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Title: An Account of Two Voyages to New-England - Made During the Years 1638, 1663
Author: Josselyn, John
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

  This book was published in 1865. It was, as the Preface notes, a
  “literal” and “exact” copy of the original book published in 1674,
  and so retained the spelling, the punctuation and the copious
  italicizing of the original. (The errata in the 1674 book were
  applied.)

  This etext maintains this careful reproduction of the 1674 text,
  with some exceptions that are noted at the end of the book.

  The page numbers of the 1674 book are embedded in the text and
  etext in [] brackets; for example [p. 75.]

  The 1865 publisher inserted two corrections in [] brackets; they
  have been retained in this etext without change:
    page 9: “the Ships trine [trim?] a foot by the stern”
    page 157: “20 English miles, [leagues?] or 60 miles”.

  The dates in the book of course accord with the Julian calendar.
  Dual dating was (sometimes) used for events between January 1st
  and March 25th (the end of a Julian year), for example on page
  204: “the 24 of _January_ 1659/60 landed at”.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  The tables in this book are best viewed using a monospace font.



               [Illustration: (Decorative banner.)]

                            TWO VOYAGES

                                TO

                            NEW-ENGLAND.

               [Illustration: (Decorative icon.)]



                           _AN ACCOUNT_

                                OF

                            TWO VOYAGES

                                TO

                           _NEW-ENGLAND_,

                 Made during the years 1638, 1663.

                      _By JOHN JOSSELYN, Gent._

               [Illustration: (Publisher colophon.)]

                              Boston:

                          WILLIAM VEAZIE.

                             MDCCCLXV.



        Two Hundred and Fifty Copies printed, Small Quarto.


                     _Riverside, Cambridge_:
                  Printed by H. O. HOUGHTON & CO.



[Illustration: (Decorative banner.)]


PUBLISHER’S PREFACE.


The work published by Josselyn in 1672, entitled “New England’s
Rarities discovered,” which has been reprinted in a similar form,
and as a companion volume to the present, contains a full and
detailed account of the family of the author, with many curious
facts relating to the personal history of this early explorer of
New England; but it has been thought expedient to prefix to his
narrative a genealogical chart of the family, copied from a paper
among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, the substance
of which has been printed in the “New England Historical and
Genealogical Register,” and which is now kindly furnished for
publication by Samuel G. Drake, Esq. The table now published will
be found generally to confirm the information given in the account
of the family already published.

The first of the “Two Voyages” of Josselyn, of which he gives an
account in the present work, was undertaken in the year 1638,
only eight years after the settlement of Boston, and when, to use
his own words, “it was rather a village than a town, there being
not above twenty or thirty houses;” while the second visit of the
author to New England took place in 1663, after an absence of
twenty-five years, and when the town had assumed the proportions of
a flourishing seaport. On this occasion he appears to have remained
in New England for eight years, the principal part of which was
spent on the plantation of his brother, Henry Josselyn, at Black
Point.

This work is the latest of the author’s productions, and was
not given to the public until 1674. It was reprinted by the
Massachusetts Historical Society in 1833, and may be found in
the third volume of the third series of their collections.
Josselyn’s observations on the natural history of the country, his
descriptions of the various plants and notices of their medicinal
effects, are more full and exact in the present work than in the
“New England’s Rarities,” printed two years earlier, and must be
considered as among the most valuable of those given by the early
botanists of New England.

The political and theological opinions of Josselyn were not
in accordance with those generally received in the Colonies,
particularly in the later years of his life. On this subject, Prof.
Tuckerman, in his Introduction to the work last mentioned, remarks
that, “In the account of his first voyage, there is no appearance
of that dislike to the Massachusetts government and people which
is observable in the narrative of the second; and may there not
unfairly be connected with his brother’s political and religious
differences with Massachusetts.” There is sufficient evidence in
this work to show that the sympathies of the author were enlisted
in the royal cause, and there appears to be little ground for
admitting his supposed complicity in the fruitless insurrection in
the north of England in 1663, or his identity with the “Capt. John
Jossline” mentioned by the late Rev. Joseph Hunter in his account
of the family.

The chronological table appended to his “New-England’s Rarities”
is greatly enlarged in the present work, and continued to the year
1674.

In reprinting this rare and curious volume, great care has been
taken to make it a _literal_ and _exact copy_ of the original,
the proofs having been carefully collated with a copy of the work
belonging to the Library of Harvard College.

BOSTON, _June 15, 1865_.



                                 AN

                               ACCOUNT

                               OF TWO

                               VOYAGES

                                 TO

                             NEW-ENGLAND.


  Wherein you have the setting out of a Ship, With the charges; The
  prices of all necessaries for furnishing a Planter & his Family
  at his first coming; A Description of the Country, Natives and
  Creatures; The Government of the Countrey as it is now possessed
  by the _English_, &c. A large Chronological Table of the most
  remarkable passages from the first discovering of the Continent
  of _America_, to the year 1673.

                        By _John Josselyn_ Gent.

                          The Second Addition.

            Memner. distich rendred English by Dr. _Heylin_.

      _Heart, take thine ease,
      Men hard to please
        Thou haply might’st offend,
      Though one speak ill
      Of thee, some will
        Say better; there’s an end._

   _London_ Printed for _G. Widdowes_ at the _Green Dragon_ in St.
                      _Pauls_ Church-yard, 1675.



                              _LICENSED_

                                  BY

                           Roger L’estrange,


      _Novemb._ the
        28. 1673.



                               TO THE

                          RIGHT HONOURABLE,

                                 AND

                          MOST ILLUSTRIOUS

                                 THE

                         President & Fellows

                                OF THE

                            ROYAL SOCIETY:

                     The following Account of Two

                               VOYAGES

                                  TO

                             New-England,

                      Is Most Humbly presented

                            By the Authour

                                    _John Josselyn_.



                 [Illustration: (Decorative banner.)]


                                 A

                              RELATION

                               OF TWO

                               VOYAGES

                                 TO

                             New-England.



_The first Voyage._


_Anno Dom._ 1638. _April_ the 26th being _Thursday_, I came
to _Gravesend_ and went aboard the _New Supply_, _alias_, the
_Nicholas of London_, a Ship of good force, of 300 Tuns burden,
carrying 20 Sacre and Minion, man’d with 48 Sailers, the Master
_Robert Taylor_, the Merchant or undertaker Mr. _Edward Tinge_,
with 164 Passengers men, women and children.

[p. 2.] At _Gravesend_ I began my Journal, from whence we departed
on the 26. of _April_, about Six of the clock at night, and went
down into the _Hope_.

The 27. being _Fryday_, we set sail out of the _Hope_, and about
Nine of the clock at night we came to an Anchor in _Margaret_-Road
in three fathom and a half water: by the way we past a States man
of war, of 500 Tun, cast away a month before upon the _Goodwin_,
nothing remaining visible above water but her main mast top, 16 of
her men were drowned, the rest saved by Fishermen.

The 28. we twined into the Downs, where Captain _Clark_ one of His
Majesties Captains in the Navy, came aboard of us in the afternoon,
and prest two of our Trumpeters. Here we had good store of
Flounders from the Fishermen, new taken out of the Sea and living,
which being readily gutted, were fry’d while they were warm; me
thoughts I never tasted of a delicater Fish in all my life before.

The Third of _May_ being _Ascension_ day, in the afternoon we
weighed out of the _Downs_, the wind at _E._ and ran down into
_Dover_ Road, and lay by the lee, whilst they sent the Skiffe
ashore for one of the Masters mates: by the way we past _Sandwich_
in the [p. 3.] _Hope_, _Sandown-Castle_, _Deal_; So we steered
away for _Doniesse_, from thence we steered _S. W. ½S._ for the
_Beachie_, about one of the clock at night the wind took us a
stayes with a gust, rain, thunder and lightning, and now a Servant
of one of the passengers sickned of the small pox.

The Fifth day in the afternoon we Anchored, the _Isle_ of _Wight_
_W. N. W._ 10 leagues off, _Beachie_ _E. N. E._ 8 leagues off,
rode in 32 fathom water at low water, at 8 of the clock at night
the land over the Needles bore _N. W._ 4 leagues off, we steered
_W._ afore the Start, at noon the Boult was _N. W._ by _W._ about
3½ leagues off, we were becalmed from 7 of the clock in the
morning, till 12 of the clock at noon, where we took good store of
_Whitings_, and half a score _Gurnets_, this afternoon an infinite
number of _Porpisces_ shewed themselves above water round about
the Ship, as far as we could kenn, the night proved tempestuous
with much lightning and thunder.

The Sixth day being _Sunday_, at five of the clock at night the
_Lizard_ was _N. W._ by _W._ 6 leagues off, and the _Blackhead_
which is to the westward of _Falmouth_ was _N. W._ about 5 leagues
off.

The Seventh day the uttermost part of _Silly_ was _N. E._ 12
leagues off, and now we began to sail by the logg.

[p. 4.] The Eighth day, one _Boremans_ man a passenger was duck’d
at the main yards arm (for being drunk with his Masters strong
waters which he stole) thrice, and fire given to two whole Sacree,
at that instant. Two mighty Whales we now saw, the one spouted
water through two great holes in her head into the Air a great
height, and making a great noise with puffing and blowing, the
Seamen called her a Soufler; the other was further off, about
a league from the Ship, fighting with the Sword-fish, and the
Flail-fish, whose stroakes with a fin that growes upon her back
like a flail, upon the back of the Whale, we heard with amazement:
when presently some more than half as far again we spied a spout
from above, it came pouring down like a River of water; So that
if they should light in any Ship, she were in danger to presently
sunk down into the Sea, and falleth with such an extream violence
all whole together as one drop, or as water out of a Vessel, and
dured a quarter of an hour, making the Sea to boyle like a pot,
and if any Vessel be near, it sucks it in. I saw many of these
spouts afterwards at nearer distance. In the afternoon the Mariners
struck a Porpisce, called also a _Marsovius_ or Sea-hogg, with an
harping Iron, and hoisted her aboard, [p. 5.] they cut some of it
into thin pieces, and fryed, it tasts like rusty Bacon, or hung
Beef, if not worse; but the Liver boiled and soused sometime in
Vinegar is more grateful to the pallat. About 8 of the clock at
night, a flame settled upon the main mast, it was about the bigness
of a great Candle, and is called by our Seamen St. _Elmes_ fire,
it comes before a storm, and is commonly thought to be a Spirit;
if two appear they prognosticate safety: These are known to the
learned by the names of _Castor_ and _Pollux_, to the _Italians_ by
St. _Nicholas_ and St. _Hermes_, by the _Spaniards_ called _Corpos
Santos_.

The Ninth day, about two of the clock in the afternoon, we found
the head of our main mast close to the cap twisted and shivered,
and we presently after found the fore-top-mast crackt a little
above the cap; So they wolled them both, and about two of the clock
in the morning 7 new long Boat oars brake away from our Starboard
quarter with a horrid crack.

The Eleventh day, they observed and made the Ship to be in latitude
48 degrees 46 minuts, having a great Sea all night; about 6 of
the clock in the morning we spake with Mr. _Rupe_ in a Ship of
_Dartmouth_, which came from _Marcelloes_; and now is _Silly_ _N.
E._ by _E._ 34 leagues off; [p. 6.] about 9 of the clock at night
we sounded, and had 85 fathom water, small brownish pepperie sand,
with a small piece of _Hakes_ Tooth, and now we are 45 leagues off
the _Lizard_, great Seas all night, and now we see to the _S. W._
six tall Ships, the wind being _S. W._

The Twelfth day being _Whitsunday_, at prayer-time we found the
Ships trine [trim?] a foot by the stern, and also the partie that
was sick of the small pox now dyed, whom we buried in the Sea,
tying a bullet (as the manner is) to his neck, and another to his
leggs, turned him out at a Port-hole, giving fire to a great Gun.
In the afternoon one _Martin Ivy_ a stripling, servant to Captain
_Thomas Cammock_ was whipt naked at the Cap-stern, with a Cat with
Nine tails, for filching 9 great Lemmons out of the _Chirurgeons_
Cabbin, which he eat rinds and all in less than an hours time.

The Thirteenth day we took a Sharke, a great one, and hoisted him
aboard with his two Companions (for there is never a Sharke, but
hath a mate or two) that is the Pilot-fish or Pilgrim, which lay
upon his back close to a long finn; the other fish (somewhat bigger
than the Pilot) about two foot long, called a _Remora_, it hath
no scales and sticks close to the Sharkes belly. [p. 7.] So the
Whale hath the Sea-gudgeon, a small fish for his mate, marching
before him, and guiding him; which I have seen likewise. The Seamen
divided the Sharke into quarters, and made more quarter about it
than the Purser, when he makes five quarters of an Oxe, and after
they had cooked him, he proved very rough Grain’d not worthy
of wholesome preferment; but in the afternoon we took store of
_Bonitoes_, or Spanish _Dolphins_, a fish about the size of a large
Mackarel, beautified with admirable varietie of glittering colours
in the water, and was excellent food.

The Fourteenth day we spake with a _Plimouth_ man (about dinner
time) bound for _New-found-land_, who having gone up west-ward
sprang a leak, and now bore back for _Plimouth_. Now was _Silly_
50 leagues off, and now many of the passengers fall sick of the
small Pox and Calenture.

The Sixteenth Mr. _Clarke_, who came out of the _Downs_ with us,
and was bound for the Isle of _Providence_, one of the summer
Islands; the _Spaniards_ having taken it a little before, though
unknown to _Clarke_, and to Captain _Nathaniel Butler_ going
Governour, they departed from us the Wind _N. W._ great Seas and
stormie winds all night.

[p. 8.] The Seventeenth day, the wind at _N. W._ about 8 of the
clock we saw 5 great Ships bound for the _Channel_, which was to
the Westward of us, about two leagues off, we thought them to be
_Flemmings_; here we expected to have met with Pirates, but were
happily deceived.

The One and twentieth day, the wind _S._ by _W._ great Seas and
Wind, in’d our courses, and tryed from 5 of the clock afternoon,
till 4 in the morning, the night being very stormie and dark; we
lost Mr. _Goodlad_ and his Ship, who came out with us, and bound
for _Boston_ in _New-England_.

The Eight and twentieth day, all this while a very great grown Sea
and mighty winds.

_June_ the first day in the afternoon, very thick foggie weather,
we sailed by an inchanted Island, saw a great deal of filth and
rubbish floating by the Ship, heard _Cawdimawdies_, _Sea-gulls_
and _Crowes_, (Birds that always frequent the shoar) but could see
nothing by reason of the mist: towards Sunset, when we were past
the Island, it cleared up.

The Fourteenth day of _June_, very foggie weather, we sailed by
an Island of Ice (which lay on the Star-board side) three leagues
in length mountain high, in form of [p. 9.] land, with Bayes and
Capes like high clift land, and a River pouring off it into the
Sea. We saw likewise two or three Foxes, or Devils skipping upon
it. These Islands of Ice are congealed in the North, and brought
down in the spring-time with the Current to the banks on this side
_New-found-land_, and there stopt, where they dissolve at last
to water; by that time we had sailed half way by it, we met with
a _French_ Pickeroon. Here it was as cold as in the middle of
_January_ in _England_, and so continued till we were some leagues
beyond it.

The Sixteenth day we sounded, and found 35 fathom water, upon the
bank of _New-found-land_, we cast out our hooks for Cod-fish,
thick foggie weather, the Codd being taken on a Sunday morning,
the Sectaries aboard threw those their servants took into the Sea
again, although they wanted fresh victuals, but the Sailers were
not so nice, amongst many that were taken, we had some that were
wasted Fish, & it is observable and very strange, that fishes
bodies do grow slender with age, their Tails and Heads retaining
their former bigness; Fish of all Creatures have generally the
biggest heads, and the first part that begins to taint in a fish is
the head.

The Nineteenth day, Captain _Thomas Cammock_ [p. 10.] (a near
kinsman of the Earl of _Warwicks_) now had another lad _Thomas
Jones_, that dyed of the small pox at eight of the clock at night.

The Twentieth day, we saw a great number of Sea-bats, or Owles,
called also flying fish, they are about the bigness of a Whiting,
with four tinsel wings, with which they fly as long as they are
wet, when pursued by other fishes. Here likewise we saw many
Grandpisces or Herring-hogs, hunting the scholes of Herrings, in
the afternoon we saw a great fish called the _vehuella_ or Sword
fish, having a long, strong and sharp finn like a Sword-blade on
the top of his head, with which he pierced our Ship, and broke
it off with striving to get loose, one of our Sailers dived and
brought it aboard.

The One and twentieth day, we met with two _Bristow_ men bound for
_New-England_, and now we are 100 and 75 leagues off _Cape-Sable_,
the sandy _Cape_, for so _Sable_ in French signifieth, off of which
lyeth the Isle of _Sable_, which is beyond _New-found-land_, where
they take the _Amphibious_ Creature, the _Walrus_, _Mors_, or
_Sea-Horse_.

The Two and twentieth, another passenger dyed of a Consumption. Now
we passed by the Southern part of _New-found-land_, [p. 11.] within
sight of it; the Southern part of _New-found-land_ is said to be
not above 600 leagues from _England_.

The Six and twentieth day, Capt. _Thomas Cammock_ went aboard of a
Barke of 300 Tuns, laden with Island Wine, and but 7 men in her,
and never a Gun, bound for _Richmonds_ Island, set out by Mr.
_Trelaney_, of _Plimouth_, exceeding hot weather now.

The Eight and twentieth, one of Mr. _Edward Ting’s_ the undertakers
men now dyed of the Phthisick.

The Nine and twentieth day, sounded at night, and found 120
fathome water, the head of the Ship struck against a rock; At 4
of the clock we descryed two sail bound for _New-found-land_, and
so for the _Streights_, they told us of a general Earth-quake
in _New-England_, of the Birth of a Monster at _Boston_, in the
_Massachusets-Bay_ a mortality, and now we are two leagues off
_Cape Ann_.

The Thirtieth day proved stormie, and having lost the sight of the
Land, we saw none untill the morning; doubtfully discovering the
Coast, fearing the Lee-shore all night we bore out to Sea.

_July_ the first day, we sounded at 8 of the clock at night, and
found 93 fathome water, descried land.

The Third day, we Anchored in the _Bay_ of [p. 12.] _Massachusets_
before _Boston_. Mr. _Tinges_ other man now dyed of the small pox.

The Tenth day, I went a shore upon _Noddles Island_ to Mr. _Samuel
Maverick_ (for my passage) the only hospitable man in all the
Countrey, giving entertainment to all Comers _gratis_.

Now before I proceed any further, it will not be Impertinent to
give the intending planter some Instructions for the furnishing of
himself with things necessary, and for undertaking the Transport of
his Family, or any others.

To which end observe, that a Ship of 150 Tuns, with 2 Decks and
a half, and 26 men, with 12 pieces of Ordnance, the charge will
amount _per_ moneth, with the Mariners, to 120 pound _per_ moneth.
It is better to let the Owners undertake for the Victualling of the
Mariners, and their pay for Wages, and the Transporter only to take
care of the passengers.


_The common proportion of Victuals for the Sea to a Mess, being 4
men, is as followeth_;

  Two pieces of Beef, of 3 pound and ¼ _per_ piece.

  Four pound of _Bread_.

  One pint ½ of _Pease_.

  [p. 13.] Four Gallons of _Bear_, with _Mustard_ and _Vinegar_ for
  three flesh dayes in the week.


For four fish dayes, to each mess _per_ day.

  Two pieces of _Codd_ or _Habberdine_, making three pieces of a
  fish.

  One quarter of a pound of _Butter_.

  Four pound of _Bread_.

  Three quarters of a pound of _Cheese_.

  _Bear_ as before.

_Oatmeal per_ day, for 50 men, Gallon 1. and so proportionable
for more or fewer.

Thus you see the Ships provision, is _Beef_ or _Porke_, _Fish_,
_Butter_, _Cheese_, _Pease_, _Pottage_, _Water-gruel_, _Bisket_,
and six shilling _Bear_.

For private fresh provision, you may carry with you (in case you,
or any of yours should be sick at Sea) Conserves of _Roses_,
_Clove-Gilliflowers_, _Wormwood_, _Green-Ginger_, _Burnt-Wine_,
English _Spirits_, _Prunes_ to stew, _Raisons_ of the _Sun_,
_Currence_, _Sugar_, _Nutmeg_, _Mace_, _Cinnamon_, _Pepper_ and
_Ginger_, White _Bisket_, or _Spanish rusk_, _Eggs_, _Rice_, _juice
of Lemmons_ well put up to cure, or prevent the Scurvy. Small
_Skillets_, _Pipkins_, _Porrengers_, and small _Frying pans_.

To prevent or take away Sea sickness, Conserve of _Wormwood_ is
very proper, but these following Troches I prefer before it.

First make paste of _Sugar_ and _Gum-Dragagant_ mixed together,
then mix therewith [p. 14.] a reasonable quantitie of the powder of
_Cinnamon_ and _Ginger_, and if you please a little _Musk_ also,
and make it up into Roules of several fashions, which you may gild,
of this when you are troubled in your Stomach, take and eat a
quantity according to discretion.


_Apparel for one man, and after the rate for more._

                                                  _l._  _s._  _d._
  One Hatt                                         0     3      0
  One _Monmouth_ Cap                               0     1     10
  Three falling bands                              0     1      3
  Three Shirts                                     0     7      6
  One Wastcoat                                     0     2      6
  One suit of Frize                                0    19      0
  One suit of Cloth                                0    15      0
  One suit of Canvas                               0     7      6
  Three pair of _Irish_ Stockins                   0     5      0
  Four pair of Shoos                               0     8      0
  One pair of Canvas Sheets                        0     8      0
  Seven ells of course Canvas to make a bed at }
    Sea for two men, to be filled with straw   }   0     5      0
  One course Rug at Sea for two men                0     6      0
                                                   --------------
                                     _Sum Total._  4     0      0
                                                   --------------


[p. 15] _Victuals for a whole year to be carried out of_ England
_for one man, and so for more after the rate_.

                                                        _l_. _s_. _d_.
  Eight bushels of _Meal_                                2    0    0
  Two bushels of _Pease_ at three shillings a bushel     0    6    0
  Two bushels of _Oatmeal_, at four and six pence  }
    the bushel                                     }     0    9    0
  One Gallon of _Aqua vitæ_                              0    2    6
  One Gallon of _Oyl_                                    0    3    6
  Two Gallons of _Vinegar_                               0    2    0


Note.

Of _Sugar_ and _Spice_, 8 pound make the stone, 13 stone and an
half, _i. e._ 100 pound maketh the hundred, but your best way is to
buy your _Sugar_ there, for it is cheapest, but for Spice you must
carry it over with you.

                                                   _l_. _s_. _d_.
  A Hogshead of _English_ Beef will cost            5    0    0
  A Hogshead of _Irish_ Beef will cost              2   10    0
  A Barrel of _Oatmeal_                             0   13    0
  A Hogshead of _Aqua vitæ_ will cost               4    0    0
  A Hogshead of _Vinegar_                           1    0    0
  A bushel of _Mustard-seed_                        0    6    0

[p. 16.] A _Kental_ of fish, Cod or Habberdine is 112 pound, will
cost if it be merchantable fish, Two or three and thirty Rials a
_Kental_, if it be refuse you may have it for 10 or 11 shillings a
_Kental_.


_Wooden Ware._

                                                     _l_. _s_. _d_.
  A pair of Bellowes                                  0    2    0
  A Skoope                                            0    0    9
  A pair of Wheels for a Cart, if you buy them   }
    in the Countrey, they will cost 3 or 4 pound }    0   14    0
  Wheelbarrow you may have there, in }
    _England_ they cost              }                0    6    0
  A great pail in _England_ will cost                 0    0   10
  A Boat called a Canow, will cost in the Countrey }
    (with a pair of Paddles) if it be a good one   }  3    0    0
  A short Oake ladder in _England_ will cost but      0    0   10
  A Plough                                            0    3    9
  An Axletree                                         0    0    8
  A Cart                                              0   10    0
  For a casting shovel                                0    0   10
  For a shovel                                        0    0    6
  For a Sack                                          0    2    4
  For a Lanthorn                                      0    1    3

_For Tobacco pipes short steels, and great bouls_ 14 _pence and_ 16
_pence the grose._

  [p. 17.]
  For clipping an hundred sheep in  }
    _England_                       }                 0    4    6
  For winding the Wool                                0    0    8
  For washing them                                    0    2    0
  For one Garnish of Peuter                           2    0    0


_Prizes of Iron Ware_.


_Arms for one man, but if half of your men have Armour it is
sufficient so that all have pieces and swords._

                                                     _l_. _s_. _d_.
  One Armour compleat, light                          0   17    0
  One long piece five foot, or five and a half }
    near Musket bore                           }      1    2    0
  One Sword                                           0    5    0
  One Bandaleer                                       0    1    6
  One Belt                                            0    1    0
  Twenty pound of powder                              0   18    0
  Sixty pound of shot or lead, pistol and Goose }
    shot                                        }     0    5    0

_Tools for a Family of Six persons, and so after the rate for more._

  Five broad howes at two shillings a piece           0   10    0
  Five narrow howes at 16 pence a piece               0    6    8
  [p. 18.] Five felling Axes at 18 pence a piece      0    7    6
  Two steel hand-sawes at 16 pence the piece          0    2    8
  Two hand-sawes at 5 shillings a piece               0   10    0
  One whip saw, set and filed with box                0   10    0
  A file and wrest                                    0    0   10
  Two Hammers 12 pence a piece                        0    2    0
  Three shovels 18 pence a piece shod                 0    4    6
  Two spades 18 pence a piece                         0    3    0
  Two Augars                                          0    1    0
  Two broad Axes at 3 shillings 8 pence a piece       0    7    4
  Six Chissels                                        0    3    0
  Three Gimblets                                      0    0    6
  Two Hatchets One and twenty pence a piece           0    3    6
  Two froues to cleave pail at 18 pence a piece       0    3    0
  Two hand-bills at 20 pence a piece                  0    3    4
  Nails of all sorts to be valued                     2    0    0
  Two pick-Axes                                       0    3    0
  Three Locks, and 3 pair of Fetters                  0    5   10
  Two Currie Combs                                    0    0   11
  For a Brand to brand Beasts with                    0    0    6
  For a Chain and lock for a Boat                     0    2    2
  For a Coulter weighing 10 pound                     0    3    4
  For a Hand-vise                                     0    2    6
  [p. 19.] For a Pitch-fork                           0    1    4
  For one hundred weight of Spikes                    2    5    0
  Nails and pins 120, to the hundred
  For a share                                         0    2   11

_Houshould Implements for a Family of six persons, and so for more
or less after the rate._

  One Iron Pot                                        0    7    0
  For one great Copper Kettle                         2    0    0
  For a small Kettle                                  0   10    0
  For a lesser Kettle                                 0    6    0
  For one large Frying-pan                            0    2    6
  For a small Frying-pan                              0    1    8
  For a brass Morter                                  0    3    0
  For a Spit                                          0    2    0
  For one Grid-Iron                                   0   10    0
  For two Skillets                                    0    5    0
  Platters, dishes, & spoons of wood                  0    4    0
  For Sugar, Spice, and fruits at Sea for six men     0   12   10
  _The fraught will be for one man half a Tun._


Having refreshed my self for a day or two upon _Noddles-Island_, I
crossed the Bay in a small Boat to _Boston_, which then was rather
a Village, than a Town, there being not [p. 20.] above Twenty or
thirty houses; and presenting my respects to Mr. _Winthorpe_ the
Governour, and to Mr. _Cotton_ the Teacher of _Boston_ Church,
to whom I delivered from Mr. _Francis Quarles_ the poet, the
Translation of the 16, 25, 51, 88, 113, and 137. Psalms into
_English_ Meeter, for his approbation, being civilly treated by all
I had occasion to converse with, I returned in the Evening to my
lodging.

The Twelfth day of _July_, after I had taken my leave of Mr.
_Maverick_, and some other Gentlemen, I took Boat for the Eastern
parts of the Countrie, and arrived at _Black point_ in the Province
of _Main_, which is 150 miles from _Boston_, the Fourteenth day,
which makes my voyage 11 weeks and odd dayes.

The Countrey all along as I sailed, being no other than a meer
Wilderness, here and there by the Sea-side a few scattered
plantations, with as few houses.

About the Tenth of _August_, I hapned to walk into the Woods,
not far from the Sea-side, and falling upon a piece of ground
over-grown with bushes, called there black Currence, but differing
from our Garden Currence, they being ripe and hanging in lovely
bunches; I set up my piece against a stately Oake, with a
resolution to fill my [p. 21.] belly, being near half a mile from
the house; of a sudden I heard a hollow thumping noise upon the
Rocks approaching towards me, which made me presently to recover
my piece, which I had no sooner cock’d, than a great and grim
over-grown she-Wolf appears, at whom I shot, and finding her
Gor-belly stuft with flesh newly taken in, I began presently to
suspect that she had fallen foul upon our Goats, which were then
valued (our she Goats) at Five pound a Goat; Therefore to make
further discovery, I descended (it being low water) upon the Sea
sands, with an intent to walk round about a neck of land where the
Goats usually kept. I had not gone far before I found the footing
of two Wolves, and one Goat betwixt them, whom they had driven into
a hollow, betwixt two Rocks, hither I followed their footing, and
perceiving by the Crowes, that there was the place of slaughter, I
hung my piece upon my back, and upon all four clambered up to the
top of the Rock, where I made ready my piece and shot at the dog
Wolf, who was feeding upon the remainder of the Goat, which was
only the fore shoulders, head and horns, the rest being devoured
by the she-Wolf, even to the very hair of the Goat: and it is very
observable, that when [p. 22.] the Wolves have kill’d a Beast, or a
Hog, not a Dog-Wolf amongst them offers to eat any of it, till the
she-Wolves have filled their paunches.

The Twenty fourth of _September_, being Munday about 4 of the clock
in the afternoon, a fearful storm of wind began to rage, called a
_Hurricane_. _It is an impetuous wind that goes commonly about the
Compass in the space of_ 24 _hours, it began from the_ W. N. W. and
continued till next morning, the greatest mischief it did us, was
the wracking of our Shallop, and the blowing down of many tall
Trees, in some places a mile together.

_December_ the Tenth, happened an Eclipse of the Moon at 8 of the
clock at night, it continued till after 11, as near as we could
guess; in old _England_ it began after midnight, and continued till
4 of _the clock in the morning; if Seamen would make observation
of the time, either of the beginning or ending of the Eclipse,
or total darkness of Sun and Moon in all places where they shall
happen to be, and confer their observations to some Artist, hereby
the longitude of all places might be certainly known, which are now
very uncertainly reported to us_.

1639. _May_, which fell out to be extream hot and foggie, about the
middle of _May_, I [p. 23.] kill’d within a stones throw of our
house, above four score Snakes, some of them as big as the small of
my leg, black of colour, and three yards long, with a sharp horn on
the tip of their tail two inches in length.

_June_ the Six and twentieth day, very stormie, Lightning
and Thunder. I heard now two of the greatest and fearfullest
thunder-claps that ever were heard, I am confident. At this time we
had some neighbouring Gentlemen in our house, who came to welcome
me into the Countrey; where amongst variety of discourse they told
me of a young Lyon (not long before) kill’d at _Piscataway_ by an
_Indian_; of a Sea-_Serpent_ or _Snake_, that lay quoiled up like a
Cable upon a Rock at _Cape-Ann_: a Boat passing by with _English_
aboard, and two _Indians_, they would have shot the _Serpent_ but
the _Indians_ disswaded them, saying, that if he were not kill’d
out-right, they would be all in danger of their lives.

One Mr. _Mittin_ related of a _Triton_ or _Mereman_ which he saw
in _Cascobay_, the Gentleman was a great Fouler, and used to goe
out with a small Boat or Canow, and fetching a compass about a
small Island, (there being many small Islands in the Bay) for the
advantage of a shot, was encountred [p. 24.] with a _Triton_, who
laying his hands upon the side of the Canow, had one of them chopt
off with a Hatchet by Mr. _Mittin_, which was in all respects like
the hand of a man, the _Triton_ presently sunk, dying the water
with his purple blood, and was no more seen. The next story was
told by Mr. _Foxwell_, now living in the province of _Main_, who
having been to the Eastward in a Shallop, as far as _Cape-Ann_ a
Waggon in his return was overtaken by the night, and fearing to
land upon the barbarous shore, he put off a little further to Sea;
about midnight they were wakened with a loud voice from the shore,
calling upon _Foxwell_, _Foxwell_ come a shore, two or three times:
upon the Sands they saw a great fire, and Men and Women hand in
hand dancing round about it in a ring, after an hour or two they
vanished, and as soon as the day appeared, _Foxwell_ puts into a
small _Cove_, it being about three quarters floud, and traces along
the shore, where he found the footing of Men, Women and Children
shod with shoes; and an infinite number of brands-ends thrown up by
the water, but neither _Indian_ nor _English_ could he meet with
on the shore, nor in the woods; these with many other stories they
told me, the credit whereof I will neither impeach nor inforce, but
shall [p. 25.] satisfie my self, and I hope the Reader hereof, with
the saying of a wise, learned and honourable Knight, _that there
are many Stranger things in the world, than are to be seen between_
London _and_ Stanes.

_September_ the Sixth day, one Mr. _John Hickford_ the Son of
Mr. _Hickford_ a Linnen-Draper in _Cheapside_, having been some
time in the province of _Main_, and now determined to return for
_England_, sold and kill’d his stock of Cattle and Hoggs, one
great Sow he had which he made great account of, but being very
fat, and not suspecting that she was with pig, he caused her to be
kill’d, and they found 25 pigs within her belly; verifying the old
proverb, As fruitful as a white sow. And now we were told of a sow
in _Virginia_ that brought forth six pigs; their fore-parts Lyons,
their hinder-parts hogs. _I have read that at_ Bruxels, Anno 1564.
_a sow brought forth six pigs, the first whereof (for the last in
generating is always in bruit beasts the first brought forth) had
the head, face, arms and legs of a man, but the whole trunck of the
body from the neck, was of a swine, a sodomitical monster is more
like the mother than the father in the organs of the vegetative
soul._

The Three and twentieth, I left _Black-point_, and came to
_Richmonds_ Island about [p. 26.] three leagues to the Eastward,
where Mr. _Tralanie_ kept a fishing, Mr. _John Winter_ a grave and
discreet man was his Agent, and imployer of 60 men upon that design.

The Four and twentieth day being _Munday_, I went aboard the
_Fellowship_ of 100 and 70 Tuns a Flemish bottom, the Master
_George Luxon_ of _Bittiford_ in _Devonshire_, several of my
friends came to bid me farewell, among the rest Captain _Thomas
Wannerton_ who drank to me a pint of kill-devil _alias_ Rhum at a
draught, at 6 of the clock in the morning we weighed Anchor, and
set sail for the _Massachusets-bay_.

The Seven and twentieth day being _Fryday_, we Anchored in the
afternoon in the _Massachusets-bay_ before _Boston_. Next day I
went aboard of _Mr. Hinderson_, Master of a ship of 500 Tuns,
and Captain _Jackson_ in the Queen of _Bohemia_ a privateer,
and from thence I went ashore to _Boston_, where I refreshed my
self at an Ordinary. Next morning I was invited to a fisherman’s
house somewhat lower within the _Bay_, and was there by his Wife
presented with a handful of small Pearl, but none of them bored nor
orient. From thence I crost the Bay to _Charles-town_, where at one
_Longs_ Ordinary I met with Captain _Jackson_ and others, walking
on the back side we spied a rattle [p. 27.] Snake a yard and half
long, and as thick in the middle as the small of a mans leg, on
the belly yellow, her back spotted with black, russet, yellow and
green, placed like scales, at her tail she had a rattle which is
nothing but a hollow shelly buffiness joynted, look how many years
old she is, so many rattles she hath in her tail, her neck seemed
to be no bigger than ones Thumb; yet she swallowed a live Chicken,
as big as one they give 4 pence for in _England_, presently as we
were looking on. In the afternoon I returned to our Ship, being no
sooner aboard but we had the sight of an _Indian_-Pinnace sailing
by us made of _Birch-bark_, sewed together with the roots of spruse
and white _Cedar_ (drawn out into threads) with a deck, and trimmed
with sails top and top gallant very sumptuously.

The Thirtieth day of _September_, I went ashore upon
_Noddles_-Island, where when I was come to Mr. _Mavericks_ he would
not let me go aboard no more, until the Ship was ready to set sail;
the next day a grave and sober person described the Monster to
me, that was born at _Boston_ of one Mrs. _Dyer_ a great Sectarie,
_the Nine and twentieth of_ June, _it was (it should seem) without
a head, but having horns like a Beast, and ears, scales on a rough
skin like a fish_ [p. 28.] _called a_ Thornback, _legs and claws
like a_ Hawke, _and in other respects as a Woman-child_.

The Second of _October_, about 9 of the clock in the morning, Mr.
_Mavericks_ Negro woman came to my chamber window, and in her own
Countrey language and tune sang very loud and shril, going out to
her, she used a great deal of respect towards me, and willingly
would have expressed her grief in _English_; but I apprehended
it by her countenance and deportment, whereupon I repaired to my
host, to learn of him the cause, and resolved to intreat him in her
behalf, for that I understood before, that she had been a Queen in
her own Countrey, and observed a very humble and dutiful garb used
towards her by another Negro who was her maid. Mr. _Maverick_ was
desirous to have a breed of Negroes, and therefore seeing she would
not yield by perswasions to company with a Negro young man he had
in his house; he commanded him will’d she nill’d she to go to bed
to her, which was no sooner done but she kickt him out again, this
she took in high disdain beyond her slavery, and this was the cause
of her grief. In the afternoon I walked into the Woods on the back
side of the house, and happening into a [p. 29.] fine broad walk
(which was a sledgway) I wandered till I chanc’t to spye a fruit
as I thought like a pine Apple plated with scales, it was as big
as the crown of a Womans hat; I made bold to step unto it, with
an intent to have gathered it, no sooner had I toucht it, but
hundreds of Wasps were about me; at last I cleared my self from
them, being stung only by one upon the upper lip, glad I was that
I scaped so well; But by that time I was come into the house my
lip was swell’d so extreamly, that they hardly knew me but by my
Garments.

The Tenth of _October_, I went aboard and we fell down to
_Nantascot_, here Mr. _Davies_ (Mr. _Hicks_ the Apothecarie in
_Fleet-streets_ Son-in-law) dyed of the Phthisick aboard on a
Sunday in the afternoon. The next day Mr. _Luxon_ our Master having
been ashore upon the Governours Island gave me half a score very
fair Pippins which he brought from thence, there being not one
Apple-tree, nor Pear planted yet in no part of the Countrey, but
upon that Island.

The Fifteenth day, we set sail from _Nantascot_.

