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Title: A Handbook of Cookery for a Small House
Author: Conrad, Jessie
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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SMALL HOUSE ***



  A
  HANDBOOK OF COOKERY


 THE ART AND PRACTICE OF INNKEEPING.

 By ALEXANDER F. PART.

  Demy 8vo. 1Os. 6d. net.


 A GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY.

 By A. ESCOFFIER.

  Demy 8vo. 21s. net.


 THE COMPLETE INDIAN HOUSEKEEPER AND COOK.

 By FLORA ANNIE STEEL and GRACE GARDINER.

  Cr. 8vo. 7s. 6d. net.


 THE COOK’S DECAMERON.

 By Mrs. W. J. WATERS.

  Cr. 8vo. 2s. 6d. net.


 THE BELGIAN COOK BOOK

 Edited by Mrs. BRIAN LUCK.

  Cr. 8vo. 2s. 6d. net.


  _London: WILLIAM HEINEMANN, Ltd._



  A
  HANDBOOK OF COOKERY
  FOR A SMALL HOUSE

  BY
  JESSIE CONRAD

  _With a preface by_
  Joseph Conrad

  [Illustration: Publisher logo]

  London
  WILLIAM HEINEMANN, Ltd.



  _First published, February, 1923._


  _Printed in Great Britain_



PREFACE


Of all the books produced since the most remote ages by human talents
and industry those only that treat of cooking are, from a moral point
of view, above suspicion. The intention of every other piece of prose
may be discussed and even mistrusted; but the purpose of a cookery book
is one and unmistakable. Its object can conceivably be no other than to
increase the happiness of mankind.

This general consideration, and also a feeling of affectionate interest
with which I am accustomed to view all the actions of the writer,
prompt me to set down these few words of introduction for her book.
Without making myself responsible for her teaching (I own that I find
it impossible to read through a cookery book) I come forward modestly
but gratefully as a Living Example of her practice. That practice I
dare pronounce most successful. It has been for many priceless years
adding to the sum of my daily happiness.

Good cooking is a moral agent. By good cooking I mean the conscientious
preparation of the simple food of every-day life, not the more or less
skillful concoction of idle feasts and rare dishes. Conscientious
cooking is an enemy to gluttony. The trained delicacy of the palate
like a cultivated delicacy of sentiment stands in the way of unseemly
excesses. The decency of our life is for a great part a matter of good
taste, of the correct appreciation of what is fine in simplicity. The
intimate influence of conscientious cooking by rendering easy the
processes of digestion promotes the serenity of mind, the graciousness
of thought, and that indulgent view of our neighbours’ failings which
is the only genuine form of optimism. Those are its titles to our
reverence.

A great authority upon North American Indians accounted for the sombre
and excessive ferocity characteristic of these savages by the theory
that as a race they suffered from perpetual indigestion. The Noble
Red Man was a mighty hunter but his wives had not mastered the art of
conscientious cookery. And the consequences were deplorable. The Seven
Nations around the Great Lakes and the Horse-tribes of the Plains were
but one vast prey to raging dyspepsia. The Noble Red Men were great
warriors, great orators, great masters of outdoor pursuits; but the
domestic life of their wigwams was clouded by the morose irritability
which follows the consumption of ill-cooked food. The gluttony of their
indigestible feasts was a direct incentive to counsels of unreasonable
violence. Victims of gloomy imaginings, they lived in abject submission
to the wiles of a multitude of fraudulent medicine men--quacks--who
haunted their existence with vain promises and false nostrums from the
cradle to the grave.

It is to be remarked that the quack of modern civilisation, the vendor
of patent medicine, preys mainly upon the races of Anglo-Saxon stock
who are also great warriors, great orators, mighty hunters, great
masters of outdoor pursuits. No virtues apparently will avail for
happiness if the righteous art of cooking be neglected by the national
conscience. We owe much to the fruitful meditations of our sages, but a
sane view of life is, after all, elaborated mainly in the kitchen--the
kitchen of the small house, the abode of the preponderant majority
of the people. And a sane view of life excludes the belief in patent
medicine. The conscientious cook is the natural enemy of the quack
without a conscience; and thus his labours make for the honesty and
favour the amenity of our existence. For a sane view of life can be
no other than kindly and joyous, but a believer in patent medicine
is steeped in the gloom of vague fears, the sombre attendants of
disordered digestion.

Strong in this conviction I introduce this little book to the
inhabitants of the little houses who are the arbiters of the nation’s
destiny. Ignorant of the value of its methods I have no doubt whatever
as to its intention. It is highly moral. There cannot be the slightest
question as to that; for is it not a cookery book?--the only product of
the human mind altogether above suspicion.

In that respect no more need, or indeed can, be said. As regards the
practical intention I gather that no more than the clear and concise
exposition of elementary principles has been the author’s aim. And this
too is laudable, because modesty is a becoming virtue in an artist. It
remains for me only to express the hope that by correctness of practice
and soundness of precept this little book will be able to add to the
cheerfulness of nations.

  JOSEPH CONRAD.



  CONTENTS


                                                      PAGE

  PREFACE                                                v

  A FEW INTRODUCTORY WORDS                               1

  ON KITCHEN REQUISITES                                  4

  TREATMENT OF VEGETABLES                                8

  BREAKFAST DISHES, ENTRÉES, SAVOURIES,
  STUFFINGS, SAUCES, HORS D’ŒUVRES, SANDWICHES          25

  SOUPS AND STOCKS                                      63

  BEEF                                                  71

  MUTTON                                                78

  VEAL AND PORK                                         84

  FISH                                                  89

  FOWLS AND GAME BIRDS                                  96

  VEGETABLES AND SALADS                                102

  PASTRIES, SWEETS AND CAKES                           115



  _A Handbook of Cookery_

  _For a Small House_



A FEW INTRODUCTORY WORDS


Cooking ought not to take too much of one’s time. One hour and a half
to two hours for lunch, and two and a half for dinner is sufficient,
providing that the servant knows how to make up the fire in order to
get the stove ready for use. Most girls will quickly learn to do that
and how to put a joint properly in the oven. For my part I never went
into the kitchen before half-past eleven for a half-past one lunch of
three dishes. But once the cooking is begun one must give all one’s
attention and care to it. No dish, however simple, will cook itself.
You must not leave the kitchen while the cooking is going on--unless of
necessity and only for a very few minutes at a time.

