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Title: Negro Journalism - An Essay on the History and Present Conditions of the Negro Press
Author: Gore, George W.
Language: English
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                            Negro Journalism

                   An Essay on the History and Present
                      Conditions of the Negro Press

                             [Illustration]

                                   By
                           GEORGE W. GORE, JR.
                     Junior in Course in Journalism
                           De Pauw University

                             [Illustration]

                          Greencastle, Indiana
                                  1922

                             Price 35 Cents

                             Copyright, 1922
                            By George W. Gore



PREFACE


This pamphlet does not pretend to be a detailed or scholarly discussion
of the subject. Lack of experience and funds have limited the author to
a mere outlining or suggesting of the field. In fact, this essay is only
the expansion of a term paper submitted in fulfillment of a semester
requirement in the Course in Journalism.

The main purpose of this essay is to show the various stages of
development through which the Negro press has evolved with a view of
furnishing a background for the better understanding of its present
status. It is written, too, to present the problems and inherent
possibilities of Negro Journalism; to point out the progress which is
being made today; and to suggest future possibilities. If this attempt,
amateur and incomplete as it may be, in any measure awakens an interest
in the achievements and efforts of Negro newspapers and magazines it has
served its purpose.

For the period up to 1890, the author frequently has referred to _The
Afro-American Press_ and Its Editors by I. Garland Penn—a work which
is an authority on the subject for the period covered by it. A large
part of the biographical data and information on present day newspapers
was obtained from the Negro Year Book and communications. I especially
wish to thank those editors and publishers who so kindly gave me the
information which I desired.

I am also very grateful to The Chicago Defender and The Southern Workman
of Hampton, Va., for the loan of some cuts.

Especially do I wish to acknowledge the valuable assistance and helpful
criticism of my instructor, Prof. L. E. Mitchell, director of the Course
in Journalism, in DePauw University.

                                                      GEORGE W. GORE, JR.

Greencastle, Indiana.



CONTENTS


Transcriber’s Note: Chapter numbering in this table of contents doesn’t
correspond to the chapter numbering in the text (due, it seems, to a
late insertion of the preface as an extra chapter).

     I. PREFACE—

    II. EARLY ATTEMPTS (1827-1847)—

          1. Discussion of nine pioneer papers.

          2. Biographic sketches of their editors.

   III. THE ABOLITIONIST PRESS (1847-1865)—

          1. Discussion of eleven papers.

          2. Biographic sketches of editors.

    IV. THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD (OR THE PERIOD OF FREEDOM) (1865-1880)—

          1. Discussion of principal papers and their editors.

          2. Statistics as to paper published.

     V. THE TRANSITION PERIOD (1880-1900)—

          1. Discussion of papers established that still exist.

          2. The Associated Correspondents of Race Newspapers.

    VI. THE DAWN OF A NEW ERA (1900-)—

          1. Journalism regarded as a vocation.

          2. Discussion of organization, staffs, circulation and
             advertisements.

          3. News service and syndicates.

   VII. PRESENT DAY NEWSPAPERS—

          1. Discussion of mechanical equipment, news handling, etc.

          2. Circulation and staffs.

          3. Twelve best Negro newspapers.

  VIII. DAILY NEGRO NEWSPAPERS—

          1. Early attempts.

          2. Daily editions for special periods.

          3. Present day dailies.

    IX. NEGRO MAGAZINES—

          1. Precursors.

          2. Discussions of the development.

          3. Present day publications—characteristics, size, circulation,
             and aim.

     X. JOURNALISM AND NEGRO SCHOOLS—

          1. High School and College papers.

          2. College courses in Journalism—Howard, Fisk, and Wilberforce.

          3. Training in printing—Tuskegee and Hampton.

    XI. A FORECAST OF THE FUTURE—

          1. Development, opportunity for advancement, and achievement.

   XII. APPENDIX—LIST OF NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED TODAY.



A History of Negro Journalism In the United States



CHAPTER I

EARLY NEGRO NEWSPAPERS


[Sidenote: FREEDOM’S JOURNAL]

Seven years after Benjamin Lundy began _The Genius of Universal
Emancipation_, and four years before William Lloyd Garrison started to
publish _The Liberator_, Negro Journalism in America was born. The first
publication was _Freedom’s Journal_[1], issued March 16, 1827. It was
in form a medium-sized, neat-looking, well-printed weekly, about nine
by twelve inches. _Freedom’s Journal_ was a thorough-going abolitionist
sheet, having been called into being to defend the Negro against the vile
attacks of a New York editor of Jewish descent who had pro-slavery and
Negro-hating tendencies. This new organ had for its motto, “Righteousness
Exalteth a Nation,” and its columns were filled with long dissertations
on the immorality of slavery.

[Sidenote: JOHN RUSSWURM FIRST EDITOR]

The editor, John Russwurm, one of the first Negroes to graduate from a
college in the United States, graduated from Bowdoin College in 1826.
Russwurm was born in Jamaica in 1799. He published _The Journal_ until
1829, when he went to Liberia, where he became editor of _The Liberia
Herald_.

[Sidenote: THE COLORED AMERICAN]

A period of about eight years elapsed before the founding of a second
Negro newspaper. In January, 1837, Rev. Samuel Cornish began the
publishing of _The Weekly Advocate_. The name was changed in March,
however, to _The Colored American_, and under that name it continued to
be issued weekly until 1842. The first editor, Rev. Cornish, was one
of the leading Negro journalists of the period. He had been associated
with _Freedom’s Journal_, and throughout a period of twenty years he was
actively connected with some newspaper.

[Sidenote: ADVOCATED EMANCIPATION]

The subscription price of _The Colored American_ was two dollars per year
in advance. Its objects were, according to its flag, “the moral, social
and political elevation of the free Colored people; and the peaceful
emancipation of the enslaved.” The paper was well received by the
American press of the period, and many favorable comments on it appeared
from time to time.

[Sidenote: THE ELEVATOR]

The first two Negro newspapers had their headquarters in New York City,
but their successor was established in Albany, N. Y. _The Elevator_ came
into being in 1842, with Stephen Myers as its publisher. The paper was
strongly backed by the Abolitionists. Among its influential supporters
and backers was Horace Greeley of _The New York Tribune_.

[Sidenote: THE NATIONAL WATCHMAN]

Contemporaneous with _The Elevator_ appeared _The National Watchman and
Clarion_, which was established in Troy, N. Y., in the latter part of
1842. Its publisher and editor was William G. Allen. It was short-lived,
as was also _The People’s Press_ which was published by Thomas Hamilton
in New York City the following year.

[Sidenote: THE MYSTERY]

Following the lead taken by the empire state, Pennsylvania became a
field of activity for the Negro journalist. In 1843, _The Mystery_ was
published at Pittsburgh by Dr. Martin Delaney, a graduate of Harvard
College. At first it was conducted as the personal property of its
editor, but as such it survived only nine months when it became necessary
to transfer its ownership to a joint-stock company. After the change
Delaney was retained in the capacity of editor.

Delaney was the first Negro editor to be sued for libel. He was fined for
his statements; but his popularity was so great that the fine was paid by
popular subscription.