The Sixteenth day Mr. _Robert Foster_, one of our passengers
Preached aboard upon [p. 30.] the 113 Psalm; _The Lord shall
preserve thy going out, & thy coming in_; The Sectaries began to
quarrel with him, especially Mr. _Vincent Potter_, he who was
afterwards questioned for a Regicide.

The Seventeenth day, towards Sun-set a Lanner settled upon our main
Mast-top, when it was dark I hired one of the Sailers to fetch her
down, and I brought her into _England_ with much ado, being fain to
feed her with hard Eggs. After this day, we had very cold weather
at Sea, our deck in a morning ore-spread with hoarie frost, and
dangling Isickles hung upon the Ropes. _Some say the Sea is hotter
in winter, than in summer; but I did not find it so._

_November_ the Fifth day, about three of the clock in the
afternoon, the Mariners observed the rising of a little black cloud
in the _N. W._ which increasing apace, made them prepare against a
coming storm, the wind in short time grew to boisterous, bringing
after us a huge grown Sea, at 5 of the clock it was pitchie dark.

      _And the bitter storm augments; the wild winds wage_

      _War from all parts; and joyn with the Seas rage._

      [p. 31.] _The sad clouds sink in showers; you would have thought,_

      _That high-swoln-seas even unto Heaven had wrought;_

      _And Heaven to Seas defended: no star shown;_

      _Blind night in darkness, tempests, and her own_

      _Dread terrours lost; yet this dire lightning turns_

      _To more fear’d light; the Sea with lightning Burns._

      _The Pilot knew not what to chuse or fly,_

      _Art stood amaz’d in Ambiguity._

The storm augmenting still, the next day about 4 of the clock
afternoon we lost our Rudder, and with that our hopes, so necessary
a part it is, that a ship without it, is like a wild horse without
a bridle; yet _Aristotle_ that _Eagle_-ey’d _Philosopher could not
give a reason, why so small a thing as a Helm should rule the ship_.

[p. 32.] The Seventh day at night, the wind began to dye away, the
next day we had leasure to repair our breaches; it continued calm
till the 13 day, and all the while we saw many dead bodies of men
and women floating by us.

The Four and twentieth, we arrived before _Bittiford_, having past
before under _Lundee_-Island.



The Second

VOYAGE.


I have heard of a certain Merchant in the west of _England_, who
after many great losses, walking upon the Sea-bank in a calm
Sun-shining day; observing the smoothness of the Sea, coming in
with a chequered or dimpled wave: Ah (quoth he) thou flattering
Element, many a time hast thou inticed me to throw my self and my
fortunes into thy Arms; but thou hast hitherto proved treacherous;
thinking to find thee a Mother of encrease, I have found thee
to be the Mother of mischief and wickedness; yea the Father of
prodigies; therefore, being now secure, I will trust thee no more:
But mark this mans resolution a while after, _periculum maris
spes lucri superat_. So fared it with me, that having escaped the
dangers of one Voyage, must needs put on a resolution for a second,
wherein I plowed many a churlish billow [p. 34.] with little or
no advantage, but rather to my loss and detriment. In the setting
down, whereof I purpose not to insist in a methodical way, but
according to my quality, in a plain and brief relation as I have
done already; for I perceive, if I used all the Art that possibly
I could, it would be difficult to please all, for all mens eyes,
ears, faith, judgement, are not of a size. There be a sort of
stagnant stinking spirits, who, like flyes, lye sucking at the
botches of carnal pleasures, and never travelled so much Sea, as
is between _Heth-ferry_, and _Lyon-Key_; yet notwithstanding,
(sitting in the Chair of the scornful over their whists and
draughts of intoxication) will desperately censure the relations
of the greatest Travellers. It was a good _proviso_ of a learned
man, never to report wonders, for in so doing, of the greatest he
will be sure not to be believed, but laughed at, which certainly
bewraies their ignorance and want of discretion. Of Fools and
Madmen then I shall take no care, I will not invite these in the
least to honour me with a glance from their supercilious eyes; but
rather advise them to keep their inspection for their fine-tongu’d
Romances, and playes. This homely piece, I protest ingenuously,
is prepared for such only who well know how to make use of their
[p. 35.] charitable constructions towards works of this nature, to
whom I submit my self in all my faculties, and proceed in my second
voyage.

_Anno 1663._ _May_ the Three and twentieth, I went down to
_Gravesend_, it being _Saturday_ I lay ashore till _Monday_ the
fifth, about 11 a clock at night, I went aboard the _Society_
belonging to _Boston_ in the _Massachusets_ a Colony of _English_
in _New-England_, of 200 and 20 Tun, carrying 16 Iron Guns most
unserviceable, man’d with 33 sailers, and 77 passengers, men, women
and children.

The Six and twentieth day, about 6 of the clock in the morning we
weighed Anchor, and fell down with the tide three or four miles
below _Gravesend_.

The Seven and twentieth in the afternoon, we weighed Anchor and
came into the _Hope_ before _Deal-Castle_, here we were wind bound
till

The 30 day, we set sail out of the _Downs_, being _Saturday_
about 9 of the clock in the morning, about 4 of the clock in the
afternoon we came up with _Beachy_ by _W._ at _Nore_.

The One and thirtieth at 4 of the clock in the morning we came
up with the Isle of _Wight_, at 4 of the clock in the afternoon
[p. 36.] we had _Portland_ N. N. W. of us, 6 leagues off, the
wind being then at _N. W. by N._ at 5 of the clock we came to
_Dartmouth_, the wind _W. S. W._

_June_ the first day, being _Monday_ about 4 of the clock
_Plimouth_ was about 9 leagues off, our course _W. S. W._ the Start
bore North distant about 6 leagues from whence our reckonings
began; the wind now _E. N. E._ a fair gale.

The second day the _Lizard_ bore _N. N. W._ in the latitude 51. 300
leagues from _Cape-Cod_ in _New England_, our course _W._ and by
_S._ One of our passengers now dyed of a Consumption.

The Fifth day we steered _S. W._ observed and found the ship in
latitude 47 degrees, and 44 minutes.

The Tenth day observed and found the ship in latitude 49 degrees,
and 24 minutes.

The Five and twentieth day, about 3 of the clock in the morning we
discovered land, about 6 of the clock _Flowers_, so called from
abundance of flowers, and _Corvo_ from a multitude of _Crowes_; two
of the _Azores_ or western Islands, in the _Atlantique Ocean_ not
above 250 leagues from _Lisbon_ bore _N. W._ of us some 3 leagues
off, we steered away _W._ by _W._ observed and found _Flowers_ to
be in the Southern part in latitude 39 [p. 37.] degrees 13 minuts,
we descryed a Village and a small Church or Chappel seated in
a pleasant valley to the Easter-side of the Island, the whole
Island is rockie and mountanious about 8 miles in compass, stored
with Corn, Wine and Goats, and inhabited by outlaw’d _Portingals_,
the Town they call _Santa Cruz_. _Corvo_ is not far from this,
I supposed two or three leagues, a meer mountain, and very high
and steep on all sides, cloathed with tall wood on the very top,
uninhabited, but the _Flowreans_ here keep some number of Goats.

The Seven and twentieth day, 30 leagues to the westward of these
Islands we met with a small Vessel stoln from _Jamaico_, but 10
men in her, and those of several nations, _English_, _French_,
_Scotch_, _Dutch_ almost famish’d, having been out as they told us,
by reason of calms, three moneths, bound for _Holland_.

_July_ the sixth, calm now for two or three dayes, our men went out
to swim, some hoisted the _Shallop_ out and took divers Turtles,
there being an infinite number of them all over the Sea as far as
we could ken, and a man may ken at Sea in a clear Air 20 miles,
they floated upon the top of the water being a sleep, and driving
gently upon them with the _Shallop_, of a sudden [p. 38.] they
took hold of their hinder legs and lifted them into the boat, if
they be not very nimble they awake and presently dive under water;
when they were brought aboard they sob’d and wept exceedingly,
continuing to do so till the next day that we killed them, by
chopping off their heads, and having taken off their shells (that
on their back being fairest, is called a Gally patch) we opened
the body and took out three hearts in one case, and (which was
more strange) we perceived motion in the hearts ten hours after
they were taken out. I have observed in _England_ in my youthful
dayes the like in the heart of a _Pike_, and the heart of a _Frog_,
which will leap and skip as nimbly as the _Frog_ used to do when
it was alive from whom it was taken. Likewise the heart of a _Pig_
will stir after it is exenterated. Being at a friends house in
_Cambridg-shire_, the Cook-maid making ready to slaughter a _Pig_,
she put the hinder parts between her legs as the usual manner
is, and taking the snout in her left hand with a long knife she
stuck the _Pig_ and cut the small end of the heart almost in two,
letting it bleed as long as any bloud came forth, then throwing
of it into a Kettle of boyling water, the _Pig_ swom twice round
about the kettle, when taking of it out to [p. 39.] the dresser
she rub’d it with powdered _Rozen_ and stript off the hair, and
as she was cutting off the hinder pettito, the _Pig_ lifts up his
head with open mouth, as if it would have bitten: well, the belly
was cut up, and the entrails drawn out, and the heart laid upon
the board, which notwithstanding the wound it received had motion
in it, above four hours after; there were several of the Family
by, with my self, and we could not otherwayes conclude but that
the _Pig_ was bewitched; but this by the way. Of the Sea Turtles
there be five sorts, first the Trunck-turtle which is biggest,
Secondly, the Loggerhead-turtle. Thirdly, the Hawkbill-turtle,
which with its bill will bite horribly. Fourthly, the Green-turtle
which is best for food, it is affirmed that the feeding upon this
Turtle for a twelve moneth, forbearing all other kind of food will
cure absolutely Consumptions, and the great pox; They are a very
delicate food, and their Eggs are very wholesome and restorative,
it is an _Amphibious_ Creature going ashore, the male throws the
female on her back when he couples with her, which is termed
cooting, their Eggs grown to perfection the female goes ashore
again and making a hole in the Sand, there layes her Eggs which
are numerous, I have seen a peck [p. 40.] of Eggs taken out of one
Turtle; when they have laid they cover the hole again with sand,
and return to the Sea never looking after her Eggs, which hatching
in the sand and coming to some strength break out and repair to the
Sea. Having fill’d our bellies with Turtles and Bonito’s, called
_Spanish_ Dolphins excellently well cooked both of them, the wind
blowing fair,

The Eighth day we spread our sails and went on our voyage, after a
while we met with abundance of Sea-weeds called Gulf-weed coming
out of the Bay of _Mexico_, and firr-trees floating on the Sea,
observed and found the Ship to be in 39 degrees and 49 minuts.

The Fifteenth day we took a young Sharke about three foot long,
which being drest and dished by a young Merchant a passenger
happened to be very good fish, having very white flesh in flakes
like Codd but delicately curl’d, the back-bone which is perfectly
round, joynted with short joynts, the space between not above a
quarter of an inch thick, separated they make fine Table-men, being
wrought on both sides with curious works.

The One and twentieth thick hasie weather.

The Five and twentieth we met with a [p. 41.] _Plimouth_ man come
from St. _Malloes_ in _France_, 10 weeks out, laden with cloath,
fruit, and honey, bound for _Boston_ in _New-England_.

The Six and twentieth we had sight of land.

The Seven and twentieth we Anchored at _Nantascot_, in the
afternoon I went aboard of a _Ketch_, with some other of our
passengers, in hope to get to _Boston_ that night; but the Master
of the _Ketch_ would not consent.

The Eight and twentieth being _Tuesday_, in the morning about 5
of the clock he lent us his _Shallop_ and three of his men, who
brought us to the western end of the town where we landed, and
having gratified the men, we repaired to an Ordinary (for so they
call their Taverns there) where we were provided with a liberal
cup of burnt Madera-wine, and store of plum-cake, about ten of the
clock I went about my Affairs.

Before I pursue my Voyage to an end, I shall give you to
understand what Countrie _New-England_ is. _New-England_ is
that part of _America_, which together with _Virginia_, _Mary
land_, and _Nova-scotia_ were by the _Indians_ called (by one
name) _Wingadacoa_, after the discovery by Sir _Walter_ [p. 42.]
_Rawleigh_ they were named _Virginia_, and so remained untill King
_James_ divided the Countrey into Provinces. _New-England_ then is
all that tract of land that lyes between the Northerly latitudes
of 40 and 46, that is from _De-la-ware-Bay_ to _New-found-land_,
some will have it to be in latitude from 41 to 45. in King _Jame’s_
Letters Patents to the Council of _Plimouth_ in _Devonshire_ from
40 to 48 of the same latitude, it is judged to be an Island,
surrounded on the North with the spacious River of _Canada_, on
the South with _Mahegan_ or _Hudsons_ River, having their rise, as
it is thought, from two great lakes not far off one another, the
Sea lyes East and South from the land, and is very deep, some say
that the depth of the Sea being measured with line and plummet,
seldom exceeds two or three miles, except in some places near the
_Swevian_-shores, and about _Pontus_, observed by _Pliny_. Sir
_Francis Drake_ threw out 7 Hogsheads of line near _Porto-bello_
and found no bottom, but whether this be true or no, or that they
were deceived by the Currants carrying away their lead and line,
this is certainly true, that there is more Sea in the Western than
the Eastern _Hemisphere_, on the shore in more places than one at
spring-tides, that is at the full or new of the moon, [p. 43.] the
Sea riseth 18 foot perpendicular, the reason of this great flow of
waters I refer to the learned, onely by the way I shall acquaint
you with two reasons for the ebbing and flowing of the Sea; the one
delivered in Common conference, the other in a Sermon at _Boston_
in the _Massachusets-Bay_ by an eminent man; The first was, _that
God and his spirit moving upon the waters caused the motion_; the
other, _that the spirit of the waters gathered the waters together;
as the spirit of Christ gathered souls_.

The shore is Rockie, with high cliffs, having a multitude of
considerable Harbours; many of which are capacious enough for a
Navy of 500 sail, one of a thousand, the Countrie within Rockie
and mountanious, full of tall wood, one stately mountain there
is surmounting the rest, about four score mile from the Sea: The
description of it you have in my rarities of _New-England_, between
the mountains are many ample rich and pregnant valleys as ever
eye beheld, beset on each side with variety of goodly Trees, the
grass man-high unmowed, uneaten and uselesly withering; within
these valleys are spacious lakes or ponds well stored with Fish
and Beavers; the original of all the great Rivers in the Countrie,
of which there are many with lesser [p. 44.] streams (wherein are
an infinite of fish) manifesting the goodness of the soil which
is black, red-clay, gravel, sand, loom, and very deep in some
places, as in the valleys and swamps, which are low grounds and
bottoms infinitely thick set with Trees and Bushes of all sorts for
the most part, others having no other shrub or Tree growing, but
spruse, under the shades whereof you may freely walk two or three
mile together; being goodly large Trees, and convenient for masts
and sail-yards. The whole Countrie produceth springs in abundance
replenished with excellent waters, having all the properties
ascribed to the best in the world.

      _Swift is’t in pace, light poiz’d, to look in clear,
      And quick in boiling (which esteemed were)
      Such qualities, as rightly understood
      Withouten these no water could be good._

_One Spring there is, at_ Black-point _in the Province of_ Main,
_coming out of muddy clay that will colour a spade, as if hatcht
with silver, it is purgative and cures scabs and Itch_, &c.

[Sidenote: Isa. 45. 3.]

The mountains and Rocky Hills are richly furnished with mines of
Lead, Silver, [p. 45.] Copper, Tin, and divers sorts of minerals,
branching out even to their summits, where in small Crannies you
may meet with threds of perfect silver; yet have the _English_
no maw to open any of them, whether out of ignorance or fear of
bringing a forraign Enemy upon them, or (like the dog in the
manger) to keep their Soveraign from partaking of the benefits, who
certainly may claim an interest in them as his due, being eminently
a gift proceeding from divine bounty to him; no person can pretend
interest in Gold, Silver, or Copper by the law of Nations, but
the Soveraign Prince; but the subjects of our King have a right to
mines discovered in their own Lands and inheritances; So as that
every tenth Tun of such Oar is to be paid to the proprietors of
such lands, and not to the state, if it be not a mine-Royal: if it
prove to be a mine-Royal, every fifth Tun of all such Oar as shall
hold Gold or Silver worth refining, is to be rendered to the King.
_The learned Judges of our Kingdom have long since concluded, that
although the Gold or Silver conteined in the base mettals of a mine
in the land of a Subject, be of less value than the baser mettal;
yet if the Gold or Silver do countervail the charge of refining it,
or be more worth than the base mettal spent_ [p. 46.] _in refining
it, that then it is a mine-Royal, and as well the base mettal as
the Gold and Silver in it belongs by prerogative to the Crown._

The stones in the Countrey are for the most _mettle_-stone,
free-stone, pebble, slate, none that will run to lime, of which
they have great want, of the slate you may make Tables easie to be
split to the thickness of an inch, or thicker if you please, and
long enough for a dozen men to sit at. Pretious stones there are
too, but if you desire to know further of them, see the Rarities of
_New-England_; onely let me add this observation by the way, that
Crystal set in the Sun taketh fire, and setteth dry Tow or brown
Paper on fire held to it. There is likewise a sort of glittering
sand, which is altogether as good as the glassie powder brought
from the _Indies_ to dry up Ink on paper newly written. The climate
is reasonably temperate, hotter in Summer, and colder in Winter
than with us, agrees with our Constitutions better than _hotter
Climates, these are limbecks to our bodies, forraign heat will
extract the inward and adventitious heat consume the natural,
so much more heat any man receives outwardly from the heat of
the Sun, so much more wants he the same inwardly_, which is one
reason why [p. 47.] they are able to receive more and larger
draughts of Brandy, & the like strong spirits than in _England_
without offence. _Cold is less tolerable than heat, this a friend
to nature, that an enemy. Many are of opinion that the greatest
enemies of life, consisting of heat and moisture, is cold and
dryness; the extremity of cold is more easie to be endured than
extremity of heat; the violent sharpness of winter, than the fiery
raging of Summer. To conclude, they are both bad, too much heat
brings a hot Feaver, too much cold diminisheth the flesh, withers
the face, hollowes the eyes, quencheth natural heat, peeleth the
hair, and procureth baldness._

Astronomers have taken special knowledge of the number of 1024 of
the principal apparent noted Stars of all the rest, besides the 7
Planets, and the 12 Signs, and it is agreed upon that there are
more Stars under the Northern-pole, than under the Southern, the
number of Stars under both poles are innumerable to us; but not
to the Almighty Creator of Heaven and Earth, who calleth them all
by their names. _Isai._ 40. _Levate in excelsum oculos vestros &
videte quis creavit hæc? quis educit in numero militiam eorum &
omnia suis nominibus vocat?_ In _January_ 1668. two Suns appeared
and two Moons. The year before was published the Suns prerogative,
vindicated by [p. 48.] _Alexander Nowel_ a young studient at
_Harvard-Colledge_ in the _Massachusets_ Colony, which was as
followeth.

_Mathematicians have that priviledge, above other Philosophers,
that their foundations are so founded upon, and proved by
demonstration, that reason_ volens nolens _must approve of them,
when they are once viewed by the eye of the intellect_, ipso facto
_it grants a_ probatum est; _if upon those foundations he raises
famous Architectures, which are inseparably joynted in, and joyned
to their ground-works, yet are not their Elements of such vast
extensions, as to have their dimensions adequated with the machine
of the_ primum mobile, _and so include the Fabrick of created
beings; but there are sphears above the sphear of their Activity,
and Orbs placed above the reach of their Instruments, which will_
non-plus _the most acute inquisitors, at least in reference to
an accurate scrutiny: hence dissentions about Celestial bodies,
whether the planets have any natural light, has been a question,
proving that they borrow their light from the Sun: he being the
primitive, they derivatives; he the_ Augmentum primum, _they_
Orta, _who though they have light in_ se, _yet not_ ex se. _This
assertion is not expugned by_ Geocentricks _who produce sense
and Antiquity to support their suppositions; nor oppugned by_
Heliocentricks, [p. 49.] _who deduce their_ Hypothesis _from
reason, and new observations: for_, quicquid in ambitu alicujus
circuli actu diffusum, comprehenditur, id in centro ejusdem
continetur potentia collectum. _Should I put the question to the
vote, questionless the major part of modern Astronomers would carry
it affirmatively; but a testimony being_ Inartificialis Argumentum,
_I shall found my position upon a more Artificial_ Basis. _As for
the multiplication of Eclipses which some fear, it’s needless, for
the extent of the_ Cone _of the earths shaddow_ (à Centro terræ)
_being_ 250 Semidiameters, _it cannot reach_ Mars; Venus _and_
Mercury _never oppose the Sun. It has been observed by the help
of_ Optick Tubes, _that_ Venus _has divers faces, according to her
diverse position to the Sun. Some affirm the same of_ Mercury,
_but he’s not so liable to observation, being seldom clear of the
radiancy of the Sun. The superior Planets being above the Sun, turn
the same side to the Sun, as they do to us._ Venus _and_ Mars _are
more lucid in their_ Parhelion, _than in their_ Aphelion. _The_
Telescope _may convince us of this truth_; Evincit enim crassa,
opaca & dissimilium plane partium corpora, planctas esse. _Lastly
God made the Sun and Moon, the two greater lights (though not
the greater lucid bodies) that the Moons light is adventitious,
followes from her invisibilitie_ [p. 50.] _in a central Eclipse:
hence the other planets are destitute of native light_; nam à
majore ad minus valet consequentia negativé.

In the year 1664. a Star or Comet appeared in _New-England_ in
_December_ in the _South-East_, rising constantly about one of
the clock in the morning, carrying the tail lower and lower till
it came into the _West_, and then bare it directly before it; the
Star it self was of a duskish red, the tail of the colour of _via
lactea_, or the milkie way. A fortnight after it appeared again
rising higher near the _Nadir_ or point over our heads, of the same
form and colour; of which hear the former Scholar.

_Comets (say Naturalists) proceed from natural causes, but they
oft proceed preternatural effects. That they have been Antecedents
to strange consequents is an universal truth, and proved by
particulars_, viz. _That which hung over_ Hierusalem _before its
extirpation by_ Vespatian, _that vertical to_ Germany, _before
those bloudy Wars_ &c. _So that experience Attests, and reason
Assents, that they have served for sad Prologues to Tragical
Epilogues. For the future preludiums to what events they’l prove,
may be proved by consequence, if they han’t suffered a privation of
their powerful Energie. Dr._ Ward _to salve Contests, distinguishes
between Cometæidæ, which are_ [p. 51.] _Sublunary exhalations,
and Cometæ, which are heavenly bodies, coevous with the Stars;
the cause of the inequality of whose motion, is their Apoge and
Periges. Concerning the height of the late Comets Orb, because of
the deficiency of Instruments, here’s_ pars deficiens. _As for
its motion_ December 10. _’twas about the middle of_ Virgo. Jan.
24. 26 deg. Aries. _Some observe that Comets commonly follow a
Conjunction of the superiour planets. Astronomers attribute much to
the predominancy of that planet which rules it, which they judge
by the Colour; a dull leaden colour, claims_ Saturn _for his Lord;
bright_, Jupiter; _Red_, Mars; _Golden_, Sol; _Yellow_, Venus;
_variable_, Mercury; _pale_, Luna. _Also to the Aspects it receives
from other planets, the sign it is in, and the house of the Heavens
in which it first was. Hence some may judge a scheam of the Heavens
necessary, but unless Calculated for its certain rise (which is
uncertain) it’s adjudged by the judicious, superfluous. Some put
much trust or virtue in the tail, terming it the Ignomon_, &c. _But
that is probable of all, which has been observed of some, that it’s
alwayes opposite to the Sun; hence when the Sun is at the Meridian
of the Antipodes it turns_, &c. _Which_ Regiomont _observed of
that in_ 1475. _and_ Keckerman _of that in_ 1607. Longomontanus
_observes of that in_ 1618. _that its first_ [p. 52.] _appearance
was vertical to_ Germany _and went_ Northward, _so its effect
began there, and made the like progress: it’s rational, that as a
cause, it should operate most powerfully on those in whose Zenith
it is, as the meridional Altitude; nor is it irrational, that as
a sign, it should presage somewhat to all those, in whose Horizon
it appears; for in reason_, Relata se mutuo inferunt, _hence_
signum _infers_ signatum, _and the signifier implies a signified.
Diverse desire to be certified of the event; but he is wise that
knowes it. Some presume prophetically to specificate from generals
truths; others desperately deny generals and all; of all whom it’s
a truth_, Incidunt in Scyllam, &c. _Noble_ Ticho _concludes, (with
whom I conclude) that it’s not rational particularly to determine
the sequel; for should any, it would be only in a contingent Axiom,
and proceed from fancie; therefore of no necessary consequence, and
would produce only opinion._

A friend of mine shewed me a small Treatise written and printed
in the _Massachusets_-Bay by _B. D. Intituled An Astronomical
description of the late Comet, or Blazing-Star, as it appeared in_
New-England _in the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and the beginning of
the Twelfth moneth_, 1664. _printed at_ Cambridge _by_ Samuel Green
1665. An ingenious piece, but because I could not perswade [p.
53.] my friend to part with it, I took out some short notes being
straitned in time, which are as followes.

Comets are distinguished in respect of their figure, according
to the divers aspects of the Sun, into _Barbate_, _Caudate_, and
_Crinite_. 1. When the stream like a beard goes before the body. 2.
When the stream followes the body. 3. When the stream goes right up
into the Heavens.

A Comet is said to be Vertical to any people, when the body of the
Comet passeth over their heads.

The light of the Comet alters and varies according to the diverse
Aspects of the Sun enlightning it.

Some took notice of it in the beginning of _November_.

In _Anno Dom._ 1668. _July_ the Fifteenth happened an Eclipse of
the moon from 9 of the clock at night, till after 11, digits 9, and
35 minutes.

In _November_ following appeared a Star between the horns of the
Moon in the midst.

In _Anno Dom._ 1669. about the middle of _June_ at 4 of the clock
in the afternoon, appeared a Rain-bow reverst, and at night about
10 of the clock we had a _Lunar_ Rain-bow.

[p. 54.] The _Indians_ so far as I could perceive have but little
knowledge of the Stars and Planets, observing the Sun and Moon
only, the dividers of time into dayes and years: they being nearer
to the Equinoctial-line by 10 degrees, have their dayes and nights
more equally divided, being in Summer two hours shorter, in Winter
two hours longer than they are in _England_. The 11 of _June_ the
Sun riseth at 4 and 26 minutes, and setteth at 7 & 34 minutes: in
_December_, the 13 the shortest day, the Sun riseth at 7 and 35
minutes, and setteth at 4 and 27 minutes.

Mid-_March_ their Spring begins, in _April_ they have Rain and
Thunder; So again at _Michaelmas_, about which season they have
either before _Michaelmas_ or after outrageous storms of Wind and
Rain. It’s observable that there is no part of the World, which
hath not some certain times of out-rageous storms. We have upon
our Coast in _England_ a _Michaelmas_ flaw, that seldom fails:
in the _West-Indies_ in _August_ and _September_ the forcible
_North_-wind, which though some call _Tuffins_ or _Hurricanes_
we must distinguish, for a right _Hurricane_ is (as I have said
before) an impetuous wind that goes about the Compass in the
space of 24 hours, in such a storm the Lord _Willoughby_ [p. 55.]
of _Parham_ Governour of the _Barbadoes_ was cast away, going
with a fleet to recover St. _Christophers_ from the _French_,
_Anno Dom._ 1666. _July_. Cold weather begins with the middle of
_November_, the winter’s perpetually freezing, insomuch that their
Rivers and salt-Bayes are frozen over and passable for Men, Horse,
Oxen and Carts: _Æquore cum gelido zephyrus fere xenia Cymbo_.
The _North-west_ wind is the sharpest wind in the Countrie. In
_England_ most of the cold winds and weathers come from the Sea,
and those seats that are nearest the Sea-coasts in _England_ are
accounted unwholsome, but not so in _New-England_, for in the
extremity of winter the _North-East_ and _South_-wind coming from
the Sea produceth warm weather, only the _North-West_-wind coming
over land from the white mountains (which are alwayes (except
in _August_) covered with snow) is the cause of extream cold
weather, alwayes accompanied with deep snowes and bitter frosts,
the snow for the most part four and six foot deep, which melting
on the superficies with the heat of the Sun, (for the most part
shining out clearly every day) and freezing again in the night
makes a crust upon the snow sufficient to bear a man walking with
snow-shoos upon it. And at this [p. 56.] season the _Indians_ go
forth on hunting of Dear and Moose, twenty, thirty, forty miles up
into the Countrie. Their Summer is hot and dry proper for their
_Indian_ Wheat; which thrives best in a hot and dry season, the
skie for the most part Summer and Winter very clear and serene; if
they see a little black cloud in the _North-West_, no bigger than
a man may cover with his Hat, they expect a following storm, the
cloud in short time spreading round about the Horizon accompanied
with violent gusts of wind, rain, and many times lightning and
terrible thunder. In all Countries they have observations how the
weather will fall out, and these rules following are observable
in _New-England_. If the Moon look bright and fair, look for fair
weather, also the appearing of one Rainbow after a storm, is a
known sign of fair weather; if mists come down from the Hills, or
descend from the Heavens, and settle in the valleys, they promise
fair hot weather; mists in the Evening shew a fair hot day on
the morrow: the like when mists rise from waters in the Evening.
The obscuring of the smaller Stars is a certain sign of Tempests
approaching; the oft changing of the wind is also a fore-runner of
a storm; the resounding of the Sea from the shore, and murmuring
of [p. 57.] the winds in the woods without apparent wind, sheweth
wind to follow: shooting of the Stars (as they call it) is an usual
sign of wind from that quarter the Star came from. So look whether
the resounding of the Sea upon the shore be on the _East_ or _West_
side of the dwelling, out of that quarter will the wind proceed
the next day. The redness of the sky in the morning, is a token
of winds, or rain or both: if the Circles that appear about the
Sun be red and broken, they portend wind; if thick and dark, wind,
snow and rain; the like may be said of the Circles about the moon.
If two rain-bowes appear, they are a sign of rain; If the Sun or
Moon look pale, look for rain: if a dark cloud be at Sun-rising,
in which the Sun soon after is hid, it will dissolve it, and rain
will follow; _nebula ascendens indicat imbres, nebula descendens
serenitatem_. If the Sun seem greater in the _East_, than in the
_West_ about Sun-setting, and that there appears a black cloud, you
may expect rain that night, or the day following.

      _Serò rubens Cælum cras indicat esse serenum,
      Sed si manè rubet venturos indicat Imbres._

[p. 58.] To conclude; if the white hills look clear and
conspicuous, it is a sign of fair weather; if black and cloudy, of
rain; if yellow, it is a certain sign of snow shortly to ensue.

In _Anno Dom._ 1667. _March_, appeared a sign in the Heavens in
the form of a Sphear, pointing directly to the _West_: and in the
year following on the third day of _April_ being _Friday_, there
was a terrible Earthquake, before that a very great one in 1638.
and another in 58 and in 1662/3. _January_ 26, 27, & 28. (which
was the year before I came thither) there were Earthquakes 6 or 7
times in the space of three dayes. Earthquakes are frequent in the
Countrie; some suppose that the white mountains were first raised
by Earthquakes, they are hollow as may be guessed by the resounding
of the rain upon the level on the top. The _Indians_ told us of a
River whose course was not only stopt by an Earthquake in 1668.
(as near as I can remember) but the whole River swallowed up. And
I have heard it reported from credible persons, that (whilst I
was there in the Countrie) there happened a terrible Earthquake
amongst the _French_, rending a huge Rock asunder even to the
center, wherein was a vast hollow of an immeasurable depth, out of
which came many infernal Spirits. I shall [p. 59.] conclude this
discourse of Earthquakes, with that which came from the Pen of
our Royal Martyr King _Charles_ the First; _A storm at Sea wants
not its terrour, but an Earthquake, shaking the very foundation of
all, the World hath nothing more of horrour._ And now I come to the
plants of the Countrie.

The plants in _New-England_ for the variety, number, beauty, and
vertues, may stand in Competition with the plants of any Countrey
in Europe. _Johnson_ hath added to _Gerard’s_ Herbal 300. and
_Parkinson_ mentioneth many more; had they been in _New-England_
they might have found 1000 at least never heard of nor seen by any
_Englishman_ before: ’Tis true, the Countrie hath no _Bonerets_,
or _Tartarlambs_, no glittering coloured _Tuleps_; but here you
have the _American Mary-Gold_, the _Earth-nut_ bearing a princely
Flower, the beautiful leaved _Pirola_, the honied _Colibry_, &c.
They are generally of (somewhat) a more masculine vertue, than
any of the same species in _England_, but not in so terrible a
degree, as to be mischievous or ineffectual to our _English_
bodies. _It is affirmed by some that no forraign Drugg or Simple
can be so proper to Englishmen as their own, for the quantity of_
Opium _which Turks do safely take will kill four Englishmen, and
that which will_ [p. 60.] _salve their wounds within a day, will
not recure an Englishman in three._ To which I answer that it is
custom that brings the _Turks_ to the familiar use of _Opium_.
You may have heard of a _Taylor_ in _Kent_, who being afflicted
with want of sleep ventured upon _Opium_, taking at first a grain,
and increasing of it till it came to an ounce, which quantitie he
took as familiarly as a _Turk_, without any harm, more than that
he could not sleep without it. The _English_ in _New-England_
take white _Hellebore_, which operates as fairly with them, as
with the _Indians_, who steeping of it in water sometime, give it
to young lads gathered together a purpose to drink, if it come up
they force them to drink again their vomit, (which they save in a
Birchen-dish) till it stayes with them, & he that gets the victory
of it is made Captain of the other lads for that year. There is a
plant likewise, called for want of a name _Clownes wound wort_ by
the _English_, though it be not the same, that will heal a green
wound in 24 hours, if a wise man have the ordering of it. Thus much
for the general, I shall now begin to discover unto you the plants
more particularly, and I shall first begin with Trees, and of them,
first with such as are called in Scripture Trees of God, that is
great [p. 61.] Trees, that grow of themselves without planting.
Psal. 104. 16, 17. _Satiantur arbores Jehovæ_, _cedri Libani quas
plantavit_; (_ubi aviculæ nidificent_) _abietes domicilia ciconiæ_.
The Herons take great delight to sit basking upon the tops of these
Trees. And I shall not be over large in any, having written of them
in my Treatise of the rarities of _New-England_, to which I refer
you.

The _Oake_ I have given you an account of, and the kinds; I shall
add the ordering of Red _Oake_ for Wainscot. When they have cut
it down and clear’d it from the branches, they pitch the body of
the Tree in a muddy place in a River, with the head downward for
some time, afterwards they draw it out, and when it is seasoned
sufficiently, they saw it into boards for Wainscot, and it will
branch out into curious works.

There is an admirable rare Creature in shape like a _Buck_, with
Horns, of a gummy substance, which I have often found in the fall
of the leaf upon the ground amongst the withered leaves; a living
Creature I cannot call it; having only the sign of a mouth and
eyes: seldom or never shall you meet with any of them whole, but
the head and horns, or the hinder parts, broken off from the rest;
the _Indians_ call them Tree _Bucks_, and have a superstitious
saying (for I believe [p. 62.] they never see any of them living)
that if they can see a Tree-_Buck_ walking upon the branches of an
_Oake_ when they go out in a morning to hunt, they shall have good
luck that day. What they are good for I know not, but certainly
there is some more than ordinary vertue in them. It is true that
nothing in nature is superfluous, and we have the Scripture to
back it, that God created nothing in vain. The like Creatures they
_have at the_ Barbadoes _which they call_ Negroes _heads, found
in the Sands, about two inches long, with forehead, eyes, nose,
mouth, chin, and part of the neck, they are alwayes found loose in
the Sands without any root, it is as black as Jet, but whence it
comes they know not. I have read likewise, that in the_ Canaries
_or_ Fortunate-Islands, _there is found a certain Creature, which
Boys bring home from the mountains as oft as they would, and named
them_ Tudesquels, _or little_ Germans: _for they were dry’d dead
Carcases, almost three footed, which any boy did easily carry in
one of the palms of his hand, and they were of an humane shape; but
the whole dead Carcase was clearly like unto Parchment, and their
bones were flexible, as it were gristles: against the Sun, also,
their bowels and intestines were seen. Surely (saith my Authour)
the destroyed race of the_ Pigmies _was there_. There is [p. 63.]
also many times found upon the leaves of the _Oake_ a Creature
like a _Frog_, being as thin as a leaf, and transparent, as yellow
as Gold, with little fiery red eyes, the _English_ call them
Tree-frogs or Tree-toads (but of Tree-toads I shall have occasion
to speak in another place) they are said to be venemous, but may be
safely used, being admirable to stop womens over-flowing courses
hung about their necks in a Taffetie bag.

_Captain_ Smith _writes that in_ New-England _there growes a
certain berry called_ Kermes, _worth_ 10 _shillings a pound,
and had been formerly sold for_ 30 _or_ 40 _shillings a pound,
which may yearly be gathered in good quantity._ I have sought for
this berry, he speaks of, as a man should seek for a needle in a
bottle of Hay, but could never light upon it; unless that kind
of _Solomon-seal_ called by the _English_ Treacle-berry be it.
_Gerard_ our famous Herbalist _writes that they grow upon a little
Tree called_ Scarlet-Oake, _the leaves have one sharp prickle at
the end of it; it beareth small_ Acorns: _But the grain or berry
growes out of the woody branches, like an excrescence of the
substance of the_ Oake-Apple, _and of the bigness of Pease, at
first white, when ripe of an_ Ash-colour, _which ingenders little
Maggots, which when it begins_ [p. 64.] _to have wings are put
into a bag and boulted up and down till dead, and then made up
into lumps, the Maggot as most do deem is_ Cutchenele; _So that_
Chermes _is_ Cutchenele: _the berries dye scarlet. Mr._ George
Sands _in his Travels saith (much to the same purpose) that scarlet
dye growes like a blister on the leaf of the Holy_ Oake, _a little
shrub, yet producing_ Acorns, _being gathered they rub out of it
a certain red dust, that converteth after a while into worms,
which they kill with Wine, when they begin to quicken. See farther
concerning Treacle-berries and_ Cutchinele _in the rarities of_
New-England.

