchess, moved by pity, pressed the duke so urgently for mercy
that they were all set at liberty, without any other punishment, and
went whithersoever they pleased. Some joined the English, and others
returned to their own party.

In the month of May, seven hundred English marched from Rouen and the
territory of Caux, under the command of the bailiff of Caux, through
Abbeville, to besiege the castle of Noëlle on the sea side, belonging
to sir James de Harcourt. Those within the castle being doubtful of
succour, after a few days, surrendered it, on condition that their
lives and fortunes should be spared.

Sir James de Harcourt, on hearing this, hastily remanded his men from
Rue, and abandoned that town, without any defence, to his enemies. The
English lost no time in taking possession of it, and much harrassed the
poor inhabitants who had remained. They made it a frontier-town, to
oppose that of Crotoy, as you will hear.

In this month of May, a severe battle was fought near to Naples,
between Alphonso king of Aragon and the great captains of Italy, who
had revolted from him. The defeat was so complete that Alphonso was
forced to fly with a few attendants, or he would have been slain or
made prisoner by his enemies.

About St John Baptist's day following, the English besieged Crotoy by
sea and land, under the command of sir Raoul le Bouteiller, who having
posted his men very advantageously, had his camp strongly fortified.
Sir James de Harcourt prepared for an obstinate defence, and pointed
many cannon and other warlike engines to annoy the enemy, and to
prevent their nearer approach. The country people round were very much
rejoiced at this siege.



In the beginning of the month of July, king Charles ordered a large
body of forces to cross the Loire and besiege the town of Crevant,
which was of the burgundian party. The chief of this expedition was the
constable of Scotland who had under him many great lords and expert
captains: and they vigorously assaulted the town by their engines of

As neither the English nor Burgundians seemed to attend to this siege,
the duchess-dowager of Burgundy sent in haste to the nobles of that
country, to require, in the name of her son the duke, that they would
assemble their men, and march to the relief of Crevant. The lord de
Toulongeon, marshal of Burgundy, in consequence, assembled his men,
and, with the united forces of the other lords, advanced to Auxerre to
join the earl of Salisbury, the earl of Suffolk, the lord Willoughby,
and other English lords, whom the duke of Bedford had sent thither to
the amount of four thousand combatants, all picked men and tried in
arms. To do these English honour, the count de Joigny, the borgne de
Toulongeon, the lord du Vergy, sir John and sir William de Vienne, sir
Regnier Pot, the lord de Rochefort, and many more notable lords, went
out of Auxerre, to meet them on their march.

On their meeting, very great and mutual respects were shewn on both
sides; and they rode together in handsome array into the town, where
the earl of Salisbury was lodged in the bishop's palace. When they had
somewhat refreshed themselves with meat and drink, the English and
Burgundians assembled in the cathedral, and there entered into such
resolutions as you shall hear.

This united force began their march toward Crevant; and when within a
long quarter of a league from the town they dismounted. It was at the
time very sultry; and they suffered much thus marching on foot, by the
weight of their armour and from the extreme heat of the sun. This day
were knighted William de Vienne, son to the lord de St George, John
lord of Auxi, Philip lord de Trenont and Coppin de la Viefville.

The regulations that had been made by the chiefs of the English and
Burgundians, when in the cathedral of Auxerre, were as follow:

First, that on the morrow, Friday, they would march away at ten o'clock
in the morning, to fix their quarters near to Crevant.

Secondly, two marshals were to be appointed to overlook and inspect the
army, namely, the lord du Vergy for the Burgundians, and sir Gilbert de
Hallesal for the English.

Thirdly, it was to be proclaimed that the Burgundians and English
should live in good harmony with each other, without quarrels or
strife, on pain of being severely punished by their commanders.

Fourthly, that the whole should form one army; and that there should
be six score men at arms, namely sixty English and sixty Burgundians,
with as many archers, sent forward as scouts to gain intelligence.

Fifthly, it was ordered that when the army should arrive near any
spot where a battle was likely to take place, proclamation should be
instantly made for every one to dismount,--and those who refused should
be put to death: the horses were to be led half a league in the rear;
and all that should be found nearer the army should be seized and

It was also ordered, that every archer should provide himself with a
stake with two sharp points, to plant before him should it be found

Item, that no person, whatever might be his rank, should dare attempt
making any prisoners on the day of battle until the field should be
fairly won. Should any such be made, the prisoner was to be instantly
put to death, and with him the person who had taken him, should he
refuse to obey.

Item, that every man should provide himself with provision for two
days; and that the town of Auxerre should send after the army as much
provision as could possibly be collected, for which they were to be
well and truly paid.

Item, it was then also ordered that no one should precede or remain
behind their captains, but that every man should keep the station that
had been assigned him, under pain of corporal punishment.

All these regulations and orders were proclaimed by sound of trumpet
throughout Auxerre; and on the ensuing day, after having heard mass
with great devotion, and drank a cup, they departed from Auxerre in
much brother-like affection, and fixed their quarters within a short
league of their enemies.

On the following Saturday, they decamped at ten o'clock in the morning,
and advanced in handsome array toward the French, whom they saw posted
on a mountain in front of the town of Crevant, and where they had
remained the preceding night waiting the arrival of more men.

Upon the English and Burgundians crossing to the other side of the
river Yonne, near to Coulogne les Vimeus or Vigneuses, the French
descended the mountain, and marched toward the enemy with great
appearance of courage; and each party formed their order of battle, in
which they remained without doing any thing more for three hours, as
the river Yonne was between them. The English and Burgundians, however,
made an advance, and gained possession of a bridge, whence they annoyed
the French greatly, those in Crevant, at the same time, making a
sally, and attacking them briskly in their rear. The battle now began
in earnest on both sides, and, finally, the English and Burgundians
won the day and the field; the greater part of the Scots, amounting
to three thousand, who were in the front ranks, were either killed or

The constable of Scotland surrendered himself prisoner to the lord de
Châtellux, but with the loss of an eye. In like manner, the lord de
Ventadour surrendered to the lord de Gamaches,--and he also had lost
an eye. Stephen and John de Farimeres[1], scots, knights, with several
gentlemen of note, to the number of four hundred were made prisoners.

The nephew of the earl of Buchan was slain, as were sir Thomas
Secron[2], sir William Hambon[3] and his son, all three knights of
Scotland, John Pillot[4], a scots captain and bastard to the king,
with many others, to the amount of twelve hundred or thereabout.

The english and burgundian captains assembled together in great harmony
and joy after the victory, and entered the town of Crevant rendering
thanks to the Creator for their success. They were received with every
demonstration of joy, and their men lodged within and near to it.

Perrinet, however, and some others followed the runaways, and took
and slew several in the pursuit. On the Monday following, when all
their men were returned, the army separated: the Burgundians went
home, and the earls of Salisbury and Suffolk returned to the siege of
Mont-Aquilon, whence they had come, having left a sufficient force to
blockade the place.

Soon after the battle of Crevant, the earl of Suffolk laid siege to
the town of Coussy, which was yielded up to him within a few days.
He thence marched into the Maconnois, where he subdued many castles
held by the French. He ordered one of his captains, called Claidas, to
besiege the strong castle of la Roche, which in the end surrendered to


[Footnote 1: To clear up, if possible, these misnomers, I consulted
my friend, Dr Robert Anderson, at Edinburgh. 'He thinks, that Stephen
and John de Farimeres may perhaps mean Ferrier, or Ferrieres, which
are scottish names. It may be Farmer, or Farnihurst, or Fernihurst,
the ancient title of the family of Lothian. Stephen, however, is a
Christian name of but rare occurrence.

_The nephew of the earl of Buchan_ is doubtful. Robert Stewart was
active in raising the levies, but whether he attended his uncle to
France, and was killed at Crevant, is uncertain.]

[Footnote 2: Sir Thomas Secron is probably sir Thomas Swinton, who
is mentioned by our historians among the gentlemen of reputation and
honour who fell at this battle. This is almost certain.]

[Footnote 3: Sir William Hambon is evidently sir William Hamilton. Hume
mentions him among those who were left on the field of battle.]

[Footnote 4: John Pillot does not apply to any Scottish name, except
perhaps Pollock, which seems probable. Of the bastard of the king, I
find no name.']



While these things were passing, the duke of Burgundy left Artois, and,
making Paris in his road, went to Burgundy, where he remained until the
month of February following. He took with him the count de Richemont,
who there espoused his sister, as this marriage had been agreed on some
time before.

At the end of July, a body of French assembled from the borders of
Mousson, the county of Guise and other parts, and suddenly shut up
within Bethlehem the bailiff of the Vermandois, and the bastard de
St Pol; but sir John de Luxembourg, and the earl marshal of England
instantly collected a number of their men, and hastened to raise the
siege. The French, on hearing this, decamped as speedily as they could
for their own territories, and were pursued full twenty leagues by the
earl marshal and sir John de Luxembourg, who hastened after with the
intent to combat them.

In this year, a numerous army of Castilians and Arragones arrived at
the port of Naples, and took by storm that town, which was plundered
and sacked. Eight hundred of the principal inhabitants were made
prisoners and sent to Arragon, where the greater number of them died.
A third part of the town was burnt and totally destroyed, to the great
grief of king Louis; but he shortly after, by the succours sent him
from the duke of Milan reconquered it and several other towns.

In August following, sir John de Luxembourg took by storm the fortress
of Arsie, in which were about thirty pillagers of the party of king
Charles, some of whom were beheaded, others hung, and the place
demolished. Sir John went thence to besiege Landrecy, where he
remained until October battering the wall with his engines of war. In
the end, however, the garrison surrendered, on having their lives and
great part of their fortunes spared; and the castle was also demolished.

At the same time, the earl marshal of England, with about six hundred
combatants, entered the Laonnois; and those of the party of king
Charles assembled a body of men to repel him,--but the earl, having
notice thereof, marched against them, and forced them to fly. Part of
them, in their flight, took shelter in a fort wherein they were so
closely besieged by the earl that they surrendered at discretion, when
many of them were hanged, and the fort demolished.

In this month of August, the governor of la Buisserie, between
Tornus and Mâcon, who was attached to king Charles, fixed a day for
the surrender of that castle to the lord de Toulongeon, marshal of
Burgundy, on payment of a sum that had been previously settled between
them; but on that day the governor placed two ambuscades near to the
town, and when the lord de Toulongeon had passed the first with but
a dozen persons, those in ambush fell on him so suddenly that few
escaped being carried with their lord prisoners into the castle. After
a certain time, he was exchanged for the count de Ventadour, made
prisoner at the battle of Crevant, as has been related.

In this year also, sir John de Luxembourg reduced to obedience the
strong places which king Charles held in the Cambresis and Tierrache;
and all the lands in that country belonging to the count de Pontieuvre
were placed in the hands of the count de Hainault by the lord de
Havrech, governor thereof,--because it was suspected that the count de
Pontieuvre would not garrison the strong places which he had there,
such as Landrecy, Avesnes, and others.



Sir Raoul le Bouteiller having continued the siege of Crotoy by sea
and land until the month of October, then held a parley with sir James
de Harcourt, when each of them appointed commissioners to draw up a
treaty, truces having been agreed on for the intermediate time.

After a short delay, the following were the terms proposed by their
commissioners, and ratified by them.

Articles of a treaty concluded between sir Raoul le Bouteiller, knight,
and William Miners, esquire, as deputies for that most excellent
prince John duke of Bedford, regent of France, on the one part, and
sir James de Harcourt, knight, lieutenant-general of Picardy for king
Charles,--he the said sir James answering for the clergy, nobles and
inhabitants of the town and castle of Crotoy on the other part.

In the first place, my lord regent, or his deputies, shall, on the
first day of March next, appear in arms in the plain between Crotoy and
Rue, and for three successive days, from sun-rise until three o'clock
in the afternoon; when if they should not be combated by the said sir
James so powerfully that the field of battle shall remain to the said
sir James de Harcourt, he, the said sir James, engages loyally to
deliver up the town and castle of Crotoy to the said lord regent, or
to whomever else he may appoint. This is to be accomplished at three
o'clock in the afternoon of the said ensuing third day of March.

Item, the said sir James de Harcourt and all such as may please shall
have full liberty to depart from the town and castle of Crotoy, on the
day of its surrender, excepting those who may have been implicated in
the death of the late duke of Burgundy, should any such be there, who
are to remain at the discretion of the lord regent.

Item, sir James shall leave within the castle all the powder,
cross-bows and bolts, without any way injuring or damaging them, with
the exception of nine veuglaires, two kegs of powder, twenty three
cross-bows, and nine boxes of bolts. His men to be allowed to carry
with them their armour, clothes and other effects.

Item, in case any of the men at arms, or inhabitants of the said town
and castle shall wish to take the oaths of allegiance to the lord
regent, all their effects, moveable and immoveable, shall be preserved
to them, and sufficient certificates given them thereof.

Item, the said sir James shall have the use of part of the fleet
before Crotoy, namely, the great hulk and the barge, Colin l'Anglois,
Plumeterre, Balenier, Jacquese and Martinet,--and he shall leave behind
all other vessels. The boats of the fishermen shall remain to their
owners, on condition that they take the oaths of allegiance.

Item, sir James shall deliver up all the prisoners whom he may have at
this moment in the town and castle of Crotoy, and, in return, sir Raoul
le Bouteiller will give up one of his men, whom he has captured.

Item, during the whole intermediate time henceforth to the first day
of March, all those within the said town and castle shall abstain from
making war either secretly or openly, saving that sir James de Harcourt
may carry on the war wheresoever he pleases on the other side of the

Item, it is strictly forbidden any persons that belong to the lord
regent to make any inroads, or to plunder the lands appertaining to the
said town and castle, or on the lands of any of their allies, during
this said space of time.

Item, from henceforward to the first day of March, the inhabitants of
Crotoy may carry on commerce with the towns of Rue, Abbeville and Saint
Valery, provided they obtain leave from the governors of these towns,
but not otherwise. They shall also have liberty to traffic by sea, and
to bring wines and other provision for sale, but not in sufficient
quantities to revictual the town or castle, but solely for their daily
supply during the aforesaid term.

Item, all persons attached to the lord regent shall have liberty to
enter the town of Crotoy on business, provided they first obtain leave
from the governor.

Item, should it happen, that during this intermediate time, any armed
vessel, or other having men at arms on board, appear before Crotoy,
such shall not be admitted into the harbour, nor receive any succour
from the vessels then within the port. Sir James de Harcourt shall not,
during this aforesaid term, in any way strengthen or demolish the said
town and castle.

Item, the lord regent, or his commissioners, shall, at the time of
surrender, grant passports to all within the town and castle to go
whithersoever they may please to join their party, and carry with them
all their effects,--for the moving of which they shall be allowed
fifteen days, and passports to continue for fifteen days more.

Item, sir James de Harcourt shall in like manner have passports for
himself, his children and family, to depart by sea or land, as he may
please, and whithersoever he shall choose.

Item, for the due performance of these articles, the said sir James
shall deliver as hostages the lord Pierre de Hergicourt, knight,
Boort de Fiefiez, Jean Sarpe, and Percival Combiet, esquires, Jean
d'Estampes, Gilles le Roi, and Jean de Gonne, burghers of the town of
Crotoy. These hostages shall be set at liberty on the surrender of
Crotoy; and in case that he who calls himself their king shall, by
himself or others, come to their succour, and remain victorious, these
said hostages shall have their liberty as before.

On the signing this treaty, and the delivery of the hostages, the siege
was broken up. Sir James de Harcourt, had all his stores of provision
in Abbeville and elsewhere sold, and ordered his children from Hainault
to the castle of Hamesche, whence, on their arrival, he sent them to

After sir James had disposed of his stores, he embarked with a part of
his people and his immense wealth, leaving sir Choquart de Cambronne
his lieutenant in the castle of Crotoy. He sailed for Mont St Michel,
where he was received honourably, and thence to visit his children at
Monstreul-Bellay, where he deposited the greater part of his wealth.

Some days after, he waited on king Charles, who received him very
kindly, and made him kingly presents. He thence took his way to visit
the lord de Partenay, uncle to his lady, who was attached to the
Burgundy interest. When the lord de Partenay had shewn him much honour
and liberal entertainment, sir James required his uncle to give up his
castle to his guard, and that he would quit the duke of Burgundy, whose
quarrels he had hitherto espoused, and he (sir James) would make his
peace with king Charles, so that he should keep up his usual state.

The lord de Partenay replied, that it was his intention to remain lord
of his own castle and lands, and that those to whom they would belong
after his decease might then do with them as they listed. Upon this,
sir James, having formed his plan so that it could not fail, laid
hands on the lord de Partenay, and made him prisoner in the name of
king Charles. Sir James's people raised the drawbridge of the castle;
but in doing so, they made a noise which alarmed the townsmen, who
hastened in crowds to enquire what was the matter,--and as the bridge
was neither fastened by bolt nor latch, they pulled it down again, and
entered the castle so suddenly that they put to death sir James, Jean
de Huselames, Jean de Frousieres, Philip de Neufville, and others of
his men. Thus did sir James de Harcourt find a sudden and cruel death
through somewhat too much covetousness,--although this has been related
in various other manners.



In these days, the county of Hainault was in great alarm and
tribulation for fear of a war between the dukes of Glocester and of
Brabant, which now seemed very probable, for both of them had espoused
the heiress of these territories; and each styled himself lord of the
country as a matter of right.

The lords of these parts were also divided, some declaring for the duke
of Brabant, and others for the duke of Glocester, notwithstanding they
had all sworn fidelity to the duke of Brabant, and had, for a long time
acknowledged him for their legal lord.

The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy met at Amiens, having with them
many of their council, to adjust the differences between these two
dukes; but not being able to do so, they adjourned the business for
final determination at Paris, and fixed a day for meeting there.

About this time, the regent caused the castle of Ivry to be strongly
besieged by his English, in conjunction with the lord of Isle-Adam and
the bastard de Thyan. The count d'Aumarle, the bastard d'Alençon and
other captains, assembled a large force to raise this siege. On their
march for this purpose they met the governor of Avranches, brother to
the earl of Suffolk, who, returning from an excursion, had dismissed
a part of his men. The French instantly charged and defeated his
remaining force, and made him prisoner; and supposing that Avranches
would have now but a small garrison, they pressed forward to the
attack, thinking to conquer it. They did indeed make a sharp assault;
but the townsmen defended themselves so courageously, that many were
slain and wounded, and left in the ditches. The French, having heard
that the duke of Bedford was on his march to combat them, departed with
all speed for the duchy of Touraine, but not without being closely
pursued by the English.

On the third day of October, in this year, the town of Hamme sur Somme
was taken by scalado by a party of king Charles's men, under the
command of Poton de Saintrailles, through neglect of the night-guard.
Sir John de Luxembourg was so much vexed at this event, (as that town
belonged to him) that he instantly collected a body of men at arms,
and on the third day after the capture advanced thither. He had it
suddenly attacked, and with great courage; and ordered a detachment to
cross the river with his banner, which was valiantly borne on that day
by a man at arms called Jacotin de Cambray. In short, sir John speedily
reconquered the town, and cruelly put to death the greater part of his
enemies. Poton de Saintrailles escaped as quickly as he could, and lied
to Tierrache, but was pursued by the burgundians,--and many of his men
were taken. In this attack on Hamme, two men at arms were grievously
wounded, namely, sir John de Fontenelle and Valerien de St Germain; but
this last was almost immediately beheaded, by orders from sir John de

About this time, king Charles's queen was brought to bed of a son,
who was christened Louis, dauphin of Vienne. This birth caused great
rejoicings throughout all parts under his dominion, more especially in
Tours, where bonefires were made in all the streets, carols sung, and
every sign of joy manifested.

The French gained also the castle of Beaumont sur Oise, which was,
however, soon after besieged by orders from the duke of Bedford,
reconquered and demolished.

The commonalty of Tournay again rose in rebellion, with displayed
banners, because they were suspicious of the lords de Moy and de
Conflans, who, having great weight in the town, would introduce a
garrison sufficiently strong to keep them in awe. This rebellion was
soon appeased without coming to blows; but the two above-mentioned
lords quitted the town for fear of the populace,--and the lord de Moy
fixed his residence at Liége.

About this time, the town of Compiègne was won by scalado by a party
of king Charles's men, through neglect of the watch, they amounted to
nearly three hundred combatants, under the command of Yvon du Puis,
Angerot de Laux, and Broussart, who, instantly on winning the town,
imprisoned all the English and Burgundians, with those attached to them
and seized their effects.

Shortly after, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, Lyonnel de Bornouville, the
lord de Thyan, with others, appeared before it, to reconquer it; but
they did little or nothing, although the country round suffered great
oppressions from them.

In these same days, the town of la Charite sur Loire was retaken from
king Charles, by an adventurer attached to the duke of Burgundy, called
Perrinet Crasset, who had a long time before carried on a successful
war in the country of Berry and in that neighbourhood. The French were
much grieved and vexed at this loss; for they were prevented crossing
the Loire, which would have been of great utility to them.

In this year, Arthur count of Richemont, notwithstanding his marriage
with Margaret of Burgundy, and the oaths and alliances he had made
with the late king Henry and his successors, joined king Charles,
owing, as it was said, to a quarrel between him and the duke of
Bedford. King Charles received him with the utmost joy, and instantly
made him constable of France: but very many wondered at this change,
considering how lately he had connected himself with the duke of

In the month of January of this year, the dukes of Bedford and of
Burgundy, the count de Conversan, the bishop of Tournay his brother,
sir John de Luxembourg, with a number of other notable persons, the
ministers of each prince, and commissioners from the dukes of Glocester
and Brabant, assembled in the town of Amiens. Although the matter of
dispute between these two last had been frequently discussed, nothing
amicable could be concluded. The meeting was therefore broken up, and
the commissioners ordered to meet them again on Trinity-day following.



About this period, the duke of Bedford went to the town of Mondidier,
where he staid five or six days: he thence gave orders for his
captains, as well burgundian as english, to lay siege to Compiègne, and
appointed the lord de Saveuses chief of the expedition. The principal
captains were the bailiff of Rouen, the governor of Gisors, called
Malberry, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Lyonnel de Bournouville, the
bastard de Thyan, the lord de Crevecoeur and Robert de Saveuses.

In obedience to these orders, they assembled their men with all speed
at the bridge of St Maixence, and thence marched in good array toward
Compiègne. The lord de Saveuses advanced with the English on the
side toward Mondidier, and fixed his quarters in a meadow near to
a town called Venvette,--while the lord de l'Isle-Adam, Lyonnel de
Bournouville and other captains, advanced on the opposite side of the
river to the abbey of Royaulieu, and then besieged the town on both
sides of the river for about three weeks.

During this time, many considerable skirmishes took place; but at
length the French, not having any hope of succour, entered into a
treaty with the English to surrender the town within three weeks from
that time, if they were not delivered by their king, and on condition
they should depart in safety with all their effects. They gave hostages
for the due performance of the above, and were likewise to deliver up
the lord de Soral, who had been made prisoner by the besieged.

On the conclusion of this treaty, every one returned to his home. On
the appointed day, no succours arrived, and the place was put into the
hands of the English by command of the duke of Bedford, who styled
himself regent of France. The lord de Montferrant, who had received the
surrender of Compiègne, nominated the lord de l'Isle-Adam governor

About the end of February, the duke of Bedford went to Abbeville, with
a large army, to keep the appointment that had been made for him to
meet the French before Crotoy: but as the duke had received certain
assurances that the French would not appear, he sent sir Raoul le
Bouteiller to command in his stead, while he remained at Abbeville. Sir
Raoul kept the field on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd of March; when, about 12
o'clock on that day, sir Cloquart de Cambronne surrendered the castle
and town of Crotoy into the hands of sir Raoul, who returned him the
hostages, and gave him passports for himself and his men to join their
king, or to go whithersoever they pleased on the other side of the

When sir Raoul le Bouteiller had made his entry, he received the
oaths of allegiance from the inhabitants of Crotoy and from such as
had remained within the town and castle. He was appointed by the
regent governor general of that place and its dependancies; but this
surrender was not very agreeable to many of the neighbouring lords and
commonalty, for they suspected that the connexion between the English
and the duke of Burgundy would not be of long duration, and that by
means of this place they would be totally ruined, notwithstanding that
many of them had been already great sufferers.

In this year died Pedro della Luna, who called himself Pope Benedict:
he had been, ever since the council of Constance, rebellious and
contumacious to the roman church, being resolved to die pope. The
cardinals of his party attempted to elect another on his decease; but
they soon returned to a proper obedience to the church, and to the holy
father pope Martin, and thus perfect union was restored to the whole
Christian church.



In this year, two masters of arts were sent to Tournay by king Charles,
to admonish the burghers and commonalty, and to press them to continue
in the loyalty they had for some time borne to him, promising, on the
word of a king, that should he, through the grace of God, succeed in
regaining his kingdom, he would most handsomely reward them.

These ambassadors were received by the nobles and commonalty with every
honour and respect; rich presents were made them, and their expenses
were most liberally paid by the municipality. When they had staid
some time in Tournay, one of them departed for Berry; but the other
remained behind, and made many harangues to induce the inhabitants
to keep steady to the interests of king Charles,--but at length his
establishment was lessened, and those in Tournay were cooled in their
attachment to him, and began to repent having made him such large
presents on his first arrival.

In the month of April following, sir John de Luxembourg assembled
his men at arms, and in company with sir Thomas Ramstone, an english
knight, went to lay siege to Oysi in Tierrache. Within a few days, le
Cadet, the governor, treated conditionally to surrender the place on
the 5th of May next, if he were not relieved before that day. Thus the
siege was broken up, and the surrender took effect.

Nearly at the same time, sir John de Luxembourg besieged the church of
Broissi, which some pillagers of king Charles's party had fortified,
and committed great ravages over the country. He also besieged the
tower of le Borgne; and at the capture of both places, about fourscore
of these marauders were taken, with one of their captains, called
le Gros Breton; and they were all hung on trees near to Sery les

In this year, a mischievous fire burnt about six hundred houses in the
town of St Amand, with the gates of the lower court of the abbey, and
the apartments of two monks of that place: only two small houses were
saved within the gates of the town; and the poor inhabitants were in
the utmost distress and affliction.

The truces were now broken, that had subsisted for thirteen years,
between the sultan of Babylon and the king of Cyprus,--owing to
falsities told the sultan by renegado Christians, that the king of
Cyprus put to death the sultan's subjects whenever he could lay hands
on them.

On this report, the sultan, without any declaration of war, sent six
galleys full of Saracens to invade Cyprus and destroy the country with
fire and sword. They first burnt and demolished the town of Lymessa,
and many other parts. When the king of Cyprus was informed of this,
he sent one of his knights, sir Philip Prevost, with a large body of
men, to oppose them; but at the first skirmish, he was sorely wounded
by an arrow in the face, and fell from his horse,--when the Saracens,
advancing, cut off his head, and seizing his golden spurs, carried both
with them to their galleys, and made sail for Syria.



Sir John de Luxembourg now besieged the castle of Wiege with a numerous
army. The siege lasted for three weeks, during which he continually
battered the walls and gates with his engines. At length, the besieged,
losing all hope of relief, made a treaty with sir John to surrender the
place, on condition they should depart in safety with their effects
promising not to bear arms again on that side of the Loire, except
when in company with king Charles. On the signing of the treaty they
went away for Guise, and the castle was demolished.

One or two days after this, sir John decamped, with some of the most
trusty of his men, and formed a plan for taking Poton de Saintrailles,
as you shall hear. Sir John on the departure of the garrison, placed
an ambuscade behind a small church, on the borders of the country of
Guise, to watch the motions of the enemy, and to be prepared should
they attempt any incursions on that side.

Poton de Saintrailles, l'Estandart de Mailly, the lord de Verduisant,
with some others expert in arms, made a sally from Guise, near to where
the ambuscade had been posted. When they were far enough advanced,
sir John, profiting of his advantage, made so vigorous a charge that
they were instantly, thrown into confusion,--and Poton, the lord de
Verduisant, and a few more were taken prisoners. But l'Estandart de
Mailly, on the first shock, pointed his lance against Lyonnel de
Vandonne, unhorsed him, and gave him so violent a blow on the shoulder
that ever after the said Lyonnel was lame on that side. L'Estandart
finding, however, that prowess would avail nothing, and that numbers
were against him, wheeled about, and returned as quickly as his horse
could carry him to the town of Guise.

Sir John de Luxembourg pursued for a long time the others, who fled
different ways. On his return, he collected his men together, and,
rejoicing at his good fortune, carried the prisoners to his castle of
Beaurevoir, where he dismissed his captains until further orders.

[A.D. 1424.]



At the beginning of this year, sixteen hundred combatants, or
thereabout, were landed at Calais from England,--the greater part of
whom went to the duke of Bedford at Paris, and the rest to sir John de
Luxembourg on the borders of the country of Guise.

Sir John consented to treat with Poton de Saintrailles and the other
prisoners, on condition that they would, with their men, abandon Guise,
and cross the river Loire without harrassing the country, and promise
never to return unless in company with king Charles. By this treaty,
and a considerable sum paid down as ransom, Poton and his companions
obtained their liberty, and marched away to the country on the other
side of the Loire.

In this year La Hire, Jean Roullet, and some other of king Charles's
captains, assembled a large body of men on the borders of Champagne,
whom they led toward the Ardennes and the Rethelois, and besieged
Olivier d'Estanevelle in his castle.

About this time, sir John de Luxembourg, by orders from the dukes of
Bedford and Burgundy, made great preparations, with men and artillery,
to lay siege to the town of Guise in Tierrache. When all was ready,
he marched thither, accompanied by the lord de Picquigny, the vidame
of Amiens, the lords d'Antoing, de Saveuses, sir Colart de Mailly, his
brother Ferry de Mailly, sir Daviod de Poix, Maufroy de St Leger, sir
Lyonnel de Bournouville, the bastard de St Pol, and very many more.

Sir Thomas Ramstone and a certain number of English were also with him.
On commencing their attacks, they met with great resistance from the
garrison within the town, who, to prevent the enemy from approaching,
had set fire to the suburbs, where many handsome houses were burnt.

But this availed them nothing; for sir John instantly surrounded the
place with his men, and had his engines pointed against the walls and
gates on the side next the suburbs. Intelligence of this siege was
immediately sent to Réné duke of Bar, to the count de Guise, and to the
duke of Lorraine, his father-in-law, by John lord de Proisy governor of
Guise, who informed them of the urgent necessity there was of instant
relief being sent him.

This news was very displeasing to the two dukes, who held many councils
thereon, and assembled men at arms, in compliance with the governor's
request; but, fearful of incurring war with the young king of England
and the duke of Burgundy, they abstained from any open hostilities.

The siege continued for a considerable time without any material
occurrences, excepting that the garrison made frequent sallies to annoy
the enemy,--but it would take too much time to enter into the detail of

About St John Baptist's day, in this year, the earl of Salisbury,
governor of Champagne and Brie, and very renowned in arms, besieged
a good little town called Sodune, in the county of Vertus, which was
taken by storm, by means of a mine, and the greater part of those
within were cruelly put to death, to the amount of two hundred at
least, and the rest made prisoners. Their effects were pillaged, their
women ravished, and the place demolished.

The lord de Châtillon was with the earl of Salisbury, and created a
knight by the hand of the earl within the mine. The governor of the
town was a valiant man at arms called William Marin, who was slain with
the others at the storming.

While this was passing, the duke of Bedford caused the castle of
Gaillon, a very strong place belonging to the archbishop of Rouen, to
be besieged, as it was held by the partisans of king Charles. It was
battered so effectually, that the garrison surrendered on having their
lives spared,--and the place was utterly destroyed.

In the month of June, the duke of Bedford ordered the town and castle
of Ivry to be besieged. The first was soon won; but the castle, being
strong and well garrisoned, held out for about a month, when the
garrison capitulated to deliver up the fort to the English on the night
of the feast of the Assumption of the Virgin, in case king Charles
should not appear before that day with a sufficient force to combat
them with success. When the treaty had been signed, and proper hostages
given for its performance, the siege was broken up.

The English and Burgundians at this time besieged many places on the
borders of Normandy. Neelle in Tardenois submitted to king Henry; and
Alardin de Monsay treated with the duke of Bedford for the castle of
La Fere, and stipulated that he would not make further war against him
if he should be suffered to keep it, unless king Charles should muster
forces enough to cross the Seine, and advance to Champagne. The French
were at this time much the weakest.



In this year the lord de Longueval, his brother Reginald, John Blondel,
the lord de Saint-Simon, John de Mailly, the lord de Maucourt, and
several other knights and gentlemen of the Vermandois, who had always
been attached to the Burgundy-party, assembled at Roye to consider on
the most effectual means of opposing the bodies of men at arms who
frequently despoiled their towns, and who had likewise very improperly
taken possession of their lands on their return from the expeditions of
sir John de Luxembourg to conquer the county of Guise.

On their meeting at Roye, many of them formed an alliance to resist
these intruders; but others, fearing sir John de Luxembourg, excused
themselves, and advised that the meeting should be adjourned to another
day. In the mean time, a conciliatory message was sent to sir John de
Luxembourg, to know his opinion, and whether it were with his consent
that such depredations had been committed on their lands, and if he
would order his men away.

Nevertheless some among them did not intend that matters should be
carried to the lengths they were, and quietly forbore their attendance
at similar meetings. However, the lord de Longueval, his brother sir
Reginald, John Blondel, the lord de Maucourt, Pierre de Recourt, and
several more, continued the business, and in the end determined to turn
to the party of king Charles. They placed strong garrisons in many
places under their command; but as their intentions were soon made
known, they were forced to hide themselves with the utmost care,--for
all their towns, castles, and estates were put into the hands of the
king of England, and themselves publicly banished.

In consequence, they openly espoused the cause of king Charles,
carrying on a warfare night and day against king Henry and the duke
of Burgundy, which surprised very many,--for the lord de Longueval
and others of the aforesaid had long served the duke of Burgundy,
and followed his interests. They excused themselves by saying, that
they thus acted to revenge the insults they had received, and were
daily receiving, from the men of sir John de Luxembourg; and that it
was better to risk the loss of every thing than be reduced to such
subjection, which they had borne as long as they were able. Some of
them, for their conduct, were executed, as will be seen hereafter.