_The Mystery_ ceased publication under that name in 1848, at which time
it was purchased by the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

[Sidenote: STATEMENT BY N. Y. SUN, ORIGIN OF THE RAM’S HORN]

As the result of a statement by the editor of _The New York Sun_, “The
_Sun_ shines for all white men and not for colored men,” in January,
1847, _The Ram’s Horn_ was begun. Its editor was Willis Hodges, who
according to _The Afro-American Press and Its Editor_[2], furnished the
money necessary to publish the first issue by whitewashing in New York
City for two months. Within a short period of time the circulation of
the paper reached two thousand five hundred copies. The subscription
price was $1.50 to subscribers within the state, and $1 a year to those
outside the state. Its motto was—“We are men, and therefore interested in
whatever concerns men.” The publication was a five column folio, printed
on both sides. It suspended publication in June 1848.

[1] March 21, 1828, the name was changed to _Rights of All_.

[2] Published by I. Garland Penn in 1891.



CHAPTER II

THE ABOLITIONIST PRESS (1847-1865)


[Sidenote: DOUGLASS FOUNDS NORTH STAR]

With the founding of the _North Star_, at Rochester. N. Y., November
1, 1847, a new era in Negro Journalism was begun. The new paper was
conducted on a much higher plane than any of the preceding publications.
The editor of the _North Star_ was Frederick Douglass, a man who stood
head and shoulders above his colleagues. In fact, Douglass is in Negro
Journalism what Bennett, or Pulitzer, or Greeley, or Dana is in American
Journalism. The personal fame of the man gave his paper at once a place
among the first journals of the country.

The columns of the _North Star_ were filled with contributions from
correspondents in Europe and the West Indies, as well as from all parts
of the United States. It was the first Negro newspaper to have any
considerable circulation among the American people outside of its own
race group.

[Sidenote: LIFE OF FRED DOUGLASS]

The life of the founder of this paper is a most interesting one. Born
a slave at Tuckahoe, Md., February, 1817, he escaped from his master
in 1833, going first to New York City, and then to New Bedford, Mass.
In 1841, he was sent out as a lecturer under the auspices of the
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He was one of the most prominent
anti-slavery agitators of his day; a series of lectures on the immorality
of human slavery was given by him in England. Douglass’ power as a writer
was great, and his ready and vigorous use of the English language was
always effective. The paper was discontinued shortly after the abolition
of slavery.

[Sidenote: THE IMPARTIAL CITIZEN]

Around the brilliancy of the _North Star_ moved several satellites, which
somewhat reflected the light of the major planet. Among these was _The
Impartial Citizen_, published at Syracuse, N. Y., in 1848, by Samuel
Ward. It is said that the paper was conducted on a high plane and was
ably edited.

[Sidenote: COLORED MAN’S JOURNAL RUNS TEN YEARS]

The suspension of _The Ram’s Horn_ in 1848 left the Negroes of New York
City without a newspaper. However, in 1851, Louis H. Putman began the
publication of _The Colored Man’s Journal_. It was backed by a friend who
financially supported it, and as a result the paper was able to run for
a period of ten years—a record unequalled during the period before the
Emancipation by any paper with the exception of the _North Star_.

[Sidenote: ALIENATED AMERICAN]

_The Alienated American_, edited by W. H. Day, was the first Negro
newspaper published in Ohio. It entered upon its career in Cleveland,
Ohio, in 1852, five years after its editor was graduated from Oberlin
College. _The Alienated American_ was one of the best journals published
by Negroes in the nineteenth century.

Day was a prolific, scholarly writer. His publication was a creditable
one and realized a good support. The paper ceased publication in 1856,
when its editor made a trip to England.

[Sidenote: A. M. E. CHURCH BUYS THE MYSTERY]

In 1848, the African Methodist Episcopal Church purchased _The Mystery_
of Pittsburgh, Pa., of which Martin Delaney was editor. During the
four years of its existence in Pittsburgh, the paper was known as the
_Christian Herald_. In 1852, the paper was moved to Philadelphia, and its
name was changed to _Christian Recorder_. Rev, M. M. Clarke became its
first editor.

[Sidenote: CHRISTIAN RECORDER OLDEST NEGRO NEWSPAPER]

The beginning of the _Christian Recorder_ in 1852, marks the founding of
the oldest Negro newspaper in existence today. It is also significant in
that it marks the first serious attempt in Negro Journalism to establish
a religious newspaper. The early years of the paper were beset with many
difficulties, and oftimes the paper was not issued regularly. Not until
Elisha Weaver became editor in 1861 did it appear weekly. The size of the
paper has increased from 5 columns, 4 pages, 12 by 16 inches, in 1848, to
its present size, 4 columns, 16 pages, 10 by 16 inches.

The present circulation of the paper is about 5,000. Its editor is R.
R. Wright Jr., who received the degree of Ph.D. from the University of
Pennsylvania in 1911.

[Sidenote: NEGRO JOURNALISM ON PACIFIC COAST]

The year 1855 saw Negro Journalism starting on the Pacific coast. Within
a space of less than thirty years Negro Journalism had made its way
from the Atlantic to the Pacific seaboard. The first publication was
established at San Francisco under the name of _The Mirror of the Times_.
Its editor was Judge Gibbs. It was published for seven years, and in 1862
was merged into _The Pacific Appeal_.

[Sidenote: THE HERALD OF FREEDOM]

Another contemporary of the _North Star_ was _The Herald of Freedom_,
published in 1855, in Ohio, by Peter H. Clark. It was short-lived but
during its existence it was one of the best advocates of Abolition.
Its editor was a man of good common sense and vast knowledge. After the
suspension of his paper, Clark was associated with Douglass on the _North
Star_.

[Sidenote: THE ANGLO-AFRICAN]

Thomas Hamilton, the publisher of the short-lived _People’s Press_, again
attempted a publication in New York City. On July 23, 1859, he began
publishing _The Anglo-African_. The paper was well printed and in the
opinion of Frederick Douglass “had more promise and more journalistic
ability about it, than any of the other papers.” The motto of the papers
of the period was highly indicative of their editorial outlook and
policy. Practically every paper had its motto, and _The Anglo-African_
was no exception. Its motto was: “Man must be free; if not through law,
then above the law.”

[Sidenote: ADVOCATES HAYTIAN EMIGRATION]

In 1860, the paper was bought by James Redpath—the object of his purchase
being to advocate the Haytian Emigration Movement. With the change in
ownership the paper was known as _The Weekly Anglo-African_. Later, in
1861, the paper reverted to the Hamilton family, being published by
Robert Hamilton. The original name of the paper was resumed, and under
its new publisher became an ardent supporter of the Republican party.
With the freeing of the slaves, _The Anglo-African_ began to advocate the
need of educational facilities for the freedman, especially in the South.
The paper was suspended shortly after Emancipation.

[Sidenote: COLORED CITIZEN ORGAN OF NEGRO SOLDIERS DURING WAR]

During the period of the Civil War only two Negro newspapers were
established, one of which was _The Colored Citizen_, published at
Cincinnati, Ohio, by John P. Sampson. It was issued in the interest of
the Negro soldiers fighting in the war. It was commonly referred to as
the “Soldiers’ Organ,” and was widely disseminated among the soldiers.
Sampson was well educated—being a product of the Boston public school
system—and as an editor he was both able and enterprising. _The Colored
Citizen_ was suspended the latter part of 1865.

[Sidenote: THE PACIFIC APPEAL]

In 1862, _The Pacific Appeal_ came into being in San Francisco, but it
was not a new publication, however, it was merely the successor to _The
Mirror of the Times_. Its editor was William H. Carter. It became the
index of the activities of the Negroes on the Pacific coast. The paper’s
motto was: “He who would be free, himself must strike the blow.” It was
a six column folio, well-printed, and contained editorials which on the
whole were sober and sound.