The Pine-Tree challengeth the next place, and that sort which is
called Board-pine is the principal, it is a stately large Tree,
very tall, and sometimes two or three fadom about: of the body the
_English_ make large _Canows_ of 20 foot long, and two foot and
a half over, hollowing of them with an Adds, and shaping of the
outside like a Boat. Some conceive that the wood called _Gopher_ in
Scripture, of which _Noah_ made the Ark, was no other than Pine,
_Gen._ 6. 14. The bark thereof is good for Ulcers in tender persons
that refuse sharp medicines. The inner bark of young board-pine
cut small and stampt and boiled in a Gallon of water is a very
soveraign medicine for burn [p. 65.] or scald, washing the sore
with some of the decoction, and then laying on the bark stampt
very soft: or for frozen limbs, to take out the fire and to heal
them, take the bark of Board-pine-Tree, cut it small and stamp it
and boil it in a gallon of water to Gelly, wash the sore with the
liquor, stamp the bark again till it be very soft and bind it on.
The Turpentine is excellent to heal wounds and cuts, and hath all
the properties of _Venice_ Turpentine, the Rosen is as good as
Frankincense, and the powder of the dryed leaves generateth flesh;
the distilled water of the green Cones taketh away wrinkles in the
face being laid on with Cloths.

The Firr-tree is a large Tree too, but seldom so big as the Pine,
the bark is smooth, with knobs or blisters, in which lyeth clear
liquid Turpentine very good to be put into salves and oyntments,
the leaves or Cones boiled in Beer are good for the Scurvie, the
young buds are excellent to put into Epithemes for Warts and
Corns, the Rosen is altogether as good as Frankincense; out of this
Tree the Poleakers draw Pitch and Tarr; the manner I shall give
you, for that it may (with many other things contained in this
Treatise) be beneficial to my Countrymen, either there already
seated, or that [p. 66.] may happen to go thither hereafter. Out
of the fattest wood changed into Torch-wood, which is a disease in
that Tree, they draw Tarr, first a place must be paved with stone
or the like, a little higher in the middle, about which there must
be made gutters, into which the liquor falls, then out from them
other gutters are to be drawn, by which it may be received, then
is it put into barrels. The place thus prepared, the cloven wood
must be set upright, then must it be covered with a great number of
firr and pitch bowes; and on every part all about with much lome
and sods of earth, and great heed must be taken, lest there be
any cleft or chink remaining, only a hole left in the top of the
furnace, through which the fire may be put in, and the flame and
smoak to pass out: when the fire burneth, the Pitch or Tarr runneth
forth first thin and then thicker; of which when it is boiled is
made Pitch: the powder of dried Pitch is used to generate flesh in
wounds and sores. The knots of this Tree and fat-pine are used by
the _English_ instead of Candles, and it will burn a long time, but
it makes the people pale.

The Spruce-tree I have given you an account of in my _New-England_
rarities. In the North-east of _Scotland_ upon the banks [p. 67.]
of _Lough-argick_, there hath been formerly of these Trees 28
handful about at the Root, and their bodies mounted to 90 foot of
height, bearing at the length 20 inches diameter. At _Pascataway_
there is now a Spruce-tree brought down to the water-side by our
Mass-men of an incredible bigness, and so long that no Skipper
durst ever yet adventure to ship it, but there it lyes and Rots.

The Hemlock-tree is a kind of spruce or pine; the bark boiled and
stampt till it be very soft is excellent for to heal wounds, and so
is the Turpentine thereof, and the Turpentine that issueth from the
Cones of the Larch-tree, (which comes nearest of any to the right
Turpentine) is singularly good to heal wounds, and to draw out the
malice (or Thorn, as _Helmont_ phrases it) of any Ach, rubbing the
place therewith, and strowing upon it the powder of _Sage_-leaves.

The white Cedar is a stately Tree, and is taken by some to be
_Tamarisk_, this Tree the _English_ saw into boards to floor their
Rooms, for which purpose it is excellent, long lasting, and wears
very smooth and white; likewise they make shingles to cover their
houses with instead of tyle, it will never warp. This Tree, the
Oak and the [p. 68.] Larch-tree are best for building. Groundsels
made of Larch-tree will never rot, and the longer it lyes the
harder it growes, that you may almost drive a nail into a bar of
Iron as easily as into that. Oh, that my Countreymen might obtain
that blessing with their buildings, which _Esay_ prophesied to
the _Jewes_ in the 65 Chapter and 22 verse. _Non ædificabunt &
alius inhabitabit, non plantabunt & alius comedet: sed ut sunt
dies Arboris, dies erunt populi mei, & opus manuum suarum deterent
electi mei._

The Sassafras-tree is no great Tree, I have met with some as big as
my middle, the rind is tawny and upon that a thin colour of Ashes,
the inner part is white, of an excellent smell like Fennel, of a
sweet tast with some bitterness; the leaves are like Fig-leaves of
a dark green. A decoction of the Roots and bark thereof sweetned
with Sugar, and drunk in the morning fasting will open the body
and procure a stool or two, it is good for the Scurvie taken
some time together, and laying upon the legs the green leaves of
white _Hellebore_. They give it to Cows that have newly calved
to make them cast their Cleanings. This Tree growes not beyond
_Black-point_ Eastward: it is observed, that there is no province
but produces Trees and plants not growing in other Regions.


[p. 69.] _Non omnis fert omnia tellus._

The Walnut which is divers, some bearing square nuts, others like
ours, but smaller: there is likewise black Walnut of precious
use for Tables, Cabinets and the like. The Walnut-tree is the
toughest wood in the Countrie, and therefore made use of for Hoops
and Bowes, there being no Yew there growing; In _England_ they
made their Bowes usually of Witch Hasel, Ash, Yew, the best of
outlandish Elm, but the _Indians_ make theirs of Walnut.

The Line-tree with long nuts, the other kind I could never find:
the wood of this Tree, Laurel, Rhamnus, Holly and Ivy are accounted
for woods that cause fire by attrition; Laurel and Ivy are not
growing in _New-England_: the _Indians_ will rub two sear’d sticks
of any sort of wood, and kindle a fire with them presently.

The Maple-tree, on the boughs of this Tree I have often found a
jellied substance like _Jewes-Ears_, which I found upon tryal to be
as good for sore throats _&c._

The Birch-tree is of two kinds, ordinary Birch, and black Birch,
many of these Trees are stript of their bark by the _Indians_, who
make of it their Canows, Kettles, [p. 70.] and Birchen-dishes:
there is an excrescence growing out of the body of the Tree called
spunck, or dead mens Caps, it growes at the Roots of Ash, or Beech,
or Elm; but the best is that which growes upon the black Birch,
this boiled and beaten, and then dried in an Oven maketh excellent
Touch-wood, and Balls to play with.

Alder, of which wood there is abundance in the wet swamps: the bark
thereof with the yolke of an Egg is good for a strain; an _Indian_
bruising of his knee, chew’d the bark of Alder fasting and laid
it to, which quickly helped him. The wives of our West-Countrey
English make a drink with the seeds of Alder, giving it to their
Children troubled with the _Alloes_. I have talk’d with many of
them, but could never apprehend what disease it should be they so
name, these Trees are called by some Sullinges.

The _Indians_ tell of a Tree that growes far up in the land,
that is as big as an Oake, that will cure the falling-sickness
infallibly, what part thereof they use, Bark, Wood, leaves or
fruit, I could never learn; they promised often to bring of it to
me, but did not. I have seen a stately Tree growing here and there
in valleys, not like to any Trees in Europe, having a smooth bark
of [p. 71.] a dark brown colour, the leaves like great Maple, in
_England_ called Sycamor, but larger, it may be this is the Tree
they brag of.

Thus much concerning Trees, now I shall present to your view the
Shrubs; and first of the Sumach Shrub, which as I have told
you in _New-Englands_ rarities, differeth from all the kinds
set down in our _English_ Herbals; the root dyeth wool or cloth
reddish, the decoction of the leaves in wine drunk, is good for
all Fluxes of the belly in man or woman, the whites, _&c._ For
galled places stamp the leaves with honey, and apply it, nothing
so soon healeth a wound in the head as Sumach stampt and applyed
once in three dayes, the powder strewed in stayeth the bleeding of
wounds: The seed of Sumach pounded and mixt with honey, healeth the
Hemorrhoids, the gum put into a hollow tooth asswageth the pain,
the bark or berries in the fall of the leaf, is as good as galls to
make Ink of.

Elder in _New-England_ is shrubbie, & dies once in two years: there
is a sort of dwarf-Elder that growes by the Sea-side that hath a
red pith, the berries of both are smaller than _English_-Elder, not
round but corner’d, neither of them smell so strong as ours.

Juniper growes for the most part by the Sea-side, it bears
abundance of skie-coloured [p. 72.] berries fed upon by Partridges,
and hath a woodie root, which induceth me to believe that the plant
mention’d in Job 30. 4. _Qui decerpebant herbas é salsilagine cum
stirpibus: etiam radices Juniperorum cibo erant illis_, was our
_Indian_ plant _Cassava_. They write that _Juniper_-coals preserve
fire longest of any, keeping fire a whole year without supply, yet
the _Indian_ never burns of it.

Sweet fern, see the rarities of _New England_, the tops and
nucaments of sweet fern boiled in water or milk and drunk helpeth
all manner of Fluxes, being boiled in water it makes an excellent
liquor for Inck.

Current-bushes are of two kinds red and black, the black currents
which are larger than the red smell like cats piss, yet are
reasonable pleasant in eating.

The Gooseberry-bush, the berry of which is called Grosers or thorn
Grapes, grow all over the Countrie, the berry is but small, of a
red or purple colour when ripe.

There is a small shrub which is very common, growing sometimes to
the height of Elder, bearing a berry like in shape to the fruit
of the white thorn, of a pale yellow colour at first, then red,
when it is ripe of a deep purple, of a delicate Aromatical tast,
somewhat stiptick: to conclude, [p. 73.] alwayes observe this rule
in taking or refusing unknown fruit: if you find them eaten of the
fowl or beast, you may boldly venture to eat of them, otherwise do
not touch them.

_Maze_, otherwise called _Turkie_-wheat, or rather _Indian_-wheat,
because it came first from thence; the leaves boiled and drunk
helpeth pain in the back; of the stalks when they are green you may
make _Beverage_, as they do with _Calamels_, or Sugar-canes. The
raw Corn chewed ripens felons or Cats hairs, or you may lay Samp
to it: The _Indians_ before it be thorow ripe eat of it parched.
Certainly the parched corn that _Abigail_ brought to _David_ was
of this kind of grain, 1 Sam. 25. 18. _The Jewes manner was (as it
is delivered to us by a learned Divine) first to parch their Corn,
then they fryed it, and lastly they boiled it to a paste, and then
tempered it with water, Cheese-Curds, Honey and Eggs, this they
carried drye with them to the Camp, and so wet the Cakes in Wine or
milk; such was the pulse too of_ Africa.

_French_-beans, or rather _American_-beans, the Herbalists
call them kidney-beans from their shape and effects, for they
strengthen the kidneys; they are variegated much, some being bigger
a great deal than others; some [p. 74.] white, black, red, yellow,
blew, spotted; besides your _Bonivis_ and _Calavances_ and the
kidney-bean, that is proper to _Ronoake_, but these are brought
into the Countrie, the other are natural to the climate. So the
_Mexico_ pompion which is flat and deeply camphered, the flesh
laid to, asswageth pain of the eyes. The water-mellon is proper to
the Countrie, the flesh of it is of a flesh colour, a rare cooler
of Feavers, and excellent against the stone. _Pomum spinosum_ and
_palma-Christi_ too growes not here, unless planted, brought from
_Peru_; the later is thought to be the plant, that shaded Jonah
_the Prophet_, Jonas 4. 6. _Paraverat enim_ Jehova _Deus ricinum
qui ascenderet supra_ Jonam, _ut esset umbra super caput ejus
ereptura eum à malo ipsius; lætabaturque_ Jonas _de ricino illo
lætitia magna_. _Ricinum_, that is _palma Christi_, called also
_cucurbita_, and therefore translated a Gourd.

Tobacco, or _Tabacca_ so called from _Tabaco_ or _Tabago_, one of
the _Caribbe_-Islands about 50 _English_ miles from _Trinidad_.
The right name, according to _Monardus_, is _picielte_, as others
will _petum_, _nicotian_ from _Nicot_, a Portingal, to whom it was
presented for a raritie in _Anno Dom._ 1559. by one that brought
it from _Florida_. Great contest there is about the time when it
was first [p. 75.] brought into _England_, some will have Sir
_John Hawkins_ the first, others Sir _Francis Drake’s_ Mariners;
others again say that one Mr. _Lane_ imployed by Sir _Walter
Rawleigh_ brought it first into England; all conclude that Sir
_Walter Rawleigh_ brought it first in use. _It is observed that no
one kind of forraign Commodity yieldeth greater advantage to the
publick than Tobacco, it is generally made the complement of our
entertainment, and hath made more slaves than_ Mahomet. There is
three sorts of it Marchantable, the first horse Tobacco, having a
broad long leaf piked at the end; the second round pointed Tobacco;
third sweet scented Tobacco. These are made up into Cane, leaf or
ball; there is little of it planted in _New-England_, neither have
they learned the right way of curing of it. It is sowen in _April_
upon a bed of rich mould sifted, they make a bed about three yards
long, or more according to the ground they intend to plant, and
a yard and a half over; this they tread down hard, then they sow
their seed upon it as thick as may be, and sift fine earth upon it,
then tread it down again as hard as possible they can, when it hath
gotten four or six leaves, they remove it into the planting ground;
when it begins to bud towards flowring, they crop off the [p. 76.]
top, for the Flower drawes away the strength of the leaf. For the
rest I refer you to the Planter, being not willing to discover
their mysteries. The _Indians_ in _New-England_ use a small round
leafed Tobacco, called by them, or the Fishermen Poke. _It is
odious to the_ English. _The vertues of Tobacco are these, it helps
digestion, the Gout, the Tooth-ach, prevents infection by scents,
it heats the cold, and cools them that sweat, feedeth the hungry,
spent spirits restoreth, purgeth the stomach, killeth nits and
lice; the juice of the green leaf healeth green wounds, although
poysoned; the Syrup for many diseases, the smoak for the Phthisick,
cough of the lungs, distillations of Rheume, and all diseases of
a cold and moist cause, good for all bodies cold and moist taken
upon an emptie stomach, taken upon a full stomach it precipitates
digestion, immoderately taken it dryeth the body, enflameth the
bloud, hurteth the brain, weakens the eyes and the sinews._

White _Hellebore_ is used for the Scurvie by the _English_.
A friend of mine gave them first a purge, then conserve of
Bear-berries, then fumed their leggs with vinegar, sprinkled upon
a piece of mill-stone made hot, and applied to the sores white
_Hellebore_ leaves; drink made of _Orpine_ and _sorrel_ were given
likewise with it, and [p. 77.] Sea-scurvie-grass. To kill lice,
boil the roots of _Hellebore_ in milk, and anoint the hair of the
head therewith or other places.

_Mandrake_, is a very rare plant, the _Indians_ know it not, it
is found in the woods about _Pascataway_, they do in plain terms
stink, therefore _Reubens_ Flowers that he brought home were
not _Mandrakes_, Gen. 30. 14, 15, 16. _They are rendered in the
Latine_ Amabiles flores, _the same word say our Divines is used in_
Canticles, 7. 4. Amabiles istos flores edentes odorem, & secundum
ostia nostra omnes pretiosos fructus, recentes simulac veteres,
dilecte mi, repono tibi. _So that the right translation is_, Reuben
_brought home amiable and sweet smelling Flowers; this in the_
Canticles (_say they_) _expounding the other_.

_Calamus Aromaticus_, or the sweet smelling reed, it Flowers in
_July_; see _New-Englands_ rarities.

_Sarsaparilla_ or roughbind-weed (as some describe it) the leaves
and whole bind set with thorns, of this there is store growing upon
the banks of Ponds. See the rarities of _New-England_. The leaves
of the _Sarsaparilla_ there described pounded with Hogs grease and
boiled to an unguent, is excellent in the curing of wounds.

Live for ever, it is a kind of _Cud-weed_, [p. 78.] flourisheth all
summer long till cold weather comes in, it growes now plentifully
in our _English_ Gardens, it is good for cough of the lungs, and
to cleanse the breast taken as you do Tobacco; and for pain in the
head the decoction, or the juice strained and drunk in Bear, Wine,
or Aqua vitæ, killeth worms. The Fishermen when they want Tobacco
take this herb being cut and dryed.

_Lysimachus_ or Loose-strife: there are several kinds, but the
most noted is the yellow _Lysimachus_ of _Virginia_, the root
is longish and white, as thick as ones thumb, the stalkes of an
overworn colour, and a little hairie, the middle vein of the leaf
whitish, the Flower yellow and like Primroses, and therefore
called Tree-primrose, growes upon seedie vessels, _&c._ The first
year it growes not up to a stalke, but sends up many large leaves
handsomely lying one upon another, Rose fashion, Flowers in _June_,
the seed is ripe in _August_, this as I have said is taken by the
_English_ for Scabious.

St. _John’s_ wort, it preserveth Cheese made up in it, at Sea.

Spurge or Wolfes milch there are several sorts.

_Avens_, or herb-bennet; you have an account of it in
_New-Englands_ rarities, but one [p. 79.] thing more I shall add,
that you may plainly perceive a more masculine quality in the
plants growing in _New-England_. A neighbour of mine in Hay-time,
having overheat himself, and melted his grease, with striving to
outmowe another man, fell dangerously sick, not being able to turn
himself in his bed, his stomach gon, and his heart fainting ever
and anon; to whom I administered the decoction of _Avens_-Roots
and leaves in water and wine, sweetning it with Syrup of
Clove-Gilliflowers, in one weeks time it recovered him, so that
he was able to perform his daily work, being a poor planter or
husbandman as we call them.

Red-Lilly growes all over the Countrey amongst the bushes. Mr.
_Johnson_ upon _Gerard_ takes the Tulip to be the Lilly of the
field mentioned by our Saviour, Matth. 6. 28, 29. _Ac de vestitu
quid soliciti estis? discite quomodo lilia agrorum augescant: non
fatigantur, neque nent, sed dico vobis, ne Solomonem quidem cum
universa gloria sic amictum fuisse ut unum ex istis._ Solomon _in
all his Royalty was not like one of them. His reasons are, first
from the shape, like a lilly; The second, because those places
where our Saviour was conversant they grow wild in the fields.
Third, the infinite variety of the_ [p. 80.] _colours. The fourth
and last reason, the wondrous beautie and mixture of these Flowers._

Water-lillys; the black roots dryed and pulverized, are wondrous
effectual in the stopping of all manner of fluxes of the belly,
drunk with wine or water.

_Herba-paris_, one berry, herb true love, or four-leaved
night-shade, the leaves are good to be laid upon hot tumours.

_Umbilicus veneris_, or _New-England_ daisie, it is good for hot
humours, _Erisipelas_, St. _Anthonie’s_ fire, all inflammations.

_Glass-wort_, a little quantity of this plant you may take for the
Dropsie, but be very careful that you take not too much, for it
worketh impetuously.

Water-plantane, called in _New-England_ water Suck-leaves, and
Scurvie-leaves, you must lay them whole to the leggs to draw out
water between the skin and the flesh.

_Rosa-solis_, Sun-dew, moor-grass, this plant I have seen more of,
than ever I saw in my whole life before in _England_, a man may
gather upon some marish-grounds an incredible quantity in a short
time; towards the middle of _June_ it is in its season, for then
its spear is shot out to its length, of which they take hold and
pull the whole plant up by the roots from the moss with ease.

[p. 81.] _Amber_-greese I take to be a Mushroom, see the rarities
of _New-England_. Monardus _writeth that_ Amber_-greese riseth out
of a certain clammy and bituminous earth under the Seas, and by the
Sea-side, the billows casting up part of it a land, and fish devour
the rest; Some say it is the seed of a Whale, others, that it
springeth from fountains as pitch doth, which fishes swallow down;
the air congealeth it._ And sometimes it is found in the crevises
and corners of Rocks.

_Fuss-balls_, _Mullipuffes_ called by the Fishermen Wolves-farts,
are to be found plentifully, and those bigger by much than any I
have seen in _England_.

_Coraline_ there is infinite store of it cast upon the shore, and
another plant that is more spinie, of a Red colour, and as hard as
Corral. _Coraline_ laid to the gout easeth the pain.

Sea-Oake or wreach, or Sea-weed, the black pouches of Oar-weed
dryed and pulverized, and drunk with White-wine, is an excellent
remedy for the stone.

I will finish this part of my relation concerning plants, with an
admirable plant for the curing and taking away of Corns, which
many times sore troubleth the Traveller: it is not above a handful
high; the little branches are woodie, the leaves like [p. 82.] the
leaves of Box, but broader and much thicker, hard and of a deep
grass-green colour; this bruised or champt in the mouth and laid
upon the Corn will take it away clean in one night. And observe all
_Indian_ Trees and plants, their Roots are but of small depth, and
so they must be set.

Of Beasts of the earth there be scarce 120 several kinds, and
not much more of the Fowls of the Air, is the opinion of some
Naturalists; there are not many kinds of Beasts in _New-England_,
they may be divided into Beasts of the Chase of the stinking foot,
as _Roes_, _Foxes_, _Jaccals_, _Wolves_, _Wild-cats_, _Raccons_,
_Porcupines_, _Squncks_, _Musquashes_, _Squirrels_, _Sables_, and
_Mattrises_; and Beasts of the Chase of the sweet foot, _Buck_,
Red _Dear_, Rain-_Dear_, _Elke_, _Marouse_, _Maccarib_, _Bear_,
_Beaver_, _Otter_, _Marten_, _Hare_.

The _Roe_ a kind of Deer, and the fleetest Beast upon earth is here
to be found, and is good venison, but not over fat.

The _Fox_, the male is called a dog-fox, the female a bitch-fox,
they go a clicketing the beginning of the spring, and bring forth
their Cubs in _May_ and _June_. There are two or three kinds of
them; one a great yellow _Fox_, another grey, who will climb up
into Trees; the black _Fox_ is of much esteem. _Foxes_ and _Wolves_
are usually hunted [p. 83.] in _England_ from _Holy-Rood_ day, till
the _Annunciation_. In _New-England_ they make best sport in the
depth of winter; they lay a sledg-load of Cods-heads on the other
side of a paled fence when the moon shines, and about nine or ten
of the clock the _Foxes_ come to it, sometimes two or three, or
half a dozen, and more; these they shoot, and by that time they
have cased them, there will be as many; So they continue shooting
and killing of _Foxes_ as long as the moon shineth; I have known
half a score kill’d in one night. Their pisles are bonie like a
doggs, their fat liquified and put into the ears easeth the pain,
their tails or bushes are very fair ones and of good use, but their
skins are so thin (yet thick set with deep furr) that they will
hardly hold the dressing.

_Jaccals_ there be abundance, which is a Creature much like a
_Fox_, but smaller, they are very frequent in _Palæstina_, or the
_Holy-land_.

The _Wolf_ seeketh his mate and goes a clicketing at the same
season with _Foxes_, and bring forth their whelps as they do, but
their kennels are under thick bushes by great Trees in remote
places by the swamps, he is to be hunted as the _Fox_ from
_Holy-rood_ day till the _Annunciation_. But there [p. 84.] they
have a quicker way to destroy them. See _New-Englands_ rarities.
They commonly go in routs, a rout of _Wolves_ is 12 or more,
sometimes by couples. In 1664. we found a _Wolf_ asleep in a small
dry swamp under an Oake, a great mastiff which we had with us
seized upon him, and held him till we had put a rope about his
neck, by which we brought him home, and tying of him to a stake
we bated him with smaller Doggs, and had excellent sport; but his
hinder legg being broken, they knockt out his brains. Sometime
before this we had an excellent course after a single _Wolf_ upon
the hard sands by the Sea-side at low water for a mile or two,
at last we lost our doggs, it being (as the _Lancashire_ people
phrase it) twi-light, that is almost dark, and went beyond them,
for a mastiff-bitch had seized upon the _Wolf_ being gotten into
the Sea, and there held him, till one went in and led him out, the
bitch keeping her hold till they had tyed his leggs, and so carried
him home like a Calf upon a staff between two men; being brought
into the house they unbound him and set him upon his leggs, he not
offering in the least to bite, or so much as to shew his teeth, but
clapping his stern betwixt his leggs, and leering towards the door
would willingly have had his liberty, [p. 85.] but they served him
as they did the other, knockt his brains out, for our doggs were
not then in a condition to bate him; their eyes shine by night as
a Lanthorn: the Fangs of a _Wolf_ hung about childrens necks keep
them from frighting, and are very good to rub their gums with when
they are breeding of Teeth, the gall of a _Wolf_ is Soveraign for
swelling of the sinews; the fiants or dung of a _Wolf_ drunk with
white-wine helpeth the _Collick_.

The _Wild-cat_, _Lusern_ or _luceret_, or Ounce as some call it, is
not inferiour to Lamb, their grease is very soveraign for lameness
upon taking cold.

The _Racoon_ or _Rattoon_ is of two sorts, gray _Rattoons_, and
black _Rattoons_, their grease is soveraign for wounds with
bruises, aches, streins, bruises; and to anoint after broken bones
and dislocations.

The _Squnck_ is almost as big as a _Racoon_, perfect black and
white or pye-bald, with a bush-tail like a _Fox_, an offensive
Carion; the Urine of this Creature is of so strong a scent, that if
it light upon any thing, there is no abiding of it, it will make a
man smell, though he were of _Alexanders_ complexion; and so sharp
that if he do but whisk his bush which he pisseth upon in the face
of a dogg hunting of him, and that [p. 86.] any of it light in his
eyes it will make him almost mad with the smart thereof.

The _Musquashes_ is a small Beast that lives in shallow ponds,
where they build them houses of earth and sticks in shape like
mole-hills, and feed upon _Calamus Aromaticus_: in _May_ they scent
very strong of Muske; their furr is of no great esteem; their
stones wrapt up in Cotten-wool will continue a long time, and are
good to lay amongst cloths to give them a grateful smell.

The _Squirril_, of which there are three sorts, the mouse-squirril,
the gray squirril, and the flying squirril, called by the
_Indian_ _Assapanick_. The mouse-squirril is hardly so big as a
Rat, streak’d on both sides with black and red streaks, they are
mischievous vermine destroying abundance of Corn both in the field
and in the house, where they will gnaw holes into Chests, and tear
clothes both linnen and wollen, and are notable nut-gathers in
_August_; when hasel and filbert nuts are ripe you may see upon
every Nut-tree as many mouse-squirrils as leaves; So that the nuts
are gone in a trice, which they convey to their Drays or Nests. The
gray squirril is pretty large, almost as big as a Conie, and are
very good meat: in some parts of the Countrie there are many of
them. The flying squirril is so called, [p. 87.] because (his skin
being loose and large) he spreads it on both sides like wings when
he passeth from one Tree to another at great distance. I cannot
call it flying nor leaping, for it is both.

The _Mattrise_ is a Creature whose head and fore-parts is shaped
somewhat like a Lyons, not altogether so big as a house-cat, they
are innumerable up in the Countrey, and are esteemed good furr.

The _Sable_ is much of the size of a _Mattrise_ perfect black, but
what store there is of them I cannot tell, I never saw but two of
them in Eight years space.

The _Martin_ is as ours are in _England_, but blacker, they
breed in holes which they make in the earth like Conies, and are
innumerable, their skins or furr are in much request.

The _Buck_, _Stag_, and _Rain-Dear_ are Creatures that will live
in the coldest climates, here they are innumerable, bringing forth
three _Fawns_ or _Calves_ at a time, which they hide a mile asunder
to prevent their destruction by the _Wolves_, wild-_Cats_, _Bears_,
and _Mequans_: when they are in season they will be very fat; there
are but few slain by the _English_. The _Indians_ who shoot them,
and take of them with toyls, bring them in [p. 88.] with their
suet, and the bones that grow upon _Stags-Hearts_.

The _Moose_ or _Elke_ is a Creature, or rather if you will a
Monster of superfluity; a full grown _Moose_ is many times bigger
than an _English_ Oxe, their horns as I have said elsewhere, very
big (and brancht out into palms) the tips whereof are sometimes
found to be two fathom asunder, (a fathom [p. 89.] is six feet
from the tip of one finger to the tip of the other, that is four
cubits,) and in height from the toe of the fore-foot, to the pitch
of the shoulder twelve foot, both which hath been taken by some of
my _sceptique_ Readers to be monstrous lyes. If you consider the
breadth that the beast carrieth, and the magnitude of the horns,
you will be easily induced to contribute your belief.

What would you say, if I should tell you that in _Greenland_
there are _Does_ that have as large horns as _Bucks_, their brow
Antlers growing downwards beyond their _Musles_, and broad at the
end wherewith they scrape away the snow to the grass, it being
impossible for them other-wayes to live in those cold Countries;
the head of one of these _Does_ was sometime since nailed upon
a sign-post in _Charter-house-lane_, and these following verses
written upon a board underneath it.

      _Like a_ Bucks_-head I stand in open view,
      And yet am none; nay, wonder not, ’tis true;
      The living Beast that these fair horns did owe
      Well known to many, was a_ Green-land Doe
      _The proverb old is here fulfill’d in me,
      That every like is not the same you see._

And for their height since I came into _England_ I have read Dr.
_Scroderns_ his Chymical dispensatory translated into _English_
by Dr. _Rowland_, where he writes _that when he lived in_ Finland
_under_ Gustavus Horn, _he saw an_ Elke _that was killed and
presented to_ Gustavus _his Mother, seventeen spans high_. Law you
now Sirs of the Gibing crue, if you have any skill in mensuration,
tell me what difference there is between Seventeen spans and twelve
foot. There are certain transcendentia in every Creature, which are
the indelible Characters of God, and which discover God; There’s
a prudential for you, as _John Rhodes_ the Fisherman used to say
to his mate, _Kitt Lux_. But to go on with the _Moose_; they are
accounted a kind of Deer, and have three _Calves_ at a time, which
they hide a mile asunder too, as other Deer do, their skins make
excellent Coats for Martial men, their sinews which are as [p.
90.] big as a mans finger are of perdurable toughness and much
used by the _Indians_, the bone that growes upon their heart is an
excellent Cordial, their bloud is as thick as an _Asses_ or _Bulls_
who have the thickest bloud of all others, a man the thinnest.
To what age they live I know not, certainly a long time in their
proper climate. _Some particular living Creatures cannot live in
every particular place or region, especially with the same joy
and felicity as it did where it was first bred, for the certain
agreement of nature that is between the place and the thing bred in
that place: As appeareth by_ Elephants_, which being translated and
brought out of the Second or Third Climate, though they may live,
yet will they never ingender or bring forth young._ So for plants,
Birds, _&c._ Of both these Creatures, some few there have been
brought into _England_, but did not long continue. Sir _R. Baker_
in his Chronicle tells us of an _Elephant_ in _Henry_ the Thirds
Raign, which he saith was the first that was ever seen there, which
as it seems is an error, unless he restrain it to the _Norman’s_
time. For Mr. _Speed_ writeth that _Claudius Drusius_ Emperour of
_Rome_ brought in the first in his Army; the bones of which digg’d
up since are taken for Gyants bones. As for the _Moose_ the first
that was seen in _England_, [p. 91.] was in King _Charles_ the
First Raign; thus much for these magnals amongst the Creatures of
God to be wondered at, the next beast to be mentioned is

The _Maurouse_, which is somewhat like a _Moose_, but his horns are
but small, and himself about the size of a _Stag_, these are the
Deer that the flat-footed _Wolves_ hunt after.

The _Maccarib_ is a Creature not found that ever I heard yet, but
upon _Cape-Sable_ near to the _French_ plantations.

The _Bear_ when he goes to mate is a terrible Creature, they bring
forth their Cubs in _March_, hunted with doggs they take a Tree
where they shoot them, when he is fat he is excellent Venison,
which is in _Acorn_ time, and in winter, but then there is none
dares to attempt to kill him but the _Indian_. He makes his Denn
amongst thick Bushes, thrusting in here and there store of _Moss_,
which being covered with snow and melting in the day time with heat
of the Sun, in the night is frozen into a thick coat of Ice; the
mouth of his Den is very narrow, here they lye single, never two
in a Den all winter. The _Indian_ as soon as he finds them, creeps
in upon all four, seizes with his left hand upon the neck of the
sleeping _Bear_, drags him to the mouth of [p. 92.] the Den, where
with a club or small hatchet in his right hand he knocks out his
brains before he can open his eyes to see his enemy. But sometimes
they are too quick for the _Indians_, as one amongst them called
black Robin lighting upon a male _Bear_ had a piece of his buttock
torn off before he could fetch his blow: their grease is very
soveraign. One Mr. _Purchase_ cured himself of the _Sciatica_ with
_Bears_-greefe, keeping some of it continually in his groine. It
is good too for swell’d Cheeks upon cold, for Rupture of the hands
in winter, for limbs taken suddenly with _Sciatica_, _Gout_, or
other diseases that cannot stand upright nor go, bed-rid; it must
be well chaft in, and the same cloth laid on still; it prevents the
shedding of the hair occasioned by the coldness of winters weather;
and the yard of a _Bear_ which as a Doggs or Foxes is bonie, is
good for to expell Gravel out of the kidneys and bladder, as I was
there told by one Mr. _Abraham Philater_ a _Jersey-man_.

The _Beaver_ or Pound-dog is an Amphibious Creature, lives upon the
land as well as in the water. I suppose they feed upon fish, but am
sure that the Bark of Trees is also their food; there is an old
proverbial saying, _sic me jubes quotidie, ut fiber salicem_: you
love me as the _Beaver_ doth the willow; [p. 93.] who eateth the
Bark and killeth the Tree. They will be tame, witness the _Beaver_
that not long since was kept at _Boston_ in the _Massachusets-Bay_,
and would run up and down the streets, returning home without a
call. Their skins are highly valued, and their stones are good for
the palsie, trembling, and numbness of the hands, boiling of them
in Oyl of _Spike_, and anointing the sinews in the neck. If you
take of _Castorium_ two drams, of womans hair one dram, and with
a little Rozen of the _Pine_-Tree, make it up into pills as big
as Filberts and perfume a woman in a fit of the mother with one
at a time laid upon coals under her nostrils, it will recover her
out of her fit. The grease of a _Beaver_ is good for the Nerves,
Convulsions, Epilepsies, Apoplexies _&c._ The tail as I have said
in another Treatise, is very fat and of a masculine vertue, as good
as _Eringo’s_ or _Satyrion_-Roots.

The _Otter_ or River-_Dog_ is Amphibious too, he hunteth for his
kind in the spring, and bringeth forth his whelps as the _Beaver_
doth, they are generally black, and very numerous, they are
hunted in _England_ from _Shrovetide_ untill _Midsummer_, but in
_New-England_ they take them when they can. The skin of an _Otter_
is worth Ten Shillings, [p. 94.] and the Gloves made thereof are
the best fortification for the hands against wet weather that can
be thought of, the furr is excellent for muffs, and is almost as
dear as _Beaver_, the grease of an _Otter_ will make fish turn up
their bellies, and is of rare use for many things.

The _Hare_, I have no more to write of them than that they
kindle in hollow Trees. What else concerns him, or any of the
fore-mentioned Creatures you have in my _New-Englands_ rarities, to
which I refer you.

The _Porcupine_ likewise I have treated of, only this I forgot to
acquaint you with, that they lay Eggs, and are good meat.

The last kind of Beasts are they that are begot by equivocal
generation, as _Mules_ and several others, that when the Beasts
were brought by the Almighty Creator to _Adam_, who gave them
names, were not then in _rerum natura_. Of these there are not many
known in _New-England_. I know but of one, and that is the _Indian_
dog begotten betwixt a _Wolf_ and a _Fox_, or between a _Fox_ and
a _Wolf_, which they made use of, taming of them, and bringing of
them up to hunt with, but since the _English_ came amongst them
they have gotten store of our dogs, which they bring up and keep in
as much subjection as they do their webbs.

[p. 95.] Of birds there are not many more than 120 kinds as our
Naturalists have conjectured, but I think they are deceived; they
are divided into land-birds and water-birds, the land-birds again
into birds of prey, birds for meat, singing-birds and others.

The _Pilhannaw_ is the King of Birds of prey in _New-England_, some
take him to be a kind of _Eagle_, others for the _Indian-Ruck_
the biggest Bird that is, except the _Ostrich_. One Mr. _Hilton_
living at _Pascataway_, had the hap to kill one of them: being by
the Sea-side he perceived a great shadow over his head, the Sun
shining out clear, calling up his eyes he saw a monstrous Bird
soaring aloft in the air, and of a sudden all the _Ducks_ and
_Geese_, (there being then a great many) dived under water, nothing
of them appearing but their heads. Mr. _Hilton_ having made readie
his piece, shot and brought her down to the ground, how he disposed
of her I know not, but had he taken her alive & sent her over into
_England_, neither _Bartholomew_ nor _Sturbridge_-Fair could have
produced such another sight.

_Hawkes_ there are of several kinds, as _Goshawkes_, _Falcons_,
_Laniers_, _Sparrow-hawkes_, and a little black _hawke_ highly
prized by the _Indians_ who wear them on their [p. 96.] heads, and
is accounted of worth sufficient to ransome a _Sagamour_: they are
so strangely couragious and hardie, that nothing flyeth in the Air
that they will not bind with. I have seen them tower so high, that
they have been so small that scarcely could they be taken by the
eye. _Hawkes_ grease is very good for sore eyes.

The _Osprey_ I have treated of. There is a small Ash-colour Bird
that is shaped like a _Hawke_ with talons and beak that falleth
upon _Crowes_, mounting up into the Air after them, and will beat
them till they make them cry.

The _Vulture_ or _Geire_, which is spoken of in _Levit._ 11.
14. and called a _Gripe_, their skins are good to line doublets
with, and the bones of their head hung about the neck helpeth the
head-ach.

The _Gripe_; see _New Englands_ rarities, and for the
_Turkie_-buzzard.

The _Owl_ the most flagging Bird that is, of which there are three
sorts, a great grey _Owl_ with ears, a little grey _Owl_, and a
white _Owl_, which is no bigger than a _Thrush_. _Plinie_ writes
that the brains of an _Owl_ asswageth the pain & inflammation
in the lap of the ear. And that Eggs of an _Owl_ put into the
liquour that a tospot useth to be drunk with, will make him loath
drunkenness [p. 97.] ever after. But now peradventure some will
say, what doth this man mean to bring _Owls_ to _Athens_? verily
Sirs I presume to say, had I brought over of the little white
_Owls_ they would have been acceptable, they are good mousers, and
pretty Birds to look upon; the _Athenians_, no question are better
imployed than to take notice of my _Owls_, poor ragged Birds they
are and want those glittering golden feathers that _Draiton’s
Owl_ is adorned with, yet they are somewhat of that nature; if an
_Athenian_ chance in this season of divertisement to cast an eye
upon them I shall be glad, but more glad if he vouchsafe to prune
and correct their feathers, which I confess are discomposed for
want of Art; plain Birds they are, and fit for none but plain men
to manage. Sirs do not mistake me, there’s no man living honours
an _Athenian_ more than I do, especially where I perceive great
abilities concomiting with goodness of nature: A good nature (saith
Mr. _Perkins_) is the Character of God, and God is the father of
learning, knowledge, and every good gift, and hath condescended
to become a School-master to us poor mortals, furnishing of us
with Philosophy, Historie, Divinity by his holy Scriptures, which
if we diligently learn and practise, we shall in [p. 98.] time be
brought into his Heavenly Academy, where we shall have fulness and
perfection of knowledge eternally. But there are a Generation of
men and women in this prophane age that despise Gods learning and
his Ushers to the _Athenians_, choosing to wallow in the pleasures
of sin for a season. I shall conclude this excursion, with that
which a Poet writ sometime since, and then return to the trimming
of my _Owl_.