History relates, that about the 8th day of August in this year, the
duke of Bedford assembled a considerable force of men at arms and
archers, under the command of the earls of Salisbury and of Suffolk,
the lord Willoughby, and several other captains, as well from Normandy
as elsewhere, to the amount of eighteen hundred men at arms and eight
thousand archers. He marched them to be present at the surrender of
Ivry, of which mention has been made, and arrived before that place on
the eve of the Assumption of our Lady.

That whole day he remained, in battle-array, expecting his enemies,
who were very numerous, and but three leagues distant, and amounting
to eighteen thousand combatants, under the command of the duke
d'Alençon, the counts d'Aumale, de Ventadour, de Tonnerre, the earls of
Douglas, Buchan, and Murray, the viscount de Narbonne, the lord de la
Fayette, and many other lords and princes of great renown. They sent
off forty of their most expert and best mounted men, to reconnoitre
the enemy,--who, having observed the duke of Bedford's army in such
handsome array, hastened back, but not without being closely pursued by
the English, to relate what they had seen.

The french lords, finding they had not any way the advantage, turned
about and marched in a body to the town of Verneuil in Perche, which
was in the possession of the English, and gave the inhabitants to
understand that they had completely defeated the english army, and
forced the regent to fly with a very few attendants. On hearing this,
the garrison opened the gates of Verneuil, and shewed them all
obedience in the name of king Charles. After the surrender of the
place, passports were granted, according to the stipulations of the
treaty, to the English within it, who were sent with their baggage to
the duke of Bedford.

Gerard de la Pailliere, governor of Ivry, seeing the hour for his
relief was passed, waited on the duke, who was in the front of his
army expecting the enemy, and presented to him the keys of the castle,
demanding at the same time, in conformity to the articles, passports
for himself and his men, which were instantly granted. The duke, in the
presence of Gerard, pulled out some letters, and, shewing them to him,
said, 'I perceive that eighteen great barons attached to my lord king
Henry have this day failed in their promises of bringing me succour.'
Their seals were affixed to these letters; and immediately afterward,
four gentlemen of Gerard's friends were put in confinement as security
for them.

The duke of Bedford now ordered that the French should be pursued by a
body of men, under the command of the earl of Suffolk, to the amount of
sixteen hundred combatants. The earl marched to Damville, and thence to
Breteuil in Perche, within two leagues of Verneuil, where the whole of
the french force was. The duke went with the remainder of his army to
Evreux, whither the earl of Suffolk sent him information that the whole
of the french army was in Verneuil.

The duke, on hearing this, advanced with his force to join the earl
of Suffolk and offer them combat. Verneuil had belonged to the
English,--but, as I have before said, the French gained it by the false
information of their having defeated the English. This battle took
place on the 16th day of August, in the manner you shall now hear.



When the duke of Bedford had gained the town and castle of Ivry,
he appointed a knight of Wales, renowned in arms, governor, with a
sufficient garrison to defend them. He detached the earl of Suffolk in
pursuit of the French, who had advanced to within three leagues for
its relief, and went with the rest of his army to Evreux. He there
received intelligence that the French had won Verneuil by stratagem,
and were with their whole force within it. He instantly dislodged, and
marched for Verneuil; but the French, having had information thereof,
made all haste to prepare for his reception, and drew their men up in
battle-array without the town, ready for the combat. They only formed
one grand division, without any advanced guard,--and ordered the
Lombards, with others, to remain on horseback, under the command of
the borgne Cameran, du Rousin, Poton, and La Hire, to break the ranks
of the enemy on their flanks and rear.

The grand battalion of the French was on foot,--which being observed
by the duke of Bedford, he ordered his army to be formed in the same
manner, without any vanguard, and not having any party on horseback.
The archers were posted in front, each having a sharp-pointed stake
stuck in the ground before him; and the stoutest of these men were
placed at the two ends of the battalion, by way of wings. Behind the
men at arms were the pages, the horses, and such as were unfit for the
combat. The archers tied the horses together by their collar-pieces and
tails, that the enemy might not surprise and carry them off. The duke
of Bedford ordered two thousand archers to guard them and the baggage.

Very many new knights were now created on both sides; and when all was
ready, these two powerful armies met in battle, about three o'clock in
the afternoon, on the 16th day of August, The English, as usual, set
up a grand shout as they advanced, which alarmed the French much; and
the conflict raged with the utmost violence for three quarters of an
hour,--and it was not in the memory of man that such armies had been so
long and warmly engaged without victory declaring for either of them.

That division of the French which had been ordered to remain mounted
to attack the rear of the English, while the combat was going on, came
to the horses and baggage of the enemy, but could make no impression
from the resistance of the guard of archers: they, however, seized
some of the cavalry and baggage with which they fled, leaving their
army fighting on foot. The archers then, finding themselves thus
disembarrassed from the enemy, were fresh to join their companions in
the front, which they did with loud shouts.

The French now began to fail; and the English, with great bravery,
broke through their ranks in many places, and, taking advantage of
their success, obtained the victory, but not without much effusion
of blood on both sides: for it was afterward known by the kings at
arms, heralds, pursuivants, and from other persons worthy of belief,
that there were slain of the French and left on the field of battle,
from four to five thousand, great part of whom were Scotsmen, and two
hundred made prisoners.

On the part of the English, sixteen hundred were killed, as well from
England, as from Normandy,--the principal persons of whom were two
captains of the name of Dudley and Charleton. The following is a list
of those of name who fell on the side of the French.

Jean count d'Aumale, the son of the count de Harcourt, the count de
Tonnerre, the count de Ventadour, the earl, of Douglas, sir James
Douglas his son the earl of Buchan, at that time constable to king
Charles, the earl of Murray, the lord de Graville the elder, the lord
de Montenay, sir Anthony Beausault, Hugh de Beausault his brother,
the lord de Belloy and his brother, the lord de Mauny, the lord de
Combrest, the lord de Fontenay, the lord de Bruneil, the lord de
Tumblet, the lord de Poissy. From Dauphiny, the lord de Mathe, the
lord de Rambelle. From Languedoc and Scotland, sir Walter Lindsay, sir
Gilles de Gamaches, Godfrey de Malestroit, James Douglas, sir Charles
de Boin, sir John de Vretasse, sir Gilles Martel, the son of Harpedame,
sir Brunet d'Auvergne, sir Raoul de la Treille, Guy de Fourchonivere,
sir Pochart de Vienne, sir John de Murat, the lord de Vertois, sir
Charles de Gerammes, Dragon de la Salle, the lord de Rambouillet, the
bastard de Langlan, the viscount de Narbonne, whose body, when found
on the field, was quartered, and hung on a gibbet, because he had been
an accomplice in the murder of the late duke of Burgundy,--the lord de
Guictry, sir Francis de Gangeaux, sir Robert de Laire, sir Louis de
Teyr, the lord de Foregny, Moraut de la Mothe, sir Charles d'Anibal
and his brother Robinet d'Anibal, Pierre de Courçeilles, sir Aymery de
Gresille, Andrew de Clermont, sir Tristan Coignon, Colinet de Vicomte,
Guillaume Remon, sir Louis de Champagne, Peron de Lippes, sir Louis de
Bracquemont, the lord de Thionville, the lord de Rochebaron, sir Philip
de la Tour, and Anselin de la Tour.

The principal prisoners were the duke d'Alençon, the bastard d'Alençon,
the lord de la Fayette, the lord de Hormit, sir Pierre Herrison, sir
Louis de Vaucourt, Roger Brousset, Huchet de St Mare, and Yvon du Puys;
but there were numbers of others, whose names I cannot remember.

When the duke of Bedford had gained this important victory at Verneuil,
he assembled his princes and captains around him, and with great
humility, with uplifted hands and eyes, he returned thanks to the
Creator for the great success he had given him. The dead were then
stripped, and whatever was valuable taken away.

The duke encamped that night round Verneuil, and appointed a strong
guard to prevent any surprise from the enemy. On the morrow, the French
within the town and castle were summoned to surrender. They were so
much terrified by the defeat and carnage of their army that they
instantly obeyed, on condition that their lives and fortunes should be
spared. The lord de Rambures, governor, was also permitted to depart.
After the duke had regarrisoned Verneuil and its castle, he marched his
army into Normandy.

On the very day that this battle took place, a number of knights and
esquires from Normandy and the adjacent parts deserted from the duke's
army, although they had before sworn loyalty and obedience to him. For
this offence, some of them were afterward severely punished in their
bodies by the duke, and all their estates and effects confiscated to
the use of king Henry. In the number were, the lord de Choisy and the
lord de Longueval.

About this time, the lord de Maucour was taken, who had been implicated
by the lord de Longueval, and others accused before master Robert le
Jeune, bailiff of Amiens: he was beheaded by orders from the council of
king Henry, in the town of Amiens, his body hung on a gibbet, and his
fortune confiscated to the king. In like manner was afterward taken,
Pierre de Recourt implicated likewise with the above, by one named
Raoul de Gaucourt, who sent him to sir John de Luxembourg; and sir John
sent him to Paris, where his body was quartered, and parts of it hung
up at the usual places.

Very soon was intelligence of this unfortunate battle carried to king
Charles, who was sorely affected at the destruction of his princes and
chivalry, and for a long time was mightily grieved, seeing that all his
plans were now unsuccessful.



In the beginning of the month of September, the inhabitants of
Tournay rose in rebellion,--the burghers against the magistrates and
others of rank,--namely, those of the market-place, and of the old
precincts, against those within the walls. This commotion was caused
by a blacksmith having fastened a chain during the night about the
slaughter-houses, for which he was banished the town. In consequence
of this banishment, those within the old precincts, to a large number,
put on, as badges, an upright cross; while those of the market-place
raised the bridges, and erected many bulwarks against them. They began
hostilities with courage; but in the end a truce was agreed on, for the
sake of their annual procession,--and at last peace was established,
without any great harm being done to either party.



When sir John de Luxembourg and sir Thomas Rampstone had, with great
perseverance, continued their siege of Guise and its castle until the
month of September,--the garrison finding provisions grow short, and
losing all hope of relief offered to capitulate with the two aforesaid
lords, on the following terms.

'To all to whom these presents shall come, we John de Luxembourg lord
de Beaurevoir, and Thomas Rampstone knight, chamberlain to the lord
regent, and governors of this district for the king of France and of
England, our sovereign lord, by the appointment of my lords the regent
and the duke of Burgundy, send health and greeting.

'Know ye, that we have this day signed a treaty in the names of our
lords aforesaid, with John de Proisy governor and captain of the town
and castle of Guise, and with the churchmen, gentlemen, men at arms,
and the burghers of the said town, according to the terms and articles
hereafter to be declared.

'First, the governor and the persons aforesaid, residing within the
town and castle of Guise, do promise truly and faithfully to surrender
the said town and castle to one of us, or to such other person or
persons as the king of France and England may depute for that purpose,
on the first day of March next ensuing, provided that on or before that
day they be not relieved by the princes or others of the same party
as themselves, by combating us between the town of Sains and the house
of Fouquausuins, which spot we have fixed on, in conjunction with the
garrison of Guise, for the field of battle.

'Should those of the party of king Charles be defeated in fair combat,
by the forces of the king of France and England, or put to flight, the
garrison of Guise shall hold themselves bounden to deliver up the town
and castle. In case the contrary should happen, and we of the party of
the king of France and of England be beaten, or afraid to appear on
the appointed day, we shall be bounden to return without ransom the
hostages which shall have been given to us for the due observance of
this treaty.

'Item, my lord the regent, and my lord of Burgundy, or those
commissioned by them, shall be bound to appear with such force as they
may please on the first day of March, to hold the wager of battle
namely, from sun-rise of that day until sunset; and if they shall not
then be fought with nor defeated, the garrison shall, without fail, or
any fraud whatever, surrender the town and castle immediately after
sunset, on receiving back the hostages whom they had given.

'Item, during the term of this treaty, and within one month afterward,
the governor and all others within the said town and castle, of
whatever rank they may be, shall have free liberty to depart singly
or in companies across the river Seine, to such places as are held
by their party, and carry with them, or have carried, their armour,
horses, baggage and all their effects; and for their greater security
we promise to deliver to them sufficient passports in the name of my
lord the regent, if so required, that shall include not more than
twenty in a company. Should any of them wish to go out of the kingdom,
even to Hainault, they must do so at their peril.

'Item, should any now resident within Guise be inclined to remain
there, or elsewhere, under the dominion of our lord the king, or
of our lords the regent and the duke of Burgundy, they shall have
full liberty, on taking the oaths of allegiance, and on swearing to
preserve the last-made peace between the kingdoms of France and
England, with the free enjoyment of all their effects and inheritances
that may not before have been disposed of. Should they wish to depart,
they shall not carry with them any of their moveables.

'Item, the inhabitants of Guise having passports from the conservators
of the articles of this treaty, who are bounden to give them, may go to
such towns as we have notified, and enter the same with the permission
of their captains or governors, namely, St Quentin, Riblemont, Laon,
Bruyeres, Crespy, Marle, Aubenton, Vertus and the adjacent villages,
to procure provision and other necessaries for money, so that the
quantities be not more than sufficient for their sustenance, until the
capitulation be expired.

'Item, the inhabitants of Guise may pursue their lawful and just debts
before the said conservators, who will take cognisance thereof and do
justice between the parties, on hearing each side.

'Item, if during the terms of this treaty, any of the king's party
shall take by scalado, or otherwise, the town and castle of Guise, we
will exert ourselves to the utmost of our loyal power to force them to
evacuate the same,--and we will replace them in their former state for
we will neither attempt to take them ourselves, nor suffer others to do
so during the said term.

'Item, in like manner those within Guise shall not, during the same
term, gain openly or secretly any places dependant on the king or his
allies, nor carry on any manner of warfare against his or their vassals.

'Item, a general pardon shall take place with regard to all persons
indiscriminately within Guise, excepting, however, those who may have
been implicated in the murder of the late duke of Burgundy, whose
soul may God pardon! those who have sworn to observe the articles of
the last peace concluded between France and England; those guilty of
treason on the person of the duke of Brittany; all English and Irish
who may be in the said town or castle; all of whom must be delivered
up to justice. For the better knowledge of the aforesaid persons, the
governor of Guise shall give to us in writing the names and surnames of
all men at arms now within that town and castle.

'Item, should any violences be committed, contrary to the above
articles, by either party, during the said term, this treaty shall not
thereby be infringed nor violated; but the conservators shall have full
powers to arrest and punish those, guilty of any violence, and to make
restitution of whatever things may have been unlawfully plundered.

'Item, the garrison of Guise shall not, during the said term, although
they have possession of the castle and town, carry on any warfare, nor
give aid or support to any of their party that may be so inclined.
Should it happen that any persons acting hostilely be pursued by the
king's party, and chaced visibly into the said town or castle, the
governor shall cause them to be delivered up to those who had thus
pursued them, to be dealt with like prisoners.

'Item, the inhabitants of Guise shall not, during the said term,
demolish any part of the fortifications or outworks of the said town
and castle,--nor shall they in any way add to their strength.

'Item, so soon as we shall have withdrawn all our cannon, artillery,
stores and engines of war, to a place of security, we will raise
the siege, and depart from before the said town and castle, to go
whithersoever we shall please.

'Item, the governor, the gentlemen and burghers within the said town,
to the number of twenty-four persons, shall solemnly swear punctually
to observe all the above articles, and promise faithfully not to
infringe any one of them in the smallest degree, and those who may have
a seal shall seal these articles with their seal.

'Item, for the better observance of these articles, eight persons
shall be given as hostages, namely, Jean de Regnault, du Hamel, Jean
de Cadeville, Jean de Beauvoir, Jean de St Germain, the elder Wautier,
sir Walerant du Mont, and Jean Flangin de Noulles. In case any of the
above shall die, or make their escape, during the time aforesaid, those
of Guise shall be bounden alway to find eight sufficient hostages, on
demand of the besiegers.

'Item, the inhabitants of Guise, in conjunction with us, have
unanimously appointed as conservators of this treaty sir Daviod de
Poix knight, and Collart de Proisy, or his deputy. To this sir Daviod
de Poix, or to his deputy, we have given full powers and authority to
grant to the said inhabitants of Guise good and sufficient passports,
and to determine all suits at law that may be brought before him from
either party, according to what has been before mentioned.

'Item, we have promised and sworn and do by these presents promise
and swear to fulfil all things contained in these said articles,
most loyally and honourably, to the utmost of our powers, and that
we will have them faithfully observed and maintained by all subjects
and vassals under the obedience of our lord the king, of our lord the
regent, and of our lord of Burgundy.

'Item, for the greater security of the above, we will have these
articles confirmed by our said lord the regent, in manner hereafter to
be declared. In testimony of which, we have affixed our seals to these
presents. Given at our camp before the town and castle of Guise, the
18th day of September, in the year 1424.'

When the treaty had been signed, and the hostages delivered, the siege
of Guise was broken up. Sir John de Luxembourg returned to his castle
of Beaurevoir, and dismissed his captains; and sir Thomas Rampstone
went with the English to wait on the duke of Bedford, at Paris, by whom
he was most graciously received.

About this time, the lord de Montagu, a Burgundian, concluded a treaty
with Estienne de Vignolles, called La Hire, of the opposite party,
that Vitry en Pertois, and other fortresses held by La Hire, should
be surrendered to the lord de Montagu on the first Sunday in Lent, in
case they were not relieved on or before that time by king Charles. No
succour arrived, and in consequence they were yielded up according to
the agreement.

In these days, sir Manfroy de St Leger and the bastard de St Pol
assembled from four to five hundred combatants, and led them into
Barrois, where they committed infinite mischiefs, and gathered much
riches, with which they returned in safety, and without opposition to
their own country.

In the month of October, the duke of Glocester and Jacqueline of
Bavaria, countess of Hainault, of Holland and of Zealand, (whom the
duke of Glocester had married some time before in England, although
duke John of Brabant, her first husband, was still alive,) disembarked
at Calais with five thousand english combatants, intending to make a
powerful invasion on Hainault, and gain the government thereof, as
belonging of right to the said Jacqueline. The earl marshal of England
was commander in chief of these men at arms.



About the end of October the dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy met at
Paris, with their confidential ministers, according to what had been
agreed on when they were last at Amiens, to discuss the differences
that had arisen between the dukes of Glocester and of Brabant. The
matter was most fully debated during several days before their council,
notwithstanding a suit was still pending at the court of Rome. At
length, the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy agreed on the terms of a
pacification, according to the opinions of their counsellors, and sent
them to the dukes of Glocester and of Brabant. The ambassadors who went
to the duke of Glocester and his lady, at Calais, were sir Raoul le
Bouteiller and the abbot Fouquans. When they showed their credentials,
and the terms that had been agreed on, they had a direct negative from
the duke and the lady, who declared they would not abide by them, but
would march a powerful army into Hainault to take possession of that
country. On receiving this answer, the ambassadors returned to Paris.

Those who had been sent to duke John of Brabant, were graciously
received; and he declared, with the advice of his council, that he was
very willing to accept the terms agreed on by the dukes of Bedford and
Burgundy, and was well contented therewith.

On these answers being carried to the two dukes in Paris, they were
much troubled that the duke of Glocester would not accept of the terms
which they had settled,--more particularly the duke of Burgundy, who
plainly told his brother-in-law, the duke of Bedford, that since
he found his brother the duke of Glocester would not listen to any
reasonable terms, he should assist his cousin, the duke of Brabant,
with all his power, to enable him to preserve his honour and
territories against the duke of Glocester.

The duke of Bedford was much angered against his brother at heart,
for his obstinacy, and greatly feared, that from this quarrel, all
connexions of the English with the duke of Burgundy would be done away,
and their power in France destroyed.

The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy kept each at his hôtel in Paris
the feast of All-saints, with much solemnity; and some days afterward,
the duke of Burgundy had the marriage of sir John de la Trimouille
lord de Jonvelles, with the damsel of Rochebaron, sister to the lord
d'Amboise, (who at that time resided with the queen of France, widow of
the late king, in company with the lady of La Ferté) celebrated at his
hôtel of Artois, and at his own expense.

At this marriage were present the said queen of France, the duke and
duchess of Bedford, sister to the duke of Burgundy, attended by the
earl and countess of Salisbury, the earl of Suffolk, the bishop of
Therouenne, the lord d'Estable, and many noble knights, esquires,
ladies and damsels of high degree, who were all magnificently
entertained by the duke of Burgundy and his officers. There was a
grand display of every costly viand and wines, followed by dancings,
tiltings, and other amusements.

The dukes of Bedford and Burgundy even tilted themselves with other
princes and knights. When this feast was over the duke of Burgundy
returned from Paris to his residence in Burgundy, where he united
himself in marriage, by an apostolical dispensation, with the widow
of his uncle the count de Nevers, who had been slain at the battle of
Azincourt. This lady was much renowned for her pious life: she had two
children by the count de Nevers, and was sister-german to the count
d'Eu, then a prisoner in England, and sister by the half blood to
Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont.

At this time died John of Bavaria formerly bishop of Liége, uncle to
the duke of Burgundy, and to Jacqueline of Bavaria; and because he had
not had any children by his lady, he declared the duke of Burgundy his
heir and successor, thus putting aside Jacquiline of Bavaria his niece.



Toward the end of November the duke and duchess of Glocester marched
their great army from Calais, and taking their route by Hesdin, and
passing by Lens in Artois, arrived in Hainault. As they marched through
the territories of the duke of Burgundy, no disorders were suffered to
be committed, but all provisions were courteously paid for.

They were liberally received at Bouchain and Mons, whither they went
first, and many lords and gentlemen of the country came thither to pay
obedience and homage to the duke and to his lady. Shortly after, all
the principal towns in Hainault, dependant on the lady Jacquiline took
oaths of allegiance to the duke of Glocester; for she declared herself
his wife, and all the lords and gentlemen did the same excepting the
single town of Halx, which held for the duke of Brabant.

In like manner did the count de Conversan lord of Anghien support duke
John and sir Angilbert d'Anghien, with Jean de Jumont, and all their
garrisons and dependants. The remainder, as well towns as nobles,
breaking the oaths they had formerly taken to the duke of Brabant, now
openly espoused the cause of the duke of Glocester and the duchess

Some days after the marriage of the duke of Burgundy, he quitted the
duchess and went to Mâcon, where he had a conference with the duke of
Savoy, and with ambassadors from the duke of Brittany, the principal
of whom was Arthur count de Richemont. While these conferences were
holding, Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont, the archbishop of
Rheims, the bishop of Puy, and some others, came to Mâcon, by orders
of king Charles, who among different matters, treated for a marriage
between the count de Clermont and Agnes, sister-german to the duke of
Burgundy. Charles de Bourbon promised the said archbishop, on the word
of a prince, that he would espouse her at the time that had been fixed.
When this, and other great affairs had been discussed and settled, they
separated, and each returned to the place he had come from.

Philip duke of Burgundy, hearing of the arrival of Humphrey duke of
Glocester in Hainault, was very indignant thereat, and issued his
summonses to the men at arms, and others accustomed to serve him
in war, throughout his countries of Flanders, Artois and his other
dominions, which were proclaimed in the usual places, ordering all
nobles, and others of every degree, able to bear arms, to prepare
themselves to support the duke of Brabant against the duke of
Glocester, under the orders of sir John de Luxembourg, the lords
de Croy, de l'Isle-Adam, and such other captains as should be
commissioned to command and conduct them.

In consequence of these proclamations, very many men at arms assembled
under the aforesaid lords, who marched them to Philip count de St Pol,
brother to duke John of Brabant, he having been appointed by the duke
commander in chief in this war against the duke of Glocester.

The principal adviser of the count de St Pol was Pierre de Luxembourg
count de Conversan, and Braine lord d'Anghien. There were also with him
sir Angilbert d'Anghien, le Damoiseau de Vissemale, de Rosbarre, and
other great lords and bannerets of the country of Brabant, a multitude
of the commonalty, and an infinity of warlike engines.

A bitter war now commenced, with fire and sword, throughout Hainault,
to the ruin of the poor people, for the duke of Glocester had strongly
garrisoned with English all the towns in that country under his
obedience; and in like manner had the count de St Pol done to those
on the borders, and what remained in Hainault subject to the duke
of Brabant. These garrisons made frequent sallies on their enemy's
country, and committed every kind of mischief.



When the duke of Glocester heard that the duke of Burgundy had issued
his summons for men at arms to assemble against him, in support of the
duke of Brabant, he was highly displeased, and wrote to the duke of
Burgundy a letter, of which the following is an exact copy:

'High and potent prince, very dear and well-beloved cousin,--we have
heard that in your lands and territories a proclamation has been made
for all able men at arms to assemble and march under the orders of sir
John de Luxembourg and others, to the support of my cousin of Brabant,
against me, my friends, allies and subjects, and stating, as reasons
for the above, many charges contrary to the truth, which I have
discovered, in a copy of certain letters said to be written by you, in
your town of Dijon, the 21st day of last December.

'These letters, I am convinced, have been written with your knowledge,
and by your orders, although you cannot have forgotten all that I have
done in times past at your request and solicitation; nor how often
I have submitted the whole of my dispute with our cousin of Brabant
to the arbitration of my brother the regent and yourself,--what
appointments I have made, and what things I offered to relinquish to
my prejudice,--and which you know those of the party of the duke of
Brabant would not accept nor enter into any treaty, notwithstanding
these letters I allude to have given a contrary colour to the business,
as will be apparent if you compare the copy I inclose with the

'I know also, that what I have formerly done has not escaped your good
memory. You must also feel, that if proximity of lineage is of any
avail, you should be more inclined to serve me than my adversary,
seeing that my companion and spouse is your cousin-german by two lines,
and that my said cousin of Brabant is not so nearly related to you.

'You are likewise bounden to assist me by the treaty of peace solemnly
sworn to by us,--which the duke of Brabant has never done, but on the
contrary, as you know, made alliances inimical to your interests, which
should move you to act against him. The treaty between us has never
been infringed by me; and it would have grieved me to have even thought
of it,--for I should believe, that had I broken it, nothing fortunate
would have ever happened to me. I am also persuaded, that during your
life, you will not act contrary to it.

'You must likewise have noticed, that ever since I have been on this
side of the sea, I have alway endeavoured so to act as would be most
agreeable to you; that I have never, in the smallest degree done, or
suffered to be done, any damage to your subjects or your lands, but
have acted toward them as if they had been my own proper subjects, as
they can truly inform you.

'I have lately written to you, to declare I ask for nothing but what is
my own, but am contented to have what belongs to me in right of my said
companion, your cousin, and which, with the aid of God, I will guard
and preserve so long as she shall live, for that fortune is sufficient
for me.

'Should any circumstances have induced me to act against my said cousin
of Brabant, I am not as you know, any way to blame, but constrained
thereto by his enterprises, in the defence of my own honour, and for
the preservation of my country, which will make me exert myself to the
utmost of my power.

'Now as you are perfectly well acquainted with all that I have
mentioned, I can scarcely persuade myself that these said letters
have been written with your knowledge; and I most earnestly intreat,
most high and potent prince, my very dear and well beloved cousin,
that you would maturely consider of all that I have done for your
service, the different conduct of my adversary toward you, the
nearness of the relationship, the treaty of peace between us, which I
have never violated, and the enterprises of my opponent. I am firmly
convinced, that supposing the measures hitherto followed have had your
approbation, when you shall have maturely reconsidered the whole of
mine and of my adversary's conduct, you will be of a contrary opinion.

'Should, however, your intentions remain unaltered, God, to whom
nothing is hidden, will defend my just rights, if you be regardless of
the oath you have taken for the same purpose. High and potent prince,
my very dear and well-beloved cousin, let me know your intentions
by the bearer of this, and if there is any thing I can do for your
service, I will most heartily employ myself therein, as our lord knows,
and to his care I commend you.

'Written at my town of Mons, and signed with my signet, this 12th day
of January. High and potent prince, very dear and well-beloved cousin,
I send with this letter copies of the letters I have alluded to,
signed 'de Croy.'

The address on this letters was, 'To the high and potent prince, my
very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy;' and lower
down, 'Your cousin the duke of Glocester, count of Hainault, of
Holland, of Zealand, and lord of Frizeland.'

The duke of Burgundy, on receiving this letter, laid it before the
whole of his council, and, after due deliberation, returned the
following answer to the duke of Glocester.



'High and mighty prince Humphrey duke of Glocester, I, Philip duke of
Burgundy, earl of Flanders and of Artois, have received your letter
addressed to me, and written at Mons in Hainault, under your signet,
the 12th day of January last, containing, among other things, that
you have heard of proclamations having been issued throughout my
dominions, for all well disposed men at arms to assemble, and to march
under the command of our very dear and well-beloved cousin sir John de
Luxembourg and others, for the service and support of our very dear
and well-beloved cousin the duke of Brabant, in opposition to you,
your friends, allies and subjects, and which proclamations contained,
according to the tenour of your letter, many charges contrary to
truth,--the which, and other things, you have discovered in the copy
sent me, of certain letters said to have been written by me, on the
21st day of December, in my town of Dijon.

'With regard to this, high and mighty prince, and the greater part of
your letter, I shall forbear repeating, or making any reply thereto;
for as there is nothing but what touches my honour that I shall
consider, and this I will not suffer any one to treat or to blame

'You say, however, that the writings, of which you have inclosed a
copy, have been done with my knowledge, and by my command. To this I
answer, that I was moved thereto by your refusal to conform to the
articles of pacification entered into with great deliberation of
council, between your fair brother the regent and myself at Paris, to
put an end to the discord between you and our very dear cousin the duke
of Brabant.

'On the contrary, the duke of Brabant, (to gain the favour of God,
and to please your said brother and myself) agreed to abide by these
said articles, while you, persisting in your refusal, and without
waiting for the final decisions of your suit at the court of Rome, have
entered the country of Hainault with a powerful army, with the intent
of driving therefrom our said cousin of Brabant, and taking possession
of the same. These have been the reasons for my said letter, which
contains truths which you cannot any way deny, or be ignorant of.

'I have not therefore given any thing to be understood contrary to
truth, or by way of lie, with which you seem most wrongfully to charge
me in your letter, which I shall carefully preserve to shew in proper
time and place.

'I am sufficiently aware of all that you are attempting against our
said cousin of Brabant, and very displeasing has it been to me,
without your endeavouring to tarnish our own honour and fair fame,
which I will not endure from you nor from any one; and I am persuaded
that those with whom I am connected by blood, all my loyal friends,
subjects and vassals, who have been greatly attached to and have served
my predecessors, will not suffer such a slur to be passed over with
impunity. I therefore now summon and require of you to recall all that
you have said in your letter, touching what you have therein declared
to have been asserted by me contrary to the truth.

'Should you be unwilling to do this, and to support the charges you
have made against my honour and fame, I am ready to defend myself
personally against you, and to combat you, with the aid of God and our
lady, within a reasonable time, in the presence of that most excellent
and most potent prince, the emperor, my very clear lord and cousin.

'But that you and all the world may witness that I am anxious to
bring this matter to a speedy conclusion, and instantly to repel all
attempts on my honour, I am contented, should it be more agreeable to
you, that we choose for the judge of our combat your fair brother the
regent duke of Bedford, which you cannot reasonably refuse; for he is
such a prince that I know he will do the utmost justice between us, as
between the most indifferent persons. And for the honour of God, and
to avoid the effusion of Christian blood, and the destruction of the
poor people, whose sufferings I in my heart compassionate, you and I,
who are youthful knights, ought to accept of this proposal (supposing
you be determined to maintain what you have written), as it personally
concerns us, rather than engage in public warfare, by which numberless
gentlemen and others of each party will have their days miserably
shortened; and I must add, that it will be highly disagreeable to me
if this last mode shall be resorted to. It ought to be matter of regret
to us and all catholic princes, that Christian people should engage
in war one against another; for my part I repeat that it will be very
unwillingly that I shall engage in a public warfare, unless urgent
necessity forces me to it.

'High and mighty prince, have the goodness to send me a speedy
answer to the contents of this letter by the bearer, or by any more
expeditious mode, without prolonging matters by letters; for I am
impatient, that every thing touching my honour may be as briefly
settled as possible, and I will not that matters concerning it remain
as they now are.

'I should sooner have replied to your letter on this subject, had I not
been delayed by several concerns of high import that have retarded me.

'That you may be assured this letter is mine, I have signed it with my
own hand, and affixed my signet.

'Written the 3rd day of March, in the year 1424.'

This letter was read by the duke of Glocester with great attention, in
the presence of his council: in reply, he sent the following letter.



'High and mighty prince, Philip duke of Burgundy, earl of Flanders, of
Artois, and of Burgundy,--I Humphrey duke of Glocester, son, brother
and uncle to the kings of England, count of Hainault, of Holland,
of Zealand, lord of Frizeland, and high chamberlain to the king of
England, have received your letter in form of a placart, addressed to
me, and written on the 3rd day of this month; which letter, that it
may appear to be from yourself, you have signed with your own hand,
and sealed with your signet. The contents of the greater part thereof
concern me as little as those of mine did you, addressed and written
in my good town of Mons in Hainault, under my signet, the 12th day of
January last past, excepting what you say of my refusing to agree to
terms of pacification between me and my cousin the duke of Brabant,
which is not true; for my very dear and well-beloved brother the regent
of France and the whole of the french council, as well as yourself,
know how I have acted therein. Should you wish to be ignorant thereof,
it is not in your power.

'You say, that I have in my letter wrongfully and falsely offended your
honour, by charges therein made, and that you were sufficiently hurt
at my attempts against my said cousin the duke of Brabant, without my
having attacked your honour and fame. You therefore summon and require
of me to recant what I have thus written in my letter, or else you
are ready to defend your honour in a personal combat with me. I make
known to you, that I hold for true the whole of the contents of my
said letter, and shall remain in the firm belief thereof, which has
indeed been confirmed by what your people have done and perpetrated in
my country of Hainault conformably to the tenour of your summons; nor
shall you nor any one force me to recal my words, but with the aid of
God, of our lady, and of my lord St George, I will, by personal combat,
oblige you to own their truth, before either of the judges you have
named, for they are both of them to me indifferent.