[Sidenote: THE ELEVATOR, EDITED BY BELL]

The second paper established on the western coast was _The Elevator_,
which was begun by Phillip Bell, April 18, 1865, in San Francisco,
Cal. The paper stated its mission thus: “We shall labor for the civil
and political enfranchisement of the Colored people—not as a distinct
and separate race, but as American citizens.” The publisher encouraged
advertisements and quoted his rates as being 60 cents for one insertion
and 25 cents for each subsequent insertion.

[Sidenote: BELL A MAN OF LEARNING]

Bell had been connected with the journalistic field for twenty-five
years, and as a result was experienced in the work. His editorials
were of a high quality. His paper was neatly printed and contained
contributions relating to science, art, literature and drama. In fact, it
is said that Bell himself was well-versed in belles-lettres and dramatic
criticism. By many of his contemporaries he was considered the Napoleon
of the Negro press. Although he died in 1889, his paper continued for
many years thereafter.



CHAPTER III

THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD (1865-1880)


[Sidenote: EMANCIPATION GOAL OF NEGRO PRESS]

With the emancipation, a new period in Negro Journalism is begun. For
nearly forty years newspapers had been published by Negroes who had
obtained their freedom, but the circulation of these papers among the
race group of necessity was limited. Emancipation marked the realization
of the goal of the Negro press prior to that time, and with the ushering
in of freedom many of the newspapers ceased publication. There was,
however, still another great, if not even more important task for the
Negro press—the education of the masses of illiterate. This task the
surviving newspapers, together with many new ones, set out to accomplish.

[Sidenote: FIRST SOUTHERN NEGRO NEWSPAPER]

The first notable development of the period was the beginning of Negro
newspapers in the South, where the large majority of Negroes were
located. The first Negro newspaper published in the South was _The
Colored American_ of Augusta, Ga., issued for the first time in October,
1865. The following paragraph from its prospectus will suffice to show
the paper’s attitude and policy:

[Sidenote: COLORED AMERICAN’S PROSPECTUS]

“It (_The Colored American_) is designated to be a vehicle for the
diffusion of Religious, Political and General Intelligence. It will be
devoted to the promotion of harmony and good-will between the whites and
Colored people of the south, and untiring in its advocacy of Industry and
Education among all classes; but particularly the class most in need of
our agency.

“Accepting, at all times, the decision of public sentiment and
Legislative Assemblies, and bowing to the majesty of law, it will
fearlessly remonstrate against legal and constitutional proscription by
appeal to the public sense of justice.”[3]

[Sidenote: SHUFTEN’S EDITORIAL ON THE RACE PROBLEM]

The editor of the paper was J. T. Shuften, who was ably assisted by Dr.
James Lynch. Shuften was credited by _The New York World_ as having
written the best article of the time on the “Negro Question.” The paper
was short-lived and suspended February, 1866.

[Sidenote: PRECURSORS IN SOUTHERN STATES]

With the beginning of Negro Journalism in the South, papers sprung up in
other states: _The Colored Tennessean_ and _The True Communicator_, of
Baltimore, Md., being among the more noted ones. Many of the papers were
short-lived; others changed hands and names frequently and continued for
several years.

[Sidenote: PAPERS GROW IN INFLUENCE AND CIRCULATION]

The year 1868 saw the founding of _The Charleston Leader_, at Charleston,
S. C. By 1870, the Negro press began to make itself felt. _The People’s
Journal_, with a circulation of over 10,000 was being edited by Dr. R.
L. Perry. In Mississippi, James J. Spellman and John Lynch began _The
Colored Citizen_. December, 1870, marked the founding of _The New Orleans
Louisianian_, by P. B. S. Pinchback[4], who in 1873 became governor of
Louisiana, being the only Negro ever to hold this position.

[Sidenote: EDITORS HIGHLY EDUCATED]

August 1861, John J. Freeman started _The Progressive American_, in New
York City, which existed for ten years. The one outstanding achievement
of this paper is the fact that as a result of its fight for Negro
teachers in the public schools twenty-three were appointed. Between 1865
and 1880, over 30 newspapers of more or less merit came into existence;
Negro newspapers were being published in 21 states. The papers of the
period were ably edited and were the product of some of the most highly
educated Negroes.

[3] Pinchback died in Washington, D. C., Dec. 22, 1921.

[4] Afro-American Press.



CHAPTER IV

THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION (1880-1900)


[Sidenote: NUMBER OF PAPERS INCREASES]

The last twenty years of the nineteenth century were marked by an
increase in the number of papers published. More than 150 papers were
being published by Negroes in thirty different states before the dawn of
the new century. To trace the history of all of these papers would be
useless, if not well nigh impossible, as but few of them were long-lived
or permanent. Most of them were started for the achievement of a single
end, and having served the temporary need disappeared. There are,
however, several papers which were established during this period that
demand treatment because of their longevity and present existence.

[Sidenote: PHILADELPHIA TRIBUNE]

Among this group is _The Philadelphia Tribune_, founded by Christopher
J. Perry in 1884. Perry, who was sole owner of his paper, had had much
experience in Journalism before becoming a publisher. His work as editor
of the Colored Department of _The Sunday Mercury_, had established his
reputation as a journalist.

[Sidenote: REMARKABLE SUCCESS UNDER PERRY]

Since its founding, its editor has worked unceasingly towards its
development and as a result the success of the paper has been remarkable.
Today the paper exists, and in spite of the death of its founder in
1920, is still carried on by his heirs. Today _The Philadelphia Tribune_
occupies an enviable position among Negro papers, and is undoubtedly one
of the twelve best Negro papers in the United States. At the time of
his death, Christopher Perry was president of The National Negro Press
Association.

[Sidenote: THE AGE OLDEST NEGRO PAPER IN NEW YORK CITY]

The oldest Negro newspaper published in New York City at the present time
is _The New York Age_. It was founded in 1888 by T. Thomas Fortune, the
living dean of Negro newspaper editors. Fortune began his journalistic
career as a boy in the office of a white paper published in Marianna,
Fla. His first editorship came in 1880, when he became connected with
_The New York Globe_. Under the guidance of Fortune, _The Age_ was
perhaps the greatest Negro newspaper of the period. Garland Penn, in his
_Afro-American Press_ (published in 1891), styles, Fortune as “the most
noted man in Afro-American journalism.”

[Sidenote: RICHMOND PLANET EDITED BY MITCHELL]

_The Richmond Planet_, founded by John Mitchell, Jr., in 1884, is another
Negro newspaper that has enjoyed longevity. Mitchell seems to have been a
born newspaperman, and practically all of his life he has devoted himself
to journalism. Despite his location in the Southland, Mitchell has ever
been a bold and fearless writer. Today _The Richmond Planet_ still
exists, with John Mitchell, Jr., at its head, and has a circulation of
over 25,000.

[Sidenote: SMITH AND THE CLEVELAND GAZETTE]

_The Cleveland Gazette_ was begun in August, 1883, with H. C. Smith
as sole owner. It was considered as one of the best edited papers in
the United States. Smith was an ardent politician, and his editorials
advocating Republicanism were exceptionally pointed and well put. The
paper was one of the few Negro papers of the period that was a financial
success. _The Cleveland Gazette_ is still published by H. C. Smith. It
has a circulation of approximately 20,000.

