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Title: A Smaller Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
Author: Smith, William
Language: English
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  Greek and Roman Antiquities.



  THE STUDENT’S HUME; a History of England from the Invasion of
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  Greek and Roman Antiquities.







  _The right of Translation is reserved._


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ĂBĂCUS (ἄβαξ), denoted primarily a square tablet of any description,
and was hence employed in the following significations:--(1) A table,
or side-board, chiefly used for the display of gold and silver
cups, and other kinds of valuable and ornamental utensils. The use
of abaci was first introduced at Rome from Asia Minor after the
victories of Cn. Manlius Vulso, B.C. 187, and their introduction was
regarded as one of the marks of the growing luxury of the age.--(2)
A draught-board or chess-board.--(3) A board used by mathematicians
for drawing diagrams, and by arithmeticians for the purposes of
calculation.--(4) A painted panel, coffer, or square compartment in
the wall or ceiling of a chamber.--(5) In architecture, the flat
square stone which constituted the highest member of a column, being
placed immediately under the architrave.

[Illustration: Abacus.]

ABOLLA, a cloak chiefly worn by soldiers, and thus opposed to the
toga, the garb of peace. [TOGA.] The abolla was used by the lower
classes at Rome, and consequently by the philosophers who affected
severity of manners and life. Hence the expression of Juvenal,
_facinus majoris abollae_,--“a crime committed by a very deep

[Illustration: Abolla. (Bellori, Arc. Triumph., pl. 11, 12.)]



ĂCAENA (ἀκαίνη, ἄκαινα, or in later Greek ἄκενα, in one place
ἄκαινον), a measuring rod of the length of ten Greek feet. It was
used in measuring land, and thus resembles the Roman decempeda.

ĂCATĬUM (ἀκάτιον, a diminutive of ἄκατος), a small vessel or boat
used by the Greeks, which appears to have been the same as the Roman
_scapha_. The _Acatia_ were also sails adapted for fast sailing.

ACCENSUS. (1) A public officer, who attended on several of the Roman
magistrates. The Accensi summoned the people to the assemblies,
and those who had law-suits to court; they preserved order in the
courts, and proclaimed the time of the day when it was the third
hour, the sixth hour, and the ninth hour. An accensus anciently
preceded the consul who had not the fasces, which custom, after being
long disused, was restored by Julius Cæsar in his first consulship.
Accensi also attended on the governors of provinces.--(2) The accensi
were also a class of soldiers in the Roman army, who were enlisted
after the full number of the legion had been completed, in order to
supply any vacancies that might occur in the legion. They were taken,
according to the census of Servius Tullius, from the fifth class of
citizens, and were placed in battle in the rear of the army, behind
the triarii.

ACCLĀMĀTĬO, was the public expression of approbation or
disapprobation, pleasure or displeasure, by loud acclamations.
On many occasions, there appear to have been certain forms of
acclamations always used by the Romans; as, for instance, at
marriages, _Io Hymen_, _Hymenaee_, or _Talassio_; at triumphs,
_Io Triumphe_; at the conclusion of plays, the last actor called
out _Plaudite_ to the spectators; orators were usually praised by
such expressions as _Bene et praeclare_, _Belle et festive_, _Non
potest melius_, &c. Under the empire the name of _acclamationes_ was
given to the praises and flatteries bestowed by the senate upon the
reigning emperor and his family.

ACCŬBĀTĬO, the act of reclining at meals. The Greeks and Romans were
accustomed, in later times, to recline at their meals; but this
practice could not have been of great antiquity in Greece, since
Homer always describes persons as sitting at their meals; and Isidore
of Seville, an ancient grammarian, also attributes the same custom
to the ancient Romans. Even in the time of the early Roman emperors,
children in families of the highest rank used to sit together, while
their fathers and elders reclined on couches at the upper part of the
room. Roman ladies continued the practice of sitting at table, even
after the recumbent position had become common with the other sex.
It appears to have been considered more decent, and more agreeable
to the severity and purity of ancient manners, for women to sit,
more especially if many persons were present. But, on the other
hand, we find cases of women reclining, where there was conceived
to be nothing bold or indelicate in their posture. Such is the case
in the preceding woodcut, which seems intended to represent a scene
of matrimonial felicity. For an account of the disposition of the
couches, and of the place which each guest occupied in a Greek and
Roman entertainment, see SYMPOSIUM and TRICLINIUM.

[Illustration: Accubatio. Act of Reclining. (Montfaucon, Ant. Exp.,
Suppl., iii. 60.)]


ĂCERRA (θυμιατήριον, λιβανωτρίς), the incense-box or censer used
in sacrifices. The acerra was also a small moveable altar placed
before the dead, on which perfumes were burnt. The use of acerrae
at funerals was forbidden by a law of the Twelve Tables as an
unnecessary expense.

[Illustration: Acerra. (From a Frieze in the Museum Capitolinum.)]

ĂCĒTABŬLUM (ὀξίς, ὀξύβαφον, ὀξυβάφιον). (1) A vinegar-cup, wide and
open above, as we see in the annexed cut. The name was also given to
all cups resembling it in size and form, to whatever use they might
be applied.--(2) A Roman measure of capacity, fluid and dry. It was
one-fourth of the hemian, and therefore one-eighth of the sextarius.

[Illustration: Acetabulum. (Dennis, Etruria, p. xcvi.)]

ĂCHĀĬCUM FOEDUS. The Achaean league is divided into two periods.
1. _The earlier period._--When the Heracleidae took possession
of Peloponnesus, which had until then been chiefly inhabited
by Achaeans, a portion of the latter, under Tisamenus, turned
northwards and occupied the north coast of Peloponnesus. The country
thus occupied derived from them its name of Achaia, and contained
twelve confederate towns, which were governed by the descendants
of Tisamenus, till at length they abolished the kingly rule after
the death of Ogyges, and established a democracy. In the time of
Herodotus the twelve towns of which the league consisted were:
Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegium, Rhypes (Rhypae),
Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyme, and Tritaeeis (Tritaea).
After the time of Herodotus, Rhypes and Aegae disappeared from the
number, and Ceryneia and Leontium stepped into their place. The bond
which united the towns of the league was not so much a political
as a religious one, as is shown by the common sacrifice offered
at Helice to Poseidon, and after the destruction of that town, at
Aegium to Zeus, surnamed Homagyrius, and to Demeter Panachaea. The
confederation exercised no great influence in the affairs of Greece
down to the time when it was broken up by the Macedonians. 2. _The
later period._--When Antigonus in B.C. 281 made the unsuccessful
attempt to deprive Ptolemaeus Ceraunus of the Macedonian throne,
the Achaeans availed themselves of the opportunity of shaking off
the Macedonian yoke, and renewing their ancient confederation. The
grand object however now was no longer a common worship, but a
real political union among the confederates. The fundamental laws
were, that henceforth the confederacy should form one inseparable
state, that each town, which should join it, should have equal
rights with the others, and that all members, in regard to foreign
countries, should be considered as dependent, and bound to obey in
every respect the federal government, and those officers who were
entrusted with the executive. Aegium was the seat of the government,
and it was there that the citizens of the various towns met at
regular and stated times, to deliberate upon the common affairs of
the league, and if it was thought necessary, upon those of separate
towns, and even of individuals, and to elect the officers of the
league. The league acquired its great strength in B.C. 251, when
Aratus united Sicyon, his native place, with it, and some years
later gained Corinth also for it. Megara, Troezene, and Epidaurus
soon followed their example. Afterwards Aratus persuaded all the
more important towns of Peloponnesus to join the confederacy, and
thus Megalopolis, Argos, Hermione, Phlius, and others were added to
it. In a short period the league reached the height of its power,
for it embraced Athens, Megara, Aegina, Salamis, and the whole of
Peloponnesus, with the exception of Sparta, Elis, Tegea, Orchomenos,
and Mantineia. The common affairs of the confederate towns were
regulated at general meetings attended by the citizens of all the
towns, and held regularly twice every year, in the spring and in
the autumn. These meetings, which lasted three days, were held in a
grove of Zeus Homagyrius in the neighbourhood of Aegium, and near a
sanctuary of Demeter Panachaea. Every citizen, both rich and poor,
who had attained the age of thirty, might attend the assemblies,
to which they were invited by a public herald, and might speak and
propose any measure. The subjects which were to be brought before
the assembly were prepared by a council (βουλή), which seems to have
been permanent. The principal officers of the confederacy were:
1. At first two strategi (στρατηγοί), but after the year B.C. 255
there was only one, who in conjunction with an hipparchus (ἴππαρχος)
or commander of the cavalry and an under-strategus (ὑποστρατηγός)
commanded the army furnished by the confederacy, and was entrusted
with the whole conduct of war; 2. A public secretary (γραμματεύς);
and, 3. Ten demiurgi (δημιουργοί). All the officers of the league
were elected in the assembly held in the spring, at the rising of
the Pleiades, and legally they were invested with their several
offices only for one year, though it frequently happened that men of
great merit and distinction were re-elected for several successive
years. If one of the officers died during the period of his office,
his place was filled by his predecessor, until the time for the
new elections arrived. The perpetual discord of the members of the
league, the hostility of Sparta, the intrigues of the Romans, and the
folly and rashness of the later strategi, brought about not only the
destruction and dissolution of the confederacy, but of the freedom of
all Greece, which after the fall of Corinth, in B.C. 146, became a
Roman province under the name of Achaia.


ĂCĪNĂCĒS (ἀκινάκης), a Persian sword, whence Horace speaks of the
_Medus acinaces_. The acinaces was a short and straight weapon, and
thus differed from the Roman _sica_, which was curved. It was worn on
the right side of the body, whereas the Greeks and Romans usually had
their swords suspended on the left side. The form of the acinaces,
with the mode of wearing it, is illustrated by the following
Persepolitan figures.

[Illustration: Acinaces, Persian Sword. (From bas-reliefs at


ĀCLIS, a kind of dart with a leathern thong attached to it. [AMENTUM.]

ACROĀMA (ἀκρόαμα), which properly means any thing heard, was the name
given to a concert of players on different musical instruments, and
also to an interlude performed during the exhibition of the public
games. The word is also applied to the actors and musicians who were
employed to amuse guests during an entertainment, and is sometimes
used to designate the anagnostae. [ANAGNOSTES.]

ACRŎLĬTHI (ἀκρόλιθοι), statues, of which the extremities only were
of marble, and the remaining part of the body of wood either gilt or
covered with drapery.

ACRŎPŎLIS (ἀκρόπολις). In almost all Greek states, which were
usually built upon a hill, rock, or some natural elevation, there
was a castle or a citadel, erected upon the highest part of the rock
or hill, to which the name of _Acropolis_, higher or upper city,
was given. Thus we read of an acropolis at Athens, Corinth, Argos,
Messene, and many other places. The Capitolium at Rome answered the
same purpose as the Acropolis in the Greek cities; and of the same
kind were the tower of Agathocles at Utica, and that of Antonia at


ACRŎTĒRĬUM (ἀκρωτήριον), signifies the extremity of any thing, and
was applied by the Greeks to the extremities of the prow of a vessel
(ἀκροστόλιον), which were usually taken from a conquered vessel as
a mark of victory: the act of doing so was called ἀκρωτηριάζειν. In
architecture it signifies, 1. The sloping roof of a building. 2. The
pediment. 3. The pedestals for statues placed on the summit of a
pediment. In sculpture it signifies the extremities of a statue, as
wings, feet, hands, &c.

ACTA. (1) The public acts and orders of a Roman magistrate, which
after the expiration of his office were submitted to the senate for
approval or rejection. Under the empire, all the magistrates when
entering upon their office on the 1st of January swore approval of
the acts of the reigning emperor.--(2) ACTA FORENSIA were of two
kinds: first, those relating to the government, as leges, plebiscita,
edicta, the names of all the magistrates, &c., which formed part of
the _tabulae publicae_; and secondly, those connected with the courts
of law.--(3) ACTA MILITARIA, contained an account of the duties,
numbers, and expenses of each legion, and were probably preserved
in the military treasury founded by Augustus.--(4) ACTA SENATUS,
called also COMMENTARII SENATUS and ACTA PATRUM, contained an account
of the various matters brought before the senate, the opinions of
the chief speakers, and the decision of the house. By command of
Julius Caesar they were published regularly every day as part of
the government gazette. Augustus forbade the publication of the
proceedings of the senate, but they still continued to be preserved,
and one of the most distinguished senators was chosen by the emperor
to compile the account.--(5) ACTA DIURNA, a gazette published daily
at Rome by the authority of the government, during the later times
of the republic and under the empire, corresponding in some measure
to our newspapers. They were also called _Acta Publica_, _Acta
Urbana_, _Acta Rerum Urbanarum_, _Acta Populi_, and sometimes simply
_Acta_ or _Diurna_. They contained, 1. A list of births and deaths
in the city, an account of the money paid into the treasury from
the provinces, and every thing relating to the supply of corn. 2.
Extracts from the Acta Forensia. 3. Extracts from the Acta Senatus.
4. A court circular, containing an account of the births, deaths,
festivals, and movements of the imperial family. 5. An account of
such public affairs and foreign wars as the government thought proper
to publish. 6. Curious and interesting occurrences, such as prodigies
and miracles, the erection of new edifices, the conflagration of
buildings, funerals, sacrifices, a list of the various games, and
especially curious tales and adventures, with the names of the

ACTĬA (ἄκτια), a festival celebrated every four years at Actium in
Epirus, with wrestling, horse-racing, and sea-fights, in honour of
Apollo. There was a celebrated temple of Apollo at Actium. After
the defeat of Antony off Actium, Augustus enlarged the temple, and
instituted games to be celebrated every five years in commemoration
of his victory.

ACTĬO, is defined by a Roman jurist to be the right of pursuing by
judicial means what is a man’s due. The old actions of the Roman
law were called _legis actiones_ or _legitimae_, either because
they were expressly provided for by the laws of the Twelve Tables,
or because they were strictly adapted to the words of the laws, and
therefore could not be varied. But these forms of action gradually
fell into disuse, in consequence of the excessive nicety required,
and the failure consequent on the slightest error in the pleadings,
and they were eventually abolished by the Lex Aebutia, and two Leges
Juliae, except in a few cases. In the old Roman constitution, the
knowledge of the law was most closely connected with the institutes
and ceremonial of religion, and was accordingly in the hands of
the patricians alone, whose aid their clients were obliged to ask
in all their legal disputes. App. Claudius Caecus, perhaps one of
the earliest writers on law, drew up the various forms of actions,
probably for his own use and that of his friends: the manuscript was
stolen or copied by his scribe Cn. Flavius, who made it public; and
thus, according to the story, the plebeians became acquainted with
those legal forms which hitherto had been the exclusive property of
the patricians. After the abolition of the old legal actions, a suit
was prosecuted in the following manner:--An action was commenced by
the plaintiff summoning the defendant to appear before the praetor
or other magistrate who had _jurisdictio_; this process was called
_in jus vocatio_; and, according to the laws of the Twelve Tables,
was in effect a dragging of the defendant before the praetor, if
he refused to go quietly; and although this rude proceeding was
somewhat modified in later times, we find in the time of Horace
that if the defendant would not go quietly, the plaintiff called on
any bystander to witness, and dragged the defendant into court. The
parties might settle their dispute on their way to the court, or
the defendant might be bailed by a vindex. The vindex must not be
confounded with the vades. This settlement of disputes on the way
was called _transactio in via_, and serves to explain a passage in
St. Matthew, v. 25. When before the praetor, the parties were said
_jure agere_. The plaintiff then prayed for an action, and if the
praetor allowed it (_dabat actionem_), he then declared what action
he intended to bring against the defendant, which he called _edere
actionem_. This might be done in writing, or orally, or by the
plaintiff taking the defendant to the _album_ [ALBUM], and showing
him which action he intended to rely on. As the _formulae_ on the
album comprehended, or were supposed to comprehend, every possible
form of action that could be required by a plaintiff, it was presumed
that he could find among all the formulae some one which was adapted
to his case; and he was, accordingly, supposed to be without excuse
if he did not take pains to select the proper formula. If he took
the wrong one, or if he claimed more than his due, he lost his cause
(_causa cadebat_); but the praetor sometimes gave him leave to amend
his claim or _intentio_. It will be observed, that as the formulae
were so numerous and comprehensive, the plaintiff had only to select
the formula which he supposed to be suitable to his case, and it
would require no further variation than the insertion of the names
of the parties and of the thing claimed, or the subject-matter of
the suit, with the amount of damages, &c., as the case might be.
When the praetor had granted an action, the plaintiff required the
defendant to give security for his appearance before the praetor
(_in jure_) on a day named, commonly the day but one after the _in
jus vocatio_, unless the matter in dispute was settled at once. The
defendant, on finding a surety, was said _vades dare_, _vadimonium
promittere_, or _facere_; the surety, _vas_, was said _spondere_;
the plaintiff, when satisfied with the surety, was said _vadari
reum_, to let him go on his sureties, or to have sureties from him.
When the defendant promised to appear _in jure_ on the day named,
without giving any surety, this was called _vadimonium purum_. In
some cases, _recuperatores_ [JUDEX] were named, who, in case of the
defendant making default, condemned him in the sum of money named in
the _vadimonium_. If the defendant appeared on the day appointed,
he was said _vadimonium sistere_; if he did not appear, he was said
_vadimonium deseruisse_; and the praetor gave to the plaintiff
the _bonorum possessio_. Both parties, on the day appointed, were
summoned by a crier (_praeco_), when the plaintiff made his claim
or demand, which was very briefly expressed, and may be considered
as corresponding to our declaration at law. The defendant might
either deny the plaintiff’s claim, or he might reply to it by a
plea, _exceptio_. If he simply denied the plaintiff’s claim, the
cause was at issue, and a judex might be demanded. The forms of the
_exceptio_, also, were contained in the praetor’s edict, or, upon
hearing the facts, the praetor adapted the plea to the case. The
plaintiff might reply to the defendant’s _exceptio_. The plaintiff’s
answer was called _replicatio_. If the defendant answered the
_replicatio_, his answer was called _duplicatio_; and the parties
might go on to the _triplicatio_ and _quadruplicatio_, and even
further, if the matters in question were such that they could not
otherwise be brought to an issue. A person might maintain or defend
an action by his _cognitor_ or _procurator_, or, as we should say,
by his attorney. The plaintiff and defendant used a certain form
of words in appointing a cognitor, and it would appear that the
appointment was made in the presence of both parties. The cognitor
needed not to be present, and his appointment was complete when by
his acts he had signified his assent. When the cause was brought to
an issue, a judex or judices might be demanded of the praetor, who
named or appointed a judex, and delivered to him the formula, which
contained his instructions. The judices were said _dari_ or _addici_.
So far the proceedings were said to be _in jure_: the prosecution of
the actio before the judex requires a separate discussion. [JUDEX.]

ACTOR, signified generally a plaintiff. In a civil or private action,
the plaintiff was often called _petitor_; in a public action (_causa
publica_), he was called _accusator_. The defendant was called
_reus_, both in private and public causes: this term, however,
according to Cicero, might signify either party, as indeed we might
conclude from the word itself. In a private action the defendant
was often called _adversarius_, but either party might be called
_adversarius_ with respect to the other. Wards brought their actions
by their guardian or tutor. _Peregrini_, or aliens, originally
brought their action through their patronus; but afterwards in their
own name, by a fiction of law, that they were Roman citizens. A Roman
citizen might also generally bring his action by means of a cognitor
or procurator. [ACTIO.] Actor has also the sense of an agent or
manager of another’s business generally. The _actor publicus_ was an
officer who had the superintendence or care of slaves and property
belonging to the state.

ACTŬĀRĬAE NĀVES, transport-vessels, seem to have been built in a
lighter style than the ordinary ships of burden, from which they also
differed in being always furnished with oars, whereas the others were
chiefly propelled by sails.

ACTŬĀRĬI, short-hand writers, who took down the speeches in the
senate and the public assemblies. In the debate in the Roman senate
upon the punishment of those who had been concerned in the conspiracy
of Catiline, we find the first mention of short-hand writers, who
were employed by Cicero to take down the speech of Cato.

ACTUS, a Roman measure of length, also called _actus quadratus_, was
equal to half a jugerum, or 14,400 square Roman feet. The _actus
minimus_, or _simplex_, was 120 feet long, and four broad, and
therefore equal to 480 square Roman feet. Actus was also used to
signify a bridle-way.

ĂCUS (βελόνη, βελονίς, ῥαφίς), a needle, a pin. Pins were made not
only of metal, but also of wood, bone, and ivory. They were used for
the same purposes as with us, and also in dressing the hair. The mode
of platting the hair, and then fastening it with a pin or needle, is
shown in the annexed figure of a female head. This fashion has been
continued to our own times by the females of Italy.

[Illustration: Acus. (Montfaucon, Ant. Exp., Suppl., iii. 8.)]



ADLECTI, or ALLECTI, those persons under the empire who were admitted
to the privileges and honours of the praetorship, quaestorship,
aedileship, and other public offices, without having any duties to
perform. The senators called _adlecti_ seem to have been the same as
the conscripti.


ADMISSĬŌNĀLES, chamberlains at the imperial court, who introduced
persons into the presence of the emperor. They were divided into
four classes; the chief officer of each class was called _proximus
admissionum_; and the proximi were under the _magister admissionum_.
Their duty was called _officium admissionis_. They were usually

ĂDŎLESCENS, was applied in the Roman law to a person from the end of
his twelfth or fourteenth to the end of his twenty-fifth year, during
which period a person was also called _adultus_. The word adolescens,
however, is frequently used in a less strict sense in the Latin
writers in referring to a person much older than the above-mentioned

ĂDŌNĬA (ἀδώνια), a festival celebrated in honour of Aphrodite and
Adonis in most of the Grecian cities. It lasted two days, and was
celebrated by women exclusively. On the first day they brought into
the streets statues of Adonis, which were laid out as corpses; and
they observed all the rites customary at funerals, beating themselves
and uttering lamentations. The second day was spent in merriment and
feasting; because Adonis was allowed to return to life, and spend
half the year with Aphrodite.

ĂDOPTĬO, adoption. (1) GREEK.--Adoption was called by the Athenians
εἰσποίησις, or sometimes simply ποίησις, or θέσις. The adoptive
father was said ποιεῖσθαι, εἰσποιεῖσθαι, or sometimes ποιεῖν: and
the father or mother (for a mother after the death of her husband
could consent to her son being adopted) was said ἐκποιεῖν: the son
was said ἐκποιεῖσθαι with reference to the family which he left;
and εἰσποιεῖσθαι with reference to the family into which he was
received. The son, when adopted, was called ποιητός, εἰσποιητός, or
θετός, in opposition to the legitimate son born of the body of the
father, who was called γνήσιος. A man might adopt a son either in
his lifetime or by his testament, provided he had no male offspring,
and was of sound mind. He might also, by testament, name a person
to take his property, in case his son or sons should die under
age. Only Athenian citizens could be adopted; but females could be
adopted (by testament at least) as well as males. The adopted child
was transferred from his own family and demus into those of the
adoptive father; he inherited his property, and maintained the sacra
of his adoptive father. It was not necessary for him to take his
new father’s name, but he was registered as his son in the register
of his phratria (φρατρικὸν γραμματεῖον). Subsequently to this, it
was necessary to enter him in the register of the adoptive father’s
demus (ληξιαρχικὸν γραμματεῖον), without which registration it
appears that he did not possess the full rights of citizenship as a
member of his new demus.--(2) ROMAN.--The Roman relation of parent
and child arose either from a lawful marriage or from adoption.
_Adoptio_ was the general name which comprehended the two species,
_adoptio_ and _adrogatio_; and as the adopted person passed from
his own familia into that of the person adopting, _adoptio_ caused
a _capitis diminutio_, and the lowest of the three kinds. [CAPUT.]
Adoption, in its specific sense, was the ceremony by which a person
who was in the power of his parent (_in potestate parentum_),
whether child or grandchild, male or female, was transferred to the
power of the person adopting him. It was effected under the authority
of a magistrate (_magistratus_), the praetor, for instance, at
Rome, or a governor (_praeses_) in the provinces. The person to be
adopted was emancipated [MANCIPATIO] by his natural father before
the competent authority, and surrendered to the adoptive father by
the legal form called _in jure cessio_. When a person was not in
the power of his parent (_sui juris_), the ceremony of adoption was
called _adrogatio_. Originally, it could only be effected at Rome,
and only by a vote of the populus (_populi auctoritate_) in the
comitia curiata (_lege curiata_); the reason of this being that the
caput or status of a Roman citizen could not, according to the laws
of the Twelve Tables, be effected except by a vote of the populus
in the comitia curiata. Clodius, the enemy of Cicero, was adrogated
into a plebeian family, in order to qualify himself to be elected
a tribune of the plebs. Females could not be adopted by adrogatio.
Under the emperors it became the practice to effect the adrogatio by
an imperial rescript. The effect of adoption was to create the legal
relation of father and son, just as if the adopted son were born of
the blood of the adoptive father in lawful marriage. The adopted
child was intitled to the name and sacra privata of the adopting
parent. A person, on passing from one gens into another, and taking
the name of his new familia, generally retained the name of his old
gens also, with the addition to it of the termination _anus_. Thus
Aemilius, the son of L. Aemilius Paullus, upon being adopted by P.
Cornelius Scipio, assumed the name of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus,
and C. Octavius, afterwards the emperor Augustus, upon being adopted
by the testament of his great-uncle the dictator, assumed the name of
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus.

ĂDŌRĀTĬO (προσκύνησις), adoration, was paid to the gods in the
following manner:--The individual stretched out his right hand to the
statue of the god whom he wished to honour, then kissed his hand,
and waved it to the statue. The adoratio differed from the _oratio_
or prayers, which were offered with the hands folded together and
stretched out to the gods. The adoration paid to the Roman emperors
was borrowed from the Eastern mode, and consisted in prostration on
the ground, and kissing the feet and knees of the emperor.


ĂDULTĔRĬUM, adultery. (1) GREEK.--Among the Athenians, if a man
caught another man in the act of criminal intercourse (μοιχεία)
with his wife, he might kill him with impunity; and the law was
also the same with respect to a concubine (παλλακή). He might also
inflict other punishment on the offender. It appears that there was
no adultery, unless a married woman was concerned. The husband might,
if he pleased, take a sum of money from the adulterer, by way of
compensation, and detain him till he found sureties for the payment.
The husband might also prosecute the adulterer in the action called
μοιχείας γραφή. If the act of adultery was proved, the husband could
no longer cohabit with his wife, under pain of losing his privileges
of a citizen (ἀτιμία). The adulteress was excluded even from those
temples which foreign women and slaves were allowed to enter; and if
she was seen there, any one might treat her as he pleased, provided
he did not kill her or mutilate her.--(2) ROMAN.--The word adulterium
properly signifies, in the Roman law, the offence committed by a
man’s having sexual intercourse with another man’s wife. _Stuprum_
(called by the Greeks φθορά) signifies the like offence with a widow
or virgin. In the time of Augustus a law was enacted (probably about
B.C. 17), entitled _Lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis_, which seems
to have contained special penal provisions against adultery; and
it is also not improbable that, by the old law or custom, if the
adulterer was caught in the fact, he was at the mercy of the injured
husband, and that the husband might punish with death his adulterous
wife. By the Julian law, a woman convicted of adultery was mulcted
in half of her dowry (_dos_) and the third part of her property
(_bona_), and banished (_relegata_) to some miserable island, such
as Seriphos, for instance. The adulterer was mulcted in half his
property, and banished in like manner. This law did not inflict the
punishment of death on either party; and in those instances under
the emperors in which death was inflicted, it must be considered as
an extraordinary punishment, and beyond the provisions of the Julian
law. The Julian law permitted the father (both adoptive and natural)
to kill the adulterer and adulteress in certain cases, as to which
there were several nice distinctions established by the law. If the
wife was divorced for adultery, the husband was entitled to retain
part of the dowry. By a constitution of the Emperor Constantine, the
offence in the adulterer was made capital.

ADVERSĀRĬA, a note-book, memorandum-book, posting-book, in which
the Romans entered memoranda of any importance, especially of money
received and expended, which were afterwards transcribed, usually
every month, into a kind of ledger. (_Tabulae justae, codex accepti
et expensi._)


ĂDŬNĂTI (ἀδύνατοι), were persons supported by the Athenian state,
who, on account of infirmity or bodily defects, were unable to obtain
a livelihood. The sum which they received from the state appears to
have varied at different times. In the time of Lysias and Aristotle,
one obolus a day was given; but it appears to have been afterwards
increased to two oboli. The bounty was restricted to persons whose
property was under three minae; and the examination of those who
were entitled to it belonged to the senate of the Five Hundred.
Peisistratus is said to have been the first to introduce a law for
the maintenance of those persons who had been mutilated in war.

ADVOCATUS, seems originally to have signified any person who gave
another his aid in any affair or business, as a witness for instance;
or for the purpose of aiding and protecting him in taking possession
of a piece of property. It was also used to express a person who
in any way gave his advice and aid to another in the management
of a cause; but, in the time of Cicero, the word did not signify
the orator or patronus who made the speech. Under the emperors it
signified a person who in any way assisted in the conduct of a cause,
and was sometimes equivalent to orator. The advocate’s fee was then
called _Honorarium_.



AEDĪLES (ἀγορανόμοι). The name of these functionaries is said to be
derived from their having the care of the temple (_aedes_) of Ceres.
The aediles were originally two in number: they were elected from the
plebs, and the institution of the office dates from the same time as
that of the tribunes of the plebs, B.C. 494. Their duties at first
seem to have been merely ministerial; they were the assistants of the
tribunes in such matters as the tribunes entrusted to them, among
which are enumerated the hearing of causes of smaller importance.
At an early period after their institution (B.C. 446), we find them
appointed the keepers of the senatus-consulta, which the consuls
had hitherto arbitrarily suppressed or altered. They were also the
keepers of the plebiscita. Other functions were gradually entrusted
to them, and it is not always easy to distinguish their duties from
some of those which belong to the censors. They had the general
superintendence of buildings, both sacred and private; under this
power they provided for the support and repair of temples, curiae,
&c., and took care that private buildings which were in a ruinous
state were repaired by the owners or pulled down. The care of the
supply and distribution of water, of the streets and pavements, with
the cleansing and draining of the city, belonged to the aediles;
and, of course, the care of the cloacae. They had the office of
distributing corn among the plebs, but this distribution of corn at
Rome must not be confounded with the duty of purchasing or procuring
it from foreign parts, which was performed by the consuls, quaestors,
and praetors, and sometimes by an extraordinary magistrate, as the
praefectus annonae. The aediles had to see that the public lands
were not improperly used, and that the pasture grounds of the state
were not trespassed on; and they had power to punish by fine any
unlawful act in this respect. They had a general superintendence over
buying and selling, and, as a consequence, the supervision of the
markets, of things exposed to sale, such as slaves, and of weights
and measures; from this part of their duty is derived the name under
which the aediles are mentioned by the Greek writers (ἀγορανόμοι).
It was their business to see that no new deities or religious rites
were introduced into the city, to look after the observance of
religious ceremonies, and the celebrations of the ancient feasts
and festivals. The general superintendence of police comprehended
the duty of preserving order, regard to decency, and the inspection
of the baths and houses of entertainment. The aediles had various
officers under them, as praecones, scribae, and viatores. The AEDILES
CURULES, who were also two in number, were originally chosen only
from the patricians, afterwards alternately from the patricians and
the plebs, and at last indifferently from both. The office of curule
aediles was instituted B.C. 365, and, according to Livy, on the
occasion of the plebeian aediles refusing to consent to celebrate the
Ludi Maximi for the space of four days instead of three; upon which a
senatus-consultum was passed, by which two aediles were to be chosen
from the patricians. From this time four aediles, two plebeian and
two curule, were annually elected. The distinctive honours of the
curule aediles were, the sella curulis, from whence their title is
derived, the toga praetexta, precedence in speaking in the senate,
and the jus imaginum. Only the curule aediles had the jus edicendi,
or the right of promulgating edicta; but the rules comprised in their
edicta served for the guidance of all the aediles. The edicta of the
curule aediles were founded on their authority as superintendents
of the markets, and of buying and selling in general. Accordingly,
their edicts had mainly, or perhaps solely, reference to the rules
as to buying and selling, and contracts for bargain and sale. The
persons both of the plebeian and curule aediles were sacrosancti. It
seems that after the appointment of the curule aediles, the functions
formerly exercised by the plebeian aediles were exercised, with some
few exceptions, by all the aediles indifferently. Within five days
after being elected, or entering on office, they were required to
determine by lot, or by agreement among themselves, what parts of
the city each should take under his superintendence; and each aedile
alone had the care of looking after the paving and cleansing of the
streets, and other matters, it may be presumed, of the same local
character within his district. The other duties of the office seem
to have been exercised by them jointly. In the superintendence of
the public festivals or solemnities, there was a further distinction
between the two sets of aediles. Many of these festivals, such as
those of Flora and Ceres, were superintended by either set of aediles
indifferently; but the plebeian games were under the superintendence
of the plebeian aediles, who had an allowance of money for that
purpose; and the fines levied on the pecuarii, and others, seem to
have been appropriated to these among other public purposes. The
celebration of the Ludi Magni or Romani, of the Ludi Scenici, or
dramatic representations, and the Ludi Megalesii, belonged specially
to the curule aediles, and it was on such occasions that they often
incurred a prodigious expense, with a view of pleasing the people,
and securing their votes in future elections. This extravagant
expenditure of the aediles arose after the close of the second Punic
war, and increased with the opportunities which individuals had of
enriching themselves after the Roman arms were carried into Greece,
Africa, and Spain. Even the prodigality of the emperors hardly
surpassed that of individual curule aediles under the republic; such
as C. Julius Caesar, the dictator, P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther,
and, above all, M. Aemilius Scaurus, whose expenditure was not
limited to bare show, but comprehended objects of public utility, as
the reparation of walls, dock-yards, ports, and aquaeducts. In B.C.
45, Julius Caesar caused two curule aediles and four plebeian aediles
to be elected; and thenceforward, at least so long as the office of
aedile was of any importance, six aediles were annually elected. The
two new plebeian aediles were called Cereales, and their duty was
to look after the supply of corn. Though their office may not have
been of any great importance after the institution of a praefectus
annonae by Augustus, there is no doubt that it existed for several
centuries, and at least as late as the time of the emperor Gordian.
The aediles belonged to the class of the minores magistratus. The
plebeian aediles were originally chosen at the comitia centuriata,
but afterwards at the comitia tributa, in which comitia the curule
aediles also were chosen. It appears that until the lex annalis
was passed (B.C. 180) a Roman citizen might be a candidate for any
office after completing his twenty-seventh year. This law fixed the
age at which each office might be enjoyed, and it seems that the
age fixed for the aedileship was thirty-six. The aediles existed
under the emperors; but their powers were gradually diminished, and
their functions exercised by new officers created by the emperors.
After the battle of Actium, Augustus appointed a Praefectus urbi,
who exercised the general police, which had formerly been one of
the duties of the aediles. Augustus also took from the aediles, or
exercised himself, the office of superintending the religious rites,
and the banishing from the city of all foreign ceremonials; he also
assumed the superintendence of the temples, and thus may be said
to have destroyed the aedileship by depriving it of its old and
original function. The last recorded instance of the splendours of
the aedileship is the administration of Agrippa, who volunteered to
take the office, and repaired all the public buildings and all the
roads at his own expense, without drawing anything from the treasury.
The aedileship had, however, lost its true character before this
time. Agrippa had already been consul before he accepted the office
of aedile, and his munificent expenditure in this nominal office was
the close of the splendour of the aedileship. Augustus appointed
the curule aediles specially to the office of putting out fires,
and placed a body of 600 slaves at their command; but the praefecti
vigilum afterwards performed this duty. They retained, under the
early emperors, a kind of police, for the purpose of repressing open
licentiousness and disorder. The coloniae, and the municipia of the
later period, had also their aediles, whose numbers and functions
varied in different places. They seem, however, as to their powers
and duties, to have resembled the aediles of Rome. They were chosen

AEDĬTŬI, AEDĬTŬMI, AEDĬTĬMI (called by the Greeks νεωκόροι, ζάκοροι,
and ὑποζάκοροι), were persons who took care of the temples, attended
to the cleaning of them, &c. They appear to have lived in the
temples, or near them, and to have acted as ciceroni to those persons
who wished to see them. Subsequently among the Greeks, the menial
services connected with this office were left to slaves, and the
persons called _neocori_ became priestly officers of high rank, who
had the chief superintendence of temples, their treasures, and the
sacred rites observed in them.

[Illustration: Aegis worn by Athena.

From Torso at Dresden. From Ancient Statues.]

AEGIS (αἰγίς) signifies, literally, a goat-skin. According to ancient
mythology, the aegis worn by Zeus was the hide of the goat Amaltheia,
which had suckled him in his infancy. Homer always represents it as
part of the armour of Zeus, whom on this account he distinguishes by
the epithet _aegis-bearing_ (αἰγίοχος). He, however, asserts, that
it was borrowed on different occasions both by Apollo and Athena.
The aegis was connected with the shield of Zeus, either serving as
a covering over it, or as a belt by which it was suspended from the
right shoulder. Homer accordingly uses the word to denote not only
the goat-skin, which it properly signified, but also the shield to
which it belonged. The aegis was adorned in a style corresponding to
the might and majesty of the father of the gods. In the middle of it
was fixed the appalling Gorgon’s head, and its border was surrounded
with golden tassels (θύσανοι), each of which was worth a hecatomb.
The aegis is usually seen on the statues of Athena, in which it is
a sort of scarf falling obliquely over the right shoulder, so as to
pass round the body under the left arm. The serpents of the Gorgon’s
head are transferred to the border of the skin. (See the left-hand
figure in the cut.) The later poets and artists represent the aegis
as a breast-plate covered with metal in the form of scales. (See the
right-hand figure.)

AENĔĀTŌRES, were those who blew upon wind instruments in the Roman
army; namely, the _buccinatores_, _cornicines_, and _tubicines_. They
were also employed in the public games.

AENIGMA (αἴνιγμα), a riddle. It was an ancient custom among the
Greeks to amuse themselves by proposing riddles at their symposia, or
drinking parties. Those who were successful in solving them, received
a prize, which usually consisted of wreaths, cakes, &c., while those
who were unsuccessful were condemned to drink in one breath a certain
quantity of wine, sometimes mixed with salt water. Those riddles
which have come down to us are mostly in hexameter verse. The Romans
seem to have been too serious to find any great amusement in riddles.

AENUM, or ĂHĒNUM (sc. _vas_), a brazen vessel, used for boiling.
The word is also frequently used in the sense of a dyer’s copper;
and, as purple was the most celebrated dye of antiquity, we find the
expressions _Sidonium aënum_, _Tyrium aënum_, &c.

AEŌRA, or ĔŌRA (αἰώρα, ἐώρα), a festival at Athens, accompanied with
sacrifices and banquets, whence it is sometimes called εὔδειπνος. It
was probably instituted in honour of Icarius and his daughter Erigone.


AERĀRĬI, a class of Roman citizens, who were not included in the
thirty tribes instituted by Servius Tullius. Although citizens, they
did not possess the suffragium, or right of voting in the comitia.
They were _cives sine suffragio_. They also paid the tribute in a
different manner from the other citizens. The Aerarians were chiefly
artisans and freedmen. The Caerites, or inhabitants of the Etruscan
town of Caere, who obtained the franchise in early times, but without
the suffragium, were probably the first body of aerarians. Any
Roman citizen guilty of a crime punishable by the censors, might
be degraded to the rank of an aerarian; so that his civic rights
were suspended, at least for the time that he was an aerarian. All
citizens so degraded were classed among the Caerites; whence we find
the expressions _aerarium facere_ and _in tabulas Caeritum referre_
used as synonymous. Persons who were made _infames_ likewise became
aerarians, for they lost the jus honorum and the suffragium. The
aerarians had to pay a tributum pro capite which was considerably
higher than that paid by the other citizens. They were not allowed to
serve in the legions.


AERĀRĬUM (τὸ δημόσιον), the public treasury at Rome, and hence the
public money itself. After the banishment of the kings the temple
of Saturn was employed as the place for keeping the public money,
and it continued to be so used till the later times of the empire.
Besides the public money and the accounts connected with it, various
other things were preserved in the treasury; of these the most
important were:--1. The standards of the legions. 2. The various
laws passed from time to time, engraven on brazen tables. 3. The
decrees of the senate, which were entered there in books kept for the
purpose, though the original documents were preserved in the temple
of Ceres under the custody of the aediles. 4. Various other public
documents, the reports and despatches of all generals and governors
of provinces, the names of all foreign ambassadors that came to Rome,
&c. Under the republic the aerarium was divided into two parts: the
_common_ treasury, in which were deposited the regular taxes, and
from which were taken the sums of money needed for the ordinary
expenditure of the state; and the _sacred_ treasury (_aerarium
sanctum_ or _sanctius_), which was never touched except in cases of
extreme peril. Both of these treasuries were in the temple of Saturn,
but in distinct parts of the temple. The produce of a tax of five
per cent. (_vicesima_) upon the value of every manumitted slave,
called _aurum vicesimarium_, was paid into the sacred treasury, as
well as a portion of the immense wealth obtained by the Romans in
their conquests in the East. Under Augustus the provinces and the
administration of the government were divided between the senate,
as the representative of the old Roman people, and the Caesar: all
the property of the former continued to be called _aerarium_, and
that of the latter received the name of _fiscus_. Augustus also
established a third treasury, to provide for the pay and support of
the army, and this received the name of _aerarium militare_. He also
imposed several new taxes to be paid into this aerarium. In the time
of the republic, the entire management of the revenues of the state
belonged to the senate; and under the superintendence and control of
the senate the quaestors had the charge of the aerarium. In B.C. 28,
Augustus deprived the quaestors of the charge of the treasury and
gave it to two praefects, whom he allowed the senate to choose from
among the praetors at the end of their year of office. Various other
changes were made with respect to the charge of the aerarium, but it
was eventually entrusted, in the reign of Trajan, to praefects, who
appear to have held their office for two years.

AES (χαλκός), properly signifies a compound of copper and tin,
corresponding to what we call _bronze_. It is incorrect to translate
it _brass_, which is a combination of copper and zinc, since all the
specimens of ancient objects, formed of the material called aes,
are found upon analysis to contain no zinc. The employment of aes
was very general among the ancients; money, vases, and utensils of
all sorts, being made of it. All the most ancient coins in Rome and
the old Italian states were made of aes, and hence money in general
was called by this name. For the same reason we have _aes alienum_,
meaning debt, and _aera_ in the plural, pay to the soldiers. The
Romans had no other coinage except bronze or copper (_aes_), till
B.C. 269, five years before the first Punic war, when silver was
first coined; gold was not coined till sixty-two years after silver.
The first coinage of aes is usually attributed to Servius Tullius,
who is said to have stamped the money with the image of cattle
(_pecus_), whence it is called _pecunia_. According to some accounts,
it was coined from the commencement of the city, and we know that
the old Italian states possessed a bronze or copper coinage from the
earliest times. The first coinage was the _as_ [AS], which originally
was a pound weight; but as in course of time the weight of the _as_
was reduced not only in Rome, but in the other Italian states, and
this reduction in weight was not uniform in the different states,
it became usual in all bargains to pay the asses according to their
weight, and not according to their nominal value. The _aes grave_ was
not the old heavy coins as distinguished from the lighter modern; but
it signified any number of copper coins reckoned according to the old
style, by weight. There was, therefore, no occasion for the state
to suppress the circulation of the old copper coins, since in all
bargains the asses were not reckoned by tale, but by weight.--Bronze
or copper (χαλκός) was very little used by the Greeks for money in
early times. Silver was originally the universal currency, and copper
appears to have been seldom coined till after the time of Alexander
the Great. The copper coin was called _Chalcous_ (χαλκούς). The
smallest silver coin at Athens was the quarter-obol, and the chalcous
was the half of that, or the eighth of an obol. In later times, the
obol was coined of copper as well as silver.

AES CIRCUMFORĀNĔUM, money borrowed from the Roman bankers
(_argentarii_), who had shops in porticoes round the forum.

terms for the pay of the Roman soldiers, before the regular
_stipendium_ was introduced. The _aes equestre_ was the sum of
money given for the purchase of the horse of an eques; the _aes
hordearium_, the sum paid yearly for its keep, in other words the
pay of an eques; and the _aes militare_, the pay of a foot soldier.
None of this money seems to have been taken from the public treasury,
but to have been paid by certain private persons, to whom this duty
was assigned by the state. The _aes hordearium_, which amounted to
2000 asses, had to be paid by single women (_viduae_, i.e. both
maidens and widows) and orphans (_orbi_), provided they possessed a
certain amount of property. The _aes equestre_, which amounted to
10,000 asses, was probably also paid by the same class of persons.
The _aes militare_, the amount of which is not expressly mentioned,
had to be paid by the _tribuni aerarii_, and if not paid, the foot
soldiers had a right of distress against them. It is generally
assumed that these _tribuni aerarii_ were magistrates connected with
the treasury, and that they were the assistants of the quaestors;
but there are good reasons for believing that the _tribuni aerarii_
were private persons, who were liable to the payment of the _aes
militare_, and upon whose property a distress might be levied, if
the money were not paid. They were probably persons whose property
was rated at a certain sum in the census, and we may conjecture that
they obtained the name of _tribuni aerarii_ because they levied the
_tributum_, which was imposed for the purpose of paying the army,
and then paid it to the soldiers. These _tribuni aerarii_ were no
longer needed when the state took into its own hands the payment of
the troops; but they were revived in B.C. 70, as a distinct class in
the commonwealth, by the Lex Aurelia, which gave the judicia to the
senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.

AES UXŌRĬUM, was a tax paid by men who reached old age without having
married. It was first imposed by the censors in B.C. 403. [LEX JULIA

AESYMNĒTES (αἰσυμνήτης), a person who was sometimes invested with
unlimited power in the Greek states. His power partook in some degree
of the nature both of kingly and tyrannical authority; since he was
appointed legally, and did not usurp the government, but at the same
time was not bound by any laws in his public administration. The
office was not hereditary, nor was it held for life; but it only
continued for a limited time, or till some object was accomplished.
Thus we read that the inhabitants of Mytilene appointed Pittacus
aesymnetes, in order to prevent the return of Alcaeus and the other
exiles. Dionysius compares it with the dictatorship of Rome. In some
states, such as Cyme and Chalcedon, it was the title borne by the
regular magistrates.


AETŌLĬCUM FOEDUS (κοινὸν τῶν Αἰτώλων), the Aetolian league, appears
as a powerful political body soon after the death of Alexander
the Great, viz. during the Lamian war against Antipater. The
characteristic difference between the Aetolian and Achaean leagues
was that the former originally consisted of a confederacy of nations
or tribes, while the latter was a confederacy of towns. The sovereign
power of the confederacy was vested in the general assemblies of
all the confederates (κοινὸν τῶν Αἰτώλων, _concilium Aetolorum_),
and this assembly had the right to discuss all questions respecting
peace and war, and to elect the great civil or military officers
of the league. The ordinary place of meeting was Thermon, but on
extraordinary occasions assemblies were also held in other towns
belonging to the league, though they were not situated in the country
of Aetolia Proper. The questions which were to be brought before
the assembly were sometimes discussed previously by a committee,
selected from the great mass, and called Apocleti (ἀπόκλητοι). The
general assembly usually met in the autumn, when the officers of the
league were elected. The highest among them, as among those of the
Achaean league, bore the title of _Strategus_ (στρατηγός), whose
office lasted only for one year. The strategus had the right to
convoke the assembly; he presided in it, introduced the subjects for
deliberation, and levied the troops. The officers next in rank to the
strategus were the hipparchus and the public scribe. The political
existence of the league was destroyed in B.C. 189 by the treaty
with Rome, and the treachery of the Roman party among the Aetolians
themselves caused in B.C. 167 five hundred and fifty of the leading
patriots to be put to death, and those who survived the massacre were
carried to Rome as prisoners.


AFFĪNES, AFFĪNĬTAS, or ADFĪNES, ADFĪNĬTAS. Affines are the _cognati_
[COGNATI] of husband and wife, the cognati of the husband becoming
the affines of the wife, and the cognati of the wife the affines
of the husband. The father of a husband is the _socer_ of the
husband’s wife, and the father of a wife is the _socer_ of the wife’s
husband. The term _socrus_ expresses the same affinity with respect
to the husband’s and wife’s mothers. A son’s wife is _nurus_, or
daughter-in-law to the son’s parents; a wife’s husband is _gener_, or
son-in-law to the wife’s parents. Thus the _avus_, _avia_--_pater_,
_mater_--of the wife became by the marriage respectively the _socer
magnus_, _prosocrus_, or _socrus magna_--_socer_, _socrus_--of the
husband, who becomes with respect to them severally _progener_ and
_gener_. In like manner the corresponding ancestors of the husband
respectively assume the same names with respect to the son’s wife,
who becomes with respect to them _pronurus_ and _nurus_. The son and
daughter of a husband or wife born of a prior marriage are called
_privignus_ and _privigna_, with respect to their step-father or
step-mother; and with respect to such children, the step-father
and step-mother are severally called _vitricus_ and _noverca_. The
husband’s brother becomes _levir_ with respect to the wife, and his
sister becomes _glos_ (the Greek γάλως). Marriage was unlawful among
persons who had become such affines as above mentioned.

ĂGALMA (ἄγαλμα) is a general name for a statue or image to represent
a god.

ĂGĀSO, a groom, whose business it was to take care of the horses. The
word is also used for a driver of beasts of burden, and is sometimes
applied to a slave who had to perform the lowest menial duties.

ĂGĂTHŎERGI (ἀγαθοεργοί). In time of war the kings of Sparta had a
body-guard of three hundred of the noblest of the Spartan youths
(ἱππεῖς), of whom the five eldest retired every year, and were
employed for one year under the name of _Agathoergi_, in missions to
foreign states.

ĂGĔLA (ἀγέλη), an assembly of young men in Crete, who lived together
from their eighteenth year till the time of their marriage. An
_agela_ always consisted of the sons of the most noble citizens, and
the members of it were obliged to marry at the same time.

ĂGĒMA (ἄγημα from ἄγω), the name of a chosen body of troops in the
Macedonian army, usually consisting of horsemen.

ĂGER PUBLĬCUS, the public land, was the land belonging to the Roman
state. It was a recognised principle among the Italian nations that
the territory of a conquered people belonged to the conquerors.
Accordingly, the Romans were constantly acquiring fresh territory
by the conquest of the surrounding people. The land thus acquired
was usually disposed of in the following way. 1. The land which was
under cultivation was either distributed among colonists, who were
sent to occupy it, or it was sold, or it was let out to farm. 2. The
land which was then out of cultivation, and which, owing to war,
was by far the greater part, might be occupied by any of the Roman
citizens on the payment of a portion of the yearly produce; a tenth
of the produce of arable land, and a fifth of the produce of the
land planted with the vine, the olive, and other valuable trees. 3.
The land which had previously served as the common pasture land of
the conquered state, or was suitable for the purpose, continued to
be used as pasture land by the Roman citizens, who had, however, to
pay a certain sum of money for the cattle which they turned upon it.
The occupation of the public land spoken of above under the second
head was always expressed by the words _possessio_ and _possidere_,
and the occupier of the land was called the _possessor_. The land
continued to be the property of the state; and accordingly we must
distinguish between the terms _possessio_, which merely indicated
the use or enjoyment of the land, and _dominium_, which expressed
ownership, and was applied to private land, of which a man had the
absolute ownership. The right of occupying the public land belonged
only to citizens, and consequently only to the patricians originally,
as they were the state. The plebeians were only subjects, and
consequently had no right to the property of the state; but it is
probable that they were permitted to feed their cattle on the public
pasture lands. Even when the plebeians became a separate estate by
the constitution of Servius Tullius, they still obtained no right to
share in the possession of the public land, which continued to be the
exclusive privilege of the patricians; but as a compensation, each
individual plebeian received an assignment of a certain quantity of
the public land as his own property. Henceforth the possession of the
public land was the privilege of the patricians, and an assignment
of a portion of it the privilege of the plebeians. As the state
acquired new lands by conquest, the plebeians ought to have received
assignments of part of them, but since the patricians were the
governing body, they generally refused to make any such assignment,
and continued to keep the whole as part of the ager publicus, whereby
the enjoyment of it belonged to them alone. Hence, we constantly
read of the plebeians claiming, and sometimes enforcing, a division
of such land. With the extension of the conquests of Rome, the ager
publicus constantly increased, and thus a large portion of Italy fell
into the hands of the patricians, who frequently withheld from the
state the annual payments of a tenth and a fifth, which they were
bound to pay for the possession of the land, and thus deprived the
state of a fund for the expenses of the war. In addition to which
they used slaves as cultivators and shepherds, since freemen were
liable to be drawn off from field-labour to military service, and
slave-labour was consequently far cheaper. In this way the number
of free labourers was diminished, and that of slaves augmented.
To remedy this state of things several laws were from time to time
proposed and carried, which were most violently opposed by the
patricians. All laws which related to the _public_ land are called
by the general title of _Leges Agrariae_, and accordingly all the
early laws relating to the possession of the public land by the
patricians, and to the assignment of portions of it to the plebeians,
were strictly agrarian laws; but the first law to which this name
is usually applied was proposed soon after the establishment of the
republic by the consul, Sp. Cassius, in B.C. 486. Its object was to
set apart the portion of the public land which the patricians were to
possess, to divide the rest among the plebeians, to levy the payment
due for the possession, and to apply it to paying the army. The first
law, however, which really deprived the patricians of the advantages
they had previously enjoyed in the occupation of the public land was
the agrarian law of C. Licinius Stolo (B.C. 366), which limited each
individual’s possession of public land to 500 jugera, and declared
that no individual should have above 100 large and 500 smaller cattle
on the public pastures: it further enacted that the surplus land was
to be divided among the plebeians. As this law, however, was soon
disregarded, it was revived again by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus (B.C.
133), with some alterations and additions. The details of the other
agrarian laws mentioned in Roman history are given under the name of
the lex by which they are called. [LEX.]

AGGER (χῶμα), from _ad_ and _gero_, was used in general for a heap
or mound of any kind. It was more particularly applied:--(1) To a
mound, usually composed of earth, which was raised round a besieged
town, and which was gradually increased in breadth and height, till
it equalled or overtopped the walls. The agger was sometimes made,
not only of earth, but of wood, hurdles, &c.; whence we read of the
agger being set on fire.--(2) To the earthen wall surrounding a Roman
encampment, composed of the earth dug from the ditch (_fossa_), which
was usually 9 feet broad and 7 feet deep; but if any attack was
apprehended, the depth was increased to 12 feet and the breadth to 13
feet. Sharp stakes, &c., were usually fixed upon the agger, which was
then called _vallum_. When both words are used, the agger means the
mound of earth, and the vallum the stakes, &c., which were fixed upon
the agger.





ĂGŌNĀLĬA or ĂGŌNĬA, one of the most ancient festivals at Rome, its
institution being attributed to Numa Pompilius. It was celebrated on
the 9th of January, the 21st of May, and the 11th of December; to
which we should probably add the 17th of March, the day on which the
Liberalia was celebrated, since this festival is also called _Agonia_
or _Agonium Martiale_. The object of this festival was a disputed
point among the ancients themselves. The victim which was offered
was a ram; the person who offered it was the rex sacrificulus; and
the place where it was offered was the regia. Now the ram was the
usual victim presented to the guardian gods of the state, and the
rex sacrificulus and the regia could be employed only for such
ceremonies as were connected with the highest gods and affected the
weal of the whole state. Regarding the sacrifice in this light, we
see a reason for its being offered several times in the year. The
etymology of the name was also a subject of much dispute among the
ancients; and the various etymologies that were proposed are given
at length by Ovid (_Fast._ i. 319-332). None of these, however, are
at all satisfactory; and we would therefore suggest that it may have
received its name from the sacrifice having been offered on the
Quirinal hill, which was originally called _Agonus_.

ĂGŌNES (ἀγῶνες), the general term among the Greeks for the contests
at their great national games. The word also signified law-suits, and
was especially employed in the phrase ἀγῶνες τιμητοί and ἀτίμητοι.

ĂGONŎTHĔTAE (ἀγωνοθέται), persons in the Grecian games who decided
disputes, and adjudged the prizes to the victors. Originally, the
person who instituted the contest and offered the prize was the
_Agonothetes_, and this continued to be the practice in those games
which were instituted by kings or private persons. But in the great
public games, such as the Isthmian, Pythian, &c., the _Agonothetae_
were either the representatives of different states, as the
Amphictyons at the Pythian games, or were chosen from the people in
whose country the games were celebrated. During the flourishing times
of the Grecian republics the Eleans were the _Agonothetae_ in the
Olympic games, the Corinthians in the Isthmian games, the Amphictyons
in the Pythian games, and the Corinthians, Argives, and inhabitants
of Cleonae in the Nemaean games. The _Agonothetae_ were also called
_Aesymnetae_ (αἰσυμνῆται), _Agonarchae_ (ἀγωνάρχαι), _Agonodicae_
(ἀγωνοδίκαι), _Athlothetae_ (ἀθλοθέται), _Rhabduchi_ (ῥαβδοῦχοι),
or _Rhabdonomi_ (ῥαβδονόμοι, from the staff which they carried as
an emblem of authority), _Brabeis_ (βραβεῖς), and _Brabeutae_

ĂGŎRA (ἀγορά) properly means an assembly of any kind, and is usually
employed by Homer to designate the general assembly of the people.
The Agora seems to have been considered an essential part of the
constitution of the early Grecian states. It was usually convoked
by the king, but occasionally by some distinguished chieftain,
as, for example, by Achilles before Troy. The king occupied the
most important seat in these assemblies, and near him sat the
nobles, while the people stood or sat in a circle around them. The
people appear to have had no right of speaking or voting in these
assemblies, but merely to have been called together to hear what
had been already agreed upon in the council of the nobles, and to
express their feelings as a body. The council of the nobles is called
_Boulé_ (βουλή) and _Thoöcus_ (θόωκος), and sometimes even _Agora_.
Among the Athenians, the proper name for the assembly of the people
was _Ecclesia_ (ἐκκλησία), and among the Dorians _Halia_ (ἁλία). The
term Agora was confined at Athens to the assemblies of the phylae and
demi. The name Agora was early transferred from the assembly itself
to the place in which it was held; and thus it came to be used for
the market-place, where goods of all descriptions were bought and
sold. Hence it answers to the Roman _forum_.

ĂGŎRĀNŎMI (ἀγορανόμοι), public functionaries in most of the Grecian
states, whose duties corresponded in many respects with those of the
Roman aediles. At Athens their number was ten, five for the city, and
five for the Peiraeus, and they were chosen by lot. The principal
duty of the Agoranomi was, as their name imports, to inspect the
market, and to see that all the laws respecting its regulation were
properly observed. They had the inspection of all things that were
sold in the market, with the exception of corn, which was subject
to the jurisdiction of special officers, called _Sitophylaces_
(σιτοφύλακες). They regulated the price and quantity of articles
exposed for sale, and punished all persons convicted of cheating,
especially by means of false weights and measures. They had the power
of fining all citizens who infringed upon the rules of the market,
and of whipping all slaves and foreigners guilty of a like offence.
They also collected the market dues, and had the care of all the
temples and fountains in the market place.


AGRAULĬA (ἀγραύλια) was a festival celebrated by the Athenians
in honour of Agraulos, the daughter of Cecrops. It was perhaps
connected with the solemn oath, which all Athenians, when they
arrived at manhood (ἔφηβοι), were obliged to take in the temple of
Agraulos, that they would fight for their country, and always observe
its laws.

AGRĪMENSŌRES, or “land surveyors,” a college established under the
Roman emperors. Like the jurisconsults, they had regular schools,
and were paid handsome salaries by the state. Their business was
to measure unassigned lands for the state, and ordinary lands for
the proprietors, and to fix and maintain boundaries. Their writings
on the subject of their art were very numerous; and we have still
scientific treatises on the law of boundaries, such as those by
Frontinus and Hyginus.

AGRIŌNĬA (ἀγριώνια), a festival which was celebrated at Orchomenus,
in Boeotia, in honour of Dionysus, surnamed Agrionius. A human being
used originally to be sacrificed at this festival, but this sacrifice
seems to have been avoided in later times. One instance, however,
occurred in the days of Plutarch.

AGRONŎMI (ἀγρονόμοι), the country-police, probably in Attica, whose
duties corresponded in most respects to those of the astynomi in the
city, and who appear to have performed nearly the same duties as the
hylori (ὑλωροί).

AGRŎTĔRAS THŬSIA (ἀγροτέρας θυσία), a festival celebrated every year
at Athens in honour of Artemis, surnamed Agrotera (from ἄγρα, the
chase). It was solemnized on the sixth of the month of Boëdromion,
and consisted of a sacrifice of 500 goats, which continued to be
offered in the time of Xenophon. Its origin is thus related:--When
the Persians invaded Attica, the Athenians made a vow to sacrifice
to Artemis Agrotera as many goats as there should be enemies slain
at Marathon. But as the number of enemies slain was so great that
an equal number of goats could not be found at once, the Athenians
decreed that 500 should be sacrificed every year.

AGYRTAE (ἀγύρται), mendicant priests, who were accustomed to travel
through the different towns of Greece, soliciting alms for the gods
whom they served, and whose images they carried, either on their
shoulders or on beasts of burthen. They were, generally speaking,
persons of the lowest and most abandoned character.


AIKIAS DĬKĒ (αἰκίας δίκη), an action brought at Athens, before the
court of the Forty (οἱ τετταράκοντα), against any individual who
had struck a citizen. Any citizen who had been thus insulted might
proceed against the offending party, either by the αἰκίας δίκη,
which was a private action, or by the ὕβρεως γραφή, which was looked
upon in the light of a public prosecution.

AITHOUSA (αἴθουσα), a word only used by Homer, is probably for
αἴθουσα στοά, a portico exposed to the sun. From the passages in
which it occurs, it seems to denote a covered portico, opening on to
the court of the house, αὐλή, in front of the vestibule, πρόθυρον.

ĀLA, part of a Roman house. [DOMUS.]

ĀLA, ĀLĀRES, ĀLĀRĬI. _Ala_, which literally means _a wing_, was from
the earliest epochs employed to denote the wing of an army, but in
process of time was frequently used in a restricted sense.--(1) When
a Roman army was composed of Roman citizens exclusively, the flanks
of the infantry when drawn up in battle array were covered on the
right and left by the cavalry; and hence _Ala_ denoted the body of
horse which was attached to and served along with the foot-soldiers
of the legion.--(2) When, at a later date, the Roman armies were
composed partly of Roman citizens and partly of _Socii_, either
_Latini_ or _Italici_, it became the practice to marshal the Roman
troops in the centre of the battle line and the Socii upon the wings.
Hence _ala_ and _alarii_ denoted the contingent furnished by the
allies, both horse and foot, and the two divisions were distinguished
as _dextera ala_ and _sinistra ala_.--(3) When the whole of the
inhabitants of Italy had been admitted to the privileges of Roman
citizens the terms _alarii_, _cohortes alariae_ were transferred
to the _foreign_ troops serving along with the Roman armies.--(4)
Lastly, under the empire, the term _ala_ was applied to regiments
of horse, raised it would seem with very few exceptions in the
provinces, serving apart from the legions and the cavalry of the

ĂLĂBARCHĒS (ἀλαβάρχης), the chief magistrate of the Jews at
Alexandria, whose duties, as far as the government was concerned,
chiefly consisted in raising and paying the taxes.

ĂLĂBASTER or ĂLĂBASTRUM, a vessel or pot used for containing
perfumes, or rather ointments, made of that species of marble which
mineralogists call _gypsum_, and which is usually designated by the
name of _alabaster_. When varieties of colour occur in the same
stone, and are disposed in bands or horizontal strata, it is often
called onyx alabaster; and when dispersed irregularly, as if in
clouds, it is distinguished as agate alabaster. The term seems to
have been employed to denote vessels appropriated to these uses, even
when they were not made of the material from which it is supposed
they originally received their name. Thus Theocritus speaks of
golden alabastra. These vessels were of a tapering shape, and very
often had a long narrow neck, which was sealed; so that when Mary,
the sister of Lazarus, is said by St. Mark to break the alabaster
box of ointment for the purpose of anointing our Saviour, it appears
probable that she only broke the extremity of the neck, which was
thus closed.


ĂLAUDA, a Gaulish word, the prototype of the modern French
_Alouette_, denoting a small crested bird of the lark kind. The name
alauda was bestowed by Julius Caesar on a legion of picked men, which
he raised at his own expense among the inhabitants of Transalpine
Gaul, about the year B.C. 55, which he equipped and disciplined after
the Roman fashion, and on which he at a subsequent period bestowed
the freedom of the state. The designation was, in all probability,
applied from a plume upon the helmet, resembling the “apex” of the
bird in question, or from the general shape and appearance of the


ALBUM, a tablet of any material on which the praetor’s edicts, and
the rules relating to actions and interdicts, were written. The
tablet was put up in a public place, in order that all the world
might have notice of its contents. According to some authorities,
the album was so called because it was either a white material or a
material whitened, and of course the writing would be of a different
colour. According to other authorities, it was so called because the
writing was in white letters. Probably the word album originally
meant any tablet containing anything of a public nature. We know that
it was, in course of time, used to signify a list of any public body;
thus we find _album judicum_, or the body out of which judices were
to be chosen [JUDEX], and _album senatorium_, or list of senators.

ĀLĔA, gaming, or playing at a game of chance of any kind: hence
_aleo_, _aleator_, a gamester, a gambler. Playing with _tali_, or
_tesserae_, was generally understood, because this was by far the
most common game of chance among the Romans. Gaming was forbidden
by the Roman laws, both during the times of the republic and under
the emperors, but was tolerated in the month of December at the
Saturnalia, which was a period of general relaxation; and old men
were allowed to amuse themselves in this manner at all times.

ĂLĬCŬLA (ἄλλιξ or ἄλληξ), an upper dress, in all probability
identical with the chlamys.

ĂLIMENTĀRII PŬĔRI ET PŬELLAE. In the Roman republic the poorer
citizens were assisted by public distributions of corn, oil, and
money, which were called _congiaria_. [CONGIARIUM.] The Emperor Nerva
was the first who extended them to children, and Trajan appointed
them to be made every month, both to orphans and to the children of
poor parents. The children who received them were called _pueri et
puellae alimentarii_, and also (from the emperor) _pueri puellaeque

ĀLĬPĬLUS, a slave, who attended on bathers to remove the superfluous
hair from their bodies.

ĂLIPTAE (ἀλείπται), among the Greeks, were persons who anointed the
bodies of the athletae preparatory to their entering the palaestra.
The chief object of this anointing was to close the pores of the
body, in order to prevent much perspiration, and the weakness
consequent thereon. The athleta was again anointed after the contest,
in order to restore the tone of the strained muscles. He then bathed,
and had the dust, sweat, and oil scraped off his body, by means
of an instrument similar to the strigil of the Romans, and called
_stlengis_ (στλεγγίς), and afterwards _xystra_ (ξύστρα). The aliptae
took advantage of the knowledge they necessarily acquired of the
state of the muscles of the athletae, and their general strength or
weakness of body, to advise them as to their exercises and mode of
life. They were thus a kind of medical trainers. Among the Romans the
aliptae were slaves who scrubbed and anointed their masters in the
baths. They, too, like the Greek aliptae, appear to have attended to
their masters’ constitution and mode of life. They were also called
_unctores_. They used in their operations a kind of scraper called
strigil, towels (_lintea_), a cruise of oil (_guttus_), which was
usually of horn, a bottle (_ampulla_), and a small vessel called

[Illustration: Allocutio (Coin of Nero.)]

ALLŎCŪTĬO, an harangue made by a Roman imperator to his soldiers,
to encourage them before battle, or on other occasions. On coins
we frequently find a figure of an imperator standing on a platform
and addressing the soldiers below him. Such coins bear the epigraph

[Illustration: Allocutio. (Coin of Galba.)]

ALŌA or HALŌA (ἀλῶα, ἁλῶα), an Attic festival, but celebrated
principally at Eleusis, in honour of Demeter and Dionysus, the
inventors of the plough and protectors of the fruits of the earth.



ĂLỸTAE (ἀλύται), persons whose business it was to keep order in
the public games. They received their orders from an _alytarches_
(ἀλυτάρχης), who was himself under the direction of the agonothetae,
or hellenodicae.

ĀMĂNŬENSIS, or AD MĂNUM SERVUS, a slave, or freedman, whose office it
was to write letters and other things under his master’s direction.
The amanuenses must not be confounded with another sort of slaves,
also called _ad manum servi_, who were always kept ready to be
employed in any business.

ĂMĂRYNTHĬA, or ĂMĂRYSĬA (ἀμαρύνθια or ἀμαρύσια), a festival of
Artemis Amarynthia or Amarysia, celebrated, as it seems, originally
at Amarynthus in Euboea, with extraordinary splendour, but also
solemnised in several places in Attica, such as Athmone.


AMBĬTUS, which literally signifies “a going about,” cannot, perhaps,
be more nearly expressed than by our word _canvassing_. After the
plebs had formed a distinct class at Rome, and when the whole body
of the citizens had become very greatly increased, we frequently
read, in the Roman writers, of the great efforts which it was
necessary for candidates to make in order to secure the votes of the
citizens. At Rome, as in every community into which the element of
popular election enters, solicitation of votes, and open or secret
influence and bribery, were among the means by which a candidate
secured his election to the offices of state. The following are the
principal terms occurring in the Roman writers in relation to the
canvassing for the public offices:--A candidate was called _petitor_;
and his opponent with reference to him _competitor_. A candidate
(_candidatus_) was so called from his appearing in the public places,
such as the fora and Campus Martius, before his fellow-citizens,
in a whitened toga. On such occasions the candidate was attended
by his friends (_deductores_), or followed by the poorer citizens
(_sectatores_), who could in no other manner show their good will
or give their assistance. The word _assiduitas_ expressed both
the continual presence of the candidate at Rome and his continual
solicitations. The candidate, in going his rounds or taking his
walk, was accompanied by a _nomenclator_, who gave him the names
of such persons as he might meet; the candidate was thus enabled
to address them by their name, an indirect compliment, which could
not fail to be generally gratifying to the electors. The candidate
accompanied his address with a shake of the hand (_prensatio_). The
term _benignitas_ comprehended generally any kind of treating, as
shows, feasts, &c. The _ambitus_, which was the object of several
penal enactments, taken as a generic term, comprehended the two
species--_ambitus_ and _largitiones_ (bribery). _Liberalitas_ and
_benignitas_ are opposed by Cicero, as things allowable, to _ambitus_
and _largitio_, as things illegal. Money was paid for votes; and,
in order to insure secrecy and secure the elector, persons called
_interpretes_ were employed to make the bargain, _sequestres_ to hold
the money till it was to be paid, and _divisores_ to distribute it.
The offence of ambitus was a matter which belonged to the judicia
publica, and the enactments against it were numerous. One of the
earliest, though not the earliest of all, the Lex Cornelia Baebia
(B.C. 181) was specially directed against _largitiones_. Those
convicted under it were incapacitated from being candidates for
ten years. The Lex Cornelia Fulvia (B.C. 159) punished the offence
with exile. The Lex Acilia Calpurnia (B.C. 67) imposed a fine on
the offending party, with exclusion from the senate and all public
offices. The Lex Tullia (B.C. 63), passed in the consulship of
Cicero, in addition to the penalty of the Acilian law, inflicted
ten years’ exsilium on the offender; and, among other things,
forbade a person to exhibit gladiatorial shows (_gladiatores dare_)
within any two years in which he was a candidate, unless he was
required to do so, on a fixed day, by a testator’s will. Two years
afterwards the Lex Aufidia was proposed, but not passed; by which,
among other things, it was provided that, if a candidate promised
(_pronuntiavit_) money to a tribe, and did not pay it, he should
be unpunished; but, if he did pay the money, he should further pay
to each tribe (annually?) 3000 sesterces as long as he lived. This
absurd proposal occasioned the witticism of Cicero, who said that
Clodius observed the law by anticipation; for he promised, but did
not pay. The Lex Licinia (B.C. 55) was specially directed against the
offence of _sodalitium_, or the wholesale bribery of a tribe by gifts
and treating; and another lex, passed (B.C. 52) when Pompey was sole
consul, had for its object the establishment of a speedier course
of proceeding on trials for ambitus. All these enactments failed
in completely accomplishing their object. That which no law could
suppress, so long as the old popular forms retained any of their
pristine vigour, was accomplished by the imperial usurpation. Caesar,
when dictator, nominated some of the candidates for public offices:
as to the consulship, he managed the appointments to that office just
as he pleased. The popular forms of election were observed during the
time of Augustus. Tiberius transferred the elections from the comitia
to the senate, by which the offence of ambitus, in its proper sense,
entirely disappeared. The trials for ambitus were numerous in the
time of the republic. The oration of Cicero in defence of L. Murena,
who was charged with ambitus, and that in defence of Cn. Plancius,
who was charged with _sodalitium_, are both extant.

AMBRŎSĬA (ἀμβροσία), the food of the gods, which conferred upon them
eternal youth and immortality, and was brought to Jupiter by pigeons.
It was also used by the gods for anointing their body and hair;
whence we read of the ambrosial locks of Jupiter.

AMBŪBAIAE (probably from the Syriac _abub aubub_, a pipe), Eastern
dancing girls, who frequented chiefly the Circus at Rome, and
obtained their living by prostitution and lascivious songs and dances.

AMBURBĬUM, a sacrifice which was performed at Rome for the
purification of the city.



ĂMICTUS. The verb _amicire_ is commonly opposed to _induere_,
the former being applied to the putting on of the outer garment,
the pallium, laena, or toga (ἱμάτιον, φᾶρος); the latter, to the
putting on of the inner garment, the tunic (χιτών). In consequence
of this distinction, the verbal nouns _amictus_ and _indutus_, even
without any further denomination of the dress being added, indicate
respectively the outer and inner clothing. In Greek _amicire_ is
expressed by ἀμφιέννυσθαι, ἀμπέχεσθαι, ἐπιβάλλεσθαι, περιβάλλεσθαι:
and _induere_ by ἐνδύνειν. Hence came ἀμπεχόνη, ἐπίβλημα, and
ἐπιβόλαιον, περίβλημα, and περιβόλαιον, an outer garment, a cloak, a
shawl; and ἔνδυμα, an inner garment, a tunic, a shirt.

AMPHICTỸŎNES (ἀμφικτύονες). Institutions called amphictyonic appear
to have existed in Greece from time immemorial. They seem to have
been originally associations of neighbouring tribes, formed for the
regulation of mutual intercourse and the protection of a common
temple or sanctuary, at which the representatives of the different
members met, both to transact business and to celebrate religious
rites and games. One of these associations was of much greater
importance than all the rest, and was called, by way of eminence,
the _Amphictyonic League_ or _Council_ (ἀμφικτυονία). It differed
from other similar associations in having two places of meeting, the
sanctuaries of two divinities; which were the temple of Demeter, in
the village of Anthela, near Thermopylae, where the deputies met
in autumn; and that of Apollo, at Delphi, where they assembled in
spring. Its connexion with the latter place not only contributed
to its dignity, but also to its permanence. Its early history is
involved in obscurity. Most of the ancients suppose it to have
been founded by Amphictyon, the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, from
whom they imagined that it derived its name: but this opinion is
destitute of all foundation, and arose from the ancients assigning
the establishment of their institutions to some mythical hero. There
can be little doubt as to the true etymology of the word. It was
originally written ἀμφικτίονες, and consequently signified those that
dwelt around some particular locality. Its institution, however, is
clearly of remote antiquity. It was originally composed of twelve
_tribes_ (not cities or states, it must be observed), each of which
tribes contained various independent cities or states. We learn
from Aeschines, that in B.C. 343, eleven of these tribes were as
follows:--The Thessalians, Boeotians (not Thebans only), Dorians,
Ionians, Perrhaebians, Magnetes, Locrians, Oetaeans or Oenianians,
Phthiots or Achaeans of Phthia, Malians, and Phocians; other lists
leave us in doubt whether the remaining tribe were the Dolopes or
Delphians; but as the Delphians could hardly be called a distinct
tribe, their nobles appearing to have been Dorians, it seems probable
that the Dolopes were originally members, and afterwards supplanted
by the Delphians. All the states belonging to each of these tribes
were on a footing of perfect equality. Thus Sparta enjoyed no
advantages over Dorium and Cytinium, two small towns in Doris: and
Athens, an Ionic city, was on a par with Eretria in Euboea, and
Priene in Asia Minor, two other Ionic cities. The ordinary council
was called _Pylaea_ (πυλαία), from its meeting in the neighbourhood
of Pylae (Thermopylae), but the name was given to the session at
Delphi as well as to that at Thermopylae. The council was composed of
two classes of representatives, one called _Pylagorae_ (Πυλαγόραι),
and the other _Hieromnemones_ (Ἱερομνήμονες). Athens sent three
Pylagorae and one Hieromnemon; of whom the former were elected
apparently for each session, and the latter by lot, probably for a
longer period. Respecting the relative duties of the Pylagorae and
Hieromnemones we have little information: the name of the latter
implies that they had a more immediate connection with the temple. We
are equally in the dark respecting the numbers who sat in the council
and its mode of proceeding. It would seem that all the deputies had
seats in the council, and took part in its deliberations; but if it
be true, as appears from Aeschines, that each of the tribes had only
two votes, it is clear that all the deputies could not have voted. In
addition to the ordinary council, there was an _ecclesia_ (ἐκκλησία),
or general assembly, including not only the classes above mentioned,
but also those who had joined in the sacrifices, and were consulting
the god. It was convened on extraordinary occasions by the chairman
of the council. Of the duties of the Amphictyons nothing will give us
a clearer view than the oath they took, which was as follows:--“They
would destroy no city of the Amphictyons, nor cut off their streams
in war or peace; and if any should do so, they would march against
him, and destroy his cities; and should any pillage the property of
the god, or be privy to or plan anything against what was in his
temple (at Delphi), they would take vengeance on him with hand and
foot, and voice, and all their might.” From this oath we see that
the main duty of the deputies was the preservation of the rights and
dignity of the temple of Delphi. We know, too, that after it was
burnt down (B.C. 548), they contracted with the Alcmaeonidae for its
rebuilding. History, moreover, teaches that if the council produced
any palpable effects, it was from their interest in Delphi; and
though they kept up a standing record of what ought to have been the
international law of Greece, they sometimes acquiesced in, and at
other times were parties to, the most iniquitous acts. Of this the
case of Crissa is an instance. This town lay on the Gulf of Corinth,
near Delphi, and was much frequented by pilgrims from the West. The
Crissaeans were charged by the Delphians with undue exactions from
these strangers. The council declared war against them, as guilty
of a wrong against the god. The war lasted ten years, till, at the
suggestion of Solon, the waters of the Pleistus were turned off,
then poisoned, and turned again into the city. The besieged drank
their fill, and Crissa was soon razed to the ground; and thus, if it
were an Amphictyonic city, was a solemn oath doubly violated. Its
territory--the rich Cirrhaean plain--was consecrated to the god,
and curses imprecated upon whomsoever should till or dwell in it.
Thus ended the First Sacred War (B.C. 585), in which the Athenians
were the instruments of Delphian vengeance. The second or Phocian
war (B.C. 350) was the most important in which the Amphictyons were
concerned; and in this the Thebans availed themselves of the sanction
of the council to take vengeance on their enemies, the Phocians. To
do this, however, it was necessary to call in Philip of Macedon, who
readily proclaimed himself the champion of Apollo, as it opened a
pathway to his own ambition. The Phocians were subdued (B.C. 346),
and the council decreed that all their cities, except Abae, should
be razed, and the inhabitants dispersed in villages not containing
more than fifty persons. Their two votes were given to Philip, who
thereby gained a pretext for interfering with the affairs of Greece;
and also obtained the recognition of his subjects as Hellenes. The
Third Sacred War arose from the Amphissians tilling the devoted
Cirrhaean plain. The Amphictyons called in the assistance of Philip,
who soon reduced the Amphissians to subjection. Their submission
was immediately followed by the battle of Chaeroneia (B.C. 338),
and the extinction of the independence of Greece. In the following
year, a congress of the Amphictyonic states was held, in which war
was declared as if by united Greece against Persia, and Philip
elected commander-in-chief. On this occasion the Amphictyons assumed
the character of national representatives as of old, when they set
a price upon the head of Ephialtes, for his treason to Greece at
Thermopylae. It has been sufficiently shown that the Amphictyons
themselves did not observe the oaths they took; and that they did not
much alleviate the horrors of war, or enforce what they had sworn
to do, is proved by many instances. Thus, for instance, Mycenae was
destroyed by Argos (B.C. 535), Thespiae and Plataeae by Thebes,
and Thebes herself swept from the face of the earth by Alexander,
without the Amphictyons raising one word in opposition. Indeed, a
few years before the Peloponnesian war, the council was a passive
spectator of what Thucydides calls the Sacred War (ὁ ἱερὸς πόλεμος),
when the Lacedaemonians made an expedition to Delphi, and put the
temple into the hands of the Delphians, the Athenians, after their
departure, restoring it to the Phocians. The council is rarely
mentioned after the time of Philip. We are told that Augustus wished
his new city, Nicopolis (A.D. 31), to be enrolled among the members.
Pausanias, in the second century of our era, mentions it as still
existing, but deprived of all power and influence.

AMPHĬDRŎMĬA (ἀμφιδρόμια or δρομιάμφιον ἧμαρ), a family festival of
the Athenians, at which the newly-born child was introduced into
the family, and received its name. The friends and relations of the
parents were invited to the festival of the amphidromia, which was
held in the evening, and they generally appeared with presents. The
house was decorated on the outside with olive branches when the child
was a boy, or with garlands of wool when the child was a girl; and a
repast was prepared for the guests. The child was carried round the
fire by the nurse, and thus, as it were, presented to the gods of the
house and to the family, and at the same time received its name, to
which the guests were witnesses. The carrying of the child round the
hearth was the principal part of the solemnity, from which its name
was derived.

[Illustration: Longitudinal Section of the Flavian Amphitheatre.]

[Illustration: Elevation of one side of the preceding Section.


  A, The arena.

  _p_, The wall or podium inclosing it.

  P, The podium itself, on which were chairs, or seats, for the
  senators, &c.

  M′, The first maenianum, or slope of benches, for the equestrian

  M″, The second maenianum.

  M‴, The third maenianum, elevated considerably above the preceding
  one, and appropriated to the pullati.

  W, The colonnade, or gallery, which contained seats for women.

  E, The narrow gallery round the summit of the interior, for the
  attendants who worked the velarium.

  _pr_, _pr_, The præcinctiones, or landings, at the top of the
  first and second maenianum; in the pavement of which were grated
  apertures, at intervals, to admit light into the vomitoria beneath

  V V V V, Vomitoria.

  G G G, The three external galleries through the circumference of
  the building, open to the arcades of the exterior.

  _g g_, Inner gallery.

The situation and arrangement of the staircases, &c., are not
expressed, as they could not be rendered intelligible without plans
at various levels of the building.]

AMPHĬTHĔĀTRUM, an amphitheatre, was a place for the exhibition of
public shows of combatants, wild beasts, and naval engagements, and
was entirely surrounded with seats for the spectators; whereas,
in those for dramatic performances, the seats were arranged in a
semicircle facing the stage. An amphitheatre is therefore frequently
described as a double theatre, consisting of two such semicircles,
or halves, joined together, the spaces allotted to their orchestras
becoming the inner inclosure, or area, termed the _arena_. The
form, however, of the ancient amphitheatres was not a circle, but
invariably an ellipse. Gladiatorial shows and combats of wild beasts
(_venationes_) were first exhibited in the forum and the circus; and
it appears that the ancient custom was still preserved till the time
of Julius Caesar. The first building in the form of an amphitheatre
is said to have been erected by C. Scribonius Curio, one of Caesar’s
partisans; but the account which is given of this building sounds
rather fabulous. It is said to have consisted of two wooden theatres,
made to revolve on pivots, in such a manner that they could, by
means of windlasses and machinery, be turned round face to face, so
as to form one building. Soon after Caesar himself erected, in the
Campus Martius, a stationary amphitheatre, made of wood; to which
building the name of _amphitheatrum_ was for the first time given.
The first stone amphitheatre was built by Statilius Taurus, in the
Campus Martius, at the desire of Augustus. This was the only stone
amphitheatre at Rome till the time of Vespasian. One was commenced by
Caligula, but was not continued by Claudius. The one erected by Nero
in the Campus Martius was only a temporary building, made of wood.
The amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus was burnt in the fire of Rome
in the time of Nero; and hence, as a new one was needed, Vespasian
commenced the celebrated _Amphitheatrum Flavium_ in the middle of
the city, in the valley between the Caelian, the Esquiline, and the
Velia, on the spot originally occupied by the lake or large pond
attached to Nero’s palace. Vespasian did not live to finish it. It
was dedicated by Titus in A.D. 80, but was not completely finished,
till the reign of Domitian. This immense edifice, which is even
yet comparatively entire, covered nearly six acres of ground, and
was capable of containing about 87,000 spectators. It is called at
the present day the _Colosseum_ or _Colisaeum_. The interior of an
amphitheatre was divided into three parts, the _arena_, _podium_, and
_gradus_. The clear open space in the centre of the amphitheatre was
called the _arena_, because it was covered with sand, or sawdust,
to prevent the gladiators from slipping, and to absorb the blood.
The size of the arena was not always the same in proportion to the
size of the amphitheatre, but its average proportion was one-third
of the shorter diameter of the building. The arena was surrounded
by a wall distinguished by the name of _podium_; although such
appellation, perhaps, rather belongs to merely the upper part of
it, forming the parapet, or balcony, before the first or lowermost
seats, nearest to the arena. The arena, therefore, was no more than
an open oval court, surrounded by a wall about fifteen feet high;
a height considered necessary, in order to render the spectators
perfectly secure from the attacks of wild beasts. There were four
principal entrances leading into the arena; two at the ends of each
axis or diameter of it, to which as many passages led directly from
the exterior of the building; besides secondary ones, intervening
between them, and communicating with the corridors beneath the seats
on the podium. The wall or enclosure of the arena is supposed to
have been faced with marble, more or less sumptuous; besides which,
there appears to have been, in some instances at least, a sort of
net-work affixed to the top of the podium, consisting of railing, or
rather open trellis-work of metal. As a further defence, ditches,
called _euripi_, sometimes surrounded the arena. The term podium was
also applied to the terrace, or gallery itself, immediately above
the arena, which was no wider than to be capable of containing two,
or at the most, three ranges of moveable seats, or chairs. This, as
being by far the best situation for distinctly viewing the sports
in the arena, and also more commodiously accessible than the seats
higher up, was the place set apart for senators and other persons
of distinction, such as foreign ambassadors; and it was here, also,
that the emperor himself used to sit, in an elevated place, called
_suggestus_ or _cubiculum_, and likewise the person who exhibited
the games on a place elevated like a pulpit or tribunal (_editoris
tribunal_). Above the podium were the _gradus_, or seats of the other
spectators, which were divided into _maeniana_, or stories. The first
_maenianum_, consisting of fourteen rows of stone or marble seats,
was appropriated to the equestrian order. The seats appropriated
to the senators and equites were covered with cushions, which were
first used in the time of Caligula. Then, after an interval or space,
termed a _praecinctio_, and forming a continued landing-place from
the several staircases in it, succeeded the second maenianum, where
were the seats called _popularia_, for the third class of spectators,
or the populus. Behind this was the second praecinctio, bounded
by a rather high wall; above which was the third maenianum, where
there were only wooden benches for the _pullati_, or common people.
The next and last division, namely, that in the highest part of the
building, consisted of a colonnade, or gallery, where females were
allowed to witness the spectacles of the amphitheatre, but some parts
of it were also occupied by the pullati. Each maenianum was not
only divided from the other by the praecinctio, but was intersected
at intervals by spaces for passages left between the seats, called
_scalae_, or _scalaria_; and the portion between two such passages
was called _cuneus_, because the space gradually widened like a
wedge, from the podium to the top of the building. The entrances to
the seats from the outer porticoes were called _vomitoria_. At the
very summit was the narrow platform for the men who had to attend
to the _velarium_, or awning, by which the building was covered as
a defence against the sun and rain. The velarium appears usually to
have been made of wool, but more costly materials were sometimes
employed. The first of the preceding cuts represents a longitudinal
section of the Flavian amphitheatre, and the second, which is on a
larger scale, a part of the above section, including the exterior
wall, and the seats included between that and the arena. It will
serve to convey an idea of the leading form and general disposition
of the interior. For an account of the gladiatorial contests, and the
shows of wild beasts, exhibited in the amphitheatre, see GLADIATORES,

[Illustration: Amphorae. (British Museum.)]

AMPHŎRA (ἀμφορεύς), a vessel used for holding wine, oil, honey,
&c. The following cut represents amphorae in the British Museum.
They are of various forms and sizes; in general they are tall and
narrow, with a small neck, and a handle on each side of the neck
(whence the name, from ἀμφί, _on both sides_, and φέρω, to carry),
and terminating at the bottom in a point, which was let into a stand
or stuck in the ground, so that the vessel stood upright: several
amphorae have been found in this position in the cellars at Pompeii.
Amphorae were commonly made of earthenware. Homer mentions amphorae
of gold and stone, and the Egyptians had them of brass; glass vessels
of this form have been found at Pompeii. The most common use of the
amphora, both among the Greeks and the Romans, was for keeping wine.
The cork was covered with pitch or gypsum, and (among the Romans)
on the outside the title of the wine was painted, the date of the
vintage being marked by the names of the consuls then in office; or,
when the jars were of glass, little tickets (_pittoria_, _tesserae_)
were suspended from them, indicating these particulars.--The Greek
amphoreus and the Roman amphora were also names of fixed measures.
The amphoreus, which was also called _metretes_ (μετρητής) and
_cadus_ (κάδος), was equal to three Roman urnae = 8 gallons, 7·365
pints, imperial measure. The Roman amphora was two-thirds of the
amphoreus, and was equal to 2 urnae = 8 congii = to 5 gallons, 7·577
pints; its solid content was exactly a Roman cubic foot.

AMPLĬĀTĬO, an adjournment of a trial, which took place when the
judices after hearing the evidence of the advocates were unable to
come to a satisfactory conclusion. This they expressed by giving in
the tablets, on which were the letters N. L. (_non liquet_), and the
praetor, by pronouncing the word _amplius_, thereupon adjourned the
trial to any day he chose. The defendant and the cause were then said

[Illustration: Ampulla. (Sketched by G. Scharf from a relief at
Athens, discovered in 1840.)]

AMPULLA (λήκυθος, βομβύλιος), a bottle, usually made among the Romans
either of glass or earthenware, rarely of more valuable materials.
Ampullae were more or less globular. From their round and swollen
shape, the word was used by Horace to indicate grand and turgid but
empty language. (“Projicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba,” _Ar.
Poet._ 97.) Ampullae are frequently mentioned in connection with the
bath, since every Roman took with him to the bath a bottle of oil for
anointing the body after bathing. The dealer in bottles was called

[Illustration: Ampulla. (From a tomb at Myra in Lycia.)]

AMPYX (ἄμπυξ, ἀμπυκτήρ, Lat. _frontale_), a frontal, a broad band
or plate of metal, which ladies of rank wore above the forehead as
part of the head-dress. The frontal of a horse was called by the same
name. The annexed cut exhibits the frontal on the head of Pegasus, in
contrast with the corresponding ornament as shown on the heads of two

[Illustration: Ampyces, Frontlets. (From Paintings on Vases.)]

ĂMŬLĒTUM (περίαπτον, περίαμμα, φυλακτήριον), an amulet. This word in
Arabic (hamalet) means _that which is suspended_. It was probably
brought into Europe by Arabian merchants, together with the articles
to which it was applied. An amulet was any object,--a stone, a plant,
an artificial production, or a piece of writing,--which was suspended
from the neck, or tied to any part of the body, for the purpose of
warding off calamities and securing advantages of any kind. Faith in
the virtues of amulets was almost universal in the ancient world, so
that the art of medicine consisted in a very considerable degree of
directions for their application.

ĂMUSSIS or ĂMUSSĬUM, a carpenter’s and mason’s instrument, the use of
which was to obtain a true plane surface.

ĂNĂCEIA (ἀνάκεια, or ἀνάκειον), a festival of the Dioscuri or Anactes
(Ἄνακτες), as they were called at Athens. These heroes, however,
received the most distinguished honours in the Dorian and Achaean
states, where it may be supposed that every town celebrated a
festival in their honour, though not under the name of Anaceia.

ĂNACRĬSIS (ἀνάκρισις), an examination, was used to signify the
pleadings preparatory to a trial at Athens, the object of which was
to determine, generally, if the action would lie. The magistrates
were said ἀνακρίνειν τὴν δίκην or τοὺς ἀντιδίκους, and the parties
ἀνακρίνεσθαι. The process consisted in the production of proofs, of
which there were five kinds:--1. The laws; 2. Written documents;
3. Testimonies of witnesses present (μαρτυρίαι), or affidavits of
absent witnesses (ἐκμαρτυρίαι); 4. Depositions of slaves extorted
by the rack; 5. The oath of the parties. All these proofs were
committed to writing, and placed in a box secured by a seal (ἐχῖνος)
till they were produced at the trial. If the evidence produced at
the anacrisis was so clear and convincing that there could not
remain any doubt, the magistrate could decide the question without
sending the cause to be tried before the dicasts: this was called
_diamartyria_ (διαμαρτυρία). The archons were the proper officers
for holding the anacrisis; they are represented by Athena (Minerva),
in the _Eumenides_ of Aeschylus, where there is a poetical sketch of
the process in the law courts. For an account of the _anacrisis_ or
examination, which each archon underwent previously to entering on
office, see ARCHON.

ĂNĂGLỸPHA or ĂNĂGLYPTA (ἀνάγλυφα, ἀνάγλυπτα), chased or embossed
vessels made of bronze or of the precious metals, which derived their
name from the work on them being in relief, and not engraved.

ĂNĂGNOSTĒS, a slave, whose duty it was to read or repeat passages
from books during an entertainment, and also at other times.

ĂNĂGŌGĬA (ἀναγώγια), a festival celebrated at Eryx, in Sicily, in
honour of Aphrodite. The inhabitants of the place believed that,
during this festival, the goddess went over into Africa.





ANDRŎGĔŌNIA (ἀνδρογεώνια), a festival with games, held every year in
the Cerameicus at Athens, in honour of the hero Androgeus, son of
Minos, who had overcome all his adversaries in the festive games of
the Panathenaea, and was afterwards killed by his jealous rivals.

ANDRŎLEPSĬA (ἀνδροληψία or ἀνδρολήψιον), a legal means by which the
Athenians were enabled to take vengeance upon a community in which an
Athenian citizen had been murdered, by seizing three individuals of
that state or city, as hostages, until satisfaction was given.


ANGĂRĪA (ἀγγαρεία, Hdt. ἀγγαρήϊον), a word borrowed from the
Persians, signifying a system of posting by relays of horses, which
was used among that people, and which, according to Xenophon, was
established by Cyrus. The term was adopted by the Romans under the
empire to signify compulsory service in forwarding the messages of
the state. The Roman _angaria_, also called _angariarum exhibitio_
or _praestatio_, included the maintenance and supply, not only of
horses, but of ships and messengers, in forwarding both letters and
burdens; it is defined as a _personale munus_; and there was no
ground of exemption from it allowed, except by the favour of the

ANGĬPORTUS, or ANGĬPORTUM, a narrow lane between two rows of houses,
which might either be what the French call a _cul-de-sac_, or it
might terminate at both ends in some public street.



ANNŌNA (from _annus_, like _pomona_ from _pomum_).--(1) The produce
of the year in corn, fruit, wine, &c., and hence,--(2) provisions
in general, especially the corn, which, in the later years of the
republic, was collected in the storehouses of the state, and sold to
the poor at a cheap rate in times of scarcity; and which, under the
emperors, was distributed to the people gratuitously, or given as pay
and rewards;--(3) the price of provisions;--(4) a soldier’s allowance
of provisions for a certain time. The word is used also in the
plural for yearly or monthly distributions of pay in corn, &c.

ANNŬLUS (δακτύλιος), a ring. It is probable that the custom of
wearing rings was very early introduced into Greece from Asia, where
it appears to have been almost universal. They were worn not merely
as ornaments, but as articles for use, as the ring always served as a
seal. A seal was called _sphragis_ (σφραγίς), and hence this name was
given to the ring itself, and also to the gem or stone for a ring in
which figures were engraved. Rings in Greece were mostly worn on the
fourth finger (παράμεσος). At Rome, the custom of wearing rings was
believed to have been introduced by the Sabines, who were described
in the early legends as wearing golden rings with precious stones of
great beauty. But, whenever introduced at Rome, it is certain that
they were at first always of iron; that they were destined for the
same purpose as in Greece, namely, to be used as seals; and that
every free Roman had a right to use such a ring. This iron ring was
worn down to the last period of the republic by such men as loved the
simplicity of the good old times. In the course of time, however,
it became customary for all the senators, chief magistrates, and at
last for the equites also, to wear a golden seal-ring. The right of
wearing a gold ring, which was subsequently called the _jus annuli
aurei_, or the _jus annulorum_, remained for several centuries at
Rome the exclusive privilege of senators, magistrates, and equites,
while all other persons continued to wear iron ones. During the
empire the right of granting the annulus aureus belonged to the
emperors, and some of them were not very scrupulous in conferring
this privilege. Augustus gave it to Mena, a freedman, and to Antonius
Musa, a physician. The emperors Severus and Aurelian conferred the
right of wearing golden rings upon all Roman soldiers; and Justinian
at length allowed all the citizens of the empire, whether ingenui
or libertini, to wear such rings. The ring of a Roman emperor was a
kind of state seal, and the emperor sometimes allowed the use of it
to such persons as he wished to be regarded as his representatives.
During the republic and the early times of the empire the jus annuli
seems to have made a person ingenuus (if he was a libertus), and to
have raised him to the rank of eques, provided he had the requisite
equestrian census, and it was probably never granted to any one
who did not possess this census. Those who lost their property,
or were found guilty of a criminal offence, lost the jus annuli.
The principal value of a ring consisted in the gem set in it, or
rather in the workmanship of the engraver. The stone most frequently
used was the onyx (σαρδῶνος, σαρδόνυξ), on account of its various
colours, of which the artist made the most skilful use. In the art
of engraving upon gems the ancients far surpassed anything that
modern times can boast of. The devices engraved upon rings were very
various: they were portraits of ancestors or of friends, subjects
connected with mythology; and in many cases a person had engraved
upon his seal some symbolical allusion to the real or mythical
history of his family. The bezel or part of the ring which contained
the gem was called _pala_. With the increasing love of luxury and
show, the Romans, as well as the Greeks, covered their fingers with
rings. Some persons also wore rings of immoderate size, and others
used different rings for summer and winter. Much superstition appears
to have been connected with rings, especially in the East and in
Greece. Some persons made it a lucrative trade to sell rings which
were believed to possess magic powers, and to preserve the wearers
from external danger.


ANQUĪSĪTĬO, signified, in criminal trials at Rome, the investigation
of the facts of the case with reference to the penalty that was to
be imposed: accordingly the phrases _pecunia capitis_ or _capitis
anquirere_ are used. Under the emperors the term _anquisitio_ lost
its original meaning, and was employed to indicate an accusation
in general; in which sense it also occurs even in the times of the

[Illustration: Temple in Antis. (Temple of Artemis at Eleusia.)]

ANTAE (παραστάδες), square pillars, which were commonly joined to
the side-walls of a building, being placed on each side of the door,
so as to assist in forming the portico. These terms are seldom
found except in the plural; because the purpose served by antae
required that they should be erected corresponding to each other and
supporting the extremities of the same roof. The temple _in antis_
was one of the simplest kind. It had in front antae attached to the
walls which inclosed the cella; and in the middle, between the antae,
two columns supporting the architrave.

ANTĔAMBŬLŌNES, slaves who were accustomed to go before their
masters, in order to make way for them through the crowd. The term
_anteambulones_ was also given to the clients, who were accustomed to
walk before their patroni, when the latter appeared in public.

ANTĔCESSŌRES, called also ANTĔCURSŌRES, horse-soldiers, who were
accustomed to precede an army on march, in order to choose a suitable
place for the camp, and to make the necessary provisions for the
army. They do not appear to have been merely scouts, like the


ANTĔFIXA, terra-cottas, which exhibited various ornamental designs,
and were used in architecture to cover the frieze (_zophorus_) of
the entablature. These terra-cottas do not appear to have been used
among the Greeks, but were probably Etruscan in their origin, and
were thence taken for the decoration of Roman buildings. The name
_antefixa_ is evidently derived from the circumstance that they were
_fixed before_ the buildings which they adorned. Cato, the censor,
complained that the Romans of his time began to despise ornaments
of this description, and to prefer the marble friezes of Athens and
Corinth. The rising taste which Cato deplored may account for the
superior beauty of the antefixa preserved in the British Museum,
which were discovered at Rome.




ANTHESPHŎRĬA (ἀνθεσφόρια), a flower-festival, principally celebrated
in Sicily, in honour of Demeter and Persephone, in commemoration of
the return of Persephone to her mother in the beginning of spring.


ANTĬDŎSIS (ἀντίδοσις), in its literal and general meaning, “an
exchange,” was, in the language of the Attic courts, peculiarly
applied to proceedings under a law which is said to have originated
with Solon. By this, a citizen nominated to perform a leiturgia,
such as a trierarchy or choregia, or to rank among the property-tax
payers, in a class disproportioned to his means, was empowered to
call upon any qualified person not so charged to take the office in
his stead, or submit to a complete exchange of property, the charge
in question of course attaching to the first party, if the exchange
were finally effected. For the proceedings the courts were opened
at a stated time every year by the magistrates that had official
cognisance of the particular subject; such as the strategi in cases
of trierarchy and rating to the property-taxes, and the archon in
those of choregia.

ANTĬGRĂPHE (ἀντιγραφή) originally signified the writing put in by the
defendant, his “plea” in all causes whether public or private, in
answer to the indictment or bill of the prosecutor. It is, however,
also applied to the bill or indictment of the plaintiff or accuser.

ĀNTLĬA (ἄντλια), any machine for raising water, a pump. The most
important of these machines were:--(1) The tympanum; a tread-wheel,
worked by men treading on it.--(2) A wheel having wooden boxes
or buckets, so arranged as to form steps for those who trod the
wheel.--(3) The chain pump.--(4) The _cochlea_, or Archimedes’s
screw.--(5) The _ctesibica machina_, or forcing-pump.--Criminals
were condemned to the _antlia_ or tread-mill. The antlia with which
Martial (ix. 19) watered his garden, was probably the pole and bucket
universally employed in Italy, Greece, and Egypt. The pole is curved,
as shown in the annexed figure; because it is the stem of a fir or
some other tapering tree.

[Illustration: Antlia.]

ANTYX (ἄντυξ), the rim or border of any thing, especially of a shield
or chariot. The rim of the large round shield of the ancient Greeks
was thinner than the part which it enclosed; but on the other hand,
the antyx of a chariot must have been thicker than the body to which
it gave both form and strength. In front of the chariot the antyx was
often raised above the body, into the form of a curvature, which
served the purpose of a hook to hang the reins upon.

[Illustration: Antyx. (From an Etruscan tomb.)]

ĂPĂGŌGĒ (ἀπαγωγή), a summary process, allowed in certain cases by the
Athenian law. The term denotes not merely the act of apprehending
a culprit caught _in ipso facto_, but also the written information
delivered to the magistrate, urging his apprehension. The cases in
which the _apagoge_ was most generally allowed were those of theft,
murder, ill-usage of parents, &c.

ĂPĂTŪRĬA (ἀπατούρια) was a political festival, which the Athenians
had in common with all the Greeks of the Ionian name, with the
exception of those of Colophon and Ephesus. It was celebrated in the
month of Pyanepsion, and lasted for three days. The name ἀπατούρια
is not derived from ἀπατᾶν, to deceive, but is composed of ἀ =
ἅμα and πατύρια, which is perfectly consistent with what Xenophon
says of the festival, that when it is celebrated the fathers and
relations assemble together. According to this derivation, it is
the festival at which the phratriae met to discuss and settle their
own affairs. But, as every citizen was a member of a phratria, the
festival extended over the whole nation, who assembled _according to
phratriae_. The festival lasted three days. The third day was the
most important; for on that day, children born in that year, in the
families of the phratriae, or such as were not yet registered, were
taken by their fathers, or in their absence by their representatives
(κύριοι), before the assembled members of the phratria. For every
child a sheep or a goat was sacrificed. The father, or he who
supplied his place, was obliged to establish by oath that the child
was the offspring of free-born parents, and citizens of Athens.
After the victim was sacrificed, the phratores gave their votes,
which they took from the altar of Zeus Phratrius. When the majority
voted against the reception, the cause might be tried before one
of the courts of Athens; and if the claims of the child were found
unobjectionable, its name, as well as that of the father, was
entered into the register of the phratria, and those who had wished
to effect the exclusion of the child were liable to be punished.