The bane of life in a small house is the smell of cooking. Very few
are free from it. And yet it need not be endured at all. This evil
yields to nothing more heroic than a simple but scrupulous care in
all the processes in making food ready for consumption. That is why
your constant presence in the kitchen is recommended. Unremitting care
should be directed to the following points:

No saucepan should be allowed of course to boil over.

No frying pan should ever be put on the fire without the butter or lard
being first placed in it, and that not before the pan is required for
use.

No joint should be placed in the oven so high as to allow the fat to
splutter against the roof of the oven.

No joint should be baked in a tin which is too small for it.

No vegetables should be cooked without a sufficient amount of water in
the saucepan and no green vegetables should be cooked with the lid on.

No frying pan while in use should be allowed to remain on the fire with
only the fat in it. A piece of whatever you are frying, bacon, fish,
fritters should be left in till another piece is placed in the fat.

The pan must be removed directly finished with.

No fat once used for frying should be kept for future use. The economy
is not worth making. The fat, for instance, in which potatoes have been
fried will always contain a certain amount of moisture and the next lot
of potatoes fried in it will turn out greasy and flabby. Fried potatoes
should be crisp and melting in the mouth and if properly prepared make
a delicate dish for a discriminating palate.

In the same way the fat used for fish however finely strained will
contain particles of fish or breadcrumbs which will be certain to catch
and cause an offensive smell. And the fish fried in such second-hand
fat may perhaps be eatable but will certainly not be worth eating.

The above recommendations are founded on personal experience. The
author advances them with the greater confidence because she had to
find them out for herself. They present no difficulties in practice. If
they are exactly followed, and due regard is paid also to incidental
remarks of the same nature contained in the body of the book, your
little house need never be invaded by the smell of cooking, generally
so offensive and always unnecessary, which too often meets one in the
hall and in nine cases out of ten--if not in every case--means simply
that good food is being spoiled in the kitchen.

The recipes in this book are calculated for a household of four
persons.



GENERAL REMARKS ON KITCHEN REQUISITES AND THEIR CARE


This small book may be called the A. B. C. of cookery and the writer is
mainly anxious to give her experiences as a general guide and help both
for cooking and the preparing of an appetizing meal.

Take for instance either a small flat in town or a cottage in the
country with one maid. It is quite possible to have two dishes for
breakfast with toast, tea or coffee, and to vary those dishes for every
day in the week. Easy breakfast dishes will be found in the body of the
book. All the statements in the book will justify themselves if the
directions are carefully followed.

To begin with let us furnish our kitchen with those most necessary
utensils which should always be kept either in a drawer in the dresser
or in a dry cupboard. We shall need several enamelled basins of various
sizes, a fish slice, vegetable slice, wire salad basket, one or two
wooden spoons, two large iron ones, a good toasting fork; a small
Dutch-oven to hang in front of the fire (either to cook bloaters, or
chops, or even a steak if one prefers that form of cooking to frying);
an apple corer, a potato ricer, one or two enamelled frying pans of
various sizes and depth. It is best to keep the pan that is to be
used for omelettes for that purpose alone, also the one that is to be
used for making pancakes. Care should be taken in purchasing these
articles as you will often find that some frying-pans will be deeper
in the middle while others will be found to rise and be deepest round
the edges. These are serious defects because the one that rises in the
centre will be useless for either omelettes or pancakes; the one that
sinks in the middle would be equally unsatisfactory as both will be
found to catch.

A double saucepan will be needed either for boiling milk or making
porridge. We must not forget a fish kettle and a steamer. The care
of the tea-kettle is also important. Once the tea is made and the
kettle not needed for a time, the water should be turned out and the
kettle removed from the stove. If it is allowed to remain boiling or
nearly empty on the stove it will quickly become coated on the inside
and the water thick and cloudy. We will need an enamelled cullender,
a large cheese grater, a nutmeg grater, some cake tins of different
sizes, and pie-dishes. Our choice of saucepans should also be carefully
considered; it should contain at least two large iron ones and the
rest may be enamel. We need two or three baking tins, some china and
block-tin moulds for jellies and a selection of fire-proof earthenware
of various shapes and sizes; wire strainers, to put under fish or
fried vegetables to drain them; an egg poacher, an egg-boiler which is
so much more reliable than even the best memory or the most accurate
clock. There is this golden rule that must always be observed: Never
attempt to make an omelette unless your fire is hot enough to cook it
with the top ring of the stove on. This rule of course applies also
to the pancakes, fritters, or to any form of frying. For if you are
frying a steak or cutlets, fish, potatoes or bacon, you will require
to put the top of the stove on after the first few minutes. Otherwise
your meat or fish will be liable to burn on the surface and remain raw
inside.

All the utensils must be washed in hot soda water and thoroughly dried
before putting them away. Having regard to the fact that soda is most
injurious to one’s hands, and whether for the mistress or maid the care
and appearance of one’s hands is of great importance, it is best to
place the saucepans, pans, etc. (not earthenware) on the stove with a
certain amount of water and a good piece of soda, and let them stand
to soak on the side of the hot stove, together with such articles as
ricer, poacher, strainer, etc. When ready to wash them up scour well
with a long-handled pot brush, pour off the soda water, rinse in clean
hot water, and dry with a cloth. They can then be placed on the rack
above the stove to dry thoroughly. In this way the hands need not come
in contact with the soda water at all.

We shall also need a nice smooth pastry board, a rolling pin, and a
small board for chopping parsley or mint. The meat chopper and the
mincer and the meat-saw will require to be kept perfectly clean and dry
to avoid rust, and should always be carefully wiped with a dry cloth
before being used. Should earthenware cooking-vessels or pie-dishes
become burnt, as is sometimes unavoidable, a little rough cooking salt,
or a little ashes rubbed on the burnt surface will be found effective.



