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Title: A Synopsis of the British Mosses - Containing Descriptions of All the Genera and Species, (With Localities of the Rarer Ones) Found in Great Britain and Ireland, Based Upon Wilson’s “Bryologia Britannica,” Schimper’s “Synopsis,” Etc.
Author: Hobkirk, Chas. P.
Language: English
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                               A SYNOPSIS
                          THE BRITISH MOSSES,
                          GENERA AND SPECIES,
                                FOUND IN
                       GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND,
                               BASED UPON
                    WILSON’S “BRYOLOGIA BRITANNICA,”
                      SCHIMPER’S “SYNOPSIS,” ETC.

                          BY CHAS. P. HOBKIRK,

         _President of the Huddersfield Naturalists’ Society_.


                            L. REEVE & CO.,




It is not my desire that this little volume should be looked upon as
anything more than what is expressed in the title, simply “A SYNOPSIS OF
THE BRITISH MOSSES,” and as a kind of _vade-mecum_ to the working
Bryologist, as well as a guide to beginners. It is not altogether an
original work, nor yet is it a mere compilation, for nearly every
species has been carefully examined under the microscope before being
described, and then the diagnoses compared with other works, principally
that great text-book of British Bryologists, “Wilson’s Bryologia
Britannica.” Besides this work, I have also largely consulted, and drawn
from, Bruch and Schimper’s “Bryologia Europæa,” Schimper’s “Synopsis,”
Dr. Mueller’s “Synopsis,” the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, the
_Bulletins_ of the Royal Botanical Societies of France and of Belgium;
and last, but not least, the valuable papers recently contributed by Dr.
Braithwaite to “Journal of Botany,” “Grevillea,” and the “Monthly
Microscopical Journal,” and also some papers by Mr. Mitten in the
first-named publication.

In the general arrangement of the genera and species, I have mainly
followed the “Bryologia Britannica,” as I did not consider myself
justified in departing widely from it, although many of our principal
Muscologists look upon it as very faulty; but I did not hold my
authority sufficient to alter what has become a classical arrangement
amongst us: and more particularly as both Dr. Braithwaite and the Rev.
J. Fergusson are engaged upon more critical examinations, prior to the
publication of new and more natural arrangements. The Analysis of the
Genera is principally founded upon the same part from Wilson, and is
intended not as an arrangement, but merely a key.

In the “Appendix” will be found a few omitted species, and alterations
of nomenclature, as well as a few _errata_, which should be noted in the
margin at their proper places.

I much regret that, by an oversight, I have omitted to insert var. δ
_squarrosulum_ under _Sphagnum cymbifolium_, gathered by my friend Mr.
Bagnall, in Sutton Park, Birmingham; and the same locality should be
added after _Hypnum aduncum_, _H. Sendtneri_, and _H. intermedium_.

I must here express my gratitude and thanks to those gentlemen who have
so kindly assisted me in its preparation, both with the loan or gift of
specimens of the rarer and newer species, and also for the diagnoses
received from several, where specimens were not attainable. Amongst
these gentlemen I must specially thank Dr. Hooker for his kind
permission to use the Herbarium specimens and Library at Kew, and Mr. J.
G. Baker, F.L.S., for his valuable assistance in doing so; also Dr.
Braithwaite, F.L.S., Mr. J. Bagnall, of Birmingham; Dr. F. Buchanan
White, of Dunkeld; Dr. Fraser, of Wolverhampton; Rev. J. Fergusson, of
New Pitsligo; Mr. Carruthers, F.L.S., of British Museum; Mr. G. E. Hunt,
of Manchester; Mr. John Sim, of Strachan; Mr. W. Galt, of Edinburgh; M.
P. Goulard, of Caen, Calvados; and lastly, all those gentlemen and
ladies who so readily came forward as subscribers to the number of
upwards of 200, to assist in the publication of the volume.

                                                       CHAS. P. HOBKIRK.

     _February, 1873_.


                br. _branches._
                br. l. _branch leaves._
                cal. calyp. _calyptra._
                caps. _capsule._
                fem. _female._
                fl. _flower._
                fr. _fruit or fructification._
                infl. _inflorescence._
                innov. _innovations._
                l. _leaves._
                m.m. _millimetres._
                ped. _pedicel_ or _seta_.
                per. perist. _peristome._
                per. l. and p. l. _perychætial leaves._
                per. teeth. _teeth of peristome._
                perig. l. _perigonial leaves._
                st. _stem._
                st. l. _stem leaves._

                         NOTICE TO COLLECTORS.

It is my intention, as soon as sufficient material can be accumulated,
to publish “A Geographical Distribution of the British Mosses,” and, in
furtherance of this object, I should esteem it a great favor if all
collectors throughout the kingdom would kindly be at the trouble of
forwarding to me, as early as convenient, complete lists of the Mosses
found by themselves or their friends, in their several districts, with
any notes they may think desirable respecting them, and, where possible,
the range and habitat of the various species. I feel sure I have only to
mention this to ensure an abundant return of information for a work
which is really wanted, and shall, so far as any exertions on my part
can ensure it, be really valuable.

                                                                C. P. H.

                          ANALYSIS OF GENERA.

                           SECT. I. ACROCARPI.

           Fr. terminal (or in a few instances cladocarpous).

              DIVISION A. Capsule without a deciduous lid.

                    _a._ caps. bursting irregularly.

 ARCHIDIUM (3). Perennial; caps. _globular_, _sessile_;
 calyptra thin and membranous, irregularly torn in the middle;
 _spores large_; infl. monoicous; barren fl. gemmiform,
 two-leaved or naked in axils of perichætial leaves.            PAGE 26.

 PHASCUM (4). _Annual._ Caps. ovate or roundish, very shortly
 _pedicillate_; calyptra campanulate; spores _small_, roughish;
 infl. monoicous; barren fl. gemmiform either at base of plant,
 or axillary, rarely terminal and discoid.                           26.

                     _b._ caps. bursting regularly.

 ANDREÆA (1). Caps. oval erect, opening by four _longitudinal
 slits_, sessile on a stalked vaginula; calyptra mitriform,
 thin; spores small, at first clustered together in fours:
 perennial.                                                          21.

                DIVISION B. Capsule with a deciduous lid.

                           I. PERISTOME NONE.

                _a._ caps. sessile on a stalked vaginula.

 SPHAGNUM (2). Perennial, aquatic; caps. globular, sessile on
 the turbinate fleshy stalked vaginula; lid flattish, calyptra
 surrounding the ripe caps., ruptured near the middle; spores
 as in _Andreæa_. Infl. monoicous or dioicous.                       23.

                _b._ caps. pedicillate; vaginula sessile.

   α. caps. cylindrical; lid with a straight beak; calyptra mitriform.

 ENCALYPTA (29) (In part). Caps. erect, regular, oblong or
 ovate-lanceolate, smooth or striate, lid conical with a
 longish almost filiform beak; calyptra very large, covering
 the capsule, fringed at base (peris. when present of 16 teeth,
 inner of 16 alternating erect cilia). Infl. monoicous or
 dioicous; barren fl. gemmiform, axillary or terminal.               74.

      β. caps. oval, lid with an oblique beak; calyptra dimidiate.

 GYMNOSTOMUM (5). Perennial; leaves of close firm texture, with
 small dense areolæ; barren fl. gemmiform, in monoicous species
 placed near the base of perichætium.                                31.

 POTTIA (21). Annual or biennial; l. rather succulent, with lax
 quadrate or rectangular areolæ, the lower ones enlarged. Infl.
 monoicous; barren fl. near the fertile, naked, or gemmiform
 with three leaves.                                                  55.

           γ. caps. roundish-pyriform; lid obliquely rostrate.

 STYLOSTEGIUM. (12). Perennial; caps. on a very short pedicel;
 calyptra small, cucullate, scarcely covering the lid; l.
 channelled, secund. Infl. monoicous; barren fl. gemmiform.          38.

 ANODUS (11). Annual or biennial; caps. pedicillate; columella
 free; l. setaceous, erect.                                          38.

      δ. caps. obovate or clavate; lid plane or conical; l. loosely

                          * Calyptra mitriform.

 SCHISTOSTEGA (70). Caps. small oval, lid convex; calyptra
 small, _at length dimidiate_; infl. dioicous terminal, barren
 fl. gemmiform; l. nerveless, vertically distichous, very
 tender, areolæ large rhomboid.                                     135.

 PHYSCOMITRIUM (59). Annual or biennial. Primary stem
 terminated by a discoid barren fl. from below which rises a
 branch bearing a terminal fertile fl.; caps. clavate, lid
 convex; calyptra large inflated; l. spreading every way,
 nerved; areolæ large oblong, acute.                                127.

                         * * Calyptra dimidiate.

 ŒDIPODIUM (69). Caps. with a long tapering apophysis,
 gradually passing into the fruit-stalk; lid plano-convex;
 infl. monoicous or synoicous; l. succulent broad, obtuse;
 areolæ roundish hexagonal, larger at base.                         135.

                   ε. caps. globose; lid almost plane.

            * Calyptra conico-mitriform, small; l. nerveless.

 HEDWIGIA (30). Caps. immersed, sub-sessile; infl. monoicous,
 barren fl. axillary gemmiform; areolæ small quadrate, longer
 and flexuose below.                                                 76.

 HEDWIGIDIUM (31). Caps. exserted on a short pedicel; barren
 fl. terminal; stem stoloniferous; l. plicate longitudinally,
 areolæ longer.                                                      77.

                   * * Calyptra dimidiate; l. nerved.

 BARTRAMIDULA (60). Caps. on a curved pedicel, smooth,
 cernuous; infl. synoicous; lid small sub-conical; calyptra
 small cucullate; areolæ lax, oblong-hexagonal.                     128.

                          II. PERISTOME SINGLE.

                     SUB-DIV. I. Calyptra mitriform.

                       † Calyptra plicato-striate.

                            _a._ teeth four.

 TETRAPHIS (38). Perennial, caulescent, cæspitose; per. teeth
 long rigid, with irregular longitudinal lines; areolæ
 hexagonal.                                                          98.

 TETRODONTIUM (39). Annual, stem none, gregarious; l. few, very
 minute.                                                             99.

                       _b._ Teeth 16, equidistant.

 PTYCHOMITRIUM (35). Caps. erect, regular, tapering at base,
 annulus large, lid conico-rostrate; teeth bifid, not
 hygroscopic; calyptra deeply furrowed, mitriform, subulate
 above, shorter than capsule; infl. monoicous; barren. fl.
 gemmiform, generally axillary.                                      89.

                        _c._ Teeth 16, in pairs.

 GLYPHOMITRIUM (34). Calyptra large ventricose laciniate below,
 entirely covering the capsule, contracted at the base; Infl.
 as in last; per. teeth hygroscopic reflexed when dry.               88.

 ORTHOTRICHUM (36). (partly) Perennial in round tufts; caps.
 erect, immersed or exserted, pear-shaped or elliptical, with
 8, rarely 16, coloured striæ; peristome either single or
 double, sometimes absent; outer of 32 teeth, connected so as
 to seem 8 or 16, broad and flat, inner of 8 or 16 equal cilia,
 or 16 alternately shorter ones; lid short, conico-rostellate;
 calyptra large campanulate, with about eight furrows, base
 somewhat torn, and mostly covered with short hair-like
 processes, but not contracted.                                      89.

                    † † Calyptra smooth, not plicate.

                       _a._ Teeth 16, equidistant.

                   * Perennial, caulescent, cæspitose.

 ENCALYPTA (partly) [29.] _vide ante. p. 2._

 SCHISTIDIUM. Caps. immersed, obovate or roundish, mouth wide;
 calyptra small, conico-mitriform, columella adhering to the
 deciduous lid; teeth large, barred, without medial lines,
 often perforate. Infl. monoicous or dioicous (included in

 GRIMMIA (32). Caps. pedicillate, seta often flexuose, ovate or
 oblong, rarely ventricose, sometimes striated, teeth large
 lanceolate, barred, perforate, bi-trifid; calyptra five-lobed
 at base, sometimes dimidiate; columella free. Infl. monoicous
 or dioicous.; areolæ small dense, larger at base.                   77.

 RACOMITRIUM (33). Caps. oblong, erect, smooth, on a straight
 pedicel, teeth bi-trifid, sometimes very long, sometimes
 short, filiform unequal; calyptra large, with a subulate solid
 papillose beak, lid conico-subulate, straight; leaves with
 sinuous areolæ. Infl. dioicous.                                     86.

          * * Annual or biennial, gregarious; leaves setaceous.

 CAMPYLOSTELIUM (8). Caps. drooping, on a bent seta oblong,
 smooth; teeth long lanceolate, barred, entire at base, cleft
 at summit, and connected by a membrane at base; calyptra
 small, conico-subulate, five-cleft at base. Infl. monoicous;
 barren fl. gemmiform; areolæ minute, much enlarged and
 diaphanous at base.                                                 36.

 BRACHYODUS (9). Caps. oblong sub-striate, teeth very short
 truncate, partly confluent, equidistant; lid convex with a
 slender beak; calyptra conical, three to five-lobed at base,
 sub-dimidiate. Infl. monoicous gemmiform. St. very short,
 annual or biennial.                                                 36.

           _b._ Teeth 16, in pairs, plane, reflexed when dry.

 SPLACHNUM (65). Caps. sub-cylindrical or ovate, on a very
 large spongy coloured apophysis; teeth lanceolate oblong
 obtuse, plane, yellowish; calyptra small, entire or lacerated
 at base. Infl. generally dioicous; barren, fl. capituliform,
 naked or with small scattered leaves.                              133.

               _c._ Peristome a conical plicate membrane.

 DIPHYSCIUM (41). Caps. very large sessile, oblique ovate,
 gibbous; calyptra small, entire at base, scarcely covering the
 conical lid.                                                        99.

                    SUB-DIV. II. Calyptra dimidiate.

    _a._ Calyptra inflexed at base, at first conico-mitriform, caps.
   clavato-pyriform; teeth 16 or 32 plane, more or less paired, with a
                              medial line.

 DISSODON (68). Caps. oval, with a long solid tapering neck,
 lid conico-convex, obtuse, teeth 32, united into eight
 bi-geminate teeth, or into 16 pairs, linear-lanceolate,
 incurved when dry; leaves obtuse entire. Infl. monoicous or
 synoicous, barren fl. gemmiform.                                   134.

 TAYLORIA (67). Caps. with a long clavate or sub-pyriform neck;
 teeth 16, or 32 cohering in pairs, reflexed when dry; leaves
 acuminate serrated. Infl. monoicous; barren fl. capituliform.      134.

                   _b._ Calyptra not indexed at base.

               * Teeth in eight pairs, reflexed when dry.

 TETRAPLODON (66). Caps. with a solid clavate or oval apophysis
 wider than itself; leaves loosely reticulated, acuminate.
 Infl. monoicous, barren fl. gemmiform or capituliform,
 3–5–leaved.                                                        134.

 ZYGODON (37) (partly). Caps. erect, pyriform, striated,
 apophysate. Perist. double, single, or absent; outer teeth 32
 united two or four together, representing 16 or 8 plane teeth,
 inner of 8 or 16 cilia, alternating; calyptra small cucullate
 smooth oblique, lid obliquely rostrate; leaves minutely
 dotted.                                                             97.

             * * Teeth 16 equidistant, simple, or nearly so.

              ‡ Caps. pyriform or oval, erect or inclined.

 ENTOSTHODON (58). Caps. erect, pyriform, symmetrical; lid
 plano-convex, teeth short and broad triangular; calyptra
 inflated below, cucullate; leaves loosely reticulated.             127.

 MIELICHHOFERIA (53). Caps. pyriform, inclined or horizontal,
 on a slender curved seta; calyptra small, not inflated; teeth
 longer, linear-subulate, confluent and dilated at base.            124.

 BLINDIA (13). Caps. roundish, turbinate-erect; teeth 16
 lanceolate, remotely barred, entire or perforate, sometimes
 cleft; calyptra angular at base, afterwards cleft on one side;
 seta short; perennial cæspitose.                                    39.

 SELIGERIA (10). Caps. roundish-pyriform, smooth, teeth
 lanceolate obtuse, sometimes perforate, without medial line;
 calyptra small cucullate; leaves setaceous; stems annual or
 biennial gregarious, not cæspitose. Infl. monoicous, terminal
 gemmiform.                                                          37.

 BRACHYODUS (9). _See page 6._

 RHABDOWEISSIA (7). Caps. shortly oval, eight-striate, wide
 mouthed, teeth lanceolate or subulate, barred, without medial
 line; beak slender, inclined; calyptra cucullate; leaves
 channelled lax; stems perennial, cæspitose.                         36.

 WEISSIA (6). Caps. oblong-ovate, smooth, teeth lanceolate or
 linear-lanceolate, free at base, without medial line, convex,
 sometimes perforate and bifid; leaves of close texture; stems
 as above.                                                           33.

 ANACALYPTA (22). Caps. oval on a long straight pedicel; teeth
 united at base by a membrane, plane, lanceolate, entire or
 perforate, no medial line; leaves succulent with lax areolæ;
 stem annual or biennial.                                            57.

                  ‡ ‡ Caps. globose, nearly horizontal.

 DISCELIUM (64). Almost stemless; caps. decurrent into the
 suddenly bent neck; teeth lanceolate, cleft half way from base
 upwards; leaves few minute, gemmiform.                             133.

 CATASCOPIUM (63). Caps. smooth, shining, neck bent, and
 tapering into the seta, mouth somewhat oblique; teeth short
 truncate, irregular, barred, with a medial line; leaves
 numerous, nerved, of firm texture.                                 132.

 CONOSTOMUM (62). Caps. cernuous, obscurely furrowed when dry;
 teeth linear-lanceolate, barred, converging and united
 together into a cone; perennial.                                   132.

               * * * Teeth 16, deeply bifid, equidistant.

                       ‡ Caps. erect, symmetrical.

 DESMATODON (23). Caps. oval or oblong, sometimes almost
 pendulous; teeth subulate, united at base by a membrane,
 bi-trifid; lid rostellate; leaves soft broad, papillose at
 back.                                                               58.

                  ‡ ‡ Caps. sub-erect, rather unequal.

 CYNODONTIUM (15). Caps. ovate-oblong, or obliquely
 sub-pyriform, smooth, teeth lanceolate, connivent, dilated at
 base, entire or cleft to base, sometimes barred, deep red; lid
 rostrate.                                                           39.

 ARCTOA (14). Caps. oval or almost turbinate, striate,
 contracted below the wide mouth when dry; teeth lanceolate
 subulate, cleft, or perforate and entire, bars not prominent;
 lid large, obliquely rostrate.                                      39.

               ‡ ‡ ‡ Caps. cernuous or inclined, unequal.

 DICRANUM (16). Caps. mostly cernuous, smooth or striated,
 regular, gibbous or curved, with a tapering apophysis, or
 sometimes strumose, teeth equidistant, confluent at base,
 incurved, lanceolate, cleft half way into unequal portions,
 barred, occasionally perforate, with a medial line; lid
 rostrate oblique; leaves of close texture, nerved and more or
 less secund; areolation linear at the base.                         40.

 [DICRANELLA. Plant smaller than in _Dicranum_, and less
 robust, areolation rectangular at the base, in other respects

 LEUCOBRYUM (17). Caps., lid and peristome as in _Dicranum_.
 Leaves spongy, composed of a double layer of loose cellular
 tissue, white or pale glaucous green, sub-secund, nerve
 indistinct.                                                         49.

 FISSIDENS (71). Caps. cernuous or erect, more or less
 truncate, teeth long and tapering from a lanceolate base,
 cleft half way into unequal segments, geniculate, barred;
 fruit in some species _cladocarpous_, leaves vertically
 distichous.                                                        135.

 CERATODON (18). Caps. sub-cylindrical unequal, with a short
 ventricose or strumose neck; teeth deeply cleft, or of two
 equal subulate portions connected below by prominent
 trabeculæ, of two differently coloured laminæ, the outer red,
 the inner and broader yellow.                                       49.

                   ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Capsule on an arcuate seta.

 CAMPYLOPUS (20). Caps. oval or oblong, regular or gibbous on
 upper side, tapering at base, striated, lid conico-subulate or
 rostrate, teeth deeply bifid; calyptra large, fringed at base;
 leaves with a broad nerve.                                          50.

 DICRANODONTIUM (19). Caps. elliptical smooth, teeth
 linear-lanceolate, cleft nearly to base into unequal portions,
 obliquely striate; calyptra not fringed at base.                    49.

             * * * * Teeth 32, in pairs, narrow or filiform.

 DIDYMODON (25). Caps. erect, sub-cylindrical, teeth 32 (16
 Wilson) linear-lanceolate, _not obviously united by a basilar
 membrane_, tender and fugacious, entire or perforate.               58.

 TRICHOSTOMUM (26). Caps. erect, sub-cylindrical or oval,
 smooth, teeth 32 in unequal pairs (often so united as to
 appear 16 simple or perforate teeth), connected by a narrow
 basilar membrane, persistent.                                       60.

 DISTICHIUM (24). Caps. as in last; teeth 32 (16 Wilson) not
 confluent at base, linear-lanceolate, entire, perforate or
 cleft, with a medial line; leaves _distichous_, setaceous from
 a sheathing base.                                                   58.

 TORTULA (27). Caps. mostly erect ovate-oblong, smooth, teeth
 32 very long filiform _twisted_, articulate papillose, outer
 cellules yellow, inner red, often united into a membrane at
 base; leaves not distichous.                                        63.

 CINCLIDOTUS (28). Caps. immersed ovate or oval, smooth, teeth
 32 perfect or rudimentary, adhering at top to columella,
 contorted, anastomosing at base.                                    74.

 * * * * * Teeth 32 or 64 equidistant, short, obtuse, connected at apex
    by a tympanum, formed of dilated apex of columella; nerve of leaf
                     covered with vertical lamellæ.

                          † Caps. not angular.

 ATRICHUM (42). Caps. cylindrical, erect or cernuous, calyptra
 narrow, almost naked, spinulose at apex only; teeth 32
 ligulate rigid, united at base by a narrow membrane, leaves
 not sheathing, lamellæ few, nerve narrow. Columella round.         100.

 OLIGOTRICHUM (43). Caps. sub-cylindrical, erect, gibbous,
 peristome as above; calyptra slightly setose at apex; leaves
 sheathing at base, more lamellated, nerve wider; columella
 winged.                                                            101.

 POGONATUM (44) Caps. ovate or urceolate, regular, erect or
 inclined, calyptra very hairy, peristome as above; leaves
 rigid, densely lamellated, nerve thick and broad.                  101.

 † † Caps. angular; teeth 64, rarely                                 32.

 POLYTRICHUM (46). Caps. with a discoid apophysis, erect, when
 ripe horizontal; teeth 64 (in some species 32). Calyptra very
 hairy; leaves as in last.                                          102.

                         III. PERISTOME DOUBLE.

                        _a._ Caps. plano-convex.

 BUXBAUMIA (40). Caps. very large, apophysate, oblique; outer
 teeth irregular reddish, opaque, inner a pale conical plicate
 membrane, calyptra small, only covering the conical obtuse
 lid, fugacious, entire or laterally cleft.                          99.

                         _b._ Caps. cylindrical.

 ENCALYPTA (partly) (29). _vide ante p. 2._

                           _c._ Caps. oblong.

 ORTHOTRICHUM (chiefly) (36). _vide ante p. 5._

               _d._ Caps. obovate, unequal, mouth oblique.

 FUNARIA (57). Caps. obliquely pyriform ventricose, sub-erect
 or cernuous; outer perist. 16, obliquely lanceolate, teeth
 trabeculate, longitudinally striate, and connected at apex by
 a small circular disc, very hygrometric, inner a membrane
 divided into 16 lanceolate processes opposite to outer;
 calyptra inflated below.                                           126.

 AMBLYODON (56). Caps. clavate or sub-pyriform, incurved
 sub-erect; perist. outer, 16 short, erect, obtuse teeth; inner
 (longer) a membrane divided into 16 carinate processes,
 without cilia. Calyptra indexed at base; leaves loosely
 reticulated.                                                       125.

 MEESIA (55). Caps, obovate or clavate, curved, gibbous,
 sub-erect, neck long, tapering into seta; perist. outer 16
 short, obtuse teeth, somewhat united to inner, entire or split
 along medial line; inner same as last; leaves of close firm
 texture, strongly nerved.                                          125.

                         _e._ Capsule striated.

 ZYGODON (37). _vide ante p. 7._

 AULACOMNION (47). Caps. oval or oblong apophysate, cernuous on
 a flexuose seta; perist. outer 16 teeth, lanceolate-subulate,
 barred; inner a thin membrane divided half way into 16
 carinate lacunose processes, with cilia two or three together.
 Branches bearing terminal globular masses (_pseudopodia_) of
 rudimentary leaves or gemmæ.                                       105.

 BARTRAMIA (61). Caps. globose, rather large, erect or
 cernuous, rarely pendulous, not apophysate; perist. double,
 single, or wanting; outer 16 equidistant lanceolate teeth;
 inner a membrane divided into 16 carinate lanceolate
 processes, splitting along the middle, alternating, sometimes
 with cilia; calyptra small dimidiate; leaves papillose or
 muriculate.                                                        128.

                   _f._ Caps. smooth, mostly pyriform.

 PALUDELLA (54). Caps. oval-oblong, slightly curved, cernuous
 or sub-erect, lid mammillate; peristome as in _Bryum_, inner
 without cilia; leaves squarrose.                                   125.

 TIMMIA (46). Caps. obovate, cernuous; perist. outer 16 teeth,
 inner, a membrane divided half way into 64 filiform processes;
 variously united at the summits; leaves sheathing, rigid,
 lanceolate; barren fl. axillary, gemmiform. Infl. monoicous.       104.

 ORTHODONTIUM (48). Caps. clavoto-pyriform, inclined; perist.
 outer 16 teeth indexed when dry; inner deeply divided into 16
 narrow carinate processes; leaves very tender, narrow, not
 sheathing; barren fl. axillary, gemmiform, aggregate. Infl.
 monoicous.                                                         106.

 LEPTOBRYUM (49). Caps. and perist. as in _Bryum_; stems of
 annual growth without innovations; leaves almost setaceous.
 Infl. synoicous.                                                   106.

 BRYUM (50). Caps. pyriform cernuous or inclined; perist. outer
 16 teeth, inner a membrane divided half way into 16 carinate
 segments with or without cilia; stems perennial, with
 innovations below the terminal flower; barren fl. gemmiform or
 naked.                                                             106.

 MNIUM (51). Caps. oblong pendulous; perist. as in _Bryum_;
 stems with innovations from the lower part; leaves large;
 barren fl. discoid; infl. dioicous or synoicous.                   121.

 CINCLIDIUM (52). Caps., leaves and stem as in _Mnium_, outer
 teeth 16 short, inner cupuliform.                                  124.

                        SECT. I. _b._ CLADOCARPI.

             Fruit terminal on very short lateral branches.

                        DIV. I. _Peristome none._

 SPHAGNUM (2). _vide ante p. 1._

                      DIV. II. _Peristome single._

 MIELICHHOFERIA (53). _vide ante p. 8._

 FISSIDENS (71) partly. _vide ante p. 10._

 CINCLIDOTUS (28) occasionally. _vide ante p. 12._

                         SECT. II. PLEUROCARPI.

                      Fructification truly lateral.

                      DIV. I. _Calyptra dimidiate._

                      SUB-DIV. I. _Peristome none._

 ANŒCTANGIUM (72). Caps. oval or obovate, erect, with a short
 slightly inflated neck; lid conico-convex with a long slender
 oblique beak; stems erect, cæspitose.                              139.

               SUB-DIV. II. _Perist. single, of 16 teeth._

 HABRODON (77). Caps. oval-oblong erect, calyptra large, lid
 conical; st. sub-erect, l. spreading, nerveless, soft and
 opaque; per. teeth simple, linear, inserted below mouth of
 caps., remotely articulate: dioicous.                              141.

                SUB-DIV. III. _Peristome almost single._

            _a._ _inner peristome very short and indistinct._

 LEUCODON (73). Caps. oval erect, on a short pedicel; calyptra
 large; outer teeth 16 bifid or perforate, not hygroscopic;
 surculi erect simple; leaves plicato-striate, nerveless.           139.

 PTEROGONIUM (78). Caps. oblong erect, on a long seta; calyptra
 small; outer teeth 16 simple, hygroscopic; surculi dendroid,
 with fasciculate curved branches; leaves not striate.              141.

 LEPTODON (75). Caps. oval on a very short seta; calyptra and
 vaginula hairy; teeth 16 linear-lanceolate, entire or fissile,
 not hygroscopic; surculi pinnate; branches curled when dry;
 leaves very obtuse.                                                140.

                    SUB-DIV. IV. _Peristome double._

                    _a._ _Inner perist. of 16 cilia._

 ANTITRICHIA (74). Caps, oval, regular, on a short curved seta;
 calyptra rather large smooth; inner peristome of 16 filiform
 processes; outer 16 tapering teeth with a medial line; surculi
 procumbent, pinnate.                                               140.

 ANOMODON (76). Caps. oval-oblong erect, on a long seta; lid
 obliquely rostrate; calyptra small; perist. as in last: stems
 erect with erect branches, cæspitose; leaves of close texture
 acuminate, nerved.                                                 140.

 CYLINDROTHECIUM (81). Caps. cylindrical, regular, erect; outer
 teeth 16 inserted below mouth of capsule; inner of 16 narrow
 carinate processes; lid shortly rostellate; stem procumbent
 pinnate; leaves ovate concave, faintly two-nerved at base.         142.

 NECKERA (85). Caps. oval-oblong, immersed or pedicillate; lid
 obliquely rostrate, outer teeth 16 linear-subulate, long,
 connivent into a cone; inner as above; stems pinnate; leaves
 complanate. St. sub-erect from a creeping rhizome.                 182.

   _b._ _Inner peristome a membrane divided half way into 16 carinate
                    segments with or without cilia._

                * Caps. symmetrical, erect or sub-erect.

 OMALIA (84). Leaves complanate smooth, falciform, obtuse,
 serrulate at apex, not undulate (allied to _Neckera_).

 LESKEA (82). Perist. outer of 16 narrow barred teeth, inner
 without (rarely with) intermediate cilia, leaves mostly ovate,
 nerved or nerveless, entire, spreading every way.                  143.

 CLIMACIUM (80). Caps. oblong, erect; lid adhering to the
 persistent columella; outer teeth linear-lanceolate, confluent
 at base, trabeculate, with a medial line; inner alternate and
 longer than outer, lacunose without cilia, the two segments of
 each process united only at apex; stem dendroid, erect.            142.

 ISOTHECIUM (79). Caps. oval, sub-erect, symmetrical; lid not
 adhering to columella; outer teeth 16 barred, with a medial
 line; inner with intermediate cilia, two or three together;
 stem dendroid drooping; branches fasciculate or pinnate.           142.

                      * * Caps. unequal, cernuous.

 HYPNUM (83). Caps. cernuous, sometimes nearly erect, rarely
 pendulous, ovate or oblong, more or less curved, and sometimes
 slightly apophysate; outer teeth 16 equidistant lanceolate
 acuminate, barred, inner alternating, often perforate, with
 intermediate cilia, one, two or three together.                    145.

                 _c._ Inner perist. a reticulated cone.

 DICHELYMA (90). Peristome like _Fontinalis_; caps. scarcely
 exserted; calyptra long twisted; leaves nerved.                    185.

                     DIV. II. _Calyptra mitriform._

 HOOKERIA (86). Caps. ovate or elliptical, cernuous, lid with a
 straight beak; perist. as in _Leskia_; calyptra not fringed at
 base; leaves complanate, loosely reticulated.                      184.

 DALTONIA (87). Caps. erect oval-oblong, obscurely apophysate;
 calyptra fringed at base; leaves spreading every way; inner
 perist. divided nearly to base.                                    184.

 CRYPHÆA (88). Caps. oval-oblong or roundish, sub-sessile,
 immersed; calyptra conical small, not fringed; peristome as in
 _Neckera_.                                                         184.

 FONTINALIS (89). Caps. ovate or oval, immersed, sub-sessile;
 calyptra conical, crenate or slightly lacerate at base, small;
 outer teeth 16 linear-lanceolate, very long, cohering at apex
 in pairs, barred, twisted; inner a plicate cone, with 16
 angles, consisting of filiform cilia, united by crossbars.         185.

                 DIVISION I. ACROCARPI. (Genera 1–72.)

                            1. ANDREÆA. Ehr.

                          _a._ _L. nerveless._

1. A. PETROPHILA. Ehr. (_A. rupestris_ Hedw.) St. ¼ inch loosely tufted,
with fastigiate branches; l. erect imbricate, with a sheathing base,
generally secund, ovate or ovate-subulate, tapering above, and rather
obtuse; papillose, areolæ dotted; per. l. larger; all reddish brown.

Sub-alpine rocks, frequent. V. VI.

2. A. ALPESTRIS. Schimp. St. taller, densely tufted, with slender
branches; l. crowded, very small, patent on all sides when moist, ovate,
or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, areolæ quadrate at margin; per. l. shorter
and more obtuse.

Damp alpine rocks. Glen Callater; Perthshire.

3. A. OBOVATA. Thed. “Densely tufted, blackish brown, tall and robust;
l. somewhat like those of _alpina_, from an imbricate base
ovate-panduriform, gradually lanceolate, nearly smooth, glossy, quite
entire at margin, areolæ much laxer.” Dr. Braithwaite, Jour, of Bot.,
VIII. p. 95.

Glen Callater.

4. A. ALPINA. Turner. St. tall 1–3in. densely tufted, with long
fastigiate branches; l. imbricate, spreading, reddish or purplish brown,
obovate, almost panduriform concave; per. l. larger elliptic sheathing,
acute, areolæ dot-like.

Alpine rocks. V. VI.

                           _b._ _L. nerved._

5. A. RUPESTRIS. Turn. (_A. Rothii_ W. & M.) St. scarcely ½ inch,
loosely tufted; l. imbricate, falcato-secund, longly subulate from an
ovate base, thickly nerved to apex, rigid almost black; per. l. larger

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks. V. VI.

6. A. GRIMSULANA. Bruch. Much more robust than the last, rufous black;
l. lanceolate acute broader, more solid, falcato-secund; per. l. broadly
ovate not acuminate.

Brandsley Falls, Yorkshire, J. G. Baker 1858. Herb. Kew.—Ingleborough.

7. A. CRASSINERVIA. Bruch. Tufts depressed deep black, st. prostrate
ascending, fragile; l. shining falcato-secund, subulate from an oblong
base; nerve thick excurrent into the round papillose _subula_, margin
entire, cells quadrate; per. l. erecto-patent convolute nerveless.

Alpine rocks; Hebden Bridge 1865; Scotland; Snowdon 1853.

8. A. FALCATA. Schimp. Smaller than last, very fragile black; l.
falcato-secund, opaque, from a dilated obovate base abruptly
lanceolate-subulate, nerve flattened, ending at or below the apex, which
is erose at margin.

Snowdon 1865 and Cader Idris (Schimper); Perthshire (McKinlay).

9. A. NIVALIS. Hooker. St. longer tufted slender, l. reddish brown,
falcato-secund, lanceolate-subulate, acute, gradually tapering and
nerved to apex.

Alpine rocks at limit of perpetual snow; Ben Nevis, &c. Summer.

                           2. SPHAGNUM. Dill.

  [Dr. Braithwaite is at present publishing in the “Monthly
        Microscopical Journal” a Monograph of this genus, but as he has
        only got some three or four species described, I regret that I
        cannot avail myself of his valuable researches, and can only
        publish such species as are known to me. His division of species
        is as follows:—

                    A.  1 _S. cymbifolium_ Ehr.
                    B.  2 _S. tenellum_ Ehr.
                        3 _S. rubellum_ Wils.
                        4 _S. neglectum_ Angst.
                        5 _S. subsecundum_ N. von E.
                    C.  6 _S. molle_ Sulot.
                        7 _S. rigidum._ N. H. & S.
                    D.  8 _S. squarrosum_ Pers.
                        9 _S. teres_ Angst.
                       10 _S. acutifolium_ Ehr.
                       11 _S. strictum_ Lindb.
                       12 _S. fimbriatum_ Wils.
                       13 _S. Lindbergii_ Schp.
                       14 _S. intermedium_ Hoff.
                       15 _S. cuspidatum_ Ehr.]

            SECT. I. _Leaves obtuse roundish or elliptical._

          _a._ Utricles of branches lined with spiral fibres.

10. S. CYMBIFOLIUM. Ehr. St. 3–12 inches robust tufted solid, covered
with a cortical web. Stem l. lingulate-spathulate with a rounded apex;
br. l. imbricate broadly ovate concave cucullate and muriculate at apex;
caps. large globose on a short seta: dioicous.

Bogs, common. VI. VII.

                _b._ Branch cells without spiral fibres.

11. S. COMPACTUM. Brid. St. erect, 2–4in. dichotomous, densely
cæspitose; branches crowded short, almost erect, br. l. ovate-subulate,
obtuse, concave, slightly cucullate and smooth at apex, præmorse with
3–4 teeth; st. l. small elliptical: dioicous.

Wet moors. VII. VIII.

12. S. TENELLUM. Ehr. (_S. molluscum._ Bruch.) Stems rarely 2in.
slender, soft, fragile, branches similar; l. erecto-patent reflexed,
ovate-oblong, with a broadish border, very concave on the branches, pale
yellowish white; utricles of the branches between the leaves recurved at
points; caps. small orange-red, on a long pedicel: dioicous.

Wet hollows on peat bogs. V. VI.

13. S. RUBELLUM. Wils. St. 2–5in. slender loosely tufted with slender
deflexed sometimes curved branches; st. l. large ovate-oblong concave
obtuse sub-secund with a minutely toothed apex; br. l. ovate or
oblong-ovate, margins indexed, capsule almost included: dioicous.

Peat mosses, fr. rare. VI. VII.

       SECT. II. _Leaves acuminate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate._

                       _a._ Leaves erecto-patent.

14. S. ACUTIFOLIUM. Ehr. St. 3–6in. with slender attenuated branches;
stem. l. small ovate acute erect; branch l. ovate-lanceolate slightly
præmorse with a 3–4 toothed apex, erecto-patent, often with a pinkish
tinge, sometimes almost white; pedicel long; monoicous.

Bogs and marshes. VI. VII.

15. S. FIMBRIATUM. Wils. St. slender 6–12in. loosely cæspitose, with
slender deflexed branches; st. l. obovate broad very obtuse, and fringed
at the summit; br. l. ovate-lanceolate acute erecto-patent, whitish,
never reddish; p. l. very large obtuse, cucullate; caps. on a short
pedicel, nearly enclosed in the per. leaves: monoicous.

Bogs and marshes. VI. VII.