'I am equally desirous with yourself that the matter should be brought
to a short and speedy issue; but solely because my fair brother is
nearest at hand am satisfied to perform the combat before him, and
accept of him as judge of the field. Since you leave the appointment
of the day of combat to me, I shall fix on the feast of St George next
ensuing for that purpose, or any other day more convenient for my
brother, when, with God's favour, I shall be ready prepared to meet you
without fail.

'Should my said brother decline the office of judge of the field, I
am willing that the combat take place before the very high and potent
prince the emperor; and should he in like manner decline it, our
brother of Oldeberth[5], or any other indifferent person, may be the

'But, as I am doubtful whether you will abide by the terms under your
signet, I summon and require of you, by the bearer of this letter, that
you send me other terms sealed with your seal, in like manner as I have
done to these presents.

'With regard to the duke of Brabant, if you shall dare to say that
his right is superior to mine in this present dispute,--I am ready to
attack you body to body, on the day above-mentioned, and prove that I
have the better right, with the favour of God, of our lady, and of St
George. That these presents may appear fully authentic, and to shew
that I am resolved to abide by their contents, I have signed my name to
them, and have likewise affixed my seal.

'Written in my town of Soignies, the 16th day of March, in the year


[Footnote 5: Oldeberth,--probably Oldenbourg.]



During the time of this correspondence between these two princes, the
duke of Burgundy returned to Flanders, and ordered a considerable force
to march thence to the aid of the duke of Brabant. He likewise sent an
answer to the duke of Glocester's last letter, accepting the day he had
fixed for their combat, the tenour of which was as follows.

'High and mighty prince Humphrey duke of Glocester, I, Philip, duke of
Burgundy, earl of Flanders and of Artois, have this day received your
letter, written and signed with your own hand, in answer to mine of the
3rd of this present month, in which I said that you had, after mature
deliberation, refused the terms of pacification between you and our
cousin of Brabant, that had been agreed on by my brother-in-law the
regent and myself.

'To this you reply, that it is not true. My fair brother the regent
and the whole council of France know full well to the contrary: I am
not ignorant thereof,--and were I inclined to be so, it is out of my
power. You persist in denying what the ambassadors sent to you by my
brother the regent and myself with a copy of these articles, can most
satisfactorily prove; and in the direct face of them you have invaded
the country of Hainault, notwithstanding my fair cousin of Brabant had
accepted of our terms; and you have called all these things which I had
written to you falsehoods. Your conduct toward my cousin of Brabant
was to me dishonourable and displeasing enough, without adding insults
against my honour.

'For this did I summon you to recant all that you have thus
offensively written; otherwise I was ready to defend my honour in
personal combat, in the presence of my fair brother the regent, or
before the emperor. You in reply maintain the truth of what you had
written, and that you shall remain in that belief, for what my troops
had done in Hainault was a full confirmation of the truth of what
you had advanced, and that you would not for me, nor for any one
else, recal your words, but would force me, by personal combat, to
acknowledge their truth, before either of the aforesaid judges.

'You add, that as the said regent is nearer at hand, you are content
to name him as judge, and fix on St George's day next ensuing, or
any other more agreeable to the regent, for the day of combat, being
equally desirous with myself that this matter should be speedily
brought to issue.

'I make for answer, that in regard to the judge and the day I am well
satisfied, and, with the aid of God and of our lady, I will defend
myself, and maintain the contrary to what you have advanced, with my
bodily strength, and prove fairly on which side the lie rests, to the
clearance of my loyalty and honour.

'With respect to what my troops may have done in Hainault, should it
be for the honour and success of my fair cousin of Brabant, I shall be
very much rejoiced. As you express a doubt whether our said brother the
regent will accept of the office of judge between us, I shall instantly
send him notable ambassadors earnestly to intreat that he would accept
of it; but should he refuse, I am willing, as I have said in my former
letter, that the emperor take his place.

'As to what you declare, that should I dare to say our cousin of
Brabant has the better right, you will force me by combat to retract
it publicly before the judge,--I reply, that the sentence of our holy
father the pope (before whom the suit is now pending) will make it
clearly known whose is the right, against which I am not inclined to
derogate or disobey. It therefore does not belong to either of us to
determine who has the right.

'And I have such confidence in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in his
glorious virgin-mother, that before the end of the combat thus fixed
on by you, I shall defend my good cause with such vigour that you will
not be soon forward to advance such novelties again. Since you require
that I send you a copy of my former letter which was sealed with my
signet, under my seal, I have complied with your request. And what I
have written I am fully determined to abide by and fulfil.'



While these quarrelsome letters were passing between the dukes of
Burgundy and Glocester, a very large army was raised by Philip count
de Ligny and de St Pol, brother to the duke of Brabant, having in his
company the count de Conversan, the lord d'Anghien, the lords de Croy,
de l'Isle-Adam, sir Andrew de Malines, the bastard de St Pol, with
other captains, banners, and gentlemen, together with thirty or forty
thousand common men, whom he led before the town of Braine-le-Comte in
the country of Hainault.

There were not more than about two hundred English of the duke of
Glocester's party, in addition to the commonalty within the place.
It was closely besieged on all sides; but after it had been well
battered for eight days by their cannon and other engines, the
garrison, considering the great force of the enemy, entered into
terms of capitulation, that the English might depart with safety to
their persons, and with part of their baggage, and that the town
should return to the obedience of the duke of Brabant, taking oaths of
allegiance to him or to his commissioners, and withal paying a certain
sum of money by way of ransoming the town from pillage.

When this treaty had been signed, and the English were ready to march
out of it, a body of the common people who had come with the count de
St Pol rushed in by different gates, and slew the greater part of these
English, with many of the townsmen. They then plundered the houses,
and set them on fire, so that the whole town was completely burnt and

Thus did they break through the treaty which their captains had made,
and no prayers or entreaties could prevail on them to desist, which
greatly angered their leaders. However, some of the English were saved
by the exertions of the gentlemen and nobles, and sent away in safety.

At this siege of Braine, there were with the count de St Pol, Poton
de Saintrailles, Regnaut de Longueval, and others, all firm friends
of king Charles. When the town had been thus destroyed, the army of
the Brabanters remained where they had been encamped; for news of the
intended combat between the dukes of Burgundy and Glocester before the
regent had been notified to them, so that all warfare was suspended
between the Brabanters and the duke of Glocester, until victory should
declare for one of the dukes in their personal combat.

Shortly after, the count de St Pol marched away from before Braine,
on his return with the army to Brabant; but as the duke of Glocester
was with his lady in Soignies, the Brabanters were afraid of being
attacked, and therefore all the nobles and gentlemen marched in the
same array as if they were about to engage in battle. The commonalty
were likewise well drawn up; and they had not advanced far, when the
scouts, whom they had left in their rear to bring them information,
gave notice that the English had taken the field.

This was true, for some of the duke of Glocester's captains, having his
permission, collected, at most, eight hundred men to see the Brabanters
decamp. They advanced so near as to be visible to all, although there
were some ditches between the two parties. The count de St Pol drew his
men in array, on the ascent of a mountain, namely, the gentlemen and
archers, and so did the english: and in the mean time some skirmishing
took place between the outposts of each, in which several were killed,
wounded and unhorsed, but in no great numbers. The two parties remained
thus for a considerable time in battle array, each waiting for the
other to depart first. While they were in this position, certain
intelligence was brought to the count de St Pol of the day of combat
having been fixed between the dukes of Burgundy and of Glocester, and
that all warfare was to cease until that was over.

On this being made public, and because evening was coming on, the
English marched away to the duke of Glocester in Soignies, and the
count de St Pol with his men to Halx and that neighbourhood, where they
kept a strict watch.

It is a truth that the greater part of the commonalty of Brabant, who
were in the count's army, had been panic-struck, and deserted in great
confusion, leaving suits of armour, without number, carts, cars and
all their warlike instruments dispersed over the fields, although they
were, as I said before, from thirty to forty thousand men, so that
very few remained with their commander and other captains, and it was
not their fault that they did not on that day receive much loss and

The town and castle of Guise was by treaty to have been surrendered
on the first day of March; but sir John de Luxembourg practised so
successfully with John de Proisy the governor, that they were yielded
up to him on the 26th of February, without waiting for the appointed
day. In like manner he gained possession of the fortress of Irechon.

He was, by this means, obeyed throughout the whole county of Guise, to
the great displeasure of Réné d'Anjou duke of Bar, to whom this county
belonged as its true lord. Those who had assembled to be present at the
surrender on the first of March, as well English as Picards, hearing
what had passed, returned to their quarters. Sir John de Luxembourg
gave liberty to the hostages, and passports for them to go whither they
pleased. He also appointed sir Daviod de Poix governor of Guise.

When the count Philip de St Pol and the Brabant-nobles were returned
to Brussels, and the Picards quartered on the borders of Hainault, the
duke of Glocester retreated with his duchess and army from Soignies to
Mons, where he met the countess-dowager of Hainault. Having conferred
with her and some of the nobility, it was determined that he and his
English should return to England, to prepare himself for the combat
that was to take place with the duke of Burgundy.

When he was on the point of his departure, his mother-in-law, the
countess of Hainault, and the nobles and deputies from the principal
towns, requested that he would leave the duchess Jacquiline, whom
he called his wife, and their lady behind. This he assented to, on
condition that they would solemnly swear to him that they would guard
and defend her against all who might attempt to injure her; and more
especially the burghers and inhabitants of Mons were to take this oath,
as she intended to reside within that town.

The duke and duchess of Glocester now separated with many tears and
lamentations; and he departed with from four to five thousand english
combatants for St Gillart, and thence to Yvins near Bohain, where he
lay the first night: he then continued his route by Vy, and after
some days arrived at Calais; but in all the countries through which
he passed he committed no waste, but paid for all his provision very

He carried with him to England Eleanor de Cobham, whom he had brought
with him as companion to the duchess Jacquiline, and was afterward
married to her.

Toward the end of this year king Charles sent ambassadors to the court
of Rome, the principal of whom was the bishop of Leon in Brittany, who
offered, in the king's name, his submission to pope Martin, the which
was very graciously received.



In the beginning of this year, copies of a letter, in the manner of
a bull, from pope Martin to duke John of Brabant, were published
throughout the duke's dominions, the tenour of which was as follows:

'Martin, bishop, and servant to the servants of God, to our dear son
John duke of Brabant health and benediction. Whereas there has lately
come to our knowledge from persons worthy of belief what is very
displeasing to us, namely, that certain papers have been divulged and
publicly read, as coming from us, and in our name, by way of bull, in
divers parts of Hainault, and in the bishopricks of Utrecht, Liége
and Cambray, purporting (as it has been affirmed to us), that we have
confirmed the marriage-contract between our dear son Humphrey duke of
Glocester, and our dear daughter in Jesus Christ Jacquiline, a noble
lady and duchess of Bavaria; and that we have reprobated your marriage
with the said duchess, having judged it invalid.

'Now although such writings have never been issued by us, and have been
published to our great scandal and dishonour, we will that the suit
respecting this said marriage shall be determined according to the
decision of common law.

'And we notify to you, by these presents, that you bear not any
malice nor sorrow in your mind, but firmly hold that the papers thus
scandalously published do not come from us, but from wicked men not
having the fear of God before their eyes, who delight in novelties,
falsehoods and dissentions.

'We will also, that the movers and promoters of such scandal shall, for
the honour of us and of the apostolical chair, be punished in a manner
adequate to the heinousness of the crime they have committed. For this
reason, we have written to our venerable brethren the bishops of
Utrecht, Liége and Cambray, and to each of them, apostolical mandates,
directing them to read this our letter publicly from their pulpits to
the people, to undeceive them relative to the aforesaid scandalous
papers, to excommunicate all who shall henceforth read them in their
presence, or promulgate them, and also to confine them in their persons
until they shall receive further orders on this subject from us.

'Given at Rome, at the church of the holy Apostles, on the ides of
February, in the 8th year of our papacy.'



Not long after the duke of Glocester had left Hainault, the men at
arms of duke John of Brabant and the Picards began an open and severe
warfare against the towns in that country under obedience to the duke
of Glocester, as well as on those belonging to the lords of his party,
by which the inhabitants were sorely oppressed and the country ruined.

To remedy these evils, the countess dowager of Hainault had many
conferences with the duke of Burgundy, her nephew, and with the
ambassadors from the duke of Brabant at Douay, Lille and Oudenarde,
when it was concluded that Hainault should be restored to the
government of the duke of Brabant, who was to promise a general amnesty
to the inhabitants. The duchess Jacquiline was also to be put under
the wardship of the duke of Burgundy, who was to receive a certain sum
of money for her establishment, and she was to remain under his guard
until the suit pending at the court of Rome should be determined.

While this treaty was negotiating, many of the principal towns revolted
from their lady, and placed themselves under the obedience of the dukes
of Burgundy and of Brabant, namely, Valenciennes, Condê, Bouchain and
some others, so that there remained to her scarcely more than the bare
town of Mons, which was nearly blockaded by her enemies, and very small
quantities of provision permitted to be carried into the town.

The inhabitants, seeing themselves in great danger, were much
exasperated against their lady, and told her plainly, that if she did
not make peace, they would deliver her into the hands of the duke of
Brabant: at the same time, they imprisoned many of her attendants, some
of whom they judicially put to death, as shall be hereafter told.

The duchess Jacquiline, greatly alarmed at this sudden change, and
fearing the worst, from what she had witnessed, and from what she had
heard from her lady mother, namely, that she was to be put under the
wardship of the duke of Burgundy, and carried to Flanders, sent letters
in haste, describing her situation, to the duke of Glocester; but these
letters were intercepted, and carried to the duke of Burgundy. Their
contents were as follow.

'My very dear and redoubted lord and father, in the most humble of
manners in this world, I recommend myself to your kind favour. May it
please you to know, my very redoubted lord and father, that I address
myself to your glorious power, as the most doleful, most ruined, and
most treacherously-deceived woman living; for, my very dear lord, on
Sunday the 13th of this present month of June, the deputies of your
town of Mons returned, and brought with them a treaty that had been
agreed on between our fair cousin of Burgundy and our fair cousin of
Brabant, which treaty had been made in the absence, and without the
knowledge of my mother, as she herself signifies to me, and confirmed
by her chaplain master Gerard le Grand.

'My mother, most redoubted lord, has written to me letters, certifying
the above treaty having been made; but that, in regard to it, she knew
not how to advise me, for that she was herself doubtful how to act.
She desired me, however, to call an assembly of the principal burghers
of Mons, and learn from them what aid and advice they were willing to
give me.

'Upon this, my sweet lord and father, I went on the morrow to the town
house, and remonstrated with them, that it had been at their request
and earnest entreaties that you had left me under their safeguard, and
on their oaths that they would be true and loyal subjects, and take
especial care of me, so that they should be enabled to give you good
accounts on your return,--and these oaths had been taken on the holy
sacrament at the altar, and on the sacred evangelists.

'To this my harangue, my dear and honoured lord, they simply replied
that they were not sufficiently strong within the town to defend and
guard me; and instantaneously they rose in tumult, saying that my
people wanted to murder them; and, my sweet lord, they carried matters
so far that, in despite of me, they arrested one of your sergeants,
called Maquart, whom they immediately beheaded, and hanged very many
who were of your party, and strongly attached to your interest, such
as Bardoul de la Porte, his brother Colart, Gilet de la Porte, Jean du
Bois, Guillaume de Leur, Sanson your sergeant, Pierre, Baron, Sandart,
Dandre and others, to the number of two hundred and fifty of your

'They also wished to seize sir Baldwin the treasurer, sir Louis de
Montfort, Haulnere, Jean Fresne and Estienne d'Estre; but though they
did not succeed, I know not what they intend doing,--for my very dear
lord, they plainly told me, that unless I make peace, they will deliver
me into the hands of the duke of Brabant, and that I shall only remain
eight days longer in their town, when I shall be forced to go into
Flanders, which will be to me the most painful of events; for I very
much fear that unless you shall hasten to free me from the hands I am
now in, I shall never see you more.

'Alas! my most dear and redoubted father, my whole hope is in your
power, seeing, my sweet lord and only delight, that all my sufferings
arise from my love to you. I therefore entreat, in the most humble
manner possible, and for the love of God, that you would be pleased to
have compassion on me and on my affairs; for you must hasten to succour
your most doleful creature, if you do not wish to lose her for ever. I
have hopes that you will do as I beg, for, dear father, I have never
behaved ill to you in my whole life, and so long as I shall live I will
never do any thing to displease you, but I am ready to die for love of
you and your noble person.

'Your government pleases me much, and by my faith, my very redoubted
lord and prince, my sole consolation and hope, I beg you will consider,
by the love of God and of my lord St George, the melancholy situation
of myself and my affairs more maturely than you have hitherto done, for
you seem entirely to have forgotten me.

'Nothing more do I know at present than that I ought sooner have
sent sir Louis de Montfort to you; for he cannot longer remain here,
although he attended me when all the rest deserted me; and he will tell
you more particularly all that has happened than I can do in a letter.
I entreat, therefore, that you will be a kind lord to him, and send me
your good pleasure and commands, which I will most heartily obey. This
is known to the blessed Son of God, whom I pray to grant you a long and
happy life, and that I may have the great joy of seeing you soon.

'Written in the false and traitorous town of Mons, with a doleful
heart, the 6th day of June.' The signature below was, 'Your
sorrowful and well beloved daughter, suffering great grief by your
commands,--your daughter de Quienebourg.'

With the above was found another of the following tenour:

'Very dear and well-beloved cousin I commend myself to you. May it
please you to know, that at this present moment, I am grieved at heart
from having been wickedly and falsely betrayed, and am so overwhelmed
that I cannot write particulars; but if you will have the goodness to
make enquiries from our very dear and redoubted lord, he will tell you
more than you may wish to hear.

'I have nothing more to say, but that you retain in hand what you are
possessed of, in case my dear lord should come. With regard to what you
advise for me to cross the sea, it is now too late. Hasten as fast as
you can, with the greatest force you can raise, to deliver me from the
hands of the Flemings, for within eight days I shall be given up into
their power.

'Very dear and beloved cousin, I pray God to give you a long and happy
life. Written in this false and traitorous town of Mons, the 6th day of
June. Jacquiline de Quienebourg.'

It appears by the above letters, that the duchess was much afraid of
going to Flanders.

When the deputies of Mons were returned from their conference with the
dukes of Burgundy and of Brabant, it was known that many things had
been agreed on contrary to the interest of the countess-dowager of
Hainault, and of the duchess Jacquiline her daughter. And on the 13th
day of June, Jacqueline, having no means of resistance, departed from
the town of Mons accompanied by the prince of Orange, and other lords
commissioned for this purpose by the duke of Burgundy, who conducted
her to the town of Ghent, where she was lodged in, the ducal palace,
and had an establishment suitable to her rank.

Duke John of Brabant, according to the treaty, took on him the
government of Hainault, whence he ordered all the men at arms, and
published a general amnesty for all that had passed.

Thus did the inhabitants of Mons deliver their lady and legal princess
into the hands of the duke of Burgundy against her will, although they
had, a short time before, promised and sworn to the duke of Glocester
that they would guard and defend her against all who should attempt any
way to hurt her.



On the vigil of the feast of St Peter and St Paul, the duke of
Bedford, the regent, accompanied by his duchess, arrived in the town
of Corbie, escorted by about eight hundred horsemen. There were with
him the bishop of Therouenne, chancellor of France for king Henry, the
president of the parliament, and many other noblemen members of the

Two days after, the duke of Burgundy came thither to see the regent and
his sister, when they gave each other a hearty welcome, particularly
on the part of the duke of Burgundy. Soon after, this duke went to
Luchen, where his cousin-german the count de St Pol resided; and on the
morrow, about four o'clock in the afternoon he returned to Dourlens
with the count de St Pol. He thence conducted the regent and his sister
to his castle of Hesdin, where he lodged them and their attendants, and
entertained them magnificently. They all remained there for six days,
passing the time joyously in feasting, drinking, dancing, hunting, and
in divers other amusements. At the end of six days the duke and duchess
of Bedford departed with their attendants, and went from Hesdin to
Abbeville, where they staid some time.

They thence went to Crotoy, where the duke d'Alençon was prisoner, whom
the regent sent for into his presence, and reasoned long to prevail
on him to take the oath of allegiance to king Henry of Lancaster, as
then he would be released from his confinement, and all his lands and
lordships restored to him, adding, that should he refuse to comply, he
would run much personal danger.

The duke d'Alençon replied, that he was firmly resolved never, during
his life, to take any oath contrary to his loyalty to king Charles of
France, his true and legal lord. On hearing this answer, the regent
ordered him from his presence into confinement, and then, passing
through the country of Caux, returned to Paris.

During the time the regent was at Hesdin, the bastard de St Pol and
Andrew de Humieres appeared there with silver rings on their right
arms, whereon was painted a sun with its rays. They had put them on as
a challenge to the English and their allies, maintaining that duke John
of Brabant had a more just right to the government and possession of
Hainault and the other territories of Jacquiline of Bavaria, his lady,
than the duke of Glocester.

The regent was at first desirous that these rings should be taken from
them by some of his men, for he had been given to understand that their
wearing them was owing to another quarrel, for which they wanted to
fight with the English; but, in the end, he was well satisfied with
them,--and nothing farther was done in the matter.

When the duke of Glocester was returned to London, he was sharply
reprimanded by the council, in presence of the young king Henry, on his
expedition into Hainault, and on the manner in which he had conducted
himself in regard to the duke of Burgundy, the most potent prince of
the blood-royal of France: he was much blamed,--because they said from
such conduct a coolness might arise between the king and the duke, the
alliances between them broken, and all their conquests in France lost.
The duke of Glocester was plainly told, that he would not, in this
business, have any aid of men or money from the king, which very much
dissatisfied him, but, at the moment, he could not remedy it.



When the Saracens, whom we have before mentioned, left Cyprus, they
waited on the Sultan, and, as a sign of their victory, carried with
them the head and spurs of the knight whom they had slain with a lance.
They proclaimed throughout the town of Cairo that it was the head of
the brother to the king of Cyprus, Henry prince of Galilee,--but in
this they lied.

Nevertheless, the sultan and his courtiers were so much puffed up with
this victory, that they resolved to raise so large an army as should
destroy the whole kingdom of Cyprus. There was at this time in the town
of Damascus a great, powerful and rich Saracen, who was considered
throughout Syria as a saint: he was much reverenced by the sultan,
although a cordial friend to the king of Cyprus.

When this holy man heard of the destruction which the six saracen
gallies had done in Cyprus, he went to Cairo, and reproved and blamed
the sultan for having thus commenced a war, insomuch that the sultan
repented of what he had done, and consented that a peace should be
made. To accomplish this purpose the holy Saracen determined to send
his son to Cyprus to treat thereof; but, on his arrival in the island,
the king would not admit him to his presence, but sent his ministers
to inquire into his business. He would not explain the cause of his
coming to them, but said, if he could have a personal interview with
the king, he would engage that an honourable peace should be made with
the sultan. The ministers of the king of Cyprus remonstrated with him
on the folly of the sultan in beginning the war, because he would have
all Christendom against him. The Saracen replied, that the sultan was
perfectly well informed of the state of Christendom; that the king of
France, his most mortal enemy, had now so much on his hands that he no
way feared him.

After this conversation, he returned to his father in Damascus, and
related to him the reception he had met with in Cyprus, and that
the king would not even see or hear him. The holy man was so much
exasperated against the king of Cyprus, that he became, ever after,
his most mortal enemy, and was continually urging the sultan to make
war on Cyprus, declaring there could be no doubt but that he would be
victorious over his enemies.



The duke of Burgundy lost no time in making his preparations, as well
in armour as in housings for his horses, to be ready for the day of
combat with the duke of Glocester. The greater part of his armour he
had forged within his castle of Hesdin. He also exercised himself with
all diligence, and was very abstemious, the better to strengthen his
breath; for in truth he was very impatient for the arrival of the day,
that he might combat his enemy, as he well knew that his brother-in-law
the regent and his council were endeavouring, by all means, to procure
a reconciliation, and that measures for the same effect were pursuing
with the duke of Glocester in England.

In the mean time, the regent ordered the earl of Salisbury to besiege
the castle of Rambouillet, in the possession of king Charles's
partisans, who at times made excursions even to the gates of Paris, and
heavily oppressed the people. The castle held out some time, and then
surrendered to the earl, on condition that the garrison should carry
away their effects.

About the feast of St John Baptist, the people of Tournay again
rebelled, and gained the government of the town to rule it as it
had formerly been done by one named Passecarte, with another called
Blarie and others of low degree, who for their misconduct had been
banished the town. The populace, however, with displayed banners and
in arms, brought them back in triumph, and replaced them in their
situations contrary to the will of the higher ranks of burghers and the
magistrates, some of whom were imprisoned and in great danger of their
lives; but all was after some time appeased.

In this year, the sultan of Egypt required the aid of the king of Tunis
to carry on his war against Cyprus, which was granted him. He then
collected the largest possible force of armed vessels from all his
dependancies, which he victualled and filled with men, and sent them,
under the command of one of his admirals, to make a descent on Cyprus,
near to Famagousta, where, having effected a landing, they overran the
country and committed innumerable mischiefs.

At this period, the king of Cyprus lay dangerously ill; for which
reason, he appointed his brother, the prince of Galilee, captain and
commander in chief of his army. The prince collected the whole force of
Cyprus, and advanced to where the Saracens were to offer them combat;
but they, having intelligence of his motions, retreated to their

The prince pursued them; but when near to them, he found that the
greater part of his vessels had deserted, which forced him to return to
Nicosia; and the Saracens relanded, behaving worse than they had done
before, so that the country was destroyed wherever they came.

After they had gorged themselves with plunder and rapine, they returned
to Syria with numbers of Christian prisoners. They carried off with
them a gentleman of high renown, called Ragonnet de Picul, who had
been taken in the large tower of Lymissa, and presented him to the
sultan for he had defended himself like a man of valour.

The sultan attempted strongly to persuade him to renounce the religion
of Jesus Christ, promising to make him a great lord if he would so do;
but he would never listen to such proposals, and even in the presence
of the sultan contemned the doctrines of Mohammed, which so much
exasperated the sultan that he caused his body to be sawn in twain.

It was afterward assured for truth, by many persons worthy of belief,
that on the spot where he had been buried they saw a crown of fire
descend from heaven to earth, and repose on the aforesaid grave.

When the earl of Salisbury had conquered the castle of Rambouillet, he
went to lay siege to the town of Mans St Julien. Having surrounded it,
he was some time combating the garrison with his engines of war; but
the inhabitants, despairing of succour, offered to capitulate.

The bishop and other churchmen waited on the earl, and, with all
humility, besought him to take pity on them, to avoid further
effusion of Christian blood. The earl inclined to their prayers, and
concluded a treaty, that if within eight days they were not relieved
by king Charles's party, they were to surrender the town with all its
artillery, arms and stores, and to swear allegiance to king Henry. In
return, they were to enjoy all their effects unmolested. Upon this,
they gave sufficient hostages for their due performance of the above;
and as they were not succoured by any one, they delivered the town up
to the earl of Salisbury, who, after placing a new garrison within it,
returned to the duke of Bedford at Rouen.



The duchess Jacquiline, finding her confinement in Ghent very irksome,
began about the beginning of September to look for means of escape.
One evening, when her guards were at supper, she dressed herself in
man's clothes, as did one of her women, and, quitting her apartments
unobserved, they mounted horses which were waiting for them, and,
escorted by two men, rode off full gallop from Ghent to Antwerp, where
she reassumed her female dress, and thence proceeded on a car to Breda,
and to la Garide[6], where she was honourably received, and obeyed as
their princess.

She there ordered the lord de Montfort, her principal adviser, to meet
her, and many of the noble barons of Holland, to take council with them
on the state of her affairs. Knowledge of this event was soon carried
to the duke of Burgundy, who was much troubled thereat, and sent in
haste for men at arms from all quarters: he collected numerous vessels
to pursue the duchess into Holland, whither he also went in person.

On his arrival in Holland, many of the principal towns opened their
gates to him, such has Harlem, Dordrecht, Rotterdam, and some others.
Then began a serious war between the duke of Burgundy and the duchess
Jacquiline of Bavaria, his cousin-german.


[Footnote 6: La Garide. Q. if not meant for Gertruydenberg?]



In the month of September, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself
regent of France, assembled in the city of Paris many of the nobles of
France, some learned men from the three estates, and the ambassadors
from England, to consider on the combat that had been declared between
the dukes of Burgundy and of Glocester. Having for several days
discussed the origin of this quarrel, and all matters appertaining
thereto in council, it was concluded, after mature deliberation, that
there was no cause for a combat; and although a day had been fixed for
it to take place, it was annulled; and it was declared that neither
party was bound to make any satisfaction to the other.

There were present at this meeting, on the part of the duke of
Burgundy, the bishop of Tournay: from the duke of Glocester, the bishop
of London: each of them attended by some of their lord's council.

On the 17th of this same month, the marriage between Charles de Bourbon
count de Clermont, son and heir to the duke of Bourbon, a prisoner
in England, and Agnes, sister to the duke of Burgundy, was solemnly
celebrated in the city of Autun. The duchess-dowager of Burgundy,
sister to the duke de Bourbon, was present at the ceremony and feasts;
and when they were finished she returned to Dijon, where she suddenly
departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Carthusians,
without the walls of Dijon, being followed to the grave by the
universal sorrow and lamentations of the Burgundians, who loved her
much; for she was a good and pious lady toward God and man.

In this year, an embassy was sent to the holy father in Rome from
the two kingdoms of France and England, consisting of the abbot of
Orcamp and two knights from France, and of the abbot of Beaulieu and
two knights from England, to summon the pope, (in like manner as had
been done previously to the last general council held at Constance)
to convoke a council to perfect and accomplish those things that had
been left unfinished at the last council, notifying to him, at the
same time, that he had too long delayed this, which was hurtful to the
universal church.

In this year, a great quarrel took place in England between the duke
of Glocester and the cardinal of Winchester. The cause of this discord
arose from the duke wishing to have the government of his nephew the
young king, who had been by his father king Henry given in wardship to
the cardinal.

The cardinal, overpowered by force, was constrained to take refuge,
from the duke of Glocester, in the tower of London, where he remained
six days, without daring to venture abroad, for eight or ten of his
people had been slain. At length peace was made between them; and the
parliament was assembled to take cognisance of their dispute. During
its sitting, the young king Henry was frequently brought thither, and
seated on the royal throne: the earl-marshal was then created a duke.
This parliament lasted a considerable time, in which many weighty
matters were discussed, relative to affairs in France as well as in

In the month of December the duke and duchess of Bedford, attended
by about five hundred combatants, left Paris for Amiens, where they
staid some days. While the duke was at Amiens, there were in that
neighbourhood about a thousand pillagers, well mounted, under the
command of one Sauvage de Fermanville, who was not in favour with the
regent. Sauvage was quartered at Esclusiers, near Peronne, and hearing
that the duke was to leave Amiens, for Dourlens, lightly accompanied,
was in hopes of taking him by surprise, and to this effect he marched
his men from Esclusiers, and hastily advanced to Beauquesne, where he
halted; but the duke had passed by, and was lodged in Dourlens, and
thence went to Calais, by St Pol, and Therouenne. He embarked from
Calais to England, whither he went to reprimand and check his brother
Humphrey of Glocester, for his conduct toward the duke of Burgundy.

When the duke of Bedford learnt the intentions of Sauvage de
Fermanville he was very indignant, and so managed that some time
afterward, he was severely punished, as you shall hear, for this and
others of his evil deeds.



While the duke of Burgundy was carrying on a deadly warfare in Holland
against his cousin the duchess Jacquiline, about five hundred English,
all picked men, arrived at Zuricksee in Zealand, under the command
of the lord Fitzwalter, calling himself lieutenant for the duke of
Glocester in the countries of Holland and Zealand. This body of men
advanced toward the duchess to aid her to support the war.

The duke of Burgundy was at Leyden when he heard of the landing of this
reinforcement; he departed thence with about four thousand combatants,
whom he had assembled from his different territories, and marched to
Rotterdam, where he embarked with the intent to meet the English and
offer them battle. In the mean time, a party of Burgundians, falling in
with them, were defeated, slain or made prisoners by the English.

The duke having had intelligence that his enemies, Dutch, Zealanders,
and English, amounted from two to three thousand combatants, and were
at the port of _Branvers[7] en une aduene_, he marched thither, and
made so successful an attack on them that they were soon discomfited.
From seven to eight hundred of his enemies lay dead on the field: the
rest fled in great confusion toward the sea-shore, and great part saved
themselves on board their vessels. Among those who escaped were the
lord Fitzwalter and the lord de Hentredée.

On the part of the duke of Burgundy, the only man of note that was
killed, was sir Andrew de Valines: Robert de Brimeu was carried away
so badly wounded that he died thereof. After this victory, the duke
collected his men around him, and most humbly returned thanks to his
Creator for the fortunate issue of the day. Having strengthened the
garrisons of those towns under his obedience, he returned to Flanders
to collect reinforcements to carry on his war in Holland against the
duchess with greater vigour.

On the duke of Burgundy's leaving Holland, the duchess Jacquiline
assembled a large force, and led it before Harlem, which she closely
blockaded. The captains for the duke within the town were the damoiseau
Ysambergue and sir Roland de Hultquerre knight, with a sufficient
garrison. During the siege, sir John de Hultquerre, son to sir Roland,
assembled in haste a body of men, from seven to eight hundred, of
nobles and common people, from Flanders, whom he conducted into
Holland by forced marches to succour his father; but his intentions
were known to the duchess, who detached a force to meet him,--and he
was found near the sea with his men in great disorder, so that, when
attacked, he was speedily routed: the greater part were made prisoners:
the others escaped with sir John de Hultquerre.