ON THE TREATMENT OF VEGETABLES

_With a Few Illustrative Recipes_


Great care should be taken in the use of an onion. One often finds that
if by accident a knife used for cutting an onion has been overlooked
and it comes in contact with any article of food the flavour of the
onion will spoil everything. It is also a fact that if an onion is cut
before it is put into soup or sauce, the soup at once becomes cloudy,
while on the other hand if it is merely peeled and put in whole, soup
or sauce will remain perfectly clear. Then again for onion sauce or
soup which would be made with milk, you must never put in any salt or
any other ingredient till _after_ the milk has boiled. If the onion is
added before, the milk will curdle and be spoilt.

If you want to fry onions for steak, etc., have some good beef dripping
already melted in a baking tin and when it is boiling put in the
quantity of onions you may wish to cook cut in thin slices (cut always
round the onion) then add salt and pepper to taste and bake in a steady
oven, turning them once or twice with the blade of a knife.

For stuffing for either meat or poultry never put the onions in water.
Cut thin as above directed (never chop) and _boil_ in a deep frying
pan in butter. By boiling I mean using a larger quantity of fat and
not allowing the onions to be browned: one-fourth lb. will be quite
sufficient for stuffing intended for a goose. Have ready on the board
the crumb of a stale white loaf rubbed through a cheese-grater, and
from four to five large sage leaves chopped fine. Mix the two together
with pepper and salt to taste, turn the whole contents of the pan into
the crumbs and chop finely all together. In this way the stuffing will
be found moist and will not repeat after eating.

In cooking green vegetables use common soda not bi-carbonate. They
should be always put into _boiling_ water.

Fresh peas should never be shelled over night and should be kept in a
covered dish after shelling till it is time for them to be cooked. Peas
will become quite tough if exposed to the air for any length of time.
Always put into boiling water, never add salt or soda till the peas are
boiling. Scarlet runner beans should only be cut in strips in time for
boiling as the edges become hard and dry if left for more than an hour.
These are best kept in cold water. Dwarf beans should be treated in the
same manner, but can be served with only the ends and edges removed.

All salads should be put into a bowl of cold water with a good piece
of salt for not more than ten minutes before needed. A wire basket
swung round vigorously will be found the best mode of drying all salads
before dressing.

If lettuce is to be cooked, cos-lettuce will be found better than the
cabbage variety. It will become greatly reduced in the cooking and is
much improved by being lightly sauté in a frying pan in which a finely
shredded spring onion has been lightly fried in a little butter. Form
into small mounds with a tablespoon, and serve very hot.

Cabbage and cauliflower should be put for awhile before cooking into a
bowl of cold water with a good piece of salt, head down and the stump
cut four times across.

Spinach requires washing in several waters with a liberal quantity of
salt. But the last water without salt. Have ready a large saucepan
at least half full of boiling water. If, as some people direct, you
put spinach into a nearly dry saucepan on the assumption that it has
absorbed enough water to be cooked in, there will be an unpleasant
smell. Add salt and a piece of ordinary soda about as big as a large
pea. Boil with the lid off till quite tender. The spinach should then
be a beautiful shade of green. Treat sorrel the same way; only it
will be noticed that it will change colour directly it is put into the
boiling water, becoming a greeny yellow, and is slightly acid in taste.
It is usually eaten with veal, with poached eggs served on it, or as a
dish by itself served with fried bread round the edge.

Tomatoes are always very useful and can be accommodated in many
different ways. For a breakfast dish--take, for two persons, four
nice sound tomatoes. Place in a large basin and scald with boiling
water over them. The skin will then peel off quite easily leaving the
tomatoes perfectly whole. Cut into slices and put into a cold pan with
a piece of butter about the size of a tablespoon and a pinch of salt
and pepper. Place on the fire and break the tomatoes in the butter
as they cook. Let them fry frequently and serve under poached eggs.
Another way: Take four or more tomatoes, remove the stalk but not the
skin. Cut the top off, scoop the fruit out leaving a wall, have ready
some chopped lean ham, chicken or other meat, add a little onion to
the inside which has been taken out of the tomatoes, pepper and salt.
Put into a small frying pan, and fry lightly, put the mixture into
the tomato, have a little dripping melted in a baking tin, place the
tomatoes into it, when hot put the top on the tomato to form a lid and
bake from 15 to 20 minutes.

In preparing mushrooms, peel carefully the skin, gently pull the stalk
out and lay them dark side down in a little cold water with a good knob
of cooking salt, this will remove any grit or insects. Have ready a
flat frying pan large enough to take the mushrooms lying flat; lay each
one dark side down and boil in butter gently for about seven minutes,
turn them over with the blade of a knife and let them continue cooking
for another ten minutes to a quarter of an hour; pepper and salt to
taste. Or in another way, take a large flat frying pan; put into it
about an ounce of butter, two tablespoonfuls of best malt vinegar,
place over a quick fire and let it burn slightly. That is to say it is
ready when it smokes. Lay the mushrooms as before directed, proceed in
the same way, adding only a little finely chopped onion in the centre
of each mushroom, place dark side up either on toast buttered or on
a flat dish, pour over the butter from the pan and serve very hot.
Sprinkle thinly with chopped onion after the mushrooms are in the dish.

Mushroom rissoles make an excellent breakfast dish and may be served in
little stone marmites instead of pastry. Carefully wash mushrooms as
directed above. Take a little strong beef gravy (not bovril or other
meat essence) cut the mushrooms into lengths, each one into four or
five, put them into a small saucepan with pepper and salt and enough
gravy to cover, stew for an hour. Thicken with a little flour mixed
smoothly with water. This can be kept over night and warmed in the
morning.

Turnips make a very good dish with roast pork, treated as follows:
Carefully peel ten or twelve nice firm turnips, reject the woolly as
they are not worth cooking (except for flavouring); cut into slices,
then into lengths, then into small squares (the appearance of a dish is
as important as the taste); boil gently for about half an hour or until
tender, strain and serve very hot with a little melted butter poured
over them, pepper and salt to taste.