16. S. CUSPIDATUM. Dill. Ehr. St. 3–12in., flaccid with distant deflexed
attenuated branches, the younger ones cuspidate; st. l. ovate acute, br.
l. lanceolate acute præmorse slightly fringed and bordered; per. l.
broadly ovate, acute, ped. short: dioicous.

Wet bogs. VI. VII.

17. S. RECURVUM. P. Beauv. “Distinguished from the last by its branch
leaves, recurved when dry, elliptical, not attenuated towards the apex;
usually growing out of the water, whilst _S. cuspidatum_ is almost
submerged.”—G. E. Hunt.

Common in bogs.

 var. δ. _laricinum_. Spruce. l. loosely imbricated, slightly undulate
           when dry, areolæ very minute.

18. S. CONTORTUM. Schultz. St. 3–6in. rigid blackish, “with a single
layer of cortical cellules”, and with crowded generally contorted
attenuated branches; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute concave, frequently
3–toothed at the apex, the cellules bordered with a row of small pores
at the back of the leaf: dioicous.

Bogs and ditches. VII.

 var. γ. _obesum_; stem more robust, branches thicker and longer, leaves

19. S. SUBSECUNDUM. Nees & H. Allied to _contortum_, but more lax in
habit, stems more slender, with shorter branches and with the branch
leaves generally more or less secund.

20. S. CURVIFOLIUM. Wils. MS. Allied to the last; stem with a cortical
layer of two or three rows of cellules, leaves without marginal pores,
entire, acute.

                         _b._ Leaves squarrose.

21. S. SQUARROSUM. Pers. St. 4–12in. rigid, often forked, with long
deflexed attenuated branches; l. ovate-acuminate acute, recurved; caps.
large on a longish pedicel.

Bogs. VI. VII.

                         3. ARCHIDIUM. BRIDEL.

22. A. PHASCOIDES Brid. St. ¼in., second year branched sometimes 1in.;
fertile branches short, barren ones longer, slender, and with more
distant leaves; l. lanceolate pointed, upper ones longest, entire,
nerved nearly to or beyond apex; p.l. ovate-lanceolate, toothed near the
apex, nerve excurrent.

Moist clayey or chalky banks, &c. III. IV.

                           4. PHASCUM. LINN.

  SECT. I. (EPHEMERUM.) Almost stemless, capsule immersed, barren fl.
             gemmiform at base of, or near to, fertile fl.

    _a._ Growing from a conferva-like thallus, columella fugacious.

23. P. SERRATUM. Schreb. “Stemless, leaves lanceolate, nerveless (?)
serrated, connivent; capsule large roundish ovate, sub-sessile.” (Wils.)

Sandy banks or fallows. Spring or Autumn.

 var. β. _angustifolium._ “Leaves narrower, linear-lanceolate, obscurely
           toothed; caps. smaller.”

24. P. COHÆRENS. Hed. Stemless, very minute; l. ovate-lanceolate,
keeled, erect, nerved to apex, and serrated about half way from summit;
capsule immersed sub-sessile.

On the ground. Winter.

25. P. TENERUM. Bruch. Inconspicuous; l. broad ovate-lanceolate,
slightly denticulate at apex, very flaccid; caps. small, pale yellow,
calyptra conical. Bry. Europ. vol. I.

On the mud of dried-up pools. Winter.

Weald of Sussex, Mr. Mitten.

26. P. SESSILE. B. & S. Very minute, almost stemless; l.
lanceolate-subulate, denticulate more than two-thirds from summit,
rigid, with an almost excurrent nerve; caps. sessile small, rounded,
brownish: monoicous.

Clay and chalky heaths, rare. Autumn, Winter.

 var. β. _stenophyllum_. l. shorter, linear-lanceolate, slightly

27. P. RECURVIFOLIUM. Dicks. Minute, st. almost none; l. lingulate,
rarely linear-lanceolate, erect, frequently recurved, denticulate at the
apex, with a strong generally excurrent nerve; caps. roundish ovate,
nearly sessile.

Heaths and fallows. Autumn, Winter.

             _b._ Mature plants without confervoid shoots.

28. P. MUTICUM. Schreb. Minute, almost stemless; l. convolute, broadly
ovate, tapering pointed, concave, toothed above, nerved nearly to the
apex; caps. round, reddish, erect, sub-sessile.

Moist banks and fallows. Autumn, Spring.

 var. β. _minus_, leaves entire.

29. P. TRIQUETRUM. Spruce. Almost stemless; l. in three rows, lowest
minute ovate nerveless, three uppermost (perichætial) cucullate,
pointed, obovate, keeled, margins reflexed, denticulate above, nerve
excurrent; caps. spherical, horizontal or drooping, pedicel long,
slender, suddenly bent near its union with the capsule.

Cliffs, Sussex coast. III.

            SECT. II. Barren fl. axillary, antheridia naked.

30. P. FLOERKEANUM. Web. & M. Almost stemless, very minute; leaves
broadly ovate, tapering to a point, lower ones small nerveless, upper
ones larger nerve excurrent, margins reflexed; caps. ovate-spherical,
shortly beaked, immersed with sub-conical curved-pointed calyptra.

Clay or chalky fields, rare. IX.–XI.

31. P. RECTUM. Sm. Stem short; l. closely crowded, erecto-patent,
elliptic-lanceolate pointed with an excurrent nerve, often reddish,
margins recurved; caps. exserted, roundish ovoid, on a longish straight

Fields and banks near the coast, frequent. Winter.

32. P. CURVICOLLUM. Hedw. St. short reddish; l. erecto-patent,
lanceolate, tapering, pointed with an excurrent nerve, entire, margin
reflexed; caps. roundish, blunt-pointed, cernuous, exserted, on a
longish curved pedicel; cal. dimidiate.

Moist banks and fields.

               SECT. III. Barren fl. axillary, gemmiform.

33. P. CUSPIDATUM. Schreb. From ⅛ to ¼in. high, st. simple or branched;
l. ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, erect concave, keeled, with the nerve
prominently excurrent; caps. roundish, immersed on a short pedicel.

Moist banks, hedges, and fields, common. III.

 var. β. leaves longer, lanceolate; caps. smaller.

      γ. _Schreberianum._ St. elongated, branches dichotomous; leaves
           distant spreading.

      δ. _piliferum._ Pedicel curved; leaves with long white filiform

      ε. _curvisetum._ Caps. laterally exserted, on a longish curved

      ζ. _elatum._ Upper leaves lanceolate, cuspidate caps.
           sub-pendulous, similar to the last.

34. P. BRYOIDES. Dicks. St. ⅛–¼in. simple or branched; l. lower, ovate
pointed, upper elliptic ovate concave erect, margin reflexed, pointed
with the excurrent nerve; caps. elliptical, with an oblique blunt point,
brown, exserted. Barren fl. sometimes terminal on a short branch.

Banks and fields, rare. Spring.

 var. β. leaves piliferous.

      γ. _curvisetum._ Pedicel curved, longer.

      δ. caps. roundish, pedicel very short.

      ε. smaller, with piliferous leaves. (_P. pusillum_ Schleich.)

      ζ. _Thornhillii._ “l. spreading sub-reflexed
           spathulato-lanceolate, margin plane, nerve slightly
           excurrent; caps. narrowly elliptical, rostrate, pedicel

     SECT. IV. Barren fl. naked in the axil of a perichætial leaf.

35. P. PATENS. Hedw. St. ⅛in. l. more or less spreading, sometimes
recurved, obovate-lanceolate, serrulate near the apex, concave, nerve
ceasing below apex; caps. immersed spherical pointed, pale brown,

Clay banks and fields. Autumn.

SECT. V. Stems growing by innovations, caps. therefore often apparently
               lateral, leaves narrow, almost setaceous.

36. P. NITIDUM. Hedw. L. generally erect, linear-lanceolate, keeled,
sub-denticulate near apex, nerved (thin) nearly to summit; caps.
elliptical, with a short oblique point, sometimes pendulous, on a short

Moist banks, &c. Autumn, Spring.

37. P. SUBULATUM. L. St. ⅛in. l. lanceolate, sharply tapering from a
broadish base, not keeled, with a broad nerve ceasing near the apex;
per. l. almost setaceous; caps. roundish-ovoid pale brown, immersed, on
a very short pedicel.

Banks and fields, common. Spring.

38. P. ALTERNIFOLIUM. Bruch. & S. St. sometimes with innovations, ½in.
long, or more; st. l. lanceolate acuminate from a broad base; per. l.
subulate-setaceous, with a thick nerve, excurrent and forming nearly the
upper half of the leaf; caps. ovoid immersed, brownish, with an oblique

Banks and fallow ground. Spring.

   SECT. VI. Stems perennial branched; leaves linear-lanceolate firm
   strongly nerved; caps. with traces of a dehiscent lid; barren fl.
         gemmiform, terminal on a branch or sometimes axillary.

39. P. CRISPUM. Hedw. St. ¼in. cæspitose; with fastigiate branches; l.
lanceolate-subulate, grooved erect or spreading, margins involute, nerve
excurrent; per. l. very long, concave at base, sometimes almost secund;
caps. roundish, immersed, pale brown, with an oblique beak.

Banks and fields, chiefly limestone. Spring.

40. P. MULTICAPSULARE. Smith. St. ½in., loosely tufted; leaves distant,
alternate, spreading, lanceolate, somewhat obtuse, with an excurrent
nerve and plane margin; per. l. longer and broader, erect, incurved;
capsule ovoid tapering to an oblique short beak, on a longish pedicel,
sometimes two together.

Fields, &c., rare. III.

 var. β. _Mittenii._ Stems fragile, l. shorter, acute, recurved; p. l.
           smaller; caps. on a longer pedicel.

41. P. ROSTELLATUM. Brid. St. ⅛–¼in., tufted; l. linear-lanceolate,
spreading obtuse, nerve excurrent, margin plane; caps. olive-brown ovoid
elliptical with a straight beak; pedicel equalling caps. in length: a
smaller plant than the last.

Dried beds of pools, &c. Autumn, Spring.

                         5. GYMNOSTOMUM. HEDW.

 SECT. I. Infl. dioicous, margin of l. reflexed or plane, not incurved.

  _a._ St. short, per. l. sheathing; caps. elliptic-oblong, narrow at
             mouth, lid conical, annulus large persistent.

42. G. TENUE. Schrad. St. tufted; l. lingulate, sub-erect, upper ones
longest entire, nerved nearly to apex; caps. pale brown, lid obtuse.

Sandstone rocks and walls. VII. VIII.

  _b._ St. taller, branched; per. l. slightly sheathing, caps. oval or
   ovoid, truncate; lid with a long beak, annulus narrow, persistent.

43. G. RUPESTRE. Schw. St. ½in. densely tufted, slender, dichotomous; l.
linear-lanceolate, spreading obtuse keeled, nerved nearly to apex;
capsule erect oval, lid flattish, suddenly rising to a longish scarcely
bent beak.

Wet alpine rocks. Autumn.

 var. β. _ramosissimum._ densely tufted, leaves shorter, capsule smaller
           on a shorter pedicel.

      γ. _stelligerum._ loosely tufted, l. fasciculate and
           stellato-patent at the ends of the branches,
           linear-lanceolate acute.

      δ. _compactum._ leaves fascicled, longer and more obtuse.

44. G. CURVIROSTRUM. Hedw. St. ½–1in. cæspitose branches fastigiate; l.
linear-lanceolate, spreading keeled, margins recurved, nerved nearly to
apex; caps. broadly ovoid, lid adhering to columella, conical battened,
with a long suddenly bent beak.

Moist sub-alpine rocks. Autumn.

 var. β. _pomiforme._ leaves narrow, caps. more spherical.

      γ. _microcarpon._ l. broader, erecto-patent, caps. smaller,
           roundish obovate.

      δ. _pallidisetum._ st. long slender, l. fascicled, caps. small
           obovate, with a shorter pedicel and beak.

    SECT. II. Infl. monoicous; margins of l. incurved or plane, not

_a._ Caps. contracted at mouth; sporangium adherent to columella forming
                             a closed sac.

45. G. SQUARROSUM. Wils. St. ¼in. loosely tufted, l. linear-lanceolate,
squarrose, distant, blunt, nerve running out into a mucro; caps.
elliptical, sometimes oblique and unequal; lid with a blunt beak.

Clay fields and banks. Autumn, Spring.

46. G. MICROSTOMUM. Hedw. St. ⅛ to ¼in. densely tufted; l.
linear-lanceolate, acute, upper ones longest, nerve excurrent; capsule
elliptical, sometimes oblique and gibbous, olive-brown, much contracted,
lid with a longish curved beak.

Fields, &c. Spring.

 var. β. _obliquum._ caps. oblong, oblique, lid sub-rostrate.

      γ. _brevirostre._ caps. oblong symmetrical, lid short conical.

      δ. _brachycarpum._ caps. roundish, gibbous.

      ε. _elatum._ innovations overtopping fruit, caps. roundish small,
           lid sub-rostrate.

        _b._ Caps. scarcely contracted; sporangium not adherent.

47. G. TORTILE. Schw. St. ⅛–¼in. densely tufted with fastigiate
branches; l. oblong-lanceolate, spreading or sub-erect curved, obtuse,
pointed with the excurrent nerve; caps. elliptical, with a purple mouth
and an inclined beaked lid.

Limestone rocks. Spring.

 var. β. _subcylindricum._ l. linear-lanceolate, caps. oblong.

                           6. WEISSIA. HEDW.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

48. W. CONTROVERSA. Hedw. St. ⅛–¼in. branched; l. lower lanceolate,
upper linear-lanceolate, margin incurved, with a slightly excurrent
nerve; caps. oval, erect, lid conical, beak half-length of capsule;
barren fl. gemmiform.

Frequent. Spring.

 var. β. _stenocarpa._ caps. sub-cylindrical narrow.

      γ. _densifolia._ densely tufted; l. crowded narrower.

      δ. _amblyodon._ teeth of peristome variable, short and truncate,
           acute or cleft at apex., yellowish.

      ε. _gymnostomoides._ teeth of peristome almost wanting.

49. W. MUCRONATA. B. & S. Smaller than last; l. linear-lanceolate, with
plane margins, the nerve slightly excurrent and forming a mucro; caps.
oblong, scarcely striated; teeth of per. short truncate, perforated, lid
with a longish beak; barren fl. gemmiform.

Fallow (clay) ground. III. IV.

50. W. CIRRHATA. Hedw. St. ½–1in. loosely tufted; l. linear-lanceolate,
spreading entire concave, keeled, margin reflexed, not nerved to apex;
per. l. slightly sheathing, shorter; caps. oval-oblong; lid with a long
beak; monoicous.

Posts and rocks in mountainous districts.

51. W. CRISPULA. Hedw. St. shorter than last, branched; l. spreading,
frequently falcato-secund, lanceolate-subulate, base wide, concave;
margins plane, not nerved to apex; caps. oval or oblong without annulus;
lid beaked. Barren fl. gemmiform.

Mountainous rocks. VI. VII.

                  SECT. II. Infl. dioicous; terminal.

52. W. VERTICILLATA. Brid. St. ¼–¾in., branches fastigiate; l.
linear-lanceolate, rigid, denticulate at base, sub-erect, margin plane,
with a strong slightly excurrent nerve; teeth of per. incurved, not
barred, sometimes perforated; caps. erect, reddish; lid beaked.

Dripping limestone rocks. VI. VII.

53. W. CALCAREA. Müll. St. short, simple; densely tufted, radiculose at
base; l. lower small ferruginous, erecto-patent, narrowly lanceolate;
upper larger deep green lineal-lanceolate, rather obtuse concave,
stoutly nerved nearly to apex, margin minutely crenulate; per. l.
lanceolate concave acute; caps. oblong sub-cylindric short-necked erect,
on a pale yellow seta, lid conical subulate.

 var.  δ. _brevifolium._ Schpr. Slender branched; l. lower very minute
           distant, upper crowded ovate-lanceolate, recurved above;
           caps. oval.

Damp rocks and walls. Blackhall, nr. Banchory, Dee side. Mr. Sim. _var._
δ. only and barren. [Dr. Braithwaite.]

54. W. COMMUTATA. Mitt. “L. from a sub-oblong base lanceolate, narrowed,
keeled with the nerve, which vanishes below apex, cells nearly all
elongated and pellucid; per. l. similar”; caps. turbinate, lid with a
very oblique longish beak.

Alpine rocks, Nant-y-Fydd, Wrexham (Mr. Bowman.)

55. W. TRUNCICOLA. De Not. In large dense bright green tufts; st. 1–2in.
dichotomous, reddish, radiculose below; l. erect when moist and often
secund on the young shoots, rather soft, papillose at back, from a
narrowly lanceolate base gradually subulate channelled, thinly nerved
nearly to apex, margin not revolute, sharply denticulate above and on
the back of the nerve; strongly cirrhate and twisted when dry; basal
cells large cylindraceo-vesicular, the rest small quadrate or
sub-hexagonal, filled with chlorophyll. [Dr. Braithwaite, Jour. Bot.,
IX., 290.]

Base of an oak trunk in Sutton Park, Birmingham. J. Bagnall, 27th Aug.,

                     7. RHABDOWEISSIA. BRUCH. & S.

56. R. FUGAX. B. & S. St. ¼–½in. tufted; l. linear-lanceolate, acute,
toothed near apex, margins plane; caps. ovate, somewhat striated; teeth
of per. subulate, fugacious; lid with an oblique beak longer than

Sub-alpine rocks, in crevices. VI. VII.

57. R. DENTICULATA. B. & S. St. longer than last, loosely tufted; l.
lingulate or linear-lanceolate, strongly toothed half way from apex;
caps. more distinctly striated when dry, teeth of per. lanceolate,

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks.

                     8. CAMPYLOSTELIUM. BRUCH. & S.

58. C. SAXICOLA. B. & S. Minute; l. elongate, linear-lanceolate, crowded
entire, twisted, nerved nearly to summit; caps. elliptical drooping, on
a geniculate pedicel, annulus double, calyptra 5–cleft. at base.

Sandstone rocks, rare. XI.

                       9. BRACHYODUS. NEES. & H.

59. B. TRICHODES. N. & H. Very minute; l. lanceolate-subulate, almost
setaceous; erect, with an excurrent nerve forming half the leaf; caps.
erect, furrowed; per. very short, annulus large, lid flattish with a
long beak.

Sub-alpine sandstone rocks. Spring.

                       10. SELIGERIA. BRUCH & S.

60. S. PUSILLA. Bruch. & S. Minute, ⅛in. stems loosely tufted, simple or
dichotomous; l. lanceolate-subulate, very narrow, thinly nerved nearly
to apex; per. with teeth distantly barred; caps. on an upright pedicel,
turbinate when dry, with a flattish beaked lid.

Shady limestone rocks. IV. V.

61. S. TRISTICHA. Brid. Densely cæspitose, rigid; l. exactly
tristichous, crowded, rigid, narrowly lanceolate, muticous, base
whitish; caps. yellowish brown sub-spherical, with a tumid neck, lid
large with a long oblique or arcuate beak; per. teeth narrower than in

Calcareous stones and rocks. Summer.

Blair Athol, Glen Tilt, and Ben-y-Gloe. Rev. J. M. Crombie.

62. S. PAUCIFOLIA. Carruthers. (_S. subcernua_, Schp.; _S. calcicola_,
Mitt.) Densely gregarious, low; leaves crowded erecto-patent, lower ones
lanceolate, upper subulate from a narrow oblong base, margins plane,
nerve exserted, areolæ dense, rectangular; caps. elliptical sub-cernuous
on a long seta, unsymmetrical, lid with a long beak; male fl. at base of
female plant.

Limestone rocks and stones. VI.

Chalk Downs, Sussex, Mr. Mitten; Near Wetherby, 1801, Dickson.

[63. S. ACUTIFOLIA. Lind. Very small; l. and per. l. from a more or less
sheathing base abruptly narrowed into a subterete setiform acute pointed
awl, formed by the excurrent nerve, crenulate; seta 1 mm. long; caps.
small, scarcely exserted, pyriform with a short neck, lid with a short
scarcely oblique beak];—type not British but

 var.  β. _longiseta_, Lindb. Plant larger, seta 2–3 mm. long, caps.
           exserted, beak of lid longer and more oblique—gathered by Mr.
           Wilson, 14th May, 1831, and sent by him to Dr. Lindberg.

64. S. CALCAREA. B. & S. St. short, more robust, than No. 60, l.
ovate-subulate, obtuse, dull green with a thicker nerve; caps.
turbinate, shortly beaked, on a short stiff pedicel; peris. teeth,
broader obtuse, closely barred.

Chalk cliffs. IV. V.

65. S. RECURVATA. B. & S. St. minute gregarious; l. lanceolate-subulate,
somewhat flexuose, acute, nerve excurrent generally; caps. obovate
elliptical; pedicel curved drooping.

Sandstone rocks, rare. IV. V.

                        11. ANODUS. BRUCH. & S.

66. A. DONIANUS. B. & S. St. minute, ⅛in. gregarious; l. almost
setaceous, lanceolate-subulate, very minutely toothed; per. l. bluntish
and rather shorter; caps. cup-shaped or turbinate, mouth wide; Cal.
dimidiate; perist. none, lid with a short beak.

Sandstone rocks, rare. IX.

                        12. STYLOSTEGIUM. WILS.

67. S. CÆSPITICIUM. B. & S. St. ¼–½in. densely tufted; branches
fastigiate; l. somewhat falcate and secund, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate;
per. l. larger with a sheathing base entire, nerve predominant; caps.
roundish-pyriform glossy; lid obliquely beaked, adherent to columella.

Alpine rocks, in crevices. VII.

                           13. BLINDIA. WILS.

68. B. ACUTA. B. & S. St. ½–3in. tufted; l. subulate or
lanceolate-setaceous, rigid, glossy, sub-secund, nerve thick; per. l.
sheathing; caps. roundish-pyriform, on a short reddish pedicel; lid with
a longish beak.

Moist alpine or sub-alpine rocks. Summer.

 var. β. _breviseta._ “Stem shorter, caps. on a very short pedicel.”

      γ. _rupincola._ pedicels arcuate.

      δ. _trichodes._ Braithwaite. l. longer and more falcate. Wet
           rocks, near Bolton.—Whitehead.

                        14. ARCTOA. BRUCH. & S.

69. A. FULVELLA. B. & S. St. ½–2in. densely tufted; l. somewhat secund,
often falcate, subulate-setaceous dull green, sometimes slightly toothed
at apex, nerve predominant, per. l. large sheathing; caps. ovate,
sometimes gibbous, 8–furrowed, lid obliquely beaked; barren fl.
gemmiform: monoicous.

Fissures of alpine rocks. VII. VIII.

                      15. CYNODONTIUM. BRUCH. & S.

70. C. BRUNTONI. B. & S. St. ½–1in. tufted, branches fastigiate; l.
linear-lanceolate or lanc-subulate, keeled, sometimes minutely
denticulate at apex, margin reflexed, twisted when dry, nerved almost or
quite to apex; per. l. sheathing; caps. erect obovate or elliptical; lid
with a long oblique beak.

Sub-alpine rocks. VI.

                          16. DICRANUM. HEDW.

                       _a._ (DICRANELLA. Schimp.)

  SECT. I. Stem long, rooting in all parts; leaves spreading flexuose,
papillose on both sides, crenulate in margin, not nerved to apex; infl.
               monoicous; beak of lid shorter than caps.

71. D. POLYCARPUM. Ehr. L. bent, flexuose, often recurved,
lanceolate-subulate or linear-lanceolate, keeled, margin recurved,
somewhat papillose, denticulate at apex, nerve excurrent; caps. erect,
symmetrical, striated, with a tumid neck.

Alpine rocks. VII. VIII.

 var. β. _strumiferum._ caps. unequal, base strumose.

SECT. II. St. rooting in all parts, leafy; l. spreading, nerve slightly
              excurrent; infl. monoicous; caps. strumose.

72. D. VIRENS. Hedw. St. 1–3in. branched; l. erect ovate-lanceolate at
base, sheathing, running to a long sub-denticulate, almost setaceous
prolongation, margins recurved, nerve thick sub-excurrent; caps.
cernuous strumose smooth oblong and curved; lid beaked.

Moist alpine rocks; Ben Lawers. VI. VII.

 var. β. _Wahlenbergii._ l. flexuose, much attenuated, above narrower
           and longer, yellowish; caps. short, with a very prominent

      γ. _serratum._ stems taller; l. recurved from a sheathing base,
           coarsely serrated.

      δ. _compactum._ st. shorter and slender; l. shorter lanceolate
           from an ovate base, entire, or very slightly toothed at apex;
           caps. gibbous on a shorter pedicel.

      ε. _gracilescens._ l. narrower; caps. smaller.

             SECT. III. L. squarrose, or patent spreading.

73. D. PELLUCIDUM. Hedw. St. 1–2in. loosely tufted; l. distant,
lanceolate, margins undulate, denticulate, papillose obtuse; caps.
shortly ovate; lid conical rostrate; dioicous.

Wet stones in streams. X. XI.

 var. β. fagimontanum. st. short, branches slender, l. shorter.

      γ. serratum. l. crenato-serrate, with a more acute point; caps.
           oval or oblong, lid with a slender beak.

74. D. CRISPUM. Hedw. St. ¼in. gregarious, l. subulate from a broadish
sheathing base setaceous above, long, spreading flexuose, minutely
dentate, nerved to apex; caps. almost erect, oval or obovate, striate;
lid with a long oblique subulate beak: monoicous.

Moist sandy banks, not common. X. XI.

75. D. GREVILLIANUM. B. & S. L. with a broad sheathing base, suddenly
lanceolate-subulate prolonged, wide-spreading and wavy, entire, nerve
broad; caps. ovate, sub-striate, strumose; lid with a beak longer than
capsule: monoicous.

“Glen Tilt, at foot of Ben-y-Gloe, 1823, not since found.”—Wils. VIII.

  [I have a specimen gathered by Dr. A. O. Black, marked “Esk-no-more.”]

76. D. SCHREBERI. Hedw. St. ½–1in. sub-cæspitose, branched sparingly; l.
base broad, suddenly lanceolate-subulate, spreading flexuose keeled,
denticulate at apex; caps. ovate-oblong, scarcely strumose, cernuous;
lid conical, shortly rostrate; dioicous.

Clayey or sandy soil near streams, rare. X. XI.

Lancashire, Cheshire, and near Glasgow.

77. D. SQUARROSUM. Schrad. St. 1–3in. dichotomous; l. lanceolate from a
broad sheathing base obtuse, undulate, entire concave recurved, nerve
narrow, reaching nearly to apex; caps. ovate-oblong cernuous; lid long
conical, with a short beak.

Wet mountainous places. VIII. IX.

78. D. CERVICULATUM. Hedw. St. ¼in. sparingly branched; l. spreading
flexuose, almost setaceous from a broadish amplexicaul base, entire,
nerved into the subula; caps. roundish ovate gibbous, strumose; lid with
a long oblique or curved subulate beak.

Sandy banks or on turf, frequent. VI. VII.

 var. β. _pusillum._ st. shorter, simple; l. smaller sub-erect; caps.
           smaller and less gibbous.

                   SECT. IV. L. secund or sub-secund.

79. D. VARIUM. Hedw. St. ¼in. cæspitose; l. lanceolate, entire keeled
sub-denticulate at apex, margin reflexed, nerve scarcely excurrent;
caps. inclined, ovate or oblong, slightly tumid; lid shortly beaked;
seta twisted to the right.

Moist banks. XI. XIII.

 var., β. _tenuifolium._ l. narrow, obscurely nerved.

      γ. _tenellum._ st. slender, scarcely branched; l. falcato-secund,
           distantly denticulate.

      δ. _callistomum._ l. scarcely secund, caps. erect, obovate
           truncated, lid almost as long as caps.

80. “D. FALLAX. Wils. MS. Closely resembles the last. L. more distant,
with impressed wings and less elongated setaceous points, and a more
dilated flattened nerve, uppermost sub-secund. Caps. nearly symmetric
erect or sub-cernuous, with a shorter conical lid: dioicous.” [Dr.
Braithwaite, Jour. Bot., VIII., 227.]

Banks. III. IV.

Anglesea (Wilson); Cotterall Wood (Hunt); Park Gate, Cheshire (Miss

81. D. RUFESCENS. Turn. St. short bright red, scarcely branched; l.
linear-lanceolate, obscurely toothed, reddish, margins plane, secund,
pellucid; caps. erect ovate or obovate, slightly tumid, with a conical
beaked lid. Seta twisted to the left; dioicous.

Moist sandy banks. X. XI.

82. D. SUBULATUM. Hedw. St. ½–1in. l. falcato-secund, setaceous from an
oblong-lanceolate base, entire; caps. ovate gibbous oblique striate when
dry, seta red; dioicous.

Moist shady sandy banks; common on the mortar of walls, &c. IX. X.

83. D. CURVATUM. Hedw. Cæspitose; st. bi-tripartite; l. setaceous from a
shortly ovate semi-sheathing base, channelled, apex denticulate,
falcato-setaceous; caps. erect or sub-erect, ovate-oblong, slightly
gibbous, distinctly striate. [Sch. Syn. p. 75. Bry. Eur. vol. I.]

Walls. Autumn and Spring.

Llanberis, N. Wales (W. Wilson).

84. D. HETEROMALLUM. Hedw. St. ½–1in. simple or branched, in silky
tufts; l. lanceolate-setaceous, slightly dentate at apex; caps. obovate
gibbous, obliquely plicate when dry; lid with a long beak, seta pale
yellowish; dioicous.

Moist banks and walls. XI. XII.

 var.  β. _strictum._ l. erecto-patent, straight, not secund; seta longer

      γ. _interruptum._ larger; stem interrupted leafy; l. spreading or

      δ. _sericeum._ Schp. plants taller; l. diverging almost on all
           sides, pale green or yellowish, often strongly and remotely
           toothed. Soccoth Hill, Arrochar (McKinlay).

                          _b._ (EU-DICRANUM.)

   SECT. I. FALCATÆ. Densely tufted, st. dichotomous and fastigiate,
         decumbent at base with few or no radicular fibres; l.
lanceolate-subulate, secund or falcato-secund, nerve predominant above;
   caps. cernuous, neck strumose or ventricose, lid with a long beak:

85. D. STARKII. Web. & M. St. 1–3in. branched; l. subulate-setaceous
from a lanceolate base, falcato-secund, entire, nerve strongly
predominant, caps. oblong arcuate, gibbous, strumose, striate,

Alpine rocks. VIII.

 var.  β. _molle._ taller; l. wider lanceolate, purplish brown; nerve not

Summit of Ben Nevis.

86. D. FALCATUM. Hedw. St. shorter, dichotomously branched and
fastigiate; l. strongly falcato-secund, from a lanceolate base
subulato-setaceous, denticulate at apex, nerve predominant, caps.
shortly obovate, strumose, almost smooth when dry; lid large beaked.

Alpine rocks. VIII. IX.

87. D. BLYTTII. Br. & S. St. branched fastigiate; l. flexuoso-patent, or
sub-secund, from an erect base lanceolate-subulate, soft, entire, nerve
predominant, per. l. sheathing; caps. sub-cernuous, ovate, incurved,
without striæ, strumose, lid rostrate; per. teeth narrow inflexed when

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks. VIII.

  SECT. II. ORTHOCARPA. Densely cæspitose; st. 1 or more inches high,
       dichotomous, with or without radicular fibres; l. secund,
lanceolate-subulate, smooth glossy, nerve excurrent or nerveless. Caps.
     erect cylindrical; neck long symmetrical; lid conical at base.

88. D. GLACIALE. Berg. Monoicous, in wide tufts, without radicular
tomentum, erect, 2–5in. high, l. erecto-patent, straight glossy, lowest
minute lanceolate nerveless, upper oblong at base, lanceolate-subulate,
deeply concave, margin inflexed entire, basal angles auricled, orange,
nerve narrow compressed; per. l. sheathing, suddenly narrowed into a
long subula; caps. cernuous, cylindraceous, more or less incurved
strumose, not striate; lid rostrate.

Alpine rocks; Ben Nevis, Clova, Ben-y-Gloe.

                               [Dr. Braithwaite, Jour. Bot. VIII., 228.]

89. D. VIRIDE. Sull. et Lesq. Dioicous, in dense cushions, or cæspitose,
reddish and tomentose at base, above dark green; branches dichotomous;
l. lineal-lanceolate subulate, nerve running out in the concave awl;
per. l. sheathing; areolæ densely chlorophyllose, enlarged at base;
caps. erect, oblong, slightly incurved, lid with a long beak.

Trunks of trees: rarely on sandstone rocks.

fig. Schpr. Musci. Eur. novi, &c. fasc. III. IV.

Staffordshire (Mr. Bloxam).

90. D. SCOTTIANUM. Turn. St. 2 or 3in. robust; l. erecto-patent,
sub-secund incurved lanceolate-subulate, slightly twisted at apex when
dry, concave entire, nerve strong excurrent; caps. elongated, slightly
curved, tapering at base, lid obliquely rostrate.

Rocks in mountainous districts. VII. VIII.

91. D. LONGIFOLIUM. Hedw. Cæspitose, tufts pale green or whitish; stem
arcuate or geniculate ascending, slightly radiculose; l. long
falcato-secund, rarely spreading, subulate from a lanceolate base, with
a slender nerve, margin and back serrate at apex; per. l. convolute
sheathing; caps. elongate cylindrical, upright or sub-incurved, without
striæ, brown; beak subulate, annulus narrow: dioicous.

Sub-alpine rocks. Autumn.

Ben Lawers, 1866 (Dr. Stirton).

92. D. CIRCINNATUM. Wils. Dioicous, in loose irregular light green
tufts; st. 3–6in. dichotomous, geniculate or ascending, with radicles
from base of leaves. L. very long, secund, arcuate from an oblong
sheathing base decurrent at angles, longly subulate concave; nerve
flattened, covering one-fifth of base and all the subula, which is
denticulate; base laxly areolate in middle, with narrower cells at
margin. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c. 230.]

Fr. unknown.

Ben Voirlich, Clova, Ben Nevis, Lennox Castle.

     SECT. III. SCOPARIÆ. St. loosely or densely matted, tall, with
       proliferous radicular fibres; l. long spreading or secund,
lanceolate-subulate, glossy, denticulate at apex; nerve with or without
       dorsal lamellæ; caps. cernuous bent; lid with a long beak.

93. D. FUSCESCENS. Turn. St. 2–3m. loosely tufted; l. spreading,
sub-secund, flexuose, canaliculate, minutely toothed at apex, nerve
excurrent; caps. oblong incurved, furrowed when dry; lid with a very
long beak.

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks. VIII.

94. D. SCOPARIUM. Hedw. St. 2–4in. loosely tufted dichotomous; l. secund
or falcato-secund, carinato-concave, margins inflexed, serrate at apex;
nerve with about four prominent ridges at back, serrate at apex; per. l.
larger convolute; caps. cylindrical, slightly curved; lid with a long

Shady banks and rocks, common. VII. VIII.

 var. β. _orthophyllum._ stem erect; l. erecto-patent or sub-secund

      γ. _curvatum._ branches curved ascending, l. more falcate; caps.

95. D. MAJUS. Turn. St. 4–6in. loosely cæspitose; l. falcato-secund;
concave dentato-serrate at apex; caps. horizontally cernuous, curved,
furrowed when dry; lid and calyptra very long; fruit-stalks pale

Shady banks, &c., in woods. VII. VIII.

   SECT. IV. UNDULATA. St. very tall, with radicular fibres; l. large
glossy, spreading every way or secund, lanceolate below, linear-subulate
              above; nerve flattish, with lamellæ at back.

96. D. PALUSTRE. Brid. St. 3–4in. erect branched sub-fastigiate; l.
spreading, sub-secund, linear-lanceolate undulated, terminal ones
crowded into a cuspidate cluster on the barren shoots; serrate at apex;
nerve thin and narrow, not reaching to apex, and without ridges; caps.
sub-erect, slightly curved, sub-cylindrical, striate.

Marshy places and moist banks. IX.

 var. β. _juniperifolium._ with shorter, wider, and more rigid leaves.

      γ. _polycladum._ branches slender flagelliform; l. small

97. D. SCHRADERI. Schwaeg. St. 3–6in.; l. sub-secund, rather obtuse,
carinato-concave, subrugose, toothed on margin and keel, sub-papillose
at back near apex; caps. oval-oblong incurved; lid rostrate.

Turfy bogs, rare. IX.

98. D. SPURIUM. Hedw. St. 1–2in. loosely cæspitose; l. ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, undulate serrate, papillose at back; not nerved to apex;
caps. sub-cylindrical arcuate, slightly strumose, striate; lid with a
long curved beak.

Moors and bogs. VI.

                         17. LEUCOBRYUM. HAMPE.

99. L. GLAUCUM. Hampe. St. 1–6in. or more, dichotomous fragile,
fastigiate; l. subulate from an ovate-lanceolate base, erect, rather
obtuse, and apiculate; caps, cernuous, strumose, furrowed when dry.

Moist heaths, woods, rare in fr.

                          18. CERATODON. BRID.

100. C. PURPUREUS. Brid, St. ¼–2in. cæspitose, branched; l.
oblong-lanceolate, margin recurved, nerve excurrent; caps.
elliptic-oblong, irregular, purple, angular when dry on a purplish red
seta; lid conical.

Banks, &c., common. IV. V.

101. C. CYLINDRICUS. B. & S. St. ¼in. gregarious; l. subulate from a
dilated ovate amplexicaul base, flexuose, minutely toothed above, nerve
predominant; caps. cylindrical, smooth, erect or slightly curved, on a
pale slender seta; lid conical.

Sandy banks, not common. IV. V.

                      19. DICRANODONTIUM. BR. & S.

102. D. LONGIROSTRE. B. & S. St. 1–3in. blackish; l. falcato-secund,
subulato-setaceous from an ovate sheathing base, denticulate above on
predominant nerve; caps. elliptic-oblong, smooth, on a thick curved or
flexuose seta.

Mountainous woods, rare. X.

                         20. CAMPYLOPUS. BRID.

  [The diagnoses of species are taken from Dr. Braithwaite’s Paper in
                   Jour. of Bot. VIII., pp. 386–393.]

                      _a._ Leaves hoary at point.

103. C. ATROVIRENS. De Not. (_C. longipilus._ Brid. pro parte: Wils.
Bry. Brit.; et Schimp. Musc. Eur. Nov.) Dense tufts 1–3in. high, above
yellowish green, below brownish, at base black. Stem erect, dichotomous,
with few radicles at base; l. lower, lax, shorter, the rest densely
crowded, erecto-patent, lanceolate, very longly subulato-setaceous,
channelled below, auricled; nerve excurrent into a hoary hispid arista,
channelled at back, one-third width of leaf base; cells of auricles
dilated, castaneous, central colorless, above these sub-rectangular,
uppermost oblongo-elliptic. Fem. fl. 2. 3 at apex of innovations.