The duchess was delighted with her victory, but cruelly caused the
prisoners to be put to death: and after this, from fear of the arrival
of the duke of Burgundy, who was raising an immense army in Flanders
and Artois, she raised the siege of Harlem.

In this year, the earl of Salisbury besieged the castle of Moyennes in
Champagne, which was beyond measure strong and well garrisoned with
men at arms. During the siege, there were many severe skirmishes on
each side. In one of them, Valerien de Bournouville, brother to sir
Lyonnel de Bournouville, was slain by a lance passing through his body.
However, notwithstanding the obstinate resistance of the garrison, from
the length of the siege, they were forced to capitulate, with liberty
to depart with their baggage and effects. The castle was afterward
razed to the ground.

When the duke of Burgundy was in Flanders, he had many conferences with
his cousin the duke of Brabant and his council, respecting the affairs
of Holland. Many great lords there joined him, and a noble chivalry
from Burgundy under the command of the prince of Orange. With these
and a large body of Picards and Flemings, the duke returned to Holland
about Mid-Lent, and renewed his war more earnestly than before against
the duchess Jacquiline and her adherents.

Although several of the principal towns soon surrendered to him, the
duchess collected about four thousand combatants, and led them to the
town of Horn, on the borders of Frizeland to conquer it by surprise.
Within the place was the lord de l'Isle-Adam, the bastard de St Pol,
and about five hundred combatants, who with great gallantry sallied out
against the enemy, and fought them with such determined courage that
they conquered and put them to flight.

Four hundred were left dead on the field, and the numbers of the
wounded were very great indeed. On the part of the duke of Burgundy
were slain the bastard de la Viefville and about ten archers; and in
consequence of this defeat, the greater part of Holland submitted to
him. There were very many severe rencounters between the two parties in
Holland, but it would be too tedious to relate them in detail: suffice
it to say, that in general the success of them was against the duchess
Jacquiline,--for the duke's men had been long experienced in arms, and
were expert in war; add to this, he had plenty of archers, to whose
mode of fighting the Hollanders had not been accustomed.


[Footnote 7: Branvers. Q. Brouvershaven?]

[A.D. 1426.]



At the beginning of this year, the duke of Burgundy assembled a
great body of men at arms from his countries of Flanders, Artois and
Burgundy, whom, after he had finished his preparations, he led into
Holland, to the attack of a strong town called Zeneuberche, which, with
its lord, had supported the party of the duchess Jacquiline of Bavaria,
and, in consequence, had carried on a severe warfare by sea and land
against the friends of the duke of Burgundy.

The town was surrounded on all sides, and vigorously attacked; but the
lord of it had a numerous garrison, with whom he for a considerable
time made a gallant defence,--but at length the lord de Zeneuberche was
forced to capitulate, and on the hard terms that he should surrender
the town, its inhabitants and dependancies to the duke, and also that
he and all the gentlemen with him should yield themselves up to the
will of the duke, on having their lives spared, and promise to remain
prisoners on their parole, in any place whithersoever he might please
to order them.

The whole of the stores in the town and castle were given up to the
duke, as well as the shipping: the foreign soldiers were allowed to
march away, on taking an oath that they would never make war on any
of the territories of the duke of Burgundy. All the prisoners of
the duke's party were set at liberty, among whom were the lord de
Moyencourt, the damoiseau d'Ercle and others.

The burghers and inhabitants of the town took the oaths of allegiance
to the duke, or to his commissioners,--and on paying a certain sum
of money they remained in peace. Thus was the lord de Zeneuberche
deprived of his town and fortune, and, in addition, carried to Lille.

The duke, having regarrisoned the place with his own men, marched his
army back to Flanders and Artois; but the lord de Humbercourt, sir
Manfroy de St Leger, and some others, died of an epidemical disorder in
their march home.

The duke of Bedford, after a residence of eight months in England
with his duchess, returned to Calais, escorted by three thousand
combatants, and thence to Paris, where he remained some time, to
regulate the affairs of France. He thence went to Lille, where he and
his duchess were joyfully received by the duke of Burgundy. They had
many conferences together on the subject of the dissentions between the
dukes of Burgundy and Glocester; but as the regent could not any way
succeed in bringing about a pacification, he returned to Paris.

In these days, the duke of Glocester, on the departure of his brother,
the duke of Bedford, for France, issued his summonses for the raising
a large force to succour the duchess Jacquiline in Holland, whom he
called his wife. The earl of Salisbury and many other great lords had
connected themselves with him, in opposition to the duke of Burgundy;
but the duke of Bedford, hearing of these movements, sent in haste
ambassadors to his brother of Glocester, who prevailed on him to give
up his intentions, on the conclusion of a truce for a certain period,
in the hope that, in the course of time, peace might be made between
them. The abbot of Orcamp and master John le Duc were the ambassadors
on this occasion.


[Footnote 8: Zeneuberche. Q. Nieuverkerk?]



About this period, many knights and esquires arrived at Cyprus, in
consequence of the king of Cyprus's solicitations, to oppose the
Saracens, who were daily expected to return thither. The king collected
all the forces within the island, whom he provided with lodging, food
and money, as well as he could, according to their different ranks.

While they were thus expecting the Saracens, his army, which was
collected from various nations, mutinied, so that the king had much
difficulty to keep peace among them, and knew not whom to appoint
as commander in chief, who would be agreeable to them. During these
dissentions, the Saracens came before Cyprus in prodigious numbers, and
landed at Lymeson: they besieged the great tower, and, notwithstanding
it had been much strengthened, and was full of men at arms, they took
it by storm, and killed the governor, Estienne de Buyserse, and all his

The king, hearing of this, assembled his council, and demanded what
measures he should pursue. The greater part proposed that he should
remain in the town of Nicosia, saying that a country wasted was better
than a country lost; but all the foreigners were of a contrary
opinion, and advised him to march his army into the plain, and combat
boldly an enemy who was destroying his kingdom, and putting to death
his subjects. The king, on this, determined to march his army to meet
the Saracens; and on the second day after, when he was mounted, his
horse, at the first step, fell on its knees to the ground. The prince
of Galilee also, his brother, let his sword fall out of the scabbard on
the earth: many persons thought these such omens of ill success, that
they had but little hopes of victory.

This day, the king advanced three leagues, and fixed his quarters at a
very beautiful spot called Beaulieu. On the Saturday following, for on
the Thursday, he had taken the field, he marched in handsome array to
a town called Citolye[9]. On the ensuing Sunday, the 6th day of July,
after the king had attended mass, and was seated at table, and while he
and his army were at dinner, a great smoke was seen in different parts
not far distant, and intelligence was brought that the Saracens were
advancing against him.

The commander of Cyprus, with some of the knights of Rhodes, the lord
de Varemboulais, and several gentlemen from France, hearing this,
requested the king's permission to go and reconnoitre the enemy. It was
very unwillingly granted. They advanced so far that they fell in with
the Saracens, with whom they skirmished, and killed a few; but numbers
were so much against them that they could not longer resist, and,
leaving nearly thirty dead behind them, retreated as well as they could
to their army, which they met, with the king, advancing at a quick pace.

The king of Cyprus marched his army without much order for some time,
and at last came in sight of the Saracens near to a town called Domy.
He had near him his brother the prince of Galilee, the constable of
Jerusalem, two german counts, and the flower of his own chivalry.
The king charged the Saracens very gallantly and rapidly, insomuch
that at the onset they suffered much; but fortune seemed unwilling
to continue her favours, for the king's horse fell under him to the
ground and burst the girths of the saddle; so that when the king was
remounted, and engaged in the combat, the saddle turned, and he fell
to the ground: the horse galloped off, and necessity forced him to
mount a small horse of one of his esquires, named Anthony Kaire, for
the boys had fled for fear with all the war-horses. By reason of this
accident, most of the Cypriots believed their king was killed, and
were panic-struck. The Saracens were beginning to retreat toward the
coast, but, observing some disorder in the enemy's army, recovered
their courage, and with their main body charged the Christians with
such vigour that the king was obliged to retire to Citolye, whence he
had departed; but when almost close to it, he was surrounded by the
Saracens, and his entrance cut off.

The Christians were now discomfited, and began to fly on all sides as
fast as they could. The king retired to an eminence, alway attended by
his brother the prince of Galilee, who said to him, 'My lord, you see
clearly that your men are flying, and that all resistance against the
enemy is vain: deign, therefore, to save yourself, and take compassion
on your kingdom, for should you be made prisoner we shall all be
ruined. Take with you therefore some of your most faithful servants,
and retire to a place of safety. In the mean time, I will remain here
with the banners until I shall be sure that you have escaped, and will
then save myself in the manner God shall be pleased to point out to me.'

The king, on hearing these words, looked with much tenderness on his
brother, and replied, 'Fair brother, God forbid that I should separate
myself from you: go, and comfort and rally my people, and urge them to
the assistance of their natural lord and sovereign in his distress.'

The prince of Galilee departed, but was met by a large body of
Saracens, by whom, after displaying acts of valour worthy of a prince,
he was slain and left dead on the field. On the other hand, the king
was so hardly pressed that, finding himself abandoned by his men,
he descended the eminence and made for a small valley; but he was
pursued, wounded in four places, and at length struck off his horse.

The Saracens, ignorant that it was the king, rushed on him from all
quarters to put him to death, when a knight from Catalonia, called sir
Galleran Savary, throwing himself over the king's body, cried out,
in the syrian language, 'It is the king! it is the king!' upon which
a saracen captain made a sign with his hand, when all around dropped
their swords to the ground, and the captain thrust his own into the
scabbard. He then advanced to the king, took him by the hand, and,
addressing him in Greek, said, that it had pleased God to deliver him
into the hands and power of the sultan. 'You will come before him;
but take comfort, for I have the greatest hopes that he will be a
good friend to you.' The catalonian knight was made prisoner with the
king; for his life was spared on account of the great courage he had

Thus was the king of Cyprus made captive by the Saracens, who fastened
a chain round his neck: and, shortly after, a body of saracen infantry
came up, who wanted, by all means, to put the king to death, but God,
from his kind mercy saved him, for he was a man of great charity, and
of a pious life toward his God.

The army of Cyprus, after its defeat, saved itself as well as it could,
and the greater part fled to the mountains: there remained dead on the
field from sixteen to seventeen hundred. The Saracens carried the king
to the coast where their shipping lay, and put him under a strong guard.

There were in this battle two counts from Germany, namely, the count
de Humberche and the count de Noorch, protector of Cologne, with a
certain number of their vassals. There were also from Savoy the lord
de Varembon and sir John de Champaigns lord de Gruffy,--and all these
gentlemen escaped death and imprisonment.

When the news of this defeat and capture of the king was known
throughout Cyprus, sir Gilles de Lusignan, brother to the king and
archbishop of Nicosia, sir James de Caffran marshal of Cyprus, who
had remained as guard to the royal children, were much troubled at
these melancholy events; and, about midnight of this same Sunday, they
left the city of Nicosia, carrying with them the king's sister and
his children, to the castle of Cerines, on the sea coast, about five
leagues distant from Nicosia, where they remained until the king's

On the morrow, Monday, the commonalty of the town hastened to the
palace to learn some news of the king; but finding no one to speak
with, they returned home, and taking their wives, children and effects,
quitted the town, leaving the whole abandoned to old beggars and blind
men. Some of them fled to Famagousta, others to Cerines, to divers
towns, or to the mountains, so that it was a piteous spectacle.

On the second day after the battle, the chief of the Saracens marched
his army to Nicosia, which he found abandoned. He was lodged in the
royal palace, and caused a proclamation to be instantly issued for all
the inhabitants to return to their houses and occupations, on promise
of not being disturbed, or any way molested. In consequence of this
proclamation, from ten to twelve thousand persons returned to the city.

The king of Cyprus and the grand master of Rhodes had at this time
a considerable fleet at sea, on board of which were the bastard of
Burgundy, brother to duke Philip, the lord de Roubaix, and many other
great lords from divers countries, very impatient to combat the
Saracens, but they never could have a favorable wind to carry them near
the infidels. The bastard of Burgundy had arrived at Baffa, in hopes of
being present at the battle in which the king was captured; but hearing
of the unfortunate issue of that day, he and his men returned and
embarked again on board of the fleet.

At length, the Christians had a favourable wind, which brought them in
a short time within sight of the enemy's fleet. The commander of the
Saracens was then on board, and, seeing the Christians so numerous,
sent messengers in haste to the governor of Nicosia, ordering him, on
pain of being reputed a traitor, to return with his men to his ship
without delay. This order he obeyed, but not until he had plundered
the city of all that he could, and reduced the inhabitants to poverty.
He also set fire to the royal palace and to several other parts of the
town, and then marched for Salina, where the saracen fleet lay. On
their march, they forcibly took many children from the breasts of their
mothers, and flung them on thorns among the hedges, and then stoned
them to death.

On the other hand, the Saracens, who had the guard of the king of
Cyprus, made him write letters to the admiral of the Christian fleet,
containing in substance that he must be careful not to do any damage
to the saracen ships, if he valued the life of the king. Sir Galeran
Savary was the bearer of these letters in a small galliot. The admiral
obeyed these orders, which, according to the opinions of many, he ought
not to have done; but there was a good deal of fighting between the
vessels before these orders arrived, particularly by the bowmen, in
which there were very many killed and wounded.

At this affair, Guy bastard of Burgundy, brother to duke Philip, Simon
de Lan, Robert lord de Rebecque, and others from different countries
were made knights, although no vessel was taken on either side, but one
having pilgrims on board, as shall be now mentioned. While the fleets
were drawing up against each other, a ship filled with pilgrims eager
to acquire honour, concluding for certain, that as the Christian fleet
was in sight of the Saracens, a combat must insue, advanced so near
that of the infidels that they could not put back; and notwithstanding
succour was instantly sent them, and that they were in sight of the
king of Cyprus, they were all hacked to pieces, as butchers would chop
meat in a market, excepting a very few who were detained prisoners.
Some days after, the saracen fleet, having the king of Cyprus on board,
sailed for Egypt.

On the arrival of the Saracens in Egypt, they conducted the king of
Cyprus to Cairo to the sultan of Babylon, and the other Christian
prisoners chained two and two like beasts. They dragged after them the
banner of the holy virgin reversed on the ground, and then followed the
king mounted on a small mule without saddle and bound with chains. In
this manner were they led into the presence of the sultan of Babylon,
and constrained to bow their heads nine times to the very ground,
kissing it each time. When they arrived in front of the sultan, who was
seated in great pomp in a high gallery, he kept them a full hour in his
presence, and then had them conducted to a tower for their prison so
long as he should stay in Cairo, where the sultan was served royally
and abundantly with all sorts of provision, excepting wine; but this
was secretly supplied to him by Christian merchants. The other Cypriot
prisoners were confined in divers places.

While the king of Cyprus thus remained prisoner to the sultan of
Babylon in Cairo, the archbishop of Nicosia, brother to the king, sent
for sir Peter de Lusignan, constable of Jerusalem, and resigned to
him the government of the island of Cyprus. He was no sooner in the
possession thereof than he executed rigorous justice by punishing all
who in these times of tribulation had attempted to revolt. Shortly
after, the archbishop returned to Nicosia, which by degrees was

In the course of time, a genoese merchant, named Benedict Percussin,
moved by compassion, required of the regency at Cyprus, that he might
be sent to Cairo, for that he had great hopes of obtaining the king's
liberty. He was accordingly sent thither, and was so successful with
the sultan that he ransomed the king of Cyprus for two hundred thousand
ducats, and on condition that he would also pay an annual tribute to
the sultans of Babylon of five thousand ducats.

Thus was peace made between the sultan and the king of Cyprus, and on
the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, the latter was delivered from
chains. After this, the sultan frequently sought opportunities of
conversing with him, and put different questions by way of tempting him
to abandon the Christian faith; but the king made such sagacious and
prudent answers, that the sultan not knowing how to reply, ordered him
refreshments of all sorts and then dismissed him,--for on the ransom
being agreed on, the sultan had him taken from his prison and lodged in
the town.

The king was often permitted to make excursions into the country
for his amusement, well mounted, but alway attended by some of the
Saracens. When part of his ransom was paid, and security accepted for
the remainder, on Palm Sunday he had his full liberty, and embarked on
board a galley in the port of Alexandria. In company with the admiral
of Rhodes, he disembarked at Cerines, where he was met by his sister,
his children and all the nobles and gentlemen of the island, who most
reverently and humbly gave thanks to our Lord Jesus Christ for his safe

Some days afterward he left Cerines, and went to Nicosia, where he was
joyfully received by his subjects, and was lodged at the mansion of
the constable of Jerusalem, wherein he ever after remained, because
his own palace had been burnt and destroyed by the Saracens. After
the death of his queen Charlotte, he never remarried, nor, as his
attendants firmly believed, had he connection with any other woman: he
lived after this for a considerable length of time.


[Footnote 9: Citolye. Q. Chiti.]



In these days, the castle of Moyennes in Champagne was surprised by a
party from king Charles, through the treachery of an Englishman of the
garrison. It was, however, instantly besieged by the earl of Salisbury,
who remained so long before it that it was forced to surrender. The
French within it were allowed to depart in safety; but those who had
been attached to the english and burgundian party were punished with
death,--and among them was a gentleman called Gilles de Clary. Sir John
de Luxembourg was present at the surrender; and when the walls had been
completely demolished, he returned to his castle of Beaurevoir.

The pope this year published his definitive sentence in the suit of the
duke of Brabant, by which he declared that the marriage between the
duke of Glocester and Jacquiline duchess of Bavaria was null and void;
and that if the duke of Brabant should die, the said duke of Glocester
and the duchess Jacquiline could not be legally married to each other.

The duke of Glocester, on being informed of this sentence of the pope,
took to wife a woman of low degree compared with his rank, named
Eleanor Cobham, of whom mention has been before made. The duke had for
some time lived with her as his mistress; and her character was not
spotless in regard to her connexions with others beside the duke. This
created much wonder in France and in England, considering that the duke
did not act conformably to the blood he sprung from.

At this period sir John Blondel, accompanied by John Blondel, his
cousin german, and eight others his companions in arms, by means of
the chaplain, gained the fortress of Oripecte in Provence, of which
John Cadart was governor, and made him prisoner, expecting to receive
a large sum for his ransom. News of this was soon spread over the
country; and the place was so expeditiously and strongly besieged that
those who had won it were glad to be allowed to depart in safety, and
without carrying away any thing. Notwithstanding this treaty, on their
marching out, John Blondel was slain by the peasants, and the chaplain
who had done the treason was beheaded.



This year, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France for
king Henry, had the town and castle of Montargis besieged by the earls
of Warwick and Suffolk. With them were the lord de la Pole, brother to
the earl of Suffolk, sir Henry Bisset and other captains, having under
them three thousand combatants.

The town was so situated that it required three different sieges,
which could with difficulty afford assistance to each other: however,
the English formed lodgements all around it and fortified them. The
earl of Warwick was quartered in a nunnery on one side of the town.
They soon threw bridges over different parts of the river to serve for
communications between their quarters.

Having done this, they made vigorous approaches toward the town, which
they damaged very much by their cannon and engines of war. The besieged
made so good a defence, that the business was continued for more than
two months, during which time they sent notice to king Charles that
unless speedy succours were afforded them, they must surrender to
his enemies. The king, hearing this, assembled his council, when it
was resolved to raise the siege, or at least to throw reinforcements
of men and provision into the place. This was attempted but without
effect. An assembly of men at arms was then ordered by king Charles
at Orleans, and the command of them given by the king to the count
de Dunois bastard of Orleans. He had with him sir William d'Albreth
lord d'Orval, the lords de Graville, de Villag, de Gaucourt, Estienne
Vignolles surnamed La Hire, sir Gilles de St Simon, Gaultier Boussart,
and many other captains, amounting to sixteen hundred combatants, all
men of tried courage. They commenced their march with a large train of
forage-carts, intending only to revictual the town, and not to raise
the siege.

When they were arrived within half a league of the enemy's camp, they
held a council as secretly as they could, and determined to attack
the nearest quarters of the English. They had some of the garrison of
Montargis with them as guides,--and in the number was one called le
Petit Breton.

La Hire was appointed leader of one of the parties, and fell on the
English quarters with great courage, shouting, 'Montjoye St Denis!'
The English were quite unprepared,--and their camp was soon on fire in
various parts,--and much slaughter was committed near to where the lord
de la Pole was lodged: indeed the whole of that part was defeated, and
the lord de la Pole escaped with eight others in a small boat.

The garrison of the town had dammed up the river so high that the
bridges the English had made were overflowed, and most of them who
attempted to escape over them fell into the water and were drowned.

The bastard of Orleans, while this was going forward, made a vigorous
attack on the quarters of sir Henry Bisset: he had dismounted, and
began to be hard pressed, when those who had destroyed the lord de
la Pole's quarters opportunely came to his support, for the lord de
Graville had been wounded.

The English, finding that fortune was against them, began to retreat
toward the quarters of the earl of Warwick; but crossing a bridge
in haste, and too many at once, it broke down with their weight and
great numbers lost their lives. Add to this, that the garrison made a
well-timed sally to assist their friends, and killed great numbers and
made many prisoners.

In the mean time, the earl of Warwick assembled his men around him as
speedily as he could; but when he perceived the greatness of his loss,
for from one thousand to fifteen hundred had been slain, drowned or
taken, he formed his men in order of battle, and thus retreated to a
small eminence, covered with vineyards, above his quarters.

The French, who had fought hard and were fatigued, entered Montargis.
When night came on, the English collected their men together, the
greater part of whom were now on foot, and retreated to castle Landonin
Nemours, and to other places under their dominion. The French remained
in Montargis, making good and hearty cheer, being rejoiced that with
the aid of God they had accomplished the purpose they had been sent on.
They afterward returned to king Charles of France, who received them
most graciously.

In this year, duke John of Brabant after a very severe illness,
departed this life in his castle of Leneure[10], repeating most
devoutly, 'Miserere mei Deus,' &c. He was buried in the chapel of
this castle, near to the body of his father. On his decease, his
brother Philip count de Ligny and de St Pol took possession of all
his territories. Thus was the duchess Jacquiline deprived of her two
husbands,--for, as I have before said, the duke of Glocester had
married another woman, and the duke of Brabant was dead.

During the life of the duke of Brabant, a person named John Chevalier
had engaged at the request as it was said, of the countess-dowager of
Hainault, to put an iron collar round the duke's neck, for which this
chevalier was arrested at Brussels and beheaded.

At the same time, the fortress of Escandeur, near to Cambray, was put
into the hands of sir John de Luxembourg, with the consent of the
duke of Burgundy, and was the cause why sir Louis, bastard-brother
to the duchess Jacquiline, to whom it had belonged, carried war and
tribulation through that country in fighting the battles of his sister,
but he lost his inheritance for so doing.

In these days, a terrible combat took place near to Mont St Michel,
between the English who had possession of Mont de Hellem[11] on the
one side, and the French and Bretons on the other; but in the end the
French were victorious, having killed or put to flight the English and
consequently gained the castle.


[Footnote 10: Leneure. The annotations at the beginning of the volume,
french edition, suppose it to be Geneppe or Gueneppe, a summer
residence of the dukes of Brabant, whither Louis XI. when dauphin, fled
to, and resided at during his stay in Brabant.]

[A.D. 1427.]



In the beginning of this year, the fortress of Malmaison, situated two
leagues from the castle of Cambresis, belonging to Jean de Lens, lord
of Liéequerque and bishop of Cambray, in right of his bishoprick, was
surprised by sir John Blondel of king Charles's party, accompanied by a
few men. The governor for the bishop was a fair esquire, called Walter
de Baillon, whom they caught in bed.

Sir John Blondel having traversed the ditches, though full of water,
scaled the walls by means of ladders, and entering the lower court,
seized the guard, and his troops posted themselves in ambuscade near
the bridge of the dungeon. In the morning, when the porter lowered the
drawbridge, they rushed upon him with drawn swords, and put him to
death; after which, they entered without further opposition, although
it was the strongest of all the forts in that country.

The adjacent parts were greatly alarmed at this conquest, even those
within the castle of Cambresis; and the bishop of Cambray, being then
there, was much surprised how and by whom it could have been taken, for
at that time the whole country was at peace. The bishop, however, sent
some of his people, and the inhabitants of Cambresis to Malmaison, to
learn who had done this, and by what means.

On their arrival, they had a parley with those who had taken it;
but they, through mischief, replied by shouting the war-cries of
Burgundy and Luxembourg, and those who had come thither returned to
Château Cambresis. Sir John Blondel having soon provided himself with
provision, stores, and men in abundance, began to make inroads on the
country of Cambresis, and the parts adjoining, committing irreparable
injuries, and in some of these he was joined by parties attached to the
duke of Burgundy and sir John de Luxembourg.

In the mean time, the bishop sent to the duke of Burgundy, to know if
it had been with his consent that his castle had been taken. The duke
replied, that so far from having consented, he would send him such
assistance that his castle should be restored to him.

Some time after the decease of duke John of Brabant, a grand assembly
of the nobility was held at Valenciennes, at which were present the
duke of Burgundy, the counts de Namur, de Penthievre, and de Conversan,
the prince of Orange, sir John de Luxembourg, the bishops of Tournay
and of Arras, with many other churchmen, to consider who was to have
the government of Hainault. After long and mature deliberation, it was
resolved it should remain in the hands of the duke of Burgundy, who in
consequence nominated various officers for the due government thereof.

In this year, the earl of Warwick and other Englishmen besieged
the town of Pontorson, and forced the garrison to surrender on
capitulation, provided they were not relieved by a certain day,
and that the French and Bretons should not be sufficiently strong
to conquer the English. As they were not relieved, the place was
surrendered according to the terms of the capitulation.


[Footnote 11: Mont de Hellem must be Tombelaine (probably a corruption
of _Tombe d' Heléne_), a small rock near to Mont St Michel.]



When the meeting broke up at Valenciennes, the duke of Burgundy went
to Mons in Hainault, attended by a great part of his council, and
while there, constituted (as I have said) different officers, natives
of Hainault, for the well governing that country.

During his stay at Mons, sir John Blondel came thither on a passport
from the duke, and was by him more than once summoned and required to
restore the castle of Malmaison to the bishop of Cambray. Sir John
would not consent to this, but gave evasive answers. The duke then
resolved to afford the bishop such aid as should recover for him the
castle; and the bishop sent summonses to all his friends to come to his

The duke of Burgundy made sir William de Lalain, bailiff of Hainault,
the bégue de Launoy, knight, governor of Lille, with some other
nobles, commanders of the aid which he sent to the bishop; but sir
John Blondel, hearing of these preparations, and knowing that the duke
was displeased at his conduct, condescended to treat, and offered to
surrender the castle on condition that his peace was made with the
dukes of Bedford and Burgundy, that all his lands and castles, which
had been confiscated to king Henry of Lancaster, were restored to him,
that he and his men were to carry away all their effects, and that he
was to be paid four thousand crowns for his expenses.

High as these terms were, they were in the end agreed to, and
securities given for their due performance. Thus was Malmaison
delivered into the hands of Balthazar, bastard of Quesnoy, who had been
appointed by the duke of Burgundy to take possession and the charge of
it for a certain time.

To pay the ransom-money, and other expenses, a heavy tax was laid on
all ranks throughout the country of Cambresis, as well on churchmen as
others, the payment of which was most rigorously exacted.

When these matters had been settled, the castle of Malmaison was
razed to the ground, with the consent of the bishop and others of
that country. It was a great pity, for it was a nonpareil, and the
best built and strongest place in all those parts. Sir John Blondel,
by means of his misconduct, succeeded in his intentions, for all his
castles, lands and manors, were restored to him.



The duke of Burgundy, having finished his business in Hainault,
returned to Holland with a great force of men at arms to punish those
who, after having sworn allegiance to him, had revolted. On his march,
he attacked a town fortified with thick hedges and deep ditches, called
Hermontfort, which attack lasted a long time, and was very severe.

The duke crossed the ditches, and valiantly fought in person with his
enemies, who defended themselves with the utmost courage, regardless
of their lives. In this attack the lord de Voydanquin, a valiant and
powerful knight, who had with him some very expert warriors, was slain.
The good lord de Saveuses was also wounded, and so badly, that he
was obliged to be carried from the field, with many more in the same
condition. The duke, seeing the loss he was suffering, took council,
and ordered the retreat to be sounded, which was done, and they lodged
themselves near to the town, where they were badly off that night for
all sorts of necessaries. On the morrow, the duke marched away in
another direction.

The town of Utrecht had now joined the party of the duchess Jacquiline,
and the dukes of Gueldres and of Cleves that of Burgundy, by which
means war and misery were daily increased throughout that country.

At this time, about five hundred combatants, as well men at arms as
archers, were assembled on the confines of Picardy, and, by orders from
the duke of Burgundy (at the request of a knight called sir Phillebert
Andrinet,) were conducted by sir Charles de Moyencourt, Matthieu
d'Hermieres, John de Longueval and other gentlemen, to the aid of Amé
duke of Savoy, uncle to the duke of Burgundy, then at war with the duke
of Milan.

This body of men at arms, after many days marches, arrived in Savoy,
and were joyfully received by the duke. They were thence ordered to
the borders of Lombardy, where they committed numberless mischiefs,
insomuch that, through fear of them, and from compassion to the poor
natives, these two princes concluded a peace.

When this was done, duke Amé of Savoy gave orders for the Picards to
return home, thanking them greatly for their effective services, and
presenting to some of the principal captains pieces of damask and other
precious ornaments. The Picards were now marched home again. The origin
of this war was owing to the duke of Milan having forcibly taken Novara
and the city of Vercelli from the duke of Savoy, which were restored to

After the duke of Burgundy had visited many parts of Holland, and
placed garrisons on the frontiers of Gouda, where the duchess
Jacquiline resided, leaving some of his most expert captains for the
defence of the country, such as the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Lyonnel de
Bournouville, and others, he returned to Flanders.

In this year, there were great earthquakes in Spain, Catalonia and
Languedoc, which overthrew many towns and handsome edifices; and the
people remained for a long time in the utmost trouble and dismay.


[Footnote 12: Hermontfort. Q. if not Herenthuls?]



In these days, the sultan of Babylon sent letters to all the kings and
princes in Christendom, of the following tenour:

'Baldadoch, son of Aire, constable of Jericho, provost of the
terrestrial paradise, nephew of the gods, king of kings, prince of
princes, sultan of Babylon, of Persia, of Jerusalem, of Chaldea, of
Barbary, prince of Africa, and admiral of Arcadia, lord de Siche, des
Ainces, des Payens, and des Maritans,--master Archipotel, protector of
Amazone, guardian of the islands, dean of the abbeys, commander of the
temples, crusher of helmets, splitter of shields, piercer of hauberks,
breaker of armour, lancer of spears, overturner of war-horses,
destroyer of castles, flower of chivalry, a wild boar for courage, an
eagle for liberality, the fear of his enemies, the hope of his friends,
the raiser up of the discomfited, standard of Mohammed, lord of all the

'To the kings of Germany, of France, and of England, and to all other
kings, dukes and counts, and generally to all on whom our courtesy may
condescend, greeting, and love in our grace.

'Whereas it is very commendable for all who please to relinquish error,
through wisdom,--we send to you that you may not delay coming to us to
receive your fiefs and inheritances from our hands, by denying your
God and the Christian faith, and laying aside your errors, in which
you and your predecessors have been too long involved. Should you not
instantly obey these our commands, our indignation will be raised, and
our powerful sword turned against you, with which we will have your
heads as a recompense, without sparing yourselves or your countries.'

These letters were dated the vigil des Ambassadiens, the 10th year from
our coronation, and the 2d from our noble victory and destruction of
the unfortunate country of Cyprus.



This year, the earl of Suffolk and sir Thomas Rampstone, on account
of the duke of Brittany having joined king Charles, made an inroad on
his duchy with about twelve hundred combatants, and advanced even to
Rennes, where the duke resided. They committed great waste, and made
a very considerable booty in prisoners and effects, with which they
returned to a large village in that country, called Tintenarch[13].
On the morrow, they marched back to lower Normandy with all they had
gained without any opposition.

Soon afterward, sir Thomas fixed his quarters in a small town, called
St James de Beuvron, which had been destroyed; but he had it repaired
and refortified to serve him as a post to carry on the war against the
Bretons, for it was but half a league from their country. Sir Thomas
was deputy to the earl of Suffolk, the governor of lower Normandy, and
thence he led the English on different excursions through Brittany,
carrying on a severe warfare.

The duke, to oppose them, assembled a large force of his nobles,
whom he gave in charge to his brother the count de Richemont,
lately made constable of France. The count led them straight to St
James de Beuvron, which he instantly besieged, and commenced his
operations with a grand skirmish. Having surrounded it on all sides,
he established his quarters, and had his engines pointed against the
walls, which greatly damaged them. He attacked the place by storm,
which lasted for a considerable time very sharply.

A party of Bretons from the lower parts of the duchy had been posted
below the town, near to a pond; and to get near the walls, it was
necessary to cross the head of this pond, which was very narrow. There
was beside it a small bulwark under the command of an english knight,
sir Nicholas Bourdet, having with him from sixty to eighty combatants,
and near to it was one of the town-gates well guarded by the English.

When these Bretons were descending the ditch in great numbers to attack
the walls, they heard on each side of them the English shouting,
'Salisbury! Suffolk!' which threw the Bretons into great confusion. Sir
Nicholas, seizing the opportunity of their dismay, vigorously fell on
them, and, meeting scarcely any defence, put to death or drowned in
the pond from seven to eight hundred, and made about fifty prisoners.
The English won eighteen standards, and one banner. News of this defeat
was speedily carried to the count, who was storming the town on the
opposite side. He was much hurt at the intelligence, and ordered the
retreat to be sounded, for the siege had been raised on the other side
of the place.