        _Say thou pour’st them Wheat,
        And they would_ Acorns _eat;
      ’Twere simple fury in thee still to wast
      Thy self, on them that have no tast;
        No, give them draff their fill,
        Husks, Grains and swill;
      They that love Lees and leave the lustie Wine,
      Envy them not, their palats with the Swine._

The _Raven_ is here numerous and Crowes, but _Rooks_, _Danes_,
_Popinjaes_, _Megpies_ there be none. It is observed that the
female of all Birds of prey and Ravin is ever bigger than the male,
more venturous, hardy, and watchful: but such Birds as do not live
by prey and Ravin, the male is more large than the female. So much
for Birds of prey, the next are Birds for the dish, and the first
of these is,

[p. 99.] The _Turkie_, which is in _New-England_ a very large Bird,
they breed twice or thrice in a year, if you would preserve the
young Chickens alive, you must give them no water, for if they come
to have their fill of water they will drop away strangely, and you
will never be able to rear any of them: they are excellent meat,
especially a _Turkie-Capon_ beyond that, for which Eight shillings
was given, their Eggs are very wholesome and restore decayed nature
exceedingly. But the _French_ say they breed the Leprosie; the
Indesses make Coats of _Turkie_-feathers woven for their Children.

The _Partridge_ is larger than ours, white flesht, but very dry,
they are indeed a sort of _Partridges_ called _Grooses_.

The _Pidgeon_, of which there are millions of millions, I have seen
a flight of _Pidgeons_ in the spring, and at _Michaelmas_ when they
return back to the Southward for four or five miles, that to my
thinking had neither beginning nor ending, length nor breadth, and
so thick that I could see no Sun, they joyn Nest to Nest, and Tree
to Tree by their Nests many miles together in _Pine_-Trees. But of
late they are much diminished, the _English_ taking them with Nets.
I have bought at _Boston_ a dozen of _Pidgeons_ ready pull’d and
garbidgd for three pence, [p. 100.] Ring-_Doves_ they say are there
too, but I could never see any.

The _Snow_-Bird is like a _Chaf-Finch_, go in flocks and are good
meat.

The singing Birds are _Thrushes_ with red breasts, which will be
very fat and are good meat, so are the _Thressels_, _Filladies_
are small singing Birds, _Ninmurders_ little yellow Birds.
_New-England_ Nightingales painted with orient colours, black,
white, blew, yellow, green and scarlet, and sing sweetly,
_Wood-larks_, _Wrens_, _Swallows_, who will sit upon Trees, and
_Starlings_ black as _Ravens_ with scarlet pinions; other sorts of
Birds there are, as the _Troculus_, _Wag-tail_, or _Dish-water_,
which is here of a brown colour, _Titmouse_ two or three sorts, the
Dunneck or hedge-_Sparrow_ who is starke naked in his winter nest.
The golden or yellow hammer, a Bird about the bigness of a _Thrush_
that is all over as red as bloud, Wood-_Peckers_ of two or three
sorts, gloriously set out with variety of glittering colours. The
_Colibry_, _Viemalin_, or rising or waking Bird, an Emblem of the
Resurrection, and the wonder of little Birds.

The water-fowl are these that follow, _Hookers_ or wild-_Swans_,
_Cranes_, _Geese_ of three sorts, grey, white, and the brant
_Goose_, the first and last are best meat, the white are [p. 101.]
lean and tough and live a long time; whereupon the proverb, Older
than a white _Goose_; of the skins of the necks of grey _Geese_
with their Bills the _Indians_ makes Mantles and Coverlets sowing
them together and they shew prettily. There be four sorts of
_Ducks_, a black _Duck_, a brown _Duck_ like our wild _Ducks_, a
grey _Duck_, and a great black and white _Duck_, these frequent
Rivers and Ponds; but of _Ducks_ there be many more sorts,
as _Hounds_, old _Wives_, _Murres_, _Doies_, _Shell-drakes_,
_Shoulers_ or _Shoflers_, _Widgeons_, _Simps_, _Teal_, Blew wing’d,
and green wing’d, Divers or _Didapers_, or _Dip-chicks_, _Fenduck_,
_Duckers_ or _Moorhens_, _Coots_, _Pochards_, a water-fowl like
a _Duck_, _Plungeons_, a kind of water-fowl with a long reddish
Bill, _Puets_, _Plovers_, _Smethes_, _Wilmotes_, a kind of _Teal_,
_Godwits_, _Humilities_, _Knotes_, _Red-Shankes_, _Wobbles_,
_Loones_, _Gulls_, white _Gulls_, or Sea-_Cobbs_, _Caudemandies_,
_Herons_, grey _Bitterns_, _Ox-eyes_, _Birds_ called _Oxen_ and
_Keen_, _Petterels_, _Kings fishers_, which breed in the spring
in holes in the Sea-banks, being unapt to propagate in Summer, by
reason of the driness of their bodies, which becomes more moist
when their pores are closed by cold. Most of these Fowls and Birds
are eatable. There are little Birds that frequent the Sea-shore in
flocks called _Sanderlins_, [p. 102.] they are about the bigness of
a _Sparrow_, and in the fall of the leaf will be all fat; when I
was first in the Countrie the _English_ cut them into small pieces
to put into their Puddings instead of suet, I have known twelve
score and above kill’d at two shots. I have not done yet, we must
not forget the _Cormorant_, _Shape_ or _Sharke_; though I cannot
commend them to our curious palats, the _Indians_ will eat them
when they are fley’d, they take them prettily, they roost in the
night upon some Rock that lyes out in the Sea, thither the _Indian_
goes in his Birch-_Canow_ when the Moon shines clear, and when he
is come almost to it, he lets his _Canow_ drive on of it self, when
he is come under the Rock he shoves his Boat along till he come
just under the _Cormorants_ watchman, the rest being asleep, and
so soundly do sleep that they will snore like so many Piggs; the
_Indian_ thrusts up his hand of a sudden, grasping the watchman
so hard round about his neck that he cannot cry out; as soon as
he hath him in his _Canow_ he wrings off his head, and making his
_Canow_ fast, he clambreth to the top of the Rock, where walking
softly he takes them up as he pleaseth, still wringing off their
heads; when he hath slain as many as his _Canow_ can carry, he
gives a shout [p. 103.] which awakens the surviving _Cormorants_,
who are gone in an instant.

The next Creatures that you are to take notice of, are they that
live in the Element of water. _Pliny_ reckons them to be of 177
kinds, but certainly if it be true that there is no Beast upon
Earth, which hath not his like in the Sea, and which (perhaps) is
not in some part parallel’d in the plants of the Earth; we may by
a diligent search find out many more: of the same opinion is the
Poet, who saith that it is

      _Affirm’d by some that what on Earth we find,
      The Sea can parallell in shape and kind._

Divine _Dubertus_ goes further.

      _You Divine wits of elder dayes, from whom
      The deep invention of rare works hath come,
      Took you not pattern of our chiefest Tooles
      Out of the lap of_ Thetis, _Lakes, and Pools?
      Which partly in the Waves, part on the edges
      Of craggy Rocks, among their ragged sedges,
      Bring forth abundance of Pins, Spincers, spokes,
      Pikes, piercers, needles, mallets, pipes & yoaks,
      Oars, sails & swords, saws, wedges, razors, rammers,
      Plumes, cornets, knives, wheels, vices, horns and hammers._

[p. 104.] Psalm 104.25, 26. _In ipso mari magno & spatioso, illic
reptilia sunt atque innumera animantia parva cum magnis. Illic
navea ambulant; balæna quam formasti ludendo in eo._

And as the females amongst Beasts and Birds of prey for form and
beautie surpass the males, so do they especially amongst fishes;
and those I intend to treat of, I shall divide into salt-water
fish, and fresh-water fish.

The Sea that _Piscina mirabilis_ affords us the greatest number,
of which I shall begin first with the Whale a regal fish, as all
fishes of extraordinary size are accounted, of these there are (as
I have said in another place) seven kinds, the Ambergreese-_Whale_
the chiefest. _Anno Dom._ 1668 the 17 of _July_ there was one
of them thrown up on the shore between _Winter-harbour_ and
_Cape-porpus_, about eight mile from the place where I lived,
that was five and fifty foot long. They are Creatures of a vast
magnitude and strength. The Royal Psalmist, in the 148 psalm, and
the 7 verse, _makes mention of them_. _Laudate Jehovam terrestria;
Cete (Dracones as some translate it) & omnes abyssi. And Moses in
his history of_ Job, Job 41. 1. _An extrahas balænam hamo_, &c. [p.
105.] _Whereby the subtlety of the Devil is shewed, as also, the
greatness and brutishness of the Devil by the Elephant, in the_ 10
_verse of the foregoing Chapter. In the book of_ Jonas _prophecies
we read of a great fish_, Jonah 1. 17. _Pararat autem Jehova piscem
magnum, qui obsorberet Jonam. But whether this were a Whale or
not is questioned by some. In the head (saith Mr._ Parkinson _the
Herbalist) of one only sort of Whale-fish is found that which is
called_ sperma Cæti, _it lyes in a hole therein, as it were a Well,
taken out and prest that the oyl may come out, the substance is
that we use for_ sperma Cæti, _and hath little or no smell, the oyl
smells strong. See the rarities of_ New-England.

The _Sea-hare_ is as big as _Grampus_ or _Herrin-hog_, and as white
as a sheet; There hath been of them in _Black-point_-Harbour, &
some way up the river, but we could never take any of them, several
have shot sluggs at them, but lost their labour.

The _Sturgeon_ is a Regal fish too, I have seen of them that have
been sixteen foot in length: of their sounds they make _Isinglass_,
which melted in the mouth is excellent to seal letters.

_Sharkes_ there are infinite store, who tear the Fishermens nets
to their great loss and hinderance; they are of two sorts, one
flat [p. 106.] headed, the other long-snouted, the pretious stone
in their heads (soveraign for the stone in a man) so much coveted
by the travelling Chirurgeon is nought else but the brains of
the flat-headed _Sharke_. With these we may joyn the Dog-fish or
Thorn-hound, who hath two long sharp prickles on his back.

The _Sea-horse_ or _Morse_ is a kind of monster-fish numerous about
the Isle of _Sables_, i. e. The sandy Isle. An Amphibious Creature
kill’d for their Teeth and Oyl, never brings forth more than two
at a birth; as also doth the Soil and Manate or Cow-fish which is
supposed to be the Sea-monster spoken of by _Jeremy_, _Lament._ 4.
3. _Etiam phocæ præbent mammam, lactant catulos suos; So the Latins
render it_, phoca _a Sea-Calf or Soil_.

The small _Sword-fish_ is very good meat, the _Sea-bat_ or
_Sea-owl_ a kind of flying fish.

_Negroes_ or _Sea-Devils_ a very ugly fish, having a black scale,
there are three sorts of them, one a hideous fish, another about
two foot long; of these I have seen store in _Black-point_ Harbour
in the water, but never attempted to take any of them.

_Squids_ a soft fish somewhat like a cudgel, their horns like a
_Snails_, which sometimes are found to be of an incredible length,
[p. 107.] this fish is much used for bait to catch a _Cod_,
_Hacke_, _Polluck_, and the like Sea-fish.

The _Dolphin_, _Bonito_, or _Dozado_, the ashes of their teeth
mixed with honey, is good to asswage the pain of breeding teeth in
Children.

The _Sea-bream_, _Dorado_, or _Amber-fish_, they follow ships as
doth the _Dolphin_, and are good meat.

The _Mackarel_, of which there is choicefull plenty all summer
long, in the spring they are ordinarily 18 inches long, afterwards
there is none taken but what are smaller.

The _Liver-fish_ like a _Whiting_.

The _Herrin_ which are numerous, they take of them all summer
long. In _Anno Dom._ 1670. they were driven into _Black-point_
Harbour by other great fish that prey upon them so near the shore,
that they threw themselves (it being high water) upon dry land in
such infinite numbers that we might have gone up half way the leg
amongst them for near a quarter of a mile. We used to qualifie a
pickled _Herrin_ by boiling of him in milk.

The _Alewife_ is like a _herrin_, but has a bigger bellie therefore
called an _Alewife_, they come in the end of _April_ into fresh [p.
108.] Rivers and Ponds; there hath been taken in two hours time
by two men without any Weyre at all, saving a few stones to stop
the passage of the River, above ten thousand. The _Italian_ hath
a proverb, that he that hath seen one miracle will easily believe
another; but this relation far from a miracle will peranter meet,
instead of a belief with an Adulterate construction from those
that are somewhat akin to St. _Peters_ mockers, such as deny the
last judgement. I have known in _England_ 9 score and 16 _Pikes_
and _Pickarel_ taken with three Angles between the hours of three
and ten in the morning, in the River _Owse_ in the Isle of _Ely_,
three quarters of a yard long above half of them; they make red
_Alewives_ after the same manner as they do _herrins_ and are as
good.

The _Basse_ is a salt water fish too, but most an end taken in
Rivers where they spawn, there hath been 3000 _Basse_ taken at a
set, one writes that the fat in the bone of a _Basses_ head is his
brains which is a lye.

The _Salmon_ likewise is a Sea-fish, but as the _Basse_ comes into
Rivers to spawn, a _Salmon_ the first year is a _Salmon-smelt_;
The second a _Mort_; The third a _Spraid_; The fourth a _Soar_;
The fifth a _Sorrel_; The sixth [p. 109.] a _forket tail_; and
the seventh year a _Salmon_. There are another sort of _Salmon_
frequent in those parts called white _Salmons_.

_Capeling_ is a small fish like a smelt.

The _Turtle_ or _Tortoise_ is of two sorts Sea-_Turtles_ and
land-_Turtles_: of Sea-_Turtles_ there are five sorts, of
land-_Turtles_ three sorts, one of which is a right land-_turtle_
that seldom or never goes into the water, the other two being the
River-_Turtle_, and the pond-_Turtle_: there are many of these in
the brooke _Chyson_ in the _Holy land_. The ashes of a Sea-_Turtle_
mixt with oyl or _Bears_-grease causeth hair to grow: the shell of
a land-_Turtle_ burnt and the ashes dissolved in wine and oyl to an
unguent healeth chaps and sores of the feet: the flesh burnt and
the ashes mixt with wine and oyl healeth sore legs: the ashes of
the burnt shell and the whites of eggs compounded together healeth
chaps in womens nipples; and the head pulverized with it prevents
the falling of the hair, and will heal the Hemorrhoids, first
washing of them with white-wine, and then strewing on the powder.

_Lobster_, which some say is at first a _whelk_, I have seen a
_Lobster_ that weighed twenty pound, they cast their shell-coats
in the spring, and so do _Crabs_; having underneath a thin red
skin which growes thicker and [p. 110.] hard in short time. The
_Indians_ feed much upon this fish, some they rost, and some they
dry as they do _Lampres_ and _Oysters_ which are delicate breakfast
meat so ordered, the _Oysters_ are long shell’d, I have had of them
nine inches long from the joynt to the toe, containing an _Oyster_
like those the Latines called _Tridacuan_ that were to be cut into
three pieces before they could get them into their mouths, very fat
and sweet.

The _Muscle_ is of two sorts, Sea-_muscles_ in which they find
Pearl and river-_muscles_. Sea-_muscles_ dryed and pulverized and
laid upon the sores of the _Piles_ and _hemorrhoids_ with oyl will
perfectly cure them.

The _Whore_ is a shell-fish, the shells are called whores-eggs,
being fine round white shells, in shape like a _Mexico_ pompion,
but no bigger than a good large Hens-egg; they are wrought down the
sides with little knobs and holes very prettily, but are but thin
and brittle.

The _Perriwig_ is a shell-fish that lyeth in the Sands flat and
round as a shovel-board piece and very little thicker; these at a
little hole in the middle of the shell thrust out a cap of hair,
but upon the least motion of any danger it drawes it in again.

_Trouts_ there be good store in every brook, ordinarily two and
twenty inches [p. 111.] long, their grease is good for the _Piles_
and _clifts_.

The _Eal_ is of two sorts, salt-water _Eals_ and fresh-water
_Eals_; these again are distinguished into yellow bellied _Eals_
and silver bellied _Eals_; I never eat better _Eals_ in no part of
the world that I have been in, than are here. They that have no
mind or leasure to take them, may buy of an _Indian_ half a dozen
silver bellied _Eals_ as big as those we usually give 8 pence or 12
pence a piece for at _London_, for three pence or a groat. There
is several wayes of cooking them, some love them roasted, others
baked, and many will have them fryed; but they please my palate
best when they are boiled, a common way it is to boil them in half
water, half wine with the bottom of a manchet, a fagot of Parsley,
and a little winter savory, when they are boiled they take them
out and break the bread in the broth, and put to it three or four
spoonfuls of yest, and a piece of sweet butter, this they pour to
their _Eals_ laid upon sippets and so serve it up. I fancie my way
better which is this, after the _Eals_ are fley’d and washt I fill
their bellies with Nutmeg grated and Cloves a little bruised, and
sow them up with a needle and thred, then I stick a Clove here and
there in their sides about an inch asunder, [p. 112.] making holes
for them with a bodkin, this done I wind them up in a wreath and
put them into a kettle with half water and half white wine-vinegar,
so much as will rise four fingers above the _Eals_, in midst of the
_Eals_ I put the bottom of a penny white loaf, and a fagot of these
herbs following, Parsley one handful, a little sweet Marjoram,
Peniroyal and Savory, a branch of Rosemary, bind them up with a
thred, and when they are boiled enough take out the _Eals_ and
pull out the threds that their bellies were sowed up with, turn
out the Nutmeg and Cloves, put the _Eals_ in a dish with butter
and vinegar upon a chafing-dish with coals to keep warm, then put
into the broth three or four spoonfuls of good Ale-yeast with the
juice of half a Lemmon; but before you put in your yeast beat it in
a porringer with some of the broth, then break the crust of bread
very small and mingle it well together with the broth, pour it into
a deep dish and garnish it with the other half of the Lemmon, and
so serve them up to the Table in two dishes.

The _Frost fish_ is little bigger than a _Gudgeon_ and are taken
in fresh brooks; when the waters are frozen they make a hole in
the Ice about half a yard or yard wide, to which the fish repair
in great numbers, where with [p. 113.] small nets bound to a hoop
about the bigness of a firkin-hoop with a staff fastned to it they
lade them out of the hole. I have not done with the fish yet,
being willing to let you know all of them that are to be seen and
catch’d in the Sea and fresh waters in _New-England_, and because I
will not tire your patience overmuch, having no occasion to enlarge
my discourse, I shall only name them and so conclude.

  _Aleport_
  _Albicore_
  _Barracha_
  _Barracontha_
  _Blew-fish_
  _Bull-head_
  _Bur-fish_
  _Cat-fish_
  _Cony-fish_
  _Cusk_
  _Clam_
  _Rock-Cod_
  _Sea-Cod_
  _divers kinds of Crabs_
  _Sea-Cucumber_
  _Cunner_
  _Sea-Darts or Javelins_
  _Flail-fish_
  _Flounder or Flowke_
  _Flying-fish_
  _several kinds Sea-Flea_
  _Grandpisse_
  _Hake_
  _Haddock_
  _Horse-foot_
  _Hallibut_
  _Hen-fish_
  _Lampre_
  _Limpin_
  _Lumpe_
  _Maid_
  _Monk-fish_
  _Sea-mullet_
  _Nun-fish_
  _Perch_
  _Polluck_
  _Periwincle_
  _Pike_
  _Pilat-fish_
  _Plaice_
  _Porpisse_
  _Prawne_
  _Purple-fish_
  _Porgee_
  _Remora_
  _Sea-Raven_
  _Sail-fish_
  _Scallop_
  [p. 114.] _Scate_
  _Stingray_
  _Sculpin_
  _Shadd_
  _Spurlin_
  _Sheath-fish_
  _Smelt_
  _Shrimps_
  _Sprates_
  _Star-fish_
  _Swordfish_
  _Thornback_
  _Turbet_
  _The Ulatife or saw-fish_
  _Sea-Urchin_
  _Sea-Unichorn_

The fish are swum by, and the Serpents are creeping on, terrible
creatures, carrying stings in their tails. That will smart worse
than a _Satyrs_ whip, though it were as big as Mr. _Shepperds_ the
mad Gentleman at _Milton-Mowbrayes Constantinus Lasculus_.

The chief or Captain of these is the Rattle-snake described already
in my Journal, in some places of the Countrey there are none as at
_Plimouth_, _New-town_, _Nahant_ and some other places, they will
live on one side of the River, and but swimming over and coming
into the woods dye immediately.

The fat of a Rattle-snake is very Soveraign for frozen limbs,
bruises, lameness by falls, Aches, Sprains. The heart of a
Rattle-snake dried and pulverized and drunk with wine or beer is an
approved remedy against the biting and venome of a Rattle-snake.
Some body will give me thanks for [p. 115.] discovering these
secrets and the rest; _Non omnibus omnia conveniant_.

The _Snake_ of which there are infinite numbers of various colours,
some black, others painted with red, yellow and white, some again
of a grass-green colour powdered all over as it were with silver
dust or _Muscovie_-glass. But there is one sort that exceeds all
the rest, and that is the Checkquered snake, having as many colours
within the checkquers shaddowing one another, as there are in a
Rainbow. There are two sorts of snakes, the land-snake and the
water-snake; the water-snake will be as big about the belly as the
Calf of a mans leg; I never heard of any mischief that snakes did,
they kill them sometimes for their skins and bones to make hatbands
off, their skins likewise worn as a Garter is an excellent remedie
against the cramp. I have found of the skins that they cast in
woods in some quantity, they cast not their very skins, but only
the superfluous thin skin that is upon the very skin, for the very
skin is basted to the flesh, so Lobsters and Crabs.

The Earth-worm, these are very rare and as small as a horse hair,
but there is a Bug that lyes in the earth and eateth the seed,
that is somewhat like a Maggot of a white colour with a red head,
and is about [p. 116.] the bigness of ones finger and an inch or
an inch and half long. There is also a dark dunnish Worm or Bug of
the bigness of an Oaten-straw, and an inch long, that in the spring
lye at the Root of Corn and Garden plants all day, and in the night
creep out and devour them; these in some years destroy abundance of
_Indian_ Corn and Garden plants, and they have but one way to be
rid of them, which the _English_ have learnt of the _Indians_; And
because it is somewhat strange, I shall tell you how it is, they go
out into a field or garden with a Birchen-dish, and spudling the
earth about the roots, for they lye not deep, they gather their
dish full which may contain about a quart or three pints, then they
carrie the dish to the Sea-side when it is ebbing-water and set it
a swimming, the water carrieth the dish into the Sea and within a
day or two if you go into your field you may look your eyes out
sooner than find any of them.

_Sow-bugs_ or _Millipedes_ there be good store, but none of that
sort that are blew and turn round as a pea when they are touched;
neither are there any _Beetles_ nor _Maple-bugs_, but a stinking
black and red _Bug_ called a _Cacarooch_ or _Cockroach_, and a
little black _Bug_ like a _Lady-cow_ that breeds in skins and
furrs and will eat them to their [p. 117.] utter spoil. Likewise
there be infinite numbers of _Tikes_ hanging upon the bushes in
summer time that will cleave to a mans garments and creep into his
Breeches eating themselves in a short time into the very flesh of
a man. I have seen the stockins of those that have gone through
the woods covered with them. Besides these there is a _Bug_, but
whether it be a Native to the Countrie or a stranger I cannot
say: Some are of opinion that they are brought in by the Merchant
with Spanish goods, they infest our beds most, all day they hide
themselves, but when night comes they will creep to the sleeping
wretch and bite him worse than a flea, which raiseth a swelling
knub that will itch intolerably, if you scratch it waxeth bigger
and growes to a scab; and if you chance to break one of the _Bugs_
it will stink odiously: they call them _Chinches_ or _Wood-lice_,
they are fat, red and in shape like a _Tike_ and no bigger. There
are also Palmer-worms which is a kind of Catterpiller, these some
years will devour the leaves of Trees leaving them as naked almost
as in winter, they do much harm in the _English_ Orchards. Of
_Snails_ there are but few, and those very little ones, they lye at
the Roots of long grass in moist places, and are no where else to
be found. [p. 118.] Spiders and Spinners there be many, the last
very big and of several colours.

The Pismire or Ant must not be forgotten, accounted the least
Creature, and by _Salomon_ commended for its wisdom, Prov. 30. 24,
25. _Quatuor ista parva sunt humilia, tamen sunt sapientia, apprime
sapientia: formicæ populus infirmus, quæ comparant æstate cibum
suum_, &c. There are two sorts, red Ants and black Ants, both of
them are many times found winged; not long since they were poured
upon the Sands out of the clouds in a storm betwixt _Black-point_
and _Saco_, where the passenger might have walkt up to the Ankles
in them.

The Grashopper is innumerable and bigger by much than ours in
_England_, having Tinsel-wings, with help whereof they will flye
and skip a great way. Next to these in number are your Crickets, a
man can walk no where in the summer but he shall tread upon them;
The _Italian_ who hath them cryed up and down the streets (_Grille
che cantelo_) and buyeth them to put into his Gardens, if he were
in _New-England_ would gladly be rid of them, they make such a dinn
in an Evening. I could never discover the Organ of their voice,
they have a little clift in their Crown which opens, and at the
same instant they shake their wings.

[p. 119.] The Eft or Swift in _New-England_ is a most beautiful
Creature to look upon, being larger than ours, and painted with
glorious colours; but I lik’d him never the better for it.

Frogs too there are in ponds and upon dry land, they chirp like
Birds in the spring, and latter end of summer croak like Toads.
It is admirable to consider the generating of these Creatures,
first they lay their gelly on the water in ponds and still waters,
which comes in time to be full of black spots as broad as the head
of a Ten-penny nail, and round, these separate themselves from
the gleir, and after a while thrust out a tail, then their head
comes forth, after their head springs out their fore-legs, and
then their hinder-legs, then their tail drops off, and growes to
have a head and four legs too, the first proves a frog, the latter
a water nuet. The Herbalist useth to say by way of admiration,
_quælibet herba deum &c._ So God is seen in the production of these
small Creatures which are a part of the Creation; _Laudate Jehovam
cælites, laudate eum in excelsis_, &c. _Laudent nomen Jehovæ quæ
ipso præcipiente illico creata sunt_ &c. _ipsæ bestiæ & omnes
jumenta, reptilia & aves alatæ_, Psal. 148.

The Toad is of two sorts, one that is [p. 120.] speckled with
white, and another of a dark earthy colour; there is of them that
will climb up into Trees and sit croaking there; but whether it be
of a third sort, or one of the other, or both, I am not able to
affirm; but this I can testifie that there be Toads of the dark
coloured kind that are as big as a groat loaf. Which report will
not swell into the belief of my sceptique Sirs; nor that there
is a Hell, being like _Salomon’s_ fool, Prov. 26. 22. _Sed si
contunderes stultum in mortario cum mola pistillo, non recederet ab
eo stultitia ejus._

Now before I proceed any further, I must (to prevent
misconstructions) tell you that these following Creatures, though
they be not properly accounted Serpents, yet they are venomous
and pestilent Creatures. As, first the Rat, but he hath been
brought in since the _English_ came thither, but the Mouse is
a Native, of which there are several kinds not material to be
described; the Bat or flitter mouse is bigger abundance than any in
_England_ and swarm, which brings me to the insects or cut-wasted
Creatures again, as first the honey-Bee, which are carried over
by the _English_ and thrive there exceedingly, in time they may
be produced from Bullocks when the wild Beasts are destroyed.
But the wasp is [p. 121.] common, and they have a sort of wild
humble-Bee that breed in little holes in the earth. Near upon
twenty years since there lived an old planter at _Black-point_,
who on a Sun-shine day about one of the clock lying upon a green
bank not far from his house, charged his Son, a lad of 12 years of
age to awaken him when he had slept two hours, the old man falls
asleep and lying upon his back gaped with his mouth wide enough for
a Hawke to shit into it; after a little while the lad sitting by
spied a humble-Bee creeping out of his Fathers mouth, which taking
wing flew quite out of sight, the hour as the lad ghest being come
to awaken his Father he jogg’d him and called aloud Father, Father,
it is two a clock, but all would not rouse him, at last he sees the
humble-Bee returning, who lighted upon the sleepers lip and walked
down as the lad conceived into his belly, and presently he awaked.

The Countrey is strangely incommodated with flyes, which the
_English_ call Musketaes, they are like our gnats, they will sting
so fiercely in summer as to make the faces of the _English_ swell’d
and scabby, as if the small pox for the first year. Likewise there
is a small black fly no bigger than a flea, so numerous up in
the Countrey, [p. 122.] that a man cannot draw his breath, but
he will suck of them in: they continue about Thirty dayes say
some, but I say three moneths, and are not only a pesterment but
a plague to the Countrey. There is another sort of fly called a
Gurnipper that are like our horse-flyes, and will bite desperately,
making the bloud to spurt out in great quantity; these trouble
our _English_ Cattle very much, raising swellings as big as an
egg in their hides. The Butterfly is of several sorts and larger
than ours; So are their Dragon-flyes. Glow-worms have here wings,
there are multitudes of them insomuch that in the dark evening
when I first went into the Countrey I thought the whole Heavens
had been on fire, seeing so many sparkles flying in the air: about
_Mount-Carmel_, and the valley of _Acree_ in the _Holy-land_ there
be abundance of them.

These are taken for _Cantharides_. _Cantharides_ are green flyes by
day, in the night they pass about like a flying Glow-worm with fire
in their tails.

I have finished now my relation of plants, _&c._ I have taken some
pains in recollecting of them to memory, and setting of them down
for their benefit from whom I may expect thanks; but I believe my
[p. 123.] reward will be according to _Ben Johnsons_ proverbs,
Whistle to a Jade and he will pay you with a fart, Claw a churl by
the britch and he will shit in your fist.

The people that inhabited this Countrey are judged to be of the
_Tartars_ called _Samonids_ that border upon _Moscovia_, and are
divided into Tribes; those to the East and North-east are called
_Churchers_ and _Tarentines_, and _Monhegans_. To the South are
the _Pequets_ and _Narragansets_. Westward _Connecticuts_ and
_Mowhacks_. To the Northward _Aberginians_ which consist of
_Mattachusets_, _Wippanaps_ and _Tarrentines_. The _Pocanokets_
live to the West-ward of _Plimouth_. Not long before the _English_
came into the Countrey, happened a great mortality amongst them,
especially where the _English_ afterwards planted, the East and
Northern parts were sore smitten with the Contagion; first by the
plague, afterwards when the _English_ came by the small pox, the
three Kingdoms or _Sagamorships_ of the _Mattachusets_ were very
populous, having under them seven Dukedoms or petti-_Sagamorships_,
but by the plague were brought from 30000 to 300. There are not
many now to the Eastward, the _Pequots_ were destroyed by the
_English_: the _Mowhacks_ are about five hundred: Their speech
a dialect of the _Tartars_, [p. 124.] (as also is the _Turkish_
tongue). There is difference between Tongues and Languages, the
division of speech at _Babel_ is most properly called Languages,
the rest Tongues.

As for their persons they are tall and handsome timber’d people,
out-wristed, pale and lean _Tartarian_ visag’d, black eyed which is
accounted the strongest for sight, and generally black hair’d, both
smooth and curl’d wearing of it long. No beards, or very rarely,
their Teeth are very white, short and even, they account them the
most necessary and best parts of man; And as the _Austreans_ are
known by their great lips, the _Bavarians_ by their pokes under
their chins, the _Jews_ by their goggle eyes, so the _Indians_ by
their flat noses, yet are they not so much deprest as they are to
the Southward.

The _Indesses_ that are young, are some of them very comely, having
good features, their faces plump and round, and generally plump
of their Bodies, as are the men likewise, and as soft and smooth
as a mole-skin, of reasonable good complexions, but that they dye
themselves tawnie, many prettie Brownetto’s and spider finger’d
Lasses may be seen amongst them. The _Vetula’s_ or old women are
lean and uglie, all of them are of a modest demeanor, considering
their [p. 125.] Savage breeding; and indeed do shame our _English_
rusticks whose rudeness in many things exceedeth theirs.

Of disposition very inconstant, crafty, timorous, quick of
apprehension, and very ingenious, soon angry, and so malicious that
they seldom forget an injury, and barbarously cruel, witness their
direful revenges upon one another. Prone to injurious violence
and slaughter, by reason of their bloud dryed up with overmuch
fire, very lecherous proceeding from choller adust and melancholy,
a salt and sharp humour; very fingurative or theevish, and bold
importunate beggars, both Men and Women guilty of Misoxenie or
hatred to strangers, a quality appropriated to the old Brittains,
all of them Cannibals, eaters of humane flesh. And so were formerly
the Heathen-_Irish_, who used to feed upon the Buttocks of Boyes
and Womens Paps; it seems it is natural to Savage people so to do.
I have read in Relations of the _Indians_ amongst the _Spaniards_
that they would not eat a _Spaniard_ till they had kept him two
or three dayes to wax tender, because their flesh was hard. At
_Martins_ vinyard, an Island that lyes South to _Plimouth_ in the
way to _Virginia_, certain _Indians_ (whilst I was in the Countrey)
seised upon a Boat that put into [p. 126.] a By-_Cove_, kill’d the
men and eat them up in a short time before they were discovered.

Their houses which they call _Wigwams_, are built with Poles pitcht
into the ground of a round form for most part, sometimes square,
they bind down the tops of their poles, leaving a hole for smoak
to go out at, the rest they cover with the bark of Trees, and line
the inside of their _Wigwams_ with mats made of Rushes painted
with several colours, one good post they set up in the middle that
reaches to the hole in the top, with a staff across before it at a
convenient height, they knock in a pin on which they hang their
Kettle, beneath that they set up a broad stone for a back which
keepeth the post from burning; round by the walls they spread
their mats and skins where the men sleep whilst their women dress
their victuals, they have commonly two doors, one opening to the
South, the other to the North, and according as the wind sits, they
close up one door with bark and hang a _Dears_ skin or the like
before the other. Towns they have none, being alwayes removing from
one place to another for conveniency of food, sometimes to those
places where one sort of fish is most plentiful, other whiles where
others are. I have seen half [p. 127.] a hundred of their _Wigwams_
together in a piece of ground and they shew prettily, within a day
or two, or a week they have been all dispersed. They live for the
most part by the Sea-side, especially in the spring and summer
quarters, in winter they are gone up into the Countrie to hunt
_Deer_ and _Beaver_, the younger webbs going with them. Tame Cattle
they have none, excepting Lice, and Doggs of a wild breed that they
bring up to hunt with.

Wives they have two or three, according to the ability of their
bodies and strength of their concupiscence, who have the easiest
labours of any women in the world; they will go out when their
time is come alone, carrying a board with them two foot long, and
a foot and half broad, bor’d full of holes on each side, having a
foot beneath like a Jack that we pull Boots off with, on the top
of the board a broad strap of leather which they put over their
fore-head, the board hanging at their back; when they are come to a
Bush or a Tree that they fancy they lay them down and are delivered
in a trice, not so much as groaning for it, they wrap the child
up in a young _Beaver_-skin with his heels close to his britch,
leaving a little hole if it be a Boy for his Cock to peep out at;
and lace him down to the [p. 128.] board upon his back, his knees
resting upon the foot beneath, then putting the strap of leather
upon their fore-head with the infant hanging at their back home
they trudge; What other ceremonies they use more than dying of
them with a liquor of boiled _Hemlock_-Bark, and their throwing of
them into the water if they suspect the Child to be gotten by any
other Nation, to see if he will swim, if he swim they acknowledge
him for their own, their names they give them when they are men
grown, and covet much to be called after our _English_ manner,
_Robin_, _Harry_, _Phillip_ and the like, very indulgent they are
to their Children, and their children sometimes to their Parents,
but if they live so long that they become a burden to them, they
will either starve them or bury them alive, as it was supposed an
_Indian_ did his Mother at _Casco_ in 1669.

Their Apparel before the _English_ came amongst them, was the skins
of wild Beasts with the hair on, Buskins of _Deers_-skin or _Moose_
drest and drawn with lines into several works, the lines being
coloured with yellow, blew or red, Pumps too they have, made of
tough skins without soles. In the winter when the snow will bear
them, they fasten to their feet their snow shooes which are made
like a large Racket we play at [p. 129.] _Tennis_ with, lacing
them with _Deers_-guts and the like, under their belly they wear a
square piece of leather and the like upon their posteriors, both
fastened to a string tyed about them to hide their secrets; on
their heads they ware nothing: But since they have had to do with
the English they purchase of them a sort of Cloth called trading
cloth of which they make Mantles, Coats with short sleeves, and
caps for their heads which the women use, but the men continue
their old fashion going bare-headed, excepting some old men amongst
them. They are very proud as appeareth by their setting themselves
out with white and blew Beads of their own making, and painting of
their faces with the above mentioned colours, they weave sometimes
curious Coats with _Turkie_ feathers for their Children.

Their Diet is Fish and Fowl, Bear, Wild-cat, Rattoon and Deer;
dry’d Oysters, _Lobsters_ rosted or dryed in the smoak, _Lampres_
and dry’d _Moose_-tongues, which they esteem a dish for a
_Sagamor_; hard eggs boiled and made small and dryed to thicken
their broth with, salt they have not the use of, nor bread, their
_Indian_ Corn and Kidney beans they boil, and sometimes eat their
Corn parcht or roasted in the ear against the fire; they feed
likewise upon earth-nuts, [p. 130.] or ground-nuts, roots of
water-Lillies, Ches-nuts, and divers sorts of Berries. They beat
their Corn to powder and put it up into bags, which they make
use of when stormie weather or the like will not suffer them to
look out for their food. _Pompions_ and water-_Mellons_ too they
have good store; they have prodigious stomachs, devouring a cruel
deal, meer _voragoes_, never giving over eating as long as they
have it, between meals spending their time in sleep till the next
kettlefull is boiled, when all is gone they satisfie themselves
with a small quantity of the meal, making it serve as the frugal
bit amongst the old _Britains_, which taken to the mountenance of a
Bean would satisfie both thirst and hunger. If they have none of
this, as sometimes it falleth out (being a very careless people not
providing against the storms of want and tempest of necessity) they
make use of Sir _Francis Drake’s_ remedy for hunger, go to sleep.