Wet rocks, and moorlands in mountainous districts.

E. S. & I.

104. C. BREVIPILUS. B. & S. In dense broad tufts, when dry glossy yellow
green above, fuscescent below, ¾–1¼ in. high, almost free from radicles,
fastigiate; l. erect densely crowded, narrowly lanceolate-subulate, very
concave, the point denticulate at margin and back, not auricled; nerve
one-third width of leaf base excurrent into a short hair point; per. l.
wider sheathing, narrowed into a hispid hair, margin recurved above
base. Areolæ lax; basal cells quadrate, above rhomboidal flexuose,
marginal very narrow; fem. fl. solitary.

Heathy places. Sussex, Hants, Cheshire, York, Arran.

105. C. INTROFLEXUS. Brid. (_C. longipilus._ Bry. Eur. pro parte. _C.
polytrichoides._ De Not. _D. ericetorum._ Mitt.) Densely tufted,
olivaceous brown below, innov. yellow green with hoary tips; ¾–1½in.
high, sparingly radiculose, dichotomous; l. imbricated, erecto-patent,
lanceolate-subulate, channelled; not auricled; wings but little
incurved, comal leaves broader lanceolate acuminate, lowest muticous,
rest prolonged into a diaphanous spinuloso-denticulate arista shorter
than the leaf. Nerve three-fourths width of limb, lammelluligerous at
back. Basal cells hyaline large and empty, gradually becoming obliquely
oval and minute, chlorophyllose, a few fuscous alar cells in comal
leaves; per. l. oblong convolute, subulate at apex. Thecæ aggregated on
short peduncles, oval, unequal, rough at base, lid obliquely rostrate.
Calyp. reaching middle of capsule, sparingly fimbriate.

Dry heaths and stony places. Cornwall, Jersey, Scotland, Ireland.

                        _b._ Leaves unicolorous.

                          * auricled at base.

106. C. SHAWII. Wils. MS. Tufts lax, yellow green above, blackish brown
below, 1–2in. high. Stems robust, with numerous radicles. L.
erecto-patent, straight, rigid, from a somewhat contracted linear base,
lanceolate, longly subulate, suddenly narrowed at one-third their
length; margin involute above, apex acute, with a few minute
denticulations. Nerve two-thirds width of base. Cells at basal wings
enlarged lax reddish brown, exterior rows hyaline, above rectangular,
and then rhomboido-elliptic. Leaves falcate when growing in dry places.

Outer Hebrides, 1866 (Mr. Shaw).

107. C. ALPINUS. Schpr. Densely cæspitose, 2–3in. high, stem erect,
dichotomous, with rufous radicles from back of leaf base at base of
innovations. L. rigid, fragile, and deciduous, erect or slightly secund,
lowest lanceolate, becoming larger upwards and longly subulate,
subtubular, subula sharply or obsoletely serrate. Nerve half width of
base. Auricles very large decurrent, cells orange brown, central
hyaline, above laxer narrowly hexagono-rectangular, and at last quadrate
without chlorophyll, solid and yellowish.

Moist heaths and rocks. Wales and Scotland.

108. C. FLEXUOSUS. Brid. Tufts dense yellowish green. Stems ½–1½in.
high, erect dichotomous, with rufous purple radicles to apex, bearing
gemmæ intermixed. L. patent straight or secund, sub-falcate, lower
lanceolate upper subulate, uppermost very long and toothed at apex all
concave, glossy, red when old. Nerve one-third width of base; angles not
decurrent, with short wide fuscous cells, others hexagono-rectangular,
upper quadrate and chlorophyllose; per. l. nine; inner sheathing longly
subulate, with a narrower nerve, calyptra fuscous at apex. Caps. oval,
regular, or gibbous, short-necked olivaceous, with eight striæ, sulcate
when dry; lid conico-rostrate; annulus broad double.

Sub-alpine moist rocks and peaty soil. XI.

109. C. PARADOXUS. Wils. MS. Tufts ½–1in. high, fastigiate, dull
yellowish green above, pale brown below; st. with short lateral ramuli,
and few rufous radicles. L. erecto-patent (erecto-appressed when dry)
uppermost longest slightly secund lanceolate-subulate, concave; apex
usually of two teeth, with a few irregular ones below on each side.
Nerve one-third width of base. Lamina extended to apex; basal cells thin
enlarged hyaline when young, afterwards fuscous, above rectangular, in
14–16 longitudinal rows, thickened and quadrate towards apex.

Peaty soil, Cheviots (barren), Boyd and Hardy, 1868.

110. C. SETIFOLIUS. Wils. Tufts lax soft, bright or yellowish green
above, blackish below, without radicles. St. 5–10in. slender, erect,
geniculate. L. distant erecto-patent or sub-secund, glossy, from a
lanceolate base gradually running into a very long subula, sometimes
half twisted; uppermost with wings serrate. Nerve half width of base;
auricles very large and inflated, the cells partly fuscous, partly
hyaline, hexagonal, above hexagono-rectangular, upper rhombic
chlorophyllose; fl. of each sex collected in capitula; males 3–4, fem.

Wet places, and clefts of rocks. I. S.

111. C. SWARTZII. Schpr. Tufts dense soft yellowish green, brownish
below, without radicles. St. 2–3in. slender; l. erecto-patent, straight
or slightly secund, lowest lanceolate, upper lanceolate-subulate, entire
at apex, base somewhat sheathing, auricles hyaline inflated decurrent.
Nerve two-thirds of base, finely sulcate at back towards apex. Basal
areolæ narrow, auricular very lax hexagono-rectangular hyaline, above

Granite alpine rocks. Wales, Scotland.

                          * * L. not auricled.

                           § St. radiculose.

112. C. FRAGILIS. B. & S. Tufts pale green glossy, st. ½–2in. fragile.
L. densely crowded erecto-patent rigid incumbent when dry, lower
lanceolate, upper extended into a subula, toothed at apex, wings
recurved above. Nerve very broad. Basal areolæ lax pellucid narrow
rectangular, above minute quadrate, no distinct alar cells. Caps.
solitary, bent down, oval, symmetric, fuscous, when dry plicate,
contracted below the mouth, lid conico-subulate oblique, red; calyp.
whitish, rufous at apex.

Sandstone rocks and moist heaths.

 var. β. _densus._ (B. & S.) st. taller, l. shorter, with more acute
           entire points and laxer cells.

113. C. SCHIMPERI. Milde. Tufts dense compact. St. 1–2in. slender light
silky green above, fuscous below. L. erecto-patent, appressed when dry,
straight rigid, lanceolate-subulate, channelled, denticulate only at
apex. Nerve very broad. Basal cells lax rectangular hyaline, very narrow
at margin, above elliptic.

Alpine hills. Scotland.

114. C. PYRIFORMIS. Brid. (_C. turfaceus._ B. & S.) Tufts flat
olivaceous or bright green, finally tawny. St. ½–1in. slender erect,
radiculose only at base. L. less crowded, gradually larger upwards,
erecto-patent, lower lanceolate, middle lanceolate-subulate, upper from
a lanceolate base setaceous. Nerve one-third base, thin channelled at
back. Areolæ resembling _C. flexuosus_, but thinner, hyaline at base Fr.
several from same apex; caps. ovate olivaceous, fulvous when ripe,
sulcate, lid obliquely rostrate; calyp. whitish, tip brown.

Moist heaths and sides of ditches.

 var. β. _Mulleri._ Juratzka. L. caducous, calyptra without fringe.

                  § § St. very short, not radiculose.

115. C. BREVIFOLIUS. Schpr. St. ½in. yellowish green, with caducous
ramuli. L. short rigid erect lanceolate, longly acuminate, concave,
obsoletely toothed at apex. Nerve half base; basal areolæ hyaline lax
rectangular, gradually shorter and more quadrate, lower ones with their
transverse walls much thickened.

Dry and stony places. Scotland.

                           21. POTTIA. EHRH.

116. P. PUSILLA. Hedw. (_P. cavifolia._ Ehr.) St. very short and simple
or branched; l. erecto-patent concave, obovate or elliptical; caps.
oval, on a short seta; lid obliquely rostrate.

Banks and mud walls. III.

 var. β. stem short, l. somewhat acuminate, scarcely piliferous.

      γ. _incana._ N. & H. l. with long hair-like points.

117. P. MINUTULA. B. & S. Very minute, l. carinate, spreading,
ovate-lanceolate, with recurved margins; caps. small, ovate-truncate;
lid flattish conical, not beaked.

Fallow fields. Winter and Spring.

 var. β. _rufescens._ l. narrower reddish.

      γ. _conica._ l. ovate-lanceolate, with a short mucro, caps.
           narrower at mouth.

118. P. TRUNCATULA. L. St. ⅛in., l. spreading obovate-acuminate or
oblong-lanceolate, with a slightly excurrent nerve; caps. obovate,
truncate, with a wide mouth; lid convex obliquely rostrate.

Fallow soil. II. III.

 var. β. _major._ caps. oval-oblong, stem smaller.

      γ. _sub-cylindrica._ l. ovate-lanceolate; nerve much excurrent;
           caps. sub-cylindrical.

119. P. CRINITA. Wils. St. ¼in. tufted; l. obovate-oblong obtuse; nerve
excurrent into a very long hair-like point; caps. elliptic-oblong,
scarcely contracted, calyp. smooth.

Rocky and moist places.

120. P. WILSONI. B. & S. St. ¼in. in tufts, l. ovate-oblong, obtuse;
nerve excurrent into a longish mucro; caps. elliptic-oblong, contracted
at mouth; lid shortly and obliquely rostrate; calyp. rough at apex.

Sandy banks. II.

121. P. LITTORALIS. Mitt. (Jour. Bot. IX., 4.) L. oblong-spathulate
obtuse or acute, lower pale, upper green, nerve excurrent, longer in
lower leaves; areolæ in upper part of leaf small obscure, smooth, lower
oblong pellucid; caps. oblong-oval, mouth less than greatest diameter;
lid rostrate slightly twisted; male fl. bud-like.

Aldington, near Brighton, Hastings.

122. P. ASPERULA. Mitt. (l. c.) L. obovate-spathulate, acute, but not
acuminate, nerve excurrent into a short point; areolæ upper rounded
rather obscure, each with several elevated points, lower oblong smooth
pellucid; caps. oval, lid rostrate slightly twisted; antheridia naked in
axils of comal leaves.

Henfield, Sussex; Penzance (Curnow), Jersey (Piquet).

123. P. VIRIDIFOLIA. Mitt. (l. c.) (_P. pallida_, Braith. Jour. Bot.
VIII., 255, non Lindberg.) L. obovate-spathulate obtuse or slightly
acute; nerve not very stout, excurrent into a short point; margin
recurved at middle; areolæ, upper hexagonal or nearly square, obscure,
with minute protuberances, lower oblong hyaline smooth; caps. oblong on
a short seta; lid rostrate; antheridia in axils of comal leaves.

Plymouth (Holmes).

124. P. HEIMII. B. & S. St. ⅛–¼in. cæspitose, branched; l. spreading,
oblong-lanceolate, margin not recurved; caps. obovate or oblong
truncate, lid obliquely rostrate, adherent to columella.

Moist banks near the sea. IV. V.

                         22. ANACALYPTA. RÖHL.

125. A. STARKEANA. N. & H. Minute, gregarious; l. spreading
ovate-lanceolate, entire, margin recurved; nerve excurrent; caps. small
oval brown; lid convexo-conical; per. teeth obtuse perforate.

Banks and fields. I. II.

 var. β. _brachyodus._ caps. narrower; per. teeth very short truncate.

126. A. CÆSPITOSA. Bruch. Minute cæspitose; l. oblong-lanceolate or
ovate, concave, plane, nerve excurrent; caps. ovate yellowish brown, lid
with a long beak; per. teeth perforate.

Woolsonbury Hill, Sussex (chalk). III.

127. A. LANCEOLATA. RÖHL. St. ¼–½in. cæspitose; l. spreading
ovate-lanceolate acute, margin recurved, entire; nerve excurrent into a
longish mucro; caps. ovate; lid conical obliquely rostrate; per. teeth
very variable, rather long, with a medial line.

Moist limestone banks, walls, &c. III.

128. A. LATIFOLIA. N. & H. St. short, gregarious, bulb-like; l.
imbricate, broadly roundish ovate, pointed or obtuse, concave, nerve
ceasing below apex: caps. oval-oblong, lid long, rostrate.

Alpine rocks, in crevices. Spring.

 var. β. _pilifera._ l. with hair-like points.

               [23. DESMATODON. BRID.—_Vide_ “TORTULA.”]

                        24. DISTICHIUM. B. & S.

129. D. CAPILLACEUM. B. & S. St. 1–2in. cæspitose; l.
subulate-setaceous, spreading; caps. erect, ovate-oblong or almost
cylindrical, reddish brown; per. teeth, narrow, articulate, bi- or

Scotch and Welsh mountains. Summer.

130. D. INCLINATUM. B. & S. St. shorter than last, and less cæspitose;
leaves same, per. l. 1, 2, or 3 together; caps. oval, olive-brown,
inclined or cernuous; per. teeth larger lanceolate, articulate, entire
or perforate, bi-trifid.

Irish and Scotch mountains. VI. VII.

 var. β. _tenue._ smaller in all its parts.

                        25. DIDYMODON. BR. & S.

                             1. Monoicous.

131. D. RUBELLUS. B. & S. St. ¼–1in. cæspitose, lower leaves reddish,
upper dull green, all oblong-lanceolate, spreading, margin recurved,
keeled, nerved nearly to apex; caps. pale brown, cylindrical; lid with a
short oblique beak; antheridia naked in axils of per. l.

Shady walls, rocks, &c. X.

132. D. JENNERI. Schp. St. 1–1½in. cæspitose, brownish black below; br.
fastigiate; l. spreading cirrhate linear-lanceolate concave, keeled,
serrate, nerved to apex; areolæ minute rectangular transparent at base;
caps. oval-oblong, slightly drooping, lid with a short obtuse beak.

Ross-shire (Jenner and Howie). [Referred by Wilson, and others, to
_Cynodontium polycarpon_.]

                              2. Dioicous.

                       _a._ L. lanceolate, rigid.

133. D. LURIDUS. Hornsch. St. ¼–1in. cæspitose; l., lower
ovate-lanceolate, upper larger and broader, with entire recurved
margins, keeled, acute, nerved (reddish) almost or quite to apex, areolæ
small roundish; caps. symmetrical oblong on a shortish seta twisted to
the right; lid conical pointed; per. teeth small irregular.

Limestone walls, &c., rare. XII.

                       _b._ L. narrow, not rigid.

134. D. CYLINDRICUS. B. & S. ¼–1in.; l. spreading flexuose,
linear-lanceolate, margin undulate and minutely crenulate; areolæ small
opaque, gradually enlarged towards the base, there diaphanous; caps.
erect, narrow, cylindrical; lid long conico-rostrate, per. teeth
linear-lanceolate, fugacious.

Damp shady rocks. E. S. & I. X.

135. D. FLEXIFOLIUS. Hook. & Tayl. Barren stems long trailing, fertile
½in; l. spreading, flexuose, more so when dry, oblong or ligulate,
margin reflexed below, and serrate at apex, nerve not reaching apex;
areolæ round; caps. small cylindrical, somewhat curved, lid with a short
beak; per. teeth short.

High moorlands, Buxton, Alderley Edge, Ben Ledi. III. IV.

 var. _gemmescens._ Mitt. MS. Nerve excurrent into an apiculus, which
                     bears a cluster of egg-shaped or oblong gemmæ.

Old thatch, Amberley, Sussex (Mitten).

136. D. RECURVIFOLIUS. Tayl. “Stems elongate, loosely cæspitose; l.
squarrose, crisped and undulate when dry; elliptic-oblong or ligulate,
pale margined serrulate, nerve sub-excurrent; areolæ small dense opaque,
elongate and pellucid at base.” Ireland, 1842; fruit not known (Wilson).

                       26. TRICHOSTOMUM. BR. & S.

             SECT. I. L. lanceolate or ligulate: dioicous.

137. T. TOPHACEUM. Brid. St. ¼–1in. densely cæspitose, branches
fasciculate; l. lanceolate (the upper ones obtuse), concave keeled,
margins recurved; nerve not reaching to apex; caps. sub-cylindrical
erect, regular; lid with an oblique beak; per. teeth variable, sometimes
only 16, somewhat fugacious.

Moist places and rocks. XI.

138. T. BRACHYDONTIUM. Bruch. (_T. mutabile._ olim.) L. broader,
lanceolate or ligulate, crisped, not cucullate, margin slightly
undulate, nerve excurrent into a prominent mucro; caps. ovate-oblong
erect, regular; lid obliquely rostrate; per. teeth very short and

139. T. CRISPULUM. Bruch. St. ¼–1in., l. lower lanceolate, distant;
upper crowded, longer, linear-lanceolate concave cucullate at apex,
crisped when dry; nerve prolonged into a short mucro; caps. oval, erect,
regular; lid with an oblique beak; perist. t. in unequal pairs.

Limestone rocks near the sea; Ormes Head; Anglesea; Bristol. VI. VII.

 var. β. _brevifolium._ l. shorter, lanceolate, acuminate, caps.

      γ. _angustifolium._ l. narrowly linear-lanceolate crowded,

140. T. FLAVO-VIRENS. Bruch. Müller. St. short, with innovations from
summit (interruptedly comose); l. oblong-ligulate, obtuse mucronate,
margins entire undulate incurved; fruit-stalk red, slightly flexuose;
thick nerve prolonged into a short mucro; caps. oblong-cylindrical pale
yellowish brown, with a red mouth; per. t. elongate, regular, in pairs.
Lid acuminate, half as long as caps. with an oblique beak.

Shoreham, Sussex; Plymouth (Holmes), Malahide (Dr. Moore). [W. Mitten.
Jour. Bot., VI., p. 97.]

141. T. LITTORALE. Mitten. St. elongate, tufted, more or less
interruptedly comose; l. erecto-patent, oblong-ligulate obtuse,
channelled, recurved towards apex, with nerve excurrent into a short
mucro; basal cells hyaline oblong and rectangular.

Ireland; Whitsand Bay, Cornwall; Hastings, (loc. cit. p. 99.)

142. T. (DITRICHUM) TENUE. Hedw. Dwarf, branched. L. from an erect base,
patent or secund, narrowly lanceolate, uppermost lanceolate-subulate;
per. l. sheathing half their length, quite entire; caps. oblong erect or
a little curved, lid conic rostrate.

Carn Lochan and Mael Girdy, 1863 (Crombie); Clova (Fergusson). [Dr.
Braithwaite, Jour. Bot. VIII. 228.]

      β. _glaciale._ in long broad tufts with broader erecto-patent
           leaves. (This is _Ditrichum zonatum_ Lorenz.)

             SECT. II. L. subulate from a lanceolate base.

                             _A. dioicous._

143. T. TORTILE. Schrad. St. ¼in. gregarious, sub-flexuose; l. mostly
secund, somewhat falcate, margin reflexed, nerve excurrent into the
slightly toothed apex; caps. small cylindrical, erect, regular or
curved; lid conical, slightly rostrate; per. teeth irregular, purplish

Sandy places, rare; Belfast, Yorkshire, Sussex. X. XI.

144. T. FLEXICAULE. Br. & S. St. 1–3in. flexuose, cæspitose, with
fastigiate branches; l. longer and more setaceous than in last,
flexuose, concave, usually secund, nerve broad, excurrent, toothed at
apex; caps. erect, small, ovate-oblong; annulus present; per. teeth long

Scotch and Derbyshire mountains (calcareous). VI.

 var. β. _densum._ densely cæspitose; l. straighter.

145. T. HOMOMALLUM. B. & S. St. scarcely ½in. cæspitose; l.
subulato-setaceous from a broadish base, mostly secund, nerve broad,
much excurrent; caps. erect oblong-ovate, brown on a long red seta;
annulus present; lid short conical obtuse; basilar membrane of perist.
very narrow.

Sandy banks. Autumn.

                            B. _monoicous._

146. T. SUBULATUM. Bruch. St. ¼in. cæspitose; l. subulato-setaceous from
an ovate base, spreading or somewhat secund, with a long excurrent
nerve; caps. oval, lid large obliquely rostellate; seta somewhat
flexuose; annulus none; basilar membrane very narrow; antheridia
axillary naked.

Cornwall (Rev.—Tozer). Spring.

147. T. GLAUCESCENS. Hedw. St. ½in., branches fastigiate; l. glaucous,
linear-lanceolate, margin plane (upper crowded into a tuft or coma),
nerve sometimes excurrent into the denticulate apex; caps. oblong-oval,
pale brown, with a long beaked lid; basilar membrane very narrow; barren
fl. gemmiform.

Scotch mountains. Summer.

                          27. TORTULA. SCHREB.

SECT. I. ALOIDELLA. L. rigid, covered on the upper side with articulated
       cellular filaments or gemmæ arising from the broad nerve.

148. T. STELLATA. Schreb. 1771. (_T. rigida._ Schultz,) St. minute,
loosely cæspitose; l. spreading from an upright base oblong obtuse,
margin inflexed membranaceous; caps. erect elliptical; lid with a long
oblique beak; calyp. half as large as capsule; per. teeth long, and much
twisted; dioicous.

Limestone walls. XI. XII.

149. T. AMBIGUA. Br. & S. (larger in all its parts than last.) L.
ligulate lanceolate, apex cucullate, margin incurved; caps. erect
cylindrical; lid rostrate; calyp. very short; per. teeth filiform,
little twisted; arcuato-incurved when dry: dioicous.

Walls and banks (marly). XI. XII.

150. T. ALOIDES. Br. & S. St. as above; l. spreading, narrowly
lanceolate, acute, with a strong nerve; caps. cylindrical inclined; lid
conical, bluntly rostrate; per. teeth scarcely twisted, when dry widely
spreading: dioicous.

Clay banks. XI. XII.

       SECT. II. CUNEIFOLIÆ. L. broadly or spathulato-lanceolate.

151. T. LAMELLATA. Lindb. (_Pottia cavifolia_ var. _gracilis_. Bry.
Brit.) St. very short cæspitose; l. rather lax erecto-patent, concave,
lower smaller, roundish oval, piliferous, upper larger oval spathulate,
nerve excurrent into mucro; caps. oblong sub-cylindrical, striate when
dry, on a long red seta; lid with a long rather oblique beak; perist.
that of a true _Tortula_, but so fragile as to have escaped notice, and
always falling off with the operculum according to Dr. Schimper;

Banks and walls, Oxford (Boswell), Pontefract, Edinburgh (Nowell);
Aldrington (Davies). II.

152. T. ATROVIRENS. Smith. Lindb. [_Didymodon nervosus_, Hook. & T.
_Desmatodon nervosus_, Bry. Brit.] St. ¼in. densely cæspitose, branched;
l. spreading oval or oblong concave, margins revolute, nerve thick,
prolonged into a short mucro; areolæ small roundish larger and
diaphanous at base; caps. oval-oblong, lid large conical with an oblique

Dry banks, &c., near the sea.

153. T. CUNEIFOLIA. Dicks. Gregarious; st. simple; l. upper crowded
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, nerve sometimes excurrent, soft, pellucid,
areolæ loose; lower broadly ovate aristate; caps. oblong erect, lid
obtuse short; basilar membrane of perist. broadish: monoicous.

Banks, sea coast, rare. III. IV.

154. T. MARGINATA. B. & S. St. simple gregarious or cæspitose; l.
oblong-lanceolate or linear, margin thickened, nerve sometimes excurrent
into a mucro; caps. oblong, lid very large, shortly rostrate; basilar
membrane narrow.

Sandstone walls, rare. V. VI.

155. T. VAHLIANA. Schultz. Small, gregarious or cæspitose; l. lower
oblong, upper oblong wedge-shaped, nerve excurrent subulate, margin
reflexed; caps. narrow elongate cylindrical, brown, sometimes slightly
incurved; lid shortly subulate, annulus broad; basilar membrane of
perist. tesselate: monoicous. Differs from _muralis_ in its broader
softer leaves, narrower capsule, and longer basilar tube.

Damp clayey ground, on road sides, &c. Spring.

Sussex, 1863 (G. Davies); Woking, Surrey (Sheppard and Westell.)

 var. β. _subflaccida._ (_T. oblongifolia_, Bry. Brit.) L. with margins
           more or less revolute, crenulate, with minute papillæ.

156. T. CANESCENS. Br. Simple gregarious or cæspitose, hoary; l. lower
obovate, upper oval-oblong, all concave, with a recurved margin, and
nerve excurrent into a long hair-like point; caps. small oblong erect,
with a long oblique conical lid; basilar membrane broadish: monoicous.

Fairlight Glen, Hastings. (Mr. Jenner).

157. T. MURALIS. Timm. Short, cæspitose; l. oblong obtuse, margin
recurved, nerve excurrent into a long hair-like point; caps. oblong
erect, with a long rostellate lid; basilar membrane narrow: monoicous.

 var. β. _incana._ caps. small; l. oval-lanceolate, with long hair

      γ. _æstiva._ l. long linear-lanceolate, nerve scarcely excurrent.

      δ. _rupestris._ larger and much branched; l. larger oblong,
           piliferous, caps. longer, curved.

Walls and stones (δ limestone). IV. V.

  SECT. III. BARBULA. L. naked, narrowly or ovate-lanceolate, in some
                  species slightly cirrhate when dry.

158. T. MUCRONATA. Brid. [_Cinclidotus riparius_ β. _terrestris_. Bry.
Brit.] St. 1–2in. radiculose, branches fastigiate; l. erecto-patent,
long lingulate, concave, minutely papillose on both sides, margin
slightly recurved, nerve thick excurrent into a mucro; areolæ upper
minute, rectangular and hyaline at base; caps. erect cylindrical
incurved, lid with an oblique beak: dioicous.

Stones in streams. Anglesea, Bristol, Surrey, Sussex, in fr. (Davies.)

159. T. UNGUICULATA. Hedw. St. ⅛–1in. cæspitose, dichotomous; l.
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, margin recurved, nerve excurrent into a short
mucro; caps. oblong-cylindrical erect on a long reddish seta; lid with a
subulate beak: dioicous.

Clay banks and hedges. XII.

 var. β. _cuspidata._ stems shorter, l. narrower, with a longer mucro.

      γ. _apiculata._ l. spreading recurved, mucro long.

      δ. _microcarpa._ caps. small oval or oval-oblong.

      ε. _obtusifolia._ more robust, l. shorter, broader obtuse, mucro
           almost or altogether absent; caps. sub-cylindrical.

      ζ. _fastigiata._ with long fastigiate innovations; l. larger,
           slightly undulate.

160. T. CONVOLUTA. Hedw. Cæspitose; l. spreading oblong-lanceolate,
plane or somewhat undulate in margin, nerve not excurrent; per. l.
strongly convolute, sheathing; caps. inclined oblong-ovate, on a
yellowish seta; lid with a long oblique beak: dioicous.

Walls, &c. V. VI.

161. T. REVOLUTA. Schwaeg. Densely cæspitose, l. crowded erecto-patent
oblong-lanceolate, nerve excurrent from the blunt apex, margin strongly
revolute; caps. reddish brown oval-oblong, with a scarcely oblique lid;
seta red: dioicous.

Walls, mostly limestone. V.

162. T. HORNSCHUCHIANA. Schultz. Loosely cæspitose, l. crowded,
spreading, ovate-lanceolate, gradually tapering to an acute point,
formed by slightly excurrent nerve, margins slightly revolute; caps.
oblong slightly curved, annulus narrow: dioicous.

Rocks, walls, and banks, not common. IV. V.

163. T. VINEALIS. Brid. St. more tufted than in _T. fallax_; l. strictly
patent with a stouter nerve, which is obscure towards the acute apex;
the latter usually tipped with a pointed hyaline cell; appressed when
dry, not crisped or contorted; caps. sub-cylindrical: dioicous. (W.
Mitten, in Jour. Bot. v. 324.)

Walls. IV. V.

164. T. INSULANA. De Not. (_T. vinealis_ β. _flaccida_. Bryol. Brit.
124.) St. loosely cæspitose; l. linear-subulate from a lanceolate
appressed base, recurved or hooked, obliquely patent, acute, margin
recurved below, above plane, nerve excurrent; contorted when dry; caps.
oblong erect; lid conical attenuate, somewhat obtuse, half as long as
capsule: rare in fruit. (loc. cit. 328.)

England and Ireland.

* [T. GRACILIS. Schw. Stem cæspitose, branches fastigiate; “l.
erecto-patent, imbricated when dry, carinato-concave, margin recurved,
nerve excurrent; per. l. larger, sheathing subulate, and flexuose at
apex; caps. ovate-oblong or ovate; perist. scarcely contorted, with a
broadish basilar membrane.”—Wils. Bryol. Brit. p. 123. Inserted from
Wilson, but has not yet been certainly found in Britain.]


165. T. RIGIDULA. Hedw. (_Trichost. rigidulum_, var. β. _densum_. Bryol.
Brit. 114.) l. lanceolate carinate, rigid, bristly, not appressed and
imbricate, when dry slightly curved and loosely contorted; nerve stout
continued into a thick obscure point, not really excurrent; fruit
similar to No. 164. (loc. cit. 327.)

Scotland, York, Sussex, and Cornwall.

166. T. SPADICEA. Mitt. (_Trichostomum rigidulum._ Bryol. Brit., p.
114.) St. robust 1–2in.; l. patent from the base, lanceolate-subulate,
canaliculate, margin recurved below; incurved and closely imbricate when
dry; nerve percurrent and distinct to apex; per. l. lower half erect
broadly ovate, upper narrow, recurved; caps. erect cylindrical on a red
seta; lid shortly subulate, twisted; teeth narrow, on a short membrane:
dioicous. (loc. cit., p. 326.)

Rocks and stones near water. Scotland, Ireland, Bolton Abbey. Autumn,

167. T. FALLAX. Hedw. St. ½–1in. cæspitose; l. lanceolate from a
broadish base, keeled, margin recurved, somewhat squarrose, gradually
tapering and nerved to apex; per. l. sheathing; caps. variable both in
size and shape, usually sub-cylindrical, with an obtuse rostrate lid
often as long as itself: dioicous.

Clay and limestone banks. XI. XII.

168. T. REFLEXA. Brid. [_T. fallax._ δ. Bry. Brit.] St. loosely
cæspitose; l. tristichous, recurved and falcate, slightly twisted, from
an oblong base lanceolate, keeled, strongly papillose on both sides,
margin reflexed below, nerve vanishing below apex; caps. erect
cylindrical regular; lid subulate beaked: dioicous.

Calcareous rocks and walls, rare in fr.

Scotland, Yorkshire, Derbyshire; Rydal Water (Baker). [Dr. Braithwaite,
Jour. of Bot. IX., 293.]

169. T. RUFA. (Lorenz). Braithwaite. “St. 2–5in. often prostrate at
base, sparingly dichotomous, dense leaved. L. recurved when moist, solid
from an ovate base lanceolate, gradually apiculate, margin strongly
recurved, nerve vanishing just below apex; cells at base rhomboid
pellucid, at apex minute quadrate papillose. Reported from Ben Lawers by
Dr. Stirton, but I have not seen British specimens.”—[Dr. Braithwaite,
l. c. 293.]

170. T. RECURVIFOLIA. Mitt. (_T. gigantea_, Lindb.). “In large fuscous
green tufts, blackish brown at base. St. 3–8in. simple or bi-tripartite,
robust dense leaved, with a few radicles. L. trifarious
squarroso-recurved, when dry twisted and crisped, elongate lanceolate
concave, margin strongly revolute, nerve strong, reaching apex; basal
cells elongate with sinuous walls, above irregularly stellate.” (l. c.

Dripping alpine rocks. Ben Bulben, Sligo (Moore).

Buxton in fruit, June, 1865. G. E. Hunt.

 SECT. IV. SYNTRICHIA. Lower portion of peristome forming a long tube.

171. T. PRINCEPS. De Not. (_T. Mulleri._ B. & S.) St. 1–2in., cæspitose,
with brownish radicles; l. erecto-patent, oblong broad, concave,
fawn-coloured, margin reflexed; nerve excurrent into a short scabrous
hair point from a rounded obtuse apex; caps. cylindrical, straight or
curved on a purplish seta; one-half perist. tubular: synoicous.

Rocks, Scotland. Spring.

172. T. RURALIS. Hedw. Cæspitose, branches dichotomous; l. squarrose,
recurved ovate-oblong keeled, nerve excurrent into a long scabrous hair
point from the acute apex, margin slightly recurved; caps.
sub-cylindrical slightly curved; quite one-half perist. tubular; lid
long conical: dioicous.

Walls and roofs. III. IV.

173. T. LÆVIPILA. Brid. Cæspitose; l. spreading obovate-oblong or almost
panduriform, margin slightly recurved below, nerve reddish, excurrent
into a longish white hair point from the obtuse apex; caps. cylindrical,
slightly curved, lid conical; one-third perist. tubular: monoicous.

Trunks of trees and rocks. V. VI.

174. T. INTERMEDIA. Brid. (_T. ruralis_ β _minor_, Wils. Bry. Brit.)
Smaller and densely cæspitose or sub-pulvinate; l. erecto-patent, oblong
spathulate apex obtuse, nerve excurrent into a long scabrous hair point;
caps. shorter than in 172: dioicous.

Limestone walls, Scotland and N. Wales. Spring.

175. T. PAPILLOSA. Wils. Cæspitose; l. spreading obovate concave, margin
plane (involute when dry), nerve thick papillose on the back, and
excurrent into a smooth hair point from suddenly tapering apex; a few
hyaline cells at base: fr. not known.

Wales, Sussex, and Hampshire.

176. T. LATIFOLIA. B. & S. L. obovate-spathulate or almost panduriform,
soft and flaccid, with a scarcely excurrent nerve, notched at the obtuse
apex; caps. cylindrical slightly curved, with a long rostrate lid; quite
one-third of perist. tubular; annulus small: dioicous.

Roots of trees, stones, &c.; fruit rare. Spring.

177. T. SUBULATA. Brid. Cæspitose, simple or branched; l.
oblong-lanceolate, narrowed and pellucid at base, margin plane,
sometimes with a row of larger cells, nerve excurrent into a short
mucro, apex sometimes slightly toothed; caps. very long cylindrical
curved with a short lid; half peristome tubular: monoicous.

Sandy hedge banks, walls, &c. V. VI.

     SECT. V. TORTUOSÆ. L. strongly twisted and cirrhate when dry.

178. T. TORTUOSA. W. & M. St. ½–3in. tufted; l. very long
linear-lanceolate, crowded flexuose, margin plane and undulated, with an
excurrent nerve; per. l. narrow and tapering cirrhate; caps. straight or
incurved, erect or inclined, ovate-oblong, on a longish seta: dioicous.

Limestone rocks, Derbyshire. VII.

179. T. HIBERNICA. Mitt. St. 2in. branched; l. at apices of branches
sub-comose and stellate; base dilated and clasping above, thence patent
or patenti-divergent, straight, rarely incurved or recurved, channelled,
cirrhate when dry; ovate-lanceolate below, thence lineal-subulate,
acute, nerve yellow continued to apex. (loc. cit. p. 329.)

Mountains near Dunkerran, common, but always sterile. (Dr. Taylor.)

180. T. NITIDA. Lindb. 1864. (_Trichost. diffractum_, Mitt. 1868.)
Dioicous, densely pulvinate: stem rigid branched; l. crowded
erecto-patent, arcuate when dry, more or less elongate, oblong, obtuse,
channelled, margin plane slightly undulate, nerve terete prominent on
back, excurrent; areolation minute, loose and cuneiform at base; fr. not
known. (l. c. IX., 294.)

Clifton, Torquay, Plymouth.

181. T. SINUOSA. Mitt. Jour. of Bot. V., 327. (_Dicranella_, Wils. MS.;
_Trichostomum_, Lindb.) Densely cæspitose, fuscous below, l. long
linear-lanceolate or subulate patent from a very short pellucid base,
margin slightly recurved below, above denticulate, nerve continued into
a thick obscure blunt point, often broken off; basilar cells all oblong
and rectangular; fr. not known.

Shady places at roots of trees, Sussex, Cornwall, Bangor.

182. T. FRAGILIS. Wils. (_Trichostomum_, Müll. Syn.) Stem erect simple
or dichotomously branched, radiculose tomentose at base; l. crowded
lanceolate-subulate, nerve excurrent, margins plane; areolæ minute,
large and hyaline at base; caps. erect, ovate-oblong, regular or
slightly incurved; lid conical with a long oblique beak; fruit rare. (l.
c. IX., 294.)

Clefts of rocks and on the ground. Ben Lawers.


183. T. SQUARROSA. De Not. St. 1in. cæspitose; l. squarrose, lanceolate,
recurved, with a broad sheathing base, margin undulate, with large
diaphanous cells, somewhat serrulate at apex; nerve scarcely excurrent;
capsule sub-cylindrical, narrow, slightly curved; lid conical, half as
long as capsule; seta 1in. long: dioicous.

Chalk. Ireland and S. of England; fr. not known in this country.

                        28. CINCLIDOTUS. B. & S.

[C. RIPARIUS. Walker Arnott. Acrocarpous; branches fasciculate; “l.
spreading oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, with thickened margins, very
shortly mucronate, nerve excurrent; caps. exserted on a short thick
pedicel, elliptic-oblong; lid obliquely conico-rostrate; perist. with
numerous subdivisions.”] Bry. Brit. 138.

Not found in Britain, but IV.

 var. β. _terrestris_ has been frequently found, and is now referred to
           _Tortula mucronata_, to which refer.

184. C. FONTINALOIDES. P. Beauv. Cladocarpous; st. 2–5in., in long
straggling tufts, generally floating; l. crowded, spreading, flexuose,
lanceolate, acute, with a thickened margin and strong excurrent nerve;
per. l. larger sheathing ovate-lanceolate, thinner; cap. immersed, with
a conical beaked lid; calyp. persistent, thick, split on one side.

Stones in rivulets, &c. III. IV.

                         29. ENCALYPTA. Schreb.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

                         1. Peristome wanting.

185. E. COMMUTATA. N. & H. Stems about 1in. branched radiculose; l.
squarrose, from an erect ovate base lanceolate, concave, acute, nerve
excurrent; caps. smooth cylindrical, with a long beaked lid; calyp.
jagged but not fringed at base.

Alpine summits. Scotland. VII. VIII.

                          2. Peristome single.

186. E. VULGARIS. Hedw. St. about ½in. branched, radiculose; l.
spreading, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong, acute or obtuse, nerve sometimes
excurrent; margin plane; caps. smooth cylindrical; base of calyptra
entire; perist. very fugacious.

Limestone walls, rocks, &c. III. IV.

 var. β. perist. none, leaves apiculate (common).

      γ. perist. none, l. obtuse and concave at apex.

      δ. perist. none, l. obtuse; caps. oblique.