When the count had collected his men together, he held a council on
what should now be done, and it was resolved, that considering the
great loss they had sustained, it would be prudent to march away, which
was carried into effect; but he waited until midnight, when he returned
to the town of Fougeres in a disorderly manner, leaving behind great
quantities of provision, stores, bombards, and other artillery. Sir
Thomas, with his six hundred men, for he had no more, and the greater
part of them were wounded, remained in the town very much rejoiced
at his good fortune; and he caused all the things the enemy had left
behind them to be brought thither.

Two days after this affair, the earl of Suffolk joined sir Thomas with
fifteen hundred combatants, whom the latter conducted with some of his
own men, to a strong monastery that soon surrendered. The earl thence
advanced farther into the country, toward the city of Dol, with the
intent to reside there. In the mean time, the duke of Brittany sent a
poursuivant with letters to the earl, to request that he would consent
to a suspension of arms, according to the inclosed terms, which being
agreed to, he remanded sir Thomas and his men, who returned to St James
de Beauvron with a very rich booty.

A negotiation now took place, when a truce was signed to last for three
months; and the earl of Suffolk had four thousand five hundred francs
for consenting to it. The truce was well kept until the end of June,
which terminated it, as the two parties could not agree on a final
peace, so that the war recommenced, and the English daily committed
great waste on the country by fire and sword.

To obviate these evils, the duke, and his brother the constable, had
the town of Pontorson, which divides Normandy from Brittany, and is two
leagues from Mont St Michel, well repaired and fortified, to serve as a
barrier town against the English.

A few days after this, the earl of Suffolk was dismissed from his
government, and the earl of Warwick appointed in his stead, who
assembled a considerable body of men and laid siege to Pontorson.

During this siege, the English were in constant danger of having their
convoys of provision cut off by the garrisons of Mont St Michel and
other places. To prevent which, lord Scales was detached with five
hundred combatants to lower Normandy to escort the convoys. On his
return, the Bretons, who had been made acquainted therewith, placed
themselves, to the amount of fifteen hundred men, in ambuscade, near
to Mont Saint Michel, and, watching their opportunity, sallied out
on the English, as they were marching by. They found them, however,
in handsome array; and they made so valorous a resistance that the
Bretons were completely routed. Eight hundred were slain; and in the
number were the lord Château-Geron, the lord de Couesquen, the lord
de Chambourg, the baron de Chamboches, the lord de la Hunaudes, sir
Pierre le Porc, the commander of the Scotsmen, and many others of the
nobility. The lord de Rohan and several great lords were made prisoners.

This event was known in Pontorson by the English having caused the
dead bodies of the baron de Soulenges and sir Pierre le Porc, and of
others, to be brought to the walls, and delivered to the garrison for
burial, and hastened their determination of surrendering to the earl of
Warwick, on having their lives spared, as they had no longer hopes of
succour. They were marched out of the town with white staves in their
hands, leaving all their baggage and effects behind them. Lord Scales
was made governor of the town.

Toward the end of this year, sir John de Luxembourg assembled in
Picardy, and the parts adjacent, about a thousand combatants, men
at arms and archers, with the intent to besiege and reduce to his
obedience the town of Beaumont in Argonne, held by William de Flavy, of
the party of king Charles,--which Flavy, and those under his command,
did many injuries and oppressive acts to all the surrounding country.

In these days, duke Philip of Burgundy again collected a large body of
troops from Flanders and Artois, to march into Holland and besiege the
duchess Jacquiline in the town of Gouda. On this occasion, he wrote to
inform his nobles, that he was resolved this campaign to finish the war
with Holland, and not return until it was ended. They had indeed often
been assembled for this purpose, and were almost tired with the war.

The duke led this armament to Sluys, and there embarked for Holland.
During these tribulations, the English continued a severe warfare on
the borders and in Brittany. A very sharp combat took place between
them and the Bretons, under the command of the constable de Richemont,
in which numbers were slain on both sides; but, in the end, the earl
of Warwick and his English gained the day.


[Footnote 13: Tintenarch,--probably Tinteniac, a village near St Malo.]

[A.D. 1428.]



Sir John de Luxembourg, in the beginning of this year, had besieged
Beaumont in Argonne. He was attended by many of the nobles from
Picardy, and frequent skirmishes took place between the besieged and
besiegers. In one of them, a vigorous and subtle man at arms, named
Enguerrand de Brigonval, was made prisoner, which much troubled sir
John de Luxembourg, who feared he was wounded or killed,--for William
de Flavy had wickedly caused a coffin to be buried with great ceremony,
meaning to have it understood that Enguerrand was dead. He had also a
solemn funeral service performed, intending at the same time to send
Enguerrand secretly out of the town to some safer place, knowing him to
be a rich man and able to pay a heavy ransom.

Notwithstanding the obstinate defence of the besieged, they were soon
so closely blockaded that no one could go out of the town without
danger of his life. William de Flavy, therefore, losing all hope of
succour, and foreseeing that he must in the end yield, entered into a
treaty with sir John de Luxembourg to surrender the place toward the
latter end of May, on condition that he and his men should march away
in safety with their baggage and effects.

By this means sir John gained possession of Beaumont, in which
he placed his own garrison, and appointed as governor Valeran de
Bournouville. Enguerrand de Brigonval was likewise given up to him,
safe and well. While this siege was carrying on, a truce was agreed to
between sir John de Luxembourg and the townsmen of Mouzon, until the
feast of St Remy ensuing; and in the interval the burghers were to go
to king Charles, to learn if they might depend on succours from him,
or whether they were to surrender to sir John.

When these matters had been concluded, sir John dismissed his troops,
and returned to his castle of Beaurevoire. William de Flavy, in like
manner, disbanded those who had served under him and went with a few
attendants, under passports, to the mansion of his lord and father; for
during the time he was besieged in Beaumont, the duke of Bar had caused
one of his fortresses, called Neufville sur Meuse, to be destroyed,
which was held by a garrison of his, and wherein he had placed all his



On the return of the duke of Burgundy, with such vast preparations
of stores and men at arms, into Holland, to besiege the duchess
Jacquiline in the town of Gouda, whither she had retired with
her adherents, the country was greatly alarmed. The duchess, in
consequence, held a council of her most faithful friends, when, having
considered the great power of the duke, that the majority of the nobles
and commonalty were already turned to his party, and that it was very
doubtful if she could further resist, it was determined that she should
offer terms of peace to her adversary the duke; and a treaty of the
following import was concluded by the commissioners from each party.

The duchess Jacquiline shall acknowledge and avow that the duke of
Burgundy is the true and legal heir to all her territories, and that
henceforth she shall appoint him governor and guardian of them,
promising to give him possession of all the towns and castles she now
holds, in which the duke shall place such captains as he may please.

The duchess promises also never to marry but with the consent of the
said duke; and the town and castle of Zeneuberche is to be given up
to the duke of Burgundy. When this treaty had been signed, a day was
appointed for the meeting of the parties in the town of Delft,--when,
after mutual salutations and gratulations, they received, by themselves
or by their commissaries, the oaths of many of the principal towns.
Thus was Holland, after having long suffered the miseries of war,
restored to peace; and the duke of Burgundy, having disbanded his
Picards, returned to his countries of Flanders and Artois.



In the month of May ensuing, the earl of Salisbury, a knight very
expert, and of great renown in arms, by orders from king Henry and his
ministers, assembled a force of six thousand combatants, men tried in
war, great part of whom he was to carry to France to the aid of the
duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of that kingdom. The earl
sent off a detachment of three thousand to Calais, whence they marched
to Paris, to carry on the war against king Charles.

About Midsummer-day, the earl followed with the remainder of his men,
and, crossing to Calais, marched by St Pol, Dourlens and Amiens, to
Paris, where he was joyfully received by the duke of Bedford and the
council of France attached to the interests of king Henry.

Instantly on his arrival, many councils were held respecting the war;
and it was resolved that the earl, after having subdued some trifling
towns held by the enemy, should lay siege to Orleans, which they said
had done them great injury.

On the council breaking up, orders were issued for the Normans,
and others of the english party, to assemble immediately; and such
diligence was used, that within a very short time the earl of Salisbury
had upward of ten thousand combatants. The principal captains were
the earl of Suffolk, the lord Scales, the lord de Calaboche, the lord
Lisle, Classedach, and many valiant and expert men in arms. When they
had been well feasted and honoured in Paris, they departed, under the
command of the earl of Salisbury, to besiege the town of Nogent le Roi,
which was soon conquered, and great part of the garrison put to death:
the rest escaped by paying large ransoms. The earl marched thence to

While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy had returned to Holland
with his most faithful adherents, to make further arrangements with his
cousin the duchess Jacqueline, and to receive the oaths of fidelity
from divers others of the nobles and towns of that country. After these
matters were finished, the duke, and duchess Jacqueline went into
Hainault; and in all the towns through which they passed they received
similar oaths to what had been given in Holland and Zealand, from the
nobles, clergy and commonalty. In some places, they were received with
honour and respect, although very many were much dissatisfied with
these arrangements, but at present they saw no means to remedy them.



In the month of July of this year, the inhabitants of Tournay again
mutinied against their magistrates, and rose more than once in arms,
as they had frequently done before. The cause of the present tumults
was the magistrates having laid a tax on beer, to aid them to pay the
demands of the duke of Burgundy. However, by the exertions of some
prudent persons in the town, peace was restored; and shortly after, one
of their leaders called John Isaac, a goldsmith, was arrested,--and
for various crimes by him committed, and for having been the cause
of Arnoul le Musi and Loctart de Villeries being beheaded, Isaac was
publicly hanged on the gibbet at Tournay.

At this time, Réné duke of Bar laid siege to the castle of Passavant,
in which was a person named Varnencourt, who had for a long space
sorely harrassed and cruelly treated the inhabitants of the country
round that place.



The earl of Salisbury, on his arrival before Gergeau, caused it to be
surrounded on all sides, and very hotly attacked by his artillery,
insomuch that the garrison who held it for king Charles, fearing the
consequences, entered into a treaty with the earl to surrender it, on
being permitted to depart in safety.

The earl, having regarrisoned it, advanced to Genville, which he
besieged on all sides; but the French being in force within it,
defended themselves valiantly. After a few days, however, they held
a parley with the earl, but they could not agree as to the terms of
delivering it up. On the French retiring, a skirmish took place between
the besiegers and the besieged, which occasioned the whole of the
English to arm themselves suddenly, and without command from the earl
to storm the place so vigorously that it was won, and numbers of the
French taken or killed, and other great disorders committed which it
would be tedious to relate.

During these transactions, the regent duke of Bedford and king Henry's
ministers at Paris were earnestly attempting to acquire, for the king's
use, all the rents and revenues that had been given to the church for
the last forty years. To succeed in this, several great councils were
held in Paris, between the duke and his ministers and the members of
the university, in which the matter was fully and long debated: it was,
however, in the end negatived, and the church remained at peace in
regard to this demand.

In this year, the king of Portugal raised a large army, in conjunction
with the duke of Cambray[14], who commanded the van division, and
the whole amounted to ten thousand combatants. They led his army to
an island against the infidels, where were the king of Albastre[15]
with twenty thousand Saracens, Turks, Tartars, Barbaresques, of which
the greater number were left dead on the field, and the said king of
Albastre made prisoner. The king of Portugal suffered but little loss,
and after the victory he returned with his army back to his own country.


[Footnote 14: Cambray. Q. Coimbra.]

[Footnote 15: Albastre. Q.]



When the earl of Salisbury had subjected the towns of Gergeau,
Genville, Mehun, and several castles and forts in those parts, to the
obedience of king Henry of Lancaster, he made diligent preparations to
lay siege to the city of Orleans. His army came before it in the month
of October; but as the garrison and inhabitants had long expected
his arrival, they had provided themselves with all sorts of warlike
stores and provision, having determined to defend the place to the last

To prevent the earl from fixing his quarters in the suburbs, and
fortifying them, the French had demolished the whole, including many
excellent houses, and upward of twelve churches, belonging to the four
orders of mendicant friars, with several fine houses of recreation for
the burghers of Orleans. By thus doing they could discharge the cannon
from the ramparts freely all around.

Lord Salisbury, notwithstanding this, and a violent opposition from
the garrison, who made many sallies, and fired on him from culverines,
and other instruments of death, to the wounding and killing many of
his men, quartered himself and his army near to the walls. The English
repulsed these attacks with the utmost courage, to the wonder of the
besieged; and while these skirmishings were going on, the earl ordered
the tower at the end of the bridge, over the Loire, to be stormed,
which was won, as well as a small bulwark hard by, in spite of the
defence of the French. The earl commanded a party to enter and guard
this tower, that the garrison might not unobserved make any sallies
from the town. He then, with his captains, made a lodgment in some of
the ruins that remained in the suburbs near the walls; and his men,
in their usual manner, raised huts of earth, to shelter themselves
from the effects of the arrows which were showered at them from the

The earl, on the third day after his arrival before Orleans, entered
the tower on the bridge, and ascended to the second story, whence
from a window that overlooked the town he was observing what was
passing within, and was considering on the best mode of reducing it
to obedience. While thus occupied, a stone from a veuglaire struck
the window, whence the earl, hearing the report, had withdrawn, but
too late, for the shot carried away part of his face, and killed a
gentleman behind him dead on the spot[16]. The army were greatly
grieved at this unfortunate accident, for he was much feared and
beloved by them, and considered as the most subtle, expert, and
fortunate in arms, of all the english captains.

The earl, though so severely wounded, lived eight days; and having
summoned all his captains, he admonished them, in the name of the king
of England, to reduce the town of Orleans to his obedience without
fail: having done this, he was carried to Mehun, and there died, as I
have said, at the end of eight days.

The earl of Suffolk was now the commander of the english army before
Orleans, having under him the lords Scales, Talbot, sir Lancelot de
Lisle, Classedach and others. The English, notwithstanding the loss
they had suffered in the death of the earl of Salisbury, recovered
their vigour, and exerted themselves in every way to carry the town.
They also erected block-houses in various parts, in which large
detachments were posted, to prevent any surprise from the enemy.

King Charles, knowing that his ancient and inveterate enemies, the
English, were desirous to gain the city of Orleans, had resolved in
council, before they came before it, to defend the place to the last,
believing that should it be conquered, it would be the finishing stroke
to himself and his kingdom. For this reason, he had sent thither his
most expert and faithful officers, namely, Boussac, the lord d'Eu, the
bastard of Orleans, the lords de Gaucourt, de Graville, de Vilain,
Poton de Saintrailles, la Hire, sir Theolde de Valperghe, sir Louis de
Vaucourt, with others renowned in arms, and of great authority.

They had under their daily command from twelve to fourteen hundred
combatants, well tried and enterprising; but sometimes more and
sometimes less,--for the town was not so completely surrounded but
that the besieged could replenish themselves with provision or stores
whenever they pleased.

Very many sallies and skirmishes took place during the siege, but it
would be tiresome to relate the various successes that attended them;
but from what I have heard from well-informed persons, I do not find
that the besieged did any great damage to the enemy, except with their
cannon and other like instruments from their walls. By one of these was
slain sir Lancelot de Lisle, a very valiant english knight and renowned
in arms.


[Footnote 16: Sir Thomas Gargrave.]



In this year, a friar called Thomas Conecte, a native of Brittany, and
of the carmelite order, was much celebrated through parts of Flanders,
the Tournesis, Artois, Cambresis, Ternois, in the countries of Amiens
and Ponthieu, for his preachings.

In those towns where it was known he intended to preach, the chief
burghers and inhabitants had erected for him in the handsomest square,
a large scaffold, ornamented with the richest cloths and tapestries,
on which was placed an altar, whereon he said mass, attended by some
monks of his order, and his disciples. The greater part of these last
followed him on foot wherever he went, he himself riding on a small

Having said mass on this platform, he then preached long sermons,
blaming the vices and sins of each individual, more especially those
of the clergy, who publicly kept mistresses, to the breach of their
vows of chastity. In like manner, he blamed greatly the noble ladies,
and all others who dressed their heads in so ridiculous a manner, and
who expended such large sums on the luxuries of apparel. He was so
vehement against them that no woman thus dressed dared to appear in
his presence, for he was accustomed, when he saw any of them with such
dresses, to excite the little boys to torment and plague them, giving
them certain days of pardon for so doing, and which he said he had the
power of granting. He ordered the boys to shout after them, _Au hennin,
au hennin!_[17] even when the ladies were departed from him and from
hearing his invectives; and the boys pursuing them endeavoured to
pull down these monstrous head dresses, so that the ladies were forced
to seek shelter in places of safety. These cries caused many tumults
between those who raised them and the servants of the ladies.

Friar Thomas, nevertheless continued his abuse and invectives so loudly
that no women with high head dresses any longer attended his sermons,
but dressed in caps somewhat like those worn by peasants and people of
low degree.

The ladies of rank on their return from these sermons, were so much
ashamed by the abusive expressions of the preacher, that the greater
part laid aside their head dresses, and wore such as those of nuns. But
this reform lasted not long, for like as snails, when any one passes
by them, draw in their horns, and when all danger seems over, put them
forth again,--so these ladies, shortly after the preacher had quitted
their country, forgetful of his doctrine and abuse, began to resume
their former colossal head dresses, and wore them even higher than

Friar Thomas, however, acquired very great renown in the towns wherein
he preached from all ranks of people, for the boldness and justness of
his remonstrances, more especially for those addressed to the clergy.
He was received wherever he went with as much respect and reverence by
the nobles, clergy, and common people as if he had been an Apostle of
our Lord Jesus Christ, sent from Heaven to earth.

He was followed by multitudes of people, and his mule was led by
knights, or those of high rank, on foot to the house wherein he was to
lodge, which was commonly that of the richest burgher in the town; and
his disciples, of whom he had many, were distributed among the best
houses; for it was esteemed a great favour when one of them lodged in
the house of any individual.

When Friar Thomas arrived at his lodgings, he retired to a private
chamber, and would not be visited by any but those of the family,
except for a few moments. At the conclusion of his sermons, he
earnestly admonished the audience on the damnation of their souls, and,
on pain of excommunication, to bring to him whatever backgammon boards,
chess boards, ninepins, or other instruments for games of amusement
they might possess. In like manner did he order the women to bring
their hennins,--and having caused a great fire to be lighted in front
of his scaffold, he threw all those things into it.

Friar Thomas remained in these parts for the space of six months, and
visited many great cities, such as Cambray, Tournay, Arras, Amiens and
Therouenne, wherein he made many celebrated sermons, to the delight of
the lower ranks, who sometimes assembled to hear him, to the number of
from sixteen to twenty thousand persons. At his sermons, he divided
the women from the men by a cord; for he said he had observed some sly
doings between them while he was preaching. He would not receive any
money himself, nor permit any of the preachers who attended him to
do so, but was satisfied if presents were made to him of rich church
ornaments, if his disciples were clothed and his own expenses paid. The
people were very happy in thus gratifying him.

Many persons of note, in the conviction that to serve him would be a
pious act, believing him to be a prudent and holy man, followed him
every where, deserting their parents, wives, children and homes. In
this number was the lord d'Antoing, and some others of the nobility.
When he had remained any time, without the clergy attempting to confute
his reasonings, he departed with the love of the people, but with the
indignation of some churchmen. He embarked at the port of St Valery, to
return to Brittany, where he had been born.


[Footnote 17: _Au hennin._ This was the name given by the preacher to
those ridiculous colossal head dresses worn by the ladies in the 15th
century. For further particulars, see the French Encyclopedie, vol.



At this period, the duke of Burgundy set out grandly accompanied by the
nobles of his country, for Brussels, to be present at a tournament that
was to be given there during the carnival. The son of the demoisel de
Gazebeque was the founder of the prize.

The duke of Burgundy was magnificently feasted by his cousin duke
Philip of Brabant, the great barons of the country, and by the city
of Brussels. On the day of the tournament, the two dukes were matched
against each other, as well as their nobles, by the advice of prudent
counsellors and heralds at arms, to avoid any accidents that might

There were this day from seven to eight score helmets in the market
place at Brussels who made a fine show; for they were all richly
dressed, and adorned with their emblazoned surcoats. When the officers
at arms had made the usual proclamations, the tournament commenced,
and many hardy strokes were given; but the prize was adjudged to a
gentleman of Brabant, called Jean Linquart.

On the morrow, and the ensuing day were great justings: on the first,
the duke of Brabant gained the prize, and on the second the lord de
Mamines won it. With regard to the dancings and banquets, there were
abundance of both, and crowds of ladies and damsels richly dressed
according to the fashions of the country. There were likewise very
many masquerades of the ladies and gentlemen.

During the feast, the sword was given to the lord de Croy, knight to
the duke of Burgundy, who, having considered a while, had another
tournament proclaimed to be holden on an appointed day in the town of
Mons, in Hainault, but which, from certain causes that interfered at
that time, did not take place.

The duke of Burgundy, having tarried in the city of Brussels from four
to five days, set out on his return home to Flanders, notwithstanding
the weather was then very severe, with frost and snow. The other lords
returned to the places whence they came.



The count de Namur, who was very old, died in the course of this year.
He had, some time before his death, sold to the duke of Burgundy his
county of Namur with its dependancies; and on his decease the duke
advanced thither, when peaceable possession was given to him of the
whole; and he appointed commissioners and captains to govern and defend
it at his pleasure.

The Liegeois, who bordered on Namur, were not well pleased at this
accession of power to the duke of Burgundy, whom they feared before,
and very much disliked, because duke John his father, and duke William
his uncle, had formerly conquered them, as has been related in the
earlier part of this work. The Liegeois held, at this time, the strong
town of Mont-Orgueil, situated near to Bouvines[18], which was said
to belong to Namur, and, as such, the duke of Burgundy wished to have
it, but the Liegeois refused to yield it up, and hence began a quarrel
on each side. The duke, finding that he could not gain it amicably,
returned to Flanders and secretly raised a body of men at arms, whom he
dispatched, under the command of sir John Blondel and Gerard bastard
of Brimeu, to the country of Liége, with orders to win the tower of
Mont-Orgueil by force.

When they had approached the walls, and were preparing their scaling
ladders, they were seen by the garrison, who made a sally and defeated
them. They then returned back, and the Liegeois kept up a stricter
watch than before; and their hatred to the duke of Burgundy was

The English continued their siege of Orleans, and king Charles was in
very great distress; for the major part of his princes and nobles,
perceiving that his affairs were miserably bad, and every thing going
wrong, had quite abandoned him. Nevertheless, he had great hope and
confidence in God; and laboured earnestly to procure a peace with the
duke of Burgundy, and had sent him many embassies to solicit it, but,
hitherto, no terms could be agreed on between them.


[Footnote 18: Bouvines,--in the county of Namur, situated on the Meuse.]



The regent duke of Bedford, while at Paris, had collected about five
hundred carts and cars from the borders of Normandy and from the
Isle de France, which different merchants were ordered to load with
provision, stores and other things, and to have conveyed to the english
army before Orleans. When all was ready, the command of this convoy
was given to sir John Fascot[19] grand master of the duke's household,
and with him were the provost of Paris, named Simon Morbier, the
bastard de Thiam knight, bailiff of Senlis, the provost of Melun, and
several other officers from the Isle de France and that neighbourhood,
accompanied by sixteen hundred combatants and a thousand common men.

This armament left Paris on Ash-Wednesday, under the command of sir
John Fastolfe, who conducted the convoy and his forces in good order by
short marches, until he came near the village of Rouvroy in Beauce,
situated between Genville and Orleans.

Many french captains, having long before heard of his coming, were
there assembled to wait his arrival, namely, Charles duke of Bourbon,
the two marshals of France, the constable of Scotland and his son, the
lords de la Tour, de Chauvigny, de Graville, sir William d'Albreth, the
viscount de Thouars, the bastard d'Orleans, sir James de Chabannes,
the lord de la Fayette, Poton de Saintrailles, Estienne de Vignolles,
surnamed La Hire, sir Theolde de Valperghe, and others of the nobility,
having with them from three to four thousand men. The English had
been informed of this force being assembled from different garrisons
which they had in those parts, and lost no time in forming a square
with their carts and carriages, leaving but two openings,--in which
square they inclosed themselves, posting their archers as guards to
these entrances, and the men at arms hard by to support them. On the
strongest side of this inclosure were the merchants, pages, carters,
and those incapable of defending themselves, with all their horses.

The English thus situated, waited two hours for the coming of the
enemy, who at length arrived with much noise, and drew up out of
bow-shot in front of the inclosure. It seemed to them, that considering
their superior numbers, the state of the convoy, and that there were
not more than six hundred real Englishmen, the rest being composed of
all nations, they could not escape falling into their hands, and must
be speedily conquered. Others, however, had their fears of the contrary
happening, for the french captains did not well agree together as to
their mode of fighting, for the Scots would combat on foot, and the
others on horseback.

The lord Charles de Bourbon was there knighted by the lord de la
Fayette, with some others. In the mean time, the constable of Scotland,
his son and all their men, dismounted and advanced to attack their
adversaries, by whom they were received with great courage.

The english archers, under shelter of the carriages, shot so well and
stifly that all on horseback within their reach were glad to retreat
with their men at arms. The constable of Scotland and his men attacked
one of the entrances of the inclosure, but they were soon slain on
the spot. Among the killed were sir John Stuart, his son, sir William
d'Albreth lord d'Orval, the lord de Châteaubrun, the lord de Mont
Pipel, sir John Larigot, the lord de Verduisant, the lord de Divray,
the lord de la Greve, sir Anthony de Puilly and others, to the amount
of six score gentlemen and five hundred common men, the greater part of
whom were Scotsmen. The other french captains retreated with their men
to the places whence they had come.

The English, on their departure, refreshed themselves, and then marched
away in haste for their town of Rouvroy, where they halted for the
night. On the morrow, they departed in handsome array, with their
convoy and artillery, armed with every accoutrement becoming warriors,
and in a few days arrived before Orleans, very much rejoiced at their
good fortune in the late attack from the French, and at having so
successfully brought provision to their countrymen.

This battle was ever afterward called the Battle of Herrings, because
great part of the convoy consisted of herrings and other articles of
food suitable to Lent. King Charles, on hearing the event, was sick
at heart, seeing that the state of his affairs was becoming worse and
worse. This battle of Rouvroy was fought on the night of the first
Sunday in Lent, about three hours after midnight. The English lost
only one man of note, called Bresanteau, nephew to sir Simon Morbier,
provost of Paris.

On the part of the English were that day made knights, Galloy d'Aunoy,
lord d'Orville, the great Raoulin, and Louis de Luxu, a Savoyard. The
army of the English might have consisted of about seventeen hundred
combatants of tried courage, without including common men; and the
French, as I have said, were from three to four thousand at least. The
lord de Châteaubrun and some others were knighted at the same time with
Charles de Bourbon. Only one prisoner was made that day, and he was a


[Footnote 19: Q. If not sir John Fastolfe.]



In the course of this year, a young girl called Joan, about twenty
years old, and dressed like a man, came to Charles king of France at
Chinon. She was born in the town of Droimy, on the borders of Burgundy
and Lorraine not far from Vaucouleurs, and had been for some time
hostler and chambermaid to an inn, and had shown much courage in riding
horses to water, and in other feats unusual for young girls to do.

She was instructed how to act, and sent to the king by sir Robert de
Baudricourt, knight, governor of Vaucouleurs, who supplied her with
horses and from four to six men as an escort. She called herself a
Maiden inspired by the Divine Grace, and said that she was sent to
restore king Charles to his kingdom, whence he had been unjustly
driven, and was now reduced to so deplorable a state.

She remained about two months in the king's household, frequently
admonishing him to give her men and support, and that she would repulse
his enemies, and exalt his name. The king and council in the mean time,
knew not how to act; for they put no great faith in what she said,
considering her as one out of her senses; for to such noble persons the
expressions she used are dangerous to be believed, as well for fear of
the anger of the Lord, as for the blasphemous discourses which they may
occasion in the world.

After some time, however, she was promised men at arms and support:
a standard was also given her, on which she caused to be painted a
representation of our Creator. All her conversation was of God, on
which account great numbers of those who heard her had great faith in
what she said, and believed her inspired, as she declared herself to be.

She was many times examined by learned clerks, and other prudent
persons of rank, to find out her real intentions; but she kept to her
purpose, and alway replied, that if the king would believe her, she
would restore to him his kingdom. In the mean time, she did several
acts which shall be hereafter related, that gained her great renown.

When she came first to the king, the duke d'Alençon, the king's
marshal, and other captains were with him, for he had held a grand
council relative to the siege of Orleans: from Chinon the king went to
Poitiers, accompanied by the Maid.

Shortly after, the marshal was ordered to convey provisions and stores,
under a strong escort, to the army within Orleans. Joan requested to
accompany him, and that armour should be given her, which was done. She
then displayed her standard and went to Blois, where the escort was to
assemble, and thence to Orleans, alway dressed in complete armour. On
this expedition many warriors served under her; and when she arrived at
Orleans great feasts were made for her, and the garrison and townsmen
were delighted at her coming among them.

[A.D. 1429.]



At the beginning of this year, the duke of Burgundy arrived at Paris
with about six hundred horse, and was most joyfully received by the
duke of Bedford and the duchess his sister. Soon after came thither
Poton de Saintrailles, Pierre d'Orgin, and other noble ambassadors
from king Charles, with envoys from the town of Orleans, to negotiate
with the duke-regent and king Henry's council for that town to remain
in peace, and that it should be placed in the hands of the duke of
Burgundy, for him to govern it at his pleasure, and to maintain its
neutrality. It was also pleaded, that the duke of Orleans and his
brother the count d'Angoulême, who had for a long time past been the
right owners of the town, were now prisoners in England, and had been
no way concerned in this war.

The duke of Bedford assembled his council many times on this matter,
but they could not agree respecting it. Several urged the great
expenses king Henry had been put to for this siege, and the great
losses he had sustained of his principal captains,--adding, that the
town could not hold out much longer, for it was hard pressed for
provision, and that it was a place more advantageous for them to
possess than any other, supporting what they said by several weighty
reasons. Others were not pleased that it should be put into the hands
of the duke of Burgundy, saying that it was unreasonable, when king
Henry and his vassals had supported all the risks and danger, that the
duke of Burgundy should reap the profit and honour, without striking a

One among them, called master Raoul le Saige, said, that he would
never be present when they should chew, for the duke of Burgundy to
swallow. In short, after much debating of the business, it was finally
concluded that the request of the ambassadors should not be granted,
and that the town should no otherwise be received in favour than by its
surrender to the English. The ambassadors, hearing this, made a reply,
which they had not, however, been charged with, that they knew well the
townsmen of Orleans would suffer the utmost extremities rather than
submit to such conditions. The ambassadors then returned to Orleans, to
report the answer they had received.

The duke of Burgundy was very well pleased with their conduct in this
matter, and would not have disliked, had it been agreeable to the
regent and council, to have had the government of Orleans, as much from
his affection to his cousin of Orleans as to prevent it suffering the
perils likely to befall it; but the English, at that time, in full tide
of prosperity, never considered that the wheel of fortune might turn
against them.

The duke of Burgundy, while at Paris, had made many requests to his
brother-in-law the regent, for himself and his adherents, which,
however, were but little attended to. Having staid at Paris about three
weeks, he returned to Flanders, where he was attacked by a severe
illness, but by the attentions of able physicians he recovered his



The english captains had continued their siege of Orleans about seven
months, and had much straitened it by their batteries and towers, of
which they had erected not less than sixty. The besieged, sensible
of the peril they were in of being conquered, resolved to defend
themselves to the last, and sent to king Charles for reinforcements of
men, and a supply of stores and provision.

From four to five hundred combatants were first sent; but they were
followed by seven thousand more, who escorted a convoy of provision up
the river Loire. With these last came Joan, the Maid, who had already
done some acts that had increased her reputation.

The English attempted to cut off this convoy; but it was well defended
by the Maid and those with her, and brought with safety to Orleans,
to the great joy of the inhabitants, who made good cheer, and were
rejoiced at its safe arrival and the coming of the Maid.

On the morrow, which was a Thursday, Joan rose early, and, addressing
herself to some of the principal captains, prevailed on them to arm,
and follow her,--for she wished, as she said, to attack the enemy,
being fully assured they would be vanquished. These captains and other
warriors, surprised at her words, were induced to arm and make an
assault on the tower of St Loup, which was very strong, and garrisoned
with from three to four hundred English. They were, notwithstanding
the strength of the blockhouse, soon defeated, and all killed or made
prisoners, and the fortification was set on fire and demolished.

The Maid, having accomplished her purpose, returned with the nobles
and knights who had followed her to the town of Orleans, where she was
greatly feasted and honoured by all ranks. The ensuing day she again
made a sally, with a certain number of combatants, to attack another
of the english forts, which was as well garrisoned as the former one,
but which was in like manner destroyed by fire, and those within put to
the sword. On her return to the town after this second exploit, she was
more honoured and respected than ever.

On the next day, Saturday, she ordered the tower at the end of the
bridge to be attacked. This was strongly fortified, and had within
it the flower of the english chivalry and men at arms, who defended
themselves for a long time with the utmost courage; but it availed them
nothing, for by dint of prowess they were overcome, and the greater
part put to the sword. On this occasion were slain, a valiant english
captain named Classendach, the lord Molins, the bailiff of Evreux, and
many more warriors of great and noble estate.

The Maid, after this victory, returned to Orleans with the nobles who
had accompanied her, and with but little loss of men. Notwithstanding
that at these three attacks Joan was, according to common fame,
supposed to have been the leader, she had with her all the most expert
and gallant captains who for the most part had daily served at this
siege of Orleans, mention of whom has been before made. Each of these
three captains exerted himself manfully at these attacks, so that from
six to eight thousand combatants were killed or taken, while the French
did not lose more than one hundred men of all ranks.

The ensuing Sunday, the english captains, namely, the earl of Suffolk,
lord Talbot, lord Scales and others, seeing the destruction of their
forts, and the defeat of their men, resolved, after some deliberation,
to form the remains of their army into one body, march out of their
camp, and wait prepared for any engagement, should the enemy be willing
to offer them battle, otherwise they would march away in good order
for such towns as were under their obedience.