ĂPEX, a cap worn by the flamines and salii at Rome. The essential
part of the apex, to which alone the name properly belonged, was a
pointed piece of olive-wood, the base of which was surrounded with
a lock of wool. This was worn on the top of the head, and was held
there either by fillets only, or, as was more commonly the case, by
the aid of a cap which fitted the head, and was also fastened by
means of two strings or bands. The albogalerus, a white cap made of
the skin of a white victim sacrificed to Jupiter, and worn by the
flamen dialis, had the apex fastened to it by means of an olive twig.

[Illustration: Apices, caps worn by the Salii. (From bas-reliefs and

APHLASTON (ἄφλαστον). [NAVIS.]


ĂPHRŎDĪSĬA (ἀφροδίσια) were festivals celebrated in honour of
Aphrodité, in a great number of towns in Greece, but particularly
in the island of Cyprus. Her most ancient temple was at Paphos. No
bloody sacrifices were allowed to be offered to her, but only pure
fire, flowers, and incense.



ĂPODECTAE (ἀποδέκται), public officers at Athens, who were introduced
by Cleisthenes in the place of the ancient colacretae (κωλακρέται).
They were ten in number, one for each tribe, and their duty was
to collect all the ordinary taxes, and distribute them among the
separate branches of the administration which were entitled to them.

ĂPŎGRĂPHĒ (ἀπογραφή), literally, “a list, or register;” signified
also, (1) An accusation in public matters, more particularly when
there were several defendants. It differed but little, if at all,
from the ordinary _graphe_.--(2) A solemn protest or assertion
in writing before a magistrate, to the intent that it might be
preserved by him till it was required to be given in evidence.--(3) A
specification of property, said to belong to the state, but actually
in the possession of a private person; which specification was made
with a view to the confiscation of such property to the state.


ĂPOLLŌNĬA (ἀπολλώνια), the name of a propitiatory festival solemnized
at Sicyon, in honour of Apollo and Artemis.

ĂPŎPHŎRĒTA (ἀποφόρητα) were presents, which were given to friends at
the end of an entertainment to take home with them. These presents
appear to have been usually given on festival days, especially during
the Saturnalia.

ĂPORRHĒTA (ἀπόῤῥητα), literally “things forbidden,” has two peculiar,
but widely different, acceptations in the Attic dialect. In one of
these it implies contraband goods; in the other, it denotes certain
contumelious epithets, from the application of which both the living
and the dead were protected by special laws.

ĂPŎSTŎLEUS (ἀποστολεύς), the name of a public officer at Athens.
There were ten magistrates of this name, and their duty was to see
that the ships were properly equipped and provided by those who were
bound to discharge the trierarchy. They had the power, in certain
cases, of imprisoning the trierarchs who neglected to furnish the
ships properly.

ĂPŎTHĒCA (ἀποθήκη), a place in the upper part of the house, in which
the Romans frequently placed the earthen amphorae in which their
wines were deposited. This place, which was quite different from the
_cella vinaria_, was above the _fumarium_; since it was thought that
the passage of the smoke through the room tended greatly to increase
the flavour of the wine. The position of the apotheca explains the
expression in Horace (_Carm._ ii. 21, 7), _Descende_, _testa_.

ĂPŎTHĔŌSIS (ἀποθέωσις), the enrolment of a mortal among the gods. The
mythology of Greece contains numerous instances of the deification of
mortals; but in the republican times of Greece we find few examples
of such deification. The inhabitants of Amphipolis, however, offered
sacrifices to Brasidas after his death. In the Greek kingdoms,
which arose in the East on the dismemberment of the empire of
Alexander, it appears to have been not uncommon for the successor
to the throne to offer divine honours to the former sovereign.
Such an apotheosis of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, is described by
Theocritus in his 17th Idyl. The term apotheosis, among the Romans,
properly signified the elevation of a deceased emperor to divine
honours. This practice, which was common upon the death of almost
all the emperors, appears to have arisen from the opinion which was
generally entertained among the Romans, that the souls or manes of
their ancestors became deities; and as it was common for children
to worship the manes of their fathers, so it was natural for divine
honours to be publicly paid to a deceased emperor, who was regarded
as the parent of his country. This apotheosis of an emperor was
usually called _consecratio_; and the emperor who received the honour
of an apotheosis was usually said _in deorum numerum referri_, or
_consecrari_, and whenever he is spoken of after his death, the title
of _divus_ is prefixed to his name. The funeral pile on which the
body of the deceased emperor was burnt, was constructed of several
stories in the form of chambers rising one above another, and in the
highest an eagle was placed, which was let loose as the fire began to
burn, and which was supposed to carry the soul of the emperor from
earth to heaven.

APPĀRĬTOR, the general name for a public servant of the magistrates
PRAECO, SCRIBA, STATOR, VIATOR, of whom an account is given in
separate articles. They were called apparitores because they were
at hand to execute the commands of the magistrates (_quod iis
apparebant_). Their service or attendance was called _apparitio_.

APPELLĀTĬO, appeal.--(1) GREEK (ἔφεσις or ἀναδικία.) Owing to the
constitution of the Athenian tribunals, each of which was generally
appropriated to its peculiar subjects of cognisance, and therefore
could not be considered as homogeneous with or subordinate to any
other, there was little opportunity for bringing appeals properly
so called. It is to be observed also, that in general a cause was
finally and irrevocably decided by the verdict of the dicasts (δίκη
αὐτοτελής). There were only a few exceptions in which appeals and
new trials might be resorted to.--(2) ROMAN. The word _appellatio_,
and the corresponding verb _appellare_, are used in the early Roman
writers to express the application of an individual to a magistrate,
and particularly to a tribune, in order to protect himself from some
wrong inflicted, or threatened to be inflicted. It is distinguished
from _provocatio_, which in the early writers is used to signify
an appeal to the populus in a matter affecting life. It would seem
that the provocatio was an ancient right of the Roman citizens.
The surviving Horatius, who murdered his sister, appealed from the
duumviri to the populus. The decemviri took away the provocatio; but
it was restored by the _Lex Valeria et Horatia_, B.C. 449, in the
year after the decemvirate, and it was at the same time enacted, that
in future no magistrate should be made from whom there should be no
appeal. On this Livy remarks, that the plebs were now protected by
the _provocatio_ and the _tribunicium auxilium_; this latter term has
reference to the appellatio properly so called. The complete phrase
to express the provocatio is _provocare ad populum_; and the phrase
which expresses the appellatio is _appellare ad_, &c.

APSIS or ABSIS (ἁψίς), in architecture, signified first, any building
or portion of a building of a circular form or vaulted, and more
especially the circular and vaulted end of a Basilica.

ĂQUAE DUCTUS (ὑδραγωγία), literally, a water-conduit, but the word
is used especially for the magnificent structures by means of which
Rome and other cities of the Roman empire were supplied with water.
A Roman aqueduct, often called simply _aqua_, may be described in
general terms as a channel, constructed as nearly as possible with
a regular declivity from the source whence the water was derived to
the place where it was delivered, carried through hills by means of
tunnels, and over valleys upon a substruction of solid masonry or
arches. The aqueduct is mentioned by Strabo as among the structures
which were neglected by the Greeks, and first brought into use by
the Romans. Springs (κρῆναι, κρουνοί) were sufficiently abundant
in Greece to supply the great cities with water; and they were
frequently converted into public fountains by the formation of a head
for their waters, and the erection of an ornamental superstructure.
Of this we have an example in the _Enneacrunos_ at Athens, which
was constructed by Peisistratus and his sons. The Romans were in a
very different position, with respect to the supply of water, from
most of the Greek cities. They, at first, had recourse to the Tiber,
and to wells sunk in the city; but the water obtained from those
sources was very unwholesome, and must soon have proved insufficient,
from the growth of the population. It was this necessity that led
to the invention of aqueducts, in order to bring pure water from
the hills which surround the Campagna. The number of aqueducts was
gradually increased, partly at the public expense, and partly by
the munificence of individuals, till, in the fourth century of the
Christian era, they amounted to fourteen. Of these only four belong
to the time of the republic, while five were built in the reigns of
Augustus and Claudius.--1. The _Aqua Appia_, begun by the censor
Appius Claudius Caecus in B.C. 313. Its sources were near the _Via
Praenestina_, between the seventh and eighth mile-stones.--2. The
_Anio Vetus_ was commenced forty years later, B.C. 273, by the censor
M. Curius Dentatus, and was finished by M. Fulvius Flaccus. The
water was derived from the river Anio, above Tibur, at a distance of
20 Roman miles from the city; but, on account of its windings, its
actual length was 43 miles.--3. The _Aqua Marcia_, one of the most
important of the whole, was built by the praetor Q. Marcius Rex, by
command of the senate, in B.C. 144. It commenced at the side of the
_Via Valeria_, 36 miles from Rome.--4. The _Aqua Tepula_, built by
the censors Cn. Servilius Caepio and L. Cassius Longinus in B.C.
127, began at a spot in the Lucullan or Tusculan land, two miles
to the right of the tenth milestone on the _Via Latina_. It was
afterwards connected with.--5. The _Aqua Julia_, built by Agrippa in
his aedileship, B.C. 33. It was conducted from a source two miles
to the right of the twelfth milestone on the _Via Latina_, first to
the _Aqua Tepula_, in which it was merged as far as the reservoir
(_piscina_) on the _Via Latina_, seven miles from Rome. From this
reservoir the water was carried along two distinct channels, on
the same substructions; the lower channel being called the _Aqua
Tepula_, and the upper the _Aqua Julia_; and this double aqueduct
again was united with the _Aqua Marcia_, over the watercourse of
which the other two were carried.--6. The _Aqua Virgo_, built by
Agrippa, to supply his baths. From a source in a marshy spot by the
8th milestone on the _Via Collatina_, it was conducted by a very
circuitous route.--7. The _Aqua Alsietina_ (sometimes called also
_Aqua Augusta_), on the other side of the Tiber, was constructed
by Augustus from the _Lacus Alsietinus_ (_Lago di Martignano_),
which lay 6500 _passus_ to the right of the 14th milestone on the
_Via Claudia_.--8, 9. The two most magnificent aqueducts were the
_Aqua Claudia_ and the _Anio Novus_ (or _Aqua Aniena Nova_), both
commenced by Caligula in A.D. 36, and finished by Claudius in A.D.
50. The water of the _Aqua Claudia_ was derived from two copious and
excellent springs, near the 38th milestone on the _Via Sublacensis_.
Its length was nearly 46½ miles. The _Anio Novus_ began at the 42nd
milestone. It was the longest and the highest of all the aqueducts,
its length being nearly 59 miles, and some of its arches 109 feet
high. In the neighbourhood of the city these two aqueducts were
united, forming two channels on the same arches, the _Claudia_
below and the _Anio Novus_ above. These nine aqueducts were all
that existed in the time of Frontinus, who was the _curator_ of the
aqueducts in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan. There was also another
aqueduct, not reckoned with the nine, because its waters were no
longer brought all the way to Rome, viz.: 10. The _Aqua Crabra_.--The
following were of later construction. 11. The _Aqua Trajana_, brought
by Trajan from the _Lacus Sabatinus_ (now _Bracciano_).--12. The
_Aqua Alexandrina_, constructed by Alexander Severus; its source was
in the lands of Tusculum, about 14 miles from Rome.--13. The _Aqua
Septimiana_, built by Septimius Severus, was perhaps only a branch
of the _Aqua Julia_.--14. The _Aqua Algentia_ had its source at _M.
Algidus_ by the _Via Tusculana_. Its builder is unknown.--Great
pains were taken by successive emperors to preserve and repair the
aqueducts. From the Gothic wars downwards, they have for the most
part shared the fate of the other great Roman works of architecture;
their situation and purpose rendering them peculiarly exposed to
injury in war; but still their remains form the most striking
features of the Campagna, over which their lines of ruined arches,
clothed with ivy and the wild fig-tree, radiate in various directions.

[Illustration: Triple Aqueduct.]

Three of them still serve for their ancient use. They are--(1.) The
_Acqua Vergine_, the ancient _Aqua Virgo_. (2.) The _Acqua Felice_,
named after the conventual name of its restorer Sixtus V. (Fra
Felice), is, probably, a part of the ancient _Aqua Claudia_, though
some take it for the _Alexandrina_. (3.) The _Acqua Paola_, the
ancient _Alsietina_.--The following woodcut represents a restored
section of the triple aqueduct of Agrippa:--_a._ the _Aqua Marcia_;
_b._ the _Aqua Tepula_; _c._ the _Aqua Julia_. The two latter are of
brick and vaulted over. The air-vents are also shown.--The channel
of an aqueduct (_specus_, _canalis_) was a trough of brick or stone,
lined with cement, and covered with a coping, which was almost always
arched; and the water either ran directly through this trough, or
it was carried through pipes laid along the trough. These pipes
were of lead, or terra-cotta (_fictiles_), and sometimes, for the
sake of economy, of leather. At convenient points on the course of
the aqueduct, and especially near the middle and end, there was
generally a reservoir (_piscina_, _piscina limosa_) in which the
water might deposit any sediment that it contained. The water was
received, when it reached the walls of the city, in a vast reservoir
called _castellum_, which formed the _head of water_ and also served
the purpose of a _meter_. From this principal _castellum_ the water
flowed into other _castella_, whence it was distributed for public
and private use. The term _castellum_ is sometimes also applied to
the intermediate reservoirs already mentioned. During the republic,
the censors and aediles had the superintendence of the aqueducts.
Augustus first established _curatores_ (or _praefecti_) _aquarum_,
who were invested with considerable authority. They were attended
outside the city by two lictors, three public slaves, a secretary,
and other attendants. In the time of Nerva and Trajan, 460 slaves
were constantly employed under the orders of the _curatores aquarum_
in attending to the aqueducts. They consisted of:--1. The _villici_,
whose duty it was to attend to the pipes and _calices_. 2. The
_castellarii_, who had the superintendence of all the _castella_,
both within and without the city. 3. The _circuitores_, so called
because they had to go from post to post, to examine into the state
of the works, and also to keep watch over the labourers employed
upon them. 4. The _silicarii_, or paviours. 5. The _tectores_, or
masons. These and other workmen appear to have been included under
the general term of AQUARII.


ĂQUĀRĬI, slaves who carried water for bathing, &c., into the female
apartments. The aquarii were also public officers who attended to the
aqueducts. [AQUAE DUCTUS.]


[Illustration: Arae, Altars.]

ĀRA (βωμός, θυτήριον), an altar. _Ara_ was a general term denoting
any structure elevated above the ground, and used to receive upon
it offerings made to the gods. _Altare_, probably contracted from
_alta ara_, was properly restricted to the larger, higher, and
more expensive structures. Four specimens of ancient altars are
given below; the two in the former woodcut are square, and those
in the latter round, which is the less common form. At the top of
three of the above altars we see the hole intended to receive the
fire (ἐσχαρίς, ἐσχάρα): the fourth was probably intended for the
offering of fruits or other gifts, which were presented to the gods
without fire. When the altars were prepared for sacrifice, they were
commonly decorated with garlands or festoons. These were composed
of certain kinds of leaves and flowers, which were considered
consecrated to such uses, and were called _verbenae_. The altars
constructed with most labour and skill belonged to temples; and they
were erected either before the temple or within the cella of the
temple, and principally before the statue of the divinity to whom
it was dedicated. The altars in the area before the temple were
altars of burnt-offerings, at which animal sacrifices (_victimae_,
σφάγια, ἱερεῖα) were presented: only incense was burnt, or cakes and
bloodless sacrifices offered on the altars within the building.

[Illustration: Arae, Altars.]

ĂRĀTRUM (ἄροτρον), a plough. Among the Greeks and Romans the three
most essential parts of the plough were,--the plough-tail (γύης,
_buris_, _bura_), the share-beam (ἔλυμα, _dens_, _dentale_), that
is, the piece of wood to which the share is fixed, and the pole
(ῥυμός], ἱστοβοεύς, _temo_). In the time and country of Virgil
it was the custom to force a tree into the crooked form of the
_buris_, or plough-tail. The upper end of the _buris_ being held by
the ploughman, the lower part, below its junction with the pole,
was used to hold the _dentale_ or share-beam, which was either
sheathed with metal, or driven bare into the ground, according to
circumstances. The term _vomer_ was sometimes applied to the end of
the _dentale_. To these three parts, the two following are added in
the description of the plough by Virgil:--1. The _earth-boards_, or
_mould-boards_ (_aures_), rising on each side, bending outwardly in
such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been
previously loosened and raised by the share, and adjusted to the
share-beam (_dentale_), which was made double for the purpose of
receiving them. 2. The _handle_ (_stiva_). Virgil describes this
part as used to turn the plough at the end of the furrow; and it is
defined by an ancient commentator on Virgil as the “handle by which
the plough is directed.” It is probable that as the _dentalia_,
the two share-beams, were in the form of the Greek letter Λ, which
Virgil describes by _duplici dorso_, the _buris_ was fastened to the
left share-beam and the _stiva_ to the right, so that the plough of
Virgil was more like the modern Lancashire plough, which is commonly
held behind with both hands. Sometimes, however, the _stiva_ was
used alone and instead of the _buris_ or tail. In place of _stiva_
the term _capulus_ is sometimes employed. The only other part of the
plough requiring notice is the coulter (_culter_), which was used by
the Romans as it is with us. It was inserted into the pole so as to
depend vertically before the share, cutting through the roots which
came in its way, and thus preparing for the more complete overturning
of the soil by the share. Two small wheels were also added to some
ploughs. The plough, as described by Virgil, corresponds in all
essential particulars with the plough now used about Mantua and
Venice. The Greeks and Romans usually ploughed their land three
times for each crop. The first ploughing was called _proscindere_,
or _novare_ (νεοῦσθαι, νεάζεσθαι); the second _offringere_, or
_iterare_; and the third, _lirare_, or _tertiare_. The field which
underwent the “proscissio” was called _vervactum_ or _novale_
(νεός), and in this process the coulter was employed, because the
fresh surface was entangled with numberless roots which required
to be divided before the soil could be turned up by the share. The
term “_offringere_” from _ob_ and _frangere_, was applied to the
second ploughing; because the long parallel clods already turned
up were broken and cut across, by drawing the plough through them
at right angles to its former direction. The field which underwent
this process was called _ager iteratus_. After the second ploughing
the sower cast his seed. Also the clods were often, though not
always, broken still further by a wooden mallet, or by harrowing
(_occatio_). The Roman ploughman then, for the first time, attached
the earth-boards to his share. The effect of this adjustment was
to divide the level surface of the “ager _iteratus_” into ridges.
These were called _porcae_, and also _lirae_, whence came the verb
_lirare_, to make ridges, and also _delirare_, to decline from the
straight line. The earth-boards, by throwing the earth to each side
in the manner already explained, both covered the newly-scattered
seed, and formed between the ridges furrows (αὔλακες, _sulci_) for
carrying off the water. In this state the field was called _seges_
and τρίπολος. When the ancients ploughed three times only, it was
done in the spring, summer, and autumn of the same year. But in
order to obtain a still heavier crop, both the Greeks and the Romans
ploughed four times, the proscissio being performed in the latter
part of the preceding year, so that between one crop and another two
whole years intervened.

[Illustration: Aratrum, Plough (now used at Mantua).

  1. Buris.
  2. Temo.
  3. Dentale.
  4. Culter.
  5. Vomer.
  6 6. Aures.]


ARCA (κιβωτός). (1) A chest, in which the Romans were accustomed to
place their money; and the phrase _ex arca solvere_ had the meaning
of paying in ready money. The term arcae was usually applied to
the chests in which the rich kept their money, and was opposed to
the smaller _loculi_, _sacculus_, and _crumena_.--(2) The coffin
in which persons were buried, or the bier on which the corpse was
placed previously to burial.--(3) A strong cell made of oak, in which
criminals and slaves were confined.

ARCĔRA, a covered carriage or litter, spread with cloths, which
was used in ancient times in Rome, to carry the aged and infirm.
It is said to have obtained the name of arcera on account of its
resemblance to an arca, or chest.

[Illustration: Arcera. (Ginzrot, Wagen, Tav. 19, fig. 2.)]

ARCHEION (ἀρχεῖον) properly means any public place belonging to
the magistrates, but is more particularly applied to the archive
office, where the decrees of the people and other state documents
were preserved. This office is sometimes merely called τὸ δημοσίον.
At Athens the archives were kept in the temple of the mother of the
gods (μήτρῳον), and the charge of it was entrusted to the president
(ἐπιστάτης) of the senate of the Five-hundred.

ARCHĬĀTER (ἀρχίατρος), a medical title under the Roman emperors, the
exact signification of which has been the subject of much discussion,
but which most probably means “the chief of the physicians.” The
first person whom we find bearing this title is Andromachus,
physician to Nero. In after times the order appears to have been
divided, and we find two distinct classes of archiatri, viz., those
of the palace and those of the people.


ARCHĬTECTŪRA (ἀρχιτεκτονία, ἀρχιτεκτονική), architecture. The
necessity for a habitation, and the attempt to adorn those
habitations which were intended for the gods, are the two causes
from which the art derives its existence. In early times little
attention was paid to domestic architecture. The resources of the
art were lavished upon the temples of the gods; and hence the
greater part of the history of Grecian architecture is inseparably
connected with that of the temple, and has its proper place under
TEMPLUM, and the subordinate headings, such as COLUMNA, &c. But,
though the first rise of architecture, as a fine art, is connected
with the temple, yet, viewed as the science of construction, it must
have been employed, even earlier, for other purposes, such as the
erection of fortifications, palaces, treasuries, and other works of
utility. Accordingly, it is the general opinion of antiquaries, that
the very earliest edifices, of which we have any remains, are the
so-called Cyclopean works, in which we see huge unsquared blocks of
stone built together in the best way that their shapes would allow.
[MURUS.] In addition to these, however, there are other purposes
for which architecture, still using the term in its lower sense,
would be required in a very early stage of political society; such
as the general arrangement of cities, the provision of a place for
the transaction of public business, with the necessary edifices
appertaining to it [AGORA, FORUM], and the whole class of works which
we embrace under the head of civil engineering, such as those for
drainage [CLOACA, EMISSARIUS], for communication [VIA, PONS], and
for the supply of water [AQUAE DUCTUS]. Almost equally necessary are
places devoted to public exercise, health, and amusement, GYMNASIUM,
Lastly, the skill of the architect has been from the earliest times
employed to preserve the memory of departed men and past events;
and hence we have the various works of monumental and triumphal
architecture, which are described under the heads FUNUS, ARCUS,
COLUMNA. The history of architecture may be divided into five
periods. The first, which is chiefly mythical, comes down to the
time of Cypselus, Ol. 30, B.C. 660: the second period comes down to
the termination of the Persian war, Ol. 75. 2, B.C. 478: the third
is the brilliant period from the end of the Persian war to the death
of Alexander the Great, Ol. 114, B.C. 323: the fourth period extends
to the battle of Actium, B.C. 31: the fifth period embraces the
architecture of the Roman empire till it became mingled with the
Gothic. Strongly fortified cities, palaces, and treasuries are the
chief works of the earlier part of the first period; and to it may
be referred most of the so-called Cyclopean remains; while the era
of the Dorian invasion marks, in all probability, the commencement
of the Dorian style of temple architecture. In the second period
the art made rapid advances under the powerful patronage of the
aristocracies in some cities, as at Sparta, and of the tyrants in
others, as Cypselus at Corinth, Theagnes at Megara, Cleisthenes
at Sicyon, the Peisistratids at Athens, and Polycrates at Samos.
Architecture now assumed decidedly the character of a fine art, and
became associated with the sister arts of sculpture and painting,
which are essential to its development. Magnificent temples sprung
up in all the principal Greek cities; and while the Doric order was
brought almost, if not quite, to perfection, in Greece Proper, in
the Doric colonies of Asia Minor, and in Central Italy and Sicily,
the Ionic order appeared, already perfect at its first invention, in
the great temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The ruins still existing at
Paestum, Syracuse, Agrigentum, Selinus, Aegina, and other places,
are imperishable monuments of this period. To it also belong the
great works of the Roman kings. The commencement of the third and
most brilliant period of the art was signalized by the rebuilding of
Athens, the establishment of regular principles for the laying out
of cities by Hippodamus of Miletus, and the great works of the age
of Pericles, by the contemporaries of Phidias, at Athens, Eleusis,
and Olympia. The first part of the fourth period saw the extension
of the Greek architecture over the countries conquered by Alexander,
and, in the West, the commencement of the new style, which arose from
the imitation, with some alterations, of the Greek forms by Roman
architects, to which the conquest of Greece gave, of course, a new
impulse. By the time of Augustus, Rome was adorned with every kind
of public and private edifice, surrounded by villas, and furnished
with roads and aqueducts; and these various erections were adorned by
the forms of Grecian art; but already Vitruvius begins to complain
that the purity of that art is corrupted by the intermixture of
heterogeneous forms. This process of deterioration went on rapidly
during the fifth period, though combined at first with increasing
magnificence in the scale and number of the buildings erected. The
early part of this period is made illustrious by the numerous works
of Augustus and his successors, especially the Flavii, Nerva, Trajan,
Hadrian, and the Antonines, at Rome and in the provinces; but from
the time of the Antonines the decline of the art was rapid and
decided. In one department a new impulse was given to architecture
by the rise of Christian churches, which were generally built on the
model of the Roman Basilica. One of the most splendid specimens of
Christian architecture is the church of S. Sophia at Constantinople,
built in the reign of Justinian, A.D. 537, and restored, after its
partial destruction by an earthquake, in 554. But, long before this
time, the Greco-Roman style had become thoroughly corrupted, and
that new style, which is called the Byzantine, had arisen out of the
mixture of Roman architecture with ideas derived from the Northern

ARCHITHĔŌRUS (ἀρχιθέωρος). [DELIA.]

ARCHON (ἄρχων). The government of Athens began with monarchy,
and, after passing through a dynasty[1] and aristocracy, ended in
democracy. Of the kings of Athens, considered as the capital of
Attica, Theseus may be said to have been the first; for to him,
whether as a real individual or a representative of a certain period,
is attributed the union of the different and independent states of
Attica under one head. The last was Codrus; in acknowledgment of
whose patriotism in meeting death for his country, the Athenians
are said to have determined that no one should succeed him with the
title of king (βασιλεύς). It seems, however, equally probable that
it was the nobles who availed themselves of the opportunity to serve
their own interests, by abolishing the kingly power for another, the
possessors of which they called _Archontes_ (ἄρχοντες) or rulers.
These for some time continued to be like the kings of the house of
Codrus, appointed for life: still an important point was gained by
the nobles, the office being made accountable (ὑπεύθυνος), which of
course implies that the nobility had some control over it. This state
of things lasted for twelve reigns of archons. The next step was to
limit the continuance of the office to ten years, still confining
it to the Medontidae, or house of Codrus, so as to establish what
the Greeks called a dynasty, till the archonship of Eryxias, the
last archon of that family elected as such. At the end of his ten
years (B.C. 684), a much greater change took place: the archonship
was made annual, and its various duties divided among a college
of nine, chosen by suffrage (χειροτονία) from the Eupatridae, or
Patricians, and no longer elected from the Medontidae exclusively.
This arrangement lasted till the time of Solon, who still continued
the election by suffrage, but made the qualification for office
depend, not on birth, but property. The election by lot is believed
to have been introduced by Cleisthenes (B.C. 508). The last change
is supposed to have been made by Aristides, who after the battle of
Plataeae (B.C. 479) abolished the property qualification, throwing
open the archonship and other magistracies to all the citizens; that
is, to the Thetes, as well as the other classes, the former of whom
were not allowed by Solon’s laws to hold any magistracy at all.
Still, after the removal of the old restrictions, some security was
left to insure respectability; for, previously to an archon entering
on office, he underwent an examination, called the _anacrisis_
(ἀνάκρισις), as to his being a legitimate and a good citizen, a good
son, and qualified in point of property, but the latter limitation
was either done away with by Aristides, or soon became obsolete. Yet,
even after passing a satisfactory _anacrisis_, each of the archons,
in common with other magistrates, was liable to be deposed on
complaint of misconduct made before the people, at the first regular
assembly in each prytany. On such an occasion the _epicheirotonia_
(ἐπιχειροτονία), as it was called, took place: and we read that
in one case the whole college of archons was deprived of office
(ἀποχειροτονεῖσθαι). In consequence of the democratical tendency of
the assembly and courts of justice established by Solon, the archons
lost the great political power which they at one time possessed.
They became, in fact, not as of old directors of the government,
but merely municipal magistrates, exercising functions and bearing
titles described below. It has been already stated, that the duties
of the single archon were shared by a college of nine. The first, or
president of this body, was called _Archon_, by way of pre-eminence,
or _Archon Eponymus_ (ἄρχων ἐπώνυμος), from the year being
distinguished by and registered in his name. The second was styled
_Archon Basileus_ (ἄρχων βασιλεύς), or the King Archon; the third
_Polemarchus_ (πολέμαρχος), or commander-in-chief; the remaining
six, _Thesmothetae_ (θεσμοθέται), or legislators. As regards the
duties of the archons, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish
what belonged to them individually, and what collectively. It
seems that a considerable portion of the judicial functions of the
ancient kings devolved upon the _Archon Eponymus_, who was also
constituted a sort of state protector of those who were unable to
defend themselves. Thus he was to superintend orphans, heiresses,
families losing their representatives, widows left pregnant, and
to see that they were not wronged in any way. This archon had also
the superintendence of the greater Dionysia, and the Thargelia.
The functions of the _King Archon_ were almost all connected with
religion; his distinguishing title shows that he was considered a
representative of the old kings in their capacity of high priest, as
the Rex Sacrificulus was at Rome. Thus he presided at the Lenaea,
or older Dionysia; superintended the mysteries and the games called
_Lampadephoriae_, and had to offer up sacrifices and prayers in the
Eleusinium, both at Athens and Eleusis. Moreover, indictments for
impiety, and controversies about the priesthood, were laid before
him; and, in cases of murder, he brought the trial into the court of
the areiopagus, and voted with its members. His wife, also, who was
called _Basilissa_ (βασίλισσα), had to offer certain sacrifices, and
therefore it was required that she should be a citizen of pure blood,
without stain or blemish. The _Polemarch_ was originally, as his name
denotes, the commander-in-chief, and we find him discharging military
duties as late as the battle of Marathon, in conjunction with the ten
_Strategi_; he there took, like the kings of old, the command of the
right wing of the army. This, however, seems to be the last occasion
on record of this magistrate appointed by lot being invested with
such important functions; and in after ages we find that his duties
ceased to be military, having been, in a great measure, transferred
to the protection and superintendence of the resident aliens, so that
he resembled in many respects the praetor peregrinus at Rome. Thus,
all actions affecting aliens, the isoteles and proxeni were brought
before him previously to trial. Moreover, it was the polemarch’s
duty to offer the yearly sacrifice to Artemis, in commemoration of
the vow made by Callimachus, at Marathon, and to arrange the funeral
games in honour of those who fell in war. The six _Thesmothetae_ were
extensively connected with the administration of justice, and appear
to have been called legislators, because, in the absence of a written
code, they might be said to make laws, or _thesmi_ (θεσμοί), in the
ancient language of Athens, though in reality they only explained
them. They were required to review, every year, the whole body of
laws, that they might detect any inconsistencies or superfluities,
and discover whether any laws which were abrogated were in the public
records amongst the rest. Their report was submitted to the people,
who referred the necessary alterations to a legislative committee
chosen for the purpose, and called _Nomothetae_ (νομοθέται). The
chief part of the duties of the thesmothetae consisted in receiving
informations, and bringing cases to trial in the courts of law, of
the days of sitting in which they gave public notice. They did not
try them themselves, but seem to have constituted a sort of grand
jury, or inquest. The trial itself took place before the Dicastae.
[DICASTAE.] It is necessary to be cautious in our interpretation of
the words ἀρχή and ἄρχοντες, since they have a double meaning in
the Attic orators, sometimes referring to the archons peculiarly
so called, and sometimes to any other magistracy. The archons had
various privileges and honours. The greatest of the former was the
exemption from the trierarchies--a boon not allowed even to the
successors of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. As a mark of their office,
they wore a chaplet or crown of myrtle; and if any one struck or
abused one of the archons, when wearing this badge of office, he
became _atimus_ (ἄτιμος), or infamous in the fullest extent, thereby
losing his civic rights. The archons, at the close of their year
of service, were admitted among the members of the areiopagus.


[1] By this is meant that the supreme power, though not monarchical,
was confined to one family.

[Illustration: Arch of Tiryns. (Gell’s Itinerary, pl. 16.)]

ARCUS (also fornix), an arch. A true arch is formed of a series
of wedge-like stones, or of bricks, supporting each other, and
all bound firmly together by their mutual pressure. It would seem
that the arch, as thus defined, and as used by the Romans, was not
known to the Greeks in the early periods of their history. But they
made use of a contrivance, even in the heroic age, by which they
were enabled to gain all the advantages of our archway in making
corridors, or hollow galleries, and which in appearance resembled
the pointed arch, such as is now termed Gothic. This was effected
by cutting away the superincumbent stones in the manner already
described, at an angle of about 45° with the horizon. The mode of
construction and appearance of such arches is represented in the
annexed drawing of the walls of Tiryns. The gate of Signia (_Segni_)
in Latium exhibits a similar example. The principle of the true arch
seems to have been known to the Romans from the earliest period;
it is used in the _Cloaca Maxima_. It is most probably an Etruscan
invention. The use of it constitutes one leading distinction between
Greek and Roman architecture, for by its application the Romans were
enabled to execute works of far bolder construction than those of
the Greeks. The Romans, however, never used any other form of arch
than the semicircle. The arcus triumphalis, triumphal arch, was a
structure peculiar to the Romans, erected in honour of an individual,
or in commemoration of a conquest. Triumphal arches were built
across the principal streets of Rome, and, according to the space
of their respective localities, consisted of a single archway, or
a central one for carriages, and two smaller ones on each side for
foot-passengers. Those actually made use of on the occasion of a
triumphal entry and procession were merely temporary and hastily
erected; and, having served their purpose, were taken down again, and
sometimes replaced by others of more durable materials. Stertinius
is the first upon record who erected anything of the kind. He built
an arch in the Forum Boarium, about B.C. 196, and another in the
Circus Maximus, each of which was surmounted by gilt statues. There
are twenty-one arches recorded by different writers, as having been
erected in the city of Rome, five of which now remain:--1. _Arcus
Drusi_, which was erected to the honour of Claudius Drusus on the
Appian way. 2. _Arcus Titi_, at the foot of the Palatine, which
was erected to the honour of Titus, after his conquest of Judaea;
the bas-reliefs of this arch represent the spoils from the temple
of Jerusalem carried in triumphal procession. 3. _Arcus Septimii
Severi_, which was erected by the senate (A.D. 207) at the end of
the Via Sacra, in honour of that emperor and his two sons, Caracalla
and Geta, on account of his conquest of the Parthians and Arabians.
4. _Arcus Gallieni_, erected to the honour of Gallienus by a private
individual, M. Aurelius Victor. 5. _Arcus Constantini_, which was
larger than the arch of Titus. As a specimen of the triumphal arches,
a drawing of the arch of Drusus is given in the preceding page.

[Illustration: Arch of Drusus at Rome]

ARCUS (βιός, τόξον), the bow used for shooting arrows, is one of the
most ancient of all weapons, but is characteristic of Asia rather
than of Europe. In the Roman armies it was scarcely ever employed
except by auxiliaries; and these auxiliaries, called _sagittarii_,
were chiefly Cretes and Arabians. The upper of the two figures below
shows the Scythian or Parthian bow unstrung; the lower one represents
the usual form of the Grecian bow, which had a double curvature,
consisting of two circular portions united by the handle. When not
used, the bow was put into a case (τοξοθήκη, γωρυτός, _corytus_),
which was made of leather, and sometimes ornamented. It frequently
held the arrows as well as the bow, and on this account is often
confounded with the _pharetra_ or quiver.

[Illustration: Arcus, Bow. (From paintings on vases.)

Corytus, Bow-case. (From a Relief in the Vatican, Visconti, iv.
tav. 43.)]

ĀRĔA (ἅλως, or ἁλωά), the threshing-floor, was a raised place in the
field, open on all sides to the wind. Great pains were taken to make
this floor hard; it was sometimes paved with flint stones, but more
usually covered with clay and smoothed with a roller.

ĂREIOPĂGUS (ὁ Ἄρειος πάγος, or hill of Ares) was a rocky eminence,
lying to the west of, and not far from the Acropolis at Athens. It
was the place of meeting of the council (Ἡ ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ βουλή),
which was sometimes called _The Upper Council_ (Ἡ ἄνω βουλή), to
distinguish it from the senate of Five-hundred, which sat in the
Cerameicus within the city. It was a body of very remote antiquity,
acting as a criminal tribunal, and existed long before the time
of Solon, but he so far modified its constitution and sphere of
duty, that he may almost be called its founder. What that original
constitution was, must in some degree be left to conjecture, though
there is every reason to suppose that it was aristocratical, the
members being taken, like the ephetae, from the noble patrician
families. [EPHETAE.] By the legislation of Solon the Areiopagus was
composed of the ex-archons, who, after an unexceptionable discharge
of their duties, “went up” to the Areiopagus, and became members
of it for life, unless expelled for misconduct. As Solon made the
qualification for the office of archon to depend not on birth but
on property, the council after his time ceased to be aristocratic
in constitution; but, as we learn from Attic writers, continued so
in spirit. In fact, Solon is said to have formed the two councils,
the senate and the Areiopagus, to be a check upon the democracy;
that, as he himself expressed it, “the state riding upon them as
anchors might be less tossed by storms.” Nay, even after the archons
were no longer elected by suffrage, but by lot, and the office was
thrown open by Aristides to all the Athenian citizens, the “upper
council” still retained its former tone of feeling. Moreover, besides
these changes in its constitution, Solon altered and extended its
functions. Before his time it was only a criminal court, trying cases
of “wilful murder and wounding, of arson and poisoning,” whereas he
gave it extensive powers of a censorial and political nature. Thus
we learn that he made the council an “overseer of everything, and
the guardian of the laws,” empowering it to inquire how any one got
his living and to punish the idle; and we are also told that the
Areiopagites were “superintendents of good order and decency,” terms
as unlimited and undefined as Solon not improbably wished to leave
their authority. When heinous crimes had notoriously been committed,
but the guilty parties were not known, or no accuser appeared, the
Areiopagus inquired into the subject, and reported to the demus. The
report or information was called _apophasis_. This was a duty which
they sometimes undertook on their own responsibility, and in the
exercise of an old established right, and sometimes on the order of
the demus. Nay, to such an extent did they carry their power, that
on one occasion they apprehended an individual (Antiphon), who had
been acquitted by the general assembly, and again brought him to a
trial, which ended in his condemnation and death. Again, we find them
revoking an appointment whereby Aeschines was made the advocate of
Athens before the Amphictyonic council, and substituting Hyperides
in his room. They also had duties connected with religion, one of
which was to superintend the sacred olives growing about Athens, and
try those who were charged with destroying them; and in general it
was their office to punish the impious and irreligious. Independent,
then, of its jurisdiction as a criminal court in cases of wilful
murder, which Solon continued to the Areiopagus, its influence must
have been sufficiently great to have been a considerable obstacle
to the aggrandisement of the democracy at the expense of the other
parties in the state. Accordingly, we find that Pericles, who was
opposed to the aristocracy, resolved to diminish its power and
circumscribe its sphere of action. His coadjutor in this work was
Ephialtes, a statesman of inflexible integrity, and also a military
commander. They experienced much opposition in their attempts, not
only in the assembly, but also on the stage, where Aeschylus produced
his tragedy of the Eumenides, the object of which was to impress upon
the Athenians the dignity, sacredness, and constitutional worth of
the institution which Pericles and Ephialtes wished to reform. Still
the opposition failed: a decree was carried by which, as Aristotle
says, the Areiopagus was “mutilated,” and many of its hereditary
rights abolished, though it is difficult to ascertain the precise
nature of the alterations which Pericles effected. The jurisdiction
of the Areiopagus in cases of murder was still left to them. In such
cases the process was as follows:--The king archon brought the case
into court, and sat as one of the judges, who were assembled in
the open air, probably to guard against any contamination from the
criminal. The accuser first came forwards to make a solemn oath that
his accusation was true, standing over the slaughtered victims, and
imprecating extirpation upon himself and his whole family were it
not so. The accused then denied the charge with the same solemnity
and form of oath. Each party then stated his case with all possible
plainness, keeping strictly to the subject, and not being allowed
to appeal in any way to the feelings or passions of the judges.
After the first speech, a criminal accused of murder might remove
from Athens, and thus avoid the capital punishment fixed by Draco’s
_Thesmi_, which on this point were still in force. Except in cases
of parricide, neither the accuser nor the court had power to prevent
this; but the party who thus evaded the extreme punishment was not
allowed to return home, and when any decree was passed at Athens to
legalize the return of exiles, an exception was always made against
those who had thus left their country. The Areiopagus continued
to exist, in name at least, till a very late period. Thus we find
Cicero mentioning the council in his letters; and an individual is
spoken of as an Areiopagite under the emperors Gratian and Theodosius
(A.D. 380). The case of St. Paul is generally quoted as an instance
of the authority of the Areiopagus in religious matters; but the
words of the sacred historian do not necessarily imply that he was
brought before the council. It may, however, be remarked, that the
Areiopagites certainly took cognizance of the introduction of new
and unauthorised forms of religious worship, called ἐπίθετα ἱερά, in
contradistinction to the πάτρια or older rites of the state.


ĂRĔTĀLŎGI, persons who amused the company at the Roman dinner tables.

ARGĒI, the name given by the pontifices to the places consecrated
by Numa for the celebration of religious services. Varro calls them
the chapels of the argei, and says they were twenty-seven in number,
distributed in the different districts of the city. There was a
tradition that these argei were named from the chieftains who came
with Hercules, the Argive, to Rome, and occupied the Capitoline,
or, as it was anciently called, Saturnian hill. It is impossible
to say what is the historical value or meaning of this legend; we
may, however, notice its conformity with the statement that Rome was
founded by the Pelasgians, with whom the name of Argos was connected.
The name argei was also given to certain figures thrown into the
Tiber from the Sublician bridge, on the Ides of May in every year.
This was done by the pontifices, the vestals, the praetors, and other
citizens, after the performance of the customary sacrifices. The
images were thirty in number, made of bulrushes, and in the form of
men. Ovid makes various suppositions to account for the origin of
this rite; we can only conjecture that it was a symbolical offering,
to propitiate the gods, and that the number was a representative
either of the thirty patrician curiae at Rome, or perhaps of the
thirty Latin townships.

ARGENTĀRĬI, bankers or money changers. (1) GREEK. The bankers at
Athens were called _Trapezitae_ (τραπεζίται), from their tables
(τραπεζαι) at which they sat, while carrying on their business, and
which were in the market place. Their principal occupation was that
of changing money; but they frequently took money, at a moderate
premium, from persons who did not like to occupy themselves with
the management of their own affairs, and placed it out at interest.
Their usual interest was 36 per cent.; a rate that at present
scarcely occurs except in cases of money lent on bottomry. The only
instance of a bank recognized and conducted on behalf of the state
occurs at Byzantium, where at one time it was let by the republic
to capitalists to farm. Yet the state probably exercised some kind
of superintendence over the private bankers, since it is hardly
possible otherwise to account for the unlimited confidence which they
enjoyed.--(2) ROMAN. The _Argentarii_ at Rome must be distinguished
from the _mensarii_ and _nummularii_, or public bankers. [MENSARII.]
The argentarii were private persons, who carried on business on their
own responsibility, and were not in the service of the republic;
but the shops or _tabernae_ about the forum, which they occupied,
and in which they transacted their business, were state property.
The business of the argentarii may be divided into the following
branches. 1. _Permutatio_, or the exchange of foreign coin for Roman,
and in later times the giving of bills of exchange payable in foreign
towns. 2. The keeping of sums of money for other persons. Such money
might be deposited by the owner merely to save himself the trouble
of keeping it and making payments, and in this case it was called
_depositum_; the argentarius then paid no interest, and the money was
called _vacua pecunia_. Or the money was deposited on condition of
the argentarius paying interest; in this case the money was called
_creditum_. A payment made through a banker was called _per mensam_,
_de mensa_, or _per mensae scripturam_, while a payment made by the
debtor in person was a payment _ex arca_ or _de domo_. An argentarius
never paid away any person’s money without being either authorised by
him in person or receiving a cheque which was called _perscriptio_.
The argentarii kept accurate accounts in books called _codices_,
_tabulae_, or _rationes_, and there is every reason for believing
that they were acquainted with what is called in book-keeping double
entry. When a party found to be in debt paid what he owed, he had
his name effaced (_nomen expedire_ or _expungere_) from the banker’s
books. 3. Their connection with commerce and public auctions. In
private sales and purchases, they sometimes acted as agents for
either party (_interpretes_), and sometimes they undertook to sell
the whole estate of a person, as an inheritance. At public auctions
they were almost invariably present, registering the articles sold,
their prices, and purchasers, and receiving the payment from the
purchasers. 4. The testing of the genuineness of coins (_probatio
nummorum_). This, however, seems originally to have been a part of
the duty of public officers, the mensarii or nummularii, until in
the course of time the opinion of an argentarius also came to be
looked upon as decisive. 5. The _solidorum venditio_, that is, the
obligation of purchasing from the mint the newly coined money, and
circulating it among the people. This branch of their functions
occurs only under the empire. The argentarii formed a collegium,
divided into _societates_ or corporations, which alone had the right
to admit new members of their guild. None but freemen could become
members of such a corporation. It has already been observed that the
argentarii had their shops round the forum: hence to become bankrupt
was expressed by _foro cedere_, or _abire_, or _foro mergi_.

ARGENTUM (ἄργυρος), silver. The relative value of gold and silver
differed considerably at different periods in Greek and Roman
history. Herodotus mentions it as 13 to 1; Plato, as 12 to 1;
Menander, as 10 to 1; and Livy as 10 to 1, about B.C. 189. According
to Suetonius, Julius Caesar, on one occasion, exchanged silver for
gold in the proportion of 9 to 1; but the most usual proportion under
the early Roman emperors was about 12 to 1. The proportion in modern
times, since the discovery of the American mines, has varied between
17 to 1 and 14 to 1. In the earliest times the Greeks obtained their
silver chiefly as an article of commerce from the Phocaeans and the
Samians; but they soon began to work the rich mines of their own
country and its islands. The chief mines were in Siphnos, Thessaly,
and Attica. In the last-named country, the silver mines of Laurion
furnished a most abundant supply, and were generally regarded as
the chief source of the wealth of Athens. The Romans obtained most
of their silver from the very rich mines of Spain, which had been
previously worked by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, and which,
though abandoned for those of Mexico, are still not exhausted. By
far the most important use of silver among the Greeks was for money.
There are sufficient reasons for believing that, until some time
after the end of the Peloponnesian war, the Athenians had no gold
currency. [AURUM.] It may be remarked that all the words connected
with money are derived from ἄργυρος, and not from χρυσός, as
καταργυρόω, “to bribe with money;” ἀργυραμοιβός, “a money changer,”
&c.; and ἄργυρος is itself not unfrequently used to signify money
in general, as _aes_ is in Latin. At Rome, on the contrary, silver
was not coined till B.C. 269, before which period Greek silver was
in circulation at Rome; and the principal silver coin of the Romans,
the _denarius_, was borrowed from the Greek _drachma_. For further
details respecting silver money, see DENARIUS, DRACHMA. From a very
early period, silver was used also in works of art; and the use of it
for mere purposes of luxury and ostentation, as in plate, was very
general both in Greece and Rome.

ARGỸRASPĬDES (ἀργυράσπιδες), a division of the Macedonian army, who
were so called because they carried shields covered with silver

ARGỸROCŎPEION (ἀργυροκοπεῖον), the place where money was coined, the
mint, at Athens.

ĂRĬES (κριός), the battering-ram, was used to batter down the walls
of besieged cities. It consisted of a large beam, made of the trunk
of a tree, especially of a fir or an ash. To one end was fastened a
mass of bronze or iron (κεφαλή, ἐμβολή, προτομή), which resembled in
its form the head of a ram. The aries in its simplest state was borne
and impelled by human hands, without other assistance. In an improved
form, the ram was surrounded with iron bands, to which rings were
attached for the purpose of suspending it by ropes or chains from a
beam fixed transversely over it. By this contrivance the soldiers
were relieved from the necessity of supporting the weight of the ram,
and could with ease give it a rapid and forcible motion backwards and
forwards. The use of this machine was further aided by placing the
frame in which it was suspended upon wheels, and also by constructing
over it a wooden roof, so as to form a “testudo,” which protected the
besieging party from the defensive assaults of the besieged.

[Illustration: Aries, Battering Ram. (From Column of Trajan.)]

ĀRISTOCRĂTĬA (ἀριστοκρατία), signifies literally “the government of
the best men,” and as used by Plato, Aristotle, Polybius, &c., it
meant the government of a class whose supremacy was founded not on
wealth merely, but on personal distinction. That there should be
an aristocracy, moreover, it was essential that the administration
of affairs should be conducted with a view to the promotion of the
general interests, not for the exclusive or predominant advantage
of the privileged class As soon as the government ceased to be
thus conducted, or whenever the only title to political power in
the dominant class was the possession of superior wealth, the
constitution was termed an oligarchy (ὀλιγαρχία), which, in the
technical use of the term, was always looked upon as a corruption
(παρέκβασις) of an aristocracy. In the practical application of the
term aristocracy, however, the personal excellence which was held to
be a necessary element was not of a higher kind than what, according
to the deeply-seated ideas of the Greeks, was commonly hereditary in
families of noble birth, and in early times would be the ordinary
accompaniments of noble rank, namely, wealth, military skill, and
superior education and intelligence. It is to be noted that the word
ἀριστοκρατία is never, like the English term _aristocracy_, the name
of a class, but only of a particular political constitution.

[Illustration: Greek Soldier. (From an ancient vase.)

Roman Soldiers. (From Column of Trajan.)]

ARMA, ARMĀTŪRA (ἔντεα, τεύχεα, Hom.; ὅπλα), arms, armour. Homer
describes in various passages an entire suit of armour, and we
observe that it consisted of the same portions which were used by
the Greek soldiers ever after. Moreover, the order of putting them
on is always the same. The heavy-armed warrior, having already a
tunic around his body, and preparing for combat, puts on--1. his
greaves (κνημῖδες, _ocreae_); 2. his cuirass (θώραξ, _lorica_), to
which belonged the μίτρη underneath, and the zone (ζώνη, ζωστῆρ,
_cingulum_), above; 3. his sword (ξίφος, _ensis_, _gladius_), hung on
the left side of his body by means of a belt which passed over the
right shoulder; 4. the large round shield (σάκος, ἀσπίς, _clipeus_,
_scutum_), supported in the same manner; 5. his helmet (κόρυς, κυνέη,
_cassis_, _galea_); 6. he took his spear (ἔγχος, δόρυ, _hasta_), or
in many cases, two spears. The form and use of these portions are
described in separate articles, under their Latin names. The annexed
cut exhibits them all. Those who were defended in the manner which
has now been represented are called by Homer _aspistae_ (ἀσπισταί),
from their great shield (ἀσπίς); also _angemachi_ (ἀγχεμάχοι),
because they fought hand to hand with their adversaries; but much
more commonly _promachi_ (πρόμαχοι), because they occupied the
front of the army. In later times, the heavy-armed soldiers were
called _hoplitae_ (ὁπλίται), because the term _hopla_ (ὄπλα) more
especially denoted the defensive armour, the shield and thorax. By
wearing these they were distinguished from the light-armed (ψιλοί,
ἄνοπλοι, γυμνοί, γυμνῆται, γυμνῆτες), who, instead of being defended
by the shield and thorax, had a much slighter covering, sometimes
consisting of skins, and sometimes of leather or cloth; and instead
of the sword or lance, they commonly fought with darts, stones, bows
and arrows, or slings. Besides the heavy and light-armed soldiers,
another description of men, the _peltastae_ (πελτασταί), also
formed a part of the Greek army, though we do not hear of them in
early times. Instead of the large round shield, they carried a
smaller one called the _pelté_ (πέλτη), and in other respects their
armour, though heavier and more effective than that of the psili,
was much lighter than that of the hoplites. The weapon on which they
principally depended was the spear. The Roman legions consisted, as
the Greek infantry for the most part did, of heavy and light-armed
troops (_gravis et levis armatura_). The preceding figure represents
two heavy-armed Roman soldiers. All the essential parts of the Roman
heavy armour (_lorica_, _ensis_, _clipeus_, _galea_, _hasta_) are
mentioned together, except the spear, in a well-known passage of St.
Paul (_Eph._ vi. 17).

ARMĀRĬUM, originally a place for keeping arms, afterwards a cupboard,
in which were kept not only arms, but also clothes, books, money, and
other articles of value. The armarium was generally placed in the
atrium of the house.

ARMILLA (ψάλιον, ψέλιον, or ψέλλιον, χλιδών, ἀμφιδέα), a bracelet or
armlet, worn both by men and women. It was a favourite ornament of
the Medes and Persians. Bracelets do not appear to have been worn
among the Greeks by the male sex, but Greek ladies had bracelets of
various materials, shapes, and styles of ornament. They frequently
exhibited the form of snakes, and were in such cases called snakes
(ὄφεις) by the Athenians. According to their length, they went once,
twice, or thrice round the arm, or even a greater number of times.
The Roman generals frequently bestowed armillae upon soldiers for
deeds of extraordinary merit.

[Illustration: Armillae, Bracelets. (Museo Borbonico, vol. ii. tav.
14 vol. vii. tav. 46.)

Armilla, Bracelet. (On Statue of Sleeping Ariadne in Vatican.)]

ARMĬLUSTRĬUM, a Roman festival for the purification of arms. It was
celebrated every year on the 19th of October, when the citizens
assembled in arms, and offered sacrifices in the place called
Armilustrum, or Vicus Armilustri.

ARRA, ARRĂBO, or ARRHA, ARRHABO, was the thing which purchasers
and vendors gave to one another, whether it was a sum of money or
anything else, as an evidence of the contract being made: it was
no essential part of the contract of buying and selling, but only
evidence of agreement as to price. The term arrha, in its general
sense of an evidence of agreement, was also used on other occasions,
as in the case of betrothment (_sponsalia_). Sometimes the word
arrha is used as synonymous with _pignus_, but this is not the legal
meaning of the term.

ARRHĒPHŎRĬA (ἀῤῥηφόρια), a festival celebrated at Athens in honour
of Athena (Minerva). Four girls, of between seven and eleven years
(ἀῤῥηφόροι, ἐρσηφόροι, ἐῤῥηφόροι), were selected every year by
the king archon from the most distinguished families, two of whom
superintended the weaving of the sacred peplus of Athena; the two
others had to carry the mysterious and sacred vessels of the goddess.
These latter remained a whole year on the Acropolis; and when the
festival commenced, the priestess of the goddess placed vessels upon
their heads, the contents of which were neither known to them nor to
the priestess. With these they descended to a natural grotto within
the district of Aphrodite in the gardens. Here they deposited the
sacred vessels, and carried back something else, which was covered
and likewise unknown to them. After this the girls were dismissed
and others were chosen to supply their place in the acropolis.


ARTĂBA (ἀρτάβη), a Persian measure of capacity = 1 medimnus and 3
choenices (Attic) = 102 Roman sextarii = 12 gallons, 5·092 pints.

ARTĔMĪSĬA (ἀρτεμίσια), a festival celebrated at Syracuse in honour
of Artemis Potamia and Soteira. It lasted three days, which were
principally spent in feasting and amusements, Festivals of the same
name, and in honour of the same goddess, were held in many places in
Greece, but principally at Delphi.


ĂRŪRA (ἄρουρα), a Greek measure of surface, mentioned by Herodotus,
who says that it is a hundred Egyptian cubits in every direction. Now
the Egyptian cubit contained nearly 17¾ inches; therefore the square
of 100 by 17¾ inches, _i.e._ nearly 148 feet, gives the number of
square feet (English) in the arura, viz. 21,904.


ARVĀLES FRĀTRES, formed a college or company of twelve priests, and
were so called from offering public sacrifices for the fertility
of the fields. That they were of extreme antiquity is proved by
the legend which refers their institution to Romulus, of whom it
is said, that when his nurse Acca Laurentia lost one of her twelve
sons, he allowed himself to be adopted by her in his place, and
called himself and the remaining eleven “Fratres Arvales.” We also
find a college called the Sodales Titii, and as the latter were
confessedly of Sabine origin, and instituted for the purpose of
keeping up the Sabine religious rites, it is probable that these
colleges corresponded one to the other--the Fratres Arvales being
connected with the Latin, and the Sodales Titii with the Sabine
element of the Roman state. The office of the fratres arvales was
for life, and was not taken away even from an exile or captive.
One of their annual duties was to celebrate a three days’ festival
in honour of Dea Dia, supposed to be Ceres, sometimes held on the
17th, 19th, and 20th, sometimes on the 27th, 29th, and 30th of May.
But besides this festival of the Dea Dia, the fratres arvales were
required on various occasions, under the emperors, to make vows
and offer up thanksgivings. Under Tiberius, the Fratres Arvales
performed sacrifices called the _Ambarvalia_, at various places on
the borders of the ager Romanus, or original territory of Rome;
and it is probable that this was a custom handed down from time
immemorial, and, moreover, that it was a duty of the priesthood to
invoke a blessing on the whole territory of Rome. There were also the
private _ambarvalia_, which were so called from the victim (_hostia
ambarvalis_) that was slain on the occasion being led three times
round the corn-fields, before the sickle was put to the corn. This
victim was accompanied by a crowd of merry-makers, the reapers and
farm-servants dancing and singing, as they marched, the praises of
Ceres, and praying for her favour and presence, while they offered
her the libations of milk, honey, and wine. This ceremony was also
called a _lustratio_, or purification.

ARX signifies a height within the walls of a city, upon which a
citadel was built, and thus came to be applied to the citadel
itself. Thus one of the summits of the Capitoline hill at Rome is
called _Arx_. The _Arx_ was the regular place at Rome for taking
the auspices, and was hence likewise called _auguraculum_; or, more
probably, the auguraculum was a place in the Arx.

AS, or _Libra_, a pound, the unit of weight among the Romans. [LIBRA.]

AS, the unit of value in the Roman and old Italian coinages, was
made of copper, or of the mixed metal called AES. It was originally
of the weight of a pound of twelve ounces, whence it was called _as
libralis_ and _aes grave_. The oldest form of the _as_ is that which
bears the figure of an animal (a bull, ram, boar, or sow). The next
and most common form is that which has the two-faced head of Janus on
one side, and the prow of a ship on the other (whence the expression
used by Roman boys in tossing up, _Capita aut navim_.) Pliny informs
us, that in the time of the first Punic war (B.C. 264-241), in
order to meet the expenses of the state, this weight of a pound was
diminished, and asses were struck of the same weight as the sextans
(that is, two ounces, or one-sixth of the ancient weight); and that
thus the republic paid off its debts, gaining five parts in six; that
afterwards, in the second Punic war, in the dictatorship of Q. Fabius
Maximus (B.C. 217), asses of one ounce were made, and the denarius
was decreed to be equal to sixteen asses, the republic thus gaining
one half; but that in military pay the denarius was always given for
ten asses; and that soon after, by the Papirian law (about B.C. 191),
asses of half an ounce were made. The value of the as, of course,
varied with its weight. Before the reduction to two ounces, ten asses
were equal to the denarius = about 8½ pence English [DENARIUS].
Therefore the as = 3·4 farthings. By the reduction the denarius
was made equal to sixteen asses; therefore the as = 2⅛ farthings.
The as was divided into parts, which were named according to the
number of ounces they contained. They were the _deunx_, _dextans_,
_dodrans_, _bes_, _septunx_, _semis_, _quincunx_, _triens_,
_quadrans_ or _teruncius_, _sextans_, _sescunx_ or _sescuncia_, and
uncia, consisting respectively of 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2,
1½, and 1 ounces. Of these divisions the following were represented
by coins; namely, the _semis_, _quincunx_, _triens_, _quadrans_,
_sextans_, and _uncia_. After the reduction in the weight of the
as, coins were struck of the value of 2, 3, 4, and even 10 asses,
which were called respectively _dussis_ or _dupondius_, _tressis_,
_quadrussis_, and _decussis_. Other multiples of the as were denoted
by words of similar formation, up to _centussis_, 100 asses; but most
of them do not exist as coins. In certain forms of expression, in
which _aes_ is used for money without specifying the denomination,
we must understand the as. Thus _deni aeris_, _mille aeris_, _decies
aeris_, mean respectively 10, 1000, 1,000,000 _asses_. The word _as_
was used also for any whole which was to be divided into equal parts;
and those parts were called _unciae_. Thus these words were applied
not only to weight and money, but to measures of length, surface,
and capacity, to inheritances, interest, houses, farms, and many
other things. Hence the phrases _haeres ex asse_, the heir to a whole
estate; _haeres ex dodrante_, the heir to three-fourths. The _as_ was
also called in ancient times _assarius_ (sc. _nummus_), and in Greek
τὸ ἀσσάριον. According to Polybius, the assarius was equal to half
the obolus.

ASCĬA (σκέπαρνον), an adze. The annexed cut shows two varieties of
the adze. The instrument at the bottom was called _acisculus_, and
was chiefly used by masons.

[Illustration: Asciae, adzes. (From ancient monuments and a coin.)]

ASCLĒPIEIA (ἀσκληπίεια), the name of festivals which were probably
celebrated in all places where temples of Asclepius (Aesculapius)
existed. The most celebrated, however, was that of Epidaurus, which
took place every five years, and was solemnized with contests of
rhapsodists and musicians, and with solemn processions and games.

ASCŌLĬASMUS (ἀσκωλιασμός, the leaping upon the leathern bag, ἀσκός)
was one of the many kinds of amusements in which the Athenians
indulged during the Anthesteria and other festivals in honour of
Dionysus. Having sacrificed a he-goat to the god, they made a bag out
of the skin, smeared it with oil, and then tried to dance upon it.

[Illustration: Ascoliasmus. (From an ancient gem.)]

ĂSĔBEIAS GRĂPHĒ (ἀσεβείας γραφή), one of the many forms prescribed
by the Attic laws for the impeachment of impiety. Any citizen not
incapacitated by disfranchisement (ἀτιμία) seems to have been a
competent accuser; and citizens, resident aliens, and strangers, were
equally liable to the accusation. Whether the causes were brought
into the areiopagus, or the common heliastic court, seems to have
been determined by the form of action adopted by the prosecutor, or
the degree of competency to which the areiopagus rose or fell at the
different periods of Athenian history.

ĂSĬARCHAE (ἀσιάρχαι) were, in the Roman province of Asia, the chief
presidents of the religious rites, whose office it was to exhibit
games and theatrical amusements every year, in honour of the gods and
the Roman emperor, at their own expense, like the Roman aediles. They
were ten in number, selected annually by the different towns of Asia,
and approved of by the Roman proconsul; of these, one was the chief
asiarch, and frequently, but not always, resided at Ephesus.


ASSERTOR, or ADSERTOR, contains the same root as the verb _adserere_,
which, when coupled with the word _manu_, signifies to lay hold
of a thing, to draw it towards one. Hence the phrase _adserere
in libertatem_, or _liberali adserere manu_, applies to him who
lays his hand on a person reputed to be a slave, and _asserts_, or
maintains his freedom. The person who thus maintained the freedom of
a reputed slave was called _adsertor_. The person whose freedom was
thus claimed was said to be _adsertus_. The expressions _liberalis
causa_, and _liberalis manus_, which occur in connection with the
verb _adserere_, will easily be understood from what has been said.
Sometimes the word _adserere_ alone was used as equivalent to
_adserere in libertatem_. The expression _asserere in servitutem_, to
claim a person as a slave, occurs in Livy.

ASSESSOR, or ADSESSOR, literally one who sits by the side of
another. Since the consuls, praetors, governors of provinces, and
the judices, were often imperfectly acquainted with the law and
forms of procedure, it was necessary that they should have the aid
of those who had made the law their study. The assessors sat on the
tribunal with the magistrate. Their advice or aid was given during
the proceedings as well as at other times, but they never pronounced
a judicial sentence.


ASTRĂGĂLUS (ἀστράγαλος), literally, that particular bone in the
ankles of certain quadrupeds, which the Greeks, as well as the
Romans, used for dice and other purposes. [TALUS.] In architecture
it signifies a certain moulding (the astragal) which seems to have
derived its name from its resemblance to a string or chain of _tali_,
and it is in fact always used in positions where it seems intended to
bind together the parts to which it is applied. It belongs properly
to the more highly decorated forms of the Ionic order, in which it
appears as a lower edging to the larger mouldings, especially the
_echinus_ (ovolo), particularly in the capital, as shown in the
following woodcut.

[Illustration: Astragalus. (Capital of an Ionic Column. Dilettanti
Society, Ionian Antiquities.)]

ASTRĂTEIAS GRĂPHĒ (ἀστρατείας γραφή), the accusation instituted at
Athens against persons who failed to appear among the troops after
they had been enrolled for a campaign by the generals. The defendant,
if convicted, incurred disfranchisement (ἀτιμία) both in his own
person and that of his descendants.

ASTRŎLŎGĬA, astrology. A belief very early arose, which still
prevails unshaken in the East, that a close connection subsisted
between the position and movements of the heavenly bodies and the
fate of man. Few doubted that the destiny of a child might be
predicted with certainty by those who were skilled to interpret
the position of the stars at the moment of his birth, and that the
result of any undertaking might be foretold from the aspect of the
firmament when it was commenced. Hence a numerous and powerful
class of men arose who were distinguished by various designations.
From the country where their science was first developed, they
were called _Chaldaei_ or _Babylonii_; from observing the stars,
_astronomi_, _astrologi_, _planetarii_; from employing diagrams such
as were used by geometricians, _mathematici_; from determining the
lot of man at his natal hour, _genethliaci_; from prophesying the
consummation of his struggles, ἀποτελεσματικοί; while their art was
known as ἀστρολογία, μετεωρολογία, γενεθλιαλογία, ἀποτελεσματική,
_Ars Chaldaeorum_, _Mathesis_, or, from the tables they consulted,
πινακική. Their calculations were termed _Babylonii numeri_,
Χαλδαίων μέθοδοι, Χαλδαίων ψηφίδες, _Rationes Chaldaicae_; their
responses when consulted _Chaldaeorum monita_, _Chaldaeorum natalicia
praedicta_, _Astrologorum praedicta_. The stars and constellations
to which attention was chiefly directed were the planets and the
signs of the zodiac, some of which were supposed to exert uniformly
a benign influence (ἀγαθοποιοὶ ἀστέρες), such as Venus, Jupiter,
Luna, Virgo, Libra, Taurus; others to be uniformly malign (κακοποιοὶ
ἀστέρες), such as Saturnus, Mars, Scorpio, Capricornus; others to be
doubtful (ἐπίκοινοι ἀστέρες), such as Mercurius. The exact period of
birth (_hora genitalis_) being the critical moment, the computations
founded upon it were styled γένεσις(_genitura_), ὡροσκόπος
(_horoscopus_), or simply θέμα, and the star or stars in the
ascendant _sidus natalitium_, _sidera natalitia_. Astrologers seem
to have found their way very early into Italy. In B.C. 139 an edict
was promulgated by C. Cornelius Hispallus, at that time praetor, by
which the Chaldaeans were ordered to quit Italy within ten days, and
they were again banished from the city in B.C. 33, by M. Agrippa, who
was then aedile. Another severe ordinance was levelled by Augustus
against this class, but the frequent occurrence of such phrases as
“expulit et mathematicos,” “pulsis Italia mathematicis,” in the
historians of the empire prove how firm a hold these pretenders must
have obtained over the public mind, and how profitable the occupation
must have been which could induce them to brave disgrace, and
sometimes a cruel death.

ASTỸNŎMI (ἀστυνόμοι), or street-police of Athens, were ten in number,
five for the city, and as many for the Peiraeeus. The _astynomi_ and
_agoranomi_ divided between them most of the functions of the Roman
aediles. [AGORANOMI.]

ĂSῩLUM (ἄσυλον). In the Greek states the temples, altars, sacred
groves, and statues of the gods, generally possessed the privilege
of protecting slaves, debtors, and criminals, who fled to them for
refuge. The laws, however, do not appear to have recognised the
right of all such sacred places to afford the protection which was
claimed, but to have confined it to a certain number of temples, or
altars, which were considered in a more especial manner to have the
ἀσυλία, or _jus asyli_. There were several places in Athens which
possessed this privilege; of which the best known was the Theseium,
or temple of Theseus, in the city, near the gymnasium, which was
chiefly intended for the protection of ill-treated slaves, who could
take refuge in this place, and compel their masters to sell them to
some other person. In the time of Tiberius, the number of places
possessing the jus asyli in the Greek cities in Greece and Asia
Minor became so numerous, as seriously to impede the administration
of justice; and, consequently, the senate, by the command of the
emperor, limited the jus asyli to a few cities. The asylum, which
Romulus is said to have opened at Rome to increase the population of
the city, was a place of refuge for the inhabitants of other states,
rather than a sanctuary for those who had violated the laws of the
city. In the republican and early imperial times, a right of asylum,
such as existed in the Greek states, does not appear to have been
recognised by the Roman law; but it existed under the empire, and a
slave could fly to the temples of the gods, or the statues of the
emperors, to avoid the ill-usage of his master.

ĂTĔLEIA (ἀτέλεια), immunity from public burthens, was enjoyed at
Athens by the archons for the time being; by the descendants of
certain persons, on whom it had been conferred as a reward for great
services, as in the case of Harmodius and Aristogeiton; and by the
inhabitants of certain foreign states. It was of several kinds: it
might be a general immunity (ἀτέλεια ἁπάντων); or a more special
exemption, as from custom-duties, from the liturgies, or from
providing sacrifices.

ĀTELLĀNAE FĂBŬLAE were a species of farce or comedy, so called from
Atella, a town of the Osci, in Campania. From this circumstance,
and from being written in the Oscan dialect, they were also called
_Ludi Osci_. These Atellane plays were not _praetextatae_, _i.e._
comedies in which magistrates and persons of rank were introduced,
nor _tabernariae_, the characters in which were taken from low life;
they rather seem to have been a union of high comedy and its parody.
They were also distinguished from the mimes by the absence of low
buffoonery and ribaldry, being remarkable for a refined humour, such
as could be understood and appreciated by educated people. They were
not performed by regular actors (_histriones_), but by Roman citizens
of noble birth, who were not on that account subjected to any
degradation, but retained their rights as citizens, and might serve
in the army. The Oscan or Opican language, in which these plays were
written, was spread over the whole of the south of Italy, and from
its resemblance to the Latin could easily be understood by the more
educated Romans.

ĂTHĒNAEUM (ἀθήναιον), a school (_ludus_) founded by the Emperor
Hadrian at Rome, for the promotion of literary and scientific studies
(_ingenuarum artium_), and called Athenaeum from the town of Athens,
which was still regarded as the seat of intellectual refinement.
The Athenaeum was situated on the Capitoline hill. It was a kind of
university, with a staff of professors, for the various branches
of study. Besides the instruction given by these magistri, poets,
orators, and critics were accustomed to recite their compositions
there, and these prelections were sometimes honoured with the
presence of the emperors themselves. The Athenaeum seems to have
continued in high repute till the fifth century.

ATHLĒTAE (ἀθληταί, ἀθλητῆρες), persons who contended in the public
games of the Greeks and Romans for prizes (ἆθλα, whence the name of
ἀθληταί), which were given to those who conquered in contests of
agility and strength. The name was in the later period of Grecian
history, and among the Romans, properly confined to those persons
who entirely devoted themselves to a course of training which might
fit them to excel in such contests, and who, in fact, made athletic
exercises their profession. The athletae differed, therefore, from
the _agonistae_ (ἀγωνισταί), who only pursued gymnastic exercises
for the sake of improving their health and bodily strength, and who,
though they sometimes contended for the prizes in the public games,
did not devote their whole lives, like the athletae, to preparing
for these contests. Athletae were first introduced at Rome, B.C.
186, in the games exhibited by M. Fulvius, on the conclusion of
the Aetolian war. Aemilius Paullus, after the conquest of Perseus,
B.C. 167, is said to have exhibited games at Amphipolis, in which
athletae contended. Under the Roman emperors, and especially under
Nero, who was passionately fond of the Grecian games, the number of
athletae increased greatly in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. Those
athletae who conquered in any of the great national festivals of
the Greeks were called _Hieronicae_ (ἱερονῖκαι), and received the
greatest honours and rewards. Such a conqueror was considered to
confer honour upon the state to which he belonged; he entered his
native city through a breach made in the walls for his reception, in
a chariot drawn by four white horses, and went along the principal
street of the city to the temple of the guardian deity of the state.
Those games, which gave the conquerors the right of such an entrance
into the city, were called _Iselastici_ (from εἰσελαύνειν). This term
was originally confined to the four great Grecian festivals, the
Olympian, Isthmian, Nemean, and Pythian, but was afterwards applied
to other public games. In the Greek states, the victors in these
games not only obtained the greatest glory and respect, but also
substantial rewards. They were generally relieved from the payment
of taxes, and also enjoyed the first seat (προεδρία) in all public
games and spectacles. Their statues were frequently erected at the
cost of the state, in the most frequented part of the city, as the
market-place, the gymnasia, and the neighbourhood of the temples. At
Athens, according to a law of Solon, the conquerors in the Olympic
games were rewarded with a prize of 500 drachmae; and the conquerors
in the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian, with one of 100 drachmae;
and at Sparta they had the privilege of fighting near the person
of the king. The privileges of the athletae were secured, and in
some respects increased, by the Roman emperors. The term athletae,
though sometimes applied metaphorically to other combatants, was
properly limited to those who contended for the prize in the five
following contests:--1. _Running_ (δρόμος, _cursus_). [STADIUM.]
2. _Wrestling_ (πάλη, _lucta_). 3. _Boxing_ (πυγμή, _pugilatus_).
4. The _pentathlum_ (πένταθλον), or, as the Romans called it,
_quinquertium_. 5. The _pancratium_ (παγκράτιον). Of all these an
account is given in separate articles. Great attention was paid to
the training of the athletae. They were generally trained in the
_palaestrae_, which, in the Grecian states, were distinct places from
the gymnasia. Their exercises were superintended by the gymnasiarch,
and their diet was regulated by the aliptes. [ALIPTAE.]--The
athletae were accustomed to contend naked. In the descriptions of
the games given in the Iliad, the combatants are represented with
a girdle about their loins; and the same practice, as we learn
from Thucydides, anciently prevailed at the Olympic games, but was
discontinued afterwards.

ĂTĪMĬA (ἀτιμία), the forfeiture of a man’s civil rights at Athens.
It was either total or partial. A man was totally deprived of his
rights, both for himself and for his descendants (καθάπαξ ἄτιμος),
when he was convicted of murder, theft, false witness, partiality as
arbiter, violence offered to a magistrate, and so forth. This highest
degree of atimia excluded the person affected by it from the forum,
and from all public assemblies; from the public sacrifices, and from
the law courts; or rendered him liable to immediate imprisonment,
if he was found in any of these places. It was either temporary
or perpetual, and either accompanied or not with confiscation of
property. Partial atimia only involved the forfeiture of some
few rights, as, for instance, the right of pleading in court.
Public debtors were suspended from their civic functions till they
discharged their debt to the state. People who had once become
altogether atimi were very seldom restored to their lost privileges.
The converse term to _atimia_ was _epitimia_ (ἐπιτιμία).

ATLANTES (ἄτλαντες) and TĔLĂMŌNES (τελαμῶνες), terms used in
architecture, the former by the Greeks, the latter by the Romans, to
designate those male figures which are sometimes fancifully used,
like the female _Caryatides_, in place of columns. Both words are
derived from τλῆναι, and the former evidently refers to the fable of
Atlas, who supported the vault of heaven, the latter _perhaps_ to
the strength of the Telamonian Ajax.

[Illustration: Atlantes. (From Temple at Agrigentum: Professor

ĀTRĀMENTUM, a term applicable to any black colouring substance, for
whatever purpose it may be used, like the _melan_ (μέλαν) of the
Greeks. There were, however, three principal kinds of atramentum:
one called _librarium_, or _scriptorium_ (in Greek, γραφικὸν μέλαν),
writing-ink; another called _sutorium_, which was used by the
shoemakers for dyeing leather; the third _tectorium_, or _pictorium_,
which was used by painters for some purposes, apparently as a sort
of varnish. The inks of the ancients seem to have been more durable
than our own; they were thicker and more unctuous, in substance and
durability more resembling the ink now used by printers. An inkstand
was discovered at Herculaneum, containing ink as thick as oil, and
still usable for writing. The ancients used inks of various colours.
Red ink, made of _minium_ or vermilion, was used for writing the
titles and beginning of books. So also was ink made of _rubrica_,
“red ochre;” and because the headings of _laws_ were written with
rubrica, the word rubric came to be used for the civil law. So
_album_, a white or whited table, on which the praetors’ edicts
were written, was used in a similar way. A person devoting himself
to _album_ and _rubrica_, was a person devoting himself to the law.

ĀTRĬUM (called αὐλή by the Greeks and by Virgil, and also μεσαύλιον,
περίστυλον, περίστῳον) is used in a distinctive as well as collective
sense, to designate a particular part in the private houses of the
Romans [DOMUS], and also a class of public buildings, so called
from their general resemblance in construction to the atrium of a
private house. An atrium of the latter description was a building by
itself, resembling in some respects the open basilica [BASILICA],
but consisting of three sides. Such was the Atrium Publicum in
the capitol, which, Livy informs us, was struck with lightning,
B.C. 216. It was at other times attached to some temple or other
edifice, and in such case consisted of an open area and surrounding
portico in front of the structure. Several of these buildings are
mentioned by the ancient historians, two of which were dedicated to
the same goddess, Libertas. The most celebrated, as well as the most
ancient, was situated on the Aventine Mount. In this atrium there
was a tabularium, where the legal tablets (_tabulae_) relating to
the censors were preserved. The other Atrium Libertatis was in the
neighbourhood of the Forum Caesaris, and was immediately behind the
Basilica Paulli or Aemilia.

AUCTĬO signifies generally “an increasing, an enhancement,” and hence
the name is applied to a public sale of goods, at which persons
bid against one another. The sale was sometimes conducted by an
_argentarius_, or by a _magister auctionis_; and the time, place,
and conditions of sale, were announced either by a public notice
(_tabula_, _album_, &c.), or by a crier (_praeco_). The usual phrases
to express the giving notice of a sale were, _auctionem proscribere,
praedicare_; and to determine on a sale, _auctionem constituere_.
The purchasers (_emtores_), when assembled, were sometimes said
_ad tabulam adesse_. The phrases signifying to bid are, _liceri_,
_licitari_, which was done either by word of mouth, or by such
significant hints as are known to all people who have attended an
auction. The property was said to be knocked down (_addici_) to the
purchaser. The praeco, or crier, seems to have acted the part of the
modern auctioneer, so far as calling out the biddings, and amusing
the company. Slaves, when sold by auction, were placed on a stone,
or other elevated thing, as is the case when slaves are sold in
the United States of North America; and hence the phrase _homo de
lapide emtus_. It was usual to put up a spear (_hasta_) in auctions;
a symbol derived, it is said, from the ancient practice of selling
under a spear the booty acquired in war.

AUCTOR, a word which contains the same element as _aug-eo_, and
signifies generally one who enlarges, confirms, or gives to a
thing its completeness and efficient form. The numerous technical
significations of the word are derivable from this general notion. As
he who gives to a thing that which is necessary for its completeness
may in this sense be viewed as the chief actor or doer, the
word auctor is also used in the sense of one who originates or
proposes a thing; but this cannot be viewed as its primary meaning.
Accordingly, the word auctor, when used in connection with lex or
senatus consultum, often means him who originates and proposes.--The
expressions _patres auctores fiunt_, _patres auctores facti_, have
given rise to much discussion. In the earlier periods of the Roman
state, the word _patres_ was equivalent to _patricii_; in the later
period, when the patricians had lost all importance as a political
body, the term patres signified the senate. Hence some ambiguity has
arisen. The expression _patres auctores fiunt_, when used of the
early period of Rome, means that the determinations of the populus
in the comitia centuriata were confirmed by the patricians in the
comitia curiata. Till the time of Servius Tullius there were only
the comitia curiata, and this king first established the comitia
centuriata, in which the plebs also voted, and consequently it was
not till after this time that the phrase _patres auctores fiunt_
could be properly applied. Livy, however, uses it of an earlier
period. The comitia curiata first elected the king, and then by
another vote conferred upon him the imperium. The latter was called
_lex curiata de imperio_, an expression not used by Livy, who
employs instead the phrase _patres auctores fiunt_ (Liv. i. 17, 22,
32).--After the exile of the last Tarquin, the patres, that is the
patricians, had still the privilege of confirming at the comitia
curiata the vote of the comitia centuriata, that is, they gave to
it the _patrum auctoritas_; or, in other words, the _patres_ were
_auctores facti_. In the fifth century of the city a change was made.
By one of the laws of the plebeian dictator Q. Publilius Philo, it
was enacted that in the case of leges to be enacted at the comitia
centuriata, the _patres_ should be _auctores_, that is, the curiae
should give their assent before the vote of the comitia centuriata.
By a lex Maenia of uncertain date the same change was made as to
elections.--But both during the earlier period and afterwards no
business could be brought before the comitia without first receiving
the sanction of the senate; and accordingly the phrase _patres
auctores fiunt_ came now to be applied to the approval of a measure
by the senate before it was confirmed by the votes of the people.
This preliminary approval was also termed _senatus auctoritas_.--When
the word auctor is applied to him who recommends but does not
originate a legislative measure, it is equivalent to _suasor_.
Sometimes both auctor and suasor are used in the same sentence, and
the meaning of each is kept distinct. With reference to dealings
between individuals, auctor has the sense of owner. In this sense
auctor is the seller (_venditor_), as opposed to the buyer (_emtor_):
and hence we have the phrase _a malo auctore emere_. Auctor is also
used generally to express any person under whose authority any legal
act is done. In this sense, it means a tutor who is appointed to aid
or advise a woman on account of the infirmity of her sex.

AUCTŌRĀMENTUM, the pay of gladiators. [GLADIATORES.]

AUCTŌRĬTAS. The technical meanings of this word correlate with those
of auctor. The auctoritas senatus was not a senatus-consultum; it
was a measure, incomplete in itself, which received its completion
by some other authority. Auctoritas, as applied to property, is
equivalent to legal ownership, being a correlation of auctor.

AUDĪTŌRĬUM, as the name implies, is any place for hearing. It was
the practice among the Romans for poets and others to read their
compositions to their friends, who were sometimes called the
auditorium; but the word was also used to express any place in which
any thing was heard, and under the empire it was applied to a court
of justice. Under the republic the place for all judicial proceedings
was the comitium and the forum. But for the sake of shelter and
convenience it became the practice to hold courts in the Basilicae,
which contained halls, which were also called auditoria. It is first
under M. Aurelius that the auditorium principis is mentioned, by
which we must understand a hall or room in the imperial residence;
and in such a hall Septimius Severus and the later emperors held
their regular sittings when they presided as judges. The latest
jurists use the word generally for any place in which justice was

AUGUR, AUGŬRĬUM; AUSPEX, AUSPĬCĬUM. _Augur_ or _auspex_ meant
a diviner by birds, but came in course of time, like the Greek
οἰωνός, to be applied in a more extended sense: his art was called
_augurium_ or _auspicium_. Plutarch relates that the _augures_ were
originally termed _auspices_. The word _auspex_ was supplanted by
_augur_, but the scientific term for the observation continued on
the contrary to be _auspicium_ and not _augurium_. By Greek writers
on Roman affairs, the augurs are called οἰωνοπόλοι, οἰωνοσκόποι,
οἰωνισταί, οἱ ἐπ’ οἰωνοῖς ἱερεῖς. The belief that the flight of
birds gave some intimation of the will of the gods seems to have
been prevalent among many nations of antiquity, and was common to
the Greeks, as well as the Romans; but it was only among the latter
people that it was reduced to a complete system, governed by fixed
rules, and handed down from generation to generation. In Greece,
the oracles supplanted the birds, and the future was learnt from
Apollo and other gods, rarely from Zeus, who possessed very few
oracles in Greece. The contrary was the case at Rome: it was from
Jupiter that the future was learnt, and the birds were regarded
as his messengers. It must be remarked in general, that the Roman
auspices were essentially of a practical nature; they gave no
information respecting the course of future events, they did not
inform men _what was to happen_, but simply taught them _what they
were to do, or not to do_; they assigned no reason for the decision
of Jupiter--they simply announced, yes or no. The words _augurium_
and _auspicium_ came to be used in course of time to signify the
observation of various kinds of signs. They were divided into five
sorts: _ex caelo_, _ex avibus_, _ex tripudiis_, _ex quadrupedibus_,
_ex diris_. Of these, the last three formed no part of the ancient
auspices.--1. _Ex caelo._ This included the observation of the
various kinds of thunder and lightning, and was regarded as the
most important, _maximum auspicium_. Whenever it was reported by a
person authorised to take the auspices, that Jupiter thundered or
lightened, the comitia could not be held.--2. _Ex avibus._ It was
only a few birds which could give auguries among the Romans. They
were divided into two classes: _Oscines_, those which gave auguries
by singing, or their voice, and _Alites_, those which gave auguries
by their flight. To the former class belonged the raven (_corvus_)
and the crow (_cornix_), the first of these giving a favourable omen
(_auspicium ratum_) when it appeared on the right, the latter, on the
contrary, when it was seen on the left: likewise the owl (_noctua_)
and the hen (_gallina_). To the _aves alites_ belonged first of all
the eagle (_aquila_), which is called pre-eminently the bird of
Jupiter (_Jovis ales_), and next the vulture (_vultur_). Some birds
were included both among the _oscines_ and the _alites_: such were
the _Picus Martius_, and _Feronius_, and the _Parra_. These were the
principal birds consulted in the auspices. When the birds favoured an
undertaking, they were said _addicere_, _admittere_ or _secundare_,
and were then called _addictivae_, _admissivae_, _secundae_, or
_praepetes_: when unfavourable they were said _abdicere_, _arcere_,
_refragari_, &c., and were then called _adversae_ or _alterae_.
The birds which gave unfavourable omens were termed _funebres_,
_inhibitae_, _lugubres_, _malae_, &c., and such auspices were called
_clivia_ and _clamatoria_.--3. _Ex tripudiis._ These auspices were
taken from the feeding of chickens, and were especially employed on
military expeditions. The chickens were kept in a cage, under care of
a person called _pullarius_; and when the auspices were to be taken,
the pullarius opened the cage and threw to the chickens pulse or a
kind of soft cake. If they refused to come out or to eat, or uttered
a cry (_occinerent_), or beat their wings, or flew away, the signs
were considered unfavourable. On the contrary, if they ate greedily,
so that something fell from their mouth and struck the earth, it
was called _tripudium solistimum_ (_tripudium_ quasi _terripavium_,
_solistimum_, from _solum_, according to the ancient writers), and
was held a favourable sign.--4. _Ex quadrupedibus._ Auguries could
also be taken from four-footed animals; but these formed no part of
the original science of the augurs, and were never employed by them
in taking auspices on behalf of the state, or in the exercise of
their art properly so called. They must be looked upon simply as a
mode of private divination. When a fox, a wolf, a horse, a dog, or
any other kind of quadruped ran across a person’s path or appeared in
an unusual place, it formed an augury.--5. _Ex diris_, sc. _signis_.
Under this head was included every kind of augury which does not fall
under any of the four classes mentioned above, such as sneezing,
stumbling, and other accidental things. There was an important
augury of this kind connected with the army, which was called _ex
acuminibus_, that is, the flames appearing at the points of spears or
other weapons. The ordinary manner of taking the auspices, properly
so called (i.e. _ex caelo_ and _ex avibus_), was as follows: The
person who was to take them first marked out with a wand (_lituus_)
a division in the heavens called _templum_ or _tescum_, within which
he intended to make his observations. The station where he was to
take the auspices was also separated by a solemn formula from the
rest of the land, and was likewise called _templum_ or _tescum_.
He then proceeded to pitch a tent in it (_tabernaculum capere_),
and this tent again was also called _templum_, or, more accurately,
_templum minus_. [TEMPLUM.] Within the walls of Rome, or, more
properly speaking, within the pomoerium, there was no occasion to
select a spot and pitch a tent on it, as there was a place on the
Arx on the summit of the Capitoline hill, called _Auguraculum_,
which had been consecrated once for all for this purpose. In like
manner there was in every Roman camp a place called _augurale_, which
answered the same purpose; but on all other occasions a place had to
be consecrated, and a tent to be pitched, as, for instance, in the
Campus Martius, when the comitia centuriata were to be held. The
person who was then taking the auspices waited for the favourable
signs to appear; but it was necessary during this time that there
should be no interruption of any kind whatsoever (_silentium_), and
hence the word _silentium_ was used in a more extended sense to
signify the absence of every thing that was faulty. Every thing, on
the contrary, that rendered the auspices invalid was called _vitium_;
and hence we constantly read in Livy and other writers of _vitio
magistratus creati_, _vitio lex lata_, &c. The watching for the
auspices was called _spectio_ or _servare de coelo_, the declaration
of what was observed _nuntiatio_, or, if they were unfavourable,
_obnuntiatio_. In the latter case, the person who took the auspices
seems usually to have said _alio die_, by which the business in hand,
whether the holding of the _comitia_ or any thing else, was entirely
stopped.--In ancient times no one but a patrician could take the
auspices. Hence the possession of the auspices (_habere auspicia_)
is one of the most distinguished prerogatives of the patricians;
they are said to be _penes patrum_, and are called _auspicia
patrum_. It would further appear that every patrician might take
the auspices; but here a distinction is to be observed between the
_auspicia privata_ and _auspicia publica_. One of the most frequent
occasions on which the _auspicia privata_ were taken, was in case of
a marriage: and this was one great argument used by the patricians
against _connubium_ between themselves and the plebeians, as it
would occasion, they urged, _perturbationem auspiciorum publicorum
privatorumque_. In taking these private auspices, it would appear
that any patrician was employed who knew how to form _templa_ and
was acquainted with the art of augury. The case, however, was very
different with respect to the _auspicia publica_, generally called
_auspicia_ simply, or those which concerned the state. The latter
could only be taken by the persons who represented the state, and who
acted as mediators between the gods and the state; for though all the
patricians were eligible for taking the auspices, yet it was only the
magistrates who were in actual possession of them. In case, however,
there was no patrician magistrate, the auspices became vested in the
whole body of the patricians (_auspicia ad patres redeunt_), who had
recourse to an _interregnum_ for the renewal of them, and for handing
them over in a perfect state to the new magistrates: hence we find
the expressions _repetere de integro auspicia_, and _renovare per
interregnum auspicia_.--The distinction between the duties of the
magistrates and the augurs in taking the auspices is one of the
most difficult points connected with this subject, but perhaps a
satisfactory solution of these difficulties may be found by taking
an historical view of the question. We are told not only that the
kings were in possession of the auspices, but that they themselves
were acquainted with the art and practised it. Romulus is stated to
have appointed three augurs, but only as his assistants in taking
the auspices, a fact which it is important to bear in mind. Their
dignity gradually increased in consequence of their being employed
at the inauguration of the kings, and also in consequence of their
becoming the preservers and depositaries of the science of augury.
Formed into a collegium, they handed down to their successors the
various rules of the science, while the kings, and subsequently the
magistrates of the republic, were liable to change. Their duties thus
became two-fold, to assist the magistrates in taking up auspices,
and to preserve a scientific knowledge of the art. As the augurs
were therefore merely the assistants of the magistrates, they could
not take the auspices without the latter, though the magistrates on
the contrary could dispense with their assistance. At the same time
it must be borne in mind, that as the augurs were the interpreters
of the science, they possessed the right of declaring whether the
auspices were valid or invalid. They thus possessed in reality a
veto upon every important public transaction; and they frequently
exercised this power as a political engine to vitiate the election
of such parties as were unfavourable to the enclusive privileges of
the patricians. But although the augurs could declare that there was
some fault in the auspices, yet, on the other hand, they could not,
by virtue of their office, declare that any unfavourable sign had
appeared to them, since it was not to them that the auspices were
sent. Thus we are told that the augurs did not possess the _spectio_.
This _spectio_ was of two kinds, one more extensive and the other
more limited. In the one case the person who exercised it could put a
stop to the proceedings of any other magistrate by his obnuntiatio:
this was called _spectio et nuntiatio_ (perhaps also _spectio cum
nuntiatione_), and belonged only to the highest magistrates, the
consuls, dictators, interreges, and, with some modifications, to
the praetors. In the other case, the person who took the auspices
only exercised the _spectio_ in reference to the duties of his own
office, and could not interfere with any other magistrate: this
was called _spectio sine nuntiatione_, and belonged to the other
magistrates, the censors, aediles, and quaestors. Now as the augurs
did not possess the auspices, they consequently could not possess
the spectio (_habere spectionem_); but as the augurs were constantly
employed by the magistrates to take the auspices, they _exercised_
the spectio, though they did not _possess_ it in virtue of their
office. When they were employed by the magistrates in taking the
auspices, they possessed the right of the _nuntiatio_, and thus had
the power, by the declaration of unfavourable signs (_obnuntiatio_),
to put a stop to all important public transactions.--The auspices
were not conferred upon the magistrates in any special manner. It
was the act of their election which made them the recipients of the
auspices, since the comitia, in which they were appointed to their
office, were held _auspicato_, and consequently their appointment
was regarded as ratified by the gods. The auspices, therefore,
passed immediately into their hands upon the abdication of their
predecessors in office.--The auspices belonging to the different
magistrates were divided into two classes, called _auspicia maxima_
or _majora_ and _minora_. The former, which belonged originally to
the kings, passed over to the consuls, censors, and praetors, and
likewise to the extraordinary magistrates, the dictators, interreges,
and consular tribunes. The quaestors and the curule aediles, on the
contrary, had only the _auspicia minora_.--It was a common opinion in
antiquity that a college of three augurs was appointed by Romulus,
answering to the number of the early tribes, the Ramnes, Tities,
and Lucerenses, but the accounts vary respecting their origin and
number. At the passing of the Ogulnian law (B.C. 300) the augurs were
four in number. This law increased the number of pontiffs to eight,
by the addition of four plebeians, and that of the augurs to nine
by the addition of five plebeians. The number of nine augurs lasted
down to the dictatorship of Sulla, who increased them to fifteen,
a multiple of the original three, probably with a reference to the
early tribes. A sixteenth was added by Julius Caesar after his
return from Egypt. The members of the college of augurs possessed
the right of self-election (_cooptatio_) until B.C. 103, the year
of the Domitian law. By this law it was enacted that vacancies in
the priestly colleges should be filled up by the votes of a minority
of the tribes, _i.e._ seventeen out of thirty-five chosen by lot.
The Domitian law was repealed by Sulla B.C. 81, but again restored
B.C. 63, during the consulship of Cicero, by the tribune T. Annius
Labienus, with the support of Caesar. It was a second time abrogated
by Antony B.C. 44; whether again restored by Hirtius and Pansa in
their general annulment of the acts of Antony, seems uncertain.
The emperors possessed the right of electing augurs at pleasure.
The augurs were elected for life, and even if capitally convicted,
never lost their sacred character. When a vacancy occurred, the
candidate was nominated by two of the elder members of the college,
the electors were sworn, and the new member was then solemnly
inaugurated. On such occasion there was always a splendid banquet
given, at which all the augurs were expected to be present. The only
distinction in the college was one of age; an elder augur always
voted before a younger, even if the latter filled one of the higher
offices in the state. The head of the college was called _magister
collegii_. As insignia of their office the augurs wore the _trabea_,
or public dress, and carried in their hand the _lituus_ or curved
wand. [LITUUS.] On the coins of the Romans, who filled the office
of augur, we constantly find the _lituus_, and along with it, not
unfrequently, the _capis_, an earthen vessel which was used by them
in sacrifices. The science of the augurs was called _jus augurum_
and _jus augurium_, and was preserved in books (_libri augurales_),
which are frequently mentioned in the ancient writers. The expression
for consulting the augurs was _referre ad augures_, and their
answers were called _decreta_ or _responsa augurum_. The science of
augury had greatly declined in the time of Cicero; and although he
frequently deplores its neglect in his _De Divinatione_, yet neither
he nor any of the educated classes appears to have had any faith in

[Illustration: Coin representing the lituus and capis on the reverse.]


AUGŬRĀLE. [AUGUR, p. 50, b.]


AUGUSTĀLES--(1) (sc. _ludi_, also called _Augustalia_, sc.
_certamina_, _ludicra_), games celebrated in honour of Augustus, at
Rome and in other parts of the Roman empire. After the battle of
Actium, a quinquennial festival was instituted; and the birthday
of Augustus, as well as that on which the victory was announced at
Rome, were regarded as festival days. It was not, however, till
B.C. 11 that the festival on the birthday of Augustus was formally
established by a decree of the senate, and it is this festival which
is usually meant when the Augustales or Augustalia are mentioned.
It was celebrated iv. Id. Octobr. At the death of Augustus, this
festival assumed a more solemn character, was added to the Fasti,
and celebrated to his honour as a god. It was henceforth exhibited
annually in the circus, at first by the tribunes of the plebs, at the
commencement of the reign of Tiberius, but afterwards by the praetor
peregrinus.--(2) The name of two classes of priests, one at Rome and
the other in the municipia. The _Augustales_ at Rome, properly called
_sodales Augustales_, were an order of priests instituted by Tiberius
to attend to the worship of Augustus and the Julia gens. They were
chosen by lot from among the principal persons of Rome, and were
twenty-one in number, to which were added Tiberius, Drusus, Claudius,
and Germanicus, as members of the imperial family. They were also
called _sacerdotes Augustales_, and sometimes simply _Augustales_.
The _Augustales_ in the municipia are supposed by most modern writers
to have been a class of priests selected by Augustus from the
libertini to attend to the religions rites connected with the worship
of the Lares, which that emperor was said to have put up in places
where two or more ways met; but there are good reasons for thinking
that they were instituted in imitation of the Augustales at Rome, and
for the same object, namely, to attend to the worship of Augustus.
They formed a collegium and were appointed by the _decuriones_, or
senate of the municipia. The six principal members of the college
were called _Seviri_, a title which seems to have been imitated from
the _Seviri_ in the equestrian order at Rome.

AUGUSTUS, a name bestowed upon Octavianus in B.C. 27, by the senate
and the Roman people. It was a word used in connection with religion,
and designated a person as sacred and worthy of worship; hence
the Greek writers translate it by Σεβαστός. It was adopted by all
succeeding emperors, as if descended, either by birth or adoption,
from the first emperor of the Roman world. The name of _Augusta_
was frequently bestowed upon females of the imperial family; but
_Augustus_ belonged exclusively to the reigning emperor till towards
the end of the second century of the Christian aera, when M. Aurelius
and L. Verus both received this surname. From this time we frequently
find two or even a greater number of _Augusti_. From the time of
Probus the title became _perpetuus Augustus_, and from Philippus or
Claudius Gothicus _semper Augustus_, the latter of which titles was
borne by the so-called Roman emperors in Germany. [CAESAR.]




[Illustration: Aureus Nummus. (British Museum.)]

AURUM (χρυσός), gold. Gold was scarce in Greece. The chief places
from which the Greeks procured their gold were India, Arabia,
Armenia, Colchis, and Troas. It was found mixed with the sands of the
Pactolus and other rivers. Almost the only method of purifying gold,
known to the ancients, seems to have been that of grinding and then
roasting it, and by this process they succeeded in getting it very
pure. This is what we are to understand by the phrase χρυσίον ἄπεφθον
in Thucydides, and by the word _obrussa_ in Pliny. The art of gilding
was known to the Greeks from the earliest times of which we have any
information. The time when gold was first coined at Athens is very
uncertain, but on the whole it appears most probable that gold money
was not coined there, or in Greece Proper generally, till the time of
Alexander the Great, if we except a solitary issue of debased gold at
Athens in B.C. 407. But from a very early period the Asiatic nations,
and the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands, as well
as Sicily and Cyrene, possessed a gold coinage, which was more or
less current in Greece. Herodotus says that the Lydians were the
first who coined gold, and the stater of Croesus appears to have been
the earliest gold coin known to the Greeks. The Daric was a Persian
coin. Staters of Cyzicus and Phocaea had a considerable currency in
Greece. There was a gold coinage in Samos as early as the time of
Polycrates. The islands of Siphnos and Thasos, which possessed gold
mines, appear to have had a gold coinage at an early period. The
Macedonian gold coinage came into circulation in Greece in the time
of Philip, and continued in use till the subjection of Greece to the
Romans. [DARICUS; STATER.] The standard gold coin of Rome was the
_aureus nummus_, or _denarius aureus_, which, according to Pliny,
was first coined 62 years after the first silver coinage [ARGENTUM],
that is, in the year 207 B.C. The lowest denomination was the
_scrupulum_, which was made equal to 20 sestertii. The weight of the
scrupulum was 18·06 grains. The annexed cut represents a gold coin
of 60 sestertii. Pliny adds that afterwards aurei were coined of 40
to the pound, which weight was diminished, till under Nero they were
45 to the pound. The average weight of the aurei of Augustus, in the
British Museum, is 121·26 grains: and as the weight was afterwards
diminished, we may take the average at 120 grains. The value of the
aureus in terms of the sovereign = 1_l._ 1_s._ 1_d._ and a little
more than a halfpenny. This is its value according to the present
worth of gold; but its current value in Rome was different from
this, on account of the difference in the worth of the metal. The
aureus passed for 25 denarii; therefore, the denarius being 8½_d._,
it was worth 17_s._ 8½_d._ The ratio of the value of gold to that of
silver is given in the article ARGENTUM. Alexander Severus coined
pieces of one-half and one-third of the aureus, called _Semissis_
and _tremissis_, after which time the aureus was called _solidus_.
Constantine the Great coined aurei of 72 to the pound; at which
standard the coin remained to the end of the empire.

[Illustration: Aureus of Augustus. (British Museum.)]

AURUM CŎRŌNĀRĬUM. When a general in a Roman province had obtained a
victory, it was the custom for the cities in his own provinces, and
for those from the neighbouring states, to send golden crowns to him,
which were carried before him in his triumph at Rome. In the time of
Cicero it appears to have been usual for the cities of the provinces,
instead of sending crowns on occasion of a victory, to pay money,
which was called _aurum coronarium_. This offering, which was at
first voluntary, came to be regarded as a regular tribute, and was
sometimes exacted by the governors of the provinces, even when no
victory had been gained.




AUTHEPSA (αὐθέψης), which literally means “self-boiling,” or
“self-cooking,” was the name of a vessel which is supposed to have
been used for heating water, or for keeping it hot.

AUTŎNŎMI (αὐτονόμοι), the name given by the Greeks to those states
which were governed by their own laws, and were not subject to any
foreign power. This name was also given to those cities subject to
the Romans, which were permitted to enjoy their own laws and elect
their own magistrates.





AXŎNES (ἄξονες), also called _kurbeis_ (κύρβεις), wooden tablets of
a square or pyramidal form, made to turn on an axis, on which were
written the laws of Solon. According to some writers the _Axones_
contained the civil, and the _Kurbeis_ the religious laws; according
to others the _Kurbeis_ had four sides and the _Axones_ three. But at
Athens, at all events, they seem to have been identical. They were at
first preserved in the Acropolis, but were afterwards placed in the
agora, in order that all persons might be able to read them.