      ε. perist. none, l. piliferous.

187. E. CILIATA. Hedw. St. about ½in. radiculose; l. oblong-ovate,
margin recurved below, and toothed near apex; gradually tapering to a
point formed by the excurrent nerve, undulate; caps. cylindrical,
smooth; perist. persistent; calyptra fringed at base.

Sub-alpine rocks. VI. VII.

188. E. RHABDOCARPA. Schw. St. ½–1in. radiculose; l. spreading, erect
and crisped when dry, oblong-lanceolate, nerve generally more or less
excurrent into a mucro, margins plane; caps. oblong-cylindrical,
striate, ribbed when dry; perist. persistent; calyp. slightly toothed at
base, and roughish at apex.

Mountains in Scotland and Ireland. VII. VIII.

                     _b._ Dioicous: perist. double.

189. E. STREPTOCARPA. Hedw. St. 1–2in. radiculose; l. sub-erect,
ligulate, obtuse and cucullate at apex, nerve not excurrent; per. l.
lanceolate-subulate from an ovate base; caps. oblong narrowed above,
spirally striate, and twisted when dry; perist. outer teeth filiform,
inner cilia; calyp. toothed or fringed at base, and roughened at apex.

Limestone and mortared walls; rare in fr. VIII.

                           30. HEDWIGIA. Ehr.

190. H. CILIATA. Hedw. Monoicous; dichotomously branched, rooting at
base only; l. crowded, spreading, sometimes secund, ovate-lanceolate,
concave, margin recurved below, apex diaphanous, prolonged to a blunt
point and strongly toothed on each side; per. l. with apex laciniate;
caps. immersed globose; lid convex with a short beak; calyp. conical,
sometimes hairy.

Rocks in mountainous districts. N. Wales, Arthur’s Seat, &c. III.

Bry. Brit, gives as varieties—

      β. _leucophæa._ l. more crowded and spreading, wider and with
           longer diaphanous points.

      γ. _secunda._ procumbent slender; l. more distant, secund,

      δ. _viridis._ l. scarcely secund; spreading, deep green, scarcely
           diaphanous at apex.

      ε. _striata._ l. plicate much recurved; lid conical.

                        31. HEDWIGIDIUM. B. & S.

191. H. IMBERBE. B. & S. St. 1–3in. irregularly, not dichotomously
branched, flagelliferous; l. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, imbricate when
dry, margin recurved, apex not diaphanous, but slightly crenate; caps.
exserted on a short seta, spherical or obovate; lid with a blunt
slightly oblique beak; calyptra cucullate, reddish.

Rocks. Wales and Ireland. X. XI.

                       32. GRIMMIA. EHR. B. & S.

 SECT. I. SCHISTIDIUM. Caps. smooth, immersed on a very short straight
        seta, calyptra small, cleft at base into several lobes.

192. G. CONFERTUM. B. & S. Cæspitose; intense green above, blackish
below; l. ovate-lanceolate, tapering in the upper ones to a short hair
point; margins slightly recurved and thickened, nerve strong, deeply
channelled on its upper side; caps. small ovate, with a rostellate lid,
almost pellucid; per. teeth much perforated, pale or orange-red.

Rocks, Scotland. II. III.

      β. _urceolare._ caps. urceolate; leaves with white points.

      γ. _obtusifolium._ l. all obtuse, shorter and broader.

      δ. _incana._ (_G. pruinosa._ Wils. MS.) more robust, per. l.
           broader with long hair points; caps. more elongate, per.
           teeth stronger, nearly entire red. [Dr. Braithwaite, Jour.
           Bot., N. S., vol. I., 195.] Trap rocks. King’s Park
           (Greville); Arthur’s Seat, Edinburgh (Bell); Fife (Howie).

193. G. APOCARPUM. B. & S. Loosely cæspitose; l. spreading lanceolate
acuminate from an ovate erect base, upper ones with white points,
margins much recurved; nerve ceasing below apex; per. l. larger with a
thinner nerve; caps. elliptical, not pellucid, with an oblique beaked
lid; per. teeth dark red; calyptra divided at base.

Rocks and walls, sometimes on trees. XI.–III.

 var. β. _gracile._ per. l. secund, others sub-secund or spreading, stem
           decumbent elongated.

      γ. _rivulare._ st. fasciculate, l. ovate-lanceolate dark green
           obtuse; caps. turbinate. (By streams.)

      δ. _strictum._ l. reddish brown, rigid.

194. G. MARITIMUM. B. & S. Cæspitose, dull green or brownish; l. rigid,
not hair-pointed, straight lanceolate acuminate, keeled; nerve strong,
reddish brown, excurrent, margin plane; caps. obovate with a rostellate
lid; per. teeth large and perforate.

Rocks near the sea. Scotland. XI. XII.

 SECT. II. GASTERO-GRIMMIA. Plants very short pulvinate; caps. slightly
   emerging, ventricose on one side, on a short curved seta; calyptra
                        five-lobed or cucullate.

195. G. ANODON. B. & S. In small hoary cushions; l. lower minute loosely
imbricate, ovate-lanceolate muticous, upper larger, broadly
oblong-lanceolate concave, nerve excurrent into long serrated hair;
basal cells elongate pellucid, above quadrate opaque; caps. immersed,
oval gymnostomous, strongly ventricose; lid plano-convex: monoicous.

Walls and dry limestone rocks. Arthur’s Seat (Bell).

196. G. CRINITA. Brid. In loose flat silky tufts; l. imbricate, lowest
lanceolate, muticous, upper obovate-oblong channelled, the broad
diaphanous apex continued into a long hair, nerve not reaching apex;
basal cells elongate diaphanous, upper large rounded thickened; caps.
ovate, lightly striate, sub-cernuous, furrowed when dry; lid convex with
an obtuse point; cal. dimidiate, two-lobed: monoicous. [Dr. Braithwaite,
Jour. Bot. N. S., vol. I., 195.]

Mortar of old walls and limestone rocks. Near Hatton, Warwick, 1872 (J.

    SECT. III. EU-GRIMMIA. L. ending in a hair point; caps. plicate,
exserted on a curved seta; cal. multifid at base, or with a single cleft
                                at side.

197. G. ORBICULARIS. B. & S. Densely pulvinate; l. oblong-lanceolate,
rounded obtuse at apex, with nerve excurrent into a long hair point,
basal cellules large; caps. almost spherical drooping on a curved
yellowish seta, slightly striate; lid small convex; annulus narrow; per.
teeth trifid, more distantly barred than the next; calyptra dimidiate:

Limestone rocks. II. III.

198. G. PULVINATA. Sm. Densely pulvinate; st. ½–1in. l. elliptic
lanceolate, margin recurved, apex rather obtuse, terminated by the nerve
excurrent into a long hair point; caps. drooping reddish brown, ovoid,
eight-furrowed; lid convex with a straight beak; calyptra lobed at base;
per. teeth dark red bi-trifid, annulus large: monoicous.

Rocks and walls. III. IV.

      β. _obtusa._ lid short obtuse; caps. shorter.

199. G. SCHULTZII. Brid. L. crowded, sub-secund, lanceolate, tapering
into a long rough diaphanous point, margins recurved; caps. slightly
obovate, furrowed, on a very short curved seta; annulus large; per.
teeth long tapering, deeply bifid; monoicous.

Sub-alpine rocks. E. S. W. IV. V.

200. G. SUBSQUARROSA. Wils. MS. Dr. F. B. White. Bot. Soc. Edin. Trans,
IX., 142. In lax dark green tufts, fuscous at base; st. ⅓–¾in. with
dichotomous short curved branches; l. patent squarrose, erect and
appressed when dry, lowest from an ovate base gradually lanceolate,
muticous, upper longer and extended into a long denticulate hair point,
nerve strong, margin recurved; basal cells quadrate hyaline, marginal
narrow and elongate, above minute rounded quadrate. Fr. not known. [Dr.
Braithwaite, l. c., p. 196.]

Rocks. Kinnoul Hill, Perth (Dr. B. White); Moncrieff Hill (Dr. Stirton);
Arthur’s Seat and Braid Hills, &c.

201. G. ROBUSTA. Fergusson MS. In large loose tufts, black below, dark
green and hoary above; br. fastigiate; l. erecto-patent, appressed when
dry, keeled at back with the strong nerve, margin recurved below; lower
short muticous, lanceolate from a contracted ovate base, upper longer,
gradually tapering into a long smooth hair point; cells quadrate
thickened, at centre of base longer, with a single row at margin of
basal wing hyaline. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c. p. 196.]

Alpine rocks. Clova (Fergusson); Fairhead, Ireland, (Dr. Moore);
Cardross and Bowling (Dr. Stirton); Ross-shire (Hunt).

202. G. CONTORTA. Wahl. In small deep green soft tufts, black below and
radiculose; l. patent incurved, curled when dry, lineal subulate from a
lanceolate base, with short diaphanous hair points, keeled, margin
recurved below: basal cells diaphanous elongate hexagono-rectangular,
above sinuous and quadrate; per. l. erect sheathing; caps. small oval
smooth yellowish, cernuous on a sub-arcuate seta, erect when dry, lid
convex conical obtuse orange-red: dioicous. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c. p.
197; Schp. Syn. 210.]

Quartz rocks. Cheviots (Hardy); Cloch-na-ben (Sim); Glen Callater, &c.

203. G. TORQUATA. Grev. (_G. torta._ N. & H. Bry. Brit.) Loosely tufted
elongate; st. 1–2in. dichotomous; l. lanceolate acuminate, spirally
twisted when dry, channelled, occasionally hair-pointed; fruct. not

Alpine rocks. E. I. S.

204. G. FUNALIS. Schwgn. (_G. spiralis._ H. & T. Bry. Brit.) Densely
pulvinate; st. ½–1in. slender; l. oblong or ovate-lanceolate,
erecto-patent, upper ones tapering into a long hair point, nerve not
excurrent; caps. ovoid, smooth, eight-furrowed when dry; lid short
apiculate; annulus large compound; calyp. five-lobed at base; per. teeth
closely bifid: dioicous.

Dry alpine rocks. E. S. I. X. XI.

205. G. MUHLENBECKII. Schpr. Loosely pulvinate and cæspitose; st. tall
erect or procumbent dichotomous and rooting at base; l. densely crowded,
patulous, erect when dry, elongate-lanceolate, keeled with the strong
nerve, margin plane, lower with a short, upper with a long, rough hair
point with recurved teeth; basal cells elongate, upper rounded quadrate;
caps. small oval glossy, rugulose when dry yellowish brown, lid convex
with a short beak, red. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c., p. 197. Schp. Syn. p.
212.] VII.

206. G. TRICHOPHYLLA. Grev. Loose yellowish green tufts, ¼–1in. l.
linear-lanceolate from an erect base, flexuose, tapering into a long
diaphanous point, margin recurved at base, nerve not excurrent; caps.
ovate-oblong, furrowed when dry, lid with a long straight beak; annulus
larger; per. teeth bifid; calyp. lobed: dioicous.

Walls. E. S. I. IV. V.

207. G. HARTMANNII. Schp. Loosely cæspitose, green above, black below;
st. elongate procumbent rigid, arcuate ascending, dichotomous; l.
elongate-lanceolate; upper ones secund, prolonged into a short smooth
hair point, somewhat concave, margin more or less recurved; basal cells
sinuouso-rectangular hyaline, above quadrate opaque; fruit not known.
[Dr. Braithwaite, l. c. p. 197. Sch. Syn. 214.]

Shaded quartzose rocks. Wales and Scotland.

208. G. ELATIOR. B. & S. Robust, loosely cæspitose; fuscous green, hoary
at top; st. sparingly branched elongate, from decumbent naked base
ascending; l. very long curved patent, from oblong carinato-concave base
longly lanceolate, margin revolute, ending in a long smoothish hair
point; basal cells linear-rectangular, wider towards margin, above
rounded opaque; caps. ovate ten-ribbed, when dry oblong deeply furrowed;
lid conical muticous or sub-aciculate: dioicous. [Bry. Eur. III. Dr.
Braithwaite, l. c. 197.]

Granite rocks. Clova, 1868 (Fergusson).

SECT. IV. GUEMBELLIA. L. not curling, generally piliferous; caps. smooth
        on a straight seta; cal. multifid at base or cucullate.

209. G. DONNIANA. Sm. Stems ¼–½in. tufted, l. erecto-patent, lanceolate
elongate narrow, tapering into a roughened hair point, margin plane;
per. l. longer; caps. erect oval-oblong, slightly exserted, pale
yellowish brown, lid obtuse conical; annulus small; per. teeth broad,
sometimes perforate: monoicous.

Mountain rocks and walls. E. S. W. III. IV. X.

 var. β. _sudetica._ l. with longer hair points; caps. immersed; lid

      γ. _elongata._ l. scarcely hair-pointed, caps. on a longish seta.

210. G. UNGERI. Juratzka. Compact irregular blackish green, hoary tufts;
st. short simple or dichotomous; l. erecto-patulous, lower smaller
muticous, upper larger lanceolate from an obovate base, ending in a long
smooth hair point, margin plane; basal cells quadrate hyaline, above
quadrate, then opaque and indistinct; caps. small oval smooth, without
annulus, exserted on an erect pale brown seta; lid conical obtuse,
calyp. cucullate: monoicous. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c., 198.]

On earth in crevices of rocks at 1600 feet at Ballater (Rev. J.

211. G. OVATA. W. & M. St. ½in. or more, branched fastigiate; l.
spreading, erect when dry, lanceolate tapering into a roughish
hair-point, nerve broad indistinct, margin recurved below; caps. ovoid
erect exserted reddish brown, annulus large, lid rostellate, with a
groove round its base; per. teeth narrow, cleft and perforate:

Alpine rocks. Breadalbane and Clova; Snowdon; Charnwood Forest. X.—III.

212. G. LEUCOPHEA. Grey. Dark green hoary tufts; st. ½in.; l. erect,
spreading, when dry closely imbricate, upper ovate or elliptical
concave, with very long hair points and plane margins, lower ones
muticous; caps. smooth elliptical or oblong erect, exserted, with a
short conico-rostellate lid, and large dehiscent annulus: dioicous.

Scotland, Devon. IV.

213. G. COMMUTATA. Hueb. Loosely tufted, blackish green, hoary at top;
stems slender flexuose, naked below; l. lower small loosely imbricate,
upper much longer ovate-lanceolate, from a broad upright base declining,
shortly hair-pointed; per. l. three internal erect sheathing, longly
pointed; basal cells rectangular, upper quadrate; caps. ovate or
ovate-globose erect, smooth, exserted, lid acutely and obliquely
rostrate, annulus broad. [Schp. Syn. p. 109. Dr. Braithwaite, l. c.

Dry quartzose rocks. Moncreiff Hill, Perth (Dr. Stirton); Dunkeld (Dr.
B. White); Clova, in fr. (Fergusson.)


214. G. MONTANA. B. & S. St. slender dichotomous; l. erecto-patent
oblong-lanceolate with a long hair-point, very concave, margin erect;
basal cells diaphanous quadrato-hexagonal, above minute rounded
thickened opaque; caps. erect on a short seta, ovate small brown very
smooth; lid, obliquely rostrate; calyptra large cucullate long beaked,
annulus simple; per. teeth irregularly torn. [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c.

Sandstone and granite rocks. Deeside, Aberdeenshire, 1869 (Prof. Barker
and Mr. Roy); Bolt Head, Devonshire, in fruit (Mr. Holmes).

215. G. ELONGATA. Kaulfuss. In loose cushioned tufts, black below,
innovations olive green with hoary tips. St. slender, repeatedly
dichotomous, naked below without radicles. L. patulous, lower lanceolate
muticous, upper elongate-lanceolate obtuse with the apex diaphanous,
margin erect, basal cells rectangular hyaline at margin, becoming minute
and quadrate above; caps. ovate erect smooth pale brown, on a straight
seta; lid conical obtuse, annulus narrow; per. t. lanceolate red entire
or slightly perforate; calyp. multifid, long beaked. (Dr. Braithwaite,
l. c. 199.)

Alpine rocks. Glen Callater and Glen Phee, Clova, 1868 (Fergusson); near
Glasgow (Dr. Stirton).

216. G. UNICOLOR. Grev. St. 1–2in. loosely cæspitose, naked below;
branches brittle flexuose; l. erect channelled lanceolate-subulate from
an ovate base, obtuse, not hair-pointed, rigid, margin incurved, broadly
nerved to apex; caps. ovate, nearly erect, with a large annulus and a
long straight or slightly inclined beak: dioicous.

Alpine rocks, Clova. IV. (?)

217. G. ATRATA. Miel. St. cæspitose, 1–2in., l. blackish, rigid,
erecto-patent lanceolate-subulate, carinate, margin reflexed, scarcely
so obtuse as the last, with a thinner nerve scarcely reaching to apex.
Caps. elliptic-oblong on a longer seta, with a large annulus and short
rostellate lid: dioicous.

Alpine rocks. Snowdon, Glen Callater. X.–IV.

                        33. RACOMITRIUM. B. & S.

       A. Dichotomously branched, innovations simple fastigiate.

218. R. (DRYPTODON) PATENS. Bridel. Bry. Univ., I., 192. (_Grimmia
patens._ Bry. Brit., p. 158.) In dark green or fuscous tufts; st. 2–4in.
branched, decumbent and naked below; l. spreading or slightly secund,
oblong-lanceolate, gradually tapering to a blunt apex, margin recurved
below, nerve strong two-winged at back; per. l. shorter; caps. almost
obovate smooth, furrowed when dry, on a pale flexuose seta; annulus
large; cal. five-lobed: dioicous.

Moist alpine rocks. S. I. W. IV. V.

219. R. ELLIPTICUM. B. & S. Blackish rigid tufts; st. 1in. decumbent and
naked below; l. spreading from an erect base lanceolate oblong, strongly
nerved to apex, margins plane thickened; caps. erect roundish smooth, on
a short thick seta; lid large conical with a long slender subulate beak:

Moist alpine rocks. Scotland, Wales, Ireland. XI.—IV.

220. R. ACICULARE. Brid. St. 1–3in. cæspitose, decumbent and naked at
base, branches very leafy; l. spreading or secund, ovate-oblong or
broadly lanceolate, obtuse, sometimes toothed at apex, to which the
nerve does not reach; caps. erect oblong smooth, with a small mouth, and
on a longer and thinner seta, lid with a long straight subulate beak:

Wet mountainous rocks by streams. XI.—IV.

 var. β. _denticulatum._ l. distinctly and distantly toothed at apex.

221. R. PROTENSUM. A. Braun. St. less rigid than last, and leafy at
base; l. generally secund lanceolate-subulate obtuse, nerved to apex;
per. l. sheathing; caps. sub-cylindrical thinner, on a pale seta; lid
with a long subulate beak; calyp. lobed at base; dioicous.

Moist alpine rocks. Wales, Derbyshire, Yorkshire. IV.

222. R. SUDETICUM. B. & S. St. slender, decumbent and naked at base, l.
spreading recurved keeled lanceolate tapering into a long whitish
diaphanous denticulate point; caps. small ovoid on a short seta, lid
with a shorter acute beak. IV.

   B. Branches irregular, with lateral ramuli; innov. not fastigiate.

                    * L. without diaphanous points.

223. R. FASCICULARE. Brid. St. 1–2in., decumbent at base, with upright
innovations, fasciculate; l. crowded, from a broadish erect base
lanceolate spreading, muticous, margins recurved, areolæ long narrow
sinuous; caps. elliptical with a long subulate lid; calyp. copiously

Rocks. III.

                     * * L. with diaphanous points.

224. R. HETEROSTICHUM. Brid. St. ½–1in., base decumbent, branches
scarcely fasciculate; l. sometimes secund, lanceolate tapering to a long
white denticulate point, margin recurved, areolæ long and sinuous below,
above sub-quadrate; caps. sub-cylindrical, mouth very small; calyp.
somewhat papillose at apex only; lid short obliquely rostrate.

Rocks and walls. E. W. I. III.

 var. β. _alopecurum._ l. with short hair points; caps. smaller.

      γ. _gracilescens._ l. obtuse, caps. small, on a short seta.

225. R. MICROCARPON. Brid. St. slender fasciculate with short branches;
l. spreading falcato-secund, lanceolate tapering to a short point,
areolæ all long and sinuous; caps. small ovate, thin and pale, with a
robust rostrate lid.

Highlands of Scotland.

226. R. LANUGINOSUM. Brid. St. very long and slender, fasciculate; l.
lanceolate tapering into a long strongly dentate point, sometimes secund
or spreading from an erect base; areolæ sinuous; caps. small ovoid, on a
short roughish seta, and with a long straight rostrate lid; calyp.
papillose above.

Mountains, walls, rocks, and heaths. III.

227. R. CANESCENS. Brid. St. 2–4in. decumbent at base; l.
ovate-lanceolate tapering into a long denticulate point, recurved from
an erect base, areolæ sinuous; caps. ovoid eight-striate when dry, with
a very long subulate lid; calyp. papillose above.

Stony and sandy heaths. III.

 var. β. _prolixum._ older innovations only with fasciculate ramuli.

      γ. _ericoides._ covered with fasciculate ramuli; l. squarrose.

                       34. GLYPHOMITRIUM. SCHWG.

228. G. DAVIESII. Schwg. St. ½in. cæspitose; l. linear-lanceolate
spreading entire, margin thickened and reflexed below, strongly nerved
to apex, areolæ minute, larger at base; caps. erect, almost globose,
with a reddish mouth and long rostrate lid; per. teeth converging when
moist, reflexed when dry; calyp. large, laciniate at base.

Clefts of rocks. VI. VII.

Giant’s Causeway; Llanberis; Glenarbuck, May, 1863 (W. Galt and
McCartney); New Kilpatrick, Killin (McKinlay); Ardtun Mull (Dr. Black);
Skye (Hunt); Blairlogie; Craigallion; Campsie Hills (Thompson and Galt).

                       35. PTYCHOMITRIUM. B. & S.

229. P. POLYPHYLLUM. B. & S. St. ½in. tufted; l. linear-lanceolate from
a broadish base, spreading, nerved to the dentate acute apex; caps.
elliptical on a long twisted seta; calyp. plicate; lid long subulate.

Mountainous rocks and walls. III. IV.

                       36. ORTHOTRICHUM. B. & S.

  A. Caps. on a very short seta, immersed or shortly exserted; ochrea
               distinct, calyptra with about ten furrows.

                       1. Caps. with 16 furrows.

230. O. CUPULATUM. Hoffm. St. under 1in.; l. spreading lanceolate
keeled, lower brownish, nerve distinct; caps. obovate, urceolate when
dry, with a shortly beaked lid; calyp. hairy; perist. simple, of 16 free
equidistant teeth, spreading when dry.

Rocks and walls. IV. V.

                      2. Caps. with eight furrows.

231. O. STURMII. Hop. & Hornsch. In loose cushions; st. short and erect,
or longer and prostrate; l. patent and recurved when moist, incumbent
when dry; margin subrevolute, acutely costato-carinate; caps. generally
immersed, obovate, with eight obsolete striæ, when dry eight-ribbed and
constricted below the mouth; calyp. more or less hairy, shining; per.
teeth simple 16 equidistant, erect when dry, slightly incurved. [Bry.
Eur. III., t. 109.]

Trap rocks. S. I. (Dr. Wood.) Summer.

232. O. SHAWII. Sch. Resembles the last, but differs by its leaves being
less solid and of looser texture at base; cells in one row always (not
in two); by the fewer hairs on its shorter glossy white calyptra; and by
its per. teeth densely papillose white and reflexed when dry. [Supp.
Bry. Eur., fasc, I. II.]

On an ash tree at Kilkerran Castle, Argyleshire, 1860 (J. Shaw). VI.

233. O. OBTUSIFOLIUM. Schrad. In loose yellowish green tufts, brownish
below; l. patulous oblong from an ovate base, apex obtuse hyaline and
minutely serrulate, concave, margin incurved, papillose at back, per. l.
broader and less obtuse: caps. oval immersed with eight orange striæ;
cal. long naked whitish, with a brown tip; lid convex acuminate; per.
teeth eight bi-geminate reflexed when dry, alternating with eight cilia:
dioicous. (Bry. Eur. III., t. 208.)

On trunks of trees. York, Bristol. V.

234. O. PUMILUM. Swartz. (_O. fallax_, Br. Wils. B. & S. but not Schp.
Syn.) Minute pulvinate; l. lanceolate acute, carinate, margin revolute;
per. l. longer erect; caps. oblong, with eight orange striæ, neck
gradually tapering into the seta; cal. long shining brown at apex; per.
teeth eight bi-geminate yellow, densely papillose, reflexed when dry.

Ash trees at Inverkip and Dailly, Ayrshire.

235. O. FALLAX. Schp. Syn. 264, _non_ Bruch. (_O. pumilum_, Dicks, Bry.
Brit. B. & S., Müller, &c.) Differs from the above in having a more
oblong thicker capsule, with deeper yellow striæ, with its neck shorter
abrupt, not gradually narrowed, and with a shorter more inflated
calyptra; l. elliptic-lanceolate and obtuse.

On trees, not common. E. I.

236. O. TENELLUM. Bruch. St. ½in. tufted; l. spreading,
lanceolate-oblong or ligulate, obtuse; caps. yellow-brown, exserted,
sub-cylindrical, not contracted at mouth when dry, broadly and
distinctly striate; calyp. with a few short hairs, conico-campanulate,
yellow; perist. yellow, eight teeth and eight cilia.

Trees, E. I. W. V. VI.

237. O. PALLENS. Bruch. St. erect short tufted; l. spreading, lanceolate
or ligulate obtuse, margins revolute; caps. elliptic-oblong with a large
apophysis, scarcely exserted, slightly contracted at mouth when dry;
striæ broad; calyp. large pale yellow hairless. Perist. of eight yellow
teeth and 16 cilia.

Trees. York. VI.

238. O. STRAMINEUM. Horns. St. short tufted; l. spreading, narrowly
lanceolate acuminate, keeled, margin reflexed; caps. ovate-pyriform
slightly exserted, striæ broad; calyp. large campanulate purple-tipped,
slightly hairy; perist. 8 teeth, and 16 (sometimes only eight) cilia;
vaginula hairy.

Trees and rocks. E. S. W. VI. VII.

239. O. FASTIGIATUM. Bruch. St. longer, tufted with fastigiate branches;
l. broader lanceolate, gradually tapering to a point, sub-erect; caps.
almost pyriform, scarcely exserted, with broad striæ; calyp. brownish
yellow hairy; per. teeth eight, and 16 broad short cilia.

Solitary trees, Yorkshire and Sussex. V. VI.

240. O. AFFINE. Schrad. St. ½–1in. tufted branched; l. spreading,
oblong-lanceolate, with a blunt point, margin revolute and slightly
undulate, strongly papillose on both sides; caps. elliptic-oblong,
somewhat exserted, contracted when dry, striæ narrow. Perist. eight pale
teeth and eight filiform cilia; calyp. large greenish yellow hairy.

Trees, walls, &c., common. VI. VII.

241. O. RUPESTRE. Schl. St. 1in. or more, cæspitose, creeping at base;
l. broadly lanceolate, spreading, slightly recurved; caps. pyriform,
mouth large, scarcely exserted, striæ indistinct; calyp. large yellow,
with long hairs; perist. 16 pale teeth in pairs (equidistant when dry),
and eight cilia.

Mountainous rocks. VII. VIII.

 var. β. _rupincola._ “l. sub-erect, caps. smaller.”

      γ. “stem longer; caps. exserted, calyp. very hairy.”

242. O. SPECIOSUM. Nees. St. 1in. or more, tufted, branched; l.
spreading, lanceolate, somewhat pointed, papillose, margins recurved;
caps. shortly exserted elliptic-oblong, faintly striate at summit, lid
conical beaked; calyp. large yellowish, with long hairs; perist. eight
yellowish teeth, and eight cilia.

Trees, rare. Montrose and Corrie Mulzie. VII. VIII.

243. O. LYELLII. Hook. St. 2in. or more, loosely tufted, with erect
branches; l. much spreading long linear-lanceolate, wavy, scarcely
serrate at apex, and studded with papillæ and brownish gland-like
bodies; caps. elliptic-oblong, with a distinct tapering apophysis, and
faint striæ; calyp. very large, brown tipped, with a few long whitish
hairs. Perist. 16 pale teeth, and 16 red-toothed cilia.

Old tree trunks, rare in fr. VII.

244. O. RIVULARE. Turn. St. long tufted, often floating; l. oblong-ovate
flaccid, sometimes sub-secund, obtuse, with a strong nerve and small
papillæ; margin recurved below: caps. pyriform, broadly striate, almost
immersed; perist. eight teeth in pairs, afterwards nearly equidistant,
and 16 cilia; calyp. large dull green hairless.

Rocks and tree trunks at edges of streams. E. W. I. IV. V.

245. O. SPRUCEI. Mont. St. ¼in. tufted; l. oblong-ovate or ligulate,
apex rounded and tipped with an apiculus, scarcely reflexed, thinly
nerved, not papillose; caps. pyriform, scarcely exserted, contracted at
mouth when dry, striæ broad; lid with a short beak; calyp. reddish
tipped, large, hairless; perist. 16 teeth, in pairs, yellowish, and
eight, sometimes 16, cilia.

Trees near rivers. York, Matlock, Glasgow. V. VI.

246. O. DIAPHANUM. Schrad. St. scarcely ½in. tufted; l. spreading,
ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a slender diaphanous serrulate point,
margin recurved; caps. somewhat pyriform, almost immersed, faintly
striate; calyp. generally naked; perist. 16 equidistant teeth, sometimes
split at apex, and 16 cilia.

Walls, trees, and palings. IV.

                       3. Caps. without furrows.

247. O. LEIOCARPUM. B. & S. St. 1–3in. tufted, branched; l. spreading,
lanceolate, pointed, margin strongly revolute; caps. large pale brown,
obovate, perfectly smooth and not contracted at mouth when dry, scarcely
exserted; calyp. hairy, sometimes naked; perist. 16 teeth and 16 erose

Trees. IV. V.

  [N.B.—Notwithstanding the note in Lin. Soc. Jour., vol. XI. p. 465, I
  retain the name _leiocarpum_ instead of _striatum_, as _all_ the
  species in this section have a _striate_ calyptra.]

                B. Caps. on a long seta, much exserted.

                            1. Calyp. naked.

248. O. PULCHELLUM. Sm. St. ¼in. tufted; l. spreading, soft, crisped
when dry, linear-lanceolate bluntish, margin recurved; caps. pale, oval,
with eight reddish striæ; perist. 16 reddish teeth in pairs, and 16
cilia; calyp. pale, without hairs, purplish at tip.

Trunks of trees. V.

 2. Calyp. very hairy, furrowed; ochrea indistinct; l. dilated at base,
                         and crisped when dry.

249. O. SAXATILE. Brid. (_O. anomalum_, Bry. Brit., p. 177.) St. erect
sparingly branched; l. narrow lanceolate sharply acuminate, nerve thick,
areolæ narrow at base; caps. narrow sub-cylindrical, much exserted, with
eight long striæ prominent when dry, and then with eight shorter
alternating spurious ones just below the mouth; per. teeth in pairs;
calyp. hairy. [Supp. Bry. Eur. fasc. I. II.]

Limestone walls and rocks. Spring.

250. O. ANOMALUM. Hedw. Sp. Musc, (_non_ Bry. Brit.) St. erect simple,
slightly branched; l. lower patulous remote, upper erecto-patent,
lanceolate from an ovate base, margin revolute; caps. ovate-oblong,
16–striate; calyp. brownish hairy; per. t. pale equidistant erect when
dry. [Bry. Eur., III., t. 210. Schp. Syn. 262.]

_Trap_ rocks, Aberdour, Fifeshire (Dr. Wood); Conway.


251. O. LUDWIGII. Schw. St. ½in. creeping; l. subpatent or spreading,
narrowly linear-lanceolate from an ovate base, contorted when dry,
margin slightly undulate; caps. obovate, striate only at summit, much
contracted at mouth when dry; perist. 16 teeth in pairs, afterwards
equidistant, occasionally with short cilia.

Trees. Scotland, Ireland. VIII. IX.

252. O. CRISPULUM. Hornsch. St. very minute tufted; l. small,
linear-lanceolate, scarcely crisped when dry; caps. pyriform, small,
thin, with eight inconspicuous striæ.

Trees, not common. Yorkshire, Sussex, English lakes. V. VI.

253. O. CRISPUM. Hedw. St. about 1in. tufted; l. linear-lanceolate from
an ovate base, slightly waved at margin, very much contorted when dry;
caps. clavate, contracted at mouth when dry; apophysis gradually
tapering into the thick seta; eight broad striæ; perist. eight teeth,
and eight, sometimes 16, cilia.

Trees. VII. VIII.

254. O. CALVESCENS. Wils. Differs from _Bruchii_ by its shorter leaves
more narrowly reticulated; calyp. scarcely hairy; caps. with a long
tapering neck, lid more convex and shortly beaked; from _crispum_ by its
longer seta and shorter caps. not contracted at mouth when dry, and by
its smooth glossy calyptra.

Trees. VI.

Killarney (Dr. Moore and Dr. Carrington); Dailly and Loch Doon (J.

255. O. BRUCHII. Brid. St. short tufted; l. spreading sharply
linear-lanceolate from an ovate base, contorted when dry, sometimes
wavy; caps. pyriform on a long seta, with eight broad striæ, and
contracted at mouth when dry; calyp. blackish yellow, with many furrows
and very hairy; perist. of 16 teeth in pairs, and eight, very seldom 16,

Trees. Scotland, Yorkshire, Westmoreland, &c. VII. VIII.

256. O. DRUMMONDII. H. & G. St. longer, creeping, l. linear-lanceolate
from a narrow ovate base, blunt-pointed, scarcely crisped, margin hardly
recurved; caps. oblong-pyriform, deeply striate, and contracted at mouth
when dry, on a long seta; calyp. with long stiff hairs; perist. of 16
teeth in pairs, and no cilia.

Trunks of young trees. S. I. E. VIII.

257. O. HUTCHINSIÆ. Sm. St. about ½in. tufted; l. erecto-patent broadly
lanceolate, nerved to blunt apex, margin scarcely reflexed; caps.
clavate-pyriform, with eight broad striæ, slightly contracted at mouth
when dry; apophysis tapering; calyp. large, very hairy. Perist. 16 teeth
in pairs, and eight short cilia, sometimes wanting.

Mountainous rocks. W. I. S. E. VII.

258. O. PHYLLANTHUM. B. & S. St. 1in. tufted; l. linear-lanceolate
without a broad base, nerve extending to apex or exserted, where it is
generally covered with gemmæ, crisped when dry; fruit not known.

Rocks and trees, generally near the sea.

                        37. ZYGODON. HOOK. & T.

                          A. Peristome absent.

                       1. Caps. on a short seta.

259. Z. LAPPONICUS. B. & S. St. ½in. cæspitose radiculose; l. spreading,
linear-lanceolate keeled, contorted when dry, nerve ceasing near apex;
per. l. ovate-lanceolate; caps. scarcely exserted turbinate, deeply
eight-striate, urceolate when dry; lid with a short oblique beak:

Crevices of alpine rocks. S. W. Summer.

260. Z. MOUGEOTTII. B. & S. St. more than 1 inch cæspitose, scarcely
radiculose; l. fasciculate recurved, narrowly linear-lanceolate, margin
reflexed below, nerved to apex, not contorted when dry; caps. turbinate
urceolate when dry, eight-striate; lid with a long very oblique beak:

Moist shady rocks. Summer.

                       2. Caps. on a longer seta.

261. Z. VIRIDISSIMUS. Brid. St. ½–1in., fastigiate, radiculose below; l.
much spreading recurved, widely lanceolate, somewhat contorted when dry,
nerve sometimes slightly excurrent; caps. obovate obscurely
eight-striate; lid with a long oblique beak: dioicous.

Trees and rocks. III. IV.

                         B. Peristome present.

                      1. Inner perist. fugacious.

262. Z. CONOIDEUS. Dicks. St. very short, cæspitose, fastigiate, densely
radiculose; l. somewhat spreading, not recurved, widely lanceolate, with
plane margins, and nerved nearly to apex; caps. pyriform, tapering
below, eight-striate, lid with a long straight beak; perist., outer
eight short recurved teeth, inner eight yellowish cilia, often absent:

Trees. S. I. E. V.

                      2. Inner perist. persistent.

263. Z. FORSTERI. Dicks. St. ¼–½in. densely tufted, with whitish
radicles; l. erecto-patent, elliptic-lanceolate, nerved to apex or
slightly excurrent; areolæ hexagonal (not as in all the previous ones,
dot-like), oblong and diaphanous at base; caps. pyriform, striate; lid
with a long inclined beak; perist., outer eight acute bi-geminate teeth,
inner eight alternating cilia: monoicous.

Trees. South of England, rare. Spring.

264. Z. GRACILIS. Wils. MS. St. 1in. or more, tufted, branched; l.
lanceolate twisted when dry, with plane margins, and denticulate near
the apex; areolæ close and punctate above, large and pellucid below.

Old walls. Malham (J. Nowell) in fr., Sept., 1866.

  [I have no specimen in fruit.]

                          38. TETRAPHIS. HEDW.

265. T. PELLUCIDA. Hed. St. ½–1in.; l. lower, ovate-acuminate, nerved,
reddish, upper larger ovate-lanceolate entire, nerve ceasing below apex,
margins plane; stems bearing gemmiferous cups, l. of which are
obcordate; caps. (fruit not found in England) elliptical, with a red
border at mouth, on a long reddish seta.

Decaying stumps and roots of trees, common. VIII. IX.

                        39. TETRODONTIUM. SCHW.

266. T. BROWNIANUM. Schwg. St. almost none, with long linear radical
leaves or ramuli; per. l. ovate-acuminate, entire, shortly and faintly
nerved; caps. oval-oblong, lid with an acute oblique beak.

Sandstone rocks. III. IV. (Wilson says VII.)

                         40. BUXBAUMIA. HALLER.

267. B. APHYLLA. Hall. “Stem almost none, buried; l. lower roundish,
deeply toothed, upper fringed with long ciliary processes; caps.
plano-convex, roundish ovate, reddish; outer perist. irregularly
sub-divided, thick and cellular.” [Wilson.]

Scotland, Yorkshire, &c.; rare. V.

268. B. INDUSIATA. Brid. “Resembling the last, but caps. more erect, not
flattened on the upper surface, of uniform texture and yellowish green
colour, covered with a soft membrane, which ruptures on the upper
surface, the margins rolling back, somewhat like the indusium of a fern;
annulus narrow.” [Dr. Braithwaite, Jour. Bot., VIII., 226.]

On the ground and rotten trunks, chiefly in pine woods.

Near Ballater, 1847 (Cruikshank); Craigendinnie Hill, Aboyne, 1867
(Dickie and Roy).