This resolution they instantly executed on Sunday morning, when
they abandoned their forts, setting fire to several, and drew up in
battle-array, expecting the French would come to fight with them; but
they had no such intentions, having been exhorted to the contrary by
Joan the Maid. The English, having waited a considerable time for them,
in vain, marched away, lest their forces might be further diminished,
without prospect of success.

The townsmen of Orleans were greatly rejoiced on seeing themselves, by
their dishonourable retreat, delivered from such false and traitorous
enemies, who had for so long a time kept them in the utmost danger.
Many men at arms were dispatched to examine the remaining forts, in
which they found some provision, and great quantities of other things,
all of which were carried safely to the town, and made good cheer of,
for they had cost them nothing. The whole of these castles were soon
burnt, and razed to the ground, so that no men at arms, from whatever
country they might come, should ever lodge in them again.



The French within Orleans, and the captains who accompanied the
Maid, with one common accord, sent messengers to the king of France,
to inform him of their vigorous exploits, and that the English had
retreated to their own garrisons,--requesting him, at the same time,
to send them as many men at arms as he could procure, with some of the
great lords, that they might be enabled to pursue his enemies, now
quite dismayed at their reverse of fortune, and praying that he himself
would advance toward the country where they were.

This intelligence was very agreeable to the king and his council, and
the advice readily, as may be supposed, attended to. He instantly
summoned to his presence the constable, the duke d'Alençon, Charles
lord d'Albreth, and many other lords of renown, the greater part of
whom were sent to the town of Orleans. After some time, the king
advanced, with a considerable force, to Gien, where many councils were
held with the captains from Orleans and the nobles lately arrived,
whether or not they should pursue the English. To these councils the
first person summoned was the Maid, for she was now in high reputation.

At length, on the 4th day of May, the siege of Orleans having been
raised, the French took the field with about five or six thousand
combatants, and marched straight for Gergeau, where the earl of Suffolk
and his brothers were quartered.

The earl had sent frequent messages to the regent at Paris, to acquaint
him with the misfortunes that had happened at Orleans, and to request
speedy succours, or he would be in danger of losing several towns
and castles which he held in Beauce and on the river Loire. The duke
of Bedford was much angered and cast down at this intelligence; but
seeing the necessity of immediately attending to what was most urgent,
sent in haste for four or five thousand men from all the parts under
his dominion, whom he ordered toward the country of Orleans, under
the command of sir Thomas Rampstone, the bastard de Thian and others,
promising very soon to join them with the large reinforcements which he
was daily expecting from England.



The constable of France, the duke d'Alençon, Joan the Maid, and other
captains, having, as I said, taken the field, advanced with their army
to Gergeau, wherein was the earl of Suffolk, and from three to four
hundred of his men, who, with the inhabitants, made all diligence
to put themselves in a posture of defence. The place was very soon
surrounded by the enemy, who commenced an instant assault on the walls.
This lasted a considerable space, and was very bloody; but the French
pushed on so boldly that the town was stormed in spite of the courage
of the besieged, and about three hundred of the English slain, among
whom was a brother to the earl of Suffolk. The earl and another of his
brothers, the lord de la Pole, were made prisoners, with sixty or more
of their men.

Thus was the town and castle of Gergeau won by the French, who, after
their victory refreshed themselves at their ease. On departing thence,
they went to Mehun, which soon surrendered; and the English who were in
la Ferté-Imbaut fled in a body to Beaugency, whither they were pursued
by the French, always having the Maid with her standard in front, and
they quartered themselves near to Beaugency. The whole report of the
country now resounded with praises of the Maid, and no other warrior
was noticed.

The principal english captains in Beaugency, observing that the fame of
this Maid had turned their good fortune, that many of their towns and
castles were now under the subjection of the enemy, some through force
of arms, others by composition,--and that their men were panic-struck
by their misfortunes, were very desirous of retiring into Normandy.
They were, however, uncertain how to act, or whether they should soon
receive succour; and thus situated, they treated with the French for
the delivery of the town, on condition that they might depart in safety
with their property.

On the conclusion of this treaty, the English marched away through
Beauce toward Paris; and the French joyfully entered Beaugency, whence
they resolved, by the advice of the Maid, to advance to meet a party of
the English, who, they heard, were marching to offer them combat. They
again took the field and were daily reinforced by new comers.

The constable ordered the marshal de Boussac, La Hire, Poton, and some
other captains, to form the vanguard; and the main body, under the
command of the duke d'Alençon, the bastard of Orleans, and the marshal
de Raix, amounting to eight or nine thousand combatants to follow it

The Maid was asked by some of the princes, what she would advise to
be done, or if she had any orders to give. She said, 'that she knew
full well their ancient enemies the English were on their march to
fight with them,--but in God's name, advance boldly against them, and
assuredly they shall be conquered.' Some present having asked, 'where
they should meet them?' she replied, 'Ride boldly forward, and you will
be conducted to them.'

The army was then drawn up in battle-array, and advanced slowly, for
they had dispatched sixty or eighty of their most expert men at arms,
mounted on the fleetest horses, to reconnoitre the country and gain
intelligence of the enemy. They thus marched for some time, until they
came within half a league of a large village called Pataye. The men at
arms who had been sent to reconnoitre put up a stag, which ran straight
for the army of the English, who were assembling their men together,
namely those who had come from Paris, as has been mentioned, and those
who had marched from Beaugency,--and the English, seeing the stag dash
through them, set up a loud shout, not knowing the enemy was so near:
but this shout satisfied the scouts where the English were, and a
moment afterward they saw them quite plain.

They sent back some of their companions with intelligence of what they
had seen, and they desired that the army might advance in order of
battle, for the hour of business was at hand. They immediately made
every preparation with great courage, and were soon in sight of the

The English, observing the French advance, made also their preparations
with diligence for the combat. Some of the captains proposed that they
should dismount where they then were, and take advantage of the hedge
rows to prevent being surprised on their rear; but others were of a
contrary opinion, and said they should be better off on the plain.
In consequence they retreated about half a quarter of a league from
their former position, which was full of hedges and bushes. The French
were very eager to come up with them; and the greater part dismounted,
turning their horses loose.

The vanguard of the French were impatient for the attack, having
lately found the English very slack in their defence, and made so
sudden and violent a charge that they were unable to form themselves
in proper order. Sir John Fastolfe and the bastard de Thian had not
dismounted, and, to save their lives they, with many other knights, set
off full gallop.

In the mean time those who had dismounted were surrounded by the French
before they had time to fortify themselves, as usual, with sharp
pointed stakes in their front; and, without doing any great mischief to
the French, they were soon completely defeated.

About eighteen hundred English were left dead on the field, and from
one hundred to six score made prisoners, the principal of whom were
the lords Scales, Talbot, Hungerford, sir Thomas Rampstone and several
more. Some of the great lords were killed, and the rest were people
of low degree, of the same sort as those whom they were accustomed to
bring from their own country to die in France.

When the business was over, which was about two o'clock in the
afternoon, all the french captains assembled together, and devoutly
and humbly returned thanks to their Creator for the victory. They were
very gay on their good fortune and lodged that night in the village of
Pataye, which is two leagues distant from Anville in Beauce; and this
battle will bear the name of that town for ever.

On the morrow, the French returned to Orleans, and the adjacent parts,
with their prisoners. They were every where received with the utmost
joy; but the Maid especially seemed to have acquired so great renown,
it was believed that the king's enemies could not resist her, and that
by her means he would soon be acknowledged throughout his kingdom. She
accompanied the other captains to the king, who was much rejoiced at
their success, and gave them a gracious reception.

Several councils were held in the presence of the king; and it was
resolved to collect as many men at arms as possible from all parts
under his dominion to pursue his enemies.

On the day of the battle of Pataye before the English knew that their
enemies were so near, sir John Fastolfe one of the chief captains,
and who fled without striking a blow, assembled a council when he
remonstrated on the losses they had suffered before Orleans, at
Gergeau and other places, which had greatly lowered the courage of
their men, and on the contrary, raised that of the French, and which
made him now advise that they should retire to some of their strong
towns in the neighbourhood, and not think of combating the enemy until
their men were more reconciled to their late defeats, and until the
reinforcements should be sent them which the regent was expecting from

This language was not very agreeable to some of the captains, more
especially to lord Talbot, who declared, that if the enemy came, he
would fight them.

Sir John Fastolfe was bitterly reproached by the duke of Bedford for
having thus fled from the battle,--and he was deprived of the order
of the Garter: however, in time, the remonstrances he had made in
council, previously to the battle, were considered as reasonable; and
this, with other circumstances and excuses he made, regained him the
order of the Garter. Nevertheless, great quarrels arose between him and
lord Talbot on this business, when the latter was returned from his

Prior to the battle of Pataye, Jacques de Milly, Gilles de St Simon,
Louis de Marconnay, Jean de la Haye and other valiant men, were made
knights by the French.



When news of this unfortunate defeat was known to the duke of Bedford
and the council at Paris, he was very much disturbed,--and several,
on hearing of it, wept in the council. They were also informed, that
king Charles was assembling his forces to march and conquer all the
country before him. In consequence of this, the duke of Bedford and the
Parisians appointed a solemn embassy to duke Philip of Burgundy, to
make him acquainted with the strange events that had happened, and to
request that he would hasten to Paris, to advise with the regent and
his ministers how to act in these extraordinary circumstances.

The ambassadors on this occasion, where the bishop of Noyon, two
celebrated doctors in theology from the university, and some of the
principal burghers of Paris. They found the duke at Hêdin, related to
him the cause of their coming and earnestly required of him, on the
part of his brother-in-law the regent and the Parisians, that he would
be pleased to come to Paris with all diligence, to concert measures
with them for the more effectually opposing their adversaries.

The duke complied with their request, and promised to be at Paris
within a few days. He instantly assembled from seven to eight hundred
combatants from his territories in Artois, by whom he was escorted to
Paris. His arrival gave great joy to all ranks, and for many days he
and the regent held constant councils on the present state of affairs,
at the end of which they entered into the following mutual engagement,
namely, that each would exert his whole powers to resist their
adversary, Charles de Valois, and then solemnly renewed the alliances
that existed between them.

When these things were done, the duke of Burgundy returned to Artois,
and carried his sister the duchess of Bedford with him, whom he
established with her household at Lens in Artois. The duke of Bedford
dispatched messengers to England, with orders to send him, without
delay, as large a body of the most expert men at arms as could be
raised. In like manner he called to him the different garrisons in
Normandy, and from other parts under his government, with all nobles
and others accustomed to bear arms.

Some little time before, about four thousand combatants had been
sent from England to the regent, under the command of the cardinal of
Winchester, who crossed the sea with them to Calais, and thence marched
to Amiens. The cardinal went from Amiens to Corbie, to meet the duke
of Burgundy and his sister-in-law the duchess of Bedford, who were on
their return from Paris.

After they had conferred together some time, the cardinal went back to
Amiens, and conducted his men to the regent, who was much rejoiced at
their arrival. In these days, John, bastard of St Pol, was sent to the
duke of Bedford with a certain number of men from Picardy, by orders of
the duke of Burgundy. The regent appointed him governor of the town and
castle of Meaux in Brie, and gave him the sovereign command of all the
adjacent country, to defend it against the power of king Charles, who
was daily expected in these parts.



While these things were passing, Charles king of France assembled at
Bourges in Berry a very great force of men at arms and archers, among
whom were the duke d'Alençon, Charles de Bourbon count of Clermont,
Arthur count of Richemont constable of France, Charles of Anjou,
brother-in-law to the king, and son to Réné king of Sicily, the bastard
of Orleans, the cadet of Armagnac, Charles lord d'Albreth, and many
other nobles and powerful barons from the countries of Acquitaine,
Gascony, Poitou, Berry and different parts, whom he marched to Gien on
the Loire. He was alway accompanied by the Maid and a preaching friar
of the order of St Augustin, called Richard, who had lately been driven
out of Paris, and from other places under subjection to the English,
for having in his sermons shown himself too favourable to the french

From Gien the king marched toward Auxerre; but the constable went with
a large detachment to Normandy and Evreux, to prevent the garrisons in
that country joining the duke of Bedford. On the other hand, the cadet
d'Armagnac was dispatched into the Bourdelois to guard Acquitaine and
those parts.

The king on his march reduced two towns to his obedience, Gergeau and
St Florentin, the inhabitants of which promised henceforward to be
faithful to him, and to conduct themselves as loyal subjects should do
to their lord: and they obtained the king's promise that he would rule
them justly, and according to their ancient customs.

He thence marched to Auxerre, and sent to summon the inhabitants to
surrender to their natural and legal lord. At first, the townsmen were
not inclined to listen to any terms, but commissioners being appointed
on each side, a treaty was concluded, in which they engaged to render
similar obedience to what the towns of Troyes, Châlons and Rheims,
should assent to. They supplied the king's army with provision for
money, and remained peaceable, for the king held them excused this time.

The king marched next to Troyes, and encamped his men around it. He was
three days there before the inhabitants would admit him as their lord:
however, in consideration of certain promises made them, they opened
the gates and permitted him and his army to enter their town, where he
heard mass. When the usual oaths had been received and given on each
side, the king returned to his camp, and caused it to be proclaimed
several times throughout the camp and town, that no one, under pain of
death should molest the inhabitants of Troyes, or those of the other
towns which had submitted to his obedience.

On this expedition, the two marshals, namely, Boussac and the lord de
Raix, commanded the van division, and with them were la Hire, Poton de
Saintrailles and other captains. Very many great towns and castles
submitted to king Charles on his march, the particulars of which I
shall pass over for the sake of brevity.



During the time king Charles remained at Troyes in Champagne, deputies
arrived from Châlons, who brought him the keys of their town, with
promises of perfect obedience to his will. The king, upon this, went
to Châlons, where he was kindly, and with great humility received. In
like manner, the keys of the city of Rheims were presented to him, with
promises to admit him as their king, and to pay him due obedience.

The lord de Saveuses had been lately made governor of Rheims, having a
certain number of men at arms under him, to keep the town steady to the
dukes of Bedford and Burgundy. On the arrival of the lord de Saveuses,
the townsmen promised him that they would obey king Henry and the duke
of Burgundy until death. Nevertheless, from fear of the Maid, of whose
prowess they were told wonders, they resolved to surrender themselves
to king Charles, although the lord de Chastillon and the lord de
Saveuses wanted to persuade them to the contrary. These lords, noticing
their obstinacy, quitted the town of Rheims; for in answer to their
entreaties not to change sides, they had used very rough and strange
expressions. The two lords then went to Château-Thierry.

The men of Rheims carried their resolution of submitting to king
Charles into effect, as you have heard, through the instigation of the
archbishop, who was chancellor to king Charles, and some others.

The king made his public entry into Rheims on Friday the 6th day of
July, attended by a noble chivalry; and on the following Sunday, he was
crowned by the archbishop in the cathedral of Rheims, in presence of
all his princes, barons and knights, then with him. In the number were,
the duke d'Alençon, the count de Clermont, the lord de la Trimouille,
his principal minister, the lord de Beaumanoir, a Breton, the lord de
Mailly, in Touraine, who were dressed in coronation-robes, to represent
the noble peers of France absent at this ceremony. They had been,
however, called over at the great altar by France king at arms, in the
usual manner.

When the coronation was over, the king went to the archiepiscopal
palace to dinner, attended by his princes and nobles. The archbishop
was seated at the king's table, and the king was served by the duke
d'Alençon, the count de Clermont, and other great lords. The king, on
his coronation, created, while in the church, three knights, of whom
the youth of Commercis was one. On his leaving Rheims, he appointed
sir Anthony de Hollande, nephew to the archbishop, governor; and on
the morrow of his departure, he went on a pilgrimage to Corbeni, to
pay adoration to St Marcou. Thither came deputies from Laon, to submit
themselves to his obedience in the manner other towns had done.

From Corbeni, the king went to Provins and Soissons, which places,
without hesitation, opened their gates to him. He made La Hire bailiff
of the Vermandois, in the room of sir Colart de Mailly, who had been
appointed to that office by king Henry.

The king and his army next came before Château-Thierry, in which were
the lord de Châtillon, John de Croy, John de Brimeu and other great
lords of the burgundian party, with about four hundred combatants.
These gentlemen, perceiving the townsmen inclined to submit to the
king, and not expecting any speedy succour, and being withal poorly
provided for defence, yielded up the town and castle to king Charles,
and marched away with their effects and baggage undisturbed. They went
to the duke of Bedford at Paris, who was then collecting a sufficient
body of men at arms to combat the French.



At this period, the regent duke of Bedford, having collected about ten
thousand combatants from England, Normandy and other parts, marched
them from Rouen toward Paris, with the intent to meet king Charles
and offer him battle. He advanced, through the country of Brie, to
Montereau-faut-Yonne, whence he sent ambassadors to the said king, with
a sealed letter of the following tenour.

'We John of Lancaster, regent of France, and duke of Bedford, make
known to you Charles de Valois, who were wont to style yourself
Dauphin of Vienne, but at present without cause call yourself king,
for wrongfully do you make attempts against the crown and dominion
of the very high, most excellent and renowned prince Henry, by the
grace of God, true and natural lord of the kingdoms of France and
England,--deceiving the simple people by your telling them you come to
give peace and security, which is not the fact, nor can it be done by
the means you have pursued, and are now following to seduce and abuse
ignorant people, with the aid of superstitious and damnable persons,
such as a woman of a disorderly and infamous life, and dissolute
manners, dressed in the clothes of a man, together with an apostate and
seditious mendicant friar, as we have been informed, both of whom are,
according to holy scripture, abominable in the sight of God.

'You have also gained possession, by force of arms, of the country of
Champagne, and of several towns and castles appertaining to my said
lord the king, the inhabitants of which you have induced to perjure
themselves by breaking the peace which had been most solemnly sworn
to by the then king's of France and England, the great barons, peers,
prelates and three estates of the realm.

'We, to defend and guard the right of our said lord the king, and to
repulse you from his territories, by the aid of the All-Powerful, have
taken the field in person, and with the means God has given us, as you
may have heard, shall pursue you from place to place in the hope of
meeting you, which we have never yet done.

'As we most earnestly and heartily desire a final end to the war, we
summon and require of you, if you be a prince desirous of gaining
honour, to take compassion on the poor people, who have, on your
account, been so long and so grievously harrassed, that an end may be
put to their afflictions, by terminating this war. Choose, therefore,
in this country of Brie, where we both are, and not very distant from
each other, any competent place for us to meet, and having fixed on a
day, appear there with the abandoned woman, the apostate monk, and all
your perjured allies, and such force as you may please to bring, when
we will, with God's pleasure, personally meet you in the name and as
the representative of my lord the king.

'Should it then please you to make any proposals respecting peace, we
will do every thing that may be expected from a catholic prince, for
we are always inclined to conclude a solid peace, not such a false
and treacherous one as that of Montereau-faut-Yonne, when, through
your connivance, that most horrid and disgraceful murder was committed
contrary to every law of chivalry and honour, on the person of our late
very dear and well-beloved father duke John of Burgundy, whose soul may
God receive!

'By means of this peace so wickedly violated by you, upwards of one
hundred nobles have deserted your realm, as may be clearly shewn by the
letters patent under your hand and seal, by which you have absolutely
and unreservedly acquitted them of every oath of loyalty, fealty and

'However, if from the iniquity and malice of mankind peace cannot be
obtained, we may each of us then with our swords defend the cause of
our quarrel before God, as our judge, and to whom and none other will
my said lord refer it. We therefore most humbly supplicate the Almighty
as knowing the right of my lord in this matter, that he would dispose
the hearts of this people so that they may remain in peace without
further oppressions; and such ought to be the object of all Christian
kings and princes in regard to their subjects.

'We, therefore, without using more arguments or longer delay, make
known our proposals to you, which should you refuse, and should
further murders and mischiefs be, through your fault, committed by a
continuation of the war, we call God to witness, and protest before him
and the world, that we are no way the cause, and that we have done and
do our duty. We therefore profess our willingness to consent to a solid
and reasonable peace, and, should that be rejected, then to resort to
open combat becoming princes, when no other means can accommodate their
differences. In testimony whereof, we have had these presents sealed
with our seal.

'Given at Montereau-faut-Yonne the 7th day of August, in the year of
Grace 1429.' Signed by my lord the regent of France and duke of Bedford.



The duke of Bedford, finding that he could not meet the army of king
Charles to his advantage, and that many towns were surrendering to the
king without making any resistance, withdrew his forces toward the isle
of France, to prevent the principal towns in that district following
their examples.

King Charles, in the mean while, advanced to Crespy, where he had been
received as king, and, passing through Brie, was making for Senlis,
when the two armies of the king and the duke came within sight of each
other at Mont Epiloy near to the town of Baron.

Both were diligent in seizing the most advantageous positions for the
combat. The duke of Bedford chose a strong post, well strengthened,
on the rear and wings, with thick hedge-rows. In the front, he drew
up his archers in good array on foot, having each a sharp-pointed
stake planted before them. The regent himself was with his lords in
one battalion close to the archers, where, among the banners of the
different lords, were displayed two having the arms of France and of
England: the banner of St George was likewise there, and borne that day
by Jean de Villiers, knight, lord of Isle Adam.

The regent had with him from six to eight hundred combatants from
the duke of Burgundy, the chief leaders of whom were the lord de
l'Isle-Adam, Jean de Croy, Jean de Crequi, Anthony de Bethune, Jean
de Fosseux, the lord de Saveuses, sir Hugh de Launoy, Jean de Brimeu,
Jean de Launoy, sir Simon de Lalain, Jean bastard de St Pol, and other
warriors, some of whom were then knighted. The bastard de St Pol
received that honour from the hand of the duke of Bedford, and Jean de
Crequi, Jean de Croy, Anthony de Bethune, Jean de Fosseux, le Liegeois
de Humieres, by the hands of other knights.

When these matters were ordered, the English were drawn up together
on the left wing, and the Picards, with those of the French in king
Henry's interest, opposite to them. They thus remained in battle-array
for a considerable time, and were so advantageously posted that the
enemy could not attack them without very great risk to themselves; add
to which, they were plentifully supplied with provision from the good
town of Senlis, near to which they were.

King Charles had drawn up his men with his most expert captains in
the van division, the others remained with him in the main battalion,
excepting a few posted, by way of rear-guard, toward Paris. The king
had a force of men at arms with him much superior in numbers to
the English. The Maid was also there, but perpetually changing her
resolutions: sometimes she was eager for the combat, at other times
not. The two parties, however, remained in this state, ever prepared
to engage, for the space of two days and two nights, during which
were many skirmishes and attacks. To detail them all would take too
much time; but there was one very long and bloody, that took place on
the wing where the Picards were posted, and which lasted for an hour
and a half. The royal army fought with the utmost courage, and their
archers did much mischief with their arrows, insomuch that many persons
thought, seeing the numbers engaged, that it would not cease until one
or other of the parties were vanquished. They, however, separated, but
not without many killed and wounded on each side.

The duke of Bedford was very well pleased with the Picards for the
gallantry and courage they had displayed; and when they had retreated,
he rode down their ranks, addressing them kindly, and saying, 'My
friends, you are excellent people, and have valiantly sustained for us
a severe shock, for which we humbly thank you; and we entreat, that
should any more attacks be made on your post, you will persevere in the
same valour and courage.'

Both parties were violently enraged against each other, so that no man,
whatever his rank, was that day ransomed, but every one put to death
without mercy. I was told, that about three hundred men were killed in
these different skirmishes; but I know not which side lost the most. At
the end of two days, the armies separated without coming to a general



About this time, ambassadors were sent to the duke of Burgundy, at
Arras, by king Charles of France, to treat of a peace between them.
The principal persons of this embassy were, the archbishop of Rheims,
Christopher de Harcourt, the lords de Dammartin, de Gaucourt and de
Fontaines, knights, with some counsellors of state. Having demanded an
audience, some few days after their arrival, they remonstrated through
the mouth of the archbishop with the duke of Burgundy, most discreetly
and wisely on the cause of their coming, and, among other topics,
enlarged on the perfect affection the king bore him, and on his earnest
desire to be at peace with him,--for which purpose, he was willing to
make condescensions and reparations even more than were becoming royal

They excused him of the murder committed on the person of the late duke
of Burgundy, on the score of his youth, alledging that he was then
governed by persons regardless of the welfare of the kingdom, but whose
measures at that time he dared not oppose.

These and other remonstrances from the archbishop were kindly listened
to by the duke and his council; and when he had finished speaking, one
of the duke's ministers replied, 'My lord and his council have heard
with attention what you have said: he will consider on it, and you
shall have his answer within a few days.'

The archbishop and his companions now returned to their hôtel, much
respected by all ranks, for the majority of the states were very
desirous of a peace between the king and the duke of Burgundy. Even
those of the middle ranks, although there was neither truce nor peace,
came to the chancellor of France at Arras, to solicit letters of grace
and remission, as if the king had been in the full possession of his
power,--which grants, however, they obtained from the archbishop as

The duke of Burgundy held many consultations with those of his privy
council, which much hastened the conclusion of this business.



The lord de Longueval, having been deprived of his estates, had turned
to king Charles, and, by the means of a priest resident in Aumale,
had gained the castle of the town, the chief place of that country,
and held by the English. Four or five Englishmen were found within
it, who were put to death; but the inhabitants were spared, on their
making oath to behave in future like good Frenchmen, and paying a heavy
ransom for the deliverance. This castle was shortly after repaired,
revictualled, and reinforced with men at arms, who carried on a
continual warfare against the English and their allies in these parts.
The duke of Bedford was much vexed at this; but he could not, by reason
of more important matters, at the time go thither, nor provide any

At this time also, the castle of Estrepagny was taken by storm from
the lord de Rambures and his men; but on the other hand, the fortress
of Château-Gaillard was reduced to the obedience of king Charles, which
is excellently situated and is very strong. In this castle had been
confined for a long time that valiant knight the lord de Barbasan, who
had been made prisoner, as has been said, by king Henry's army at Melun.

By means of this lord de Barbasan was Château-Gaillard won, and himself
freed from prison. He gave the command of it to some of his people, and
soon after joined king Charles, by whom he was most joyfully received
and honoured.

The castle of Torcy was also put into the hands of the French by
some of the country people, who had connexions with the English, and
who betrayed it to the enemy. Thus in a short time were four of the
strongest castles of the enemy recovered; and in consequence of their
capture, those parts were very much harassed; both by the French and



When king Charles was marching from near Senlis, where he and the duke
of Bedford had been within sight of each other, he was detained at
Crespy in Valois, and there he received intelligence that the town of
Compiègne was willing to submit to his obedience. He lost no time in
going thither, and was received by the inhabitants with great joy, and
lodged in the royal palace. His chancellor and the other ambassadors to
the duke of Burgundy, there met him, and informed him, that although
they had held many conferences with the ministers of the duke of
Burgundy, nothing had been finally concluded, except that the duke had
agreed to send ambassadors to king Charles to confer further on the

They had learnt that the majority of the duke's council were very
desirous that peace should be established between the king and him, but
that master John de Tourcy, bishop of Tournay and sir Hugh de Launoy
had been charged by the duke of Bedford to remind the duke of Burgundy
of his oaths to king Henry, and were against a peace with the king
of France. This had delayed the matter,--and further time had been
required by the duke to send his ambassadors. He had however, nominated
sir John de Luxembourg, the bishop of Arras, sir David de Brimeu, with
other discreet and noble persons for the purpose.

About this time, sir Lyonnel de Bournouville, who had lost his town and
castle of Creil, requested some men at arms from the duke of Bedford to
reconquer one of his castles called Breteictre, which the French had
won. His request was granted, and he took the fort by storm, putting to
death all within it,--but he was so severely wounded himself that he
died soon after.



During king Charles's stay at Compiègne, news was brought him that the
regent-duke of Bedford had marched with his whole army to Normandy,
to combat the constable near to Evreux, where he was despoiling the
country. The king did not leave Compiègne for ten or twelve days, when
he marched for Senlis appointing sir William de Flavy the governor.
Senlis surrendered on capitulation to the king, who fixed his quarters
in the town, and distributed his army in the country about it.

Many towns and villages now submitted to the king's obedience, namely,
Creil, Beauvais, Choisy, le Pont de St Maixence, Gournay sur l'Aronde,
Remy la Neuville en Hez, Moignay, Chantilly, Saintry and others.

The lords de Montmorency and de Moy took the oaths of allegiance to
him; and in truth, had he marched his army to St Quentin, Corbie,
Amiens, Abbeville, and to other strong towns and castles the majority
of the inhabitants were ready to acknowledge him for their lord, and
desired nothing more earnestly than to do him homage, and open their

He was, however, advised not to advance so far on the territories of
the duke of Burgundy, as well from there being a considerable force
of men at arms as because he was in the expectation that an amicable
treaty would be concluded between them.

After king Charles had halted some days in Senlis, he dislodged and
marched to St Denis, which he found almost abandoned, for the richer
inhabitants had gone to Paris. He quartered his men at Aubervilliers,
Montmartre, and in the villages round Paris. The Maid Joan was with
him, and in high reputation, and daily pressed the king and princes to
make an attack on Paris.

It was at length determined that on Monday, the 12th day of the month,
the city should be stormed, and, in consequence, every preparation was
made for it.

On that day, the king drew up his army in battle-array between
Montmartre and Paris: his princes, lords and the Maid were with him:
the van division was very strong; and thus, with displayed banner, he
marched to the gate of St Honoré, carrying thither scaling ladders,
fascines, and all things necessary for the assault.

He ordered his infantry to descend into the ditches: and the attack
commenced at ten o'clock, which was very severe and murderous, and
lasted four or five hours. The Parisians had with them Louis de
Luxembourg, the bishop of Therouenne king Henry's chancellor and
other notable knights, whom the duke of Burgundy had sent thither,
such as the lord de Crequi, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Simon de
Lalain, Valeran de Bournouville, and other able men, with four hundred
combatants. They made a vigorous defence, having posted a sufficient
force at the weakest parts before the attack began. Many of the French
were driven back into the ditches, and numbers were killed and wounded
by the cannon and culverines from the ramparts. Among the last was the
Maid, who was very dangerously hurt; she remained the whole of the day
behind a small hillock until vespers, when Guichard de Thiembronne came
to seek her.

A great many of the besieged suffered also. At length the french
captains, seeing the danger of their men, and that it was impossible
to gain the town by force against so obstinate a defence, and that the
inhabitants seemed determined to continue it, without any disagreement
among themselves, sounded the retreat. They carried off the dead and
wounded, and returned to their former quarters. On the morrow, king
Charles, very melancholy at the loss of his men, went to Senlis, to
have the wounded attended to and cured.

The Parisians were more unanimous than ever, and mutually promised each
other to oppose, until death, king Charles, who wanted to destroy them
all. Perhaps, knowing how much they had misbehaved by forcing him to
quit Paris, and by putting to death some of his most faithful servants
they were afraid of meeting with their deserts.



In these days, the duke sent, as ambassadors, to Amiens, the bishops of
Noyon, of Arras, the vidame of Amiens and others to remind the mayor
and townsmen of the good affection which he and his predecessors had
ever shewn them; and to say, that if there was any thing he or his
friends could do for them, they were at their commands; requesting
them, in return, to persevere in their attachment to his interests,
like good friends and neighbours.

The townsmen of Amiens, seeing themselves thus honoured and courted by
such ambassadors from so mighty a prince were in the highest spirits,
and said among themselves, that it would be well to put their town
under his protection, on his abolishing all taxes. They replied to the
ambassadors, that they would shortly send commissioners, to the duke to
declare their intentions. They did send commissioners, in conjunction
with deputies from Abbeville, Montrieul, St Riquier, Dourlens and
others, who were instructed to demand an abolition of taxes. This
was not granted by the duke; but he promised them his support and
assistance to obtain their demand from king Henry.

At this time, the duke of Burgundy summoned, from Picardy and the
adjacent parts, all those who had been accustomed to bear arms, to be
ready prepared to join and march with him where he might please to
lead them. They were soon assembled in great bodies, and passed muster
at Beauquêne, where they took the oaths before sir James de Brimeu,
constituted marshal for this purpose. They advanced toward Abbeville
and St Riquier, where they remained a considerable time waiting for
the duke of Burgundy, which was a heavy oppression to those parts.



King Charles, finding the city of Paris unwilling to submit to his
obedience, resolved with those of his council to appoint governors to
all the towns and castles which had surrendered to him, and to return
himself to Touraine and Berry. Having determined on this, he made
Charles de Bourbon count of Clermont governor in chief of the Isle
de France and of Beauvoisis: his chancellor had the command in the
town of Beauvais, the count de Vendôme at Senlis, William de Flavy at
Compiègne, sir James de Chabannes at Creil.

The king attended by the other great lords who had come with him, went
from Senlis to Crespy, and thence, by Sens and Burgundy, to Touraine;
for the truce between the Burgundians and French did not expire until
Easter. The passage of the Pont de St Maixence, of which the French
now had possession, was again intrusted to the hands of Regnault de
Longueval,--so that all that part of France was at this time sorely
distressed by the french and english garrisons making daily inroads on
each other; in consequence of which, the villages were deserted, by the
inhabitants retiring to the strong towns.



On the 20th of September in this year, the duke of Burgundy left Hêdin,
with his sister the duchess of Bedford, grandly accompanied, and lay
that night at Dourlens. They proceeded the next day to Corbie, where
they remained some days to wait the arrival of men at arms who were
coming to them from all quarters.

From Corbie they went to Mondidier, and thence to Chastenay, quartering
the men at arms, who amounted to from three to four thousand, in the
country round. They crossed the river Oise at Pont St Maixence, and,
passing by Senlis, were lodged at Louvres-en-Parisis.

The duke marched his men in handsome order, sir John de Luxembourg
commanding the van, and the duke the main body. Near to him was his
sister, mounted on a good trotting horse, attended by eight or ten
ladies on hackneys. The lord de Saveuses and other knights, with a
certain number of men at arms, followed by way of rear-guard.