They live long, even to an hundred years of age, if they be not cut
off by their Children, war, and the plague, which together with
the small pox hath taken away abundance of them. _Pliny_ reckons
up but 300 Diseases in and about man, latter writers Six thousand,
236 belonging to the eyes. There are not so many Diseases raigning
[p. 131.] amongst them as our _Europeans_. The great pox is proper
to them, by reason (as some do deem) that they are _Man-eaters_,
which disease was brought amongst our _Europeans_ first by the
_Spaniards_ that went with _Christopher Columbus_ who brought it
to _Naples_ with their _Indian_-women, with whom the _Italians_
and _French_ conversed _Anno Dom._ 1493. _Paracelsus_ saith it
happened in the year 1478 and 1480. But all agree that it was
not known in _Europe_ before _Columbus_ his voyage to _America_.
It hath continued amongst us above two hundred and three score
years. There are Diseases that are proper to certain climates, as
the Leprosie to _Ægypt_, swelling of the Throat or _Mentegra_ to
_Asia_, the sweating sickness to the Inhabitants of the North; to
the _Portugals_ the Phthisick, to _Savoy_ the mumps; So to the
_West-Indies_ the Pox, but this doth not exclude other Diseases. In
_New-England_ the _Indians_ are afflicted with pestilent Feavers,
Plague, Black-pox, Consumption of the Lungs, Falling-sickness,
Kings-evil, and a Disease called by the _Spaniard_ the Plague in
the back, with us _Empyema_, their Physicians are the _Powaws_ or
_Indian_ Priests who cure sometimes by charms and medicine, but
in a general infection they seldom come amongst them, [p. 132.]
therefore they use their own remedies, which is sweating, _&c._
Their manner is when they have plague or small pox amongst them
to cover their _Wigwams_ with Bark so close that no Air can enter
in, lining them (as I said before) within, and making a great fire
they remain there in a stewing heat till they are in a top sweat,
and then run out into the Sea or River, and presently after they
are come into their Hutts again they either recover or give up
the Ghost; they dye patiently both men and women, not knowing of
a Hell to scare them, nor a Conscience to terrifie them. In times
of general Mortality they omit the Ceremonies of burying, exposing
their dead Carkases to the Beasts of prey. But at other times they
dig a Pit and set the diseased therein upon his breech upright, and
throwing in the earth, cover it with the sods and bind them down
with sticks, driving in two stakes at each end; their mournings
are somewhat like the howlings of the _Irish_, seldom at the grave
but in the _Wigwam_ where the party dyed, blaming the Devil for
his hard heartedness, and concluding with rude prayers to him to
afflict them no further.

They acknowledge a God who they call _Squantam_, but worship him
they do not, [p. 133.] because (they say) he will do them no harm.
But _Abbamocho_ or _Cheepie_ many times smites them with incurable
Diseases, scares them with his Apparitions and pannick Terrours, by
reason whereof they live in a wretched consternation worshipping
the Devil for fear. One black _Robin_ an _Indian_ sitting down in
the Corn field belonging to the house where I resided, ran out of
his _Wigwam_ frighted with the apparition of two infernal spirits
in the shape of _Mohawkes_. Another time two _Indians_ and an
_Indess_, came running into our house crying out they should all
dye, _Cheepie_ was gone over the field gliding in the Air with a
long rope hanging from one of his legs: we askt them what he was
like, they said all wone _Englishman_, clothed with hat and coat,
shooes and stockings, _&c._ They have a remarkable observation of
a flame that appears before the death of an _Indian_ or _English_
upon their _Wigwams_ in the dead of the night: The first time that
I did see it, I was call’d out by some of them about twelve of the
clock, it being a very dark night, I perceived it plainly mounting
into the Air over our Church, which was built upon a plain little
more than half a quarter of a mile from our dwelling house, on the
Northside of the Church: look on [p. 134.] what side of a house it
appears, from that Coast respectively you shall hear of a Coarse
within two or three days.

They worship the Devil (as I said) their Priests are called
_Powaws_ and are little better than Witches, for they have familiar
conference with him, who makes them invulnerable, that is shot-free
and stick-free. Craftie Rogues, abusing the rest at their pleasure,
having power over them by reason of their Diabolical Art in curing
of Diseases, which is performed with rude Ceremonies; they place
the sick upon the ground sitting, and dance in an Antick manner
round about him, beating their naked breasts with a strong hand,
and making hideous faces, sometimes calling upon the Devil for his
help, mingling their prayers with horrid and barbarous charms; if
the sick recover they send rich gifts, their Bowes and Arrowes,
_Wompompers_, _Mohacks_, _Beaver skins_, or other rich Furs to
the Eastward, where there is a vast Rock not far from the shore,
having a hole in it of an unsearchable profundity, into which they
throw them.

Their Theologie is not much, but questionless they acknowledge
a God and a Devil, and some small light they have of the Souls
immortality; for ask them [p. 135.] whither they go when they dye,
they will tell you pointing with their finger to Heaven beyond the
white mountains, and do hint at _Noah’s_ Floud, as may be conceived
by a story they have received from Father to Son, time out of mind,
that a great while agon their Countrey was drowned, and all the
People and other Creatures in it, only one _Powaw_ and his _Webb_
foreseeing the Floud, fled to the white mountains carrying a hare
along with them and so escaped; after a while the _Powaw_ sent the
_Hare_ away, who not returning emboldned thereby they descended,
and lived many years after, and had many Children, from whom the
Countrie was filled again with _Indians._ Some of them tell another
story of the _Beaver_, saying that he was their Father.

Their learning is very little or none, Poets they are as may be
ghessed by their formal speeches, sometimes an hour long, the
last word of a line riming with the last word of the following
line, and the whole doth _Constare ex pedibus_. Musical too they
be, having many pretty odd barbarous tunes which they make use of
vocally at marriages and feastings; but Instruments they had none
before the _English_ came amongst them, since they have imitated
them and will make out Kitts and string them as neatly, [p. 136.]
and as Artificially as the best Fiddle-maker amongst us; and will
play our plain lessons very exactly: the only Fidler that was in
the Province of _Meyn_, when I was there, was an _Indian_ called
_Scozway_, whom the Fishermen and planters when they had a mind to
be merry made use of.

Arithmetick they skill not, reckoning to ten upon their fingers,
and if more doubling of it by holding their fingers up, their age
they reckon by Moons, and their actions by sleeps, as, if they go
a journie, or are to do any other business they will say, three
sleeps me walk, or two or three sleeps me do such a thing, that
is in two or three days. Astronomie too they have no knowledge
of, seldom or never taking observation of the Stars, Eclipses,
or Comets that I could perceive; but they will Prognosticate
shrewdly what weather will fall out. They are generally excellent
_Zenagogues_ or guides through their Countrie.

Their exercises are hunting and fishing, in both they will take
abundance of pains. When the snow will bear them, the young and
lustie _Indians_, (leaving their papouses and old people at home)
go forth to hunt _Moose_, _Deere_, _Bear_ and _Beaver_, Thirty or
forty miles up into the Countrey; when they light upon a _Moose_
they run him down, [p. 137.] which is sometimes in half a day,
sometimes a whole day, but never give him over till they have
tyred him, the snow being usually four foot deep, and the Beast
very heavie he sinks every step, and as he runs sometimes bears
down Arms of Trees that hang in his way, with his horns, as big
as a mans thigh; other whiles, if any of their dogs (which are
but small) come near, yerking out his heels (for he strikes like
a horse) if a small Tree be in the way he breaks it quite asunder
with one stroak, at last they get up to him on each side and
transpierce him with their Lances, which formerly were no other
but a staff of a yard and half pointed with a Fishes bone made
sharp at the end, but since they put on pieces of sword-blades
which they purchase of the _French_, and having a strap of leather
fastned to the but end of the staff which they bring down to the
midst of it, they dart it into his sides, _hæret latere lethalis
arundo_, the poor Creature groans, and walks on heavily, for a
space, then sinks and falls down like a ruined building, making
the Earth to quake; then presently in come the Victors, who having
cut the throat of the slain take off his skin, their young webbs
by this time are walking towards them with heavie bags and kettles
at their [p. 138.] backs, who laying down their burdens fall to
work upon the Carkass, take out the heart, and from that the bone,
cut off the left foot behind, draw out the sinews, and cut out his
tongue _&c._ and as much of the Venison as will serve to satiate
the hungry mawes of the Company; mean while the men pitch upon a
place near some spring, and with their snow shoos shovel the snow
away to the bare Earth in a circle, making round about a wall of
snow; in the midst they make their _Vulcan_ or fire near to a great
Tree, upon the snags whereof they hang their kettles fil’d with
the Venison; whilst that boils, the men after they have refresht
themselves with a pipe of Tobacco dispose themselves to sleep. The
women tend the Cookerie, some of them scrape the slime and fat from
the skin, cleanse the sinews, and stretch them and the like, when
the venison is boiled the men awake, and opening of their bags
take out as much _Indian_ meal as will serve their turns for the
present; they eat their broth with spoons, and their flesh they
divide into gobbets, eating now and then with it as much meal as
they can hold betwixt three fingers; their drink they fetch from
the spring, and were not acquainted with other, untill the _French_
and _English_ traded with that cursed liquor [p. 139.] called
_Rum_, _Rum-bullion_, or kill-Devil, which is stronger than spirit
of Wine, and is drawn from the dross of Sugar and Sugar Canes,
this they love dearly, and will part with all they have to their
bare skins for it, being perpetually drunk with it, as long as it
is to be had, it hath killed many of them, especially old women
who have dyed when dead drunk. Thus instead of bringing of them to
the knowledge of Christianitie, we have taught them to commit the
beastly and crying sins of our Nation, for a little profit. When
the _Indians_ have stuft their paunches, if it be fair weather
and about midday they venture forth again, but if it be foul and
far spent, they betake themselves to their field-bed at the sign
of the Star, expecting the opening of the Eastern window, which
if it promise serenity, they truss up their fardles, and away for
another _Moose_, this course they continue for six weeks or two
moneths, making their _Webbs_ their _Mules_ to carry their luggage,
they do not trouble themselves with the horns of _Moose_ or other
_Deer_, unless it be near an _English_ plantation; because they
are weighty and cumbersome. If the _English_ could procure them to
bring them in, they would be worth the pains and charge, being sold
in _England_ after the rate of forty or fifty [p. 140.] pounds a
Tun; the red heads of _Deer_ are the fairest and fullest of marrow,
and lightest; the black heads are heavie and have less marrow; the
white are the worst, and the worst nourished. When the _Indians_
are gone, there gathers to the Carkass of the _Moose_ thousands of
_Mattrises_, of which there are but few or none near the Sea-coasts
to be seen, these devour the remainder in a quarter of the time
that they were hunting of it.

Their fishing followes in the spring, summer and fall of the leaf.
First for _Lobsters_, _Clams_, _Flouke_, _Lumps_ or _Podles_, and
_Alewives_; afterwards for _Bass_, _Cod_, _Rock_, _Blew-fish_,
_Salmon_, and _Lampres_, &c.

The _Lobsters_ they take in large Bayes when it is low water, the
wind still, going out in their _Birchen-Canows_ with a staff two or
three yards long, made small and sharpen’d at one end, and nick’d
with deep nicks to take hold. When they spye the _Lobster_ crawling
upon the Sand in two fathom water, more or less, they stick him
towards the head and bring him up. I have known thirty _Lobsters_
taken by an _Indian_ lad in an hour and a half, thus they take
_Flouke_ and _Lumps_; _Clams_ they dig out of the _Clam-banks_
upon the flats and in creeks when it is low water, where they are
bedded [p. 141.] sometimes a yard deep one upon another, the beds
a quarter of a mile in length, and less, the _Alewives_ they take
with Nets like a pursenet put upon a round hoop’d stick with a
handle in fresh ponds where they come to spawn. The _Bass_ and
_Blew-fish_ they take in harbours, and at the mouth of barr’d
Rivers being in their _Canows_, striking them with a fisgig, a
kind of dart or staff, to the lower end whereof they fasten a
sharp jagged bone (since they make them of Iron) with a string
fastened to it, as soon as the fish is struck they pull away the
staff, leaving the bony head in the fishes body and fasten the
other end of the string to the _Canow_: Thus they will hale after
them to shore half a dozen or half a score great fishes: this way
they take _Sturgeon_; and in dark evenings when they are upon the
fishing ground near a Bar of Sand (where the _Sturgeon_ feeds upon
small fishes (like _Eals_) that are called Lances sucking them
out of the Sands where they lye hid, with their hollow Trunks,
for other mouth they have none) the _Indian_ lights a piece of
dry _Birch-Bark_ which breaks out into a flame & holds it over
the side of his _Canow_, the _Sturgeon_ seeing this glaring light
mounts to the Surface of the water where he is slain and taken
with a fisgig. _Salmons_ and _Lampres_ [p. 142.] are catch’d at
the falls of Rivers. All the Rivers of note in the Countrey have
two or three desperate falls distant one from another for some
miles, for it being rising ground from the Sea and mountainous
within land, the Rivers having their Originals from great lakes,
and hastning to the Sea, in their passage meeting with Rocks that
are not so easily worn away, as the loose earthie mould beneath
the Rock, makes a fall of the water in some Rivers as high as a
house: you would think it strange to see, yea admire if you saw the
bold _Barbarians_ in their light _Canows_ rush down the swift and
headlong stream with desperate speed, but with excellent dexterity,
guiding his _Canow_ that seldom or never it shoots under water, or
overturns, if it do they can swim naturally, striking their pawes
under their throat like a dog, and not spreading their Arms as we
do; they turn their _Canow_ again and go into it in the water.

Their Merchandize are their beads, which are their money, of these
there are two sorts blew Beads and white Beads, the first is their
Gold, the last their Silver, these they work out of certain shells
so cunningly that neither _Jew_ nor Devil can counterfeit, they
dril them and string them, and make many curious works with them
to [p. 143.] adorn the persons of their _Sagamours_ and principal
men and young women, as Belts, Girdles, Tablets, Borders for their
womens hair, Bracelets, Necklaces, and links to hang in their ears.
Prince _Phillip_ a little before I came for _England_ coming to
_Boston_ had a Coat on and Buskins set thick with these Beads in
pleasant wild works and a broad Belt of the same, his Accoutrements
were valued at Twenty pounds. The _English_ Merchant giveth them
ten shillings a fathom for their white, and as much more or near
upon for their blew Beads. Delicate sweet dishes too they make
of _Birch-Bark_ sowed with threads drawn from _Spruse_ or white
_Cedar-Roots_, and garnished on the out-side with flourisht works,
and on the brims with glistering quills taken from the _Porcupine_,
and dyed, some black, others red, the white are natural, these
they make of all sizes from a dram cup to a dish containing a
pottle, likewise Buckets to carry water or the like, large Boxes
too of the same materials, dishes, spoons and trayes wrought very
smooth and neatly out of the knots of wood, baskets, bags, and
matts woven with _Sparke_, bark of the _Line-Tree_ and _Rushes_
of several kinds, dyed as before, some black, blew, red, yellow,
bags of _Porcupine_ quills woven and dyed also; Coats woven of [p.
144.] _Turkie_-feathers for their Children, Tobacco pipes of stone
with Imagerie upon them, Kettles of _Birchen-bark_ which they used
before they traded with the _French_ for Copper Kettles, by all
which you may apparently see that necessity was at first the mother
of all inventions. The women are the workers of most of these, and
are now, here and there one excellent needle woman, and will milk
a Cow neatly, their richest trade are Furs of divers sorts, Black
_Fox_, _Beaver_, _Otter_, _Bear_, _Sables_, _Mattrices_, _Fox_,
_Wild-Cat_, _Rattoons_, _Martins_, _Musquash_, _Moose-skins_.

Ships they have none, but do prettily imitate ours in their
_Birchen-pinnaces_, their _Canows_ are made of _Birch_, they shape
them with flat Ribbs of white _Cedar_, and cover them with large
sheets of _Birch-bark_, sowing them through with strong threds of
_Spruse-Roots_ or white _Cedar_, and pitch them with a mixture of
_Turpentine_ and the hard rosen that is dryed with the Air on the
out-side of the Bark of _Firr-Trees_. These will carry half a dozen
or three or four men and a considerable fraight, in these they swim
to Sea twenty, nay forty miles, keeping from the shore a league or
two, sometimes to shorten their voyage when they are to double a
Cape they will put to shore, and [p. 145.] two of them taking up
the _Canow_ carry it cross the Cape or neck of land to the other
side, and to Sea again; they will indure an incredible great Sea,
mounting upon the working billowes like a piece of Corke; but they
require skilful hands to guide them in rough weather, none but
the _Indians_ scarce dare to undertake it, such like Vessels the
Ancient _Brittains_ used, as _Lucan_ relates.

      _Primum cana salix, madefacto vimine, parvam
      Texitur in puppim, cæsoque induta juvenco,
      Vectoris patiens tumidum super emicat amnem.
      Sic Venetus stagnante Pado, fusoque Britanus
      Navigat oceano----_

      _When_ Sicoris _to his own banks restor’d
      Had left the field, of twigs, and willow boord
      They made small Boats, cover’d with Bullocks hide,
      In which they reacht the Rivers further side.
      So sail the Veneti if_ Padus _flow,
      The Brittains sail on their calm ocean so:
      So the Ægyptians sail with woven Boats
      Of paper rushes in their_ Nilus _floats._

[p. 146.] Their Government is monarchical, the Patrueius or they
that descend from the eldest proceeding from his loyns, is the
Roytelet of the Tribe, and if he have Daughters, his Son dying
without a Son, the Government descends to his Daughters Son:
after the same manner, their lands descend. _Cheetadaback_ was
the chief _Sachem_ or _Roytelet_ of the _Massachusets_, when the
_English_ first set down there. _Massasoit_, the great _Sachem_
of the _Plimouth Indians_, his dwelling was at a place called
_Sowans_, about four miles distant from _New-Plimouth_. _Sasasacus_
was the chief _Sachem_ of the _Pequots_, and _Mientoniack_ of the
_Narragansets_. The chief _Roytelet_ amongst the _Mohawks_ now
living, is a _Dutchmans_ Bastard, and the _Roytelet_ now of the
_Pocanakets_, that is the _Plimouth-Indians_, is Prince _Philip_
alias _Metacon_, the Grandson of _Massasoit_. Amongst the Eastern
_Indians_, _Summersant_ formerly was a famous _Sachem_. The
now living _Sachems_ of note are _Sabaccaman_, _Terrumkin_ and
_Robinhood_.

Their Wars are with Neighbouring Tribes, but the _Mowhawks_ are
enemies to all the other _Indians_, their weapons of Defence and
Offence are Bowes and Arrowes, of late he is a poor _Indian_ that
is not [p. 147.] master of two Guns, which they purchase of the
_French_, and powder and shot, they are generally excellent marks
men; their other weapons are _Tamahawks_ which are staves two foot
and a half long with a knob at the end as round as a bowl, and as
big as that we call the Jack or Mistriss. Lances too they have made
(as I have said before) with broken sword blades, likewise they
have Hatchets and knives; but these are weapons of a latter date.
They colour their faces red all over, supposing that it makes them
the more terrible, they are lusty Souldiers to see to and very
strong, meer _Hercules Rusticuses_, their fights are by Ambushments
and Surprises, coming upon one another unawares. They will march
a hundred miles through thick woods and swamps to the _Mowhawks_
Countrey, and the _Mowhawks_ into their Countrey, meeting sometimes
in the woods, or when they come into an _Enemies_ Countrey build a
rude fort with _Pallizadoes_, having loop-holes out of which they
shoot their Arrowes, and fire their Guns, pelting at one another a
week or moneth together; If any of them step out of the Fort they
are in danger to be taken prisoners by the one side or the other;
that side that gets the victory excoriats the hair-scalp of the
principal slain Enemies which [p. 148.] they bear away in Triumph,
their prisoners they bring home, the old men and women they knock
in the head, the young women they keep, and the men of war they
torture to death as the Eastern _Indians_ did two _Mowhawks_ whilst
I was there, they bind him to a Tree and make a great fire before
him, then with sharp knives they cut off the first joynts of his
fingers and toes, then clap upon them hot Embers to sear the vains;
so they cut him a pieces joynt after joynt, still applying hot
Embers to the place to stanch the bloud, making the poor wretch to
sing all the while: when Arms and Legs are gone, they flay off the
skin of their Heads, and presently put on a Cap of burning Embers,
then they open his breast and take out his heart, which while it is
yet living in a manner they give to their old Squaes, who are every
one to have a bite at it. These Barbarous Customs were used amongst
them more frequently before the _English_ came; but since by the
great mercy of the Almighty they are in a way to be Civilized and
converted to Christianity; there being three Churches of _Indians_
gathered together by the pains of Mr. _John Eliot_ and his Son, who
Preaches to them in their Native language, and hath rendered the
Bible in that Language for the benefit of [p. 149.] the _Indians_.
These go clothed like the _English_, live in framed houses, have
stocks of Corn and Cattle about them, which when they are fat they
bring to the _English_ Markets, the Hogs that they rear are counted
the best in _New-England_. Some of their Sons have been brought up
Scholars in _Harvard_ Colledge, and I was told that there was but
two Fellowes in that Colledge, and one of them was an _Indian_;
some few of these Christian _Indians_ have of late Apostatized and
fallen back to their old Superstition and course of life.

Thus much shall suffice concerning _New-England_, as it was when
the _Indians_ solely possest it. I will now proceed to give you an
accompt of it, as it is under the management of the _English_; but
methinks I hear my sceptick Readers muttering out of their scuttle
mouths, what will accrew to us by this rambling _Logodiarce_?
you do but bring straw into _Egypt_, a Countrey abounding with
Corn. Thus by these _Famacides_ who are so minutely curious, I
am dejected from my hope, whilst they challenge the freedom of
_David’s_ Ruffins, Our Tongues are our own, who-shall controll
us. I have done what I can to please you, I have piped and you
will not dance. I have told you as strange things as ever you or
your Fathers [p. 150.] have heard. The _Italian_ saith _Chi vide
un miraculo facilmente ne crede un altro_, he that hath seen one
miracle will easilie believe another, _miranda canunt sed non
credenda poetæ_. Oh I see the pad, you never heard nor saw the
like, therefore you do not believe me; well Sirs I shall not strain
your belief any further, the following Relation I hope will be more
tolerable, yet I could (it is possible) insert as wonderful things
as any my pen hath yet gone over, and may, but it must be upon
condition you will not put me to the proof of it. _Nemo tenetur ad
impossibilia_, no man is obliged to do more than is in his power,
is a rule in law. To be short; if you cannot with the _Bee_ gather
the honey, with the Spider suck out the poyson, as Sir _John Davis_
hath it.

      _The Bee and Spider by a divers power
      Suck honey and poyson from the self-same flower._

I am confident you will get but little poyson here, no ’tis the
poyson of _Asps_ under your tongue that swells you: truly, I do
take you rather to be Spider catchers than Spiders, such as will
not laudably imploy themselves, nor suffer others; you may well
say _non amo hominem, sed non possum_ [p. 151.] _dicere quare_,
unless it be because I am a Veronessa, no Romancer. To conclude;
if with your mother wit, you can mend the matter, take pen in
hand and fall to work, do your Countrey some service as I have
done according to my Talent. Henceforth you are to expect no more
Relations from me. I am now return’d into my Native Countrey, and
by the providence of the Almighty, and the bounty of my Royal
Soveraigness am disposed to a holy quiet of study and meditation
for the good of my soul; and being blessed with a transmentitation
or change of mind, and weaned from the world, may take up for my
word, _non est mortale quod opto_. If what I have done is thought
uprears for the approvement of those to whom it is intended, I
shall be more than meanly contented.

_New-England_ was first discovered by _John Cabota_ and his Son
_Sebastian_ in _Anno Dom._ 1514. A further discovery afterwards
was made by the honourable Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ Knight in _Anno_
1584. when as _Virginia_ was discovered, which together with
_Mary-land_, _New-England_, _Nova Scotia_ was known by one common
name to the _Indians_, _Wingandicoa_, and by Sir _Walter Rawleigh_
in honour of our Virgin Queen, in whose name he took possession
of it, _Virginia_. In [p. 152.] King _James_ his Reign it was
divided into Provinces as is before named. In 1602. these north
parts were further discovered by Capt. _Bartholomew Gosnold_. The
first _English_ that planted there, set down not far from the
_Narragansets-Bay_, and called their Colony _Plimouth_, since old
_Plimouth_, _An. Dom._ 1602. Sir _John Popham_ Lord chief Justice
authorized by his Majesty, King _James_, sent a Colony of _English_
to _Sagadehock_, _An._ 1606. _Newfound-land_ was discovered by
one _Andrew Thorn_ an English man in _Anno_ 1527. Sir _Humphrey
Gilbert_ a west Countrey Knight took possession of it in the Queens
name, _Anno_ 1582. The two first Colonies in _New-England_ failing,
there was a fresh supply of _English_ who set down in other parts
of the Countrey, and have continued in a flourishing condition to
this day.

The whole Countrey now is divided into Colonies, and for your
better understanding observe, a Colony is a sort of people that
come to inhabit a place before not inhabited, or _Colonus quasi_,
because they should be Tillers of the Earth. From hence by an usual
figure the Countrey where they sit down, is called a Colony or
Plantation.

The first of these that I shall relate of, though last in
possession of the _English_, is now our most Southerly Colony, and
next [p. 153.] adjoyning to _Mary-land_, _scil._ the _Manadaes_
or _Manahanent_ lying upon the great River _Mohegan_, which was
first discovered by Mr. _Hudson_, and sold presently by him to
the _Dutch_ without Authority from his Soveraign the King of
_England_, _Anno_ 1608. The _Dutch_ in 1614 began to plant there,
and call’d it _New-Netherlands_, but Sir _Samuel Argal_ Governour
of _Virginia_ routed them, the _Dutch_ after this got leave of
King _James_ to put in there for fresh water in their passage to
_Brasile_, and did not offer to plant until a good while after the
_English_ were settled in the Countrey. In _Anno_ 1664 his Majestie
_Charles_ the Second sent over four worthie Gentlemen Commissioners
to reduce the Colonies into their bounds, who had before incroached
upon one another, who marching with Three hundred red-Coats to
_Manadaes_ or _Manhataes_ took from the _Dutch_ their chief town
then called _New-Amsterdam_, now _New York_; the Twenty ninth of
_August_ turn’d out their Governour with a silver leg, and all
but those that were willing to acknowledge subjection to the King
of _England_, suffering them to enjoy their houses and estates as
before. Thirteen days after Sir _Robert Carr_ took the Fort and
Town of _Aurania_ now called _Albany_; and Twelve days after that,
the Fort and Town [p. 154.] of _Awsapha_, then _De-la-ware_ Castle,
man’d with _Dutch_ and _Sweeds_. So now the _English_ are masters
of three handsome Towns, three strong Forts and a Castle, not
losing one man. The first Governour of these parts for the King of
_England_ was Colonel _Nicols_, a noble Gentleman, and one of his
Majesties Commissioners, who coming for _England_ in _Anno Dom._
1668 as I take it, surrendered the Government to Colonel _Lovelace_.

The Countrey here is bless’d with the richest soil in all
_New-England_, I have heard it reported from men of Judgement and
Integrity, that one Bushel of _European-Wheat_ hath yielded a
hundred in one year. Their other Commodities are Furs, and the like.

_New-York_ is situated at the mouth of the great River _Mohegan_,
and is built with _Dutch_ Brick _alla-moderna_, the meanest house
therein being valued at One hundred pounds, to the Landward it is
compassed with a Wall of good thickness; at the entrance of the
River is an Island well fortified, and hath command of any Ship
that shall attempt to pass without their leave.

_Albany_ is situated upon the same River on the West-side, and is
due North from _New-York_ somewhat above Fifty miles.

[p. 155.] Along the Sea-side Eastward are many _English_-Towns, as
first _Westchester_, a Sea-Town about Twenty miles from _New-York_;
to the Eastward of this is _Greenwich_, another Sea-Town much about
the same distance; then _Chichester_, _Fairfield_, _Stratford_,
_Milford_, all Sea-Towns twenty and thirty mile distant from one
another, twenty miles Eastward of _Milford_ is _Newhaven_ the
Metropolis of the Colony begun in 1637. One Mr. _Eaton_ being there
Governour: it is near to the shoals of _Cape Cod_, and is one of
the four united Colonies.

The next Sea-Town Eastward of _Newhaven_ is called _Guilford_ about
ten mile, and I think belonging to that Colony.

From _Guilford_ to _Connecticut_-River, is near upon twenty
miles, the fresh River _Connecticut_ bears the name of another
Colony begun in the year 1636 and is also one of the four united
Colonies. Upon this River are situated 13 Towns, within two,
three & four miles off one another. At the mouth of the River,
on the West-side is the _Lord-Say_, and _Brooks fort_, called
_Saybrook-fort_. Beyond this Northward is the Town of _Windsor_,
then _Northampton_, then _Pinsers-house_. On the Eastside of the
River, _Hartford_, about it low land well stored with meadow and
very fertile. _Wethersfield_ is [p. 156.] also situated upon
_Connecticut_-River and _Springfield_; but this Town although
here seated is in the jurisdiction of the _Mattachusets_, and
hath been infamous by reason of Witches therein. _Hadley_ lyes to
the Northward of _Springfield_. _New-London_ which I take to be
in the jurisdiction of this Coloney is situated to the Eastward
of _Connecticut_-River by a small River, and is not far from the
Sea. From _Connecticut_-River _long-Island_ stretcheth it self to
_Mohegan_ one hundred and twenty miles, but it is but narrow and
about sixteen miles from the main; the considerablest Town upon it
is _Southampton_ built on the Southside of the Island towards the
Eastern end; opposite to this on the Northernside is _Feversham_,
Westward is _Ashford_, _Huntingdon_, &c. The Island is well stored
with Sheep and other Cattle, and Corn, and is reasonable populous.
Between this Island and the mouth of _Connecticut_-River lyeth
three small Islands, _Shelter-Island_, _Fishers-Island_, and the
Isle of _Wight_. Over against _New-London_ full South lyeth _Block
Island_.

The next place of note on the Main is _Narragansets-Bay_, within
which Bay is _Rhode Island_ a Harbour for the _Shunamitish_
Brethren, as the Saints Errant, the Quakers who are rather to be
esteemed Vagabonds, than Religious persons, _&c._

[p. 157.] At the further end of the _Bay_ by the mouth of
_Narragansets_-River, on the South-side thereof was old
_Plimouth_ plantation _Anno_ 1602. Twenty mile out to Sea,
South of _Rhode-Island_, lyeth _Martins_ vineyard in the way to
_Virginia_, this Island is governed by a discreet Gentleman Mr.
_Mayhew_ by name. To the Eastward of _Martin’s_ vinyard lyeth
_Nantocket-Island_, and further Eastward _Elizabeths-Island_, these
Islands are twenty or thirty mile asunder, and now we are come to
_Cape-Cod_.

_Cape-Cod_ was so called at the first by Captain _Gosnold_ and
his Company _Anno Dom._ 1602, because they took much of that fish
there; and afterward was called _Cape-James_ by Captain _Smith_:
the point of the _Cape_ is called _Point-Cave_ and _Tuckers_
Terror, and by the _French_ and _Dutch_ _Mallacar_, by reason of
the perillous shoals. The first place to be taken notice of on the
South-side of the _Cape_ is _Wests_-Harbour, the first Sea-Town
_Sandwich_ formerly called _Duxbury_ in the Jurisdiction of
_New-Plimouth_. Doubling the _Cape_ we come into the great _Bay_,
on the West whereof is _New-Plimouth-Bay_, on the South-west-end of
this _Bay_ is situated _New Plimouth_, the first _English_-Colony
that took firm possession in this Countrey, which was in 1620, and
the first Town built [p. 158.] therein, whose longitude is 315
degrees, in latitude 41 degrees and 37 minutes, it was built nine
years before any other Town, from the beginning of it to 1669 is
just forty years, in which time there hath been an increasing of
forty Churches in this Colony (but many more in the rest,) and
Towns in all _New-England_ one hundred and twenty, for the most
part along the Sea-Coasts, (as being wholsomest) for somewhat more
than two hundred miles: onely on _Connecticut_-River (as I have
said) is thirteen Towns not far off one another.

The other Towns of note in this Colony are _Green-Harbour_ to the
Eastward of _Plimouth_ towards the point of the _Cape_, & therefore
somewhat unaccessible by land, here is excellent Timber for
shipping; then _Marshfield_, _Yarmouth_, _Rehoboth_, _Bridgwater_,
_Warwick_, _Taunton_, _Eastham_, by the _Indians_ called _Namset_.

The first Town Northeast from _Green-harbor_ is _Sittuate_ in
the jurisdiction of the _Mattachusets_-Colony, more Northward of
_Sittuate_ is _Conchusset_ and _Hull_ a little Burg lying open
to the Sea, from thence we came to _Merton-point_ over against
which is _Pullin-point_. Upon _Merton-point_ (which is on the
Larboard-side) is a Town called _Nantascot_, which is two Leagues
from _Boston_, where [p. 159.] Ships commonly cast Anchor.
_Pullin-point_ is so called, because the Boats are by the seasing
or Roads haled against the Tide which is very strong, it is the
usual Channel for Boats to pass into _Mattachusets-Bay_.

There is an Island on the South-side of the passage containing
eight Acres of ground. Upon a rising hill within this Island is
mounted a Castle commanding the entrance, no stately Edifice, nor
strong; built with Brick and Stone, kept by a Captain, under whom
is a master-Gunner and others.

The _Bay_ is large, made by many Islands, the chief _Deere_-Island,
which is within a flight shot of _Pullin-point_, great store
of _Deere_ were wont to swim thither from the Main; then
_Bird_-Island, _Glass_-island, _Slate_-Island, the Governours
Garden, where the first Apple-Trees in the Countrey were planted,
and a vinyard; then _Round_-Island, and _Noddles_-Island not far
from _Charles_-Town: most of these Islands lye on the North-side of
the _Bay_.

The next Town to _Nantascot_ on the South-side of the _Bay_
is _Wissaguset_ a small Village, about three miles from
_Mount-wolleston_, about this Town the soil is very fertile.

Within sight of this is _Mount-wolleston_ or _Merry-mount_, called
_Massachusets_-fields, [p. 160.] where _Chicatabat_ the greatest
_Sagamore_ of the Countrey lived before the plague: here the Town
of _Braintree_ is seated, no Boat nor Ship can come near to it,
here is an Iron mill: to the West of this Town is _Naponset_ River.

Six miles beyond _Braintree_ lyeth _Dorchester_, a frontire Town
pleasantly seated, and of large extent into the main land, well
watered with two small Rivers, her body and wings filled somewhat
thick with houses to the number of two hundred and more, beautified
with fair Orchards and Gardens, having also plenty of Corn-land,
and store of Cattle, counted the greatest Town heretofore in
_New-England_, but now gives way to _Boston_, it hath a Harbour to
the North for Ships.

A mile from _Dorchester_ is the Town of _Roxbury_, a fair and
handsome Countrey Town, the streets large, the Inhabitants rich,
replenished with Orchards and Gardens, well watered with springs
and small freshets, a brook runs through it called _Smelt_-River, a
quarter of a mile to the North-side of the Town runs stony River:
it is seated in the bottom of a shallow _Bay_, but hath no harbour
for shipping. Boats come to it, it hath store of Land and Cattle.

Two miles Northeast from _Roxbury_, and [p. 161.] Forty miles
from _New-Plimouth_, in the latitude of 42 or 43 degrees and 10
minutes, in the bottom of _Massachusets-Bay_ is _Boston_ (whose
longitude is 315 degrees, or as others will 322 degrees and 30
seconds.) So called from a Town in _Lincolnshire_, which in the
_Saxons_ time bare the name of St. _Botolph_, and is the Metropolis
of this Colony, or rather of the whole Countrey, situated upon
a _Peninsula_, about four miles in compass, almost square, and
invironed with the Sea, saving one small _Isthmus_ which gives
access to other Towns by land on the South-side. The Town hath
two hills of equal height on the frontire part thereof next the
Sea, the one well fortified on the superficies with some Artillery
mounted, commanding any Ship as she sails into the Harbour within
the still _Bay_; the other hill hath a very strong battery built of
whole Timber and fill’d with earth, at the descent of the hill in
the extreamest part thereof, betwixt these two strong Arms, lyes a
large _Cove_ or _Bay_, on which the chiefest part of the Town is
built to the Northwest is a high mountain that out-tops all, with
its three little rising hills on the summit, called _Tramount_,
this is furnished with a Beacon and great Guns, from hence you
may [p. 162.] overlook all the Islands in the _Bay_, and descry
such Ships as are upon the Coast: the houses are for the most part
raised on the Sea-banks and wharfed out with great industry and
cost, many of them standing upon piles, close together on each side
the streets as in _London_, and furnished with many fair shops,
their materials are Brick, Stone, Lime, handsomely contrived, with
three meeting Houses or Churches, and a Town-house built upon
pillars where the Merchants may confer, in the Chambers above they
keep their monethly Courts. Their streets are many and large,
paved with pebble stone, and the South-side adorned with Gardens
and Orchards. The Town is rich and very populous, much frequented
by strangers, here is the dwelling of their Governour. On the
North-west and North-east two constant Fairs are kept for daily
Traffick thereunto. On the South there is a small, but pleasant
Common where the Gallants a little before Sun-set walk with their
_Marmalet_-Madams, as we do in _Morefields_, &c. till the nine a
clock Bell rings them home to their respective habitations, when
presently the Constables walk their rounds to see good orders kept,
and to take up loose people. Two miles from the town, [p. 163.]
at a place called _Muddy-River_, the Inhabitants have Farms, to
which belong rich arable grounds and meadows where they keep their
Cattle in the Summer, and bring them to _Boston_ in the Winter;
the Harbour before the Town is filled with Ships and other Vessels
for most part of the year.

_Hingham_ is a Town situated upon the Sea-coasts, South-east of
_Charles-River_: here is great store of Timber, deal-boards, masts
for Ships, white-Cedar, and fish is here to be had.

_Dedham_ an inland town ten miles from _Boston_ in the County of
_Suffolk_ well watered with many pleasant streams, and abounding
with Garden fruit; the Inhabitants are Husband-men, somewhat more
than one hundred Families, having store of Cattle and Corn.

The Town of _Waymouth_ lyes open to the Sea, on the East Rocks and
Swamps, to the South-ward good store of _Deer_, arable land and
meadows.