                        41. DIPHYSCIUM. W. & M.

269. D. FOLIOSUM. W. & M. St. almost none; l. long narrow linear,
flexuose, with an obscure nerve, margin plane, sometimes toothed near
apex; per. l. with a pale thin blade, nerve excurrent into a long rough
bristle, and the innermost divided at apex into long jointed cilia;
caps. immersed, ovate, oblique, gibbous; lid conical pointed; per. teeth

Shady mountainous rocks. VIII.

                        42. ATRICHUM. P. BEAUV.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

270. A. UNDULATUM. P. Beauv. St. 1–2in. l. ligulate, margin undulate,
thickened, with bi cuspid spinulose teeth, which also occur on back near
apex, where lamellate nerve ceases; caps. cylindrical curved; lid with a
long curved beak.

Grassy places, common. X. XI.

 var. β. _attenuatum._ l. narrow, more crisped when dry; caps. smaller.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

271. A. ANGUSTATUM. Brid. St. shorter, l. narrower, densely reticulate,
serrate at apex _only_, less hispid beneath, with numerous lamellæ on
nerve; caps. sub-erect cylindrical straight or curved, lid dark purple,
shortly rostrate. [Schp. Syn. p. 434.]

Bare sandy ground, heaths, &c. Winter.

Braes of Doune, fr. (McKinlay); Sussex—male (Mitten).

272. A. TENELLUM. Roth. St. short; l. elongate, oblong-lanceolate, upper
ones narrowly lingulate, scarcely undulate, smooth beneath, margins
dentate below the middle, subcirrhate when dry, nerve thinly lamellate;
caps. obovate-oblong, sub-cernuous, lid with a long beak; per. teeth
large. [Bry. Eur. IV., 412. Syn. 435.]

Bare moist sandy places, and dried-up pools. Autumn.

Loch Goil Head; Killin, Perthshire.

273. A. CRISPUM. James. (_laxifolium_, Wils. MS.) St. simple, slender;
l. lower small somewhat spathulate; upper much larger oblong-lanceolate,
slightly undulate, border thickened, toothed; nerve reaching apex,
scarcely lamellate; areolæ larger, hexagonal or rounded; caps.
obovate-oblong, sub-erect or inclined, wide-mouthed, teeth very short
irregular, seta red. [Dr. Braithwaite, Jour. Bot., VIII., 225.]

Lancashire; Oakmere, Cheshire; Saddleworth, Yorkshire; Dartmoor. Male
plant only found in Britain.

                        43. OLIGOTRICHUM. DE C.

274. O. HERCYNICUM. De C. St. ½–1in; l. rigid erecto-patent, lanceolate,
sheathing, margins indexed, lamellæ of nerve undulate, and spinulose at
back; caps. erect cylindrical, plicate and oblique when dry; lid conical

Alpine and sub-alpine barren soil. VI. VII.

Scotland; Todmorden (Nowell).

                        44. POGONATUM. P. Beauv.

275. P. NANUM. Brid. St. short, not branched at apex; l. rigid
spreading, lanceolate obtuse, sheathing, serrulate above; caps. almost
globose, erect or inclined, lid with a curved or oblique beak; columella
not winged.

Moist shady sandy banks. X. XI.

 var. β. _longisetum._ l. long, linear-lanceolate, seta very long; caps.

276. P. ALOIDES. Brid. St. less than 1–in., branched at apex; l. rigid
spreading, lanceolate, sheathing, serrate on margin and back; caps.
erect, somewhat ovate-urceolate or cylindrical; lid conical beaked;
columella with four wings; hairs of calyp. whitish.

Moist banks. X. XI.

 var. β. _minus._ smaller generally; “hairs of calyp. confluent below

277. P. URNIGERUM. Brid. St. 1–4in. branched above, reddish below; l.
spreading linear-lanceolate from a short broader sheathing base, acute
serrate; caps. narrowly cylindrical regular papillose, lid convex with a
short beak.

Mountainous banks and sides of streams. X. XI.

 var. β. _crassum._ l. broader, caps, oval-oblong, lid with a longer

278. P. ALPINUM. Brid. St. much longer, branched above, decumbent below;
l. linear-lanceolate from a sheathing base, gradually tapering, serrate,
back spinulose, margin inflexed; caps. generally inclined, ovoid, tumid,
smooth, lid small, with a long curved beak.

Sub-alpine localities. E. S. I. VI.

 var. β. _arcticum._ caps. oblong sub-cylindrical.

      δ. _campanulatum._ st. short, l. narrower and shorter; caps.
           apophysate; calyp. campanulate.

                         45. POLYTRICHUM. BRID.

               A. Caps. six-angled; apophysis indistinct.

279. P. SEXANGULARE. Hoppe. Barren st. 2–6in., fertile shorter; l. short
incurved rigid, linear-lanceolate from a broader base, margins plane,
incurved, almost cucullate at serrulate apex; caps. short, at first
upright, afterwards cernuous, sometimes six, sometimes only four or
five-angled; lid rostrate; calyp. short, and shortly villous.

Summits of Scotch mountains. VIII. IX.

Ben Lawers; Cairngorm, &c.

280. P. GRACILE. Menzies. St. about ½in. densely tufted; l. lanceolate
from a broad sheathing base, serrate, with prominent lamellæ on upper
surface; caps. ovate, obscurely four, five, six-angled; lid
conico-rostrate; calyp. small.

Turbaries, &c., frequent. VI.

281. P. FORMOSUM. Hedw. St. 3–6in. loosely tufted; l. spreading
linear-lanceolate from a broad sheathing base, acute, serrate,
lamellate; caps. four, five, six-angled, fawn-coloured; lid long
conical; calyp. large.

Woods. VI.

 var. β. _pallidisetum._ st. and l. shorter; caps. narrower, on a short
           pale seta.

              B. Caps. four-angled; apoph. very distinct.

282. P. COMMUNE. L. St. 6 or 8in. simple; l. spreading reflexed,
linear-lanceolate, sheathing, whitish and membranous at base, serrate on
margin and back; nerve broad; per. l. with long wavy hair points; caps.
short, upright, afterwards cernuous, on a very long seta; lid variable
in size; calyp. large reddish.

Tufty and marshy places. VI.

 var. β. _perigoniale._ smaller; outer per. l. longer; dry heaths.

      γ. _minus._ st. short; l. shorter, less spreading; per. l. less
           striking; calyp., caps., and seta smaller: dry heaths.

   γ. β. _fastigiatum._ st. branched fastigiate; l. as in var. γ. Very
           dry heaths.

283. P. JUNIPERUM. Hedw. St. 1–6in.; l. reflexed, spreading,
linear-lanceolate, almost bristle-pointed, margin entire, except a few
teeth at apex, much inflexed from middle upwards, somewhat spinulose at
back; caps. roughish, horizontal when dry, on a seta 2in. or more long;
calyp. large.

Heaths. V. VI.

284. P. STRICTUM. Menzies. (_P. juniperum._ β. _strictum_, Bry. Brit.)
“St. more slender, densely matted, branched, closely interwoven with
whitish tomentum; l. straight, erecto-patent, imbricate when dry,
shorter and narrower, pale glaucous green; caps. shorter cuboid, acutely
angled, rufous orange; calyp. brownish or white.” [Dr. Braithwaite,
Jour. of Bot., VIII., 225.]

Mountain moors, common.

285. P. PILIFERUM. Schreb. St. about 1in. simple; l. lower short
appressed, upper much longer, lanceolate, prolonged into roughish hair
points, margins entire inflexed; caps. faintly angular, almost ovate, on
a short seta; calyp. long, reddish.

Dry heaths. V. VI.

                           46. TIMMIA. HEDW.

286. T. AUSTRIACA. Hedw. St. 2–3in.; l. linear-lanceolate from a reddish
brown sheathing dilated base, margins strongly serrate; caps. ovate
pyriform, inclined, striate when dry, on a seta 2in. long; lid rounded
mammillate; per. teeth inner smooth entire.

Rocks, very rare. Forfarshire. Summer.

287. T. MEGAPOLITANA. Hedw. St. loosely cæspitose, brownish below; l.
from a whitish sheathing base, spreading and recurved, linear-lanceolate
concave opaque serrate, cirrhate when dry; per. l. internal
ovate-lanceolate thinner; caps. oblong horizontal, somewhat striate when
dry; lid convex, not apiculate; per. teeth internal with numerous
appendiculate cilia. [Schp. Syn., 431.]

Ben Lawers, 1866 (Dr. Stirton). Summer.

                         47. AULACOMNION. SCHW.

288. A. PALUSTRE. Schw. St. 2–4in. branched, beset with reddish
radicles; l. oblong-lanceolate, denticulate at apex, flexuose undulate,
crisped when dry, papillose on both sides; caps. ovate-oblong, gibbous,
cernuous, curved; lid conical, with a blunt beak; barren fl. discoid:

Turfy bogs and marshes. V. VI.

 var. β. _imbricatum._ “l. broader imbricate, entire, not twisted when

      γ. _fasciculare._ st. with many short innovations and fasciculate
           leaves; ramuli flagelliform from axils of fl. leaves.

      δ. _polycephalum._ “st. decumbent branched; pseudopodia elongated

289. A. ANDROGYNUM. Schw. St. less than 1in., nearly simple; l. lower
lanceolate, upper longer, all denticulate at apex, not flexuose nor
crisped when dry, papillose, margin recurved; caps. almost cylindrical,
gibbous, inclined, furrowed; lid short, conical; pseudopodia numerous;
barren fl. gemmiform.

Dry shady woods and banks. V. VI.

                        48. ORTHODONTIUM. SCHW.

290. O. GRACILE. Schw. St. ½in. slender, tufted; l. long linear
setaceous, carinate, flexuose, entire, faintly nerved nearly to apex;
caps. obovate-clavate, gradually tapering at base into the seta,
inclined; lid long, beaked; calyp. very small.

Sandstone rocks. Yorkshire and Cheshire. III.

                         49. LEPTOBRYUM. WILS.

291. L. PYRIFORME. Wils. St. scarcely ½in.; l. lower lanceolate entire,
upper linear-setaceous, flexuose, serrate at summit, nerve sometimes
reaching apex; caps. pyriform pendulous, on a slender flexuose seta; lid
convex mammillate.

Rocks. Cheshire. V. VI.

                           50. BRYUM. H. & T.

                          Synopsis specierum.

 I. L. erect narrow; not nerved to apex (except No. 1).

   A. Caps. narrow, inclined.
     _a._ monoicous.
       1. acuminatum.
       2. polymorphum.
       3. elongatum.
     _b._ synoicous or dioicous.
       4. crudum.

   B. Caps, pyriform pendulous.
     _a._ monoicous or synoicous.
       5. nutans.
     _b._ dioicous.
       6. annotinum.
       7. carneum.

 II. L. ovate, not nerved to apex.

     _a._ dioicous.
       8. Wahlenbergii.
       9. Ludwigii.
     _b._ monoicous.
       10. Marrattii.
       11. calophyllum.

 III. L. mostly ovate, nerved to apex.

   A. synoicous or monoicous.
       12. lacustre.
       13. Warneum.
   B. dioicous.
       14. pseudotriquetrum.
       15. neodamense.
       16. alpinum.
       17. Muhlenbeckii.
       18. turbinatum.
       19. latifolium.
       20. Duvalii.
       21. pallens.
       22. barbatum.

 IV. L. ovate, nerve excurrent.

   A. monoicous.
       23. uliginosum.
       24. pallescens.
       25. Sauteri.
   B. synoicous.
     _a._ inner perist. imperfect.
       26. cernuum.
       27. inclinatum.
     _b._ inner perist. perfect.
       28. intermedium.
       29. bimum.
       30. torquescens.
   C. dioicous.
       31. obconicum.
       32. capillare.
       33. Donianum.
       34. Billarderii.
       35. cæspiticium.
       36. murale.
       37. sanguineum.
       38. atropurpureum.
       39. apiculatum.

 V. L. very concave, imbricate, nerve mostly ceasing below apex,

   A. caps. symmetrical.
       40. julaceum.
       41. argenteum.
       42. Funkii.

   B. mouth of caps. oblique.
       43. Zierii.
       44. demissum.

 VI. L. broad roundish bordered.

       45. Tozeri.

 VII. L. very large, in a terminal rosaceous tuft.

       46. roseum.

                                SECT. I.

292. (1) B. ACUMINATUM. B. & S. St. ½–1in., simple or branched; l.
rigid, lower ovate-lanceolate, upper linear-lanceolate larger, margins
recurved, nerved to serrulate apex, sometimes secund; caps. almost
horizontal, narrowly clavate, tapering at base; lid sharply conical.
(There are many varieties.)

Crevices of rocks and mountainous districts. VIII.

293. (2) B. POLYMORPHUM. B. & S. St. ¼–½in., seldom branched; l. lower
ovate-lanceolate, small, scattered, upper oblong-lanceolate longer,
crowded, apex in all serrate; caps. oblong-pyriform horizontal or
drooping, with a short neck; lid mammillate. (Many varieties.)

Scotch and Welsh mountains. Summer.

294. (3) B. ELONGATUM. Dicks. St. ¼–1in., one innovation from floral
apex; l. lower ovate-lanceolate scattered, upper longer
linear-lanceolate, all serrate at apex; caps. very long and slender,
clavate, with a long distinct neck, inclined, upright when dry; lid
convex beaked; inner perist. with cilia.

Rocks and walls in mountainous districts. VIII.

295. (4) B. CRUDUM. Schreb. St. 1–2in. cæspitose, radiculose below; l.
lower ovate-lanceolate, with plane margins and reddish nerve, upper
gradually passing upwards into linear-lanceolate, with serrate apex;
caps. oval-pyriform, from sub-erect to horizontal or even pendulous; lid
convex apiculate; inner perist. with cilia. The leaves are generally
shining and transparent.

Mountainous banks and rocks. VII.

296. (5) B. NUTANS. Schr. St. ¼–2in. with innovations; l. spreading,
with margins reflexed below, lower ovate-lanceolate entire, upper
linear-lanceolate serrulate at apex; caps. pyriform or elliptical, with
a short neck; lid small mammillate; inner perist. with cilia: synoicous.

Sandy heaths, &c.

(Four var. are given in Bry. Europ.)

297. (6) B. ANNOTINUM. Hed. St. ½–1in. cæspitose; l. lower lanceolate
erecto-patent entire, upper longer, serrulate at apex, margins reflexed
below; caps. narrow pyriform, with a long tapering neck; lid conical
pointed; barren fl. terminal; inner perist. with cilia; annulus distinct

Sandy banks and quarries. V. VI.

298. (7) B. CARNEUM. L. St. ¼in. cæspitose, reddish; l. lower
ovate-lanceolate, upper narrower, all serrate at apex, and loosely
reticulate, margin not reflexed; nerve reddish; caps. ovate-oblong or
shortly pyriform on a thick succulent reddish seta, sharply curved at
summit; lid convex, shortly pointed; annulus none; perist. large,
dark-coloured when dry.

Moist clay banks. IV.

                               SECT. II.

299. (8) B. WAHLENBERGII. Schw. St. ½–1in. reddish cæspitose; l. lower
ovate-acuminate, upper lanceolate, all serrate at apex, margins scarcely
reflexed, areolæ loose; caps. broadly pyriform, with a short neck, and
wide-mouthed when dry, sub-pendulous; annulus none or imperfect; per.
teeth large, inner with cilia; lid small conical.

Wet banks and rocks. V.

300. (9) B. LUDWIGII. Spreng. St. about 1in. decumbent and blackish
below; l. lower ovate, passing upwards into ovate-lanceolate and
lanceolate, serrulate at apex, margins reflexed below; caps. obovate
pyriform, sub-pendulous on a reddish slender seta 1in. long; lid
conical, somewhat obtuse; inner perist. with cilia.

Scotch and Welsh mountains. IX.

 var. β. _gracilis._ Goat Fell; Ben Lawers, Ben Lomond; Snowdon.

301. (10) B. MARRATTII. St. about ¼in. gregarious; l. broadly
elliptical, blunt-pointed entire; per. l. narrower and longer; caps.
small turbinate almost globose, tapering at neck into the slender seta,
from which it is pendulous; lid bluntly beaked; perist. outer red, inner
imperfect, adhering to outer.

Southport, 1854. IX.

302. (11) E. CALOPHYLLUM. R. Br. St. about ¼in. reddish gregarious; l.
broadly elliptical or ovate, sharply pointed, concave, entire, almost
nerved to apex; caps. oval-oblong, neck not tapering, pendulous; lid
small conical, slightly pointed; per. teeth outer brownish, inner free,
mostly without cilia.

Southport, with the last. IX.

                               SECT. III.

303. (12) B. LACUSTRE. Brid. St. ¼in. cæspitose; l. lower
ovate-apiculate, upper ovate-lanceolate, all entire, very concave,
margins recurved; per. l. narrower; caps. roundish pyriform, with a
tapering neck, slightly pendulous; lid small pointed; annulus present;
inner perist. partially adherent, sometimes with cilia; synoicous.

Moist sandy places. Yarmouth; Suffolk. V. VI.

304. (13) B. WARNEUM. Bland. St. about ¼in. tufted; branched; l.
ovate-acuminate, scarcely concave, serrate at apex, margins recurved;
caps. obovate pyriform pendulous, bordered at mouth when dry; lid small
convex pointed; inner perist. with cilia: monoicous or synoicous.

Muddy places. Scotland, Southport. VIII. IX.

305. (14) B. PSEUDOTRIQUETRUM. Schw. St. 1–3in, branched, erect; l.
lower ovate-lanceolate, upper narrower and longer concave, all bordered,
margins recurved, occasionally serrulate at apex, and slightly
decurrent; nerve sometimes excurrent; caps. sub-cylindrical, pendulous;
lid small mammillate.

Wet mountainous rocks. S. W. VII.

306. (15) B. NEODAMENSE. Itzig. Regensb. Fl. 1841, I. (p. 360.) St.
slender, cæspitose and tomentose elongate, reddish and almost naked
below, leafy above; l. lower roundish oblong obtuse, apex and margins
involute; upper crowded, shortly oblong, inflated at base, margins
revolute below, all cucullate; caps. oblong-pyriform pendulous, on a
long seta.

Southport Sands, where liable to inundation.

307. (16) B. ALPINUM. L. St. ½–2in. cæspitose simple; l. imbricate
lanceolate, margins recurved, serrulate at apex; caps. oblong-pyriform
pendulous, deep red, on a bent and arcuate seta, lid mammillate; whole
plant reddish and shining.

Sub-alpine moist rocks, fr. rare. VI.

308. (17) B. MUHLENBECKII. B. & S. St. ½in. or more; tufted, branched,
radiculose; l. almost elliptical, blunt-pointed, conical, almost
cucullate at apex, margin reflexed; nerved almost to apex; caps. oblong
tapering, pendulous, reddish brown; lid convex pointed.

Scotch mountains (Dr. C. Smith and Dr. Stirton).

309. (18) B. TURBINATUM. Hedw. St. ½–3in. sometimes branched; l. lower
ovate-lanceolate, upper longer and narrower, concave, margins not
recurved; nerve not always reaching apex; caps. globoso-pyriform
pendulous, when dry contracted at mouth, reddish brown; lid convex

Manchester; Fakenham; Norfolk. VI. VII.

 var. β. _prælongum._ st. elongate, l. pale green, caps. ventricose

310. (19) B. LATIFOLIUM. Schl. (_B. turbinatum_, var. γ, Bry. Brit.) St.
elongate, decumbent at base; l. imbricate, broadly oblong acuminate,
very concave, shining, serrulate at apex, margined, nerve excurrent;
caps. longer than the last, on a long seta, geniculate at base. [Schp.
Syn., 380. Bry. Eur., IV., t. 372.]

Boggy places. VI.—VIII.

Ben More; Shetland (McKinlay).

311. (20) B. DUVALII. Voigt. St. tufted, decumbent when old, elongate,
branched; l. patulous, remote, broadly ovate-lanceolate, decurrent,
cirrhate when dry, scarcely nerved to apex; per. l. inner lanceolate
erect; caps. obovate-oblong regular pendulous from a long slender seta,
contracted at mouth when dry; lid mammillate. [Bry. Eur., IV., t. 371.]

Boggy places. VIII. IX.

Glen Lyon, Ben Lawers, Hartfell, Helvellyn.

312. (21) B. PALLENS. Swartz. St. ¼–1in. branched; l. reddish, remote
patulous ovate-lanceolate, slightly decurrent, keeled, serrulate at
apex, margins thickened and recurved, nerve almost excurrent; caps.
oblong pyriform, with a long tapering neck, pendulous, mouth small, but
not contracted; lid small convex, pointed.

Near springs and ditches. VI.

 var. β. _microstomum._ “caps, regular, sub-clavate, mouth smaller.”

313. (22) B. BARBATUM. Wils. MS. St. about 1in. branched, slender, red,
and copiously beset with reddish brown radicles from base to summit; l.
sub-erect, ovate, rather suddenly tapering into a longish sparsely
toothed subula, uppermost broader, more shortly pointed, spreading, all
concave, strongly nerved, margins plane, not recurved; areolæ very lax
and transparent. The only specimen I have bears no fruit.

Ben Ledi (Dr. Stirton).

                               SECT. IV.

314. (23) B. ULIGINOSUM. B. & S., St. ½–1in. cæspitose, branched; l.
green oval-lanceolate, tapering at both ends, margin reflexed below,
excurrent nerve toothed; caps. clavate unequal pendulous, tapering into
the long curved seta; mouth oblique; lid convex pointed.

Wet places near streams. VIII.

315. (24) B. PALLESCENS. Schw. St. 1–2in. branched, cæspitose, with
purplish radicles below; l. ovate-lanceolate, margin reflexed, generally
serrate at apex; upper with nerve scarcely excurrent, lower reddish;
caps. pyriform, pendulous, tapering, contracted at mouth when dry; lid
conical pointed; inner perist. with cilia.

Rocks and walls. VII. VIII.

 var. β. _boreale._ caps. smaller, sub-erect.

      γ. _contextum._ st. long, much branched; caps. ventricose,
           shorter, sub-pendulous.

      δ. _subrotundum._ stem and l. smaller; caps. almost globose; seta

316. (25) B. SAUTERI. B. & S. St. cæspitose, much branched; l.
erecto-patent, ovate-acuminate or oblong-lanceolate, elongated, very
concave, margins plane, nerve thick excurrent into a mucro; wings at
base with hyaline cells; per. l. narrower; caps. slightly incurved,
pendulous solid sanguineous; lid shortly conical. [Müller, Syn. I.,

Teesdale (Spruce); Scotland (Mitten).

317. (26) B. CERNUUM. Hedw. St. ½–1½in; tufted, branched, very
radiculose; l. ovate-acuminate concave, nerve much excurrent, sometimes
serrulate at apex, margins recurved; caps. oblong-oval or pyriform,
mouth small, neck not tapering, pendulous; lid small conical; inner
perist. adherent to outer; annulus large.

Walls and rocks. V.

318. (27) B. INCLINATUM. B. & S. St. short, tufted branched; l.
ovate-lanceolate, entire, acuminate; caps. almost elliptical or
pyriform, with a small mouth; lid conical, sharply pointed; perist.
inner generally without cilia, and free.

Walls, banks, and decayed trees. V.

319. (28) B. INTERMEDIUM. Brid. St. about ½in. tufted, branched; l.
imbricate, somewhat spreading ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, point
sometimes toothed, margins recurved; caps. pyriform narrow
sub-pendulous, tapering into a longish neck; lid conical pointed; inner
perist. with cilia.

Walls and rocks, frequent. VI.—XII.

320. (29) B. BIMUM. Schreb. St. ½–1in. tufted, sometimes branched, with
purplish radicles; l. ovate-lanceolate, shortly apiculate, occasionally
serrate at apex, margins recurved; caps. oblong-pyriform, tapering at
neck, pendulous, constricted at mouth when dry; lid large convex

Wet and boggy places. VI. VII.

 var. β. _cuspidatum._ l. with long bushy points, margined. Walls, &c.

321. (30) B. TORQUESCENS. B. & S. St. ¼–1in. tufted, radiculose; l.
lower ovate-lanceolate, upper ovate, all shortly pointed, entire, margin
recurved, slightly twisted when dry; caps. large obconical or clavate,
sub-pendulous, neck tapering; lid pointed.

Rocks and walls; rare. VI. VII.

322. (31) B. OBCONICUM. Hornsch. St. short tufted, branched; l.
oblong-ovate pointed, concave, entire, margin recurved, not twisted when
dry; caps. obconical, pendulous; neck long tapering; lid convex

Walls. Barnard Castle, 1843 (Spruce). VI. VII.

323. (32) B. CAPILLARE. Hed. St. ¼–1in. tufted; l. lower ovate-oblong,
upper obovate-oblong, all with longish slender points, concave, much
contorted when dry, margin bordered with smaller cellules, reflexed,
sometimes serrulate at apex; caps. sub-clavate or obovate, tapering,
pendulous, only slightly constricted at mouth when dry; lid pointed.

Walls, rocks, trees, &c., frequent. VI.

 var. β. _majus._ st. longer, l. broader, and with a wider margin, caps.
           larger and thicker. (Wilson says this is the most frequent
           English form.) On walls.

      γ. _minus._ l. concave imbricate; caps. smaller.

      δ. _flaccidum._ l. lower, purplish, flaccid, not contorted when
           dry, distinctly serrate at apex.

324. (33) B. DONIANUM. Grev. St. shorter than last, branched; l.
ovate-oblong, slightly pointed, not contorted, but slightly twisted when
dry, margin thickened, serrulate at apex; caps. long clavate,
constricted at mouth when dry, sub-pendulous, lid pointed.

Sandy banks and rocks, rare. Warrington (Wilson); Hurst-pier-point
(Mitten); Winchelsea (Jenner).

325. (34) B. BILLARDERII. Schw. St. ½–1in. branched, radiculose; l.
crowded in tufts at top of branches and stems, ovate-oblong, serrate and
recurved at apex, apiculate, margins recurved below; caps. pyriform,
broadest below the middle, tapering at neck, pendulous; lid conical

Hurst-pier-point, on old ant-hills; barren. Summer.

326. (35) B. CÆSPITICIUM. L. St. ¼–1in. tufted, branched; l.
ovate-lanceolate, pointed, generally serrulate at apex, margin recurved
but not thickened, erect when dry, upper ones largest; caps.
oblong-obovate, pendulous, slightly constricted when dry; lid large

Walls, rocks, roofs, &c.

327. (36) B. MURALE. Wils. St. ¼in. tufted, branched; l.
ovate-lanceolate, concave, shortly pointed, margins plane; loosely
imbricate; caps. oblong-pyriform pendulous, deep purple or almost black
when ripe; neck tapering; lid large mammillate.

Mortar of old walls. V. VI.

Marple, Killarney, N. Wales, Oxford, 1863 (H. Boswell).

328. (37) B. SANGUINEUM. Ludwig. St. ¼in.; l. distant, ovate-lanceolate
pointed, generally serrulate at apex, margins scarcely recurved; caps.
oblong or pyriform pendulous, blood-red when ripe; lid pointed.

Heathy ground and walls., VI. VII.

 var. β. _radiculosum._ caps. obconical, seta geniculate at base.

329. (38) B. ERYTHROCARPON. Brid. _non_ Schw. (_B. atropurpureum._ W. &
M.) St. ¼–½in. branched; l. erecto-patent, ovate concave, pointed,
margin reflexed, entire, lower often reddish; caps. oval or oblong, neck
not tapering, pendulous, dark red or purplish when ripe; lid conical

Banks and walls. V.

330. (39) B. APICULATUM (?) Schw. (There seems some doubt as to what the
barren form found on the Slemish mountains is; I give Wilson’s
description from Bry. Brit., p. 245.) “L. erecto-patent when dry,
elliptic-lanceolate, concave, nerved to apex.”

                                SECT. V.

331. (40) B. JULACEUM. Sm. St. 1–3in. tufted, with long filiform
branches; l. ovate or ovate-elliptical, larger above, concave entire,
margin not recurved, not nerved to apex; caps. oblong-obovate or
pyriform, pendulous; lid small, convex, pointed.

Alpine and sub-alpine wet rocks. VIII. IX.

 var. β. _concinnatum._ st. shorter, nerve excurrent into a recurved
           point. Near Kennare (Dr. Taylor); Teesdale (Spruce); Ochills

332. (41) B. ARGENTEUM. L. St. ¼–½in. tufted; in silvery white patches;
l. lower ovate, upper ovate-lanceolate, all entire except at apex, nerve
not reaching pointed tapering apex; margins not recurved; areolæ very
lax; caps. oval-oblong, reddish purple, pendulous, neck not tapering;
lid faintly pointed.

Roofs, walls, ground, &c. X. VI.

 var. β. _majus._ st. longer, l. greenish, without points.

      γ. _lanatum._ smaller, l. with long points, without chlorophyll,
           silvery white. Largo, Scotland (C. Howie).

333. (42) B. FUNKII. Schw. Gregarious; st. branched, branches julaceous;
l. crowded at summit of branches; st. and br. leaves ovate,
cochleariform, nerve excurrent into a short point; comal leaves
ovate-oblong acuminate, shortly cuspidate: areolæ lax; caps. obovate or
globoso-pyriform, inclined on a flexuous seta.

Walls, &c. Sandy shore, Southport (Wilson). V. VI.

334. (43) B. ZIERII. Dicks. Silvery reddish tufts, st. ½–1in., branches
julaceous; l. roundish ovate-acuminate, entire, margins not recurved,
not nerved to apex; areolæ lax; caps. large clavate-pyriform, gibbous,
with a long slender tapering neck, incurved cernuous; lid small,
conical, acute; inner perist. longest, with imperfect cilia.

Crevices of mountainous rocks. E. S. I. X. XI.

335. (44) B. DEMISSUM. Hook. St. ¼in. tufted; l. ovate-acuminate, erect
when dry, margin recurved, nerve generally excurrent; per. l.
lanceolate, with longer points; areolæ lax; caps. clavate-pyriform, much
incurved, cernuous; seta “curved above like a swan’s neck”; inner
perist. longest.

Rocks. Breadalbane Mts.; rare. VIII. IX.

                               SECT. VI.

336. (45) B. TOZERI. Grev. St. ¼–½in. gregarious; l. lower obovate
narrow, upper crowded wider apiculate, all bordered, entire; nerved
(reddish) half way; caps. obovate or pyriform pendulous; lid conical.

Shady banks, rare in fr. III. IV.

                               SECT. VII.

337. (46) B. ROSEUM. Schreb. St. 1–3in., l. lower, small, scattered
lanceolate; upper in a large rosaceous tuft, spathulate, apiculate,
serrate above, margin recurved, nerved nearly to apex; caps.
clavate-oblong or obovate pendulous; lid mammillate.

Sandy shady banks. XI. XII.

                           51. MNIUM. B. & S.

                        A. L. sharply serrated.

                       _a._ Margin cartilaginous.

338. M. AFFINE. Bland. St. 1–3in. simple, erect, radiculose; barren
shoots procumbent; l. lower oval-lanceolate, decurrent, scattered, upper
much larger, crowded, oblong-elliptic pointed, border narrow, simply
spinuloso-serrate, nerved nearly or quite to apex; those of barren stems
roundish two-ranked; caps. ovate-oblong pendulous; lid convex, pointed:

Shady woods, banks, walls. IV. V.

 var. β. _elatum._ stem and seta longer; marshy places.

      γ. _rugicum._ sterile shoots, erect, shorter; l. shorter, concave,
           obtusely serrate.

339. M. CUSPIDATUM. Hedw. St. ½–1in. tufted, erect, radiculose, barren
shoots procumbent; l. lower ovate or obovate, scattered, upper
ovate-lanceolate longer and narrower; all acuminate, with simply serrate
margins; nerved nearly or quite to apex; caps. ovate, inclined or
pendulous; lid convex obtuse: synoicous.

Shady rocks and walls. III. IV.

340. M. ROSTRATUM. Schr. St. ½–1in. decumbent at base (barren long erect
or creeping); l. lower ovate, upper oval-oblong, obtuse, in a terminal
spreading tuft, all simply and bluntly serrate, undulate, nerve slightly
excurrent into a mucro; caps. oval, inclined or pendulous; lid with a
long curved beak: synoicous.

Moist shady rocks, &c., common. IV.

341. M. RIPARIUM. Mitt. M.S. St. ½–1in., reddish below; l. orbiculate or
broadly elliptical, much decurrent, apex rounded and tipped with a
mucro; lower obscurely bordered, upper strongly so and simply
spinuloso-dentate, nerve thin but distinct, reddish, reaching apex;
areolæ large hexagonal chlorophyllose. (I have no fruited specimen.)

Watery places. Sussex (Mitten).

342. M. SPINOSUM. Voigt. St. robust, sub-ligneous; branches flagelliform
sub-arcuate; l. lower small squamiform, obtuse, margins plane; upper
obovate or oblong, acuminato-spathulate, larger, crisped when dry;
serration bi-geminate, spinulose, nerve excurrent; caps. oval-oblong,
reddish brown, slightly inclined or horizontal; lid conical, with an
obtuse beak: dioicous.

Roots of trees, and shady sub-alpine rocks. Summer.

Ben Lawers (McKinlay).

343. M. ORTHORHYNCHUM. Brid. St. ¼–1in. simple; l. lower scattered
ovate-acuminate, decurrent, upper ovate-lanceolate, doubly
spinuloso-serrate; all undulate and crisped when dry; caps. oval or
sub-pyriform horizontal; lid conical, with a blunt beak: dioicous.

Woods, shady banks, &c. Yorkshire, Sussex. Spring.

344. M. SERRATUM. Brid. St. ½–1in. purplish, erect; l. lower reddish on
nerve and border, all varying from lanceolate to ovate, acuminate,
doubly spinuloso-serrate; per. l. lanceolate; caps. ovate or oval,
cernuous; lid large conical, with a short beak: synoicous.

Moist shady rocks and banks. V. VI.

345. M. HORNUM. L. St. 1–3in. simple; l. linear-lanceolate, acuminate,
rigid, slightly decurrent, doubly spinuloso-serrate, nerve also
spinulose, not reaching apex; caps. large oblong-ovate, cernuous; lid
convex mammillate; seta curved at summit: dioicous.

Shady moist banks and woods, common. V.

346. M. UNDULATUM. Hed. St. 1–3in. decumbent at base, sometimes
branched; l. oval-oblong or ligulate, upper very long, all undulate,
decurrent, and simply serrate, nerved generally to apex; caps. generally
several together, oval or oblong pendulous; lid convex, pointed:

Moist shady banks and woods. IV. V.

                _b._ L. without a cartilaginous border.

347. M. STELLARE. Hed. St. ½–2in. erect; l. oval-acuminate or
ovate-lanceolate, simply serrate, decurrent, scarcely nerved to apex;
caps. solitary, ovate, horizontal or cernuous; lid convex blunt:
dioicous. (Does not fruit with us.)

Shady rocks and banks. Yorkshire, Surrey. V. VI.

                   B. L. nearly entire, not bordered.

348. M. CINCLIDIOIDES. Hueb. St. 2–4in. sometimes with slender branches;
l. lower oval obtuse, scarcely pointed, upper large oval ligulate obtuse
(marginal cells narrower), almost entire, slightly undulate, nerved
nearly to apex; caps. oval pendulous; lid convex pointed: dioicous.

Wet and boggy places on mountains, Clova, &c. Summer.

               C. L. entire, with a cartilaginous border.

349. M. PUNCTATUM, Hed. St. ½–3in., erect, radiculose; l. obovate or
roundish obtuse, obscurely pointed, upper in a somewhat rosaceous tuft;
generally nerved to apex; caps. oval pendulous; lid conical, with a
longish beak: dioicous.

Wet shady places. II. III.

350. M. SUBGLOBOSUM. B. & S. St. 1in. or more, erect; l. obovate or
roundish obtuse, not nerved to apex; border narrow sub-cartilaginous;
caps. roundish, contracted at mouth, sub-pendulous; lid small conical
beaked: synoicous.

Marshes and bogs. III.

                        52. CINCLIDIUM. SWARTZ.

351. C. STYGIUM. Sw. St. 1–4in. tufted, erect, with purplish radicles;
l. roundish obovate, obtuse, pointed, rigid, very narrow at base, border
cartilaginous, nerved to or beyond apex; caps. obovate or pyriform,
pendulous, on a long seta, lid convex obtuse, sometimes pointed;

Bogs. Malham Tarn (Nowell, Wilson). VI. VII.

                      53. MIELICHHOFERIA. N. & H.

352. M. NITIDA. Horn. “L. erecto-patent, larger and more crowded above,
ovate-lanceolate, serrated at apex; caps. sub-erect pyriform; lid
conical, very short.”

 var. β. _gracilis._ more densely tufted; l. shorter, more crowded,
           imbricate; caps. erect. [Wils. Bry. Brit., p. 263.]

Type not British; var. β. only found at head of Glen Callater, 1830 (Dr.
Greville); again in same locality, 1868 (Fergusson and Roy); Ingleby,
Yorkshire, 1862 (Mudd.)

                          54. PALUDELLA. EHR.

353. P. SQUARROSA. Brid. St. 2–6in. radiculose; l. obovate-lanceolate,
pointed, recurved above the middle, squarrose, nerved to and serrulate
at apex, margins recurved below; caps. elliptic-oblong gibbous, with a
short thick neck, inclined; lid mammillate.

Boggy places. No fr. found in Britain. Summer.

                           55. MEESIA. HEDW.

354. M. ULIGINOSA. Hedw. St. ½–1in. radiculose, br. fastigiate; l.
lanceolate or linear obtuse (upper longer), entire, margin recurved,
scarcely nerved to apex; caps. pyriform, with a long tapering neck,
incurved, inclined; lid conical truncate; seta very long.

Wet and boggy places. VII. VIII.

[It is very questionable whether _M. longiseta_ has ever been found in
the British Islands.]

                        56. AMBLYODON. P. BEAUV.

355. A. DEALBATUS. P. B. St. ½–1in.; l. lanceolate broad, acute, margins
plane, slightly serrulate at apex, below which the strong nerve ceases;
caps. clavate or pyriform, incurved, inclined, mouth oblique, lid
conical, seta very long.

Wet mountainous places. S. I. VI. VII.

                          57. FUNARIA. SCHREB.

          1. Caps. cernuous on a straight seta, annulus none.

356. F. HIBERNICA. Hook. St. ¼–½in.; l. oblong-oval, gradually tapering
to an acutely serrate point, nerved nearly to apex; caps. pyriform,
longer than in next species, on a seta twisting to left its whole length
when dry; lid concave.

Chalky soil. Cork, Matlock, Conway. IV. V.

357. F. MUHLENBERGII. Schw. St. shorter than last; l. ovate-lanceolate,
suddenly tapering to a long bluntly serrate point, nerved nearly to
apex; caps. pyriform, on a seta when dry twisted at base to left, above
to right; lid convex obtuse with a reddish border.