BALNĔUM or BĂLĬNĔUM (λοετρόν or λουτρόν, βαλανεῖον, also _balneae_
or _balineae_), a bath. _Balneum_ or _balineum_ signifies, in
its primary sense, a bath or bathing vessel, such as most Romans
possessed in their own houses; and from that it came to mean
the chamber which contained the bath. When the baths of private
individuals became more sumptuous, and comprised many rooms, the
plural _balnea_ or _balinea_ was adopted, which still, in correct
language, had reference only to the baths of private persons.
_Balneae_ and _balineae_, which have no singular number, were the
public baths. But this accuracy of diction is neglected by many of
the later writers. _Thermae_ (from θέρμη, warmth) means properly
warm springs, or baths of warm water, but was afterwards applied to
the structures in which the baths were placed, and which were both
hot and cold. There was, however, a material distinction between the
_balneae_ and _thermae_, inasmuch as the former was the term used
under the republic, and referred to the public establishments of
that age, which contained no appliances for luxury beyond the mere
convenience of hot and cold baths, whereas the latter name was given
to those magnificent edifices which grew up under the empire, and
which comprised within their range of buildings all the appurtenances
belonging to the Greek gymnasia, as well as a regular establishment
appropriated for bathing.--Bathing was a practice familiar to the
Greeks of both sexes from the earliest times. The artificial warm
bath was taken in a vessel called _asaminthus_ (ἀσάμινθος) by Homer,
and _puelus_ (πύελος) by the later Greeks. It did not contain water
itself, but was only used for the bather to sit in, while the
warm water was poured over him. On Greek vases, however, we never
find anything corresponding to a modern bath in which persons can
stand or sit; but there is always a round or oval basin (λουτήρ or
λουτήριον), resting on a stand, by the side of which those who are
bathing are standing undressed and washing themselves. In the Homeric
times it was customary to take first a cold and afterwards a warm
bath; but in later times it was the usual practice of the Greeks to
take first a warm or vapour, and afterwards a cold bath. At Athens
the frequent use of the public baths, most of which were warm baths
(βαλανεῖα, called by Homer θερμὰ λοετρά), was regarded in the time
of Socrates and Demosthenes as a mark of luxury and effeminacy.
Accordingly, Phocion was said to have never bathed in a public bath,
and Socrates to have used it very seldom. After bathing both sexes
anointed themselves, in order that the skin might not be left harsh
and rough, especially after warm water. Oil (ἔλαιον) is the only
ointment mentioned by Homer, but in later times precious unguents
(μῦρα) were used for this purpose. The bath was usually taken before
the principal meal of the day (δεῖπνον). The Lacedaemonians, who
considered warm water as enervating, used two kinds of baths; namely,
the cold daily bath in the Eurotas, and a dry sudorific bath in a
chamber heated with warm air by means of a stove, and from them
the chamber used by the Romans for a similar purpose was termed
_Laconicum_. A sudorific or vapour bath (πυρία or πυριατήριον) is
mentioned as early as the time of Herodotus. At what period the use
of the warm bath was introduced among the Romans is not recorded; but
we know that Scipio had a warm bath in his villa at Liternum, and
the practice of heating an apartment with warm air by flues placed
immediately under it, so as to produce a vapour bath, is stated to
have been invented by Sergius Orata, who lived in the age of Crassus,
before the Marsic war. By the time of Cicero the use of baths of
warm water and hot air had become common, and in his time there were
baths at Rome which were open to the public upon payment of a small
fee. In the public baths at Rome the men and women used originally to
bathe in separate sets of chambers; but under the empire it became
the common custom for both sexes to bathe indiscriminately in the
same bath. This practice was forbidden by Hadrian and M. Aurelius;
and Alexander Severus prohibited any baths, common to both sexes,
from being opened in Rome. The price of a bath was a quadrant, the
smallest piece of coined money, from the age of Cicero downwards,
which was paid to the keeper of the bath (_balneator_). Children
below a certain age were admitted free. It was usual with the Romans
to take the bath after exercise, and before the principal meal
(_coena_) of the day; but the debauchees of the empire bathed also
after eating as well as before, in order to promote digestion, and to
acquire a new appetite for fresh delicacies.

[Illustration: Roman Bath. (Fresco from the Thermae of Titus.)]

Upon quitting the bath the Romans as well as the Greeks were
anointed with oil. The Romans did not content themselves with a
single bath of hot or cold water; but they went through a course of
baths in succession, in which the agency of air as well as water was
applied. It is difficult to ascertain the precise order in which
the course was usually taken; but it appears to have been a general
practice to close the pores, and brace the body after the excessive
perspiration of the vapour bath, either by pouring cold water over
the head, or by plunging at once into the _piscina_. To render the
subjoined remarks more easily intelligible, the preceding woodcut is
inserted, which is taken from a fresco painting upon the walls of
the thermae of Titus at Rome. The chief parts of a Roman bath were
as follow:--1. _Apodyterium._ Here the bathers were expected to take
off their garments, which were then delivered to a class of slaves,
called _capsarii_, whose duty it was to take charge of them. These
men were notorious for dishonesty, and were leagued with all the
thieves of the city, so that they connived at the robberies which
they were placed to prevent. There was probably an _Elaeothesium_
or _Unctorium_, as appears from the preceding cut, in connection
with the apodyterium, where the bathers might be anointed with
oil.--2. _Frigidarium_ or _Cella Frigidaria_, where the cold bath
was taken. The cold bath itself was called _Natatio_, _Natatorium_,
_Piscina_, _Baptisterium_, or _Puteus_.--3. _Tepidarium_ would seem
from the preceding cut to have been a bathing room, for a person
is there apparently represented pouring water over a bather. But
there is good reason for thinking that this was not the case. In
most cases the tepidarium contained no water at all, but was a
room merely heated with warm air of an agreeable temperature, in
order to prepare the body for the great heat of the vapour and warm
baths, and upon returning from the latter, to obviate the danger
of a too sudden transition to the open air.--4. The _Caldarium_ or
_Concamerata Sudatio_ contained at one extremity the vapour bath
(_Laconicum_), and at the other the warm bath (_balneum_ or _calda
lavatio_), while the centre space between the two ends was termed
_sudatio_ or _sudatorium_. In larger establishments the vapour bath
and warm bath were in two separate cells, as we see in the preceding
cut: in such cases the former part _alone_ was called _concamerata
sudatio_. The whole rested on a suspended pavement (_suspensura_),
under which was a fire (_hypocaustum_), so that the flames might heat
the whole apartment. (See cut.) The warm water bath (_balneum_ or
_calda lavatio_), which is also called _piscina_ or _calida piscina_,
_labrum_ and _solium_, appears to have been a capacious marble vase,
sometimes standing upon the floor, like that in the preceding cut,
and sometimes either partly elevated above the floor, as it was at
Pompeii, or entirely sunk into it. After having gone, through the
regular course of perspiration, the Romans made use of instruments
called _strigiles_ or _strigles_, to scrape off the perspiration.

[Illustration: Strigil. (From a Relief at Athens.)]

The strigil was also used by the Greeks, who called it _stlengis_
(στλεγγίς) or _xystra_ (ξύστρα). The figure in the cut on p. 24 is
represented with a strigil in his hand. As the strigil was not a
blunt instrument, its edge was softened by the application of oil,
which was dropped upon it from a small vessel called _guttus_ or
_ampulla_, which had a narrow neck, so as to discharge its contents
drop by drop, from whence the name is taken.

[Illustration: Strigil and Guttus. (From a Statue in the Vatican.)]

In the _Thermae_, spoken of above, the baths were of secondary
importance. They were a Roman adaptation of the Greek gymnasium,
contained exedrae for the philosophers and rhetoricians to lecture
in, porticoes for the idle, and libraries for the learned, and were
adorned with marbles, fountains, and shaded walks and plantations.
M. Agrippa, in the reign of Augustus, was the first who afforded
these luxuries to his countrymen, by bequeathing to them the thermae
and gardens which he had erected in the Campus Martius. The example
set by Agrippa was followed by Nero, and afterwards by Titus, the
ruins of whose thermae are still visible, covering a vast extent,
partly under ground and partly above the Esquiline hill. Thermae were
also erected by Trajan, Caracalla, and Diocletian, of the two last
of which ample remains still exist. Previously to the erection of
these establishments for the use of the population, it was customary
for those who sought the favour of the people to give them a day’s
bathing free of expense. From thence it is fair to infer that the
quadrant paid for admission into the _balneae_ was not exacted at the
_thermae_, which, as being the works of the emperors, would naturally
be opened with imperial generosity to all, and without any charge.

BALTĔUS (τελαμών), a belt, a shoulder belt, was used to suspend the
sword. See the figs. on p. 41. In the Homeric times the Greeks used
a belt to support the shield. The balteus was likewise employed
to suspend the quiver, and sometimes together with it the bow.
More commonly the belt, whether employed to support the sword, the
shield, or the quiver, was made of leather, and was frequently
ornamented with gold, silver, and precious stones. In a general
sense _balteus_ was applied not only to the belt which passed over
the shoulder, but also to the girdle (_cingulum_), which encompassed
the waist. In architecture, Vitruvius applies the term _Baltei_ to
the bands surrounding the volute on each side of an Ionic capital.
Other writers apply it to the _praecinctiones_ of an amphitheatre.

BĂRATHRON (βάραθρον), also called ORUGMA (ὄρυγμα), a deep cavern or
chasm, like the Ceadas at Sparta, behind the Acropolis at Athens,
into which criminals were thrown. [CEADAS.]

BARBA (πώγων, γένειον, ὑπήνη), the beard. The Greeks seem generally
to have worn the beard till the time of Alexander the Great; and
a thick beard was considered as a mark of manliness. The Greek
philosophers in particular were distinguished by their long beards
as a sort of badge. The Romans in early times wore the beard uncut,
and the Roman beards are said not to have been shaved till B.C. 300,
when P. Ticinius Maena brought over a barber from Sicily; and Pliny
adds, that the first Roman who is said to have been shaved every day
was Scipio Africanus. His custom, however, was soon followed, and
shaving became a regular thing. In the later times of the republic
there were many who shaved the beard only partially, and trimmed it,
so as to give it an ornamental form; to them the terms _bene barbati_
and _barbatuli_ are applied. In the general way at Rome, a long
beard (_barba promissa_) was considered a mark of slovenliness and
_squalor_. The first time of shaving was regarded as the beginning
of manhood, and the day on which this took place was celebrated as
a festival. There was no particular time fixed for this to be done.
Usually, however, it was done when the young Roman assumed the toga
virilis. The hair cut off on such occasions was consecrated to
some god. Thus Nero put his up in a gold box, set with pearls, and
dedicated it to Jupiter Capitolinus. Under the emperor Hadrian the
beard began to revive. Plutarch says that the emperor wore it to hide
some scars on his face. The practice afterwards became common, and
till the time of Constantine the Great, the emperors appear in busts
and coins with beards. The Romans let their beards grow in time of
mourning; the Greeks, on the other hand, on such occasions shaved the
beard close.

BARBĬTUS (βάρβιτος), or BARBĬTON (βάρβιτον), a stringed instrument,
the original form of which is uncertain. Later writers use it as
synonymous with the lyra. [LYRA.]

BASCAUDA, a British basket. This term, which remains with very little
variation in the Welsh “basgawd” and the English “basket,” was
conveyed to Rome together with the articles denoted by it.

BĂSĬLĬCA (sc. _aedes_, _aula_, _porticus_--βασιλική, also _regia_),
a building which served as a court of law and an exchange, or place
of meeting for merchants and men of business. The word was adopted
from the Athenians, whose second archon was styled _archon basileus_
(ἄρχων βασιλεύς), and the tribunal where he adjudicated _stoa
basileius_ (ἡ βασίλειος στοά), the substantive _aula_ or _porticus_
in Latin being omitted for convenience, and the distinctive epithet
converted into a substantive. The first edifice of this description
at Rome was not erected until B.C. 182. It was situated in the
forum adjoining the curia, and was denominated Basilica Porcia, in
commemoration of its founder, M. Porcius Cato. Besides this there
were twenty others erected at different periods, within the city
of Rome. The forum, or, where there was more than one, the one
which was in the most frequented and central part of the city, was
always selected for the site of a basilica; and hence it is that the
classic writers not unfrequently use the terms _forum_ and _basilica_
synonymously. The ground plan of all these buildings is rectangular,
and their width not more than half, nor less than one-third of the
length. This area was divided into three naves, consisting of a
centre (_media porticus_), and two side aisles, separated from the
centre one, each by a single row of columns. At one end of the centre
aisle was the tribunal of the judge, in form either rectangular or
circular, as is seen in the annexed plan of the basilica at Pompeii.
In the centre of the tribunal was placed the curule chair of the
praetor, and seats for the judices and the advocates. The two side
aisles, as has been said, were separated from the centre one by a
row of columns, behind each of which was placed a square pier or
pilaster (_parastata_), which supported the flooring of an upper
portico, similar to the gallery of a modern church. The upper gallery
was in like manner decorated with columns, of lower dimensions than
those below; and these served to support the roof, and were connected
with one another by a parapet-wall or balustrade (_pluteus_), which
served as a defence against the danger of falling over, and screened
the crowd of loiterers above (_sub-basilicani_) from the people of
business in the area below. Many of these edifices were afterwards
used as Christian churches, and many churches were built after the
model above described. Such churches were called _basilicae_, which
name they retain to the present day, being still called at Rome

[Illustration: Ground Plan of a Basilica.]

BASTERNA, a kind of litter (_lectica_) in which women were carried
in the time of the Roman emperors. It appears to have resembled the
Lectica [LECTICA] very closely; and the only difference apparently
was, that the lectica was carried by slaves, and the basterna by two

BAXA, or BAXĔA, a sandal made of vegetable leaves, twigs, or fibres,
worn on the stage by comic actors.

BĒMA (βῆμα). [ECCLESIA.]

BENDĬDEIA (βενδίδεια), a Thracian festival in honour of the goddess
Bendis, who is said to be identical with the Grecian Artemis and with
the Roman Diana. The festival was of a bacchanalian character. From
Thrace it was brought to Athens, where it was celebrated in the
Peiraeeus, on the 19th or 20th of the month Thargelion, before the
Panathenaea Minora. The temple of Bendis was called Bendideion.

BĔNĔFĬCĬUM, BĔNĔFĬCĬĀRĬUS. The term _beneficium_ is of frequent
occurrence in the Roman law, in the sense of some special privilege
or favour granted to a person in respect of age, sex, or condition.
But the word was also used in other senses. In the time of Cicero
it was usual for a general, or a governor of a province, to report
to the treasury the names of those under his command who had done
good service to the state: those who were included in such report
were said _in beneficiis ad aerarium deferri_. _In beneficiis_ in
these passages may mean that the persons so reported were considered
as persons who had deserved well of the state; and so the word
_beneficium_ may have reference to the services of the individuals;
but as the object for which their services were reported was the
benefit of the individuals, it seems that the term had reference also
to the reward, immediate or remote, obtained for their services. The
honours and offices of the Roman state, in the republican period,
were called the _beneficia_ of the Populus Romanus. Beneficium also
signified any promotion conferred on or grant made to soldiers, who
were thence called _beneficiarii_.

BESTIĀRĬI (θηριομάχοι), persons who fought with wild beasts in the
games of the circus. They were either persons who fought for the sake
of pay (_auctoramentum_), and who were allowed arms, or they were
criminals, who were usually permitted to have no means of defence
against the wild beasts.

BIBLĬŎPŌLA (βιβλιοπώλης), also called _librarius_, a bookseller.
The shop was called _apotheca_ or _taberna libraria_, or merely
_libraria_. The Romans had their Paternoster-row; for the bibliopolae
or librarii lived mostly in one street, called Argiletum. Another
favourite quarter of the booksellers was the Vicus Sandalarius.
There seems also to have been a sort of bookstalls by the temples of
Vertumnus and Janus.

BIBLĬŎTHĒCA (βιβλιοθήκη, or ἀποθήκη βιβλίων), primarily, the place
where a collection of books was kept; secondarily, the collection
itself. Public collections of books appear to have been very ancient.
That of Peisistratus (B.C. 550) was intended for public use; it
was subsequently removed to Persia by Xerxes. About the same time
Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, is said to have founded a library. In
the best days of Athens, even private persons had large collections
of books; but the most important and splendid public library of
antiquity was that founded by the Ptolemies at Alexandria, begun
under Ptolemy Soter, but increased and re-arranged in an orderly
and systematic manner by Ptolemy Philadelphus, who also appointed a
fixed librarian, and otherwise provided for the usefulness of the
institution. A great part of this splendid library was consumed
by fire in the siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar; but it was
soon restored, and continued in a flourishing condition till it
was destroyed by the Arabs, A.D. 640. The Ptolemies were not long
without a rival in zeal. Eumenes, king of Pergamus, became a patron
of literature and the sciences, and established a library, which,
in spite of the prohibition against exporting papyrus issued by
Ptolemy, who was jealous of his success, became very extensive, and
perhaps next in importance to the library of Alexandria. The first
public library in Rome was that founded by Asinius Pollio, and was
in the atrium Libertatis on Mount Aventine. The library of Pollio
was followed by that of Augustus in the temple of Apollo on Mount
Palatine and by another, bibliothecae Octavianae, in the theatre of
Marcellus. There were also libraries on the Capitol, in the temple of
Peace, in the palace of Tiberius, besides the Ulpian library, which
was the most famous, founded by Trajan. Libraries were also usually
attached to the Thermae. [BALNEUM.] Private collections of books were
made at Rome soon after the second Punic war. The zeal of Cicero,
Atticus, and others, in increasing their libraries is well known. It
became, in fact, the fashion to have a room elegantly furnished as a
library, and reserved for that purpose. The charge of the libraries
in Rome was given to persons called _librarii_.

BĪCOS (βῖκος), the name of an earthen vessel in common use among the
Greeks, for holding wine, and salted meat and fish.

BĬDENTAL, the name given to a place where any one had been struck
by lightning, or where any one had been killed by lightning and
buried. Such a place was considered sacred. Priests, who were
called _bidentales_, collected the earth which had been torn up by
lightning, and every thing that had been scorched, and burnt it in
the ground with a sorrowful murmur. The officiating priest was said
_condere fulgur_; he further consecrated the spot by sacrificing a
two-year-old sheep (_bidens_), whence the name of the place and of
the priest, and he also erected an altar, and surrounded it with a
wall or fence. To move the bounds of a bidental, or in any way to
violate its sacred precincts, was considered as sacrilege.

BIDIAEI (βιδιαῖοι), magistrates in Sparta, whose business was to
inspect the gymnastic exercises. They were either five or six in




BĬRĒMIS. (1.) A ship with two banks of oars. [NAVIS.] Such ships
were called _dicrota_ by the Greeks, which term is also used by
Cicero.--(2.) A boat rowed by two oars.


BŎĒDRŎMĬA (βοηδρόμια), a festival celebrated at Athens on the seventh
day of the month Boëdromion, in honour of Apollo Boëdromius. The name
Boëdromius, by which Apollo was called in Boeotia and many other
parts of Greece, seems to indicate that by this festival he was
honoured as a martial god, who, either by his actual presence or by
his oracles, afforded assistance in the dangers of war.

BOEŌTARCHĒS (βοιωτάρχης, or βοιωτάρχος), the name of the chief
magistrates of the Boeotian confederacy, chosen by the different
states. Their duties were chiefly of a military character. Each
state of the confederacy elected one boeotarch, the Thebans two.
The total number from the whole confederacy varied with the number
of the independent states, but at the time of the Peloponnesian war
they appear to have been ten or twelve. The boeotarchs, when engaged
in military service, formed a council of war, the decisions of which
were determined by a majority of votes, the president being one of
the two Theban boeotarchs, who commanded alternately. Their period of
service was a year, beginning about the winter solstice; and whoever
continued in office longer than his time was punishable with death,
both at Thebes and in other cities.

BŎNA, property. The phrase _in bonis_ is frequently used as opposed
to _dominium_ or _Quiritarian ownership_ (_ex jure Quiritium_). The
ownership of certain kinds of things among the Romans could only be
transferred from one person to another with certain formalities, or
acquired by usucapion (that is, the uninterrupted possession of a
thing for a certain time). But if it was clearly the intention of
the owner to transfer the ownership, and the necessary forms only
were wanting, the purchaser had the thing _in bonis_, and he had
the enjoyment of it, though the original owner was still _legally_
the owner, and was said to have the thing _ex jure Quiritium_,
notwithstanding he had parted with the thing. The person who
possessed a thing _in bonis_ was protected in the enjoyment of it
by the praetor, and consequently after a time would obtain the
Quiritarian ownership of it by usucapion. [USUCAPIO.]

BŎNA CĂDŪCA. _Caducum_ literally signifies that which falls: thus
_glans caduca_ is the mast which falls from a tree. The strict legal
sense of _caducum_ and _bona caduca_ is as follows:--If a thing is
left by testament to a person, so that he can take it by the jus
civile, but from some cause has not taken it, that thing is called
_caducum_, as if it had _fallen_ from him. Or if a _heres ex parte_,
or a legatee, died before the opening of the will, the thing was
_caducum_. That which was caducum came, in the first place, to
those among the heredes who had children; and if the heredes had
no children, it came among those of the legatees who had children.
In case there was no prior claimant the caducum belonged to the
aerarium; and subsequently to the fiscus. [AERARIUM.]

BŎNA FĬDES implies, generally speaking, the absence of all fraud and
unfair dealing or acting. In various actions arising out of mutual
dealings, such as buying and selling, lending and hiring, partnership
and others, bona fides is equivalent to aequum and justum; and such
actions were sometimes called bonae fidei actiones. The formula of
the praetor, which was the authority of the judex, empowered him
in such cases to inquire and determine _ex bona fide_, that is,
according to the real merits of the case: sometimes aequius melius
was used instead of ex bona fide.

BŎNŌRUM CESSĬO. There were two kinds of bonorum cessio, _in jure_
and _extra jus_. The _in jure cessio_ was a mode of transferring
ownership by means of a fictitious suit. The _bonorum cessio extra
jus_ was introduced by a Julian law, passed either in the time of
Julius Caesar or Augustus, which allowed an insolvent debtor to give
up his property to his creditors. The debtor thus avoided the infamia
consequent on the bonorum emtio, which was involuntary, and he was
free from all personal execution. He was also allowed to retain a
small portion of his property for his support. The property thus
given up was sold, and the proceeds distributed among the creditors.

BŎNŌRUM COLLĀTĬO. By the strict rules of the civil law an emancipated
son had no right to the inheritance of his father, whether he died
testate or intestate. But, in course of time, the praetor granted to
emancipated children the privilege of equal succession with those who
remained in the power of the father at the time of his death; but
only on condition that they should bring into one common stock with
their father’s property, and for the purpose of an equal division
among all the father’s children, whatever property they had at the
time of the father’s death, and which would have been acquired for
the father in case they had still remained in his power. This was
called bonorum collatio.

BŎNŌRUM EMTĬO ET EMTOR. The expression bonorum emtio applies to a
sale of the property either of a living or of a dead person. It
was in effect, as to a living debtor, an execution. In the case of
a dead person, his property was sold when it was ascertained that
there was neither heres nor bonorum possessor, nor any other person
entitled to succeed to it. In the case of the property of a living
person being sold, the praetor, on the application of the creditors,
ordered it to be possessed (_possideri_) by the creditors for thirty
successive days, and notice to be given of the sale. This explains
the expression in Livy (ii. 24): “ne quis militis, donec in castris
esset, bona _possideret_ aut venderet.”

BŎNŌRUM POSSESSĬO was the right of suing for or retaining a patrimony
or thing which belonged to another at the time of his death. The
bonorum possessio was given by the edict both _contra tabulas_,
_secundum tabulas_, and _intestati_. 1. An emancipated son had
no legal claim on the inheritance of his father; but if he was
omitted in his father’s will, or not expressly exheredated, the
praetor’s edict gave him the bonorum possessio contra tabulas, on
condition that he would bring into hotchpot (_bonorum collatio_)
with his brethren who continued in the parent’s power, whatever
property he had at the time of the parent’s death. 2. The _bonorum
possessio secundum tabulas_ was that possession which the praetor
gave, conformably to the words of the will, to those named in it as
heredes, when there was no person intitled to make a claim against
the will, or none who chose to make such a claim. 3. In the case of
intestacy (_intestati_) there were seven degrees of persons who might
claim the bonorum possessio, each in his order, upon there being
no claim of a prior degree. The first three degrees were children,
_legitimi heredes_, and _proximi cognati_. Emancipated children could
claim as well as those who were not emancipated, and adoptive as well
as children of the blood; but not children who had been adopted into
another family. If a freedman died intestate, leaving only a wife
(in manu) or an adoptive son, the patron was entitled to the bonorum
possessio of one half of his property.

BŎŌNAE (βοῶναι), persons in Athens who purchased oxen for the
public sacrifices and feasts. They are spoken of by Demosthenes
in conjunction with the ἱεροποιοί and those who presided over the

BORĔASMUS (βορεασμός or βορεασμοί), a festival celebrated by the
Athenians in honour of Boreas, which, as Herodotus seems to think,
was instituted during the Persian war, when the Athenians, being
commanded by an oracle to invoke their γαμβρὸς ἐπίκουρος, prayed to
Boreas. But considering that Boreas was intimately connected with
the early history of Attica, we have reason to suppose that even
previous to the Persian wars certain honours were paid to him, which
were perhaps only revived and increased after the event recorded by
Herodotus. The festival, however, does not seem ever to have had any
great celebrity.

BOULĒ (βουλή--ἡ τῶν πεντακοσίων). In the heroic ages, represented to
us by Homer, the _boulé_ is simply an aristocratical council of the
elders amongst the nobles, sitting under their king as president,
which decided on public business and judicial matters, frequently in
connection with, but apparently not subject to an _agora_, or meeting
of the freemen of the state. [AGORA.] This form of government, though
it existed for some time in the Ionian, Aeolian, and Achaean states,
was at last wholly abolished in these states. Among the Dorians,
however, especially among the Spartans, this was not the case, for
they retained the kingly power of the Heracleidae, in conjunction
with the _Gerousia_ or assembly of elders, of which the kings were
members. [GEROUSIA.] At Athens on the contrary, the _boulé_ was a
representative, and in most respects a popular body (δημοτικόν). The
first institution of the Athenian _boulé_ is generally attributed to
Solon; but there are strong reasons for supposing that, as in the
case of the _Areiopagus_, he merely modified the constitution of a
body which he found already existing. But be this as it may, it is
admitted that Solon made the number of his _boulé_ 400, 100 from
each of the four tribes. When the number of the tribes was raised
to ten by Cleisthenes (B.C. 510), the council also was increased to
500, fifty being taken from each of the ten tribes. The _bouleutae_
(βουλευταί) or councillors were appointed by lot, and hence they are
called councillors made by the bean (οἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κυάμου βουλευταί),
from the use of beans in drawing lots. They were required to submit
to a scrutiny or _docimasia_, in which they gave evidence of being
genuine citizens, of never having lost their civic rights by
_atimia_, and also of being above 30 years of age. They remained
in office for a year, receiving a drachma (μισθὸς βουλευτικός) for
each day on which they sat: and independent of the general account
(εὐθύναι), which the whole body had to give at the end of the year,
any single member was liable to expulsion for misconduct by his
colleagues. The senate of 500 was divided into ten sections of fifty
each, the members of which were called _prytanes_ (πρυτάνεις), and
were all of the same tribe; they acted as presidents both of the
council and the assemblies during thirty-five or thirty-six days,
as the case might be, so as to complete the lunar year of 354 days
(12×29½). Each tribe exercised these functions in turn; the period
of office was called a _prytany_ (πρυτανεία), and the tribe that
presided the _presiding tribe_; the order in which the tribes
presided was determined by lot, and the four supernumerary days were
given to the tribes which came last in order. Moreover, to obviate
the difficulty of having too many in office at once, every fifty
was subdivided into five bodies of ten each; its prytany also being
portioned out into five periods of seven days each; so that only ten
senators presided for a week over the rest, and were thence called
_proedri_ (πρόεδροι). Again, out of these proedri an _epistates_
(ἐπιστάτης) was chosen for one day to preside as a chairman in the
senate, and the assembly of the people; during his day of office
he kept the public records and seal. The prytanes had the right of
convening the council and the assembly (ἐκκλησία). The duty of the
proedri and their president was to propose subjects for discussion,
and to take the votes both of the councillors and the people;
for neglect of their duty they were liable to a fine. Moreover,
whenever a meeting, either of the council or of the assembly, was
convened, the chairman of the proedri selected by lot nine others,
one from each of the non-presiding tribes; these also were called
proedri, and possessed a chairman of their own, likewise appointed
by lot from among themselves. But the proedri who proposed the
subject for discussion to the assembly belonged to the presiding
tribe. It is observed, under AREIOPAGUS, that the chief object of
Solon, in forming the senate and the areiopagus, was to control the
democratical powers of the state: for this purpose he ordained that
the senate should discuss and vote upon all matters before they were
submitted to the assembly, so that nothing could be laid before the
people on which the senate had not come to a previous decision.
This decision, or bill, was called _probouleuma_ (προβούλευμα); but
then not only might this _probouleuma_ be rejected or modified by
the assembly, but the latter also possessed and exercised the power
of coming to a decision completely different from the will of the
senate. In addition to the bills which it was the duty of the senate
to propose of their own accord, there were others of a different
character, viz. such as any private individual might wish to have
submitted to the people. To accomplish this, it was first necessary
for the party to obtain, by petition, the privilege of access to
the senate, and leave to propose his motion; and if the measure met
with their approbation, he could then submit it to the assembly. A
proposal of this kind, which had the sanction of the senate, was
also called _probouleuma_, and frequently related to the conferring
of some particular honour or privilege upon an individual. Thus the
proposal of Ctesiphon for crowning Demosthenes is so styled. In the
assembly the bill of the senate was first read, perhaps by the crier,
after the introductory ceremonies were over; and then the proedri put
the question to the people, whether they approved of it. The people
declared their will by a show of hands (προχειροτονία). If it was
confirmed it became a _psephisma_ (ψήφισμα), or decree of the people,
binding upon all classes. The form for drawing up such decrees varied
in different ages. In the time of Demosthenes the decrees commence
with the name of the archon; then come the day of the month, the
tribe in office, and, lastly, the name of the proposer. The motive
for passing the decree is next stated; and then follows the decree
itself, prefaced with the formula δεδόχθαι τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ.
The senate-house was called _Bouleuterion_ (βουλευτηριον). The
prytanes also had a building to hold their meetings in, where they
were entertained at the public expense during their prytany. This
was called the _Prytaneion_, and was used for a variety of purposes.

BRĀCAE, or BRACCAE (ἀναξυρίδες), trowsers, pantaloons, were common
to all the nations which encircled the Greek and Roman population,
extending from the Indian to the Atlantic ocean, but were not worn
by the Greeks and Romans themselves. Accordingly the monuments
containing representations of people different from the Greeks and
Romans exhibit them in trowsers, thus distinguishing them from the
latter people.

BRAURŌNĬA (βραυρώνια), a festival celebrated in honour of Artemis
Brauronia, in the Attic town of Brauron, where Orestes and
Iphigeneia, on their return from Tauris, were supposed by the
Athenians to have landed, and left the statue of the Taurian goddess.
It was held every fifth year, and the chief solemnity consisted in
the Attic girls between the ages of five and ten years going in
solemn procession to the sanctuary, where they were consecrated to
the goddess. During this act the priests sacrificed a goat, and the
girls performed a propitiatory rite, in which they imitated bears.
This rite may have simply risen from the circumstance that the bear
was sacred to Artemis, especially in Arcadia. There was also a
quinquennial festival called Brauronia, which was celebrated by men
and dissolute women, at Brauron, in honour of Dionysus.

BRUTTĬĀNI, slaves whose duty it was to wait upon the Roman
magistrates. They are said to have been originally taken from among
the Bruttians.

BUCCĬNA (βυκάνη), a kind of horn trumpet, anciently made out of a
shell (_buccinum_), the form of which is exhibited in the specimen
annexed. The _buccina_ was distinct from the _cornu_; but it is
often confounded with it. The buccina seems to have been chiefly
distinguished by the twisted form of the shell, from which it was
originally made. In later times it was carved from horn, and perhaps
from wood or metal, so as to imitate the shell. The _buccina_ was
chiefly used to proclaim the watches of the day and of the night,
hence called _buccina prima_, _secunda_, &c. It was also blown at
funerals, and at festive entertainments both before sitting down to
table and after.

[Illustration: Buccina, Trumpet. (Blanchini, De Mus. Instrum. Vet.)]

BULLA, a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its
resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water. Bright studs
of this description were used to adorn the sword belt; but we most
frequently read of _bullae_ as ornaments worn by children, suspended
from the neck, and especially by the sons of the noble and wealthy.
Such an one is called _heres bullatus_ by Juvenal. The bulla was
usually made of thin plates of gold. The use of the bulla, like that
of the praetexta, was derived from the Etruscans. It was originally
worn only by the children of the patricians, but subsequently by all
of free birth.

[Illustration: Bulla. (From the Collection of Mr. Rogers; the gold
chord added from a specimen in the Brit. Mus.)]


BUSTUM. It was customary among the Romans to burn the bodies of the
dead before burying them. When the spot appointed for that purpose
adjoined the place of sepulture, it was termed _bustum_; when it
was separate from it, it was called _ustrina_. From this word the
gladiators, who were hired to fight round the burning pyre of the
deceased, were called _bustuarii_.

BUXUM or BUXUS, probably means the wood of the box-tree, but was
given as a name to many things made of this wood. The tablets used
for writing on, and covered with wax (_tabulae ceratae_), were
usually made of box. In the same way the Greek πυξίον, formed from
πύξος, “box-wood,” came to be applied to any tablets, whether they
were made of this wood or any other substance. Tops and combs were
made of box-wood, and also all wind instruments, especially the flute.

BYSSUS (βύσσος), linen, and not cotton. The word byssus appears to
come from the Hebrew _butz_, and the Greeks probably got it through
the Phoenicians.

CĂBEIRĬA (καβείρια), mysteries, festivals, and orgies, solemnised
in all places in which the Pelasgian Cabeiri were worshipped, but
especially in Samothrace, Imbros, Lemnos, Thebes, Anthedon, Pergamus,
and Berytos. Little is known respecting the rites observed in these
mysteries, as no one was allowed to divulge them. The most celebrated
were those of the island of Samothrace, which, if we may judge from
those of Lemnos, were solemnised every year, and lasted for nine
days. Persons on their admission seem to have undergone a sort of
examination respecting the life they had led hitherto, and were then
purified of all their crimes, even if they had committed murder.

CĀDŪCĔUS (κηρύκειον, κηρύκιον), the staff or mace carried by heralds
and ambassadors in time of war. This name is also given to the staff
with which Hermes or Mercury is usually represented, as is shown in
the following figure of that god. From _caduceus_ was formed the
word _caduceator_, which signified a person sent to treat of peace.
The persons of the caduceatores were considered sacred.

[Illustration: Hermes bearing the Caduceus. (Museo Borbonico, vol.
vi. pl. 2.)]


CĂDUS (κάδος, κάδδος), a large vessel usually made of earthenware,
which was used for keeping wine, drawing water, &c. The name of
cadus was sometimes given to the vessel or urn in which the counters
or pebbles of the dicasts were put, when they gave their vote on a
trial, but the diminutive καδίσκος was more commonly used in this

CAELĀTŪRA (τορευτική), a branch of the fine arts, under which all
sorts of ornamental work in metal, except actual statues, appear to
be included. The principal processes, which these words were used
to designate, seem to have been of three kinds: hammering metal
plates into moulds or dies, so as to bring out a raised pattern;
engraving the surface of metals with a sharp tool; and working a
pattern of one metal upon or into the surface of another: in short,
the various processes which we describe by the words _chasing_,
_damascening_, &c. The objects on which the _caelator_ exercised his
art were chiefly weapons and armour--especially shields, chariots,
tripods, and other votive offerings, quoits, candelabra, thrones,
curule chairs, mirrors, goblets, dishes, and all kinds of gold and
silver plate. The ornamental work with which the chaser decorated
such objects consisted either of simple running patterns, chiefly in
imitation of plants and flowers, or of animals, or of mythological
subjects, and, for armour, of battles. The mythological subjects
were reserved for the works of the greatest masters of the art: they
were generally executed in very high relief (_anaglypha_). In the
finest works, the ornamental pattern was frequently distinct from
the vessel, to which it was either fastened permanently, or so that
it could be removed at pleasure, the vessel being of silver, and the
ornaments of gold, _crustae aut emblemata_. The art of ornamental
metal-work was in an advanced stage of progress among the Greeks of
the heroic period, as we see from numerous passages of Homer: but its
origin, in the high artistic sense, is to be ascribed to Phidias,
and its complete development to Polycletus. In the last age of the
Roman Republic, the prevailing wealth and luxury, and the presence of
Greek artists at Rome, combined to bring the art more than ever into
requisition. After this period it suddenly fell into disuse.



CAESAR, a title of the Roman emperors, was originally a family name
of the Julia gens; it was assumed by Octavianus as the adopted son
of the great dictator, C. Julius Caesar, and was by him handed down
to his adopted son Tiberius. It continued to be used by Caligula,
Claudius, and Nero, as members either by adoption or female descent
of Caesar’s family; but although the family became extinct with
Nero, succeeding emperors still retained the name as part of their
titles, and it was the practice to prefix it to their own names, as
for instance, _Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus_. When Hadrian
adopted Aelius Varus, he allowed the latter to take the title of
Caesar; and from this time, though the title of _Augustus_ continued
to be confined to the reigning emperor, that of _Caesar_ was also
granted to the second person in the state and the heir presumptive to
the throne. [AUGUSTUS.]

CĂLĂMISTRUM, an instrument made of iron, and hollow like a reed
(_calamus_), used for curling the hair. For this purpose it was
heated, the person who performed the office of heating it in wood
ashes (_cinis_) being called _ciniflo_, or _cinerarius_.

CĂLĂMUS, a sort of reed which the ancients used as a pen for writing.
The best sorts were got from Aegypt and Cnidus.


CĂLĂTHUS (κάλαθος, also called τάλαρος), usually signified the basket
in which women placed their work, and especially the materials for
spinning. In the following cut a slave, belonging to the class called
_quasillariae_, is presenting her mistress with the calathus.
Baskets of this kind were also used for other purposes, such as for
carrying fruits, flowers, &c. The name of calathi was also given to
cups for holding wine. Calathus was properly a Greek word, though
used by the Latin writers. The Latin word corresponding to it was
_qualus_ or _quasillus_. From _quasillus_ came _quasillaria_, the
name of the slave who spun, and who was considered the meanest of the
female slaves.

[Illustration: Slave presenting a Calathus. (From a Painting on a

CALCĔUS, CALCĔĀMEN, CALCĔĀMENTUM (ὑποδήμα, πέδιλον), a shoe or boot,
anything adapted to cover and preserve the feet in walking. The use
of shoes was by no means universal among the Greeks and Romans. The
Homeric heroes are represented without shoes when armed for battle.
Socrates, Phocion, and Cato, frequently went barefoot. The Roman
slaves had no shoes. The covering of the feet was removed before
reclining at meals. People in grief, as for instance at funerals,
frequently went barefooted. Shoes may be divided into those in which
the mere sole of a shoe was attached to the sole of the foot by
ties or bands, or by a covering for the toes or the instep [SOLEA;
CREPIDA; SOCCUS]; and those which ascended higher and higher,
according as they covered the ankles, the calf, or the whole of the
leg. To calceamenta of the latter kind, _i.e._ to shoes and boots,
as distinguished from sandals and slippers, the term _calceus_ was
applied in its proper and restricted sense. There were also other
varieties of the _calceus_ according to its adaptation to particular
professions or modes of life. Thus the CALIGA was principally worn
by soldiers; the PERO by labourers and rustics; and the COTHURNUS
by tragedians, hunters, and horsemen. The _calcei_ probably did
not much differ from our shoes, and are exemplified in a painting
at Herculaneum, which represents a female wearing bracelets, a
wreath of ivy, and a panther’s skin, while she is in the attitude
of dancing and playing on the cymbals. The form and colour of the
calceus indicated rank and office. Roman senators wore high shoes
like buskins, fastened in front with four black thongs. They were
also sometimes adorned with a small crescent: we do not find on any
ancient statues the crescent, but we may regard the bottom right hand
figure in the annexed cut as representing the shoe of a senator.
Among the calcei worn by senators, those called _mullei_, from their
resemblance to the scales of the red mullet, were particularly
admired; as well as others called _alutae_, because the leather was
softened by the use of alum.

[Illustration: Greek Shoes. (From ancient Vases.)

Roman Shoes. (Museo Borbonico.)]

CALCŬLĀTOR (λογιστής), a keeper of accounts in general, and also a
teacher of arithmetic. In Roman families of importance there was a
_calculator_ or account-keeper, who is, however, more frequently
called by the name of _dispensator_, or procurator: he was a kind of

CALCŬLI, little stones or pebbles, used for various purposes, as,
for instance, among the Athenians for voting. Calculi were used
in playing a sort of draughts. Subsequently, instead of pebbles,
ivory, or silver, or gold, or other men (as we call them) were used;
but they still bore the name of calculi. Calculi were also used
in reckoning; and hence the phrases _calculum ponere_, _calculum



CĂLENDĀRĬUM or KĂLENDĀRĬUM, generally signified an account-book,
in which were entered the names of a person’s debtors, with the
interest which they had to pay, and it was so called because the
interest had to be paid on the calends of each month. The word,
however, was also used in the signification of a modern calendar or
almanac. (1) GREEK CALENDAR. The Greek year was divided into twelve
lunar months, depending on the actual changes of the moon. The first
day of the month (νουμηνία) was not the day of the conjunction, but
the day on the evening of which the new moon appeared; consequently
full moon was the middle of the month. The lunar month consists of
twenty-nine days and about thirteen hours; accordingly some months
were necessarily reckoned at twenty-nine days, and rather more of
them at thirty days. The latter were called _full_ months (πληρεῖς),
the former _hollow_ months (κοῖλοι). As the twelve lunar months
fell short of the solar year, they were obliged every other year
to interpolate an intercalary month (μὴν ἐμβολιμαῖος) of thirty or
twenty-nine days. The ordinary year consisted of 354 days, and the
interpolated year, therefore, of 384 or 383. This interpolated year
(τριέτηρις) was seven days and a half too long, and to correct the
error, the intercalary month was from time to time omitted. The Attic
year began with the summer solstice: the following is the sequence of
the Attic months and the number of days in each:--Hecatombaeon (30),
Metageitnion (29), Boedromion (30), Pyanepsion (29), Maemacterion
(30), Poseideon (29), Gamelion (30), Anthesterion (29), Elaphebolion
(30), Munychion (29), Thargelion (30), Scirophorion (29). The
intercalary month was a second Poseideon inserted in the middle of
the year. Every Athenian month was divided into three decads. The
days of the first decad were designated as ἱσταμένου or ἀρχομένου
μηνος, and were counted on regularly from one to ten; thus, δευτέρα
ἀρχομένου or ἱσταμένου is “the second day of the month.” The days
of the second decad were designated as ἐπὶ δέκα or μεσοῦντος, and
were counted on regularly from the 11th to the 20th day, which was
called εἴκας. There were two ways of counting the days of the last
decad; they were either reckoned onwards from the 20th (thus, πρώτη
ἐπὶ εἰκάδι was the 21st), or backwards from the last day, with
the addition φθίνοντος, παυομένου, λήγοντος, or ἀπίοντος; thus,
the twenty-first day of a hollow month was ἐνάτη φθίνοντος; of a
full month, δεκάτη φθίνοντος. The last day of the month was called
ἕνη καὶ νέα, “the old and new,” because as the lunar month really
consisted of more than twenty-nine and less than thirty days, the
last day might be considered as belonging equally to the old and
new month. Separate years were designated at Athens by the name of
the chief archon, hence called _archon eponymus_ (ἄρχων ἐπώνυμος),
or “the name giving archon;” at Sparta, by the first of the ephors;
at Argos, by the priestess of JUNO, &c.--(2) ROMAN CALENDAR. The
old Roman, frequently called the Romulian year, consisted of only
ten months, which were called Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius,
Quinctilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, December. That
March was the first month in the year is implied in the last six
names. Of these months, four, namely, Martius, Maius, Quinctilis,
and October, consisted of thirty-one days, the other six of thirty.
The four former were distinguished in the latest form of the Roman
calendar by having their nones two days later than any of the other
months. The symmetry of this arrangement will appear by placing the
numbers in succession:--31, 30; 31, 30; 31, 30, 30; 31, 30, 30.
The Romulian year therefore consisted of 304 days, and contained
thirty-eight nundinae or weeks; every eighth day, under the name of
_nonae_, or _nundinae_, being especially devoted to religious and
other public purposes. Hence we find that the number of _dies fasti_
afterwards retained in the Julian calendar tally exactly with these
thirty-eight nundines; besides which, it may be observed that a year
of 304 days bears to a solar year of 365 days nearly the ratio of
five to six, six of the Romulian years containing 1824, five of the
solar years 1825 days; and hence we may explain the origin of the
well-known quinquennial period called the lustrum, which ancient
writers expressly call an _annus magnus_; that is, in the modern
language of chronology, a cycle. It was consequently the period at
which the Romulian and solar years coincided. The next division of
the Roman year was said to have been made by Numa Pompilius, who
instituted a lunar year of 12 months and 355 days. Livy says that
Numa so regulated his lunar year of twelve months by the insertion
of intercalary months, that at the end of every _nineteenth_ year
(_vicesimo anno_) it again coincided with the same point in the
sun’s course from which it started. It is well known that 19 years
constitute a most convenient cycle for the junction of a lunar and
solar year. It seems certain that the Romans continued to use a lunar
year for some time after the establishment of the republic; and it
was probably at the time of the decemviral legislation that the
lunar year was abandoned. By the change which was then made the year
consisted of 12 months, the length of each of which was as follows:--

  Martius,      31 days.
  Aprilis,      29   ”
  Maius,        31   ”
  Junius,       29   ”
  Quinctilis,   31   ”
  Sextilis,     29   ”
  September,    29   ”
  October,      31   ”
  November,     29   ”
  December,     29   ”
  Januarius,    29   ”
  Februarius,   28   ”

The year thus consisted of 355 days, and this was made to correspond
with the solar year by the insertion of an intercalary month
(_mensis intercalaris_ or _intercalarius_), called _Mercedonius_
or _Mercidonius_. This month of 22 or 23 days seems to have been
inserted in alternate years. As the festivals of the Romans were for
the most part dependent upon the calendar, the regulation of the
latter was entrusted to the college of pontifices, who in early times
were chosen exclusively from the body of patricians. It was therefore
in the power of the college to add to their other means of oppressing
the plebeians, by keeping to themselves the knowledge of the days on
which justice could be administered, and assemblies of the people
could be held. In the year 304 B.C., one Cn. Flavius, a secretary
(_scriba_) of Appius Claudius, is said fraudulently to have made the
_Fasti_ public. The other privilege of regulating the year by the
insertion of the intercalary month gave the pontiffs great political
power, which they were not backward to employ. Every thing connected
with the matter of intercalation was left to their unrestrained
pleasure; and the majority of them, on personal grounds, added to or
took from the year by capricious intercalations, so as to lengthen or
shorten the period during which a magistrate remained in office, and
seriously to benefit or injure the farmer of the public revenue. The
calendar was thus involved in complete confusion, and accordingly we
find that in the time of Cicero the year was three months in advance
of the real solar year. At length, in the year B.C. 46, Caesar, now
master of the Roman world, employed his authority, as pontifex
maximus, in the correction of this serious evil. The account of the
way in which he effected this is given by Censorinus:--“The confusion
was at last carried so far that C. Caesar, the pontifex maximus, in
his third consulate, with Lepidus for his colleague, inserted between
November and December two intercalary months of 67 days, the month
of February having already received an intercalation of 23 days, and
thus made the whole year to consist of 445 days. At the same time he
provided against a repetition of similar errors, by casting aside
the intercalary month, and adapting the year to the sun’s course.
Accordingly, to the 355 days of the previously existing year he added
ten days, which he so distributed between the seven months having
29 days that January, Sextilis, and December received two each, the
others but one; and these additional days he placed at the end of
the several months, no doubt with the wish not to remove the various
festivals from those positions in the several months which they had
so long occupied. Hence in the present calendar, although there are
seven months of 31 days, yet the four months, which from the first
possessed that number, are still distinguishable by having their
nones on the seventh, the rest having them on the fifth of the month.
Lastly, in consideration of the quarter of a day, which he regarded
as completing the true year, he established the rule that, at the
end of every four years, a single day should be intercalated, where
the month had been hitherto inserted, that is, immediately after the
terminalia; which day is now called the _bissextum_.” The mode of
denoting the days of the month will cause no difficulty, if it be
recollected that the kalends always denote the first of the month;
that the nones occur on the seventh of the four months of March,
May, Quinctilis or July, and October, and on the fifth of the other
months; that the ides always fall eight days later than the nones;
and lastly, that the intermediate days are in all cases reckoned
backwards upon the Roman principle of counting both extremes. For the
month of January the notation will be as follows:--

  1. Kal. Jan.
  2. a. d. IV. Non. Jan.
  3. a. d. III. Non. Jan.
  4. Prid. Non. Jan.
  5. Non. Jan.
  6. a. d. VIII. Id. Jan.
  7. a. d. VII. Id. Jan.
  8. a. d. VI. Id. Jan.
  9. a. d. V. Id. Jan.
  10. a. d. IV. Id. Jan.
  11. a. d. III. Id. Jan.
  12. Prid. Id. Jan.
  13. Id. Jan.
  14. a. d. XIX. Kal. Feb.
  15. a. d. XVIII. Kal. Feb.
  16. a. d. XVII. Kal. Feb.
  17. a. d. XVI. Kal. Feb.
  18. a. d. XV. Kal. Feb.
  19. a. d. XIV. Kal. Feb.
  20. a. d. XIII. Kal. Feb.
  21. a. d. XII. Kal. Feb.
  22. a. d. XI. Kal. Feb.
  23. a. d. X. Kal. Feb.
  24. a. d. IX. Kal. Feb.
  25. a. d. VIII. Kal. Feb.
  26. a. d. VII. Kal. Feb.
  27. a. d. VI. Kal. Feb.
  28. a. d. V. Kal. Feb.
  29. a. d. IV. Kal. Feb.
  30. a. d. III. Kal. Feb.
  31. Prid. Kal. Feb.

The letters _a d_ are often, through error, written together, and so
confounded with the preposition _ad_ which would have a different
meaning, for _ad kalendas_ would signify _by_, i.e. _on or before
the kalends_. The letters are in fact an abridgment of _ante diem_,
and the full phrase for “on the second of January,” would be _ante
diem quartum nonas Januarias_. The word _ante_ in this expression
seems really to belong in sense to _nonas_, and to be the cause why
_nonas_ is an accusative. Whether the phrase _kalendae Januarii_ was
ever used by the best writers is doubtful. The words are commonly
abbreviated; and those passages where Aprilis, Decembris, &c. occur
are of no avail, as they are probably accusatives. The _ante_ may be
omitted, in which case the phrase will be _die quarto nonarum_. In
the leap year (to use a modern phrase), the last days of February
were called,--

  Feb. 23. a. d. VII. Kal. Mart.
  Feb. 24. a. d. VI. Kal. Mart. posteriorem.
  Feb. 25. a. d. VI. Kal. Mart. priorem.
  Feb. 26. a. d. V. Kal. Mart.
  Feb. 27. a. d. IV. Kal. Mart.
  Feb. 28. a. d. III. Kal. Mart.
  Feb. 29. Prid. Kal. Mart.

In which the words _prior_ and _posterior_ are used in reference to
the retrograde direction of the reckoning. From the fact that the
intercalated year has two days called _ante diem sextum_, the name
bissextile has been applied to it. The term _annus bissextilis_,
however, does not occur in any classical writer, but in place of
it the phrase _annus bissextus_.--The names of two of the months
were changed in honour of Julius Caesar and Augustus. Julius was
substituted for Quinctilis, the month in which Caesar was born, in
the second Julian year, that is, the year of the dictator’s death,
for the first Julian year was the first year of the _corrected_
Julian calendar, that is, B.C. 45. The name Augustus in place of
Sextilis was introduced by the emperor himself in B.C. 27. The month
of September in like manner received the name of Germanicus from
the general so called, and the appellation appears to have existed
even in the time of Macrobius. Domitian, too, conferred his name
upon October; but the old word was restored upon the death of the
tyrant.--The Julian calendar supposes the mean tropical year to
be 365 d. 6 h.; but this exceeds the real amount by 11′ 12″, the
accumulation of which, year after year, caused at last considerable
inconvenience. Accordingly, in the year 1582, Pope Gregory XIII.
again reformed the calendar. The ten days by which the year had been
unduly retarded were struck out by a regulation that the day after
the fourth of October in that year should be called the fifteenth;
and it was ordered that whereas hitherto an intercalary day had been
inserted every four years, for the future three such intercalations
in the course of four hundred years should be omitted, viz., in
those years which are divisible without remainder by 100, but not by
400. Thus, according to the Julian calendar, the years 1600, 1700,
1800, 1900, 2000, were to be bissextile as before. The bull which
effected this change was issued Feb. 24th, 1582. The Protestant parts
of Europe resisted what they called a papistical invention for more
than a century. In England the Gregorian calendar was first adopted
in 1752. In Russia, and those countries which belonged to the Greek
church, the Julian year, or _old style_, as it is called, still
prevails. In the ancient calendars the letters A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, were used for the purpose of fixing the nundines in the week
of eight days; precisely in the same way in which the first seven
letters are still employed in ecclesiastical calendars, to mark the
days of the Christian week.

CĂLĬGA, a strong and heavy sandal worn by the Roman soldiers, but
not by the superior officers. Hence the common soldiers, including
centurions, were distinguished by the name of _caligati_. The emperor
Caligula received that cognomen when a boy, in consequence of wearing
the caliga, and being inured to the life of a common soldier. The
cuts on pp. 1, 41, show the difference between the caliga of the
common soldier and the calceus worn by men of higher rank.

CĂLIX (κύλιξ). (1) a drinking-cup used at symposia and on similar
occasions.--(2) A vessel used in cooking.--(3) A tube in the
aquaeducts attached to the extremity of each pipe, where it entered
the castellum.

[Illustration: Calices, Drinking-cups. (Museo Borbonico, vol. v. pl.

CALLIS, a beaten path or track made by the feet of cattle. The
sheep-walks in the mountainous parts of Campania and Apulia were
the property of the Roman state; and as they were of considerable
value, one of the quaestors usually had these _calles_ assigned to
him as his province, whence we read of the _Callium provincia_. His
principal duties were to receive the _scriptura_, or tax paid for
the pasturage of the cattle, and to protect life and property in
these wild and mountainous districts. When the senate wished to put
a slight upon the consuls on one occasion they endeavoured to assign
to them as their provinces, the care of the woods (_silvae_) and
sheep-walks (_calles_).

CALLISTEIA (καλλιστεῖα), a festival, or perhaps merely a part of one,
held by the women of Lesbos; at which they assembled in the sanctuary
of Hera, and the fairest received the prize of beauty. Similar
contests of beauty are said to have been held in other places.

CĀLŌNES, the slaves or servants of the Roman soldiers, so called
from carrying wood (κᾶλα) for their use. The word _calo_, however,
was also applied to farm-servants. The _calones_ and _lixae_ are
frequently spoken of together, but they were not the same: the latter
were freemen, who merely followed the camp for the purposes of gain
and merchandise, and were so far from being indispensable to an army,
that they were sometimes forbidden to attend it.

CĂLUMNĬA. When an accuser failed in his proof, and the accused
party was acquitted, there might be an inquiry into the conduct and
motives of the accuser. If the person who made this judicial inquiry
found that the accuser had merely acted from error of judgment, he
acquitted him in the form _non probasti_; if he convicted him of evil
intention, he declared his sentence in the words _calumniatus es_,
which sentence was followed by the legal punishment. The punishment
for _calumnia_ was fixed by the lex Remmia, or as it is sometimes,
perhaps incorrectly, named, the lex Memmia. But it is not known when
this lex was passed, nor what were its penalties. It appears from
Cicero, that the false accuser might be branded on the forehead with
the letter K, the initial of Kalumnia. The punishment for calumnia
was also _exsilium, relegatio in insulam_, or loss of rank (_ordinis
amissio_); but probably only in criminal cases, or in matters
relating to status.

CĂMĂRA (καμάρα), or CĂMĔRA. (1) A particular kind of arched
ceiling, formed by semicircular bands or beams of wood, arranged at
small lateral distances, over which a coating of lath and plaster
was spread, and the whole covered in by a roof, resembling in
construction the hooped awnings in use amongst us.--(2) A small boat
used in early times by the people who inhabited the shores of the
Palus Maeotis, capable of containing from twenty-five to thirty men.
These boats were made to work fore and aft, like the fast-sailing
proas of the Indian seas, and continued in use until the age of

CĂMILLI, CĂMILLAE, boys and girls employed in the religious rites and
ceremonies of the Romans. They were required to be perfect in form,
and sound in health, free born, and with both their parents alive;
or, in other words, according to the expression of the Romans, _pueri
seu puellae ingenui, felicissimi, patrimi matrimique_.


CAMPESTRE (sc. _subligar_), a kind of girdle or apron, which the
Roman youths wore around their loins, when they exercised naked in
the Campus Martius. The campestre was sometimes worn in warm weather,
in place of the tunic under the toga.


CĂNĂBUS (κάναβος), a figure of wood in the form of a skeleton, round
which the clay or plaster was laid in forming models. Figures of a
similar kind, formed to display the muscles and veins, were studied
by painters in order to acquire some knowledge of anatomy.

CĀNATHRON (κάναθρον), a carriage, the upper part of which was made of
basket-work, or more properly the basket itself, which was fixed in
the carriage.


CANCELLI, lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the
tribunal of a judge, or any other place. Hence was derived the
word _Cancellarius_, which originally signified a porter, who
stood at the latticed or grated door of the emperor’s palace. The
cancellarius also signified a legal scribe or secretary, who sat
within the cancelli or lattice-work. The chief scribe or secretary
was called Cancellarius κατ’ ἐξοχήν, and was eventually invested with
judicial power at Constantinople. From this word has come the modern

CANDĒLA, a candle, made either of wax (_cerea_), or tallow
(_sebacea_), was used universally by the Romans before the invention
of oil lamps (_lucernae_). In later times candelae were only used
by the poorer classes; the houses of the more wealthy were always
lighted by lucernae.

CANDĒLABRUM, originally a candlestick, but afterwards the name of a
stand for supporting lamps (λυχνοῦχοι), in which signification it
most commonly occurs. The candelabra of this kind were usually made
to stand upon the ground, and were of a considerable height. The
most common kind were made of wood; but those which have been found
in Herculaneum and Pompeii are mostly of bronze. Sometimes they were
made of the more precious metals, and even of jewels. The candelabra
did not always stand upon the ground, but were also placed upon
the table. Such candelabra usually consisted of pillars, from the
capitals of which several lamps hung down, or of trees, from whose
branches lamps also were suspended.

[Illustration: Candelabrum in the Vatican. (Visconti, vol. IV. tav.


CANDYS (κάνδυς), a robe worn by the Medes and Persians over their
trowsers and other garments. It had wide sleeves, and was made of
woollen cloth, which was either purple or of some other splendid
colour. In the Persepolitan sculptures, from which the annexed
figures are taken, nearly all the principal personages wear it.

[Illustration: Candys, Persian Cloak. (From Bas-relief at

CĂNĒPHŎROS (κανηφόρος), a virgin who carried a flat circular basket
(κάνεον, _canistrum_) at sacrifices, in which the chaplet of flowers,
the knife to slay the victim, and sometimes the frankincense
were deposited. The name, however, was more particularly applied
to two virgins of the first Athenian families who were appointed
to officiate as canephori at the Panathaenaea. The preceding cut
represents the two canephori approaching a candelabrum. Each of them
elevates one arm to support the basket while she slightly raises her
tunic with the other.

[Illustration: Canephori. (British Museum.)]

CANTHĂRUS (κάνθαρος), a kind of drinking cup, furnished with handles.
It was the cup sacred to Bacchus, who is frequently represented on
ancient vases holding it in his hand.

[Illustration: Cantharus. (From an ancient Vase.)]

CANTĬCUM, an interlude between the acts of a Roman comedy, and
sometimes, perhaps, of a tragedy. It consisted of flute music,
accompanied by a kind of recitative performed by a single actor,
or if there were two, the second was not allowed to speak with the
first. In the canticum, as violent gesticulation was required, it
appears to have been the custom, from the time of Livius Andronicus,
for the actor to confine himself to the gesticulation, while another
person sang the recitative.


CĂPISTRUM (φορβειά), a halter, or tie for horses, asses, or other
animals, placed round the head or neck, and made of osiers or other
fibrous materials. The Greek word φορβειά was also applied to a
contrivance used by pipers and trumpeters to compress their mouths
and cheeks, and thus to aid them in blowing. It is often seen in
works of ancient art, and was said to be the invention of Marsyas.






CAPSA, or SCRĪNĬUM, a box for holding books among the Romans. These
boxes were of a cylindrical form. There does not appear to have
been any difference between the _capsa_ and _scrinium_, except that
the latter word was usually applied to those boxes which held a
considerable number of rolls. The slaves who had the charge of these
book-chests were called _capsarii_, and also _custodes scriniorum_;
and the slaves who carried in a capsa behind their young masters
the books, &c. of the sons of respectable Romans, when they went to
school, were called by the same name.

[Illustration: The Muse Clio with a Capsa. (Pitture d’Ercolano, vol.
ii. pl. 2.)]

CAPSĀRĬI, the name of three different classes of slaves. [BALNEUM;

CĂPUT, the head. The term “head” is often used by the Roman writers
as equivalent to “person,” or “human being.” By an easy transition
it was used to signify “life:” thus, _capite damnari_, _plecti_,
&c., are equivalent to capital punishment. _Caput_ is also used
to express a man’s _status_, or civil condition; and the persons
who were registered in the tables of the censor are spoken of as
_capita_, sometimes with the addition of the word _civium_, and
sometimes not. Thus to be registered in the census was the same
thing as _caput habere_: and a slave and a filius familias, in this
sense of the word, were said to have no _caput_. The sixth class of
Servius Tullius comprised the _proletarii_ and the _capite censi_,
of whom the latter, having little or no property, were barely rated
as so many _head_ of citizens.--He who lost or changed his status
was said to be _capite minutus_, _deminutus_, or _capitis minor_.
_Capitis minutio_ or _deminutio_ was a change of a person’s status
or civil condition, and consisted of three kinds.--A Roman citizen
possessed freedom (_libertas_), citizenship (_civitas_), and family
(_familias_): the loss of all three constituted the _maxima capitis
deminutio_. This capitis deminutio was sustained by those who refused
to be registered at the census, or neglected the registration, and
were thence called _incensi_. The _incensus_ was liable to be sold,
and so to lose his liberty. Those who refused to perform military
service might also be sold.--The loss of citizenship and family only,
as when a man was interdicted from fire and water, was the _media
capitis deminutio_. [EXSILIUM.]--The change of family by adoption,
and by the in manum conventio, was the _minima capitis deminutio_.--A
_judicium capitale_, or _poena capitalis_, was one which affected a
citizen’s caput.


CĂPUT EXTŌRUM. The Roman soothsayers (_haruspices_) pretended to a
knowledge of coming events from the inspection of the entrails of
victims slain for that purpose. The part to which they especially
directed their attention was the liver, the convex upper portion of
which seems to have been called the _caput extorum_. Any disease
or deficiency in this organ was considered an unfavourable omen;
whereas, if healthy and perfect, it was believed to indicate good
fortune. If no caput was found, it was a bad sign (_nihil tristius
accidere potuit_); if well defined or double, it was a lucky omen.

CĂRĂCALLA, an outer garment used in Gaul, and not unlike the Roman
_lacerna_. It was first introduced at Rome by the emperor Aurelius
Antoninus Bassianus, who compelled all the people that came to
court to wear it, whence he obtained the surname of Caracalla. This
garment, as worn in Gaul, does not appear to have reached lower than
the knee, but Caracalla lengthened it so as to reach the ankle.

CARCER (_kerker_, German; γοργύρα, Greek), a prison, is connected
with ἕρκος and εἵργω, the guttural being interchanged with the
aspirate. (1) GREEK. Imprisonment was seldom used amongst the Greeks
as a legal punishment for offences; they preferred banishment to
the expense of keeping prisoners in confinement. The prisons in
different countries were called by different names; thus there
was the _Ceadas_ (Κεάδας), at Sparta; and, among the Ionians, the
_Gorgyra_ (γοργύρα), as at Samos. The prison at Athens was in former
times called _Desmoterion_ (δεσμωτήριον), and afterwards, by a
sort of euphemism, οἴκημα. It was chiefly used as a guard-house or
place of execution, and was under the charge of the public officers
called the Eleven.--(2) ROMAN. A prison was first built at Rome by
Ancus Martius, overhanging the forum. This was enlarged by Servius
Tullius, who added to it a souterrain, or dungeon, called from him
the _Tullianum_. Sallust describes this as being twelve feet under
ground, walled on each side, and arched over with stone work. For
a long time this was the only prison at Rome, being, in fact, the
“Tower,” or state prison of the city, which was sometimes doubly
guarded in times of alarm, and was the chief object of attack in
many conspiracies. There were, however, other prisons besides this,
though, as we might expect, the words of Roman historians generally
refer to this alone. In the _Tullianum_ prisoners were generally
executed, and this part of the prison was also called _robur_.


CARCHĒSĬUM (καρχήσιον). (1) A beaker or drinking-cup, which was used
by the Greeks in very early times. It was slightly contracted in the
middle, and its two handles extended from the top to the bottom. It
was much employed in libations of wine, milk, and honey.--(2) The
upper part of the mast of a ship. [NAVIS.]

CARMENTĀLĬA, a festival celebrated in honour of Carmenta or
Carmentis, who is fabled to have been the mother of Evander, who
came from Pallantium in Arcadia, and settled in Latium: he was said
to have brought with him a knowledge of the arts, and the Latin
alphabetical characters as distinguished from the Etruscan. This
festival was celebrated annually on the 11th of January. A temple
was erected to the same goddess, at the foot of the Capitoline
hill, near the Porta Carmentalis, afterwards called Scelerata. The
name Carmenta is said to have been given to her from her prophetic
character, carmens or carmentis being synonymous with vates. The word
is, of course, connected with _carmen_, as prophecies were generally
delivered in verse.

CARNEIA (καρνεῖα), a great national festival, celebrated by the
Spartans in honour of Apollo Carneios. The festival began on the
seventh day of the month of Carneios = Metageitnion of the Athenians,
and lasted for nine days. It was of a warlike character, similar to
the Attic Boëdromia. During the time of its celebration nine tents
were pitched near the city, in each of which nine men lived in
the manner of a military camp, obeying in everything the commands
of a herald. The priest conducting the sacrifices at the Carneia
was called _Agetes_ (Ἀγητής), whence the festival was sometimes
designated by the name _Agetoria_ or _Agetoreion_ (Ἀγητόρια or
Ἀγητόρειον), and from each of the Spartan tribes five men (Καρνεᾶται)
were chosen as his ministers, whose office lasted four years,
during which period they were not allowed to marry. When we read in
Herodotus and Thucydides that the Spartans during the celebration of
this festival were not allowed to take the field against an enemy, we
must remember that this restriction was not peculiar to the Carneia,
but common to all the great festivals of the Greeks: traces of it are
found even in Homer.

CARNĬFEX, the public executioner at Rome, who executed slaves and
foreigners, but not citizens, who were punished in a manner different
from slaves. It was also his business to administer the torture.
This office was considered so disgraceful, that he was not allowed
to reside within the city, but lived without the Porta Metia or
Esquilina, near the place destined for the punishment of slaves,
called Sestertium under the emperors.

CARPENTUM, a cart; also a two-wheeled carriage, enclosed, and with
an arched or sloping cover overhead. The carpentum was used to
convey the Roman matrons in the public festal processions; and this
was a high distinction, since the use of carriages in the city was
entirely forbidden during the whole of the republican period. Hence
the privilege of riding in a carpentum in the public festivals was
sometimes granted to females of the imperial family. This carriage
contained seats for two, and sometimes for three persons, besides
the coachman. It was commonly drawn by a pair of mules, but more
rarely by oxen or horses, and sometimes by four horses like a
quadriga.--Carpenta, or covered carts, were much used by the Britons,
the Gauls, and other northern nations. These, together with the
carts of the more common form, including baggage-waggons, appear to
have been comprehended under the term _carri_, or _carra_, which is
the Celtic name with a Latin termination. The Gauls took a great
multitude of them on their military expeditions, and when they were
encamped, arranged them in close order, so as to form extensive lines
of circumvallation.

CARRĀGO, a kind of fortification, consisting of a great number of
waggons placed round an army. It was employed by barbarous nations,
as, for instance, the Scythians, Gauls, and Goths. Carrago also
signifies sometimes the baggage of an army.

CARRŪCA, a carriage, the name of which only occurs under the
emperors. It appears to have been a species of rheda [RHEDA], had
four wheels, and was used in travelling. These carriages were
sometimes used in Rome by persons of distinction, like the carpenta;
in which case they appear to have been covered with plates of bronze,
silver, and even gold, which were sometimes ornamented with embossed


CĂRỸA or CĂRỸĀTIS (καρύα, καρυατίς), a festival celebrated at Caryae,
in Laconia, in honour of Artemis Caryatis. It was celebrated every
year by Lacedaemonian maidens with national dances of a very lively

CĂRỸĀTĬDES, female figures used in architecture instead of columns.
Their name is usually derived from Caryae, a city in Arcadia, near
the Laconian border, the women of which are said to have been reduced
to slavery by the Greeks, because Caryae had joined the Persians at
the invasion of Greece. But this tale is probably apocryphal. One of
the porticos of the Erechtheum at Athens is supported by Caryatides.



CASTRA. Roman armies never halted for a single night without forming
a regular entrenchment, termed _castra_, capable of receiving within
its limits the whole body of fighting men, their beasts of burden,
and the baggage. So completely was this recognised as a part of the
ordinary duties of each march, that _pervenire ad locum tertiis ...
quartis ... septuagesimis castris_ are the established phrases for
expressing the number of days occupied in passing from one point to
another. Whenever circumstances rendered it expedient for a force to
occupy the same ground for any length of time, then the encampment
was distinguished as _castra stativa_. In wild and barbarian lands,
where there were no large towns and no tribes on whose faith
reliance could be placed, armies, whether of invasion or occupation,
were forced to remain constantly in camps. They usually, however,
occupied different ground in summer and in winter, whence arose the
distinction between _castra aestiva_ and _castra hiberna_, both alike
being _stativa_. But whether a camp was temporary or permanent,
whether tenanted in summer or in winter, the main features of the
work were always the same for the same epoch. In hiberna, huts of
turf or stone would be substituted for the open tents of the aestiva
(hence _aedificare hiberna_), and in stativa held for long periods
the defences would present a more substantial and finished aspect,
but the general outline and disposition of the parts were invariable.
Polybius has transmitted to us a description of a Roman camp, from
which the annexed plan has been drawn up. It is such as would be
formed at the close of an ordinary day’s march by a regular consular
army consisting of two Roman legions with the full contingent of
Socii. Each legion is calculated at 4200 infantry and 300 cavalry;
the Socii furnished an equal number of infantry, and twice as many
cavalry, so that the whole force would amount to 16,800 foot and
1800 horse. Skill in the selection of a spot for a camp (_capere
locum castris_) was ever considered as a high quality in a general,
and we find it recorded among the praises of the most renowned
commanders that they were wont in person to perform this duty. Under
ordinary circumstances, however, the task was devolved upon one of
the military tribunes, and a certain number of centurions appointed
from time to time for the purpose. These having gone forward in
advance of the army until they reached the place near which it was
intended to halt, and having taken a general survey of the ground,
selected a spot from whence a good view of the whole proposed area
might be obtained. This spot was considerably within the limits of
the contemplated enclosure, and was marked by a small white flag. The
next object was to ascertain in what direction water and fodder might
be most easily and securely provided. These two preliminary points
being decided, the business of measuring out the ground (_metari
castra_) commenced, and was executed, as we learn from various
sources, with graduated rods (_decempedae_) by persons denominated
_metatores_. In practice the most important points were marked by
white poles, some of which bore flags of various colours, so that the
different battalions on reaching the ground could at once discover
the place assigned to them.

[Illustration: A, praetorium.--B, tents of the tribunes.--C, tents
of the praefecti sociorum.--D, street 100 feet wide.--E, F, G, and
H, streets 50 feet wide.--L, select foot and volunteers.--K, select
horse and volunteers.--M, extraordinary horse of the allies.--N,
extraordinary foot of the allies.--O, reserved for occasional
auxiliaries.--Q, the street called Quintana, 50 feet wide.--V P, via
principalis, 100 feet wide.]

The white flag A, which served as the starting point of the
whole construction, marked the position of the consul’s tent, or
_praetorium_, so called because _praetor_ was the ancient term for
any one invested with supreme command. A square area was left open,
extending a hundred feet each way from the praetorium. The camp was
divided into two parts, the upper and the lower. The upper part
formed about a third of the whole. In it was the _praetorium_ (A) or
general’s tent. A part of the praetorium was called the _Augurale_,
as the auguries were there taken by the general. On the right and
left of the praetorium were the _forum_ and _quaestorium_; the former
a sort of market-place, the latter appropriated to the quaestor and
the camp stores under his superintendence. On the sides of and facing
the forum and quaestorium, were stationed select bodies of horse
(K) taken from the extraordinaries, with mounted volunteers, who
served out of respect to the consul, and were stationed near him. And
parallel to these were posted similar bodies of foot-soldiers (L).
Before the quaestorium and the forum were the tents of the twelve
tribunes of the two legions (B), and before the select bodies of
horse and infantry the tents of the praefecti sociorum were probably
placed (C). Again, behind the praetorium, the quaestorium, and the
forum, ran a street or _via_ (D), 100 feet broad, from one side of
the camp to the other. Along the upper side of this street was ranged
the main body of the “extraordinary” horse (M): they were separated
into two equal parts by a street fifty feet broad (E). At the back
of this body of cavalry was posted a similar body of infantry (N),
selected from the allies, and facing the opposite way, _i.e._ towards
the ramparts of the camp. The vacant spaces (O) on each side of these
troops were reserved for foreigners and occasional auxiliaries.
The lower part of the camp was divided from the upper by a street,
called the _Via Principalis_ (V P), or _Principia_, a hundred feet
broad. Here the tribunal of the general was erected, from which he
harangued the soldiers, and here the tribunes administered justice.
Here also the principal standards, the altars of the gods, and the
images of the emperors were placed. The lower part of the camp was
occupied by the two legions and the troops of the allies according
to the arrangement of the preceding cut. Between the ramparts and
the tents was left a vacant space of 200 feet on every side, which
was useful for many purposes: thus it served for the reception of
any booty that was taken, and facilitated the entrance and exit of
the army. The camp had four gates, one at the top and bottom, and
one at each of the sides; the top or back-gate, which was the side
most away from the enemy, was called the _decumana_. The bottom or
the front gate was the _practoria_, the gates of the sides were the
_porta principalis dextra_, and the _porta principalis sinistra_. The
whole camp was surrounded by a trench (_fossa_), generally nine feet
deep and twelve broad, and a rampart (_vallum_) made of the earth
that was thrown up (_agger_), with stakes (_valli_) fixed at the
top of it. The labour of this work was so divided, that the allies
completed the two sides of the camp alongside of which they were
stationed, and the two Roman legions the rest.--In describing the
Roman camp and its internal arrangements, we have confined ourselves
to the information given by Polybius, which, of course, applies only
to his age, and to armies constituted like those he witnessed. When
the practice of drawing up the army according to cohorts, ascribed
to Marius or Caesar [EXERCITUS], had superseded the ancient division
into maniples, and the distinction of triarii, &c., the internal
arrangements of the camp must have been changed accordingly. In
each legion the tribunes divided themselves into three sections of
two each, and each section in turn undertook for two months the
superintendence of all matters connected with the camp. Out of the
twenty maniples of Principes and Triarii in each legion, two were
appointed to take charge of the broad passage or street called
_Principia_, extending right across the camp in front of the tents
of the tribunes. Of the remaining eighteen maniples of Principes and
Hastati in each legion, three were assigned by lot to each of the six
tribunes, and of these three maniples one in turn rendered each day
certain services to the tribune to whom it was specially attached.
One maniple was selected each day from the whole legionary force,
to keep guard beside the tent of the general. Three sentinels were
usually posted at the tents of the quaestor, and of the legati: and
by night sentinels kept watch at every maniple, being chosen out of
the maniple which they guarded. The Velites mounted guard by day
and by night along the whole extent of the vallum: to them also in
bodies of ten was committed the charge of the gates, while strong
bodies of infantry and cavalry were thrown forward in advance of
each gate, to resist any sudden onset, and give timely notice of the
approach of the enemy.--_Excubiae_; _excubias agere_; _excubare_;
are the general terms used with reference to mounting guard whether
by night or by day. _Vigiliae_; _vigilias agere_; _vigilare_; are
restricted to night duty: _Excubiae_ and _Vigiliae_ frequently
denote not only the service itself, but also the individuals who
performed it. _Stationes_ is used specially to denote the advanced
posts thrown forward in front of the gates. _Custodes_ or _Custodiae_
the parties who watched the gates themselves, _Praesidia_ the
sentinels on the ramparts, but all these words are employed in many
other significations also. The duty of going the rounds (_Vigilias
circuire s. circumire_) was committed to the Equites, and for this
purpose each legion supplied daily four, picked out from each turma
in rotation by the commander of the troop. The eight persons thus
selected decided by lot in which watch they should make their rounds,
two being assigned to each watch. They then repaired to the tribune,
and each individual received a written order specifying the posts
which he was to visit, every post being visited in each watch by one
or other of the two to whom the watch belonged. Sometimes we find
centurions, tribunes, and even the general in chief represented as
going the rounds, but, under ordinary circumstances, the duty was
performed as we have described. The watchword for the night was not
communicated verbally, but by means of a small rectangular tablet
of wood (πλατεῖον ἐπιγεγραμμένον--_tessera_) upon which it was
written.--_Breaking up a Camp._ On the first signal being given by
the trumpet, the tents were all struck and the baggage packed, the
tents of the general and the tribunes being disposed of before the
others were touched. At the second signal the baggage was placed upon
the beasts of burden; at the third, the whole army began to move.

CĂTĂLŎGUS (κατάλογος), the catalogue of those persons in Athens who
were liable to regular military service. At Athens, those persons
alone who possessed a certain amount of property were allowed to
serve in the regular infantry, whilst the lowest class, the thetes,
had not this privilege. [CENSUS.] Thus the former are called οἱ ἐκ
καταλόγου στρατεύοντες, and the latter οἱ ἔξω τοῦ καταλόγου.


CĂTĂPHRACTI (κατάφρακτοι). (1) Heavy-armed cavalry, the horses
of which were also covered with defensive armour. Among many of
the Eastern nations, who placed their chief dependence upon their
cavalry, we find horses protected in this manner; but among the
Romans we do not read of any troops of this description till the
later times of the empire, when the discipline of the legions was
destroyed, and the chief dependence began to be placed on the
cavalry. This species of troops was common among the Persians from
the earliest times, from whom it was adopted by their Macedonian
conquerors. They were called by the Persians _clibanarii_.--(2)
Decked vessels, in opposition to _Aphracti_.

CĂTĂPĪRĀTĒR (καταπειρατηρία, βολίς), the lead used in sounding (ἐν τῷ
βολίζειν), or fathoming the depth of water in navigation. The mode of
employing this instrument appears to have been precisely the same as
that now in use.


CĂTĂRACTA (καταῤῥάκτης), a portcullis, so called because it fell with
great force and a loud noise. It was an additional defence, suspended
by iron rings and ropes, before the gates of a city, in such a manner
that, when the enemy had come up to the gates, the portcullis might
be let down so as to shut them in, and to enable the besieged to
assail them from above.

CĂTEIA, a missile used in war by the Germans, Gauls, and some of the
Italian nations, supposed to resemble the ACLIS.

CĂTĒNA, dim. CĂTELLA (ἄλυσις, dim. ἀλύσιον, ἀλυσίδιον), a chain.
The chains which were of superior value, either on account of the
material or the workmanship, are commonly called _catellae_ (ἀλύσια),
the diminutive expressing their fineness and delicacy as well as
their minuteness. The specimens of ancient chains which we have in
bronze lamps, in scales, and in ornaments for the person, especially
necklaces, show a great variety of elegant and ingenious patterns.
Besides a plain circle or oval, the separate link is often shaped
like the figure 8, or is a bar with a circle at each end, or assumes
other forms, some of which are here shown. The links are also found
so closely entwined, that the chain resembles platted wire or thread,
like the gold chains now manufactured at Venice. This is represented
in the lowest figure of the woodcut.

[Illustration: Ancient Chains.]


[Illustration: Cathedra. (From a Painting on a Vase.)]

CĂTHEDRA, a seat or chair, was more particularly applied to a soft
seat used by women, whereas _sella_ signified a seat common to both
sexes. The cathedrae were, no doubt, of various forms and sizes; but
they usually appear to have had backs to them. On the cathedra in the
annexed cut is seated a bride, who is being fanned by a female slave
with a fan made of peacock’s feathers. Women were also accustomed to
be carried abroad in these cathedrae instead of in lecticae, which
practice was sometimes adopted by effeminate persons of the other
sex. The word cathedra was also applied to the chair or pulpit from
which lectures were read.

CĂTĪNUS, or CĂTĪNUM, a large dish, on which fish and meat were served
up at table. Hence Horace speaks of an _angustus catinus_ as an
indication of niggardliness on the part of the host.



CAUPŌNA. (1) An inn, where travellers obtained food and lodging; in
which sense it answered to the Greek words πανδοκεῖον, καταγώγιον,
and κατάλυσις. Inns for the accommodation of persons of all classes
existed among the Greeks and Romans, although they were not equal
either in size or convenience to similar places in modern times.
An inn was also called _taberna_ and _taberna diversoria_, or
simply _diversorium_ or _deversorium_.--(2) A shop, where wine
and ready-dressed meat were sold, thus corresponding to the Greek
καπηλεῖον. The person who kept a caupona was called _caupo_. In
Greek κάπηλος signifies in general a retail trader, who sold goods
in small quantities; but the word is more particularly applied to
a person who sold ready-dressed provisions, and especially wine in
small quantities. In these καπηλεῖα only persons of the very lowest
class were accustomed to eat and drink. In Rome itself there were, no
doubt, inns to accommodate strangers; but these were probably only
frequented by the lower classes, since all persons in respectable
society could easily find accommodation in the houses of their
friends. There were, however, in all parts of the city, numerous
houses where wine and ready-dressed provisions were sold. The houses
where persons were allowed to eat and drink were usually called
_popinae_ and not _cauponae_; and the keepers of them, _popae_. They
were principally frequented by slaves and the lower classes, and
were consequently only furnished with stools to sit upon instead of
couches. The _Thermopolia_, where the _calida_ or warm wine and water
was sold, appear to have been the same as the _popinae_. Many of
these popinae were little better than the _lupanaria_ or brothels;
whence Horace calls them _immundas popinas_. The _ganeae_, which are
sometimes mentioned in connection with the _popinae_, were brothels,
whence they are often classed with the _lustra_. Under the emperors
many attempts were made to regulate the popinae, but apparently
with little success. All persons who kept inns or houses of public
entertainment of any kind were held in low estimation both among
the Greeks and Romans. They appear to have fully deserved the bad
reputation which they possessed, for they were accustomed to cheat
their customers by false weights and measures, and by all the means
in their power.

CAUSĬA (καυσία), a hat with a broad brim, which was made of felt, and
worn by the Macedonian kings. Its form is seen in the annexed figure.
The Romans adopted it from the Macedonians.

[Illustration: Causia, Hat. (From a Painting on a Vase.)]

CAUTĬO, CĂVĒRE. These words are of frequent occurrence, and have a
great variety of significations, according to the matter to which
they refer. Their general signification is that of security given by
one person to another, or security which one person obtains by the
advice or assistance of another. The _cautio_ was most frequently a
writing, which expressed the object of the parties to it; accordingly
the word cautio came to signify both the instrument (_chirographum_
or _instrumentum_) and the object which it was the purpose of the
instrument to secure. Cicero uses the expression _cautio chirographi
mei_. The phrase _cavere aliquid alicui_ expressed the fact of one
person giving security to another as to some particular thing or act.
The word _cautio_ was also applied to the release which a debtor
obtained from his creditor on satisfying his demand; in this sense
cautio is equivalent to a modern receipt; it is the debtor’s security
against the same demand being made a second time. Thus _cavere ab
aliquo_ signifies to obtain this kind of security. _Cavere_ is also
applied to express the professional advice and assistance of a lawyer
to his client for his conduct in any legal matter. _Cavere_ and its
derivatives are also used to express the provisions of a law, by
which any thing is forbidden or ordered, as in the phrase, _Cautum
est lege_, &c. It is also used to express the words in a will, by
which a testator declares his wish that certain things should be done
after his death.

CĔADAS or CAEADAS (κεάδας or καιάδας), a deep cavern or chasm, like
the Barathron at Athens, into which the Spartans were accustomed to
thrust persons condemned to death.

CĔLĔRES, are said by Livy to have been three hundred horsemen,
who formed the body-guard of Romulus both in peace and war. There
can, however, be little doubt that these Celeres were not simply
the body-guard of the king, but were the same as the equites,
or horsemen, a fact which is expressly stated by some writers.
[EQUITES.] The etymology of Celeres is variously given. Some writers
derived it from their leader Celer, who was said to have slain Remus,
but most writers connected it with the Greek κέλης, in reference to
the quickness of their service. The Celeres were under the command
of a _Tribunus Celerum_, who stood in the same relation to the king
as the magister equitum did in a subsequent period to the dictator.
He occupied the second place in the state, and in the absence of the
king had the right of convoking the comitia. Whether he was appointed
by the king, or elected by the comitia, has been questioned, but the
former is the more probable.

CELLA, in its primary sense, means a store-room of any kind. Of these
there were various descriptions, which took their distinguishing
denominations from the articles they contained, as, for instance,
the _cella penuaria_ or _penaria_, the _cella olearia_ and _cella
vinaria_. The slave to whom the charge of these stores was intrusted,
was called _cellarius_, or _promus_, or _condus_, “quia _promit_ quod
_conditum est_,” and sometimes _promus condus_ and _procurator peni_.
This answers to our butler and housekeeper. Any number of small rooms
clustered together like the cells of a honeycomb were also termed
_cellae_; hence the dormitories of slaves and menials are called
_cellae_, and _cellae familiaricae_, in distinction to a bed-chamber,
which was _cubiculum_. Thus a sleeping-room at a public-house is
also termed _cella_. _Cella ostiarii_, or _janitoris_, is the
porter’s lodge. In the baths the _cella caldaria_, _tepidaria_, and
_frigidaria_, were those which contained respectively the warm,
tepid, and cold bath. [BALNEAE.] The interior of a temple, that is
the part included within the outside shell (σηκός), was also called
_cella_. There was sometimes more than one _cella_ within the same
peristyle or under the same roof, in which case each cell took
the name of the deity whose statue it contained, as _cella_ Jovis,
_cella_ Junonis, _cella_ Minervae, as in the temple of Jupiter on the

CĔNOTĂPHĬUM, a cenotaph (κενός and τάφος), was an empty or honorary
tomb, erected as a memorial of a person whose body was buried
elsewhere, or not found for burial at all.

CENSOR (τιμητής), the name of two magistrates of high rank in the
Roman republic. Their office was called _Censura_ (τιμητεία or
τιμητία). The _Census_, which was a register of Roman citizens and
of their property, was first established by Servius Tullius, the
fifth king of Rome. After the expulsion of the kings it was taken
by the consuls; and special magistrates were not appointed for the
purpose of taking it till the year B.C. 443. The reason of this
alteration was owing to the appointment in the preceding year of
tribuni militum with consular power in place of the consuls; and
as these tribunes might be plebeians, the patricians deprived the
consuls, and consequently their representatives, the tribunes, of
the right of taking the census, and entrusted it to two magistrates,
called _Censores_, who were to be chosen exclusively from the
patricians. The magistracy continued to be a patrician one till B.C.
351, when C. Marcius Rutilus was the first plebeian censor. Twelve
years afterwards, B.C. 339, it was provided by one of the Publilian
laws, that one of the censors must necessarily be a plebeian, but it
was not till B.C. 280 that a plebeian censor performed the solemn
purification of the people (_lustrum condidit_). In B.C. 131 the two
censors were for the first time plebeians.--The censors were elected
in the comitia centuriata held under the presidency of a consul. As
a general principle, the only persons eligible to the office were
those who had previously been consuls; but a few exceptions occur.
At first there was no law to prevent a person being censor a second
time; but the only person, who was twice elected to the office, was
C. Marcius Rutilus in B.C. 265; and he brought forward a law in this
year, enacting that no one should be chosen censor a second time, and
received in consequence the surname of Censorinus.--The censorship
is distinguished from all other Roman magistracies by the length of
time during which it was held. The censors were originally chosen
for a whole lustrum, that is, a period of five years; but their
office was limited to eighteen months, as early as ten years after
its institution (B.C. 433), by a law of the dictator Mam. Aemilius
Mamercinus. The censors also held a very peculiar position with
respect to rank and dignity. No imperium was bestowed upon them,
and accordingly they had no lictors. The _jus censurae_ was granted
to them by a _lex centuriata_, and not by the curiae, and in that
respect they were inferior in power to the consuls and praetors. But
notwithstanding this, the censorship was regarded as the highest
dignity in the state, with the exception of the dictatorship; it was
a _sanctus magistratus_, to which the deepest reverence was due.
They possessed of course the sella curulis. The funeral of a censor
was always conducted with great pomp and splendour, and hence a
_funus censorium_ was voted even to the emperors.--The censorship
continued in existence for 421 years, namely, from B.C. 443 to
B.C. 22; but during this period many lustra passed by without any
censor being chosen at all. Its power was limited by one of the
laws of the tribune Clodius (B.C. 58). After the year B.C. 22 the
emperors discharged the duties of the censorship under the name of
_Praefectura Morum_.--The duties of the censors may be divided into
three classes, all of which were however closely connected with
one another: I. _The Census_, or register of the citizens and of
their property, in which were included the _lectio senatus_, and
the _recognitio equitum_; II. _The Regimen Morum_; and III. _The
administration of the finances of the state_, under which were
classed the superintendence of the public buildings and the erection
of all new public works.--I. The CENSUS, the first and principal
duty of the censors, for which the proper expression is _censum
agere_, was always held in the Campus Martius, and from the year
B.C. 435 in a special building called _Villa Publica_. After the
auspicia had been taken, the citizens were summoned by a public crier
(_praeco_) to appear before the censors. Each tribe was called up
separately, and every paterfamilias had to appear in person before
the censors, who were seated in their curule chairs. The census was
conducted _ad arbitrium censoris_; but the censors laid down certain
rules, sometimes called _leges censui censendo_, in which mention
was made of the different kinds of property subject to the census,
and in what way their value was to be estimated. According to these
laws each citizen had to give an account of himself, of his family,
and of his property upon oath, _ex animi sententia_. First he had
to give his full name (_praenomen_, _nomen_, and _cognomen_) and
that of his father, or if he were a freedman that of his patron,
and he was likewise obliged to state his age. He was then asked,
_Tu, ex animi tui sententia, uxorem habes?_ and if married he had
to give the name of his wife, and likewise the number, names, and
ages of his children, if any. Single women (_viduae_) and orphans
(_orbi orbaeque_) were represented by their tutores; their names
were entered in separate lists, and they were not included in the
sum total of capita. After a citizen had stated his name, age,
family, &c., he then had to give an account of all his property,
so far as it was subject to the census. In making this statement
he was said _censere_ or _censeri_, as a deponent, “to value or
estimate himself,” or as a passive “to be valued or estimated:”
the censor, who received the statement, was also said _censere_,
as well as _accipere censum_. Only such things were liable to the
census (_censui censendo_) as were property _ex jure Quiritium_. Land
formed the most important article in the census; next came slaves and
cattle. The censors also possessed the right of calling for a return
of such objects as had not usually been given in, such as clothing,
jewels, and carriages. We can hardly doubt that the censors possessed
the power of setting a higher valuation on the property than the
citizens themselves had put. The tax (_tributum_) was usually one
per thousand upon the property entered in the books of the censors;
but on one occasion the censors, as a punishment, compelled a person
to pay eight per thousand (_octuplicato censu_, Liv. iv. 24). A
person who voluntarily absented himself from the census, and thus
became _incensus_, was subject to the severest punishment. It is
probable that service in the army was a valid excuse for absence.
After the censors had received the names of all the citizens with the
amount of their property, they then had to make out the lists of the
tribes, and also of the classes and centuries; for by the legislation
of Servius Tullius the position of each citizen in the state was
determined by the amount of his property. [COMITIA CENTURIATA.]
These lists formed a most important part of the _Tabulae Censoriae_,
under which name were included all the documents connected in any
way with the discharge of the censors’ duties. These lists, as far
at least as they were connected with the finances of the state,
were deposited in the aerarium, which was the temple of Saturn; but
the regular depository for all the archives of the censors was in
earlier times the Atrium Libertatis, near the Villa publica, and
in later times the temple of the Nymphs. The censors had also to
make out the lists of the senators for the ensuing lustrum, or till
new censors were appointed; striking out the names of such as they
considered unworthy, and making additions to the body from those who
were qualified. [SENATUS.] In the same manner they held a review of
the equites equo publico, and added and removed names as they judged
proper. [EQUITES.] After the lists had been completed, the number of
citizens was counted up, and the sum total announced; and accordingly
we find that, in the account of a census, the number of citizens is
likewise usually given. They are in such cases spoken of as _capita_,
sometimes with the addition of the word _civium_, and sometimes not;
and hence to be registered in the census was the same thing as _caput
habere_. [CAPUT.]--II. REGIMEN MORUM. This was the most important
branch of the censors’ duties, and the one which caused their office
to be the most revered and the most dreaded in the Roman state. It
naturally grew out of the right which they possessed of excluding
unworthy persons from the lists of citizens. They were constituted
the conservators of public and private virtue and morality; they
were not simply to prevent crime or particular acts of immorality,
but their great object was to maintain the old Roman character and
habits, the _mos majorum_. The proper expression for this branch of
their power was _regimen morum_, which was called in the times of
the empire _cura_ or _praefectura morum_. The punishment inflicted
by the censors in the exercise of this branch of their duties was
called _Nota_ or _Notatio_, or _Animadversio Censoria_. In inflicting
it they were guided only by their conscientious convictions of
duty; they had to take an oath that they would act neither through
partiality nor favour; and in addition to this, they were bound in
every case to state in their lists, opposite the name of the guilty
citizen, the cause of the punishment inflicted on him,--_Subscriptio
censoria_. The consequence of such a nota was only _ignominia_ and
not infamia [INFAMIA], and the censorial verdict was not a _judicium_
or res _judicata_, for its effects were not lasting, but might be
removed by the following censors, or by a lex. A nota censoria was
moreover not valid, unless both censors agreed. The ignominia was
thus only a transitory capitis deminutio, which does not appear even
to have deprived a magistrate of his office, and certainly did not
disqualify persons labouring under it for obtaining a magistracy,
for being appointed as judices by the praetor, or for serving in the
Roman armies. This superintendence of the conduct of Roman citizens
extended so far, that it embraced the whole of the public and private
life of the citizens. Thus we have instances of their censuring
or punishing persons for not marrying, for breaking a promise of
marriage, for divorce, for bad conduct during marriage, for improper
education of children, for living in an extravagant and luxurious
manner, and for many other irregularities in private life. Their
influence was still more powerful in matters connected with the
public life of the citizens. Thus we find them censuring or punishing
magistrates who were forgetful of the dignity of their office or
guilty of bribery, as well as persons who were guilty of improper
conduct towards magistrates, of perjury, and of neglect of their
duties both in civil and military life. The punishments inflicted
by the censors are generally divided into four classes:--1. _Motio_
or _ejectio e senatu_, or the exclusion of a man from the number of
senators. This punishment might either be a simple exclusion from the
list of senators, or the person might at the same time be excluded
from the tribes and degraded to the rank of an aerarian. The censors
in their new lists omitted the names of such senators as they wished
to exclude, and in reading these new lists in public, passed over
the names of those who were no longer to be senators. Hence the
expression _praeteriti senatores_ is equivalent to _e senatu ejecti_.
2. The _ademptio equi_, or the taking away the equus publicus from
an eques. This punishment might likewise be simple, or combined
with the exclusion from the tribes and the degradation to the rank
of an aerarian. [EQUITES.] 3. The _motio e tribu_, or the exclusion
of a person from his tribe. If the further degradation to the rank
of an aerarian was combined with the motio e tribu, it was always
expressly stated. 4. The fourth punishment was called _referre in
aerarios_ or _facere aliquem aerarium_, and might be inflicted on any
person who was thought by the censors to deserve it. [AERARII.]--III.
of the censors’ office. In the first place the _tributum_, or
property-tax, had to be paid by each citizen according to the amount
of his property registered in the census, and, accordingly, the
regulation of this tax naturally fell under the jurisdiction of the
censors. [TRIBUTUM.] They also had the superintendence of all the
other revenues of the state, the _vectigalia_, such as the tithes
paid for the public lands, the salt-works, the mines, the customs,
&c. [VECTIGALIA.] All these branches of the revenue the censors
were accustomed to let out to the highest bidder for the space of a
lustrum or five years. The act of letting was called _venditio_ or
_locatio_, and seems to have taken place in the month of March. The
censors also possessed the right, though probably not without the
concurrence of the senate, of imposing new vectigalia, and even of
selling the land belonging to the state. The censors, however, did
not receive the revenues of the state. All the public money was paid
into the aerarium, which was entirely under the jurisdiction of the
senate; and all disbursements were made by order of this body, which
employed the quaestors as its officers. [AERARIUM; SENATUS.]--In one
important department the censors were entrusted with the expenditure
of the public money; though the actual payments were no doubt made
by the quaestors. The censors had the general superintendence of
all the public buildings and works (_opera publica_); and to meet
the expenses connected with this part of their duties, the senate
voted them a certain sum of money or certain revenues, to which
they were restricted, but which they might at the same time employ
according to their discretion. They had to see that the temples and
all other public buildings were in a good state of repair (_aedes
sacras tueri_ and _sarta tecta exigere_), that no public places
were encroached upon by the occupation of private persons (_loca
tueri_), and that the aquaeducts, roads, drains, &c. were properly
attended to. The repairs of the public works and the keeping of them
in proper condition were let out by the censors by public auction to
the lowest bidder. The persons who undertook the contract were called
_conductores_, _mancipes_, _redemptores_, _susceptores_, &c.; and the
duties they had to discharge were specified in the _Leges Censoriae_.
The censors had also to superintend the expenses connected with the
worship of the gods. In these respects it is not easy to define
with accuracy the respective duties of the censors and aediles:
but it may be remarked in general that the superintendence of the
aediles had more of a police character, while that of the censors had
reference to all financial matters.--After the censors had performed
their various duties and taken the census, the _lustrum_ or solemn
purification of the people followed. When the censors entered upon
their office, they drew lots to see which of them should perform this
purification (_lustrum facere_ or _condere_), but both censors were
obliged of course to be present at the ceremony. [LUSTRUM.]--In the
Roman and Latin colonies and in the municipia there were censors,
who likewise bore the name of _quinquennales_. They are spoken of
under COLONIA. A census was sometimes taken in the provinces, even
under the republic; but there seems to have been no general census
taken in the provinces till the time of Augustus. At Rome the census
still continued to be taken under the empire, but the old ceremonies
connected with it were no longer continued, and the ceremony of the
lustration was not performed after the time of Vespasian.--The word
_census_, besides the meaning of “valuation” of a person’s estate,
has other significations, which must be briefly mentioned: 1. It
signified the amount of a person’s property, and hence we read of
_census senatorius_, the estate of a senator; _census equestris_, the
estate of an eques. 2. The lists of the censors. 3. The tax which
depended upon the valuation in the census.

CENSUS.--(1) GREEK.--The Greek term for a man’s property as
ascertained by the census, as well as for the act of ascertaining
it, is τίμημα. The only Greek state concerning whose arrangement
of the census we have any satisfactory information, is Athens.
Previous to the time of Solon no census had been instituted at
Athens. According to his census, all citizens were divided into four
classes: 1. _Pentacosiomedimni_ (Πεντακοσιομέδιμνοι), or persons
possessing landed property which yielded an annual income of at least
500 medimni of dry or liquid produce. 2. _Hippeis_ (Ἱππεῖς), i.e.
knights or persons able to keep a war-horse, were those whose lands
yielded an annual produce of at least 300 medimni, whence they are
also called τριακοσιομέδιμνοι. 3. _Zeugitae_ (Ζευγῖται), i.e. persons
able to keep a yoke of oxen (ζεῦγος), were those whose annual income
consisted of at least 150 medimni. 4. The _Thetes_ (Θῆτες) contained
all the rest of the free population, whose income was below that of
the Zeugitae. The constitution of Athens, so long as it was based
upon these classes, was a timocracy (τιμοκρατία, or ἀπὸ τιμημάτων
πολιτεία). The highest magistracy at Athens, or the archonship,
was at first accessible only to persons of the first class,
until Aristides threw all the state offices open to all classes
indiscriminately. The maintenance of the republic mainly devolved
upon the first three classes, the last being exempted from all taxes.
As the land in the legislation of Solon was regarded as the capital
which yielded an annual income, he regulated his system of taxation
by the value of the land, which was treated as the taxable capital.
Lists of this taxable property (ἀπογραφαί) were kept at first by
the naucrari, who also had to conduct the census, and afterwards
by the demarchi.--As property is a fluctuating thing, the census
was repeated from time to time, but the periods differed in the
various parts of Greece, for in some a census was held every year,
and in others every two or four years. At Athens every person had to
state the amount of his property, and if there was any doubt about
his honesty, it seems that a counter-valuation (ἀντιτίμησις) might
be made. This system of taxation according to classes, and based
upon the possession of productive estates, underwent a considerable
change in the time of the Peloponnesian war, though the divisions
into classes themselves continued to be observed for a considerable
time after. As the wants of the republic increased, and as many
citizens were possessed of large property, without being landed
proprietors, the original land-tax was changed into a property-tax.
This property-tax was called εἰσφορά, concerning which see EISPHORA.
Compare LEITURGIAE; and for the taxes paid by resident aliens,

CENTESĬMA, namely _pars_, or the hundredth part, also called
_vectigal rerum venalium_, or _centesima rerum venalium_, was a tax
of one per cent. levied at Rome and in Italy upon all goods that were
exposed for public sale at auctions. It was collected by persons
called _coactores_. This tax was perhaps introduced after the civil
war between Marius and Sulla. Its produce was assigned by Augustus
to the _aerarium militare_. Tiberius reduced the tax to one half
per cent. (_ducentesima_), after he had changed Cappadocia into
a province, and had thereby increased the revenue of the empire.
Caligula in the beginning of his reign abolished the tax altogether
for Italy.

CENTUMVĬRI, were judices, who resembled other judices in this
respect, that they decided cases under the authority of a
magistratus; but they differed from other judices in being a definite
body or collegium. This collegium seems to have been divided into
four parts, each of which sometimes sat by itself. The origin of
the court is unknown. According to an ancient writer, three were
chosen out of each tribe, and consequently the whole number out of
the 35 tribes would be 105, who, in round numbers, were called the
hundred men. If the centumviri were chosen from the tribes, this
seems a strong presumption in favour of the high antiquity of the
court. It was the practice to set up a spear in the place where
the centumviri were sitting, and accordingly the word _hasta_, or
_hasta centumviralis_, is sometimes used as equivalent to the words
_judicium centumvirale_. The praetor presided in this court. The
jurisdiction of the centumviri was chiefly confined to civil matters,
but it appears that crimina sometimes came under their cognizance.
The younger Pliny, who practised in this court, makes frequent
allusions to it in his letters.





CĒRA (κηρός), wax. For its employment in painting, see PICTURA;
and for its application as a writing material, see TABULAE and

CĔRĔĀLĬA, a festival celebrated at Rome in honour of Ceres, whose
wanderings in search of her lost daughter Proserpine were represented
by women, clothed in white, running about with lighted torches.
During its continuance, games were celebrated in the Circus Maximus,
the spectators of which appeared in white; but on any occasion of
public mourning the games and festivals were not celebrated at all,
as the matrons could not appear at them except in white. The day
of the Cerealia is doubtful; some think it was the ides or 13th of
April, others the 7th of the same month.