On the North-side of _Boston_ flows _Charles-River_, which is
about six fathom deep, many small Islands lye to the Bayward, and
hills on either side the River, a very good harbour, here may
forty Ships ride, the passage from _Boston_ to _Charles-Town_ is
by a Ferry worth forty or fifty pounds a [p. 164.] year, and is a
quarter of a mile over. The River _Mistick_ runs through the right
side of the Town, and by its near approach to _Charles-River_ in
one place makes a very narrow neck, where stands most part of the
Town, the market-place not far from the waterside is surrounded
with houses, forth of which issue two streets orderly built and
beautified with Orchards and Gardens, their meeting-house stands on
the North-side of the market, having a little hill behind it; there
belongs to this Town one thousand and two hundred Acres of arable,
four hundred head of Cattle, and as many Sheep, these also provide
themselves Farms in the Country.

Up higher in _Charles-River_ west-ward is a broad Bay two miles
over, into which runs _Stony-River_ and _Muddy-River_.

Towards the South-west in the middle of the _Bay_ is a great
Oyster-bank, towards the North-west is a Creek; upon the shore
is situated the village of _Medford_, it is a mile and half from
_Charles-town_.

At the bottom of the _Bay_ the River begins to be narrower, half
a quarter of a mile broad; by the North-side of the River is
_New-town_, three miles from _Charles-town_, a league and half by
water, it was first [p. 165.] intended for a City, the neatest
and best compacted Town, having many fair structures and handsom
contrived streets; the Inhabitants rich, they have many hundred
Acres of land paled with one common fence a mile and half long, and
store of Cattle; it is now called _Cambridge_ where is a Colledg
for Students of late; it stretcheth from _Charles-River_ to the
Southern part of _Merrimach-River_.

Half a mile thence on the same side of the River is _Water-town_
built upon one of the branches of _Charles-River_, very fruitful
and of large extent, watered with many pleasant springs and small
Rivulets, the Inhabitants live scatteringly. Within half a mile
is a great pond divided between the two Towns, a mile and half
from the Town is a fall of fresh waters which conveigh themselves
into the Ocean through _Charles-River_, a little below the fall of
waters they have a wair to catch fish, wherein they take store of
_Basse_, _Shades_, _Alwives_, _Frost-fish_, and _Smelts_, in two
tides they have gotten one hundred thousand of these fishes. They
have store of Cattle and Sheep, and near upon two thousand Acres of
arable land, Ships of small burden may come up to these Towns.

[p. 166.] We will now return to _Charles-town_ again, where the
River _Mistick_ runs on the North-side of the Town (that is the
right side as beforesaid) where on the Northwest-side of the
River is the Town of _Mistick_, three miles from _Charles-town_,
a league and half by water, a scattered village; at the head of
this River are great and spacious ponds, full of _Alewives_ in the
spring-time, the notedst place for this sort of fish. On the West
of this River is Merchant _Craddock’s_ plantation, where he impaled
a park.

Upon the same River and on the North-side is the Town of _Malden_.

The next Town is _Winnisimet_ a mile from _Charles-town_, the
River only parting them, this is the last Town in the still bay of
_Massachusets_.

Without _Pullin-point_, six miles North-east from _Winnisimet_ is
_Cawgust_, or _Sagust_, or _Sangut_ now called _Linn_, situated at
the bottom of a _Bay_ near a River, which upon the breaking up of
winter with a furious Torrent vents it self into the Sea, the Town
consists of more than one hundred dwelling-houses, their Church
being built on a level undefended from the North-west wind is made
with steps descending [p. 167] into the Earth, their streets are
straight and but thin of houses, the people most husbandmen. At the
end of the _Sandy beach_ is a neck of land called _Nahant_, it is
six miles in circumference. Black _William_ an _Indian_ Duke out
of his generosity gave this to the _English_. At the mouth of the
River runs a great Creek into a great marsh called _Rumney_-marsh,
which is four miles long, and a mile broad, this Town hath the
benefit of minerals of divers kinds, Iron, Lead, one Iron mill,
store of Cattle, Arable land and meadow.

To the North-ward of _Linn_ is _Marvil_ or _Marble-head_, a small
Harbour, the shore rockie, upon which the Town is built, consisting
of a few scattered houses; here they have stages for fishermen,
Orchards and Gardens, half a mile within land good pastures and
Arable land.

Four miles North of _Marble-head_ is situated _New-Salem_ (whose
longitude is 315 degrees, and latitude 42 degrees 35 minutes) upon
a plain, having a River on the South, and another on the North, it
hath two Harbours, Winter Harbour and Summer Harbour which lyeth
within _Darbie’s_ fort, they have store of Meadow and Arable, in
this Town are some very rich Merchants.

[p. 168.] Upon the Northern Cape of the _Massachusets_, that is
_Cape-Ann_, a place of fishing is situated, the Town of _Glocester_
where the _Massachusets_ Colony first set down, but _Salem_ was the
first Town built in that Colony, here is a Harbour for Ships.

To the North-ward of _Cape-Ann_ is _Wonasquam_, a dangerous place
to sail by in stormie weather, by reason of the many Rocks and
foaming breakers.

The next Town that presents it self to view is _Ipswich_ situated
by a fair River, whose first rise is from a Lake or Pond twenty
mile up, betaking its course through a hideous _Swamp_ for many
miles, a Harbour for _Bears_, it issueth forth into a large _Bay_,
(where they fish for _Whales_) due East over against the Islands
of _Sholes_ a great place of fishing, the mouth of that River is
barr’d; it is a good haven-town, their meeting-house or Church
is beautifully built, store of Orchards and Gardens, land for
husbandry and Cattle.

_Wenham_ is an inland Town very well watered, lying between
_Salem_ and _Ipswich_, consisteth most of men of judgment and
experience _in re rustica_, well stored with Cattle. At the first
rise of _Ipswich_-River in the highest part of the land near the
head [p. 169.] springs of many considerable Rivers; _Shashin_ one
of the most considerable branches of _Merrimach_-River, and also at
the rise of _Mistick_-River, and ponds full of pleasant springs, is
situated _Wooburn_ an inland-Town four miles square beginning at
the end of _Charles-town_ bounds.

Six miles from _Ipswich_ North-east is _Rowley_, most of the
Inhabitants have been Clothiers.

Nine miles from _Salem_ to the North is _Agowamine_, the best and
spaciousest place for a plantation, being twenty leagues to the
Northward of _New-Plimouth_.

Beyond _Agowamin_ is situated _Hampton_ near the Sea-coasts not far
from _Merrimach_-River, this Town is like a _Flower-deluce_, having
two streets of houses wheeling off from the main body thereof, they
have great store of salt Marshes and Cattle, the land is fertil,
but full of Swamps and Rocks.

Eight miles beyond _Agowamin_ runneth the delightful River
_Merrimach_ or _Monumach_, it is navigable for twenty miles, and
well stored with fish, upon the banks grow stately Oaks, excellent
Ship timber, not inferiour to our _English_.

On the South-side of _Merrimach_-River [p. 170.] twelve miles
from _Ipswich_, and near upon the wide venting streams thereof is
situated _Newberrie_, the houses are scattering, well stored with
meadow, upland, and Arable, and about four hundred head of Cattle.

Over against _Newberrie_ lyes the Town of _Salisbury_, where a
constant Ferry is kept, the River being here half a mile broad, the
Town scatteringly built.

Hard upon the River of _Shashin_ where _Merrimach_ receives this
and the other branch into its body, is seated _Andover_, stored
with land and Cattle.

Beyond this Town by the branch of _Merrimach_-River called
_Shashin_, lyeth _Haverhill_, a Town of large extent about ten
miles in length, the inhabitants Husbandmen, this Town is not far
from _Salisbury_.

Over against _Haverhill_ lyeth the Town of _Malden_, which I have
already mentioned.

In a low level upon a fresh River a branch of _Merrimach_ is
seated _Concord_, the first inland Town in _Massachusets_ patent,
well stored with fish, _Salmon_, _Dace_, _Alewive_, _Shade_, &c.
abundance of fresh marsh and Cattle, this place is subject to
bitter storms.

[p. 171.] The next town is _Sudbury_ built upon the same River
where _Concord_ is, but further up; to this Town likewise belongs
great store of fresh marshes, and Arable land, and they have many
Cattle, it lyeth low, by reason whereof it is much indammaged with
flouds.

In the Centre of the Countrey by a great pond side, and not far
from _Woeburn_, is situated _Reading_, it hath two mills, a
saw-mill and a Corn-mill, and is well stockt with Cattle.

The Colony is divided into four Counties, the first is _Suffolk_,
to which belongs _Dorchester_, _Roxbury_, _Waymouth_, _Hingham_,
_Dedham_, _Braintre_, _Sittuate_, _Hull_, _Nantascot_,
_Wisagusset_. The second County is _Middlesex_, to this belongs
_Charles-town_, _Water-town_, _Cambridge_, _Concord_, _Sudbury_,
_Woeburn_, _Reading_, _Malden_, _Mistick_, _Medford_, _Winnisimet_
and _Marble-head_. To the third County which is _Essex_, belongs
_New-Salem_, _Linn_, _Ipswich_, _New-Berry_, _Rowley_, _Glocester_,
_Wenham_ and _Andover_. The fourth County is _Northfolk_, to this
belongs _Salisbury_, _Hampton_ and _Haverhill_.

In the year of our Lord 1628, Mr. _John Endicot_ with a number of
_English_ people set down by _Cape-Ann_ at that place called [p.
172.] afterwards _Gloster_, but their abiding-place was at _Salem_,
where they built a Town in 1639. and there they gathered their
first Church, consisting but of Seventy persons; but afterwards
increased to forty three Churches in joynt Communion with one
another, and in those Churches were about Seven thousand, seven
hundred and fifty Souls, Mr. _Endicot_ was chosen their first
Governour.

The Twelfth of _July_ _Anno Dom._ 1630. _John Wenthorp_ Esq; and
the assistants, arrived with the Patent for the _Massachusets_,
the passage of the people that came along with him in ten Vessels
came to 95000 pound: the Swine, Goats, Sheep, Neat, Horses cost
to transport 12000 pound, besides the price they cost them;
getting food for the people till they could clear the ground of
wood amounted to 45000 pound: Nails, Glass, and other Iron work
for their meeting and dwelling houses 13000 pound; Arms, Powder,
Bullet, and Match, together with their Artillery 22000 pound, the
whole sum amounts unto One hundred ninety two thousand pounds.
They set down first upon _Noddles-Island_, afterwards they began
to build upon the main. In 1637. there were not many houses in
the Town of [p. 173.] _Boston_, amongst which were two houses of
entertainment called Ordinaries, into which if a stranger went,
he was presently followed by one appointed to that Office, who
would thrust himself into his company uninvited, and if he called
for more drink than the Officer thought in his judgment he could
soberly bear away, he would presently countermand it, and appoint
the proportion, beyond which he could not get one drop.

The Patent was granted to Sir _Henry Rosewell_, Sir _John Young_
Knight, _Thomas Southcoat_, _John Humphrey_, _John Endicot_, and
_Simon Whitecomb_, and to their Heirs, Assigns, and Associats
for ever. These took to them other Associats, as Sir _Richard
Saltonstall_, _Isaac Johnson_, _Samuel Aldersey_, _Jo. Ven_,
_Matth. Craddock_, _George Harwood_, _Increase Nowell_, _Rich.
Perry_, _Rich. Bellingham_, _Nathaniel Wright_, _Samuel Vasell_,
_Theophilus Eaton_, _Thomas Goffe_, _Thomas Adams_, _Jo. Brown_,
_Samuel Brown_, _Thomas Hutchins_, _Will. Vasell_, _Will.
Pinchon_ and _George Foxcroft_. _Matth. Craddock_ was ordained
and constituted Governour by Patent, and _Thomas Goffe_ Deputy
Governour of the said Company, the rest Assistants.

That part of _New-England_ granted to [p. 174.] these
fore-mentioned Gentlemen lyeth and extendeth between a great
River called _Monumach_, alias _Merrimach_, and the often
frequented _Charles-River_, being in the bottom of a _Bay_ called
_Massachusets_, alias _Mattachusets_, alias _Massatusets-bay_;
and also those lands within the space of three _English_ miles,
on the South part of the said _Charles-River_, or any or every
part, and all the lands within three miles to the South-ward part
of the _Massachusets-bay_, and all those lands which lye within
the space of three _English_ miles to the North-ward of the River
_Merrimach_, or to the North-ward of any and every part thereof,
and all lands whatsoever within the limits aforesaid, North and
South, in latitude, and in breadth and length and longitude of
and within all the main land there, from the _Atlantick_ and
Western-Sea and Ocean on the East-part, to the South-Sea on the
West-part, and all lands and grounds, place and places, soils,
woods and wood-groves, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Waters, fishings
and Hereditaments whatsoever lying within the aforesaid lands and
limits, and every part and parcel thereof, and also all Islands
lying in _America_ aforesaid in the said Seas, or either of them
on the Western or Eastern [p. 175.] Coasts or parts of the said
tracts of lands. Also all mines and minerals as well Royal of Gold,
Silver, as others _&c._ With power to rule and govern both Sea and
land, holden of the East manner of _Greenwich_ in _Com. Kent_, in
free and common soccage, yielding and paying to the King the fifth
part of the Oar of Gold and Silver which shall be found at any time.


This Colony is a body Corporated and Politick in fact by the
name of the Governour and Company of the _Mattachusets-bay_ in
_New-England_.


That there shall be one Governour, and Deputy-Governour, and
Eighteen Assistants of the same Company from time to time.


That the Governour and Deputy-Governour, Assistants and all
other Officers to be chosen from amongst the free-men, the last
_Wednesday_ in _Easter_-term yearly in the general Court.


The Governour to take his Corporal Oath to be true and faithful to
the Government, and to give the same Oath to the other Officers.


[p. 176.] To hold a Court once a month, and any seven to be a
sufficient Court.


And that there shall be four general Courts kept in Term time, and
one great general and solemn Assembly to make Laws and Ordinances;
So they be not contrary and repugnant to the Laws and Statutes of
the Realm of _England_. Their form of Government and what their
Laws concern, you may see in the ensuing Table.

[p. 177.]

                 {          { Governour
        {        {          {
        {        { 1 Magi-  {             { 1 Counsellers.
        {        { strates. {             {
        {        {          { Assistants. {          { 1 of the whole
        { 1      {                        {          { Countrey.
        { their  {                        { 2 Judges {
        { person {                        {          { 2 of each town.
        {        {
        {        {
        {        {           { 1 of the          { 1 for their protection.
  Their {        { 2 People. { whole Countrey,   { 2 for their provision.
  Laws  {                    {                   {
  Con-  {                    { 2 of each         { 1 their lands.
  cern  {                    { Town, concerning. { 2 their Treasure.
        {
        {                  { 1 The
        {        { 1 Civil { publick                { 1 in their personal
        {        { & they  { State, or              { inheritances, and
        {        { concern { 2  Particular          { proprieties
        {        {         { persons.               {
        {        {                                  {         { 1 Of
        {        {                                  { 2 in    { buying
        {        {        { Whether      { 1 either { their   { and
        {        {        { between      { of Tres- { mutual  { selling
        {        {        { the members  { passes   { com-    {
        { 2 of   {        { of           {   or     { merce   { 2 Lending
        { causes {        { their own    { 2 of     { whether { and
        {        {        { Commonwealth { Capital  { in      { borrow-
        {        { 2 Cri- { & they are.  { Crimes.  { way     { ing
        {        { minal.
                          { 2 Between     {
                          { Burgesses     {
                          { and the       { 1 That we do them wrong.
                          { people,       {
                          { and forraign  { 2 That they do us wrong.
                          { Nations,      {
                          { whether       {
                          { in case       {

[p. 178.] _Anno Dom._ 1646. they drew up a body of their Laws for
the well ordering of their Commonwealth, as they not long since
termed it.

The military part of their Commonwealth is governed by one
Major-General, and three Serjeant Majors; to the Major-General
belongeth particularly the Town of _Boston_, to the three Serjeant
Majors belong the four Counties, but with submission to the
Major-General. The first Serjeant Major chosen for the County
of _Suffolk_ was Major _Gibbons_. For the County of _Middlesex_
Major _Sedgwick_. For the County of _Essex_ and _Northfolk_ Major
_Denison_.

Every Town sends two Burgesses to their great and solemn general
Court.

For being drunk, they either whip or impose a fine of Five
shillings; so for swearing and cursing, or boring through the
tongue with a hot Iron.

For kissing a woman in the street, though in way of civil salute,
whipping or a fine.

For Single fornication whipping or a fine.

For Adultery, put to death, and so for witchcraft.

An _English_ woman suffering an _Indian_ to have carnal knowledge
of her, had an _Indian_ cut out exactly in red cloth sewed [p.
179.] upon her right Arm, and injoyned to wear it twelve moneths.

Scolds they gag and set them at their doors for certain hours, for
all comers and goers by to gaze at.

Stealing is punished with restoring four fould, if able; if not,
they are sold for some years, and so are poor debtors.

If you desire a further inspection to their Laws, I must refer
you to them being in print, too many for to be inserted into this
Relation.

The Governments of their Churches are Independent and Presbyterial,
every Church (for so they call their particular Congregations)
have one Pastor, one Teacher, Ruling Elders and Deacons.

They that are members of their Churches have the Sacraments
administred to them, the rest that are out of the pale as they
phrase it, are denyed it. Many hundred Souls there be amongst them
grown up to men & womens estate that were never Christened.

They judge every man and woman to pay Five shillings _per_ day, who
comes not to their Assemblies, and impose fines of forty shillings
and fifty shillings on such as meet together to worship God.

[p. 180.] Quakers they whip, banish, and hang if they return again.

Anabaptists they imprison, fine and weary out.

The Government both Civil and Ecclesiastical is in the hands of the
thorow-pac’d Independents and rigid Presbyterians.

The grose _Goddons_, or great masters, as also some of their
Merchants are damnable rich; generally all of their judgement,
inexplicably covetous and proud, they receive your gifts but as
an homage or tribute due to their transcendency, which is a fault
their Clergie are also guilty of, whose living is upon the bounty
of their hearers. On Sundays in the afternoon when Sermon is ended
the people in the Galleries come down and march two a breast up one
Ile and down the other, until they come before the desk, for Pulpit
they have none: before the desk is a long pue where the Elders and
Deacons sit, one of them with a mony box in his hand, into which
the people as they pass put their offering, some a shilling, some
two shillings, half a Crown, five shillings according to their
ability and good will, after this they conclude with a Psalm; but
this by the way.

The chiefest objects of discipline, Religion, [p. 181.] and
morality they want, some are of a _Linsie-woolsie_ disposition, of
several professions in Religion, all like _Æthiopians_ white in
the Teeth only, full of ludification and injurious dealing, and
cruelty the extreamest of all vices. The chiefest cause of _Noah’s_
floud, Prov. 27. 26. _Agni erant ad vestitum tuum_, is a frequent
Text among them, no trading for a stranger with them, but with a
_Græcian_ faith, which is not to part with your ware without ready
money, for they are generally in their payments recusant and slow,
great Syndies, or censors, or controllers of other mens manners,
and savagely factious amongst themselves.

There are many strange women too, (in _Salomon’s_ sence) more the
pitty, when a woman hath lost her Chastity, she hath no more to
lose.

But mistake me not to general speeches, none but the guilty take
exceptions, there are many sincere and religious people amongst
them, descryed by their charity and humility (the true Characters
of Christianity) by their Zenodochie or hospitality, by their
hearty submission to their Soveraign the King of _England_, by
their diligent and honest labour in their callings, amongst these
we may account the Royalists, who are lookt upon with an evil eye,
and [p. 182.] tongue, boulted or punished if they chance to lash
out; the tame _Indian_ (for so they call those that are born in the
Countrey) are pretty honest too, and may in good time be known for
honest Kings men.

They have store of Children, and are well accommodated with
Servants; many hands make light work, many hands make a full
fraught, but many mouths eat up all, as some old planters have
experimented; of these some are _English_, others _Negroes_: of the
_English_ there are can eat till they sweat, and work till they
freeze; & and of the females that are like Mrs. _Winters_ paddocks,
very tender fingerd in cold weather.

There are none that beg in the Countrey, but there be Witches too
many, bottle-bellied Witches amongst the Quakers, and others that
produce many strange apparitions if you will believe report, of
a _Shallop_ at Sea man’d with women; of a Ship, and a great red
Horse standing by the main-mast, the Ship being in a small _Cove_
to the East-ward vanished of a suddain. Of a Witch that appeared
aboard of a Ship twenty leagues to Sea to a Mariner who took up the
Carpenters broad Axe and cleft her head with it, the Witch dying of
the wound at home, with such like bugbears and _Terriculamentaes_.

[p. 183.] It is published in print, that there are not much less
than Ten hundred thousand souls _English_, _Scotch_ and _Irish_ in
_New-England_.

Most of their first Magistrates are dead, not above two left in the
_Massachusets_, but one at _Plimouth_, one at _Connecticut_, and
one at _New-haven_, they having done their generation work are laid
asleep in their beds of rest till the day of doom, there and then
to receive their reward according as they have done be it good or
evil. Things of great indurance we see come to ruine, and alter,
as great Flouds and Seas dryed up; mighty hills and mountains sunk
into hollow bottoms: marvel not then that man is mortal, since his
nature is unconstant and transitory.

The Diseases that the _English_ are afflicted with, are the same
that they have in _England_, with some proper to _New-England_,
griping of the belly (accompanied with Feaver and Ague) which
turns to the bloudy-flux, a common disease in the Countrey, which
together with the small pox hath carried away abundance of their
children, for this the common medicines amongst the poorer sort are
Pills of Cotton swallowed, or Sugar and Sallet-oyl boiled thick and
made into Pills, Alloes pulverized [p. 184.] and taken in the pap
of an Apple. I helped many of them with a sweating medicine only.

Also they are troubled with a disease in the mouth or throat which
hath proved mortal to some in a very short time, Quinsies, and
Impostumations of the Almonds, with great distempers of cold. Some
of our _New-England_ writers affirm that the _English_ are never
or very rarely heard to sneeze or cough, as ordinarily they do in
_England_, which is not true. For a cough or stitch upon cold,
Wormwood, Sage, Marygolds, and Crabs-claws boiled in posset-drink
and drunk off very warm, is a soveraign medicine.

Pleurisies and Empyemas are frequent there, both cured after one
and the same way; but the last is a desperate disease and kills
many. For the Pleurisie I have given _Coriander_-seed prepared,
_Carduus_ seed, and _Harts-horn_ pulverized with good success, the
dose one dram in a cup of Wine.

The Stone terribly afflicts many, and the Gout, and Sciatica, for
which take Onions roasted, peeled and stampt, then boil them with
neats-feet oyl and Rhum to a plaister, and apply it to the hip.

Head-aches are frequent, Palsies, Dropsies, Worms,
Noli-me-tangeres, Cancers, [p. 185.] pestilent Feavers. Scurvies,
the body corrupted with Sea-diet, Beef and Pork tainted, Butter
and Cheese corrupted, fish rotten, a long voyage, coming into the
searching sharpness of a purer climate, causeth death and sickness
amongst them.

Men and Women keep their complexions, but lose their Teeth: the
Women are pittifully Tooth-shaken; whether through the coldness
of the climate, or by sweet-meats of which they have store, I am
not able to affirm, for the Toothach I have found the following
medicine very available, Brimstone and Gunpowder compounded with
butter, rub the mandible with it, the outside being first warm’d.

For falling off of the hair occasioned by the coldness of the
climate, and to make it curl, take of the strong water called Rhum
and wash or bath your head therewith, it is an admirable remedie.

For kibed heels, to heal them take the yellowest part of Rozen,
pulverize it and work it in the palm of your hand with the tallow
of a Candle to a salve, and lay of it to the sore.

For frozen limbs, a plaister framed with Soap, Bay-salt, and
Molosses is sure, or Cow-dung boiled in milk and applyed.

For Warts and Corns, bathe them with Sea-water.

[p. 186.] There was in the Countrey not long since living two men
that voided worms seven times their length. Likewise a young maid
that was troubled with a sore pricking at her heart, still as she
lean’d her body, or stept down with her foot to the one side or
the other; this maid during her distemper voided worms of the
length of a finger all hairy with black heads; it so fell out that
the maid dyed; her friends desirous to discover the cause of the
distemper of her heart, had her open’d, and found two crooked bones
growing upon the top of the heart, which as she bowed her body to
the right or left side would job their points into one and the same
place, till they had worn a hole quite through. At _Cape-Porpus_
lived an honest poor planter of middle-age, and strong of body, but
so extreamly troubled with two lumps (or wens as I conjectured)
within him, on each side one, that he could not rest for them day
nor night, being of great weight, and swagging to the one side or
the other, according to the motion or posture of his body; at last
he dyed in _Anno_ 1668 as I think, or thereabouts. Some Chirurgeons
there were that proffered to open him, but his wife would not
assent to it, and so his disease was hidden in the Grave.

[p. 187.] It is the opinion of many men, that the blackness of the
_Negroes_ proceeded from the curse upon _Cham’s_ posterity, others
again will have it to be the property of the climate where they
live. I pass by other Philosophical reasons and skill, only render
you my experimental knowledge: having a _Barbarie-moor_ under cure,
whose finger (prickt with the bone of a fish) was Impostumated,
after I had lanc’d it and let out the Corruption the skin began
to rise with proud flesh under it; this I wore away, and having
made a sound bottom I incarnated it, and then laid on my skinning
plaister, then I perceived that the _Moor_ had one skin more than
_Englishmen_; the skin that is basted to the flesh is bloudy and of
the same Azure colour with the veins, but deeper than the colour
of our _Europeans_ veins. Over this is an other skin of a tawny
colour, and upon that _Epidermis_ or _Cuticula_, the flower of the
skin (which is that Snakes cast) and this is tawny also, the colour
of the blew skin mingling with the tawny makes them appear black.
I do not peremptorily affirm this to be the cause, but submit
to better judgment. More rarities of this nature I could make
known unto you, but I hasten to an end; only a word or two of our
_English_ Creatures and then to Sea again.

[p. 188.] I have given you an Account of such plants as prosper
there, and of such as do not; but so briefly, that I conceive it
necessary to afford you some what more of them. _Plantain_ I told
you sprang up in the Countrey after the _English_ came, but it is
but one sort, and that is broad-leaved plantain.

_Gilliflowers_ thrive exceedingly there and are very large, the
Collibuy or humming-Bird is much pleased with them. Our _English_
dames make Syrup of them without fire, they steep them in Wine
till it be of a deep colour, and then they put to it spirit of
_Vitriol_, it will keep as long as the other.

_Eglantine_ or sweet _Bryer_ is best sowen with _Juniper-berries_,
two or three to one _Eglantine-berry_ put into a hole made with a
stick, the next year separate and remove them to your banks, in
three years time they will make a hedge as high as a man, which you
may keep thick and handsome with cutting.

Our _English Clover-grass_ sowen thrives very well.

_Radishes_ I have seen there as big as a man’s Arm.

_Flax_ and _Hemp_ flourish gallantly.

Our _Wheat_ i. e. summer _Wheat_ many [p. 189.] times changeth
into _Rye_, and is subject to be blasted, some say with a vapour
breaking out of the earth, others, with a wind North-east or
North-west, at such time as it flowereth, others again say it is
with lightning. I have observed, that when a land of _Wheat_ hath
been smitten with a blast at one Corner, it hath infected the rest
in a weeks time, it begins at the stem (which will be spotted and
goes upwards to the ear making it fruitless): in 1669 the pond that
lyeth between _Water-town_ and _Cambridge_, cast its fish dead upon
the shore, forc’t by a mineral vapour as was conjectured.

Our fruit-Trees prosper abundantly, _Apple-trees_, _Pear-trees_,
_Quince-trees_, _Cherry-trees_, _Plum-trees_, _Barberry-trees_. I
have observed with admiration, that the Kernels sown or the Succors
planted produce as fair & good fruit, without graffing, as the
Tree from whence they were taken: the Countrey is replenished with
fair and large Orchards. It was affirmed by one Mr. _Woolcut_ (a
magistrate in _Connecticut_ Colony) at the Captains Messe (of which
I was) aboard the Ship I came home in, that he made Five hundred
Hogsheads of _Syder_ out of his own Orchard in one year. _Syder_ is
very plentiful in the Countrey, ordinarily sold for Ten shillings
a Hogshead. At the [p. 190.] Tap-houses in _Boston_ I have had an
Ale-quart spic’d and sweetned with Sugar for a groat, but I shall
insert a more delicate mixture of it. Take of _Maligo-Raisons_,
stamp them and put milk to them, and put them in an _Hippocras_
bag and let it drain out of it self, put a quantity of this with a
spoonful or two of Syrup of _Clove-Gilliflowers_ into every bottle,
when you bottle your _Syder_, and your Planter will have a liquor
that exceeds _passada_, the Nectar of the Countrey.

The _Quinces_, _Cherries_, _Damsons_, set the Dames a work,
_Marmalad_ and preserved Damsons is to be met with in every house.
It was not long before I left the Countrey that I made _Cherry
wine_, and so may others, for there are good store of them both red
and black.

Their fruit-trees are subject to two diseases, the _Meazels_, which
is when they are burned and scorched with the Sun, and lowsiness,
when the wood-peckers job holes in their bark: the way to cure them
when they are lowsie is to bore a hole into the main root with an
Augur, and pour in a quantity of Brandie or Rhum, and then stop it
up with a pin made of the same Tree.

The first Neat carried thither was to [p. 191.] _New-Plimouth_
_Anno_ 1624 these thrive and increase exceedingly, but grow less in
body than those they are bred of yearly.

Horses there are numerous, and here and there a good one, they let
them run all the year abroad, and in the winter seldom provide
any fother for them, (except it be Magistrates, great Masters and
Troopers Horses) which brings them very low in flesh till the
spring, and so crest fallen, that their crests never rise again.
Here I first met with that excrescence called _Hippomanes_, which
by some is said to grow on the forehead of a foal new cast, and
that the Mare bites it off as soon as foaled; but this is but
a fable. A neighbour at _Black-point_ having a Mare with foal,
tyed her up in his Barn, the next day she foaled, and the man
standing by spied a thing like a foals tongue to drop out of the
foals mouth, which he took up and presented me with it, telling me
withall, that he had heard many wonderful things reported of it,
and that it was rank poyson. I accepted of it gladly and brought
it home with me, when it was dry, it lookt like Glew, but of a dark
brown colour; to omit all other uses for it, this I can assure you
that a piece of it soakt in warm water or cold, will take spots out
of wollen Clothes being rub’d thereon.

[p. 192.] _Goats_ were the first small Cattle they had in the
Countrey, he was counted no body that had not a Trip or Flock of
_Goats_: a hee-_Goat_ gelt at _Michaelmas_ and turn’d out to feed
will be fat in a moneths time, & is as good meat as a weather. I
was taught by a _Barbary Negro_ a medicine which before I proceed
any further I will impart unto you, and that was for a swelling
under the throat. Take _Goats_ hair and clay and boil them in fair
water to a poultis, and apply it very warm.

_Sheep_ now they have good store, these and _Goats_ bring forth
two, sometimes three _Lambs_ and _Kids_ at a time.

_Hoggs_ are here innumerable, every planter hath a Heard, when they
feed upon shell-fish and the like, as they do that are kept near
the Sea and by the fishers stages, they tast fishie and rank; but
fed with white Oak-Acorns, or _Indian_-Corn and Pease there is not
better Pork in the whole world: besides they sometimes have the
_Meazels_, which is known when their hinder legs are shorter than
ordinary.

_Catts_ and _Dogs_ are as common as in _England_, but our _Dogs_ in
time degenerate; yet they have gallant _Dogs_ both for fowl & wild
Beasts all over the Countrey: the _Indians_ store themselves with
them, being much [p. 193.] better for their turns, than their breed
of wild dogs, which are (as I conceive) like to the _Tasso_-canes
or mountain dogs in _Italy_.

Of _English_ Poultry too there is good store, they have commonly
three broods in a year; the hens by that time they are three years
old have spurs like the Cock, but not altogether so big, but as
long, they use to crow often, which is so rare a thing in other
Countries, that they have a proverb _Gallina recinit_ a Hen crowes.
And in _England_ it is accounted ominous; therefore our Farmers
wives as soon as they hear a Hen crow wring off her neck, and so
they serve their spur’d Hens, because they should not break their
Eggs with their spurs when they sit. In the year 1637. which was
when I went my first Voyage to _New-England_ a good woman brought
aboard with her a lusty Cock and Hen that had horns like spurs
growing out on each side of their Combs, but she spoiled the breed,
killing of them at Sea, to feed upon, for she loved a fresh bit.

In _Anno_ 1647/8. Certain _Indians_ coming to our house clad
in _Deere-skin_ coats, desired leave to lodge all night in our
kitchin, it being a very rainie season, some of them lay down in
the middle of the Room, and others under the Table, in the morning
they [p. 194.] went away before any of the people were up; the
poultry had their breakfast usually in cold weather in the kitchin,
and because they should not hinder the passing of the people too
and again, it was thrown under the Table; in the afternoon they
began to hang the wing, in the night the sickest dropt dead from
the perch, and the next day most of them dyed; we could not of a
sudden ghess at the cause, but thought the _Indians_ had either
bewitched, or poysoned them: it came at last into my head, seeing
their Crops very full, or rather much swell’d, to open them, where
I found as much _Deers_ hair as Corn, they that pickt up none of
the hair lived and did well.

In the year 1667. _October_ the 7th amongst our poultry we had one
white game Cock of the _French_ kind, a bird of high price, when he
was three years old he drooped and his spirit was quite gone; one
of our _Negro_ maids finding him in the yard dead brought him into
the house and acquainted me with it. I caused her to draw him, when
his guts were all drawn out she put in her hand again and felt a
lump in his body as big as a half-peny loaf, strongly fastned to
his back, and much ado she had to pull it out; I found it to be
a tuff bag, containing stuff like liver, and very heavie, at one
end [p. 195.] of the bag, another little bag filled with a fatty
matter, his gizard, liver, and heart wasted. The Pipe or Roupe is
a common disease amongst their poultry infecting one another with
it. I conceive it cometh of a cold moisture of the brain, they will
be very sleepie with it, the best cure for it is _Garlick_, and
smoaking of them with dryed _Hysope_.

In _September_ following my Arrivage in the _Massachusets_ about
the twelfth hour of the eight day, I shipt my self and goods in a
Bark bound to the East-ward, meeting as we sailed out the _Dutch_
Governour of _New-Netherlands_, who was received and entertained
at _Boston_ by the Governour and Magistrates with great solemnity.
About nine of the clock at night we came to _Salem_ and lay aboard
all night.

The Ninth day we went ashore to view the Town which is a mile long,
and lay that night at a Merchants house.

The Tenth day we came from _Salem_ about twelve of the clock back
to _Marble-head_: here we went ashore and recreated our selves with
Musick and a cup of Sack and saw the Town, about ten at night we
returned to our Bark and lay aboard.

The Eleventh being Saturday, and the wind contrary, we came to
_Charles-town_, [p. 196.] again about twelve of the clock we took
store of _Mackarel_.

The Thirteenth being Monday, we went aboard again about nine of the
clock in the morning and out to Sea, about Sun going down we took
store of _Mackarel_. The

wind was scanty all along, and in the night time we durst not bear
much sail, because of the Rocks and foaming breakers that lay in
our way.

The Fourteenth day we came up with _Pascataway_, or _Pascatique_,
where there is a large River and a fair harbour, within here
is seated a Colony, properly belonging to the Heirs of Captain
_Mason_ sometime since of _London_; but taken into the Colony of
_Massachusets_, by what right I will not here discuss.

The chiefest places of note are the _Bay_ or _Harbour_ North from
_Boston_, on the West-side of the Harbour are built many fair
houses, and so in another part called _Strawberry-bank_.

By the Harbour is an Island which of late days is filled with
buildings, besides there are two Towns more seated up higher upon
the River, the one called _Dover_; the River-banks are clothed
with stately Timber, and here are two miles meadow land and arable
enough; the other town is called _Excester_.

[p. 197.] At the River _Pascataway_ begins the Province of _Main_:
having pleased our selves with the sight of _Pascataway_ at a
distance we sailed on, and came to _Black-point_.

The Fifteenth day, about eight of the clock at night, where the
next day I was shrewdly pinched with a great frost, but having two
or three bottles of excellent _Passada_, and good cheer bestowed
upon me I made a shift to bear it out, and now we are in the
Province of _Main_.

The Province of _Main_, (or the Countrey of the _Traquoes_)
heretofore called _Laconia_ or _New-Summersetshire_, is a Colony
belonging to the Grandson of Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ of _Ashton
Phillips_ in the County of _Sommerset_, the said Sir _Ferdinando
Gorges_ did expend in planting several parts of _New-England_ above
Twenty thousand pounds _sterling_; and when he was between three
and four score years of age did personally engage in our Royal
Martyrs service; and particularly in the Seige of _Bristow_, and
was plundered and imprisoned several times, by reason whereof he
was discountenanced by the pretended Commissioners for forraign
plantations, and his Province incroached upon by the _Massachusets_
Colony, who assumed the Government thereof. His Majestie that now
Reigneth sent over his [p. 198.] Commissioners to reduce them
within their bounds, and to put Mr. _Gorges_ again into possession.
But there falling out a contest about it, the Commissioners settled
it in the Kings name (until the business should be determined
before his Majestie) and gave Commissions to the Judge of their
Courts, and the Justices to Govern and Act according to the Laws
of _England_, & by such Laws of their own as were not repugnant to
them: But as soon as the Commissioners were returned for _England_,
the _Massachusets_ enter the province in a hostile manner with a
Troop of Horse and Foot and turn’d the Judge and his Assistants
off the Bench, Imprisoned the Major or Commander of the Militia,
threatned the Judge, and some others that were faithful to Mr.
_Gorges_ interests. I could discover many other foul proceedings,
but for some reasons which might be given, I conceive it not
convenient to make report thereof to vulgar ears; _& quæ supra nos
nihil ad nos_. Onely this I could wish, that there might be some
consideration of the great losses, charge and labour which hath
been sustained by the Judge, and some others for above thirty years
in upholding the rights of Mr. _Gorge_ and his Sacred Majesties
Dominion against a many stubborn and elusive people.

[p. 199.] _Anno Dom._ 1623. Mr. _Robert Gorge_, Sir _Ferdinando
Gorges_ brother had for his good service granted him by Patent
from the Council of _Plimouth_ all that part of the Land commonly
called _Massachusiack_, situated on the North-side of the Bay of
_Massachusets_.

Not long after this Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ had granted to him by
Patent from the middest of _Merrimack_-River to the great River
_Sagadehock_, then called _Laconia_.

In 1635. Capt. _William Gorge_, Sir _Ferdinando’s_ Nephew, was
sent over Governour of the Province of _Main_, then called
_New-Summersetshire_.