Carrots, if very young, must on no account be peeled, but only lightly
scraped and then cooked in a covered saucepan till tender. Serve very
hot with a little melted butter and a little finely chopped parsley
sprinkled over them. Care should be taken not to boil too long as these
tender young vegetables are apt to become soft and tasteless. When the
carrots are older and bigger they should be carefully peeled and cut in
rings about one-eighth of an inch thick. There is also this pretty and
appetising way to serve carrots. Cook them as above directed and have
ready the following in a lined saucepan (double saucepan): a half pint
of boiling milk with salt to taste, one and a half level tablespoonfuls
of household flour mixed smoothly in a basin with a half ounce of
butter. Should the butter be hard and difficult to mix smooth, place
the basin on the stove till the butter is soft enough to handle with a
firm spoon. When mixed pour the boiling milk straight into the flour
and butter stirring all the time, and always the same way; put back
into the double saucepan and stir till it boils, add the cooked carrot
and serve very hot as an additional vegetable or as a separate dish.
Should the sauce be sticky or too thick judgment which will come with
experience will quickly show the error to be a little too much flour
or careless mixing. This sauce is also useful to compose a lunch dish
with, by adding to it some chopped roast chicken and a thin slice of
onion instead of carrots. Serve in a rather deep dish with croutons of
fried bread or dry toast round the edge. A tin of prawns can be used
instead of chicken in which case a small teaspoonful of anchovy sauce
may be added at the last, instead of salt, as the prawns may be already
a little salt.

Potatoes are to my mind one of the most ill-used vegetables we have.
They require simple care to make them a useful and welcome addition
to at least two meals in the day. Too often I have found the greatest
carelessness in the cooking of a simple potato. Often at an English inn
potatoes are impossible, even more so than other vegetables, and yet
we English people have the best potatoes in the world! It is indeed
a fact that in the case of the poor potato, God sends the food, and
the devil the cooks! One common error is to peel the potatoes hours
before they are to be cooked and to leave them in water; another
to peel them (because the weather is cold) in quite hot water, or,
worse still, then shut them down in a saucepan on the side of the
stove ever so long before they are required. In this way the potato
is spoilt before it has even boiled. It is quite possible to use up
even cold potatoes in an appetising manner. None need ever be wasted
if the following hints are taken and the sound advice of many years’
experience is followed. For new potatoes pick out those as much of a
size as possible, carefully scrape them, remove any eyes, rinse in
clear cold water and put into enough boiling water to cover well; add
a sprig of mint (in one piece) and a piece of salt put in a saucepan
preferably not iron and boil gently till tender which can easily be
found by trying them with a fork. When cooked, strain, remove the mint,
put into the saucepan a knob of butter while the potatoes are there
and serve as quickly as possible with a little finely chopped parsley
on them. The object of the butter is not only to improve the taste and
appearance but it also helps to prevent the sort of preserved taste
one so often gets in hotel cooking. As the potatoes get older it is
better to put them to boil into cold water, and directly they are too
old to scrape freely, no mint is necessary or advisable. Some potatoes
are best strained before they are quite cooked and then shut down in
the saucepan to finish in their steam. If the potatoes are not to be
used at once (say when a meal is delayed longer than expected for some
reason), it is a good idea either to rice them in a ricer or to mash
them. In that way they will not have an unpleasant taste and can be
kept hot for some time and still be quite palatable.

Often one has some cold potatoes left say from lunch, cut them into
slices, put about ½ an oz. of butter into a frying pan and when melted
and hot lay each slice of potato flat in the hot butter, fry quickly
over a brisk fire till they attain a golden-brown colour. Care must be
taken that they do not burn.

Cold potatoes can also be used for hot cakes as follows: Take the
remains of any boiled potatoes, break them into a bowl, take a
breakfast cup and a half of flour (for this quantity of flour about the
value of eight potatoes would be necessary) rub them smoothly into the
flour, add two ounces of butter, salt, a little baking-powder (unless
self-raising flour is used) mix as for pastry with a little milk (sour
will do) and if possible an egg beaten into it, form into small cakes
and bake on larded paper in a quick oven, serve hot with sugar and
butter to be spread on them.

For fried potatoes care should be taken to follow these directions
carefully: Peel your potatoes and cut them into slices about one-half
an inch thick, then into strips, each slice let us say into four, let
them lay in a bowl of cold water till wanted for frying. Take a large
deep frying pan in which you have melted one-fourth pound of best tub
lard, place over a quick fire taking care not to let it burn, and when
it is ready (which is easily found out by dropping one piece of potato
into the fat--it should sizzle at once), take the potatoes out of the
water by hand and drop straight into the boiling lard. Turn carefully
from time to time with a knife blade. Remove them with a slice into a
vegetable dish in which there is a strainer (stone for preference), and
place in the oven with an open door till required; but serve as soon
as possible. Never put the cover on the dish or allow the oven door
to be shut as the potatoes would not then keep quite crisp. Never add
salt till ready in the dish, when a little should be sprinkled over the
potatoes.

For straw potatoes proceed in the same way; only these will require
less time for cooking and will need to be cut very much thinner and
smaller.

For soufflé potatoes cut them into thin slices and dry them on a clean
cloth. Lay them in a little milk for a moment and then put them into
the boiling fat straight out of the milk. If these directions are
carefully followed there should be a crisp brown bubble on each side
of the slice of the potato. These also must not be covered or have the
oven door closed on them.

There is also another simple way of treating an old potato. Often
toward the end of the year when one’s potatoes run large and we are
anxious to give a dish a dainty appearance we find that the large
potato served whole looks clumsy. If the potatoes are carefully peeled
and any unsightly blemishes are removed such as the eye or as so often
happens there are bluey patches due to a bruise perhaps on the potatoes
otherwise perfectly sound, the following hint may be found both useful
and economical. Take a stout teaspoon and scoop spoonfuls from the
_outside_ of a big potato. (The broken remains can be used in soup say
either beef or mutton stock. Recipe for this with soups.) When you have
sufficient potatoes ready you can either fry in dripping (in which case
do not attempt to make them crisp) or boil them very gently, or bake
them under a joint, etc. They will be best baked or fried. They can
then be served laid round a dish of fish (fried or boiled) or round a
dish of roast meat previously carved and laid down the centre of a dish
or with kidneys and bacon or with liver and bacon.