CĔRĔVĪSĬA, CERVĪSĬA (ζύθος), ale or beer, was almost or altogether
unknown to the Greeks and Romans; but it was used very generally by
the surrounding nations, whose soil and climate were less favourable
to the growth of vines. According to Herodotus, the Egyptians
commonly drank “barley wine;” and Diodorus Siculus says that the
Egyptian beer was nearly equal to wine in strength and flavour. The
Iberians and Thracians, and the people in the north of Asia Minor,
instead of drinking their beer out of cups, placed it before them in
a large bowl or vase, which was sometimes of gold or silver. This
being full to the brim with the grains, as well as the fermented
liquor, the guests, when they pledged one another, drank together
out of the same bowl by stooping down to it, although, when this
token of friendship was not intended, they adopted the more refined
method of sucking up the fluid through tubes of cane. The Suevi and
other northern nations offered to their gods libations of beer, and
expected that to drink it in the presence of Odin would be among the
delights of Valhalla.

CĒRŌMA (κήρωμα), the oil mixed with wax (κηρός) with which wrestlers
were anointed; also the place where they were anointed, and, in later
times, the place where they wrestled.



CESTUS. (1) The thongs or bands of leather, which were tied round
the hands of boxers, in order to render their blows more powerful
(ἱμάντες, or ἱμάντες πυκτικοί). The cestus was used by boxers in the
earliest times, and is mentioned in the Iliad; but in the heroic
times it consisted merely of thongs of leather, and differed from the
cestus used in later times in the public games, which was a most
formidable weapon, being frequently covered with knots and nails, and
loaded with lead and iron.--(2) A band or tie of any kind, but more
particularly the zone or girdle of Venus, on which was represented
every thing that could awaken love.

[Illustration: Cestus. (Fabretti, de Col. Traj., p. 261.)]

CETRA, or CAETRA, a target, _i.e._ a small round shield, made of the
hide of a quadruped. It formed part of the defensive armour of the
Osci, and of the people of Spain, Mauritania, and Britain, and seems
to have been much the same as the target of the Scotch Highlanders.
The Romans do not appear to have used the cetra; but we find mention
of _cetratae cohortes_ levied in the provinces. Livy compares it to
the _pelta_ of the Greeks and Macedonians, which was also a small
light shield.

CHALCĬOĒCĬA (χαλκιοίκια), an annual festival, with sacrifices, held
at Sparta in honour of Athena, surnamed _Chalcioecus_ (Χαλκίοικος),
i.e. the goddess of the brazen-house. Young men marched on the
occasion in full armour to the temple of the goddess; and the ephors,
although not entering the temple, but remaining within its sacred
precincts, were obliged to take part in the sacrifice.

CHALCUS (χαλκοῦς), a denomination of Greek copper-money. Bronze or
copper (χαλκός) was very little used by the Greeks for money till
after the time of Alexander the Great. The χαλκία πονηρὰ at Athens
issued in B.C. 406 were a peculiar exception; and they were soon
afterwards called in, and the silver currency restored. It is not
improbable, however, that the copper coin called χαλκοῦς was in
circulation in Athens still earlier. The smallest silver coin at
Athens was the quarter-obol, and the χαλκοῦς was the half of that, or
the eighth of an obol. Its value was somewhat more than 3-4ths of a
farthing. The χαλκοῦς in later times was divided into lepta, of which
it contained seven. In later times the obol was coined of copper as
well as silver.

CHĂRISTĬA (from χαρίζομαι, to grant a favour or pardon), a solemn
feast among the Romans, to which none but relations and members
of the same family were invited, in order that any quarrel or
disagreement which had arisen amongst them might be made up. The day
of celebration was the 19th of February.

CHEIRŎNŎMĬA (χειρονομία), a mimetic movement of the hands, which
formed a part of the art of dancing among the Greeks and Romans. In
gymnastics it was applied to the movements of the hands in pugilistic

CHEIRŎTŎNĬA (χειροτονία). In the Athenian assemblies two modes
of voting were practised, the one by pebbles (ψηφίζεσθαι), the
other by a show of hands (χειροτονεῖν). The latter was employed in
the election of those magistrates who were chosen in the public
assemblies, and who were hence called χειροτονητοί, in voting upon
laws, and in some kinds of trials on matters which concerned the
people. We frequently find, however, the word ψηφίζεσθαι used where
the votes were really given by show of hands. The manner of voting
by a show of hands was as follows:--The herald said: “Whoever thinks
that Meidias is guilty, let him lift up his hand.” Then those who
thought so stretched forth their hands. Then the herald said again:
“Whoever thinks that Meidias is not guilty, let him lift up his
hand;” and those who were of this opinion stretched forth their
hands. The number of hands was counted each time by the herald; and
the president, upon the herald’s report, declared on which side the
majority voted. It is important to understand clearly the compounds
of this word. A vote condemning an accused person is καταχειροτονία:
one acquitting him, ἀποχειροτονία; ἐπιχειροτονεῖν is to confirm by
a majority of votes: ἐπιχειροτονία τῶν νομῶν was a revision of the
laws, which took place at the beginning of every year: ἐπιχειροτονία
τῶν ἀρχῶν was a vote taken in the first assembly of each prytany on
the conduct of the magistrates; in these cases, those who voted for
the confirmation of the law, or for the continuance in office of
the magistrate, were said ἐπιχειροτονεῖν, those on the other side
ἀποχειροτονεῖν: διαχειροτονία is a vote for one of two alternatives:
ἀντιχειροτονεῖν, to vote against a proposition. The compounds of
ψηφίζεσθαι have similar meanings.

CHĪRŎGRĂPHUM (χειρόγραφον), meant first, as its derivation implies, a
hand-writing or autograph. In this its simple sense, χείρ in Greek and
_manus_ in Latin are often substituted for it. From this meaning was
easily derived that of a signature to a will or other instrument,
especially a note of hand given by a debtor to his creditor.

CHITON (χιτών). [TUNICA.]

CHLAENA (χλαῖνα). [PALLIUM.]

[Illustration: Chlamys. (The Figure on the left from a Painting on a
Vase; that on the right from the Brit. Mus.)]

CHLĂMỸS (χλαμύς, _dim._ χλαμύδιον), a scarf, denoted an article of
the _amictus_, or outer raiment of the Greeks. It was for the most
part woollen; and it differed from the _himation_ (ἱμάτιον), or
cloak, the usual amictus of the male sex, in being smaller, finer,
and oblong instead of square, its length being generally about twice
its breadth. The scarf does not appear to have been much worn by
children. It was generally assumed on reaching adolescence, and was
worn by the ephebi from about seventeen to twenty years of age, and
hence was called χλαμὺς ἐφηβηική. It was also worn by the military,
especially of high rank, over their body armour, and by hunters and
travellers, more particularly on horseback. The usual mode of wearing
the scarf was to pass one of its shorter sides round the neck, and
to fasten it by means of a brooch (_fibula_), either over the breast
(cut, HASTA), in which case it hung down the back, or over the
right shoulder, so as to cover the left arm (cut, CAUSIA). In the
following cut it is worn again in another way. The aptitude of the
scarf to be turned in every possible form around the body, made it
useful even for defence. The hunter used to wrap his chlamys about
his left arm when pursuing wild animals, and preparing to fight with
them. The annexed woodcut exhibits a figure of Neptune armed with the
trident in his right hand, and having a chlamys to protect the left.
When Diana goes to the chase, as she does not require her scarf for
purposes of defence, she draws it from behind over her shoulders,
and twists it round her waist so that the belt of her quiver passes
across it. (See woodcut.) Among the Romans the scarf came more
into use under the emperors. Caligula wore one enriched with gold.
Severus, when he was in the country or on an expedition, wore a scarf
dyed with the coccus.

[Illustration: Chlamys. (Neptune from a Coin, and Diana from a Statue
in the Vatican.)]

CHOENIX (χοῖνιξ), a Greek measure of capacity, the size of which is
differently given; it was probably of different sizes in the several
states. Some writers make it equal to three cotylae (nearly 1½ pints
English); others to four cotylae (nearly 2 pints English); others
again make it eight cotylae (nearly 4 pints English).

CHŎRĒGUS (χορηγός), a person who had to bear the expenses of the
choregia (χορηγία), one of the regularly recurring state burthens
(ἐγκύκλιοι λειτουργίαι) at Athens. The choregus was appointed by his
tribe, though we are not informed according to what order. The same
person might serve as choregus for two tribes at once; and after B.C.
412 a decree was passed allowing two persons to unite and undertake a
choregia together. The duties of the choregia consisted in providing
the choruses for tragedies and comedies, the lyric choruses of men
and boys, the pyrrhicists, the cyclic choruses, and the choruses of
flute-players for the different religious festivals at Athens. When
a poet intended to bring out a play, he had to get a chorus assigned
him by the archon [CHORUS], who nominated a choregus to fulfil the
requisite duties. He had first to collect his chorus, and then to
procure a teacher (χοροδιδάσκαλος), whom he paid for instructing the
choreutae. The chorus were generally maintained, during the period
of their instruction, at the expense of the choregus. The choregus
who exhibited the best musical or theatrical entertainment received
as a prize a tripod, which he had the expense of consecrating, and
sometimes he had also to build the monument on which it was placed.
There was a whole street at Athens formed by the line of these
tripod-temples, and called “The Street of the Tripods.”

CHŎRUS (χορός) probably signified originally a company of dancers
dancing in a ring. In later times, a choric performance always
implies the singing or musical recitation of a poetical composition,
accompanied by appropriate dancing and gesticulation, or at least
by a measured march. In all the Dorian states, especially among the
Spartans, choral performances were cultivated with great assiduity.
Various causes contributed to this, as, for example, their universal
employment in the worship of Apollo, the fact that they were not
confined to the men, but that women also took part in them, and that
many of the dances had a gymnastic character given them, and were
employed as a mode of training to martial exercises. [SALTATIO.]
Hence Doric lyric poetry became almost exclusively choral, which
was not the case with the other great school of Greek lyric poetry,
the Aeolian; so that the Doric dialect came to be looked upon as
the appropriate dialect for choral compositions, and Doric forms
were retained by the Athenians even in the choral compositions
which were interwoven with their dramas. The instrument commonly
used in connection with the Doric choral poetry was the cithara.
A great impetus was given to choral poetry by its application to
the dithyramb. This ancient Bacchanalian performance seems to have
been a hymn sung by one or more of an irregular band of revellers,
to the music of the flute. Arion, a contemporary of Periander, was
the first who gave a regular choral form to the dithyramb. This
chorus, which ordinarily consisted of fifty men or youths, danced
in a ring round the altar of Dionysus. Hence such choruses were
termed _cyclic_ (κύκλιοι χοροί). With the introduction of a regular
choral character, Arion also substituted the cithara for the flute.
It was from the dithyramb that the Attic tragedy was developed. For
details see TRAGOEDIA. From the time of Sophocles onwards the regular
number of the chorus in a tragedy was 15; but it is impossible to
arrive at any definite conclusion with regard to the number of the
chorus in the early dramas of Aeschylus. The fact that the number
of the dithyrambic chorus was 50, and that the mythological number
of the Oceanides and Danaides was the same, tempts one to suppose
that the chorus in the Prometheus and the Supplices consisted of
50. Most writers, however, agree in thinking that such a number was
too large to have been employed. The later chorus of 15 was arranged
in a quadrangular form (τετράγωνος). It entered the theatre by the
passage to the right of the spectators. [THEATRUM.] Its entrance
was termed πάροδος; its leaving the stage in the course of the play
μετάστασις; its re-entrance ἐπιπάροδος; its exit ἄφοδος. As it
entered in three lines, with the spectators on its left, the stage on
its right, the middle choreutes of the left row (τρίτος ἀριστέρου)
was the Coryphaeus or Hegemon, who in early times at least was not
unfrequently the choregus himself. Of course the positions first
taken up by the choreutae were only retained till they commenced
their evolutions. To guide them in these, lines were marked upon
the boards with which the orchestra was floored. The flute as well
as the cithara was used as an accompaniment to the choric songs.
The dance of the tragic chorus was called ἐμμέλεια.--The ordinary
number of the chorus in a comedy was 24. Like the tragic chorus it
was arranged in a quadrangular form, and entered the orchestra from
opposite sides, according as it was supposed to come from the city
or from the country. It consisted sometimes half of male and half of
female choreutae. The dance of the comic chorus was the κόρδαξ. In
the Satyric drama the chorus consisted of Satyrs: its number is quite
uncertain. Its dance was called σίκιννις. When a poet intended to
bring forward a play, he had to apply for a chorus (χορὸν αἰτεῖν) to
the archons, to the king archon if the play was to be brought forward
at the Lenaea, to the archon eponymus if at the great Dionysia.
If the play were thought to deserve it, he received a chorus
(χορὸν λαμβάνειν), the expenses of which were borne by a choregus.
[CHOREGUS.] The poet then either trained (διδάσκειν) the chorus
himself, or entrusted that business to a professed chorus trainer
(χοροδιδάσκαλος), who usually had an assistant (ὑποδιδάσκαλος).
For training the chorus in its evolutions there was also an

CHOUS, or CHOEUS (χοῦς or χοεῦς), was equal to the Roman congius,
and contained six ξέσται, or sextarii (nearly six pints English).
It seems that there was also a smaller measure of the same name,
containing two sextarii (nearly two pints English).

CHRŎNOLŎGĬA (χρονολογία), chronology. The Greeks reckoned their
years generally according to their magistrates, in the early times
according to the years of the reign of their kings, and afterwards
according to their annual magistrates. At Athens the year was called
by the name of one of the nine archons, who from this circumstance
was called ἄρχων ἐπώνυμος, or the archon par excellence; and at
Sparta the years were called after one of the five ephors, who for
this reason was likewise termed ἐπώνυμος. In Argos time was counted
according to the years of the high priestess of Hera, who held her
office for life (ἡρεσίς); and the inhabitants of Elis probably
reckoned according to the Olympic games, which were celebrated every
fifth year during the first full moon which followed after the summer
solstice. Thus there was no era which was used by _all_ the Greeks in
common for the ordinary purposes of life.--Timaeus, who flourished
about B.C. 260, was the first historian who counted the years by
Olympiads, each of which contained four years. The beginning of the
Olympiads is commonly fixed in the year 3938 of the Julian period, or
in B.C. 776. If we want to reduce any given Olympiad to years before
Christ, _e.g._ Ol. 87, we take the number of the Olympiads actually
elapsed, that is, 86, multiply it by 4, and deduct the number
obtained from 776, so that the first year of the 87th Ol. will be the
same as the year 432 B.C. If the number of Olympiads amounts to more
than 776 years, that is, if the Olympiad falls after the birth of
Christ, the process is the same as before, but from the sum obtained
by multiplying the Olympiads by 4, we must deduct the number 776, and
what remains is the number of the years after Christ. As the Olympic
games were celebrated 293 times, we have 293 Olympic cycles, that is,
1172 years, 776 of which fall before, and 396 after Christ.--Some
writers also adopted the Trojan era, the fall of Troy being placed
by Eratosthenes and those who adopted this era, in the year B.C.
1184. After the time of Alexander the Great, several other eras were
introduced in the kingdoms that arose out of his empire. The first
was the Philippic era, sometimes also called the era of Alexander or
the era of Edessa; it began on the 12th of November B.C. 324, the
date of the accession of Philip Arrhidaeus. The second was the era of
the Seleucidae, beginning on the 1st of October B.C. 312, the date
of the victory of Seleucus Nicator at Gaza, and of his re-conquest
of Babylonia. This era was used very extensively in the East. The
Chaldaean era differed from it only by six months, beginning in the
spring of B.C. 311. Lastly, the eras of Antioch, of which there were
three, but the one most commonly used began in November B.C. 49.--The
Romans during the time of the republic reckoned their years by the
names of the consuls, which were registered in the Fasti. Along
with this era there existed another, used only by the historians.
It reckoned the years from the foundation of the city (_ab urbe
condita_); but the year of the foundation of the city was a question
of uncertainty among the Romans themselves. M. Terentius Varro placed
it on the 21st of April in the third year of the 6th Olympiad, that
is, B.C. 753; and this is the era most commonly used. To find out
the year B.C. corresponding to the year A.U.C., subtract the year
A.U.C. from 754; thus 605 A.U.C. = 149 B.C. To find out the year A.D.
corresponding to the year A.U.C., subtract 753 from the year A.U.C.;
thus 767 A.U.C. = 14 A.D.

CHRȲSENDĔTA, costly dishes used by the Romans at their
entertainments, apparently made of silver, with golden ornaments.







CIPPUS, a low column, sometimes round, but more frequently
rectangular. Cippi were used for various purposes; the decrees of
the senate were sometimes inscribed upon them; and with distances
engraved upon them, they also served as mile-stones. They were,
however, more frequently employed as sepulchral monuments. It was
also usual to place at one corner of the burying-ground a cippus, on
which the extent of the burying-ground was marked, towards the road
(_in fronte_), and backwards to the fields (_in agrum_).

[Illustration: Cippus, in the Vatican.]



[Illustration: Ground Plan of the Circus.]

CIRCUS. When Tarquinius Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from
the Latins, he commemorated his success by an exhibition of races
and pugilistic contests in the Murcian valley, between the Palatine
and Aventine hills, around which a number of temporary platforms
were erected by the patres and equites, called _spectacula_,
_fori_, or _foruli_, from their resemblance to the deck of a ship;
each one raising a stage for himself, upon which he stood to view
the games. This course, with its surrounding scaffoldings, was
termed circus; either because the spectators stood round to see
the shows, or because the procession and races went round in a
circuit. Previously, however, to the death of Tarquin, a permanent
building was constructed for the purpose, with regular tiers of
seats in the form of a theatre. To this the name of Circus Maximus
was subsequently given, as a distinction from the Flaminian and
other similar buildings, which it surpassed in extent and splendour;
and hence it is often spoken of as _the_ Circus, without any
distinguishing epithet. Of the Circus Maximus scarcely a vestige now
remains; but this loss is fortunately supplied by the remains of a
small circus on the Via Appia, the ground-plan of which is in a state
of considerable preservation: it is represented in the annexed cut,
and may be taken as a model of all others. Around the double lines
(A, A) were arranged the seats (_gradus_, _sedilia_, _subsellia_), as
in a theatre, termed collectively the _cavea_; the lowest of which
were separated from the ground by a _podium_, and the whole divided
longitudinally by _praecinctiones_, and diagonally into _cunei_, with
their _vomitoria_ attached to each. [AMPHITHEATRUM.] Towards the
extremity of the upper branch of the _cavea_, the general outline
is broken by an outwork (B), which was probably the _pulvinar_, or
station for the emperor, as it is placed in the best situation for
seeing both the commencement and end of the course, and in the most
prominent part of the circus. In the opposite branch is observed
another interruption to the uniform line of seats (C), betokening
also, from its construction, a place of distinction; which might have
been assigned to the person at whose expense the games were given
(_editor spectaculorum_). In the centre of the area was a low wall
(D) running lengthways down the course, which, from its resemblance
to the position of the dorsal bone in the human frame, was termed
_spina_. At each extremity of the spina were placed, upon a base (E,
E), three wooden cylinders, of a conical shape, like cypress trees,
which were called _metae_--the goals. Their situation is distinctly
seen in the cut on p. 89. The most remarkable objects upon the
_spina_ were two columns (F) supporting seven conical balls, which,
from their resemblance to eggs, were called _ova_. Their use was to
enable the spectators to count the number of rounds which had been
run; and they were seven in number, because seven was the number of
the circuits made in each race. As each round was run, one of the
_ova_ was either put up or taken down. An egg was adopted for this
purpose, in honour of Castor and Pollux. At the other extremity of
the spina were two similar columns (G), sustaining dolphins, termed
_delphinae_, or _delphinarum columnae_, which do not appear to have
been intended to be removed, but only placed there as corresponding
ornaments to the _ova_; and the figure of the dolphin was selected in
honour of Neptune. These figures are also seen in the cut on p. 89.
At the extremity of the circus in which the two horns of the _cavea_
terminate, were placed the stalls for the horses and chariots (H,
H), commonly called _carceres_, but more anciently the whole line of
building at this end of the circus was termed _oppidum_: hence in the
circus, of which the plan is given above, we find two towers (I, I)
at each end of the _carceres_. The number of _carceres_ is supposed
to have been usually twelve, as in this plan.

[Illustration: Carceres opening of the Gates. (From a marble at

[Illustration: Carceres, with Gates open. (Marble in British Museum.)]

They were vaults, closed in front by gates of open wood-work
(_cancelli_), which were opened simultaneously upon the signal
being given, by removing a rope attached to pilasters of the kind
called _Hermae_, placed for that purpose between each stall, upon
which the gates were immediately thrown open by a number of men, as
represented in the preceding woodcut. The cut below represents a set
of four _carceres_, with their _Hermae_, and _cancelli_ open, as
left after the chariots had started; in which the gates are made to
open inwards. The preceding account and woodcuts will be sufficient
to explain the meaning of the various words by which the _carceres_
were designated in poetical language, namely, _claustra_, _crypta_,
_fauces_, _ostia_, _fores carceris_, _repagula_, _limina equorum_.
There were five entrances to the circus; one (L) in the centre of
the carceres, called _porta pompae_, because it was the one through
which the Circensian procession entered, and the others at M, M, N,
and O. At the entrance of the course, exactly in the direction of the
line (J, K), were two small pedestals (_hermuli_) on each side of
the _podium_, to which was attached a chalked rope (_alba linea_),
for the purpose of making the start fair, precisely as is practised
at Rome for the horse-races during Carnival. Thus, when the doors
of the _carceres_ were thrown open, if any of the horses rushed out
before the others, they were brought up by this rope until the whole
were fairly abreast, when it was loosened from one side, and all
poured into the course at once. This line was also called _calx_,
and _creta_. The _metae_ served only to regulate the turnings of
the course, the _alba linea_ answered to the starting and winning
post of modern days.--From this description the Circus Maximus
differed little, except in size and magnificence of embellishment.
The numbers which the Circus Maximus was capable of containing are
computed at 150,000 by Dionysius, 260,000 by Pliny, and 385,000 by
P. Victor, all of which are probably correct, but have reference
to different periods of its history. Its length, in the time of
Julius Caesar, was three stadia, the width one, and the depth of
the buildings occupied half a stadium. When the Circus Maximus was
permanently formed by Tarquinius Priscus, each of the thirty curiae
had a particular place assigned to it; but as no provision was made
for the plebeians in this circus, it is supposed that the Circus
Flaminius was designed for the games of the commonalty, who in early
times chose their tribunes there, on the Flaminian field. However,
in the latter days of the republic, these invidious distinctions
were lost, and all classes sat promiscuously in the circus. The
seats were then marked off at intervals by a line or groove drawn
across them (_linea_), so that the space included between two lines
afforded sitting room for a certain number of spectators. Under the
empire, however, the senators and equites were separated from the
common people. The seat of the emperor (_pulvinar or cubiculum_)
was most likely in the same situation in the Circus Maximus as in
the one above described.--The Circensian games (_Ludi Circenses_)
were first instituted by Romulus, according to the legends, when he
wished to attract the Sabine population to Rome, for the purpose of
furnishing his own people with wives, and were celebrated in honour
of the god Consus, or Neptunus Equestris, from whom they were styled
_Consuales_. But after the construction of the Circus Maximus they
were called indiscriminately _Circenses_, _Romani_, or _Magni_. They
embraced six kinds of games:--I. CURSUS; II. LUDUS TROJAE; III. PUGNA
last were not peculiar to the circus, but were exhibited also in
the amphitheatre, or in buildings appropriated for them. The games
commenced with a grand procession (_Pompa Circensis_), in which all
those who were about to exhibit in the circus, as well as persons of
distinction, bore a part. The statues of the gods formed the most
conspicuous feature in the show, which were paraded upon wooden
platforms, called _fercula_ and _thensae_. The former were borne
upon the shoulders, as the statues of saints are carried in modern
processions; the latter were drawn along upon wheels.--I. CURSUS,
the races. The carriage usually employed in the circus was drawn
by two or four horses (_bigae_, _quadrigae_). [CURRUS.] The usual
number of chariots which started for each race was four. The drivers
(_aurigae_, _agitatores_) were also divided into four companies, each
distinguished by a different colour, to represent the four seasons of
the year, and called a _factio_: thus _factio prasina_, the green,
represented the spring; _factio russata_, red, the summer; _factio
veneta_, azure, the autumn; and _factio alba_ or _albata_, white,
the winter. Originally there were but two factions, _albata_ and
_russata_, and consequently only two chariots started at each race.
The driver stood in his car within the reins, which went round his
back. This enabled him to throw all his weight against the horses,
by leaning backwards; but it greatly enhanced his danger in case
of an upset. To avoid this peril, a sort of knife or bill-hook was
carried at the waist, for the purpose of cutting the reins in a case
of emergency. When all was ready, the doors of the carceres were
flung open, and the chariots were formed abreast of the _alba linea_
by men called _moratores_ from their duty; the signal for the start
was then given by the person who presided at the games, sometimes by
sound of trumpet, or more usually by letting fall a napkin; whence
the Circensian games are called _spectacula mappae_. The _alba linea_
was then cast off, and the race commenced, the extent of which was
seven times round the _spina_, keeping it always on the left. A
course of seven circuits was termed _unus missus_, and twenty-five
was the number of races run in each day, the last of which was called
_missus aerarius_, because in early times the expense of it was
defrayed by a collection of money (_aes_) made amongst the people.
The victor descended from his car at the conclusion of the race, and
ascended the _spina_, where he received his reward (_bravium_, from
the Greek βραβεῖον), which consisted in a considerable sum of money.

[Illustration: Chariot Race in the Circus. (Florentine Gem.)]

The horse-racing followed the same rules as the chariots. The
enthusiasm of the Romans for these races exceeded all bounds. Lists
of the horses (_libella_), with their names and colours, and those
of the drivers, were handed about, and heavy bets made upon each
faction; and sometimes the contests between two parties broke out
into open violence and bloody quarrels, until at last the disputes
which originated in the circus had nearly lost the Emperor Justinian
his crown.--II. LUDUS TROJAE, a sort of sham-fight, said to have been
invented by Aeneas, performed by young men of rank on horseback,
and often exhibited by the emperors.--III. PUGNA EQUESTRIS ET
PEDESTRIS, a representation of a battle, upon which occasions a camp
was formed in the circus.--IV. CERTAMEN GYMNICUM. See ATHLETAE, and
the references to the articles there given.--V. [VENATIO.]--VI.

[Illustration: Cisium. (From monument at Igel, near Treves.)]

CĬSĬUM, a light open carriage with two wheels, adapted to carry two
persons rapidly from place to place. The cisia were quickly drawn
by mules. Cicero mentions the case of a messenger who travelled 56
miles in 10 hours in such vehicles, which were kept for hire at the
stations along the great roads; a proof that the ancients considered
six Roman miles per hour as an extraordinary speed.

[Illustration: Cista. (From a Painting on a Vase.)]


CISTA (κίστη). (1) A small box or chest, in which anything might
be placed, but more particularly applied to the small boxes which
were carried in procession in the festivals of Demeter and Dionysus.
These boxes, which were always kept closed in the public processions,
contained sacred things connected with the worship of these deities.
In the representations of Dionysiac processions on ancient vases
women carrying cistae are frequently introduced.--(2) The ballot-box,
into which those who voted in the comitia and in the courts of
justice cast their tabellae. It is represented in the annexed cut,
and should not be confounded with the _situla_ or _sitella_, into
which sortes or lots were thrown. [SITULA.]

CISTŎPHŎRUS (κιστοφόρος), a silver coin, which is supposed to belong
to Rhodes, and which was in general circulation in Asia Minor at the
time of the conquest of that country by the Romans. It took its name
from the device upon it, which was either the sacred chest (_cista_)
of Bacchus, or more probably a flower called κιστός. Its value is
extremely uncertain: some writers suppose it to have been worth in
our money about 7¼_d._



CĪVĬTAS, citizenship. (1) GREEK (πολιτεία). Aristotle defines a
citizen (πολίτης) to be one who is a partner in the legislative
and judicial power (μέτοχος κρίσεως καὶ ἀρχῆς). No definition will
equally apply to all the different states of Greece, or to any single
state at different times; the above seems to comprehend more or less
properly all those whom the common use of language entitled to the
name. A state in the heroic ages was the government of a prince; the
citizens were his subjects, and derived all their privileges, civil
as well as religious, from their nobles and princes. The shadows
of a council and assembly were already in existence, but their
business was to obey. Upon the whole the notion of citizenship
in the heroic ages only existed so far as the condition of aliens
or of domestic slaves was its negative. The rise of a dominant
class gradually overthrew the monarchies of ancient Greece. Of
such a class, the chief characteristics were good birth and the
hereditary transmission of privileges, the possession of land, and
the performance of military service. To these characters the names
_gamori_ (γάμοροι), _knights_ (ἱππεῖς), _eupatridae_ (εὐπατρίδαι),
&c. severally correspond. Strictly speaking, these were the only
citizens; yet the lower class were quite distinct from bondmen or
slaves. It commonly happened that the nobility occupied the fortified
towns, while the _demus_ (δῆμος) lived in the country and followed
agricultural pursuits: whenever the latter were gathered within
the walls, and became seamen or handicraftsmen, the difference of
ranks was soon lost, and wealth made the only standard. The quarrels
of the nobility among themselves, and the admixture of population
arising from immigrations, all tended to raise the lower orders from
their political subjection. It must be remembered, too, that the
possession of domestic slaves, if it placed them in no new relation
to the governing body, at any rate gave them leisure to attend to
the higher duties of a citizen, and thus served to increase their
political efficiency. During the convulsions which followed the
heroic ages, naturalisation was readily granted to all who desired
it; as the value of citizenship increased, it was, of course, more
sparingly bestowed. The ties of hospitality descended from the prince
to the state, and the friendly relations of the Homeric heroes
were exchanged for the προξενίαι of a later period. In political
intercourse, the importance of these last soon began to be felt,
and the _Proxenus_ at Athens, in after times, obtained rights only
inferior to actual citizenship. [HOSPITIUM.] The isopolite relation
existed, however, on a much more extended scale. Sometimes particular
privileges were granted: as ἐπιγαμία, the right of intermarriage;
ἔγκτησις, the right of acquiring landed property; ἀτέλεια, immunity
from taxation, especially ἀτέλεια μετοικίου, from the tax imposed on
resident aliens. All these privileges were included under the general
term ἰσοτέλεια, or ἰσοπολίτεια, and the class who obtained them were
called ἰσοτελεῖς. They bore the same burthens with the citizens,
and could plead in the courts or transact business with the people,
without the intervention of a προστάτης, or patron. Respecting
the division of the Athenian citizens into tribes, phratriae and
demes, see the articles TRIBUS and DEMUS.--If we would picture to
ourselves the true notion which the Greeks embodied in the word
_polis_ (πόλις), we must lay aside all modern ideas respecting the
nature and object of a state. With us practically, if not in theory,
the _essential_ object of a state hardly embraces more than the
protection of life and property. The Greeks, on the other hand, had
the most vivid conception of the state as a whole, every part of
which was to co-operate to some great end to which all other duties
were considered as subordinate. Thus the aim of democracy was said to
be liberty; wealth, of oligarchy; and education, of aristocracy. In
all governments the endeavour was to draw the social union as close
as possible, and it seems to have been with this view that Aristotle
laid down a principle which answered well enough to the accidental
circumstances of the Grecian states, that a _polis_ must be of a
certain size. This unity of purpose was nowhere so fully carried out
as in the government of Sparta. The design of Spartan institutions
was evidently to unite the governing body among themselves against
the superior numbers of the subject population. The division of
lands, the syssitia, the education of their youth, all tended to
this great object. [HELOTES; PERIOECI.] In legal rights all Spartans
were equal: but there were yet several gradations, which, when once
formed, retained their hold on the aristocratic feelings of the
people. First, there was the dignity of the Heraclide families;
and, connected with this, a certain pre-eminence of the Hyllean
tribe. Another distinction was that between the _Homoioi_ (ὅμοιοι)
and _Hypomeiones_ (ὑπομείονες), which, in later times, appears
to have been considerable. The latter term probably comprehended
those citizens who, from degeneracy of manners or other causes, had
undergone some kind of civil degradation. To these the _Homoioi_
were opposed, although it is not certain in what the precise
difference consisted. All the Spartan citizens were included in the
three tribes, Hylleans, Dymanes or Dymanatae, and Pamphilians, each
of which was divided into ten obes or phratries. The citizens of
Sparta, as of most oligarchical states, were landowners, although
this does not seem to have been looked upon as an essential of
citizenship.--(2) ROMAN. _Civitas_ means the whole body of _cives_,
or members, of any given state, and the word is frequently used
by the Roman writers to express the rights of a Roman citizen, as
distinguished from those of other persons not Roman citizens, as
in the phrases, _dare civitatem_, _donare civitate_, _usurpare
civitatem_. Some members of a political community (_cives_) may have
more political rights than others; and this was the case at Rome
under the republic, in which we find a distinction made between
two great classes of Roman citizens, one that had, and another
that had not, a share in the sovereign power (_optimo jure_, _non
optimo jure cives_). That which peculiarly distinguished the higher
class, or the _optimo jure cives_, was the right to vote in a tribe
(_jus suffragiorum_), and the capacity of enjoying magistracy (_jus
honorum_). The inferior class, or the _non optimo jure cives_, did
not possess the above rights, which the Romans called _jus publicum_,
but they only had the _jus privatum_, which comprehended the _jus
connubii_ and _jus commercii_, and those who had not these had no
citizenship.--Under the empire we find the free persons who were
within the political limits of the Roman state divided into three
great classes. The same division probably existed in an early period
of the Roman state, and certainly existed in the time of Cicero.
These classes were, _Cives_, _Latini_, and _Peregrini_. _Civis_ is he
who possesses the complete rights of a Roman citizen. _Peregrinus_
was incapable of exercising the rights of _commercium_ and
_connubium_, which were the characteristic rights of a Roman citizen;
but he had a capacity for making all kinds of contracts which were
allowable by the jus gentium. The _Latinus_ was in an intermediate
state; he had not the _connubium_, and consequently he had not the
_patria potestas_ nor rights of agnatio; but he had the _commercium_
or the right of acquiring quiritarian ownership, and he had also a
capacity for all acts incident to quiritarian ownership, as the power
of making a will in Roman form, and of becoming heres under a will.
The rights of a Roman citizen were acquired in several ways, but most
commonly by a person being born of parents who were Roman citizens.
A slave might obtain the civitas by manumission (_vindicta_), by the
census, and by a testamentum, if there was no legal impediment; but
it depended on circumstances whether he became a _civis Romanus_,
a _Latinus_, or in the number of the _peregrini dediticii_.
[MANUMISSIO.] The civitas could be conferred on a foreigner by a lex,
as in the case of Archias, who was a civis of Heraclea, a civitas
which had a foedus with Rome, and who claimed the civitas Romana
under the provisions of a lex of Silvanus and Carbo, B.C. 89. By the
provisions of this lex, the person who chose to take the benefit of
it was required, within sixty days after the passing of the lex, to
signify to the praetor his wish and consent to accept the civitas
(_profiteri_). This lex was intended to give the civitas, under
certain limitations, to foreigners who were citizens of foederate
states (_foederatis civitatibus adscripti_). [FOEDERATAE CIVITATES.]
Thus the great mass of the Italians obtained the civitas, and the
privileges of the former civitates foederatae were extended to the
provinces, first to part of Gaul, and then to Sicily, under the name
of Jus Latii or Latinitas. This Latinitas gave a man the right of
acquiring the Roman citizenship by having exercised a magistratus
in his own civitas; a privilege which belonged to the foederatae
civitates of Italy before they obtained the Roman civitas.



CLĀVUS ANNĀLIS. In the early ages of Rome, when letters were yet
scarcely in use, the Romans kept a reckoning of their years by
driving a nail (_clavus_), on the ides of each September, into the
side walls of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which ceremony
was performed by the consul or a dictator.


CLĀVUS LĀTUS, CLĀVUS ANGUSTUS. The _clavus_, as an article of dress,
seems to have been a purple band worn upon the tunic and toga, and
was of two fashions, one broad and the other narrow, denominated
respectively _clavus latus_ and _clavus angustus_. The former was a
single broad band of purple, extending perpendicularly from the neck
down the centre of the tunic; the latter probably consisted of two
narrow purple slips, running parallel to each from the top to the
bottom of the tunic, one from each shoulder. The _latus clavus_ was
a distinctive badge of the senatorian order; and hence it is used to
signify the senatorial dignity, and _laticlavius_, the person who
enjoys it. The _angustus clavus_ was the decoration of the equestrian
order; but the right of wearing the latus clavus was also given to
the children of equestrians, at least in the time of Augustus, as a
prelude to entering the senate-house. This, however, was a matter
of personal indulgence, and was granted only to persons of very
ancient family and corresponding wealth, and then by special favour
of the emperor. In such cases the latus clavus was assumed with the
toga virilis, and worn until the age arrived at which the young
equestrian was admissible into the senate, when it was relinquished
and the angustus clavis resumed, if a disinclination on his part, or
any other circumstances, prevented him from entering the senate, as
was the case with Ovid. But it seems that the latus clavus could be
again resumed if the same individual subsequently wished to become
a senator, and hence a fickle character is designated as one who is
always changing his clavus. The latus clavus is said to have been
introduced at Rome by Tullus Hostilius, and to have been adopted by
him after his conquest of the Etruscans; nor does it appear to have
been confined to any particular class during the earlier periods, but
to have been worn by all ranks promiscuously. It was laid aside in
public mourning.


CLĒRŪCHI (κληροῦχοι), the name of Athenian citizens who occupied
conquered lands; their possession was called _cleruchia_ (κληρουχία).
The Athenian Cleruchi differed from the ἄποικοι or ordinary
colonists. The only object of the earlier colonies was to relieve
surplus population, or to provide a home for those whom internal
quarrels had exiled from their country. Most usually they originated
in private enterprise, and became independent of, and lost their
interest in, the parent state. On the other hand, it was essential
to the very notion of a _cleruchia_ that it should be a public
enterprise, and should always retain a connection more or less
intimate with Athens herself. The connection with the parent state
subsisted in all degrees. Sometimes, as in the case of Lesbos, the
holders of land did not reside upon their estates, but let them to
the original inhabitants, while themselves remained at Athens. The
condition of these cleruchi did not differ from that of Athenian
citizens who had estates in Attica. All their political rights they
not only retained, but exercised as Athenians. Another case was where
the cleruchi resided on their estates, and either with or without
the old inhabitants, formed a new community. These still retained
the rights of Athenian citizens, which distance only precluded them
from exercising: they used the Athenian courts; and if they or their
children wished to return to Athens, naturally and of course they
regained the exercise of their former privileges. Sometimes, however,
the connection might gradually dissolve, and the cleruchi sink into
the condition of mere allies, or separate wholly from the mother
country. It was to Pericles that Athens was chiefly indebted for the
extension and permanence of her colonial settlements. His principal
object was to provide for the redundancies of population, and raise
the poorer citizens to a fortune becoming the dignity of Athenian
citizens. It was of this class of persons that the settlers were
chiefly composed; the state provided them with arms, and defrayed the
expenses of their journey. The Cleruchiae were lost by the battle of
Aegospotami, but partially restored on the revival of Athenian power.

CLĒTĒRES or CLĒTORES (κλητῆρες, κλῆτορες), summoners, were at Athens
not official persons, but merely witnesses to the prosecutor that he
had served the defendant with a notice of the action brought against
him, and the day upon which it would be requisite for him to appear
before the proper magistrate.


CLĬENS is said to contain the same element as the verb _cluere_,
to “hear” or “obey,” and may be accordingly compared with the
German word _höriger_, “a dependant,” from _hören_, “to hear.” In
the earliest times of the Roman state we find a class of persons
called _clientes_, who must not be confounded with the plebeians,
from whom they were distinct. The clients were not slaves: they had
property of their own and freedom, and appear to have had votes in
the comitia centuriata, but they did not possess the full rights of
Roman citizens; and the peculiarity of their condition consisted in
every client being in a state of dependence upon or subjection to
some patrician, who was called his _patronus_, and to whom he owed
certain rights and duties. The patronus, on the other hand, likewise
incurred certain obligations towards his client. This relationship
between patronus and cliens was expressed by the word _clientela_,
which also expressed the whole body of a man’s clients. The relative
rights and duties of the patrons and the clients were, according
to Dionysius, as follows:--The patron was the legal adviser of
the cliens; he was the client’s guardian and protector, as he was
the guardian and protector of his own children; he maintained the
client’s suit when he was wronged, and defended him when another
complained of being wronged by him: in a word, the patron was the
guardian of the client’s interests, both private and public. The
client contributed to the marriage portion of the patron’s daughter,
if the patron was poor; and to his ransom, or that of his children,
if they were taken prisoners; he paid the costs and damages of a suit
which the patron lost, and of any penalty in which he was condemned;
he bore a part of the patron’s expenses incurred by his discharging
public duties, or filling the honourable places in the state. Neither
party could accuse the other, or bear testimony against the other,
or give his vote against the other. This relationship between patron
and client subsisted for many generations, and resembled in all
respects the relationship by blood. The relation of a master to his
liberated slave (_libertus_) was expressed by the word _patronus_,
and the libertus was the cliens of his patronus. Distinguished
Romans were also the protectors of states and cities, which were in
a certain relation of subjection or dependence to Rome. In the time
of Cicero we also find _patronus_ in the sense of adviser, advocate,
or defender, opposed to _cliens_ in the sense of the person defended
or the consultor,--a use of the word which must be referred to the
original character of the patronus.


CLĬPĔUS (ἀσπίς), the large shield worn by the Greeks and Romans,
which was originally of a circular form, and is said to have been
first used by Proetus and Acrisius of Argos, and therefore is called
_clipeus Argolicus_, and likened to the sun. But the clipeus is
often represented in Roman sculpture of an oblong oval, which makes
the distinction between the common buckler and that of Argos. The
outer rim was termed ἄντυξ by the Greeks; and in the centre was a
projection called ὀμφάλος or _umbo_, which served as a sort of weapon
by itself, or caused the missiles of the enemy to glance off from the
shield. In the Homeric times, the Greeks merely used a leather strap
(τελαμών) to support the shield, but subsequently a handle (ὄχανον or
ὀχάνη). The usual form of the clipeus is exhibited in the figure of
the Greek warrior on p. 41. When the census was instituted by Servius
Tullius at Rome, the first class only used the _clipeus_, and the
second were armed with the _scutum_ [SCUTUM]; but after the Roman
soldiery received pay, the _clipeus_ was discontinued altogether for
the _scutum_.

CLĪTELLAE, a pair of panniers, and therefore only used in the plural

CLŎĀCA, a sewer, a drain. Rome was intersected by numerous sewers,
some of which were of an immense size: the most celebrated of them
was the _cloaca maxima_, the construction of which is ascribed to
Tarquinius Priscus. It was formed by three tiers of arches, one
within the other, the innermost of which is a semicircular vault
of 14 feet in diameter. The manner of its construction is shown in
the preceding cut. Under the republic, the administration of the
sewers was entrusted to the censors: but under the empire, particular
officers were appointed for that purpose, called _cloacarum
curatores_, who employed condemned criminals in cleansing and
repairing them.

[Illustration: Cloaca Maxima at Rome.]

CŌA VESTIS, the Coan robe, was a transparent dress, chiefly worn by
women of loose reputation. It has been supposed to have been made of
silk, because in Cos silk was spun and woven at a very early period.

[Illustration: Coa Vestis. (From a Painting at Herculaneum.)]

CŎACTOR, the name of collectors of various sorts, _e.g._ the servants
of the publicani, or farmers of the public taxes, who collected
the revenues for them, and those who collected the money from the
purchasers of things sold at a public auction. Horace informs us that
his father was a coactor of this kind. Moreover, the servants of the
money-changers were so called, from collecting their debts for them.
The “coactores agminis” were the soldiers who brought up the rear of
a line of march.

CŎCHLĔA (κοχλίας), which properly means a snail, was also used to
signify other things of a spiral form. (1) A screw, used in working
clothes-presses, and oil and wine presses.--(2) A spiral pump for
raising water, invented by Archimedes, from whom it has ever since
been called the Archimedean screw.--(3) A peculiar kind of door
through which the wild beasts passed from their dens into the arena
of the amphitheatre.

COCHLĔAR. (κοχλιάριον), a kind of spoon, which appears to have
terminated with a point at one end, and at the other was broad and
hollow like our own spoons. The pointed end was used for drawing
snails (_cochleae_) out of their shells, and eating them, whence it
derived its name; and the broader part for eating eggs, &c. Cochlear
was also the name given to a small measure like our spoonful.

CŌDEX, identical with _caudex_, as _Claudius_ and _Clodius_,
_claustrum_ and _clostrum_, _cauda_ and _coda_, originally signified
the trunk or stem of a tree. The name codex was especially applied
to wooden tablets bound together and lined with a coat of wax, for
the purpose of writing upon them, and when, at a later age, parchment
or paper, or other materials were substituted for wood, and put
together in the shape of a book, the name of codex was still given
to them. In the time of Cicero we find it also applied to the tablet
on which a bill was written. At a still later period, during the
time of the emperors, the word was used to express any collection
of laws or constitutions of the emperors, whether made by private
individuals or by public authority, as the _Codex Gregorianus_,
_Codex Theodosianus_, and _Codex Justinianeus_.


COENA (δεῖπνον), the principal meal of the Greeks and Romans,
dinner. (1) GREEK. Three names of meals occur in the Iliad and
Odyssey--_ariston_ (ἄριστον), _deipnon_ (δεῖπνον), _dorpon_ (δόρπον).
The word _ariston_ uniformly means the early, as _dorpon_ does the
late meal; but _deipnon_, on the other hand, is used for either,
apparently without any reference to time. In the Homeric age it
appears to have been usual to sit during mealtimes. Beef, mutton,
and goat’s flesh were the ordinary meats, usually eaten roasted.
Cheese, flour, and occasionally fruits, also formed part of the
Homeric meals. Bread, brought on in baskets, and salt (ἃλς, to
which Homer gives the epithet θεῖος), are mentioned. The Greeks
of a later age usually partook of three meals, called _acratisma_
(ἀκράτισμα), _ariston_, and _deipnon_. The last, which corresponds
to the _dorpon_ of the Homeric poems, was the evening meal or
dinner; the _ariston_ was the luncheon; and the _acratisma_, which
answers to the _ariston_ of Homer, was the early meal or breakfast.
The _acratisma_ was taken immediately after rising in the morning.
It usually consisted of bread, dipped in unmixed wine (ἄκρατος),
whence it derived its name. Next followed the _ariston_ or luncheon;
but the time at which it was taken is uncertain. It is frequently
mentioned in Xenophon’s Anabasis, and appears to have been taken at
different times, as would naturally be the case with soldiers in
active service. We may conclude from many circumstances that this
meal was taken about the middle of the day, and that it answered
to the Roman _prandium_. The _ariston_ was usually a simple meal,
but of course varied according to the habits of individuals. The
principal meal was the _deipnon_. It was usually taken rather late
in the day, frequently not before sunset. The Athenians were a social
people, and were very fond of dining in company. Entertainments
were usually given, both in the heroic ages and later times, when
sacrifices were offered to the gods, either on public or private
occasions; and also on the anniversary of the birthdays of members
of the family, or of illustrious persons, whether living or dead.
When young men wished to dine together they frequently contributed
each a certain sum of money, called _symbole_ (συμβολή), or brought
their own provisions with them. When the first plan was adopted,
they were said ἀπὸ συμβολῶν δειπνεῖν, and one individual was usually
entrusted with the money to procure the provisions, and make all the
necessary preparations. This kind of entertainment, in which each
guest contributed to the expense, is mentioned in Homer under the
name of ἔρανος. An entertainment in which each person brought his own
provisions with him, or at least contributed something to the general
stock, was called a δεῖπνον ἀπὸ σπυρίδος, because the provisions
were brought in baskets.--The most usual kind of entertainments,
however, were those in which a person invited his friends to his own
house. It was expected that they should come dressed with more than
ordinary care, and also have bathed shortly before. As soon as the
guests arrived at the house of their host, their shoes or sandals
were taken off by the slaves and their feet washed. After their feet
had been washed, the guests reclined on the couches. It has already
been remarked that Homer never describes persons as reclining, but
always as sitting at their meals; but at what time the change was
introduced is uncertain. The Dorians of Crete always sat; but the
other Greeks reclined. The Greek women and children, however, like
the Roman, continued to sit at their meals. [ACCUBATIO.] It was usual
for only two persons to recline on each couch. After the guests had
placed themselves on the couches, the slaves brought in water to
wash their hands. The dinner was then served up; whence we read of
τὰς τραπέζας εἰσφέρειν, by which expression we are to understand not
merely the dishes, but the tables themselves, which were small enough
to be moved with ease. In eating, the Greeks had no knives or forks,
but made use of their fingers only, except in eating soups or other
liquids, which they partook of by means of a spoon, called μυστίλη,
μύστρον, or μύστρος. It would exceed the limits of this work to give
an account of the different dishes which were introduced at a Greek
dinner, though their number is far below those which were usually
partaken of at a Roman entertainment. The most common food among
the Greeks was the μάζα, a kind of frumenty or soft cake, which was
prepared in different ways. Wheaten or barley bread was the second
most usual species of food; it was sometimes made at home, but more
usually bought at the market of the ἀρτοπῶλαι or ἀρτοπώλιδες. The
vegetables ordinarily eaten were mallows (μαλάχη), lettuces (θρίδαξ),
cabbages (ῥάφανοι), beans (κύαμοι), lentils (φακαῖ), &c. Pork was
the most favourite animal food, as was the case among the Romans.
It is a curious fact, which Plato has remarked, that we never read
in Homer of the heroes partaking of fish. In later times, however,
fish was one of the most favourite foods of the Greeks. A dinner
given by an opulent Athenian usually consisted of two courses, called
respectively πρῶται τράπεζαι and δεύτεραι τράπεζαι. The first course
embraced the whole of what we consider the dinner, namely, fish,
poultry, meat, &c.; the second, which corresponds to our dessert
and the Roman _bellaria_, consisted of different kinds of fruit,
sweetmeats, confections, &c. When the first course was finished, the
tables were taken away, and water was given to the guests for the
purpose of washing their hands. Crowns made of garlands of flowers
were also then given to them, as well as various kinds of perfumes.
Wine was not drunk till the first course was finished; but as soon as
the guests had washed their hands, unmixed wine was introduced in a
large goblet, of which each drank a little, after pouring out a small
quantity as a libation. This libation was said to be made to the
“good spirit” (ἀγαθοῦ δαίμονος), and was usually accompanied with the
singing of the paean and the playing of flutes. After this libation
mixed wine was brought in, and with their first cup the guests
drank to Διὸς Σωτῆρος. With the libations the _deipnon_ closed; and
at the introduction of the dessert (δεύτεραι τράπεζαι) the πότος,
συμπόσιον or κῶμος commenced, of which an account is given under
SYMPOSIUM.--(2) ROMAN. As the Roman meals are not always clearly
distinguished, it will be convenient to treat of all under the most
important one; and we shall confine ourselves to the description of
the ordinary life of the middle ranks of society in the Augustan age,
noticing incidentally the most remarkable deviations. The meal with
which the Roman sometimes began the day was the _jentaculum_, which
was chiefly taken by children, or sick persons, or the luxurious. An
irregular meal (if we may so express it) was not likely to have any
very regular time: two epigrams of Martial, however, seem to fix the
hour at about three or four o’clock in the morning. Bread formed the
substantial part of this early breakfast, to which cheese, or dried
fruit, as dates and raisins, were sometimes added. Next followed the
_prandium_ or luncheon, with persons of simple habits a frugal meal,
usually taken about twelve or one o’clock. The _coena_, or principal
meal of the day, corresponding to our “dinner,” was usually taken
about three o’clock in the time of Cicero and Augustus, though we
read of some persons not dining till near sunset. A Roman dinner
at the house of a wealthy man usually consisted of three courses.
The first was called _promulsis_, _antecoena_, or _gustatio_, and
was made up of all sorts of stimulants to the appetite. Eggs also
were so indispensable to the first course that they almost gave a
name to it (_ab ovo usque ad mala_). The frugality of Martial only
allowed of lettuce and Sicenian olives; indeed he himself tells us
that the _promulsis_ was a refinement of modern luxury. It would far
exceed our limits to mention all the dishes which formed the second
course of a Roman dinner. Of birds, the Guinea hen (_Afra avis_), the
pheasant (_phasiana_, so called from Phasis, a river of Colchis),
and the thrush, were most in repute; the liver of a capon steeped in
milk, and beccaficos (_ficedulae_) dressed with pepper, were held a
delicacy. The peacock, according to Macrobius, was first introduced
by Hortensius the orator, at an inaugural supper, and acquired such
repute among the Roman gourmands as to be commonly sold for fifty
denarii. Other birds are mentioned, as the duck (_anas_), especially
its head and breast; the woodcock (_attagen_), the turtle, and
flamingo (_phoenicopterus_), the tongue of which, Martial tells us,
particularly commended itself to the delicate palate. Of fish, the
variety was perhaps still greater; the charr (_scarus_), the turbot
(_rhombus_), the sturgeon (_acipenser_), the mullet (_mullus_), were
highly prized, and dressed in the most various fashions. Of solid
meat, pork seems to have been the favourite dish, especially sucking
pig. Boar’s flesh and venison were also in high repute: the former is
described by Juvenal as _animal propter convivia natum_. Condiments
were added to most of these dishes: such were the _muria_, a kind of
pickle made from the tunny fish; the _garum sociorum_, made from the
intestines of the mackerel (_scomber_), so called because brought
from abroad; _alec_, a sort of brine; _faex_, the sediment of wine,
&c. Several kinds of _fungi_ are mentioned, truffles (_boleti_),
mushrooms (_tuberes_), which either made dishes by themselves, or
formed the garniture for larger dishes. It must not be supposed that
the _artistes_ of imperial Rome were at all behind ourselves in the
preparation and arrangements of the table. In a large household, the
functionaries to whom this important duty was entrusted were four,
the butler (_promus_), the cook (_archimagirus_), the arranger of the
dishes (_structor_), and the carver (_carptor_ or _scissor_). Carving
was taught as an art, and performed to the sound of music, with
appropriate gesticulations.

      ----“minimo sane discrimine refert,
      Quo vultu lepores, et quo gallina secetur.”

In the supper of Petronius, a large round tray (_ferculum_,
_repositorium_) is brought in, with the signs of the zodiac figured
all round it, upon each of which the _artiste_ (_structor_) had
placed some appropriate viand, a goose on Aquarius, a pair of scales
with tarts (_scriblitae_) and cheesecakes (_placentae_) in each scale
on Libra, &c. In the middle was placed a hive supported by delicate
herbage. Presently four slaves come forward dancing to the sound of
music, and take away the upper part of the dish; beneath appear all
kinds of dressed meats; a hare with wings to imitate Pegasus, in
the middle; and four figures of Marsyas at the corners, pouring hot
sauce (_garum piperatum_) over the fish, that were swimming in the
Euripus below. So entirely had the Romans lost all shame of luxury,
since the days when Cincius, in supporting the Fannian law, charged
his own age with the enormity of introducing the _porcus Trojanus_, a
sort of pudding stuffed with the flesh of other animals.--The third
course was the _bellaria_ or dessert, to which Horace alludes when
he says of Tigellius _ab ovo usque ad mala citaret_; it consisted
of fruits (which the Romans usually ate uncooked), such as almonds
(_amygdalae_), dried grapes (_uvae passae_), dates (_palmulae_,
_caryotae_, _dactyli_); of sweetmeats and confections, called _edulia
mellita_, _dulciaria_, such as cheesecakes (_cupediae_, _crustula_,
_liba_, _placentae_, _artolagani_), almond cakes (_coptae_),
tarts (_scriblitae_), whence the maker of them was called _pistor
dulciarius_, _placentarius_, _libarius_, &c. We will now suppose
the table spread and the guests assembled, each with his _mappa_ or
napkin, and in his dinner dress, called _coenatoria_ or _cubitoria_,
usually of a bright colour, and variegated with flowers. First they
took off their shoes, for fear of soiling the couch, which was often
inlaid with ivory or tortoise-shell, and covered with cloth of gold.
Next they lay down to eat, the head resting on the left elbow and
supported by cushions. There were usually, but not always, three on
the same couch, the middle place being esteemed the most honourable.
Around the tables stood the servants (_ministri_) clothed in a tunic,
and girt with napkins; some removed the dishes and wiped the tables
with a rough cloth, others gave the guests water for their hands,
or cooled the room with fans. Here stood an eastern youth behind
his master’s couch, ready to answer the noise of the fingers, while
others bore a large platter of different kinds of meat to the guests.
Dinner was set out in a room called _coenatio_ or _diaeta_ (which two
words perhaps conveyed to a Roman ear nearly the same distinction
as our dining-room and parlour). The _coenatio_, in rich men’s
houses, was fitted up with great magnificence. Suetonius mentions a
supper-room in the golden palace of Nero, constructed like a theatre,
with shifting scenes to change with every course. In the midst of
the coenatio were set three couches (_triclinia_), answering in
shape to the square, as the long semicircular couches (_sigmata_) did
to the oval tables. An account of the disposition of the couches,
and of the place which each guest occupied, is given in the article

[Illustration: A Feast. (Vatican Virgil MS.)]



COGNĀTI, COGNĀTĬO. The _cognatio_ was the relationship of blood
which existed between those who were sprung from a common pair;
and all persons so related were called _cognati_. The foundation
of _cognatio_ is a legal marriage. The term _cognatus_ (with some
exceptions) comprehends _agnatus_; an _agnatus_ may be a _cognatus_,
but a _cognatus_ is only an _agnatus_ when his relationship by blood
is traced through males. Those who were of the same blood by both
parents were sometimes called _germani_; _consanguinei_ were those
who had a common father only; and _uterini_ those who had a common
mother only.




CŌLĂCRĔTAE (κωλακρέται, also called κωλαγρέται), the name of very
ancient magistrates at Athens, who had the management of all
financial matters in the time of the kings. Cleisthenes deprived them
of the charge of the finances, which he transferred to the Apodectae.
[APODECTAE.] From this time the Colacretae had only to provide for
the meals in the Prytaneium, and subsequently to pay the fees to the
dicasts, when the practice of paying the dicasts was introduced by

COLLĒGĬUM. The persons who formed a collegium were called _collegae_
or _sodales_. The word collegium properly expressed the notion
of several persons being united in any office or for any common
purpose; it afterwards came to signify a body of persons, and the
union which bound them together. The collegium was the ἑταιρία of
the Greeks. The legal notion of a collegium was as follows:--A
collegium or corpus, as it was also called, must consist of three
persons at least. Persons who legally formed such an association were
said _corpus habere_, which is equivalent to our phrase of being
incorporated; and in later times they were said to be _corporati_,
and the body was called a _corporatio_. Associations of individuals,
who were entitled to have a corpus, could hold property in common.
Such a body, which was sometimes also called a _universitas_, was
a legal unity. That which was due to the body, was not due to the
individuals of it; and that which the body owed, was not the debt
of the individuals. The common property of the body was liable
to be seized and sold for the debts of the body. It does not
appear how collegia were formed, except that some were specially
established by legal authority. Other collegia were probably formed
by voluntary associations of individuals under the provisions of
some general legal authority, such as those of the publicani. Some
of these corporate bodies resembled our companies or guilds; such
were the _fabrorum_, _pistorum_, &c. _collegia_. Others were of a
religious character; such as the _pontificum_, _augurum_, _fratrum
arvalium collegia_. Others were bodies concerned about government and
administration; as _tribunorum plebis_, _quaestorum_, _decurionum
collegia_. According to the definition of a collegium, the consuls
being only two in number were not a collegium, though each was called
collega with respect to the other, and their union in office was
called collegium. When a new member was taken into a collegium, he
was said _co-optari_, and the old members were said with respect to
him, _recipere in collegium_. The mode of filling up vacancies would
vary in different collegia. The statement of their rules belongs to
the several heads of AUGUR, PONTIFEX, &c.

CŎLŌNĬA, a colony, contains the same element as the verb _colere_,
“to cultivate,” and as the word colonus, which probably originally
signified a “tiller of the earth.” (1) GREEK. The usual Greek words
for a colony are ἀποικία and κληρουχία. The latter word, which
signified a division of conquered lands among Athenian citizens,
and which corresponds in some respects to the Roman _colonia_, is
explained in the article CLERUCHI. The earlier Greek colonies, called
ἀποικίαι, were usually composed of mere bands of adventurers, who
left their native country, with their families and property, to
seek a new home for themselves. Some of the colonies, which arose
in consequence of foreign invasion or civil wars, were undertaken
without any formal consent from the rest of the community; but
usually a colony was sent out with the approbation of the mother
country, and under the management of a leader (οἰκιστής) appointed
by it. But whatever may have been the origin of the colony, it was
always considered in a political point of view independent of the
mother country, called by the Greeks _metropolis_ (μητρόπολις), the
“mother-city,” and entirely emancipated from its control. At the
same time, though a colony was in no political subjection to its
parent state, it was united to it by the ties of filial affection;
and, according to the generally received opinions of the Greeks, its
duties to the parent state corresponded to those of a daughter to
her mother. Hence, in all matters of common interest, the colony
gave precedence to the mother state; and the founder of the colony
(οἰκιστής), who might be considered as the representative of the
parent state, was usually worshipped, after his death, as a hero.
Also, when the colony became in its turn a parent, it usually sought
a leader for the colony which it intended to found from the original
mother country; and the same feeling of respect was manifested by
embassies which were sent to honour the principal festivals of the
parent state, and also by bestowing places of honour and other marks
of respect upon the ambassadors and other members of the parent
state, when they visited the colony at festivals and on similar
occasions. The colonists also worshipped in their new settlement
the same deities as they had been accustomed to honour in their
native country: the sacred fire, which was constantly kept burning
on their public hearth, was taken from the Prytaneium of the parent
city; and sometimes the priests also were brought from the mother
state. In the same spirit, it was considered a violation of sacred
ties for a mother country and a colony to make war upon one another.
The preceding account of the relations between the Greek colonies
and the mother country is supported by the history which Thucydides
gives us of the quarrel between Corcyra and Corinth. Corcyra was
a colony of Corinth, and Epidamnus a colony of Corcyra; but the
leader (οἰκιστής) of the colony of Epidamnus was a Corinthian who
was invited from the metropolis Corinth. In course of time, in
consequence of civil dissensions, and attacks from the neighbouring
barbarians, the Epidamnians apply for aid to Corcyra, but their
request is rejected. They next apply to the Corinthians, who took
Epidamnus under their protection, thinking, says Thucydides, that the
colony was no less theirs than the Corinthians’: and also induced to
do so through hatred of the Corcyraeans, because they neglected them
though they were colonists; for they did not give to the Corinthians
the customary honours and deference in the public solemnities and
sacrifices, which the other colonies were wont to pay to the mother
country. The Corcyraeans, who had become very powerful by sea,
took offence at the Corinthians receiving Epidamnus under their
protection, and the result was a war between Corcyra and Corinth.
The Corcyraeans sent ambassadors to Athens to ask assistance; and in
reply to the objection that they were a colony of Corinth, they said,
“that every colony, as long as it is treated kindly, respects the
mother country: but when it is injured, is alienated from it; for
colonists are not sent out as subjects, but that they may have equal
rights with those that remain at home.” It is true that ambitious
states, such as Athens, sometimes claimed dominion over other states
on the ground of relationship; but as a general rule, colonies may be
regarded as independent states, attached to their metropolis by ties
of sympathy and common descent, but no further. The case of Potidaea,
to which the Corinthians sent annually the chief magistrates
(δημιουργοί), appears to have been an exception to the general
rule.--(2) ROMAN. A kind of colonisation seems to have existed among
the oldest Italian nations, who, on certain occasions, sent out their
superfluous male population, with arms in their hands, to seek for a
new home. But these were apparently mere bands of adventurers, and
such colonies rather resembled the old Greek colonies, than those
by which Rome extended her dominion and her name. Colonies were
established by the Romans as far back as the annals or traditions
of the city extend, and the practice was continued, without
intermission, during the republic and under the empire. Colonies
were intended to keep in check a conquered people, and also to
repress hostile incursions; and their chief object was originally
the extension and preservation of the Roman dominion in Italy.
Cicero calls the old Italian colonies the _propugnacula imperii_.
Another object was to increase the power of Rome by increasing the
population. Sometimes the immediate object of a colony was to carry
off a number of turbulent and discontented persons. Colonies were
also established for the purpose of providing for veteran soldiers, a
practice which was begun by Sulla, and continued under the emperors;
these coloniae were called militares. The old Roman colonies were in
the nature of garrisons planted in conquered towns, and the colonists
had a portion of the conquered territory (usually a third part)
assigned to them. The inhabitants retained the rest of their lands,
and lived together with the new settlers, who alone composed the
proper colony. The conquered people must at first have been quite
a distinct class from, and inferior to, the colonists. No colonia
was established without a lex, plebiscitum, or senatusconsultum;
a fact which shows that a Roman colony was never a mere body of
adventurers, but had a regular organisation by the parent state.
When a law was passed for founding a colony, persons were appointed
to superintend its formation (_coloniam deducere_). These persons
varied in number, but three was a common number (_triumviri ad
colonos deducendos_). We also read of _duumviri_, _quinqueviri_,
_vigintiviri_ for the same purpose. The law fixed the quantity of
land that was to be distributed, and how much was to be assigned to
each person. No Roman could be sent out as a colonist without his
free consent, and when the colony was not an inviting one, it was
difficult to fill up the number of volunteers. The colonia proceeded
to its place of destination in the form of an army (_sub vexillo_),
which is indicated on the coins of some coloniae. An urbs, if one
did not already exist, was a necessary part of a new colony, and
its limits were marked out by a plough, which is also indicated on
ancient coins. The colonia had also a territory, which, whether
marked out by the plough or not, was at least marked out by metes
and bounds. Thus the urbs and territory of the colonia respectively
corresponded to the urbs Roma and its territory. Religious ceremonies
always accompanied the foundation of the colony, and the anniversary
was afterwards observed. It is stated that a colony could not be
sent out to the same place to which a colony had already been
sent in due form (_auspicato deducta_). This merely means, that
so long as the colony maintained its existence, there could be no
new colony in the same place; a doctrine that would hardly need
proof, for a new colony implied a new assignment of lands; but new
settlers (_novi adscripti_) might be sent to occupy colonial lands
not already assigned. Indeed it was not unusual for a colony to
receive additions, and a colony might be re-established, if it seemed
necessary, from any cause. The commissioners appointed to conduct the
colony had apparently a profitable office, and the establishment of a
new settlement gave employment to numerous functionaries, among whom
Cicero enumerates--_apparitores_, _scribae_, _librarii_, _praecones_,
_architecti_. The foundation of a colony might then, in many cases,
not only be a mere party measure, carried for the purpose of gaining
popularity, but it would give those in power an opportunity of
providing places for many of their friends.--The colonies founded by
the Romans were divided into two great classes of colonies of Roman
citizens and Latin colonies; names which had no reference to the
persons who formed the colonies, but merely indicated their political
rights with respect to Rome as members of the colony. The members of
a Roman colony (_colonia civium Romanorum_) preserved all the rights
of Roman citizens. The members of a Latin colony (_colonia Latina_)
ceased to have the full rights of Roman citizens. Probably some of
the old Latin colonies were established by the Romans in conjunction
with other Latin states. After the conquest of Latium, the Romans
established colonies, called Latin colonies, in various parts of
Italy. Roman citizens, who chose to join such colonies, gave up their
civic rights for the more solid advantage of a grant of land, and
became LATINI. [CIVITAS.] Such colonies were subject to, and part of,
the Roman state; but they did not possess the Roman franchise, and
had no political bond among themselves.--The lex Julia, passed B.C.
90, gave the Roman franchise to the members of the Latin colonies and
the Socii; and such Latin colonies and states of the Socii were then
called _municipia_, and became complete members of the Roman state.
Thus there was then really no difference between these municipia and
the Roman coloniae, except in their historical origin: the members of
both were Roman citizens, and the Roman law prevailed in both.--In
the colonies, as at Rome, the popular assembly had originally the
sovereign power; they chose the magistrates, and could even make
laws. When the popular assemblies became a mere form in Rome, and the
elections were transferred by Tiberius to the senate, the same thing
happened in the colonies, whose senates then possessed whatever power
had once belonged to the community. The common name of this senate
was _ordo decurionum_; in later times, simply _ordo_ and _curia_; the
members of it were _decuriones_ or _curiales_. Thus, in the later
ages, _curia_ is opposed to _senatus_, the former being the senate of
a colony, and the latter the senate of Rome. But the terms senatus
and senator were also applied to the senate and members of the
senate of a colony. After the decline of the popular assemblies, the
senate had the whole internal administration of a city, conjointly
with the magistratus; but only a decurio could be a magistratus, and
the choice was made by the decuriones. The highest magistratus of
a colonia were the _duumviri_ or _quattuorviri_, so called, as the
members might vary, whose functions may be compared with those of the
consulate at Rome before the establishment of the praetorship. The
name _duumviri_ seems to have been the most common. Their principal
duties were the administration of justice, and accordingly we find
on inscriptions “Duumviri J. D.” (_juri dicundo_), “Quattuorviri
J. D.” The name consul also occurs in inscriptions to denote this
chief magistracy; and even dictator and praetor occur under the
empire and under the republic. The office of the duumviri lasted a
year.--In some Italian towns there was a _praefectus juri dicundo_;
he was in the place of, and not co-existent with, the duumviri. The
duumviri were, as we have seen, originally chosen by the people;
but the praefectus was appointed annually in Rome, and sent to the
town called a _praefectura_, which might be either a municipium or a
colonia, for it was only in the matter of the praefectus that a town
called a praefectura differed from other Italian towns. Arpinum is
called both a municipium and a praefectura; and Cicero, a native of
this place, obtained the highest honours that Rome could confer.--The
_censor_, _curator_, or _quinquennalis_, all which names denote the
same functionary, was also a municipal magistrate, and corresponded
to the censor at Rome, and in some cases, perhaps, to the quaestor
also. Censors are mentioned in Livy as magistrates of the twelve
Latin colonies. The quinquennales were sometimes duumviri, sometimes
quattuorviri; but they are always carefully distinguished from the
duumviri and quattuorviri J. D.; and their functions were those of
censors. They held their office for one year, and during the four
intermediate years the functions were not exercised. The office of
censor or quinquennalis was higher in rank than that of the duumviri
J. D., and it could only be filled by those who had discharged the
other offices of the municipality.

CŎLOSSUS (κολοσσός) is used both by the Greeks and Romans to signify
a statue larger than life; but as such statues were very common, the
word was more frequently applied to designate figures of gigantic
dimensions. Such figures were first executed in Egypt, and were
afterwards made by the Greeks and Romans. Among the colossal statues
of Greece, the most celebrated was the bronze _colossus_ at Rhodes,
dedicated to the sun, the height of which was about 90 feet.

[Illustration: Colum. (Museo Borbonico, vol. viii. pl. 14.)]

CŌLUM (ἠθμός), a strainer or colander, was used for straining
wine, milk, olive-oil, and other liquids. Those that were used as
articles of luxury for straining wine were frequently made of some
metal, such as bronze or silver. Occasionally a piece of linen cloth
(σάκκος, _saccus_) was placed over the τρύγοιπος or _colum_, and the
wine (σακκίας, _saccatus_) filtered through. The use of the _saccus_
was considered objectionable for all delicate wines, since it was
believed to injure, if not entirely to destroy their flavour, and
in every instance to diminish the strength of the liquor. For this
reason it was employed by the dissipated in order that they might be
able to swallow a greater quantity without becoming intoxicated. The
double purpose of cooling and weakening was effectually accomplished
by placing ice or snow in the filter, which under such circumstances
became a _colum nivarium_, or _saccus nivarius_. The preceding
woodcut shows the plan and profile of a silver colum.

CŎLUMBĀRĬUM, a dovecot or pigeon-house, also signified a sepulchral
chamber formed to receive the ashes of the lower orders, or
dependants of great families; and in the plural, the niches in which
the cinerary urns (_ollae_) were deposited.

[Illustration: Ancient Columns.]

CŎLUMNA (κίων, στύλος), a pillar or column. The use of the trunks
of trees placed upright for supporting buildings, unquestionably
led to the adoption of similar supports wrought in stone. As the
tree required to be based upon a flat square stone, and to have
a stone or tile of similar form fixed on its summit to preserve
it from decay, so the column was made with a square base, and was
covered with an _abacus_. [ABACUS.] Hence the principal parts of
which every column consists are three, the base (_basis_), the shaft
(_scapus_), and the capital (_capitulum_). In the Doric, which
is the oldest style of Greek architecture, we must consider all
the columns in the same row as having one common base (_podium_),
whereas in the Ionic and Corinthian each column has a separate base,
called _spira_. The capitals of these two latter orders show, on
comparison with the Doric, a much richer style of ornament; and
the character of lightness and elegance is further obtained in
them by their more slender shaft, its height being much greater in
proportion to its thickness. Of all these circumstances some idea
may be formed by the inspection of the three accompanying specimens
of pillars. The first on the left hand is Doric, the second Ionic,
and the third Corinthian. In all the orders the shaft tapers from
the bottom towards the top. The shaft was, however, made with a
slight swelling in the middle, which was called the _entasis_. It
was, moreover, almost universally channelled or fluted. Columns
were used in the interior of buildings, to sustain the beams which
supported the ceiling. Rows of columns were often employed within
a building, to enclose a space open to the sky. Beams supporting
ceilings passed from above the columns to the adjoining walls, so
as to form covered passages or ambulatories (στοαί). Such a circuit
of columns was called a _peristyle_ (περίστυλον), and the Roman
_atrium_ was built upon this plan. The largest and most splendid
temples enclosed an open space like an atrium, which was accomplished
by placing one peristyle upon another. In such cases, the lower
rows of columns being Doric, the upper were sometimes Ionic or
Corinthian, the lighter being properly based upon the heavier. A
temple so constructed was called _hypaethral_ (ὕπαιθρος). But it was
on the exterior of public buildings, and especially of temples, that
columns were displayed in the most beautiful combinations, either
surrounding the building entirely, or arranged in porticoes on one
or more of its fronts. [TEMPLUM.] Their original and proper use was,
of course, to support the roof of the building; and, amidst all the
elaborations of architectural design, this object was still kept in
view. On the summit of the row of columns rests the _architrave_,
i.e. _chief beam_ (ἐπιστύλιον, _epistylium_): above this is the
_frieze_ (ζωοφόρος, ζωφόρος, _zophorus_), in which the most ancient
order, namely the Doric, shows, in its triglyphs, what were
originally the ends of the cross-beams: in the other orders these
ends are generally concealed, and the frieze forms a flat surface,
which is frequently ornamented by figures in relief, whence its Greek
name. Above the frieze projects the cornice (κορωνίς, _coronis_ or
_corona_), forming a handsome finish to the entablature (for so these
three members taken together are called), and also, on the sides of
the building, serving to unite the ends of the rafters of the roof.
The triangular gable-end of the roof, above the entablature, is
called the _pediment_. [FASTIGIUM.]--Columns in long rows were used
in aquaeducts, and single pillars were fixed in harbours for mooring
ships.--Single columns were also erected to commemorate persons or
events. Among these, some of the most remarkable were the _columnae
rostratae_, called by that name because three ship-beaks proceeded
from each side of them, designed to record successful engagements at
sea. The most important and celebrated of those which yet remain,
is one erected in honour of the consul C. Duillius, on occasion of
his victory over the Carthaginian fleet, B.C. 261. Columns were also
employed to commemorate the dead. The column on the right hand in the
last woodcut exhibits that which the senate erected to the honour of
the Emperor Trajan. Similar columns were erected to the memory of
many of the Roman emperors.

[Illustration: Columna Rostrata. Columna Trajana.]

CŎLUMNĀRĬUM, a tax imposed in the time of Julius Caesar upon the
pillars that supported a house. The _Ostiarium_ was a similar tax.
[OSTIARIUM.] The _columnarium_, levied by Metellus Scipio in Syria in
B.C. 49-48, was a tax of a similar kind, but was simply an illegal
means of extorting money from the provincials.

CŎLUS, a distaff. [FUSUS.]

[Illustration: Greek Head-dresses. (From Ancient Vases.)

The left-hand figure on the top wears a κεκρύφαλος proper
(_reticulum_). Of the two bottom figures, the one on the left-hand
wears a μίτρα, and the one on the right a σάκκος.]

CŎMA (κόμη, κουρά), the hair. (1) GREEK. In the earliest times the
Greeks wore their hair long, and thus they are constantly called in
Homer καρηκομόωντες Ἀχαιοί. The Spartan boys always had their hair
cut quite short (ἐν χρῷ κείροντες); but as soon as they reached
the age of puberty (ἔφηβοι), they let it grow long. Before going
to battle they combed and dressed it with especial care. It seems
that both Spartan men and women tied their hair in a knot over the
crown of the head. The custom of the Athenians was different. They
wore their hair long in childhood, and cut it off when they reached
the age of puberty. The cutting off of the hair, which was always
done when a boy became an ἔφηβος, was a solemn act, attended with
religious ceremonies. A libation was first offered to Hercules,
which was called οἰνιστήρια or οἰνιαστήρια, and the hair after being
cut off was dedicated to some deity, usually a river-god. But when
the Athenians passed into the age of manhood, they again let their
hair grow. In ancient times at Athens the hair was rolled up into
a kind of knot on the crown of the head, and fastened with golden
clasps in the shape of grasshoppers. This fashion of wearing the
hair was called κρωβύλος, and in the case of females κόρυμβος. The
heads of females were frequently covered with a kind of band or a
coif of net-work. Of these coiffures one was called σφενδόνη, which
was a broad band across the forehead, sometimes made of metal, and
sometimes of leather, adorned with gold. But the most common kind of
head-dress for females was called by the general name of κεκρύφαλος,
and this was divided into the three species of κεκρύφαλος, σάκκος,
and μίτρα. The κεκρύφαλος, in its narrower sense, was a caul or coif
of net-work, corresponding to the Latin _reticulum_. These hair-nets
were frequently made of gold threads, sometimes of silk, or the
Elean byssus, and probably of other materials. The σάκκος and the
μίτρα were, on the contrary, made of close materials. The σάκκος
covered the head entirely like a sack or bag; it was made of various
materials, such as silk, byssus, and wool. The μίτρα was a broad band
of cloth of different colours, which was wound round the hair, and
was worn in various ways. It was originally an Eastern head-dress,
and may, therefore, be compared to the modern turban. The Roman
_calautica_ or _calvatica_ is said by Servius to have been the same
as the _mitra_, but in a passage in the Digest they are mentioned as
if they were distinct.--With respect to the colour of the hair, black
was the most frequent, but _blonde_ (ξανθὴ κόμη) was the most prized.
In Homer, Achilles, Ulysses, and other heroes are represented with
blonde hair. At a later time it seems to have been not unfrequent
to dye hair, so as to make it either black or blonde, and this
was done by men as well as by women, especially when the hair was
growing gray.--(2) ROMAN. Besides the generic _coma_ we also find
the following words signifying the hair: _capillus_, _caesaries_,
_crines_, _cincinnus_, and _cirrus_, the two last words being used to
signify curled hair. In early times the Romans wore their hair long,
and hence the Romans of the Augustan age designated their ancestors
_intonsi_ and _capillati_. But after the introduction of barbers into
Italy about B.C. 300, it became the practice to wear the hair short.
The women, too, originally dressed their hair with great simplicity,
but in the Augustan period a variety of different head-dresses came
into fashion. Sometimes these head-dresses were raised to a great
height by rows of false curls. So much attention did the Roman ladies
devote to the dressing of the hair, that they kept slaves especially
for this purpose, called _ornatrices_, and had them instructed by a
master in the art. Most of the Greek head-dresses mentioned above
were also worn by the Roman ladies; but the _mitrae_ appear to
have been confined to prostitutes. One of the simplest modes of
wearing the hair was allowing it to fall down in tresses behind, and
only confining it by a band encircling the head. [VITTA.] Another
favourite plan was platting the hair, and then fastening it behind
with a large pin. Blonde hair was as much prized by the Romans as by
the Greeks, and hence the Roman ladies used a kind of composition or
wash to make it appear this colour (_spuma caustica_). False hair or
wigs (φενάκη, πηνίκη, _galerus_) were worn both by Greeks and Romans.
Among both people likewise in ancient times the hair was cut close in
mourning [FUNUS]; and among both the slaves had their hair cut close
as a mark of servitude.

CŌMISSĀTĬO (derived from κῶμος), the name of a drinking
entertainment, which took place after the coena, from which, however,
it must be distinguished. The comissatio was frequently prolonged to
a late hour at night, whence the verb _comissari_ means “to revel,”
and the substantive _comissator_ a “reveller,” or “debauchee.”

CŎMĬTĬA. This word is formed from _co_, _cum_, or _con_, and _ire_,
and therefore _comitium_ is a place of meeting, and _comitia_ the
meeting itself, or the assembled people. In the Roman constitution
the comitia were the ordinary and legal meetings or assemblies of the
people, and distinct from the _contiones_ and _concilia_. All the
powers of government were divided at Rome between the senate, the
magistrates, and the people in their assemblies. Properly speaking,
the people alone (the _populus_) was the real sovereign by whom the
power was delegated to the magistrates and the senate. The sovereign
people or populus, however, was not the same at all times. In the
earliest times of Rome the populus consisted of the patricians (or
patres) only, the plebs and the clients forming no part of the
populus, but being without the pale of the state. The original
populus was divided into thirty _curiae_, and the assembly of these
curiae (the _comitia curiata_) was the only assembly in which the
populus was represented. A kind of amalgamation of the patricians
and the plebs afterwards appeared in the comitia of the centuries,
instituted by king Servius Tullius, and henceforth the term populus
was applied to the united patricians and plebeians assembled in the
_comitia centuriata_. But Servius had also made a local division
of the whole Roman territory into thirty tribes, which held their
meetings in assemblies called _comitia tributa_, which, in the course
of time, acquired the character of national assemblies, so that the
people thus assembled were likewise designated by the term populus.

We shall examine in order the nature, power, and business of each of
these different comitia. (1) COMITIA CURIATA consisted of the members
of the thirty curiae, that is, the patricians, who formed exclusively
the populus in the early times. They were convened, in the kingly
period, by the king himself, or by his tribunus celerum, and in the
king’s absence by the praefectus urbi. After the death of a king the
comitia were held by the interrex. In the republican period, the
president was always one of the high patrician magistrates, viz. a
consul, praetor, or dictator. They were called together by lictors
or heralds. The votes were given by curiae, each curia having one
collective vote; but within a curia each citizen belonging to it
had an independent vote, and the majority of the members of a curia
determined the vote of the whole curia. The meeting was always held
in the comitium. The comitia curiata did not possess much power in
the kingly period. They could only be called together when the king
(or his representative) chose, and could only determine upon matters
which the king submitted to them. The main points upon which the
populus had to decide were the election of the king, the passing of
laws, declarations of war, the capital punishment of Roman citizens,
and, lastly, certain affairs of the curiae and gentes. The priestly
officers, such as the Curiones, Flamines Curiales, were likewise
either elected by the curiae, or at least inaugurated by them. The
right of finally deciding upon the life of Roman citizens (_judicia
de capite civis Romani_) is said to have been given to the populus
by king Tullus Hostilius. It must further be remarked, that when the
king had been elected, the populus held a second meeting, in which he
was formally inducted into his new office. This formality was called
_lex curiata de imperio_, whereby the king received his _imperium_,
together with the right of holding the comitia. Down to the time of
Servius Tullius, the comitia curiata were the only popular assemblies
of Rome, and remained of course in the undiminished possession of the
rights above described; but the constitution of that king brought
about a great change, by transferring the principal rights which
had hitherto been enjoyed by the curiae to a new national assembly
or the comitia centuriata. But while the patricians were obliged to
share their rights with the plebeians, they reserved for themselves
the very important right of sanctioning or rejecting any measure
which had been passed by the centuries. The sanction of decrees
passed by the centuries is often expressed by _patres auctores
fiunt_, and down to the time of the Publilian law no decree of the
centuries could become law without this sanction. By the Publilian
law (B.C. 339) it was enacted that the curiae should give their
assent before the vote of the comitia centuriata; so that the veto
of the curiae was thus virtually abolished. The comitia curiata thus
became a mere formality, and, instead of the thirty curiae themselves
giving their votes, the ceremony was performed by thirty lictors.
The comitia of the curiae were also called COMITIA CALATA or “the
summoned comitia” (from _calare_, i.e. _vocare_), when summoned for
the purposes mentioned below:--1. On the calends it was proclaimed
to the comitia calata on what day of the new month the nones fell,
and perhaps also the ides as well as the nature of the other days,
namely, whether they were fasti or nefasti, comitiales, feriae,
&c., because all these things were known in the early times to the
pontiffs exclusively. 2. The inauguration of the flamines, and after
the banishment of the kings, also that of the rex sacrorum. 3. The
_testamenti factio_, or the making of a will. 4. The _detestatio
sacrorum_, which was in all probability an act connected with the
testamenti factio, that is, a solemn declaration, by which the heir
was enjoined to undertake the sacra privata of the testator along
with the reception of his property. The comitia calata were summoned
by the college of pontiffs, who also presided in them.

(2) COMITIA CENTURIATA. The object of the legislation of Servius
Tullius was to unite the different elements of which the Roman
people consisted, into one great political body, in which power and
influence were to be determined by property and age. The whole people
was conceived as an army (_exercitus_), and was therefore divided
into two parts, the cavalry (_equites_), and infantry (_pedites_).
The infantry was divided into five classes, or, as Dionysius has
it, into six classes, for he regards the whole body of people,
whose property did not come up to the census of the fifth class,
as a sixth. The class to which a citizen belonged determined the
_tributum_, or war tax, he had to pay, as well as the kind of service
he had to perform in the army and the armour in which he had to
serve. But for the purpose of voting in the comitia, each class was
subdivided into a number of centuries (_centuriae_, probably because
each was conceived to contain 100 men, though the centuries may have
greatly differed in the number of men they contained). Hence the name
of _Comitia Centuriata_. Each century was divided into the _seniores_
and the _juniores_. Each century, further, was counted as one vote,
so that a class had as many votes as it contained centuries. In
like manner, the equites were divided into a number of centuries or
votes. The two principal authorities on these subdivisions are Livy
and Dionysius. The annexed table will show the census as well as the
number of centuries or votes assigned to each class.

        _According to Livy._                 _According to Dionysius._
    I. Classis. Census: 100,000 asses.   I. Classis. Census: 100 minae.
       40 centuriae seniorum.               40 centuriae seniorum.
       40 centuriae juniorum.               40 centuriae juniorum.
        2 centuriae fabrum.
   II. Classis. Census: 75,000 asses.   II. Classis. Census: 75 minae.
       10 centuriae seniorum.               10 centuriae seniorum.
       10 centuriae juniorum.               10 centuriae juniorum.
                                             2 centuriae fabrum (one
                                                voting with the seniores
                                                and the other with the
  III. Classis. Census: 50,000 asses.  III. Classis. Census: 50 minae.
       10 centuriae seniorum.               10 centuriae seniorum.
       10 centuriae juniorum.               10 centuriae juniorum.
   IV. Classis. Census: 25,000 asses.   IV. Classis. Census: 25 minae.
       10 centuriae seniorum.               10 centuriae seniorum.
       10 centuriae juniorum.               10 centuriae juniorum.
                                             2 centuriae cornicinum and
                                                tubicinum (one voting with
                                                the seniores, and the
                                                other with the juniores).
    V. Classis. Census: 11,000 asses.    V. Classis. Census: 12½ minae.
       15 centuriae seniorum.               15 centuriae seniorum.
       15 centuriae juniorum.               15 centuriae juniorum.
        3 centuriae accensorum,         VI. Classis. Census: below 12½
           cornicinum, tubicinum.           minae.
        1 centuria capite censorum.          1 centuria capite censorum.

According to both Dionysius and Livy, the equites voted in eighteen
centuries before the seniores of the first class; and hence there
were, according to Livy, 194, and, according to Dionysius, 193
centuries or votes. The latter number is the more probable, since
Livy’s even number of 194 centuries would have rendered it impossible
to obtain an absolute majority. In this manner all Roman citizens,
whether patricians or plebeians, who had property to a certain
amount, were privileged to take part and vote in the centuriata
comitia, and none were excluded except slaves, peregrini, women and
the aerarii. The juniores were all men from the age of seventeen to
that of forty-six, and the seniores all men from the age of forty-six
upwards. The order of voting was arranged in such a manner, that if
the eighteen centuries of the equites and the eighty centuries of
the first class were agreed upon a measure, the question was decided
at once, there being no need for calling upon the other classes to
vote. Hence, although all Roman citizens appeared in these comitia
on a footing of equality, yet by far the greater power was thrown
into the hands of the wealthy.--As regards the functions of the
comitia centuriata, they were--(a.) _The election of magistrates._
The magistrates that were elected by the centuries are the consuls
(whence the assembly is called _comitia consularia_), the praetors
(hence _comitia praetoria_), the military tribunes with consular
power, the censors, and the decemvirs. (b.) _Legislation._ The
legislative power of the centuries at first consisted in their
passing or rejecting a measure which was brought before them by the
presiding magistrate in the form of a senatus consultum, so that
the assembly had no right of originating any legislative measure,
but voted only upon such as were brought before them as resolutions
of the senate. (c.) _The decision upon war_, on the ground of a
senatus consultum, likewise belonged to the centuries. Peace was
concluded by a mere senatus consultum, and without any co-operation
of the people. (d.) _The highest judicial power._ The comitia
centuriata were in the first place the highest court of appeal, and
in the second, they had to try all offences committed against the
state; hence, all cases of _perduellio_ and _majestas_: and no case
involving the life of a Roman citizen could be decided by any other
court. The sanction of the curiae to the measures of the centuriae
has been already explained.--The comitia centuriata could be held
only on _dies comitiales_ or _fasti_, on which it was lawful to
transact business with the people, and the number of such days in
every year was about 190; but on _dies nefasti_ (that is, _dies
festi_, _feriati_, comp. DIES), and, at first also on the nundinae,
no comitia could be held, until in B.C. 287 the Hortensian law
ordained that the nundinae should be regarded as dies fasti.--The
place where the centuries met was the Campus Martius, which contained
the septa for the voters, a tabernaculum for the president, and the
villa publica for the augurs.--The president at the comitia was the
same magistrate who convoked them, and this right was a privilege of
the consuls, and, in their absence, of the praetors. An interrex and
dictator also, or his representative, the magister equitum, might
likewise convene and preside at the comitia. One of the main duties
devolving upon the president, and which he had to perform before
holding the comitia, was to consult the auspices (_auspicari_). When
the auspices were favourable, the people were called together, which
was done by three successive and distinct acts: the first was quite
a general invitation to come to the assembly (_inlicium_). At the
same time when this invitation was proclaimed _circum moeros_ or
_de moeris_, a horn was blown, which being the more audible signal,
is mentioned by some writers alone, and without the inlicium. When
upon this signal the people assembled in irregular masses, there
followed the second call by the accensus, or the call _ad contionem_
or _conventionem_; that is, to a regular assembly, and the crowd
then separated, grouping themselves according to their classes and
ages. Hereupon the consul appeared, ordering the people to come _ad
comitia centuriata_; and led the whole _exercitus_--for, in these
comitia, the Roman people are always conceived as an exercitus--out
of the city, to the Campus Martius.--It was customary from the
earliest times for an armed force to occupy the Janiculum, when the
people were assembled in the Campus Martius, for the purpose of
protecting the city against any sudden attack of the neighbouring
people; and on the Janiculum a vexillum was hoisted during the whole
time that the assembly lasted. This custom continued to be observed
even at the time when Rome had no longer anything to fear from the
neighbouring tribes.--When the people were thus regularly assembled,
the business was commenced with a solemn sacrifice, and a prayer of
the president, who then took his seat on his tribunal. The president
then opened the business by explaining to the people the subject
for which they had been convened, and concluded his exposition with
the words, _velitis, jubeatis Quirites_, e.g. _bellum indici_, or
_ut M. Tullio aqua igni interdictum sit_, or whatever the subject
might be. This formula was the standing one in all comitia, and the
whole exposition of the president was called _rogatio_. When the
comitia were assembled for the purpose of an election, the presiding
magistrate had to read out the names of the candidates, and might
exercise his influence by recommending the one whom he thought most
fit for the office in question. If the assembly had been convened
for the purpose of passing a legislative measure, the president
usually recommended the proposal, or he might grant to others, if
they desired it, permission to speak about the measure, either in
its favour or against it (_Contionem dare_). When the comitia acted
as a court of justice, the president stated the crime, proposed the
punishment to be inflicted upon the offender, and then allowed others
to speak either in defence of the accused or against him. When the
subject brought before the assembly was sufficiently discussed, the
president called upon the people to prepare for voting by the words,
_ite in suffragium, bene juvantibus diis_. He then passed the stream
Petronia, and went to the _septa_.--Respecting the mode of voting,
it is commonly supposed that the people were always polled by word
of mouth, till the passing of the leges tabellariae about the middle
of the second century before Christ, when the ballot by means of
tabellae was introduced. [LEGES TABELLARIAE.] It appears, however,
that the popular assemblies voted by ballot, as well as by word of
mouth, long before the passing of the leges tabellariae, but that
instead of using tabellae, they employed stones or pebbles (the Greek
ψῆφοι), and that each voter received two stones, one white and the
other black, the former to be used in the approval and the latter in
the condemnation of a measure. The voting by word of mouth seems to
have been adopted in elections and trials, and the use of pebbles to
have been confined to the enactment and repeal of laws. Previous to
the leges tabellariae, the rogatores, who subsequently collected the
written votes, stood at the entrance of the septa, and asked every
citizen for his vote, which was taken down, and used to determine
the vote of each century. After the introduction of the ballot, if
the business was the passing of a law, each citizen was provided
with two tabellae, one inscribed V. R. _i.e._ _Uti Rogas_, “I vote
for the law,” the other inscribed A. _i.e._ _Antiquo_, “I am for the
old law.” If the business was the election of a magistrate, each
citizen was supplied with only one tablet, on which the names of the
candidates were written, or the initials of their names; the voter
then placed a mark (_punctum_) against the one for whom he voted,
whence _puncta_ are spoken of in the sense of votes. For further
particulars respecting the voting in the comitia, see DIRIBITORES
and SITULA. In judicial assemblies every citizen was provided with
three tabellae, one of which was marked with A. _i.e._ _Absolvo_,
“I acquit;” the second with C. _i.e._ _Condemno_, “I condemn;” and
the third with N. L. _i.e._ _Non Liquet_, “It is not clear to me.”
The first of these was called _Tabella absolutoria_ and the second
_Tabella damnatoria_, and hence Cicero calls the former _litera
salutaris_, and the latter _litera tristis_.--There were in the
Campus Martius septa or inclosures (whether they existed from the
earliest times is unknown), into which one class of citizens was
admitted after another for the purpose of voting. The first that
entered were the eighteen centuries of the equites, then followed
the first class and so on. It very rarely happened that the lowest
class was called upon to vote, as there was no necessity for it,
unless the first class did not agree with the equites. After the time
when the comitia of the centuries became amalgamated with those of
the tribes, a large space near the villa publica was surrounded with
an enclosure, and divided into compartments for the several tribes.
The whole of this enclosure was called _ovile, septa, carceres_, or
_cancelli_; and in later times a stone building, containing the whole
people, was erected; it was divided into compartments for the classes
as well as the tribes and centuries; the access to these compartments
was formed by narrow passages called _pontes_ or _ponticuli_. On
entering, the citizens received their tablets, and when they had
consulted within the enclosures, they passed out of them again by a
_pons_ or _ponticulus_, at which they threw their vote into a chest
(_cista_) which was watched by _rogatores_. Hereupon the _rogatores_
collected the tablets, and gave them to the _diribitores_, who
classified and counted the votes, and then handed them over to the
_custodes_, who again checked them off by points marked on a tablet.
The order in which the centuries voted was determined in the Servian
constitution, in the manner described above; but after the union of
the centuries and tribes, the order was determined by lot; and this
was a matter of no slight importance, since it frequently happened
that the vote of the first determined the manner in which subsequent
ones voted. In the case of elections, the successful candidate was
proclaimed twice, first by the praeco, and then by the president, and
without this renuntiatio the election was not valid. After all the
business was done, the president pronounced a prayer, and dismissed
the assembly with the word _discedite_.--Cases are frequently
mentioned in which the proceedings of the assembly were disturbed,
so that it was necessary to defer the business till another day.
This occurred--1, when it was discovered that the auspices had been
unfavourable, or when the gods manifested their displeasure by rain,
thunder, or lightning; 2, when a tribune interceded; 3, when the sun
set before the business was over, for it was a principle that the
auspices were valid only for one day from sunrise to sunset; 4, when
a _morbus comitialis_ occurred, _i.e._ when one of the assembled
citizens was seized with an epileptic fit; 5, when the vexillum was
taken away from the Janiculum, this being a signal which all citizens
had to obey; 6, when any tumult or insurrection broke out in the city.

(3) COMITIA TRIBUTA. These assemblies likewise were called into
existence by the constitution of Servius Tullius, who divided the
Roman territory into thirty local tribes. It is a disputed question
whether the patricians were originally included in these tribes; but,
whether they were or not, it is certain, that by far the majority
of the people in the tribes were plebeians, and that, consequently,
the character of these assemblies was essentially plebeian. After
the decemvirate, the patricians had certainly the right of voting in
the assemblies of the tribes, which were then also convened by the
higher magistrates. The assemblies of the tribes had originally only
a local power; they were intended to collect the tributum, and to
furnish the contingents for the army; they may further have discussed
the internal affairs of each tribe, such as the making or keeping
up of roads, wells, and the like. But their influence gradually
increased, and they at length acquired the following powers:--1.
_The election of the inferior magistrates_, whose office it was to
protect the commonalty or to superintend the affairs of the tribes.
Hence the tribunes of the plebs were elected in the comitia tributa.
In like manner, the aediles were elected by them, though the curule
aediles were elected at a different time from the plebeian aediles
and under the presidency of a consul. At a still later time, the
quaestors and tribunes of the soldiers, who had before been appointed
by the consuls, were appointed in the assemblies of the tribes. The
proconsuls to be sent into the provinces, and the prolongation of
the imperium for a magistrate who was already in a province, were
likewise points which were determined by the tribes in later times.
The inferior magistrates elected by the tribes are:--the triumviri
capitales, triumviri monetales, the curatores viarum, decemviri
litibus judicandis, tribuni aerarii, magistri vicorum et pagorum,
praefecti annonae, duumviri navales, quinqueviri muris turribusque
reficiendis, triumviri coloniae deducendae, triumviri, quatuorviri,
&c., mensarii, and lastly, after the Domitian law, B.C. 104, also the
members of colleges of priests. The pontifex maximus had been elected
by the people from an earlier time. 2. _The legislative power_ of
the comitia tributa was at first very insignificant, for all they
could do was to make regulations concerning the local affairs of
the tribes. But after a time, when the tribes began to be the real
representatives of the people, matters affecting the whole people
also were brought before them by the tribunes, which, framed as
resolutions, were laid before the senate, where they might either
be sanctioned or rejected. This practice of the tributa comitia
gradually acquired for them the right of taking the initiative in
any measure, or the right of originating measures, until, in B.C.
449, this right was recognised and sanctioned by a law of L. Valerius
Publicola and M. Horatius Barbatus. This law gave to the decrees
passed by the tribes the power of a real _lex_, binding upon the
whole people, provided they obtained the sanction of the senate and
the populus, that is, the people assembled in the comitia curiata or
in the comitia centuriata. In B.C. 339, the Publilian law enacted
_ut plebiscita omnes Quirites tenerent_. This law was either a
re-enactment of the one passed in B.C. 449, or contained a more
detailed specification of the cases in which plebiscita should be
binding upon the whole nation, or, lastly, it made their validity
independent of the sanction of other comitia, so that nothing would
be required except the assent of the senate. In B.C. 287, the
Hortensian law was passed, which seems to have been only a revival
and a confirmation of the two preceding laws, for it was framed in
almost the same terms; but it may also be, that the Hortensian law
made the plebiscita independent of the sanction of the senate, so
that henceforth the comitia tributa were quite independent in their
legislative character. 3. _The judicial power_ of the comitia tributa
was much more limited than that of the comitia centuriata, inasmuch
as they could take cognizance only of offences against the majesty of
the people, while all crimes committed against the state were brought
before the centuries. Even patricians, when they had offended against
the commonalty or its members, were tried and fined by the tribes.
This again constitutes a difference between the judicial power of
the centuries and that of the tribes, for the former could inflict
capital punishment, but the latter only fines. The comitia tributa
might assemble either within or without the city, but not farther
from it than 1000 paces, because the power of the tribunes did not
extend farther. For elections the Campus Martius was usually chosen,
but sometimes also the forum, the Capitol, or the Circus Flaminius.
The presidents were commonly the tribunes, who were supported by the
aediles, and no matter could be brought before the tribes without
the knowledge and consent of the tribunes. As the comitia tributa,
however, more and more assumed the character of national assemblies,
the higher magistrates also sometimes acted as presidents, though
perhaps not without previously obtaining the permission of the
tribunes. The preparations for the comitia tributa were less formal
and solemn than for those of the centuries. In the case of elections,
the candidates had to give in their names, and the president
communicated them to the people. When a legislative measure was to
be brought before the assembly, a tribune made the people acquainted
with it in _contiones_, and that on the three preceding nundines. The
same was the case when the people were to meet as a court of justice.
The auspicia were not consulted for the comitia of the tribes, but
the _spectio_ alone was sufficient, and the tribunes had the right
of _obnuntiatio_. In the comitia the tribune who had been chosen to
preside sat on the tribunal supported by his colleagues, and laid
before the people the subject of the meeting, concluding with the
words _velitis, jubeatis Quirites_. The bill was never read by the
tribune himself, but by a praeco, and then began the debates, in
which persons might either oppose or recommend the measure, though
private persons had to ask the tribunes for permission to speak.
When the discussion was over the president called upon the people
_ite in suffragium_, as at the comitia centuriata. They then formed
themselves into their tribes, which, like the centuries, ascertained
their own votes in enclosures (septa). Which of the 35 tribes was
to give its vote first, was determined by lot, and that tribe was
called _praerogativa_ or _principium_ (the others were termed _jure
vocatae_). The vote of the first tribe was given by some person of
distinction whose name was mentioned in the plebiscitum, if it was
of a legislative nature. The manner of collecting the votes was, on
the whole, the same as in the comitia centuriata. The announcing of
the result of the votes was the _renuntiatio_. If it so happened that
two candidates had the same number of votes, the question was decided
by drawing lots. The circumstances which might cause the meeting to
break up and defer its business till another day, are the same as
those which put an end to the comitia centuriata.