Sir _Ferdinando Gorge_ received a Charter-Royal from King _Charles_
the first the third of _April_ in the Fifteenth of his Raign,
granting to him all that part and portion of _New-England_, lying
and being between the River of _Pascataway_, that is, beginning at
the entrance of _Pascataway-harbour_, and so to pass up the same
into the River of _Newichawanoe_ or _Neqhechewanck_, and through
the same unto the farthest head thereof aforesaid, North-eastward
along the Sea-coasts, for Sixty miles to _Sagadehoc_-River to
_Kenebeck_, even as far as the head thereof, and up into the main
land North-westward for the space of one hundred and twenty [p.
200.] miles. To these Territories are adjoyned the North half-Isle
of _Sholes_, with several other Islands, it lyeth between 44
degrees and 45 of Northerly latitude. The River _Canada_ on the
North-east the Sea coast South, amongst many large Royalties,
Jurisdictions and Immunities was also granted to the said Sir
_Ferdinando Gorge_, the same Royalties, priviledges and franchises
as are, or of right ought to be enjoyed by the Bishop of _Durham_
in the County Palatine of _Durham_; the planters to pay for every
hundred Acres of land yearly, two shillings six pence, that is such
land as is given to them and their Heirs for ever.

The Officers by Patent are a Deputy Governour, a Chancellor, a
Treasurer, a Marshal for Souldiers, an Admiraltie for Sea affairs,
and a Judge of the Admiraltie, a Master of Ordinance, a Secretary,
_&c._

Towns there are not many in this province. _Kittery_ situated not
far from _Pascataway_ is the most populous.

Next to that Eastward is seated by a River near the Sea _Gorgiana_,
a Majoraltie, and the Metropolitan of the province.

Further to the Eastward is the Town of _Wells_.

_Cape-Porpus_ Eastward of that, where there is a Town by the Sea
side of the same name, [p. 201.] the houses scatteringly built, all
these Towns have store of salt and fresh marsh with arable land,
and are well stockt with Cattle.

About eight or nine mile to the East-ward of _Cape-Porpus_, is
_Winter harbour_, a noted place for Fishers, here they have many
stages.

_Saco_ adjoyns to this, and both make one scattering Town of large
extent, well stored with Cattle, arable land and marshes, and a
Saw-mill.

Six mile to the Eastward of _Saco_ & forty mile from _Gorgiana_
is seated the Town of _Black point_, consisting of about fifty
dwelling houses, and a Magazine or _Doganne_, scatteringly built,
they have store of neat and horses, of sheep near upon Seven
or Eight hundred, much arable and marsh salt and fresh, and a
Corn-mill.

To the Southward of the _point_ (upon which are stages for
fishermen) lye two small Islands beyond the point, North-eastward
runs the River _Spurwinch_.

Four miles from _Black-point_, one mile from _Spurwinch_-River
Eastward lyeth _Richmans-Island_, whose longitude is 317 degrees 30
seconds, and latitude 43 degrees and 34 minutes, it is three mile
in circumference, and hath a passable and gravelly ford on the [p.
202.] North-side, between the main and the Sea at low-water: here
are found excellent Whetstones, and here likewise are stages for
fishermen.

Nine mile Eastward of _Black-point_ lyeth scatteringly the Town
of _Casco_ upon a large Bay, stored with Cattle, Sheep, Swine,
abundance of marsh and Arable land, a Corn-mill or two, with stages
for fishermen.

Further East-ward is the Town of _Kenebeck_ seated upon the River.

Further yet East-ward is _Sagadehock_, where there are many houses
scattering, and all along stages for fishermen, these too are
stored with Cattle and Corn lands.

The mountains and hills that are to be taken notice of, are first
_Acomenticus_ hills, between _Kettery_ and _Gorgiana_, the high
hills of _Ossapey_ to the West-ward of _Saco_ River, where the
princely _Pilhanaw_ Ayries, the white mountains, to the North-ward
of _Black-point_, the highest _Terrasse_ in _New-England_, you
have the description of it in my Treatise of the rarities of
_New-England_.

A Neighbour of mine rashly wandering out after some stray’d Cattle,
lost his way, and coming as we conceived by his Relation near to
the head spring of some of the branches of _Black-point_ River
or _Saco_-River, [p. 203.] light into a Tract of land for God
knowes how many miles full of delfes and dingles, and dangerous
precipices, Rocks and inextricable difficulties which did justly
daunt, yea quite deter him from endeavouring to pass any further:
many such like places are to be met with in _New-England_.

The ponds or lakes in this province are very large and many, out
of which the great Rivers have their original; we read of the lake
_Balsena_ that is thirty miles about, here are that come very near
to it, stored with all sorts of fresh water fish; and if you will
believe report, in one of them huge fishes like Whales are to be
seen, and some of them have fair Islands in them. Twelve mile from
_Casco-bay_, and passable for men and horses, is a lake called
by the _Indians_ _Sebug_, on the brink thereof at one end is the
famous Rock shap’d like a _Moose-Deere_ or _Helk_, Diaphanous, and
called the _Moose-Rock_. Here are found stones like Crystal, and
_Lapis Specularis_ or _Muscovia_ glass both white and purple.

On the East-side of _Black-point_ River, upon a plain, close to
the Sea-bank is a pond two mile in compass, fish it produceth,
but those very small and black, and a number of Frogs and Snakes,
and much [p. 204.] frequented by wild-fowl, _Ducks_, _Teal_, and
wild-_Swins_, and _Geese_, especially spring and fall when they
pass along to the South-ward, and return again to the North-ward
where they breed.

The principal Rivers in the province of _Main_, are
_Pascataway_-River, _York_-River, _Kenibunck_-River, near to this
River clay bullets were cast up by a mineral vapour, this River
is by the Town of _Wells_. Then _Saco_-River on the East-side of
the Town, the shore Rockie all along on both sides, where musick
echoes from several places: seven miles up the River is a great
fall where abundance of _Salmon_ and _Lamprons_ are taken at the
fall; a great way up, the River runs upon the Rock, _in rupibus
defendendo efficit rivos_, he cutteth out Rivers among the Rocks,
saith _Job_, of the Almighty, _Job_ 28. 10. A little above the
fall is a saw-mill. Then _Black-point_-River divided into many
branches; this as most of the Rivers in _New-England_, is bar’d
with a bank of Sand, where the _Indians_ take _Sturgeon_ and
_Basse_. _Spur-winck_-River is next, which by his near approach
to _Black-point_-River maketh that neck of land almost an Island.
Further East-ward is _Kenebeck_-river fifty leagues off of
_New-Plimouth_ East-ward, and _Pechipscut_ famous [p. 205.] for
multitudes of mighty large _Sturgeon_. The last river of the
province East-ward is the great river _Sagadehock_ where Sir _John
Pophams_ Colony seated themselves.

The chief harbours are _Cape-porpus_, _Winter harbour_, in
which are some small Islands, _Black-point_, _Richmans-Island_,
_Casco-bay_ the largest in the province full of Islands.

From _Sagadehock_ to _Nova-Scotia_ is called the Duke of _Yorkes_
province, here _Pemmaquid_, _Montinicus_, _Mohegan, apeanawhagen_,
where Capt. _Smith_ fisht for _Whales_; _Muscataquid_, all fill’d
with dwelling houses and stages for fishermen, and have plenty of
Cattle, arable land and marshes.

_Nova Scotia_ was sold by the Lord _Starling_ to the _French_, and
is now wholly in their possession.

Now we are come to _New-found-land_, which is over against the gulf
of St. _Lawrence_, an Island near as spacious as _Ireland_, and
lyeth distant from the Continent as far as _England_ is from the
nearest part of _France_, and near half the way between _Ireland_
and _Virginia_, its longitude is 334 degrees 20 seconds, and North
latitude 46 degrees 30 minutes, or as others will 53 minutes. _The
longitude of places are uncertainly reported, but in latitudes most
agree._ [p. 206.] _Longitude is the distance of the meridian of any
place from the meridian which passeth over the Isles of_ Azores,
_where the beginning of longitude is said to be. The meridian is
a great circle dividing the Equinoctial at right Angles into two
equal parts, passing also through both the Poles, and the Zenith,
to which circle the Sun coming twice every 24 hours, maketh the
middle of the day, and the middle of the night. Every place hath
a several meridian, but they all meet in the poles of the world.
Latitude is counted from the Equinoctial to the end of 30 degrees
on each side thereof. The Equinoctial is a great circle imagined
in the Heavens, also dividing the heavens into two equal parts,
and lying just in the middle betwixt the two poles, being in
compass from West to East, 360 degrees, every degree thereof on the
terrestrial Globe valuing 20 English miles, [leagues?] or 60 miles._

Into the Bay of St. _Lawrence_ the River of St. _Lawrence_ or
_Canada_ disimbogues it self, a River far exceeding any River in
the elder world, thirty or forty mile over at the mouth, and in
the Channel one hundred fathom deep; it runs on the back-side
of _New-England_ and _Virginia_: the _French_ (it is said) have
gone up six weeks voyage in it, and have not yet discovered the
spring-head: the longitude is 334 degrees [p. 207.] 11 seconds, in
50 degrees 21 minutes of North latitude. This may satisfie a modest
Reader, and I hope yield no offence to any. I shall onely speak a
word or two of the people in the province of _Main_ and the Dukes
province, and so conclude.

The people in the province of _Main_ may be divided into
Magistrates, Husbandmen, or Planters, and fishermen; of the
Magistrates some be Royalists, the rest perverse Spirits, the like
are the planters and fishers, of which some be planters and fishers
both, others meer fishers.

Handicrafts-men there are but few, the Tumelor or Cooper, Smiths
and Carpenters are best welcome amongst them, shop-keepers there
are none, being supplied by the _Massachusets_ Merchants with
all things they stand in need of, keeping here and there fair
Magazines stored with _English_ goods, but they set excessive
prices on them, if they do not gain _Cent per Cent_, they cry out
that they are losers, hence _English_ shooes are sold for Eight
and Nine shillings a pair, worsted stockins of Three shillings six
pence a pair, for Seven and Eight shillings a pair, Douglass that
is sold in _England_ for one or two and twenty pence an ell, for
four shillings a yard, Serges of two shillings or three shillings
a yard, for Six and Seven [p. 208.] shillings a yard, and so all
sorts of Commodities both for planters and fishermen, as Cables,
Cordage, Anchors, Lines, Hooks, Nets, Canvas for sails, _&c._
Bisket twenty five shillings a hundred, Salt at an excessive rate,
pickled-herrin for winter bait Four and five pound a barrel (with
which they speed not so well as the waggish lad at _Cape-porpus_,
who baited his hooks with the drown’d _Negro’s_ buttocks) so for
Pork and Beef.

The planters are or should be restless pains takers, providing
for their Cattle, planting and sowing of Corn, fencing their
grounds, cutting and bringing home fuel, cleaving of claw-board
and pipe-staves, fishing for fresh water fish and fowling takes
up most of their time, if not all; the diligent hand maketh rich,
but if they be of a droanish disposition as some are, they become
wretchedly poor and miserable, scarce able to free themselves and
family from importunate famine, especially in the winter for want
of bread.

They have a custom of taking Tobacco, sleeping at noon, sitting
long at meals some-times four times in a day, and now and then
drinking a dram of the bottle extraordinarily: the smoaking of
Tobacco, if moderately used refresheth the weary much, and so doth
sleep.

[p. 209.]

      _A Traveller five hours doth crave
      To sleep, a Student seven will have,
      And nine sleeps every Idle knave._

The Physitian allowes but three draughts at a meal, the first for
need, the second for pleasure, and the third for sleep; but little
observed by them, unless they have no other liquor to drink but
water. In some places where the springs are frozen up, or at least
the way to their springs made unpassable by reason of the snow and
the like, they dress their meat in _Aqua Cælestis_, i. e. melted
snow, at other times it is very well cook’t, and they feed upon
(generally) as good flesh, Beef, Pork, Mutton, Fowl and fish as any
is in the whole world besides.

Their Servants which are for the most part _English_, when they are
out of their time, will not work under half a Crown a day, although
it be for to make hay, and for less I do not see how they can, by
reason of the dearness of clothing. If they hire them by the year,
they pay them Fourteen or Fifteen pound, yea Twenty pound at the
years end in Corn, Cattle and fish: some of these prove excellent
fowlers, bringing in as many as will maintain their masters house;
besides the profit that accrews by their feathers, [p. 210.] They
use (when it is to be had) a great round shot, called _Barstable_
shot, (which is best for fowl) made of a lead blacker than our
common lead, to six pound of shot they allow one pound of powder,
Cannon powder is esteemed best.

The fishermen take yearly upon the coasts many hundred kentals of
Cod, hake, haddock, polluck _&c._ which they split, salt and dry
at their stages, making three voyages in a year. When they share
their fish (which is at the end of every voyage) they separate the
best from the worst, the first they call Merchantable fish, being
sound, full grown fish and well made up, which is known when it is
clear like a Lanthorn horn and without spots; the second sort they
call refuse fish, that is such as is salt burnt, spotted, rotten,
and carelesly ordered: these they put off to the _Massachusets_
Merchants; the merchantable for thirty and two and thirty ryals
a kental, (a kental is an hundred and twelve pound weight) the
refuse for Nine shillings and Ten shillings a kental, the Merchant
sends the merchantable fish to _Lisbonne_, _Bilbo_, _Burdeaux_,
_Marsiles_, _Talloon_, _Rochel_, _Roan_, and other Cities of
_France_, to the _Canaries_ with claw-board and pipe-staves which
is there and at the _Charibs_ a prime Commodity: the refuse fish
they put [p. 211.] off at the _Charib-Islands_, _Barbadoes_,
_Jamaica_, &c. who feed their _Negroes_ with it.

To every Shallop belong four fishermen, a Master or Steersman, a
Midship-man, and a Foremast-man, and a shore man who washes it out
of the salt, and dries it upon hurdles pitcht upon stakes breast
high and tends their Cookery; these often get in one voyage Eight
or Nine pound a man for their shares, but it doth some of them
little good, for the Merchant to increase his gains by putting off
his Commodity in the midst of their voyages, and at the end thereof
comes in with a walking Tavern, a Bark laden with the Legitimate
bloud of the rich grape, which they bring from _Phial_, _Madera_,
_Canaries_, with _Brandy_, _Rhum_, the _Barbadoes strong-water_,
and _Tobacco_, coming ashore he gives them a taster or two, which
so charms them, that for no perswasions that their imployers can
use will they go out to Sea, although fair and seasonable weather,
for two or three days, nay sometimes a whole week till they are
wearied with drinking, taking ashore two or three Hogsheads of
_Wine_ and _Rhum_ to drink off when the Merchant is gone. If a man
of quality chance to come where they are roystering and gulling in
_Wine_ with a dear felicity, he must be sociable and _Roly-poly_
with them, taking off [p. 212] their liberal cups as freely, or
else be gone, which is best for him, for when _Wine_ in their guts
is at full Tide, they quarrel, fight and do one another mischief,
which is the conclusion of their drunken compotations. When the
day of payment comes, they may justly complain of their costly
sin of drunkenness, for their shares will do no more than pay the
reckoning; if they save a Kental or two to buy shooes and stockins,
shirts and wastcoats with, ’tis well, other-wayes they must enter
into the Merchants books for such things as they stand in need off,
becoming thereby the Merchants slaves, & when it riseth to a big
sum are constrained to mortgage their plantation if they have any,
the Merchant when the time is expired is sure to seize upon their
plantation and stock of Cattle, turning them out of house and home,
poor Creatures, to look out for a new habitation in some remote
place where they begin the world again. The lavish planters have
the same fate, partaking with them in the like bad husbandry, of
these the Merchant buys Beef, Pork, Pease, Wheat and _Indian_ Corn,
and sells it again many times to the fishermen. Of the same nature
are the people in the Dukes province, who not long before I left
the Countrey petitioned the Governour and Magistrates in [p. 213.]
the _Massachusets_ to take them into their Government, Birds of a
feather will ralley together.

_Anno Dom._ 1671. The year being now well spent, and the Government
of the province turned topsiturvy, being heartily weary and
expecting the approach of winter, I took my leave of my friends
at _Black-point_. And on the 28 of _August_ being Monday I shipt
my self and my goods aboard of a shallop bound for _Boston_:
towards Sun-set, the wind being contrary, we put into _Gibbons_ his
Island, a small Island in _Winter-harbour_ about two leagues from
_Black-point_ West-ward, here we stayed till the 30. day being
Wednesday, about nine of the clock we set sail, and towards Sun-set
came up with _Gorgiana_, the 31 day being Thursday we put into
_Cape-Ann_-harbour about Sun-set. _September_ the 1 being Saturday
in the morning before day we set sail and came to _Boston_ about
three of the clock in the afternoon, where I found the Inhabitants
exceedingly afflicted with griping of the guts, and Feaver, and
Ague, and bloudy Flux.

The Eight day of _October_ being Wednesday, I boarded the
new-Supply of _Boston_ 120 Tun, a ship of better sail than defence,
her Guns being small, and for salutation only, the Master Capt.
_Fairweather_, her [p. 214.] sailers 16. and as many passengers.
Towards night I returned to _Boston_ again, the next day being
Thanksgiving day, on Fryday the Tenth day we weighed Anchor and
fell down to _Hull_.

The 12 and 13 day about 20 leagues from _Cape-Sable_ a bitter storm
took us, beginning at seven of the clock at night, which put us in
terrible fear of being driven upon the _Cape_, or the Island of
_Sables_ where many a tall ship hath been wrackt.

_November_ the One and twenty about two of the clock afternoon we
saw within kenning before us thick clouds, which put us in hope of
land, the _Boson_ brings out his purse, into which the passengers
put their good will, then presently he nails it to the main-mast,
up go the boyes to the main-mast-top sitting there like so many
_Crowes_, when after a while one of them cryes out land, which was
glad tidings to the wearied passengers, the boyes descend, and the
purse being taken from the mast was distributed amongst them, the
lad that first descryed land having a double share: about three of
the clock _Scilly_ was three leagues off.

The four and twentieth day we came to _Deal_, from thence the 25.
to _Lee_, the 26. being Sunday we steemed the Tide to _Gravesend_,
about two of the clock [p. 215.] afternoon. The 27 we came up with
_Wollich_ where I landed and refresht my self for that night, next
day I footed it four or five miles to _Bexley_ in _Kent_ to visit a
near kinsman, the next day proved rainie, the 30 day being Fryday
my kinsman accommodated me with a Horse and his man to _Greenwich_,
where I took a pair of Oars and went aboard our Ship then lying
before _Radcliff_, here I lay that night. Next day being Saturday,
and the first of _December_ I cleared my goods, shot the bridge and
landed at the _Temple_ about seven of the clock at night, which
makes my voyage homeward 7 weeks and four days, and from my first
setting out from _London_ to my returning to _London_ again Eight
years Six moneths and odd days.

Now by the merciful providence of the Almighty, having perform’d
Two voyages to the North-east parts of the Western-world, I am
safely arrived in my Native Countrey; having in part made good the
_French_ proverb, Travail where thou canst, but dye where thou
oughtest, that is, in thine own Countrey.


_FINIS._



                            Chronological

                            OBSERVATIONS

                                 OF

                               AMERICA,

                      From the year of the World
                        to the year of Christ,
                                1673.

                   [Illustration: (Decorative icon.)]

                               _LONDON_:

           Printed for _Giles Widdowes_, at the _Green-Dragon_
                   in St. _Paul’s_-Church-yard, 1674.



[Illustration: (Decorative banner.)]


The Preface.


_The Terrestrial World is by our learned Geographers divided
into four parts_, Europe, Asia, Africa _and_ America _so named
from_ Americus Vespucius _the_ Florentine, _Seven years after_
Columbus; _although_ Columbus _and_ Cabota _deserved rather the
honour of being Godfathers to it: notwithstanding by this name
it is now known to us, but was utterly unknown to the Ancient_
Europeans _before their times, I will not say_ to the _Africans_
and _Asians_, for _Plato_ in his _Timeus_ relateth of a great
Island called _Atlantis_, and _Philo_ the _Jew_ in his book _De
mundo_, that it was over-flowen with water, by reason of a mighty
Earthquake; The like happened to it 600 years before _Plato_: thus
was the _Atlantick_ Ocean, caused to be a Sea, _if you will believe
the same Philosopher, who flourished_ 366 _years before the Birth
of our Saviour_.

America _is bounded on the South with the streight of_ Magellan,
_where there are many Islands distinguished by an interflowing Bay;
the West with the pacifique Sea, or_ mare-del-zur, _which Sea runs
towards the North, separateing it from the East parts of_ Asia;
_on the East with the_ Atlantick, _or our Western Ocean called_
mare-del-Nort; _and on the North with the Sea that separateth it
from_ Groveland, _thorow which Seas the supposed passage to_ China
_lyeth; these North parts, as yet are but barely discovered by our
voyagers._

_The length of this new World between the streights of_ Anian
_and_ Magellan _is_ 2400 German _miles, in breadth between_ Cabo
de fortuna _near the_ Anian _streights is_ 1300 German _miles.
About_ 18 _leagues from_ Nombre de dios, _on the South-Sea lyeth_
Panama (_a City having three fair Monasteries in it_) _where the
narrowest part of the Countrey is, it is much less than_ Asia, _and
far bigger than_ Europe, _and as the rest of the world divided into
Islands and Continent, the Continent supposed to contain about_
1152400000 _Acres._

_The Native people I have spoken of already: The discoverers
and Planters of Colonies, especially in the North-east parts;
together with a continuation of the proceedings of the_ English
_in_ New-England, _from the first year of their settling there to
purpose, to this present year of our Lord_ 1673. _with many other
things by the way inserted and worth the observing I present unto
your view in this ensuing Table._



[Illustration: (Decorative banner.)]


_Anno Mundi_, 3720.

B_Ritain_ known to the _Græcians_ as appeared by _Polybius_ the
_Greek_ Historian 265 years before the Birth of our Saviour, &
after him _Athenæus_ a _Greek_ Author of good account 170 before
Christ, relateth that _Hiero_ sent for a mast for a great Ship that
he had built to _Britain_.

3740.

_Hanno_ the _Carthaginian_ flourished, who sent to discover the
great Island _Atlantis_, i. e. _America_.

3873.

_Britain_ unknown to the _Romans_ was first discovered to them by
_Julius Cæsar_, 54 years before the Birth of Christ, who took it to
be part of the Continent of _France_, and got nothing but the sight
of that part called afterwards _England_, which is the South of
_Britain_.

_Anno Domini_, 86.

_Britain_ discovered to be an Island, and conquered by _Julius
Agricola_ 136. years after _Julius Cæsars_ entrance into it.

99.

[p. 224.] The Emperour _Trajan_ flourished and stretched the
Confines of the _Roman_ Empire, unto the remotest Dominions of the
_East-Indies_, who never before that time had heard of a _Roman_.

745.

_Boniface_ Bishop of _Mens_ a City in Germany, was accused before
Pope _Zachary_ in the time of _Ethelred_ King of the _East-Angles_
for Heresie, _&c._ in that he averred there were Antipodes. St.
_Augustine_ and _Lactantius_ opinion was that there were none.

827.

_Egbert_ the _Saxon_ Monarch changed the name of the people in
_England_, and called them _English-men_.

844.

The _Turks_ or _Scythians_ came from thence in the time of
_Ethelwolf_ King of the _West-Saxons_. If the _Ottoman_-line should
fail, the _Chrim Tartar_ is to succeed, being both of one Family.

959.

_Edgar_ Sirnamed the Peaceable, the 30 Monarch of the _English_,
caused the Wolves to be destroyed by imposing a Tribute upon the
Princes of _Wales_; and _Fage_ Prince of _North-Wales_ paid him
yearly 300 Wolves, [p. 227.] which continued three years space,
in the fourth year there was not a Wolf to be found, and so the
Tribute ceased.

1160.

In the Emperours _Frederick Barbarossa’s_ time, certain
_West-Indians_ came into _Germany_.

1170.

_Madoc_ the Son of _Owen Gwineth_ Prince of _North-Wales_ his
voyage to the _West-Indies_, he planted a Colony in the Western
part of the Countrey, in our _Henry_ the Seconds Raign.

1300.

_Flavio_ of _Malphi_ in _Naples_ invented the Compass in our
_Edward_ the firsts time.

1330.

The _Canaries_ discovered by an _English_ Ship.

1337.

In _Edward_ the third’s time a Comet appeared, continuing 30 days.

1344.

_Machan_ an _English-man_ accidentally discovered _Madera-Island_.

1350.

_Estotiland_ discovered by fishermen of _Freez-land_, in _Edward_
the third’s Raign.

1360.

The Franciscan-Fryer _Nicholas de Linno_, [p. 228.] who is said to
discover the Pole by his black Art, went thither in the Raign of
_Edward_ the Third.

1372.

Sir _John Mandivel_, the Great Traveller dyed at _Leige_ a City in
the _Netherland_ Provinces in _Edward_ the Third’s Raign.

1380.

_Nicholas_ and _Antonio Zeni_, two Noble Gentlemen of _Venice_ were
driven by Tempest upon the Island of _Estotiland_ or _Gronland_, in
our _Edward_ the Third’s Raign.

1417.

The _Canaries_ conquered by _Betan-Court_ a _Frenchman_.

1420.

The Island of _Madera_ discovered in our _Henry_ the Fifth’s time.

1428.

The Island _Puerto Santo_, or _Holy-port_ distant from _Madera_ 40
miles, discovered by _Portingal_ Mariners on _All-hallowes-day_,
and therefore called _Holy-port_, it is in compass 150 miles, in
_Henry_ the Sixth’s Raign.

1440.

The Island of _Cape de verd_ discovered.

1452.

The _Marine_ parts of _Guinea_ discovered by the _Portingals_ in
_Henry_ the Sixth’s Raign.

1478.

[p. 229.] _Ferdinando_ first Monarch of all _Spain_.

1485.

_Henry_ the Seventh began to Raign.

1486.

The Kingdom of _Angola_ and _Congo_, with the Islands of St.
_George_, St. _James_ and St. _Helens_ discovered.

1488.

_Christopher Columbus_ a _Genouese_ offered the discovery of the
_West-Indies_ to _Henry_ the Seventh.

1492.

_Christopher Columbus_ sent to discover the _West-Indies_ by
_Ferdinando_ King of _Arragon_, and _Isabella_ Queen of _Castile_,
who descended from _Edward_ the Third King of _England_.

The _Caribby-Islands_ the _Antilles_ or _Canibal_, or
_Camerean-Islands_ now discovered by _Christopher Columbus_, who
took possession of _Florida_ and _Hispaniola_ for the King of
_Spain_.

1493.

_Alexander_ the Sixth Pope of _Rome_ a _Spaniard_, took upon him
to divide the world by his Bull, betwixt the _Portingal_ and the
_Spaniard_, bearing date the fourth of _May_, giving to the one the
East, and to the other the West-_Indies_.

[p. 230.] St. _Jean Porto Rico_ discovered by _Christopher
Columbus_, _Cuba_ and _Jamaica_ discovered by him, this was his
second voyage.

1495.

_Sebastian Cabota_ the first that attempted to discover the
North-west passage at the charge of _Henry_ the Seventh.

1497.

_Christopher Columbus_ his third voyage to the West-_Indies_, and
now he discovered the Countreys of _Paria_ and _Cumana_, with the
Islands of _Cubagua_ and _Margarita_.

_John Cabota_ and his Son _Sebastian Cabota_ sent by _Henry_ the
Seventh, to discover the _West-Indies_, which they performed from
the _Cape_ of _Florida_ to the 67 degree and a half of Northerly
latitude, being said by some to be the first that discovered
_Florida_, _Virginia_, and _New-found-land_.

_Vasques de Gama_ his voyage to _Africa_.

1500.

_Christopher Columbus_ his fourth and last voyage to the
_West-Indies_.

_Jasper Corteriaglis_ a _Portugal_, his voyage to discover
the North-West passage, he discovered _Greenland_, or _Terra
Corteriaglis_, or _Terra di Laborodoro_.

1501.

_Americus Vesputius_ a _Florentine_ imployed by the King of
_Castile_ and _Portingal_, to discover [p. 231.] the _West-Indies_,
named from him Seven year after _Columbus_, _America_.

1506.

_Christopher Columbus_ dyed.

1508.

_Henry_ the Seventh dyed _August the_ Two and twentieth.

_Henry_ the Eighth King of England.

1514.

_Sebastian Cabota_, the Son of _John_ made further discovery of all
the North-east coasts from _Cape Florida_ to _New-found-land_, and
_Terra Laborador_.

1516.

The voyage of Sir _Thomas Pert_ Vice-Admiral of _England_, and
_Sebastian Cabota_, the Eighth of _Henry_ the Eighth to _Brasil_,
St. _Domingo_, and St. _Juan de puerto rico_.

1520.

_Ferdinando Magellano_ a noble _Portingal_ set forth to sail about
the world, but was 1521 unfortunately slain.

1522.

The _Bermuduz-Isle_ 400 in number, being 500 miles distant from
_Virginia_, and 3300 miles from the City of _London_ in the
latitude 32 degrees and 30 minutes, discovered now accidentally by
_John Bermuduz_ a _Spaniard_.

1523.

[p. 232.] _Stephen Gomez_ his voyage to discover the North-west
passage, some will have it in Twenty five.

1527.

_New-found-land_ discovered by one _Andrew Thorn_, the Southern
part but 600 leagues from _England_.

_John de Ponce_ for the _Spaniard_ took possession of _Florida_.

1528.

_Nevis_ or _Mevis_ planted now according to some writers.

1534.

_Califormia_ questioned, whether Island or Continent, first
discovered by the _Spaniard_.

_Nova Francia_ lying between the 40 and 50 degree of the
_Artic-poles Altitude_ discovered by _Jaques Carthier_ in his first
voyage, the first Colony planted in _Canada_.

1536.

The Puritan-Church policy began now in _Geneva_.

1542.

_Monsieur du Barvals_ voyage to _Nova Francia_, sent to inhabite
those parts.

1548.

_Henry_ the Eighth dyed.

_Edward_ the Sixth King of _England_ began to Raign.

[p. 233.] _Sebastian Cabota_ made grand Pilot of _England_ by
_Edward_ the Sixth.

1550.

The sweating sickness in _England._

1553.

_Edward_ the Sixth dyed.

_Mary_ Queen of _England_ began to Raign.

Sir _Hugh Willoughby_, and all his men in two Ships in his first
attempt to discover the North-east passage, were in _October_
frozen to death in the Haven called _Arzima_ in _Lapland_.

1558.

Queen _Mary_ dyed.

_Elizabeth_ Queen of _England_ began to Raign _November_ the
Seventeenth.

1560.

_Salvaterra_ a _Spaniard_ his voyage to the North-west passage.

1562.

Sir _John Hawkin’s_ first voyage to the _West-Indies_.

The first expedition of the _French_ into _Florida_, undertaken by
_John Ribald_.

1565.

Tobacco first brought into _England_ by Sir _John Hawkins_, but
it was first brought into use by Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ many years
after.

1566.

The Puritans began to appear in _England_.

1569.

[p. 234.] _Anthony Jenkinson_ the first of the _English_ that
sailed through the _Caspian_-Sea.

1572.

Private Presbyteries now first erected in _England_.

Sir _Francis Drake’s_ first voyage to the _West-Indies_.

1573.

The _Hollanders_ seek for aid from Queen _Elizabeth_.

1576.

Sir _Martin Frobisher_ the first in Queen _Elizabeths_ days that
sought for the North-west passage, or the streight, or passage to
_China_, and _meta incognita_, in three several voyages, others
will have it in 1577.

1577.

_November_ the 17 Sir _Francis Drake_ began his voyage about the
world with five Ships, and 164 men setting sail from _Plimouth_,
putting off _Cape de verde_. The beginning of _February_, he saw no
Land till the fifth of _April_, being past the line 30 degrees of
latitude, and in the 36 degree entered the River _Plates_, whence
he fell with the streight of _Magellan_ the 21 of _August_, which
with three of his Ships he passed, having cast off the other two
as impediments to him, and the _Marigold_ tossed from her General
after [p. 235.] passage was no more seen. The other commanded by
Capt. _Winter_ shaken off also by Tempest, returned thorow the
Streights and recovered _England_, only the _Pellican_, whereof
himself was Admiral, held on her course to _Chile_, _Coquimbo_,
_Cinnama_, _Palma_, _Lima_, upon the west of _America_, where
he passed the line 1579 the first day of _March_, and so forth
until he came to the latitude 47. Thinking by those North Seas to
have found passage to _England_, but fogs, frosts and cold winds
forced him to turn his course South-west from thence, and came to
Anchor 38 degrees from the line, where the King of that Countrey
presented him his Net-work Crown of many coloured feathers, and
therewith resigned his Scepter of Government unto his Dominion,
which Countrey Sir _Francis Drake_ took possession of in the Queens
name, and named it _Nova Albion_, which is thought to be part of
the Island of _Califormia_.

Sir _Martin Frobisher’s_ second voyage.

1578.

Sir _Humphrey Gilbert_ a _Devonshire_ Knight attempted to discover
_Virginia_, but without success.

Sir _Martin Frobisher’s_ third voyage to _Meta incognita_.
_Freezeland_ now called _West-England_, 25 leagues in length, in
the latitude of 57.

[p. 236.] Sir _Francis Drake_ now passed the Streights of
_Magellan_ in the Ship called the _Pellican_.

1579.

Sir _Francis Drake_ discovered _Nova Albion_ in the South-Sea.

Others will have Sir _Martin Frobisher’s_ first voyage to discover
the North-west passage to be this year.

1580.

From _Nova Albion_ he fell with _Ternate_, one of the Isles of
_Molucco_, being courteously entertained of the King, and from
thence he came unto the Isles of _Calebes_, to _Java Major_, to
_Cape buona speranza_, and fell with the coasts of _Guinea_, where
crossing again the line, he came to the height of the _Azores_, and
thence to _England_ upon the third of _November_ 1580. after three
years lacking twelve days, and was Knighted, and his Ship laid up
at _Deptford_ as a monument of his fame.

1581.

The Provinces of _Holland_ again seek for aid to the Queen of
_England_.

1582.

Sir _Humphrey Gilbert_ took possession of _New-found-land_ or
_Terra Nova_, in the harbour of St. _John_, for and in the name of
[p. 237.] Queen _Elizabeth_, it lyeth over against the gulf of St.
_Lawrence_, and is between 46 and 53 degrees of the North-poles
Altitude.

1583.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ in _Ireland_.

Sir _Humphrey Gilbert_ attempted a plantation in some remote parts
in _New-England_.

He perished in his return from _New-found-land_.

1584.

The woful year of subscription so called by the Brethren, or
Disciplinarians.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ obtained of Queen _Elizabeth_ a Patent for
the discovery and peopling of unknown Countries, not actually
possessed by any Christian Prince. Dated _March_ 25. in the six and
twentieth of her Raign.

_April_ the 27 following, he set forth two Barkes under the Command
of Mr. _Philip Amedas_ and Mr. _Arthur Barlow_, who arrived on that
part of _America_, which that Virgin Queen named _Virginia_, and
thereof in her Majesties name took possession _July_ the Thirteenth.

1585.

Cautionary Towns and Forts in the low-Countreys delivered unto
Queen _Elizabeths_ hands.

Sir _Richard Greenvile_ was sent by Sir [p. 238.] _Walter Rawleigh_
_April_ the Ninth, with a Fleet of 7 sail to _Virginia_, and was
stiled the General of _Virginia_. He landed in the Island of
St. _John de porto Rico_ _May_ the Twelfth, and there fortified
themselves and built a _Pinnasse_, &c. In _Virginia_ they left 100
men under the Government of Mr. _Ralph Lane_, and others.

Sir _Francis Drake’s_ voyage to the _West-Indies_, wherein were
taken the Cities of St. _Jago_, St. _Domingo Cartagena_, and the
Town of St. _Augustine_ in _Florida_.

Now (say some) Tobacco was first brought into _England_ by Mr.
_Ralph Lane_ out of _Virginia_.

Others will have Tobacco to be first brought into _England_ from
_Peru_, by Sir _Francis Drake’s_ Mariners.

Capt. _John Davies_ first voyage to discover the North-west
passage, encouraged by Sir _Francis Walsingham_, principal
Secretary.

1586.

Mr. _Thomas Candish_ of _Trimely_, in the County of _Suffolk_ Esq,
began his voyage in the ship called the _Desire_, and two ships
more to the South-Sea through the Streights of _Magellan_ (and from
thence round about the circumference of the whole earth) burnt
and ransack’d in the entrance of _Chile_, [p. 239.] _Peru_ and
_New-Spain_, near the great Island of _Calformia_ in the South-Sea;
and returned to _Plimouth_ with a pretious booty 1588. _September_
the Eighth, being the Third since _Magellan_, that circuited the
earth, our _English_ voyagers were never out-stript by any.

The Natives in _Virginia_ conspired against the _English_.

The same year Sir _Richard Greenvile_ General of _Virginia_ arrived
there with three ships, bringing relief from Sir _Walter Rawleigh_
to the Colony.

Mr. _John Davies_ second voyage to discover the North-west passage.

1587.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ sent another Colony of 150 persons under the
Government of Mr. _John White_.

Mr. _John Davies_ third voyage to discover the North-west passage.

Sir _Francis Drake_, with four ships took from the _Spaniards_ one
million, 189200 Ducats in one voyage.


1588.

Queen _Elizabeth_ opposed her Authority against the Brethrens books
and writings.

Sir _Francis Drake_ Vice-Admiral of the _English_ Fleet, the
Lord-Admiral bestowed the order of Knight-hood upon Mr. _John_ [p.
240.] _Hawkins_, _Martin Forbisher_ and others, _July_ the Five and
twentieth.

The _Spanish Armado_ defeated, consisting of 130 ships, wherein
were 19290 Souldiers, 2080 chained Rowers, 2630 great Ordnance,
Commanded by _Perezius Guzman_ Duke of _Medina Sedonia_, and under
him _Johannes Martinus Recaldus_ a great Seaman; The Fleet coming
on like a half-moon, the horns of the front extending one from the
other about 7 miles asunder, it was preparing 15 years, and was
blackt to make it seem more terrible.

1589.

The _Portingal_ voyage under the conduct of Sir _Francis Drake_.

Mr. _Thomas Candish_ now finished his voyage about the world, as
some will have it.

1590.

Now Tobacco first used in _England_, as some will have it.

1591.

The first _Englishman_ that ever was in the _Bermuduze_ or
_Summer-Islands_, was one _Henry May_.

The voyage of Capt. _Newport_ to the _West-Indies_, where upon the
coast of _Hispaniola_, he took and burnt three Towns, and Nineteen
sail of ships and Frigats.

Mr. _Thomas Candish_ last voyage, in which he dyed.

1593.

[p. 241.] Sir _Martin Frobisher_ Commander of the _English_ Fleet
slain in the quarrel of _H._ King of _Navarr_.