Celery used as a vegetable will be found very palatable cooked in the
following manner. Take two or three heads of celery, wash carefully in
fresh cold water and a little salt, have ready any little beef, veal,
or chicken stock, bring this to a boil and cook the celery in it. From
30 to 40 minutes should be long enough to render the celery soft. Serve
in a vegetable dish with the gravy poured over it, sufficient only to
just cover, having previously stirred a teaspoonful of cornflour mixed
with cold water into it.

Beet-root may be prepared either cold to serve with cold beef or as a
hot vegetable dish best served with roast mutton.

For cold, have four or five round small beet-roots washed, handling
them carefully and taking the greatest care not to break off any tender
shoots, and avoiding cutting the leaf-end too near the top of the
beet-root. Have a saucepan large enough to take the beet-root without
breaking it. Boil gently with a good piece of salt from 40 minutes to
an hour, or even a little longer, according to the size. Prick with
a carving fork to see if quite tender, then lay them on a strainer
and when cool enough to hold in the fingers remove the peel and cut
into thin rings. Lay them in a dish of vinegar (a deep glass dish is
best), dust over two teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar, and allow to get
thoroughly cold before serving. The object of the sugar in the vinegar
is to draw the colour out of the beet-root and to remove the sourness.
More or less sugar may be used according to individual taste but the
proportion given is generally right.

The beet-root already boiled may be used for the following dish:

Cut into a little thicker slices, then into strips, then into little
squares. Have ready in a deep enamel frying pan a quantity of melted
butter, put the diced beet-root into it with a pinch of salt and a
little cream (or, if not available, a little milk) and bring the
mixture to a boil, taking care not to break the vegetable when stirring
with a knife blade. Mix a teaspoonful of cornflour with a little milk,
stir into the beet-root while on the stove, serve round the dish of
sliced mutton or separately very hot.

Leeks can often be made to take the place of onions and are a very
useful vegetable cooked in either of the following ways. Take from
twelve to twenty leeks, wash well in cold water, being careful to
remove all grit. It will be found necessary nearly always to split
them, to be sure that they are quite clean. Stew them in beef stock
till quite tender. (This vegetable does not require any soda in the
cooking and is best cooked in stock.) Strain and serve when quite
tender. Another way is to cut each leek into four, lengthwise, and bake
in dripping, as directed to do with the onion.

The Drumhead or white cabbage has no appearance if cooked only as a
cabbage, but a useful dish may be made in the following manner. Take
a large cabbage, remove the white stiff stalk running down the leaf
with a sharp knife. Put the leaves into a large saucepan of boiling
water, cook as for ordinary cabbage except that the leaves will all
be separate. When tender spread on a large dish to cool. Prepare some
finely minced meat, beef, ham, veal or mutton, chicken or lamb, about
half a teacup of freshly boiled rice salted to taste. (The value of
two tablespoonfuls of rice will be enough to make half a teacup.) The
rice to have been boiled in water and not too soft. Mix with the minced
meat and having spread each cabbage leaf open, fill with the mixture,
leaving enough of the leaf clear to roll round the meat. Have a deep
frying pan on the fire half full of either beef or mutton stock, bring
to a boil and place each stuffed leaf in the stock and cook for ten
minutes; remove with a slice on to a deep dish and serve at once very
hot.



RECIPES



BREAKFAST DISHES, ENTRÉES, SAVOURIES, STUFFINGS, SAUCES, HORS D’ŒUVRES,
AND SANDWICHES


_General Remarks_

Small savouries are useful to lengthen a lunch or dinner without making
the whole meal too heavy.

Their materials are often what is left over of various dishes.
Therefore the remnants that are kept should be always put away with
care and separated from each other.

Cut onion should never be kept in the safe containing butter or milk.

Raw bacon should be laid in the dish on the rind.

A tin of sardines should never be left open more than twenty-four hours.

Tinned salmon must be used at once.

Bottled tomatoes may be partly used and re-corked for a few days.

Bottled olives must be re-corked tightly after use. Take care that the
liquid covers the olives. The same for capers, chillies, and anchovies.

The salad basket and potato ricer should be dried on the shelf over the
stove after being wiped.

When boiling milk enters into the composition of any dish the saucepan
should be first wetted inside with cold water.


_1. Omelettes_


_Plain._ Break four new laid eggs into a basin and beat lightly with
a fork. Add a pinch of salt and a dessertspoonful of milk. Have ready
in an enamelled frying pan about half an ounce of hot butter, tilting
the pan to cause the butter to run all over it. Place the pan over
the fire with the stove top on. Pour the beaten eggs into it. Run the
knife round the rim of the omelette. Cook not more than seven minutes.
Sprinkle over a few fine herbs or a little chopped parsley and fold it
over twice on a very hot dish. The omelette when dished should be moist
in the centre.


_Truffled._ Prepare the eggs as above. Chop finely three truffles and
beat into the eggs. Cook in the same manner as the plain omelette and
serve with the rest of the bottle of truffles cut in thin slices and
laid down the centre of the omelette after it is folded.


_Savoury._ Take the livers of two fowls, one rasher of bacon, a slice
of onion and a pinch of mixed herbs. Melt in the frying pan a piece of
butter about the size of a walnut. Put the livers, bacon, and herbs
into the hot butter. Fry very gently for about seven to ten minutes
and when cooked chop very fine. Cook the omelette as above and spread
the mixture along the middle while still in the pan. Turn the omelette
sides over and serve on a hot dish.


_Cheese._ Prepare the eggs as above. Rub on a cheese grater a piece of
Gruyère cheese to make about four tablespoonfuls. Turn the eggs into
the pan. Dust three parts of grated cheese over the omelette whilst
still in the pan. Dish with a slice and dust over it the remainder of
the cheese; fold and place it in the oven for one minute.


_Green Peas._ Prepare the eggs as above. Take a teacup of cold cooked
green peas and stir them into the basin with the eggs. Pour into the
hot butter in the pan as for a plain omelette, fold over with the slice
and serve on a hot dish. It will be noticed that sometimes the omelette
will rise in a bubble and smoke. Directly this is noticed pass the
blade of the knife under from the sides and let the air out, otherwise
it will burn.

Cold potatoes cut into discs can be used instead of the peas for the
omelette.