[Sidenote: WILLIAM CHASE AND THE BEE]

Perhaps the strongest Negro newspaper ever published in Washington, D.
C., is _The Washington Bee_, of which William Calvin Chase is editor
and founder. Chase is especially noted for his bull-dog tenacity in
exposing and attacking fraud. He has always been one of the “big guns” in
editorial artillery. Chase is still editor of his paper, and _The Bee_
buzzes as of old.

[Sidenote: THE FREEMAN FIRST ILLUSTRATED NEGRO WEEKLY]

The first illustrated Negro newspaper was _The Indianapolis Freeman_,
founded by Edward Cooper of Indianapolis, Ind., July 14, 1888. The paper
consisted of eight pages, and gave a complete review of the doings of
Negroes everywhere. The extensive use of cuts and illustrations made
the paper famous. As an all around newspaperman, Cooper was without a
peer, and under his management the paper reached a pre-eminent position
in Negro Journalism. Today _The Freeman_ is owned and controlled by
George L. Knox, and it still enjoys a wide range of popularity. The paper
features theatricals and sports. The present circulation is about 30,000.

[Sidenote: AFRO-AMERICAN FOUNDED IN 1893]

The founding of _The Afro-American_ in 1893, by W. M. Alexander marks
the beginning of a paper which today figures most conspicuously in Negro
Journalism. About 1896, the paper came into the hands of J. H. Murphy,
Sr.,[5] who is now its managing editor at the age of eighty. More will
be said of _The Afro-American_ in connection with the chapter on Present
Day Papers.

[Sidenote: LEADING PAPERS IN 1897]

A list of the leading Negro newspapers in America in 1897, compiled by
J. T. Haley in his book _Sparkling Gems of Race Knowledge_, includes
the following: _The Colored American_, Washington, D. C.; _The New
York Age_; _The Indianapolis Freeman_; _The Cleveland Gazette_; _The
Boston Courant_; _The Richmond_ (Va.) _Planet_; _The Huntsville_ (Ala.)
_Gazette_; _The Southern Age_, Atlanta, Ga.; _The Progress_, Helena,
Ark.; _The Elevator_, San Francisco, Cal.; _The Colorado Statesman_,
Denver, Colo.; _The Appeal_, Chicago, Ill.; _The Afro-American_,
Baltimore, Md., and _The Denver_ (Colo.) _Star_.

[Sidenote: ORGANIZATION OF NEGRO CORRESPONDENTS]

It would be improper to close a discussion of the period without
mentioning the organizing of the “Associated Correspondents of Race
Papers” on April 23, 1890. The object of the organization was to
establish a better medium of communication from the capital. This step
was perhaps the first real effort for unison among Negro newspapers, and
marked a growing spirit of journalistic co-operation and interdependency.

[5] Murphy died in April, 1922, at the age of 80 years.



CHAPTER V

THE DAWN OF A NEW ERA (1900-⸺)


[Sidenote: JOURNALISM BECOMING A PROFESSION]

Without doubt the first two decades of the twentieth century mark the
highest progress in Negro Journalism. More papers have been established,
and better papers have been produced. A realization of the power of
the press has grown as the period of freedom has increased and race
consciousness has been developed. More men with capital have invested in
newspapers. Publishers and editors began for the first time to consider
Journalism a profession from which a living could be derived.

[Sidenote: LACK FUNDS AND NEED EQUIPMENT]

Lack of adequate funds to fully develop a well-balanced newspaper has
been and still is the greatest drawback to the Negro publisher. Until in
very recent years, no Negro newspaper did all of its mechanical work.
In many cases the newspaper office merely collected and arranged the
news, and then carried it to some publishing concern. In other cases,
the paper was printed by a publishing house, although the “forms” were
made-up in the paper’s own shop. Thus, Negro newspapers have not been
independent concerns.

[Sidenote: LACK OF LIVE NEWS STORIES]

In his effort to seriously make journalistic progress, the publisher of
a Negro newspaper has always found it difficult to obtain sufficient
live material to fill up his sheet. There have been no news bureaus or
syndicates to supply him with the type of news needed to make his paper
a real newsy sheet. In his endeavor to “pad out” in order to continually
fill the standard size of his paper, the Negro publisher has been
compelled to “clip” news previously featured by the daily newspapers
or rewrite news from other Negro papers—a task rendered difficult by
the corresponding dearth of real news in all Negro papers during “dull”
seasons.

[Sidenote: POOR ORGANIZATION A SERIOUS HANDICAP]

Prior to and at the beginning of the twentieth century, the organization
of the average Negro newspaper amounted to a printer-editor, perhaps an
assistant whose duties were varied and manifold, an office girl, who in
addition to keeping books, also performed the duties of copy-reader,
and two or three agents who worked part time on a percentage basis. The
typographical and grammatical structure of many of the papers suffered
greatly through the lack of having a staff sufficiently trained and
equipped with the proper facilities for turning out a well-edited,
well-printed sheet.

Dependence on a small, under-paid and inefficient organization—a
condition analogous, and in many instances worse than that which exists
on the small town newspaper—has seriously handicapped the Negro newspaper
of the past.

[Sidenote: NEWS BUREAUS AND SYNDICATES FOUNDED]

The past twenty years have witnessed the evolution of a new Negro
press. Stronger papers have been begun, and news syndicates and news
associations have been founded. Examples of the latter are: The Hampton
Institute Service, The Tuskegee Institute Press Service, Allen’s News
Agency, The R. W. Thompson News Agency, The National Negro Press
Association and The Associated Negro Press. Especially is the last named
organization rendering a great service and filling a great need.

[Sidenote: ASSOCIATED NEGRO PRESS]

The Associated Negro Press has been in existence less than four years but
during that time it has rapidly grown and achieved great success. Today
it has a membership of more than 100 newspapers. The establishment of
the A. N. P. was the first effort in Negro Journalism to assemble and
distribute regularly general news from all sections of the United States
and other countries affecting Colored people. Through the work of this
organization big news stories now appear simultaneously in all of the
leading Negro newspapers. The A. N. P. maintains executive offices in
Chicago and permanent bureaus in Washington and New York.

[Sidenote: PAPERS OF THE PERIOD]

Among the present day papers established in this period are: _The Boston
Guardian_, _The Nashville Globe_, _The Atlanta Independent_, _The Chicago
Defender_, _The Detroit Leader_, _The Pittsburgh Courier_, _The St.
Louis Argus_, _The Dallas Express_, _The Cleveland Advocate_, _The Negro
World_, _The Indianapolis Ledger_, _The Indianapolis Recorder_, and _The
Chicago Whip_.



CHAPTER VI

PRESENT DAY PAPERS


[Sidenote: 250 SECULAR WEEKLIES]

Today over 250 secular Negro newspapers are being published in the
United States, with a total circulation of over one million five hundred
thousand copies. These papers are published in 34 states and in the
district of Columbia.

[Sidenote: PAPERS HAVE JOURNALISTIC APPEARANCE]

Papers published in the larger centers where the Negro population is
large, such as New York City, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland,
St. Louis, Washington, Detroit, Indianapolis, Baltimore, Pittsburgh,
Nashville and Atlanta have developed to a high degree. Their make-up on
the whole is good; their news stories for the most part conform with
accepted journalistic style; their leads are of the summary type; their
headlines, although somewhat sensational, are usually well constructed;
their news treatment is becoming more impersonal; on the whole they are a
great improvement over the Negro papers of the past.