Limestone walls, banks, &c. IV. V.

  2. Caps. furrowed when dry, on a long arcuate seta, annulus present.

358. F. HYGROMATRICA. Hedw. St. ¼–1in.; l. lower scattered, upper
ovate-lanceolate, concave, clustered into a bulb-like tuft, nerved to
apex, margins reflexed; caps. broadly pyriform, incurved, mouth oblique,
with a corrugate border; lid convex, with a red border.

Banks and walls, old cinder heaps, &c., common, V.—IX.

 var. β. _patula._ st. slender branched; l. undulate, spreading, twisted
           when dry.

      γ. _calvescens._ seta long and straight; caps. slender, almost

359. F. MICROSTOMA. B. & S. Habit of last, but smaller; l. in a comal
bud; caps. pyriform, turgid, not much furrowed when dry; mouth very
small, with a smooth border; inner perist. very imperfect.

Damp stony places. VIII. IX.

Maresfield, Sussex, 1864 (Mr. Mitten).

                         58. ENTOSTHODON. SCHW.

360. E. TEMPLETONI. Schw. St. about ¼in.; l. lower distant
ovate-acuminate, upper in a rosaceous tuft, obovate, acuminate, not
nerved to apex, scarcely serrulate; caps. clavate-pyriform, upright,
neck tapering, lid plano-convex.

Crevices of rocks and shady places. E. S. I. W. VII.

361. E. MINIMUM. Hunt. (Mem. Lit. and Sci. Soc., Manchester, vol. V., p.
100, 1871–2.) St. ⅛–¼in. erect, gregarious; l. lower obovate, margin
reflexed, nerve thin, not reaching apex; upper oblong, sub-erect,
sub-canaliculate, margin recurved, crenulate above, nerve strong, nearly
reaching apex; areolæ large elongate hexagonal below, above shorter;
caps. obconical when dry, smooth, with a distinct neck and wide mouth;
seta erect, ⅛–¼in.; perist. half immersed, of 16 slender linear subulate
teeth; dioicous.

Sandstone walls. Glasnevin, Dublin (D. Orr.) VIII.

                        59. PHYSCOMITRIUM. BRID.

362. P. ERICETORUM. De Not. St. ¼in.; l. lower, distant, small, upper in
a tuft, larger, obovate-lanceolate, with a thickened distantly serrate
margin, not nerved to apex; caps. small, pyriform, erect, lid almost

Heaths, banks, stream sides, &c. III. IV.

363. P. FASCICULARE. B. & S. St. about ½in. tufted; l. ovate-oblong or
lanceolate, pointed serrate, not bordered; caps. obovate or pyriform,
tapering at base; lid convex.

Fallow fields. IV.

364. P. PYRIFORME. B. & S. St. about ¼in., tufted; l. lower distant
ovate-lanceolate, above spathulate, pointed, serrate, uppermost longer
erect, not nerved to apex; caps. globose-pyriform erect, mouth small,
lid conical, calyptra sub-persistent, toothed at base.

Moist banks and ditches. IV.

365. P. SPHŒRICUM. B. & S. St. scarcely ¼in.; l. oval-oblong or slightly
spathulate, acute, concave, entire; upper ones largest, nerved nearly to
apex; caps. sub-globose, mouth large; lid large conical; calyp. lobed

Dried-up mud. IX.–XI.

Mere, Cheshire, 1834 (Wils.), J. Whitehead, Oct., 1870.

                       60. BARTRAMIDULA. B. & S.

366. B. WILSONI. B. & S. St. about ¼in. branched; l. ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, somewhat secund, nerved nearly to or beyond apex, serrulate
above; caps. globoso-pyriform, generally pendulous, not striate; lid
convex or conical.

Turfy soil on mountains. S. W. I. X.

                          61. BARTRAMIA. HEDW.

                    1. Caps. erect, perist. single.

367. B. STRICTA. Brid. St. loosely tufted, glaucous green; l.
erecto-patent, rigid when dry, lanceolate-subulate, nerve excurrent into
a serrate arista; caps. ovate-globose furrowed when dry, seta four-sided
at summit, twisted to right when dry; lid convex or mammillate. [Bry.
Eur., IV., t. 316. Schp. Syn., 417.]

On the ground and stones. Early summer.

Maresfield, Sussex (Mitten), 1862.

                   2. Caps. cernuous, perist. double.

                  _a._ Branches fastigiate. Monoicous.

368. B. RIGIDA. Bals. & Not. St. ¼–½in.; br. erect or recurved; l.
erecto-patent, straight, rigid, lanceolate, finely serrulate, nerve
excurrent, cap., large, sub-spherical, furrowed when dry, and cernuous;
lid conical pointed; seta erect; inner perist. sometimes imperfect.

Shady banks, mountains. IX. X.

                    _b._ Br. fasciculate: dioicous.

                  * L. plicate and sheathing at base.

369. B. ARCUATA. Brid. St. 1–4in., with reddish brown radicles; l.
ovate-lanceolate from a broad erect sheathing base, scabrous, serrulate,
spreading; caps. sub-globose, almost pendulous, on an arcuate seta,
furrowed when dry.

Waterfalls and wet rocks. IX. X.

            * * L. not sheathing or plicate. (_Philonotis._)

370. B. (PHILONOTIS) FONTANA. Brid. Stem 1–6in., with reddish black
radicles; l. ovate-acuminate, short and appressed or lanceolate secund,
or spreading and longer (generally plicate at base), nerve almost
excurrent; perig. l. obtuse, nerveless; caps. sub-globose large,
furrowed when dry.

Springs and wet places. VI.

 var. β. _alpina._ st. short, l. ovate-lanceolate, mucronate.

      γ. _falcata._ l. falcato-secund, nerve thick.

      δ. _pumila._ plant smaller in all its parts.

371. B. (PHILONOTIS) CÆSPITOSA. Wils. MS. St. 1–2in. reddish, cæspitose,
radiculose below; l. falcato-secund, lanceolate acuminate, gradually
tapering from base upwards, concave, margins sub-serrulate not recurved,
nerved to apex, areolæ lax, largest at basal angles; perig. l. in a
stellate tuft, almost triangular from a very broad base, finely
sub-serrulate, nerved to apex.

Walton swamp, Cheshire (Wilson): male plant only.

372. B. (PHILONOTIS) ADPRESSA. Fergusson. “Plant widely cæspitose,
erect, 2–3in. either dull, glaucous green, or reddish; l. papillose,
erect when moist, with one wide plica on each side of nerve, incurved
towards apex, slightly twisted when dry, widely ovate from an
amplexicaul base, not acuminate, apex either obtuse or cucullate, with a
very slight mucro, or in the more slender forms rather acute, margin
denticulate slightly reflexed; nerve very thick continuous; areolæ
small, ovoid above, shorter and wider towards the base.” [G. E. Hunt.
Mem. Lit. & Sci. Soc., Manchester, vol. V., 102, 1872.]

Glen Prossen, &c., Clova (Fergusson); Glas Mheal, Perthshire 2500 ft.

373. B. (PHILONOTIS) SERIATA. Mitt. _Musc. Ind. Orient._ “L. spirally
arranged, from a sub-erect base, patent towards apex, ovate acute
plicate, margin distinctly reflexed; areolæ linear above, small and
ovoid towards base; perig. l. from an erect dilated base, widely
spreading, cordatetriangular obtuse, areolæ small obscure
elongate-quadrangular, above large linear and reddish at base; nerve
thick, indistinct, continuous or vanishing below apex, margin slightly
denticulate.” [Hunt. loc. cit., p. 103.]

Springs at head of Clova; Ben-na-Bourd (Gardiner).

374. B. (PHILONOTIS) CALCAREA. B. & S. St. about 2in.; l.
ovate-lanceolate, tapering gradually from middle upwards, concave rigid
secund, margin serrulate, not reflexed, strongly nerved to apex; areolæ
large oblong, long hexagonal at base; perig. l. acute, triangular from a
broad erect base, nerved to apex: caps. sub-globose, inclined or

Wet places. VII.

               _c._ Branches dichotomous and fastigiate.

                              * monoicous.

375. B. POMIFORMIS. Hedw. St. ½–2in.; l. spreading linear-lanceolate,
not concave, doubly spinuloso-serrate, rough, crisp when dry, nerve
slightly excurrent; caps. sub-globose, cernuous, lid small conical.

Dry sandy banks. V.

 var. β. _crispa._ “l. longer, less crowded, branches often longer than

376. B. HALLERIANA. Hedw. St. 1–3in., radiculose below; l. spreading or
secund, linear-subulate from a broad pale erect sheathing base, rough,
serrate, nerve excurrent; caps. sub-globose, on a short curved seta.

Moist alpine and sub-alpine rocks. VI. VII.

                             * * Synoicous.

377. B. GRACILIS. Floerke, 1799. (_B. Oederi_, Swartz, 1800). St.
1–3in.; l. linear-lanceolate, recurved from an erect, not sheathing
base, crisped when dry, margins recurved, serrate above, keeled, smooth;
caps. small globose, oblique, lid convex.

Moist shady rocks. V.

378. B. ITHYPHYLLA. Brid. St. ½–2in.; l. from an erect broad base
sharply bent back and lanceolate-subulate, rigid, serrulate, not crisped
when dry, broadly nerved to apex; caps. globose, almost erect or

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks. VI.

                        62. CONOSTOMUM. SWARTZ.

379. C. BOREALE. Swartz. St. ½–2in. tufted, radiculose; l. imbricate
lanceolate acuminate, keeled, serrate, nerve excurrent into a mucro;
caps. globose, gibbous, cernuous; lid large beaked.

Summits of Scotch mountains. VIII. IX.

                         63. CATASCOPIUM. BRID.

380. C. NIGRITUM. Brid. St. 1in. or more (Wilson says 2–6in. or more),
radiculose; l. lanceolate acute, margin reflexed entire, nerved nearly
to apex; upper ones largest; caps. small globose, dark-coloured or
black, cernuous; lid small conical.

Moist alpine rocks, &c.

Wilson says “fruits March (?)” My specimen from Fife is August.

                          64. DISCELIUM. BRID.

381. D. NUDUM. Brid. Stemless; l. few, ovate-lanceolate, entire,
concave, round the base of the seta, generally buried; seta ½–1in.;
caps. sub-globose reddish, cernuous, small; lid conical acute.

Clay banks and beds. II.–IV.

Near Manchester (Cayley); Todmorden (Hobkirk).

                         65. SPLACHNUM. B. & S.

382. S. VASCULOSUM. L. Stem ¼–1in. radiculose; l. roundish ovate,
obtuse, or ovate-acuminate, entire, narrow at base, not nerved to apex,
areolæ lax; caps. small cylindrical on a large globular apophysis; lid
convex: dioicous.

Elevated wet places. VII.

383. S. AMPULLACEUM. L. St. about 1in.; l. lower lanceolate, upper
larger obovate or oblong-lanceolate, all serrate or sometimes entire,
acuminate, nerved nearly to apex; areolæ lax; seta dilated above into a
turbinate apophysis, bearing the small cylindrical caps.; the whole
shaped like the ancient _ampulla_; lid conical; mono- or dioicous.

On dung in peaty places. V. VI.

384. S. SPHŒRICUM. Hedw. St. ½–1in.; l. roundish obovate, acuminate,
scarcely serrate, lower smaller, nerved nearly to apex; apophysis not
tapering, roundish ovate, about same width as cylindrical capsule; lid
mammillate: dioicous.

Dung in moist peaty places. V. VI.

                        66. TETRAPLODON. B. & S.

385. T. MNIOIDES. B. & S. St. ½–3in. tufted; l. sub-erect obovate or
nearly elliptical, suddenly narrowed into a long piliferous point,
concave, entire, nerved to apex; caps. elliptical on a large obovate
apophysis of about same width; lid conical obtuse.

Moist mountainous situations, on dung, &c. V.

386. T. ANGUSTATUS. B. & S. St. ½–2in. tufted; l. sub-erect,
ovate-lanceolate concave, narrowed into long tapering points, serrate;
caps. ovate on an obconical apophysis; lid conical obtuse.

Dung on mountains, rare. VII. VIII.

                         67. TAYLORIA. HOOKER.

387. T. SERRATA. B. & S. St. scarcely 1in.; l. erecto-patent, recurved
above, oblong-obovate, lower ovate-lanceolate acuminate, serrate above,
not nerved to apex; caps. oval on a long tapering apophysis; lid convex

 var. γ. _tenuis._ “l. broader and shorter, caps. smaller on a more
           slender stalk, much contracted when dry, columella exserted.”

Normal form not found in Britain—only var. γ on turfy soil on Scotch
mountains. VII. VIII.

                          68. DISSODON. GREV.

388. D. FROELICHIANUS. Grev. “St. cæspitose or scattered; l.
ovate-oblong obtuse, nerve ceasing below apex; caps. (with apophysis)
clavato-pyriform; lid conical; teeth of perist. in pairs.” [Wils. Bry.
Brit., 296.]

Doubtful native; said to have been found on Ben High, Aberdeen, by Mr.
Dickson, but the specimen in Herb. Turner is not certain.

389. D. SPLACHNOIDES. Grev. St. 1–4in. radiculose; l. erecto-patent,
oval-oblong or lingulate obtuse, margin plane, not nerved to apex; caps.
obovate with a short tapering neck; lid conical pointed; columella
exserted when dry.

Wet mountainous bogs. Scotland. VIII.

                          69. ŒDIPODIUM. SCHW.

390. Œ. GRIFFITHIANUM. Schw. St. ¼–½in, tufted; barren often much
longer; l. obovate-roundish, obtuse, fringed below, not nerved to apex;
caps. obovate or pyriform, neck tapering into a thick succulent seta;
lid convex obtuse.

Crevices of mountainous rocks. VII. VIII.

                        70. SCHISTOSTEGA. MOHR.

391. S. OSMUNDACEA. W. & M. St. ¼–½in.; l. bifarious, insertion
vertical, lanceolate, pale green; caps. small, sub-globose, mouth large;
lid convex; young plant, when growing in caves, emitting a beautiful
golden green light.

Sandstone caves and banks, not rare. III.

                          71. FISSIDENS. HEDW.

                         I. Fructif. terminal.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

392. F. EXILIS. Hedw. St. ⅛in. simple; l. few, lower small ovate, upper
lanceolate-oblong oblique, acute, margin not bordered, serrulate, nerved
to apex, dorsal wing not reaching to base of leaf; caps.
elliptic-oblong, erect, lid conical obliquely rostrate.

Shady banks and woods, not frequent. E. S. I. I.—III.

393. F. VIRIDULUS. L. St. ¼in. about; l. lanceolate acute, entire,
bordered, crisped when dry, dorsal wing not reaching to base, nerved
nearly to apex; caps. oval-oblong erect; lid conical with a blunt point;
perist. immersed; barren fl. on a short branch.

Shady banks, rivulets on stones, &c. VIII. IX.

394. F. INCURVUS. Schw. St. ¼in. about, ascending from a decumbent base;
l. lanceolate oblong apiculate, narrowly margined, nerve ceasing near
the serrate apex; caps. oval oblique, curved, rarely erect, lid conical
rostellate; perist. not immersed; barren fl. sessile at base of stem.
[Schp. Syn. 104.]

Shady banks, Cheshire; Hurst-pier-point. II. III.

  var. _Lylei._ l. scarcely margined, narrow; perist. immersed.
          Cheshire, rare.

395. F. PUSILLUS. Wils. St. shorter; l. erect, acute, narrow; caps.
sub-erect; perist. immersed.

Sandstone rocks.

396. F. CRASSIPES. Wils. St. ¼–¾in.; plant more robust; l. larger,
broader, and more numerous; caps. obovate-roundish on a short seta,

Sluices. Sandford, near Oxford. X. XI.

397. F. BRYOIDES. Hedw, St. ¼–½in.; l. lanceolate apiculate, with a
thickened margin, dorsal wing reaching to, and broad at, the base,
strongly nerved to or beyond apex; caps. elliptical erect, symmetrical;
lid conical, acutely rostellate; barren fl. axillary.

Shady banks, frequent. I.—III.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

398. F. OSMUNDIOIDES. Hedw. St. 1–2in. tufted, erect, radiculose; l.
lower scattered, small, upper larger crowded, ovate-lanceolate obtuse,
apiculate, margin not thickened, almost entire, not nerved to apex, the
latter sometimes toothed; caps. small oval-oblong, sub-erect; lid large
convex rostrate.

Wet mountainous rocks. X. XI.

399. F. ASPLENIOIDES. Hedw. St. (in var. β. only found in Britain)
3–12in.; l. linear-lanceolate or ligulate entire, obtuse, incurved when
dry; caps. sub-erect obovate, slightly incurved; lid rostrate, as long
as capsule; barren fl. axillary or terminal.

 var. β. _polyphyllos._ “branches arcuate, l. wider, rather acute, more
           strongly nerved, serrulate at apex, barren fl. numerous
           axillary.” [Wils. Bry. Brit.] Moist shady rocks on mountains.
           W. I.

                         II. Fructif. lateral.

400. _F. adiantoedes._ Hedw. St. 1–2in. branched, leafy; l.
ovate-lanceolate, finely serrulate below, dentate at apex, nerved almost
or quite to apex; border sometimes thickened; caps. oval-oblong,
constricted at mouth when dry, cernuous; lid with a long beak:

Shady wet rocks and bogs. X.–IV.

401. F. TAXIFOLIUS. Hedw. St. about ½in. fasciculate from base; l.
lanceolate, pointed, not bordered, finely crenulate, nerved almost to
apex; caps. almost ovate, inclined on a seta curved at summit, and
inserted at base of stem, lid large convex with a long oblique beak:

Moist shady banks. XII.—II.

402. F. DECIPIENS. De Not. St. about ½in. fasciculate from base; l.
lower distant, coulter-shaped, upper imbricate patulous, oblong-ligulate
acute or mucronulate, dorsal wing narrow, nerve strongly excurrent,
excavate; the cultriform lobe of the upper leaves obliquely acute,
longer than half the leaf, upper part strongly serrate; caps. ovate,
somewhat constricted at base, erect or inclined; lid large rounded
beaked: dioicous. [De Notaris, Epilogo Briol. Ital. 1869, p. 480.]

Damp rocks and old walls.

403. F. TAMARINDIFOLIUS. Donn. St. about ½in. fasciculate, slender; l.
elliptical “sub-falciform apiculate,” with an entire pellucid
cartilaginous border, nerved to apex; caps. ovate-oblong curved
inclined; lid short conical, with a bluntish point.

Banks, &c. II. III.

                       DIVISION II. PLEUROCARPI.


404. A. COMPACTUM. Schw. St. 1–4in. densely tufted, slender; l. short,
lanceolate spreading from an erect base, acuminate, slightly serrulate
near the base only, nerved to or beyond apex; caps. oval-oblong erect;
lid long convex, with a slender oblique beak.

Crevices of moist alpine rocks. Autumn.

405. A. HORNSCHUCHIANUM. Hoppe. “St. elongate cæspitose; l.
linear-subulate from a dilated base, channelled, entire; caps.
roundish-pyriform: lid rostrate.” Wils. “L. upper part of dilated base
is always more or less distinctly crenate or serrulate, from thence to
the apex entire.” W. Mitten, Jour. of Bot., vol. V., p. 329. [Mr. Mitten
refers Dr. Taylor’s plant from Ireland to _Tortula Hibernica_, by which
name it is described under that genus.]

                          73. LEUCODON. SCHW.

406. L SCIUROIDES. Schw. St. or branches 1in. from a creeping rhizome;
l. imbricate, ovate, entire, tapering to a point, plicate, somewhat
secund; per. l. longer, all nerveless; caps. long elliptical erect; lid
conical beaked.

Trees, walls, rocks, &c. IX.

407. L. LAGURUS. Hook. St. ½–1in., tomentous; l. ovate, suddenly
contracted to a piliferous point, concave, serrulate near apex, nerved
half way; caps. cylindrical; lid with a short curved beak.

Trees and rocks.

 var. β. _borealis._ “st. not tomentous; l. auriculate and serrate at
           base, more concave and more suddenly attenuated, with longer
           points; faintly two-nerved at base only.” Wils. N. Uist,
           Hebrides, 1851.

                         74. ANTITRICHIA. BRID.

408. A. CURTIPENDULA. Brid. St. 3–8in. straggling, pinnately branched;
l. ovate, concave, sharply curved to a roughly toothed point, which ends
in a double hook in the younger ones, nerved half way, margins recurved;
caps. roundish elliptical drooping; lid with an oblique beak.

Rocks and trees. IV.

                          75. LEPTODON. BRID.

409. L. SMITHII. Brid. St. 1–3in. creeping, branches pinnate or
bipinnate; l. ovate, rounded and obtuse at apex, entire, margin recurved
below, nerved more than half way; per. l. erect ovate-subulate; caps.
elliptical horizontal on a short curved seta; lid with an oblique beak.

Trees. Devon, &c. IV.

                         76. ANOMODON. H. & T.

410. A. VITICULOSUS. H. & T. St. 1–2in. from a creeping rhizome rigid;
l. more or less secund or spreading from an ovate base lingulate or
subulate, obtuse, entire, nerve pellucid, almost reaching apex; caps.
almost cylindrical erect, on a yellowish seta; lid large conical

Shady limestone rocks, trees. XI.

411. A. ATTENUATUS. Hueb. (_Hypnum_, Schreb. _Leskea_, Hedwig.) St.
1–2in. procumbent with incurved branches; l. imbricate, sometimes
secund, ovate-lanceolate from a narrow base, acute, scarcely nerved to
apex; per. l. narrower nerveless; areolæ minute opaque; caps.
cylindrical erect; lid conical, with an oblique beak: dioicous.

Damp rocks and rotten tree trunks. Den of Airlie, Forfarshire
(Fergusson), 1868.

412. A. LONGIFOLIUS. Hartm. Rhizomes slenderer than No. 410, branches
sub-fasciculate; l. somewhat secund, from an ovate base lanceolate
tapering, very acute, nerved to apex; caps. ovate-oblong on a short
seta; lid large conical rostellate.

Scotch mountains; fr. not found in Britain. Autumn.

                          77. HABRODON. SCHP.

413. H. NOTARISII. Schpr. (_Pterogonium perpusillum_, De Not.) St.
creeping, irregularly branched; l. spreading squarrose opaque, imbricate
and shining when dry, from an ovate base longly acuminate, nerveless,
entire; per. l. internal with erose margins; caps. oval-oblong erect,
slightly striate, and contracted at mouth when dry; lid conical erose.
[Supp. Bry. Eur. fasc. III. IV.]

Trunks of elm and white thorn. Spring.

Windermere and Devon (J. Nowell); Killin, Perthshire (A. McKinlay),
July, 1865; Ben Lawers (Hunt).

                        78. PTEROGONIUM. SWARTZ.

414. PT. FILIFORME. Hedw. St. creeping, with incurved fasciculate
branches; l. imbricate or secund, elliptical, concave, papillose at
back, serrulate at pointed apex, margin recurved; nerved half way, or
shortly two-nerved at base; caps. elliptical erect; lid conical,
obliquely rostrate.

Mountainous rocks and tree trunks. S. I. Spring.

415. PT. GRACILE. Sw. Rhizome creeping, with arcuate stems, and incurved
fasciculate branches; l. spreading, (appressed when dry) ovate, concave,
acute, serrate near apex, margin not recurved, slightly two-nerved at
base; caps. oblong, longer and thicker than last; lid conical, shorter,
not rostrate.

Shady sub-alpine rocks and walls, and trees. XI.

                         79. ISOTHECIUM. BRID.

416. I. MYURUM. Dill. St. 1–2in. from a creeping stoloniferous rhizome,
with fasciculate branches; l. elliptical concave, not tapering but
serrulate at apex, nerved half way, singly or forked; per. l. erect;
caps. ovate, erect, with a long rostrate lid: dioicous.

Trees and rocks. X.

                         80. CLIMACIUM. W. & M.

417. C. DENDROIDES. W. & M. St. 1–3in. erect, with long spreading
branches; l. ovate-lanceolate, serrulate at apex: st. l. acute, br. l.
obtuse, nerved nearly to apex; per. l. nerveless, entire; caps. erect
ovate-oblong, with a pointed beak.

Boggy places. X.–I.

                     81. CYLINDROTHECIUM. BRY. EUR.

418. C. MONTAGNEI. Bry. Eur. Müller. St. 1–2in., branches pinnate,
recurved, cuspidate; l. elliptical acute entire, rather obtuse, faintly
two-nerved at base, margin recurved below; marginal basal cells large
and pellucid; caps. cylindrical, erect, on a long seta, and with a blunt
lid: dioicous.

Limestone hills. S. E. Autumn.

                            82. LESKEA. HED.

                           A. L. not striate.

               _a._ l. nerveless, or faintly two-nerved.

419. L. MONILIFORMIS. Wahl. St. ½in. slender tufted, branched; l.
imbricate, nearly round, obtuse, very concave, nerveless, denticulate at
base; per. l. ovate-lanceolate; caps. almost erect, small, oval-oblong,
with a short beak.

Alpine rocks. E. S. I. Summer.

420. L. APICULATA. Hueb. [_Myurella._] Loosely cæspitose, soft and
fragile; l. loosely imbricate or patent, ovate, very concave, often with
a recurved apiculus, opaque; perist. pale, small. [Bryol. Eur., v. t.

Moist rocky ground. Ben Lawers. Summer.

421. L. MICANS. Wils. [_Hypnum._ Bry. Brit. 402.] St. prostrate, very
slender, filiform, branched; l. almost orbicular, concave, apiculate,
serrulate, sometimes faintly two-nerved at base; fruit not known.

Shady rocks. S. of Ireland.

422. L. POLYANTHA. Hedw. Stem short creeping, branched; branches
incurved above; l. crowded sub-secund, ovate-acuminate, suddenly
apiculate, with apiculus sometimes slightly serrulate, nerveless; caps.
elliptic-oblong erect, broader below, with a conical bluntish lid and
long calyptra: monoicous.

Trees. E. S. W. VII. VIII.

                            _b._ l. nerved.

423. L. PULVINATA. Wahl. St. ½in. procumbent, slenderly branched; l.
imbricate elliptic-ovate, narrowed below, concave entire, nerved half
way, or two-nerved at base; areolæ large, almost hexagonal; per. l.
nerveless; caps. almost erect, oval-oblong; lid conical pointed, falling
early: monoicous.

Roots of trees near rivers, &c. V. VI.

424. L. POLYCARPA. Ehr. St. longer, densely tufted; almost pinnately
branched; l. imbricate, sub-secund, ovate, tapering, stoutly nerved
nearly to apex, margin entire, reflexed below; per. l. erect, striate;
caps. cylindrical, erect, lid conical acute: monoicous.

Roots of trees. V. VI.

 var. β. _paludosa_, generally more lax; caps. longer.

                             B. L. striate.

425. L. SERICEA. Dill. St. 1in. or more, creeping, branched; branches
erect, curved; l. imbricate, sub-secund, lanceolate, long tapering,
scarcely nerved to apex; areolæ very narrow; caps. almost erect,
cylindrical, tapering above, on a rough seta; lid conical, obliquely
beaked: dioicous.

Walls, rocks, and trunks of trees. XI.–III.

426. L. RUFESCENS. Hall. St. 1–3in. erect, branched, with reddish brown
foliage; l. imbricate, almost erect, lanceolate, long tapering, often
almost piliferous, nerveless, margins plane; caps. generally erect
cylindrical, on a long smooth seta; lid shortly conical: dioicous.

Moist shady alpine rocks. S. X.

427. L. SUBRUFA. Wils. St. about 1in. or less, erect, branched; foliage,
young green, older brownish; l. almost erect, sub-secund, lanceolate,
long tapering, nerveless, entire; caps. ovate, tapering below, almost
erect; lid conical pointed; dioicous. Fruit not found in Britain.

Sub-alpine rocks. Summer.

                           83. HYPNUM. DILL.

_Sub-genus_ I. THUYIDIUM. St. erect, pinnate or bipinnate, with numerous
    branched villi; l. densely papillose on the back; nerve single.

                        _a._ St. simply pinnate.

428. H. (THUYIDIUM.) ABIETINUM. Dill. St. 2–4in. rigid, reddish, not
always erect; br. slightly drooping crowded; l. imbricate,
erecto-patent, more or less secund; st. l. ovate or cordate acuminate,
serrulate near apex, plicate; br. l. narrower, less plicate; all
papillose on back and keel, nerved nearly to apex; areolæ dot-like;
caps. oblong-cylindrical, arcuate, cernuous; lid conical: dioicous.

Alpine rocks, chalk hills, &c. Spring.

429. H. (THUYIDIUM) BLANDOVII. W. & M. St. 3in. erect, flexible; br.
slender, spreading; l. loosely imbricate, erect from a spreading base,
broadly ovate or sub-cordate, acute, narrowed at base almost to a
pedicel, keeled, serrulate, not papillose on keel, thinly nerved nearly
to apex, margin recurved: areolæ larger, sub-hexagonal; caps. oblong,
curved, cernuous; lid conical, with a blunt point: monoicous.

Bogs, rare. V.

430. H. (THUYIDIUM) DECIPIENS. De Not. (_H. rigidulum._ Ferg.) St.
2–4in. rigid, villous, with short attenuate branches; st. l. distant,
sub-squarrose, deltoid-ovate, suddenly acuminate auricled, concave
serrate, papillose on both sides, sometimes secund above; br. l.
smaller, crowded, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, spreading or secund, nerved
half way or more; areolæ large hexagonal and pellucid at base, above
oval-elongate confused (Fergusson).

Springs and streams. Ben Lawers (Dr. Stirton), 1866; Clova, 2800 ft.
(Fergusson), 1868; Auchinblae, 800 ft. (Sim and Fergusson); Glas Mheal,
Perthshire, 2500 ft. (G. E. Hunt). All barren.

                 _b._ St. bi- or tri-pinnate: dioicous.

431. H. (THUYIDIUM) DELICATULUM. L. St. elongate, erect or procumbent,
bipinnate; br. drooping, often rooting at apex; l. broadly cordate or
ovate-acuminate, sub-striate, papillose or muricate on back and keel,
nerved nearly to apex, which is finely serrulate; caps. sub-cylindrical
curved, cernuous, pale brown, lid large conical, not rostrate.

Limestone and chalk rocks, &c. VII. VIII.

432. H. (THUYIDIUM) TAMARISCINUM. Hedw. St. elongate, arched,
procumbent, interruptedly tri-pinnate; br. not rooting; st. l. cordate
acuminate, plicate; br. l. ovate, obtuse; all papillose at back, but not
so much so as last; serrulate near and nerved almost to apex; caps.
oblong-cylindrical, curved, cernuous, purplish red; lid large conical,
with a long beak.

Woods and banks, frequent. XI.

_Sub-genus_ II. PTYCHODIUM. Branches sub-pinnate; l. patent and secund,
  often deeply sulcate, thinly nerved to apex; areolæ shortly linear,
 quadrate at the angles; caps. cernuous, horizontal, ovate; per. teeth
            dense and narrow, lamellose, cilia rudimentary.

433. H. (PTYCHODIUM) PLICATUM. Schl. St. creeping, tomentous; branches
ascending incurved; l. ovate, imbricate, pointed, margin recurved; per.
l. twice as large; caps. ovate-oblong, small, on a half-inch reddish
seta: dioicous.

Alpine rocks. S. IV. (?)

   _Sub-genus_ III. CAMPTOTHECIUM. Stems trailing in part, sub-erect,
  branched; l. silky, striate, thinly nerved, areolæ narrowly linear;
caps. cernuous, on a smooth or rough incurved seta; lid shortly rostrate
             or conical; internal perist. with long cilia.

434. H. (CAMPTOTHECIUM) LUTESCENS. Dill. St. about 3in. irregularly
branched, sometimes pinnate; l. narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a long
point, entire, nerved nearly to apex; caps. oblong arcuate, on a rough
seta; lid conical, beaked: monoicous.

Rocks and woods (limestone and sandstone). IV.

435. H. (CAMPTOTHECIUM) NITENS. Dill. St. 2–4in. erect, almost pinnate,
radiculose; branches short spreading; l. erecto-patent, lanceolate, long
tapering, acute, not nerved to apex, entire, margin recurved; caps,
arcuate oblong, on a long smooth seta; lid conical: dioicous.

Bogs. E. S. IV. V.

  _Sub-genus_ IV. BRACHYTHECIUM. Plants upright or prone, irregularly
branched; l. silky, patent or sub-secund, more or less decurrent, thinly
 nerved, striate; areolæ narrowly hexagono-rhomboid, generally quadrate
at basal angles; caps. ovate, sub-globose, or oblong, often turgid, lid

                           _a._ Seta smooth.

436. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) MILDEANUM. Schp. St. ½ to 1in. erect branched;
l. sub-erect, long lanceolate, gradually tapering from a broadish base
into a long slender point, almost piliferous, plicate when dry, margins
plane, thinly nerved more than half way; areolæ long and narrow, broader
at base and quadrate at basal angles; caps. obovate-oblong or
unsymmetrical, much curved cernuous, constricted at mouth when dry, on a
red twisted seta; lid conical, tapering to a blunt apex, tipped with an

Sands. Southport, Fifeshire, Dublin, Cornwall. X. XI.

437. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) SALEBROSUM. Hoffm. St. 1–2in. procumbent
sub-pinnate; l. shortly ovate-acuminate, serrulate, only slightly
striate, nerved more than half way; caps. ovate cernuous curved, lid
conical, scarcely beaked: monoicous.

Trees. XI.

Near Kirkham Abbey, Yorks. (R. Spruce); Sussex (Mitten).

438. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) GLAREOSUM. Bruch. St. about 2in. sub-procumbent,
branches sometimes sub-pinnate; l. erecto-patent from an ovate base,
gradually tapering into a long slender, sometimes twisted, sub-serrulate
apex, margin reflexed below; caps. ovate-oblong, cernuous arcuate; lid
conical, with a distinct beak: dioicous.

Woods and shady banks. XI.

439. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) ALBICANS. Dill. St. about 2in. upright; l.
spreading, appressed when dry, ovate-acuminate, concave, entire, nerved
more than half way; caps. ovate small, scarcely curved, cernuous, on a
slender seta; young foliage pale green, greyish brown below: dioicous.

Sandy grassy places. XI. XII.

                            _b._ Seta rough.

440. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) VELUTINUM. Dill. St. short creeping, with erect
branches; l. sub-secund, ovate-lanceolate, prolonged into a short
serrulate taper point; nerved half way or more, margin reflexed below;
per. l. almost piliferous; caps. roundish ovate cernuous; lid conical
pointed; monoicous.

Walls, sandy hedge banks, roots of trees, &c. XI. XII.

441. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) REFLEXUM. Seliger. St. more or less arched,
procumbent, and rooting at extremities; branches sub-pinnate, slender,
incurved; l. shortly ovate-cordate, acuminate, serrate, nerved almost or
quite to apex, margin reflexed, areolæ large; caps. small, roundish
ovate, horizontal; lid conical pointed: monoicous.

Scottish mountains. Spring.

442. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) RUTABULUM. Dill. St. long, loosely tufted,
procumbent, and rooting at extremities, with erect branches; l. ovate,
concave, acuminate, serrulate, striate when dry; thinly nerved, above
half way; caps. ovate-oblong, arcuate, cernuous on a very rough seta;
lid bluntly pointed: monoicous.

Banks, walls, and trees. Common. IX.—III.

 var. δ. _plumulosum._ Sch. l. narrower, tapering, not acuminate. Sands,

443. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) CAMPESTRE. B. & S. St. loosely cæspitose,
prostrate or ascending, much branched; l. erecto-patent, longly
ovate-lanceolate, more or less subulato-acuminate, serrulate, thinly
nerved more than half way, plicate, shining; per. l. recurved squarrose
from the middle, piliferous; caps. oblong-cylindrical sub-arcuate, on a
slightly roughened seta. (Sch. Synopsis, 543.)

Grassy places, fields, &c. Winter and Spring.

Maresfield, Sussex (Mr. Mitten); Spec, in Herb. Kew. “Newchurch, Over,
Cheshire, W. W. Dec. 13, 1837.”

444. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) RIVULARE. Bruch. St. arched, slender; branches
slender, incurved, sub-pinnate; l. deltoid-ovate, gradually tapering,
not suddenly acuminate, serrate, nerved above half way, decurrent: caps.
short roundish ovate arcuate, cernuous; lid large conical acute
rostellate: dioicous.

Stones, &c., by rivulets in shady woods; sometimes in water, when the
st. are often very elongate. IX.

445. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) POPULEUM. Hedw. St. creeping, sub-pinnate; l.
narrowly ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a long serrulate point, margin
reflexed, nerved to apex; caps. small roundish ovate, slightly cernuous
or nearly erect; lid conical, very acute, sub-persistent on the ripe
fruit: monoicous.

Walls, rocks, trees, &c., frequent. IX.—II.

 var. β. _nutans._ Brid. branches longer, caps. distinctly cernuous.

446. H. (BRACHYTHECIUM) PLUMOSUM. Swartz. St. creeping; branches long,
frequently erect, sub-pinnate; l. ovate, concave, acuminate, sub-secund,
serrulate near apex, nerved above half way; caps. small roundish ovate,
cernuous, seta roughish at summit only; lid conical acute: monoicous.

Sub-alpine shady rocks, stones in rivulets, walls, &c. X.—III

_Sub-genus_ V. SCLEROPODIUM. Areolation vermicular, slightly dilated and
   excavate at angles; caps. on a rough seta, sub-erect or cernuous,
               turgid, ovate or oblong and sub-incurved.

447. H. (SCLEROPODIUM) CÆSPITOSUM. Wils. St. densely tufted, creeping;
branches slender, short, incurved; l. sub-secund, ovate, small, concave,
serrulate, nerved above half way; caps. sub-cylindrical, slightly
arcuate, sub-erect; lid long rostellate; dioicous.

Damp walls and roots of trees. XI.

Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Sussex.

448. H. (SCLEROPODIUM) ILLECEBRUM. L. St. procumbent, sometimes
sub-pinnate, branches incurved obtuse; l. roundish ovate, pointed, very
concave, imbricate, serrulate, tip slightly recurved; nerve reaching
above half way, its tip slightly projecting from back of leaf; caps.
ovate-oblong cernuous, somewhat ventricose; lid bluntly conical
apiculate: dioicous.

Banks and rocks near the sea. XI. XII.

Hampshire, Anglesea.

  _Sub-genus_ VI. EURYNCHIUM. More or less pinnately branched; areolæ
   narrowly rhomboid or sub-vermicular, dilated at the angles; caps.
  cernuous and horizontal, on a smooth or rough seta; lid with a long

   _a._ _Striatæ._ l. sub-scariose, shining, more or less distinctly
                    sulcate; areolæ long and narrow.