(4) _The comitia centuriata mixed with the comitia tributa._--The
Servian constitution was retained unaltered so long as no great
change took place in the republic; but when the coinage and the
standard of property had become altered, when the constitution of
the army had been placed on a different footing, and, above all,
when the plebeians began to be recognized as a great and essential
element in the Roman state, it must have been found inconvenient to
leave to the equites and the first class so great a preponderance in
the comitia of the centuries, and it became necessary to secure more
power and influence to the democratic element. A change, therefore,
took place, and the comitia centuriata became mixed with the comitia
tributa; but neither the time nor the exact nature of this change
is accurately ascertained. Some refer it to the censorship of C.
Flaminius, B.C. 220, others to that of Q. Fabius and P. Decius,
B.C. 304. But there is evidence that it must be assigned to even an
earlier date than this, for the (tribus) praerogativa is mentioned
as early as B.C. 396 in the election of the consular tribunes, where
the pure comitia tributa cannot be meant, and a centuria praerogativa
is a thing unknown. With regard to the manner of the change, the
most probable opinion is, that the citizens of each tribe were
divided into five property classes, each consisting of seniores and
juniores, so that each of the 35 tribes contained ten centuries,
and all the tribes together 350 centuries. According to this new
arrangement, the five ancient classes, divided into seniores and
juniores, continued to exist as before, but henceforth they were
most closely united with the tribes, whereas before the tribes had
been mere local divisions and entirely independent of property. The
union now effected was that the classes became subdivisions of the
tribes, and that accordingly centuries occur both in the classes
and in the tribes. Each tribe contained ten centuries, two of the
first class (one of the seniores and one of the juniores), two of
the second (likewise seniores and juniores), two of the third, two
of the fourth, and two of the fifth class. The equites were likewise
divided according to tribes and centuries, and they seem to have
voted with the first class, and to have been in fact included in it,
so as to be called centuries of the first class. The centuries of
the cornicines, tubicines and fabri, which are no longer mentioned,
probably ceased to exist as distinct centuries. The voting by tribes
can hardly be conceived, except in those cases in which the ten
centuries of every tribe were unanimous; this may have been the
case very often, and when it was so, the tribus praerogativa was
certainly the tribe chosen by lot to give its unanimous vote first.
But if there was any difference of opinion among the centuries making
up a tribe, the true majority could only be ascertained by choosing
by lot one of the 70 centuriae of the first class to give its vote
first, or rather it was decided by lot from which tribe the two
centuries of the first class were to be taken to give their vote
first. (Hence the plural _praerogativae_.) The tribe, moreover, to
which those centuries belonged which voted first, was itself likewise
called tribus praerogativa. Of the two centuries, again, that of
seniores gave its vote before the juniores, and in the documents
both were called by the name of their tribe, as _Galeria juniorum_,
_i.e._ the juniores of the first class in the tribus Galeria,
_Aniensis juniorum, Veturia juniorum_. As soon as the praerogativa
had voted, the renuntiatio took place, and the remaining centuries
then deliberated whether they should vote the same way or not. When
this was done all the centuries of the first tribe proceeded to vote
at once, for there would not have been time for the 350 centuries
to vote one after another, as was done by the 193 centuries in
the comitia centuriata.--These comitia of the centuries combined
with the tribes were far more democratical than the comitia of the
centuries; they continued to be held, and preserved their power along
with the comitia tributa, even after the latter had acquired their
supreme importance in the republic. During the time of the moral and
political corruption of the Romans, the latter appear to have been
chiefly attended by the populace, which was guided by the tribunes,
and the wealthier and more respectable citizens had little influence
in them. When the libertini and all the Italians were incorporated
in the old thirty-five tribes, and when the political corruption had
reached its height, no trace of the sedate and moderate character was
left by which the comitia tributa had been distinguished in former
times. Under Augustus the comitia still sanctioned new laws and
elected magistrates, but their whole proceedings were a mere farce,
for they could not venture to elect any other persons than those
recommended by the emperor. Tiberius deprived the people even of this
shadow of their former power, and conferred the power of election
upon the senate. When the elections were made by the senate the
result was announced to the people assembled as comitia centuriata
or tributa. Legislation was taken away from the comitia entirely,
and was completely in the hands of the senate and the emperor. From
this time the comitia may be said to have ceased to exist, as all the
sovereign power formerly possessed by the people was conferred upon
the emperor by the lex regia. [LEX REGIA.]

COMMĔĀTUS, a furlough, or leave of absence from the army for a
certain time.

COMMENTĀRĬUS or COMMENTĀRĬUM, a book of memoirs or memorandum-book,
whence the expression _Caesaris Commentarii_. It is also used for a
lawyer’s brief, the notes of a speech, &c.


CŌMOEDĬA (κωμῳδία), comedy. (1) GREEK. Comedy took its rise at the
vintage festivals of Dionysus. It originated with those who led
off the phallic songs of the band of revellers (κῶμος), who at the
vintage festivals of Dionysus gave expression to the feelings of
exuberant joy and merriment which were regarded as appropriate to
the occasion, by parading about, partly on foot, partly in waggons,
with the symbol of the productive powers of nature, singing a wild,
jovial song in honour of Dionysus and his companions. These songs
were commonly interspersed with, or followed by petulant, extemporal
witticisms with which the revellers assailed the bystanders. This
origin of comedy is indicated by the name κωμῳδία, which undoubtedly
means “the song of the κῶμος,” though it has sometimes been derived
from κώμη, as if the meaning were “a village song.” It was among the
Dorians that comedy first assumed any thing of a regular shape. The
Megarians, both in the mother country and in Sicily, claimed to be
considered as its originators, and so far as the comedy of Athens
is concerned, the claim of the former appears well founded. Among
the Athenians the first attempts at comedy were made at Icaria by
Susarion, a native of Megara, about B.C. 578. Susarion no doubt
substituted for the more ancient improvisations of the chorus and
its leader premeditated compositions. There would seem also to have
been some kind of poetical contest, for we learn that the prize for
the successful poet was a basket of figs and a jar of wine. It was
also the practice of those who took part in the comus to smear their
faces with wine-lees, either to prevent their features from being
recognised, or to give themselves a more grotesque appearance. Hence
comedy came to be called τρυγῳδία, or lee-song. Others connected
the name with the circumstance of a jar of new wine (τρύξ) being
the prize for the successful poet. It was, however, in Sicily, that
comedy was earliest brought to something like perfection. Epicharmus
was the first writer who gave it a new form, and introduced a
regular plot. In his efforts he appears to have been associated
with Phormis, a somewhat older contemporary. The Megarians in
Sicily claimed the honour of the invention of comedy, on account of
Epicharmus having lived in Megara before he went to Syracuse. In
Attica, the first comic poet of any importance whom we hear of after
Susarion is Chionides, who is said to have brought out plays in B.C.
488. Euetes, Euxenides, and Myllus were probably contemporaries
of Chionides; he was followed by Magnes and Ecphantides. Their
compositions, however, seem to have been little but the reproduction
of the old Megaric farce of Susarion, differing, no doubt, in
form, by the introduction of an actor or actors, separate from the
chorus, in imitation of the improvements that had been made in
tragedy.--That branch of the Attic drama which was called the _Old
Comedy_, begins properly with Cratinus, who was to comedy very much
what Aeschylus was to tragedy. The old comedy has been described as
the comedy of caricature, and such indeed it was, but it was also a
great deal more. As it appeared in the hands of its great masters
Cratinus, Hermippus, Eupolis, and especially Aristophanes, its main
characteristic was that it was throughout _political_. Everything
that bore upon the political or social interests of the Athenians
furnished materials for it. The old Attic comedy lasted from Ol. 80
to Ol. 94 (B.C. 458-404). From Cratinus to Theopompus there were
forty-one poets, fourteen of whom preceded Aristophanes. The later
pieces of Aristophanes belong to the Middle rather than to the Old
Comedy. The chorus in a comedy consisted of twenty-four. [CHORUS.]
The dance of the chorus was the κόρδαξ, the movements of which were
capricious and licentious, consisting partly in a reeling to and
fro, in imitation of a drunken man, and in various unseemly and
immodest gestures. Comedies have choric songs, but no στάσιμα, or
songs between acts. The most important of the choral parts was the
Parabasis, when the actors having left the stage, the chorus, which
was ordinarily divided into four rows, containing six each, and was
turned towards the stage, turned round, and advancing towards the
spectators delivered an address to them in the name of the poet,
either on public topics of general interest, or on matters which
concerned the poet personally, criticising his rivals and calling
attention to his merits; the address having nothing whatever to
do with the action of the play. The parabasis was not universally
introduced: three plays of Aristophanes, the Ecclesiazusae,
Lysistrata, and Plutus, have none. As the old Attic comedy was the
offspring of the political and social vigour and freedom of the age
during which it flourished, it naturally declined and ceased with the
decline and overthrow of the freedom and vigour which were necessary
for its development.--It was replaced by a comedy of a somewhat
different style, which was known as the _Middle Comedy_, the age of
which lasted from the end of the Peloponnesian war to the overthrow
of liberty by Philip of Macedon. (Ol. 94-110.) The comedy of this
period found its materials in satirizing classes of people instead of
individuals, in criticising the systems and merits of philosophers
and literary men, and in parodies of the compositions of living and
earlier poets, and travesties of mythological subjects. It formed
a transition from the old to the new comedy, and approximated to
the latter in the greater attention to the construction of plots
which seem frequently to have been founded on amorous intrigues,
and in the absence of that wild grotesqueness which marked the
old comedy. As regards its external form, the plays of the middle
comedy, generally speaking, had neither parabasis nor chorus. The
most celebrated authors of the middle comedy were Antiphanes and
Alexis.--The _New Comedy_ was a further development of the last
mentioned kind. It answered as nearly as may be to the modern
comedy of manners or character. Dropping for the most part personal
allusions, caricature, ridicule, and parody, which, in a more general
form than in the old comedy, had maintained their ground in the
middle comedy, the poets of the new comedy made it their business
to reproduce in a generalized form a picture of the every-day life
of those by whom they were surrounded. There were various standing
characters which found a place in most plays, such as we find in the
plays of Plautus and Terence, the _leno perjurus_, _amator fervidus_,
_servulus callidus_, _amica illudens_, _sodalis opitulator_, _miles
proeliator_, _parasitus edax_, _parentes tenaces_, _meretrices
procaces_. In the new comedy there was no chorus. It flourished from
about B.C. 340 to B.C. 260. The poets of the new comedy amounted to
64 in number. The most distinguished was Menander.--(2) ROMAN.--The
accounts of the early stages of comic poetry among the Romans are
scanty. Scenic entertainments were introduced at Rome in B.C. 363
from Etruria, where it would seem they were a familiar amusement.
Tuscan players (_ludiones_), who were fetched from Etruria, exhibited
a sort of pantomimic dance to the music of a flute, without any
song accompanying their dance, and without regular dramatic
gesticulation. The amusement became popular, and was imitated by the
young Romans, who improved upon the original entertainment by uniting
with it extemporaneous mutual raillery, composed in a rude irregular
measure, a species of diversion which had been long known among the
Romans at their agrarian festivals under the name of _Fescennina_
[FESCENNINA]. It was 123 years after the first introduction of
these scenic performances before the improvement was introduced of
having a regular plot. This advance was made by Livius Andronicus,
a native of Magna Graecia, in B.C. 240. His pieces, which were both
tragedies and comedies, were merely adaptations of Greek dramas.
The representation of regular plays of this sort was now left to
those who were histriones by profession, and who were very commonly
either foreigners or slaves; the free-born youth of Rome confined
their own scenic performances to the older, irregular farces, which
long maintained their ground, and were subsequently called _exodia_.
[EXODIA; SATURA.] Livius, as was common at that time, was himself an
actor in his own pieces. The first imitator of the dramatic works
of Livius Andronicus was Cn. Naevius, a native of Campania. He
composed both tragedies and comedies, which were either translations
or imitations of those of Greek writers. The most distinguished
successors of Naevius were Plautus, who chiefly imitated Epicharmus,
and Terence, whose materials were drawn mostly from Menander,
Diphilus, Philemon, and Apollodorus. The comedy of the Romans was
throughout but an imitation of that of the Greeks, and chiefly of
the new comedy. Where the characters were ostensibly Greek, and the
scene laid in Athens or some other Greek town, the comedies were
termed _palliatae_. All the comedies of Terence and Plautus belong to
this class. When the story and characters were Roman, the plays were
called _togatae_. But the fabulae togatae were in fact little else
than Greek comedies clothed in a Latin dress.

The togatae were divided into two classes, the _trabeatae_ and
_tabernariae_, according as the subject was taken from high or from
low life. In the comediae palliatae, the costume of the ordinary
actors was the Greek pallium. The plays which bore the name of
_praetextatae_, were not so much tragedies as historical plays. It
is a mistake to represent them as comedies. There was a species
of tragi-comedy, named from the poet who introduced that style
_Rhinthonica_. A tragedy the argument of which was Greek was termed
_crepidata_. The mimes are sometimes classed with the Latin comedies.
[MIMUS.] The mimes differed from the comedies in little more than
the predominance of the mimic representation over the dialogue. Latin
comedies had no chorus, any more than the dramas of the new comedy,
of which they were for the most part imitations. Like them, too, they
were introduced by a prologue, which answered some of the purposes
of the parabasis of the old comedy, so far as bespeaking the good
will of the spectators, and defending the poet against his rivals and
enemies. It also communicated so much information as was necessary to
understand the story of the play. The prologue was commonly spoken
by one of the players, or, perhaps, by the manager of the troop.
Respecting the _Atellanae fabulae_ see that article.

COMPĬTĀLĬA, also called LŪDI COMPĬTĀLĬCĬI, a festival celebrated
once a year in honour of the lares compitales, to whom sacrifices
were offered at the places where two or more ways met. In the time
of Augustus, the ludi compitalicii had gone out of fashion, but were
restored by him. The compitalia belonged to the _feriae conceptivae_,
that is, festivals which were celebrated on days appointed annually
by the magistrates or priests. The exact day on which this festival
was celebrated appears to have varied, though it was always in the
winter, generally at the beginning of January.


CONCĬLĬUM generally has the same meaning as _conventus_ or
_conventio_, but the technical import of concilium in the Roman
constitution was an assembly of a _portion_ of the people as
distinct from the general assemblies or comitia. Accordingly, as
the comitia tributa embraced only a portion of the Roman people,
viz. the plebeians, these comitia are often designated by the term
_concilia plebis_. Concilium is also used by Latin writers to denote
the assemblies or meetings of confederate towns or nations, at which
either their deputies alone or any of the citizens met who had time
and inclination, and thus formed a representative assembly. Such an
assembly or diet is commonly designated as _commune concilium_, or τὸ
κοινόν, e.g. _Achaeorum_, _Aetolorum_, _Boeotorum_, _Macedoniae_, and
the like.


CONGĬĀRĬUM (_scil. vas_, from _congius_), a vessel containing a
_congius_. [CONGIUS.] In the early times of the Roman republic the
_congius_ was the usual measure of oil or wine which was, on certain
occasions, distributed among the people; and thus _congiarium_
became a name for liberal donations to the people, in general,
whether consisting of oil, wine, corn, money, or other things, while
donations made to the soldiers were called _donativa_, though they
were sometimes also termed _congiaria_. Many coins of the Roman
emperors were struck in commemoration of such congiaria. _Congiarium_
was, moreover, occasionally used simply to designate a present or a
pension given by a person of high rank, or a prince, to his friends.

[Illustration: Congiarium. (Coin of Trajan.)]

CONGĬUS, a Roman liquid measure, which contained six sextarii, or the
eighth part of the amphora (nearly six pints Eng.) It was equal to
the larger _chous_ of the Greeks.


CŌNŌPĒUM (κωνωπεῖον), a gnat or musquito-curtain, _i.e._ a covering
made to be expanded over beds and couches to keep away gnats and
other flying insects, so called from κώνωψ, a gnat. _Conopeum_ is the
origin of the English word _canopy_.

CONQUĪSĪTŌRES, persons employed to go about the country and impress
soldiers, when there was a difficulty in completing a levy. Sometimes
commissioners were appointed by a decree of the senate for the
purpose of making a conquisitio.




CONSUĀLĬA, a festival, with games, celebrated by the Romans,
according to Ovid and others, in honour of Consus, the god of secret
deliberations, or, according to Livy, of Neptunus Equestris. Some
writers, however, say that Neptunus Equestris and Consus were only
different names for one and the same deity. It was solemnised every
year in the circus, by the symbolical ceremony of uncovering an altar
dedicated to the god, which was buried in the earth. For Romulus,
who was considered as the founder of the festival, was said to
have discovered an altar in the earth on that spot. The solemnity
took place on the 21st of August with horse and chariot races, and
libations were poured into the flames which consumed the sacrifices.
During these festive games horses and mules were not allowed to do
any work, and were adorned with garlands of flowers. It was at their
first celebration that, according to the ancient legend, the Sabine
maidens were carried off.

CONSUL (ὕπατος), the title of the two chief officers or magistrates
of the Roman republic. The word is probably composed of _con_ and
_sul_, which contains the same root as the verb _salio_, so that
consules signifies “those who come together,” just as _praesul_
means “one who goes before,” and _exsul_, “one who goes out.” The
consulship is said to have been instituted upon the expulsion of
the kings in B.C. 509, when the kingly power was transferred to
two magistrates, whose office lasted only for one year, that it
might not degenerate into tyranny by being vested longer in the
same persons; and for the same reason two were appointed instead
of one king, as neither could undertake anything unless it was
sanctioned and approved by his colleague. Their original title was
_praetores_, or commanders of the armies, but this was changed into
that of _consules_ in B.C. 449, and the latter title remained in
use until the latest periods of the Roman empire.--The consuls were
at first elected from the patricians exclusively. Their office was
suspended in B.C. 451, and its functions were performed by ten high
commissioners (_decemviri_), appointed to frame a code of laws. On
the re-establishment of the consulship in B.C. 449, the tribunes
proposed that one of the consuls should be chosen from the plebeians,
but this was strenuously resisted by the patricians, and a compromise
effected by suspending the consular office, and creating in its stead
military tribunes (_tribuni militum_) with consular power, who might
be elected indifferently both from the patricians and plebeians.
They were first appointed in B.C. 444. The plebeians, however, were
not satisfied with this concession, and still endeavoured to attain
the higher dignity of the consulship. At length, after a serious and
long-protracted struggle between the two orders, it was enacted by
the Licinian law, in B.C. 367, that henceforth the consulship should
be divided between the patricians and plebeians, and that one of the
consuls should always be a plebeian. Accordingly, in B.C. 366 L.
Sextius was elected the first plebeian consul. This law, however,
was not always observed, and it still frequently happened that both
consuls were patricians, until, in later times, when the difference
between the two orders had entirely ceased, and the plebeians were
on a footing of perfect equality with the patricians, the consuls
were elected from both orders indiscriminately.--During the later
periods of the republic it was customary for persons to pass through
several subordinate magistracies before they were elected consuls,
though this rule was departed from in many particular cases. The age
at which a person was eligible to the consulship was fixed in B.C.
180, by the lex annalis [LEX ANNALIS], at 43.--The election of the
consuls always took place in the comitia of the centuries, some time
before the expiration of the official year of the actual consuls, and
the election was conducted either by the actual consuls themselves,
or by an interrex or a dictator, and the persons elected, until they
entered upon their office, were called _consules designati_. While
they were _designati_, they were in reality no more than private
persons, but still they might exercise considerable influence upon
public affairs, for in the senate they were asked for their opinion
first. If they had been guilty of any illegal act, either before or
during their election, such as bribery (_ambitus_), they were liable
to prosecution, and the election might be declared void.--The time
at which the old consuls laid down their office and the consules
designati entered upon theirs, differed at different times. The
first consuls are said to have entered upon their office in October,
then we find mention of the 1st of August, of the ides of December,
the 1st of July, and very frequently of the ides of March, until,
in B.C. 153, it became an established rule for the consuls to enter
upon their duties on the 1st of January; and this custom remained
down to the end of the republic. On that day the senators, equites,
and citizens of all classes conducted in a procession (_deductio_
or _processus consularis_) the new magistrates from their residence
to the capitol, where, if the auspices were favourable, the consuls
offered up sacrifices, and were inaugurated. From thence the
procession went to the curia, where the senate assembled, and where
the consuls returned thanks for their election. There they might
also speak on any subject that was of importance to the republic,
such as peace and war, the distribution of provinces, the general
condition of the state, the _feriae Latinae_, and the like. During
the first five days of their office they had to convoke a _contio_,
and publicly to take a solemn oath, by which, in the earliest times,
they pledged themselves not to allow any one to assume regal power
at Rome, but afterwards only to maintain the laws of the republic
(_in leges jurare_). On the expiration of their office they had to
take another oath, stating that they had faithfully obeyed the laws,
and not done anything against the constitution. The new consuls
on entering upon their office usually invited their friends to a
banquet. When a consul died during his year of office, his colleague
immediately convoked the comitia to elect a new one. A consul thus
elected to fill a vacancy was called _consul suffectus_, but his
powers were not equal to those of an ordinary consul, for he could
not preside at the elections of other magistrates, not even in the
case of the death of his colleague. In the latter case, as well as
when the consuls were prevented by illness or other circumstances,
the comitia were held by an interrex or a dictator.--The outward
distinctions of the consuls were, with few exceptions, the same
as those which had formerly belonged to the kings. The principal
distinction was the twelve lictors with the _fasces_, who preceded
the consuls; but the axes did not appear in the fasces within the
city. This outward sign of their power was taken by the consuls in
turn every month, and while one consul was preceded by the twelve
lictors with their fasces, the other was during the same month
preceded by an _accensus_, and followed by the lictors; and the
one was called during that month _consul major_, and the other
_consul minor_. Other distinctions of the consuls were the curule
chair (_sella curulis_), and the toga with the purple hem (_toga
praetexta_). The ivory sceptre (_scipio_ or _sceptrum_) and purple
toga were not distinctions of the consuls in general, but only when
they celebrated a triumph. Under the empire a consul was sometimes
distinguished by the senate with a sceptre bearing an eagle on the
top, but his regular ensigns consisted of the _toga picta_, the
_trabea_, and the fasces, both within and without the city.--The
consuls were the highest ordinary magistrates at Rome. Their power
was at first quite equal to that of the kings, except that it was
limited to one year, and that the office of high priest, which had
been vested in the king, was at the very beginning detached from the
consulship, and given to the _rex sacrorum_ or _rex sacrificulus_.
Yet the _auspicia majora_ continued to belong to the consuls. This
regal power of the consuls, however, was gradually curtailed by
various laws, especially by the institution of the tribunes of the
plebs, whose province it was to protect the plebeians against the
unjust or oppressive commands of the patrician magistrates. Nay,
in the course of time, whole branches of the consular power were
detached from it; the reason for which was, that, as the patricians
were compelled to allow the plebeians a share in the highest
magistracy, they stripped it of as much of its original power as
they could, and reserved these detached portions for themselves.
In this manner the censorship was detached from the consulship in
B.C. 443, and the praetorship in B.C. 367. But notwithstanding
all this, the consuls remained the highest magistrates, and all
other magistrates, except the tribunes of the plebs, were obliged
to obey their commands, and show them great outward respect. The
functions of the consuls during the time of the republic may be
conveniently described under the following heads:--1. They were in
all civil matters the heads of the state, being invested with the
imperium, which emanated from the sovereign people, and which they
held during the time of their office. In this capacity they had the
right of convoking both the senate and the assembly of the people;
they presided in each (in the comitia of the curies as well as in
those of the centuries), and they took care that the resolutions
of the senate and people were carried into effect. They might also
convoke _contiones_, whenever they thought it necessary. In the
senate they conducted the discussions, and put the questions to the
vote, thus exercising the greatest influence upon all matters which
were brought before the senate either by themselves or by others.
When a decree was passed by the senate, the consuls were usually
commissioned to see that it was carried into effect; though there are
also instances of the consuls opposing a decree of the senate. 2.
The supreme command of the armies belonged to the consuls alone by
virtue of their imperium. Accordingly, when a war was decreed, they
were ordered by a senatus consultum to levy the troops, whose number
was determined by the senate, and they appointed most of the other
military officers. While at the head of their armies they had full
power of life and death over their soldiers, who, on their enrolment,
had to take an oath (_sacramentum_) to be faithful and obedient to
the commands of the consuls. When the consuls had entered upon their
office, the senate assigned them their provinces, that is, their
spheres of action, and the consuls either settled between themselves
which province each was to have, or, which was more common, they drew
lots. Usually one consul remained at Rome, while the other went out
at the head of the army: sometimes both left the city, and carried
on war in different quarters; and sometimes, when the danger was
very pressing, both consuls commanded the armies against one and
the same enemy. If it was deemed advisable, the imperium of one or
of both consuls was prolonged for the particular province in which
they were engaged, in which case they had the title of proconsuls
[PROCONSUL], and their successors either remained at Rome, or were
engaged in other quarters. During the latter period of the republic
the consuls remained at Rome during the time of their office, and
on its expiration they had a foreign province (in the real sense
of the word) assigned to them, where they undertook either the
peaceful administration, or carried on war against internal or
external enemies. While in their provinces, both the consuls and
proconsuls had the power of life and death over the provincials, for
they were looked upon there as the chief military commanders; and
the provincials, being _peregrini_, did not enjoy the privileges
of Roman citizens. 3. The supreme jurisdiction was part of the
consular imperium, and as such vested in the consuls so long as
there were no praetors. In civil cases they administered justice
to the patricians as well as plebeians, either acting themselves
as _judices_, or appointing others as _judices_ and _arbitri_. In
criminal cases there appears from early times to have been this
difference: that patricians charged with capital offences were tried
by the curies, while the plebeians came under the jurisdiction of
the consuls, whose power, however, was in this case rather limited,
partly by the intercession of the tribunes of the people, and partly
by the right of appeal (_provocatio_) from the sentence of the
consuls. The consuls might, further, summon any citizen before their
tribunal, and, in case of disobedience, seize him (_prendere_),
and fine him up to a certain amount. After the institution of the
praetorship, the consuls no longer possessed any regular ordinary
jurisdiction; and whenever they exercised it, it was an exception
to the general custom, and only by a special command of the senate.
4. Previous to the institution of the censorship the consuls had to
perform all the functions which afterwards belonged to the censors:
they were accordingly the highest officers of finance, held the
census, drew up the lists of the senators, equites, &c. After the
establishment of the censorship they still retained the general
superintendence of the public economy, inasmuch as they had the
keys of the _aerarium_, and as the quaestors or paymasters were
dependent on them. But still in the management of the finances the
consuls were at all times under the control of the senate. 5. In all
relations with foreign states the consuls were the representatives
of the Roman republic. Hence they might conclude peace or treaties
with foreign nations, which had, however, to be sanctioned by the
senate and people at Rome; and unless this sanction was obtained a
treaty was void. They received foreign ambassadors, and introduced
them into the senate, and in short all negotiations with foreign
princes or nations passed through their hands. 6. In matters
connected with their own official functions, the consuls, like all
other magistrates, had the power of issuing proclamations or orders
(_edicta_), which might be binding either for the occasion only, or
remain in force permanently.--Although the consular power had been
gradually diminished, it was in cases of imminent danger restored to
its original and full extent, by a decree of the senate calling upon
the consuls _videant ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat_. In such
cases the consuls received sovereign power, but they were responsible
for the manner in which they had exercised it.--It has already been
observed, that to avoid collision and confusion, the two consuls did
not possess the same power at the same time, but that each had the
imperium every other month. The one who possessed it, as the _consul
major_, exercised all the rights of the office, though he always
consulted his colleague. In the earliest times it was customary for
the elder of the two consuls to take the imperium first, afterwards
the one who had had the greater number of votes at the election, and
had therefore been proclaimed (_renuntiare_) first. In the time of
Augustus it was enacted that the consul who had most children should
take precedence of the other; and some distinction of rank continued
to be observed down to the latest times of the empire.--Towards the
end of the republic the consulship lost its power and importance. The
first severe blow it received was from Julius Caesar, the dictator,
for he received the consulship in addition to his dictatorship, or
he arbitrarily ordered others to be elected, who were mere nominal
officers, and were allowed to do nothing without his sanction. He
himself was elected consul at first for five, then for ten years, and
at last for life. Under Augustus the consulship was a mere shadow
of what it had been: the consuls no longer held their office for a
whole year, but usually for a few months only; and hence it happened
that sometimes one year saw six, twelve, or even twenty-five consuls.
Those who were elected the first in the year ranked higher than the
rest, and their names alone were used to mark the year, according to
the ancient custom of the Romans of marking the date of an event by
the names of the consuls of the year in which the event occurred.
During the last period of the empire it became the practice to have
titular or honorary consuls, who were elected by the senate and
confirmed by the emperor. Constantine appointed two consuls, one
for Rome and another for Constantinople, who held their office for a
whole year, and whose functions were only those of chief justices.
All the other consuls were designated as _honorarii_ or _consulares_.
But though the consulship had thus become almost an empty title, it
was still regarded as the highest dignity in the empire, and as the
object of the greatest ambition. It was connected with very great
expenses, partly on account of the public games which a consul had
to provide, and partly on account of the large donations he had to
make to the people. The last consul at Rome was Decimus Theodorus
Paulinus, A.D. 536, and at Constantinople, Flavius Basilius junior,
A.D. 541.

CONSŬLARIS, signified, under the republic, a person who had held the
office of consul; but under the empire, it was the title of many
magistrates and public officers, who enjoyed the insignia of consular
dignity, without having filled the office of consul. Thus we find
commanders of armies and governors of provinces called _Consulares_
under the empire.

CONTĬO, a contraction for _conventio_, that is, a meeting, or a
_conventus_. In the technical sense, however, a contio was an
assembly of the people at Rome convened by a magistrate for the
purpose of making the people acquainted with measures which were
to be brought before the next comitia, and of working upon them
either to support or oppose the measure. But no question of any kind
could be decided by a contio, and this constitutes the difference
between contiones and comitia. Still contiones were also convened
for other purposes, _e.g._ of persuading the people to take part in
a war, or of bringing complaints against a party in the republic.
Every magistrate had the right to convene contiones, but it was most
frequently exercised by the consuls and tribunes, and the latter more
especially exercised a great influence over the people in and through
these contiones. A magistrate who was higher in rank than the one who
had convened a contio, had the right to order the people to disperse,
if he disapproved of the object. It should be remarked, that the term
contio is also used to designate the speeches and harangues addressed
to the people in an assembly, and that in a loose mode of speaking,
contio denotes any assembly of the people.

CONTŬBERNĀLES (σύσκηνοι), signified originally men who served in
the same army and lived in the same tent. The word is derived from
_taberna_ (afterwards _tabernaculum_), which was the original name
for a military tent, as it was made of boards (_tabulae_). Each tent
was occupied by ten soldiers (_contubernales_), with a subordinate
officer at their head, who was called _decanus_, and in later times
_caput contubernii_. Young Romans of illustrious families used to
accompany a distinguished general on his expeditions, or to his
province, for the purpose of gaining under his superintendence a
practical training in the art of war, or in the administration of
public affairs, and were, like soldiers living in the same tent,
called his _contubernales_. In a still wider sense, the name
_contubernales_ was applied to persons connected by ties of intimate
friendship, and living under the same roof; and hence, when a freeman
and a slave, or two slaves, who were not allowed to contract a legal
marriage, lived together as husband and wife, they were called
_contubernales_; and their connection, as well as their place of
residence, _contubernium_.



CONVENTUS, was the name applied to the whole body of Roman citizens
who were either permanently or for a time settled in a province. In
order to facilitate the administration of justice, a province was
divided into a number of districts or circuits, each of which was
called _conventus_, _forum_, or _jurisdictio_. Roman citizens living
in a province were entirely under the jurisdiction of the proconsul;
and at certain times of the year, fixed by the proconsul, they
assembled in the chief town of the district, and this meeting bore
the name of _conventus_ (σύνοδος). Hence the expressions--_conventus
agere_, _peragere_, _convocare_, _dimittere_. At this conventus
litigant parties applied to the proconsul, who selected a number of
judges from the conventus to try their causes. The proconsul himself
presided at the trials, and pronounced the sentence according to
the views of the judges, who were his assessors (_consilium_ or
_consiliarii_). These conventus appear to have been generally held
after the proconsul had settled the military affairs of the province;
at least, when Caesar was proconsul of Gaul, he made it a regular
practice to hold the conventus after his armies had retired to their
winter quarters.


CŎPHĬNUS (κόφινος, Engl. _coffin_), a large kind of wicker basket,
made of willow branches. It would seem that it was used by the Greeks
as a basket or cage for birds. The Romans used it for agricultural
purposes, and it sometimes formed a kind of portable hot-bed.
Juvenal, when speaking of the Jews, uses the expression _cophinus et
foenum_ (a truss of hay), figuratively to designate their poverty.

CORBIS, _dim_. CORBŬLA, CORBĬCŬLA, a basket of very peculiar form
and common use among the Romans, both for agricultural and other
purposes. It was made of osiers twisted together, and was of a
conical or pyramidal shape. A basket answering precisely to this
description, both in form and material, is still to be seen in
every-day use among the Campanian peasantry, which is called in the
language of the country “la corbella.”

CORBĪTAE, merchantmen of the larger class, so called because they
hung out a _corbis_ at the mast-head for a sign. They were also
termed _onerariae_; and hence Plautus, in order to designate the
voracious appetites of some women, says, “Corbitam cibi comesse

[Illustration: Cornu. (Bartholini de Tibiis.)]

[Illustration: Altar of Julius Victor. (Bartoli, Pict. Ant., p. 76.)]

CORNU, a wind instrument, anciently made of horn, but afterwards
of brass. Like the _tuba_, it differed from the _tibia_ in being a
larger and more powerful instrument, and from the _tuba_ itself, in
being curved nearly in the shape of a C, with a cross-piece to steady
the instrument for the convenience of the performer. Hence Ovid says
(_Met._ i. 98):

      “Non tuba _directi_, non aeris cornua _flexi_.”

The _classicum_, which originally meant a signal, rather than the
musical instrument which gave the signal, was usually sounded with
the _cornu_.

      “Sonuit reflexo classicum cornu,
      Lituusque _adunco_ stridulos cantus
      Elisit aere.”
                                (Sen. _Oed._ 734.)

The _Cornicines_ and _Liticines_, the persons who blew the _Cornu_
and _Lituus_, formed a collegium. In the preceding cut, M. Julius
Victor, a member of the Collegium, holds a lituus in his right hand,
and touches with his left a cornu on the ground. See engraving under

[Illustration: Corona Civica, on a Coin of the Emperor Galba.

SPQR OB CS = Senatus Populusque Romanus ob civem servatum.]

CŎRŌNA (στέφανος), a crown, that is, a circular ornament of metal,
leaves, or flowers, worn by the ancients round the head or neck,
and used as a festive as well as funereal decoration, and as a
reward of talent, military or naval prowess, and civil worth. Its
first introduction as an honorary reward is attributable to the
athletic games, in some of which it was bestowed as a prize upon
the victor. It was the only reward contended for by the Spartans in
their gymnic contests, and was worn by them when going to battle.
The Romans refined upon the practice of the Greeks, and invented a
great variety of crowns formed of different materials, each with a
separate appellation, and appropriated to a particular purpose.--I.
CORONA OBSIDIONALIS. Amongst the honorary crowns bestowed by the
Romans for military achievements, the most difficult of attainment,
and the one which conferred the highest honour, was the _corona
obsidionalis_, presented by a beleaguered army after its liberation
to the general who broke up the siege. It was made of grass, or weeds
and wild flowers, thence called _corona graminea_, and _graminea
obsidionalis_, gathered from the spot on which the beleaguered
army had been enclosed.--II. CORONA CIVICA, the second in honour
and importance, was presented to the soldier who had preserved the
life of a Roman citizen in battle. It was made of the leaves of the
oak. The soldier who had acquired this crown had a place reserved
next to the senate at all the public spectacles; and they, as well
as the rest of the company, rose up upon his entrance. He was freed
from all public burthens, as were also his father, and his paternal
grandfather; and the person who owed his life to him was bound, ever
after, to cherish his preserver as a parent, and afford him all such
offices as were due from a son to his father.--III. CORONA NAVALIS or
ROSTRATA, called also CLASSICA. It is difficult to determine whether
these were two distinct crowns, or only two denominations for the
same one. It seems probable that the _navalis corona_, besides being
a generic term, was inferior in dignity to the latter, and given to
the sailor who first boarded an enemy’s ship; whereas the _rostrata_
was given to a commander who destroyed the whole fleet, or gained
any very signal victory. At all events, they were both made of gold;
and one at least (_rostrata_) decorated with the beaks of ships like
the _rostra_ in the forum. The Athenians likewise bestowed golden
crowns for naval services; sometimes upon the person who got his
trireme first equipped, and at others upon the captain who had his
vessel in the best order.--IV. CORONA MURALIS, was presented by the
general to the first man who scaled the wall of a besieged city. It
was made of gold, and decorated with turrets.--V. CORONA CASTRENSIS
or VALLARIS, was presented to the first soldier who surmounted the
_vallum_, and forced an entrance into the enemy’s camp. This crown
was made of gold, and ornamented with the palisades (_valli_) used
in forming an entrenchment.--VI. CORONA TRIUMPHALIS. There were
three sorts of triumphal crowns: the first was made of laurel or
bay leaves, and was worn round the head of the commander during his
triumph; the second was of gold, which, being too large and massive
to be worn, was held over the head of the general during his triumph,
by a public officer. This crown, as well as the former one, was
presented to the victorious general by his army. The third kind,
likewise of gold and of great value, was sent as a present from the
provinces to the commander. [AURUM CORONARIUM.]--VII. CORONA OVALIS,
was given to a commander who obtained only an ovation. It was made
of myrtle.--VIII. CORONA OLEAGINA, was made of the olive leaf,
and conferred upon the soldiers as well as their commanders.--The
Greeks in general made but little use of crowns as rewards of valour
in the earlier periods of their history, except as prizes in the
athletic contests; but previous to the time of Alexander, crowns of
gold were profusely distributed, amongst the Athenians at least,
for every trifling feat, whether civil, naval, or military, which,
though lavished without much discrimination as far as regards the
character of the receiving parties, were still subjected to certain
legal restrictions in respect of the time, place, and mode in which
they were conferred. They could not be presented but in the public
assemblies, and with the consent, that is by suffrage, of the people,
or by the senators in their council, or by the tribes to their own
members, or by the δημόται to members of their own δῆμος. According
to the statement of Aeschines, the people could not lawfully present
crowns in any place except in their assembly, nor the senators
except in the senate-house; nor, according to the same authority,
in the theatre, which is, however, denied by Demosthenes; nor at
the public games, and if any crier there proclaimed the crowns he
was subject to _atimia_. Neither could any person holding an office
receive a crown whilst he was ὑπεύθυνος, that is, before he had
passed his accounts.--The second class of crowns were emblematical
and not honorary, and the adoption of them was not regulated by
law, but custom. Of these there were also several kinds.--I. CORONA
SACERDOTALIS, was worn by the priests (_sacerdotes_), with the
exception of the pontifex maximus and his minister (_camillus_),
as well as the bystanders, when officiating at the sacrifice. It
does not appear to have been confined to any one material.--II.
CORONA FUNEBRIS and SEPULCHRALIS. The Greeks first set the example
of crowning the dead with chaplets of leaves and flowers, which was
imitated by the Romans. Garlands of flowers were also placed upon
the bier, or scattered from the windows under which the procession
passed, or entwined about the cinerary urn, or as a decoration to
the tomb. In Greece these crowns were commonly made of parsley.--III.
CORONA CONVIVIALIS. The use of chaplets at festive entertainments
sprung likewise from Greece. They were of various shrubs and flowers,
such as roses (which were the choicest), violets, myrtle, ivy,
_philyra_, and even parsley.--IV. CORONA NUPTIALIS. The bridal wreath
was also of Greek origin, among whom it was made of flowers plucked
by the bride herself, and not bought, which was of ill omen. Amongst
the Romans it was made of _verbena_, also gathered by the bride
herself, and worn under the _flammeum_, with which the bride was
always enveloped. The bridegroom also wore a chaplet. The doors of
his house were likewise decorated with garlands, and also the bridal
couch.--V. CORONA NATALITIA, the chaplet suspended over the door of
the vestibule, both in the houses of Athens and Rome, in which a
child was born. At Athens, when the infant was male, the crown was
made of olive; when female, of wool. At Rome it was of laurel, ivy,
or parsley.

[Illustration: Females with Crowns. (From an ancient Painting.)]

CŎRŌNIS (κορωνίς), the cornice of an entablature, is properly a Greek
word signifying anything curved. It is also used by Latin writers,
but the genuine Latin word for a _cornice_ is _corona_ or _coronix_.

CORTĪNA, the name of the table or hollow slab, supported by a tripod,
upon which the priestess at Delphi sat to deliver her responses; and
hence the word is used for the oracle itself. The Romans made tables
of marble or bronze after the pattern of the Delphian tripod, which
they used as we do our sideboards, for the purpose of displaying
their plate at an entertainment. These were termed _cortinae
Delphicae_, or _Delphicae_ simply.

CŎRỸBANTĬCA (κορυβαντικά), a festival and mysteries celebrated at
Cnossus in Crete, by the Corybantes. (See _Class. Dict._, CORYBANTES.)

CŎRYMBUS (κόρυμβος). [COMA.]

CORVUS, a sort of crane, used by C. Duilius against the Carthaginian
fleet in the battle fought off Mylae, in Sicily (B.C. 260). The
Romans, we are told, being unused to the sea, saw that their only
chance of victory was by bringing a sea-fight to resemble one on
land. For this purpose they invented a machine, of which Polybius
has left a minute description. In the fore part of the ship a round
pole was fixed perpendicularly, twenty-four feet in height and about
nine inches in diameter; at the top of this was a pivot, upon which
a ladder was set, thirty-six feet in length and four in breadth.
The ladder was guarded by cross-beams, fastened to the upright pole
by a ring of wood, which turned with the pivot above. Along the
ladder a rope was passed, one end of which took hold of the _corvus_
by means of a ring. The _corvus_ itself was a strong piece of iron,
with a spike at the end, which was raised or lowered by drawing in
or letting out the rope. When an enemy’s ship drew near, the machine
was turned outwards, by means of the pivot, in the direction of the
assailant. Another part of the machine was a breast-work, let down
from the ladder, and serving as a bridge, on which to board the
enemy’s vessel. By means of these cranes the Carthaginian ships were
either broken or closely locked with the Roman, and Duilius gained a
complete victory.

CŌRȲTOS or CŌRȲTUS (γωρυτός, κωρυτός), [ARCUS.]

COSMĒTAE, a class of slaves among the Romans, whose duty it was to
dress and adorn ladies.

COSMI (κοσμοί), the supreme magistrates in Crete, were ten in number,
and were chosen, not from the body of the people, but from certain
γένη or houses, which were probably of more pure Doric or Achaean
descent than their neighbours. The first of them in rank was called
_protocosmus_, and gave his name to the year. They commanded in war,
and also conducted the business of the state with the representatives
and ambassadors of other cities. Their period of office was a year;
but any of them during that time might resign, and was also liable
to deposition by his colleagues. In some cases, too, they might be
indicted for neglect of their duties. On the whole, we may conclude
that they formed the executive and chief power in most of the cities
of Crete.

[Illustration: Cothurnus. (From Statues of Artemis--Diana.)]

CŎTHURNUS (κόθορνος), a boot. Its essential distinction was its
height; it rose above the middle of the leg, so as to surround
the calf, and sometimes it reached as high as the knees. It was
worn principally by horsemen, by hunters, and by men of rank and
authority. The sole of the cothurnus was commonly of the ordinary
thickness; but it was sometimes made much thicker than usual,
probably by the insertion of slices of cork. The object was, to add
to the apparent stature of the wearer; and this was done in the case
of the actors in Athenian tragedy, who had the soles made unusually
thick as one of the methods adopted in order to magnify their whole
appearance. Hence tragedy in general was called _cothurnus_. As the
cothurnus was commonly worn in hunting, it is represented as part of
the costume of Artemis (Diana).

COTTĂBUS (κότταβος), a social game which was introduced from Sicily
into Greece, where it became one of the favourite amusements of young
people after their repasts. The simplest way in which it originally
was played was this:--One of the company threw out of a goblet a
certain quantity of wine, at a certain distance, into a metal basin.
While he was doing this, he either thought of or pronounced the name
of his mistress; and if all the wine fell in the basin, and with a
full sound, it was a good sign for the lover. This simple amusement
soon assumed a variety of different characters, and became, in
some instances, a regular contest, with prizes for the victor. One
of the most celebrated modes in which it was carried on is called
δι’ ὀξυβάφων. A basin was filled with water, with small empty cups
(ὀξύβαφα) swimming upon it. Into these the young men, one after
another, threw the remnant of the wine from their goblets, and he who
had the good fortune to drown most of the bowls obtained the prize,
consisting either of simple cakes, sweetmeats, or sesame-cakes.

CŎTYTTĬA (κοττύτια), a festival which was originally celebrated by
the Edonians of Thrace, in honour of a goddess called Cotys, or
Cotytto. It was held at night. The worship of Cotys, together with
the festival of the Cotyttia, was adopted by several Greek states,
chiefly those which were induced by their commercial interest to
maintain friendly relations with Thrace. The festivals of this
goddess were notorious among the ancients for the dissolute manner
and the debaucheries with which they were celebrated.

CŎTỸLA (κοτύλη), a measure of capacity among the Romans and Greeks:
by the former it was also called _hemina_; by the latter, τρυβλίον
and ἡμίνα or ἡμίμνα. It was the half of the sextarius or ξέστης, and
contained 6 cyathi, or nearly half a pint English.

CŎVĪNUS (Celtic, _kowain_), a kind of car, the spokes of which were
armed with long sickles, and which was used as a scythe-chariot
chiefly by the ancient Belgians and Britons. The Romans designated,
by the name of covinus, a kind of travelling carriage, which seems
to have been covered on all sides with the exception of the front.
It had no seat for a driver, but was conducted by the traveller
himself, who sat inside. The _covinarii_ (this word occurs only in
Tacitus) seem to have constituted a regular and distinct part of a
British army. Compare ESSEDUM.

CRĀTER (κρατήρ, Ionic κρητήρ, from κεράννυμι, I mix), a vessel in
which the wine, according to the custom of the ancients, who very
seldom drank it pure, was mixed with water, and from which the cups
were filled. Craters were among the first things on the embellishment
of which the ancient artists exercised their skill; and the number of
craters dedicated in temples seems everywhere to have been very great.

CRĔPĬDA (κρηπίς), a slipper. Slippers were worn with the pallium, not
with the toga, and were properly characteristic of the Greeks, though
adopted from them by the Romans.

CRĪMEN. Though this word occurs so frequently, it is not easy to fix
its meaning. _Crimen_ is often equivalent to _accusatio_ (κατηγορία);
but it frequently means an act which is legally punishable. Those
delicta which were punishable according to special leges, senatus
consulta, and constitutiones, and were prosecuted in judicia publica
by an accusatio publica, were more especially called crimina; and
the penalties in case of conviction were loss of life, of freedom,
of civitas, and the consequent infamia, and sometimes pecuniary
penalties also.


CRĬTES (κριτής), a judge, was the name applied by the Greeks to any
person who did not judge of a thing like a δικαστής, according to
positive laws, but according to his own sense of justice and equity.
But at Athens a number of κριταί was chosen by ballot from a number
of selected candidates at every celebration of the Dionysia: they
were called οἱ κριταί, κατ’ ἐξοχήν. Their office was to judge of the
merit of the different choruses and dramatic poems, and to award the
prizes to the victors. Their number was five for comedy and the same
number for tragedy, one being taken from every tribe.


CRŎCŌTA (sc. _vestis_, κροκωτὸν sc. ἱμάτιον, or κροκωτὸς sc. χιτών),
was a kind of gala-dress, chiefly worn by women on solemn occasions,
and in Greece especially, at the festival of the Dionysia. Its name
was derived from _crocus_, one of the favourite colours of the Greek



CRUX (σταυρός, σκόλοψ), an instrument of capital punishment, used by
several ancient nations, especially the Romans and Carthaginians.
Crucifixion was of two kinds, the less usual sort being rather
impalement than what we should describe by the word crucifixion, as
the criminal was transfixed by a pole, which passed through the back
and spine and came out at the mouth. The cross was of several kinds;
one in the shape of an X, called _crux Andreana_, because tradition
reports St. Andrew to have suffered upon it; another was formed like
a T. The third, and most common sort, was made of two pieces of wood
crossed, so as to make four right angles. It was on this, according
to the unanimous testimony of the fathers, that our Saviour suffered.
The punishment, as is well known, was chiefly inflicted on slaves,
and the worst kind of malefactors. The criminal, after sentence
pronounced, carried his cross to the place of execution; a custom
mentioned in the Gospels. Scourging appears to have formed a part
of this, as of other capital punishments among the Romans; but the
scourging of our Saviour is not to be regarded in this light, for
it was inflicted before sentence was pronounced. The criminal was
next stripped of his clothes and nailed or bound to the cross. The
latter was the more painful method, as the sufferer was left to die
of hunger. Instances are recorded of persons who survived nine days.
It was usual to leave the body on the cross after death. The breaking
of the legs of the thieves, mentioned in the Gospels, was accidental;
because, by the Jewish law, it is expressly remarked, the bodies
could not remain on the cross during the Sabbath-day.

CRYPTA (from κρύπτειν, to conceal), a crypt. Amongst the Romans,
any long narrow vault, whether wholly or partially below the level
of the earth, is expressed by this term. The specific senses of the
word are:--(1) A covered portico or arcade; called more definitely
_crypto-porticus_, because it was not supported by open columns like
the ordinary portico, but closed at the sides, with windows only for
the admission of light and air.--(2) A grotto, particularly one open
at both extremities, forming what in modern language is denominated a
“tunnel.” A subterranean vault used for any secret worship was also
called _crypta_.--(3) When the practice of consuming the body by fire
was relinquished [FUNUS], and a number of bodies was consigned to one
place of burial, as the catacombs for instance, this common tomb was
called _crypta_.

CRYPTEIA (κρυπτεία), the name of an atrocious practice at Sparta,
said to have been introduced by Lycurgus. The following is the
description given of the crypteia. The ephors, at intervals, selected
from among the young Spartans, those who appeared to be best
qualified for the task, and sent them in various directions all over
the country, provided with daggers and their necessary food. During
the day-time, these young men concealed themselves; but at night they
broke forth into the high-roads, and massacred those of the helots
whom they met, or whom they thought proper.

CŬBĬCŬLĀRĬI, slaves who had the care of the sleeping and dwelling
rooms. Faithful slaves were always selected for this office, as they
had, to a certain extent, the care of their master’s person. It was
the duty of the cubicularii to introduce visitors to their master.

CŬBĬCŬLUM usually means a sleeping and dwelling room in a Roman house
[DOMUS], but it is also applied to the pavilion or tent in which
the Roman emperors were accustomed to witness the public games. It
appears to have been so called, because the emperors were accustomed
to recline in the cubicula, instead of sitting, as was anciently the
practice, in a sella curulis.

CŬBĬTUS (πῆχυς), a Greek and Roman measure of length, originally
the length of the human arm from the elbow to the wrist, or to the
knuckle of the middle finger. It was equal to a foot and a half,
which gives 1 foot 5·4744 inches Eng. for the Roman, and 1 foot
6·2016 inches for the Greek cubit.

CŬCULLUS, a cowl. As the cowl was intended to be used in the open
air, and to be drawn over the head to protect it from the injuries
of the weather, instead of a hat or cap, it was attached only to
garments of the coarsest kind. The cucullus was also used by persons
in the higher circles of society, when they wished to go abroad
without being known.

CŪDO or CŪDON, a skull-cap made of leather or of the rough shaggy fur
of any wild animal, such as were worn by the _velites_ of the Roman
armies, and apparently synonymous with _galerus_ or _galericulus_.

CŪLĔUS, or CULLĔUS, a Roman measure, which was used for estimating
the produce of vineyards. It was the largest liquid measure used by
the Romans, containing 20 amphorae, or 118 gallons, 7·546 pints.

CŬLĪNA. [DOMUS, p. 143.]

[Illustration: Cultri (From Tombstone of a Cultrarius.)]

CULTER (μάχαιρα, κοπίς, or σφαγίς), a knife with only one edge, which
formed a straight line. The blade was pointed, and its back curved.
It was used for a variety of purposes, but chiefly for killing
animals either in the slaughter-house, or in hunting, or at the
altars of the gods. The priest who conducted a sacrifice never killed
the victim himself; but one of his ministri, appointed for that
purpose, who was called either by the general name _minister_, or the
more specific _popa_ or _cultrarius_.


CŬNĔUS was the name applied to a body of foot soldiers, drawn up in
the form of a wedge, for the purpose of breaking through an enemy’s
line. The common soldiers called it a _caput porcinum_, or pig’s
head. The name _cuneus_ was also applied to the compartments of
seats in circular or semi-circular theatres, which were so arranged
as to converge to the centre of the theatre, and diverge towards
the external walls of the building, with passages between each

CŬNĪCŬLUS (ὑπόνομος), a mine or passage underground, was so called
from its resemblance to the burrowing of a rabbit. Fidenae and Veii
are said to have been taken by mines, which opened, one of them into
the citadel, the other into the temple of Juno.

CŪPA, a wine-vat, a vessel very much like the _dolium_, and used for
the same purpose, namely, to receive the fresh must, and to contain
it during the process of fermentation. The inferior wines were drawn
for drinking from the _cupa_, without being bottled in _amphorae_,
and hence the term _vinum de cupa_. The _cupa_ was either made of
earthenware, like the _dolium_, or of wood, and covered with pitch.
It was also used for fruits and corn, forming rafts, and containing
combustibles in war, and even for a sarcophagus.

CŪRĀTOR. Till a Roman youth attained the age of puberty, which was
generally fixed at fourteen years of age, he was incapable of any
legal act, and was under the authority of a _tutor_ or guardian;
but with the attainment of the age of puberty, he became capable of
performing every legal act, and was freed from the control of his
_tutor_. As, however, a person of that tender age was liable to be
imposed upon, the lex Plaetoria enacted that every person between
the time of puberty and twenty-five years of age should be under
the protection of a _curator_. The date of this lex is not known,
though it is certain that the law existed when Plautus wrote (about
B.C. 200), who speaks of it as the _lex quina vicemaria_. This law
established a distinction of age, which was of great practical
importance, by forming the citizens into two classes, those above
and those below twenty-five years of age (_minores viginti quinque
annis_). A person under the last-mentioned age was sometimes simply
called _minor_. The object of the lex was to protect persons under
twenty-five years of age against all fraud (_dolus_). A person who
wasted his property (_prodigus_), and a person of unsound mind
(_furiosus, demens_), were also placed under the care of a _curator_.

CŪRĀTŌRES were public officers of various kinds under the Roman
empire, such as the _curatores annonae_, the _curatores ludorum_, the
_curatores regionum_, &c.

CŪRĬA, signifies both a division of the Roman people and the place
of assembly for such a division. Each of the three ancient Romulian
tribes, the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres, was subdivided into 10
curiae, so that the whole body of the populus or the patricians was
divided into 30 curiae. The plebeians had no connection whatever
with the curiae. All the members of the different gentes belonging
to one curia were called, in respect of one another, _curiales_.
The division into curiae was of great political importance in the
earliest times of Rome, for the curiae alone contained the citizens,
and their assembly alone was the legitimate representative of the
whole people. [COMITIA CURIATA.] Each curia as a corporation had its
peculiar sacra, and besides the gods of the state, they worshipped
other divinities and with peculiar rites and ceremonies. For such
religious purposes each curia had its own place of worship, called
curia, in which the curiales assembled for the purpose of discussing
political, financial, religious and other matters. The religious
affairs of each curia were taken care of by a priest, _Curio_, who
was assisted by another called curialis Flamen. As there were 30
curiae, there were likewise 30 curiones, who formed a college of
priests, presided over by one of them, called _Curio Maximus_. The
30 curiae had each its distinct name, which are said to have been
derived from the names of the Sabine women who had been carried off
by the Romans, though it is evident that some derived their names
from certain districts or from ancient eponymous heroes. Curia
is also used to designate the place in which the senate held its
meetings, such as curia Hostilia, curia Julia, curia Pompeii, and
from this there gradually arose the custom of calling the senate
itself in the Italian towns curia, but never the senate of Rome. The
official residence of the Salii, which was dedicated to Mars, was
likewise styled curia.



CŪRĬUS (κύριος), signified generally at Athens the person responsible
for the welfare of such members of a family as the law presumed to
be incapable of protecting themselves; as, for instance, minors and
slaves, and women of all ages.

[Illustration: Currus. (Ancient Chariot preserved in the Vatican.)]

CURRUS (ἅρμα), a chariot, a car. These terms appear to have denoted
those two-wheeled vehicles for the carriage of persons, which were
open overhead, thus differing from the _carpentum_, and closed in
front, in which they differed from the _cisium_. The most essential
articles in the construction of the currus were, 1. The rim (ἄντυξ)
[ANTYX]. 2. The axle (ἄξων, _axis_). 3. The wheels (κύκλα, τροχοί,
_rotae_), which revolved upon the axle, and were prevented from
coming off by the insertion of pins (ἔμβολοι) into the extremities
of the axles. The parts of the wheel were:--(_a_) The nave (πλήμνη,
_modiolus_). (_b_) The spokes (κνῆμαι, literally, the _legs, radii_.)
(_c_) The felly (ἴτυς). (_d_) The tire (ἐπίσωτρον, _canthus_). 4.
The pole (ῥυμός, _temo_). All the parts above mentioned are seen
in the preceding cut of an ancient chariot. The Greeks and Romans
appear never to have used more than one pole and one yoke, and the
currus thus constructed was commonly drawn by two horses, which were
attached to it by their necks, and therefore called δίζυγες ἵπποι,
συνωρίς, _gemini jugales_, _equi bijuges_, &c. If a third horse was
added, as was not unfrequently the case, it was fastened by traces.
The horse so attached was called παρήορος, παράσειρος, σειραφόρος,
in Latin, _funalis_, and is opposed to the ζυγῖται or ζύγιοι, the
yoke-horses. The ἵππος παρήορος is placed on the right of the two
yoke-horses. (See woodcut.) The Latin name for a chariot and pair
was _biga_, generally _bigae_. When a third horse was added, it was
called _triga_.

[Illustration: Triga. (From a Painting on a Vase.)]

[Illustration: Quadrigae. (From Paintings on a Vase and a

A chariot and four was called _quadriga_, generally _quadrigae_; in
Greek, τετραορία or τέθριππος. The horses were commonly harnessed in
a quadriga after the manner already represented, the two strongest
horses being placed under the yoke, and the two others fastened
on each side by means of ropes. This is clearly seen in the two
quadrigae figured below, especially in the one on the right hand. It
represents a chariot overthrown in passing the goal at the circus.
The charioteer having fallen backwards, the pole and yoke are thrown
upwards into the air; the two trace-horses have fallen on their
knees, and the two yoke-horses are prancing on their hind legs.--The
currus was adapted to carry two persons, and on this account was
called in Greek δίφρος. One of the two was of course the driver. He
was called ἡνίοχος, because he held the reins, and his companion
παραβάτης, from going by his side or near him. In the Homeric ages,
chariots were commonly employed on the field of battle. The men of
rank all took their chariots with them, and in an engagement placed
themselves in front. Chariots were not much used by the Romans. The
most splendid kind were the quadrigae, in which the Roman generals
and emperors rode when they triumphed. The body of the triumphal car
was cylindrical, as we often see it represented on medals. It was
enriched with gold and ivory. The utmost skill of the painter and
the sculptor was employed to enhance its beauty and splendour. The
triumphal car had in general no pole, the horses being led by men who
were stationed at their heads.

[Illustration: Marble Chariot in the Vatican.]

CURSŌRES, slaves whose duty it was to run before the carriage of
their masters. They first came into fashion in the first century
of the Christian aera. The word _cursores_ was also applied to all
slaves whom their masters employed in carrying letters, messages, &c.






[Illustration: Cyathi. (Museo Borbonico, vol. iv. pl. 12.)]

CỸĂTHUS (κύαθος), a Greek and Roman liquid measure, containing
one-twelfth of the sextarius, or ·0825 of a pint English. The form
of the cyathus used at banquets was that of a small ladle, by means
of which the wine was conveyed into the drinking-cups from the large
vessel (_crater_) in which it was mixed. Two of these cyathi are
represented in the preceding woodcut. The cyathus was also the name
given to a cup holding the same quantity as the measure. Hence Horace
says (_Carm._ iii. 8. 13):

      “Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici
      Sospitis centum.”

CYCLAS (κυκλάς), a circular robe worn by women, to the bottom of
which a border was affixed, inlaid with gold. It appears to have been
usually made of some thin material.

CȲMA (κῦμα), in architecture, an _ogee_, a wave-shaped moulding,
consisting of two curves, the one concave and the other convex.
There were two forms, the _cyma recta_, which was concave above, and
convex below, thus, [Illustration], and the _cyma reversa_, which was
convex above and concave below, thus [Illustration]. The diminutive
_cymatium_ or _cumatium_ (κυμάτιον) is also used, and is indeed the
more common name.

CYMBA (κύμβη) is derived from κύμβος, a hollow, and is employed to
signify any small kind of boat used on lakes, rivers, &c. It appears
to have been much the same as the _acatium_ and _scapha_.

[Illustration: Cymbala. (From a Bas-relief in the Vatican.)]

CYMBĂLUM (κύμβαλον), a musical instrument, in the shape of two half
globes, which were held one in each hand by the performer, and
played by being struck against each other. The word is derived from
κύμβος, a hollow. The cymbal was a very ancient instrument, being
used in the worship of Cybelé, Bacchus, Juno, and all the earlier
deities of the Grecian and Roman mythology. It probably came from the
East. The crotalum (κρόταλον) was a kind of cymbal. It appears to
have been a split reed or cane, which clattered when shaken with the
hand. Women who played on the crotalum were termed _crotalistriae_.
Such was Virgil’s Copa:

      “Crispum sub crotalo docta movere latus.”

The line alludes to the dance with crotala (similar to
castanets).--For _sistrum_, which some have referred to the class of
_cymbala_, see SISTRUM.

[Illustration: Crotala. (Borghese Vase now in the Louvre.)]

DACTỸLUS (δάκτυλος), a Greek measure, answering to the Roman
_digitus_, each signifying a _finger-breadth_, and being the
sixteenth part of a foot. [PES.]

DAEDALA or DAEDĂLEIA (δαίδαλα, δαιδάλεια), names used by the Greeks
to signify those early works of art which were ascribed to the age of
Daedalus, and especially the ancient wooden statues, ornamented with
gilding and bright colours and real drapery, which were the earliest
known forms of the images of the gods, after the mere blocks of wood
or stone, which were at first used for symbols of them.

DAEDĂLA (δαίδαλα), the name of two festivals, celebrated in Boeotia
in honour of Hera, and called respectively the _Great_ and the
_Lesser Daedala_. The latter were celebrated by the Plataeans alone;
in the celebration of the former, which took place only every
sixtieth year, the Plataeans were joined by the other Boeotians.

DAMARĔTĪON (δαμαρέτειον χρύσιον), a Sicilian coin, respecting which
there is much dispute; but it was probably a gold coin, equal in
value to fifty litrae or ten Attic drachmae of silver; that is, a
half stater.



DANĂCE (δανάκη), properly the name of a foreign coin, was also the
name given to the obolos, which was placed in the mouth of the dead
to pay the ferryman in Hades.

DAPHNĒPHŎRĬA (δαφνηφόρια), a festival celebrated every ninth year at
Thebes in honour of Apollo, surnamed Ismenius or Galaxius. Its name
was derived from the laurel branches (δάφναι) which were carried by
those who took part in its celebration.

DĀREICUS (δαρεικός), or to give the name in full, the Stater of
Dareius, a gold coin of Persia, stamped on one side with the figure
of an archer crowned and kneeling upon one knee, and on the other
with a sort of quadrata incusa or deep cleft. It is supposed to have
derived its name from the first Dareius, king of Persia. It is equal
to about 1_l._ 1_s._ 10_d._ 1·76 farthings.

[Illustration: Dareicus. (British Museum.)]

DĔCĂDŪCHI (δεκαδοῦχοι), the members of a council of Ten, who
succeeded the Thirty in the supreme power at Athens, B.C. 403. They
were chosen from the ten tribes, one from each; but, though opposed
to the Thirty, they sent ambassadors to Sparta to ask for assistance
against Thrasybulus and the exiles. They remained masters of Athens
till the party of Thrasybulus obtained possession of the city and the
democracy was restored.

DĔCARCHĬA or DĔCĂDARCHĬA (δεκαρχία, δεκαδαρχία), a supreme council
established in many of the Grecian cities by the Lacedaemonians, who
entrusted to it the whole government of the state under the direction
of a Spartan harmost. It always consisted of the leading members of
the aristocratical party.

DĔCASMUS (δεκασμός), bribery. There were two actions for bribery at
Athens: one, called δεκασμοῦ γραφή, lay against the person who gave
the bribe; and the other, called δώρων or δωροδοκίας γραφή, against
the person who received it. These actions applied to the bribery of
citizens in the public assemblies of the people (συνδεκάζειν τὴν
ἐκκλησίαν), of the Heliaea or any of the courts of justice, of the
βουλή, and of the public advocates. Actions for bribery were under
the jurisdiction of the thesmothetae. The punishment on conviction
of the defendant was death, or payment of ten times the value of the
gift received, to which the court might add a further punishment

DĔCĂTE (δεκάτη). [DECUMAE.]

DĔCEMPĔDA, a pole ten feet long, used by the agrimensores
[AGRIMENSORES] in measuring land. Thus we find that the agrimensores
were sometimes called _decempedatores_.


DĔCEMVĬRI, or the “ten-men,” the name of various magistrates and
functionaries at Rome, of whom the most important were:--(1)
DECEMVIRI LEGIBUS SCRIBENDIS, ten commissioners, who were appointed
to draw up a code of laws. They were entrusted with supreme power
in the state, and all the other magistracies were suspended. They
entered upon their office at the beginning of the year B.C. 451; and
they discharged their duties with diligence, and dispensed justice
with impartiality. Each administered the government day by day in
succession as during an interregnum; and the fasces were only carried
before the one who presided for the day. They drew up a body of laws,
distributed into ten sections; which, after being approved of by
the senate and the comitia, were engraven on tables of metal, and
set up in the comitium. On the expiration of their year of office,
all parties were so well satisfied with the manner in which they
had discharged their duties, that it was resolved to continue the
same form of government for another year; more especially as some
of the decemvirs said that their work was not finished. Ten new
decemvirs were accordingly elected, of whom App. Claudius alone
belonged to the former body. These magistrates framed several new
laws, which were approved of by the centuries, and engraven on two
additional tables. They acted, however, in a most tyrannical manner.
Each was attended by twelve lictors, who carried not the rods only,
but the axes, the emblem of sovereignty. They made common cause
with the patrician party, and committed all kinds of outrages upon
the persons and property of the plebeians and their families. When
their year of office expired they refused to resign or to appoint
successors. At length, the unjust decision of App. Claudius, in the
case of Virginia, which led her father to kill her with his own
hands to save her from prostitution, occasioned an insurrection of
the people. The decemvirs were in consequence obliged to resign
their office, B.C. 449; after which the usual magistracies were
re-established. The ten tables of the former, and the two tables of
the latter decemvirs, form together the laws of the Twelve Tables,
which were the groundwork of the Roman laws. This, the first attempt
to make a code, remained also the only attempt for near one thousand
years, until the legislation of Justinian.--(2) DECEMVIRI LITIBUS or
STLITIBUS JUDICANDIS, were magistrates forming a court of justice,
which took cognizance of civil cases. The history as well as the
peculiar jurisdiction of this court during the time of the republic
is involved in inextricable obscurity. In the time of Cicero it
still existed, and the proceedings in it took place in the ancient
form of the sacramentum. Augustus transferred to these decemvirs
the presidency in the courts of the centumviri. During the empire,
this court had jurisdiction in capital matters, which is expressly
stated in regard to the decemvirs.--(3) DECEMVIRI SACRIS FACIUNDIS,
sometimes called simply DECEMVIRI SACRORUM, were the members of an
ecclesiastical collegium, and were elected for life. Their chief duty
was to take care of the Sibylline books, and to inspect them on all
important occasions by command of the senate. Under the kings the
care of the Sibylline books was committed to two men (_duumviri_) of
high rank. On the expulsion of the kings, the care of these books was
entrusted to the noblest of the patricians, who were exempted from
all military and civil duties. Their number was increased about the
year 367 B.C. to ten, of whom five were chosen from the patricians
and five from the plebeians. Subsequently their number was still
further increased to fifteen (_quindecemviri_), probably by Sulla. It
was also the duty of the decemviri to celebrate the games of Apollo,
and the secular games.

DĔCENNĀLĬA or DĔCENNĬA, a festival celebrated with games every ten
years by the Roman emperors. This festival owed its origin to the
fact that Augustus refused the supreme power when offered to him for
his life, and would only consent to accept it for ten years, and when
these expired, for another period of ten years, and so on to the end
of his life.

DĔCĬMĀTĬO, the selection, by lot, of every tenth man for punishment,
when any number of soldiers in the Roman army had been guilty of
any crime. The remainder usually had barley allowed to them instead
of wheat. This punishment appears not to have been inflicted in the
early times of the republic.

DĒCRĒTUM seems to mean that which is determined in a particular case
after examination or consideration. It is sometimes applied to a
determination of the consuls, and sometimes to a determination of
the senate. A _decretum_ of the senate would seem to differ from
a _senatus-consultum_, in the way above indicated: it was limited
to the special occasion and circumstances, and this would be true
whether the decretum was of a judicial or a legislative character.
But this distinction in the use of the two words, as applied to an
act of the senate, was, perhaps, not always observed.

DĔCŬMAE (sc. _partes_) formed a portion of the _vectigalia_ of the
Romans, and were paid by subjects whose territory, either by conquest
or _deditio_, had become the property of the state (_ager publicus_).
They consisted, as the name denotes, of a tithe or tenth of the
produce of the soil, levied upon the cultivators (_aratores_) or
occupiers (_possessores_) of the lands, which, from being subject to
this payment, were called _agri decumani_. The tax of a tenth was,
however, generally paid by corn lands: plantations and vineyards, as
requiring no seed and less labour, paid a fifth of the produce. A
similar system existed in Greece also. Peisistratus, for instance,
imposed a tax of a tenth on the lands of the Athenians, which the
Peisistratidae lowered to a twentieth. At the time of the Persian
war the confederate Greeks made a vow, by which all the states
who had surrendered themselves to the enemy were subjected to the
payment of tithes for the use of the god at Delphi. The tithes of
the public lands belonging to Athens were farmed out as at Rome to
contractors, called δεκατώναι: the term δεκατηλόγοι was applied to
the collectors; but the callings were, as we might suppose, often
united in the same person. The title δεκατευταί is applied to both.
A δεκάτη, or tenth of a different kind, was the arbitrary exaction
imposed by the Athenians (B.C. 410) on the cargoes of all ships
sailing into or out of the Pontus. They lost it by the battle of
Aegospotami (B.C. 405); but it was re-established by Thrasybulus
about B.C. 391. The tithe was let out to farm.

DĔCUNCIS, another name for the Dextans. [AS.]





DĒDĬTĬCĬI, were those who had taken up arms against the Roman people,
and being conquered, had surrendered themselves. Such people did not
individually lose their freedom, but as a community all political
existence, and of course had no other relation to Rome than that of


DEIGMA (δεῖγμα), a particular place in the Peiraeeus, as well as
in the harbours of other states, where merchants exposed samples
of their goods for sale. The samples themselves were also called


DĒLĀTOR, an informer. The delatores, under the emperors, were a
class of men who gained their livelihood by informing against their
fellow-citizens. They constantly brought forward false charges to
gratify the avarice or jealousy of the different emperors, and were
consequently paid according to the importance of the information
which they gave.


DĒLĬA (δήλια), the name of festivals and games celebrated in the
island of Delos, to which the Cyclades and the neighbouring Ionians
on the coasts belonged. The Delia had existed from very early times,
and were celebrated every fifth year. That the Athenians took part
in these solemnities at a very early period, is evident from the
_Deliastae_ (afterwards called θεωροί) mentioned in the laws of
Solon; the sacred vessel (θεωρίς), moreover, which they sent to Delos
every year, was said to be the same which Theseus had sent after
his return from Crete. In the course of time the celebration of
this ancient panegyris in Delos had ceased, and it was not revived
until B.C. 426, when the Athenians, after having purified the island
in the winter of that year, restored the ancient solemnities, and
added horse-races, which had never before taken place at the Delia.
After this restoration, Athens, being at the head of the Ionian
confederacy, took the most prominent part in the celebration of the
Delia; and though the islanders, in common with Athens, provided
the choruses and victims, the leader (ἀρχιθέωρος), who conducted
the whole solemnity, was an Athenian, and the Athenians had the
superintendence of the common sanctuary. From these solemnities,
belonging to the great Delian panegyris, we must distinguish the
_lesser Delia_, which were mentioned above, and which were celebrated
every year, probably on the 6th of Thargelion. The Athenians on
this occasion sent the sacred vessel (θεωρίς), which the priest of
Apollo adorned with laurel branches, to Delos. The embassy was called
θεωρία; and those who sailed to the island, θεωροί; and before they
set sail a solemn sacrifice was offered in the Delion, at Marathon,
in order to obtain a happy voyage. During the absence of the vessel
the city of Athens was purified, and no criminal was allowed to be

DELPHĪNĬA (δελφίνια), a festival of the same expiatory character as
the Apollonia, which was celebrated in various towns of Greece, in
honour of Apollo, surnamed Delphinius.

DELPHIS (δελφίς), an instrument of naval warfare. It consisted of a
large mass of iron or lead suspended on a beam, which projected from
the mast of the ship like a yard-arm. It was used to sink, or make a
hole in, an enemy’s vessel, by being dropped upon it when alongside.


DĒMARCHI (δήμαρχοι), officers, who were the head-boroughs or chief
magistrates of the demi in Attica, and are said to have been first
appointed by Cleisthenes. Their duties were various and important.
Thus, they convened meetings of the demus, and took the votes upon
all questions under consideration; they made and kept a register of
the landed estates in their districts, levied the monies due to the
demus for rent, &c. They succeeded to the functions which had been
discharged by the _naucrari_ of the old constitution.

DĒMENSUM, an allowance of corn, given to Roman slaves monthly or
daily. It usually consisted of four or five modii of corn a month.


DĒMĬURGI (δημιουργοί), magistrates, whose title is expressive of
their doing the service of the people, existed in several of the
Peloponnesian states. Among the Eleans and Mantineans they seem to
have been the chief executive magistracy. We also read of _demiurgi_
in the Achaean league, who probably ranked next to the _strategi_,
and put questions to the vote in the general assembly of the
confederates. Officers named _epidemiurgi_, or upper demiurgi, were
sent by the Corinthians to manage the government of their colony at

DĒMŎCRĂTĬA (δημοκρατία), that form of constitution in which the
sovereign political power is in the hands of the demus (δῆμος) or
commonalty. In a passage of Herodotus (iii. 80), the characteristics
of a democracy are specified to be--1. Equality of legal rights
(ἰσονομίη). 2. The appointment of magistrates by lot. 3. The
accountability of all magistrates and officers. 4. The reference
of all public matters to the decision of the community at large.
Aristotle remarks--“The following points are characteristic of a
democracy; that all magistrates should be chosen out of the whole
body of citizens; that all should rule each, and each in turn rule
all; that either all magistracies, or those not requiring experience
and professional knowledge, should be assigned by lot; that there
should be no property qualification, or but a very small one, for
filling any magistracy; that the same man should not fill the same
office twice, or should fill offices but few times, and but few
offices, except in the case of military commands; that all, or as
many as possible of the magistracies, should be of brief duration;
that all citizens should be qualified to serve as dicasts; that the
supreme power in everything should reside in the public assembly,
and that no magistrate should be entrusted with irresponsible power
except in very small matters.” It is somewhat curious that neither
in practice nor in theory did the representative system attract any
attention among the Greeks. That diseased form of a democracy, in
which from the practice of giving pay to the poorer citizens for
their attendance in the public assembly, and from other causes,
the predominant party in the state came to be in fact the lowest
class of the citizens, was by later writers termed an _Ochlocracy_
(ὀχλοκρατία--the dominion of the mob).

DĒMŎSĬI (δημόσιοι), public slaves at Athens, who were purchased by
the state. The public slaves, most frequently mentioned, formed
the city guard; it was their duty to preserve order in the public
assembly, and to remove any person whom the prytaneis might order.
They are generally called bowmen (τοξόται); or from the native
country of the majority, Scythians (Σκύθαι); and also Speusinians,
from the name of the person who first established the force. They
originally lived in tents in the market-place, and afterwards upon
the Areiopagus. Their officers had the name of toxarchs (τόξαρχοι).
Their number was at first 300, purchased soon after the battle of
Salamis, but was afterwards increased to 1200.

DĒMUS (δῆμος), originally indicated a district or tract of land;
and in this meaning of a country district, inhabited and under
cultivation, it is contrasted with πόλις. When Cleisthenes, at
Athens, broke up the four tribes of the old constitution, he
substituted in their place ten local tribes (φυλαὶ τοπικαί),
each of which he subdivided into ten _demi_ or country parishes,
possessing each its principal town; and in some one of these demi
were enrolled all the Athenian citizens resident in Attica, with
the exception, perhaps, of those who were natives of Athens itself.
These subdivisions corresponded in some degree to the _naucrariae_
(ναυκραρίαι) of the old tribes, and were originally one hundred in
number. These demi formed independent corporations, and had each
their several magistrates, landed and other property, with a common
treasury. They had likewise their respective convocations or “parish
meetings,” convened by the _demarchi_, in which was transacted the
public business of the demus, such as the leasing of its estates,
the elections of officers, the revision of the registers or lists
of δημόται, and the admission of new members. Independent of these
bonds of union, each demus seems to have had its peculiar temples and
religious worship. There were likewise judges, called δικασταὶ κατα
δημους, who decided cases where the matter in dispute was of less
value than ten drachmae. Admission into a demus was necessary before
any individual could enter upon his full rights and privileges as
an Attic citizen. The register of enrolment was called ληξιαρχικὸν

DĒNĀRĬUS, the principal silver coin among the Romans, was so called
because it was originally equal to ten asses; but on the reduction
of the weight of the as [AS], it was made equal to sixteen asses,
except in military pay, in which it was still reckoned as equal to
ten asses. The denarius was first coined five years before the first
Punic war, B.C. 269. [ARGENTUM.] The average value of the denarii
coined at the end of the commonwealth is about 8½_d._, and those
under the empire about 7½_d._ If the denarius be reckoned in value
8½_d._, the other Roman coins of silver will be of the following

                            | Pence. |  Farth.
                            |        |
  Teruncius                 |   --   |   ·53125
  Sembella                  |   --   |  1·0625
  Libella                   |   --   |  2·125
  Sestertius                |    2   |   ·5
  Quinarius or Victoriatus  |    4   |  1
  Denarius                  |    8   |  2

[Illustration: Denarius. (British Museum.)]

Some denarii were called _serrati_, because their edges were notched
like a saw, which appears to have been done to prove that they were
solid silver, and not plated; and others _bigati_ and _quadrigati_,
because on their reverse were represented chariots drawn by two and
four horses respectively.


DĒSULTOR, a rider in the Roman games, who generally rode two horses
at the same time, sitting on them without a saddle, and vaulting upon
either of them at his pleasure.



DĬĂDĒMA, originally a white fillet, used to encircle the head. It is
represented on the head of Dionysus, and was, in an ornamented form,
assumed by kings as an emblem of sovereignty.

DĬAETĒTAE (διαιτηταί), or arbitrators, at Athens, were of two kinds;
the one public and appointed by lot (κληρωτοί), the other private,
and chosen (αἱρετοί) by the parties who referred to them the decision
of a disputed point, instead of trying it before a court of justice;
the judgments of both, according to Aristotle, being founded on
equity rather than law. The number of public arbitrators seems to
have been 40, four for each tribe. Their jurisdiction was confined to
civil cases.


DĬĂMASTĪGŌSIS (διαμαστίγωσις), a solemnity performed at Sparta at
the festival of Artemis Orthia. Spartan youths were scourged on
the occasion at the altar of Artemis, by persons appointed for the
purpose, until their blood gushed forth and covered the altar. Many
anecdotes are related of the courage and intrepidity with which young
Spartans bore the lashes of the scourge; some even died without
uttering a murmur at their sufferings, for to die under the strokes
was considered as honourable a death as that on the field of battle.

DĬĂPSĔPHĬSIS (διαψήφισις), a political institution at Athens, the
object of which was to prevent aliens, or such as were the offspring
of an unlawful marriage, from assuming the rights of citizens. By
this method a trial of spurious citizens was to be held by the
demotae, within whose deme intruders were suspected to exist.

DĪĂSĬA (διάσια), a great festival celebrated at Athens, without
the walls of the city, in honour of Zeus, surnamed Μειλίχιος. The
whole people took part in it, and the wealthier citizens offered
victims, while the poorer classes burnt such incense as their country
furnished. The diasia took place in the latter half of the month of
Anthesterion with feasting and rejoicings, and was, like most other
festivals, accompanied by a fair.

DĬCASTĒS (δικαστής), the name of a judge, or rather juryman, at
Athens. The conditions of his eligibility were, that he should be a
free citizen, in the enjoyment of his full franchise (ἐπιτιμία), and
not less than thirty years of age, and of persons so qualified 6,000
were selected by lot for the service of every year. Their appointment
took place annually under the conduct of the nine archons and their
official scribe; each of these ten personages drew by lot the names
of 600 persons of the tribe assigned to him; the whole number so
selected was again divided by lot into ten sections of 500 each,
together with a supernumerary one, consisting of 1000 persons, from
among whom the occasional deficiencies in the sections of 500 might
be supplied. To each of the ten sections one of the ten first letters
of the alphabet was appropriated as a distinguishing mark, and a
small tablet (πινάκιον), inscribed with the letter of the section
and the name of the individual, was delivered as a certificate of
his appointment to each dicast. Before proceeding to the exercise of
his functions, the dicast was obliged to swear the official oath.
This oath being taken, and the divisions made as above mentioned, it
remained to assign the courts to the several sections of dicasts in
which they were to sit. This was not, like the first, an appointment
intended to last during the year, but took place under the conduct
of the thesmothetae, _de novo_, every time that it was necessary
to impanel a number of dicasts. As soon as the allotment had taken
place, each dicast received a staff, on which was painted the letter
and the colour of the court awarded him, which might serve both as a
ticket to procure admittance, and also to distinguish him from any
loiterer that might endeavour clandestinely to obtain a sitting after
business had begun. While in court, and probably from the hand of
the presiding magistrate (ἡγέμων δικαστηρίου), he received the token
or ticket that entitled him to receive his fee (δικαστικόν). This
payment is said to have been first instituted by Pericles, and was
originally a single obolus; it was increased by Cleon to thrice that
amount about the 88th Olympiad.

DĬCĒ (δίκη), signifies generally any proceedings at law by one
party directly or mediately against others. The object of all
such actions is to protect the body politic, or one or more of
its individual members, from injury and aggression; a distinction
which has in most countries suggested the division of all causes
into two great classes, the public and the private, and assigned to
each its peculiar form and treatment. At Athens the first of these
was implied by the terms public δίκαι, or ἀγῶνες, or still more
peculiarly by γραφαί; causes of the other class were termed private
δίκαι, or ἀγῶνες, or simply δίκαι in its limited sense. In a δίκη,
only the person whose rights were alleged to be affected, or the
legal protector (κύριος) of such person, if a minor or otherwise
incapable of appearing _suo jure_, was permitted to institute an
action as plaintiff; in public causes, with the exception of some few
in which the person injured or his family were peculiarly bound and
interested to act, any free citizen, and sometimes, when the state
was directly attacked, almost any alien, was empowered to do so.
The court fees, called _prytaneia_, were paid in private but not in
public causes, and a public prosecutor that compromised the action
with the defendant was in most cases punished by a fine of a thousand
drachmae and a modified disfranchisement, while there was no legal
impediment at any period of a private lawsuit to the reconciliation
of the litigant parties.--The proceedings in the δίκη were commenced
by a summons (πρόσκλησις) to the defendant to appear on a certain
day before the proper magistrate (εἰσαγωγεύς), and there answer
the charges preferred against him. This summons was often served
by the plaintiff in person, accompanied by one or two witnesses
(κλητῆρες), whose names were endorsed upon the declaration (λῆξις
or ἔγκλημα). Between the service of the summons and appearance of
the parties before the magistrate, it is very probable that the law
prescribed the intervention of a period of five days. If both parties
appeared, the proceedings commenced by the plaintiff putting in his
declaration, and at the same time depositing his share of the court
fees (πρυτανεῖα), which were trifling in amount, but the non-payment
of which was a fatal objection to the further progress of a cause.
When these were paid, it became the duty of the magistrate, if no
manifest objection appeared on the face of the declaration, to cause
it to be written out on a tablet, and exposed for the inspection
of the public on the wall or other place that served as the cause
list of his court. The magistrate then appointed a day for the
further proceedings of the _anacrisis_ [ANACRISIS]. If the plaintiff
failed to appear at the anacrisis, the suit, of course, fell to
the ground; if the defendant made default, judgment passed against
him. An affidavit might at this, as well as at other periods of the
action, be made in behalf of a person unable to attend upon the
given day, and this would, if allowed, have the effect of postponing
further proceedings (ὑπωμοσία); it might, however, be combated by
a counter-affidavit, to the effect that the alleged reason was
unfounded or otherwise insufficient (ἀνθυπωμοσία); and a question
would arise upon this point, the decision of which, when adverse to
the defendant, would render him liable to the penalty of contumacy.
The plaintiff was in this case said ἐρήμην ἑλεῖν; the defendant,
ἐρήμην ὀφλεῖν, δίκην being the word omitted in both phrases. The
anacrisis began with the affidavit of the plaintiff (προωμοσία),
then followed the answer of the defendant (ἀντωμοσία or ἀντιγραφή),
then the parties produced their respective witnesses, and reduced
their evidence to writing, and put in originals, or authenticated
copies, of all the records, deeds, and contracts that might be
useful in establishing their case, as well as memoranda of offers
and requisitions then made by either side (προκλήσεις). The whole of
the documents were then, if the cause took a straightforward course
(εὐθυδικία), enclosed on the last day of the anacrisis in a casket
(ἐχῖνος), which was sealed, and entrusted to the custody of the
presiding magistrate, till it was produced and opened at the trial.
During the interval no alteration in its contents was permitted, and
accordingly evidence that had been discovered after the anacrisis
was not producible at the trial.--In some causes, the trial before
the dicasts was by law appointed to come on within a given time; in
such as were not provided for by such regulations, we may suppose
that it would principally depend upon the leisure of the magistrate.
Upon the court being assembled, the magistrate called on the cause,
and the plaintiff opened his case. At the commencement of the speech,
the proper officer (ὁ ἐφ’ ὕδωρ) filled the clepsydra with water. As
long as the water flowed from this vessel the orator was permitted
to speak; if, however, evidence was to be read by the officer of
the court, or a law recited, the water was stopped till the speaker
recommenced. The quantity of water, or, in other words, the length
of the speeches, was different in different causes. After the
speeches of the advocates, which were in general two on each side,
and the incidental reading of the documentary and other evidence,
the dicasts proceeded to give their judgment by ballot.--When the
principal point at issue was decided in favour of the plaintiff,
there followed in many cases a further discussion as to the fine or
punishment to be inflicted on the defendant (παθεῖν ἢ ἀποτῖσαι). All
actions were divided into two classes,--ἀγῶνες ἀτίμητοι, _suits not
to be assessed_, in which the fine, or other penalty, was determined
by the laws; and ἀγῶνες τιμητοί, _suits to be assessed_, in which
the penalty had to be fixed by the judges. If the suit was an ἀγῶν
τιμητος, the plaintiff generally mentioned in the pleadings the
punishment which he considered the defendant deserved (τίμημα); and
the defendant was allowed to make a counter-assessment (ἀντιτιμᾶσθαι
or ὑποτιμᾶσθαι), and to argue before the judges why the assessment of
the plaintiff ought to be changed or mitigated. In certain causes,
which were determined by the laws, any of the judges was allowed
to propose an additional assessment (προστίμημα); the amount of
which, however, appears to have been usually fixed by the laws.
Thus, in certain cases of theft, the additional penalty was fixed
at five days’ and nights’ imprisonment. Upon judgment being given
in a private suit, the Athenian law left its execution very much in
the hands of the successful party, who was empowered to seize the
moveables of his antagonist as a pledge for the payment of the money,
or institute an action of ejectment (ἐξούλης) against the refractory
debtor. The judgment of a court of dicasts was in general decisive
(δίκη αὐτοτελής); but upon certain occasions, as, for instance,
when a gross case of perjury or conspiracy could be proved by the
unsuccessful party to have operated to his disadvantage, the cause,
upon the conviction of such conspirators or witnesses, might be
commenced _de novo_.

DICTĀTOR, an extraordinary magistrate at Rome. The name is of
Latin origin, and the office probably existed in many Latin towns
before it was introduced into Rome. We find it in Lanuvium even
in very late times. At Rome this magistrate was originally called
_magister populi_ and not _dictator_, and in the sacred books he
was always designated by the former name down to the latest times.
On the establishment of the Roman republic the government of the
state was entrusted to two consuls, that the citizens might be the
better protected against the tyrannical exercise of the supreme
power. But it was soon felt that circumstances might arise in
which it was of importance for the safety of the state that the
government should be vested in the hands of a single person, who
should possess for a season absolute power, and from whose decision
there should be no appeal to any other body. Thus it came to pass
that in B.C. 501, nine years after the expulsion of the Tarquins,
the dictatorship (_dictatura_) was instituted. By the original law
respecting the appointment of a dictator (_lex de dictatore creando_)
no one was eligible for this office unless he had previously been
consul. We find, however, a few instances in which this law was not
observed.--When a dictator was considered necessary, the senate
passed a senatus consultum, that one of the consuls should nominate
(_dicere_) a dictator; and without a previous decree of the senate
the consuls had not the power of naming a dictator. The nomination or
proclamation of the dictator was always made by the consul, probably
without any witnesses, between midnight and morning, and with the
observance of the auspices (_surgens_ or _oriens nocte silentio
dictatorem dicebat_). The technical word for this nomination or
proclamation was _dicere_ (seldom _creare_ or _facere_). Originally
the dictator was of course a patrician. The first plebeian dictator
was C. Marcius Rutilus, nominated in B.C. 356 by the plebeian consul
M. Popillius Laenas. The reasons which led to the appointment of
a dictator, required that there should be only one at a time. The
dictators that were appointed for carrying on the business of the
state were said to be nominated _rei gerundae causa_, or sometimes
_seditionis sedandae causa_; and upon them, as well as upon the
other magistrates, the imperium was conferred by a _Lex Curiata_.
The dictatorship was limited to six months, and no instances occur
in which a person held this office for a longer time, for the
dictatorships of Sulla and Caesar are of course not to be taken into
account. On the contrary, though a dictator was appointed for six
months, he often resigned his office long previously, immediately
after he had dispatched the business for which he had been appointed.
As soon as the dictator was nominated, a kind of suspension took
place with respect to the consuls and all the other magistrates,
with the exception of the tribuni plebis. The regular magistrates
continued, indeed, to discharge the duties of their various offices
under the dictator, but they were no longer independent officers,
but were subject to the higher imperium of the dictator, and obliged
to obey his orders in every thing. The superiority of the dictator’s
power to that of the consuls consisted chiefly in the three following
points--greater independence of the senate, more extensive power of
punishment without any appeal (_provocatio_) from their sentence
to the people, and irresponsibility. To these three points, must
of course be added that he was not fettered by a colleague. We may
naturally suppose that the dictator would usually act in unison with
the senate; but it is expressly stated that in many cases where the
consuls required the co-operation of the senate, the dictator could
act on his own responsibility. That there was originally no appeal
from the sentence of the dictator is certain, and accordingly the
lictors bore the axes in the fasces before them even in the city,
as a symbol of their absolute power over the lives of the citizens,
although by the Valerian law the axes had disappeared from the fasces
of the consuls. Whether, however, the right of _provocatio_ was
afterwards given cannot be determined. It was in consequence of the
great and irresponsible power possessed by the dictatorship, that we
find it frequently compared with the regal dignity, from which it
only differed in being held for a limited time.--There were however
a few limits to the power of the dictator. 1. The most important was
that which we have mentioned above, that the period of his office was
only six months. 2. He had not power over the treasury, but could
only make use of the money which was granted him by the senate. 3.
He was not allowed to leave Italy, since he might thus easily become
dangerous to the republic; though the case of Atilius Calatinus in
the first Punic war forms an exception to this rule. 4. He was not
allowed to ride on horseback at Rome, without previously obtaining
the permission of the people; a regulation apparently capricious,
but perhaps adopted that he might not bear too great a resemblance
to the kings, who were accustomed to ride.--The insignia of the
dictator were nearly the same as those of the kings in earlier times;
and of the consuls subsequently. Instead however of having only
twelve lictors, as was the case with the consuls, he was preceded by
twenty-four bearing the secures as well as the fasces. The _sella
curulis_ and _toga praetexta_ also belonged to the dictator.--The
preceding account of the dictatorship applies more particularly to
the dictator rei gerundae causa; but dictators were also frequently
appointed, especially when the consuls were absent from the city,
to perform certain acts, which could not be done by any inferior
magistrate. These dictators had little more than the name; and as
they were only appointed to discharge a particular duty, they had to
resign immediately that duty was performed. The occasions on which
such dictators were appointed, were principally:--1. For the purpose
of holding the comitia for the elections (_comitiorum habendorum
causa_). 2. For fixing the _clavus annalis_ in the temple of Jupiter
(_clavi figendi causa_) in times of pestilence or civil discord,
because the law said that this ceremony was to be performed by the
_praetor maximus_, and after the institution of the dictatorship
the latter was regarded as the highest magistracy in the state. 3.
For appointing holidays (_feriarum constituendarum causa_) on the
appearance of prodigies, and for officiating at the public games
(_ludorum faciendorum causa_), the presidency of which belonged
to the consuls or praetors. 4. For holding trials (_quaestionibus
exercendis_.) 5. And on one occasion, for filling up vacancies in
the senate (_legendo senatui_).--Along with the dictator there was
always a _magister equitum_, the nomination of whom was left to the
choice of the dictator, unless the senatus consultum specified,
as was sometimes the case, the name of the person who was to be
appointed. The magister equitum had, like the dictator, to receive
the imperium by a lex curiata. The dictator could not be without
a magister equitum, and, consequently, if the latter died during
the six months of the dictatorship, another had to be nominated
in his stead. The magister equitum was subject to the imperium of
the dictator, but in the absence of his superior he became his
representative, and exercised the same powers as the dictator. The
magister equitum was originally, as his name imports, the commander
of the cavalry, while the dictator was at the head of the legions,
the infantry; and the relation between them was in this respect
similar to that which subsisted between the king and the tribunus
celerum. Dictators were only appointed so long as the Romans had
to carry on wars in Italy. A solitary instance of the nomination
of a dictator for the purpose of carrying on war out of Italy has
been already mentioned. The last dictator rei gerundae causa was M.
Junius Pera, in B.C. 216. From that time dictators were frequently
appointed for holding the elections down to B.C. 202, but after
that year the dictatorship disappears altogether.--After a lapse of
120 years, Sulla caused himself to be appointed dictator in B.C.
82, _reipublicae constituendae causa_, but neither his dictatorship
nor that of Caesar is to be compared with the genuine office. Soon
after Caesar’s death the dictatorship was abolished for ever by a
lex proposed by the consul Antonius. During the time, however, that
the dictatorship was in abeyance, a substitute was invented for it,
whenever the circumstances of the republic required the adoption of
extraordinary measures, by the senate investing the consuls with
dictatorial power. This was done by the well-known formula, _Videant_
or _dent operam consules, ne quid respublica detrimenti capiat_.

DICTYNNĬA (δικτύννια), a festival with sacrifices, celebrated
at Cydonia in Crete, in honour of Artemis, surnamed Δίκτυννα or
Δικτύνναια, from δίκτυον, a hunter’s net.

DĬES (ἡμέρα), a day. The name _dies_ was applied, like our word day,
to the time during which, according to the notions of the ancients,
the sun performed his course around the earth, and this time they
called the civil day (_dies civilis_, in Greek νυχθήμερον, because
it included both night and day). The natural day (_dies naturalis_),
or the time from the rising to the setting of the sun, was likewise
designated by the name dies. The civil day began with the Greeks
at the setting of the sun, and with the Romans at midnight. At the
time of the Homeric poems the natural day was divided into three
parts. The first, called ἠώς, began with sunrise, and comprehended
the whole space of time during which light seemed to be increasing,
_i.e._ till mid-day. The second part was called μέσον ἦμαρ or mid-day,
during which the sun was thought to stand still. The third part bore
the name of δείλη or δείελον ἦμαρ, which derived its name from the
increased warmth of the atmosphere. Among the Athenians the first
and last of the divisions made at the time of Homer were afterwards
subdivided into two parts. The earlier part of the morning was termed
πρωΐ or πρῲ τῆς ἡμέρας: the latter, πληθούσης τῆς ἀγορᾶς, or περὶ
πλήθουσαν ἀγοράν. The μέσον ἦμαρ of Homer was afterwards expressed
by μεσημβρία, μέσον ἡμέρας, or μέση ἡμέρα, and comprehended, as
before, the middle of the day, when the sun seemed neither to rise
nor to decline. The two parts of the afternoon were called δείλη
πρωΐη or πρωΐα, and δείλη ὀψίη or ὀψία. This division continued to
be observed down to the latest period of Grecian history, though
another more accurate division was introduced at an early period;
for Anaximander, or, according to others, his disciple Anaximenes,
is said to have made the Greeks acquainted with the use of the
Babylonian chronometer or sun-dial (called πόλος, or ὡρολόγιον), by
means of which the natural day was divided into twelve equal spaces
of time. The division of the day most generally observed by the
Romans, was that into _tempus antemeridianum_ and _pomeridianum_,
the _meridies_ itself being only considered as a point at which the
one ended and the other commenced. But as it was of importance that
this moment should be known, an especial officer [ACCENSUS] was
appointed, who proclaimed the time of mid-day. The division of the
day into twelve equal spaces, which were shorter in winter than in
summer, was first adopted when artificial means of measuring time
were introduced among the Romans from Greece. This was about the
year B.C. 291, when L. Papirius Cursor, after the war with Pyrrhus
in southern Italy, brought to Rome an instrument called _solarium
horologium_, or simply _solarium_. But as the solarium had been
made for a different latitude, it showed the time at Rome very
incorrectly. Scipio Nasica, therefore, erected in B.C. 159 a public
clepsydra, which indicated the hours of the night as well as of the
day. Even after the erection of this clepsydra it was customary
for one of the subordinate officers of the praetor to proclaim the
third, sixth, and ninth hours; which shows that the day was, like the
night, divided into four parts, each consisting of three hours.--All
the days of the year were, according to different points of view,
divided by the Romans into different classes. For the purpose of the
administration of justice all days were divided into _dies fasti_
and _dies nefasti_. DIES FASTI were the days on which the praetor
was allowed to administer justice in the public courts; they derived
their name from _fari_ (_fari tria verba_; _do_, _dico_, _addico_).
On some of the dies fasti comitia could be held, but not on all. The
regular _dies fasti_ were marked in the Roman calendar by the letter
F, and their number in the course of the year was 38.--Besides these
there were certain days called _dies intercisi_, on which the praetor
might hold his courts, but not at all hours, so that sometimes one
half of such a day was _fastus_, while the other half was _nefastus_.
Their number was 65 in the year.--DIES NEFASTI were days on which
neither courts of justice nor comitia were allowed to be held, and
which were dedicated to other purposes. The term _dies nefasti_,
which originally had nothing to do with religion, but simply
indicated days on which no courts were to be held, was in subsequent
times applied to religious days in general, as _dies nefasti_ were
mostly dedicated to the worship of the gods.--In a religious point
of view all days of the year were either _dies festi_, or _dies
profesti_, or _dies intercisi_. According to the definition given by
Macrobius, _dies festi_ were dedicated to the gods, and spent with
sacrifices, repasts, games, and other solemnities; _dies profesti_
belonged to men for the administration of their private and public
affairs. _Dies intercisi_ were common between gods and men, that is,
partly devoted to the worship of the gods, partly to the transaction
of ordinary business. _Dies profesti_ were either _dies fasti_, or
_dies comitiales_, that is, days on which comitia were held, or _dies
comperendini_, that is, days to which any action was allowed to be
transferred; or _dies stati_, that is, days set apart for causes
between Roman citizens and foreigners; or _dies proeliales_, that is,
all days on which religion did not forbid the commencement of a war.


DĬĬPŎLEIA (διιπόλεια), also called Διπόλεια or Διπόλια, a very ancient
festival celebrated every year on the acropolis of Athens in honour
of Zeus, surnamed Πολιεύς.

DĬMĂCHAE (διμάχαι), Macedonian horse-soldiers, who also fought on
foot when occasion required, like our dragoons.


DĬŎCLEIA (διόκλεια), a festival celebrated by the Megarians in honour
of an ancient Athenian hero, Diocles, around whose grave young men
assembled on the occasion, and amused themselves with gymnastic and
other contests. We read that he who gave the sweetest kiss obtained
the prize, consisting of a garland of flowers.

DĬŎNȲSĬA (διονύσια), festivals celebrated in various parts of Greece
in honour of Dionysus, and characterised by extravagant merriment
and enthusiastic joy. Drunkenness, and the boisterous music of
flutes, cymbals, and drums, were likewise common to all Dionysiac
festivals. In the processions called θίασοι (from θείαζω), with
which they were celebrated, women also took part in the disguise
of Bacchae, Lenae, Thyades, Naiades, Nymphs, &c., adorned with
garlands of ivy, and bearing the thyrsus in their hands, so that
the whole train represented a population inspired, and actuated by
the powerful presence of the god. The choruses sung on the occasion
were called dithyrambs, and were hymns addressed to the god in the
freest metres and with the boldest imagery, in which his exploits
and achievements were extolled. [CHORUS.] The phallus, the symbol
of the fertility of nature, was also carried in these processions.
The indulgence in drinking was considered by the Greeks as a duty
of gratitude which they owed to the giver of the vine; hence in
some places it was thought a crime to remain sober at the Dionysia.
The Attic festivals of Dionysus were four in number: the _Rural_ or
_Lesser Dionysia_ (Διονύσια κατ’ ἀγρούς, or μικρά), the _Lenaea_
(Λήναια), the _Anthesteria_ (Ἀνθεστήρια), and the _City_ or _Great
Dionysia_ (Διονύσια ἐν ἄστει, ἀστικά, or μεγάλα). The season of
the year sacred to Dionysus was during the months nearest to the
shortest day; and the Attic festivals were accordingly celebrated
in Poseideon, Gamelion, Anthesterion, and Elaphebolion.--The _Rural_
or _Lesser Dionysia_, a vintage festival, were celebrated in the
various demes of Attica in the month of Poseideon, and were under
the superintendence of the several local magistrates, the demarchs.
This was doubtless the most ancient of all, and was held with the
highest degree of merriment and freedom; even slaves enjoyed full
freedom during its celebration, and their boisterous shouts on the
occasion were almost intolerable. It is here that we have to seek
for the origin of comedy, in the jests and the scurrilous abuse with
which the peasants assailed the bystanders from a waggon in which
they rode about. The Dionysia in the Peiraeeus, as well as those of
the other demes of Attica, belonged to the lesser Dionysia.--The
second festival, the _Lenaea_ (from ληνός, the wine-press, from which
also the month of Gamelion was called by the Ionians Lenaeon), was
celebrated in the month of Gamelion; the place of its celebration
was the ancient temple of Dionysus Limnaeus (from λίμνη, as the
district was originally a swamp). This temple was called the Lenaeon.
The Lenaea were celebrated with a procession and scenic contests in
tragedy and comedy. The procession probably went to the Lenaeon,
where a goat (τράγος, whence the chorus and tragedy which arose out
of it were called τραγικὸς χορός, and τραγῳδία) was sacrificed, and a
chorus standing around the altar sang the dithyrambic ode to the god.
As the dithyramb was the element out of which, by the introduction of
an actor, tragedy arose [CHORUS], it is natural that, in the scenic
contests of this festival, tragedy should have preceded comedy. The
poet who wished his play to be brought out at the Lenaea applied to
the second archon, who had the superintendence of this festival, and
who gave him a chorus if the piece was thought to deserve it.--The
third festival, the _Anthesteria_, was celebrated on the 11th,
12th, and 13th days of the month of Anthesterion. The second archon
likewise superintended the celebration of the Anthesteria, and
distributed the prizes among the victors in the various games which
were carried on during the season. The first day was called πιθοιγία:
the second, χόες: and the third, χύτροι. The first day derived its
name from the opening of the casks to taste the wine of the preceding
year; the second from χοῦς, the cup, and seems to have been the day
devoted to drinking. The third day had its name from χύτρος, a pot,
as on this day persons offered pots with flowers, seeds, or cooked
vegetables, as a sacrifice to Dionysus and Hermes Chthonius. It is
uncertain whether dramas were performed at the Anthesteria; but it
is supposed that comedies were represented, and that tragedies which
were to be brought out at the great Dionysia were perhaps rehearsed
at the Anthesteria. The mysteries connected with the celebration
of the Anthesteria were held at night.--The fourth festival, the
_City_ or _Great Dionysia_, was celebrated about the 12th of the
month of Elaphebolion; but we do not know whether they lasted more
than one day or not. The order in which the solemnities took place
was as follows:--the great public procession, the chorus of boys,
the _comus_ [CHORUS], comedy, and, lastly, tragedy. Of the dramas
which were performed at the great Dionysia, the tragedies at least
were generally new pieces; repetitions do not, however, seem to have
been excluded from any Dionysiac festival. The first archon had
the superintendence, and gave the chorus to the dramatic poet who
wished to bring out his piece at this festival. The prize awarded to
the dramatist for the best play consisted of a crown, and his name
was proclaimed in the theatre of Dionysus. As the great Dionysia
were celebrated at the beginning of spring, when the navigation was
re-opened, Athens was not only visited by numbers of country people,
but also by strangers from other parts of Greece, and the various
amusements and exhibitions on this occasion were not unlike those
of a modern fair.--The worship of Dionysus, whom the Romans called
Bacchus, or rather the Bacchic mysteries and orgies (_Bacchanalia_),
are said to have been introduced from southern Italy into Etruria,
and from thence to Rome, where for a time they were carried on in
secret, and, during the latter period of their existence, at night.
The initiated, according to Livy, not only indulged in feasting and
drinking at their meetings, but when their minds were heated with
wine they indulged in the coarsest excesses and the most unnatural
vices. The time of initiation lasted ten days; on the tenth, the
person who was to be initiated took a solemn meal, underwent a
purification by water, and was led into the sanctuary (_Bacchanal_).
At first only women were initiated, and the orgies were celebrated
every year during three days. But Pacula Annia, a Campanian matron,
pretending to act under the direct influence of Bacchus, changed the
whole method of celebration: she admitted men to the initiation,
and transferred the solemnisation, which had hitherto taken place
during the daytime, to the night. Instead of three days in the year,
she ordered that the Bacchanalia should be held during five days in
every month. It was from that time that these orgies were carried
on with frightful licentiousness and excesses of every kind. The
evil at length became so alarming, that, in B.C. 186, the consuls,
by the command of the senate, instituted an investigation into the
nature and object of these new rites. The result was that numerous
persons were arrested, and some put to death; and that a decree of
the senate was issued, commanding that no Bacchanalia should be held
either in Rome or Italy; that if any one should think such ceremonies
necessary, or if he could not neglect them without scruples or making
atonements, he should apply to the praetor urbanus, who might then
consult the senate. If the permission should be granted to him in
an assembly of the senate, consisting of not less than one hundred
members, he might solemnise the Bacchic sacra; but no more than five
persons were to be present at the celebration; there should be no
common fund, and no master of the sacra or priest. A brazen table
containing this important document was discovered near Bari, in
southern Italy, in the year 1640, and is at present in the imperial
Museum of Vienna. While the _Bacchanalia_ were thus suppressed,
another more simple and innocent festival of Bacchus, the _Liberalia_
(from _Liber_, or _Liber Pater_, a name of Bacchus), continued to
be celebrated at Rome every year on the 16th of March. Priests and
aged priestesses, adorned with garlands of ivy, carried through the
city wine, honey, cakes, and sweetmeats, together with an altar with
a handle (_ansata ara_), in the middle of which there was a small
fire-pan (_foculus_), in which from time to time sacrifices were
burnt. On this day Roman youths who had attained their sixteenth year
received the _toga virilis_.