[Sidenote: DEFENDER HOUSED IN $200,000 PLANT]

Negro newspaper offices are being transformed from mere receiving
stations for news to newspaper plants. During May, 1921, _The Chicago
Defender_, one of the leading Negro newspapers, moved into a new building
fitted up by its owner, Robert S. Abbott, at an expense of over $200,000.
The new _Defender_ plant compares favorably with that of any paper of
its size in the United States. Its equipment includes four linotype
machines, each equipped with two magazines, geared to cast seven lines
per minute. The press on which _The Defender_ is printed is a 32-page and
color machine, made by the celebrated Goss Printing Press Company. It is
driven by a 30 H.P. motor and six men are required for its operation. It
prints, folds and counts the papers all in one operation at a speed of
35,000 copies per hour. The paper’s circulation is over 200,000.

[Illustration: Abbott, Editor and Owner of The Chicago Defender, Chicago,
Illinois]

[Sidenote: AFRO-AMERICAN EMPLOYS 21]

Another paper which is representative of the new order of things in Negro
Journalism is _The Afro-American_ of Baltimore, Md. _The Afro-American_
was among the first Negro papers to own and operate its own plant. Today
the plant consists of a three-story building, Goss Press, three linotype
machines, etc. The paper has twenty-one active employees and over two
hundred agents in the state. The sworn circulation of the paper for
1920-21 was twenty thousand and one hundred copies weekly.

[Sidenote: TRIBUNE OWNS $100,000 PLANT]

From a humble beginning in 1884, _The Philadelphia Tribune_ has grown
until today it has its own hundred thousand dollar plant, fully equipped
to do modern job and commercial work in addition to printing the paper.
Christopher J. Perry remained sole owner of the paper from its founding
to the time of his death. Today the paper is being published by his
children, and is continuing along the conservative lines which have
characterized the paper for more than 35 years.

[Illustration: First page of the Chicago Defender, a leading Negro weekly
newspaper with a $200,000 plant and a subscription list which is over
175,000. A view of the plant is also shown.]

[Sidenote: BETTER STAFFS AND NEWS]

In the past, the editorial page has been the one redeeming feature of
the average Negro newspaper. Today the papers are beginning to have
well-balanced staffs, reporters, city editors, cartoonists, etc. News
stories are being better written, copy is being handled more carefully,
accuracy is being insisted upon, and make-up in general is being improved.

[Sidenote: SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES IN DEVELOPMENT]

Papers printed in different parts of the country vary quite significantly
in their make-up and quality. The best papers are probably published in
the Middle West and the East. The Southern press is still in the rear,
although signs are evident that it is beginning to wake up. At the
present four Southern papers have a very high national rating. They are
_The Afro-American_, _The Atlanta Independent_, _The Nashville Globe_ and
_The Dallas Express_.

[Sidenote: PAPERS HAVING OVER 30,000]

Seven papers have over 30,000 subscribers. The list includes the
following papers in the order named: _The Chicago Defender_, _The Negro
World_, _The Indianapolis Ledger_, _The Atlanta Independent_, _The New
York News_, _The Pittsburgh Courier_ and _The Birmingham Reporter_.

[Sidenote: TWELVE LEADING NEGRO WEEKLIES]

Any attempt to select the leading Negro newspapers of necessity must be
more or less arbitrary, and dependent upon prejudices toward certain
types of journalism. A probable list of the best twelve weeklies might
include: _The Chicago Defender_, _The Afro-American_, _The Cleveland
Advocate_, _The Philadelphia Tribune_, _The New York Age_, _The
Pittsburgh Courier_, _The Chicago Whip_, _The St. Louis Argus_, _The
Indianapolis Ledger_, _The Atlanta Independent_, _The Detroit Leader_ and
_The Boston Guardian_.



CHAPTER VII

DAILY NEGRO NEWSPAPERS


[Sidenote: FIRST DAILY CAIRO GAZETTE]

The first attempt of the Negro journalist to publish a daily newspaper
was _The Cairo_ (Ill.) _Gazette_, which was first issued April 23, 1882.
The editor was W. S. Scott. The paper was issued regularly for six
months when the plant was destroyed by fire. It was a readable sheet,
contained much original matter, and had a good force of reporters.

[Sidenote: COLUMBUS MESSENGER]

The next attempt was _The Columbus Messenger_, published at Columbus. Ga.
It was first issued as a daily in 1888. It was edited by B. T. Harvey, a
graduate of Tuskegee Institute. The sheet was 12 by 20 inches.

[Sidenote: DAILIES ISSUED FOR SHORT PERIODS]

Several newspapers have issued daily editions for short periods. _The
Knoxville_ (Tenn.) _Negro World_ was issued daily as an advertising
medium for two weeks. About 1890 _The Public Ledger_ of Baltimore, Md.,
was issued daily by Wesley Adams, for a short period. _The Nashville
Globe_ published a daily during the $30,000 Y. M. C. A. campaign in
Nashville, Tenn., June 1-12, 1913. It proved a tremendous success for the
twelve days and had an average circulation of 5,000 per day. During the
World War _The Herald_ of Baltimore, Md., edited by W. T. Andrews, was
issued daily.

[Sidenote: DAILIES IN FORM OF “BROADSIDES”]

Three daily papers are being published at present. Two of these, _The
Richmond_ (Va.) _Colored American_ and _The Washington Colored American_
are published by the American Publicity Bureau, Inc. and The National
Negro Publicity Bureau, Inc., respectively with D. Eugene Taylor listed
as general manager of both. In form these papers are “broadsides”—a
bulletin type of sheet printed on only one side. They are printed on a
sheet measuring 24 inches by 36 inches. The news is set in two double
columns, running down the center of the page between a double column of
advertising on each side.

[Sidenote: DAILY STANDARD]

The third paper is _The Indianapolis Daily Standard_ which began
publication the latter part of April, 1922, under the editorship of C. C.
Shelby. It is a 7 column, 4-page paper and retails at 2 cents per copy.

[Sidenote: DRAWBACKS TO NEGRO DAILY]

The slow development of the Negro daily is due chiefly to the fact: (1)
That the field of such papers is already covered to a large extent by
the American daily press; and (2) That a daily paper, with a restricted
field from which to gather news, and denied the service of the Associated
Press, is well nigh impossible. With the further development of the
Associated Negro Press more Negro dailies may be possible.



CHAPTER VIII

NEGRO MAGAZINES


[Sidenote: EARLY MAGAZINES]

The magazine field has not been entered as rapidly or as fully by the
Negro journalist as the newspaper field. The first Negro magazine,
nevertheless, early followed the beginning made by the first Negro
newspaper. In 1837, the first magazine—_The Mirror of Liberty_—was
published by David Ruggles. It was devoted to the advancement of the free
Negroes in the North, and was issued quarterly from New York City.

[Sidenote: ANGLO-AFRICAN MAGAZINE]

The next serious attempt to publish a Negro magazine was in 1856, when
Thomas Hamilton, of New York City, issued _The Anglo-African Magazine_,
which was the outgrowth of his newspaper, The Anglo-African. It was
devoted to literature, science, statistics and contained articles on the
abolition of slavery. It existed for about four years.

[Sidenote: A. M. E. REVIEW OLDEST MAGAZINE]

The oldest Negro magazine, like the oldest newspaper, was established
by the A. M. E. Church. In 1884, that denomination began the publishing
of _The A. M. E. Review_ in Baltimore, Md. Today it still exists and is
published in Philadelphia, Pa.