_2. Eggs and Bacon_

This dish is perhaps the most appetising breakfast dish and yet often
the most unpleasant on account of the smell. Cooked in the following
way there should be no smell at all. Take the rashers of bacon and
carefully remove all the rind. Use preferably an enamelled frying pan
in which a piece of butter the size of a walnut has been made hot.
Lay the bacon in this. The stove should be hot enough to cook the
bacon with the top on. Turn the bacon twice and cook for eight to
ten minutes. Dish on a hot flat dish. Allow an egg for each rasher,
breaking the eggs lightly without breaking the yolks into a cup one
at a time and turn into the pan. Allow the boiling fat to run round
the eggs. Cook for three minutes and dish with a slice placing one egg
on each rasher of bacon. The pan when removed from the stove must not
be put into the sink as the cold water there will cause it to smell
unpleasantly.


_3. Boiled Bacon_

Take not less than two pounds cut out of the small back. Plunge in a
saucepan three parts full of boiling water. Boil briskly for one hour.

When put on a dish the rind will tear off quite easily. Remove it and
dust the part over thickly with baked breadcrumbs.


_4. Sausages_

Prick the sausages well with a fork. Lay in a flat meat dish and cook
for twenty to twenty-five minutes not on the stove but in a fairly
quick oven. This prevents all smell and they will be well cooked.


_5. Sausage Rolls_

Prick one pound of best pork sausages and bake in the oven for twenty
minutes on a flat dish. Cut each sausage lengthwise, roll round each
half a thin rasher of raw bacon, put into a paste (as for meat pie,
rec: 156), wrap in hot buttered paper and bake for another twenty
minutes.


_6. Eggs in Gravy_

Boil two or three eggs for not longer than three minutes, drop them for
a few seconds into a bowl of cold water to chill them sufficiently to
be held with the fingers. Carefully remove the shell without breaking
the shape of the egg. Lay each carefully in a buttered dish side by
side. The eggs if properly cooked will immediately acquire a flat
shape. Pour over them a little good meat gravy and serve at once. The
eggs thus prepared should not be hard; but it is difficult sometimes
when removing the shell to leave the egg whole. Great care is required.


_7. Eggs with Chicken Livers_

Put into a little stone marmite dish (fire-proof) a little butter and
half the liver of a good sized fowl. (Two fowls’ livers would make four
or five little dishes.) When the liver is nearly cooked (the little
dishes having been placed each on the hot top plate of the stove), drop
a whole egg without breaking the yolk into each and allow to cook from
three to five minutes. Serve in the dishes in which they have been
cooked.

Eggs can be also poached in marmite dishes but instead of butter you
must half fill each dish with fresh cream and add a pinch of salt and a
pinch of chopped parsley at the last moment on top of each egg.


_8. Herring Roes on Toast_

Take the roes from the tin or glass box, gently part with a knife, put
them into a shallow pie-dish with a little pepper and butter. Cover
with dish cover and stand in the oven for ten minutes. Have ready hot
buttered toast and lay the roes on the toast. Put a little white
pepper on them and a tiny scrap of butter and replace in the oven for a
moment before serving.


_9. Poached Eggs on Anchovy Toast_

Butter several good slices of toast and spread with a little anchovy
paste. Take an egg poacher and put over the fire to boil. Turn an egg
into each ring, being careful not to break the yolk. Cook for three
minutes lightly. Pass the blade of the knife round each rim of the
egg, pinch the machine to open it, the eggs then remaining on the flat
slice. Run the knife under each one and it is easy then to place them
on the toast.


_10. Poached Eggs and Tomato Toast_

Scald four tomatoes and remove the skin, slice them into a small
enamelled frying pan in which a piece of butter the size of a walnut
has been made hot, a little pepper and salt. Chop them with a knife
whilst frying, thus reducing them to a paste. Spread this over the hot
buttered toast and put a poached egg on the top.


_11. Breakfast Dish_

Have the paste made ready as for meat pie, take six thin rashers of
bacon and cut them in halves. Roll the paste thin on the board and lay
half a rasher of bacon on each piece of paste. Cut the paste a little
bigger than the bacon. Dust a little finely chopped onion and a tiny
pinch of sweet herbs over each piece of bacon. Roll paste and bacon
together (paste outside) and cook on hot buttered paper for fifteen
minutes in a quick oven.


_12. Haricot Breakfast Dish_

Put to soak for twelve hours a pint of small haricot beans. Strain them
and pick out the brown ones which are not needed. Turn them into a
saucepan three parts full of boiling water with salt and a little pinch
of soda. Boil gently for two hours, or until quite soft but whole;
strain and put into a stone jar. Cover them with good beef stock. Add
three cut rashers of bacon, fat and lean together, with one slice of
very finely chopped onion and some tomato sauce (made after the recipe
given with skinned tomatoes). Leave in the oven all night and make it
hot in the morning before serving.


_13. Devilled Drumsticks_

Take four drumsticks of fowls, put half an ounce of fresh butter in an
enamelled frying pan, make it hot and lay the drumsticks in it. Dust
over them a little red pepper and about half a flat teaspoonful of
some good curry powder. Roll them over and over in the butter and dish
with a strainer.


_14. Devilled Sheep’s Kidneys on Toast_

Remove the skin from say two sheep’s kidneys and cut them in halves.
Put into an enamelled frying pan about half ounce of fresh butter and
make it hot. Lay the kidneys in the butter the cut side down. Cook over
a brisk fire with the stove top off for five minutes. Turn once. Then
replace the stove top and stand the frying pan again on it for five
to ten minutes more. Have ready enough buttered toast to take half
a kidney on each slice of toast. Dust the kidneys with a little red
pepper before placing on the toast. Put on each kidney a little fresh
butter about the size of a pea, place on the toast and serve very hot.
Ox kidney may be used in the same way cut into slices.


_15. Croquettes_

Chop with a mincer very fine any remains of cold chicken or any cold
meat with one ring of Spanish onion and a tiny pinch of salt and a
drain of meat juice. Stir all this well in a plate, break into the
mixture a freshly beaten egg, add a teaspoonful of finely rubbed
breadcrumbs or rusk crumbs. Roll a tablespoonful at a time into another
freshly beaten egg and then into the rolled rusk crumbs. Form into
short sausage shapes or balls and fry in boiling lard or dripping for
seven to ten minutes. Dish with a slice and serve hot, garnished with a
little parsley.