DĬŎSCŪRĬA (διοσκούρια), festivals celebrated in various parts of
Greece in honour of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux). Their worship
was very generally adopted in Greece, especially in the Doric and
Achaean states; but little is known of the manner in which their
festivals were celebrated. At Athens the festival was called Anaceia.

DĬŌTA, a vessel having two ears (ὦτα) or handles, used for holding
wine. It appears to have been much the same as the amphora. [AMPHORA.]

DIPHTHĔRA (διφθέρα), a kind of cloak made of the skins of animals,
and worn by herdsmen and country people. It had a covering for the
head (ἐπικράνον), in which respect it would correspond to the Roman

DIPLŌMA, a writ or public document, which conferred upon a person
any right or privilege. During the republic, it was granted by the
consuls and senate; and under the empire, by the emperor and the
magistrates whom he authorised to do so. It consisted of two leaves,
whence it derived its name.

DIPTỸCHA (δίπτυχα), two writing tablets, which could be folded
together. They were commonly made of wood and covered over with wax.


DISCUS (δίσκος), a circular plate of stone, or metal, made for
throwing to a distance as an exercise of strength and dexterity. It
was one of the principal gymnastic exercises of the ancients, being
included in the _Pentathlum_.

[Illustration: Discobolus. (Osterley, Denk. der alt Kunst, vol. 1.
No. 139)]




DĪVĪNĀTĬO (μαντική), a power in man which foresees future things
by means of those signs which the gods throw in his way. Among the
Greeks the _manteis_ (μάντεις), or seers, who announced the future,
were supposed to be under the direct influence of the gods, chiefly
that of Apollo. In many families of seers the inspired knowledge of
the future was considered to be hereditary, and to be transmitted
from father to son. To these families belonged the Iamids, who from
Olympia spread over a considerable part of Greece; the Branchidae,
near Miletus; the Eumolpids, at Athens and Eleusis; the Telliads,
the Acarnanian seers, and others. Along with the seers we may also
mention the Bacides and the Sibyllae. Both existed from a very remote
time, and were distinct from the manteis so far as they pretended
to derive their knowledge of the future from sacred books (χρησμοί)
which they consulted, and which were in some places, as at Athens
and Rome, kept by the government or some especial officers, in the
acropolis and in the most revered sanctuary. The Bacides are said to
have been descended from one or more prophetic nymphs of the name of
Bacis. The Sibyllae were prophetic women, probably of Asiatic origin,
whose peculiar custom seems to have been to wander with their sacred
books from place to place. The Sibylla, whose books gained so great
an importance at Rome, is reported to have been the Erythraean: the
books which she was said to have sold to one of the Tarquins were
carefully concealed from the public, and only accessible to the
duumvirs. Besides these more respectable prophets and prophetesses,
there were numbers of diviners of an inferior order (χρησμολόγοι),
who made it their business to explain all sorts of signs, and to
tell fortunes. They were, however, more particularly popular with
the lower orders, who are everywhere most ready to believe what is
most marvellous and least entitled to credit. No public undertaking
of any consequence was ever entered upon by the Greeks and Romans
without consulting the will of the gods, by observing the signs
which they sent, especially those in the sacrifices offered for the
purpose, and by which they were thought to indicate the success
or the failure of the undertaking. For this kind of divination no
divine inspiration was thought necessary, but merely experience and
a certain knowledge acquired by routine; and although in some cases
priests were appointed for the purpose of observing and explaining
signs [AUGUR; HARUSPEX], yet on any sudden emergency, especially
in private affairs, any one who met with something extraordinary,
might act as his own interpreter. The principal signs by which the
gods were thought to declare their will, were things connected with
the offering of sacrifices, the flight and voice of birds, all
kinds of natural phenomena, ordinary as well as extraordinary, and
dreams.--The interpretation of signs of the first class (ἱερομαντεία
or ἱεροσκοπία, _haruspicium_ or _ars haruspicina_) was, according
to Aeschylus, the invention of Prometheus. It seems to have been
most cultivated by the Etruscans, among whom it was raised into a
complete science, and from whom it passed to the Romans. Sacrifices
were either offered for the special purpose of consulting the gods,
or in the ordinary way; but in both cases the signs were observed,
and when they were propitious, the sacrifice was said καλλιερεῖν. The
principal points that were generally observed were, 1. The manner
in which the victim approached the altar. 2. The nature of the
intestines with respect to their colour and smoothness; the liver
and bile were of particular importance. 3. The nature of the flame
which consumed the sacrifice. Especial care was also taken during
a sacrifice, that no inauspicious or frivolous words were uttered
by any of the bystanders: hence the admonitions of the priests,
εὐφημεῖτε and εὐφημία, or σιγᾶτε, σιωπᾶτε, _favete linguis_, and
others; for improper expressions were not only thought to pollute
and profane the sacred act, but to be unlucky omens.--The art of
interpreting signs of the second class was called οἰωνιστική,
_augurium_, or _auspicium_. It was, like the former, common to Greeks
and Romans, but never attained the same degree of importance in
Greece as it did in Rome. [AUSPICIUM.] The Greeks, when observing
the flight of birds, turned their face toward the north, and then a
bird appearing to the right (east), especially an eagle, a heron, or
a falcon, was a favourable sign; while birds appearing to the left
(west) were considered as unlucky signs. Of greater importance than
the appearance of animals, at least to the Greeks, were the phenomena
in the heavens, particularly during any public transaction. Among the
unlucky phenomena in the heavens (διοσημεῖα, _signa_, or _portenta_)
were thunder and lightning, an eclipse of the sun or moon,
earthquakes, rain of blood, stones, milk, &c. Any one of these signs
was sufficient at Athens to break up the assembly of the people.--In
common life, things apparently of no importance, when occurring at a
critical moment, were thought by the ancients to be signs sent by the
gods, from which conclusions might be drawn respecting the future.
Among these common occurrences we may mention sneezing, twinkling
of the eyes, tinkling of the ears, &c.--The art of interpreting
dreams (ὀνειροπολία), which had probably been introduced into Europe
from Asia, where it is still a universal practice, seems in the
Homeric age to have been held in high esteem, for dreams were said
to be sent by Zeus. In subsequent times, that class of diviners
who occupied themselves with the interpretation of dreams, seems
to have been very numerous and popular; but they never enjoyed any
protection from the state, and were chiefly resorted to by private
individuals.--The subject of oracles is treated in a separate
article. [ORACULUM.]--The word _divinatio_ was used in a particular
manner by the Romans as a law term. If in any case two or more
accusers came forward against one and the same individual, it was, as
the phrase ran, _decided by divination_, who should be the chief or
real accuser, whom the others then joined as _subscriptores;_ _i.e._ by
putting their names to the charge brought against the offender. This
transaction, by which one of several accusers was selected to conduct
the accusation, was called _divinatio_, as the question here was not
about facts, but about something which was to be done, and which
could not be found out by witnesses or written documents; so that
the judices had, as it were, to divine the course which they had to
take. Hence the oration of Cicero, in which he tries to show that he,
and not Q. Caecilius Niger, ought to conduct the accusation against
Verres, is called _Divinatio in Caecilium_.


DĪVORTĬUM (ἀπόλειψις, ἀπόπεμψις), divorce. (1) GREEK. The laws of
Athens permitted either the husband or the wife to call for and
effect a divorce. If it originated with the wife, she was said
to leave her husband’s house (ἀπολείπειν); if otherwise, to be
dismissed from it (ἀποπεμπέσθαι). After divorce, the wife resorted
to her male relations, with whom she would have remained if she
had never quitted her maiden state; and it then became their duty
to receive or recover from her late husband all the property that
she had brought to him in acknowledged dowry upon their marriage.
If, upon this, both parties were satisfied, the divorce was final
and complete: if otherwise, an action ἀπολείψεως, or ἀποπέμψεως,
would be instituted, as the case might be, by the party opposed to
the separation. A separation, however, whether it originated from
the husband or the wife, was considered to reflect discredit on the
latter.--(2) ROMAN. Divorce always existed in the Roman polity.
As one essential part of a marriage was the consent and conjugal
affection of the parties, it was considered that this affection was
necessary to its continuance, and accordingly either party might
declare his or her intention to dissolve the connection. No judicial
decree, and no interference of any public authority, was requisite to
dissolve a marriage. The first instance of divorce at Rome is said
to have occurred about B.C. 234, when Sp. Carvilius Ruga put away
his wife, on the ground of barrenness: it is added, that his conduct
was generally condemned. Towards the latter part of the republic,
and under the empire, divorces became very common. Pompey divorced
his wife Mucia for alleged adultery; and Cicero divorced his wife
Terentia, after living with her thirty years, and married a young
woman. Cato the younger divorced his wife Marcia, that his friend
Hortensius might marry her, and have children by her; for this is
the true meaning of the story that he lent his wife to Hortensius.
If a husband divorced his wife, the wife’s dowry, as a general
rule, was restored; and the same was the case when the divorce took
place by mutual consent. Corresponding to the forms of marriage by
_confarreatio_ and _coemtio_, there were the forms of divorce by
_diffarreatio_ and _remancipatio_. In course of time, less ceremony
was used; but still some distinct notice or declaration of intention
was necessary to constitute a divorce. The term _repudium_, it is
said, properly applies to a marriage only contracted, and _divortium_
to an actual marriage; but sometimes divortium and repudium appear
to be used indifferently. The phrases to express a divorce are,
_nuntium remittere_, _divortium facere_; and the form of words
might be as follows--_Tuas res tibi habeto, tuas res tibi agito_.
The phrases used to express the renunciation of a marriage contract
were, _renuntiare repudium_, _repudium remittere_, _dicere_, and
_repudiare_; and the form of words might be, _Conditione tua non

DŎCĂNA (τὰ δόκανα, from δοκός, a beam) was an ancient symbolical
representation of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), at Sparta.
It consisted of two upright beams with others laid across them

DŎCĬMĂSĬA (δοκιμασία). When any citizen of Athens was either
appointed by lot, or chosen by suffrage, to hold a public office,
he was obliged, before entering on its duties, to submit to a
_docimasia_, or scrutiny into his previous life and conduct, in which
any person could object to him as unfit. The _docimasia_, however,
was not confined to persons appointed to public offices; for we read
of the denouncement of a scrutiny against orators who spoke in the
assembly while leading profligate lives, or after having committed
flagitious crimes.


DŎLĀBRA, _dim._ DŎLĀBELLA (σμίλη, _dim_. σμιλίον), a chisel, a celt,
was used for a variety of purposes in ancient as in modern times.
_Celtes_ is an old Latin word for a chisel, probably derived from
_coelo_, to engrave. Celts, or chisels, were frequently employed in
making entrenchments and in destroying fortifications; and hence they
are often found in ancient earth-works and encampments. They are for
the most part of bronze, more rarely of hard stone. The sizes and
forms which they present, are as various as the uses to which they
were applied. The annexed woodcut is designed to show a few of the
most remarkable varieties.

[Illustration: Dolabrae, Celts. (From different Collections in Great

DŌLĬUM, a cylindrical vessel, somewhat resembling our tubs or casks,
into which new wine was put to let it ferment.

DŎLO (δόλων). (1) A secret poniard or dagger contained in a case,
used by the Italians. It was inserted in the handles of whips, and
also in walking sticks, thus corresponding to our sword-stick.--(2) A
small top-sail.

DŎMĬNĬUM signifies quiritarian ownership, or property in a thing; and
_dominus_, or _dominus legitimus_, is the owner. The dominus has the
power of dealing with a thing as he pleases, and differs from the
bare _possessor_, who has only the right of possession, and has not
the absolute ownership of the thing.

DŎMUS (οἶκος), a house.--(1) GREEK. A Greek house was always divided
into two distinct portions, the _Andronitis_, or men’s apartments
(ἀνδρωνῖτις), and the _Gynaeconitis_, or women’s apartments
(γυναικωνῖτις). In the earliest times, as in the houses referred
to by Homer, and in some houses at a later period, the women’s
apartments were in the upper story (ὑπερῷον), but usually at a later
time the gynaeconitis was on the same story with the andronitis,
and behind it. The front of the house towards the street was not
large, as the apartments extended rather in the direction of its
depth than of its width. In towns the houses were often built side
by side, with party-walls between. The exterior wall was plain,
being composed generally of stone, brick, and timber, and often
covered with stucco. There was no open space between the street and
the house-door, like the Roman _vestibulum_. The πρόθυρα, which is
sometimes mentioned, seems to be merely the space in front of the
house, where there was generally an altar of Apollo Agyieus, or a
rude obelisk emblematical of the god. Sometimes there was a laurel
tree in the same position, and sometimes a head of the god Hermes.
A few steps (ἀναβαθμοί) led up to the house-door, which generally
bore some inscription, for the sake of a good omen, or as a charm.
The door sometimes opened outwards; but this seems to have been
an exception to the general rule, as is proved by the expressions
used for opening, ἐνδοῦναι, and shutting it, ἐπισπάσασθαι and
ἐφελκύσασθαι. The handles were called ἐπισπαστῆρες. The house-door
was called αὔλειος or αὔλεια θύρα, because it led to the αὐλή. It
gave admittance to a narrow passage (θυρωρεῖον, πυλών, θυρών), on
one side of which, in a large house, were the stables, on the other
the porter’s lodge. The duty of the porter (θυρωρός) was to admit
visitors and to prevent anything improper from being carried into or
out of the house. The porter was attended by a dog. Hence the phrase
εὐλαβεῖσθαι τὴν κύνα, corresponding to the Latin _Cave canem_. From
the θυρωρεῖον we pass into the peristyle or court (περιστύλιον, αὐλή)
of the andronitis, which was a space open to the sky in the centre
(ὕπαιθρον), and surrounded on all four sides by porticoes (στοαί), of
which one, probably that nearest the entrance, was called προστόον.
These porticoes were used for exercise, and sometimes for dining in.
Here was commonly the altar on which sacrifices were offered to the
household gods. In building the porticoes the object sought was to
obtain as much sun in winter, and as much shade and air in summer as
possible. Round the peristyle were arranged the chambers used by the
men, such as banqueting rooms (οἶκοι, ἀνδρῶνες), which were large
enough to contain several sets of couches (τρίκλινοι, ἑπτάκλινοι,
τριακοντάκλινοι, and at the same time to allow abundant room for
attendants, musicians, and performers of games; parlours or sitting
rooms (ἐξέδραι), and smaller chambers and sleeping rooms (δωμάτια,
κοιτῶνες, οἰκήματα); picture-galleries and libraries, and sometimes
store-rooms; and in the arrangement of these apartments attention was
paid to their aspect. The peristyle of the andronitis was connected
with that of the gynaeconitis by a door called μέταυλος, μέσαυλος, or
μεσαύλιος, which was in the middle of the portico of the peristyle
opposite to the entrance. By means of this door all communication
between the andronitis and gynaeconitis could be shut off.

[Illustration: Ground-plan of a Greek House.

α, House-door, αὔλειος θύρα: θυρ’, passage, θυρωρεῖον or θυρών: Α,
peristyle, or αὐλή of the andronitis; ο, the halls and chambers
of the andronitis; μ, μέταυλος or μέσαυλος θύρα: Γ, peristyle of
the gynaeconitis; γ, chambers of the gynaeconitis; π, προστάς or
παραστάς: θ, θάλαμος and ἀμφιθάλαμος: Ι, rooms for working in wool
(ἱστῶνες); Κ, garden-door, κηταία θύρα.]

Accordingly Xenophon calls it θύρα βαλανωτός. Its name μέσαυλος is
evidently derived from μέσος, and means the door _between_ the two
αὐλαί or peristyles. This door gave admittance to the peristyle
of the gynaeconitis, which differed from that of the andronitis
in having porticoes round only three of its sides. On the fourth
side were placed two antae [ANTAE], at a considerable distance
from each other. A third of the distance between these antae was
set off inwards, thus forming a chamber or vestibule, which was
called προστάς, παραστάς, and πρόδρομος. On the right and left of
this προστάς were two bed-chambers, the θάλαμος and ἀμφιθάλαμος,
of which the former was the principal bed-chamber of the house,
and here also seem to have been kept the vases, and other valuable
articles of ornament. Beyond these rooms were large apartments
(ἱστῶνες) used for working in wool. Round the peristyle were the
eating-rooms, bed-chambers, store-rooms, and other apartments in
common use. Besides the αὔλειος θύρα and the μέσαυλος θύρα, there
was a third door (κηπαία θύρα) leading to the garden. The preceding
is a conjectural plan of the ground-floor of a Greek house of the
larger size. There was usually, though not always, an upper story
(ὑπερῷον διῆρες), which seldom extended over the whole space occupied
by the lower story. The principal use of the upper story was for the
lodging of the slaves. The access to the upper floor seems to have
been sometimes by stairs on the outside of the house, leading up from
the street. Guests were also lodged in the upper story. But in some
large houses there were rooms set apart for their reception (ξενῶνες)
on the ground-floor. The roofs were generally flat, and it was
customary to walk about upon them. In the interior of the house the
place of doors was sometimes supplied by curtains (παραπετάσματα),
which were either plain, or dyed, or embroidered. The principal
openings for the admission of light and air were in the roofs of
the peristyles; but it is incorrect to suppose that the houses had
no windows (θυρίδες), or at least none overlooking the street. They
were not at all uncommon. Artificial warmth was procured partly by
means of fire-places. It is supposed that chimneys were altogether
unknown, and that the smoke escaped through an opening in the roof
(καπνοδόκη), but it is not easy to understand how this could be the
case when there was an upper story. Little portable stoves (ἐσχάραι,
ἐσχαρίδες) or chafing-dishes (ἀνθράκια) were frequently used. The
houses of the wealthy in the country, at least in Attica, were much
larger and more magnificent than those in the towns. The latter seem
to have been generally small and plain, especially in earlier times,
when the Greeks preferred expending the resources of art and wealth
on their temples and public buildings; but the private houses became
more magnificent as the public buildings began to be neglected. The
decorations of the interior were very plain at the period to which
our description refers. The floors were of stone. At a late period
coloured stones were used. Mosaics are first mentioned under the
kings of Pergamus. The walls, up to the 4th century B.C., seem to
have been only whited. The first instance of painting them is that
of Alcibiades. This innovation met with considerable opposition.
We have also mention of painted ceilings at the same period. At a
later period this mode of decoration became general.--(2) ROMAN. The
houses of the Romans were poor and mean for many centuries after the
foundation of the city. Till the war with Pyrrhus the houses were
covered only with thatch or shingles, and were usually built of wood
or unbaked bricks. It was not till the latter times of the republic,
when wealth had been acquired by conquests in the East, that houses
of any splendour began to be built; but it then became the fashion
not only to build houses of an immense size, but also to adorn them
with columns, paintings, statues, and costly works of art. Some idea
may be formed of the size and magnificence of the houses of the Roman
nobles during the later times of the republic by the price which
they fetched. The consul Messalla bought the house of Autronius for
3700 sestertia (nearly 33,000_l._), and Cicero the house of Crassus,
on the Palatine, for 3500 sestertia (nearly 31,000_l._). The house
of Publius Clodius, whom Milo killed, cost 14,800 sestertia (about
131,000_l._); and the Tusculan villa of Scaurus was fitted up with
such magnificence, that when it was burnt by his slaves, he lost
100,000 sestertia, upwards of 885,000_l._--Houses were originally
only one story high; but as the value of ground increased in the
city they were built several stories in height, and the highest
floors were usually inhabited by the poor. Till the time of Nero,
the streets in Rome were narrow and irregular, and bore traces of
the haste and confusion with which the city was built after it had
been burnt by the Gauls; but after the great fire in the time of
that emperor, by which two-thirds of Rome was burnt to the ground,
the city was built with great regularity. The streets were made
straight and broad; the height of the houses was restricted, and a
certain part of each was required to be built of Gabian or Alban
stone, which was proof against fire. The principal parts of a Roman
house were the, 1. _Vestibulum_, 2. _Ostium_, 3. _Atrium_ or _Cavum
Aedium_, 4. _Alae_, 5. _Tablinum_, 6. _Fauces_, 7. _Peristylium_.
The parts of a house which were considered of less importance,
and of which the arrangement differed in different houses, were
the, 1. _Cubicula_, 2. _Triclinia_, 3. _Oeci_, 4. _Exedrae_, 5.
_Pinacotheca_, 6. _Bibliotheca_, 7. _Balineum_, 8. _Culina_, 9.
_Coenacula_, 10. _Diaeta_, 11. _Solaria_. We shall speak of each
in order.--1. VESTIBULUM did not properly form part of the house,
but was a vacant space before the door, forming a court, which was
surrounded on three sides by the house, and was open on the fourth
to the street.--2. OSTIUM, which is also called _janua_ and _fores_,
was the entrance to the house. The street-door admitted into a hall,
to which the name of ostium was also given, and in which there was
frequently a small room (_cella_) for the porter (_janitor_ or
_ostiarius_), and also for a dog, which was usually kept in the hall
to guard the house. Another door (_janua interior_) opposite the
street-door led into the atrium.--3. ATRIUM or CAVUM AEDIUM, also
written _Cavaedium_, are probably only different names of the same

[Illustration: Atrium of the House of Ceres at Pompeii.]

The Atrium or Cavum Aedium was a large apartment roofed over with
the exception of an opening in the centre, called _compluvium_,
towards which the roof sloped so as to throw the rain-water into
a cistern in the floor, termed _impluvium_, which was frequently
ornamented with statues, columns, and other works of art. The word
_impluvium_, however, is also employed to denote the aperture in
the roof. The atrium was the most important room in the house,
and among the wealthy was usually fitted up with much splendour
and magnificence. Originally it was the only sitting-room in the
house; but in the houses of the wealthy it was distinct from the
private apartments, and was used as a reception-room, where the
patron received his clients, and the great and noble the numerous
visitors who were accustomed to call every morning to pay their
respects or solicit favours. But though the atrium was not used by
the wealthy as a sitting-room for the family, it still continued to
be employed for many purposes which it had originally served. Thus
the nuptial couch was placed in the atrium opposite the door, and
also the instruments and materials for spinning and weaving, which
were formerly carried on by the women of the family in this room.
Here also the images of their ancestors were placed, and the focus or
fire-place, which possessed a sacred character, being dedicated to
the Lares of each family.--4. ALAE, wings, were small apartments or
recesses on the left and right sides of the atrium.--5. TABLINUM was
in all probability a recess or room at the further end of the atrium
opposite the door leading into the hall, and was regarded as part of
the atrium. It contained the family records and archives. With the
tablinum the Roman house appears to have originally ceased; and the
sleeping-rooms were probably arranged on each side of the atrium. But
when the atrium and its surrounding rooms were used for the reception
of clients and other public visitors, it became necessary to increase
the size of the house; and the following rooms were accordingly
added:--6. FAUCES appear to have been passages, which passed from the
atrium to the peristylium or interior of the house.--7. PERISTYLIUM
was in its general form like the atrium, but it was one-third greater
in breadth, measured transversely, than in length. It was a court
open to the sky in the middle; the open part, which was surrounded
by columns, was larger than the impluvium in the atrium, and was
frequently decorated with flowers and shrubs.--The arrangement of the
rooms, which are next to be noticed, varied according to the taste
and circumstances of the owner. It is therefore impossible to assign
to them any regular place in the house.--1. CUBICULA, bed-chambers,
appear to have been usually small. There were separate cubicula for
the day and night; the latter were also called _dormitoria_.--2.
TRICLINIA are treated of in a separate article. [TRICLINIUM.]--3.
OECI, from the Greek οἶκος, were spacious halls or saloons borrowed
from the Greeks, and were frequently used as triclinia. They were to
have the same proportions as triclinia, but were to be more spacious
on account of having columns, which triclinia had not.--4. EXEDRAE
were rooms for conversation and the other purposes of society.--5.
PINACOTHECA, a picture-gallery.--6, 7. BIBLIOTHECA and BALINEUM are
treated of in separate articles.--8. CULINA, the kitchen.

[Illustration: Kitchen of the House of Pansa at Pompeii.]

The food was originally cooked in the atrium: but the progress of
refinement afterwards led to the use of another part of the house for
this purpose. In the kitchen of Pansa’s house at Pompeii, a stove for
stews and similar preparations was found, very much like the charcoal
stoves used in the present day. Before it lie a knife, a strainer,
and a kind of frying-pan with four spherical cavities, as if it were
meant to cook eggs.--9. COENACULA, properly signified rooms to dine
in; but after it became the fashion to dine in the upper part of the
house, the whole of the rooms above the ground-floor were called
_coenacula_.--10. DIAETA, an apartment used for dining in, and for
the other purposes of life. It appears to have been smaller than
the triclinium. _Diaeta_ is also the name given by Pliny to rooms
containing three or four bed-chambers (_cubicula_). Pleasure-houses
or summer-houses are also called _diaetae_.--11. SOLARIA, properly
places for basking in the sun, were terraces on the tops of houses.
The preceding cut represents the atrium of a house at Pompeii. In
the centre is the impluvium, and the passage at the further end is
the ostium or entrance hall.--The preceding account of the different
rooms, and especially of the arrangement of the atrium, tablinum,
peristyle, &c., is best illustrated by the houses which have been
disinterred at Pompeii. The ground-plan of one is accordingly

[Illustration: Ground-plan of a House at Pompeii.]

Like most of the other houses at Pompeii, it had no vestibulum
according to the meaning given above. 1. The _ostium_ or
entrance-hall, which is six feet wide and nearly thirty long. Near
the street-door there is a figure of a large fierce dog worked in
mosaic on the pavement, and beneath it is written _Cave Canem_. The
two large rooms on each side of the vestibule appear from the large
openings in front of them to have been shops; they communicate with
the entrance-hall, and were therefore probably occupied by the master
of the house. 2. The _atrium_, which is about twenty-eight feet in
length and twenty in breadth; its _impluvium_ is near the centre
of the room, and its floor is paved with white tesserae, spotted
with black. 3. Chambers for the use of the family, or intended for
the reception of guests, who were entitled to claim hospitality.
4. A small room with a staircase leading up to the upper rooms.
5. _Alae._ 6. The _tablinum_. 7. The _fauces_. 8. Peristyle, with
Doric columns and garden in the centre. The large room on the right
of the peristyle is the triclinium; beside it is the kitchen; and
the smaller apartments are cubicula and other rooms for the use of
the family.--Having given a general description of the rooms of a
Roman house, it remains to speak of the (1) floors, (2) walls, (3)
ceilings, (4) windows, and (5) the mode of warming the rooms. For
the doors, see JANUA.--(1.) The floor (_solum_) of a room was seldom
boarded: it was generally covered with stone or marble, or mosaics.
The common floors were paved with pieces of bricks, tiles, stones,
&c., forming a kind of composition called _ruderatic_. Sometimes
pieces of marble were imbedded in a composition ground, and these
probably gave the idea of mosaics. As these floors were beaten
down (_pavita_) with rammers (_fistucae_), the word _pavimentum_
became the general name for a floor. Mosaics, called by Pliny
_lithostrota_ (λιθόστρωτα), though this word has a more extensive
meaning, first came into use in Sulla’s time, who made one in the
temple of Fortune at Praeneste. Mosaic work was afterwards called
_Musivum opus_, and was most extensively employed.--(2.) The inner
walls (_parietes_) of private rooms were frequently lined with slabs
of marble, but were more usually covered by paintings, which in the
time of Augustus were made upon the walls themselves. This practice
was so common that we find even the small houses in Pompeii have
paintings upon their walls.--(3.) The ceilings seem originally to
have been left uncovered, the beams which supported the roof or the
upper story being visible. Afterwards planks were placed across
these beams at certain intervals, leaving hollow spaces, called
_lacunaria_ or _laquearia_, which were frequently covered with
gold and ivory, and sometimes with paintings. There was an arched
ceiling in common use, called CAMARA.--(4.) The Roman houses had
few windows (_fenestrae_). The principal apartments, the atrium,
peristyle, &c., were lighted from above, and the cubicula and other
small rooms generally derived their light from them, and not from
windows looking into the street. The rooms only on the upper story
seem to have been usually lighted by windows. The windows appear
originally to have been merely openings in the wall, closed by means
of shutters, which frequently had two leaves (_bifores fenestrae_).
Windows were also sometimes covered by a kind of lattice or trellis
work (_clathri_), and sometimes by net-work, to prevent serpents
and other noxious reptiles from getting in. Afterwards, however,
windows were made of a transparent stone, called _lapis specularis_
(mica); such windows were called _specularia_. Windows made of glass
(_vitrum_) are first mentioned by Lactantius, who lived in the fourth
century of the Christian era; but the discoveries at Pompeii prove
that glass was used for windows under the early emperors.--(5.) The
rooms were heated in winter in different ways; but the Romans had
no stoves like ours. The cubicula, triclinia, and other rooms,
which were intended for winter use, were built in that part of the
house upon which the sun shone most; and in the mild climate of
Italy this frequently enabled them to dispense with any artificial
mode of warming the rooms. Rooms exposed to the sun in this way were
sometimes called _heliocamini_. The rooms were sometimes heated by
hot air, which was introduced by means of pipes from a furnace below,
but more frequently by portable furnaces or braziers (_foculi_), in
which coal or charcoal was burnt. The _caminus_ was also a kind of
stove, in which wood appears to have been usually burnt, and probably
only differed from the _foculus_ in being larger and fixed to one
place. The rooms usually had no chimneys for carrying off the smoke,
which escaped through the windows, doors, and openings in the roof;
still chimneys do not appear to have been entirely unknown to the
ancients, as some are said to have been found in the ruins of ancient

DŌNĀRĬA (ἀναθήματα or ἀνακείμενα), presents made to the gods, either
by individuals or communities. Sometimes they are also called
_dona_ or δῶρα. The belief that the gods were pleased with costly
presents was as natural to the ancients as the belief that they
could be influenced in their conduct towards men by the offering of
sacrifices; and, indeed, both sprang from the same feeling. Presents
were mostly given as tokens of gratitude for some favour which a god
had bestowed on man; as, for instance, by persons who had recovered
from illness or escaped from shipwreck; but some are also mentioned,
which were intended to induce the deity to grant some especial
favour. Almost all presents were dedicated in temples, to which in
some places an especial building was added, in which these treasures
were preserved. Such buildings were called θησαυροί(treasuries);
and in the most frequented temples of Greece many states had their
separate treasuries. The act of dedication was called ἀνατιθέναι,
_donare_, _dedicare_, or _sacrare_.



DOS (φερνή, προΐξ), dowry. (1) GREEK. In the Homeric times it was
customary for the husband to purchase his wife from her relations,
by gifts called ἕδνα or ἔεδνα. But at Athens, during the historical
period, the contrary was the case; for every woman had to bring her
husband some dowry, and so universal was the practice, that one of
the chief distinctions between a wife and a παλλακή, or concubine,
consisted in the former having a portion, whereas the latter had
not; hence, persons who married wives without portions appear to
have given them or their guardians an acknowledgment in writing by
which the receipt of a portion was admitted. Moreover, poor heiresses
were either married or portioned by their next of kin, according to
a law, which fixed the amount of portion to be given at five minae
by a Pentacosiomedimnus, three by a Horseman, and one and a half by
a Zeugites. The husband had to give to the relatives or guardians
of the wife security (ἀποτίμημα) for the dowry, which was not
considered the property of the husband himself, but rather of his
wife and children. The portion was returned to the wife in case of a
divorce.--(2) ROMAN. The _dos_ among the Romans was every thing which
on the occasion of a woman’s marriage was transferred by her, or by
another person, to the husband. All the property of the wife which
was not made dos continued to be her own, and was comprised under the
name of _parapherna_. The dos upon its delivery became the husband’s
property, and continued to be his so long as the marriage relation
existed. In the case of divorce, the woman, or her relations, could
bring an action for the restitution of the dos; and, accordingly, a
woman whose dos was large (_dotata uxor_) had some influence over her
husband, inasmuch as she had the power of divorcing herself, and thus
of depriving him of the enjoyment of her property.

[Illustration: Attic Drachma. (British Museum.)]

DRACHMA (δραχμή), the principal silver coin among the Greeks. The two
chief standards in the currencies of the Greek states were the Attic
and Aeginetan. The average value of the Attic drachma was 9¾_d._ of
our money. It contained six obols (ὀβολοί); and the Athenians had
separate silver coins, from four drachmae to a quarter of an obol.
There were also silver pieces of two drachmae and four drachmae.
(See tables.) The tetradrachm in later times was called _stater_.
The latter word also signifies a gold coin, equal in value to twenty
drachmae [STATER]. The obolos, in later times, was of bronze: but in
the best times of Athens we only read of silver obols. The χαλκοῦς
was a copper coin, and the eighth part of an obol. The Attic
standard prevailed most in the maritime and commercial states. It
was the standard of Philip’s gold, and was introduced by Alexander
for silver also.--The Aeginetan standard appears to have been the
prevalent one in early times: we are told that money was first coined
at Aegina by order of Pheidon at Argos. In later times the Aeginetan
standard was used in almost all the states of the Peloponnesus,
except Corinth. The average value of the Aeginetan drachma was 1_s._
1¾_d._ in our money; and the values of the different coins of this
standard are as follows:--

                |  Shill.  |   Pence.  |  Farth.
  ½ Obol        |   -      |     1     |   0·583
  Obol          |   -      |     2     |   1·166
  Diobolus      |   -      |     4     |   2·33
  Triobolus     |   -      |     6     |   2·5
  Drachma       |   1      |     1     |   3
  Didrachm      |   2      |     3     |   2

[Illustration: Aeginetan Drachma. (British Museum.)]

As the Romans reckoned in sesterces, so the Greeks generally reckoned
by drachmae; and when a sum is mentioned in the Attic writers,
without any specification of the unit, drachmae are usually meant.


DŬCĒNĀRĬI.--(1) The name given to the Roman procuratores, who
received a salary of 200 sestertia. The procuratores first received a
salary in the time of Augustus.--(2) A class or decuria of judices,
first established by Augustus. They were so called because their
property, as valued in the census, amounted only to 200 sestertia.
They appear to have tried cases of small importance.




DUPLĀRĬI or DUPLĬCĀRĬI, were soldiers who received on account of
their good conduct double allowance (_duplicia cibaria_), and perhaps
in some cases double pay likewise.



DUUMVĬRI, or the two men, the name of various magistrates and
functionaries at Rome, and in the coloniae and municipia. (1)
DUUMVIRI JURI DICUNDO were the highest magistrates in the municipal
towns. [COLONIA.]--(2) DUUMVIRI NAVALES, extraordinary magistrates,
who were created, whenever occasion required, for the purpose
of equipping and repairing the fleet. They appear to have been
originally appointed by the consuls and dictators, but were first
elected by the people, B.C. 311.--(3) DUUMVIRI PERDUELLIONIS.
[PERDUELLIO.]--(4) DUUMVIRI QUINQUENNALES, were the censors in the
municipal towns, and must not be confounded with the _duumviri juri
dicundo_. [COLONIA.]--(5) DUUMVIRI SACRORUM originally had the charge
of the Sibylline books. Their duties were afterwards discharged by
the _decemviri sacris faciundis_. [DECEMVIRI.]--(6) DUUMVIRI were
also appointed for the purpose of building or dedicating a temple.

ECCLĒSĬA (ἐκκλησία), the name of the general assembly of the citizens
at Athens, in which they met to discuss and determine upon matters
of public interest, and which was therefore the sovereign power
in the state. These assemblies were either _ordinary_ (νόμιμοι or
κυρίαι), and held four times in each prytany, or _extraordinary_,
that is, specially convened, upon any sudden emergency, and therefore
called σύγκλητοι. The place in which they were anciently held was
the _agora_. Afterwards they were transferred to the Pnyx, and at
last to the great theatre of Dionysus, and other places. The most
usual place, however, was the Pnyx, which was situated to the west
of the Areiopagus, on a slope connected with Mount Lycabettus, and
partly at least within the walls of the city. It was semicircular in
form, with a boundary wall part rock and part masonry, and an area of
about 12,000 square yards. On the north the ground was filled up and
paved with large stones, so as to get a level surface on the slope.
Towards this side, and close to the wall, was the _bema_ (βῆμα), a
stone platform or hustings ten or eleven feet high, with an ascent
of steps. The position of the _bema_ was such as to command a view
of the sea from behind, and of the Propylaea and Parthenon in front,
and we may be sure that the Athenian orators would often rouse the
national feelings of their hearers by pointing to the assemblage of
magnificent edifices, “monuments of Athenian gratitude and glory,”
which they had in view from the Pnyx.--The right of convening
the people was generally vested in the prytanes or presidents of
the council of Five Hundred [see BOULÉ], but in cases of sudden
emergency, and especially during wars, the strategi also had the
power of calling extraordinary meetings, for which, however, the
consent of the senate appears to have been necessary. The prytanes
not only gave a previous notice of the day of assembly, and published
a programme of the subjects to be discussed, but also, it appears,
sent a crier round to collect the citizens. All persons who did not
obey the call were subject to a fine, and six magistrates called
lexiarchs were appointed, whose duty it was to take care that the
people attended the meetings, and to levy fines on those who refused
to do so. With a view to this, whenever an assembly was to be held,
certain public slaves (Σκύθαι or τοξόται) were sent round to sweep
the agora, and other places of public resort, with a rope coloured
with vermilion. The different persons whom these ropemen met, were
driven by them towards the ecclesia, and those who refused to go were
marked by the rope and fined. An additional inducement to attend,
with the poorer classes, was the μισθὸς ἐκκλησιαστικός, or pay which
they received for it. The payment was originally an obolus, but was
afterwards raised to three. The right of attending was enjoyed by all
legitimate citizens who were of the proper age (generally supposed
to be twenty, certainly not less than eighteen), and not labouring
under any _atimia_, or loss of civil rights.--In the article BOULÉ it
is explained who the prytanes and the proedri were; and we may here
remark, that it was the duty of the proedri of the same tribe, under
the presidency of their chairman (ὁ ἐπιστάτης), to lay before the
people the subjects to be discussed; to read, or cause to be read,
the previous bill (τὸ προβούλευμα) of the senate, without which no
measure could be brought before the ecclesia, and to give permission
to the speakers to address the people. The officers who acted under
them, were the crier (ὁ κήρυξ), and the Scythian bowmen.--Previous,
however, to the commencement of any business, the place was purified
by the offering of sacrifices, and then the gods were implored in
a prayer to bless the proceedings of the meeting. The privilege of
addressing the assembly was not confined to any class or age among
those who had the right to be present: all, without any distinction,
were invited to do so by the proclamation, Τίς ἀγορεύειν βούλεται,
which was made by the crier after the proedri had gone through the
necessary preliminaries, and laid the subject of discussion before
the meeting; for though, according to the institutions of Solon,
those persons who were above fifty years of age ought to have been
called upon to speak first, this regulation had in later times
become quite obsolete. The speakers are sometimes simply called οἱ
παρίοντες, and appear to have worn a crown of myrtle on their heads
while addressing the assembly. The most influential and practised
speakers of the assembly were generally distinguished by the name of
ῥήτορες. After the speakers had concluded, any one was at liberty
to propose a decree, whether drawn up beforehand or framed in the
meeting, which, however, it was necessary to present to the proedri,
that they might see, in conjunction with the _nomophylaces_, whether
there was contained in it anything injurious to the state, or
contrary to the existing laws. If not, it was read by the crier;
though, even after the reading, the chairman could prevent it being
put to the vote, unless his opposition was overborne by threats and
clamours. Private individuals also could do the same, by engaging
upon oath (ὑπωμοσία) to bring against the author of any measure
they might object to, an accusation called a γραφὴ παράνομων. If,
however, the chairman refused to submit any question to the decision
of the people, he might be proceeded against by _endeixis_; and if
he allowed the people to vote upon a proposal which was contrary
to existing constitutional laws, he was in some cases liable to
_atimia_. If, on the contrary, no opposition of this sort was offered
to a proposed decree, the votes of the people were taken, by the
permission of the chairman and with the consent of the rest of the
proedri. The decision of the people was given either by show of
hands, or by ballot, _i.e._ by casting pebbles into urns (καδίσκοι);
the former was expressed by the word χειροτονεῖν, the latter by
ψηφίζεσθαι, although the two terms are frequently confounded. The
more usual method of voting was by show of hands, as being more
expeditious and convenient (χειροτονία). Vote by ballot, on the other
hand, was only used in a few special cases determined by law; as,
for instance, when a proposition was made for allowing those who
had suffered _atimia_ to appeal to the people for restitution of
their former rights; or for inflicting extraordinary punishments on
atrocious offenders, and generally, upon any matter which affected
private persons. In cases of this sort it was settled by law, that
a decree should not be valid unless six thousand citizens at least
voted in favour of it. This was by far the majority of those citizens
who were in the habit of attending; for, in time of war, the number
never amounted to five thousand, and in time of peace seldom to ten
thousand.--The determination or decree of the people was called a
ψήφισμα, which properly signifies a law proposed to an assembly,
and approved of by the people. Respecting the form for drawing up a
ψήφισμα, see BOULÉ.--When the business was over, the order for the
dismissal of the assembly was given by the prytanes, through the
proclamation of the crier; and as it was not customary to continue
meetings, which usually began early in the morning, till after
sunset, if one day were not sufficient for the completion of any
business, it was adjourned to the next. But an assembly was sometimes
broken up, if any one, whether a magistrate or private individual,
declared that he saw an unfavourable omen, or perceived thunder and
lightning. The sudden appearance of rain also, or the shock of an
earthquake, or any natural phenomenon of the kind called διοσημίαι,
was a sufficient reason for the hasty adjournment of an assembly.


ECDĬCUS (ἔκδικος), the name of an officer in many of the towns of
Asia Minor during the Roman dominion, whose principal duty was the
care of the public money, and the prosecution of all parties who owed
money to the state.

ECMARTȲRĬA (ἐκμαρτυρία), signifies the deposition of a witness at
Athens, who, by reason of absence abroad, or illness, was unable
to attend in court. His statement was taken down in writing, in
the presence of persons expressly appointed to receive it, and
afterwards, upon their swearing to its identity, was read as evidence
in the cause.

ĒDICTUM. The _Jus Edicendi_, or power of making edicts, belonged
to the higher _magistratus populi Romani_, but it was principally
exercised by the two praetors, the praetor urbanus, and the praetor
peregrinus, whose jurisdiction was exercised in the provinces by the
praeses. The curule aediles likewise made many edicts; and tribunes,
censors, and pontifices also promulgated edicts relating to the
matters of their respective jurisdictions. The edicta were among
the sources of Roman law. The edictum may be described generally
as a rule promulgated by a magistratus on entering on his office,
which was done by writing it on an album and exhibiting it in a
conspicuous place. As the office of a magistratus was annual, the
rules promulgated by a predecessor were not binding on a successor,
but he might confirm or adopt the rules of his predecessor, and
introduce them into his own edict, and hence such adopted rules were
called _edictum ralatitium_, or _vetus_, as opposed to _edictum
novum_. A _repentinum edictum_ was that rule which was made (_prout
res incidit_) for the occasion. A _perpetuum edictum_ was that rule
which was made by the magistratus on entering upon office, and which
was intended to apply to all cases to which it was applicable during
the year of his office: hence it was sometimes called also _annua
lex_. Until it became the practice for magistratus to adopt the
edicta of their predecessors, the edicta could not form a body of
permanent binding rules; but when this practice became common, the
edicta (_edictum tralatitium_) soon constituted a large body of law,
which was practically of as much importance as any other part of the

EICOSTĒ (εἰκοστή), a tax or duty of one-twentieth (five per cent.)
upon all commodities exported or imported by sea in the states of the
allies subject to Athens. This tax was first imposed B.C. 413, in the
place of the direct tribute which had up to this time been paid by
the subject allies; and the change was made with the hope of raising
a greater revenue. This tax, like all others, was farmed, and the
farmers of it were called εἰκοστολόγοι.

EIRĒN or ĪRĒN (εἴρην or ἴρην), the name given to the Spartan youth
when he attained the age of twenty. At the age of eighteen he emerged
from childhood, and was called μελλείρην. When he had attained his
twentieth year, he began to exercise a direct influence over his
juniors, and was entrusted with the command of troops in battle. The
word appears to have originally signified a commander. The ἰρένες
mentioned in Herodotus, in connection with the battle of Plataeae,
were certainly not youths, but commanders.

EISANGĔLĬA (εἰσαγγελία), signifies, in its primary and most general
sense, a denunciation of any kind, but, much more usually, an
information laid before the council or the assembly of the people,
and the consequent impeachment and trial of state criminals at
Athens under novel or extraordinary circumstances. Among these were
the occasions upon which manifest crimes were alleged to have been
committed, and yet of such a nature as the existing laws had failed
to anticipate, or at least describe specifically (ἄγραφα ἀδικήματα),
the result of which omission would have been, but for the enactment
by which the accusations in question might be preferred (νόμος
εἰσαγγελτικός), that a prosecutor would not have known to what
magistrate to apply; that a magistrate, if applied to, could not with
safety have accepted the indictment or brought it into court; and
that, in short, there would have been a total failure of justice.

EISITĒRĬA (εἰσιτήρια, _scil._ ἱερά), sacrifices offered at Athens by
the senate before the session began, in honour of the Θεοὶ Βουλαῖοι,
_i.e._ Zeus and Athena.

EISPHŎRA (εἰσφορά), an extraordinary tax on property, raised at
Athens, whenever the means of the state were not sufficient to
carry on a war. It is not quite certain when this property-tax was
introduced; but it seems to have come first into general use about
B.C. 428. It could never be raised without a decree of the people,
who also assigned the amount required; and the _strategi_, or
generals, superintended its collection, and presided in the courts
where disputes connected with, or arising from, the levying of the
tax were settled. The usual expressions for paying this property-tax
are: εἰσφέρειν χρήματα, εἰσφέρειν εἰς τὸν πόλεμον, εἰς τὴν σωτηρίαν
τῆς πόλεως, εἰσφορὰς εἰσφέρειν, and those who paid it were called οἱ
εἰσφέροντες. The census of Solon was at first the standard according
to which the _eisphora_ was raised, until in B.C. 377 a new census
was instituted, in which the people, for the purpose of fixing the
rates of the property-tax, were divided into a number of symmoriae
(συμμορίαι) or classes, similar to those which were afterwards made
for the trierarchy. Each of the ten tribes or phylae, appointed
120 of its wealthier citizens; and the whole number of persons
included in the symmoriae was thus 1200, who were considered as the
representatives of the whole republic. This body of 1200 was divided
into four classes, each consisting of 300. The first class, or the
richest, were the leaders of the symmoriae (ἡγεμόνες συμμοριῶν),
and are often called the three hundred. They probably conducted the
proceedings of the symmoriae, and they, or, which is more likely,
the demarchs, had to value the taxable property. Other officers
were appointed to make out the lists of the rates, and were called
ἐπιγραφεῖς, διαγραφεῖς or ἐκλογεῖς. When the wants of the state were
pressing, the 300 leaders advanced the money to the others, who paid
it back to the 300 at the regular time. The first class probably
consisted of persons who possessed property from 12 talents upwards;
the second class, of persons who possessed property from 6 talents
and upwards, but under 12; the third class, of persons who possessed
property from 2 talents upwards, but under 6; the fourth class, of
persons who possessed property from 25 minae upwards, but under 2
talents. The rate of taxation was higher or lower according to the
wants of the republic at the time; we have accounts of rates of a
12th, a 50th, a 100th, and a 500th part of the taxable property.
If any one thought that his property was taxed higher than that of
another man on whom juster claims could be made, he had the right to
call upon this person to take the office in his stead, or to submit
to a complete exchange of property. [ANTIDOSIS.] No Athenian, on
the other hand, if belonging to the tax-paying classes, could be
exempt from the _eisphora_, not even the descendants of Harmodius and

ĒLECTRUM (ἤλεκτρος and ἤλεκτρον), is used by the ancient writers
in two different senses, either for _amber_ or for a mixture of
metals composed of gold and silver. In Homer and Hesiod, it has, in
all probability, the former meaning. The earliest passage of any
Greek writer, in which the word is _certainly_ used for the metal,
is in the _Antigone_ of Sophocles (1038). This alludes to _native
electrum_; but the compound was also made artificially. Pliny
states that when gold contains a fifth part of silver, it is called
_electrum_; that it is found in veins of gold; and that it is also
made by art: if, he adds, it contains more than a fifth of silver, it
becomes too brittle to be malleable. But Isidorus mentions electrum
composed of _three_ parts gold, and _one_ of silver. Electrum was
used for plate, and the other similar purposes for which gold and
silver were employed. It was also used as a material for money.
Lampridius tells us, that Alexander Severus struck coins of it;
and coins are in existence, of this metal, struck by the kings of
Bosporus, by Syracuse, and by other Greek states.

ĔLEUSĪNĬA (ἐλευσίνια), a festival and mysteries, originally
celebrated only at Eleusis in Attica, in honour of Demeter and
Persephone. The Eleusinian mysteries, or _the_ mysteries, as they
were sometimes called, were the holiest and most venerable of all
that were celebrated in Greece. Various traditions were current among
the Greeks respecting the author of these mysteries: for, while some
considered Eumolpus or Musaeus to be their founder, others stated
that they had been introduced from Egypt by Erechtheus, who at a time
of scarcity provided his country with corn from Egypt, and imported
from the same quarter the sacred rites and mysteries of Eleusis.
A third tradition attributed the institution to Demeter herself,
who, when wandering about in search of her daughter, Persephone,
was believed to have come to Attica, in the reign of Erechtheus,
to have supplied its inhabitants with corn, and to have instituted
the mysteries at Eleusis. This last opinion seems to have been the
most common among the ancients, and in subsequent times a stone was
shown near the well Callichoros at Eleusis, on which the goddess,
overwhelmed with grief and fatigue, was believed to have rested on
her arrival in Attica. All the accounts and allusions in ancient
writers seem to warrant the conclusion, that the legends concerning
the introduction of the Eleusinia are descriptions of a period when
the inhabitants of Attica were becoming acquainted with the benefits
of agriculture, and of a regularly constituted form of society.--In
the reign of Erechtheus a war is said to have broken out between
the Athenians and Eleusinians; and when the latter were defeated,
they acknowledged the supremacy of Athens in everything except the
mysteries, which they wished to conduct and regulate for themselves.
Thus the superintendence remained with the descendants of Eumolpus
[EUMOLPIDAE], the daughters of the Eleusinian king Celeus, and a
third class of priests, the Ceryces, who seem likewise to have been
connected with the family of Eumolpus, though they themselves traced
their origin to Hermes and Aglauros.--At the time when the local
governments of the several townships of Attica were concentrated at
Athens, the capital became also the centre of religion, and several
deities who had hitherto only enjoyed a local worship, were now
raised to the rank of national gods. This seems also to have been
the case with the Eleusinian goddess, for in the reign of Theseus we
find mention of a temple at Athens, called Eleusinion, probably the
new and national sanctuary of Demeter. Her priests and priestesses
now became naturally attached to the national temple of the capital,
though her original place of worship at Eleusis, with which so many
sacred associations were connected, still retained its importance and
its special share in the celebration of the national solemnities.--We
must distinguish between the greater Eleusinia, which were celebrated
at Athens and Eleusis, and the lesser, which were held at Agrae
on the Ilissus. The lesser Eleusinia were only a preparation
(προκάθαρσις or προάγνευσις) for the real mysteries. They were held
every year in the month of Anthesterion, and, according to some
accounts, in honour of Persephone alone. Those who were initiated in
them bore the name of _Mystae_ (μύσται), and had to wait at least
another year before they could be admitted to the great mysteries.
The principal rites of this first stage of initiation consisted in
the sacrifice of a sow, which the mystae seem to have first washed
in the Cantharus, and in the purification by a priest, who bore
the name of _Hydranos_ (Ὑδρανός). The mystae had also to take an
oath of secrecy, which was administered to them by the _Mystagogus_
(μυσταγωγός, also called ἱεροφάντης or προφήτης), and they received
some kind of preparatory instruction, which enabled them afterwards
to understand the mysteries which were revealed to them in the
great Eleusinia.--The great mysteries were celebrated every year in
the month of Boedromion, during nine days, from the 15th to the
23rd, both at Athens and Eleusis. The initiated were called ἐπόπται
or ἔφυροι. On the first day, those who had been initiated in the
lesser Eleusinia, assembled at Athens. On the second day the mystae
went in solemn procession to the sea-coast, where they underwent
a purification. Of the third day scarcely anything is known with
certainty; we are only told that it was a day of fasting, and that in
the evening a frugal meal was taken, which consisted of cakes made
of sesame and honey. On the fourth day the καλάθος κάθοδος seems to
have taken place. This was a procession with a basket containing
pomegranates and poppy-seeds; it was carried on a waggon drawn by
oxen, and women followed with small mystic cases in their hands.
On the fifth day, which appears to have been called the torch day
(ἡ τῶν λαμπάδων ἡμέρα), the mystae, led by the δᾳδοῦχος, went in
the evening with torches to the temple of Demeter at Eleusis, where
they seem to have remained during the following night. This rite was
probably a symbolical representation of Demeter wandering about in
search of Persephone. The sixth day, called _Iacchos_, was the most
solemn of all. The statue of Iacchos, son of Demeter, adorned with a
garland of myrtle and bearing a torch in his hand, was carried along
the sacred road amidst joyous shouts and songs, from the Cerameicus
to Eleusis. This solemn procession was accompanied by great numbers
of followers and spectators. During the night from the sixth to
the seventh day the mystae remained at Eleusis, and were initiated
into the last mysteries (ἐποπτεία). Those who were neither ἐπόπται
nor μύσται were sent away by a herald. The mystae now repeated the
oath of secrecy which had been administered to them at the lesser
Eleusinia, underwent a new purification, and then they were led by
the mystagogus in the darkness of night into the lighted interior
of the sanctuary (φωταγωγία), and were allowed to see (αὐτοψία)
what none except the epoptae ever beheld. The awful and horrible
manner in which the initiation is described by later, especially
Christian writers, seems partly to proceed from their ignorance of
its real character, partly from their horror of and aversion to
these pagan rites. The more ancient writers always abstained from
entering upon any description of the subject. Each individual, after
his initiation, is said to have been dismissed by the words κόγξ,
ὄμπαξ, in order to make room for other mystae. On the seventh day
the initiated returned to Athens amid various kinds of raillery and
jests, especially at the bridge over the Cephisus, where they sat
down to rest, and poured forth their ridicule on those who passed
by. Hence the words γεφυρίζειν and γεφυρισμός. These σκώμματα seem,
like the procession with torches to Eleusis, to have been dramatical
and symbolical representations of the jests by which, according to
the ancient legend, Iambe or Baubo had dispelled the grief of the
goddess and made her smile. We may here observe, that probably the
whole history of Demeter and Persephone was in some way or other
symbolically represented at the Eleusinia. The eighth day, called
_Epidauria_ (Ἐπιδαύρια), was a kind of additional day for those
who by some accident had come too late, or had been prevented from
being initiated on the sixth day. It was said to have been added
to the original number of days, when Asclepius, coming over from
Epidaurus to be initiated, arrived too late, and the Athenians, not
to disappoint the god, added an eighth day. The ninth and last day
bore the name of πλημοχοαί, from a peculiar kind of vessel called
πλημοχοή, which is described as a small kind of κότυλος. Two of these
vessels were on this day filled with water or wine, and the contents
of the one thrown to the east, and those of the other to the west,
while those who performed this rite uttered some mystical words.--The
Eleusinian mysteries long survived the independence of Greece.
Attempts to suppress them were made by the emperor Valentinian, but
he met with strong opposition, and they seem to have continued down
to the time of the elder Theodosius. Respecting the secret doctrines
which were revealed in them to the initiated, nothing certain is
known. The general belief of the ancients was, that they opened to
man a comforting prospect of a future state. But this feature does
not seem to have been originally connected with these mysteries, and
was probably added to them at the period which followed the opening
of a regular intercourse between Greece and Egypt, when some of the
speculative doctrines of the latter country, and of the East, may
have been introduced into the mysteries, and hallowed by the names of
the venerable bards of the mythical age. This supposition would also
account, in some measure, for the legend of their introduction from
Egypt. In modern times many attempts have been made to discover the
nature of the mysteries revealed to the initiated, but the results
have been as various and as fanciful as might be expected. The most
sober and probable view is that, according to which, “they were
the remains of a worship which preceded the rise of the Hellenic
mythology and its attendant rites, grounded on a view of nature,
less fanciful, more earnest, and better fitted to awaken both
philosophical thought and religious feeling.”

ĔLEUTHĔRĬA (ἐλευθέρια), the feast of liberty, a festival which the
Greeks, after the battle of Plataeae (479 B.C.), instituted in honour
of Zeus Eleutherios (the deliverer). It was intended not merely
to be a token of their gratitude to the god to whom they believed
themselves to be indebted for their victory over the barbarians, but
also as a bond of union among themselves; for, in an assembly of all
the Greeks, Aristeides carried a decree that delegates (πρόβουλοι
καὶ θεωροί) from all the Greek states should assemble every year
at Plataeae for the celebration of the Eleutheria. The town itself
was at the same time declared sacred and inviolable, as long as its
citizens offered the annual sacrifices which were then instituted on
behalf of Greece. Every fifth year these solemnities were celebrated
with contests, in which the victors were rewarded with chaplets.

ELLŌTĬA or HELLŌTĬA (ἐλλώτια or ἑλλώτια), a festival with a torch
race celebrated at Corinth in honour of Athena as a goddess of fire.

ĒMANCĬPĀTĬO, was an act by which the _patria potestas_ was dissolved
in the lifetime of the parent, and it was so called because it was in
the form of a sale (_mancipatio_). By the laws of the Twelve Tables
it was necessary that a son should be sold three times in order to
be released from the paternal power, or to be _sui juris_. In the
case of daughters and grandchildren, one sale was sufficient. The
father transferred the son by the form of a sale to another person,
who manumitted him, upon which he returned into the power of the
father. This was repeated, and with the like result. After a third
sale, the paternal power was extinguished, but the son was re-sold to
the parent, who then manumitted him, and so acquired the rights of a
patron over his emancipated son, which would otherwise have belonged
to the purchaser who gave him his final manumission.

EMBAS (ἐμβάς), a shoe worn by men, and which appears to have been
the most common kind of shoe worn at Athens. Pollux says that it was
invented by the Thracians, and that it was like the low cothurnus.
The _embas_ was also worn by the Boeotians, and probably in other
parts of Greece.

EMBĂTEIA (ἐμβατεία). In Attic law this word (like the corresponding
English one, _entry_), was used to denote a formal taking possession
of real property. Thus, when a son entered upon the land left him
by his father, he was said ἐμβατεύειν or βαδίζειν εἰς τὰ πατρῳα,
and thereupon he became _seised_, or possessed of his inheritance.
If any one disturbed him in the enjoyment of this property, with
an intention to dispute the title, he might maintain an action of
ejectment, ἐξούλης δίκη. Before entry he could not maintain such

EMBLĒMA (ἔμβλημα, ἔμπαισμα), an inlaid ornament. The art of inlaying
was employed in producing beautiful works of two descriptions,
viz.;--1st, those which resembled our marquetry, buhl, and Florentine
mosaics; and 2dly, those in which crusts (_crustae_), exquisitely
wrought in bas-relief and of precious materials, were fastened upon
the surface of vessels or other pieces of furniture. To the latter
class of productions belonged the cups and plates which Verres
obtained by violence from the Sicilians, and from which he removed
the emblems for the purpose of having them set in gold instead of

ĒMĔRĬTI, the name given to those Roman soldiers who had served out
their time, and had exemption (_vacatio_) from military service. The
usual time of service was twenty years for the legionary soldiers,
and sixteen for the praetorians. At the end of their period of
service they received a bounty or reward (_emeritum_), either in
lands or money, or in both.

ĒMISSĀRĬUM (ὑπόνομος), a channel, natural or artificial, by which
an outlet is formed to carry off any stagnant body of water. Such
channels may be either open or underground; but the most remarkable
works of the kind are of the latter description, as they carry off
the waters of lakes surrounded by hills. In Greece, the most striking
example is presented by the subterraneous channels which carry off
the waters of the lake Copais in Boeotia, which were partly natural
and partly artificial. Some works of this kind are among the most
remarkable efforts of Roman ingenuity. Remains still exist to show
that the lakes Trasimene, Albano, Nemi, and Fucino, were all drained
by means of _emissaria_, the last of which is still nearly perfect,
and open to inspection, having been partially cleared by the present
king of Naples. Julius Caesar is said to have first conceived the
idea of this stupendous undertaking, which was carried into effect by
the Emperor Claudius.

EMMĒNI DĬKAE (ἔμμηνοι δίκαι), suits in the Athenian courts, which
were not allowed to be pending above a month. This regulation was
confined to those subjects which required a speedy decision; and of
these the most important were disputes respecting commerce (ἐμπορικαὶ
δίκαι). All causes relating to mines (μεταλλικαὶ δίκαι) were also
ἔμμηνοι δίκαι, as well as those relating to ἔρανοι. [ERANI.]

EMPŎRĬUM (τὸ ἐμπόριον), a place for wholesale trade in commodities
carried by sea. The name is sometimes applied to a sea-port town,
but it properly signifies only a particular place in such a town.
The word is derived from ἔμπορος, which signifies in Homer a person
who sails as a passenger in a ship belonging to another person; but
in later writers it signifies the merchant or wholesale dealer, and
differs from κάπηλος, the retail dealer. The emporium at Athens was
under the inspection of certain officers, who were elected annually
(ἐπιμεληταὶ τοῦ ἐμπορίου).


ENCTĒSIS (ἔγκτησις), the right of possessing landed property and
houses (ἔγκτησις γῆς καὶ οἰκίας) in a foreign country, which was
frequently granted by one Greek state to another, or to separate
individuals of another state. Ἐγκτήματα were such possessions in
a foreign country, or in a different δῆμος from that to which an
Athenian belonged by birth.

ENDEIXIS (ἔνδειξις), properly denotes a prosecution instituted
against such persons as were alleged to have exercised rights or
held offices while labouring under a peculiar disqualification.
The same form of action was available against the chairman of the
proedri (ἐπιστάτης), who wrongly refused to take the votes of the
people in the assembly; against malefactors, especially murderers;
traitors, ambassadors accused of malversation, and persons who
furnished supplies to the enemy during war. The first step taken by
the prosecutor was to lay his information in writing, also called
_endeixis_, before the proper magistrate, who then arrested, or
held to bail, the person criminated, and took the usual steps for
bringing him to trial. There is great obscurity with respect to the
punishment which followed condemnation. The accuser, if unsuccessful,
was responsible for bringing a malicious charge (ψευδοῦς ἐνδείξεως

ENDRŎMIS (ἐνδρομίς), a thick, coarse blanket, manufactured in Gaul,
and called “endromis” because those who had been exercising in the
stadium (ἐν δρόμῳ) threw it over them to obviate the effects of
sudden exposure when they were heated. Notwithstanding its coarse and
shaggy appearance, it was worn on other occasions as a protection
from the cold by rich and fashionable persons at Rome.


ENTĂSIS (ἔντασις). The most ancient columns now existing, diminish
immediately and regularly from the base to the neck, so that the
edge forms a straight line--a mode of construction which is wanting
in grace and apparent solidity. To correct this, a swelling outline,
called _entasis_, was given to the shaft, which seems to have been
the first step towards combining grace and grandeur in the Doric

EPANGĔLĬA (ἐπαγγελία). If a citizen of Athens had incurred _atimia_,
the privilege of taking part or speaking in the public assembly was
forfeited. But as it sometimes might happen that a person, though not
formally declared _atimus_, had committed such crimes as would, on
accusation, draw upon him this punishment, it was of course desirable
that such individuals, like real _atimi_, should be excluded from
the exercise of the rights of citizens. Whenever, therefore, such
a person ventured to speak in the assembly, any Athenian citizen
had the right to come forward in the assembly itself and demand of
him to establish his right to speak by a trial or examination of
his conduct (δοκιμασία τοῦ βίου), and this demand, denouncement, or
threat, was called _epangelia_, or _epangelia docimasias_ (ἐπαγγελία
δοκιμασίας). The impeached individual was then compelled to desist
from speaking, and to submit to a scrutiny into his conduct, and, if
he was convicted, a formal declaration of _atimia_ followed.

EPARITI (ἐπάριτοι), the name of the standing army in Arcadia, which
was formed to preserve the independence of the Arcadian towns, when
they became united as one state after the defeat of the Spartans at
Leuctra. They were 5000 in number, and were paid by the state.

EPHĒBUS (ἔφηβος), the name of Athenian youths after they had
attained the age of 18. The state of _ephebeia_ (ἐφηβεία) lasted for
two years, till the youths had attained the age of 20, when they
became men, and were admitted to share all the rights and duties of
citizens, for which the law did not prescribe a more advanced age.
Before a youth was enrolled among the ephebi, he had to undergo a
_docimasia_ (δοκιμασία), the object of which was partly to ascertain
whether he was the son of Athenian citizens, or adopted by a citizen,
and partly whether his body was sufficiently developed and strong
to undertake the duties which now devolved upon him. After the
_docimasia_ the young men received in the assembly a shield and a
lance; but those whose fathers had fallen in the defence of their
country received a complete suit of armour in the theatre. It seems
to have been on this occasion that the ephebi took an oath in the
temple of Artemis Aglauros, by which they pledged themselves never
to disgrace their arms or to desert their comrades; to fight to
the last in the defence of their country, its altars and hearths;
to leave their country not in a worse but in a better state than
they found it; to obey the magistrates and the laws; to resist
all attempts to subvert the institutions of Attica; and finally,
to respect the religion of their forefathers. This solemnity took
place towards the close of the year, and the festive season bore the
name of _ephebia_ (ἐφήβια). The external distinction of the ephebi
consisted in the chlamys and the petasus. During the two years of
the ephebeia, which may be considered as a kind of apprenticeship in
arms, and in which the young men prepared themselves for the higher
duties of full citizens, they were generally sent into the country,
under the name of _peripoli_ (περίπολοι), to keep watch in the towns
and fortresses, on the coast and frontier, and to perform other
duties which might be necessary for the protection of Attica.

ĔPHĒGĒSIS (ἐφήγησις), denotes the method of proceeding against such
criminals as were liable to be summarily arrested by a private
citizen [APAGOGE] when the prosecutor was unwilling to expose
himself to personal risk in apprehending the offender. Under these
circumstances he made an application to the proper magistrate, and
conducted him and his officers to the spot where the capture was to
be effected.

ĔPHĔTAE (ἐφέται), the name of certain judges at Athens, who tried
cases of homicide. They were fifty-one in number, selected from noble
families, and more than fifty years of age. They formed a tribunal
of great antiquity, and were in existence before the legislation of
Solon, but, as the state became more and more democratical, their
duties became unimportant and almost antiquated. The Ephetae once sat
in one or other of the five courts, according to the nature of the
causes they had to try. In historical times, however, they sat in
_four_ only, called respectively the court by the Palladium (τὸ ἐπὶ
Παλλαδίῳ), by the Delphinium (τὸ ἐπὶ Δελφινίῳ), by the Prytaneium (τὸ
ἐπὶ Πρυτανείῳ), and the court at Phreatto or Zea (τὸ ἐν Φρεαττοῖ). At
the first of these courts they tried cases of unintentional, at the
second, of intentional but justifiable homicide. At the Prytaneium,
by a strange custom, somewhat analogous to the imposition of a
deodand, they passed sentence upon the instrument of murder when
the perpetrator of the act was not known. In the court at Phreatto,
on the sea shore at the Peiraeeus, they tried such persons as were
charged with wilful murder during a temporary exile for unintentional

[Illustration: Ephippium, Saddle. (Coin of Labienus.)]

ĔPHIPPĬUM (ἀστράβη, ἐφίππιον, ἐφίππειον), a saddle. Although the
Greeks occasionally rode without any saddle, yet they commonly used
one, and from them the name, together with the thing, was borrowed by
the Romans. The ancient saddles appear, indeed, to have been thus far
different from ours, that the cover stretched upon the hard frame was
probably of stuffed or padded cloth rather than leather, and that the
saddle was, as it were, a cushion fitted to the horse’s back. Pendent
cloths (στρώματα, _strata_) were always attached to it so as to cover
the sides of the animal; but it was not provided with stirrups. The
saddle with the pendent cloths is exhibited in the annexed coin. The
term “Ephippium” was in later times in part supplanted by the word
“sella,” and the more specific expression “sella equestris.”

ĔPHŎRI (ἔφοροι). Magistrates called _Ephori_ or overseers were common
to many Dorian constitutions in times of remote antiquity; but the
Ephori of Sparta are the most celebrated of them all. The origin
of the Spartan ephori is quite uncertain, but their office in the
historical times was a kind of counterpoise to the kings and council,
and in that respect peculiar to Sparta alone of the Dorian states.
Their number, five, appears to have been always the same, and was
probably connected with the five divisions of the town of Sparta,
namely, the four κῶμαι, Limnae, Mesoa, Pitana, Cynosura, and the
Πόλις or city properly so called, around which the κῶμαι lay. They
were elected from and by the people, without any qualification of age
or property, and without undergoing any scrutiny; so that the people
enjoyed through them a participation in the highest magistracy of
the state. They entered upon office at the autumnal solstice, and
the first in rank of the five gave his name to the year, which was
called after him in all civil transactions. They possessed judicial
authority in civil suits, and also a general superintendence over
the morals and domestic economy of the nation, which in the hands
of able men would soon prove an instrument of unlimited power.
Their jurisdiction and power were still further increased by the
privilege of instituting scrutinies (εὔθυναι) into the conduct of all
the magistrates. Even the kings themselves could be brought before
their tribunal (as Cleomenes was for bribery). In extreme cases, the
ephors were also competent to lay an accusation against the kings
as well as the other magistrates, and bring them to a capital trial
before the great court of justice. In later times the power of the
ephors was greatly increased; and this increase appears to have been
principally owing to the fact, that they put themselves in connection
with the assembly of the people, convened its meetings, laid measures
before it, and were constituted its agents and representatives.
When this connection arose is matter of conjecture. The power which
such a connection gave would, more than anything else, enable them
to encroach on the royal authority, and make themselves virtually
supreme in the state. Accordingly, we find that they transacted
business with foreign ambassadors; dismissed them from the state;
decided upon the government of dependent cities; subscribed in the
presence of other persons to treaties of peace; and in time of war
sent out troops when they thought necessary. In all these capacities
the ephors acted as the representatives of the nation, and the agents
of the public assembly, being in fact the executive of the state. In
course of time the kings became completely under their control. For
example, they fined Agesilaus on the vague charge of trying to make
himself popular, and interfered even with the domestic arrangements
of other kings. In the field the kings were followed by two ephors,
who belonged to the council of war; the three who remained at home
received the booty in charge, and paid it into the treasury, which
was under the superintendence of the whole College of Five. But
the ephors had still another prerogative, based on a religious
foundation, which enabled them to effect a temporary deposition of
the kings. Once in eight years, as we are told, they chose a calm
and cloudless night to observe the heavens, and if there was any
appearance of a falling meteor, it was believed to be a sign that the
gods were displeased with the kings, who were accordingly suspended
from their functions until an oracle allowed of their restoration.
The outward symbols of supreme authority also were assumed by the
ephors; and they alone kept their seats while the kings passed;
whereas it was not considered below the dignity of the kings to rise
in honour of the ephors. When Agis and Cleomenes undertook to restore
the old constitution, it was necessary for them to overthrow the
ephoralty, and accordingly Cleomenes murdered the ephors for the time
being, and abolished the office (B.C. 225); it was, however, restored
under the Romans.

ĔPĬBĂTAE (ἐπιβάται), were soldiers or marines appointed to defend the
vessels in the Athenian navy, and were entirely distinct from the
rowers, and also from the land soldiers, such as hoplitae, peltasts,
and cavalry. It appears that the ordinary number of epibatae on
board a trireme was ten. The epibatae were usually taken from the
thetes, or fourth class of Athenian citizens. The term is sometimes
also applied by the Roman writers to the marines, but they are more
usually called _classiarii milites_. The latter term, however, is
also applied to the rowers or sailors as well as the marines.

ĔPĬBŎLĒ (ἐπιβολή), a fine imposed by a magistrate, or other official
person or body, for a misdemeanour. The various magistrates at Athens
had (each in his own department) a summary penal jurisdiction;
_i.e._ for certain offences they might inflict a pecuniary mulct
or fine, not exceeding a fixed amount; if the offender deserved
further punishment, it was their duty to bring him before a judicial
tribunal. These _epibolae_ are to be distinguished from the
penalties awarded by a jury or court of law (τιμήματα) upon a formal

ĔPĬCLĒRUS (ἐπίκληρος, heiress), the name given to the daughter of
an Athenian citizen, who had no son to inherit his estate. It was
deemed an object of importance at Athens to preserve the family
name and property of every citizen. This was effected, where a man
had no child, by adoption (εἰσποίησις); if he had a daughter, the
inheritance was transmitted through her to a grandson, who would take
the name of the maternal ancestor. If the father died intestate,
the heiress had not the choice of a husband, but was bound to marry
her nearest relation, not in the ascending line. When there was but
one daughter, she was called ἐπίκληρος ἐπὶ παντὶ τῷ οἴκῳ. If there
were more, they inherited equally, like our co-parceners; and were
severally married to relatives, the nearest having the first choice.

ĔPĬDŎSEIS (ἐπιδόσεις), voluntary contributions, either in money,
arms, or ships, which were made by the Athenian citizens in order
to meet the extraordinary demands of the state. When the expenses
of the state were greater than its revenue, it was usual for the
prytaneis to summon an assembly of the people, and after explaining
the necessities of the state, to call upon the citizens to contribute
according to their means. Those who were willing to contribute then
rose and mentioned what they would give; while those who were
unwilling to give any thing remained silent, or retired privately
from the assembly.

ĔPĬMĔLĒTAE (ἐπιμεληταί), the names of various magistrates and
functionaries at Athens.--(1) Ἐπιμελητὴς τῆς κοινῆς προσόδου, more
usually called ταμίας, the treasurer or manager of the public
revenue. [TAMIAS.]--(2) Ἐπιμεληταὶ τῶν μοριῶν Ἐλαιῶν, were persons
chosen from among the Areopagites to take care of the sacred olive
trees.--(3) Ἐπιμεληταὶ τοῦ Ἐμπορίου, were the overseers of the
emporium. [EMPORIUM.] They were ten in number, and were elected
yearly by lot. They had the entire management of the emporium,
and had jurisdiction in all breaches of the commercial laws.--(4)
Ἐπιμεληταὶ τῶν Μυστηρίων, were, in connection with the king archon,
the managers of the Eleusinian mysteries. They were elected by open
vote, and were four in number.--(5) Ἐπιμεληταὶ τῶν νεωρίων, the
inspectors of the dockyards, were ten in number.--(6) Ἐπιμεληταὶ τῶν
φυλῶν, the inspectors of the φυλαὶ or tribes. [TRIBUS.]

ĔPISCŎPI (ἐπίσκοποι), inspectors, who were sometimes sent by the
Athenians to subject states. They were also called φύλακες. It
appears that these Episcopi received a salary at the cost of the
cities over which they presided.

ĔPISTĂTĒS (ἐπιστάτης).--(1) The chairman of the senate and assembly
of the people, respecting whose duties see BOULÉ and ECCLESIA.--(2)
The name of the directors of the public works. (Ἐπισταταὶ τῶν
δημοσίων ἔργων).

ĔPISTŎLEUS (ἐπιστολεύς), the officer second in rank in the Spartan
fleet, who succeeded to the command if any thing happened to the
_navarchus_ (ναυάρχος) or admiral. When the Chians and the other
allies of Sparta on the Asiatic coast sent to Sparta to request that
Lysander might be again appointed to the command of the navy, he was
sent with the title of epistoleus, because the laws of Sparta did not
permit the same person to hold the office of navarchus twice.

ĔPISTȲLĬUM (ἐπιστύλιον), properly, as the name implies, the
architrave, or lower member of an entablature, which lies immediately
over the columns. The word is sometimes also used for the whole of
the entablature.

ĔPĬTRŎPUS (ἐπίτροπος), the name at Athens of a guardian of orphan
children. Of such guardians there were at Athens three kinds: first,
those appointed in the will of the deceased father; secondly, the
next of kin, whom the law designated as tutores legitimi in default
of such appointment, and who required the authorization of the
archon to enable them to act; and lastly, such persons as the archon
selected if there were no next of kin living to undertake the office.
The duties of the guardian comprehended the education, maintenance,
and protection of the ward, the assertion of his rights, and the
safe custody and profitable disposition of his inheritance during
his minority, besides making a proper provision for the widow if she
remained in the house of her late husband.

ĔPŌBĔLIA (ἐπωβελία), as its etymology implies, at the rate of one
obolus for a drachma, or one in six, was payable on the assessment
(τίμημα) of several private causes, and sometimes in a case of
phasis, by the litigant that failed to obtain the votes of one-fifth
of the dicasts.



ĔPŬLŌNES, who were originally three in number (_triumviri epulones_),
were first created in B.C. 196, to attend to the Epulum Jovis, and
the banquets given in honour of the other gods; which duty had
originally belonged to the pontifices. Their number was afterwards
increased to seven, and they were called septemviri epulones or
septemviri epulonum. The epulones formed a collegium, and were one of
the four great religious corporations at Rome; the other three were
those of the Pontifices, Augures, and Quindecemviri.


ĔQUĪRĬA, horse-races, which are said to have been instituted by
Romulus in honour of Mars, and were celebrated in the Campus Martius.
There were two festivals of this name; of which one was celebrated
A.D. III. Cal. Mart., and the other prid. Id. Mart.

ĔQUĬTES, horsemen. Romulus is said to have formed three centuries
of equites; and these were the same as the 300 Celeres, whom he
kept about his person in peace and war. A century was taken from
each of the three tribes, the _Ramnes_, _Titienses_, and _Luceres_.
Tarquinius Priscus added three more, under the title of Ramnes,
Titienses, and Luceres _posteriores_. These were the six patrician
centuries of equites, often referred to under the name of the _sex
suffragia_. To these Servius Tullius added twelve more centuries, for
admission into which, property and not birth was the qualification.
These twelve centuries might therefore contain plebeians, but they
do not appear to have been restricted to plebeians, since we have
no reason for believing that the six old centuries contained the
_whole_ body of patricians. A property qualification was apparently
also necessary by the Servian constitution for admission into the
six centuries. We may therefore suppose that those patricians who
were included in the six old centuries were allowed by the Servian
constitution to continue in them, if they possessed the requisite
property; and that all other persons in the state, whether patricians
or plebeians, who possessed the requisite property, were admitted
into the twelve new centuries. We are not told the amount of property
necessary to entitle a person to a place among the equites, but it
was probably the same as in the latter times of the republic, that
is, four times that of the first class. [COMITIA, p. 105.] Property,
however, was not the only qualification; for in the ancient times
of the republic no one was admitted among the equestrian centuries
unless his character was unblemished, and his father and grandfather
had been born freemen. Each of the equites received a horse from
the state (_equus publicus_), or money to purchase one, as well as
a sum of money for its annual support; the expense of its support
was defrayed by the orphans and unmarried females; since, in a
military state, it could not be esteemed unjust, that the women and
the children were to contribute largely for those who fought in
behalf of them and of the commonwealth. The purchase-money for a
knight’s horse was called _aes equestre_, and its annual provision
_aes hordearium_. The former amounted, according to Livy, to 10,000
asses, and the latter to 2000.--All the equites, of whom we have
been speaking, received a horse from the state, and were included
in the 18 equestrian centuries of the Servian constitution; but
in course of time, we read of another class of equites in Roman
history, who did not receive a horse from the state, and who were not
included in the 18 centuries. This latter class is first mentioned
by Livy, in his account of the siege of Veii, B.C. 403. He says that
during the siege, when the Romans had at one time suffered great
disasters, all those citizens who had an equestrian fortune, and no
horse allotted to them, volunteered to serve with their own horses;
and he adds, that from this time equites first began to serve with
their own horses. The state paid them, as a kind of compensation for
serving with their own horses. The foot soldiers had received pay
a few years before; and two years afterwards, B.C. 401, the pay of
the equites was made three-fold that of the infantry. From the year
B.C. 403, there were therefore two classes of Roman knights: one who
received horses from the state, and are therefore frequently called
_equites equo publico_, and sometimes _Flexumines_ or _Trossuli_,
and another class, who served, when they were required, with their
own horses, but were not classed among the 18 centuries. As they
served on horseback they were called _equites_; and when spoken of in
opposition to cavalry, which did not consist of Roman citizens, they
were also called _equites Romani_; but they had no legal claim to
the name of equites, since in ancient times this title was strictly
confined to those who received horses from the state.--The reason of
this distinction of two classes arose from the fact, that the number
of equites in the 18 centuries was fixed from the time of Servius
Tullius. As vacancies occurred in them, the descendants of those
who were originally enrolled succeeded to their places, provided
they had not dissipated their property. But in course of time, as
population and wealth increased, the number of persons who possessed
an equestrian fortune, also increased greatly; and as the ancestors
of these persons had not been enrolled in the 18 centuries, they
could not receive horses from the state, and were therefore allowed
the privilege of serving with their own horses among the cavalry,
instead of the infantry, as they would otherwise have been obliged to
have done.--The inspection of the equites who received horses from
the state belonged to the censors, who had the power of depriving an
eques of his horse, and reducing him to the condition of an aerarian,
and also of giving the vacant horse to the most distinguished of the
equites who had previously served at their own expense. For these
purposes they made during their censorship a public inspection, in
the forum, of all the knights who possessed public horses (_equitatum
recognoscere_). The tribes were taken in order, and each knight was
summoned by name. Every one, as his name was called, walked past
the censors, leading his horse. If the censors had no fault to find
either with the character of the knight or the equipments of his
horse, they ordered him to pass on (_traducere equum_); but if on
the contrary they considered him unworthy of his rank, they struck
him out of the list of knights, and deprived him of his horse, or
ordered him to sell it, with the intention no doubt that the person
thus degraded should refund to the state the money which had been
advanced to him for its purchase.--This review of the equites by
the censors must not be confounded with the _Equitum Transvectio_,
which was a solemn procession of the body every year on the Ides of
Quintilis (July). The procession started from the temple of Mars
outside the city, and passed through the city over the forum, and by
the temple of the Dioscuri. On this occasion the equites were always
crowned with olive chaplets, and wore their state dress, the trabea,
with all the honourable distinctions which they had gained in battle.
According to Livy, this annual procession was first established by
the censors Q. Fabius and P. Decius, B.C. 304; but according to
Dionysius it was instituted after the defeat of the Latins near
the lake Regillus, of which an account was brought to Rome by the
Dioscuri.--It may be asked how long did the knight retain his public
horse, and a vote in the equestrian century to which he belonged? On
this subject we have no positive information; but as those equites,
who served with their own horses, were only obliged to serve for ten
years (_stipendia_) under the age of 46, we may presume that the same
rule extended to those who served with the public horses, provided
they _wished_ to give up the service. For it is certain that in the
ancient times of the republic a knight might retain his horse as
long as he pleased, even after he had entered the senate, provided
he continued able to discharge the duties of a knight. Thus the two
censors, M. Livius Salinator and C. Claudius Nero, in B.C. 204, were
also equites, and L. Scipio Asiaticus, who was deprived of his horse
by the censors in B.C. 185, had himself been censor in B.C. 191.
But during the later times of the republic the knights were obliged
to give up their horses on entering the senate, and consequently
ceased to belong to the equestrian centuries. It thus naturally
came to pass, that the greater number of the equites equo publico,
after the exclusion of senators from the equestrian centuries, were
young men.--The equestrian centuries, of which we have hitherto been
treating, were only regarded as a division of the army: they did not
form a distinct class or ordo in the constitution. The community,
in a political point of view, was divided only into patricians and
plebeians, and the equestrian centuries were composed of both. But
in the year B.C. 123, a new class, called the _Ordo Equestris_, was
formed in the state by the Lex Sempronia, which was introduced by C.
Gracchus. By this law, or one passed a few years afterwards, every
person who was to be chosen judex was required to be above 30 and
under 60 years of age, to have either an equus publicus, or to be
qualified by his fortune to possess one, and _not_ to be a senator.
The number of judices, who were required yearly, was chosen from
this class by the praetor urbanus. As the name of equites had been
originally extended from those who possessed the public horses to
those who served with their own horses, it now came to be applied
to all those persons who were qualified by their fortune to act as
judices, in which sense the word is usually used by Cicero. After
the reform of Sulla, which entirely deprived the equestrian order
of the right of being chosen as judices, and the passing of the Lex
Aurelia (B.C. 70), which ordained that the judices should be chosen
from the senators, equites, and tribuni aerarii, the influence of
the order, says Pliny, was still maintained by the _publicani_,
or farmers of the public taxes. We find that the publicani were
almost always called equites, not because any particular rank was
necessary in order to obtain from the state the farming of the
taxes, but because the state was not accustomed to let them to any
one who did not possess a considerable fortune. Thus the publicani
are frequently spoken of by Cicero as identical with the equestrian
order. The consulship of Cicero, and the active part which the
knights then took in suppressing the conspiracy of Catiline, tended
still further to increase the power and influence of the equestrian
order; and “from that time,” says Pliny, “it became a third body
(_corpus_) in the state, and, to the title of _Senatus Populusque
Romanus_, there began to be added _Et Equestris Ordo_.” In B.C. 63,
a distinction was conferred upon them, which tended to separate them
still further from the plebs. By the Lex Roscia Othonis, passed
in that year, the first fourteen seats in the theatre behind the
orchestra were given to the equites. They also possessed the right
of wearing the Clavus Angustus [CLAVUS], and subsequently obtained
the privilege of wearing a gold ring, which was originally confined
to the equites equo publico. The number of equites increased greatly
under the early emperors, and all persons were admitted into the
order, provided they possessed the requisite property, without any
inquiry into their character, or into the free birth of their father
and grandfather. The order in consequence gradually began to lose all
the consideration which it had acquired during the later times of the
republic.--Augustus formed a select class of equites, consisting of
those equites who possessed the property of a senator, and the old
requirement of free birth up to the grandfather. He permitted this
class to wear the _latus clavus_; and also allowed the tribunes of
the plebs to be chosen from them, as well as the senators, and gave
them the option, at the termination of their office, to remain in the
senate or return to the equestrian order. This class of knights was
distinguished by the special title _illustres_ (sometimes _insignes_
and _splendidi_) _equites Romani_. The formation of this distinct
class tended to lower the others still more in public estimation.
In the ninth year of the reign of Tiberius, an attempt was made
to improve the order by requiring the old qualifications of free
birth up to the grandfather, and by strictly forbidding any one to
wear the gold ring unless he possessed this qualification. This
regulation, however, was of little avail, as the emperors frequently
admitted freedmen into the equestrian order. When private persons
were no longer appointed judices, the necessity for a distinct class
in the community, like the equestrian order, ceased entirely; and
the gold ring came at length to be worn by all free citizens. Even
slaves, after their manumission, were allowed to wear it by special
permission from the emperor, which appears to have been usually
granted provided the patronus consented.--Having thus traced the
history of the equestrian order to its final extinction as a distinct
class in the community, we must now return to the equites equo
publico, who formed the 18 equestrian centuries. This class still
existed during the latter years of the republic, but had entirely
ceased to serve as horse-soldiers in the army. The cavalry of the
Roman legions no longer consisted, as in the time of Polybius, of
Roman equites, but their place was supplied by the cavalry of the
allied states. It is evident that Caesar in his Gallic wars possessed
no Roman cavalry. When he went to an interview with Ariovistus,
and was obliged to take cavalry with him, we are told that he did
not dare to trust his safety to the Gallic cavalry, and therefore
mounted his legionary soldiers upon their horses. The Roman equites
are, however, frequently mentioned in the Gallic and civil wars,
but never as common soldiers; they were officers attached to the
staff of the general, or commanded the cavalry of the allies, or
sometimes the legions.--After the year B.C. 50, there were no censors
in the state, and it would therefore follow that for some years
no review of the body took place, and that the vacancies were not
filled up. When Augustus, however, took upon himself, in B.C. 29,
the praefectura morum, he frequently reviewed the troops of equites,
and restored the long neglected custom of the solemn procession
(_transvectio_). From this time these equites formed an honourable
corps, from which all the higher officers in the army and the chief
magistrates in the state were chosen. Admission into this body was
equivalent to an introduction into public life, and was therefore
esteemed a great privilege. If a young man was not admitted into
this body, he was excluded from all civil offices of any importance,
except in municipal towns; and also from all rank in the army,
with the exception of centurion. All those equites, who were not
employed in actual service, were obliged to reside at Rome, where
they were allowed to fill the lower magistracies, which entitled
a person to admission into the senate. They were divided into six
turmae, each of which was commanded by an officer, who is frequently
mentioned in inscriptions as _Sevir equitum Rom. turmae_ I. II., &c.,
or commonly _Sevir turmae_ or _Sevir turmarum equitum Romanorum_.
From the time that the equites bestowed the title of _principes
juventutis_ upon Caius and Lucius Caesar, the grandsons of Augustus,
it became the custom to confer this title, as well as that of sevir,
upon the probable successor to the throne, when he first entered
into public life, and was presented with an equus publicus. The
practice of filling all the higher offices in the state from these
equites appears to have continued as long as Rome was the centre of
the government and the residence of the emperor. After the time of
Diocletian, the equites became only a city guard, under the command
of the praefectus vigilum; but they still retained, in the time of
Valentinianus and Valens, A.D. 364, the second rank in the city, and
were not subject to corporal punishment. Respecting the _Magister
Equitum_, see DICTATOR.

ĔQUŬLĔUS or ĔCŬLĔUS, an instrument of torture, which is supposed to
have been so called because it was in the form of a horse.

ĔRĂNI (ἔρανοι), were clubs or societies, established for charitable,
convivial, commercial, or political purposes. Unions of this kind
were called by the general name of ἑταιρίαι, and were often converted
to mischievous ends, such as bribery, overawing the public assembly,
or influencing courts of justice. In the days of the Roman empire
friendly societies, under the name of _erani_, were frequent among
the Greek cities, but were looked on with suspicion by the emperors,
as leading to political combinations. The _gilds_, or fraternities
for mutual aid, among the ancient Saxons, resembled the _erani_ of
the Greeks.

ERGASTŬLUM, a private prison attached to most Roman farms, where
the slaves were made to work in chains. The slaves confined in an
ergastulum were also employed to cultivate the fields in chains.
Slaves who had displeased their masters were punished by imprisonment
in the ergastulum; and in the same place all slaves, who could not be
depended upon or were barbarous in their habits, were regularly kept.

ĒRĪCĬUS, a military engine full of sharp spikes, which was placed by
the gate of the camp to prevent the approach of the enemy.

ĔRŌTĬA or ĔRŌTĬDĬA (ἐρώτια or ἐρωτίδια), the most solemn of all the
festivals celebrated in the Boeotian town of Thespiae. It took place
every fifth year, and in honour of Eros, the principal divinity of
the Thespians. Respecting the particulars nothing is known, except
that it was solemnised with contests in music and gymnastics.


ESSĔDA, or ESSĔDUM (from the Celtic _Ess_, a carriage), the name of
a chariot used, especially in war, by the Britons, the Gauls, and
the Germans. It was built very strongly, was open before instead of
behind, like the Greek war-chariot, and had a wide pole, so that the
owner was able, whenever he pleased, to run along the pole, and even
to raise himself upon the yoke, and then to retreat with the greatest
speed into the body of the car, which he drove with extraordinary
swiftness and skill. It appears also that these cars were purposely
made as noisy as possible, probably by the creaking and clanging of
the wheels; and that this was done in order to strike dismay into the
enemy. The warriors who drove these chariots were called _essedarii_.
Having been captured, they were sometimes exhibited in the
gladiatorial shows at Rome, and seem to have been great favourites
with the people. The essedum was adopted for purposes of convenience
and luxury among the Romans. As used by the Romans, the essedum may
have differed from the cisium in this; that the cisium was drawn by
one horse (see cut, p. 90), the essedum always by a pair.

EUMOLPĬDAE (εὐμολπίδαι), the most distinguished and venerable among
the priestly families in Attica. They were devoted to the service of
Demeter at Athens and Eleusis, and were said to be the descendants
of the Thracian bard Eumolpus, who, according to some legends, had
introduced the Eleusinian mysteries into Attica. The high priest of
the Eleusinian goddess (ἱεροφάντης or μυσταγωγός), who conducted the
celebration of her mysteries and the initiation of the mystae, was
always a member of the family of the Eumolpidae, as Eumolpus himself
was believed to have been the first hierophant. The hierophant was
attended by four _epimeletae_ (ἐπιμεληταί), one of whom likewise
belonged to the family of the Eumolpidae. The Eumolpidae had on
certain occasions to offer up prayers for the welfare of the state.
They had likewise judicial power in cases where religion was
violated. The law according to which they pronounced their sentence,
and of which they had the exclusive possession, was not written,
but handed down by tradition; and the Eumolpidae alone had the
right to interpret it, whence they are sometimes called _Exegetae_
(ἐξηγηταί). In cases for which the law had made no provisions, they
acted according to their own discretion. In some cases, when a person
was convicted of gross violation of the public institutions of his
country, the people, besides sending the offender into exile, added a
clause in their verdict that a curse should be pronounced upon him by
the Eumolpidae. But the Eumolpidae could pronounce such a curse only
at the command of the people, and might afterwards be compelled by
the people to revoke it, and purify the person whom they had cursed

EUPATRĬDAE (εὐπατρίδαι), descended from noble ancestors, is the name
by which in early times the nobility of Attica was designated. In
the division of the inhabitants of Attica into three classes, which
is ascribed to Theseus, the Eupatridae were the first class, and
thus formed a compact order of nobles, united by their interests,
rights, and privileges. They were in the exclusive possession of all
the civil and religious offices in the state, ordered the affairs of
religion, and interpreted the laws human and divine. The king was
thus only the first among his equals, and only distinguished from
them by the duration of his office. By the legislation of Solon,
the political power and influence of the Eupatridae as an order
was broken, and property instead of birth was made the standard
of political rights. But as Solon, like all ancient legislators,
abstained from abolishing any of the religious institutions, those
families of the Eupatridae, in which certain priestly offices and
functions were hereditary, retained these distinctions down to a very
late period of Grecian history.


EUTHȲNĒ (εὐθύνη). All public officers at Athens were accountable for
their conduct and the manner in which they acquitted themselves of
their official duties. The judges in the popular court seem to have
been the only authorities who were not responsible, for they were
themselves the representatives of the people, and would therefore,
in theory, have been responsible to themselves. This account, which
officers had to give after the time of their office was over, was
called εὐθύνη, and the officers subject to it, ὑπεύθυνοι, and after
they had gone through the _euthyne_, they became ἀνεύθυνοι. Every
public officer had to render his account within thirty days after the
expiration of his office, and at the time when he submitted to the
_euthyne_ any citizen had the right to come forward and impeach him.
The officers before whom the accounts were given were at Athens ten
in number, called εὔθυνοι or λογισταί, in other places ἐξετασταί or



EXAUGŬRĀTĬO, the act of changing a sacred thing into a profane one,
or of taking away from it the sacred character which it had received
by inauguratio, consecratio, or dedicatio. Such an act was performed
by the augurs, and never without consulting the pleasure of the gods,
by augurium.


EXCŬBĬTŌRES, which properly means watchmen or sentinels of any kind,
was the name more particularly given to the soldiers of the cohort
who guarded the palace of the Roman emperor.

EXEDRA (ἐξέδρα), which properly signifies a seat out of doors, came
to be used for a chamber furnished with seats, and opening into a
portico, where people met to enjoy conversation; such as the rooms
attached to a gymnasium, which were used for the lectures and
disputations of the rhetoricians and philosophers. In old Greek the
word λέσχη appears to have had a similar meaning; but the ordinary
use of the word is for a larger and more public place of resort than
the ἐξέδρα. [LESCHE.] Among the Romans the word had a wider meaning,
answering to both the Greek terms, ἐξέδρα and λέσχη.

EXĒGĒTAE (ἐξηγηταί, interpreters) is the name of the Eumolpidae, by
which they were designated as the interpreters of the laws relating
to religion and of the sacred rites. [EUMOLPIDAE.] The name ἐξηγητής
was also applied to those persons who served as guides (ciceroni) to
the visitors in the most remarkable towns and places of Greece.

EXERCĬTŌRĬA ACTĬO, an action granted by the edict against the
exercitor navis. By the term navis was understood any vessel, whether
used for the navigation of rivers, lakes, or the sea. The exercitor
navis is the person to whom all the ship’s gains and earnings
(_obventiones et reditus_) belong, whether he is the owner, or has
hired the ship (_per aversionem_) from the owner for a time definite
or indefinite.

EXERCĬTUS (στρατός), army. (1) GREEK.

1. _Spartan Army._--In all the states of Greece, in the earliest as
in later times, the general type of their military organisation was
the _phalanx_, a body of troops in close array with a long spear as
their principal weapon. It was among the Dorians, and especially
among the Spartans, that this type was most rigidly adhered to.
The strength of their military array consisted in the heavy-armed
infantry (ὁπλίται). They attached comparatively small importance to
their cavalry, which was always inferior. Indeed, the Thessalians and
Boeotians were the only Greek people who distinguished themselves
much for their cavalry; scarcely any other states had territories
adapted for the evolutions of cavalry. The whole life of a Spartan
was little else than either the preparation for or the practice of
war. The result was, that in the strictness of their discipline,
the precision and facility with which they performed their military
evolutions, and the skill and power with which they used their
weapons, the Spartans were unrivalled among the Greeks. The
heavy-armed infantry of the Spartan armies was composed partly of
genuine Spartan citizens, partly of Perioeci. Every Spartan citizen
was liable to military service (ἔμφρουρος) from the age of twenty
to the age of sixty years. They were divided into six divisions
called μόραι, under the command or superintendence of a polemarch,
each mora being subdivided into four λόχοι(commanded by λοχαγοί),
each λόχος into two πεντηκοστύες (headed by πεντηκοστῆρες), each
πεντηκοστύς into two ἐνωμοτίαι (headed by enomotarchs). The ἐνωμοτίαι
were so called from the men composing them being bound together by
a common oath. These were not merely divisions of troops engaged in
actual military expeditions. The whole body of citizens at all times
formed an army, whether they were congregated at head-quarters in
Sparta, or a portion of them were detached on foreign service. The
strength of a mora on actual service, of course, varied, according to
circumstances. To judge by the name pentecostys, the normal number
of a mora would have been 400; but 500, 600, and 900 are mentioned
as the number of men in a mora on different occasions. When in the
field, each mora of infantry was attended by a mora of cavalry,
consisting at the most of 100 men, and commanded by an hipparmost
(ἱππαρμοστής). Plutarch mentions squadrons (οὐλαμοί) of fifty, which
may possibly be the same divisions. The cavalry seems merely to
have been employed to protect the flanks, and but little regard was
paid to it. The corps of 300 ἱππεῖς formed a sort of body-guard for
the king, and consisted of the flower of the young soldiers. Though
called horsemen, they fought on foot. A Spartan army, divided as
above described, was drawn up in the dense array of the phalanx, the
depth of which depended upon circumstances. An ἐνωμοτία sometimes
made but a single file, sometimes was drawn up in three or six files
(ζύγα). The enomotarch stood at the head of his file (πρωτοστάτης),
or at the head of the right-hand file, if the enomotia was broken up
into more than one. The last man was called οὐραγός. It was a matter
of great importance that he, like the enomotarch, should be a man of
strength and skill, as in certain evolutions he would have to lead
the movements. The commander-in-chief, who was usually the king,
had his station sometimes in the centre, more commonly on the right
wing. The commands of the general were issued in the first place
to the polemarchs, by these to the lochagi, by these again to the
pentecosteres, by the latter to the enomotarchs, and by these last to
their respective divisions. From the orderly manner in which this was
done, commands were transmitted with great rapidity: every soldier,
in fact, regulating the movements of the man behind him, every two
being connected together as πρωτοστάτης and ἐπιστάτης. In later times
the king was usually accompanied by two ephors, as controllers and
advisers. These, with the polemarchs, the four Pythii, three peers
(ὅμοιοι), who had to provide for the necessities of the king in war,
the laphyropolae and some other officers, constituted what was called
the _damosia_ of the king. The Spartan hoplites were accompanied in
the field by helots, partly in the capacity of attendants, partly
to serve as light-armed troops. The number attached to an army was
probably not uniform. At Plataeae each Spartan was accompanied by
seven helots; but that was probably an extraordinary case. One helot
in particular of those attached to each Spartan was called his
θεράπων, and performed the functions of an armourer or shieldbearer.
Xenophon calls them ὑπασπισταί. In extraordinary cases, helots
served as hoplites, and in that case it was usual to give them their
liberty. A separate troop in the Lacedaemonian army was formed by
the Sciritae (Σκιρῖται), originally, no doubt, inhabitants of the
district Sciritis. The arms of the phalanx consisted of the long
spear and a short sword (ξυήλη). The chief part of the defensive
armour was the large brazen shield, which covered the body from the
shoulder to the knee, suspended, as in ancient times, by a thong
round the neck, and managed by a simple handle or ring (πόρπαξ).
Besides this, they had the ordinary armour of the hoplite [ARMA]. The
heavy-armed soldiers wore a scarlet uniform. The Spartan encampments
were circular. Only the heavy-armed were stationed within them, the
cavalry being placed to look out, and the helots being kept as much
as possible outside. Preparatory to a battle the Spartan soldier
dressed his hair and crowned himself as others would do for a feast.
The signal for attack was given not by the trumpet, but by the music
of flutes, and sometimes also of the lyre and cithara, to which the
men sang the battle song (παιὰν ἐμβατήριος). The object of the music
was not so much to inspirit the men, as simply to regulate the march
of the phalanx. This rhythmical regularity of movement was a point to
which the Spartans attached great importance.