[Sidenote: OUR WOMEN AND CHILDREN]

Another noteworthy periodical is _Our Women and Children_, first
published in 1888, by Dr. William J. Simmons. It was unique in that it
practically confined itself to the feminine world. Its contributors were
chiefly women and the articles which appeared on its pages concerned
themselves primarily with questions which affected home-life.

[Sidenote: OVER 100 MAGAZINES IN EXISTENCE]

Many other Negro magazines have been attempted; many of more or less
note, but of the magazines established prior to 1900, scarcely a one,
if any, are in existence today. Of the leading present day magazines,
none can boast of as long a period of publication as the present day
newspapers. At present about one hundred magazines are being published by
Negroes. However, this number includes school periodicals, church organs
and fraternal organs, and only a small fraction of the total number are
purely literary or secular publications.

[Sidenote: THE CRISIS EDITED BY DR. DUBOIS]

Among the foremost Negro magazines of general literature is _The Crisis_,
published at New York City, under the editorship of Dr. W. E. B. DuBois,
perhaps the leading literary figure among the race today. While the
publication is the official organ of the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People, it contains short stories, essays,
sketches and poetry of a high literary quality.

[Sidenote: SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NUMBER]

A special feature of _The Crisis_ is the emphasis it places on higher
education. Each July it publishes an educational number containing the
photographs of Negro college graduates from white Northern institutions
during the past school year. The issue also contains a resume of the
educational progress of the year.

[Sidenote: THE MESSENGER, A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE]

_The Messenger_, published in New York City by Phillip Randolph and
Chandler Owen, is devoted to economic, political and sociological
subject-matter, with special emphasis upon the Negro and his relation to
the labor problem. The tremendous influence of this magazine, devoted
as it is to such a special field, is clearly shown by the fact that at
present it has a circulation of over 26,000.

[Sidenote: A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO MUSIC AND SPORTS]

Another magazine which confines itself to a limited field is _The
American Musician and Sportsman Magazine_. This publication is printed
in Philadelphia, Pa., by William A. Potter, editor. It is intended to
afford opportunity for the expression of opinion on things musical,
and in addition to its emphasis on music it deals with all branches of
professional and amateur sports. The magazine has a circulation of 5500.

[Sidenote: JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY]

One of the most scholarly periodicals published by Negroes is _The
Journal of Negro History_ edited by Carter G. Woodson, Ph.D., at
Washington, D. C. The publication treats in a thorough-going and detailed
manner the history of the Negro race.

[Sidenote: BROWNIES’ BOOK FOR NEGRO YOUTH]

_The Brownies’ Book_, a magazine devoted to the activities of the Negro
youth, is also published in New York City and has at its head Dr. DuBois
and Augustus Dill. It contains stories, the life and deeds of famous men
and women of the Negro race, and current events of the world told in
language suitable for children. In a similar manner to _The Crisis_, it
features the photographs of Negro high school graduates.

[Sidenote: FEATURED NEGRO SHORT STORIES]

Two magazines of national importance and published in Chicago, Ill.,
are _The Half-Century_, edited by Katherine Williams Irmin and _The
Favorite_, edited by Fenton Johnson. Both of these periodicals feature
literary material and short stories dealing with Negro life.

[Sidenote: THE RADIATOR]

Another periodical dealing with a special field is _The Radiator_, a
bi-monthly insurance magazine, edited by Sadie T. Mossell at Durham, N.
C. Its purpose is to disseminate news and information to Negro insurance
companies and workers.

[Sidenote: LEADING PRESENT DAY MAGAZINES]

Other magazines published at the present time are: _The Journal of the
National Medical Association_, issued quarterly by the National Medical
Association at Tuskegee Institute, Ala.; _The Pullman Porter’s Review_,
Chicago, Ill.; _The Search Light_, Raleigh, N. C.; _The Rainbow_, New
York City, and _The Crusader_, New York City.



CHAPTER IX

TRAINING IN NEGRO SCHOOLS


[Sidenote: ELEMENTARY TRAINING IN HIGH SCHOOLS]

Definite steps are being taken by Negro schools and colleges to
provide academic training in Journalism. Even in the high schools,
the development of a vague appreciation of, and elementary training
in Journalism is afforded by the publishing of school papers, under
the supervision of the English department. Such schools as Dunbar High
School, Washington, D. C.; Summer High School, St. Louis, Mo.; Central
High School, Louisville, Ky.; Pearl High School, Nashville, Tenn., and
Langston High School, Hot Springs, Ark., illustrate the point.

[Sidenote: COLLEGE PUBLICATIONS]

What is true of the high schools is true of the Normal and Industrial
schools and colleges on a larger scale. Approximately one hundred
periodicals are published by such institutions at least once a month.
Some of these are purely the product of the student body; a few of them
are the product of both students and faculty; still others are the
publication of the administration and faculty, and under the supervision
of a university editor. Many of the latter have developed to the
place where they are nationally known. Such periodicals as _The Fisk
University News_, _The Southern Workman_ (Hampton Institute), _Howard
University Record_ (quarterly), _The Tuskegee Student_ and _The Atlanta
University Bulletin_ (quarterly) are among the best Negro publications in
the United States.

[Sidenote: JOURNALISM COURSES AT FISK UNIVERSITY]

This, however, is not all. The training of Negro journalists is
being attempted through college courses. Fisk University, Nashville,
Tenn., perhaps, was the first school to give such courses. Under the
professorship of Isaac Fisher, one of the foremost Negro editors today,
four courses in Journalism are offered. The course as outlined in the
latest Fisk University catalog includes: (1) Essentials in Newspaper
Technique—a course including practise in writing, editing, and methods
of presentation; (2) The Law of Journalism—a study of libel, copyright,
rights and duties of the press in reporting judicial proceedings, and
the liabilities of the publisher, editor, reporter and contributor; (3)
Ethics of Journalism—lectures discussing the proper responsibility to
the public on the part of newspaper writers; (4) Art of Newspaper and
Magazine Making—a course devoted to the studying of actual work of making
a newspaper and magazine, with laboratory practice to supplement the
theory studied.

[Sidenote: PROFESSIONAL TRAINING]

What will in all probabilities mark the real beginning of professional
training in Journalism among Negroes is the opening of the proposed
School of Journalism by Howard University, Washington, D. C. Owing to a
limitation of finances, unfortunately the school has not yet been put in
operation.

[Sidenote: PROPOSED COURSES AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY JOURNALISM SCHOOL]

The course as outlined in the Howard University catalog is based upon
two years of college work, including a reading knowledge of at least
two modern languages, and advanced work in English Composition. The
professional work covers two years and leads to the degree of Bachelor
of Science in Journalism. The subjects offered are: Practice in Writing,
Newspaper Technique, Newspaper Editing, The History of Journalism,
Advertising, Journalistic French, Journalistic German, Journalistic
Spanish, Elements of Law, Freehand and Applied Drawing, and certain
college courses in History, Economics, Sociology, Literature and Politics.

[Sidenote: JOURNALISM AT WILBERFORCE]

While it does not have a separate department in Journalism, Wilberforce
University offers courses in journalistic writing as a part of the work
in the department of English. Three courses are given at present:
Business English, Short Story Writing and Editorial Writing.

[Sidenote: PRINTING]

On the mechanical side of newspaper publishing, work is offered in
printing at Hampton Institute (Va.), Tuskegee Institute (Ala.), and
Wilberforce University (Ohio). Many of the present printer-editors are
products of these schools.