                            1. Seta smooth.

449. H. (EURYNCHIUM) MYOSUROIDES. L. (_Isothecium myosuroides._ Bry.
Brit. 323.) St. slender; branches fasciculate incurved; l. somewhat
spreading, from an ovate base lanceolate acuminate, serrulate, nerved
more than half way; caps. elliptic-oblong, more or less inclined, on a
twisted or curved seta; lid conical, with a short beak: dioicous.

Trunks of trees and rocks. XI.

450. H. (EURYNCHIUM) STRIGOSUM. Hoffm. St. 1in. sub-erect or creeping,
scarcely pinnate; l. roundish ovate or cordate, concave, rather obtuse,
serrate, nerved above half way, margin recurved below; caps.
sub-cylindrical, curved, small; lid conical, with a longish curved beak:

Roots of trees, rocks, &c. XI.

Cornwall (Tozer in Herb. Hook.) Spring.

451. H. (EURYNCHIUM) DIMORPHUM. Brid. St. 1–2in. procumbent, branches
very slender, more or less pinnate; st. l. ovate-acuminate, spreading
recurved; br. l. ovate, concave obtuse, sub-erect, all serrulate and
shortly two-nerved; areolæ quadrate on margin, the rest larger, longer
and less opaque; caps. oblong, almost horizontal; lid conical, without
beak: dioicous.

Ben Lawers. Barren. Summer (?)

452. H. (EURYNCHIUM) CATENULATUM. Schwg. St. about ½in. creeping, with
erect very slender branches; l. very small, ovate acute, entire concave,
margin recurved below, broadly nerved half way or more; caps.
oval-oblong slightly curved, sub-erect or cernuous; lid large, with a
distinct beak: dioicous.

Alpine and sub-alpine rocks.


Scotland; Yorkshire. Fr. not known in Britain.

453. H. (EURYNCHIUM) HETEROPTERUM. Bruch. St. procumbent, more or less
pinnate, often rooting at apex; l. ovate-acuminate, small, more or less
secund, denticulate, somewhat papillose at back; nerved singly half way,
or short and forked; caps. oblong, scarcely curved, almost erect; lid
with a long beak: dioicous.

Moist rocks near waterfalls. XI.

Ireland, Wales, Todmorden.

454. H. (EURYNCHIUM) CIRCINNATUM. Brid. St. short, sub-erect arched:
branches curved and drooping; l. very small ovate, pointed, sub-secund,
serrulate at apex, thickly nerved nearly to apex; areolæ oval, smaller
and quadrate at base; caps. oblong cernuous, curved; lid large, with a
long oblique or curved beak: dioicous.

Shady limestone rocks and walls. III.

455. H. (EURYNCHIUM) STRIATULUM. Spruce. St. short creeping, tufted;
branches short crowded, erect; l. erecto-patent, ovate, long taper
pointed, serrate, sub-striate, strongly nerved more than half way; basal
areolæ opaque minute; caps. oblong cernuous; lid roundish, with a long
pointed beak: dioicous.

Shady limestone rocks and roots of trees. XII.

456. H. (EURYNCHIUM) STRIATUM. Hedw. Much larger than the last in all
its parts; stems loosely tufted, arched, sub-pinnate; branches drooping;
l. gradually tapering from a broad cordate base, almost squarrose,
serrate, striate, nerved more than half way; caps. almost cylindrical,
curved, cernuous; lid large, with a long slender curved beak: dioicous.

Woods and shady banks. XII.

                             2. Seta rough.

457. H. (EURYNCHIUM) CRASSINERVIUM. Tayl. St. creeping, branches erect;
l. spreading ovate, sharply pointed serrate concave, margin reflexed,
nerve thick, reaching more than half way, sometimes forked: caps.
elliptic-oblong small curved, cernuous; lid large, with a very long
slender oblique beak; dioicous.

Shady limestone rocks. XI.

458. H. (EURYNCHIUM) PILIFERUM. Vaill. St. 2–3in. slender, procumbent,
branched; l. imbricate erecto-patent, elliptical serrulate, suddenly
contracted into a long serrulate, almost piliferous point, concave,
nerved half way; caps. oblong cernuous, slightly arcuate, lid with a
long beak.

Shady banks and woods. Fr. rare. XI.

459. H. (EURYNCHIUM) CIRRHOSUM. Schwg. Stems erect or procumbent, with a
few erect branches; l. imbricate elliptic, more oblong than the last (of
which it may be only a variety, though very different in many points),
entire except the long narrow points, which are serrulate and suddenly
geniculate or reflexed where the point joins the blade; concave, nerved
half way. Never been found in fruit.

Summit of Ben Lawers, 1823 (Dr. Arnott).

_b._ _Prælongæ._ l. opaque, scarcely sulcate, areolæ almost as broad as
                           long; seta rough.

                              * Synoicous.

460. H. (EURYNCHIUM) SPECIOSUM. Brid. St. creeping, with short erect,
almost complanate branches; l. ovate serrulate, nerved almost to acute
apex, bright green; caps. ovate or obovate, cernuous; lid with a long
pointed beak.

Stones near springs, sometimes in water. XII.

                             * * Dioicous.

461. H. (EURYNCHIUM) PRŒLONGUM. Dill. St. long, arched or procumbent,
often bipinnate, branches slender; l. squarrose recurved, broadly
cordate, and suddenly tapering to a long point, amplexicaul, nerve
carried nearly to base of point; br. l. lanceolate acuminate, all
serrate: per. l. nerveless; caps. small oval-oblong, obliquely cernuous;
lid with a long tapering slender beak.

Moist shady banks. XI.

462. H. (EURYNCHIUM) HIANS. Hedw. Sp. Musc. 272. t. 70. L. roundish
ovate, spreading, areolæ large. [Mueller Syn. II., 447.]

Sussex (Mr. Mitten).

463. H. (EURYNCHIUM) PUMILUM. Wils. St. creeping, filiform; br. slender,
sub-pinnate sub-complanate; l. minute ovate, shortly pointed, spreading
sub-serrulate, faintly nerved half way; per. l. smaller, recurved; caps.
short roundish ovate, cernuous; lid rather large, with an oblique beak.

Shady rocks and hedge banks. E. S. I. XI.

464. H. (EURYNCHIUM) STOKESII. Turn. St. densely cæspitose, branches
ascending, simple below, above densely pinnate and bipinnate; st. l.
distant, acutely cordate, shortly acuminate, and triquetrous, recurved;
br. l. ovate-lanceolate, erecto-patent, all thinly nerved, and serrate;
caps. oblong ventricose horizontal, olive-coloured; lid with a long
straight subulate beak from a conical base. (Syn. 562. Bry. Eur. V.

Stones and rocks in woods, &c.


465. H. (EURYNCHIUM) SWARTZII. Turn. St. creeping, with short erect
branches; l. uniform, ovate not acuminate, serrate, nerved more than
half way; caps. roundish ovate, cernuous, reddish brown; lid with a long
oblique beak.

Moist banks and rocks; frequent. XI.

_Sub-genus_ VII. HYOCOMIUM. St. prostrate; l. broadly obcordate, with a
      long apiculus, decurrent, shortly two-nerved; areolæ, above
 flexuoso-linear, middle narrowly rectangular, angles broadly hexagonal
   or rectangular; caps. on a thick seta, oval, turgid, cernuous; lid

466. H. (HYOCOMIUM) FLAGELLARE. Dicks. St. 1in. or more, arched pinnate;
br. sub-fasciculate, recurved; st. l. squarrose, broadly cordate
acuminate, slightly striate; br. l. less spreading, sub-secund, roundish
ovate, less acuminate; all sharply serrate and mostly two-nerved at
base, or nerveless; per. l. almost erect, much narrower; caps.
ovate-oblong, curved, cernuous, on a rough seta: dioicous.

Moist shady rocks by cascades, &c. X. XI.

 _Sub-genus_ VIII. RHYNCHOSTEGIUM. Plants low cæspitose, with scattered
branches; l. soft, shining, nerveless or simply nerved; areolæ elongate,
   narrowly hexagono-rhomboid; caps. horizontal cernuous; lid with a
                             subulate beak.

    _a._ _Demissæ._ St. prostrate, l. complanate, oblong-lanceolate,
     nerveless, entire; caps. thin walled; seta smooth: monoicous.

467. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) DEMISSUM. Wils. St. filiform; br. short
slender: l. elliptic-lanceolate, acute, sub-secund above, margin
reflexed; caps. small, narrowly elliptical, horizontal cernuous; lid
obliquely rostrate.

Shady mountainous rocks. VII. VIII.

   _b._ _Tenellæ._ st. creeping; l. narrowly lanceolate, caps. solid
                walled, seta rough or smooth: monoicous.

468. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) TENELLUM. Dicks. St. and br. very short
creeping; l. erecto-patent, narrowly lanceolate acuminate, almost
setaceous, light green, entire, nerved more than half way; caps. ovate
cernuous, on a smooth seta; lid beaked.

Walls and rocks, principally limestone. X.

469. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) TEESDALII. Sm. St. slender, creeping; br.
erect; l. sub-complanate, narrowly lanceolate, rigid, slightly serrulate
near apex, broadly nerved nearly to apex; caps. ovate cernuous, on a
rough seta; lid almost as large as caps., beaked.

Moist shady rocks near waterfalls. III.—VI.

   _c._ _Depressæ._ Pl. low cæspitose soft; l. broadly oblong, thinly
                          nerved; seta smooth.

                              * Dioicous.

470. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) DEPRESSUM. Bruch. St. prostrate pinnate; br.
thickest in middle—both very short; l. complanate crowded ovate-oblong,
slightly concave and finely serrulate, shortly two-nerved; caps. ovate,
curved, cernuous; lid as long as caps. and long beaked.

Rocks and stones, especially limestone. Spring.

Caergwrle, N. Wales, Oct., 1871, in fruit (C. L. Higgins.)

                             * * Monoicous.

471. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) CONFERTUM. Dicks. St. creeping sub-pinnate; br.
erect; l. slightly secund or complanate, ovate-acuminate concave
serrulate, thinly nerved quite or more than half way; caps. ovate-oblong
cernuous; lid short, with a very long curved beak.

Rocks, walls, trees, &c., frequent. X.

472. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) MEGAPOLITANUM. Bland. Much larger than the
last, and remotely branched; st. l. remote, br. l. crowded; lower
oblong-lanceolate, the others more or less sharply acuminate from a
broad ovate base, slightly serrulate, nerved more than half way; caps.
oblong cylindrical incurved, arcuate when dry; lid with a short thick
beak. [Schp. Syn. 469, Bry. Eur. v. t. 511.]

Sandy shores. Southport, Dublin, Sussex. Spring.

473. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) MURALE. Dill. St. short, creeping, with erect
crowded branches; l. closely imbricate, roundish ovate, concave, faintly
serrulate, cucullate at apex, which is slightly mucronate, not
acuminate, nerved half way; caps. ovate, somewhat cernuous; lid
flattish, with a long beak.

Walls, &c., chiefly limestone. X.

474. H. (RHYNCHOSTEGIUM) RUSCIFOLIUM. Dill. St. creeping, with long
irregular procumbent branches; l. complanate and sub-secund, ovate, with
a cordate base, serrate, stoutly nerved nearly to apex; caps. shortly
ovate cernuous; lid convex, with a very long beak.

Rocks and stones in rivulets, frequent. XI.

     _Sub-genus_ IX. THAMNIUM. Dendroid from a creeping rhizome; l.
  sub-complanate, nerved, areolæ minute, quadrate or rhomboid at apex,
  narrowly oblong at base; caps. short and sub-arcuate with the seta,
     turgidly ovate, lid with a long beak; inner perist. with long
                          appendiculate cilia.

475. H. (THAMNIUM) ALOPECURUM. Dill. St. 2–3in. naked below, pinnately
branched above; l. spreading ovate-lanceolate, somewhat concave,
serrate, strongly nerved nearly to apex; caps. shortly ovate, cernuous
or erect, lid with a long oblique beak: dioicous.

Moist woods, rocks, &c. XI.

  _Sub-genus_ X. PLAGIOTHECIUM. St. generally prostrate, or partially
  erect, branched; l. complanate or secund, thin, silky, nerveless or
 shortly two-nerved; areolæ long hexagono-rhomboid; caps. sub-erect or
 cernuous, more or less incurved; lid convexo-conical or rostrate; per.
  teeth pale thin, internal a membrane with narrowish processes; cilia
                            none or obscure.

      A. Per. teeth distantly articulate, without cilia: dioicous.

476. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) LATEBRICOLA. Bry. Eur. (_Leskea_, Bry. Brit.)
St. short, slender, sparsely branched, sub-erect; l. sub-secund
ovate-lanceolate, tapering acute, entire, slightly concave, decurrent,
faintly two-nerved; margin recurved; caps. elliptic-oblong, turbinate
when dry; lid short, acutely conical.

Moist shady woods, decaying trunks, and ferns. Winter.

     B. Per. teeth densely articulate, internal with entire ciliary

                            _a._ Monoicous.

477. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) PULCHELLUM. Dicks. St. short densely tufted,
sub-erect, br. fastigiate; l. crowded, secund, lanceolate, gradually
tapering from base to apex, entire, generally nerveless; caps. oblong,
sub-erect, curved; lid conical, scarcely beaked.

Mountainous shady rocks, &c. VI.—X.

478. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) MUHLENBECKII. B. &. S. St. short, tufted,
sub-erect, with recurved fasciculate branches; l. complanate, spreading,
deltoid-ovate or sub-cordate, tapering, dark green, finely serrulate,
nerveless, or shortly two-nerved; caps. oblong, slightly inclined,
tapering below, striate when dry; lid short conical.

Alpine rocks. S. I. VII.

479. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) SILESIACUM. Seliger. St. and branches
procumbent, the latter arcuate; l. secund, mostly pointing upwards,
ovate-lanceolate, longer tapering than the last, concave, distinctly
serrulate, slightly and shortly two-nerved; caps. long sub-cylindrical,
not striate when dry, curved, cernuous; lid conical pointed.

Stems of decaying trees, rocks, &c. IV. V.

Kent; Yorkshire.

480. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) DENTICULATUM. Dill. St. prostrate, with
sub-fasciculate branches; l. complanate, obliquely ovate pointed,
sometimes sub-serrulate at apex, margin recurved below, shortly
two-nerved; caps. oblong, sub-erect; lid acutely conical.

Sub-alpine woods, banks, wet rocks, &c. Summer.

 var. β. _obtusifolium._ l. elliptical, more or less obtuse, slightly
           concave. Alpine rocks.

      γ. _succulentum._ l. with almost plane margins: synoicous.
           Todmorden, Warrington.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

481. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) ELEGANS. Hook. St. prostrate, br. distichous,
fasciculate or pinnate; l. complanate, ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a
slender serrulate point, sometimes oblique, nerveless, or faintly
two-nerved; caps. small ovate elliptical, curved, more or less
pendulous; lid conical, shortly beaked.

Shady banks and rocks, usually barren. III. IV.

 var. β. _collinum._ “st. erect tufted; l. sub-secund.”

482. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) SYLVATICUM. Dill. St. longer, about 1 inch,
decumbent branched; l. sub-complanate, sometimes sub-secund,
ovate-lanceolate, not acuminate, entire, distinctly two-nerved nearly
half way; caps. cylindrical, curved, inclined, or horizontal; lid long,
shortly beaked.

Roots of trees in woods, &c. IX.

483. H. (PLAGIOTHECIUM) UNDULATUM. Dill. St. and br. procumbent, 2in. or
more; l. complanate, ovate, acute, not acuminate, entire, undulate,
faintly two-nerved, whitish green; caps. cylindrical, tapering at base,
cernuous or horizontal, striate when dry, lid with a short beak.

Woods and moist places. IV.—VII.

    _Sub-genus_ XI. AMBLYSTEGIUM. Plants small prostrate, sparingly
 branched; l. soft, generally opaque, simply nerved, rarely nerveless;
 areolæ hexagono-rhomboidal parenchymatous, or tubular prosenchymatous;
 caps. sub-erect or incurvo-cernuous, oval and sub-arcuate cylindrical,
 opaque, on a smooth seta; lid large, tumidly conical, obtuse; internal
 perist. generally integrate, cilia more or less perfect, rarely none.

                1. L. opaque, areolæ all parenchymatous.

                             _a._ Dioicous.

484. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) SPRUCEI. Bruch. St. short, slender, with few
branches; l. distant narrowly ovate-lanceolate, long pointed, margin
almost entire, concave, nerveless; per. l. larger, with longer points,
distinctly serrulate at apex; caps. erect elliptical, turbinate when
dry, mouth wide; lid long conical pointed. [_Leskea._ Bry. Brit.]

Shady sub-alpine rocks, rare. Spring (?)

Teesdale, Todmorden.

485. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) ATROVIRENS. Dicks. St. prostrate, irregularly
branched, the latter slightly incurved, rigid, sub-erect; l. imbricate,
somewhat secund, ovate-lanceolate, with long tapering points, margin
recurved below, sub-serrulate above; thickly nerved almost to apex;
“caps. sub-cylindrical short curved and sub-cernuous, lid conical.”

Alpine rocks, &c., rare in fruit. Scotland. Spring.

                            _b._ Monoicous.

486. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) CONFERVOIDES. B. & S. St. creeping, very slender,
sub-pinnate, sparingly branched; br. capilliform; l. scattered
sub-secund, more or less spreading, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, entire,
nerveless; per. l. longer, erect; caps. cernuous, oval-oblong, slightly
incurved, pale brown, semi-pellucid; lid convex, obliquely apiculate;
annulus small deciduous.

Stones in shady places, limestone. Summer.

Dovedale (Dr. Fraser, 1866); Westmoreland.

487. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) SERPENS. Dill. St. creeping, sub-pinnate, with
slender sub-erect branches; l. spreading, ovate-lanceolate, tapering
into long points, entire, faintly nerved half way, or sometimes nearly
to apex: caps. oblong, cylindrical or obovate, curved, cernuous, reddish
at mouth; lid conical acute.

Walls, moist banks, trees, &c., common. IV. V.

488. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) RADICALE. P. Beauv. St. creeping, with sub-erect
rigid branches; l. spreading, ovate-lanceolate from a cordate or deltoid
base, twice as large as last, and strongly nerved almost to the long
tapering apex; per. l. larger serrate; seta long (sometimes 2in.); caps.
oblong, much curved, cernuous, not red at mouth; lid conical, with a
short sharp beak.

Moist ground amongst grass. Wales. IV. V.

489. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) IRRIGUUM. Hook. St. procumbent rigid, sometimes
pinnate; l. spreading, secund, gradually tapering to a point from a
deltoid-ovate somewhat decurrent base, sub-serrulate, strongly nerved
nearly to apex; caps. oblong, cernuous, curved, when dry more so, and
contracted at mouth; annulus persistent; lid conical, blunt-pointed.

Stones in rivulets and streams. IV.

490. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) FLUVIATILE. Swartz. St. procumbent, with simple,
prostrate, not rigid branches; l. ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute,
entire, concave, strongly nerved almost to apex; caps. slender,
elliptical, elongate, sub-erect, only slightly curved; lid conical.

Rocks and stones in mountain streams. V. VI.

 2. L. areolæ narrow, rhomboido-hexagonal, prosenchymatous at base only,

491. H. (AMBLYSTEGIUM) RIPARIUM. Dill. St. longer, creeping, with
sub-pinnate sub-erect branches; l. spreading, sub-complanate,
ovate-lanceolate entire, nerved two-thirds or more; caps.
oblong-cylindrical curved, cernuous, contracted at mouth when dry; lid
conical pointed.

Stones, &c., near pools, sometimes in water. V. VI.

    _Sub-genus_ XII. _eu_-HYPNUM. St. erect or procumbent, sometimes
 radiculose and pinnate; l. patent, squarrose, or falcato-secund, nerve
various or none; areolæ narrowly linear,, often dilated, and transparent
at base; caps. incurved cernuous on a smooth seta; lid convexo-conical,
             mammillate, rarely rostrate; perist. perfect.

 _Sect. I._ Branches straggling or sub-pinnate; l. squarrose-divaricate
                        or stellate and patent.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

492. H. HALLEKI. L. Jun. St. creeping, with pinnate erect branches; l.
crowded lanceolate, recurved from a roundish ovate base, acuminate,
serrulate, almost squarrose, faintly two-nerved at base or nerveless;
caps. oblong curved cernuous; lid conical, blunt.

Alpine rocks, rare. VIII.

493. H. POLYMORPHUM. Hedw. “St. procumbent, branches simple, erect,
slender; l. spreading, almost squarrose, sub-secund, ovate-lanceolate,
acuminate, entire, nerveless; caps. oblong, curved, cernuous, lid
conical.” [Bry. Brit.]

Limestone walls, banks and rocks. V.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

494. H. ELODES. Spruce. St. elongate, slender, with sub-pinnate slender
sub-erect branches: l. distant, spreading; br. l. lanceolate-subulate,
apex almost setaceous, secund; st. l. wider, less secund; all entire,
nerved nearly or quite to apex: caps. cylindrical curved cernuous; lid

Wet places and bogs. IV. V.

  [Wilson states the leaves to be sub-denticulate at _base only_, whilst
      his figure is evidently _serrulate_ above and entire at base. I
      can find no indications of denticulation, even under a ¼inch,
      except perhaps an occasional slight protrusion of an odd cell here
      and there, but this cannot be called even denticulate.]

495. H. CHRYSOPHYLLUM. Brid. St. creeping pinnate; l. almost squarrose
sub-second, from a cordate-ovate base, tapering into long setaceous
points, entire, nerved more than half way, rarely absent; areolæ not
enlarged or diaphanous at base; caps. large cylindrical, curved,
cernuous; lid conical.

Fallow ground, chalk hills, &c. V.—IX.

496. H. STELLATUM. Dill. St. 1–2in. erect, densely tufted: branches
irregular or sub-pinnate, cuspidate; l. squarrose, recurved, rather
suddenly tapering into a long point from a deltoid-ovate base, with a
few large diaphanous cells at basal angles, nerveless, entire; caps.
oblong curved cernuous; lid convex pointed.

Marshes and bogs. V. VI.

                            _c._ Polygamous.

497. H. POLYGAMUM. Bry. Eur. St. 1in. or more, procumbent, sub-pinnate;
l. spreading, almost squarrose, ovate-lanceolate, tapering into shorter
points than last two, entire, nerved about half way, areolæ larger at
base; caps. oblong, sub-cernuous, or almost erect; lid conical pointed.

Wet swampy places. V.

 var. β. _stagnation._ “st. longer, sub-erect, more pinnate; l. with a
           longer nerve; seta longer, often 3in. or more.”

  _Sect. II._ St. pinnately branched; l. falcato-secund, nerve single,
                             areolæ linear.

                             _a._ Dioicous.

             † Stems and branches strongly hooked at apex.

498. H. ADUNCUM. Dill. L.[1] (_H. exannulatum_, Gümb.) St. 2–4in. erect,
sub-pinnate; br. short, simple, few; l. crowded, narrow, falcato-secund,
lanceolate acuminate, striate, faintly sub-serrulate near the base;
nerved nearly to apex; basal cells larger and inflated, gradually
passing into the long narrower ones above; capsule sub-cylindrical,
curved, cernuous, on a seta 1in. long or more.

Footnote 1:

  This name has been wrongly given to some half-dozen different species;
  but I am informed by Dr. Braithwaite (in lit. 29, Mch. 1872), that he
  has recently consulted the original specimen of Dillenius on which
  Linnæus founded the species, and from his examination the synonymy of
  this group must be altered as above. The diagnoses of this and the
  next four species are from his pen; the name _aduncum_ should be
  retained as being older than _exannulatum_.

Marshes and marshy heaths. IV. V.

499. H. KNEIFFII. B. & S. (_H. aduncum_, Hedw. Stirpes, IV., t. 24, and
Schp.) St. 2–6in. long, erect, sub-pinnate; l. falcato-secund, somewhat
distant, lanceolate acuminate, occasionally faintly sub-serrulate near
the base, thinly nerved two-thirds the length, not striate, basal angles
decurrent excavate, of lax sub-quadrate cells, those above elongate
rectangular; caps. cylindrical oblong arcuate, broadly annulate.

Swamps and marshes. VI.

500. H. SENDTNERI. Schpr. (_H. aduncum_, ε _hamatum_ and ζ _giganteum_,
Bry. Eur.) St. 3–6in. simple, pinnate; l. falcato-secund, broadly
oblong-lanceolate, hooked above, distinctly auricled at sub-decurrent
angles, glossy, lightly sulcate only when dry, nerve vanishing below
apex; basal cells rectangular, hyaline, yellowish, at angles
brownish-yellow lax; caps. ovate-oblong, erect at base, arcuate.

Bogs. Scotland, and near Birmingham.

 var. β. _Wilsoni._ St. very tall, sometimes 1ft., yellow green, with
           slender, nearly simple branches; l. larger, with a filiform
           acumen, auricles very small.

501. H. VERNICOSUM. Lindb. 1861. (_H. pellucidum_, Wils. MS.; _H.
aduncum_, var. _tenue_, Bry. Brit.) St. erect, rather rigid, pinnate; l.
shorter falcato-secund, the apical ones involute, ovate,
oblong-lanceolate, distinctly sulcate, neither auricled nor decurrent,
very glossy, yellow green, nerve vanishing far below apex; cells very
narrow, vermicular, purplish at base; caps. oblong cernuous, arcuate.

Wybunbury Bog, Cheshire.

502. H. INTERMEDIUM. Lindb. (_H. Cossoni_, Schpr.) In habit like _H.
Sendtneri_, var. β. St. elongate, flexuoso-erect, interruptedly pinnate;
branches very unequal; l. falcato-secund, ovate-oblong, becoming
lanceolate, not furrowed, with minute decurrent auricles, nerve
vanishing far below apex; cells very narrow vermicular opaque; outer
per. l. squarrose; fr. as in _Sendtneri_.

Bogs, frequent.

                † † Brandies and stems scarcely hooked.

503. H. LYCOPODIOIDES. Neck. St. about 2in. erect, sub-pinnate, rather
rigid; l. falcato-secund, ovate-acuminute, tapering to an acute point,
but not apiculate, concave, entire, nerved nearly to apex, not striate;
caps. oblong cernuous, lid conical.

Bogs and marshes: fr. rare. V.

 var. β. _falcatum._ l. more crowded, more falcate, nerve stronger. Near
           Copgrove, Yorkshire.

                            _b._ Monoicous.

504. H. FLUITANS. Dill. St. 6–12in. erect or floating, pinnate, slender;
branches short deflexed; l. falcato-secund, lanceolate, tapering from an
ovate base, acuminate, slightly serrulate near apex, thinly nerved more
than half way, areolæ enlarged at base; caps. small oblong curved
sub-cernuous, on a very long seta; lid conical, acute.

Marshes, bogs, &c. IV. V.

505. H. REVOLVENS. Swartz. St. 2–4in. erect or procumbent, sub-pinnate;
l. crowded circinnate falcate, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, concave,
serrulate near apex, deep red or purplish; nerve stronger, more than
half way; areolæ not enlarged at base; caps. oblong cernuous, on a
shorter seta; lid conical acute.

Bogs and marshes. IV. V.

506. H. UNCINATUM. Hall. St. about 2in. slender, erect or procumbent,
sub-pinnate; l. circinnate secund, very narrow, lanceolate, setaceous
from a broader base, plicate, serrulate, nerved nearly to apex; caps.
cylindrical, curved, cernuous, lid conical.

Sub-alpine walls and rocks. V. VI.

 _Sect. III._ St. regularly pinnate, radiculose, tomentose; l. thickly
                   nerved, opaque; caps. sub-arcuate.

507. H. COMMUTATUM. Dill. St. 4in. or more, procumbent; br. about
½in.—both more or less uncinate; radicles brownish; l. circinnate,
secund, tapering to a slender long point from an ovate base, plicate,
twisted when dry, finely serrulate, nerved more than half way, areolæ
narrow; caps. large oblong, lid conical: dioicous.

Wet shady places. IV.

508. H. SULCATUM. Schpr. Loosely cæspitose; st. rigid, without radicles,
sub-pinnate; l. partly broadly elongate-lanceolate, partly sharply
lanceolate from broadly ovate base, all reflexed hamulose; nerve strong.
[Schp. Syn. 699.]

Mountainous places. Ben Lawers, July, 1865 (G. E. Hunt.)

509. H. FALCATUM. Brid. (_H. commutatum_ var. _condensatum_, Bry. Brit.)
St. 2–3in. cæspitose, erect, sparingly branched; l. as in _commutatum_,
but less circinnate and more rigid, undulate, nerved nearly to apex;
capsule small, curved cernuous. [Bry. Eur. VI., 607. Schp. Syn., 613.]

Sub-alpine places and bogs. V. VI.

510. H. FILICINUM. Dill. St. 2–4in. sub-erect, slender, pinnate, with
purplish radicles; l. spreading, falcato-secund, st. l. deltoid-ovate,
tapering; br. l. ovate-lanceolate—all serrulate, scarcely twisted when
dry, nerved to or beyond apex; areolæ oval, rather large, larger
rhomboid and pellucid at base; caps. oblong curved, cernuous, lid
conical acute: dioicous.

Marshes, wet rocks. IV.

 var. β. _vallisclausæ._ Brid. l. sub-secund, nerve very strong and
           excurrent. Ormeshead; Derbyshire.

   _Sect. IV._ St. robust, without radicles, irregularly pinnate; l.
 scariose, shining, strongly rugose; areolæ vermicular above, the rest
    small quadrate; caps. sub-arcuate, lid rostrate, annulus broad.

511. H. RUGOSUM. Dill. St. 2–3in. rigid, erect, densely tufted; br.
recurved; l. crowded, falcato-secund, serrulate and recurved at margin,
lanceolate acuminate from a broad base, rugose at back, nerved more than
half way; caps. sub-cylindrical curved, pale reddish brown; lid large
yellowish, with an oblique beak: dioicous.

Limestone and other rocks; barren in England. Spring (?)

 _Sect. V._ St. creeping, cæspitose, pinnate, l. curved secund, areolæ
 loosely rhomboid; caps. incurved cernuous, compressed below mouth when

512. H. INCURVATUM. Brid. St. short slender, branches curved upwards; l.
ovate-lanceolate, tapering, all pointing upwards, entire, shortly
two-nerved; caps. small, ovate, horizontal; lid short, conical, acute:

Shady walls and stones. VI. VII.

 _Sect. VI._ St. more or less regularly pinnate; l. falcato-secund, two
  or singly nerved, or nerveless, areolæ narrowly linear, quadrate at
    basal angles; caps. sub-cylindrical incurved; lid large, shortly

                            _a._ Monoicous.

513. H. BREADALBANENSE. Buchanan White. “St. procumbent or sub-erect,
covered with villi; vaguely pinnate; l. secund ovate-lanceolate concave,
nerve strong single, reaching about half way, margin of base slightly
recurved; sub-denticulate.”

Breadalbane Mts. and Ben Lawers 1865 (Dr. F. B. White). Fruit not known.

514. H. HAMULOSUM. Frölich (?) St. 1in. or more, procumbent pinnate; br.
hooked at apex; l. circinnate-secund, much curved, tapering into a long
slender sub-serrulate point from an ovate-lanceolate base, nerveless;
caps. sub-cylindrical curved, tapering at base, lid conical pointed:

Alpine grassy declivities. Summer.

 var. β. _micranthum._ smaller, l. shorter pointed, and faintly
           two-nerved; caps. more oval, with an obtuse lid. Ben Lawers,

                             _b._ Dioicous.

515. H. RUPESTRE. Buchanan White. St. procumbent, covered with very
short villi, irregularly pinnate; l. strongly falcato-secund, lanceolate
acuminate from a wide base, much curved; obscurely two-nerved, margin
plane, scarcely denticulate.

Ben Lawers, August, 1865.

                                                            Fr. unknown.

516. H. BAMBERGERI. B. & S. Rather small dense tufts, yellowish green
above, passing to yellow-fuscous at base; st. without radicles or villi,
sub-pinnate, br. few fastigiate; l. densely crowded secund, strongly
circinnate, ovate-lanceolate elongate, entire, with a long point,
faintly two-nerved, one usually larger than the other; alar cells few,
rather obscure, yellow, upper linear elongate; fr. not known.

Near summit of Ben Lawers, July, 1867 (Dr. Fraser).

517. H. IMPONENS. Hedw. Cæspitose, sub-pinnate, l. imbricate, circinnate
secund, filiform from a broad ovate-oblong base, margin reflexed below,
and minutely serrate, obsoletely two-nerved; br. l. much narrower, and
at apex of br. convolute, and hamato-incurved; per. l. nerveless
filiform flexuose apiculate; caps. sub-erect cylindrical incurved; lid
convexo-conical, acutely pointed yellowish, annulus broad. [Bry. Eur.
VI., 597. Schp. Syn. 625.]

Woods and stony ground. Autumn.

Reigate Heath (Mr. Mitten), 1864.

518. H. CUPRESSIFORME. Dill. St. about 1in. procumbent; l.
falcato-secund, pointing downwards, sharply acuminate from an
ovate-lanceolate base, slightly serrulate, nerveless or faintly
two-nerved; per. l. erect, almost piliferous; caps. sub-cylindrical
cernuous, curved, lid conical, cuspidate.

Walls, rocks, trunks of trees, &c. XI. XII.

 var. β. _compressum._ st. slender pinnate, reddish, with compressed
           foliage; l. pale green, serrulate at apex; seta long slender;
           caps. short, elliptic oblong.

      γ. _minus._ pinnate; br. slender: l. narrow, falcate serrulate,
           margin recurved, caps. small erect. Trunks of trees.

      δ. _filiforme._ br. prostrate, filiform, slender; l. falcate,
           serrulate; caps. short; lid with a shorter point. Rocks.
           Killarney, &c.

      ε. _lacunosum._ more robust; br. thickened; l. larger
           sub-coriaceous, yellowish brown.

      ζ. _longisetum._ slender, l. pale, serrulate; seta elongate, caps.
           short ovate.

      θ. _mammillatum._ caps. with a short conical or mammillate lid.

519. H. RESUPINATUM. Wils. St. creeping, sub-pinnate; l. erecto-patent,
secund, pointing upwards, ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a point, entire,
nerveless; caps. oblong erect, almost symmetrical; lid with an oblique

Walls, rocks, trees, &c. X. XII.

520. H. LINDBERGH. Mitt. Jour, of Bot. I., p. 123. (_H. pratense_, Bry.
Brit. 399.) “St. sparingly branched in an irregular manner, without any
appearance of becoming pinnate; l. loosely compressed ovate or
ovate-lanceolate, acute, but with a broad point,[2] margins entire,
nerveless; cells at angles enlarged and pale; caps., according to
Lindberg, is on a rather thick seta 1in. long, turgid ovate, when dry

Footnote 2:

  Some of the leaves, even on authenticated specimens, have longer and
  narrower points (acuminate), but in no case that I have seen are they

“Damp sandy ground among thin grass, not in bogs. The fr. has been
gathered once by Dr. Klingraff in June, in W. Prussia.”

  “_H. pratense_ differs from above in its irregularly pinnate stems,
  more compressed foliage, l. lanceolate with a narrow point denticulate
  at apex, and the enlarged basal cells of same colour; not found in

521. H. ARCUATUM. Lindb. (_H. pratense_, var. β. Bry. Brit.) “L. more
falcato-secund, scarcely complanate.”

Clay soils, common.

  _Sect. VII._ Prostrate or ascending, rooting, regularly pinnate; l.
 hamate, circinnato-secund; caps. cernuous, solid, lid convexo-conical.

522. H. MOLLUSCUM. Dill. St. soft, 1–2in. sub-erect; l. circinnate
secund; st. l. cordate; br. l. ovate-lanceolate—all tapering acuminate,
striate, serrulate, and faintly two-nerved, crisped when dry; caps.
ovate, horizontal; lid conical, large, sharply pointed.

Moist banks and limestone rocks, common. XI.

 _Sect. VIII._ St. erect, rigid, villose, regularly pinnate; l. hamate;
                     caps. oblong, incurved, solid.

523. H. CRISTA-CASTRENSIS. L. St. sub-erect, 3–4in. pectinate; st. l.
ovate-acuminate, br. l. narrowly lanceolate acuminate, strongly striate,
serrulate near apex—all circinnato-secund, faintly two-nerved, margin
reflexed; caps. oblong curved, cernuous, lid conical, pointed; dioicous.

Woods and alpine rocks. VII. VIII.

_Sect. IX._ St. soft cæspitose, prostrate, branched; l. falcato-secund,
 rarely spreading, faintly nerved; areolæ linear; per. l. long, deeply
  sulcate; caps. incurved cernuous, lid convexo-conical or mammillate.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

524. H. PALUSTRE. Dill. St. creeping; br. ascending, crowded, curved,
cuspidate and convolute at apex; l. generally secund, sometimes almost
falcate, elliptic-entire, strongly concave, pointed; either nerveless,
shortly two-nerved or singly nerved half way; per. l. erect, distinctly
striate; caps. ovate, slightly curved; cernuous; lid conical, pointed.

Stones and rocks in streams. V.

 var. β. l. imbricate, not secund.

      γ. _subsphœricarpon._ l. strongly nerved nearly to apex; caps.
           roundish ovate, tumid.

525. H. DILATATUM. Wils. (_H. molle_, Bry. Eur.) Plant of somewhat firm
growth; l. rotundo-ovate, rather concave, suddenly apiculate, texture
very close, areolæ long and very narrow; nerve double, short slender,
but well defined (_fide_ G. E. Hunt). Caps. ovate cernuous curved, lid

At a low elevation. N. Wales, Yorkshire, Berkshire, Clova, Braemar.

526. H. MOLLE, Dicks. (_H. alpestre_ (?) Bry. Eur., non Swartz.) Very
weak and flaccid, the tufts falling to pieces on removal from the water;
l. varying from ovate to rotundo-ovate, flat, or sometimes very slightly
reflexed towards apex, gradually tapering upwards, or very rarely
suddenly apiculate; texture somewhat loose, areolæ larger and wider than
in last; nerve rather long and thick, ill-defined, single or double
(_fide_ G. E. Hunt). Caps. as above.

Great elevations. Ben-mac-Dhui, Ben Nevis.

  [The above two diagnoses are from a paper by Mr. G. E. Hunt, on
      Perthshire and Braemar Mosses in Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. and
      Manchester, 1868–9, p. 320.]

527. H. ARCTICUM. Sommerfelt. St. 1–2in. creeping; br. elongate, simple,
obtuse; l. spreading, green above, purplish below, small, broadly ovate
or roundish, somewhat obtuse, entire, strongly two-nerved about half
way, sometimes nerves blended into one; caps. ovate, cernuous, tapering
into the seta; lid conical.

Alpine rivulets. VI.