2. _Athenian Army._--In Athens, the military system was in its
leading principles the same as among the Spartans, though differing
in detail, and carried out with less exactness; inasmuch as when
Athens became powerful, greater attention was paid to the navy.
Of the four classes into which the citizens were arranged by the
constitution of Solon, the citizens of the first and second served
as cavalry, or as commanders of the infantry (still it need not be
assumed that the ἱππεῖς never served as heavy-armed infantry), those
of the third class (ζευγῖται) formed the heavy-armed infantry. The
Thetes served either as light-armed troops on land, or on board the
ships. The same general principles remained when the constitution
was remodelled by Cleisthenes. The cavalry service continued to
be compulsory on the wealthier class. Every citizen was liable to
service from his eighteenth to his sixtieth year. On reaching their
eighteenth year, the young citizens were formally enrolled εἰς
τὴν ληξιαρχικὸν γραμματεῖον, and received a shield and spear in a
public assembly of the people, binding themselves by oath to perform
rightly the duties of a citizen and a soldier. During the first two
years, they were only liable to service in Attica itself, chiefly
as garrison soldiers in the different fortresses in the country.
During this period, they were called περίπολοι. Members of the senate
during the period of their office, farmers of the revenue, choreutae
at the Dionysia during the festival, in later times, traders by sea
also, were exempted from military service. Any one bound to serve who
attempted to avoid doing so, was liable to a sentence of ἀτιμία. The
resident aliens commonly served as heavy-armed soldiers, especially
for the purpose of garrisoning the city. They were prohibited
from serving as cavalry. Slaves were only employed as soldiers in
cases of great necessity. Of the details of the Athenian military
organisation, we have no distinct accounts as we have of those of
Sparta. The heavy-armed troops, as was the universal practice in
Greece, fought in phalanx order. They were arranged in bodies in a
manner dependent on the political divisions of the citizens. The
soldiers of each tribe (φυλή) formed a separate body in the army,
also called a tribe, and these bodies stood in some preconcerted
order. It seems that the name of one division was τάξις, and of
another λόχος, but in what relations these stood to the φυλή, and
to each other, we do not learn. Every hoplite was accompanied by
an attendant (ὑπηρέτης) to take charge of his baggage, and carry
his shield on a march. Each horseman also had a servant, called
ἱπποκόμος, to attend to his horse. For the command of the army, there
were chosen every year ten generals [STRATEGI], and ten taxiarchs
[TAXIARCHI], and for the cavalry, two hipparchs (ἵππαρχοι) and ten
phylarchs (φύλαρχοι). Respecting the military functions of the ἄρχων
πολέμαρχος, see the article Archon. The number of strategi sent with
an army was not uniform. Three was a common number. Sometimes one was
invested with the supreme command; at other times, they either took
the command in turn (as at Marathon), or conducted their operations
by common consent (as in the Sicilian expedition). The practice of
paying the troops when upon service was first introduced by Pericles.
The pay consisted partly of wages (μισθός), partly of provisions,
or, more commonly, provision-money (σιτηρέσιον). The ordinary μισθός
of a hoplite was two obols a day. The σιτηρέσιον amounted to two
obols more. Hence, the life of a soldier was called, proverbially,
τετρωβόλου βίος. Officers received twice as much; horsemen, three
times; generals, four times as much. The horsemen received pay even
in time of peace, that they might always be in readiness, and also a
sum of money for their outfit (κατάστασις). As regards the military
strength of the Athenians, we find 10,000 heavy-armed soldiers at
Marathon, 8,000 heavy-armed, and as many light-armed at Plataeae;
and at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war there were 18,000
heavy-armed ready for foreign service, and 16,000 consisting of those
beyond the limits of the ordinary military age and of the metoeci,
for garrison service. It was the natural result of the national
character of the Athenians and their democratical constitution,
that military discipline was much less stringent among them than
among the Spartans, and after defeat especially it was often found
extremely difficult to maintain it. The generals had some power of
punishing military offences on the spot, but for the greater number
of such offences a species of court-martial was held, consisting of
persons who had served in the army to which the offender belonged,
and presided over by the strategi. Various rewards also were held
out for those who especially distinguished themselves for their
courage or conduct, in the shape of chaplets, statues, &c. The
Peltastae (πελτασταί), so called from the kind of shield which they
wore [PELTA], were a class of troops of which we hear very little
before the end of the Peloponnesian war. The Athenian general
Iphicrates introduced some important improvements in the mode of
arming them, combining as far as possible the peculiar advantages
of heavy (ὁπλῖται) and light armed (ψιλοί) troops. He substituted a
linen corslet for the coat of mail worn by the hoplites, and lessened
the shield, while he doubled the length of the spear and sword. He
even took the pains to introduce for them an improved sort of shoe,
called after him Ἰφικρατίδες. This equipment proved very effective.
The almost total destruction of a mora of Lacedaemonian heavy-armed
troops by a body of peltastae under the command of Iphicrates was an
exploit that became very famous. When the use of mercenary troops
became general, Athenian citizens seldom served except as volunteers,
and then in but small numbers. The employment of mercenaries led
to considerable alterations in the military system of Greece. War
came to be studied as an art, and Greek generals, rising above the
old simple rules of warfare, became tacticians. Epaminondas was the
first who adopted the method of charging in column, concentrating his
attack upon one point of the hostile line, so as to throw the whole
into confusion by breaking through it.

3. MACEDONIAN ARMY.--Philip, king of Macedonia, made several
improvements in the arms and arrangement of the phalanx. The spear
(σάρισσα or σάρισα), with which the soldiers of the Macedonian
phalanx were armed, was 24 feet long; but the ordinary length was 21
feet, and the lines were arranged at such distances that the spears
of the fifth rank projected three feet beyond the first, so that
every man in the front rank was protected by five spears. Besides
the spear they carried a short sword. The shield was very large
and covered nearly the whole body, so that on favourable ground an
impenetrable front was presented to the enemy. The soldiers were
also defended by helmets, coats of mail, and greaves; so that any
thing like rapid movement was impossible. The ordinary depth of the
phalanx was sixteen files, though depths of eight and of thirty-two
are also mentioned. Each file of sixteen was called λόχος. Two lochi
made a _dilochia_; two dilochiae made a τετραρχία, consisting of
sixty-four men; two tetrarchies made a τάξις; two τάξεις a σύνταγμα
or ξεναγία, to which were attached five supernumeraries, a herald,
an ensign, a trumpeter, a servant, and an officer to bring up
the rear (οὐραγός); two syntagmata formed a pentacosiarchia, two
of which made a χιλιαρχία, containing 1024 men; two chiliarchies
made a τέλος, and two τέλη made a phalangarchia or phalanx in
the narrower sense of the word, the normal number of which would
therefore be 4096. It was commanded by a polemarch or strategus; four
such bodies formed the larger phalanx, the normal number of which
would be 16,384. When drawn up, the two middle sections constituted
what was termed the ὀμφαλός, the others being called κέρατα or
wings. The phalanx soldiers in the army of Alexander amounted to
18,000, and were divided not into four, but into six divisions,
each named after a Macedonian province, from which it was to derive
its recruits. These bodies are oftener called τάξεις than φάλαγγες
by the historians, and their leaders taxiarchs or strategi. The
phalanx of Antiochus consisted of 16,000 men, and was formed into
ten divisions (μέρη) of 1600 each, arranged 50 broad and 32 deep.
The phalanx, of course, became all but useless, if its ranks were
broken. It required, therefore, level and open ground, so that its
operations were restricted to very narrow limits; and being incapable
of rapid movement, it became almost helpless in the face of an
active enemy, unless accompanied by a sufficient number of cavalry
and light troops. The light-armed troops were arranged in files
(λόχοι) eight deep. Four lochi formed a σύστασις, and then larger
divisions were successively formed, each being the double of the one
below it; the largest (called ἐπίταγμα), consisting of 8192 men.
The cavalry (according to Aelianus), were arranged in an analogous
manner, the lowest division or squadron (ἴλη), containing 64 men,
and the successive larger divisions being each the double of that
below it; the highest (ἐπίταγμα) containing 4096. Both Philip and
Alexander attached great importance to the cavalry, which, in their
armies, consisted partly of Macedonians, and partly of Thessalians.
The Macedonian horsemen were the flower of the young nobles. They
amounted to about 1200 in number, forming eight squadrons, and, under
the name ἕταιροι, formed a sort of body-guard for the king. The
Thessalian cavalry consisted chiefly of the elite of the wealthier
class of the Thessalians, but included also a number of Grecian
youth from other states. There was also a guard of foot soldiers
(ὑπασπισταί), whom we find greatly distinguishing themselves in
the campaigns of Alexander. They seem to be identical with the
πεζέταιροι, of whom we find mention. They amounted to about 3000
men, arranged in six battalions (τάξεις). There was also a troop
called Argyraspids, from the silver with which their shields were
ornamented. They seem to have been a species of peltastae. Alexander
also organised a kind of troops called διμάχαι, who were something
intermediate between cavalry and infantry, being designed to fight on
horseback or on foot, as circumstances required. It is in the time of
Alexander the Great, that we first meet with artillery in the train
of a Grecian army. His _balistae_ and _catapeltae_ were frequently
employed with great effect, as, for instance, at the passage of the

(2) ROMAN. _General Remarks on the Legion._--The name _Legio_ is
coeval with the foundation of Rome, and denoted a body of troops,
which, although subdivided into several smaller bodies, was regarded
as forming an organised whole. It was not equivalent to what we
call a _regiment_, inasmuch as it contained troops of all arms,
infantry, cavalry, and, when military engines were extensively
employed, artillery also; it might thus, so far, be regarded as a
complete _army_, but on the other hand the number of soldiers in a
legion was fixed within certain limits, never much exceeding 6000,
and hence when war was carried on upon a large scale, a single army,
under the command of one general, frequently contained two, three,
or more legions, besides a large number of auxiliaries of various
denominations. The legion for many centuries was composed exclusively
of Roman citizens. By the ordinances of Servius Tullius those alone
who were enrolled in the five classes were eligible, and one of the
greatest changes introduced by Marius (B.C. 107) was the admission of
all orders of citizens, including the lowest, into the ranks. Up to
the year B.C. 107, no one was permitted to serve among the regular
troops of the state, except those who were regarded as possessing a
strong personal interest in the stability of the commonwealth; but
the principle having been at this period abandoned, the privilege
was extended after the close of the Social War (B.C. 87) to nearly
the whole of the free population of Italy, and by the famous edict
of Caracalla (or perhaps of M. Aurelius), to the whole Roman world.
Long before this, however, the legions were raised chiefly in the
provinces; but it does not appear that the admission of foreigners
not subjects was ever practised upon a large scale until the reign
of the second Claudius (A.D. 268-270), who incorporated a large body
of vanquished Goths, and of Probus (A.D. 276-282), who distributed
16,000 Germans among legionary and frontier battalions. From this
time forward what had originally been the leading characteristic
of the legion was rapidly obliterated, so that under Diocletian,
Constantine, and their successors, the best soldiers in the Roman
armies were barbarians. The practice of granting pensions for long
service in the shape of donations of land was first introduced upon
a large scale after the Mithridatic wars. Hence, when Augustus, in
compliance with the advice of Maecenas, determined to provide for
the security of the distant provinces, and for tranquil submission
at home by the establishment of a powerful standing army, he found
the public mind in a great degree prepared for such a measure, and
the distinction between soldier and civilian unknown, or at least not
recognised before, became from this time forward as broadly marked
as in the most pure military despotisms of ancient or modern times.
The legions were originally numbered according to the order in which
they were raised. As they became permanent, the same numbers remained
attached to the same corps, which were moreover distinguished by
various epithets of which we have early examples in the _Legio
Martia_, and the _Legio Quinta Alauda_. [ALAUDA.] Several legions
bore the same number: thus there were four _Firsts_, five _Seconds_,
and five _Thirds_. The total number of legions under Augustus was
twenty-five, under Alexander Severus thirty-two, but during the
civil wars the number was far greater.--The number of soldiers who,
at different periods, were contained in a legion, does not appear
to have been absolutely fixed, but to have varied within moderate
limits. Under Romulus the legion contained 3000 foot soldiers. It
is highly probable that some change may have been introduced by
Servius Tullius, but, in so far as numbers are concerned, we have no
evidence. From the expulsion of the Kings until the second year of
the second Punic War, the regular number may be fixed at 4000 or 4200
infantry. From the latter period until the consulship of Marius the
ordinary number may be fixed at from 5000 to 5200. For some centuries
after Marius the numbers varied from 5000 to 6200, generally
approaching to the higher limit. Amid all the variations with regard
to the infantry, 300 horsemen formed the regular complement (_justus
equitatus_) of the legion. When troops were raised for a service
which required special arrangements, the number of horsemen was
sometimes increased beyond 300. It must be observed, however, that
these remarks with regard to the cavalry apply only to the period
before Marius. We now proceed to consider the organisation of the
legion at five different periods.

_First Period. Servius Tullius._ The legion of Servius is so closely
connected with the Comitia Centuriata that it has already been
discussed in a former article [COMITIA], and it is only necessary to
repeat here that it was a phalanx equipped in the Greek fashion, the
front ranks being furnished with a complete suit of armour, their
weapons being long spears, and their chief defence the round Argolic
shield (_clipeus_).


  15 Manipuli of Hastati.
  15 Manipuli of Principes.
  Triarii proper     } 15 triple
  Rorarii            } Manipuli of
  Accensi            } Triarii.]

_Second Period. The Great Latin War_, B.C. 340. Our authority for
this period is Livy (viii. 8). The legion in B.C. 340 had almost
entirely discarded the tactics of the phalanx. It was now drawn up in
three, or perhaps we ought to say, in five lines. The soldiers of the
first line, called _Hastati_, consisted of youths in the first bloom
of manhood distributed into 15 companies or maniples (_manipuli_),
a moderate space being left between each. The maniple contained
60 privates, 2 centurions (_centuriones_), and a standard bearer
(_vexillarius_); two-thirds were heavily armed and bore the _scutum_
or large oblong shield, the remainder carried only a spear (_hasta_)
and light javelins (_gaesa_), The second line, the _Principes_,
was composed of men in the full vigour of life, divided in like
manner into 15 maniples, all heavily armed (_scutati omnes_). The
two lines of the _Hastati_ and _Principes_ taken together amounted
to 30 maniples, and formed the _Antepilani_. The third line, the
_Triarii_, composed of tried veterans, was also in 15 divisions, but
each of these was triple, containing 3 manipuli, 180 privates, 6
centurions, and 3 vexillarii. In these triple manipuli the veterans
or _triarii_ proper formed the front ranks; immediately behind them
stood the _Rorarii_, inferior in age and prowess, while the _Accensi_
or supernumeraries, less trustworthy than either, were posted in the
extreme rear. The battle array may be thus represented. The fight was
commenced by the _Rorarii_, so called because the light missiles
which they sprinkled among the foe were like the drops which are the
forerunners of the thunder shower, who, running forwards between the
ranks of the antepilani, acted as tirailleurs; when they were driven
in they returned to their station behind the triarii, and the battle
began in earnest by the onset of the hastati; if they were unable to
make any impression they retired between the ranks of the principes,
who now advanced and bore the brunt of the combat, supported by the
hastati, who had rallied in their rear. If the principes also failed
to make an impression, they retired through the openings between the
maniples of the triarii, who up to this time had been crouched on
the ground (hence called _subsidiarii_), but now arose to make the
last effort (whence the phrase _rem ad triarios redisse_). No longer
retaining the open order of the two first lines, they closed up their
ranks so as to present an unbroken line of heavy-armed veterans in
front, while the rorarii and accensi, pressing up from behind, gave
weight and consistency to the mass,--an arrangement bearing evidence
to a lingering predilection for the principle of the phalanx, and
exhibiting, just as we might expect at that period, the Roman tactics
in their transition state. It must be observed that the words
_ordo_, _manipulus_, _vexillum_, although generally kept distinct,
are throughout the chapter used as synonymous. Livy concludes by
saying, that four legions were commonly levied, each consisting of
5000 infantry and 300 horse. We must suppose that he speaks in round
numbers in so far as the infantry are concerned, for according to his
own calculations the numbers will stand thus:--

  Hastati            15 × 60        =   900
  Principes          15 × 60        =   900
  Triarii, &c.       15 × 3 × 60    =  2700
  Centuriones                       =   150
  Vexillarii                        =    75
                                       ----                                     4725

_Third Period. During the wars of the younger Scipio._ Polybius
describes minutely the method pursued in raising the four legions
during this period. Under ordinary circumstances they were levied
yearly, two being assigned to each consul. It must be observed that
a regular consular army (_justus consularis exercitus_) no longer
consisted of Roman legions only, but as Italy became gradually
subjugated, the various states under the dominion of Rome were
bound to furnish a contingent, and the number of allies (_socii_)
usually exceeded that of citizens. They were, however, kept perfectly
distinct, both in the camp and in the battle field. After the
election of consuls was concluded, the first step was to choose
the 24 chief officers of the legions, named _tribuni militum_. The
consuls then summoned to the Capitol all citizens eligible for
military service. They first divided the 24 tribunes into 4 parties
of 6, and the tribes were next summoned in succession by lot. The
tribe whose lot came out first being called up, they picked out from
it four youths, as nearly matched as possible in age and form; out of
these four, the tribunes of the first legion chose one, the tribunes
of the second legion one of the remaining three; the tribunes of the
third legion, one of the remaining two, and the last fell to the
fourth legion. Upon the next tribe being called up, the first choice
was given to the tribunes of the second legion, the second choice to
those of the third, and the last man fell to the first legion. On
the next tribe being called up, the tribunes of the third legion had
the first choice, and so on in succession, the object in view being
that the four legions should be as nearly alike as possible, not in
the number only, but in the quality of the soldiers. This process
was continued until the ranks were complete. In ancient times, the
cavalry were not chosen until after the infantry levy was concluded,
but when Polybius wrote, the cavalry were picked in the first place
from the list on which they were enrolled by the censor according
to their fortune, and 300 were apportioned to each legion. The levy
being completed, the tribunes collected the men belonging to their
respective legions, and making one individual stand out from the rest
administered to him an oath “that he would obey orders and execute to
the best of his ability the command of his officers.” (_Sacramento
milites adigere s. rogare, sacramentum s. sacramento dicere._) The
rest of the soldiers then came forward one by one, and swore to do
what the first had bound himself to perform. At the same time the
consuls gave notice to the magistrates of those towns in Italy in
alliance with Rome, from whom they desired to receive a contingent,
of the number which each would be required to furnish, and of the
day and place of gathering. The allied cities levied their troops
and administered the oath much in the same manner as the Romans, and
then sent them forth after appointing a commander and a paymaster.
The soldiers having again assembled, the men belonging to each legion
were separated into four divisions. 1. 1000 of the youngest and
poorest were set apart to form the _Velites_, the light-armed troops,
or skirmishers of the legion. 2. 1200 who came next in age (or who
were of the same age with the preceding but more wealthy), formed
the _Hastati_. 3. 1200, consisting of those in the full vigour of
manhood, formed the _Principes_. 4. 600, consisting of the oldest and
most experienced, formed the _Triarii_. When the number of soldiers
in the legion exceeded 4000, the first three divisions were increased
proportionally, but the number of the Triarii remained always the
same. The Hastati, Principes, and Triarii were each divided into
ten companies, called _Manipuli_. The Velites were not divided into
companies, but were distributed equally among the Hastati, Principes,
and Triarii. Before the division of the three classes into maniples,
officers were appointed inferior to the tribunes. 30 men were chosen
by merit, 10 from the Hastati, 10 from the Principes, and 10 from
the Triarii; and this first choice being completed, 30 more in like
manner. These 60 officers, of whom 20 were assigned to each of the
three classes, and distributed equally among the maniples, were named
_centuriones_, or _ordinum ductores_, and each of the 60 chose for
himself a Lieutenant (_optio_), who, being posted in the rear of the
company while the centurion was at the head, was named οὐραγός (i.e.
_Tergiductor_) by the Greeks, so that in each maniple there were two
centurions and two optiones. Further, the centurions selected out of
each maniple two of the bravest and most vigorous men as standard
bearers (_vexillarii, signiferi_). The first elected centurion of the
whole had a seat in the military council, and in each maniple the
first chosen commanded the right division of the maniple, and the
other the left. Each of these subdivisions of the maniple was called
_centuria_. The cavalry were divided into 10 troops (_turmae_), and
out of each of these 3 officers were chosen, named _decuriones_,
who named 3 lieutenants (_optiones_). In each troop the decurio
first chosen commanded the whole troop, and failing him, the second.
The infantry furnished by the _socii_ was for the most part equal
in number to the Roman legions, the cavalry twice or thrice as
numerous, and the whole were divided equally between the two consular
armies. Each consul named twelve superior officers, who were termed
_Praefecti Sociorum_, and corresponded to the legionary tribunes. A
selection was then made of the best men, to the extent of one-fifth
of the infantry and one-third of the cavalry; these were formed into
a separate corps under the name of _extraordinarii_, and on the
march and in the camp were always near the person of the consul.
The remainder were divided into two equal portions, and were styled
respectively the _Dextera Ala_ and the _Sinistra Ala_ [ALA].--_Agmen_
or _Line of March_. The Extraordinarii Pedites led the van followed
by the right wing of the infantry of the allies and the baggage of
these two divisions; next came one of the Roman legions with its
baggage following; next the other Roman legion with its own baggage,
and that of the left wing of the allies, who brought up the rear. The
different corps of cavalry sometimes followed immediately behind the
infantry to which they were attached, sometimes rode on the flanks
of the beasts of burden, at once protecting them and preventing them
from straggling. Generally, when advancing through a country in which
it was necessary to guard against a sudden onset, the troops, instead
of proceeding in a loose straggling column, were kept together in
close compact bodies ready to act in any direction at a moment’s
warning, and hence an army under these circumstances was said _agmine
quadrato incedere_. Some doubt exists with regard to the force of the
term _Agmen Pilatum_ as distinguished from _Agmen Quadratum_. Varro
defines the _agmen pilatum_ as a compact body marching without beasts
of burthen. Where the phrase occurs in poetry, it probably denotes
merely “columns bristling with spears.” To the preceding particulars
from Polybius, the following may be added.

1. _The levy (delectus.)_ According to the principles of the
constitution, none were enrolled in the legion, except freeborn
citizens (_ingenui_) above the age of 17, and under the age of
60, possessing not less than 4000 asses: but in times of peculiar
difficulty, these conditions were not insisted upon. In such times
all formalities were dispensed with, and every man capable of bearing
arms was summoned to join in warding off the threatened danger, a
force raised under such circumstances being termed _subitarius_ s.
_tumultuarius exercitus_. If citizens between the ages of 17 and 46
did not appear and answer to their names, they might be punished in
various ways,--by fine, by imprisonment, by stripes, by confiscation
of their property, and even, in extreme cases, by being sold
as slaves. At the same time, causes might be alleged which were
recognised as forming a legitimate ground for exemption (_vacatio
justa militiae_). Thus, all who had served for the full period of 20
years were relieved from further service, although they might still
be within the regular age; and so, in like manner, when they were
afflicted by any grievous malady, or disabled by any personal defect,
or engaged in any sacred or civil offices which required their
constant attendance; but these and similar pleas, although sustained
under ordinary circumstances, might be rendered void by a decree
of the senate “ne vacationes valerent.” While those who had served
for the stipulated period were entitled to immunity for the future,
even although within the legal age, and were styled _Emeriti_, so on
the other hand, it appears from some passages in the classics, that
persons who had not completed their regular term within the usual
limits, might be forced, if required, to serve between the ages of
45 and 50. Towards the close of the republic, and under the empire,
when the legions became permanent, the soldier who had served his
full time received a regular discharge (_missio_), together with a
bounty (_praemium_) in money or an allotment of land. The jurists
distinguish three kinds of discharge:--1. _Missio honesta_, granted
for length of service. 2. _Missio causaria_, in consequence of bad
health. 3. _Missio ignominiosa_, when a man was drummed out for
bad conduct. It frequently happened that _emeriti_ were induced to
continue in the ranks, either from attachment to the person of the
general, or from hopes of profit or promotion, and were then called
_veterani_, or when they joined an army, in consequence of a special
invitation, _evocati_.

2. The division of the legion into _Cohortes_, _Manipuli_,
_Centuriae_, _Signa_, _Ordines_, _Contubernia_.--(i.) _Cohortes._
Polybius takes no notice of the _Cohort_, a division of the legion
often mentioned in the Roman writers. When the soldiers of the
legion were classified as Velites, Hastati, Principes and Triarii,
the cohort contained one maniple of each of the three latter
denominations, together with their complement of Velites, so that
when the legion contained 4000, each cohort would consist of 60
Triarii, 120 Principes, 120 Hastati, and 100 Velites, in all 400 men.
The number of cohorts in a legion being always 10, and the cohorts,
during the republic, being all equal to each other, the strength of
the cohort varied from time to time with the strength of the legion,
and thus at different periods ranged between the limits of 300 and
600. They were regularly numbered from 1 to 10, the centurion of
the first century of the first maniple of the first cohort was the
guardian of the eagle, and hence the first cohort seems always to
have been regarded as superior in dignity to the rest. Late writers,
instead of _cohortes_, prefer the somewhat vague term _numeri_,
which appears in Tacitus and Suetonius, and perhaps even in Cicero.
_Numeri_ seems to have signified strictly the muster roll, whence
the phrases _referre in numeros_, _distribuere in numeros_, and
thus served to denote any body of legionaries. Whenever _Cohors_
occurs in the Latin classics in connection with the legion, it
always signifies a specific division of the legion; but it is very
frequently found, in the general sense of _battalion_, to denote
troops altogether distinct from the legion.--(ii.) _Manipulus._ The
original meaning of this word, which is derived from _manus_, was _a
handful or wisp of hay_, _straw_, _fern_, _or the like_, and this,
according to Roman tradition, affixed to the end of a pole, formed
the primitive military standard in the days of Romulus. Hence it was
applied to a body of soldiers serving under the same ensign. When
the phalanx was resolved into small companies marshalled in open
order, these were termed _manipuli_, and down to a very late period
the common soldiers of the legion were designated as _manipulares_
or _manipularii_, terms equivalent to _gregarii milites_. When the
phalanx was first broken up, it appears that each of the three
classes of Hastati, Principes, and Triarii, contained 15 maniples;
but before the second Punic war the number of maniples in each of
these classes was reduced to 10. Hence it is easy to calculate the
number of soldiers in each maniple, according to the varying numbers
in the legion, it being always borne in mind that the Triarii never
exceeded 600, and that the Velites were not divided into maniples,
but distributed equally among the heavy-armed companies.--(iii.)
_Centuriae._ The distribution of soldiers into _centuriae_ must be
regarded as coeval with the origin of Rome. Plutarch speaks of the
force led by Romulus against Amulius as formed of centuries; and from
the close connections between the centuries of Servius Tullius, and
the organization of the military force, we cannot hesitate to believe
that the term was communicated to the ranks of the phalanx. For a
long period after the establishment of the manipular constitution,
the legion contained 60 centuries.--(iv.) _Signum._ This word is used
to denote a division of the legion, but it is doubtful whether it
signifies a maniple or a century.--(v.) _Ordo_ generally signifies
a century, and _ordinum ductor_ is synonymous with _centurio_, and
_ducere honestum ordinem_ means to be one of the principal centurions
in a legion.--(vi.) _Contubernium._ This was the name given under the
empire to the body of soldiers who were quartered together in the
same tent.

3. _Hastati_, _Principes_, _Triarii_, _Pilani_, _Antepilani_,
_Antesignani_, _Principia_.--The _Hastati_ were so called, from
having been armed with a _hasta_, the _Principes_ from having
occupied the front line, the _Triarii_, otherwise named _Pilani_,
from having been ranged behind the first two lines as a body of
reserve and armed with the _pilum_, while the first two lines
were termed collectively _Antepilani_, from standing in front of
the _Pilani_. In process of time, it came to pass, that these
designations no longer expressed the actual condition of the
troops to which they were attached. When Polybius wrote, and long
before that period, the _Hastati_ were not armed with _hastae_,
but in common with the _Principes_ bore the heavy _pilum_: on the
other hand, the _pilani_ carried _hastae_ and not _pila_, while
the _Principes_ were not drawn up in the front, but formed the
second line.--_Antesignani_. While the Hastati and Principes, taken
together, were sometimes termed _Antepilani_, in contradistinction
to the Triarii, so the Hastati alone were sometimes termed
_Antesignani_, in contradistinction to the Principes and Triarii
taken together. The term _Antesignani_ having become established
as denoting the front ranks in a line of battle, was retained in
this general sense long after the Hastati, Principes, and Triarii
had disappeared.--Another term employed to denote the front ranks
of an army in battle array is _Principia_, and in this sense must
be carefully distinguished from the _Principia_ or chief street
in the camp, and from _Principia_, which in the later writers,
such as Ammianus and Vegetius, is equivalent to _principales
milites_. _Postsignani_ does not occur in any author earlier than
Ammianus Marcellinus, and therefore need not be illustrated here;
the _Subsignanus miles_ of Tacitus seems to be the same with the

4. _Rorarii_, _Accensi_, _Ferentarii_, _Velites_,
_Procubitores_.--When the Hastati had, in a great measure, ceased
to act as tirailleurs, their place was supplied by the _Rorarii_,
whose method of fighting has been described above (p. 165). The
_Accensi_, as described by Livy, were inferior in equipment to the
rorarii, although employed in a similar manner, and seem to have been
camp-followers or servants, and hence the name is given to those
also who attended upon magistrates or other officials. At a later
period the _accensi_ were supernumeraries, who served to fill up any
vacancies which occurred in the course of a campaign. Another ancient
term for light-armed soldiers was _Ferentarii_. The _Velites_, called
also _Procubitores_, because they were employed on outpost duty when
the Romans were encamped before an enemy, were first formed into a
corps at the siege of Capua, B.C. 211.

5. _Officers of the Legion._--_Tribuni Militum_ were the chief
officers of the legion. Their number (six) did not vary for many
centuries. They were originally chosen by the commanders-in-chief,
that is, by the kings in the first instance, and afterwards by the
consuls, or a dictator, as the case might be. In B.C. 361 the people
assumed to themselves the right of electing either the whole or a
certain number; and in B.C. 311 it was ordained that they should
choose sixteen for the four legions. In subsequent times the choice
of the tribunes was divided between the consuls and the people; but
the proportion chosen by each differed at various periods. No one was
eligible to the office of tribune who had not served for ten years
in the infantry or five in the cavalry; but this rule admitted of
exceptions. Augustus introduced certain regulations altogether new.
He permitted the sons of senators to wear the _tunica laticlavia_ as
soon as they assumed the manly gown, and to commence their military
career as tribunes, or as commanders (_praefecti_) of cavalry. Such
persons were the _Tribuni Laticlavii_.--_Centuriones._ Next in
rank to the Tribunus was the _Centurio_, who, as the name implies,
commanded a century; and the century, being termed also _ordo_, the
centurions were frequently designated _ordinum ductores_ (hence,
_adimere ordines_, _offerre ordines_, _ordines impetrare_, _ducere
honestum ordinem_, to be one of the principal centurions, &c.). The
chief ordinary duties of the centurions were to drill the soldiers,
to inspect their arms, clothing, and food, to watch the execution
of the toils imposed, to visit the centinels, and to regulate the
conduct of their men, both in the camp and in the field. They also
sat as judges in minor offences, and had the power of inflicting
corporal punishment, whence their badge of office was a vine sapling,
and thus _vitis_ is frequently used to denote the office itself. Of
the two centurions in each maniple the one first chosen took the
command of the right division, the other of the left. The century
to the right was considered as the first century of the maniple,
and its commander took precedence probably with the title _Prior_,
his companion to the left being called _Posterior_, the _priores_
in each of the three divisions of Triarii, Principes, and Hastati
being the ten centurions first chosen. So long as these divisions
were recognised, all the centurions of the Triarii appear to have
ranked before those of the Principes, and all the centurions of the
Principes before those of the Hastati. Moreover, since the maniples
were numbered in each division from 1 to 10, there was probably a
regular progression from the first centurion of the first maniple
down to the second centurion of the tenth maniple. The first
centurion of the first maniple of the Triarii, originally named
_Centurio Primus_, and afterwards _Centurio Primipili_, or simply
_Primipilus_, occupied a very conspicuous position. He stood next in
rank to the Tribuni militum; he had a seat in the military council;
to his charge was committed the eagle of the legion, whence he is
sometimes styled _Aquilifer_, and, under the empire at least, his
office was very lucrative. A series of terms connected with these
arrangements are furnished by the narrative which Sp. Ligustinus
gives of his own career (Liv. xlii. 34). He thus enumerates the
various steps of his promotion:--“Mihi T. Quinctius Flamininus
_decumum ordinem hastatum_ adsignavit ... me imperator dignum
judicavit cui _primum hastatum prioris centuriae_ adsignaret ... a
M’. Acilio mihi _primus princeps prioris centuriae_ est adsignatus
... quater intra paucos annos _primum pilum duxi_.” The gradual
ascent from the ranks being to the post of centurion:--1. In the
tenth maniple of the Hastati. 2. In the first century of the first
maniple of the Hastati. 3. In the first century of the first maniple
of the Principes. 4. In the first century of the first maniple of the
Triarii.--But even after the distinction between Hastati, Principes,
and Triarii was altogether abolished, and they were all blended
together in the cohorts, the same nomenclature with regard to the
centuries and their commanders was retained, although it is by no
means easy to perceive how it was applied. That great differences
of rank existed among the centurions is evident from the phrases
_primores centurionum_, _primi ordines_ (_i.e._ chief centurions),
as opposed to _inferiores ordines_, and _infimi ordines_, and that
promotion from a lower to a higher grade frequently took place,
is evident from many passages in ancient authors. The election of
_optiones_, or lieutenants, by the centurions, has been already

_Fourth Period. From the times of the Gracchi until the downfall
of the Republic._ After the times of the Gracchi the following
changes in military affairs may be noticed:--In the first consulship
of Marius the legions were thrown open to citizens of all grades,
without distinction of fortune. The whole of the legionaries were
armed and equipped in the same manner, all being now furnished with
the pilum; and hence we see in Tacitus the _pila_ and _gladii_
of the legionaries, opposed to the _hastae_ and _spathae_ of the
auxiliaries. The legionaries when in battle order were no longer
arranged in three lines, each consisting of ten maniples, with an
open space between each maniple, but in two lines, each consisting
of five cohorts, with a space between each cohort. The younger
soldiers were no longer placed in the front, but in reserve, the van
being composed of veterans, as may be seen from various passages
in Caesar. As a necessary result of the above arrangements, the
distinction between Hastati, Principes, and Triarii ceased to exist.
These names, as applied to particular classes of soldiers, are not
found in Caesar, in Tacitus, nor in any writer upon military affairs
after the time of Marius. The Velites disappeared. The skirmishers,
included under the general term _levis armatura_, consisted for
the most part of foreign mercenaries possessing peculiar skill in
the use of some national weapon, such as the Balearic slingers,
(_funditores_), the Cretan archers (_sagittarii_), and the Moorish
dartmen (_jaculatores_). Troops of this description had, it is true,
been employed by the Romans even before the second Punic war, and
were denominated _levium armatorum_ (s. _armorum_) _auxilia_; but now
the _levis armatura_ consisted exclusively of foreigners, were formed
into a regular corps under their own officers, and no longer entered
into the constitution of the legion. When operations requiring
great activity were undertaken, such as could not be performed by
mere skirmishers, detachments of legionaries were lightly equipped,
and marched without baggage, for these special services; and hence
the frequent occurrence of such phrases as _expediti_, _expediti
milites_, _expeditae cohortes_, and even _expeditae legiones_. The
cavalry of the legion underwent a change in every respect analogous
to that which took place in regard of the light-armed troops. It is
evident, from the history of Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul, that the
number of Roman equites attached to his army was very small, and that
they were chiefly employed as aides-de-camp, and on confidential
missions. The bulk of Caesar’s cavalry consisted of foreigners, a
fact which becomes strikingly apparent when we read that Ariovistus
having stipulated that the Roman general should come to their
conference attended by cavalry alone, Caesar, feeling no confidence
in his Gaulish horse, dismounted them, and supplied their place by
soldiers of the tenth legion. In like manner they ceased to form
part of the legion, and from this time forward we find the legions
and the cavalry spoken of as completely distinct from each other.
After the termination of the Social War, when most of the inhabitants
of Italy became Roman citizens, the ancient distinction between the
_Legiones_ and the _Socii_ disappeared, and all who had served as
_Socii_ became incorporated with the legiones. An army during the
last years of the republic and under the earlier emperors consisted
of _Romanae Legiones et Auxilia s. Auxiliares_, the latter term
comprehending troops of all kinds, except the legions. Whenever the
word _socii_ is applied to troops after the date of the Social War,
it is generally to be regarded as equivalent to _auxiliares_. But the
most important change of all was the establishment of the military
_profession_, and the distinction now first introduced between the
civilian and the soldier.

_Fifth Period. From the establishment of the empire until the age of
the Antonines_, B.C. 31-A.D. 150. Under the empire a regular army
consisted of a certain number of _Legiones_ and of _Supplementa_,
the Supplementa being again divided into the imperial guards, which
appear under several different forms, distinguished by different
names; and the _Auxilia_, which were subdivided into _Sociae
Cohortes_ and _Nationes_, the latter being for the most part
barbarians. The _Legiones_, as already remarked, although still
composed of persons who enjoyed the privileges of Roman citizens,
were now raised almost exclusively in the provinces. The legion was
divided into 10 cohorts, and each cohort into 6 centuries; the first
cohort, which had the custody of the eagle, was double the size of
the others, and contained 960 men, the remaining cohorts contained
each 480 men; and consequently each ordinary century 80 men, the
total strength of the legion being thus 5280 men.--It is during this
period that we first meet with the term _Vexillarii_ or _Vexilla_,
which occurs repeatedly in Tacitus. The _vexillarii_, or _vexilla
legionum_, were those soldiers who, after having served in the legion
for sixteen years, became _exauctorati_, but continued to serve in
company with that legion, under a vexillum of their own, until they
received their full discharge. The number attached to each legion
was usually about five or six hundred.--The term _exauctorare_ also
meant _to discharge from military service_, but does not appear to
have been in use before the Augustan period. It signified both a
simple discharge, and a cashiering on account of some crime. During
the later period of the empire the latter signification began
almost exclusively to prevail.--As to the Praetorian troops, see
PRAETORIANI.--From the time when the cavalry were separated from
the legion they were formed into bodies called _alae_, which varied
in number according to circumstances. The _Alae_ were raised in
the Roman provinces and consisted, probably, for the most part, of
citizens, or at least subjects. But in addition to these every army
at this period was attended by squadrons of light horse composed
entirely of barbarians; and the chief duty performed by those named
above was guiding the pioneers as they performed their labours in
advance of the army.--_Cohortes peditatae_, were battalions raised
chiefly in the provinces, composed of Roman citizens, of subjects and
allies, or of citizens, allies, and subjects indiscriminately. To
this class of troops belonged the _cohortes auxiliares_, the _auxilia
cohortium_, and the _sociorum cohortes_, of whom we read in Tacitus,
together with a multitude of others recorded in inscriptions and
named for the most part from the nations of which they were composed.
These cohorts were numbered regularly like the legions.--_Cohortes
Equitatae_ differed from the _Peditatae_ in this only, that they
were made up of infantry combined with cavalry.--_Classici_, which
we may fairly render _Marines_, were employed, according to Hyginus,
as pioneers. They corresponded to the _Navales Socii_, under the
republic, who were always regarded as inferior to regular soldiers.
After the establishment by Augustus of regular permanent fleets at
Misenum, Ravenna, and on the coast of Gaul, a large body of men
must have been required to man them, who were sometimes called
upon to serve as ordinary soldiers.--_Nationes_ were battalions
composed entirely of barbarians, or of the most uncivilised among the
subjects of Rome, and were probably chiefly employed upon outpost
duties.--_Urbanae Cohortes._ Augustus, in addition to the praetorian
cohorts, instituted a force of city guards, amounting to 6000 men
divided into four battalions. They are usually distinguished as
_Cohortes Urbanae_ or _Urbana militia_, their quarters, which were
within the city, being the _Urbana Castra_.--_Cohortes Vigilum._
Augustus also organised a large body of night-watchers, whose
chief duty was to act as firemen. They were divided into seven
cohorts, in the proportion of one cohort to each two _Regiones_,
were stationed in fourteen guardhouses (_excubitoria_), and called
_Cohortes Vigilum_. They were commanded by a _Praefectus_, who was of
equestrian rank.


EXŎDĬA (ἐξόδια, from ἐξ and ὁδός) were old-fashioned and laughable
interludes in verse, inserted in other plays, but chiefly in the
Atellanae. The exodium seems to have been introduced among the Romans
from Italian Greece; but after its introduction it became very
popular among the Romans, and continued to be played down to a very
late period.

EXŌMIS (ἐξωμίς), a dress which had only a sleeve for the left arm,
leaving the right with the shoulder and a part of the breast free,
and was for this reason called _exomis_. The exomis was usually worn
by slaves and working people.

[Illustration: Exomis (Bronze in British Museum).]

EXŌMŎSĬA (ἐξωμοσία). Any Athenian citizen when called upon to appear
as a witness in a court of justice (κλητεύειν or ἐκκλητεύειν), was
obliged by law to obey the summons, unless he could establish by
oath that he was unacquainted with the case in question. This oath
was called ἐξωμοσία, and the act of taking it was expressed by
ἐξόμνυσθαι. A person appointed to a public office was at liberty to
decline it, if he could take an oath that the state of his health
or other circumstances rendered it impossible for him to fulfil the
duties connected with it (ἐξόμνυσθαι τὴν ἀρχὴν, or τὴν χειροτονίαν):
and this oath was likewise called ἐξωμοσία, or sometimes ἀπωμοσία.

EXOSTRA (ἐξώστρα, from ἐξωθέω), a theatrical machine, by means of
which things which had been concealed behind the curtain on the stage
were pushed or rolled forward from behind it, and thus became visible
to the spectators.

EXPĔDĪTUS is opposed to _impeditus_, and signifies unincumbered with
armour or with baggage (_impedimenta_). Hence the epithet was often
applied to any portion of the Roman army, when the necessity for
haste, or the desire to conduct it with the greatest facility from
place to place, made it desirable to leave behind every weight that
could be spared.



EXSĬLĬUM (φυγή), banishment. (1) GREEK. Banishment among the Greek
states seldom, if ever, appears as a punishment appointed by law for
particular offences. We might, indeed, expect this, for the division
of Greece into a number of independent states would neither admit of
the establishment of penal colonies, as among us, nor of the various
kinds of exile which we read of under the Roman emperors. The general
term φυγή (flight) was for the most part applied in the case of those
who, in order to avoid some punishment or danger, removed from their
own country to another. At Athens it took place chiefly in cases of
homicide, or murder. An action for wilful murder was brought before
the Areiopagus, and for manslaughter before the court of the Ephetae.
The accused might, in either case, withdraw himself (φεύγειν) before
sentence was passed; but when a criminal evaded the punishment to
which an act of murder would have exposed him had he remained in his
own land, he was then banished for ever (φεύγει ἀειφυγίαν), and not
allowed to return home even when other exiles were restored upon a
general amnesty. Demosthenes says, that the word φεύγειν was properly
applied to the exile of those who committed murder with malice
aforethought, whereas the term μεθίστασθαι was used where the act was
not intentional. The property also was confiscated in the former
case, but not in the latter. When a verdict of manslaughter was
returned, it was usual for the convicted party to leave his country
by a certain road, and to remain in exile till he induced some one
of the relatives of the slain man to take compassion on him. We are
not informed what were the consequences if the relatives of the slain
man refused to make a reconciliation; supposing that there was no
compulsion, it is reasonable to conclude that the exile was allowed
to return after a fixed time. Plato, who is believed to have copied
many of his laws from the constitution of Athens, fixes the period of
banishment for manslaughter at one year.--Under φυγή, or banishment,
as a general term, is comprehended _Ostracism_, (ὀστρακισμός). Those
that were ostracised did not lose their property, and the time, as
well as place of their banishment, was fixed. This ostracism is
supposed by some to have been instituted by Cleisthenes, after the
expulsion of the Peisistratidae; its nature and object are thus
explained by Aristotle:--“Democratical states (he observes) used to
ostracise, and remove from the city for a definite time, those who
appeared to be preeminent above their fellow-citizens, by reason
of their wealth, the number of their friends, or any other means
of influence.” Ostracism, therefore, was not a punishment for any
crime, but rather a precautionary removal of those who possessed
sufficient power in the state to excite either envy or fear. Thus
Plutarch says, it was a good-natured way of allaying envy by the
humiliation of superior dignity and power. The manner of effecting
it at Athens was as follows:--A space in the _agora_ was enclosed
by barriers, with ten entrances for the ten tribes. By these the
tribesmen entered, each with his _ostracon_ (ὄστρακον), or piece of
tile (whence the name _ostracism_), on which was written the name
of the individual whom he wished to be ostracised. The nine archons
and the senate, _i.e._ the presidents of that body, superintended
the proceedings, and the party who had the greatest number of votes
against him, supposing that this number amounted to 6000, was obliged
to withdraw (μεταστῆναι) from the city within ten days; if the number
of votes did not amount to 6000, nothing was done. Some of the most
distinguished men at Athens were removed by ostracism, but recalled
when the city found their services indispensable. Among these were
Themistocles, Aristeides, and Cimon, son of Miltiades. The last
person against whom it was used at Athens was Hyperbolus, a demagogue
of low birth and character; but the Athenians thought their own
dignity compromised, and ostracism degraded by such an application of
it, and accordingly discontinued the practice.--From the ostracism
of Athens was copied the _Petalism_ (πεταλισμός) of the Syracusans,
so called from the πέταλον, or leaf of the olive, on which was
written the name of the person whom they wished to remove from the
city. The removal, however, was only for five years; a sufficient
time, as they thought, to humble the pride and hopes of the exile.
In connection with petalism it may be remarked, that if any one were
falsely registered in a demus, or ward, at Athens, his expulsion was
called ἐκφυλλοφορία, from the votes being given by leaves. Besides
those exiled by law, or ostracised, there was frequently a great
number of political exiles in Greece; men who, having distinguished
themselves as the leaders of one party, were expelled, or obliged
to remove from their native city, when the opposite faction became
predominant. They are spoken of as οἱ φεύγοντες or οἱ ἐκπεσόντες, and
as οἱ κατελθόντες after their return (ἡ κάθοδος) the word κατάγειν
being applied to those who were instrumental in effecting it.--(2)
ROMAN. Banishment as a punishment did not exist in the old Roman
state. The _aquae et ignis interdictio_, which we so frequently read
of in the republican period, was in reality not banishment, for
it was only a ban, pronounced by the people (by a _lex_), or by a
magistrate in a criminal court, by which a person was deprived of
water and of fire; that is, of the first necessaries of life; and its
effect was to incapacitate a person from exercising the rights of a
citizen; in other words, to deprive him of his citizenship. Such a
person might, if he chose, remain at Rome, and submit to the penalty
of being an outcast, incapacitated from doing any legal act, and
liable to be killed by any one with impunity. To avoid these dangers,
a person suffering under such an interdict would naturally withdraw
from Rome, and in the earlier republican period, if he withdrew to
a state between which and Rome isopolitical relations existed, he
would become a citizen of that state. This right was called _jus
exsulandi_ with reference to the state to which the person came;
with respect to his own state, which he left, he was _exsul_, and
his condition was _exsilium_; and with respect to the state which
he entered, he was _inquilinus_.[2] In the same way a citizen of
such a state had a right of going into exsilium at Rome; and at
Rome he might attach himself (_applicare se_) to a quasi-patronus.
Exsilium, instead of being a punishment, would thus rather be a
mode of evading punishment; but towards the end of the republic the
_aquae et ignis interdictio_ became a regular banishment, since the
sentence usually specified certain limits, within which a person
was interdicted from fire and water. Thus Cicero was interdicted
from fire and water within 400 miles from the city. The punishment
was inflicted for various crimes, as _vis publica_, _peculatus_,
_veneficium_, &c. Under the empire there were two kinds of exsilium;
_exsilium_ properly so called, and _relegatio_; the great distinction
between the two was, that the former deprived a person of his
citizenship, while the latter did not. The distinction between
_exsilium_ and _relegatio_ existed under the republic. Ovid also
describes himself, not as _exsul_, which he considers a term of
reproach, but as _relegatus_. The chief species of exsilium was the
_deportatio in insulam_ or _deportatio_ simply, which was introduced
under the emperors in place of the _aquae et ignis interdictio_.
The _relegatio_ merely confined the person within, or excluded him
from particular places. In the latter case it was called _fuga
lata_, _fuga libera_, or _liberum exsilium_. The _relegatus_ went
into banishment; the _deportatus_ was conducted to his place of
banishment, sometimes in chains.


[2] This word appears, by its termination _inus_, to denote a person
who was one of a class, like the word _libertinus_. The prefix _in_
appears to be the correlative of _ex_ in _exsul_, and the remaining
part _quil_ is probably related to _col_ in _incola_ and _colonus_.



FABRI are workmen who make anything out of hard materials, as _fabri
tignarii_, carpenters, _fabri aerarii_, smiths, &c. The different
trades were divided by Numa into nine collegia, which correspond to
our companies or guilds. In the constitution of Servius Tullius, the
_fabri tignarii_ and the _fabri aerarii_ or _ferrarii_ were formed
into two centuries, which were called the centuriae _fabrum_ (not
_fabrorum_). They did not belong to any of the five classes into
which Servius divided the people; but the _fabri tign._ probably
voted with the first class, and the _fabri aer._ with the second.
The fabri in the army were under the command of an officer called
_praefectus fabrûm_.



FALSUM. The oldest legislative provision at Rome against Falsum
was that of the Twelve Tables against false testimony. The next
legislation on Falsum, so far as we know, was a Lex Cornelia, passed
in the time of the Dictator Sulla against forging, concealing,
destroying, or committing any other fraudulent act respecting a
will or other instrument. The offence was a Crimen Publicum, and,
under the emperors, the punishment was deportatio in insulam for the
“honestiores;” and the mines or crucifixion for the “humiliores.”

FALX, _dim._ FALCŬLA (ἅρπη, δρέπανον, _poet._ δρεπάνη, _dim._
δρεπάνιον), a sickle; a scythe; a pruning-knife; a falchion, &c. As
_Culter_ denoted a knife with one straight edge, _falx_ signified
any similar instrument, the single edge of which was curved. Some of
its forms are given in the annexed cut. One represents Perseus with
the falchion in his right hand, and the head of Medusa in his left.
The two smaller figures are heads of Saturn with the falx in its
original form; and the fourth represents the same divinity at full

[Illustration: Falx. (From ancient Cameos.)]

FĂMĬLĬA. The word _familia_ contains the same element as the word
famulus, a slave, and the verb _famulari_. In its widest sense it
signifies the totality of that which belongs to a Roman citizen
who is sui juris, and therefore a paterfamilias. Thus, in certain
cases of testamentary disposition, the word _familia_ is explained
by the equivalent _patrimonium_; and the person who received the
familia from the testator was called _familiae emptor_. But the
word _familia_ is sometimes limited to signify “persons,” that is,
all those who are in the power of a paterfamilias, such as his sons
(_filii-familias_), daughters, grandchildren, and slaves. Sometimes
_familia_ is used to signify the slaves belonging to a person, or to
a body of persons (_societas_).


FARTOR, a slave who fattened poultry.

FASCES, rods bound in the form of a bundle, and containing an axe
(_securis_) in the middle, the iron of which projected from them.
They were usually made of birch, but sometimes also of the twigs of
the elm. They are said to have been derived from Vetulonia, a city
of Etruria. Twelve were carried before each of the kings by twelve
lictors; and on the expulsion of the Tarquins, one of the consuls was
preceded by twelve lictors with the fasces and secures, and the other
by the same number of lictors with the fasces only, or, according to
some accounts, with crowns around them. But P. Valerius Publicola,
who gave to the people the right of provocatio, ordained that the
secures should be removed from the fasces, and allowed only one of
the consuls to be preceded by the lictors while they were at Rome.
The other consul was attended only by a single accensus [ACCENSUS].
When they were out of Rome, and at the head of the army, each of
the consuls retained the axe in the fasces, and was preceded by his
own lictors, as before the time of Valerius. The fasces and secures
were, however, carried before the dictator even in the city, and he
was also preceded by twenty-four lictors, and the magister equitum
by six. The praetors were preceded in the city by two lictors with
the fasces; but out of Rome and at the head of an army by six, with
the fasces and secures. The tribunes of the plebs, the aediles and
quaestors, had no lictors in the city, but in the provinces the
quaestors were permitted to have the fasces. The lictors carried the
fasces on their shoulders; and when an inferior magistrate met one
who was higher in rank, the lictors lowered their fasces to him.
This was done by Valerius Publicola, when he addressed the people,
and hence came the expression _submittere fasces_ in the sense of to
yield, to confess one’s self inferior to another. When a general had
gained a victory, and had been saluted as Imperator by his soldiers,
he usually crowned his fasces with laurel.

[Illustration: Fasces. (From the original in the Capitol at Rome.)]

FASCĬA, a band or fillet of cloth, worn, (1) round the head as an
ensign of royalty;--(2) by women over the breast;--(3) round the legs
and feet, especially by women. When the toga had fallen into disuse,
and the shorter pallium was worn in its stead, so that the legs were
naked and exposed, _fasciae crurales_ became common even with the
male sex.

FASCĬNUM (βασκανία), fascination, enchantment. The belief that
some persons had the power of injuring others by their looks, was
prevalent among the Greeks and Romans. The evil eye was supposed
to injure children particularly, but sometimes cattle also; whence
Virgil (_Ecl._ iii. 103) says,

      “Nescio quis teneros oculos mihi fascinat agnum.”

Various amulets were used to avert its influence.

FASTI. _Fas_ signifies _divine law_: the epithet _fastus_ is
properly applied to anything in accordance with divine law; and
hence those days upon which legal business might, without impiety
(_sine piaculo_), be transacted before the praetor, were technically
denominated _fasti dies_, i.e. _lawful days_. The sacred books in
which the _fasti dies_ of the year were marked were themselves
denominated _fasti_; the term, however, was employed to denote
registers of various descriptions. Of these the two principal are
the _Fasti Sacri_ or _Fasti Kalendares_, and _Fasti Annales_ or
_Fasti Historici_.--I. FASTI SACRI or KALENDARES. For nearly four
centuries and a half after the foundation of the city a knowledge
of the calendar was possessed exclusively by the priests. One of
the pontifices regularly proclaimed the appearance of the new moon,
and at the same time announced the period which would intervene
between the Kalends and the Nones. On the Nones the country people
assembled for the purpose of learning from the rex sacrorum the
various festivals to be celebrated during the month, and the days
on which they would fall. In like manner all who wished to go to
law were obliged to inquire of the privileged few on what day they
might bring their suit, and received the reply as if from the lips
of an astrologer. The whole of this lore, so long a source of power
and profit, and therefore jealously enveloped in mystery, was at
length made public by a certain Cn. Flavius, scribe to App. Claudius;
who, having gained access to the pontifical books, copied out all
the requisite information, and exhibited it in the forum for the
use of the people at large. From this time forward such tables
became common, and were known by the name of _Fasti_. They usually
contained an enumeration of the months and days of the year; the
Nones, Ides, Nundinae, Dies Fasti, Nefasti, Comitiales, Atri, &c.,
together with the different festivals, were marked in their proper
places: astronomical observations on the risings and settings of the
fixed stars, and the commencement of the seasons were frequently
Chronicles such as the _Annales Maximi_, containing the names of the
chief magistrates for each year, and a short account of the most
remarkable events noted down opposite to the days on which they
occurred, were, from the resemblance which they bore in arrangement
to the sacred calendars, denominated _fasti_; and hence this word is
used, especially by the poets, in the general sense of _historical
records_. In prose writers _fasti_ is commonly employed as the
technical term for the registers of consuls, dictators, censors, and
other magistrates, which formed part of the public archives. Some
most important _fasti_ belonging to this class, executed probably
at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, have been partially
preserved, and are deposited in the Capitol in Rome, where they are
known by the name of the _Fasti Capitolini_.

FASTĬGĬUM. An ancient Greek or Roman temple, of rectangular
construction, is terminated at its upper extremity by a triangular
figure, both in front and rear, which rests upon the cornice of the
entablature as a base, and has its sides formed by the cornices which
terminate the roof. The whole of this triangle above the trabeation
is implied in the term _fastigium_, called ἀέτωμα by the Greeks,
pediment by our architects. The dwelling-houses of the Romans had no
gable ends; consequently when the word is applied to them, it is not
in its strictly technical sense, but designates the roof simply, and
is to be understood of one which rises to an apex, as distinguished
from a flat one. The fastigium, properly so called, was appropriated
to the temples of the gods; therefore, when the Romans began to
bestow divine honours upon Julius Caesar, amongst other privileges
which they decreed to him, was the liberty of erecting a fastigium to
his house, that is, a portico and pediment towards the street, like
that of a temple.

[Illustration: Fastigium. (From a Coin.)]

FAX (φανός), a torch. As the principal use of torches was to
give light to those who went abroad after sunset, the portion of
the Roman day immediately succeeding sun-set was called _fax_ or
_prima fax_. The use of torches after sun-set, and the practice of
celebrating marriages at that time, probably led to the consideration
of the torch as one of the necessary accompaniments and symbols of
marriage. Among the Romans the _fax nuptialis_ having been lighted
at the parental hearth, was carried before the bride by a boy whose
parents were alive. The torch was also carried at funerals (_fax
sepulchralis_), both because these were often nocturnal ceremonies,
and because it was used to set fire to the pile.


FĔMĬNĀLĬA, worn in winter by Augustus Caesar, who was very
susceptible of cold. It seems probable that they were breeches
resembling ours.


FĒNUS or FOENUS (τόκος), interest of money.--(1) GREEK. At Athens
there was no restriction upon the rate of interest. A rate might be
expressed or represented in two different ways: (1.) by the number
of oboli or drachmae paid by the _month_ for every _mina_; (2) by
the part of the principal (τὸ ἀρχαῖον or κεφάλαιον) paid as interest
either annually or for the whole period of the loan. According to the
former method, which was generally used when money was lent upon real
security (τόκοι ἔγγυοι or ἔγγειοι), different rates were expressed as
follows:--10 per cent. by ἐπὶ πέντε ὀβολοῖς, _i.e._ 5 oboli per month
for every mina, or 60 oboli a year = 10 drachmae = 1/10 of a mina.

  12 per cent. by ἐπὶ δραχμῇ         per month.
  16 per cent.  ” ἐπ’ ὀκτὼ ὀβολοῖς        ”
  18 per cent.  ” ἐπ’ ἐννέα ὀβολοῖς       ”
  24 per cent.  ” ἐπὶ δυσὶ δραχμαῖς       ”
  36 per cent.  ” ἐπὶ τρισὶ δρακμαῖς      ”
   5 per cent.  ” ἐπὶ τρίτῳ ἡμιοβολίῳ, probably.

Another method was generally adopted in cases of bottomry (τὸ
ναυτικόν, τόκοι ναυτικοί, or ἔκδοσις), where money was lent upon
the ship’s cargo or freightage (ἐπὶ τῷ ναύλῳ), or the ship itself,
for a specified time, commonly that of the voyage. By this method
the following rates were thus represented:--10 per cent. by τόκοι
ἐπιδέκατοι, i.e. interest at the rate of a tenth; 12½, 16⅔, 20, 33⅓,
by τόκοι ἐπόγδοοι, ἔφεκτοι, ἐπίπεμπτοι, and ἐπίτριτοι, respectively.
The usual rates of interest at Athens about the time of Demosthenes
varied from 12 to 18 per cent.--(2) ROMAN. Towards the close of
the republic, and also under the emperors, 12 per cent. was the
legal rate of interest. The interest became due on the first of
every month: hence the phrases _tristes_ or _celeres calendae_ and
_calendarium_, the latter meaning a debt-book or book of accounts.
The rate of interest was expressed in the time of Cicero, and
afterwards, by means of the as and its divisions, according to the
following table:--

  Asses usurae, or one as per
    month for the use of one
    hundred                    = 12  per cent.
  Deunces  usurae                11     ”
  Dextantes  ”                   10     ”
  Dodrantes  ”                    9     ”
  Besses     ”                    8     ”
  Septunces  ”                    7     ”
  Semisses   ”                    6     ”
  Quincunces ”                    5     ”
  Trientes   ”                    4     ”
  Quadrantes ”                    3     ”
  Sextantes  ”                    2     ”
  Unciae     ”                    1     ”

Instead of the phrase _asses usurae_, a synonyme was used, viz.
_centesimae usurae_, inasmuch as at this rate of interest there was
paid in a hundred months a sum equal to the whole principal. Hence
_binae centesimae_ = 24 per cent., and _quaternae centesimae_ = 48
per cent. The monthly rate of the centesimae was of foreign origin,
and first adopted at Rome in the time of Sulla. The old _yearly_
rate established by the Twelve Tables (B.C. 450) was the _unciarium
fenus_. The _uncia_ was the twelfth part of the as, and since the
full (12 oz.) copper coinage was still in use at Rome when the Twelve
Tables became law, the phrase _unciarium_ fenus would be a natural
expression for interest of one ounce in the pound; _i.e._ a twelfth
part of the sum borrowed, or 8⅓ per cent., not per month, but per
year. This rate, if calculated for the old Roman year of ten months,
would give 10 per cent. for the civil year of twelve months, which
was in common use in the time of the decemvirs. If a debtor could
not pay the principal and interest at the end of the year, he used
to borrow money from a fresh creditor, to pay off his old debt. This
proceeding was very frequent, and called a _versura_. It amounted
to little short of paying compound interest, or an _anatocismus
anniversarius_, another phrase for which was _usurae renovatae_;
_e.g._ _centesimae renovatae_ is 12 per cent. compound interest, to
which Cicero opposes _centesimae perpetuo fenore_ = 12 per cent.
simple interest. The following phrases are of common occurrence in
connection with borrowing and lending money at interest:--_Pecuniam
apud aliquem collocare_, to lend money at interest; _relegere_, to
call it in again; _cavere_, to give security for it; _opponere_
or _opponere pignori_, to give as a pledge or mortgage. The word
_nomen_ is also of extensive use in money transactions. Properly it
denoted the name of a debtor, registered in a banker’s or any other
account-book: hence it came to signify the articles of an account, a
debtor, or a debt itself. Thus we have _bonum nomen_, a good debt;
_nomina facere_, to lend monies, and also to borrow money.

FĒRĀLIA. [FUNUS, p. 191, a.]

FERCŬLUM (from _fer-o_) is applied to any kind of tray or platform
used for carrying anything. Thus it is used to signify the tray or
frame on which several dishes were brought in at once at dinner; and
hence _fercula_ came to mean the number of courses at dinner, and
even the dishes themselves. The ferculum was also used for carrying
the images of the gods in the procession of the circus, the ashes
of the dead in a funeral, and the spoils in a triumph; in all which
cases it appears to have been carried on the shoulders or in the
hands of men.


FĒRĬAE, holidays, were, generally speaking, days or seasons during
which free-born Romans suspended their political transactions and
their law-suits, and during which slaves enjoyed a cessation from
labour. All feriae were thus _dies nefasti_. The feriae included
all days consecrated to any deity; consequently all days on which
public festivals were celebrated were feriae or dies feriati. But
some of them, such as the feria vindemialis, and the feriae aestivae,
seem to have had no direct connection with the worship of the gods.
The nundinae, however, during the time of the kings and the early
period of the republic, were feriae only for the populus, and days
of business for the plebeians, until, by the Hortensian law, they
became fasti or days of business for both orders. All _feriae
publicae_, _i.e._ those which were observed by the whole nation,
were divided into _feriae stativae_, _feriae conceptivae_, and
_feriae imperativae_. _Feriae stativae_ or _statae_ were those which
were held regularly, and on certain days marked in the calendar. To
these belonged some of the great festivals, such as the Agonalia,
Carmentalia, Lupercalia, &c. _Feriae conceptivae_ or _conceptae_
were held every year, but not on certain or fixed days, the time
being every year appointed by the magistrates or priests. Among these
we may mention the feriae Latinae, feriae Sementivae, Paganalia,
and Compitalia. _Feriae imperativae_ were those which were held on
certain emergencies at the command of the consuls, praetors, or of
a dictator. The manner in which all public feriae were kept bears
great analogy to the observance of our Sunday. The people visited the
temples of the gods, and offered up their prayers and sacrifices. The
most serious and solemn seem to have been the feriae imperativae, but
all the others were generally attended with rejoicings and feasting.
All kinds of business, especially law-suits, were suspended during
the public feriae, as they were considered to pollute the sacred
season. The most important of the holidays designated by the name of
feriae, are the _Feriae Latinae_, or simply _Latinae_ (the original
name was _Latiar_), which were said to have been instituted by the
last Tarquin in commemoration of the alliance between the Romans and
Latins. This festival, however, was of much higher antiquity; it was
a panegyris, or a festival, of the whole Latin nation, celebrated on
the Alban mount; and all that the last Tarquin did was to convert the
original Latin festival into a Roman one, and to make it the means
of hallowing and cementing the alliance between the two nations.
Before the union, the chief magistrate of the Latins had presided
at the festival; but Tarquin now assumed this distinction, which
subsequently, after the destruction of the Latin commonwealth,
remained with the chief magistrates of Rome. The object of this
panegyris on the Alban mount was the worship of Jupiter Latiaris,
and, at least as long as the Latin republic existed, to deliberate
and decide on matters of the confederacy, and to settle any disputes
which might have arisen among its members. As the feriae Latinae
belonged to the conceptivae, the time of their celebration greatly
depended on the state of affairs at Rome, since the consuls were
never allowed to take the field until they had held the Latinae. This
festival was a great engine in the hands of the magistrates, who
had to appoint the time of its celebration (_concipere_, _edicere_,
or _indicere Latinas_); as it might often suit their purpose either
to hold the festival at a particular time or to delay it, in order
to prevent or delay such public proceedings as seemed injurious and
pernicious, and to promote others to which they were favourably
disposed. The festival lasted six days.

FESCENNINA, scil. _carmina_, one of the earliest kinds of Italian
poetry, which consisted of rude and jocose verses, or rather
dialogues of extempore verses, in which the merry country folks
assailed and ridiculed one another. This amusement seems originally
to have been peculiar to country people, but it was also introduced
into the towns of Italy and at Rome, where we find it mentioned as
one of those in which young people indulged at weddings.

FĒTĬĀLES or FĒCĬĀLES, a college of Roman priests, who acted as
the guardians of the public faith. It was their province, when
any dispute arose with a foreign state, to demand satisfaction,
to determine the circumstances under which hostilities might be
commenced, to perform the various religious rites attendant on the
solemn declaration of war, and to preside at the formal ratification
of peace. When an injury had been received from a foreign state,
four fetiales were deputed to seek redress, who again elected one
of their number to act as their representative. This individual was
styled the _pater patratus populi Romani_. A fillet of white wool was
bound round his head, together with a wreath of sacred herbs gathered
within the inclosure of the Capitoline hill (_Verbenae_; _Sagmina_),
whence he was sometimes named _Verbenarius_. Thus equipped, he
proceeded to the confines of the offending tribe, where he halted,
and addressed a prayer to Jupiter, calling the god to witness, with
heavy imprecations, that his complaints were well founded and his
demands reasonable. He then crossed the border, and the same form was
repeated in nearly the same words to the first native of the soil
whom he might chance to meet; again a third time to the sentinel or
any citizen whom he encountered at the gate of the chief town; and
a fourth time to the magistrates in the forum in presence of the
people. If a satisfactory answer was not returned within thirty days,
after publicly delivering a solemn denunciation of what might be
expected to follow, he returned to Rome, and, accompanied by the rest
of the fetiales, made a report of his mission to the senate. If the
people, as well as the senate, decided for war, the pater patratus
again set forth to the border of the hostile territory, and launched
a spear tipped with iron, or charred at the extremity and smeared
with blood (emblematic doubtless of fire and slaughter), across the
boundary, pronouncing at the same time a solemn declaration of war.
The demand for redress, and the proclamation of hostilities, were
alike termed _clarigatio_. The whole system is said to have been
borrowed from the Aequicolae or the Ardeates, and similar usages
undoubtedly prevailed among the Latin states. The number of the
fetiales cannot be ascertained with certainty, but they were probably
twenty. They were originally selected from the most noble families,
and their office lasted for life.

FĪBŬLA (περόνη, πόρπη), a brooch or buckle, consisting of a pin
(_acus_), and of a curved portion furnished with a hook (κλείς).

[Illustration: Fibulae, brooches or buckles. (British Museum.)]

FICTĬLE (κεράμος, κεράμιον, ὄστρακον, ὀστράκινον), earthenware, a
vessel or other article made of baked clay. The instruments used in
pottery (_ars figulina_) were the following:--1. The wheel (τροχός,
_orbis_, _rota_, _rota figularis_). 2. Pieces of wood or bone, which
the potter (κεραμεύς, _figulus_) held in his right hand, and applied
occasionally to the surface of the clay during its revolution. 3.
Moulds (_formae_, τύποι), used either to decorate with figures in
relief vessels which had been thrown on the wheel, or to produce
foliage, animals, or any other appearances, on Antefixa, on cornices
of terra cotta, and imitative or ornamental pottery of all other
kinds, in which the wheel was not adapted to give the first shape. 4.
Gravers or scalpels, used by skilful modellers in giving to figures
of all kinds a more perfect finish and a higher relief than could
be produced by the use of moulds. The earth used for making pottery
(κεράμικη γῆ), was commonly red, and often of so lively a colour
as to resemble coral. Other pottery is brown or cream-coloured,
and sometimes white. Some of the ancient earthenware is throughout
its substance black, an effect produced by mixing the earth with
comminuted asphaltum (_gagates_), or with some other bituminous or
oleaginous substance. It appears also that asphaltum, with pitch and
tar, both mineral and vegetable, was used to cover the surface like a
varnish. The best pottery was manufactured at Athens, in the island
of Samos, and in Etruria. A quarter of Athens was called Cerameicus,
because it was inhabited by potters. Vessels, before being sent for
the last time to the furnace, were sometimes immersed in that finely
prepared mud, now technically called “slip,” by which the surface
is both smoothed and glazed, and at the same time receives a fresh
colour. Ruddle, or red ochre (μίλτος, _rubrica_), was principally
employed for this purpose. To produce a further variety in the
paintings upon vases the artists employed a few brightly coloured
earths and metallic ores. [PICTURA.]

FĬDEICOMMISSUM may be defined to be a testamentary disposition,
by which a person who gives a thing to another imposes on him the
obligation of transferring it to a third person. The obligation was
not created by words of legal binding force (_civilia verba_), but
by words of request (_precativè_), such as _fideicommitto_, _peto_,
_volo dari_, and the like; which were the operative words (_verba

FĪDŪCĬA. If a man transferred his property to another, on condition
that it should be restored to him, this contract was called Fiducia,
and the person to whom the property was so transferred was said
_fiduciam accipere_. The trustee was bound to discharge his trust
by restoring the thing: if he did not, he was liable to an actio
fiduciae or fiduciaria, which was an actio bonae fidei. If the
trustee was condemned in the action, the consequence was infamia.

FISCUS, the imperial treasury. Under the republic the public treasury
was called _Aerarium_. [AERARIUM.] On the establishment of the
imperial power, there was a division of the provinces between the
senate, as the representative of the old republic, and the Caesar or
emperor; and there was consequently a division of the most important
branches of public income and expenditure. The property of the senate
retained the name of _Aerarium_, and that of the Caesar, as such,
received the name of _Fiscus_. The private property of the Caesar
(_res privata principis, ratio Caesaris_) was quite distinct from
that of the fiscus. The word fiscus signified a wicker-basket, or
pannier, in which the Romans were accustomed to keep and carry about
large sums of money; and hence fiscus came to signify any person’s
treasure or money chest. The importance of the imperial fiscus soon
led to the practice of appropriating the name to that property which
the Caesar claimed as Caesar, and the word fiscus, without any
adjunct, was used in this sense. Ultimately the word came to signify
generally the property of the state, the Caesar having concentrated
in himself all the sovereign power, and thus the word fiscus finally
had the same signification as aerarium in the republican period.
Various officers, as Procuratores, Advocati, Patroni, and Praefecti,
were employed in the administration of the fiscus.

FLĀBELLUM, _dim._ FLĀBELLŬLUM, (ῥιπίς), a fan. Fans were of elegant
forms, of delicate colours, and sometimes of costly and splendid
materials, such as peacock’s feathers; but they were stiff and of a
fixed shape, and were held by female slaves (_flabelliferae_), by
beautiful boys, or by eunuchs, whose duty it was to wave them so as
to produce a cooling breeze. Besides separate feathers the ancient
fan was sometimes made of linen, extended upon a light frame.

[Illustration: Flagellum, Scourge. (From a Bas-relief at Rome, and
from a Coin.)]

FLAGRUM, _dim._ FLĂGELLUM (μάστιξ), a whip, a scourge, to the
handle of which was fixed a lash made of cords (_funibus_), or
thongs of leather (_loris_), especially thongs made from the ox’s
hide (_bubulis exuviis_). The _flagellum_ properly so called was
a dreadful instrument, and is thus put in opposition to the
_scutica_, which was a simple whip. (Hor. _Sat._ i. 3. 119.) Cicero
in like manner contrasts the severe _flagella_ with the _virgae_.
The flagellum was chiefly used in the punishment of slaves. It was
knotted with bones or heavy indented circles of bronze or terminated
by hooks, in which case it was aptly denominated a _scorpion_. We
likewise find that some gladiators fought with the flagella, as in
the coin here introduced.

FLĀMEN, the name for any Roman priest who was devoted to the service
of one particular god, and who received a distinguishing epithet
from the deity to whom he ministered. The most dignified were those
attached to Dijovis, Mars, and Quirinus, the _Flamen Dialis_,
_Flamen Martialis_, and _Flamen Quirinalis_. They are said to have
been established by Numa. The number was eventually increased to
fifteen: the three original flamens were always chosen from among
the patricians, and styled _Majores_; the rest from the plebeians,
with the epithet _Minores_. Among the minores, we read of the _Flamen
Floralis_, the _Flamen Carmentalis_, &c. The flamens were elected
originally at the Comitia Curiata, but it is conjectured that
subsequently to the passing of the _Lex Domitia_ (B.C. 104) they
were chosen in the Comitia Tributa. After being nominated by the
people, they were received (_capti_) and installed (_inaugurabantur_)
by the pontifex maximus, to whose authority they were at all times
subject. The office was understood to last for life; but a flamen
might be compelled to resign (_flaminio abire_) for a breach of
duty, or even on account of the occurrence of an ill-omened accident
while discharging his functions. Their characteristic dress was the
_apex_ [APEX], the _laena_ [LAENA], and a laurel wreath. The most
distinguished of all the flamens was the _Dialis_; the lowest in rank
the _Pomonalis_. The former enjoyed many peculiar honours. When a
vacancy occurred, three persons of patrician descent, whose parents
had been married according to the ceremonies of _confarreatio_, were
nominated by the Comitia, one of whom was selected (_captus_), and
consecrated (_inaugurabatur_) by the pontifex maximus. From that
time forward he was emancipated from the control of his father, and
became sui juris. He alone of all priests wore the _albogalerus_;
he had a right to a _lictor_, to the _toga praetexta_, the _sella
curulis_, and to a seat in the senate in virtue of his office. If
one in bonds took refuge in his house, his chains were immediately
struck off. To counterbalance these high honours, the dialis was
subjected to a multitude of restrictions. It was unlawful for him
to be out of the city for a single night; and he was forbidden to
sleep out of his own bed for three nights consecutively. He might not
mount upon horseback, nor even touch a horse, nor look upon an army
marshalled without the pomoerium, and hence was seldom elected to the
consulship. The object of the above rules was manifestly to make him
literally _Jovi adsiduum sacerdotem_; to compel constant attention
to the duties of the priesthood. _Flaminica_ was the name given to
the wife of the dialis. He was required to wed a virgin according
to the ceremonies of _confarreatio_, which regulation also applied
to the two other flamines majores; and he could not marry a second
time. Hence, since her assistance was essential in the performance
of certain ordinances, a divorce was not permitted, and if she died,
the dialis was obliged to resign. The municipal towns also had their
flamens. Thus the celebrated affray between Milo and Clodius took
place while the former was on his way to Lanuvium, of which he was
then dictator, to declare the election of a flamen (_ad flaminem


FLŌRĀLĬA, or Florales Ludi, a festival which was celebrated at Rome
in honour of Flora or Chloris, during five days, beginning on the
28th of April and ending on the 2nd of May. It was said to have been
instituted at Rome in 238 B.C., at the command of an oracle in the
Sibylline books, for the purpose of obtaining from the goddess the
protection of the blossoms. The celebration was, as usual, conducted
by the aediles, and was carried on with excessive merriment,
drinking, and lascivious games.

FŌCĀLĔ, a covering for the ears and neck, made of wool, and worn by
infirm, and delicate persons.

FŎCUS, _dim._ FOCŬLUS (ἑστία, ἐσχάρα, ἐσχαρίς), a fire-place; a
hearth; a brazier. The fire-place possessed a sacred character, and
was dedicated among the Romans to the Lares of each family. Moveable
hearths, or braziers, properly called _foculi_, were frequently used.

[Illustration: Foculus, Moveable Hearth. (British Museum.)]

Rome these names expressed those Italian states which were connected
with Rome by a treaty (_foedus_). These names did not include Roman
colonies or Latin colonies, or any place which had obtained the Roman
civitas or citizenship. Among the _foederati_ were the _Latini_, who
were the most nearly related to the Romans, and were designated by
this distinctive name; the rest of the foederati were comprised under
the collective name of _Socii_ or _Foederati_. They were independent
states, yet under a general liability to furnish a contingent to the
Roman army. Thus they contributed to increase the power of Rome, but
they had not the privileges of Roman citizens. The discontent among
the foederati, and their claims to be admitted to the privileges
of Roman citizens, led to the Social War. The Julia Lex (B.C. 90)
gave the civitas to the Socii and Latini; and a lex of the following
year contained, among other provisions, one for the admission to the
Roman civitas of those peregrini who were entered on the lists of the
citizens of federate states, and who complied with the provisions of
the lex. [CIVITAS.]


[Illustration: Folles, Bellows. (From a Roman Lamp.)]

FOLLIS--(1) An inflated ball of leather, which boys and old men among
the Romans threw from one to another as a gentle exercise of the
body.--(2) A leather purse or bag.--(3) A pair of bellows, consisting
of two inflated skins, and having valves adjusted to the natural
apertures at one part for admitting the air, and a pipe inserted into
another part for its emission.

[Illustration: Fountain of Peirene at Corinth.]

FONS (κρήνη), a spring of water, and also an artificial fountain,
made either by covering and decorating a spring with buildings and
sculpture, or by making a jet or stream of water, supplied by an
elevated cistern, play into an artificial basin. Such fountains
served the double purpose of use and ornament. They were covered
to keep them pure and cool, and the covering was frequently in the
form of a monopteral temple: there were also statues, the subjects
of which were suggested by the circumstance that every fountain was
sacred to some divinity, or they were taken from the whole range of
mythological legends. A very large proportion of the immense supply
of water brought to Rome by the aqueducts was devoted to the public
fountains, which were divided into two classes; namely, _lacus_,
ponds or reservoirs, and _salientes_, jets of water, besides which
many of the castella were so constructed as to be also fountains.
There were also many small private fountains in the houses and villas
of the wealthy.

[Illustration: Fountain. (From a Painting at Pompeii.)]


FORNĀCĀLĬA, a festival in honour of Fornax, the goddess of furnaces,
in order that the corn might be properly baked. This ancient festival
is said to have been instituted by Numa. The time for its celebration
was proclaimed every year by the curio maximus, who announced in
tablets, which were placed in the forum, the different part which
each curia had to take in the celebration of the festival. Those
persons who did not know to what curia they belonged performed the
sacred rites on the _Quirinalia_, called from this circumstance the
_Stultorum feriae_, which fell on the last day of the Fornacalia.

FORNIX, in its primary sense, is synonymous with ARCUS, but more
commonly implies an arched vault, constituting both roof and ceiling
to the apartment which it encloses.




FRĒNUM (χαλινός), a bridle. That Bellerophon might be enabled to
perform the exploits required of him by the king of Lycia, he was
presented by Athena with a bridle as the means of subduing the winged
horse Pegasus, who submitted to receive it whilst he was slaking
his thirst at the fountain Peirene. Such was the Grecian account
of the invention of the bridle, and in reference to it Athena was
worshipped at Corinth, under the titles Ἵππια and Χαλινῖτις. The bit
(_orea_, δῆγμα, στόμιον), was commonly made of several pieces, and
flexible, so as not to hurt the horse’s mouth; although there was
likewise a bit which was armed with protuberances resembling wolves’
teeth, and therefore called _lupatum_.

[Illustration: Pegasus receiving the Bridle.]


FRĬTILLUS (φιμός), a dice-box of a cylindrical form, and therefore
called also _turricula_, or _pyrgus_, and formed with parallel
indentations (_gradus_) on the inside, so as to make a rattling noise
when the dice were shaken in it.

FRŪMENTĀRĬAE LEGES. The supply of corn at Rome was considered
one of the duties of the government. The superintendence of the
corn-market belonged in ordinary times to the aediles, but when
great scarcity prevailed, an extraordinary officer was appointed
for the purpose under the title of _Praefectus Annonae_. Even in
early times it had been usual for the state on certain occasions,
and for wealthy individuals, to make occasional donations of corn to
the people (_donatio_, _largitio_, _divisio_; subsequently called
_frumentatio_). But such donations were only casual; and it was not
till B.C. 123, that the first legal provision was made for supplying
the poor at Rome with corn at a price much below its market value.
In that year C. Sempronius Gracchus brought forward the first _Lex
Frumentaria_, by which each citizen was entitled to receive every
month a certain quantity of wheat (_triticum_) at the price of 6⅓
asses for the modius, which was equal to 1 gallon and nearly 8 pints
English. This was only a trifle more than half the market price. Each
person probably received five modii monthly, as in later times. About
B.C. 91, the tribune M. Octavius brought forward the _Lex Octavia_,
which modified the law of Gracchus to some extent, so that the public
treasury did not suffer so much. Sulla went still further, and by his
_Lex Cornelia_, B.C. 82, did away altogether with these distributions
of corn; but in B.C. 73, the Lex Sempronia was renewed by the _Lex
Terentia Cassia_, which enacted that each Roman citizen should
receive 5 modii a month at the price of 6⅓ asses for each modius. The
Leges Frumentariae had _sold_ corn to the people; but by the _Lex
Clodia_ of the tribune Clodius, B.C. 58, the corn was distributed
without any payment; the abolition of the payment cost the state a
fifth part of its revenues. When Caesar became master of the Roman
world, he resolved to remedy the evils attending the system, so
far as he was able. He did not venture to abolish altogether these
distributions of corn, but he did the next best thing in his power,
which was reducing the number of the recipients. During the civil
wars numbers of persons, who had no claim to the Roman franchise,
had settled at Rome in order to obtain a share in the distributions.
Caesar excluded from this privilege every person who could not prove
that he was a Roman citizen; and thus the 320,000 persons, who had
previously received the corn, were at once reduced to 150,000. The
useful regulations of Caesar fell into neglect after his death; and
in B.C. 5, the number of recipients had amounted to 320,000. But
in B.C. 2, Augustus reduced the number of recipients to 200,000,
and renewed many of Caesar’s regulations. The chief of them seem to
have been: 1. That every citizen should receive monthly a certain
quantity of corn (probably 5 modii) on the payment of a certain
small sum. Occasionally, in seasons of scarcity, or in order to
confer a particular favour, Augustus made these distributions quite
gratuitous; they then became _congiaria_. [CONGIARIUM.] 2. That those
who were completely indigent should receive the corn gratuitously,
and should be furnished for the purpose with _tesserae nummariae_
or _frumentariae_, which entitled them to the corn without payment.
The system which had been established by Augustus, was followed by
his successors; but as it was always one of the first maxims of the
state policy of the Roman emperors to prevent any disturbance in the
capital, they frequently lowered the price of the public corn, and
also distributed it gratuitously as a _congiarium_. Hence, the cry
of the populace _panem et circenses_. In course of time, the sale
of the corn by the state seems to have ceased altogether, and the
distribution became altogether gratuitous. Every corn-receiver was
therefore now provided with a _tessera_, and this tessera, when
once granted to him, became his property. Hence it came to pass,
that he was not only allowed to keep the tessera for life, but even
to dispose of it by sale, and bequeath it by will. Every citizen
was competent to hold a tessera, with the exception of senators.
Further, as the corn had been originally distributed to the people
according to the thirty-five tribes into which they were divided, the
corn-receivers in each tribe formed a kind of corporation, which came
eventually to be looked upon as the tribe, when the tribes had lost
all political significance. Hence, the purchase of a tessera became
equivalent to the purchase of a place in a tribe; and, accordingly,
we find in the Digest the expressions _emere tribum_ and _emere
tesseram_ used as synonymous. Another change was also introduced at a
later period, which rendered the bounty still more acceptable to the
people. Instead of distributing the corn every month, wheaten bread,
called _annona civica_, was given to the people. It is uncertain at
what time this change was introduced, but it seems to have been the
custom before the reign of Aurelian (A.D. 270-275).

FRŪMENTĀRĬI, officers under the Roman empire, who acted as spies
in the provinces, and reported to the emperors anything which
they considered of importance. They appear to have been called
_Frumentarii_ because it was their duty to collect information in the
same way as it was the duty of other officers, called by the same
name, to collect corn.

FŪCUS (φῦκος), the paint which the Greek and Roman ladies employed
in painting their cheeks, eye-brows, and other parts of their
faces. The practice of painting the face was very general among
the Greek ladies, and probably came into fashion in consequence
of their sedentary mode of life, which robbed their complexions
of their natural freshness, and induced them to have recourse to
artificial means for restoring the red and white of nature. The
eye-brows and eye-lids were stained black with στίμμι or στίμμις,
a sulphuret of antimony, which is still employed by the Turkish
ladies for the same purpose. The eye-brows were likewise stained
with ἄσβολος, a preparation of soot. Among the Romans the art of
painting the complexion was carried to a still greater extent than
among the Greeks, and even Ovid did not disdain to write a poem on
the subject, which he calls (_de Art. Am._ iii. 206) “parvus, sed
cura grande, libellus, opus;” though the genuineness of the fragment
of the _Medicamina faciei_, ascribed to this poet, is doubtful.
The Roman ladies even went so far as to paint with blue the veins
on the temples. The ridiculous use of patches (_splenia_), which
were common among the English ladies in the reign of Queen Anne and
the first Georges, was not unknown to the Roman ladies. The more
effeminate of the male sex at Rome, and likewise in Greece, also
employed paint.

[Illustration: Girl painting herself. (From a Gem.)]




FULLO (κναφεύς, γναφεύς), also called NACCA, a fuller, a washer or
scourer of cloth and linen. The fullones not only received the cloth
as it came from the loom in order to scour and smooth it, but also
washed and cleansed garments which had been already worn. The clothes
were first washed, which was done in tubs or vats, where they were
trodden upon and stamped by the feet of the fullones, whence Seneca
speaks of _saltus fullonicus_. The ancients were not acquainted with
soap, but they used in its stead different kinds of alkali, by which
the dirt was more easily separated from the clothes. Of these, by far
the most common was the urine of men and animals, which was mixed
with the water in which the clothes were washed. When the clothes
were dry, the wool was brushed and carded to raise the nap, sometimes
with the skin of a hedgehog, and sometimes with some plants of the
thistle kind. The clothes were then hung on a vessel of basket-work
(_viminea cavea_), under which sulphur was placed in order to whiten
the cloth. A fine white earth, called Cimolian by Pliny, was often
rubbed into the cloth to increase its whiteness. The establishment
or workshop of the fullers was called _Fullonica_, _Fullonicum_, or
_Fullonimn_. The Greeks were also accustomed to send their garments
to fullers to be washed and scoured. The word πλύνειν denoted the
washing of linen, and κναφεύειν or γναφεύειν the washing of woollen

FŪNAMBŬLUS (καλοβάτης σχοινοβάτης), a rope-dancer. The art of
dancing on the tight-rope was carried to as great perfection among
the Romans as it is with us. The performers placed themselves in an
endless variety of graceful and sportive attitudes, and represented
the characters of bacchanals, satyrs, and other imaginary beings.
One of the most difficult exploits was running down the rope at the
conclusion of the performance. It was a strange attempt of Germanicus
and of the emperor Galba to exhibit elephants walking on the rope.

FUNDA (σφενδόνη), a sling. Slingers are not mentioned in the Iliad;
but the light troops of the Greek and Roman armies consisted in great
part of slingers (_funditores_, σφενδονήται). The most celebrated
slingers were the inhabitants of the Balearic islands. Besides
stones, plummets, called _glandes_ (μολυβδίδες), of a form between
acorns and almonds, were cast in moulds to be thrown with slings.
The manner in which the sling was wielded may be seen in the annexed
figure of a soldier with a provision of stones in the sinus of his
pallium, and with his arm extended in order to whirl the sling about
his head.

[Illustration: Funda, Sling. (Column of Trajan.)]


[Illustration: Coffins. (Stackelberg, ‘Die Gräber der Hellenen,’ pl.
7, 8.)]

[Illustration: Tomb in Lycia.]

FŪNUS, a funeral.--(1) GREEK. The Greeks attached great importance
to the burial of the dead. They believed that souls could not enter
the Elysian fields till their bodies had been buried; and so strong
was this feeling among the Greeks, that it was considered a religious
duty to throw earth upon a dead body, which a person might happen
to find unburied; and among the Athenians, those children who
were released from all other obligations to unworthy parents, were
nevertheless bound to bury them by one of Solon’s laws. The neglect
of burying one’s relatives is frequently mentioned by the orators
as a grave charge against the moral character of a man; in fact,
the burial of the body by the relations of the dead was considered
one of the most sacred duties by the universal law of the Greeks.
Sophocles represents Antigone as disregarding all consequences in
order to bury the dead body of her brother Polyneices, which Creon,
the king of Thebes, had commanded to be left unburied. The common
expressions for the funeral rites, τὰ δίκαια, νόμιμα or νομιζόμενα,
προσήκοντα, show that the dead had, as it were, a legal and moral
claim to burial. After a person was dead, it was the custom first to
place in his mouth an obolus, called _danace_ (δανάκη), with which
he might pay the ferryman in Hades. The body was then washed and
anointed with perfumed oil, the head was crowned with the flowers
which happened to be in season, and the body dressed in as handsome
a robe as the family could afford. These duties were not performed
by hired persons, like the _pollinctores_ among the Romans, but by
the women of the family, upon whom the care of the corpse always
devolved. The corpse was then laid out (πρόθεσις, προτίθεσθαι) on a
bed, which appears to have been of the ordinary kind, with a pillow
for supporting the head and back. By the side of the bed there
were placed painted earthen vessels, called λήκυθοι, which were
also buried with the corpse. Great numbers of these painted vases
have been found in modern times; and they have been of great use
in explaining many matters connected with antiquity. A honey-cake,
called μελιττοῦτα, which appears to have been intended for Cerberus,
was also placed by the side of the corpse. Before the door a vessel
of water was placed, called ὄστρακον, ἀρδάλιον or ἀρδάνιον, in order
that persons who had been in the house might purify themselves by
sprinkling water on their persons. The relatives stood around the
bed, the women uttering great lamentations, rending their garments,
and tearing their hair. On the day after the πρόθεσις, or the third
day after death, the corpse was carried out (ἐκφορά, ἐκκομιδή)
for burial, early in the morning and before sunrise. A burial soon
after death was supposed to be pleasing to the dead. In some places
it appears to have been usual to bury the dead on the day following
death. The men walked before the corpse, and the women behind.
The funeral procession was preceded or followed by hired mourners
(θρηνῳδοί), who appear to have been usually Carian women, playing
mournful tunes on the flute. The body was either buried or burnt. The
word θάπτειν is used in connection with either mode; it is applied to
the collection of the ashes after burning, and accordingly we find
the words καίειν and θάπτειν used together. The proper expression
for interment in the earth is κατορύττειν. In Homer the bodies of
the dead are burnt; but interment was also used in very ancient
times. Cicero says that the dead were buried at Athens in the time
of Cecrops; and we also read of the bones of Orestes being found in
a coffin at Tegea. The dead were commonly buried among the Spartans
and the Sicyonians, and the prevalence of this practice is proved
by the great number of skeletons found in coffins in modern times,
which have evidently not been exposed to the action of fire. Both
burning and burying appear to have been always used to a greater or
less extent at different periods; till the spread of Christianity
at length put an end to the former practice. The dead bodies were
usually burnt on piles of wood, called _pyres_ (πυραί). The body
was placed on the top; and in the heroic times it was customary to
burn with the corpse animals and even captives or slaves. Oils and
perfumes were also thrown into the flames. When the pyre was burnt
down, the remains of the fire were quenched with wine, and the
relatives and friends collected the bones. The bones were then washed
with wine and oil, and placed in urns, which were sometimes made of
gold. The corpses which were not burnt were buried in coffins, which
were called by various names, as σοροί, πύελοι, ληνοί, λάρνακες,
δροῖται, though some of these names are also applied to the urns in
which the bones were collected. They were made of various materials,
but were usually of baked clay or earthenware. The following woodcut
contains two of the most ancient kind; the figure in the middle is
the section of one. The dead were usually buried outside the town,
as it was thought that their presence in the city brought pollution
to the living. At Athens none were allowed to be buried within the
city; but Lycurgus, in order to remove all superstition respecting
the presence of the dead, allowed of burial in Sparta. Persons who
possessed lands in Attica were frequently buried in them, and we
therefore read of tombs in the fields. Tombs, however, were most
frequently built by the side of roads, and near the gates of the
city. At Athens, the most common place of burial was outside of the
Itonian gate, near the road leading to the Peiraeeus, which gate
was for that reason called the burial gate. Those who had fallen in
battle were buried at the public expense in the outer Cerameicus, on
the road leading to the Academia. Tombs were called θῆκαι, τάφοι,
μνήματα, μνημεῖα, σήματα. Many of these were only mounds of earth
or stones (χώματα, κολῶναι τύμβοι). Others were built of stone,
and frequently ornamented with great taste. Some Greek tombs were
built under ground, and called _hypogea_ (ὑπόγαια or ὑπόγεια). They
correspond to the Roman _conditoria_. The monuments erected over the
graves of persons were usually of four kinds: 1. στῆλαι, pillars
or upright stone tablets; 2. κίονες, columns; 3. ναΐδια or ἡρῷα,
small buildings in the form of temples; and 4. τράπεζαι, flat square
stones, called by Cicero _mensae_. The term στῆλαι is sometimes
applied to all kinds of funeral monuments, but properly designates
upright stone tablets, which were usually terminated with an oval
heading, called ἐπίθημα. The epithema was frequently ornamented with
a kind of arabesque work, as in the preceding specimen. The κίονες,
or columns, were of various forms, as is shown by the two specimens
in the annexed cut.

[Illustration: Epithema or Heading of Tombstone. (Stackelberg, pl.

[Illustration: Sepulchral Columns. (Paintings on Vases.)]

The inscriptions upon these funeral monuments usually contain
the name of the deceased person, and that of the demus to which
he belonged, as well as frequently some account of his life. The
following example of an ἡρῷον will give a general idea of monuments
of this kind.--Orations in praise of the dead were sometimes
pronounced; but Solon ordained that such orations should be confined
to persons who were honoured with a public funeral. In the heroic
ages games were celebrated at the funeral of a great man, as in
the case of Patroclus; but this practice does not seem to have been
usual in the historical times.--All persons who had been engaged in
funerals were considered polluted, and could not enter the temples
of the gods till they had been purified. After the funeral was over,
the relatives partook of a feast, which was called περίδειπνον or
νεκρόδειπνον. This feast was always given at the house of the nearest
relative of the deceased.

[Illustration: Sepulchral Heroon. (Painting on Vase.)]

Thus the relatives of those who had fallen at the battle of
Chaeroneia partook of the περίδειπνον at the house of Demosthenes,
as if he were the nearest relative to them all. On the second day
after the funeral a sacrifice to the dead was offered, called τρίτα;
but the principal sacrifice to the dead was on the ninth day, called
ἔννατα or ἔνατα. The mourning for the dead appears to have lasted
till the thirtieth day after the funeral, on which day sacrifices
were again offered. At Sparta the time of mourning was limited to
eleven days. During the time of mourning it was considered indecorous
for the relatives of the deceased to appear in public; they were
accustomed to wear a black dress, and in ancient times they cut
off their hair as a sign of grief.--The tombs were preserved by
the family to which they belonged with the greatest care, and were
regarded as among the strongest ties which attached a man to his
native land. In the Docimasia of the Athenian archons it was always
a subject of inquiry whether they had kept in proper repair the
tombs of their ancestors. On certain days the tombs were crowned
with flowers, and offerings were made to the dead, consisting of
garlands of flowers and various other things. The act of offering
these presents was called ἐναγίζειν, and the offerings themselves
ἐναγίσματα, or more commonly χοαί. The γενέσια mentioned by Herodotus
appear to have consisted in offerings of the same kind, which were
presented on the anniversary of the birth-day of the deceased. The
νεκύσια were probably offerings on the anniversary of the day of
the death; though, according to some writers, the νεκύσια were the
same as the γενέσια. Certain criminals, who were put to death by
the state, were also deprived of the rights of burial, which was
considered as an additional punishment. There were certain places,
both at Athens and Sparta, where the dead bodies of such criminals
were cast. A person who had committed suicide was not deprived of
burial, but the hand with which he had killed himself was cut off
and buried by itself.--(2) ROMAN. When a Roman was at the point of
death, his nearest relation present endeavoured to catch the last
breath with his mouth. The ring was taken off the finger of the
dying person; and as soon as he was dead his eyes and mouth were
closed by the nearest relation, who called upon the deceased by
name, exclaiming _have_ or _vale_. The corpse was then washed, and
anointed with oil and perfumes, by slaves, called _pollinctores_,
who belonged to the _libitinarii_, or undertakers. The libitinarii
appear to have been so called because they dwelt near the temple
of Venus Libitina, where all things requisite for funerals were
sold. Hence we find the expressions _vitare Libitinam_ and _evadere
Libitinam_ used in the sense of escaping death. At this temple an
account (_ratio, ephemeris_) was kept of those who died, and a small
sum was paid for the registration of their names. A small coin was
then placed in the mouth of the corpse, in order to pay the ferryman
in Hades, and the body was laid out on a couch in the vestibule of
the house, with its feet towards the door, and dressed in the best
robe which the deceased had worn when alive. Ordinary citizens were
dressed in a white toga, and magistrates in their official robes.
If the deceased had received a crown while alive as a reward for
his bravery, it was now placed on his head; and the couch on which
he was laid was sometimes covered with leaves and flowers. A branch
of cypress was also usually placed at the door of the house, if he
was a person of consequence. Funerals were usually called _funera
justa_ or _exsequiae_; the latter term was generally applied to
the funeral procession (_pompa funebris_). There were two kinds
of funerals, public and private; of which the former was called
_funus publicum_ or _indictivum_, because the people were invited
to it by a herald; the latter _funus tacitum_, _translatitium_, or
_plebeium_. A person appears to have usually left a certain sum of
money in his will to pay the expenses of his funeral; but if he did
not do so, nor appoint any one to bury him, this duty devolved upon
the persons to whom the property was left, and if he died without a
will, upon his relations, according to their order of succession to
the property. The expenses of the funeral were in such cases decided
by an arbiter, according to the property and rank of the deceased,
whence _arbitria_ is used to signify the funeral expenses.--The
following description of the mode in which a funeral was conducted
only applies strictly to the funerals of the great; the same pomp and
ceremony could not of course be observed in the case of persons in
ordinary circumstances. All funerals in ancient times were performed
at night, but afterwards the poor only were buried at night, because
they could not afford to have any funeral procession. The corpse was
usually carried out of the house (_efferebatur_) on the eighth day
after the death. The order of the funeral procession was regulated
by a person called _designator_ or _dominus funeris_, who was
attended by lictors dressed in black. It was headed by musicians
of various kinds (_cornicines, siticines_), who played mournful
strains, and next came mourning women, called _praeficae_, who were
hired to lament and sing the funeral song (_naenia_ or _lessus_) in
praise of the deceased. These were sometimes followed by players and
buffoons (_scurrae, histriones_), of whom one, called _archimimus_,
represented the character of the deceased, and imitated his words
and actions. Then came the slaves whom the deceased had liberated,
wearing the cap of liberty (_pileati_); the number of whom was
occasionally very great, since a master sometimes liberated all his
slaves, in his will, in order to add to the pomp of his funeral.
Before the corpse the images of the deceased and of his ancestors
were carried, and also the crowns or military rewards which he had
gained. The corpse was carried on a couch (_lectica_), to which the
name of _feretrum_ or _capulum_ was usually given; but the bodies
of poor citizens and of slaves were carried on a common kind of
bier or coffin, called _sandapila_. The _sandapila_ was carried by
bearers, called _vespae_ or _vespillones_, because they carried
out the corpses in the evening (_vespertino tempore_). The couches
on which the corpses of the rich were carried were sometimes made
of ivory, and covered with gold and purple. They were often carried
on the shoulders of the nearest relations of the deceased, and
sometimes on those of his freedmen. Julius Caesar was carried by
the magistrates, and Augustus by the senators. The relations of the
deceased walked behind the corpse in mourning; his sons with their
heads veiled, and his daughters with their heads bare and their hair
dishevelled, contrary to the ordinary practice of both. They often
uttered loud lamentations, and the women beat their breasts and tore
their cheeks, though this was forbidden by the Twelve Tables. If the
deceased was of illustrious rank, the funeral procession went through
the forum, and stopped before the _rostra_, where a funeral oration
(_laudatio_) in praise of the deceased was delivered. This practice
was of great antiquity among the Romans, and is said by some writers
to have been first introduced by Publicola, who pronounced a funeral
oration in honour of his colleague Brutus. Women also were honoured
by funeral orations. From the Forum the corpse was carried to the
place of burning or burial, which, according to a law of the Twelve
Tables, was obliged to be outside the city. The Romans in the most
ancient times buried their dead, though they also early adopted, to
some extent, the custom of burning, which is mentioned in the Twelve
Tables. Burning, however, does not appear to have become general
till the later times of the republic. Marius was buried, and Sulla
was the first of the Cornelian gens whose body was burned. Under the
empire burning was almost universally practised, but was gradually
discontinued as Christianity spread, so that it had fallen into
disuse in the fourth century. Persons struck by lightning were not
burnt, but buried on the spot, which was called _Bidental_, and was
considered sacred. [BIDENTAL.] Children also, who had not cut their
teeth, were not burnt, but buried in a place called _Suggrundarium_.
Those who were buried were placed in a coffin (_arca_ or _loculus_),
which was frequently made of stone, and sometimes of the Assian
stone, which came from Assos in Troas, and which consumed all the
body, with the exception of the teeth, in 40 days, whence it was
called _sarcophagus_. This name was in course of time applied to
any kind of coffin or tomb. The corpse was burnt on a pile of wood
(_pyra_ or _rogus_). This pile was built in the form of an altar,
with four equal sides, whence we find it called _ara sepulcri_ and
_funeris ara_. The sides of the pile were, according to the Twelve
Tables, to be left rough and unpolished, but were frequently covered
with dark leaves. Cypress trees were sometimes placed before the
pile. On the top of the pile the corpse was placed, with the couch on
which it had been carried, and the nearest relation then set fire to
the pile with his face turned away. When the flames began to rise,
various perfumes were thrown into the fire, though this practice was
forbidden by the Twelve Tables; cups of oil, ornaments, clothes,
dishes of food, and other things, which were supposed to be agreeable
to the deceased, were also thrown upon the flames. The place where
a person was burnt was called _bustum_, if he was afterwards buried
on the same spot, and _ustrina_ or _ustrinum_ if he was buried at a
different place. Sometimes animals were slaughtered at the pile, and
in ancient times captives and slaves, since the manes were supposed
to be fond of blood; but afterwards gladiators, called bustuarii,
were hired to fight round the burning pile. When the pile was burnt
down, the embers were soaked with wine, and the bones and ashes of
the deceased were gathered by the nearest relatives, who sprinkled
them with perfumes, and placed them in a vessel called _urna_, which
was made of various materials, according to the circumstances of

[Illustration: Sepulchral Urn in British Museum]

The urnae were also of various shapes, but most commonly square or
round; and upon them there was usually an inscription or epitaph
(_titulus_ or _epitaphium_), beginning with the letters D. M. S.,
or only D. M., that is, DIS MANIBUS SACRUM, followed by the name of
the deceased, with the length of his life, &c. The woodcut opposite
is a representation of a sepulchral urn in the British Museum. It
is of an upright rectangular form, richly ornamented with foliage,
and supported at the sides with pilasters. It is to the memory of
Cossutia Prima. Its height is 21 inches, and its width at the base 14
inches 6-8ths. Below the inscription an infant genius is represented
driving a car drawn by four horses.--After the bones and ashes of
the deceased had been placed in the urn, the persons present were
thrice sprinkled by a priest with pure water from a branch of olive
or laurel for the purpose of purification; after which they were
dismissed by the _praefica_, or some other person, by the solemn
word _Ilicet_, that is, _ire licet_. At their departure they were
accustomed to bid farewell to the deceased by pronouncing the word
_Vale_. The urns were placed in sepulchres, which, as already stated,
were outside the city, though in a few cases we read of the dead
being buried within the city. Thus Valerius Publicola, Tubertus, and
Fabricius, were buried in the city; which right their descendants
also possessed, but did not use. The vestal virgins and the emperors
were buried in the city.--The verb _sepelire_, like the Greek
θάπτειν, was applied to every mode of disposing of the dead; and
_sepulcrum_ signified any kind of tomb in which the body or bones of
a man were placed. The term _humare_ was originally used for burial
in the earth, but was afterwards applied like _sepelire_ to any mode
of disposing of the dead: since it appears to have been the custom,
after the body was burnt, to throw some earth upon the bones.--The
places for burial were either public or private. The public places
of burial were of two kinds; one for illustrious citizens, who were
buried at the public expense, and the other for poor citizens, who
could not afford to purchase ground for the purpose. The former was
in the Campus Martius, which was ornamented with the tombs of the
illustrious dead, and in the Campus Esquilinus; the latter was also
in the Campus Esquilinus, and consisted of small pits or caverns,
called _puticuli_ or _puticulae_; but as this place rendered the
neighbourhood unhealthy, it was given to Maecenas, who converted it
into gardens, and built a magnificent house upon it. Private places
for burial were usually by the sides of the roads leading to Rome;
and on some of these roads, such as the Via Appia, the tombs formed
an almost uninterrupted street for many miles from the gates of
the city. They were frequently built by individuals during their
lifetime; thus Augustus, in his sixth consulship, built the Mausoleum
for his sepulchre between the Via Flaminia and the Tiber, and planted
round it woods and walks for public use. The heirs were often ordered
by the will of the deceased to build a tomb for him; and they
sometimes did it at their own expense.--Sepulchres were originally
called _busta_, but this word was afterwards employed in the manner
mentioned under Bustum. Sepulchres were also frequently called
_monumenta_, but this term was also applied to a monument erected to
the memory of a person in a different place from that where he was
buried. _Conditoria_ or _conditiva_ were sepulchres under ground,
in which dead bodies were placed entire, in contradistinction to
those sepulchres which contained the bones and ashes only.--The
tombs of the rich were commonly built of marble, and the ground
enclosed with an iron railing or wall, and planted round with trees.
The extent of the burying-ground was marked by cippi [CIPPUS]. The
name of mausoleum, which was originally the name of the magnificent
sepulchre erected by Artemisia to the memory of Mausolus, king of
Caria, was sometimes given to any splendid tomb. The open space
before a sepulchre was called forum, and neither this space nor the
sepulchre itself could become the property of a person by usucapion.
Private tombs were either built by an individual for himself and
the members of his family (_sepulcra familiaria_), or for himself
and his heirs (_sepulcra hereditaria_). A tomb, which was fitted up
with niches to receive the funeral urns, was called _columbarium_,
on account of the resemblance of these niches to the holes of a
pigeon-house. In these tombs the ashes of the freedmen and slaves of
great families were frequently placed in vessels made of baked clay,
called _ollae_, which were let into the thickness of the wall within
these niches, the lids only being seen, and the inscriptions placed
in front. Tombs were of various sizes and forms, according to the
wealth and taste of the owner. A sepulchre, or any place in which a
person was buried, was _religiosus_; all things which were left or
belonged to the Dii Manes were _religiosae_; those consecrated to
the Dii Superi were called _sacrae_. Even the place in which a slave
was buried was considered religiosus. Whoever violated a sepulchre
was subject to an action termed _sepulcri violati actio_. After the
bones had been placed in the urn at the funeral, the friends returned
home. They then underwent a further purification, called _suffitio_,
which consisted in being sprinkled with water and stepping over a
fire. The house itself was also swept with a certain kind of broom;
which sweeping or purification was called _exverrae_, and the
person who did it _everriator_. The _Denicales Feriae_ were also
days set apart for the purification of the family. The mourning and
solemnities connected with the dead lasted for nine days after the
funeral, at the end of which time a sacrifice was performed, called
_novendiale_.--A feast was given in honour of the dead, but it is
uncertain on what day; it sometimes appears to have been given at
the time of the funeral, sometimes on the novendiale, and sometimes
later. The name of _silicernium_ was given to this feast. Among the
tombs at Pompeii there is a funeral triclinium for the celebration
of these feasts, which is represented in the annexed woodcut. It is
open to the sky, and the walls are ornamented by paintings of animals
in the centre of compartments, which have borders of flowers. The
triclinium is made of stone, with a pedestal in the centre to receive
the table. After the funeral of great men, there was, in addition to
the feast for the friends of the deceased, a distribution of raw meat
to the people, called _visceratio_, and sometimes a public banquet.
Combats of gladiators and other games were also frequently exhibited
in honour of the deceased. Thus at the funeral of P. Licinius
Crassus, who had been Pontifex Maximus, raw meat was distributed to
the people, 120 gladiators fought, and funeral games were celebrated
for three days, at the end of which a public banquet was given in
the forum. Public feasts and funeral games were sometimes given on
the anniversary of funerals. At all banquets in honour of the dead,
the guests were dressed in white.--The Romans, like the Greeks, were
accustomed to visit the tombs of their relatives at certain periods,
and to offer to them sacrifices and various gifts, which were called
_inferiae_ and _parentalia_. The Romans appear to have regarded the
manes or departed souls of their ancestors as gods; whence arose
the practice of presenting to them oblations, which consisted of
victims, wine, milk, garlands of flowers, and other things. The
tombs were sometimes illuminated on these occasions with lamps. In
the latter end of the month of February there was a festival, called
_feralia_, in which the Romans were accustomed to carry food to the
sepulchres for the use of the dead. The Romans were accustomed to
wear mourning for their deceased friends, which appears to have been
black under the republic for both sexes. Under the empire the men
continued to wear black in mourning, but the women wore white. They
laid aside all kinds of ornaments, and did not cut either their hair
or beard. Men appear to have usually worn their mourning for only a
few days, but women for a year when they lost a husband or parent.
In a public mourning on account of some signal calamity, as, for
instance, the loss of a battle, or the death of an emperor, there
was a total cessation from business, called _justitium_, which was
usually ordained by public appointment. During this period the courts
of justice did not sit, the shops were shut, and the soldiers freed
from military duties. In a public mourning the senators did not wear
the latus clavus and their rings, nor the magistrates their badges of

[Illustration: Funeral Triclinium at Pompeii. (Mazois, Pomp., 1, pl.