CHAPTER X

A FORECAST OF THE FUTURE


From its small beginning in 1827, Negro Journalism has steadily grown
in the United States. Today it stands as a definite factor in Negro
life. In truth, the Negro press reflects the growing race consciousness
of eleven million American citizens of African descent. The status of
the Negro newspaper is fixed—it is here to stay. While daily newspapers
may devote space to “News of Interest to Colored People;” yet they can
never take the place of the newspapers which are published solely for
the race group. The appeal of the Negro newspaper is direct and racial.
In a manner similar to that of the rural press, the Negro paper has an
unlimited field because of its personal relationship to its readers.

During the first half century of Negro Journalism, it is doubtful if
any of the papers were financial successes; in truth, most of them were
published as purely partisan or propagandists organs, and were supported
through the contributions of sympathizers. Today Negro newspapers are
conducted on business principles and pay reasonable returns to their
investors.

Papers in the large cities have built up enormous subscription lists of
bona fide, paid-up subscribers. Likewise, they carry a large amount of
well-paying advertisements, and as a result of these sources of income
they are able to give attractive remuneration to their publishers,
editorial staff and business staff. No longer must the Negro journalist
necessarily be an unpaid worker. Trained journalists can obtain
respectable salaries and find as many openings as their fellow workers on
metropolitan dailies and national weeklies and monthlies.

That the calibre of the work done on Negro publications will continue
to improve is highly probable in view of the fact that every year an
increasing number of trained young men and women are entering the
field, and bringing with them burning enthusiasm and high professional
ideals. The Courses in Journalism in the Negro colleges, also, will
soon be having a telling effect on the future Negro journalist. Already
a few of the twentieth century Negro youths are being attracted to the
professional study of Journalism, preferring the possibilities of its
virgin field to the overcrowded professions of law, teaching, medicine
and theology.

The future of Negro Journalism is limited only by the zeal and
conscientious effort which its workers bestir themselves to exert. A
marvelous growth and success has been recorded within the past 95 years,
but greater achievement is yet to be accomplished. Negro semi-weeklies,
and eventually dailies in the larger cities, will undoubtedly be
developed within the next decade. The size of many of the present
weeklies will be increased of necessity. Better news stories and more
real news will be the result of the successful functioning of such news
syndicates as the Associated Negro Press.

The decreasing of illiteracy among the Negroes will continue to be
carried forward by the Negro press, with a mutual benefit to the race
and its publications. Higher standards of literacy will bring greater
appreciation for reading and thereby create a stronger support for the
Negro publisher.

In the immediate future, perhaps, the great field for development
in Negro Journalism is in the South where the great mass of Negro
population, despite the Northern immigration, resides. There Negro
Journalism needs and will continue to need its best trained editors and
managers. There it will need men of sound judgment and common sense; men
of purpose and high professional ideals; men of broad sympathy and great
patience.



PARTIAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES


                          ALABAMA

    The Birmingham Reporter                   Birmingham
    The Emancipator                           Montgomery
    The Mobile Forum                              Mobile
    The Mobile Advocate                           Mobile
    The Mobile Weekly Press                       Mobile
    The Negro Leader                           Uniontown
    The Times Plaindealer                     Birmingham
    The Voice of the People                   Birmingham
    The Voice of the Negro                        Dothan

                         ARKANSAS

    Hot Springs Echo                         Hot Springs
    Arkansas Banner                          Little Rock
    The Appreciator-Union                     Fort Smith
    The Negro Advocate                           Fordyce
    The Interstate Reporter                       Helena
    The Opinion-Enterprise                      Marianna
    Western Review                           Little Rock
    White River Advocate                         Newport
    The School Herald                             Warren

                          ARIZONA

    The Phoenix Tribune                          Phoenix

                        CALIFORNIA

    The Eagle                                Los Angeles
    The Liberator                            Los Angeles
    The Citizens Advocate                    Los Angeles
    Oakland Sunshine                             Oakland
    The Western Outlook                          Oakland
    The New Age                              Los Angeles
    The Western Review                        Sacramento

                         COLORADO

    Colorado Statesman                            Denver
    The Denver Advocate                 Colorado Springs
    The Rising Sun                                Pueblo

                        CONNECTICUT

    Hartford Herald                             Hartford

                   DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

    The Washington Eagle                      Washington
    The Washington Bee                        Washington

                          FLORIDA

    Florida Sentinel                        Jacksonville
    Labor Templar                           Jacksonville
    West Florida Bugle                          Marianna
    The Tampa Bulletin                             Tampa
    Metropolitan                             Tallahassee
    The Palatka Advocate                         Palatka
    The Colored Citizen                        Pensacola

                          GEORGIA

    The Savannah Journal                        Savannah
    The Savannah Tribune                        Savannah
    The Americus Chronicle                      Americus
    The Athens Clipper                            Athens
    The Atlanta Post                             Atlanta
    The Atlanta Independent                      Atlanta
    Rome Enterprise                                 Rome
    The Advocate                               Brunswick
    The Augusta News                             Augusta
    Supreme Circle News                           Albany

                         ILLINOIS

    Inter-State Echo                            Danville
    The Broad Axe                                Chicago
    The Chicago Defender                         Chicago
    The Chicago Idea                             Chicago
    The Peoples Advocate                         Chicago
    The Searchlight                              Chicago
    The Whip                                     Chicago
    The Forum                                Springfield
    The Weekly Star                           Mound City
    The Illinois Conservator                 Springfield
    Advance Citizens                         Springfield

                          INDIANA

    The Indianapolis Freeman                Indianapolis
    The Indianapolis Recorder               Indianapolis
    The Indianapolis Ledger                 Indianapolis
    The Indianapolis World                  Indianapolis
    The Terre Haute Citizen                  Terre Haute
    National Defender and Sun                       Gary
    The Gary Dispatch                               Gary

                           IOWA

    Iowa State Bystander                      Des Moines
    Buxton Gazette                                Buxton

                          KANSAS

    The Topeka Plaindealer                        Topeka
    The Negro Star                               Wichita
    Wichita Protest                              Wichita
    The Coffeyville Globe                    Coffeyville
    Hutchinson Blade                          Hutchinson

                         KENTUCKY

    The Kentucky Reporter                     Louisville
    The Columbian Herald                      Louisville
    The Louisville News                       Louisville
    Kentucky Home Finder                      Louisville
    Lexington Weekly News                      Lexington
    The Torchlight                              Danville
    Saturday News                           Hopkinsville
    The New Age                             Hopkinsville

                         LOUISIANA

    The Advance Messenger                     Alexandria
    The News-Enterprise                       Shreveport
    The Watchman                              Shreveport

                         MARYLAND

    The Afro-American                          Baltimore
    The Crusader                               Baltimore
    The Herald-Commonwealth                    Baltimore

                       MASSACHUSETTS

    The Guardian                                  Boston
    The Boston Chronicle                          Boston

                         MICHIGAN

    The Michigan Age                           Ann Arbor
    The Detroit Leader                           Detroit

                         MINNESOTA

    The National Advocate                    Minneapolis
    The Appeal                                  St. Paul

                        MISSISSIPPI

    The Cotton Farmer                              Scott
    The Delta Lighthouse                      Greenville
    The Natchez Weekly Herald                    Natchez
    The National Star                          Vicksburg
    The Star                                    Columbus
    The Morning Star                            Columbus
    The Mississippi Monitor                      Meridan
    The Light                                  Vicksburg
    The New Era                                Indianola
    The Weekly Times                         Hattiesburg
    The Weekly Reporter                          Natchez
    Central Mississippi Signal                 Kosciusko
    The Progressive Torchlight                 Greenwood
    The Advance                              Mound Bayou
    The National Defender                     Clarksdale
    The Informer                                Gulfport
    The National News Digest                 Mound Bayou