The last voyage of Sir _Francis Drake_, and Sir _John Hawkins_ to
the _West-Indies_ with six ships of the Queens, and twelve other
ships and Barks containing 2400 men and boyes, in which voyage they
both dyed, and Sir _Francis Drake’s_ Coffen was thrown over board
near _Porto bello_.

1594.

Sir _Robert Duddeley’s_ voyage to _Trinadad_, and the coast of
_Paria_.

Mr. _James Lancasters_ voyage to _Fernambuck_ the port Town of
_Olinda_ in _Brazil_, in which voyage he took 29 ships and Frigats,
surprized the said port Town, and there found the Cargazon or
fraught of a rich _Indian Carack_, which together with great
abundance of Sugars and Cottons he brought from thence; lading
therewith fifteen sail of tall ships and barks.

1595.

The voyage of Sir _Amias Preston_, & Capt. _George Sommers_ to
the _West-Indies_, where they took, sackt, spoiled and abandoned
the Island of _Puerto Santo_, the Island of _Cock_ near [p. 242.]
_Margarita_, the Fort and Town of _Coro_, the stately City of St.
_Jago de leon_, and the Town of _Cumana_ ransomed, and _Jamaica_
entered.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh’s_ voyage now to _Guiana_, discovered by him.
In which voyage he took St. _Joseph_ a Town upon _Trinidado_.

The _Sabbatarian_ doctrine published by the Brethren.

1596.

The voyage to _Cadez_, Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ Rere-Admiral.

The voyage of Sir _Anthony Sherley_ intended for the Island of
St. _Tome_, but performed to St. _Jago_, _Dominga_, _Margarita_,
along the coast of _Terra Firma_ to the Island of _Jamaica_,
situated between 17 and 18 degrees of the North-poles elevation
(which he conquered, but held it not long) from thence to the
bay of _Hondurus_, 30 leagues up _Rio dolce_, and homeward by
_New-found-land_.

1597.

The voyage to the _Azores_, Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ Capt. of the
Queens Guard Rere-Admiral.

_Porto Rico_, taken by the Earl of _Cumberland_.

1599.

The Grand _Canary_ taken by the _Dutch_ Commander _Vanderdoes_.

1600.

[p. 243.] The Colonies in _Virginia_ supplyed by publick purse.

1602.

Queen _Elizabeth_ dyed _March_ the Four and twentieth.

King _James_ began to Raign.

The North parts of _Virginia_, i. e. _New-England_ further
discovered by Capt. _Bartholomew Gosnold_, some will have him to be
the first discoverer.

Capt. _George Weymouth’s_ voyage to discover the North-west passage.

Divers of our _English_ in the North of _England_ entered into a
Covenant of worshipping of God.

1603.

King _James_ came into _England_, the fifth of _April_.

Monsieur _Champlains_ voyage to _Canada_.

_November_ the seventeenth Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ Arraigned and
Condemned.

1604.

Monsieur _du Point_ and _du Monts_ voyage to _Canada_.

1605.

Monsieur _du Point_ and _du Monts_ remove the _French_ habitation
to _Port-Royal_.

_James Halle’s_ voyage to _Groenland_, and to find out the
North-west passage.

1606.

[p. 244.] The province of _Main_ possessed by the _English_ by
publick Authority King _James_, Sir _John Popham_, &c.

A Colony first sent to _New-England_ by Sir _John Popham_ chief
Justice of the Common pleas.

_James-town_ founded in _Virginia_.

_James Halls_ second voyage, to find out the North-west passage.

Mr. _John Knight_ his North-west voyage, lost his ship sunk by the
Ice.

A Colony sent to _Virginia_, called by the _Indians Wingandacoa_,
the first that took firm possession there.

1607.

_Plimouth_ Plantation in _New-England_ attempted.

St. _Georges_ Fort built at the mouth of the River _Sagadahoc_,
under the Presidency of Capt. _George Popham_ and Capt. _Ralph
Gilbert_, who built the Fort.

_James Halls_ third voyage to find out the North-west passage.

_Hudsons_ first voyage to find out the North-west passage.

1608.

_Virginia_ planted.

A Colony sent to _New-found-land_.

[p. 245.] Capt. _John Smith_ fished now for _Whales_ at _Monhiggen_.

_Hudsons_ second voyage to the North-west met a _Mermaid_ in
the Sea. That there be such Creatures see _Plinie_, _Albertus
Magnus_, _Aristotle_, _Elian_, _Theodorus Gaza_, _Alexander_ of
_Alexandria_, _Gorgius Trapozensus_, _Jul. Scaliger_, _Stows Annals
in_ Anno Dom. 1204. at _Oreford_ in _Suffolk_ a _Mareman_ taken.

1609.

Sir _Thomas Gales_ and Sir _George Summers_ going to _Virginia_,
suffered shipwrack upon the _Bermudos-Islands_ where they continued
till 1610.

_Hudsons_ third voyage to _New-found-land_ discovered
_Mohegan_-River in _New-England_.

The _Dutch_ set down by _Mohegan_-River.

1610.

Capt _Whitburns_ voyage to discover the North-west passage, saw a
_Mermaid_ in the harbour of St. _Johns_ at _New-found-land_ by the
River side.

_Hudsons_ last and fatal voyage to discover the North-west passage,
where he was frozen to death.

_Dales-gift_ founded in _Virginia_.

Sundry of the _English_ nation removed out of the North of
_England_ into the _Netherlands_, and gathered a Church at
_Leyden_, where they continued until the year 1620.

1611.

[p. 246.] Sir _Thomas Dale_ Governour of _Virginia_.

The famous Arch-Pirate _Peter Easton_.

1612.

_Bermudus_ first planted, and Mr. _R. Moore_ sent over Governour,
the first that planted a Colony in the _Bermudus_.

_James Halls_ fourth voyage to discover the North-west passage, was
slain by the Savages.

Capt. _Buttons_ voyage to discover the North-west passage.

1613.

_Port-Royal_ destroyed by Sir _Samuel Argol_ Governour of
_Virginia_.

Mr. _John Rolf_ a Gentleman of good behaviour fell in love with
_Pocahontas_, the only Daughter of _Powhaton_ a King in _Virginia_
and married her, she was Christened and called the Lady _Rebecca_,
and dyed at _Gravesend_ _Anno Dom._ 1617. Sir _Lewis Stukely_
brought up her Son _Thomas Rolf_.

1614.

_Bermudus_ planted further.

_Powhatons_ Daughter in _Virginia_ Christened _Rebecca_.

Capt. _Gibbins_ voyage to find out the North-west passage.

_New-Netherlands_ began to be planted [p. 247.] upon
_Mohegan_-River, Sir _Samuel Argol_ routed them.

1615.

Sir _Richard Hawkins_ voyage into those parts of _New-England_.

1616.

Capt. _Gibbins_ second voyage to find out the North-west passage.

A new supply sent by Capt. _Daniel Tucker_ to the _Bermudus_.

_Pocahontas_ and Mr. _Rolf_ her Husband went for _England_ with Sir
_Thomas Dale_, and arrived at _Plimouth_ the 12 of _June_.

1617.

Sir _Walter Rawleighs_ last and unfortunate voyage to _Guiana_,
where he took St. _Thome_ the only Town of _Guiana_ possessed by
the _Spaniards_.

1618.

The Comet or blazing-star whose motion was by some observed to be
from East to West.

1619.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ beheaded in the Parliament yard.

_Bermudus-Islands_ divided into Tribes and Cantreds, to each tribe
a Burrough.

1620.

The _English_ in _Virginia_ divided into several Burroughs.

1620.

[p. 248.] Letters Patents obtained from King _James_ for the
Northern part of _Virginia_ i. e. _New-England_.

In _July_ sundry of the _English_ set sail from _Holland_ for
_Southampton_.

_August_ the fift, they set sail from _Southampton_ for _America_,
and arrived the Eleventh of _November_ at _Cape-Cod_, where they
entered into a body politick, and chose one Mr. _John Carver_ their
Governour, calling the place where they settled _New-Plimouth_:
in _January_ and _February_ following was a mortality among the
_English_, which swept away half the Company.

Mrs. _Susanna White_ delivered of a Son at _new-Plimouth_,
Christened _Peregrine_; he was the first of the _English_ that was
born in _new-England_, and was afterwards the Lieutenant of the
Military Company of _Marshfield_ in _Plimouth_ Colony.

_New-Plimouth_ built, the first Town in _new-England_.

_Squanto_ an _Indian_ in _new-England_, carried into _England_
by Mr. _Hunt_ a Master of a Ship, but brought home again by Mr.
_Dormer_ a Gentleman imployed by Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ for
discovery.

1621.

[p. 249.] _April_, Mr. _John Carver_ Governour of _new-Plimouth_
dyed, and Mr. _William Brandford_ was chosen Governour.

The Natives in _Virginia_ murdered about 340 _English_.

1622.

The Fort at _new-Plimouth_ built: a great drought this Summer, from
_May_ the Third, till the middle of _July_ there was no Rain.

Mr. _Thomas Weston_ Merchant sent over 67 lusty men who settled
themselves in a part of the _Massachusets-bay_, now called
_Weymouth_.

The order of the Knights of _Novascotia_ ordained by King _James_
Hereditarie, they wear an _Orange_ tawny Ribbin.

Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ Patent for the province of _Main_ in
_New-England_.

The _Dutch_ tortured the _English_ at _Amboina_, 1623.

_Westons_ plantation wholly ruined by their disorders.

Mr. _Robert Gorge_, Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ Brother arrived in
_Plimouth_, and began a Plantation of the _Massachusets-bay_,
having Commission from the Council of _New-England_ to be general
Governour of the Countrey, carrying over one Mr. _Morrel_ a
Minister, [p. 250.] but being discouraged, he returned for
_England_.

A fire at _Plimouth_, which did considerable dammage, several of
the Inhabitants through discontent and casualties removed into
_Virginia_.

Three thousand _English_ now upon the _Bermudus_ ten Forts, and in
those ten Forts 50 pieces of Ordnance.

1624.

The number of Magistrates increased to five now at _New-Plimouth_.

The first neat Cattle carried over into _New-England_ to
_New-Plimouth_ was three Heifers and a Bull.

1625.

St. _Christophers-Island_ planted now by the _English_ 25 leagues
in compass, a great many little Rivers, in 17 degrees and 25
minutes.

King _James_ dyed in 1625, and King _Charles_ the first began his
Raign _March_ the seven and twentieth.

1627.

The first distribution of Lands amongst the Inhabitants of
_New-Plimouth_.

A Colony of _English_ planted upon the Island of _Barbados_, which
in a short time increased to 20000, besides _Negroes_.

1628.

Mr. _John Endicot_ arrived in _New-England_ [p. 251.] with some
number of people, and set down first by _Cape-Ann_, at a place
called afterwards _Gloster_, but their abiding place was at
_Salem_, where they built the first Town in the _Massachusets_
Patent.

The _Indians_ at the _Massachusets_, were at that time by sickness
decreased from 30000 to 300.

_Nevis_ or _Mevis_ planted now by the _English_ 3 or 4000 upon it.

Mr. _Morton_ of _Merrimount_ taken prisoner by the _Massachusets_,
and sent into _England_.

1629.

Three ships arrived at _Salem_ bringing a great number of
passengers from _England_; infectious diseases amongst them.

Mr. _Endicot_ chosen Governour.

Mr. _Higginson_, Mr. _Skelton_ and Mr. _Bright_ Ministers
arrived, upon the fift of _August_ was the first Church in the
_Massachusets_ Colony gathered at _Salem_, from which year to this
present year is 45 years, in the compass of these years in this
Colony, there hath been gathered forty Churches, and 120 Towns
built in all the Colonies of _New-England_.

The Church of _new-Plimouth_, was planted in _New-England_ eight
years before others.

The book of Common-prayer pleaded [p. 252.] for, and practised in
_Massachusets_ Colony by two of the Patentees, but was at last
prohibited by the Authority there.

1630.

The Tenth of _July_, _John Winthorp_ Esq; and the Assistants
arrived in _New-England_, with the Patent for the _Massachusets_,
they landed on the North-side of _Charles_ River, with him went
over Mr. _Thomas Dudley_, Mr. _Isaac Johnson_, Esquires; Mr.
_John Wilson_, Mr. _George Philips_, Mr. _Maverich_ (the Father
of Mr. _Samuel Maverich_, one of his Majesties Commissioners) Mr.
_Wareham_ Ministers.

The passage of the people in the Eagle, and nine other Vessels to
_New-England_ came to 9500 pounds. The Swine, Goats, Sheep, Neat
and Horses cost to transport 12000 pounds, besides the price they
cost. The _Eagle_ was called the _Arabella_ in honour of the Lady
_Arabella_, wife to _Isaac Johnson_ Esq; they set down first upon
_Noddles-Island_, the Lady _Arabella_ abode at _Salem_.

Mr. _Isaac Johnson_ a Magistrate of the _Massachusets_, and his
Lady dyed soon after their arrival.

_John Winthorp_ Esq; chosen Governour, for the remainder of the
year, Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ deputy Governour, Mr. _Simon Broadstreet_
Secretary.

[p. 253.] _Charles-town_, the first town built.

Mr. _Higginson_ Teacher of _Salem_ Church dyed.

1630.

A very sharp winter in _New-England_.

1631.

Capt. _John Smith_ Governour of _Virginia_, and Admiral of
_New-England_ now dyed in _London_.

_John Winthorp_ Esq; chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_. Mr.
_Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour.

Sir _Richard Saltingstall_ went for _New-England_, set down at
_Water-town_.

Five Churches gathered this year, the first at _Boston_ Mr. _John
Wilson_ Pastor, the second at _Water-town_, by Mr. _Philips_, the
third at _Dorchester_ by Mr. _Maverick_ and Mr. _Wareham_, the
fourth at _Roxbury_ by Mr. _Eliot_, the fifth at _Linn_ by Mr.
_Stephen Batcheler_ their first Teacher.

Dr. _Wilson_ gave 1000 pound to _New-England_, with which they
stored themselves with great Guns.

1632.

_John Winthorp_ chosen Governour, Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy
Governour.

Sir _Christopher Gardiner_ descended of the house of _Gardiner_
Bishop of _Winchester_, Knighted at _Jerusalem_ of the Sepulcher,
[p. 254.] arrived in _New-England_ with a comely young woman
his Concubine, settled himself in the Bay of _Massachusets_,
was rigidly used by the Magistrates, and by the Magistrates of
_New-Plimouth_ to which place he retired.

A terrible cold winter in _New-England_.

1633.

Mr. _Edward Winslow_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_.

The number of Magistrates at _New-Plimouth_ increase to seven.

An infectious feaver amongst the Inhabitants of _New-Plimouth_,
whereof many dyed.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour.

Mr. _Thomas Hooker_, _Mr. Hains_ and Mr. _Cotton_ Ministers arrived
in _New-England_ all in one ship, and Mr. _Stone_ and Mr. _William
Collier_ a liberal Benefactor to the Colony of _New-Plimouth_.

Mr. _John Cotton_ chosen Teacher of the first Church at _Boston_.

A Church at _Cambridge_ gathered by Mr. _Thomas Hooker_ their first
Pastor.

Great swarms of strange flyes up and down the Countrey, which was a
presage of the following mortality.

1634.

[p. 255.] Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
and Mr. _Roger Ludlow_ Deputy-Governour.

The Countrey now was really placed in a posture of War, to be in
readiness at all times.

In the Spring a great sickness among the _Indians_, by the small
pox.

The _Pequets_ War with the _Narragansets_.

Mr. _Skelton_ Pastor to the Church at _Salem_ dyed.

Mr. _John Norton_, and Mr. _Thomas Shepherd_ arrive in
_New-England_.

A Church gathered at _Ipswich_, the first Pastor Mr. _Nathaniel
Ward_.

A Church gathered at _Newberry_.

Capt. _Stone_ turn’d Pirate, at the _Dutch_ plantation.

The cruel Massacre of Capt. _Stone_ and Capt. _Norton_ at
_Connecticut-River_, by the Pequet _Indians_.

1635.

Mr. _John Haines_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ Deputy Governour.

Mr. _Zachary Sims_ arrived in _New-England_, and Mr. _Richard
Bellingham_.

[p. 256.] This year Eleven Ministers arrived in _New-England_.

Mr. _Norton_ Teacher at _Ipswich_, Mr. _Richard Mather_ Teacher at
_Dorchester_.

Sir _Henry Vain_ Junior, arrived in _New-England_, Mr. _Richard
Saltingstal_, Sir _Richard Saltingstal’s_ Son, Mr. _Roger
Harlackenden_, and _Hugh Peters_.

_Hugh Peters_ chosen Pastor of _Salem_.

A Church at _Hartford_ in the Colony of _Connecticut_ now gathered.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_.

Capt. _William Gorges_, Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ Nephew sent
over Governour of the province of _Main_, then called new
_Sommersetshire_.

Saturday the 15 of _August_, an Hurrican or mighty storm of wind
and rain, which did much hurt in _New-England_.

1636.

Sir _Henry Vane_ Junior, Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
_John Winthorp_ Esq; Deputy Governour, Mr. _Roger Harlackenden_
leader of their military Forces.

Mr. _Edward Winslow_ a _Worcestershire_ man born, chosen Governour
of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

_Connecticut_ Colony planted.

Mr. _John Oldham_ murthered in his Barque by the _Indians_ of
_Block-Island_.

[p. 257.] A Church gathered at _Hingham_, Mr. _Peter Hubbord_
arrived now in _New-England_ Teacher at _Hingham_.

Mr. _Flint_, Mr. _Carter_, Mr. _Walton_, Ministers arrived now in
_New-England_.

Mr. _Fenwich_, Mr. _Partrick_, Mr. _Nathaniel Rogers_, and Mr.
_Samuel White_, arrived now in _New-England_.

A General Court held at _Boston_ against Mrs. _Hutchinson_ the
_American_ Jezabel, _August_ the 30. where the opinions and errors
of Mrs. _Hutchinson_ and her Associats 80 errors were condemned.

A Counsel at _New-town_ about the same business _October_ the
second, and at _Boston_ again.

1637.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _John Wenthorp_ chosen Governour of _Massachusets_ Colony, Mr.
_Thomas Dudley_ chosen Deputy Governour.

_New-haven_ Colony began now, Mr. _Eaton_ chosen Governour, _John
Davenport_ Pastor.

Mr. _Hopkins_ arrived now in _New-England_.

A second Church gathered at _Dedham_, Mr. _John Allen_ Pastor.

The Pequets wars, in which war the _English_ slew and took
prisoners about 700 _Indians_, [p. 258.] amongst which 13 of their
_Sachems_ to the great terror of the Natives, they sent the male
children of the _Pequets_ to the _Bermudus_.

This year the _Antinomian_ and _Familistical_ errors were broached
in the Countrey, especially at _Boston_.

A Synod called, which condemned these errors.

A General Court held at _New-town_ against Mrs. _Hutchinson_ and
the rest.

Mrs. _Hutchinson_ and others banished by the Magistrates of the
_Massachusets_ Colony.

A hideous monster born at _Boston_ of one Mrs. _Mary Dyer_.

Sir _Henry Vane_ and the Lord _Lee_ returned for _England_.

The Ministers that went for _New-England_ chiefly in the ten first
years, ninety four, of which returned for _England_ twenty seven,
dyed in the Countrey thirty six, yet alive in the Countrey thirty
one.

The number of ships that transported passengers to _New-England_,
in these times was 298 supposed: men, women and children as near as
can be ghessed 21200.

The _Spaniards_ took the Island of _Providence_, one of the
Summer-Islands from the English.

1638.

[p. 259.] Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new Plimouth_
Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour.

A Church now gathered at _Waymouth_, Mr. _Gennor_ Pastor, Mr.
_Newman_ succeeded Mr. _Thomas Thatcher_.

Three _English_ men put to death at _Plimouth_ for robbing and
murthering an _Indian_ near _Providence_.

_June_ the second a great and terrible earthquake throughout the
Countrey.

_Samuel Gorton_ of _Warwick-shire_, a pestilent seducer, and
blasphemous Atheist, the Author of the Sects of _Gortinians_,
banish’d _Plimouth_ plantation, whipt and banished from
Road-Island, banisht the _Massachusets_ Colony.

Now they set up a Printing-press at _Boston_ in the _Massachusets_.

This year came over Mr. _William Thompson_, Mr. _Edmund Brown_, Mr.
_David Frisk_.

Mr. _John Harvard_ the founder of _Harvard_ Colledge at _Cambridge_
in the _Massachusets_ Colony, deceased, gave 700 pound to the
erecting of it.

1639.

[p. 260.] Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_
Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour.

Mr. _Higginson_ Teacher at _Salem_ Church, _Skelton_ pastor, and
an exhorting Elder. This was the first Church gathered in the
_Massachusets_ Colony, and it increased to 43 Churches in joynt
Communion with one another, and in these Churches were about 7750
souls.

Mr. _Herbert Pelham_ now arrived in _New-England_.

A Church gathered at _Hampton_, Mr. _Daulton_ pastor, and Mr.
_Batcheler_ Teacher.

Another Church gathered at _Salisbury_.

_October_ the Eleventh and Twelfth, the _Spanish_ Navy was set upon
by the _Hollander_ in the _Downs_, they were in all 60 sail, the
_Spaniards_ were beaten.

A very sharp winter in _New-England_.

1640.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
and Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ Deputy Governour.

[p. 261.] Civil Wars began in _England_.

Mr. _Huet_ Minister arrived in _New-England_, Mr. _Peck_ and Mr.
_Saxton_.

A Church gathered at _Braintree_, Mr. _Wheelright_ pastor.

Mr. _Henry Dunster_ arrived in _New-England_.

1641.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
Colony, Mr. _John Endicot_ Deputy.

A Church gathered at _Glocester_ in the _Massachusets_ Colony.

A sharp winter in _New-England_, the harbours and salt bayes frozen
over so as passable for Men, Horses, Oxen and Carts five weeks.

1642.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
_John Endicot_ Esq; Deputy Governour.

This Spring Cowes and Cattle fell from 22 pound a Cow, to six,
seven and eight pound a Cow of a sudden.

A Church now gathered at _Woeburn_ in the _Massachusets_ Colony.

[p. 262.] Thirteen able Ministers now at this time in
_new-Plimouth_ Jurisdiction.

_Harvard_-Colledge founded with a publick Library.

Ministers bred in _New-England_, and (excepting about 10) in
_Harvard_-Colledge, one hundred thirty two; of which dyed in the
Countrey Ten, now living eighty one, removed to _England_ forty
one. _June_ _Warwick_ Parliament Admiral.

1643.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of the _new-Plimouth_
Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _John Endicot_ Deputy Governour.

_May_ 19. the first Combination of the four united Colonies, _viz._
_Plimouth_, _Massachusets_, _Connecticut_, and _new-haven_.

1644.

Mr. _Edward Winslow_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

_John Endicot_ Esq; chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
_John Winthorp_ Esq; Deputy Governour.

A Church gathered at _Haveril_. Mr. _Roger Harlackendin_ dyed about
this time.

A Church gathered at _Reading_ in _New-England_.

A Church gathered at _Wenham_, both in the _Massachusets_ Colony.

[p. 263.] The Town of _Eastham_ erected now by some in _Plimouth_.

1645.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
and Mr. _John Winthorp_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _John Endicot_ major
General.

A Church gathered at _Springfield_.

1646.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_, Mr.
_Thomas Dudley_ Deputy and Mr. _John Endicot_ major General.

Two Suns appeared towards the latter end of the year.

This year they drew up a body of Laws for the well ordering of
their Commonwealth (as they termed it) printed in 1648.

Three men of War arrived in _new-Plimouth_ harbour under the
Command of Capt. _Thomas Cromwell_, richly laden, a mutiny amongst
the Sea-men, whereby one man was killed.

The second Synod at _Cambridge_ touching the duty and power of
magistrates in matters of Religion.

[p. 264.] Secondly, the nature and power of Synods.

Mr. _John Eliot_ first preached to the _Indians_ in their Native
language, the principal Instruments of converting the _Indians_,
Mr. _John Eliot_ Senior, Mr. _John Eliot_ Junior, Mr. _Thomas
Mayhew_, Mr. _Pierson_, Mr. _Brown_, Mr. _James_, and Mr. _Cotton_.

1647.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

Mr. _John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ Colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour, and Mr. _John Endicot_ Major
General.

Now Mr. _Thomas Hooker_ pastor of the Church at _Hertford_ dyed.

The _Tartars_ over-run _China_.

1648.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ Colony.

_John Winthorp_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony, Mr.
_Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _John Endicot_ major General.

A Church gathered at _Andover_.

A Church gathered at _Malden_ Mr. _Sarjant_ pastor.

A second Church gathered at _Boston_.

A third Synod at _Cambridge_ publishing the platform of Discipline.

[p. 265.] _Jan._ 30. King _Charles_ the first murdered.

_Charles_ the Second began his Raign.

Their Laws in the _Massachusets_ colony printed.

1649.

_John Winthorp_ Esq; Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony _March_
the 26 deceased.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Gibbons_ major General.

An innumerable Company of _Caterpillars_ in some parts of
_New-England_ destroyed the fruits of the Earth.

_August_ the 25 Mr. _Thomas Shepherd_ Pastor of _Cambridge_ Church
dyed.

Mr. _Phillips_ also dyed this year.

1650.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _John Endicot_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Gibbons_ major General.

A great mortality amongst children this year in _New-England_.

1651.

[p. 266.] Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_
colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Gibbons_ major General.

The City _Bilbo_ totally cover’d with waters for 15 days, 16 foot
above the tops of the highest houses, the loss was very much to the
whole Kingdom, there being their stock of dryed fish and dryed Goat
the general dyet of _Spain_.

_Barbados_ surrendred to the Parliament, its longitude 322,
latitude 13 degrees, 17 or 18 miles in compass.

_Hugh Peters_ and Mr. _Wells_, and _John Baker_ returned into
_England_.

1652.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Gibbons_ major General.

_John Cotton_ Teacher of _Boston_ Church dyed, a Comet was seen at
the time of his sickness hanging over _New England_, which went out
soon after his death.

[p. 267.] The Spirits that took Children in _England_, said to
be set awork first by the Parliament, and _Hugh Peters_ as chief
Agent, Actor or Procurer.

1653.

_Oliver Cromwell_ Usurped the Title of Protector _December_ the
Sixteenth.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _John Endicot_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Gibbons_ major General.

Mr. _Thomas Dudley_ Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony dyed,
aged about 77 years at his house at _Roxebury_, _July_ 31.

A great fire at _Boston_ in _New-England_.

1654.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Bellingham_ Governour, _Endicot_ Deputy.

Major General _Gibbons_ dyed this year.

1655.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.
Mr. _John Endicot_ Governour of the _Massachusets_, _Bellingham_
Deputy.

_Jamaica_ taken by the _English_.

1656.

[p. 268.] General _Mountague_ taketh _Spanish_ prizes.

Mr. _William Bradford_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony,
Mr. _John Endicot_ Governour of the _Massachusets_, Mr. _Francis
Willowby_ Deputy.

1657.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _William Bradford_ now dyed. Mr. _John Endicot_ Governour,
_Bellingham_ Deputy.

Mr. _Theophilus Eaton_ Governour of _New-haven_ colony dyed.

Fifth monarchy-men rebell.

The Quakers arrive at _new-Plimouth_.

1658.

_Oliver Cromwell_ dyed _September_ the third.

_Richard Cromwell_ set up.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_,
_Bellingham_ Deputy.

A great Earth-quake in _New-England_.

Mr. _Ralph Partrick_ minister at _Ruxbury_ now deceased.

_John Philips_ of _Marshfield_ slain by thunder and lightning.

1659.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

[p. 269.] Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony.

The Quakers opinions vented up and down the Countrey.

Mr. _Henry Dunster_ first President of _Harvard_ Colledge deceased.

_Richard Cromwel_ ended _May_ the seventh.

The Rump Parliament _December_ the six and twentieth put down.

_William Robinson_, _Marmaduke Stevenson_, and _Mary Dyer_ Quakers
of _Rhod Island_ sentenced to suffer death by Mr. _John Endicot_
Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony, which accordingly was
executed within a day or two, the prisoners being guarded by Capt.
_James Oliver_ with 200 Souldiers to the place of Execution, where
the two men were hanged and the woman reprieved at the Gallows and
banished.

1660.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

_John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony, Mr.
_Bellingham_ Deputy.

_James Pierce_ slain by lightning at _new-Plimouth_.

_May_ the 29 King _Charles_ the Second returned into _England_.

_June_ the 20 a damnable cheat like to have been put upon _England_
by a Brief for [p. 270.] _New-England_, which as it appeared was
produced before the King came in, but not printed (by Mr. _Leach_
in _Shoe-lane_) till _June_, pretending that 18 _Turks-men_ of War
the 24 of _January_ 1659/60 landed at a Town, called _Kingsword_
(alluding to _Charles-town_) three miles from _Boston_, kill’d 40,
took Mr. _Sims_ minister prisoner, wounded him, kill’d his wife and
three of his little children, carried him away with 57 more, burnt
the Town, carried them to _Argier_, their loss amounting to 12000
pound, the _Turk_ demanding 8000 pound ransom to be paid within
7 moneths. Signed by _Thomas Margets_, _Edward Calamy_, _William
Jenkin_, _William Vincent_, _George Wild_, _Joseph Caryl_, _John
Menord_, _William Cooper_, _Thomas Manton_ Ministers.

_Hugh Peters_ put to death the 16 of _October_.

_Thomas Venner_ a Wine-Cooper hang’d drawn and quartered _Jan._ 19.

1661.

The fifth Monarchy-men rise at _London_.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _Bellingham_ Deputy.

Major _Atherton_ now dyed in _New-England_.

1662.

[p. 271.] Sir _Henry Vane_ beheaded, _June the_ 14.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony.

_January_ 26 and the 28 Earthquakes in _New-England_, 6 or 7 times
in the space of Three days.

1662/1663.

_John Baker_ unduely called Capt. _Baker_, hang’d at Tiburn,
_December_ the 11 of _February_.

1663.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony.

Mr. _Willowby_ Deputy Governour and Mr. _Thomas Leveret_ major
General.

_April_ the fifth Mr. _John Norton_ Teacher at the first Church in
_Boston_ dyed suddenly.

Mr. _Samuel Newman_ Teacher at _Rehoboth_ in _New-England_ now dyed.

Mr. _Samuel Stone_ Teacher of _Hartford_ Church in _New-England_,
now dyed also.

Several Earth-quakes this year in _New-England_.

[p. 272.] _Charles Chancie_ batchelor of Divinity and President of
_Harvard_-Colledge in _New-England_.

1664.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _Francis Willowby_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Thomas Leveret_ Major
General.

_May_ the 20 the Kings Commissioners arrived in _New-England_,
_viz._ Sir _Robert Carr_, Colonel _Nicols_, Colonel _Cartwright_
and Mr. _Samuel Maverich_, with whom came one Mr. _Archdale_ as
Agent for Mr. _Ferdinando Gorges_, who brought to the Colony in
the province of _Main_, Mr. _F. Gorges_ order from his Majesty
_Charles_ the Second, under his manual, and his Majesties Letters
to the _Massachusets_ concerning the same, to be restored unto
the quiet possession and enjoyment of the said province in
_New-England_, and the Government thereof, the which during the
civil Wars in _England_ the _Massachusets_ colony had usurpt, and
(by help of a _Jacobs_ staff) most shamefully encroached upon Mr.
_Gorges_ rights and priviledges.

The 29 of _August_, the _Manadaes_, called _Novede Belgique_, or
New _Netherlands_, their chief Town New-_Amsterdam_, now called
[p. 273.] New-_Yorke_, Surrendered up unto Sir _Robert Carr_ and
Colonel _Nichols_ his Majesties Commissioners; thirteen days after
in _September_ the Fort and Town of _Arania_ now called _Albany_;
twelve days after that, the Fort and Town of _Awsapha_; then _de la
Ware_ Castle man’d with _Dutch_ and _Sweeds_, the three first Forts
and Towns being built upon the River _Mohegan_, otherwise called
_Hudsons_ River.

The whole Bible Translated into the _Indian_-Tongue, by Mr. _John
Eliot_ Senior, was now printed at _Cambridge_ in _New-England_.

_December_ a great and dreadful Comet, or blazing-star appeared in
the South-east in _New-England_ for the space of three moneths,
which was accompanied with many sad effects, great mildews blasting
in the Countrey the next Summer.

1665.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _new-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _John Endicot_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony,
Mr. _Francis Willowby_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Leveret_ Major
General.

Two Comets or blazing-stars appeared in 4 moneths time in
_England_, _December_ 1664. and in _March_ following.

Mr. _John Endicot_ Governour of the _Massachusets_ [p. 274.] colony
deceased, _March_ the three and twentieth.

Capt. _Davenport_ kill’d with lightning as he lay on his bed at the
Castle by _Boston_ in _New-England_, and several wounded.

Wheat exceedingly blasted and mildewed in _New-England_.

A thousand foot sent this year by the _French_ King to _Canada_.

Colonel _Cartwright_ in his voyage for _England_ was taken by the
_Dutch_.

The Isle of _Providence_ taken by the _English_ Buccaneers, _Puerto
Rico_ taken and plundered by the _English_ Buccaneers and abandoned.

1666.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Francis Willowby_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Leveret_
major General.

St. _Christophers_ taken by the _French_.

_July_ the Lord _Willowby_ of _Parham_ cast away in a _Hurricane_
about the _Caribby-Islands_.

The small pox at _Boston_ in the _Massachusets_ colony.

Three kill’d in a moment by a blow of Thunder at _Marshfield_ in
_New-Plimouth_ [p. 275.] colony, and four at _Pascataway_ colony,
and divers burnt with lightning, a great whirlwind at the same time.

This year also _New-England_ had cast away and taken Thirty one
Vessels, and some in 1667.

The mildews and blasting of Corn still continued.

1667.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Fr. Willowby_ Deputy Governour, and Mr. _Leveret_
major General.

Sir _Robert Carr_ dyed next day after his arrival at _Bristow_ in
_England_ _June_ the first.

Several vollies of shot heard discharged in the Air at _Nantascot_
two miles from _Boston_ in the _Massachusets_ colony.

Mr. _John Davenport_ chosen pastor of the Independent Church at
_Boston_.

In _March_ there appeared a sign in the Heavens in the form of a
Spear, pointing directly to the _West_.

Sir _John Harman_ defeated the _French_ Fleet at the _Caribbes_.

Mr. _John Wilson_ Pastor of _Boston_ Church in the _Massachusets_
colony 37 years now [p. 276.] dyed, aged 79, he was Pastor of that
Church three years before Mr. _Cotton_, twenty years with him, ten
years with Mr. _Norton_, and four years after him.

1668.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Fr. Willowby_ Deputy Governour, and Mr. _Leveret_
major General.

Mr. _Samuel Shepherd_ Pastor of _Rowley_ Church dyed.

_April_ the 27 Mr. _Henry Flint_ Teacher at _Braintry_ dyed.

_July_ the Ninth Mr. _Jonathan Mitchel_ Pastor of the Church at
_Cambridge_ dyed, he was born at _Halifax_ in _Yorkeshire_ in
_England_, and was brought up in _Harvard-Colledge_ at _Cambridge_
in _New-England_.

_July_ the Fifteenth, nine of the clock at night an Eclipse of the
moon, till after Eleven darkned nine digits and thirty five minutes.

_July_ the Seventeenth a great _Sperma Cæti_ Whale Fifty five foot
long, thrown up at _Winter-harbour_ by _Casco_ in the Province of
_Main_.

_April_ the Third, Fryday an Earthquake in _New-England_.

1669.

[p. 277.] Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Fr. Willowby_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Leveret_ major
General.

Mr. _Oxenbridge_ chosen Pastor of the Independent Church at
_Boston_.

The wonderful burning of the mountain _Ætna_, or _Gibella_ in
_Cicilia_ _March_.

1670.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ chosen Governour of _New-Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Fr. Willowby_ Deputy Governour, Mr. _Leveret_ major
General.

Mr. _Fr. Willowby_ Deputy Governour now dyed.

At a place called _Kenebunch_, which is in the Province of _Main_,
not far from the River-side, a piece of clay ground was thrown up
by a mineral vapour (as was supposed) over the tops of high oaks
that grew between it and the River, into the River, stopping the
course thereof, and leaving a hole Forty yards square, wherein [p.
278.] were Thousands of clay bullets as big as musquet bullets,
and pieces of clay in shape like the barrel of a musquet. The like
accident fell out at _Casco_, One and twenty miles from it to the
Eastward, much about the same time; And fish in some ponds in the
Countrey thrown up dead upon the banks, supposed likewise to be
kill’d with mineral vapours.

A wonderful number of Herrins cast up on shore at high water in
_Black-point-Harbour_ in the province of _Main_, so that they might
have gone half way the leg in them for a mile together.

Mr. _Thatcher_ chosen Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at _Boston_.

1671.

Mr. _Thomas Prince_ Governour of new _Plimouth_ colony.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. _Leveret_ Deputy, and major General.

Elder _Pen_ now dyed at _Boston_, the _English_ troubled much with
griping of the guts, and bloudy Flux, of which several dyed.

_October_ the Two and twentieth a Ship called the flying _Falcon_
of _Amsterdam_, arrived at _Dover_, having been out since the first
of _January_ 1669. and been in the South-[p. 279.]Seas in the
latitude of 50 degrees, having sailed 12900 _Dutch_ leagues, the
master told us he made main land, and discovered two Islands never
before discovered, where were men all hairy, Eleven foot in height.

1672.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ chosen Governour of the _Massachusets_
colony, Mr. Leveret Deputy, and major General.

1673.

Mr. _Richard Bellingham_ Governour of the _Massachusets_ colony now
deceased.

1674.

_Thomas Leveret_ chosen Governour.

Mr. _Simons_ Deputy Governour.


_FINIS._



  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

  The character ſ (long-form s) has been replaced by the normal s.
  A few occurrences of the ‘ct’ ligature have been replaced by the
  simple ‘ct’ letter pair.

  The M in Mr. and the S in St. were sometimes italicized. These have
  been made normal M and S.

  These errors were present in the original 1674 edition:
  Pg 152: ‘in the Fifttenth’ replaced by ‘in the Fifteenth’.
  Pg 172: ‘the Sixt Pope’ replaced by ‘the Sixth Pope’.
  Pg 204: ‘Ian. 19.’ replaced by ‘Jan. 19.’.

  This error was introduced in the 1865 edition:
  Pg 19: ‘Fo rwo Skillets’ replaced by ‘For two Skillets’.

  Other errors have been passed through without change, for example:
  Pg 28: The original text of this poem had a blank line between
  each line of verse; these have been retained.
  Pg 31: Some words are clearly missing from the original text,
  after “were wind bound till”.
  Pg 205: The intended date is unclear in "at Tiburn, _December_
  the 11 of _February_."



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