The duke was much looked at by the French, who had come out of Senlis
in great numbers on foot and on horseback, armed or not as they pleased
on account of the existing truce. He was completely armed except the
head, and mounted on a beautiful horse, and handsomely dressed and
equipped, followed by seven or eight pages on excellent coursers.

The archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of France came first to meet and
do him reverence in the plains without Senlis, and shortly after came
the count de Clermont, with about sixty knights. When they had drawn
near to the duke they both pulled off their hoods, bowed their heads,
and addressed each other in obliging terms, but did not embrace through
love and joy, as those nearly allied by blood are accustomed to do.

After these first salutations, the count de Clermont went to embrace
his sister-in-law the duchess of Bedford, who was on the right hand
of his brother-in-law the duke of Burgundy,--and having made a short
acquaintance with her he returned to the duke; but observing that he
did not seem willing to enter into any conversation, or have much to
say to him, they took leave of each other and separated on the spot
where they had met. Charles de Bourbon and the chancellor went back
to Senlis, and the duke pursued his march to Louvres, where as I have
said, he intended to pass the night.

On the morrow, he directed his march toward Paris, whither the duke of
Bedford was returned from Normandy. On their meeting, joyous was the
reception on both sides, and great and numerous were the embracings.

The men at arms of the duke of Burgundy were drawn up in array near to
Paris, where they waited a considerable time before the harbingers had
settled their quarters within the town. This done the princes and the
duchess made their public entry with their men at arms. The Parisians
were highly delighted at the arrival of the duke of Burgundy, and sung
carols in all the streets through which he passed. They conducted the
regent and his duchess to the palace of the Tournelles, and then the
duke to his hôtel of Artois.

Great councils were held on the following day respecting the present
state of public affairs; and, among other things the duke of Burgundy
was required by the Parisians to be pleased to take on him the command
of Paris, whose inhabitants had so strong an affection for him, and
were ready and willing to support his and his late father's quarrels.
They added, that it was absolutely necessary that he should comply with
their wishes, considering the very many weighty matters the regent had
on his hands in Normandy and elsewhere.

The duke of Burgundy granted their request until the ensuing Easter,
but it was very much against his inclinations. The two dukes then
determined to bring forward all their forces about Easter, in the
spring of the year, to reconquer those towns in the Isle of France
and on the Oise which had turned against them. Having arranged these
matters, the duke of Bedford, with his duchess and the English,
departed from Paris.

The duke of Burgundy appointed the lord de l'Isle-Adam governor of
Paris, with a small number of men at arms at St Denis, the Bois de
Vincennes, at the bridge of Charenton, and at other necessary posts.
Having settled this business, and tarried in Paris the space of three
weeks, he took leave of the queen of France, mother to king Charles,
and returned, by the same route by which he had come, to Artois, and
thence to Flanders. With him departed several of the burghers of Paris
and some merchants.



Although a truce had been concluded between king Charles and the duke
of Burgundy, it was very little respected on either side, for they
frequently attacked each other. To cover their proceedings, some of the
Burgundians joined the English, with whom no truce had been made, and
thus carried on open war against the French.

The French acted in the same way, by making war on the Burgundians,
under pretence of mistaking them for English, so that the truce
afforded no manner of security. Among others, a gallant act was done
by a valiant man at arms from England, called Foulkes, with whom some
of the Burgundians had united themselves; and they were quartered in a
handsome castle at Neuville le Roi, which they had repaired.

They formed a plan to surprise the town of Creil and plunder it, and
placed an ambuscade near that place, that if the enemy should pursue
them, they might fall into it. What they had supposed did happen; for
sir James de Chambannes, the governor, hearing a disturbance, instantly
armed, and, mounting his horse, galloped into the plain, to attack the
English. At the first onset, Georges de Croix was made prisoner, and
several unhorsed.

A grand skirmish ensued; but, in the end, by the valour and
perseverance of the said Foulkes, sir James and two other knights were
made prisoners, together with some of their ablest men. In this action,
however, Foulkes was struck on the uncovered part of his neck with the
sharp point of a spear, so that he instantly died, though the wound was
very small.

All those of his party who knew him greatly lamented his death, and
were sorry at heart, for they looked on him as one of the most valiant
and expert men at arms in England.

The remaining English now collected together, under their leaders,
Bohart de Boyentin and Robinet Eguetin, and returned with the prisoners
to their castle. Within a few days they concluded a treaty with sir
James de Chabannes, giving him his liberty on his paying a certain sum
of money, and delivering up Georges de Croix.

The duke of Bedford perceiving that Château Gaillard, from its
situation and strength, greatly annoyed the adjacent countries in
Normandy, resolved to have it besieged before the enemy could revictual
it, or reinforce it. The siege lasted from six to seven months, and it
was then surrendered from want of provisions,--and the garrison were
allowed to march away with their baggage and effects.



About this time, the duke of Burgundy sent the lord de Saveuses and
John de Brimeu, with five hundred combatants, to assist the Parisians
against the French, who were daily making excursions on all sides of
the town, to the great loss of the inhabitants.

They quartered themselves in St Denis, and gained several advantages
over the enemy in their many skirmishes; but one day, the French,
having formed a junction with some of the garrisons on the side of
Montlehery, advanced to Paris, leaving a detachment in ambuscade at a
small village. At that time the lord de Saveuses and the bastard de
St Pol were in Paris, and, hearing the disturbance, hastily mounted
their horses, and set out instantly in pursuit of the enemy with few
attendants, and without waiting for their men at arms. The French, in
their flight, made for the ambuscade, where these two knights, finding
resistance vain, were taken prisoners by them, and carried away, with a
few of their attendants, to one of their castles.

The bastard de St Pol was badly wounded in the neck by a lance before
he was taken, and was some time in danger of his life. The two knights,
however, on paying a heavy ransom, soon returned to Paris, to the great
joy of the inhabitants.

On the other hand, the French, under the command of Allain Geron,
Gaucher de Bruissart, and other captains, advanced, at the break of
day, to St Denis; in which town, John de Brimeu was lately arrived with
some men at arms, whom he had brought from Artois, and he had also
some of the men of the lord de Saveuses. A party of the French gained
admittance by means of ladders, and, opening one of the gates, their
whole body rushed in, shouting, 'Town won!' and, battering down the
doors and windows of all the houses wherein they thought there were any
Burgundians, who, on hearing the noise, were much alarmed.

Some retreated to the strong parts of the town, and John de Brimeu
with many to the abbey; the bastard de Saveuses to the gate leading to
Paris, and others saved themselves under different gates; while great
part, sallying out of their quarters to join their captains, were made
prisoners or slain. Among the prisoners were Anthony de Wistre, Thierry
de Manlingehem, and from twelve to sixteen others, mostly gentlemen.
Thevenin de Thenequestes, Jean de Hautecloque, and a few more were

While the affray was going on, John de Brimeu and his companions
recovered their courage, and began to assemble in different parts
where they heard their war-cries; and having introduced a valiant man
at arms, called Guillaume de Beauval, he collected a body of men and
attacked the enemy, who were more intent on pillaging than on keeping
good order, and drove them out of the town, with the loss of eight or
ten of their men.

The lord de Saveuses, then in Paris hearing of this attack, assembled
in haste as many men as he could, and galloped off to succour his
friends at St Denis; but before his arrival, the French were gone, and
had retreated toward Senlis, and others of their garrisons, carrying
with them many horses from those in St Denis.

At this same time, the English besieged the lord de Rambays
in his castle of Estrepaigny, the inheritance of the count de
Tancarville,--and remained so long battering it with their engines that
the lord de Rambays, hopeless of succour, treated with the English for
its surrender, on condition that he and his men should depart in safety
with their baggage.



In this year the duke of Bedford had the castle of Torcy besieged,
which was the best built and strongest in all that part of the
country. The command of the besieging army was given to the bastard
of Clarence, who by his cannon and other engines, which he kept
continually playing against it, greatly damaged the walls. At the end
of six months, the besieged seeing no hope of relief, and finding
that their provision began to fail, entered into a treaty with the
bastard of Clarence for their surrender, on condition that some of the
principal inhabitants might depart whither they pleased with their
effects; and that from ten to twelve others, who had formerly been of
the english party, but who had even aided the French to win the castle,
should remain at their pleasure. These were very cruelly put to death,
and the castle was then demolished and razed to the ground.

In the month of January of this year, sir Thomas Kiriel, an Englishman,
with four hundred combatants, most part of whom were his countrymen,
marched from Gournay in Normandy, where they had been in garrison,
passing by Beauvais toward Beauvoisis and the county of Clermont. He
committed much mischief in those parts, seized many cattle, especially
horses, and made several prisoners. He advanced even to the suburbs of
Clermont, and then set out on his return to his garrison.

The count de Clermont was then at Beauvais, and hearing of this
enterprise of sir Thomas, quickly collected from all the neighbouring
garrisons attached to king Charles eight hundred or more combatants. To
these were added a multitude of peasants, as well from Beauvais as from
the adjacent parts,--and all of them hastened to meet and fight the

Sir Thomas had heard from his scouts of their coming, and had drawn
up his men in battle-array, about a league off Beauvais, to wait for
them. They were on foot, having a wood on their rear, and sharp stakes
in front to prevent the horse from charging without great danger to
themselves. The French, nevertheless, began the attack, and very
severe it was on both sides, but, as they were on horseback, were soon
repulsed by the arrows of the archers, and thrown into confusion: the
English then, seizing their opportunity, rushed on them with such
courage that the enemy were defeated, very many being slain, and upward
of a hundred of these peasants made prisoners. They gained the field
of battle,--for the horsemen had retreated, very melancholy at their
loss, to Beauvais. Sir Thomas, rejoiced at his victory, carried his
prisoners and plunder safe to his garrison of Gournay.

The earl of Suffolk, about this time laid siege to the castle of
Aumale, of which the lord de Rambures was governor, having under him
six score combatants. The castle was surrounded on all sides; and
at the end of twenty-four days it was constrained to surrender, on
condition that the lord de Rambures and his men should have their lives
spared, with the exception of about thirty who were hanged, because
they had formerly taken oaths of fidelity to the English and had been
of their party. Soon afterward, the lord de Rambures was carried to
England, where he remained prisoner five or six years before he could
obtain his liberty. The castle was revictualled and regarrisoned. Thus
did the English regain, this year, many strong places which the French
had won, with scarcely any loss of men.



On the 9th day of January, in this year was solemnised in the city of
Bruges, in a house that had been expressly prepared for that purpose,
the marriage of Philip duke of Burgundy with the lady Isabella,
daughter to the king of Portugal. The feast was very grand and
magnificent: all the principal streets of the town were hung with rich
cloths and the finest tapestry; and there were present at it his two
sisters, the duchess of Bedford and duchess of Cleves, the countess of
Namur, the countess of Lielse, the countess of Conversan, sir John de
Luxembourg, the lady of Beaurevoir, the bishop of Liége, and many other
great lords and ladies.

These personages displayed the richest dresses, themselves, their
attendants and horses being each day clothed in different liveries,
more especially the bishop of Liége, John bastard de St Pol, sir John
d'Hornes and others. When the duchess landed (for she had been brought
by sea by one of her brothers, together with the ambassadors from the
duke of Burgundy, the principal of whom were the lord de Roubais and
master Gilles d'Escornay provost of Harlebecque,) near to Bruges, the
burghers in great pomp went out to meet her. They had with them one
hundred and sixty-four trumpets which sounded very melodiously.

With regard to the various entertainments, which were continued for
about eight days, it would take too much time to detail them. Suffice
it to say, that there was the greatest profusion of meats and wines,
and representations of unicorns and other beasts, from which flowed
rose-water, wines, and different liquors, for the entertainment of
the guests at this feast. The duke had never made such a display of
magnificence at any of his former marriages,--and this was the third.
There were tiltings, and various amusements, for many days, between
knights and esquires of name and renown; and this feast must have cost
the duke immense sums of money.



In these days, Estienne de Vignolles, surnamed La Hire, took the town
of Louviers, in Normandy, by surprise, having entered it with scaling
ladders. He had with him from five to six hundred men, who found
therein such plenty that they were greatly enriched. On their entrance,
about thirty townsmen, English and others, were killed. After the
capture, the majority of the inhabitants took the oaths of allegiance,
to whom La Hire restored their houses and the greater part of their
effects: the rest saved themselves as well as they could, leaving their
wealth behind them.

La Hire and his companions soon made a severe warfare on the districts
around, and at times even advanced as far as Rouen. The poor people
were much harrassed by them, to the great vexation of the English, for
at the time they could not assist them by reason of the more weighty
matters they had on hand.



In this year, the duke of Burgundy established, in honour of God and
St Andrew, whose cross he bore in his arms, an order or fraternity
of twenty-four knights without reproach, and gentlemen from four
generations, to each of whom he gave a collar of gold handsomely
wrought with his device, namely, 'Du Fusil,'--to each of which, collars
were suspended in front, like as great ladies wear crosses, clasps or
diamonds,--and in the centre thereof was a golden fleece, similar to
what Jason conquered in old times as is written in the history of Troy,
and which no Christian prince had ever before made use of. The duke,
therefore, called this order, The Order of the Golden Fleece.

He, in conjunction with his council selected twenty-four knights to
be of this order: the names of some of them follow First, the duke,
the founder, then William de Vienne lord de St George, sir Regnier Pot
lord de la Roche, the lord de Roubaise, the lord de Montagu, sir Roland
de Huquerque, sir Anthony du Vergy count de Dammartin, sir David de
Brimeu lord de Ligny, sir Hugh de Launoy lord de Santes, sir John lord
de Commines, sir Anthony de Toulongeon marshal of Burgundy, sir Petro
de Luxembourg count de Conversan, sir John de la Trimouille lord de
Jonvelles, sir John de Luxembourg lord de Beaurevoir, sir Gillebert de
Launoy lord de Villerval, sir John de Villiers lord de l'Isle-Adam,
sir Anthony lord de Croy and de Renty, sir Florimont de Brimeu lord
de Massincourt, sir Robert lord de Mamines, sir James de Brimeu lord
de Grigny, sir Baudouin de Launoy lord de Moulembais, sir Peter de
Bauffremont lord de Chargny, sir Philip lord de Ternant, sir John de
Crequi, sir John de Croy lord de Tours sur Marne.

These knights and their successors were, on receiving the order,
to enter into and sign solemn statutes and engagements for its
preservation, and the maintaining it in due splendour, which shall be
hereafter more fully detailed when the order shall have had its full
number of knights,--for after the first institution of it, many others
were added to those above named. The heirs of any knight were bounden,
on his decease, to deliver up the collar of the order to the duke of
Burgundy, for him to give it to another knight.



In the month of February of this year, the lord de Crevecoeur,
governor of Clermont in Beauvoisis, set out from Amiens to go thither,
accompanied by sir Robert de Saveuses and about eight score combatants,
as an escort to carts and cars laden with provision for Lent, and other

Having passed St Just, near to St Remy en l'Aire, they were watched
by the French, who knew of their coming and instantly attacked. The
leaders of the French were sir Theolde Valperghue, sir Regnault de
Fontaines, sir Louis de Vaucourt and others, having a much superior
force to the enemy. Notwithstanding this, the lords de Crevecoeur and
Saveuses dismounted with their men, the greater part of whom were
archers, and defended themselves valiantly for the space of four hours
or more, during which many men and horses were killed and severely
wounded on both sides. At length, the French seeing their loss, and
that they could not conquer the enemy, returned to their garrisons, and
the lord de Crevecoeur and sir Robert de Saveuses continued their march
to Clermont, where they remained until the ensuing year waiting for the
coming of the duke of Burgundy.



On the 20th of February, in this same year, a combat took place in the
great market-place at Arras, in the presence of the duke of Burgundy as
judge of the field, between five Frenchmen of the party of king Charles
and five Burgundians, who had challenged each other to break a certain
number of lances. The french knights were sir Theolde de Valperghue,
Poton de Saintrailles, sir Philibert d'Abrecy, sir William de Bes,
and l'Estandart de Nully: the Burgundians were sir Simon de Lalain,
the lord de Chargny, sir John de Vaulde, sir Nicolle de Menton and
Philibert de Menton.

This Tournament lasted five days; and a large spot was inclosed for
the purpose covered with sand, and the lists constructed with wood,
with a division so that the horses of the two knights could not run
against each other. The first day, sir Simon de Lalain and sir Theolde
de Valperghue performed gallantly against each other; but toward the
end sir Theolde and his horse were struck to the ground. In like manner
were the ensuing days employed, and very many lances were broken. The
lord de Chargny, however at the thirteenth course against sir Philibert
d'Abrecy, struck off the vizor of his helmet, and drove the lance into
his lace, so that he was instantly carried to his lodgings in the
utmost danger.

On the last day, sir l'Estandart de Nully was hit exactly in the
same manner, by the same Philibert de Menton, and, like the other
was conducted to his lodgings in such great pain that he could with
difficulty sit his horse: he had behaved with much gallantry, and had
broken several lances against his adversary.

The French were served with lances by an expert and active man at arms
called Alardin de Mousay, and most of the Burgundians by sir John de
Luxembourg. Each day the duke came to the seat prepared for him grandly
attended by his chivalry, and nobly dressed.

When this tournament was over, and the French had been well
entertained, and presented with handsome gifts by the duke, they
departed from the town of Arras for Compiègne, very disconsolate that
they had been so unsuccessful. They left the two wounded knights
behind, to be attended by the duke's surgeons, who in the end cured

In these days, the French on the borders of Beauvoisis, on the river
Oise, made daily excursions against those of the Burgundy-party, who
returned the compliment, although a truce had been sworn to last until
the ensuing Easter; and these continual excursions caused the villages
and country to be nearly deserted.

Duke Philip of Burgundy summoned a large body of men at arms to meet
him at Peronne, where he and his duchess solemnised the feast of
Easter. This done, he marched them to Mondidier, where he remained some

During these tribulations, the town and castle of Melun surrendered to
king Charles. It had been given in charge to the lord de Humieres, who
had appointed some of his brothers to defend it with a certain number
of men at arms, but the inhabitants rose against them and drove them
out of the town. King Charles and his party were much rejoiced at this
event, because they could, by means of its bridge, cross the Seine when
they pleased, and it was beside the strongest place in all that part of
the country.

[A. D. 1430.]



At the commencement of this year, the duke of Burgundy marched his army
from Mondidier, and fixed his quarters at Gournay sur Aronde, in front
of the castle, which belonged to Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont,
his brother-in-law. He summoned Tristan de Maguillers, the governor, to
surrender, or he would storm it. Tristan, seeing he could no way hold
out against the duke's forces, concluded a treaty, by which he engaged
to yield it up on the first day of next August, if he was not before
relieved by king Charles or his party: he also promised, that neither
he himself nor his garrison would, during that time, make war on any of
the duke's partisans,--and by this means Tristan remained in peace.

This compromise had been hastily concluded, because the duke and sir
John de Luxembourg had received intelligence to be depended upon,
that the damoiseau de Commercy, Yvon du Puys and other captains, with
a very large force, had besieged the castle of Montagu. Commercy, to
whom this castle belonged, had marched thither secretly a great number
of combatants, with bombards, veuglaires and other warlike engines,
intending, by an unexpected and sharp assault, to recover the place;
but it was well defended by those whom sir John de Luxembourg had
placed therein. The principal leaders of the garrison were two notable
men at arms, one of whom was an englishman, and the other Georges de la

They were frequently summoned to surrender, but would not listen to the
summons, for they had not a doubt but that they should be very shortly
succoured. At length, the besiegers having learnt that the duke of
Burgundy was marching against them, and that they must stand the chance
of a battle, were panic-struck, and so great was their fear that they
marched away about midnight for their own garrisons, leaving their
cannon, bombards, and all their stores behind. Information of this was
instantly dispatched to the duke and sir John de Luxembourg, who made
all diligence to attack them, and the duke marched his whole army to

In these days sir John de Luxembourg advanced against Beauvais, and on
the countries of the enemy, particularly against sir Louis de Vaucourt
and his men, who had remained there for a considerable time during the
winter, and set fire to a castle which they had repaired. The enemy
retired within the town of Beauvais; and sir John encamped before the
castle of Prouveulieu, which some Englishmen had refortified, and,
by their excursions from thence, frequently oppressed the town of
Mondidier, and the territories of the duke of Burgundy. They were soon
forced to submit to sir John, who had the greater part executed and the
rest sent to different prisons: having done this, he returned to the
duke of Burgundy at Noyon.



When the duke of Burgundy had remained for about eight days in Noyon,
he departed, to lay siege to the castle of Choisy sur Oise, in which
was Louis de Flavy, holding it for sir William de Flavy. The duke's
engines did so much mischief to the walls of the castle that the
garrison capitulated, on being allowed to march away with their baggage
in safety. So soon as they had quitted the castle, it was demolished
and razed to the ground.

The duke built a bridge over the Oise, to enable himself and his army
to cross toward Compiègne on the side of Mondidier. During this time,
the lord de Saveuses and John de Brimeu had been appointed to guard the
suburbs of Noyon, with their men, and those of the lord Montgomery and
of other English captains quartered at Pont l'Evêque, to prevent the
garrison of Compiègne from cutting of the supplies from the duke's army.

It happened on a certain day, that those in Compiègne, namely, Joan
the Maid, sir James de Chabannes, sir Theolde de Valperghue, sir
Regnault de Fontaines, Poton de Saintrailles, and others of the French
captains, accompanied by about two thousand combatants, came to Pont
l'Evêque between day-break and sun-rise, and attacked the quarters
of the English with great courage. A sharp conflict took place; and
the lord de Saveuses with John de Brimeu, with their men, hastened to
their support, which renewed the vigour of the English; they together
repulsed the French, who had made good progress in their quarters.
About thirty were killed on each side,--and the French retreated to
Compiègne, whence they had come. The English from that day strengthened
their position on all sides, to avoid a similar attack.

Shortly afterward, John de Brimeu going to the duke of Burgundy
with about one hundred combatants, was suddenly attacked by a party
of French in the forest of Crespy in the Valois, who had come from
Attichy for this purpose, and to seek adventures, and without much
defence made prisoner. The reason of his being thus taken was because
his men followed in a file, and were unable to form into battle-array
until the attack had commenced. He was put into the hands of Poton de
Saintrailles, who, in the end, gave him his liberty on paying a heavy

When the duke of Burgundy had demolished the castle of Choisy, he
quartered himself in the fortress of Coudun, within a league of
Compiègne, and sir John de Luxembourg was lodged in Claroi. Sir Baudo
de Noielle was ordered to post himself with a certain number of men at
arms on the causeway of Marigny, and the lord Montgomery and his men
were quartered along the meadows of La Venette. The duke was joined by
some reinforcements from his different countries, having the intention
to besiege the town of Compiègne, and reduce it to the obedience of
king Henry of England.



At the beginning of the month of May, a valiant man at arms named
Franquet of Arras, attached to the duke of Burgundy, was overthrown and
taken. He had made an excursion with about three hundred combatants
toward Lagny sur Marne, but, on his return, was met by Joan the Maid
and four hundred French. Franquet and his men attacked them valiantly
several times; and, by means of his archers whom he had dismounted,
made so vigorous a resistance that the Maid, finding they gained
nothing, sent hastily for succours from the garrisons of Lagny and
other castles under the dominion of king Charles. They came in great
numbers with culverines, cross-bows and other warlike instruments, so
that in the end the Burgundians, after doing great mischief to the
enemy's cavalry, were conquered, and the better part of them put to
the sword. The Maid even caused Franquet to be beheaded, whose death
was exceedingly lamented by his party,--for he was a man of most
valiant conduct.



About this period, the duke of Bar, called Réné of Sicily, collected
from his duchies of Lorraine and Bar, and the borders of Germany,
a considerable force of men at arms, commanded by that prudent and
valiant knight the lord de Barbasan, who, as has been said, was
detained by the English for a long time prisoner. The duke's troops
might amount to three or four thousand combatants; and he led them
to besiege the town of Chappes, three leagues from Troyes in which
were the lord d'Aumont, his brother and many warriors, who diligently
applied themselves to its defence.

They also sent to the lords of Burgundy, to entreat that they would
come to their aid in this time of need. In consequence, sir Anthony de
Toulongeon marshal of Burgundy, the count de Joigny, sir Anthony and
sir John du Vergy, the lord de Jonvelle, the lord de Chastellux, le
veau de Bar, and in general the greater part of the burgundian nobles,
to the number of four thousand combatants, assembled, and advanced
toward the quarters of the duke of Bar, to offer him battle.

The duke, knowing of their coming, was drawn up ready to receive them,
when the Burgundians were soon thrown into disorder, and returned to
their own country. About sixty were killed or taken: of the latter
number were the lord de Plansi and Charles de Rochefort. The lord
d'Aumore was also made prisoner, with several of his men, when sallying
out of the town to support his friends. His brother was likewise taken,
and he was forced to deliver up the castle to the duke of Bar, who
completely destroyed it.



During the time that the duke of Burgundy was quartered at Coudun,
and his men at arms in the villages between Coudon and Compiègne, it
happened, that about five o'clock in the afternoon, on Ascension-eve,
the Maid, Poton and other valiant french captains, having with them
from five to six hundred combatants horse and foot, sallied out of
Compiègne by the gate of the bridge leading to Mondidier, with the
intent to attack the post of sir Baudo de Noielle, at the end of the
causeway of Marigny.

At this time, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Crequi, and eight or
ten gentlemen, but with very few attendants were with sir Baudo. They
had rode thither to consult with him on the best mode of directing
their attacks on Compiègne.

The French were very near to Marigny, before the greater part of the
men who were unarmed could prepare themselves; but they soon collected
together, and a severe conflict commenced,--during which the cries of
'To arms!' were echoed through all the english and burgundian quarters.
The english, who were encamped on the meads of Venette, formed
themselves into battle-array against the French, and were near five
hundred men.

On the other hand, sir John de Luxembourg's men quartered at Claroi,
hastened to the relief of their lord and captain, who was engaged in
the heat of the skirmish, and under whom the most part rallied. In this
encounter the lord de Crequi was dangerously wounded in the face.

After some time, the French, perceiving their enemies multiply so fast
on them, retreated toward Compiègne, leaving the Maid, who had remained
to cover the rear, anxious to bring back the men with little loss. But
the Burgundians, knowing that reinforcements were coming to them from
all quarters, pursued them with redoubled vigour, and charged them on
the plain. In the conclusion, as I was told, the Maid was dragged from
her horse by an archer, near to whom was the bastard de Vendôme, and to
him she surrendered and pledged her faith. He lost no time in carrying
her to Marigny, and put her under a secure guard. With her was taken
Poton the Burgundian, and some others, but in no great number.

The French re-entered Compiègne doleful and vexed at their losses, more
especially for the capture of Joan: while, on the contrary, the English
were rejoiced, and more pleased than if they had taken five hundred
other combatants, for they dreaded no other leader or captain so much
as they had hitherto feared the Maid.

The duke of Burgundy came soon after from Coudun to the meadows before
Compiègne, where he drew up his army, together with the English and the
troops from their different quarters, making a handsome appearance,
and with shoutings and huzzas expressed their joy at the capture of
the Maid. After this, the duke went to the lodgings where she was
confined, and spoke some words to her; but what they were I do not now
recollect although I was present.

The duke and the army returned to their quarters, leaving the Maid
under the guard of sir John de Luxembourg, who shortly after sent her,
under a strong escort, to the castle of Beaulieu, and thence to that
of Beaurevoir, where she remained, as you shall hear, a prisoner for a
long time.



In this year, king Henry of England, then about eight years of age,
disembarked about ten o'clock in the morning of St George's day, from
his vessel at Calais. Having mounted his horse, he went to hear mass
at the church of St Nicholas attended by the cardinal of Winchester,
the duke of York, the earls of Huntingdon, Warwick, Stafford, Arundel
and Suffolk, the counts de Bonneterre, de Hemme, the lords de Roye, de
Beaumont, d'Escaillon, de Grez, and many more.

He was likewise accompanied by master Pierre de Cauchon, bishop of
Beauvais, who had been sent to meet him. His attendants then followed;
and he was escorted from Calais to Rouen by his army, where he remained
a long time.



On the morrow of the feast of the Ascension, the duke of Burgundy
changed his quarters from Coudun to La Venette, where he was lodged
in the abbey, and his men in the town and near to it. Sir John de
Luxembourg was quartered at Marigny. They had soon erected an earthen
bulwark within a bow-shot from the outworks of Compiègne, and huts of
wood and earth were built still nearer to the ramparts, in which men at
arms kept guard day and night. They had a deep ditch of communication
sunk from the bulwark to these huts, so that the guard could safely
pass and repass, without fear of the guns from the walls, which were
continually firing.

The duke had some large engines pointed against the gates of the town,
which, by the huge stones they cast, did great damage to the gates,
bridges and mills: some of the last were rendered quite useless, to the
great distress of the inhabitants. Among other mischiefs done by these
machines, a young gentleman of twenty-two years old, called Louis de
Flavy, son to sir William de Flavy governor of Compiègne, was struck
dead. All present were much grieved at this accident on account of sir
William, who, although he was much affected, concealed his feelings, to
avoid discouraging his men, and soon after, by way of heartening them,
caused his minstrels to sound before him as usual; and ordered the
ramparts to be more diligently defended notwithstanding they had been
greatly damaged by these engines.

There had been constructed within the ditch small wooden huts, in which
the guard were sheltered from danger. Some mines were also begun on
by orders of sir John de Luxembourg, which, though very deep and well
concealed, were of little service, but had cost much.

While these different measures were pursuing, many skirmishes took
place, in which the besiegers had numbers killed and wounded. The
principal persons among the dead were sir John de Belles, knight,
Alain d'Escaussines, Thibault de Caitigines, and many others, as well
Burgundians as English.



At this time, the Liegeois were instigated by some arrogant men
attached to the party of king Charles, such as John de Beaurain, John
de Saumain, Everard de la Marche, with others, and, by the hatred and
malice they had long borne the duke of Burgundy on account of former
quarrels, which have been already detailed in the preceding part of
this work, to rise in arms, and invade the territories of the duke,
more especially the county of Namur, and despoil it. John de Heneberg,
their bishop, remonstrated with them strongly on this subject; but
his attempts to dissuade them from executing their plans were vain,
although he plainly shewed that very great misfortunes might befall
Liége in consequence. The Liegeois were much displeased with these
remonstrances, and being determined to pursue hostile measures against
the duke of Burgundy, the bishop considered, that should he not take
part and support them, he might be deprived of his bishoprick. He
therefore, having advised with his council, resolved to save his own
honour, by sending letters of defiance to the duke before he made war
upon him. The tenour of these letters was as follows.

'Most high, most noble, and most puissant prince Philip, duke of
Burgundy, count of Artois, Flanders and Burgundy, palatine of Namur, &c.

'Notwithstanding that I, John de Heneberg, bishop of Liége and count
de Loz, in virtue of certain statements that have passed between us,
have made frequent applications to you for reparation according to
the claims declared in these aforesaid statements, which have been
but little attended to, and that divers great and abominable outrages
have been committed by your captains and servants on my country and
subjects, which, if it may please you to remember, have been fully
detailed in the complaints that were made to you thereon.

'Nevertheless, most high, noble and puissant prince, although your
answers have been very gracious, and although you declare your
intentions of preserving a good understanding between us, your promises
have hitherto been without effect; and these matters are now so much
entangled with others, no wise concerning them, that it is very
grievous to us, and most highly displeasing.

'Most high, noble and puissant prince, you must, in your wisdom, know,
that by reason of my oath to remain faithful to my church and country,
it behoves me to support and defend their rights against all who may
attempt to infringe them, with the whole force I shall be possessed of.

'For this reason, most high, noble and puissant prince, after my humble
salutations and excuses, I must again inform you of these things, and,
should they be continued, opposition will be made thereto, so that my
honour may be preserved.

'Given under my seal, appended to these presents, the 10th day of July,
in the year 1430.' Then signed, by command of my lord, 'J. Berrard.'

In like manner were challenges sent to the duke from different lords,
allies and friends of the bishop, namely, the count de Beaurienne,
Picard de la Grace lord de Quinquempoix, Rasse de Rabel, Gerard
d'Edevant, John de Valle, Henry de Gayel, John de Boilleur, John de la
Barre, John de Gemblais, Corbeau de Belle-Goule, Thierry Ponthey, and
several others.



When the duke of Burgundy learnt that the bishop of Liége and the
Liegeois were preparing to invade his county of Namur, he determined
with his council to send thither the lord de Croy to guard and defend
the town and castle of Namur, and the whole of that country. The lord
de Croy, in consequence, departed from before Compiègne, having
about eight hundred men under his command, and entered Namur, where
the Liegeois had already commenced the war, by taking of Beaufort and
setting fire to it.

The lord de Croy remained inactive in Namur, for about ten days: after
this, he began his operations, by the storming of the town of Fosse,
which he burnt, with the exception of the monastery. On the ensuing
day, from forty to eighty Liegeois were put to death at Florennes, and
forty made prisoners.

With the lord de Croy were his brother sir John de Croy, the lords de
Mainsnèe, de Rambures, de Fauquemberg and de d'Juselle, le Galois de
Roly, the lord de Framesant, Robert de Neufville and other nobles. The
lord de Rambures was ordered to Polvache, where in a sally, he was
mortally wounded and made prisoner. The lord de Senlis was then sent
thither, who surrendered the place to the Liegeois, and they set fire
to and burnt it.

The Liegeois were led by their bishop, and amounted to fifty thousand
men. When they had gained Polvache, they laid siege to Bouvines, and
took and burnt Golesme. While they were thus engaged, the lord de Croy
made frequent attacks on them, and in these different skirmishes slew
and took from seven to eight hundred.



About this time, the earl of Huntingdon, de Robersac, and others, with
a thousand archers from England, came to the assistance of the duke
of Burgundy before Compiègne. They were quartered in the town of la
Venette, where the duke had lodged before he had moved to the fort
between Compiègne and Marigny: the duke's men were posted at Marigny,
whence the governor, sir John de Luxembourg, and his people had
dislodged and gone to Soissons, which, through some connexions he had
in the town had surrendered to him, with other places in those parts.