                         MISSOURI

    The St. Louis Independent-Clarion          St. Louis
    The St. Louis Argus                        St. Louis
    The Anchor                            Caruthersville
    The Missouri State Register                 Hannibal
    Kansas City Sun                          Kansas City
    The National Mirror                      Kansas City
    The Western Messenger                 Jefferson City
    The St. Louis Independent News             St. Louis

                         NEBRASKA

    The Monitor                                    Omaha

                        NEW JERSEY

    The Eastern Observer                       Montclair
    The Echo                                    Red Bank
    The Atlantic Advocate                  Atlantic City
    The New Jersey Informer                       Newark

                         NEW YORK

    The New York News                      New York City
    The Amsterdam News                     New York City
    The New York Age                       New York City
    The Negro World                        New York City
    The Commoner                           New York City

                      NORTH CAROLINA

    The Gate City Argus                       Greensboro
    High Point Colored American               High Point
    The Charlotte Advertiser                   Charlotte
    The Voice                                Rocky Mount
    The Raleigh Independent                      Raleigh
    The Home News                             Wilmington
    The Gazette                                Charlotte
    Signs of the Times                    Elizabeth City
    The Winston-Salem News                 Winston-Salem

                           OHIO

    The Dayton Forum                              Dayton
    The Cleveland Gazette                      Cleveland
    The Cleveland Advocate                     Cleveland
    The Union                                 Cincinnati
    The Cincinnati Journal                    Cincinnati

                         OKLAHOMA

    The Boley Progress                             Boley
    The Oklahoma Guide                           Guthrie
    The Muskogee Scimetar                       Muskogee
    Rentiesville News                       Rentiesville
    Clearview Patriarch                        Clearview
    The Tulsa Star                                 Tulsa
    The Oklahoma Sun                               Tulsa
    The Black Dispatch                     Oklahoma City

                          OREGON

    The Advocate                                Portland

                       PENNSYLVANIA

    The Advocate Verdict                     Harrisburgh
    The Philadelphia Courant                Philadelphia
    The Philadelphia Tribune                Philadelphia
    The Philadelphia American               Philadelphia
    The Public Journal                      Philadelphia
    The Pittsburgh Courier                    Pittsburgh
    The Pittsburgh American                   Pittsburgh
    The Advocate                            Wilkes-Barre

                       RHODE ISLAND

    The Advance                               Providence

                      SOUTH CAROLINA

    The Charleston Messenger                  Charleston
    The New Era                               Charleston
    The Allendale Advocate                     Allendale
    The Southern Indicator                      Columbia
    The Informer                                Columbia
    The Light                                   Columbia
    The Plowman                                 Columbia
    The Negro Chronicle                       Greenville
    The People’s Recorder                     Orangeburg
    The Rockhill Messenger                      Rockhill

                         TENNESSEE

    Bluff City News                              Memphis
    East Tennessee News                        Knoxville
    Chattanooga Defender                     Chattanooga
    Memphis Times                                Memphis
    The Western World Reporter                   Memphis
    The Nashville Globe                        Nashville
    The Nashville Clarion                      Nashville

                           TEXAS

    Texas Guide                                 Victoria
    The Victoria Guard                          Victoria
    The Calvert Bugle                            Calvert
    The City Times                             Galveston
    The Galveston New Idea                     Galveston
    The Dallas Express                            Dallas
    The Industrial Era                          Beaumont
    The Herald                                    Austin
    The Watchman                                  Austin
    The Houston Informer                         Houston
    The Houston Observer                         Houston
    The Texas Freeman                            Houston
    The Western Star                             Houston
    The Houston Informer                         Houston
    Independence Heights Record                  Houston
    The San Antonio Inquirer                 San Antonio
    The Gem City Bulletin                        Denison
    The Conservative Counselor                      Waco
    Fort Worth Hornet                         Fort Worth

                         VIRGINIA

    The Charlottesville Messenger        Charlottesville
    The Colored Virginian                     Petersburg
    The Weekly Review                         Petersburg
    The Richmond Planet                         Richmond
    The Virginia Headlight               Charlottesville
    The Virginia Advocate                        Roanoke
    The Star                                Newport News
    The Journal and Guide                        Norfolk

                        WASHINGTON

    The Seattle Searchlight                      Seattle

                       WEST VIRGINIA

    The Advocate                              Charleston
    The Mountain Leader                       Charleston
    The Charleston Observer                   Charleston
    The Pioneer Press                        Martinsburg

                         WISCONSIN

    The Wisconsin Weekly Blade                   Madison



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We represent at the present time in the advertising field, practically
every paper of consequence reaching the Colored people of the United
States.

We are pleased to extend our most cordial greetings to our newspaper
friends and will continue to extend the same reliable service in the
future, we have given in the past.

                                              W. B. ZIFF CO.
                                       Per E. C. Auld, General Mgr.

    Transportation Bldg.,      Morton Bldg.          Bryant Bldg.
      Chicago, Ill.          New York, N. Y.       Kansas City, Mo.

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DePauw University

Greencastle, Indiana

OFFERS

COURSES IN—

    Introduction to Writing
    News Writing
    News Editing
    Editorial Writing
    Feature Writing
    Advertising Writing
    History of American Journalism
    Country Weekly
    Also Business English

Write for Bulletin

DIRECTOR COURSE IN JOURNALISM

       *       *       *       *       *

HOWARD UNIVERSITY

WASHINGTON, D. C.

    Founded by GENERAL O. O. HOWARD
    J. STANLEY DURKEE, A. M., Ph. D., D. D., President
    EMMETT J. SCOTT, A. M., LL. D., Secretary-Treasurer

COLLEGIATE AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS

=Junior College=, covering the Freshman and Sophomore years and leading
to the Senior Schools.

=Senior Schools=, consisting of the Schools of Liberal Arts, Education,
Journalism, and Commerce and Finance, granting respectively the degrees,
A. B., or B. S., A. B. or B. S. in Education; B. S. in Journalism; B. S.
in Commerce and Finance.

=School of Applied Science=, four year course, granting the degree,
B. S. in Civil Engineering, B. S. in Electrical Engineering, B. S. in
Mechanical Engineering, B. S. in Architecture, B. S. in Agriculture, and
B. S. in Household Economics.

=Evening Classes=. The work of the Junior College and the Senior Schools
may be taken in evening classes with full credit.

=School of Music=, four year course, granting the degree of Mus. B.

=School of Religion=, three year course, granting the degrees of B. D.
and Th. B. Courses are offered also by correspondence.

=School of Law=, three year course, granting the degree of LL. B.

=School of Medicine=, including Medical, Dental, Pharmaceutical Colleges.
Four year courses for Medical and Dental students; three year course for
Pharmaceutical students. Following degrees granted: M. D., D. D. S.,
Phar. C.

=Students may enter for collegiate work at the beginning of any quarter.=

REGISTRATION

    Autumn Quarter            Sept. 29, 30, 1922
    Winter Quarter            Jan. 2, 1923
    Spring Quarter            March 17, 1923

FOR CATALOG AND INFORMATION WRITE

    F. D. WILKINSON, Registrar
    HOWARD UNIVERSITY      WASHINGTON, D. C.



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