Fish croquettes are made in the same way using any fish that may be
left over, after carefully removing all the bones, and adding a little
cold boiled potato.


_16. To Dress Cold Fowl_

Cut into small pieces, leg generally in two. Put into a saucepan and
cover with milk, first putting a little water in the saucepan to
prevent the milk burning. Grate half a nutmeg, add pepper and salt.
When it has boiled, but not before, slice half of a fairly large
Spanish onion into the saucepan. Boil for three-quarters of an hour.
Thicken before serving with a little flour and butter, which should
be mixed very smooth with a little of the boiling milk out of the
saucepan. Bring to a boil and serve in the saucepan with a napkin
wrapped round it.


_17. Shepherd’s Pie_

Cut the remains of any cold roast beef into small pieces and place in
a dish. Slice about a quarter of a Spanish onion finely on the top,
add two tomatoes cut very small, pepper and salt, half a teaspoonful
of Worcester sauce, half a teaspoonful of bovril stirred in half a
teacupful of water, or a little meat juice. Place in the oven uncovered
for a quarter of an hour. Then take out and fill up the dish with
mashed potatoes. Place a few thin slices of onion on the top, a piece
of butter, and replace in the oven for three-quarters of an hour so as
to brown the top nicely.


_18. Tripe and Onions_

Wash in cold water and remove all fat from two pounds of fresh tripe
and cut into narrow strips about two inches long. Melt in an enamelled
frying pan about two ounces of fresh butter turning the tripe into
it. Fry lightly, not allowing to brown. Dish with a slice into a
stone saucepan, leaving the butter in the pan. In the same butter fry
lightly one and a half Spanish onions sliced and add to the tripe in
the saucepan, with a little salt and a glass of sherry, one piece of
loaf sugar, and a finely cut up carrot. Add enough water to cover and
stew gently for one and a half hours. Thicken with a little flour mixed
smooth with cold water and serve in the stone saucepan with a table
napkin tied round it.


_Note._ Pig’s trotters may be added to this dish but in this case they
must be soaked for two hours before cooking and added to the tripe when
cooked.


_19. Haricot Mutton_

Soak a pint of small haricot beans overnight, carefully pick out the
brown ones and rinse through three waters in the morning. Have ready a
metal saucepan with about three pints of water. When boiling, pour the
haricots into it with a good pinch of salt and a small piece of soda.
Boil gently for two and a half hours. They are then ready to be added
to the mutton. Cut into small pieces two or three pounds of best end of
neck of mutton, remove the fat and put the meat into a stone saucepan,
cover with water, add one turnip cut into long pieces, one Spanish
onion, pepper and salt and a pinch of fine herbs. Remove the scum as it
rises and cook for two hours. Add then the beans which should be quite
soft and peel of their own accord when exposed to the air. Thicken
with a little carefully mixed flour and water and serve in the stone
saucepan with a table napkin wrapped round it.


_20. Sweetbreads_

Soak for half an hour two sweetbreads in cold water with a pinch of
salt. Drop them in boiling water. After twenty minutes take them out,
remove the skin and roll them first in a well-beaten egg and then in
rolled rusk crumbs. Bake in a tin in a quick oven for three-quarters
of an hour with a large piece of butter or dripping. Place on a dish
and after turning the fat out of the tin put in a little good meat
juice and bring it to a boil over the fire. Add then a little smoothly
mixed flour and water and when thickened sufficiently strain through a
gravy strainer over the sweetbreads. Serve very hot.


_21. Sweetbreads--Another Way_

Soak for half an hour in cold water with a pinch of salt, then drop
them into boiling water. At the end of twenty minutes take out and,
after removing the outer skin, cut into slices. Have ready some fresh
butter in an enamelled frying pan. Fry the sliced sweetbreads lightly
for a quarter of an hour. Lay on a dish and squeeze a little lemon
juice on each slice allowing a quarter of a lemon for the whole of the
sweetbread.


_22. Steak and Kidney Pudding_

Take one and a half pounds of thick steak and cut into pieces of about
an inch. Have an ox kidney cut into small pieces and a basin well
buttered. With half a pound of beef suet, chopped fine, and two and a
half to three breakfast-cups of self-raising flour, make a stiff paste,
mixing with tepid water. Line the basin with the paste. Put the steak
and kidney in, add about half a teaspoonful of salt, sprinkle a little
dry flour over the meat, put the crust on and cover the basin with a
wet cloth which should be tied securely with string. Boil for three and
a half hours. At the end of that time take the cloth off and serve in
the basin (stood in a dish) with a fluted paper collar round it. Make a
small hole in the top of the pudding and pour in about half a teacupful
of hot gravy made from any small pieces of meat left over before
serving.


_23. Calf’s Kidney on Toast_

Skin and split in two a calf’s kidney. Melt in a frying pan about an
ounce of fresh butter, and place the kidney in this with one very thin
slice of Spanish onion for each half of kidney--one rasher of bacon,
chopped very fine, to be put in the pan also. Cook as for sheep’s
kidneys, but without the red pepper. Prepare some hot toast, lay upon
it the slice of onion, which should be kept whole if possible, and
then the kidney. Dust a little portion of the bacon over it with a
little pepper and salt. Turn the butter out of the pan, put a little
meat juice from under the dripping (about an egg-cupful) and half a
tablespoonful of white wine, the juice of a quarter of a lemon (half
a teaspoonful of vinegar will serve if the lemon is not available),
thicken with a little flour and water (first mixed smooth), and pour
through a gravy strainer over the kidney. Serve very hot. The best way
to prepare the toast is as follows:--

Take as many pieces of dry bread as required and fry quickly in a
little good dripping to a crisp brown. It should then remain quite
crisp even when the gravy is turned over it.