FURCA, which properly means a fork, was also the name of an
instrument of punishment. It was a piece of wood in the form of
the letter Λ, which was placed upon the shoulders of the offender,
whose hands were tied to it. Slaves were frequently punished in
this way, and were obliged to carry about the furca wherever they
went; whence the appellation of _furcifer_ was applied to a man
as a term of reproach. The furca was used in the ancient mode of
capital punishment among the Romans; the criminal was tied to it, and
then scourged to death. The _patibulum_ was also an instrument of
punishment, resembling the furca; it appears to have been in the form
of the letter Π. Both the furca and patibulum were also employed as
crosses, to which criminals appear to have been nailed.


FUSCĬNA (τρίαινα), a trident, more commonly called _tridens_, meaning
_tridens stimulus_, because it was originally a three-pronged goad,
used to incite horses to greater swiftness. Neptune was supposed to
be armed with it when he drove his chariot, and it thus became his
usual attribute, perhaps with an allusion also to the use of the same
instrument in harpooning fish. It is represented in the cut on p.
84. In the contests of gladiators, the _retiarius_ was armed with a
trident. [GLADIATORES]

FUSTŬĀRĬUM (ξυλοκοπία), was a capital punishment inflicted upon
Roman soldiers for desertion, theft, and similar crimes. It was
administered in the following manner:--When a soldier was condemned,
the tribune touched him slightly with a stick, upon which all the
soldiers of the legion fell upon him with sticks and stones, and
generally killed him upon the spot. If, however, he escaped, for he
was allowed to fly, he could not return to his native country, nor
did any of his relatives dare to receive him into their houses.

FŪSUS (ἄτρακτος), the spindle, was always, when in use, accompanied
by the distaff (_colus_, ἠλακάτη), as an indispensable part of the
same apparatus. The wool, flax, or other material, having been
prepared for spinning, was rolled into a ball (τολύπη, _glomus_),
which was, however, sufficiently loose to allow the fibres to be
easily drawn out by the hand of the spinner. The upper part of the
distaff was then inserted into this mass of flax or wool, and the
lower part was held under the left arm in such a position as was
most convenient for conducting the operation. The fibres were drawn
out, and at the same time spirally twisted, chiefly by the use of
the fore-finger and thumb of the right hand; and the thread (_filum,
stamen_, νήμα) so produced was wound upon the spindle until the
quantity was as great as it would carry. The spindle was a stick,
10 or 12 inches long, having at the top a slit or catch (_dens_,
ἄγκιστρον) in which the thread was fixed, so that the weight of the
spindle might continually carry down the thread as it was formed. Its
lower extremity was inserted into a small wheel, called the whorl
(_vorticellum_), made of wood, stone, or metal (see woodcut), the
use of which was to keep the spindle more steady, and to promote its
rotation. The accompanying woodcut shows the operation of spinning,
at the moment when the woman has drawn out a sufficient length of
yarn to twist it by whirling the spindle with her right thumb and
fore-finger, and previously to the act of taking it out of the slit
to wind it upon the bobbin (πήνιον) already formed. It was usual to
have a basket to hold the distaff and spindle, with the balls of wool
prepared for spinning, and the bobbins already spun. [CALATHUS.]
The distaff and spindle, with the wool and thread upon them, were
carried in bridal processions; and, without the wool and thread, they
were often suspended by females as offerings of religious gratitude,
especially in old age, or on relinquishing the constant use of them.
They were most frequently dedicated to Pallas, the patroness of
spinning, and of the arts connected with it. They were exhibited in
the representations of the three Fates, who were conceived, by their
spinning, to determine the life of every man.

[Illustration: Fusus, spindle.]


GAESUM (γαισός), a term probably of Celtic origin, denoting a kind
of javelin which was used by the Gauls wherever their ramifications
extended. It was a heavy weapon, the shaft being as thick as a man
could grasp, and the iron head barbed, and of an extraordinary length
compared with the shaft.

GĂLĔA (κράνος, _poet_. κόρυς, πήληξ), a helmet; a casque. The
helmet was originally made of skin or leather, whence is supposed
to have arisen its appellation, κυνέη, meaning properly a helmet of
dog-skin, but applied to caps or helmets made of the hide of other
animals, and even to those which were entirely of bronze or iron.
The leathern basis of the helmet was also very commonly strengthened
and adorned by the addition of either bronze or gold. Helmets which
had a metallic basis were in Latin properly called _cassides_,
although the terms _galea_ and _cassis_ are often confounded.
The additions by which the external appearance of the helmet was
varied, and which served both for ornament and protection, were the
following:--1. Bosses or plates (φάλος), proceeding either from the
top or the sides, and varying in number from one to four (ἀμφίφαλος,
τετράφαλος). The φάλος was often an emblematical figure, referring
to the character of the wearer. Thus in the colossal statue of
Athena in the Parthenon at Athens, she bore a sphinx on the top of
her helmet, and a griffin on each side. 2. The helmet thus adorned
was very commonly surmounted by the crest (_crista_, λόφος), which
was often of horse-hair. 3. The two cheek-pieces (_bucculae_,
παραγναθίδες), which were attached to the helmet by hinges, so as to
be lifted up and down. They had buttons or ties at their extremities,
for fastening the helmet on the head. 4. The beaver, or visor,
a peculiar form of which is supposed to have been the αὐλῶπις
τρυφάλεια, _i.e._ the perforated beaver. The gladiators wore helmets
of this kind.

[Illustration: Galeae, helmets. (From ancient Gems,--size of

GĂLĒRUS or GALĒRUM, originally a covering for the head worn by
priests, especially by the _flamen dialis_. It appears to have been a
round cap made of leather, with its top ending in an apex or point.
[APEX.] In course of time the name was applied to any kind of cap
fitting close to the head like a helmet. _Galerus_ and its diminutive
_Galericulum_ are also used to signify a covering for the head made
of hair, and hence a wig.

GALLI, the priests of Cybelé, whose worship was introduced at Rome
from Phrygia. The Galli were, according to an ancient custom, always
castrated, and it would seem that, impelled by religious fanaticism,
they performed this operation on themselves. In their wild,
enthusiastic, and boisterous rites they resembled the Corybantes.
They seem to have been always chosen from a poor and despised class
of people, for, while no other priests were allowed to beg, the Galli
were permitted to do so on certain days. The chief priest among them
was called _archigallus_.

GĂMĒLĬA (γαμηλία). The demes and phratries of Attica possessed
various means to prevent intruders from assuming the rights of
citizens. Among other regulations, it was ordained that every bride,
previous to her marriage, should be introduced by her parents or
guardians to the phratria of her husband. This introduction of the
young women was accompanied by presents to their new phratores, which
were called _gamelia_. The women were enrolled in the lists of the
phratries, and this enrolment was also called _gamelia_.

GAUSĂPA, GAUSĂPE, or GAUSĂPUM, a kind of thick cloth, which was on
one side very woolly, and was used to cover tables and beds, and by
persons to wrap themselves up after taking a bath, or in general to
protect themselves against rain and cold. It was worn by men as well
as women. The word gausapa is also sometimes used to designate a
thick wig, such as was made of the hair of Germans, and worn by the
fashionable people at Rome at the time of the emperors.



GENS. According to the traditional accounts of the old Roman
constitution, the _Gentes_ were subdivisions of the _curiae_, just
as the _curiae_ were subdivisions of the three ancient tribes, the
_Ramnes_, _Titienses_, and _Luceres_. There were ten gentes in
each curia, and consequently one hundred gentes in each tribe, and
three hundred in the three tribes. Now if there is any truth in
the tradition of this original distribution of the population into
tribes, curiae, and gentes, it follows that there was no necessary
kinship among those families which belonged to a gens, any more than
among those families which belonged to one curia. The name of the
gens was always characterised by the termination _ia_, as Julia,
Cornelia, Valeria; and the gentiles, or members of a gens, all bore
the name of the gens to which they belonged. As the gentes were
subdivisions of the three ancient tribes, the populus (in the ancient
sense) alone had gentes, so that to be a patrician and to have a gens
were synonymous; and thus we find the expressions gens and patricii
constantly united. Yet it appears that some gentes contained plebeian
familiae, which it is conjectured had their origin in marriages
between patricians and plebeians before there was connubium between
them. A hundred new members were added to the senate by the first
Tarquin. These were the representatives of the _Luceres_, the third
and inferior tribe; which is indicated by the gentes of this tribe
being called _minores_, by way of being distinguished from the older
gentes, _majores_, of the Ramnes and Tities, a distinction which
appears to have been more than nominal. [SENATUS.] There were certain
sacred rites (_sacra gentilitia_) which belonged to a gens, to which
all the members of a gens, as such, were bound. It was the duty of
the pontifices to look after the due observance of these gentile
sacra, and to see that they were not lost. Each gens seems to have
had its peculiar place (_sacellum_) for the celebration of these
sacra, which were performed at stated times. By the law of the Twelve
Tables the property of a person who died intestate devolved upon the
gens to which he belonged.


GĔROUSĬA (γερούσια), or _assembly of elders_, was the aristocratic
element of the Spartan polity. It was not peculiar to Sparta only,
but found in other Dorian states, just as a _Boulé_ (βουλή) or
democratical council was an element of most Ionian constitutions.
The _Gerousia_ at Sparta, including the two kings, its presidents,
consisted of thirty members (γέροντες): a number which seems
connected with the divisions of the Spartan people. Every Dorian
state, in fact, was divided into three tribes: the Hylleis, the
Dymanes, and the Pamphyli. The tribes at Sparta were again subdivided
into _obae_ (ὠβαί), which were, like the _Gerontes_, thirty in
number, so that each oba was represented by its councillor: any
inference which leads to the conclusion that two obae at least of
the Hyllean tribe, must have belonged to the royal house of the
Heracleids. No one was eligible to the council till he was sixty
years of age, and the additional qualifications were strictly of
an aristocratic nature. We are told, for instance, that the office
of a councillor was the reward and prize of virtue, and that it
was confined to men of distinguished character and station. The
election was determined by vote, and the mode of conducting it
was remarkable for its old-fashioned simplicity. The competitors
presented themselves one after another to the assembly of electors;
the latter testified their esteem by acclamations, which varied
in intensity according to the popularity of the candidates for
whom they were given. These manifestations of esteem were noted by
persons in an adjoining building, who could judge of the shouting,
but could not tell in whose favour it was given. The person whom
these judges thought to have been most applauded was declared the
successful candidate. The office lasted for life. The functions of
the councillors were partly deliberative, partly judicial, and partly
executive. In the discharge of the first, they prepared measures
and passed preliminary decrees, which were to be laid before the
popular assembly, so that the important privilege of initiating all
changes in the government or laws was vested in them. As a criminal
court, they could punish with death and civil degradation (ἀτιμία).
They also appear to have exercised, like the Areiopagus at Athens,
a general superintendence and inspection over the lives and manners
of the citizens, and probably were allowed a kind of patriarchal
authority, to enforce the observance of ancient usage and discipline.
It is not, however, easy to define with exactness the original
extent of their functions, especially as respects the last-mentioned
duty, since the ephors not only encroached upon the prerogatives of
the king and council, but also possessed, in very early times, a
censorial power, and were not likely to permit any diminution of its

GERRHA (γέῤῥα), in Latin, _Gerrae_, properly signified any thing made
of wicker-work, and was especially used as the name of the Persian
shields, which were made of wicker-work, and were smaller and shorter
than the Greek shields.

GLĂDĬĀTŌRES (μονομάχοι) were men who fought with swords in the
amphitheatre and other places, for the amusement of the Roman people.
They are said to have been first exhibited by the Etrurians, and to
have had their origin from the custom of killing slaves and captives
at the funeral pyres of the deceased. [BUSTUM; FUNUS.] A show of
gladiators was called munus, and the person who exhibited (_edebat_)
it, _editor_, _munerator_, or _dominus_, who was honoured during the
day of exhibition, if a private person, with the official signs of
a magistrate. Gladiators were first exhibited at Rome in B.C. 264,
in the Forum Boarium, by Marcus and Decimus Brutus, at the funeral
of their father. They were at first confined to public funerals, but
afterwards fought at the funerals of most persons of consequence, and
even at those of women. Combats of gladiators were also exhibited at
entertainments, and especially at public festivals by the aediles
and other magistrates, who sometimes exhibited immense numbers, with
the view of pleasing the people. Under the empire the passion of
the Romans for this amusement rose to its greatest height, and the
number of gladiators who fought on some occasions appears almost
incredible. After Trajan’s triumph over the Dacians, there were more
than 10,000 exhibited. Gladiators consisted either of captives,
slaves, and condemned malefactors, or of freeborn citizens who fought
voluntarily. Freemen, who became gladiators for hire, were called
_auctorati_, and their hire _auctoramentum_ or _gladiatorium_. Even
under the republic, free-born citizens fought as gladiators, but
they appear to have belonged only to the lower orders. Under the
empire, however, both knights and senators fought in the arena,
and even women.--Gladiators were kept in schools (_ludi_), where
they were trained by persons called _lanistae_. The whole body of
gladiators under one lanista was frequently called _familia_. They
sometimes were the property of the lanistae, who let them out to
persons who wished to exhibit a show of gladiators; but at other
times they belonged to citizens, who kept them for the purpose of
exhibition, and engaged lanistae to instruct them. Thus we read of
the ludus Aemilius at Rome, and of Caesar’s ludus at Capua. The
gladiators fought in these ludi with wooden swords, called _rudes_.
Great attention was paid to their diet, in order to increase the
strength of their bodies.--Gladiators were sometimes exhibited at
the funeral pyre, and sometimes in the forum, but more frequently in
the amphitheatre. [AMPHITHEATRUM.]--The person who was to exhibit
a show of gladiators, published some days before the exhibition
bills (_libelli_), containing the number and frequently the names
of those who were to fight. When the day came, they were led along
the arena in procession, and matched by pairs; and their swords
were examined by the editor to see if they were sufficiently sharp.
At first there was a kind of sham battle, called _praelusio_, in
which they fought with wooden swords, or the like, and afterwards
at the sound of the trumpet the real battle began. When a gladiator
was wounded, the people called out _habet_ or _hoc habet_; and the
one who was vanquished lowered his arms in token of submission.
His fate, however, depended upon the people, who pressed down
their thumbs if they wished him to be saved, but turned them up if
they wished him to be killed, and ordered him to receive the sword
(_ferrum recipere_), which gladiators usually did with the greatest
firmness. If the life of a vanquished gladiator was spared, he
obtained his discharge for that day, which was called _missio_;
and hence in an exhibition of gladiators _sine missione_, the
lives of the conquered were never spared. This kind of exhibition,
however, was forbidden by Augustus. Palms were usually given to the
victorious gladiators. Old gladiators, and sometimes those who had
only fought for a short time, were discharged from the service by
the editor, at the request of the people, who presented each of them
with a rudis or wooden sword; whence those who were discharged were
called _Rudiarii_.--Gladiators were divided into different classes,
according to their arms and different mode of fighting, or other
circumstances. The names of the most important of these classes are
given in alphabetical order:--_Andabatae_ wore helmets without any
aperture for the eyes, so that they were obliged to fight blindfold,
and thus excited the mirth of the spectators.--_Catervarii_ was the
name given to gladiators when they did not fight in pairs, but when
several fought together.--_Essedarii_ fought from chariots, like the
Gauls and Britons. [ESSEDA.]--_Hoplomachi_ appear to have been those
who fought in a complete suit of armour.--_Laqueatores_ were those
who used a noose to catch their adversaries.--_Meridiani_ were those
who fought in the middle of the day, after combats with wild beasts
had taken place in the morning. These gladiators were very slightly
armed.--_Mirmillones_ are said to have been so called from their
having the image of a fish (_mormyr_, μορμύρος) on their helmets.
Their arms were like those of the Gauls, whence we find that they
were also called Galli. They were usually matched with the Retiarii
or Thracians.--_Provocatores_ fought with the Samnites, but we do
not know any thing respecting them except their name.--_Retiarii_
carried only a three-pointed lance, called _tridens_ or _fuscina_
[FUSCINA], and a net (_rete_), which they endeavoured to throw over
their adversaries, and they then attacked them with the fuscina while
they were entangled. The retiarius was dressed in a short tunic,
and wore nothing on his head. If he missed his aim in throwing the
net, he betook himself to flight, and endeavoured to prepare his net
for a second cast, while his adversary followed him round the arena
in order to kill him before he could make a second attempt. His
adversary was usually a _secutor_ or a _mirmillo_. In the following
woodcut a combat is represented between a retiarius and a mirmillo;
the former has thrown his net over the head of the latter, and is
proceeding to attack him with the fuscina. The lanista stands behind
the retiarius.--_Samnites_ were so called, because they were armed
in the same way as that people, and were particularly distinguished
by the oblong _scutum_.--_Secutores_ are supposed by some writers to
be so called because the secutor in his combat with the retiarius
pursued the latter when he failed in securing him by his net.

[Illustration: A Mirmillo and a Retiarius. (Winckelmann, ‘Monum.
Ined.,’ pl. 197.)]

Other writers think that they were the same as the _supposititii_,
who were gladiators substituted in the place of those who were
wearied or were killed.--_Thraces_ or _Threces_ were armed, like the
Thracians, with a round shield or buckler, and a short sword or
dagger (_sica_). They were usually matched, as already stated, with
the mirmillones. The following woodcut represents a combat between
two Thracians. A lanista stands behind each.

[Illustration: Thracians. (Winckelmann, l. c.)]

GLĂDĬUS (ξίφος, _poet._ ἄορ, φάσγανον), a sword or glaive, by the
Latin poets called _ensis_. The ancient sword had generally a
straight two-edged blade, rather broad, and nearly of equal width
from hilt to point. The Greeks and Romans wore them on the left side,
so as to draw them out of the sheath (_vagina_, κολεός) by passing
the right hand in front of the body to take hold of the hilt with the
thumb next to the blade. The early Greeks used a very short sword.
Iphicrates, who made various improvements in armour about 400 B.C.,
doubled its length. The Roman sword was larger, heavier, and more
formidable than the Greek.


GRAECŎSTĂSIS, a place in the Roman forum, on the right of the
Comitium, so called because the Greek ambassadors, and perhaps also
deputies from other foreign or allied states, were allowed to stand
there to hear the debates. When the sun was seen from the Curia
coming out between the Rostra and the Graecostasis, it was mid-day;
and an accensus of the consul announced the time with a clear loud

GRAMMĂTEUS (γραμματεύς), a clerk or scribe. Among the great number
of scribes employed by the magistrates and government of Athens,
there were three of a higher rank, who were real state-officers. One
of them was appointed by lot, by the senate, to serve the time of
the administration of each prytany, though he always belonged to a
different prytany from that which was in power. He was, therefore,
called γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν. His province was to keep the
public records, and the decrees of the people which were made during
the time of his office, and to deliver to the thesmothetae the
decrees of the senate.--The second _grammateus_ was elected by the
senate, by χειροτονία, and was entrusted with the custody of the
laws. His usual name was γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς.--A third _grammateus_
was called γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως, or γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ
τοῦ δήμου. He was appointed by the people, by χειροτονία, and the
principal part of his office was to read any laws or documents which
were required to be read in the assembly or in the senate.

GRĂPHĒ (γραφή). [DICE.]






[Illustration: Guttus on Coin of L. Plancus.]

GUTTUS, a vessel with a narrow mouth or neck, from which the liquid
was poured in drops, whence its name. It was especially used in
sacrifices, and hence we find it represented on the Roman coins
struck by persons who held any of the priestly offices. The guttus
was also used for keeping the oil, with which persons were anointed
in the baths. [See p. 56.]

[Illustration: Gymnasium, after the description of Vitruvius.]

GYMNĀSIUM (γυμνάσιον). The whole education of a Greek youth was
divided into three parts,--grammar, music, and gymnastics (γράμματα,
μουσική, γυμναστική), to which Aristotle adds a fourth, the art
of drawing or painting. Gymnastics, however, were thought by the
ancients a matter of such importance, that this part of education
alone occupied as much time and attention as all the others put
together; and while the latter necessarily ceased at a certain period
of life, gymnastics continued to be cultivated by persons of all
ages, though those of an advanced age naturally took lighter and less
fatiguing exercises than boys and youths. The ancients, and more
especially the Greeks, seem to have been thoroughly convinced that
the mind could not possibly be in a healthy state, unless the body
was likewise in perfect health, and no means were thought, either
by philosophers or physicians, to be more conducive to preserve
or restore bodily health than well-regulated exercise. The word
gymnastics is derived from γυμνός (naked), because the persons who
performed their exercises in public or private gymnasia were either
entirely naked, or merely covered by the short _chiton_. Gymnastic
exercises among the Greeks seem to have been as old as the Greek
nation itself; but they were, as might be supposed, of a rude and
mostly of a warlike character. They were generally held in the open
air, and in plains near a river, which afforded an opportunity for
swimming and bathing. It was about the time of Solon that the Greek
towns began to build their regular gymnasia as places of exercise for
the young, with baths, and other conveniences for philosophers and
all persons who sought intellectual amusements. There was probably
no Greek town of any importance which did not possess its gymnasium.
Athens possessed three great gymnasia, the Lyceum (Λύκειον),
Cynosarges (Κυνόσαργες), and the Academia (Ἀκαδημία); to which,
in later times, several smaller ones were added. Respecting the
superintendence and administration of the gymnasia at Athens, we know
that Solon in his legislation thought them worthy of great attention;
and the transgression of some of his laws relating to the gymnasia
was punished with death. His laws mention a magistrate, called the
gymnasiarch (γυμνασίαρχος or γυμνασιάρχης), who was entrusted with
the whole management of the gymnasia, and with everything connected
therewith. His office was one of the regular liturgies like the
choregia and trierarchy, and was attended with considerable expense.
He had to maintain and pay the persons who were preparing themselves
for the games and contests in the public festivals, to provide them
with oil, and perhaps with the wrestlers’ dust. It also devolved upon
him to adorn the gymnasium, or the place where the agones were held.
The gymnasiarch was a real magistrate, and invested with a kind of
jurisdiction over all those who frequented or were connected with the
gymnasia. Another part of his duties was to conduct the solemn games
at certain great festivals, especially the torch-race (λαμπαδηφορία),
for which he selected the most distinguished among the ephebi of
the gymnasia. The number of gymnasiarchs was ten, one from every
tribe. An office of very great importance, in an educational point of
view, was that of the _Sophronistae_ (σωφρονίσται). Their province
was to inspire the youths with a love of σωφροσύνη, and to protect
this virtue against all injurious influences. In early times their
number at Athens was ten, one from every tribe, with a salary of one
drachma per day. Their duty not only required them to be present at
all the games of the ephebi, but to watch and correct their conduct
wherever they might meet them, both within and without the gymnasium.
The instructions in the gymnasia were given by the _Gymnastae_
(γυμνασταί) and the _Paedotribae_ (παιδοτριβαί); at a later period
_Hypopaedotribae_ were added. The Paedotribae were required to
possess a knowledge of all the various exercises which were performed
in the gymnasia; the Gymnastes was the practical teacher, and was
expected to know the physiological effects and influences on the
constitution of the youths, and therefore assigned to each of them
those exercises which he thought most suitable. The anointing of
the bodies of the youths and strewing them with dust, before they
commenced their exercises, as well as the regulation of their diet,
was the duty of the aliptae. [ALIPTAE.]--Among all the different
tribes of the Greeks the exercises which were carried on in a Greek
gymnasium were either mere games, or the more important exercises
which the gymnasia had in common with the public contests in the
great festivals. Among the former we may mention, 1. The game at ball
(σφαιριστική), which was in universal favour with the Greeks. [PILA.]
Every gymnasium contained one large room for the purpose of playing
at ball in it (σφαιριστήριον). 2. Παίζειν ἑλκυστίνδα, διελκυστίνδα,
or διὰ γραμμῆς, was a game in which one boy, holding one end of a
rope, tried to pull the boy who held its other end, across a line
marked between them on the ground. 3. The top (βεμβηξ, βέμβιξ,
ῥόμβος, στρόβιλος), which was as common an amusement with Greek boys
as it is with ours. 4. The πεντάλιθος, which was a game with five
stones, which were thrown up from the upper part of the hand and
caught in the palm. 5. Σκαπέρδα, which was a game in which a rope was
drawn through the upper part of a tree or a post. Two boys, one on
each side of the post, turning their backs towards one another, took
hold of the ends of the rope and tried to pull each other up. This
sport was also one of the amusements at the Attic Dionysia. The more
important games, such as running (δρόμος), throwing of the δίσκος
and the ἄκων, jumping and leaping (ἅλμα, with and without ἁλτῆρες),
wrestling (πάλη), boxing (πυγμή), the pancratium (παγκράτιον),
πένταθλος, λαμπαδηφορία, dancing (ὀρχήσις), &c., are described in
separate articles. A gymnasium was not a Roman institution. The
regular training of boys in the Greek gymnastics was foreign to Roman
manners, and even held in contempt. Towards the end of the republic,
many wealthy Romans who had acquired a taste for Greek manners,
used to attach to their villas small places for bodily exercise,
sometimes called gymnasia, sometimes palaestrae, and to adorn them
with beautiful works of art. The emperor Nero was the first who built
a public gymnasium at Rome.

GYMNĒSII or GYMNĒTES (γυμνήσιοι, or γυμνῆτες), a class of
bond-slaves at Argos, who may be compared with the Helots at Sparta.
Their name shows that they attended their masters on military service
in the capacity of light-armed troops.

GYMNŎPAEDĬA (γυμνοπαιδία), the festival of “naked youths,” was
celebrated at Sparta every year in honour of Apollo Pythaeus,
Artemis, and Leto. The statues of these deities stood in a part of
the agora called χορός, and it was around these statues that, at the
gymnopaedia, Spartan youths performed their choruses and dances in
honour of Apollo. The festival lasted for several, perhaps for ten,
days, and on the last day men also performed choruses and dances in
the theatre; and during these gymnastic exhibitions they sang the
songs of Thaletas and Alcman, and the paeans of Dionysodotus. The
leader of the chorus (προστάτης or χοροποιός) wore a kind of chaplet
in commemoration of the victory of the Spartans at Thyrea. This
event seems to have been closely connected with the gymnopaedia, for
those Spartans who had fallen on that occasion were always praised
in songs at this festival. The boys in their dances performed such
rhythmical movements as resembled the exercises of the palaestra and
the pancration, and also imitated the wild gestures of the worship
of Dionysus. The whole season of the gymnopaedia, during which
Sparta was visited by great numbers of strangers, was one of great
merriment and rejoicings, and old bachelors alone seem to have been
excluded from the festivities. The introduction of the gymnopaedia is
generally assigned to the year 665 B.C.


GỸNAECŎNŎMI or GỸNAECŎCOSMI (γυναικονόμοι or γυναικοκόσμοι),
magistrates at Athens, originally appointed to superintend the
conduct of Athenian women. Their power was afterwards extended in
such a manner that they became a kind of police for the purpose of
preventing any excesses or indecencies, whether committed by men
or by women. Hence they superintended the meetings of friends even
in private houses, for instance, at weddings and on other festive

HALTĒRES (ἁλτῆρες) were certain masses of stone or metal, which were
used in the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks and Romans. Persons who
practised leaping frequently performed their exercises with halteres
in both hands; but they were also frequently used merely to exercise
the body in somewhat the same manner as our dumb-bells.

[Illustration: Halteres. (Tassie, ‘Catalogue,’ pl. 46.)]

HARMĂMAXA (ἁρμάμαξα), a carriage for persons, covered overhead and
inclosed with curtains. It was in general large, often drawn by four
horses, and attired with splendid ornaments. It occupied among the
Persians the same place which the carpentum did among the Romans,
being used, especially upon state occasions, for the conveyance of
women and children, of eunuchs, and of the sons of the king with
their tutors.

HARMOSTAE (ἁρμοσταί, from ἁρμόζω, to fit or join together), the name
of the governors whom the Lacedaemonians, after the Peloponnesian
war, sent into their subject or conquered towns, partly to keep
them in submission, and partly to abolish the democratical form of
government, and establish in its stead one similar to their own.
Although in many cases they were ostensibly sent for the purpose of
abolishing the tyrannical government of a town, and to restore the
people to freedom, yet they themselves acted like kings or tyrants.

[Illustration: Flesh-hook. (British Museum.)]

HARPĂGO (ἁρπάγη: λύκος: κρεάγρα), a grappling-iron, a drag, a
flesh-hook. In war the grappling-iron, thrown at an enemy’s ship,
seized the rigging, and was then used to drag the ship within reach,
so that it might be easily boarded or destroyed. These instruments
appear to have been much the same as the _manus ferreae_. The
flesh-hook (κρεάγρα) was an instrument used in cookery, resembling a
hand with the fingers bent inwards, used to take boiled meat out of
the caldron.


HĂRUSPĬCES, or ĂRUSPĬCES (ἱεροσκόποι), soothsayers or diviners,
who interpreted the will of the gods. They originally came to Rome
from Etruria, whence haruspices were often sent for by the Romans
on important occasions. The art of the haruspices resembled in many
respects that of the augurs; but they never acquired that political
importance which the latter possessed, and were regarded rather
as means for ascertaining the will of the gods than as possessing
any religious authority. They did not in fact form any part of the
ecclesiastical polity of the Roman state during the republic; they
are never called sacerdotes, they did not form a collegium, and
had no magister at their head. The art of the haruspices, which
was called _haruspicina_, consisted in explaining and interpreting
the will of the gods from the appearance of the entrails (_exta_)
of animals offered in sacrifice, whence they are sometimes called
_extispices_, and their art _extispicium_; and also from lightning,
earthquakes, and all extraordinary phenomena in nature, to which the
general name of _portenta_ was given. Their art is said to have been
invented by the Etruscan Tages, and was contained in certain books
called _libri haruspicini_, _fulgurales_, and _tonitruales_. This
art was considered by the Romans so important at one time, that the
senate decreed that a certain number of young Etruscans, belonging
to the principal families in the state, should always be instructed
in it. In later times, however, their art fell into disrepute among
well-educated Romans; and Cicero relates a saying of Cato, that he
wondered that one haruspex did not laugh when he saw another. The
name of haruspex is sometimes applied to any kind of soothsayer or

[Illustration: Hastae, spears.]

HASTA (ἔγχος), a spear. The spear is defined by Homer, δόρυ χαλκήρες,
“a pole fitted with bronze,” and δόρυ χαλκοβάρες, “a pole heavy with
bronze.” The bronze, for which iron was afterwards substituted,
was indispensable to form the point (αἰχμή, ἀκωκή, Homer; λόγχη,
Xenophon; _acies_, _cuspis_, _spiculum_) of the spear. Each of these
two essential parts is often put for the whole, so that a spear is
called δόρυ and δοράτιον, αἰχμή, and λόγχη. Even the more especial
term μελία, meaning an ash-tree, is used in the same manner, because
the pole of the spear was often the stem of a young ash, stripped
of its bark and polished. The bottom of the spear was often inclosed
in a pointed cap of bronze, called by the Ionic writers σαυρωτῆρ
and οὐρίαχος, and in Attic or common Greek στύραξ. By forcing this
into the ground the spear was fixed erect. Many of the lancers who
accompanied the king of Persia, had, instead of this spike at the
bottom of their spears, an apple or a pomegranate, either gilt or
silvered. Fig. 1. in the annexed woodcut shows the top and bottom of
a spear, which is held by one of the king’s guards in the sculptures
at Persepolis. The spear was used as a weapon of attack in three
different ways:--1. It was thrown from catapults and other engines
[TORMENTUM]. 2. It was thrust forward as a pike. 3. It was commonly
thrown by the hand. The spear frequently had a leathern thong tied
to the middle of the shaft, which was called ἀγκύλη by the Greeks,
and _amentum_ by the Romans, and which was of assistance in throwing
the spear. The annexed figure represents the amentum attached to the
spear at the centre of gravity, a little above the middle.

[Illustration: Hasta with Amentum. (From a Painting on a Vase.)]

Under the general terms _hasta_ and ἔγχος were included various
kinds of missiles, of which the principal were as follow:--_Lancea_
(λόγχη), the lance, a comparatively slender spear commonly used by
the Greek horsemen. The appendage shown in woodcut, Fig. 2, enabled
them to mount their horses with greater facility.--_Pilum_ (ὑσσός),
the javelin, much thicker and stronger than the Grecian lance. Its
shaft, often made of cornel, was 4½ feet (three cubits) long, and
the barbed iron head was of the same length, but this extended half
way down the shaft, to which it was attached with extreme care, so
that the whole length of the weapon was about 6 feet 9 inches. It
was used either to throw or to thrust with; it was peculiar to the
Romans, and gave the name of _pilani_ to the division of the army by
which it was adopted.--Whilst the heavy-armed Roman soldiers bore the
long lance and the thick and ponderous javelin, the light-armed used
smaller missiles, which, though of different kinds, were included
under the general term _hastae velitares_ (γρόσφοι). The γρόσφος was
a dart, with a shaft about three feet long and an inch in thickness:
the iron head was a span long, and so thin and acuminated as to be
bent by striking against anything, and thus rendered unfit to be
sent back against the enemy. Fig. 3, in the preceding woodcut, shows
one which was found in a Roman entrenchment in Gloucestershire.--The
light infantry of the Roman army used a similar weapon, called _a
spit_ (_veru_, _verutum_; σαύνιον). It was adopted by them from
the Samnites and the Volsci. Its shaft was 3½ feet long, its point
5 inches. Fig. 4, in the preceding woodcut, represents the head
of a dart in the Royal Collection at Naples; it may be taken as
a specimen of the _verutum_, and may be contrasted with fig. 5,
which is the head of a lance in the same collection.--The Romans
adopted in like manner the _gaesum_, which was properly a Celtic
weapon; it was given as a reward to any soldier who wounded an
enemy. [GAESUM.]--_Sparus_ is evidently the same word with the
English _spar_ and _spear_. It was the rudest missile of the whole
class.--Besides the terms _jaculum_ and _spiculum_ (ἄκων, ἀκόντιον),
which probably denoted darts, resembling in form the lance and
javelin, but much smaller, adapted consequently to the light-armed
(_jaculatores_), and used in hunting as well as in battle, we find
in classical authors the names of various other spears, which were
characteristic of particular nations.--Thus, the _sarissa_ was the
spear peculiar to the Macedonians. This was used both to throw and
as a pike. It exceeded in length all other missiles.--The Thracian
_romphea_, which had a very long point, like the blade of a sword,
was probably not unlike the sarissa.--With these weapons we may also
class the Illyrian _sibina_, which resembled a hunting-pole.--The
iron head of the German spear, called _framea_, was short and narrow,
but very sharp. The Germans used it with great effect either as a
lance or a pike: they gave to each youth a framea and a shield on
coming of age.--The _Falarica_ or _Phalarica_ was the spear of the
Saguntines, and was impelled by the aid of twisted ropes; it was
large and ponderous, having a head of iron a cubit in length, and a
ball of lead at its other end; it sometimes carried flaming pitch and
tow.--The _matura_ and _tragula_ were chiefly used in Gaul and Spain:
the tragula was probably barbed, as it required to be cut out of the
wound.--The _Aclis_ and _Cateia_ were much smaller missiles.--Among
the decorations which the Roman generals bestowed on their soldiers,
more especially for saving the life of a fellow-citizen, was a spear
without a head, called _hasta pura_. The _celibaris hasta_, having
been fixed into the body of a gladiator lying dead on the arena,
was used at marriages to part the hair of the bride. A spear was
erected at auctions [AUCTIO], and when tenders were received for
public offices (_locationes_). It served both to announce, by a
conventional sign conspicuous at a distance, that a sale was going
on, and to show that it was conducted under the authority of the
public functionaries. Hence an auction was called _hasta_, and an
auction-room _hastarium_. It was also the practice to set up a spear
in the court of the CENTUMVIRI.

HASTĀTI. [EXERCITUS, p. 168, b.]


HECTĒ or HECTEUS (ἕκτη, ἑκτεύς), and its half, _Hemiecton_ or
_Hemiecteon_ (ἡμίεκτον, ἡμιεκτέον). In dry measures, the _hecteus_
was the sixth part of the _medimnus_, and the _hemiecteon_, of
course, the twelfth part. The _hecteus_ was equal to the Roman
_modius_, as each contained 16 ξέσται or sextarii. The _Hecte_ or
_Hecteus_ and _Hemiecton_ were also the names of coins, but the
accounts we have of their value are very various. The only consistent
explanation is, that there were different _hectae_, derived from
different units; in fact, that these coins were not properly
_denominations_ of money, but _subdivisions_ of the recognised

HĔLĔPŎLIS (ἑλέπολις), “the taker of cities,” a machine constructed
by Demetrius Poliorcetes, when he besieged the city of Salamis in
Cyprus. Its form was that of a square tower, each side being 90
cubits high and 45 wide. It rested on four wheels, each eight cubits
high. It was divided into nine stories, the lower of which contained
machines for throwing great stones, the middle large catapults for
throwing spears, and the highest other machines for throwing smaller
stones, together with smaller catapults. It was manned with 200
soldiers, besides those who moved it by pushing the parallel beams
at the bottom. At the siege of Rhodes, B.C. 306, Demetrius employed
an helepolis of still greater dimensions and more complicated
construction. In subsequent ages we find the name of “helepolis”
applied to moving towers which carried battering rams, as well as
machines for throwing spears and stones.

HELLĀNŎDĬCAE (ἑλλανοδίκαι), the judges in the Olympic games, of whom
an account is given under OLYMPIA. The same name was also given to
the judges or court-martial in the Lacedaemonian army, and they were
probably first called by this name when Sparta was at the head of the
Greek confederacy.

HELLĒNOTĂMĬAE (ἑλληνοταμίαι), or treasurers of the Greeks, were
magistrates appointed by the Athenians to receive the contributions
of the allied states. They were first appointed B.C. 477, when
Athens, in consequence of the conduct of Pausanias, had obtained the
command of the allied states. The money paid by the different states,
which was originally fixed at 460 talents, was deposited in Delos,
which was the place of meeting for the discussion of all common
interests; and there can be no doubt that the hellenotamiae not only
received, but were also the guardians of, these monies. The office
was retained after the treasury was transferred to Athens on the
proposal of the Samians, but was of course abolished on the conquest
of Athens by the Lacedaemonians.

HĒLŌTES (εἴλωτες), a class of bondsmen peculiar to Sparta. They were
Achaeans, who had resisted the Dorian invaders to the last, and had
been reduced to slavery as the punishment of their obstinacy. The
Helots were regarded as the property of the state, which, while it
gave their services to individuals, reserved to itself the power of
emancipating them. They were attached to the land, and could not
be sold away from it. They cultivated the land, and paid to their
masters as rent a certain measure of corn, the exact amount of which
had been fixed at a very early period, the raising of that amount
being forbidden under heavy imprecations. Besides being engaged in
the cultivation of the land, the Helots attended on their masters
at the public meal, and many of them were no doubt employed by the
state in public works. In war the Helots served as light-armed troops
(ψίλοι), a certain number of them attending every heavy-armed Spartan
to the field; at the battle of Plataeae there were seven Helots to
each Spartan. These attendants were probably called ἀμπίτταρες(i.e.
ἀμφίσταντες), and one of them in particular, the θεράπων, or
_servant_. The Helots only served as hoplites in particular
emergencies; and on such occasions they were generally emancipated.
The first instance of this kind was in the expedition of Brasidas,
B.C. 424. The treatment to which the Helots were subjected was marked
by the most wanton cruelty; and they were regarded by the Spartans
with the greatest suspicion. Occasionally the ephors selected
young Spartans for the secret service (κρυπτεία) of wandering over
the country, in order to kill the Helots. The Helots might be
emancipated, but there were several steps between them and the free
citizens, and it is doubtful whether they were ever admitted to all
the privileges of citizenship. The following classes of emancipated
Helots are enumerated:--ἀφεταί, ἀδεσπότοι, ἐρυκτῆρες, δεσποσιοναύται,
and νεοδαμώδεις. Of these the ἀφεταί were probably released from all
service; the ἐρυκτῆρες were those employed in war; the δεσποσιοναύται
served on board the fleet; and the νεοδαμώδεις were those who had
been possessed of freedom for some time. Besides these, there were
the μόθωνες or μόθακες, who were domestic slaves, brought up with the
young Spartans, and then emancipated. Upon being emancipated they
received permission to dwell where they wished.

HĒMĔRŎDRŎMI (ἡμεροδρόμοι), couriers in the Greek states, who could
keep on running all day, and were often employed to carry news of
important events. They were trained for the purpose, and could
perform the longest journeys in an almost incredibly short space
of time. Such couriers were in times of danger stationed on some
eminence in order to observe anything of importance that might
happen, and carry the intelligence with speed to the proper quarter.
Hence we frequently find them called _Hemeroscopi_ (ἡμεροσκόποι).

HĒMĬCYCLĬUM (ἡμικύκλιον), a semicircular seat, for the accommodation
of persons engaged in conversation; also the semicircular seat round
the tribunal in a basilica.

HĒMĬNA (ἡμίνα), the name of a Greek and Roman measure, seems to
be nothing more than the dialectic form used by the Sicilian and
Italian Greeks for ἡμίσυ. It was therefore applied to the half of the
standard fluid measure, the ξέστης, which the other Greeks called
κοτύλη, and the word passed into the Roman metrical system, where it
is used with exactly the same force, namely for a measure which is
half of the _sextarius_, and equal to the Greek _cotylé_.

HENDĔCA (οἱ ἕνδεκα), the Eleven, were magistrates at Athens of
considerable importance. They were annually chosen by lot, one from
each of the ten tribes, and a secretary (γραμματεύς), who must
properly be regarded as their servant (ὑπηρέτης), though he formed
one of their number. The principal duty of the Eleven was the care
and management of the public prison (δεσμωτήριον), which was entirely
under their jurisdiction. The prison, however, was seldom used by
the Athenians as a mere place of confinement, serving generally for
punishments and executions. When a person was condemned to death he
was immediately given into the custody of the Eleven, who were then
bound to carry the sentence into execution according to the laws.
The most common mode of execution was by hemlock juice (κώνειον),
which was drunk after sunset. The Eleven had under them gaolers,
executioners, and torturers. When torture was inflicted in causes
affecting the state, it was either done in the immediate presence
of the Eleven, or by their servant (ὁ δήμιος). The Eleven usually
had only to carry into execution the sentence passed in the courts
of law and the public assemblies; but in some cases they possessed
jurisdiction. This was the case in those summary proceedings called
_apagoge_, _ephegesis_ and _endeixis_, in which the penalty was
fixed by law, and might be inflicted by the court on the confession
or conviction of the accused, without appealing to any of the jury


HĒRAEA (ἡραῖα), the name of festivals celebrated in honour of Hera
in all the towns of Greece where the worship of this divinity was
introduced. The original seat of her worship was Argos; whence her
festivals in other places were, more or less, imitations of those
which were celebrated at Argos. Her service was performed by the
most distinguished priestesses of the place; one of them was the
high-priestess, and the Argives counted their years by the date of
her office. The Heraea of Argos were celebrated every fifth year.
One of the great solemnities which took place on the occasion, was
a magnificent procession to the great temple of Hera, between Argos
and Mycenae. A vast number of young men assembled at Argos, and
marched in armour to the temple of the goddess. They were preceded
by one hundred oxen (ἑκατόμβη, whence the festival is also called
ἑκατόμβαια). The high-priestess accompanied this procession, riding
in a chariot drawn by two white oxen. The 100 oxen were sacrificed,
and their flesh distributed among all the citizens; after which
games and contests took place. Of the Heraea celebrated in other
countries, those of Samos, which island derived the worship of Hera
from Argos, were perhaps the most brilliant of all the festivals
of this divinity. The Heraea of Elis, which were celebrated in the
fourth year of every Olympiad, were also conducted with considerable

HĒRES.--(1) GREEK. To obtain the right of inheritance as well as
citizenship at Athens (ἀγχιστεία and πολιτεία), legitimacy was a
necessary qualification. When an Athenian died leaving legitimate
sons, they shared the inheritance, like our heirs in gavelkind; the
only advantage possessed by the eldest son being the first choice
in the division. Every man of full age and sound mind, not under
durance or improper influence, was competent to make a will; but if
he had a son he could not disinherit him, although his will might
take effect in case the son did not complete his seventeenth year.
If there was but one son, he took the whole estate; but if he had
sisters, it was incumbent on him to provide for them, and give them
suitable marriage portions; they were then called ἐπίπροικοι. On
failure of sons and their issue, daughters and daughters’ children
succeeded, and there seems to have been no limit to the succession in
the descending line. It will assist the student to be informed, that
ἀνεψιός signifies a first cousin. Ἀνεψιαδοῦς is a first cousin’s son;
formed in the same manner as ἀδελφιδοῦς from ἀδελφός, and θυγατριδοῦς
from θυγατήρ. Κλῆρος is the subject-matter of inheritance, or (in one
sense of the word) the inheritance; κληρόνομος the heir. Ἀγχιστεία,
proximity of blood in reference to succession, and sometimes right of
succession. Συγγένεια, natural consanguinity. Συγγενεῖς, collateral
relations, are opposed to ἔκγονοι, lineal descendants.--(2) ROMAN. A
person might become an heres by being named as such (_institutus_,
_scriptus_, _factus_) in a will executed by a competent person,
according to the forms required by law [TESTAMENTUM]. The testator
might either name one person as heres, or he might name several
heredes (_coheredes_), and he might divide the hereditas among
them as he pleased. The shares of the heredes were generally
expressed by reference to the divisions of the As: thus, “heres ex
asse” is heres to the whole property; “heres ex dodrante,” heres
to three-fourths; “heres ex semuncia,” heir to one twenty-fourth.
If there were several heredes named, without any definite shares
being given to them, the property belonged to them in equal shares.
As a general rule, only Roman citizens could be named as heredes
in the will of a Roman citizen; but a slave could also be named
heres, though he had no power to make a will, and a filius-familias
could also be named heres, though he was under the same incapacity.
Persons, not Roman citizens, who had received the commercium, could
take hereditates, legata and fideicommissa by testament.--Heredes
were either Necessarii, Sui et Necessarii, or Extranei. The heres
necessarius was a slave of the testator, who was made an heres and
liber at the same time; and he was called necessarius, because of
the necessity that he was under of accepting the hereditas. The
heredes sui et necessarii were sons and daughters, and the sons
and daughters of a son, who were in the power of a testator. These
heredes sui were called necessarii, because of the necessity that
they were under, according to the civil law, of taking the hereditas
with its incumbrances. But the praetor permitted such persons to
refuse the hereditas (_abstinere se ab hereditate_), and to allow
the property to be sold to pay the testator’s debts; and he gave the
same privilege to a mancipated son (_qui in causa mancipii est_). All
other heredes are called extranei, and comprehend all persons who
are not in the power of a testator, such as emancipated children. A
certain time was allowed to extranei for the _cretio hereditatis_,
that is, for them to determine whether they would take the hereditas
or not: hence the phrase, “cernere hereditatem.”--If a man died
intestate, the hereditas came to the heredes sui, and was then called
_legitima hereditas_. If an intestate had no sui heredes, the Twelve
Tables gave the hereditas to the agnati [COGNATI], and if there were
no agnati, to the gentiles. If a man had a son in his power, he was
bound either to make him heres, or to exheredate (_exheredare_) him
expressly (_nominatim_). If he passed him over in silence (_silentio
praetericrit_), the will was altogether void (_inutile_, _non jure
factum_). Other liberi could be passed over, and the will would
still be a valid will; but the liberi so passed over took a certain
portion of the hereditas _adcrescendo_, as it was termed, or _jure
adcrescendi_. It was necessary either to institute as heredes, or
to exheredate posthumous children _nominatim_, otherwise the will,
which was originally valid, became invalid (_ruptum_); and the will
became invalid by the birth either of a posthumous son or daughter,
or, as the phrase was, _adgnascendo rumpitur testamentum_. The heres
represented the testator and intestate, and had not only a claim to
all his property and all that was due to him, but was bound by all
his obligations. He succeeded to the sacra privata, and was bound
to maintain them, but only in respect of the property, for the
obligation of the sacra privata was attached to property and to the
heres only as the owner of it. Hence the expression “sine sacris
hereditas” meant an hereditas unencumbered with sacra.

HERMAE (ἑρμαῖ), and the diminutive Hermuli (ἑρμίδια), statues
composed of a head, usually that of the god Hermes, placed on a
quadrangular pillar, the height of which corresponds to the stature
of the human body. Such statues were very numerous at Athens. So
great was the demand for these works that the words ἑρμογλύφος,
ἑρμογλυφικὴ τέχνη, and ἑρμογλυφεῖον, were used as the generic terms
for a sculptor, his art, and his studio. Houses in Athens had one of
these statues placed at the door, called ἑρμῆς στροφαῖος or στροφεύς;
and sometimes also in the peristyle. The great reverence attached to
them is shown by the alarm and indignation which were felt at Athens
in consequence of the mutilation of the whole number in a single
night, just before the sailing of the Sicilian expedition. They were
likewise placed in front of temples, near to tombs, in the gymnasia,
palaestrae, libraries, porticoes, and public places, at the corners
of streets, on high roads as sign-posts, with distances inscribed
upon them, and on the boundaries of lands and states, and at the
gates of cities. Small Hermae were also used as pilasters, and as
supports for furniture and utensils. Many statues existed of other
deities, of the same form as the Hermae; which no doubt originated
in the same manner; and which were still called by the generic name
of _Hermae_; even though the bust upon them was that of another
deity. Some statues of this kind are described by a name compounded
of that of Hermes and another divinity: thus we have _Hermanubis_,
_Hermares_, _Hermathena_, _Hermeracles_, _Hermeros_, _Hermopan_.
There is another class of these works, in which the bust represented
no deity at all, but was simply the portrait of a man. Even these
statues, however, retained the names of _Hermae_ and _Termini_. The
Hermae were used by the wealthy Romans for the decoration of their
houses. The following engraving exhibits a Hermes decorated with
garlands and surrounded with the implements of his worship.

[Illustration: Hermes. (From a Bas-relief.)]

HERMAEA (ἕρμαια), festivals of Hermes, celebrated in various parts
of Greece. As Hermes was the tutelary deity of the gymnasia and
palaestrae, the boys at Athens celebrated the Hermaea in the gymnasia.

HESTIĀSIS (ἑστίασις), was a species of liturgy, and consisted in
giving a feast to one of the tribes at Athens (τὴν φυλὴν ἑστιᾶν). It
was provided for each tribe at the expense of a person belonging to
that tribe, who was called ἑστιάτωρ.

HĬĔRODŪLI (ἱερόδουλοι), persons of both sexes, who were devoted like
slaves to the worship of the gods. They were of Eastern origin, and
are most frequently met with in connection with the worship of the
deities of Syria, Phoenicia, and Asia Minor. They consisted of two
classes; one composed of slaves, properly so called, who attended
to all the lower duties connected with the worship of the gods,
cultivated the sacred lands, &c., and whose descendants continued
in the same servile condition; and the other comprising persons who
were personally free, but had dedicated themselves as slaves to the
gods, and who were either attached to the temples, or were dispersed
throughout the country and brought to the gods the money they had
gained. To the latter class belonged the women, who prostituted their
persons, and presented to the gods the money they had obtained by
this means. This class was only found in Greece, in connection with
the worship of those divinities who were of Eastern origin, or whose
religious rites were borrowed from the East. This was the case with
Aphrodite (Venus), who was originally an Oriental goddess.

HĬĔRŎMNĒMŎNES (ἱερομνήμονες), the more honourable of the two classes
of representatives who composed the Amphictyonic council. An account
of them is given under AMPHICTYONES.--We also read of hieromnemones
in Grecian states, distinct from the Amphictyonic representatives
of this name. Thus the priests of Poseidon, at Megara, were called
hieromnemones, and at Byzantium, which was a colony of Megara, the
chief magistrate in the state appears to have been called by this


HĬĔRŎPOII (ἱεροποιοί), sacrificers at Athens, of whom ten were
appointed every year, and conducted all the usual sacrifices, as well
as those belonging to the quinquennial festivals, with the exception
of those of the Panathenaea.

HĬLĂRĬA (ἱλάρια), a Roman festival, celebrated on the 25th of March,
in honour of Cybelé, the mother of the gods.

HIPPŎBŎTAE (ἱπποβόται), the feeders of horses, the name of the
nobility of Chalcis in Euboea, corresponding to the ἱππεῖς in other
Greek states.

HIPPŎDRŎMUS (ἱππόδρομος), the name by which the Greeks designated
the place appropriated to the horse-races, both of chariots and of
single horses, which formed a part of their games. The word was also
applied to the races themselves. In Homer’s vivid description (_Il._
xxiii., 262-650) the nature of the contest and the arrangements for
it are very clearly indicated. There is no artificially constructed
hippodrome; but an existing land-mark or monument (σῆμα) is chosen
as the goal (τέρμα), round which the chariots had to pass, leaving
it on the left hand, and so returning to the Greek ships on the
sea-shore, from which they had started. The chariots were five in
number, each with two horses and a single driver, who stood upright
in his chariot. The critical point of the race was to turn the goal
as sharp as possible, with the nave of the near wheel almost grazing
it, and to do this safely: very often the driver was here thrown out,
and the chariot broken in pieces. The account in Homer will give us
an equally good idea of a chariot-race at Olympia, or in any other of
the Greek games of later times. The general form of the hippodrome
was an oblong, with a semicircular end. For an account of the chariot
races at Rome see CIRCUS.

HISTRĬO (ὑποκριτής), an actor.--(1) GREEK. It is shown in the
articles CHORUS and DIONYSIA that the Greek drama originated in the
chorus which at the festivals of Dionysus danced around his altar,
and that at first one person detached himself from the chorus, and,
with mimic gesticulation, related his story either to the chorus
or in conversation with it. If the story thus acted required more
than one person, they were all represented in succession by the same
actor, and there was never more than one person on the stage at a
time. This custom was retained by Thespis and Phrynichus. Aeschylus
introduced a second and a third actor; and the number of three
actors was but seldom exceeded in any Greek drama. The three regular
actors were distinguished by the technical names of πρωταγωνιστής,
δευτεραγωνιστής, and τριταγωνιστής, which indicated the more or
less prominent part which an actor had to perform in the drama. The
female characters of a play were always performed by young men.
A distinct class of persons, who made acting on the stage their
profession, was unknown to the Greeks during the period of their
great dramatists. The earliest and greatest dramatic poets, Thespis,
Sophocles, and probably Aeschylus also, acted in their own plays, and
in all probability as protagonistae. It was not thought degrading
in Greece to perform on the stage. At a later period persons began
to devote themselves exclusively to the profession of actors, and
distinguished individuals received even as early as the time of
Demosthenes exorbitant sums for their performances.--(2) ROMAN. The
word _histrio_, by which the Roman actor was called, is said to have
been formed from the Etruscan _hister_, which signified a ludio or
dancer. In the year 364 B.C. Rome was visited by a plague, and as
no human means could stop it, the Romans are said to have tried to
avert the anger of the gods by scenic plays (_ludi scenici_), which,
until then, had been unknown to them; and as there were no persons at
Rome prepared for such performances, the Romans sent to Etruria for
them. The first histriones, who were thus introduced from Etruria,
were dancers, and performed their movements to the accompaniment of
a flute. Roman youths afterwards not only imitated these dancers,
but also recited rude and jocose verses, adapted to the movements
of the dance and the melody of the flute. This kind of amusement,
which was the basis of the Roman drama, remained unaltered until the
time of Livius Andronicus, who introduced a slave upon the stage for
the purpose of singing or reciting the recitative, while he himself
performed the appropriate dance and gesticulation. A further step in
the development of the drama, which is likewise ascribed to Livius,
was, that the dancer and reciter carried on a dialogue, and acted a
story with the accompaniment of the flute. The name histrio, which
originally signified a dancer, was now applied to the actors in
the drama. The atellanae were played by freeborn Romans, while the
regular drama was left to the histriones, who formed a distinct class
of persons. The histriones were not citizens; they were not contained
in the tribes, nor allowed to be enlisted as soldiers in the Roman
legions; and if any citizen entered the profession of an histrio, he,
on this account, was excluded from his tribe. The histriones were
therefore always either freedmen, strangers, or slaves, and many
passages of Roman writers show that they were generally held in great
contempt. Towards the close of the republic it was only such men as
Cicero, who, by their Greek education, raised themselves above the
prejudices of their countrymen, and valued the person no less than
the talents of an Aesopus and a Roscius. But notwithstanding this
low estimation in which actors were generally held, distinguished
individuals among them attracted immense crowds to the theatres, and
were exorbitantly paid. Roscius alone received every day that he
performed one thousand denarii, and Aesopus left his son a fortune of
200,000 sesterces, which he had acquired solely by his profession.
The pay of the actors was called _lucar_, which word was perhaps
confined originally to the payment made to those who took part in the
religious services celebrated in groves.

HŎMOEI (ὅμοιοι), the Equals, were those Spartans who possessed the
full rights of citizenship, and are opposed to the ὑπομείονες,
or those who had undergone some kind of civil degradation. This
distinction between the citizens was no part of the ancient Spartan
constitution. In the institution ascribed to Lycurgus, every
citizen had a certain portion of land; but as in course of time
many citizens lost their lands through various causes, they were
unable to contribute to the expenses of the syssitia, and therefore
ceased to possess the full rights of Spartan citizens. Hence the
distinction appears to have arisen between the ὅμοιοι and ὑπομείονες,
the former being those who were in the possession of their land,
and consequently able to contribute to the syssitia, the latter
those who through having no land were unable to do so. The Homoei
were the ruling class in the state. They filled all the public
offices with the exception of the Ephoralty, and they probably met
together to determine upon public affairs under the name of ἔκκλητοι
in an assembly of their own, which is called ἡ μικρὰ ἐκκλησία,
to distinguish it from the assembly of the whole body of Spartan

HŎNŌRES, the high offices of the state to which qualified individuals
were called by the votes of the Roman citizens. The words
“magistratus” and “honores” are sometimes coupled together. The
capacity of enjoying the honores was one of the distinguishing marks
of citizenship. [CIVITAS.] _Honor_ was distinguished from _munus_.
The latter was an office connected with the administration of the
state, and was attended with cost (_sumptus_) but not with rank
(_dignitas_). Honor was properly said _deferri, dari_; munus was said
_imponi_. A person who held a magistrates might be said to discharge
_munera_, but only as incident to the office, for the office itself
was the _honor_. Such munera as these were public games and other
things of the kind.



HŌRŎLŎGĬUM (ὡρολόγιον), the name of the various instruments by means
of which the ancients measured the time of the day and night. The
earliest and simplest horologia of which mention is made, were called
_polos_ (πόλος) and _gnomon_ (γνώμων). Both divided the day into
twelve equal parts, and were a kind of sun-dial. The _gnomon_, which
was also called _stoicheion_ (στοιχεῖον), was the more simple of the
two, and probably the more ancient. It consisted of a staff or pillar
standing perpendicular, in a place exposed to the sun (σκιάθηρον),
so that the length of its shadow might be easily ascertained. The
shadow of the gnomon was measured by feet, which were probably marked
on the place where the shadow fell. In later times the name gnomon
was applied to any kind of sun-dial, especially to its finger which
threw the shadow, and thus pointed to the hour. The _polos_ or
_heliotropion_ (ἡλιοτρόπιον), on the other hand, seems to have been a
more perfect kind of sun-dial; but it appears, nevertheless, not to
have been much used. It consisted of a basin (λεκανίς), in the middle
of which the perpendicular staff or finger (γνώμων) was erected, and
in it the twelve parts of the day were marked by lines.--Another
kind of horologium, was the _clepsydra_ (κλεψύδρα). It derived its
name from κλέπτειν and ὕδωρ, as in its original and simple form it
consisted of a vessel with several little openings (τρυπήματα) at
the bottom, through which the water contained in it escaped, as it
were by stealth. This instrument seems at first to have been used
only for the purpose of measuring the time during which persons were
allowed to speak in the courts of justice at Athens. It was a hollow
globe, probably somewhat flat at the top-part, where it had a short
neck (αὐλός), like that of a bottle, through which the water was
poured into it. This opening might be closed by a lid or stopper
(πῶμα), to prevent the water running out at the bottom. As the time
for speaking in the Athenian courts was thus measured by water, the
orators frequently use the term ὕδωρ instead of the time allowed to
them. An especial officer (ὁ ἐφ’ ὕδωρ) was appointed in the courts
for the purpose of watching the clepsydra, and stopping it when any
documents were read, whereby the speaker was interrupted. The time,
and consequently the quantity of water allowed to a speaker, depended
upon the importance of the case. The clepsydra used, in the courts of
justice was, properly speaking, no horologium; but smaller ones, made
of glass, and of the same simple structure, were undoubtedly used
very early in families for the purposes of ordinary life, and for
dividing the day into twelve equal parts. In these glass-clepsydrae
the division into twelve parts must have been visible, either on the
glass globe itself, or in the basin into which the water flowed.--The
first horologium with which the Romans became acquainted was a
sun-dial (_solarium_ or _horologium sciothericum_), and was said to
have been brought to Rome by Papirius Cursor twelve years before the
war with Pyrrhus. But as sun-dials were useless when the sky was
cloudy, P. Scipio Nasica, in his censorship, 159 B.C., established a
public clepsydra, which indicated the hours both of day and night.
This clepsydra was in after times generally called solarium. After
the time of Scipio Nasica several horologia, chiefly solaria, seem
to have been erected in various public places at Rome. Clepsydrae
were used by the Romans in their camps, chiefly for the purpose of
measuring accurately the four vigiliae into which the night was
divided. The custom of using clepsydrae as a check upon the speakers
in the courts of justice at Rome, was introduced by a law of Cn.
Pompeius, in his third consulship. Before that time the speakers had
been under no restrictions, but spoke as long as they deemed proper.
At Rome, as at Athens, the time allowed to the speakers depended upon
the importance of the case.

HORRĔUM (ὡρεῖον, σιτοφυλακεῖον, ἀποθήκη) was, according to its
etymological signification, a place in which ripe fruits, and
especially corn, were kept, and thus answered to our granary. During
the empire the name horreum was given to any place destined for the
safe preservation of things of any kind. Thus we find it applied
to a place in which beautiful works of art were kept, to cellars
(_horrea subterranea_, _horrea vinaria_), to depôts for merchandise,
and all sorts of provisions (_horreum penarium_). Seneca even calls
his library a horreum. But the more general application of the word
horreum was to places for keeping fruit and corn; and as some kinds
of fruit required to be kept more dry than others, the ancients had
besides the horrea subterranea, or cellars, two other kinds, one of
which was built like every other house upon the ground; but others
(_horrea pensilia_ or _sublimia_) were erected above the ground,
and rested upon posts or stone pillars, that the fruits kept in
them might remain dry.--From about the year 140 after Christ, Rome
possessed two kinds of public horrea. The one class consisted of
buildings in which the Romans might deposit their goods, and even
their money, securities, and other valuables. The second and more
important class of horrea, which may be termed public granaries, were
buildings in which a plentiful supply of corn was constantly kept at
the expense of the state, and from which, in seasons of scarcity, the
corn was distributed among the poor, or sold at a moderate price.

HORTUS (κῆπος), garden. Our knowledge of the horticulture of the
Greeks is very limited. In fact the Greeks seem to have had no
great taste for landscape beauties, and the small number of flowers
with which they were acquainted afforded but little inducement to
ornamental horticulture. At Athens the flowers most cultivated
were probably those used for making garlands, such as violets and
roses. In the time of the Ptolemies the art of gardening seems to
have advanced in the favourable climate of Egypt so far, that a
succession of flowers was obtained all the year round. The Romans,
like the Greeks, laboured under the disadvantage of a very limited
flora. This disadvantage they endeavoured to overcome, by arranging
the materials they did possess in such a way as to produce a striking
effect. We have a very full description of a Roman garden in a letter
of the younger Pliny, in which he describes his Tuscan villa. In
front of the _porticus_ there was generally a _xystus_, or flat piece
of ground, divided into flower-beds of different shapes by borders
of box. There were also such flower-beds in other parts of the
garden. Sometimes they were raised so as to form terraces, and their
sloping sides planted with evergreens or creepers. The most striking
features of a Roman garden were lines of large trees, among which
the plane appears to have been a great favourite, planted in regular
order; alleys or walks (_ambulationes_) formed by closely clipped
hedges of box, yew, cypress, and other evergreens; beds of acanthus,
rows of fruit-trees, especially of vines, with statues, pyramids,
fountains, and summer-houses (_diaetae_). The trunks of the trees
and the parts of the house or any other buildings which were visible
from the garden, were often covered with ivy. In one respect the
Roman taste differed most materially from that of the present day,
namely, in their fondness for the _ars topiaria_, which consisted in
tying, twisting, or cutting trees and shrubs (especially the box)
into the figures of animals, ships, letters, &c. Their principal
garden-flowers seem to have been violets and roses, and they also
had the crocus, narcissus, lily, gladiolus, iris, poppy, amaranth,
and others. Conservatories and hot-houses are frequently mentioned
by Martial. Flowers and plants were also kept in the central place
of the peristyle [DOMUS], on the roofs and in the windows of houses.
An ornamental garden was also called _viridarium_, and the gardener
_topiarius_ or _viridarius_. The common name for a gardener is
villicus or cultor hortorum.

[Illustration: Hortus, Garden. (From a Painting at Herculaneum.)]

HOSPĬTĬUM (ξενία, προξενία), hospitality, was in Greece, as well as
at Rome, of a two-fold nature, either private or public, in so far as
it was either established between individuals, or between two states.
(_Hospitium privatum_ and _hospitium publicum_, ξενία and προξενία.)
In ancient Greece the stranger, as such (ξένος and _hostis_), was
looked upon as an enemy; but whenever he appeared among another tribe
or nation without any sign of hostile intentions, he was considered
not only as one who required aid, but as a suppliant, and Zeus was
the protecting deity of strangers and suppliants (Ζεὺς ξένιος).
On his arrival, therefore, the stranger was kindly received, and
provided with every thing necessary to make him comfortable. It
seems to have been customary for the host, on the departure of the
stranger, to break a die (ἀστράγαλος) in two, one half of which he
himself retained, while the other half was given to the stranger;
and when at any future time they or their descendants met, they had
a means of recognising each other, and the hospitable connection was
renewed. Hospitality thus not only existed between the persons who
had originally formed it, but was transferred as an inheritance from
father to son. What has been said hitherto, only refers to _hospitium
privatum_; but of far greater importance was the _hospitium publicum_
(προξενία, sometimes simply ξενία) or public hospitality, which
existed between two states, or between an individual or a family on
the one hand, and a whole state on the other. Of the latter kind of
public hospitality many instances are recorded, such as that between
the Peisistratids and Sparta, in which the people of Athens had no
share. The hospitium publicum among the Greeks arose undoubtedly from
the hospitium privatum, and it may have originated in two ways. When
the Greek tribes were governed by chieftains or kings, the private
hospitality existing between the ruling families of two tribes may
have produced similar relations between their subjects, which, after
the abolition of the kingly power, continued to exist between the new
republics as a kind of political inheritance of former times. Or a
person belonging to one state might have either extensive connections
with the citizens of another state, or entertain great partiality
for the other state itself, and thus offer to receive all those who
came from that state either on private or public business, and to
act as their patron in his own city. This he at first did merely
as a private individual, but the state to which he offered this
kind service would naturally soon recognise and reward him for it.
When two states established public hospitality, and no individuals
came forward to act as the representatives of their state, it was
necessary that in each state persons should be appointed to show
hospitality to, and watch over the interests of, all persons who
came from the state connected by hospitality. The persons who were
appointed to this office as the recognised agents of the state
for which they acted were called _proxeni_ (πρόξενοι), but those
who undertook it voluntarily _etheloproxeni_ (ἐθελοπρόξενοι). The
office of _proxenus_, which bears great resemblance to that of a
modern consul or minister-resident, was in some cases hereditary in
a particular family. When a state appointed a proxenus, it either
sent out one of its own citizens to reside in the other state, or it
selected one of the citizens of this state, and conferred upon him
the honour of proxenus. The former was, in early times, the custom
of Sparta, where the kings had the right of selecting from among the
Spartan citizens those whom they wished to send out as proxeni to
other states. But in subsequent times this custom seems to have been
given up, for we find that at Athens the family of Callias were the
proxeni of Sparta, and at Argos, the Argive Alciphron. The principal
duties of a proxenus were to receive those persons, especially
ambassadors, who came from the state which he represented; to procure
for them admission to the assembly, and seats in the theatre; to
act as the patron of the strangers, and to mediate between the two
states if any disputes arose. If a stranger died in the state, the
proxenus of his country had to take care of the property of the
deceased.--The hospitality of the Romans was, as in Greece, either
hospitium privatum or publicum. Private hospitality with the Romans,
however, seems to have been more accurately and legally defined than
in Greece. The character of a _hospes_, _i.e._ a person connected with
a Roman by ties of hospitality, was deemed even more sacred, and to
have greater claims upon the host, than that of a person connected by
blood or affinity. The relation of a hospes to his Roman friend was
next in importance to that of a cliens. The obligations which the
connection of hospitality with a foreigner imposed upon a Roman, were
to receive in his house his hospes when travelling; and to protect,
and, in case of need, to represent him as his patron in the courts of
justice. Private hospitality thus gave to the hospes the claims upon
his host which the client had on his patron, but without any degree
of the dependence implied in the clientele. Private hospitality
was established between individuals by mutual presents, or by the
mediation of a third person, and hallowed by religion; for Jupiter
hospitalis was thought to watch over the jus hospitii, as Zeus xenios
did with the Greeks, and the violation of it was as great a crime and
impiety at Rome as in Greece. When hospitality was formed, the two
friends used to divide between themselves a _tessera hospitalis_,
by which, afterwards, they themselves or their descendants--for the
connection was hereditary as in Greece--might recognise one another.
Hospitality, when thus once established, could not be dissolved
except by a formal declaration (_renuntiatio_), and in this case the
tessera hospitalis was broken to pieces. Public hospitality seems
likewise to have existed at a very early period among the nations
of Italy; but the first direct mention of public hospitality being
established between Rome and another city, is after the Gauls had
departed from Rome, when it was decreed that Caere should be rewarded
for its good services by the establishment of public hospitality
between the two cities. The public hospitality after the war with the
Gauls gave to the Caerites the right of isopolity with Rome, that is,
the civitas without the suffragium and the honores. [COLONIA.] In
the later times of the republic we no longer find public hospitality
established between Rome and a foreign state; but a relation which
amounted to the same thing was introduced in its stead, that is,
towns were raised to the rank of municipia, and thus obtained the
civitas without the suffragium and the honores; and when a town was
desirous of forming a similar relation with Rome, it entered into
clientela to some distinguished Roman, who then acted as patron of
the client-town. But the custom of granting the honour of hospes
publicus to a distinguished foreigner by a decree of the senate,
seems to have existed down to the end of the republic. His privileges
were the same as those of a municeps, that is, he had the civitas,
but not the suffragium or the honores. Public hospitality was, like
the hospitium privatum, hereditary in the family of the person to
whom it had been granted.

HỸĂCINTHĬA (ὑακίνθια), a great national festival, celebrated every
year at Amyclae by the Amyclaeans and Spartans, probably in honour of
the Amyclaean Apollo and Hyacinthus together. This Amyclaean Apollo,
however, with whom Hyacinthus was assimilated in later times, must
not be confounded with Apollo, the national divinity of the Dorians.
The festival was called after the youthful hero Hyacinthus, who
evidently derived his name from the flower hyacinth (the emblem of
death among the ancient Greeks), and whom Apollo accidentally struck
dead with a quoit. The Hyacinthia lasted for three days, and began
on the longest day of the Spartan month Hecatombeus, at the time
when the tender flowers, oppressed by the heat of the sun, drooped
their languid heads. On the first and last day of the Hyacinthia
sacrifices were offered to the dead, and the death of Hyacinthus was
lamented. During these two days, nobody wore any garlands at the
repasts, nor took bread, but only cakes and similar things, and when
the solemn repasts were over, everybody went home in the greatest
quiet and order. The second day, however, was wholly spent in public
rejoicings and amusements, such as horse-races, dances, processions,
&c. The great importance attached to this festival by the Amyclaeans
and Lacedaemonians is seen from the fact, that the Amyclaeans, even
when they had taken the field against an enemy, always returned home
on the approach of the season of the Hyacinthia, that they might not
be obliged to neglect its celebration; and that in a treaty with
Sparta, B.C. 421, the Athenians, in order to show their good-will
towards Sparta, promised every year to attend the celebration of this

HYBRĔŌS GRĂPHĒ (ὕβρεως γραφή), an action prescribed by the Attic law
for wanton and contumelious injury to the person, whether in the
nature of indecent (δι’ αἰσχρουργίας) or other assaults (διὰ πληγῶν).
The severity of the sentence extended to confiscation or death.

HYDRAULIS (ὕδραυλις), an hydraulic organ, invented by Ctesibius
of Alexandria, who lived about B.C. 200. Its pipes were partly of
bronze, and partly of reed. The number of its stops, and consequently
of its rows of pipes, varied from one to eight. It continued in use
so late as the ninth century of our era. The organ was well adapted
to gratify the Roman people in the splendid entertainments provided
for them by the emperors and other opulent persons. Nero was very
curious about organs, both in regard to their musical effect and
their mechanism. A contorniate coin of this emperor, in the British
Museum, shows an organ with a sprig of laurel on one side, and a man
standing on the other.

[Illustration: Hydraulis, water-organ. (Coin of Nero in British

HYDRĬAPHŎRĬA (ὑδριαφορία), was the carrying of a vessel with water
(ὑδρία), which service the married alien (μέτοικοι) women had to
perform to the married part of the female citizens of Athens, when
they walked to the temple of Athena in the great procession at the

HỸPORCHĒMA (ὑπόρχημα), a lively kind of mimic dance which accompanied
the songs used in the worship of Apollo, especially among the
Dorians. A chorus of singers at the festivals of Apollo usually
danced around the altar, while several other persons were appointed
to accompany the action of the song with an appropriate mimic
performance (ὑπορχεῖσθαι). The hyporchema was thus a lyric dance, and
often passed into the playful and comic.




ĬMĀGO, a representation or likeness, an image or figure of a person.
Among the Romans those persons, who had filled any of the higher or
curule magistracies of the state, had the right of having images of
themselves. Respecting this _jus imaginum_ see NOBILES.

IMMŪNĬTAS (from _in_ and _munus_), signifies, (1) A freedom from
taxes. (2) A freedom from services which other citizens had to
discharge. With respect to the first kind of immunitas we find that
the emperors frequently granted it to separate persons, or to certain
classes of persons, or to whole states. The second kind of immunitas
was granted to all persons who had a valid excuse (_excusatio_)
to be released from such, services, and also to other persons as
a special favour. The immunitas might be either general, from all
services which a citizen owed to the state, or special, such as from
military service, from taking the office of tutor or guardian, and
the like.


IMPĔRĬUM, was under the republic a power, without which no military
operation could be carried on as in the name and on the behalf of the
state. It was not incident to any office, and was always specially
conferred by a lex curiata, that is, a lex passed in the comitia
curiata. Consequently, not even a consul could act as commander of
an army, unless he were empowered by a lex curiata. It could not be
held or exercised within the city in the republican period; but it
was sometimes conferred specially upon an individual for the day
of his triumph within the city, and at least, in some cases, by a
plebiscitum. As opposed to _potestas, imperium_ is the power which
was conferred by the state upon an individual who was appointed to
command an army. The phrases _consularis potestas_ and _consulare
imperium_ might both be properly used; but the expression _tribunitia
potestas_ only could be used, as the tribuni never received the
imperium. In respect of his imperium, he who received it was styled
_imperator_. After a victory it was usual for the soldiers to salute
their commander as imperator, but this salutation neither gave nor
confirmed the title, since the title as a matter of course was given
with the imperium. Under the republic the title came properly after
the name; thus Cicero, when he was proconsul in Cilicia, could
properly style himself M. Tullius Cicero Imperator, for the term
merely expressed that he had the imperium. The emperors Tiberius and
Claudius refused to assume the praenomen of imperator, but the use
of it as a praenomen became established among their successors. The
term imperium was applied in the republican period to express the
sovereignty of the Roman state. Thus Gaul is said by Cicero to have
come under the imperium and ditio of the populus Romanus.


IMPŪBES. An infans was incapable of doing any legal act. An impubes,
who had passed the limits of infantia, could do any legal act with
the auctoritas of his tutor. With the attainment of pubertas, a
person obtained the full power over his property, and the tutela
ceased: he could also dispose of his property by will; and he could
contract marriage. Pubertas, in the case of a male, was attained
with the completion of the fourteenth, and, in a female, with the
completion of the twelfth year. Upon attaining the age of puberty a
Roman youth assumed the toga virilis, but until that time he wore the
toga praetexta, the broad purple hem of which (_praetexta_) at once
distinguished him from other persons. The toga virilis was assumed
at the Liberalia in the month of March, and though no age appears to
have been positively fixed for the ceremony, it probably took place
as a general rule on the feast which next followed the completion of
the fourteenth year; though it is certain that the completion of the
fourteenth year was not always the time observed. Still, so long as a
male wore the praetexta, he was impubes, and when he assumed the toga
virilis, he was pubes.

INAUGŬRĀTĬO, was in general the ceremony by which the augurs
obtained, or endeavoured to obtain, the sanction of the gods to
something which had been decreed by man; in particular, however,
it was the ceremony by which things or persons were consecrated
to the gods, whence the terms _dedicatio_ and _consecratio_ were
sometimes used as synonymous with inauguratio. Not only were priests
inaugurated, but also the higher magistrates, who for this purpose
were summoned by the augurs to appear on the capitol, on the third
day after their election. This inauguratio conferred no priestly
dignity upon the magistrates, but was merely a method of obtaining
the sanction of the gods to their election, and gave them the right
to take auspicia; and on important emergencies it was their duty to
make use of this privilege.

INAURIS, an ear-ring; called in Greek ἐνώτιον, because it was worn in
the ear (οὗς), and ἐλλόβιον, because it was inserted into the lobe
of the ear (λοβός), which was bored for the purpose. Ear-rings were
worn by both sexes in oriental countries. Among the Greeks and Romans
they were worn only by females. This ornament consisted of the ring
(κρίκος), and of the drops (_stalagmia_). The ring was generally
of gold, although the common people also wore ear-rings of bronze.
Instead of a ring a hook was often used. The drops were sometimes of
gold, very finely wrought, and sometimes of pearls.

INCENDĬUM, the crime of setting any object on fire, by which
the property of a man is endangered. A law of the Twelve Tables
inflicted a severe punishment on the person who set fire to property
maliciously (_sciens_, _prudens_); but if it was done by accident
(_casu_, _id est_, _negligentia_), the law obliged the offender to
repair the injury he had committed. Sulla, in his _Lex Cornelia
de Sicariis_, punished malicious (_dolo malo_) incendium, but only
in the city, or within a thousand paces of it, with aquae et ignis
interdictio. Cn. Pompeius, in B.C. 52, made incendium a crime of
_Vis_ by his _Lex Pompeia de Vi_, in consequence of the burning of
the Curia and the Porcia Basilica on the burial of Clodius; and
Julius Caesar also included it in his _Lex Julia de Vi_. Besides the
two criminal prosecutions given by the Lex Cornelia and Lex Julia,
a person could also bring actions to recover compensation for the
injury done to his property.

INCESTUM or INCESTUS. Incestum is non castum, and signifies generally
all immoral and irreligious acts. In a narrower sense it denotes the
unchastity of a Vestal, and sexual intercourse of persons within
certain degrees of consanguinity. Incest with a Vestal was punished
with the death of both parties. [VESTALES.]

INCŪNĀBŬLA or CŪNABŬLA (σπάργανον), swaddling-clothes, in which a
new-born child was wrapped. It was one of the peculiarities of the
Lacedaemonian education to dispense with the use of incunabula, and
to allow children to enjoy the free use of their limbs.

[Illustration: Incunabula, swaddling-clothes. (From a Bas-relief at


INFĀMĬA, was a consequence of condemnation for certain crimes,
and also a direct consequence of certain acts, such as adultery,
prostitution, appearing on the public stage as an actor, &c. A
person who became _infamis_ lost the suffragium and honores, and
was degraded to the condition of an aerarian. Infamia should be
distinguished from the _Nota Censoria_, the consequence of which was
only _ignominia_. [CENSOR.]

INFANS, INFANTIA. In the Roman law there were several distinctions of
age which were made with reference to the capacity for doing legal
acts:--1. The first period was from birth to the end of the seventh
year, during which time persons were called _Infantes_, or _Qui fari
non possunt_. 2. The second period was from the end of seven years
to the end of fourteen or twelve years, according as the person was
a male or a female, during which persons were defined as those _Qui
fari possunt_. The persons included in these first two classes were
_Impuberes_. 3. The third period was from the end of the twelfth or
fourteenth to the end of the twenty-fifth year, during which period
persons were _Adolescentes_, _Adulti_. The persons included in these
three classes were minores xxv annis or annorum, and were often,
for brevity’s sake, called minores only [CURATOR]; and the persons
included in the third and fourth class were _Puberes_. 4. The fourth
period was from the age of twenty-five, during which persons were


INFŬLA, a flock of white and red wool, which was slightly twisted,
drawn into the form of a wreath or fillet, and used by the Romans for
ornament on festive and solemn occasions. In sacrificing it was tied
with a white band [VITTA] to the head of the victim and also of the

INGĔNŬI, were those freemen who were born free. Consequently,
freedmen (_libertini_) were not ingenui, though the sons of libertini
were ingenui; nor could a libertinus by adoption become ingenuus.
The words _ingenuus_ and _libertinus_ are often opposed to one
another; and the title of freeman (_liber_), which would comprehend
_libertinus_, is sometimes limited by the addition of _ingenuus_
(_liber et ingenuus_.) Under the empire a person, not ingenuus by
birth, could be made ingenuus by the emperor.

INJŪRĬA. _Injuria_, in the general sense, is opposed to _Jus_. In a
special sense _injuria_ was done by striking or beating a man either
with the hand or with anything; by abusive words (_convicium_); by
the proscriptio bonorum, when the claimant knew that the alleged
debtor was not really indebted to him; by libellous writings or
verses; by soliciting a materfamilias, &c. The Twelve Tables had
various provisions on the subject of Injuria. Libellous songs or
verses were followed by capital punishment. In the case of a limb
being mutilated the punishment was Talio. In the case of a broken
bone, the penalty was 300 asses if the injury was done to a freeman,
and 150 if it was done to a slave. In other cases the Tables fixed
the penalty at 25 asses. These penalties were afterwards considered
to be insufficient; and the injured person was allowed by the praetor
to claim such damages as he thought that he was entitled to, and the
judex might give the full amount or less. Infamia was a consequence
of condemnation in an actio Injuriarum.

ĪNŌA (ἰνῶα), festivals celebrated in several parts of Greece, in
honour of Ino.


INSTĬTA (περιπόδιον), a flounce; a fillet. The Roman matrons
sometimes wore a broad fillet with ample folds, sewed to the bottom
of the tunic and reaching to the instep. The use of it indicated a
superior regard to decency and propriety of manners.

INSŬLA was, properly, a house not joined to the neighbouring houses
by a common wall. An insula, however, generally contained several
separate houses, or at least separate apartments or shops, which
were let to different families; and hence the word _domus_ under
the emperors seems to be applied to the house where a family lived,
whether it were an insula or not, and insula to any hired lodgings.

INTERCESSĬO was the interference of a magistrates to whom an appeal
[APPELLATIO] was made. The object of the intercessio was to put a
stop to proceedings, on the ground of informality or other sufficient
cause. Any magistratus might _intercedere_, who was of equal rank
with or of rank superior to the magistratus from or against whom
the appellatio was. Cases occur in which one of the praetors
interposed (_intercessit_) against the proceedings of his colleague.
The intercessio is most frequently spoken of with reference to
the tribunes, who originally had not jurisdictio, but used the
intercessio for the purpose of preventing wrong which was offered to
a person in their presence. The intercessio of the tribunes of the
plebs was auxilium, and it might be exercised either _in jure_ or
_in judicio_. The tribune _qui intercessit_ could prevent a judicium
from being instituted. The tribunes could also use the intercessio
to prevent execution of a judicial sentence. A single tribune could
effect this, and against the opinion of his colleagues.


INTERDICTUM. “In certain cases (_certis ex causis_) the praetor or
proconsul, in the first instance (_principaliter_), exercises his
authority for the termination of disputes. This he chiefly does
when the dispute is about possession or quasi-possession; and the
exercise of his authority consists in ordering something to be done,
or forbidding something to be done. The formulae and the terms,
which he uses on such occasions, are called either _interdicta_ or
_decreta_. They are called _decreta_ when he orders something to be
done, as when he orders something to be produced (_exhiberi_) or to
be restored: they are called _interdicta_ when he forbids something
to be done, as when he orders that force shall not be used against
a person who is in possession rightfully (_sine vitio_), or that
nothing shall be done on a piece of sacred ground. Accordingly all
interdicta are either restitutoria, or exhibitoria, or prohibitoria.”
This passage, which is taken from Gaius, the Roman jurist, contains
the essential distinction between an _actio_ and an _interdictum_.
In the case of an actio, the praetor pronounces no order or decree,
but he gives a judex, whose business it is to investigate the
matter in dispute, and to pronounce a sentence consistently with
the formula, which is his authority for acting. In the case of an
actio, therefore, the praetor neither orders nor forbids a thing to
be done, but he says, _Judicium dabo_. In the case of an interdict,
the praetor makes an order that something shall be done or shall not
be done, and his words are accordingly words of command; _Restituas,
Exhibeas, Vim fieri veto_. This _immediate_ interposition of the
praetor is appropriately expressed by the word _principaliter_.

INTERPRES, an interpreter. This class of persons became very numerous
and necessary to the Romans as their empire extended. In large
mercantile towns the interpreters, who formed a kind of agents
through whom business was done, were sometimes very numerous. All
Roman praetors, proconsuls, and quaestors, who were entrusted with
the administration of a province, had to carry on all their official
proceedings in the Latin language, and as they could not be expected
to be acquainted with the language of the provincials, they had
always among their servants [APPARITORES] one or more interpreters,
who were generally Romans, but in most cases undoubtedly freedmen.
These interpreters had not only to officiate at the conventus
[CONVENTUS], but also explained to the Roman governor everything
which the provincials might wish to be laid before him.


INTERREX. This office is said to have been instituted on the death of
Romulus, when the senate wished to share the sovereign power among
themselves, instead of electing a king. For this purpose, according
to Livy, the senate, which then consisted of one hundred members,
was divided into ten decuries; and from each of these decuries one
senator was nominated. These together formed a board of ten, with the
title of _Interreges_, each of whom enjoyed in succession the regal
power and its badges for five days; and if no king was appointed at
the expiration of fifty days, the rotation began anew. The period
during which they exercised their power was called an _Interregnum_.
These ten interreges were the _Decem Primi_, or ten leading senators,
of whom the first was chief of the whole senate. The interreges
agreed among themselves who should be proposed as king, and if the
senate approved of their choice, they summoned the assembly of the
curiae, and proposed the person whom they had previously agreed
upon; the power of the curiae was confined to accepting or rejecting
him. Interreges were appointed under the republic for holding the
comitia for the election of the consuls, when the consuls, through
civil commotions or other causes, had been unable to do so in their
year of office. Each held the office for only five days, as under
the kings. The comitia were hardly ever held by the first interrex;
more usually by the second or third; but in one instance we read of
an eleventh, and in another of a fourteenth interrex. The interreges
under the republic, at least from B.C. 482, were elected by the
senate from the whole body, and were not confined to the decem primi
or ten chief senators, as under the kings. Plebeians, however, were
not admissible to this office; and consequently, when plebeians were
admitted into the senate, the patrician senators met without the
plebeian members to elect an interrex. For this reason, as well as on
account of the influence which the interrex exerted in the election
of the magistrates, we find that the tribunes of the plebs were
strongly opposed to the appointment of an interrex. The interrex had
jurisdictio. Interreges continued to be appointed occasionally till
the time of the second Punic war, but after that time we read of no
interrex, till the senate, by command of Sulla, created an interrex
to hold the comitia for his election as dictator, B.C. 82. In B.C. 55
another interrex was appointed, to hold the comitia in which Pompey
and Crassus were elected consuls; and we also read of interreges in
B.C. 53 and 52, in the latter of which years an interrex held the
comitia in which Pompey was appointed sole consul.

ISTHMĬA (ἴσθμια), the Isthmian games, one of the four great national
festivals of the Greeks. This festival derived its name from the
Corinthian isthmus, where it was held. Subsequent to the age of
Theseus the Isthmia were celebrated in honour of Poseidon; and this
innovation is ascribed to Theseus himself. The celebration of the
Isthmia was conducted by the Corinthians, but Theseus had reserved
for his Athenians some honourable distinctions: those Athenians who
attended the Isthmia sailed across the Saronic gulf in a sacred
vessel (θεωρίς), and an honorary place (προεδρία), as large as the
sail of their vessel, was assigned to them during the celebration
of the games. In times of war between the two states a sacred truce
was concluded, and the Athenians were invited to attend at the
solemnities. These games were celebrated regularly every other year,
in the first and third years of each Olympiad. After the fall of
Corinth, in 146 B.C., the Sicyonians were honoured with the privilege
of conducting the Isthmian games; but when the town of Corinth was
rebuilt by Julius Caesar, the right of conducting the solemnities
was restored to the Corinthians. The season of the Isthmian
solemnities was, like that of all the great national festivals,
distinguished by general rejoicings and feasting. The contests and
games of the Isthmia were the same as those at Olympia, and embraced
all the varieties of athletic performances, such as wrestling,
the pancratium, together with horse and chariot racing. Musical
and poetical contests were likewise carried on, and in the latter
women were also allowed to take part. The prize of a victor in the
Isthmian games consisted at first of a garland of pine-leaves, and
afterwards of a wreath of ivy. Simple as such a reward was, a victor
in these games gained the greatest distinction and honour among
his countrymen; and a victory not only rendered the individual who
obtained it a subject of admiration, but shed lustre over his family,
and the whole town or community to which he belonged. Hence Solon
established by a law, that every Athenian who gained the victory at
the Isthmian games should receive from the public treasury a reward
of one hundred drachmae. His victory was generally celebrated in
lofty odes, called Epinikia, or triumphal odes, of which we still
possess some beautiful specimens among the poems of Pindar.


JĀNŬA (θύρα), a door. Besides being applicable to the doors of
apartments in the interior of a house, which were properly called
_ostia_, this term more especially denoted the first entrance into
the house, _i.e._ the front or street door, which was also called
_anticum_, and in Greek θύρα αὔλειος, αὐλεία, αὔλιος, or αὐλία. The
houses of the Romans commonly had a back door, called _posticum_,
_postica_, or _posticula_, and in Greek παράθυρα, _dim._ παραθύριον.
The door-way, when complete, consisted of four indispensable
parts; the threshold, or sill (_limen_, βηλός, οὖδας); the lintel
(_jugumentum, limen superum_); and the two jambs (_postes_, σταθμοί).
The door itself was called _foris_ or _valva_, and in Greek σανίς,
κλισιάς, or θύρετρον. These words are commonly found in the plural,
because the door-way of every building of the least importance
contained two doors folding together. When _foris_ is used in the
singular, it denotes one of the folding doors only. The fastenings
of the door (_claustra_, _obices_) commonly consisted of a bolt
(_pessulus_; μάνδαλος, κατοχεύς, κλεῖθρον) placed at the base of each
_foris_, so as to admit of being pushed into a socket made in the
sill to receive it. By night, the front-door of the house was further
secured by means of a wooden and sometimes an iron bar (_sera_,
_repagula_, μοχλός) placed across it, and inserted into sockets on
each side of the door-way. Hence it was necessary to remove the bar
(τὸν μοχλὸν παράφερειν) in order to open the door (_reserare_). It
was considered improper to enter a house without giving notice to its
inmates. This notice the Spartans gave by shouting; the Athenians and
all other nations by using the knocker, or more commonly by rapping
with the knuckles or with a stick (κρούειν, κόπτειν). In the houses
of the rich a porter (_janitor_, _custos_, θυρωρός) was always in
attendance to open the door. He was commonly an eunuch or a slave,
and was chained to his post. To assist him in guarding the entrance,
a dog was universally kept near it, being also attached by a chain
to the wall; and in reference to this practice, the warning _cave
canem_, εὐλαβοῦ τὴν κύνα, was sometimes written near the door. The
appropriate name for the portion of the house immediately behind the
door (θυρών) denotes that it was a kind of apartment; it corresponded
to the hall or lobby of our houses. Immediately adjoining it, and
close to the front door, there was in many houses a small room for
the porter.


JŪDEX, JŪDĬCĬUM. A Roman magistratus generally did not investigate
the facts in dispute in such matters as were brought before him:
he appointed a judex for that purpose, and gave him instructions.
[ACTIO.] Accordingly, the whole of civil procedure was expressed
by the two phrases _Jus_ and _Judicium_, of which the former
comprehended all that took place before the magistratus (_in
jure_), and the latter all that took place before the judex (_in
judicio_). In many cases a single judex was appointed: in others,
several were appointed, and they seem to have been sometimes
called recuperatores, as opposed to the single judex. Under certain
circumstances the judex was called arbiter: thus judex and arbiter
are named together in the Twelve Tables. A judex when appointed was
bound to discharge the functions of the office, unless he had some
valid excuse (_excusatio_). There were certain seasons of the year
when legal business was done at Rome, and at these times the services
of the judices were required. These legal terms were regulated
according to the seasons, so that there were periods of vacation.
When the judex was appointed, the proceedings _in jure_ or before the
praetor were terminated. The parties appeared before the judex on
the third day (_comperendinatio_), unless the praetor had deferred
the judicium for some sufficient reason. The judex was generally
aided by advisers (_jurisconsulti_) learned in the law, who were
said _in consilio adesse_; but the judex alone was empowered to give
judgment. The matter was first briefly stated to the judex (_causae
conjectio, collectio_), and the advocates of each party supported
his cause in a speech. Witnesses were produced on both sides, and
examined orally: the witnesses on one side were also cross-examined
by the other. After all the evidence was given and the advocates had
finished, the judex gave sentence: if there were several judices, a
majority decided. If the matter was one of difficulty, the hearing
might be adjourned as often as was necessary (_ampliatio_); and if
the judex could not come to a satisfactory conclusion, he might
declare this upon oath, and so release himself from the difficulty.
This was done by the form of words _non liquere_ (N. L.). The
sentence was pronounced orally, and was sometimes first written on a
tablet. If the defendant did not make his appearance after being duly
summoned, judgment might be given against him.--According to Cicero,
all judicia had for their object, either the settlement of disputes
between individuals (_controversiae_), or the punishment of crimes
(_maleficia_). This refers to a division of judicia, which appears
in the jurists, into _judicia publica_ and _judicia privata_. The
former, the _judicia publica_, succeeded to the _judicia populi_ of
the early republican period: the latter were so called because in
them the populus acted as judices. Originally the kings presided in
all criminal cases, and the consuls succeeded to their authority. But
after the passing of the Lex Valeria (B.C. 507), which gave an appeal
to the populus (that is, the comitia curiata) from the magistratus,
the consul could not sit in judgment on the caput of a Roman
citizen, but such cases were tried in the comitia, or persons were
appointed to preside at such inquiries, who were accordingly called
_Quaesitores_ or _Quaestores parricidii_ or _rerum capitalium_. In
course of time, as such cases became of more frequent occurrence,
such quaestiones were made perpetual, that is, particular magistrates
were appointed for the purpose. It was eventually determined,
that while the _praetor urbanus_ and _peregrinus_ should continue
to exercise their usual jurisdictions, the other praetors should
preside at public trials. In such trials any person might be an
accuser (_accusator_). The praetor generally presided as quaesitor,
assisted by a judex quaestionis, and a body of judices called his
consilium. The judices were generally chosen by lot out of those who
were qualified to act; but in some cases the accuser and the accused
(_reus_) had the privilege of choosing (_edere_) a certain number of
judices out of a large number, who were thence called _Edititii_.
Both the accusator and the reus had the privilege of rejecting or
challenging (_rejicere_) such judices as they did not like. In many
cases a lex was passed for the purpose of regulating the mode of
procedure.--The judices voted by ballot, at least generally, and a
majority determined the acquittal or condemnation of the accused.
Each judex was provided with three tablets (_tabulae_), on one of
which was marked A, _Absolvo_; on a second C, _Condemno_; and on
a third N. L., _Non liquet_. The judices voted by placing one of
these tablets in the urns, which were then examined for the purpose
of ascertaining the votes. It was the duty of the magistratus to
pronounce the sentence of the judices; in the case of condemnation,
to adjudge the legal penalty; of acquittal, to declare the accused
acquitted; and of doubt, to declare that the matter must be further
investigated (_amplius cognoscendum_).--A _judicium populi_, properly
so called, was one in which the case was tried in the comitia
curiata, but afterwards in the comitia centuriata and tributa.
The accuser, who must be a magistratus, commenced by declaring in
a contio that he would on a certain day