On the arrival of the earl of Huntingdon, the lord Montgomery marched
his English back to Normandy. The duke of Burgundy laboured diligently
day and night, to destroy a rampart in front of the town-bridge, which
much annoyed his men, and which had held out for upwards of two months.
At length by an unexpected attack made at night it was won, and from
eight to ten men taken in it, who made no great defence although well
supplied with stores.

After its capture, the ditches were filled, and its batteries turned
against the town, and manned by a strong force of men at arms. During
the assault, some were drowned in the Oise from being in too great a
hurry to escape.

The duke had a bridge thrown over the Oise near to la Venette, and
well guarded, which the English and Burgundians frequently crossed in
their excursions to skirmish with the French near to Pierrefons. The
earl of Huntingdon one day passed this bridge with all the English,
and advanced to Crespy in the Valois, and thence to Sainctrines, which
submitted to his obedience. He then marched to quarter himself for
the night at Verberie, and made a sharp attack on the church whither
the peasants had retreated, who in the end were constrained to yield
themselves to his mercy. He hanged one of them, called Jean de d'Ours,
who was their leader, because he had refused to obey his first summons.
The rest of the peasants escaped by paying ransoms, and losing all
their effects. The earl then returned with what he had gained to his
quarters before Compiègne.

During all this time, the lord de Crevecoeur and Robert de Saveuses
remained with their men at Clermont in the Beauvoisis, to guard that
frontier against the French in Creil and Beauvais, and to prevent the
escorts with wine and other necessaries going to the duke's army, from
being cut off.

The duchess of Burgundy had fixed her residence with her household
at Noyon, whence she from time to time visited her lord the duke.
The period for the surrender of Gournay now approached, and the duke
marched his army thither to keep the appointment: he was accompanied by
the duke of Norfolk and the earl of Huntingdon, with about a thousand
combatants, to support him, should there be occasion; but when the day
came, no one from the french king appeared: the governor, therefore,
seeing no hope of succour, yielded the place into the hands of the duke
of Burgundy, who made the lord de Crevecoeur governor of it.

The duke then returned to his siege of Compiègne with the earl of
Huntingdon, having left a sufficiency of men at arms to keep the
garrison in check, and to guard his camp. The duke of Norfolk went to



In these days, an adventurer called Toumelaire, whom king Charles had
appointed provost of Laon, having collected five or six hundred men
from the town of Rheims and that neighbourhood, led them to besiege the
castle of Champigneux, in which were some English and Burgundians that
much harrassed the country of Champagne.

He instantly laid close siege to it on all sides, expecting to gain
possession thereof; but that did not happen, for within a few days,
William Corain, an Englishman, and Georges de la Croix, then at
Montagu, assembled as many men as they could, and, without delay, gave
battle to these peasants, who unable to make any good defence, were
soon conquered, and the greater part killed or taken.

Toumelaire, however, and some others escaped; but there remained from
six to seven score dead on the field, and a party of them were burnt
in a house whither they had retreated. They left behind many cannons,
cross-bows, and other warlike stores, which they had brought with them.
William Corain and Georges de la Croix, having repaired the castle,
returned to Montagu much rejoiced at their victory.



At this time, duke Philip of Brabant, who had for a long time before
been in a languishing state, died in the town of Louvain. Some of his
domestics were suspected of having caused his death, and several of
them were severely tortured, in divers manners, to force them to a
confession; but the matter was not the more cleared up. Physicians
declared, that he died of a natural death, occasioned by excesses in
his younger years in tilting and other things. He was buried by the
side of his ancestors.

His death was soon notified to the duke of Burgundy at the siege of
Compiègne, because the nobles of the duchy of Brabant and the greater
part of the commonalty considered him as the lawful successor to the
late duke Philip, for he had never been married; while others said,
that the countess-dowager of Hainault, aunt to these two dukes, was the
nearest of kin, and of course that the succession was hers.

The duke of Burgundy, on hearing of this event, appointed some of his
most confidential captains to carry on the siege of Compiègne, namely,
sir James de Brimeu marshal of the army, sir Hugh de Launoy, the lord
de Saveuses and some others, who were to co-operate with the earl of
Huntingdon and his Englishmen. He likewise sent messengers with letters
to recal sir John de Luxembourg from the Soissonois, and to entreat
that he would, without delay, return to Compiègne to take the chief
command of the army, relating to him, at the same time, the event that
had happened, and the necessity there was for him to set out instantly
for Brabant.

When these matters were done, the duke of Burgundy having provided
every thing for the continuance of the siege, and well garrisoned the
great fort opposite to the gate of the town, of which he made sir Baudo
de Noyelle captain, he first took leave of the earl of Huntingdon and
set out for Noyon. He thence, after some days, went to Lille, and
having held a council of his most confidential advisers, resolved to
take possession of the duchy of Brabant and its dependancies.

The duchess of Burgundy, when the duke left her, returned to the
country of Artois. The duke was received in all the towns of Brabant
as their lord, although the countess-dowager of Hainault, as I have
said before, laid claim to the succession of duke Philip; but when
she considered the great power of the duke of Burgundy, and that the
nobility and principal towns had acknowledged him for their lord, she
desisted from further pursuing it.

At the same time, the lady of Luxembourg, sister to count Waleran,
now advanced in years, and who was at the castle of Beaurevoir,
under the wardship of sir John de Luxembourg, her nephew, seized and
took possession, in his name, of all the lordships that had formerly
belonged to the said count Waleran, her brother, and which were now
again escheated to her, as the heiress, by her father's side, to her
fair nephew the duke of Brabant, lately deceased. All the oaths of
the officers were renewed to her,--and from that time she was called
the countess of Ligny, and of St Pol. From her great affection to her
nephew, sir John de Luxembourg, she bequeathed to him the greater part
of these estates after her decease, which was very displeasing to the
count de Conversan lord d'Enghien, elder brother to sir John, and they
had many quarrels concerning it,--however, in the end, they made up
their differences, and were good friends.



Soon after the departure of the duke of Burgundy from the siege of
Compiègne. Sir John de Luxembourg and his men arrived, and he took the
chief command of the siege, according to the commands of the duke. He
lost no time in strengthening the fort in front of the bridge, and
erected two smaller ones on the river toward Noyon: the command of one
he gave to Guy de Roye and Aubert de Folleville,--and that of the other
to a common man from the Boulonois, named Branart, who had under him
some genoese and portuguese cross-bows, and other foreigners.

Having done this, sir John crossed the river by the bridge at la
Venette, and went to lodge at the abbey of Royaulieu. He was followed
by sir James de Brimeu marshal of the army, sir Hugh de Launoy, the
lord de Crequi, the lords de Saveuses, de Humieres, sir Daviod de Poix,
Ferry de Mailly, sir Florimont de Brimeu and several other noble men,
who were lodged as well in the abbey as in the village, which was much
deserted, and among the vineyards and gardens in that neighbourhood.

The earl of Huntingdon remained in his quarters at la Venette. During
this time the besieged made many sallies on foot and on horseback, when
some were killed and wounded on both sides, but in no great number.
This caused the besiegers to erect another great fort a bow-shot and a
half distant from the town, near to the gate of Pierrefons, the guard
of which was given to the marshal, the lord de Crequi, sir Florimont
de Brimeu, having under them three hundred combatants: they lodged
themselves within it before it was quite finished, and remained there a
long time.

The besieged now suffered severely from famine, and no provisions were
to be had in the town for money, since, for the space of four months,
none had been publicly sold in the markets. Several messengers were in
consequence sent to the marshal de Bousac, to the count de Vendôme, and
to other captains of king Charles, to inform them of their distress,
and to require instant aid if they wished to save the town and its

While this misery was suffered, the marshal de Bousac, Poton de
Saintrailes, Theolde de Valperghue, and other french leaders, laid
siege to Proissy sur Oise, in which was the bastard de Chevereuse, with
about forty combatants. They were soon forced to submit, and the most
part were put to death by the guisarmes of the marshal, and the castle
totally demolished. In like manner were subjected the strong monastery
of Cathu le Chastel, and some other places, and those found within them
were generally put to death. The marshal and his companions, however,
did not make any attempt on the besieging army of Compiègne, as is
usual in similar cases, until the last, when the siege was raised, as
shall be hereafter told.

At this period, the duke of Norfolk, commanded a powerful army in the
countries bordering on Paris, and subjected many towns to the obedience
of king Henry, such as Dammartin and others. On the other hand, the
earl of Stafford took by storm the town of Bray-comte-Robert: the
castle, which was exceedingly strong, immediately surrendered. The earl
then crossed the Seine, and foraged the whole country so far as Sens in
Burgundy, and returned with a great booty to the place whence he had
set out, without meeting with the least opposition, or even seeing the
enemy. He took, soon after, Le Quene en Brie, Grand Puys and Rappelton:
he had four score handed of those whom he found in Le Quene.

He also took the strong tower of Bus, which, with the other places,
were dismantled. Sir James de Milly and sir John de la Have were in
Bray-comte-Robert, when it was taken, and made prisoners, but afterward
obtained their liberty by paying a large ransom.



On Trinity-day in this year, the prince of Orange, having assembled
about twelve hundred fighting men marched them into Languedoc, where he
gained many castles from the partisans of king Charles. He did the same
in Dauphiny, which displeased the king and his council so much that
they resolved to oppose him, and that the lord de Gaucour, governor of
Dauphiny, sir Ymbert de Grolée, seneschal of Lyons, and Roderick de
Villandres, should collect their forces, and with the loyal nobles and
gentlemen defend the country against these Burgundians. On mustering
their forces, they amounted to about sixteen hundred combatants, whom
they marched to lay siege to a castle called Colomier, which in a short
time submitted to them.

In the mean time, the prince of Orange had retreated, knowing that
his enemies, with a superior force, had taken the field and moreover
had won a castle garrisoned by his men. He lost no time in sending
messengers with letters to the nobles and gentry in Burgundy, and to
his friends and allies, to request aid. He was so diligent that, within
few days, he collected very many of the nobles, whom he led to those
parts where he knew the enemy was, in hopes of regaining the castle of

The French having been apprised by their spies of the coming of the
Burgundians, had made preparations for receiving them, and in handsome
array advanced to meet them, which they did between Colomier and
Autane. The Burgundians, having a wood to pass through, could not
immediately form in battle-array, nor instantly resist the vigorous
charge of the French. The combat was however, severe, and the victory
long disputed. Among those who were dismounted on the part of the
Burgundians was a valiant knight called sir Louis de la Chapelle: he
was soon slain, and the French remained masters of the field by the
defeat of the enemy.

Two or three hundred were left dead of the Burgundians and six score,
or more made prisoners. The principal among the last were the lord de
Bussy, son to the lord de St Georges, the lord de Varembon, whose nose
was cut off by a stroke of a sword, sir John Louis son to the lord
de Conches, the lord de la Frete, Thibault de Rougemont, the lord de
Ruppes, the lord d'Escabonne, sir John de Vienne, the lord de Raix,
John de Baudè, sir Duc de Sicon, Gerard de Beauvoir and others, to the
number before stated.

On the day of battle, many of the Burgundians, to the amount of sixteen
or eighteen hundred combatants, fled in great disorder, the principal
were the prince of Orange, (who was pursued as far as Autane, wherein
with difficulty he saved himself) the count de Fribourg, the lord de
Montagu, by name sir John de Neuf-Chastel, who bore the order of the
Golden Fleece, but of which he was afterward deprived, the lord de
Pesmes, and many more notable gentlemen, who fled different ways.

This engagement, in which Roderick de Villandras, who commanded the van
of the French behaved most gallantly, took place about eight o'clock in
the morning. When the business was over, the French assembled together
in great joy, and returned thanks and praises to the Creator for the
happy issue of the day. In consequence of this victory, they won many
towns and castles from the Burgundians: one was Aubrune, belonging to
the prince of Orange, which after its capture was demolished.



The earl of Huntingdon and John de Luxembourg laboured long at the
siege Compiègne, and, by cutting off all provision from entering the
town, and by their continued attacks from the forts, were in daily
hopes of forcing the garrison to submit to their will. But on the
Tuesday before All-Saints' day the French, to the number of four
thousand fighting men, under the command of the marshal de Bousac,
the count de Vendôme, sir James de Chabannes, Poton de Saintrailles,
sir Regnault de Fontaines, the lord de Longueval, sir Louis de
Vaucourt, Alain Giron and other captains, who had frequently been most
earnestly pressed by William de Flavy, the governor, and inhabitants of
Compiègne, to come to their assistance, at length quartered themselves
at La Verberie, attended by a multitude of peasants with spades,
mattocks, saws, and other implements, to repair the roads which the
Burgundians had destroyed, by felling down trees, digging deep ditches,
and various other hindrances to the march of an army.

The besiegers were soon made acquainted with their arrival, and a
council was holden of the chiefs, to consider whether it would be
more advantageous to advance and offer them battle or wait for them
in their entrenchments. Many were for fighting them before they
proceeded further; but others offered solid reasons why it would be
better to strengthen their camp and wait their arrival,--adding, that
should they quit the siege, to march to the French, and leave their
forts unprotected, the besieged who were impatient to get out of their
distressed situation, would demolish them, or at least they would
make their escape from the town to a place of safety. This had such
weight that the majority of the council agreed to it; and they resolved
unanimously to wait the event, and exert themselves to the utmost to
resist their enemies.

The following orders were issued. The earl of Huntingdon was to cross
the river very early on the morrow, Wednesday, with his Englishmen,
at the new bridge, and march to Royaulieu, where he was to draw up in
order of battle, with sir John de Luxembourg, leaving in the abbey of
La Venette, which was strong, all useless hands, with the horses and
baggage, with a few of his men to guard them and defend the passage of
the bridge.

Item, all carts, cars, merchandise and stores were to be secured in
the abbey of Royaulieu, and the guard of it was given to sir Philip de
Fosseux and the lord de Cohen.

Item, sir James de Brimeu with three hundred combatants were to remain
in their fort, on promise from the lords, that should they be attacked,
they would hasten to their support, having agreed on the signal they
were to make, should they require aid.

Item, it was ordered, that the grand fort near the bridge of Marigny
should be on a similar footing, as well as the two smaller ones on the
river side toward Cleroi.

When these orders had been issued, the captains retired to their tents,
and exhorted their men to be ready prepared on the morrow to meet the
enemy. A strong guard was also ordered, of horse as well as foot, for
the night, at all the avenues likely to be attacked.

On the morrow, in conformity to these regulations, the earl of
Huntingdon marched six hundred English to join sir John de Luxembourg
in order of battle between Royaulieu and the adjoining forest, near
which they expected the enemy would advance. The remainder of the army
posted themselves at the different quarters ready to defend them should
they be attempted.

The French in Verberie took the field at break of day; and, by orders
from the marshal de Bousac and other captains, a detachment of about
one hundred men were sent toward Choisy, with provision to throw into
the town, and exhort the garrison to make a strong sally against the
enemy's fort.

On the other hand, Poton de Saintrailles, with two or three hundred
combatants, advanced by the high road toward Pierrefons, to attack that
fort, while the marshal, the count de Vendôme, and the other leaders,
marched across the Oise, when, having passed the forest, they drew up
in array about a bow-shot and a half distant from the Burgundians: they
were all on horseback, with the reserve of some guisarmes and inferior

The English and Burgundians were on foot, excepting a few that had been
ordered to remain on horseback. Sir John de Luxembourg then created
some new knights, such as Andrew lord de Humieres, Ferry de Mailly,
L'Aigle de Sains, Gilles de Saucourt and others. With sir John de
Luxembourg were Hugh de Launoy lord de Xaintes, the lord de Saveuses,
sir Daviod de Poix, sir John de Fosseux and many nobles impatient for
the combat,--which could not well take place, for the French were on
horseback and themselves on foot, and besides it was necessary that
they should be in readiness to succour their forts if attacked.

There were nevertheless many skirmishes in the course of the day; in
one of them, the count de Vendôme was repulsed, but no great damage
was done on either side. However a valiant man at arms attached to the
marshal de Bousac, having charged the picard archers, thinking that he
was followed by his men, was instantly pulled off his horse by these
archers, and cruelly put to death.

In the mean time the detachment that had been sent to Choisy announced
the arrival and plans of their friends to the besieged, who, rejoiced
at the news, and with a fervour of courage arising therefrom, as well
as from hatred to those who had caused them such distress, made a
numerous sally from the town, with scaling ladders and other warlike
instruments, to attack the grand fort, in which were the marshal,
sir James de Brimeu, and the lord de Crequi. They made a gallant
defence and repulsed them into the town, but, fresh men rushing out,
recommenced the assault, which lasted a long time,--but, as in the
former one, they were again driven out of the ditches which were not
deep nor wide, for, as I have said, the works had not been completed.

At this moment, Poton de Saintrailles advanced with his men from the
forest and, near the high road leading to Pierrefons, joined those from
the town and, thus united, made a fresh attack on this fort. William
de Flavy was very active himself, and encouraged his men to do their
duty; and even the women assisted greatly, no way sparing themselves to
annoy their adversaries.

Notwithstanding the courage of the Burgundians, the fort was stormed in
spite of their defence, and upward of eight score warriors were slain,
the principal of whom were the lord de Ligniers, knight, Archambault de
Brimeu, Guillaume de Poilly, Druot de Sonis, Lyonnel de Touleville and
many other gentlemen. Those made prisoners were instantly carried into
Compiègne, namely, sir James de Brimeu marshal of the duke's household,
the lord de Crequi, sir Florimon de Brimeu, sir Valerian de Beauval,
Arnoul de Crequi, Colart de Bertanecourt, lord de Rolepot, Regnauit
de Saincts, Thierry de Mazingien de Reteslay, the bastard de Remy and
other noblemen, who, after some time obtained their liberties by paying
great ransoms.

Sir John de Luxembourg having promised his friends succour if they
were attacked, hearing what was passing, was desirous of fulfilling
his engagement, and going thither with his whole power, but he was
advised to remain where he was lest the enemy should take advantage of
his absence, and worse happen. This induced him to remain, and the day
passed away.

The marshal de Bousac, the count de Vendôme and the other captains, now
entered the town of Compiègne with their men, where they were joyously
received,--but from the great scarcity of provision suffered much that
night from want of food. They, however, consoled themselves with their
good success, and heartily congratulated each other thereon, expecting
on the morrow to drive away the enemy from before the town.

They constructed in haste a bridge of boats, by which they crossed
the river to attack a fort on its banks, guarded by forty or fifty
combatants, Genoese, Portuguese and other foreigners, which was
quickly won, and all within put to death, except a common man from the
Boulonois, very expert in arms, named Branart, who was carried prisoner
into the town of Compiègne.

Aubert de Folleville, who commanded in another fort hard by, observing
what was passing, and fearing to be stormed, set fire to his works,
and retreated to the quarters of the English. The French made a grand
attack on the fourth fort, at the end of the bridge, which was of some
continuance. Sir Baudo de Noyelle guarded it so well, and had such
a force of men at arms and artillery that the enemy was obliged to
withdraw into the town, seeing they could not then succeed in taking it.

It was late in the evening, when the French retreated into Compiègne,
vespers having sounded some time. The earl of Huntingdon and sir John
de Luxembourg, knowing they should not be attacked that evening, called
a council of the principal captains to consult on their situation and
determine how they were to act. It was resolved that, on returning to
their quarters, they should that night sleep in their armour, and, on
the morrow, draw up in battle-array before the town, to see if their
adversaries were inclined to combat them, expecting from the great
dearth of provision they could not remain in such numbers therein
without making some sallies.

When this had been settled, the earl of Huntingdon with his English
returned to their quarters at la Venette: he promised to have the
bridge well guarded, so that none of their men should go away without
leave. Sir John de Luxembourg retreated with his force to Royaulieu,
and established a strong guard round his quarters, but, notwithstanding
this, a great part of his men collected together, and took upon them to
depart without sound of trumpet, and go whither they pleased. The most
of them crossed this bridge, which, although promised, had not been
sufficiently guarded. With them went also some of the earl's men.

When the captains heard of this, they changed the plan they had
determined on the preceding evening, namely, to appear in battle-array
before the town; and sir John de Luxembourg, and the others, made
preparations to pass the Oise with the earl of Huntingdon. This was
done on the Thursday morning early,--on which day the French sallied
out of Compiègne in great force, sending forward scouts to learn what
was become of the enemy, who soon found they had marched off; and when
this was made known to those who had sent them, they and their men were
greatly rejoiced.

They hastily made for the abbey of Royaulieu, wherein they found plenty
of provision and wines, which they devoured till they were satisfied,
and made excellent cheer, for it had cost them nothing. Finding the
English and Burgundians were decamped, the better-armed part of the
French went to the bridge near la Venette, which they destroyed without
any great opposition, and threw it into the river in sight of the
enemy, abusing them with many villanous expressions; for the French
were now no longer afraid of the Burgundians hurting them, since the
bridge was demolished.

They also this day made a serious attack, with all the large cannon
from the town, on the fort commanded by Baudo de Noyelle, which damaged
it much. But the earl of Huntingdon and sir John de Luxembourg, having
again advised with their captains, concluded, that as it was impossible
at that moment to withstand their enemies with hopes of success, or to
keep their men together, it was advisable to withdraw to Noyon, and
thence to dismiss their men to their homes. In consequence, they sent
orders to sir Baudo to set fire to his fort, and march away, which he
punctually obeyed.

The Burgundians decamped about vespers, in a very disorderly manner,
for Pont l'Evêque, shamefully leaving behind in their quarters, and in
the large fort, a great number of huge bombards, cannon, culverines,
veuglaires, with other artillery and very many stores, belonging to the
duke of Burgundy,--all of which fell into the hands of their enemies.

Sir John de Luxembourg was vexed at heart at this retreat but he could
not avoid it. On the Saturday, they left Pont l'Evêque, and went to
Roye, and thence, without making any stay, each departed to his own
country, or to different garrisons.

The garrison of Compiègne, on their departure, repaired the bridge
over the Oise, and issued in large bodies, with displayed banners,
over those parts that had been possessed by the enemy, bringing back
all stragglers, whom they put to death. They burnt many buildings and
villages, committing great cruelties in a short time, so that they were
dreaded by the country round, and scarcely any person would, from fear
of them, venture out of the fortified towns or castles.

In short, they created such terror that the following places
surrendered to them, without waiting for an attack or striking a blow,
namely, Ressons sur Mas, Gournay sur Aronde, le Pont de Remy, le Pont
de St Maixence, Longueil Sainte Marie, the town and strong castle
of Bertheuil, the castle of Leigny les Chastigniers, the tower of
Vermeil, and others, in which they found abundance of wealth. Having
regarrisoned them, they sorely harrassed the adjoining countries, more
especially those parts that were of the english or burgundian party.



While these things were passing, the marshal de Bousac collected a
great part of the French who had raised the siege of Compiègne, and
marched away, with cannon and other artillery, to lay siege to the
castle of Clermont in the Beauvoisis, at the instigation of some of the
townsmen of Beauvais, wherein he and his men were lodged.

The lord de Crevecoeur, his brother Jean de Barentin, the bastard
Lamon, with about fifty combatants, were in the castle, and vigorously
defended it against the French, who made many assaults, but in vain.
Several of their men were killed and wounded: nevertheless, they
continued the siege for about twelve days; at which time, Boort de
Buyentin, with ten combatants and a trumpet, secretly entered the
castle during the night, by a postern that opened to a vineyard, to
assure the lord de Crevecoeur that he would very shortly be relieved.

This was true; for the earl of Huntingdon, who had lately retreated
to Gournay in Normandy, again took the field, having with him sir
John bastard of St Pol, and a thousand fighting men, with the intent
to raise the siege. The French hearing of this, marched off one
morning very early, leaving behind them the cannon they had brought
from Compiègne. They returned to their garrisons, and with them many
Burgundians from Clermont who had joined their party. The lord de
Crevecoeur was well pleased at their departure.



Duke Philip of Burgundy was in Brabant when he heard that the French
had forced his men to raise the siege of Compiègne. He was much
troubled thereat, as well for the loss of his troops in killed and
wounded as for the great sums of money he had expended on this siege.
He, however, made preparations to return to Artois with all the men at
arms he had with him, and summoned his nobles to assemble as large a
force as they possibly could.

The duke advanced to Peronne, and sent forward sir Thomas Kiriel, an
Englishman, James de Helly, sir Daviod de Poix, Anthony de Vienne,
and other captains, with five or six hundred combatants, by way of
vanguard, to post themselves at Lihons in Santerre. The duke, in the
mean time, was preparing to follow them, having intentions to lodge at
Guerbigny, to wait for the arrival of the main body of his men; for
the French had possession of the castle, whence they much annoyed the

It happened that these captains whom the duke had sent in advance,
dislodged one morning from their quarters at Lihons, and took the road
toward Guerbigny, in separate bodies, without keeping any order on
their march, or sending scouts forward, as experienced men at arms
always do, more especially when near their adversaries.

Gerard bastard de Brimeu, the governor of Roye, now joined them
with about forty combatants, and they advanced together to a town
called Bouchoire. On their march, they put up many hares, which they
pursued with much hooting and hallowing, for their captains were very
inattentive in not preserving better order,--and many of them had not
even put on their armour, for which neglect they suffered severely, as
you shall hear.

This same day, Poton de Saintrailles had arrived very early at
Guerbigny, and taking the garrison with him, advanced into the open
country. He had altogether full twelve hundred fighting men, the
greater part well experienced in war, whom he led toward Lihons
in Santerre, and prudently sent his scouts before him. These, on
approaching Bouchoire, heard the shoutings, and saw the state of the
enemy, and returned with all haste to give an account of what they had
seen and heard.

Poton, on learning this, ordered his men instantly to prepare
themselves, and led them straight to the enemy, admonishing them to do
their duty well against adversaries no way in a state for the combat.

Poton and his men advancing thus suddenly, and with a great noise,
charged the enemy, and soon threw them into confusion: most part of
them were unhorsed by the lances of the French. The leaders, however,
and some others, rallied under the banner of sir Thomas Kiriel, and
made a gallant defence; but it was in vain, for their men were so
scattered and confused that most of them saved themselves by flight as
well as they could.

Those who had stood their ground were either killed or taken: in the
number of the first were James de Helly and Anthony de Vienne, with
fifty or sixty Burgundians and English. From four score to a hundred
were made prisoners, the chief of whom were sir Thomas Kiriel and two
of his kinsmen, valiant men at arms, Robert and William Courouan, sir
Daviod de Poix, l'Aigle de Saincts, knight, l'Hermite de Beauval and
others, to the numbers aforesaid.

Sir Gerard de Brimeu attempted to escape, after the defeat, to Roye,
whence he had come; but, the trappings of his horse being very
brilliant with silversmith's work, he was closely pursued, and carried
away prisoner with the others.

When the business was over, Poton, having collected his men, led his
prisoners to Guerbigny, but not before they had stripped the dead,
among whom were not more than four or five of the French. He and his
men refreshed themselves that day and night at Guerbigny, and on the
morrow he departed with his whole force, leaving the castle in charge
with the townsmen. In like manner, he dislodged the garrison of La
Boissiere, and set it on fire. He went to Ressons sur Mas, and thence
to Compiègne, with his prisoners, where he was joyfully received, on
account of the victory he had gained over the enemy. James de Helly was
interred in the church, with a few others of the dead: the rest were
buried in the church-yard near to the place where they had been slain.



The duke of Burgundy received the news of this unfortunate defeat at
Peronne on the very day when it happened. He was greatly affected
by it, more especially for the loss of James de Helly and Anthony
de Vienne, and instantly called together the captains then with
him, namely, sir John de Luxembourg, the vidame of Amiens, the lord
d'Antoing, the lord de Saveuses, and others of his household, with
whom he determined to fix his quarters at Lihons in Santerre,--and he
marched thither that day.

On the morrow, he advanced to Roye in the Vermandois, where he remained
eight days waiting for the earl of Stafford, the earl of Arundel and
other Englishmen to whom he had sent orders to join him.

During this time, many of the captains of king Charles collected a
body of about sixteen hundred combatants; and under the command of
the marshal de Bousac, the count de Vendôme, sir James de Chabannes,
William de Flavy, Poton de Saintrailles, the lord de Longueval, sir
Regnault de Fontaines, sir Louis de Vaucourt, Alain Guyon, Boussart
Blanchefort, marched in good array near to Mondidier, and thence went
to quarter themselves at two villages two leagues distant from Roye.

Very early on the ensuing day, they held a council, and unanimously
determined to offer combat to the duke of Burgundy and his army, if he
would meet them in the open country; and that their intentions might be
publicly known, they sent a herald to the duke with their challenge.

The duke, on receiving it, agreed to meet them in battle. The matter,
however, was delayed by his council, who remonstrated with him on the
impropriety of risking his person and honour against such people, as
they had not with them any prince of equal rank with himself for him to
contend with. They also stated, that he was weak in numbers, and that
his troops were dispirited from the defeat they had lately suffered,
and the loss of James de Helly, as well as by their retreat from before

The duke, much grieved that he could not follow his own inclinations,
assented to the advice of his council. They sent, therefore, an answer
to the French, that if they would wait until the morrow, they should be
unmolested in their quarters; that even provision should be sent them,
and that then sir John de Luxembourg would engage them in battle, for
which he was willing to give sufficient securities.

The French, on receiving this answer, said, they would not consent
to it; but that if the duke of Burgundy was willing to advance into
the plain, they were ready to combat him. While these messages were
passing, the duke drew his men up in battle-array without the town of
Roye: the French were also in order of battle, fronting him; but it
was difficult to pass from one army to the other, by reason of the
deep marshes that were between them. Some skirmishing, nevertheless,
took place until night-fall, which forced the French to retire toward
Compiègne, very indignant at the duke's conduct, and making great
mockeries of him and his men, saying they were afraid to fight them.

Thus the two armies separated, and the duke re-entered the town of
Roye,--when shortly after arrived the earl of Stafford, with about six
hundred combatants. The duke now left Roye, and went to quarter himself
at Leigny-les-Chastiniers, where was a small castle, in which was the
abbot de St Pharon de Meaux, brother to the lord de Gamaches, with
about forty of the French.

The duke summoned them to surrender, which they refused,--and he
instantly made an attack which gained him the lower court. Finding they
could not hold out longer, they submitted themselves to the duke, who
gave them up to sir John de Luxembourg, for him to do his will with
them, and the castle was burnt and razed.

The inhabitants of Noyon sent to request of the duke, that he would
deliver them from the garrison of the castle of Irle; but as it was
now winter, and the duke had not those with him whom he looked for,
he returned to Montdidier, wherein he placed a garrison, and thence
by Corbie to Arras, and to Flanders. The earl of Stafford marched his
Englishmen back to Normandy.

In this year, the town of Coulomiers en Brie, was taken by scalado, at
day-break, by part of king Henry's garrison from Meaux. The governor
of Coulomiers for king Charles was Denis de Chally, who, hearing the
disturbance, escaped with many others over the walls, abandoning their
effects. The town was full of all sorts of wealth, for it had not
been taken during the whole of the war by either party: it was now
completely pillaged, and the inhabitants who had remained were heavily

In this year, Pierre de Luxembourg count de Conversan and Brayne,
and successor to the inheritances of the count de St Pol, made some
agreement with his two brothers, namely, Louis bishop of Therouenne and
sir John de Luxembourg respecting this succession. In consequence of
which the bishop was to have the castle of Hucties, in the Boulonois,
and the castlewick of Tingry with its dependancies: sir John de
Luxembourg was to have for himself and his heirs the county of Ligny in
Barrois, the lands in Cambresis, formerly belonging to Waleran count de
St Pol, namely, Bohain, Serin, Helincourt, Marcoin Cautaig and other
great lordships. From this time, sir John de Luxembourg bore the titles
of count de Ligny Lord de Beaurevoir and de Bohain.

The whole of the remaining estates and lordships were enjoyed by sir
Pierre de Luxembourg, who, henceforward, took the titles of Count de St
Pol, de Conversan, de Brayne, and lord of Enghien.

On the 30th day of September, in this year, the duchess of Burgundy was
brought to bed, in the town of Brussels, of a son, who was christened
Anthony; which event, caused the greatest rejoicings in that town and
country. At this time, the count de Nuche, nephew to the emperor of
Germany, was in Brussels, where he kept a noble estate; and he and some
of his attendants, when they went abroad wore green chaplets on their
heads to signify that they were bachelors, although the weather was
very severe.

The count de Nuchy stood godfather for the new born son of the duke of
Burgundy, who was christened by the bishop of Cambray. The godmothers
were the duchess of Cleves and the countess of Namur. There were three
hundred torches, as well from the palace of the duke as from those of
the town.

The child died in the following year; and when news of it was carried
to the duke, he was much vexed, and said, 'I wish to God I had died
when so young, for I should then have been much happier.'

In this same year, sir Anthony de Bethune lord of Maruel was captured
in his castle of Auchel, together with about thirty fighting men. It
had been besieged by the count de Vendôme, Toumelaire provost of Laon,
whom I have before noticed, with great numbers of the commonalty. Sir
Anthony, seeing that resistance would be vain, agreed to surrender the
place, on condition that he and his men might march away in safety.

Notwithstanding this engagement, when he was about to depart, he
was seized and put to death by these common people, together with a
gentleman called Franquet de Beguynes. The count de Vendôme was much
grieved at the event, but he could not prevent it.

The castle was burnt and razed, to the great indignation of sir John
de Luxembourg, when he heard what had passed because sir Anthony was
cousin-german to the lady Jane de Bethune, his wife, daughter to the
viscount de Meaux; and he conceived a great hatred against those of
Laon for so doing.


 H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-street,
       Blackfriars, London.

Transcribers Note:
Original spelling, including any inconsistencies, has been retained.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Vol. 06 [of 13]
 - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the houses of Orleans and Burgundy, of the possession of Paris and Normandy by the English, their expulsion thence, and of other memorable events that happened in the kingdom of France, as well as in other countries" ***

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