528. H. EUGYRIUM. Schpr. St. short, much branched; l. crowded, st. l.
drooping on two sides, broadly oblong-lanceolate, shortly acuminate; br.
l. flexuoso-falcate, plano-concave, elongate-lanceolate narrower,
serrulate at apex; nerve thin, unequally bifid; areolæ vermicular
excavate, fulvous, and rectangular at the decurrent angles; per. l.,
external spreading, internal erect, longly lanceolate, with erose
apices; caps. ovate-oblong cernuous, turgid, lid mammillate; annulus
broadly bi-triseriate. [Bry. Eur. VI., t. 579. Schp. Syn., 639.]

Stones in waterfalls. Summer.

N. Wales, Devonshire, Killarney.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

529. H. OCHRACEUM. Turn. St. 2–4in., tufted filiform, sub-erect,
sparingly branched; l. yellowish green sub-secund, sometimes falcate,
distant, ovate-lanceolate, pointed, concave, nerve forked, extending
half way; per. l. squarrose recurved; caps. oblong, tapering at base,
cernuous; lid conical.

Stones in alpine and sub-alpine streams, &c. V. VI.

_Sect. X._ Erect or procumbent, stem simple or more or less pinnate; l.
 patent, rarely sub-complanate, or sub-secund, thinly single-nerved, or
shortly two-nerved, shining; areolæ linear; caps. incurved cernuous; lid
                     mammillate or convexo-conical.

  1. St. more or less regularly pinnate; l. patent or loosely imbricate.

                            _a._ Monoicous.

530. H. CORDIFOLIUM. Swartz. Bright green above, reddish brown below;
st. 3–6in. erect, sub-pinnate; br. short slender; l. spreading, almost
squarrose, convolute and cuspidate at tip of branches, distant,
cordate-ovate, obtuse, or slightly apiculate, concave entire, strongly
nerved almost to apex; cells scarcely enlarged at base; caps. oblong,
suddenly horizontal, not tapering at base; lid conical.

Marshes and ditches. IV. V.

                             _b._ Dioicous.

531. H. GIGANTEUM. Schp. St. erect, thick, often 1ft. long, densely
pinnate; st. l. patent, broadly cordate-ovate, strongly nerved to apex;
cells linear, excavate and quadrate at basal angles; br. l. lingulate
narrow, terminal ones twisted and subulate; per. l. oblong-lanceolate;
caps. oblong-cylindrical, sub-incurved, horizontal, on a long seta;
annulus none; lid mammillate. [Schp. Syn. 642.]

Marshes. Hale Moss and Wybunbury Bog. Summer.

532. H. SARMENTOSUM. Wahl. St. 1in. or more, procumbent, sub-pinnate;
br. short cuspidate; foliage red or purplish; l. much crowded,
sub-erect, elliptic-oblong, scarcely pointed, concave, entire, nerved
almost to apex; areolæ large, quadrate and pellucid at basal angles;
caps. ovate-oblong, cernuous.

Wet alpine rocks. Spring (?)

533. H. CUSPIDATUM. Dill. St. 2–6in. erect, pinnate; terminal foliage
cuspidate; l. spreading, almost squarrose, when young erect appressed
and convolute; ovate, obtuse, entire, nerveless or shortly two-nerved;
cells enlarged and pellucid at basal angles; caps. oblong, much curved,
tapering below; lid conical acute.

Marshes. V. VI.

534. H. SCHREBERI. Dill. St. 4–6in. erect, pinnate, deep red, with
slender curved branches, somewhat cuspidate at summit; l. convolute,
afterwards erecto-patent, elliptical, concave, obtuse, shortly
two-nerved; cells enlarged at basal angles; caps. ovate-oblong curved
cernuous; lid conical, pointed.

Woods and shady banks. X. XI.

535. H. PURUM. Dill. St. 4–6in., not coloured, erect, pinnate; br.
slightly curved, not cuspidate at apex; l. closely imbricate, broadly
elliptical, concave, with recurved points, almost boat-shaped, entire,
nerved half way; caps. ovate, suddenly horizontal; lid conical.

Shady banks. X. XI.

 2. St. almost simple, or sparingly branched; l. closely imbricate when
                             dry: dioicous.

536. H. STRAMINEUM. Dicks. St. 2–4in. erect, filiform, with few erect
branches; l. erecto-patent, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, entire, concave,
thinly nerved nearly to apex; cells enlarged quadrate and pellucid at
basal angles; caps. small, ovate, curved, cernuous; lid short, conical.

Marshes amongst _Sphagnum_; rare in fr. IV. V.

537. H. TRIFARIUM. W. & M. St. 2–3in. erect or trailing, sparingly
branched; l. very closely imbricate, fragile when dry; generally but not
always trifarious, roundish obtuse, inflated, entire, nerved almost to
apex; caps. oval-oblong, curved, cernuous; lid conical.

Alpine bogs and turfy rills. VI. (?)

    _Sect. XI._ Fastigiate, sparingly branched; l. imbricate secund,
                      ventricose, faintly nerved.

538. H. SCORPIOIDES. Dill. St. 3–4in. erect or procumbent, irregularly
pinnate; branches short; l. crowded, imbricate, falcato-secund, large,
roundish ovate, ventricose, apiculate, entire, nerveless or faintly and
shortly two-nerved, purplish brown or lurid; caps. short oblong curved,
tumid, cernuous, on a long seta; lid conical, pointed.

Bogs. V.

   _Sub-genus_ XIII. HYLOCOMIUM. St. woody, pinnate or bipinnate, or
 sparingly branched; l. scariose, shining, sulcate, thinly two-nerved,
without radicles; cells narrow, linear, broader at base; caps. ovate or
   ovate-globose, coriaceous, lid mammillate, perist. large, perfect.

  _a._ irregularly bi-tripinnate, l. loosely imbricate; lid rostrate.

539. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) SPLENDENS. Dill. St. 2–6in., erect or procumbent,
interruptedly bi-tripinnate, villous, reddish; fol. reddish or fulvous
green; st. l. roundish elliptical, with long wavy points; br. l. with a
short point or muticous—all imbricate concave serrate, shortly
two-nerved, margin recurved below; caps. ovate, curved, cernuous; lid
convex, tapering into a long beak: dioicous.

Grassy banks, woods, &c. IV.

 _b._ irregularly pinnate, l. patent, lid mammillate or shortly beaked.

540. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) UMBRATUM. Ehrh. St. arched, sub-erect, with
branched villi, irregularly bipinnate; l. yellowish green, glossy,
cordate acuminate, serrate, plicato-striate, nerve unequally bifurcate;
caps. short, roundish, obovate, curved, cernuous; lid conical, acute:

Alpine woods on stones. XI.

541. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) OAKESII. Sulliv. St. arched, irregularly and
distantly pinnate, with branched villi; l. larger, elliptical, concave,
not cordate, plicato-striate, serrate, and sharply acuminate, singly
nerved half way or shortly two-nerved, margin recurved; per. l.
squarrose; caps. roundish ovate, gibbous above, cernuous; lid conical,
shortly beaked: dioicous.

Alpine rocks. Autumn (?)

542. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) BREVIROSTRE. Ehrh. St. 2–6in. arched, erect, with
branched villi, irregularly bipinnate; st. l. distant, almost squarrose,
plicato-striate, cordate, and suddenly acuminate; br. l.
ovate-acuminate, not so suddenly acuminate, striate—all serrulate and
two-nerved half way; caps. roundish ovate, cernuous; lid conical,
tapering into a rather long inclined beak: dioicous.

Mountainous woods. X. XI.

                           _c._ L. squarrose.

543. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) SQUARROSUM. Dill. St. 2–3in. reddish, slender, more
or less erect, irregularly pinnate; br. drooping; st. l. squarrose,
recurved, ovate, gradually tapering and very acute, faintly striate
below; br. l. narrower, less recurved, and squarrose—all serrulate and
shortly two-nerved: caps. roundish ovate, drooping; lid conical, with a
short sharp point: dioicous.

Banks and woods. XI.

544. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) TRIQUETRUM. Dill. St. 6in. or more, rigid, reddish,
erect, sub-pinnate; br. long straggling; st. l. squarrose or sub-secund,
striate; br. l. spreading, scarcely striate—all triangular acuminate
from a cordate, amplexicaul base, serrulate and two-nerved half way;
caps. roundish ovate, cernuous; lid conical, acute: dioicous.

Woods, &c. XI.

                   _d._ L. secund, or falcato-secund.

545. H. (HYLOCOMIUM) LOREUM. Dill. St. 6–12in. slender, erect, or
procumbent, more or less pinnate; br. drooping straggling; l. squarrose,
recurved, more or less secund at summit of stem and branches,
ovate-lanceolate, with a long acumen, not cordate or amplexicaul;
plicato-striate below; shortly and faintly two-nerved, sometimes
nerveless; caps. small roundish ovate; lid conical, sharply pointed:

Mountainous woods. XI.

                           84. OMALIA. BRID.

546. O. TRICHOMANOIDES. Dill. St. about 1in. irregularly pinnate; l.
crowded, sub-secund, complanate, oval, serrulate at obtuse rounded apex,
faintly nerved half way; caps. small sub-cylindrical, sub-erect, lid
with an oblique beak.

Trunks of trees and shady rocks. X. XI.

                          85. NECKERA. Hedwig.

547. N. COMPLANATA. Bry. Eur. St. 1–2in. pinnate; br. short crowded
attenuate; l. complanate, not undulate, obliquely ovate-oblong, suddenly
apiculate from broadish apex, faintly and shortly two-nerved; caps.
roundish elliptical, tapering below, erect; lid large, obliquely
rostrate: dioicous.

Trunks of trees, walls, &c. X.—XII.

548. N. CRISPA. Dill. St. 4–6in. pinnate, from a creeping rhizome; l.
complanate, undulate, ovate-oblong or ovate-ligulate, somewhat obtuse
and pointed, serrulate at apex, faintly and shortly two-nerved or singly
nerved half way; caps. roundish ovate erect; lid with a long oblique
beak: dioicous.

Mountainous rocks, trees. XI.—IV.

549. N. PUMILA. Huds. St. 1–2in. sub-pinnate, with slender flagellæ and
short complanate branches; l. complanate undulate, ovate-oblong,
tapering, apiculate or acuminate, somewhat concave, serrulate, margin
recurved, shortly two-nerved or nerveless; caps. elliptical, erect, on a
very short seta; lid with a short beak: dioicous.

Trunks of trees and rocks. X. XI.

550. N. PHILIPPEANA. Schp. Primary stem creeping densely pinnate,
secondary ascending remotely pinnate; l. densely imbricate, complanate,
strongly and elegantly undulate, ovate-lanceolate, sharply narrowed into
a longer or shorter flexuose apiculus, nerveless; areolæ small linear.
[Bry. Eur. V. 445. Schp. Syn. 471.] Possibly only a variety of _N.

Bark of a young ash tree, Valley of Hirnant, Bala, N. Wales (Rev. H. H.
Higgins), July, 1872, barren; Scotland.

551. N. PENNATA. Hall. St. 2in. pinnate, with complanate longer
branches; l. complanate undulate, ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a
slightly serrulate point, otherwise entire, nerveless, or sometimes
shortly and faintly two-nerved; caps. oblong or oval immersed, lid with
a short oblique beak: monoicous.

Trunks of trees, rare. Spring.

                          86. HOOKERIA. SMITH.

552. H. LUCENS. Dill. St. 1–3in. procumbent, with irregular complanate
branches; l. complanate, large roundish ovate, obtuse, entire,
nerveless; areolæ large, hexagonal, pellucid; caps. roundish elliptical,
almost pendulous; lid conical, suddenly tapering into a long straight
beak: monoicous.

Moist banks, stones in streams, &c. XI. XII.

553. H. LÆTEVIRENS. H. & T. St. shorter and more slender, procumbent,
sub-pinnate; l. complanate, loosely imbricate, smaller, ovate, suddenly
and shortly acuminate, with a thickened border; doubly nerved above half
way, serrulate at apex; areolæ smaller, hexagonal; caps. smaller,
drooping, roundish, elliptical; lid as above: monoicous.

Caves, wet rocks, and by rivulets. XI. XII.

                     87. DALTONIA. HOOKER & TAYLOR.

554. D. SPLACHNOIDES. H. & T. St. ¼in. tufted, erect, br. fastigiate; l.
crowded, sub-erect, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly keeled,
entire, nerve vanishing below apex; per. l. small ovate; caps. small
oval-oblong, sub-erect, lid large, with a long straight beak.

Sub-alpine moist shady rocks and trees, rare. X. XI.

                           88. CRYPHÆA. MOHR.

555. C. HETEROMALLA. Dill. St. 1in. decumbent, sparingly branched,
sub-pinnate; l. spreading, imbricate, slightly recurved, broadly ovate,
pointed, concave, thickly nerved nearly to apex; per. l. elliptic, with
an excurrent nerve; caps. oblong immersed, appearing secund; lid
conical, pointed: synoicous.

Trunks of trees.

 var. β. _aquatilis._ st. elongate, l. roundish ovate obtuse; stones in
           running streams, or trees.

                         89. FONTINALIS. DILL.

556. F. ANTIPYRETICA. L. St. very long, often 1ft., with long spreading
branches; l. ovate-lanceolate, very concave, keeled, nerveless, all on
each branch with one margin reflexed on the same side, the other plane,
sometimes serrulate near apex; caps. oval or ovate, immersed; lid long
conical acute.

Streams and stagnant water. VI. VII.

557. F. SQUARROSA. L. St. shorter, but elongate; br. numerous, crowded
fasciculate, not spreading; l. lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, concave,
not keeled, margin not reflexed, nerveless, entire; caps. similar to

Mountain rivulets. VI. VII.

                         90. DICHELYMA. MYRIN.

558. D. CAPILLACEUM. Dicks. St. 3–6in. slender, brittle, with a few
distichous spreading branches; l. erecto-patent, secund,
subulate-setaceous, keeled, with a long excurrent nerve; per. l. long
convolute, nerveless; caps. short oval, almost immersed; lid large
conical, beaked.

Alpine rivulets. Summer.


                         I. ADDITIONAL SPECIES.

SPHAGNUM LARICINUM. Spruce. (_S. neglectum_, Angst.) St. 4–6in. solid,
_the bark_ pale, of 2–3 layers of cells. Br. fascicles more or less
crowded, of 3–4 br., of which one or two are divergent, the others
pendent, but not appressed nor acute. St. l. small ovate, cucullate at
apex, at last minutely fimbriate, patent or reflexed; basal cells
hyaline utricular, the middle and lateral very narrow, the apical
rhomboid, with scarcely any fibres or pores; br. l. sub-secund, recurved
at point, ovate, shortly and bluntly acuminate, the point with 3–5
teeth, margin recurved above, rather broadly bordered; hyaline cells
serpentine elongate, with many threads and pores; caps. scarcely
exserted. [Dr. Braithwaite, Monthly Micros. Jour., 1872, p. 159.]

Deep bogs.

Terrington Carr, Yorkshire, 1846 (Spruce); Holyhead (Wilson); Braemar,
1868 (Hunt).

DICRANUM UNDULATUM. Ehr. St. naked and decumbent at base; l. patulous,
upper falcato-secund or appressed and slightly secund from a broad
oblong base, lanceolate, gradually narrowed into a dagger-shaped point
ending somewhat abruptly in the acute apex, beautifully undulate in the
upper half, carinate; margin revolute below, coarsely serrate above with
spinulose irregular teeth; nerve flattened, narrow and extended to apex,
narrowly two-winged and _serrate_ at back; cells elongate oblong or
elongate hexagonal, those of central base sub-quadrate and hyaline. [Dr.
Braithwaite, in _Grevillea_, i., 108.]

Stockton Forest, near York, 1842 (Spruce); again 1872 (Mr. Anderson). It
has doubtless been frequently overlooked or mistaken for _D. scoparium_
or _D. Bonjeanii_ (_palustre_).

BRYUM (WEBERA) BREIDLERI. Juratzka. Dioicous. St. 1½in. reddish brown
and procumbent below, light green above, l. ovate, decurrent,
erecto-patent, concave, serrate towards apex, margin recurved, thinly
nerved nearly to apex, areolæ narrow elongate, upper acute at both ends,
lower quadrate; male fl. terminal discoid, outer perig. l. spreading
elliptic-lanceolate, saccate at base, margin strongly recurved, apex
cucullate serrate; inner obovate, suddenly acuminate; perich. l.
linear-lanceolate, strongly nerved; caps. oval pendulous, glaucous green
when young, pale reddish brown when ripe, on a slender seta geniculate
at base. [Hunt. Mem. Lit. and Phil. Soc., Manchr., 1871–2, p. 101.]

Wet _debris_ of slaty rocks near springs. VII. VIII.

Glen Callater, Loch-na-gar, Carnlochan Glen (Hunt).

BRYUM. (WEBERA) SCHIMPERI. Wils. (_non_ Bry. Eur.) L. more rigid, erect,
narrow, lanceolate, less decurrent, nerve stronger, continued almost to
apex; areolæ a little longer and more obscure. [Hunt, l. c.]

_Debris_ of micaceous rock. VII.

Ben Lawers, Perthshire Mts., Snowdon.


No. 54. _W. truncicola_ De Not. =

DICRANUM MONTANUM. Hedw. “Having shown the specimen to Prof. Lindberg
during his recent visit, he informed me that he was under the impression
that Juratzka had referred it to _Dic. montanum_; and on comparing the
two I find they are truly identical. The species is, however, none the
less an addition to our flora.... its place will be next to _D.
strictum._” [Dr. Braithwaite, in _Grevillea_ i., p. 75.]

No. 71. _Dicranum polycarpum._ β. _strumiferum_ = ONCOPHORUS STRUMIFER.

                           ONCOPHORUS. BRID.

      L. spreading flexuose from a sub-decurrent base; caps. cernuous
      incurved, neck shortly and widely strumose, not striate.

O. STRUMIFER. Brid. “This is again restored to the rank of a species, as
it differs from _O. polycarpus (Dicranum)_ in the caps. being more or
less cernuous, constantly strumose at base, with a compound annulus, and
in the leaves having papillæ only on the upper surface.” [Dr.
Braithwaite, Jour. Bot. VIII. 228.]

84. DICRANUM HETEROMALLUM. δ. _sericeum._

Add as a synonym, _Dicranodontium sericeum_. Schp.

85. _D. Starkii._ β. _molle_ =

D. ARCTICUM. Schp. Its general appearance better distinguishes it from
_D. Starkii_ than its microscopical characters. It is _quite erect_,
growing in large loose patches, stems 3–4in., elastic, very robust;
foliage of a fine purplish brown colour; leaf wider below, and more
suddenly contracted upwards, with a thinner nerve; fruits earlier.
[Hunt. l. c. p. 321.]

Ben-mac-dhui and Ben Nevis.


Add as synonyms _Dicranodontium aristatum_. Schp. _D. asperulum._ Mitt.

96. D. PALUSTRE. Brid. Dr. Braithwaite points out in _Grevillea_ I.,
109, that La Pylaie’s specimens of this moss (Bridel Bryol. Univ. I.
814) belong to _Campylopus flexuosus_, as shewn by De Notaris in his
Epil. Bryol. Ital.; and that hence the name D. BONJEANII, De Not. is to
be preferred. The synonymy would then stand:—

96. D. BONJEANII. De Not. Syllab. Muse. 213 (1838); Muell. Synopsis I.,
369 (1849). _D. palustre._ Bry. Eur. and Bry. Brit., p. 79 (_non_
Bridel.) _D. undulatum._ Turn. Musc. Hib.

The following amended diagnosis of this species is from the same author
(in _Grev._ i., 109):—“Seta solitary; st. erect; l. more or less
erecto-patent, straight, from a broad linear flat base, broadly
oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed into a strap-shaped point,
tapering into an acute apex, lightly undulate above, canaliculate;
margin acutely serrate above, teeth uniform in shape and direction;
nerve very narrow, vanishing below apex, _smooth_ at back; basal cells
short quadrate, brownish, above elongate hexagonal or parallelogramic,
uppermost elliptic-oblong.”

361. _E. minimum_, Hunt. is now ascertained to be SPLACHNOBRYUM
WRIGHTII, Muell., and can hardly be considered as indigenous, “for the
spores have most probably been mixed with soil attached to some exotic,
and thus accidentally scattered on the wall where it was

SPLACHNOBRYUM. C. Muell. Verhand. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1869. p. 501.

“Calyp. dimidiate, enclosing the whole theca and embracing spirally the
upper part of the seta, cleft at side, smooth, fugacious. Perist.
simple, arising below mouth of caps., teeth 16 very narrow,
linear-lanceolate acicular, with the articulations remote. Columella
immersed. Dioicous, male fl. gemmaceous, without paraphyses. Plants
small slender, with distant spathulate leaves.”

S. WRIGHTII. Muell. l. c. (_Entosthodon minimus_, Hunt. l. c.
_Amblyphyllum Hibernicum_, Lindb. MS.)

“St. ¼–⅓in. simple sub-flexuose, pale red, slightly radiculose; l.
bright green distant (base narrow, slightly decurrent), patent,
flattish, obovate or spathulate, rounded at apex, margin reflexed below,
entire or minutely serrulate in male, crenulate above in female plant,
nerve thick, prominent at back, vanishing below apex; cells large lax,
pellucid, smooth, incrassate, rhombo-rectangular at base, rhomboidal
above, smaller and nearly circular at margin; caps. erect, obconical at
base, sub-cylindrical, wide-mouthed, pale brown; seta slender, twisted
to left; lid conical acute.” [Dr. Braithwaite, l. c.]

                              III. ERRATA.

 p.  57. Head line, “c” inverted.

 „   71. line 9, for “obtuse,” read “acute.”

 „   81. line 5 from bottom, specific name should begin with a capital

 „   99. for “TETRADONTIUM” read “TETRODONTIUM.”

 „   „   last line, before “long” read “l.”

 „  127. line 17, for “hexaganal” read “hexagonal.”

 „  141. line 6 from bottom, for “Nowcll” read “Nowell.”

 „  152. line 5 from bottom, for “EURYNCHUM” read “EURYNCHIUM.”

 „  139. line 3, for “ANÆCTANGIUM” read “ANŒCTANGIUM.”

                                 OF THE

 _Acuminate._ taper-pointed.

 _Acute._ pointed, scarcely tapering.
 _Alar._ (cells) at basal angles.
 _Annulus._ an elastic ring round mouth of caps.
 _Apicu-lus (-late.)_ a very short point.
 _Apophysis._ an excrescence; a swelling at base of capsule.
 _Arcuate._ arched or curved.
 _Areolæ._ the leaf cells.
 _Arista._ a short bristly point.
 _Auricles_ (of leaf). short lobes on each side of base.

 _Bifarious._ two-ranked.

 _Cæpitose._ tufted or matted together.
 _Calyptra._ the outermost covering, or veil, of the capsule.
 _Capsule._ the fruit, enclosing the spores.
 _Carinate._ keeled.
 _Cernuous._ nodding.
 _Chlorophyll._ the green matter filling the cells.
 _Cilia._ hair-like divisions of the inner peristome.
 _Circinnate._ curved nearly into a circle.
 _Cirrhose._ having a very narrow hair-like wavy point.
 _Clavate._ club-shaped.
 _Columella._ the central pillar of caps. round which the spores are
 _Comal._ the large topmost leaves of some stems.
 _Complanate._ flat.
 _Convolute._ rolled together. Acuminate. taper-pointed.
 _Cucullate_ (_cucullus_). hooded.
 _Cuspidate._ with a short bristly point.

 _Decurrent._ (of leaf.) running down the stem.
 _Dendroid._ tree-like.
 _Dentate._ toothed.
 _Denticulate._ with smaller teeth.
 _Diaphanous._ semi-transparent.
 _Dichotomous._ forked.
 _Dimidiate._ split up one side.
 _Dioicous._ barren and fertile flowers on different plants.
 _Distichous._ inserted in two opposite rows.
 _Divaricate._ widely spreading.
 _Dorsal._ at the back.

 _Erose._ as if bitten or gnawed out.
 _Excurrent._ (of nerve.) continued beyond the apex of leaf.
 _Exserted._ standing out from the leaves.

 _Falcate._ falchion-shaped, or much bent.
 _Fasciculate_ (stems or branches), of unequal height.
 _Fastigiate_ (stems or branches), reaching to same height.
 _Filiform._ thread-like.
 _Fugacious._ falling early.

 _Gemmiform_ or _Gemmaceous_. like a bud.
 _Geniculate._ suddenly bent like the leg when kneeling.
 _Gibbous._ bunched or swelling out.
 _Granulate._ roughly dotted on surface.
 _Gregarious._ growing together, but not matted.

 _Hamate, Hamulose._ bent like a hook.
 _Hyaline._ glassy.
 _Hygrometric_ (_Hygroscopic_). moving when moistened.

 _Imbricate._ overlapping each other like tiles.
 _Immersed_ (of caps.) when almost buried in the leaves.
 _Inflexed._ bent inwards.

 _Julaceous._ resembling a slender glossy worm.

 _Lamina._ the blade of the leaf.
 _Lid._ the cover to the mouth of caps.
 _Ligulate._ strap-shaped.
 _Lingulate._ tongue-shaped.

 _Mitriform_ (of calyp.) mitre-shaped, not split up the side.
 _Monoicous._ barren and fertile fl. on same plant, but not on same
 _Mucro._ a short terminal point.
 _Mucronate._ terminated with a mucro.
 _Muriculate._ roughened with sharpish prominences.
 _Muticous._ without a point.

 _Ochrea._ the filmy sheath surrounding base of seta.

 _Pagina._ the blade of the leaf apart from the nerve.
 _Panduriform._ fiddle-shaped.
 _Papillose._ roughened with blunt roundish prominences.
 _Percurrent._ extending the entire length.
 _Perichætium._ the leafy involucre at base of seta, surrounding the
    vaginula in fertile fl.
 _Perigonium._ the leaves surrounding the barren fl.
 _Peristome._ the teeth at mouth of caps. covered by the lid before it
 _Plicate._ furrowed.
 _Præmorse._ ending suddenly, as if bitten off.
 _Pyriform._ pear-shaped.

 _Quadrate._ square.

 _Radicles._ small rooting fibres.
 _Radiculose._ covered with radicles.
 _Rhizome._ a creeping subterranean stem.
 _Rhomboid (rhombus)._ an oblique square.
 _Rostellate._ with a very short beak.
 _Rostrate._ with a longer beak.
 _Rugose._ wrinkled or crumpled.

 _Scariose._ dry and chaffy (opposed to tender and succulent).
 _Secund._ all turned to one side.
 _Seta._ the fruit-stalk.
 _Setaceous._ bristle-shaped.
 _Spathulate._ somewhat resembling a battle-door.
 _Strumose._ swollen at base.
 _Sub-._ in a slight degree; _e. g._ “sub-serrate” slightly serrate.
 _Subula._ an awl.
 _Subulate._ awl-shaped.
 _Sulcate._ furrowed.
 _Synoicous._ male and female fl. on same receptacle.

 _Terete._ cylindrical.
 _Thæca._ the capsule.
 _Tomentose._ covered with down.
 _Truncate._ having the point cut off.
 _Tumid._ swollen.
 _Turbinate._ shaped like a peg-top.

 _Vaginula._ the cellular sheath surrounding the base of the seta.
 _Vermicular._ narrow and wavy (like a worm).
 _Villi._ short leafy processes on the stem amongst the leaves.
 _Villous._ covered with villi.

 _Uncinate._ bent like a hook.
 _Undulate._ wavy.

                        TO GENERA AND SYNONYMS.

 Amblyodon, 125

 Amblystegium, 162

 Anacalypta, 57

 Andreæa, 21

 Anodus, 38

 Anœctangium, 139

 Anomodon, 140

 Antitrichia, 140

 Archidium, 26

 Arctoa, 39

 Atrichum, 100

 Aulacomnion, 105

 _Barbula_, 66

 Bartramia, 128

 Bartramidula, 128

 Blindia, 39

 Brachyodus, 36

 Brachythecium, 148

 Bryum, 106

 Buxbaumia, 99

 Camptothecium, 147

 Campylopus, 50

 Campylostelium, 36

 Catascopium, 132

 Ceratodon, 49

 Cinclidium, 124

 Cinclidotus, 74

 Climacium, 142

 Conostomum, 132

 Cryphæa, 184

 Cylindrothecium, 142

 Cynodontium, 39, 59

 Daltonia, 184

 _Desmatodon_, 58, 65

 Dichelyma, 185

 Dicranodontium, 44, 47, 49

 _Dicranella_, 40, 63

 Dicranum, 40

 Didymodon, 58, 65

 Diphyscium, 99

 Discelium, 133

 Dissodon, 134

 Distichium, 58

 _Ditrichum_, 62

 _Dryptodon_, 86

 Encalypta, 74

 Entosthodon, 127

 _Ephemerum_, 26

 Eurynchium, 152

 Fissidens, 135

 Fontinalis, 185

 Funaria, 126

 Glyphomitrium, 88

 Grimmia, 77

 Gymnostomum, 31

 Habrodon, 141

 Hedwigia, 76

 Hedwigidium, 77

 Hookeria, 184

 Hylocomium, 180

 Hyocomium, 156

 Hypnum, 143, 145
   _eu_-Hypnum, 165

 Isothecium, 142, 152

 Leptobryum, 106

 Leptodon, 140

 Leskea, 143, 160, 163

 Leucobryum, 49

 Leucodon, 139

 Meesia, 125

 Mielichhoferia, 124

 Mnium, 121

 _Myurella_, 143

 Neckera, 182

 Œdipodium, 135

 Oligotrichum, 101

 Omalia, 182

 Oncophorus, 188

 Orthodontium, 106

 Orthotrichum, 89

 Paludella, 125

 Phascum, 26

 _Philonotis_, 129

 Physcomitrium, 127

 Plagiothecium, 160

 Pogonatum, 101

 Polytrichum, 102

 Pottia, 55, 64

 Pterogonium, 141

 Ptychodium, 147

 Ptychomitrium, 89

 Racomitrium, 86

 Rhabdoweissia, 36

 Rhynchostegium, 157

 _Schistidium_, 77

 Schistostega, 135

 Scleropodium, 151

 Seligeria, 37

 Sphagnum, 23

 Splachnobryum, 189

 Splachnum, 133

 Stylostegium, 38

 _Syntrichia_, 70

 Tayloria, 134

 Tetraphis, 98

 Tetraplodon, 134

 Tetrodontium, 99

 Thamnium, 159

 Thuyidium, 145

 Timmia, 104

 Tortola, 63, 74

 Trichostomum, 50, 69, 73

 Webera, 187

 Weissia, 33

 Zygodon, 97

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  Flora of British India. By Dr. J. D. HOOKER, C.B., F.R.S., &c.;
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  Flora of Tropical Africa. By DANIEL OLIVER, F.R.S., F.L.S. Vols I. and
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  Handbook of the New Zealand Flora; a Systematic Description of the
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  Flora Australiensis; a Description of the Plants of the Australian
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  Flora of the British West Indian Islands. By Dr. GRISEBACH, F.L.S.
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  Flora Capensis: a Systematic Description of the Plants of the Cape
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  On the Flora of Australia, its Origin, Affinities, and Distribution;
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  Genera Plantarum, ad Exemplaria imprimis in Herbariis Kewensibus
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  Laws of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical
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  Illustrations of the Nueva Quinologia of Pavon, with Observations on
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  The Quinology of the East Indian Plantations. By J. E. HOWARD, F.L.S.
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  Revision of the Natural Order Hederaceæ, being a reprint, with
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  Icones Plantarum. Figures, with Brief Descriptive Characters and
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  A Second Century of Orchidaceous Plants, selected from the Subjects
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  Illustrations of the Genus Carex. By FRANCIS BOOTT, M.D. Part IV.
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  British Ferns; an Introduction to the Study of the FERNS, LYCOPODS,
      and EQUISETA indigenous to the British Isles. With Chapters on the
      Structure, Propagation, Cultivation, Diseases, Uses, Preservation,
      and Distribution of Ferns. By M. PLUES. Crown 8vo, 55 Wood
      Engravings, 6_s._; with 16 Coloured Plates by W. FITCH, 10_s._

  The British Ferns; Coloured Figures and Descriptions, with Analysis of
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      Ireland, systematically arranged. By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S.
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  Garden Ferns; Coloured Figures and Descriptions, with Analysis of the
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      By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 64 Coloured Plates, 2_l._

  Filices Exoticæ; Coloured Figures and Description of Exotic Ferns. By
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  Ferny Combes; a Ramble after Ferns in the Glens and Valleys of
      Devonshire. By CHARLOTTE CHANTER. _Third Edition._ Fcap. 8vo, 8
      Coloured Plates by FITCH, and a Map of the County, 5_s._


  Handbook of British Mosses, containing all that are known to be
      natives of the British Isles. By the Rev. M. J. BERKELEY, M.A.,
      F.L.S. Demy 8vo, 24 Coloured Plates, 21_s._


  British Seaweeds; an Introduction to the Study of the Marine ALGÆ of
      Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. By S. O. GRAY.
      Crown 8vo, 6_s._; with 16 Coloured Plates, drawn expressly for the
      work by W. FITCH, 10_s._ 6_d._

  Phycologia Britannica; or, History of British Seaweeds, containing
      Coloured Figures, Generic and Specific Characters, Synonyms and
      Descriptions of all the Species of Algæ inhabiting the Shores of
      the British Islands. By Dr. W. H. HARVEY, F.R.S. New Edition.
      Royal 8vo, 4 vols. 360 Coloured Plates, 7_l._ 10_s._

  Phycologia Australica: a History of Australian Seaweeds, comprising
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      Australia and Western Australia, and a Synopsis of all known
      Australian Algæ. By Dr. HARVEY, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 5 vols., 300
      Coloured Plates, 7_l._ 13_s._

  Nereis Australis; or, Algæ of the Southern Ocean, being Figures and
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  Outlines of British Fungology, containing Characters of above a
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  The Esculent Funguses of England. Containing an Account of their
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  Illustrations of British Mycology, comprising Figures and Descriptions
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  Clavis Agaricinorum: an Analytical Key to the British Agaricini, with
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                          SHELLS AND MOLLUSKS.

  Elements of Conchology; an Introduction to the Natural History of
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  Conchologia Iconica; or, Figures and Descriptions of the Shells of
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  Conchologia Indica; Illustrations of the Land and Freshwater Shells of
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  The Edible Mollusks of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Modes of
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      Plates, 8_s._ 6_d._


  Harvesting Ants and Trap-door Spiders; Notes and Observations on their
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  British Insects. A Familiar Description of the Form, Structure,
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  British Beetles; an Introduction to the Study of our Indigenous
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  British Butterflies and Moths; an Introduction to the Study of our
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  British Spiders; an Introduction to the Study of the ARANEIDÆ found in
      Great Britain and Ireland. By E. F. STAVELEY. Crown 8vo, 16
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      Genera, drawn expressly for the work by TUFFEN WEST, and 44
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  Curtis’s British Entomology. Illustrations and Descriptions of the
      Genera of Insects found in Great Britain and Ireland, containing
      Coloured Figures, from Nature, of the most rare and beautiful
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      found. 8 vols. Royal 8vo, 770 coloured Plates, £21.

                       Or in separate Monographs.

                    _Orders._   _Plates._ £ _s._ _d._
                   APHANIPTERA          2 0    2    0
                   COLEOPTERA         256 8    0    0
                   DERMAPTERA           1 0    1    0
                   DICTYOPTERA          1 0    1    0
                   DIPTERA            103 3    5    0
                   HEMIPTERA           32 1    1    0
                   HOMOPTERA           21 0   14    0
                   HYMENOPTERA        125 4    0    0
                   LEPIDOPTERA        193 6    0    0
                   NEUROPTERA          13 0    9    0
                   OMALOPTERA           6 0    4    6
                   ORTHOPTERA           5 0    4    0
                   STREPSIPTERA         3 0    2    6
                   TRICHOPTERA          9 0    6    6

“Curtis’s Entomology,” which Cuvier pronounced to have “reached the
ultimatum of perfection,” is still the standard work on the Genera of
British Insects. The Figures executed by the author himself, with
wonderful minuteness and accuracy, have never been surpassed, even if
equalled. The price at which the work was originally published was £43

  Insecta Britannica; Vol. III., Diptera. By FRANCIS WALKER, F.L.S. 8vo,
      with 10 Plates, 25_s._


  Bewick’s Woodcuts. Impressions of Upwards 2000 Woodblocks, engraved,
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  The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. _Samarang_, under the command of
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      REEVE, and A. WHITE. Edited by ARTHUR ADAMS, F.L.S. Royal 4to, 55
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  A Survey of the Early Geography of Western Europe, as connected with
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  The Reasoning Power in Animals. By the Rev. J. S. WATSON, M.A. Crown
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  Manual of Chemical Analysis, Qualitative and Quantitative; for the Use
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  Meteors, Aerolites, and Falling Stars. By Dr. T. L. PHIPSON, F.C.S.
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  The Artificial Production of Fish. By PISCARIUS. Third Edition. 1_s._

  Live Coals; or, Faces from the Fire. By L. M. BUDGEN, “Acheta,” Author
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  Caliphs and Sultans; being Tales omitted in the ordinary English
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  The Botanical Magazine. Figures and Descriptions of New and Rare
      Plants of interest to the Botanical Student, and suitable for the
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  The Floral Magazine. Figures and Descriptions of Select New Flowers
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      DOMBRAIN. New Series, enlarged to Royal 4to. Monthly, with 4
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  Conchologia Iconica. By LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S., in Double Parts, with 16
      Coloured Plates, 20_s._

  Conchologia Indica. The Land and Freshwater Shells of British India.
      In Parts, with 20 Coloured Plates, 20_s._

  A Monograph of Odontoglossum. By JAMES BATEMAN, F.R.S. Imperial folio,
      5 Coloured Plates, 21_s._

  Select Orchidaceous Plants. By ROBERT WARNER. 3 Coloured Plates,
      10_s._ 6_d._

                           FORTHCOMING WORKS.

  Lahore to Yarkand. By Dr. HENDERSON and A. O. HUME.

  Genera Plantarum. By BENTHAM and HOOKER. Vol. II.

  Flora Australiensis. By G. BENTHAM. Vol. VI.

  Flora of India. By Dr. HOOKER and others.

  Natural History of Plants. By Prof. BAILLON. Vol. III.

  The Natural History of a Flowering Plant. By Prof. DYER.




                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

 1. Corrected all reported Errata items.
 2. Silently corrected typographical errors and variations in spelling.
 3. Archaic, non-standard, and uncertain spellings retained as printed.
 4. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Synopsis of the British Mosses - Containing Descriptions of All the Genera and Species, (With Localities of the Rarer Ones) Found in Great Britain and Ireland, Based Upon Wilson’s “Bryologia Britannica,” Schimper’s “Synopsis,” Etc." ***

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