_24. Bacon Pudding_

About half a pound of beef suet chopped very fine, two and a half
breakfast-cupfuls of self-raising flour and a pinch of salt, must be
mixed with tepid water into a nice elastic paste. Cut half a pound of
bacon (fat and lean together) into narrow long strips, slice thinly one
fair-sized Spanish onion into rings, and chop about eight leaves of
sage very fine. Roll the paste in small pieces to form layers in the
basin which must be greased by putting in a good-sized piece of butter
and allowing it to stand on the top of the stove until the butter has
melted and every part of the basin has had the hot butter run over it.
This will prevent the pudding adhering to the basin. Put one layer of
paste in the basin, then a layer of bacon and onion and just a little
sage sprinkled over the top, then another layer of paste, and so on
till all the bacon and onion are used up. Then put on the top layer of
paste which must quite fill the basin, and tie the pudding securely in
a freshly wetted pudding cloth. Care must be taken that the cloth is
not drawn too tight over the pudding and that the basin is full or the
water will get in and spoil the dish. The pudding must be immersed in
boiling water and boiled for three hours. At the end of that time turn
it out on a hot dish and serve with a little clear melted butter in a
sauce boat.


_25. Veal or Beef Olives_

It is often found inconvenient to cook a joint in a hurry (or the joint
may be found to be too large) when the following recipe will be found
useful. Cut a slice of about an inch thick off the round of beef or
fillet of veal, cut that into five or six pieces and flatten well with
a knife. Chop finely about half a Spanish onion, a few sweet herbs, and
pepper and salt, and put a little of these on each piece of meat and
cover with half a rasher of bacon. Tie each piece securely with string.
Melt one ounce of fresh butter in a frying pan over a clear fire and
when ready lay the olives in it. Fry briskly for three minutes, turn
over once and fry for the same length of time, then cover with another
frying pan, inverted, and fry for another ten to fifteen minutes.
Place the meat on a dish and remove the strings gently, cutting with
scissors. Put into the frying pan about half a teacupful of good meat
juice, a tablespoonful of white wine, a little salt, thicken with a
little flour and pour over the olives. They will keep their shape and
should be served with some nicely prepared vegetables, either beans,
peas, or potatoes.


_26. Pigeons with Carrots_

Split the roasted pigeons in halves and lay cut side down in a stone
saucepan with half a claret glass of white wine, pepper and salt,
with four carrots cut lengthwise, each into eight pieces then cut
across. Add a little good meat juice. Put enough water to just cover
the pigeons. Stew gently for three-quarters of an hour. Thicken with a
little flour and water and serve in the stone saucepan, or in a deep
dish.


_27. Ragoût of Veal_

Cut into small pieces two pounds of neck of veal. Put into a saucepan
and cover with cold water, and a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper,
one piece of loaf sugar, six spring onions, bottoms and green tops, six
small carrots split in two, and one small turnip. Stew gently for one
and a half to two hours, adding a little water if required. Half an
hour before serving add a half pint of fresh green peas, a pinch of
mixed herbs, half a glass of white wine. Thicken with a little smoothly
mixed flour and water, stirred into the veal. Best served in the
earthenware saucepan, with a napkin tied round it. If green peas are
not available a little Patna rice may be used after it has been washed
through several waters; or a few cut scarlet runners. Cold veal may be
treated as above but in that case a little good meat juice must be used
instead of the extra half pint of water.


_28. Rump Steak and Kidney Pie with Mushrooms or Truffles_

For a pie for four persons take a pound and a half of rump steak and
half an ox kidney. Cut into nice pieces with a little fat but no
gristle. Put it all in a deep pie-dish, with pepper and salt and the
contents of a small bottle of truffles cut in small pieces (or eight
mushrooms). Flour rather thickly over the top and add a little water to
the side of the dish so that it runs underneath the meat (and half a
teaspoonful of mushroom catsup if with mushrooms), cover with another
smaller pie-dish which should allow a small opening at the sides so as
to let the steam escape. Cook for three-quarters of an hour in a brisk
oven and meantime rub a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, or lard,
into two and a half breakfast-cupfuls of self-raising flour with a
little salt, and mix with a little milk to an elastic paste. When ready
take the dish out of the oven and stir the meat and the flour together.
The pie will then be ready for the crust. Butter the rim of the dish
while still hot. Lay a strip of paste all round and moisten with a
little milk to make the top crust adhere. Bake in a quick oven for
half an hour. It is important that the meat should be cooked first as
otherwise it will either be underdone or the crust will be overcooked.
Do not forget to make a hole in the middle of the top crust before
baking.


_29. Kidney Sauté_

Remove the fatty centre of an ox kidney, cut the kidney into thin
slices and dice it on a pastry board on which has been poured a good
handful of flour. Rub the diced kidney well into the flour so that it
looks all white. Put it into a stone saucepan, add pepper and salt, a
little scraped carrot, one good-sized onion stuck with three cloves,
and cover with cold water. Stir the kidney so as to remove all the
flour into the water, which should look like milk. Cook in a quick oven
for two hours. This might be cooked in the morning and made warm in the
evening. Remove onion before serving.


_30. Kidney Sauté--Another Way_

Take one or two sheep’s kidneys, skin and split them. Lay each half,
flat side down, in a frying pan with an ounce of butter or dripping,
heated. Place on a quick fire, add one or two slices of onion cut thin,
pepper and salt. Remove from the fire and cut the kidneys up. Place
again on the stove, add a teaspoonful of bovril, a little Worcester
sauce (one teaspoonful), mix smoothly a dessertspoonful of flour with
water, add half a breakfast-cup of hot water to the kidneys. Stir and
keep boiling twenty minutes, and serve hot, either alone or within a
wall of freshly mashed potatoes.


_31. Kidneys in Onions_

To those who are fond of an onion there is hardly a more appetising
dish than onions prepared in the following manner. Take four or five
decent-sized sound onions. Small Spanish are the best. Cut rather a
deep slice off the top after removing the outer skin. You can then take
the centre out; say you remove half the onion leaving about four of
the thicknesses. Have ready two or three sheep’s kidneys prepared in
the following manner: Skin each kidney and split it. Sprinkle lightly
pepper and salt on the split side. Put into a frying pan a little
dripping or butter, lay the kidney flat side first in the boiling
fat, place the pan on a quick fire and fry lightly, turning twice. As
onion requires a lot of cooking it is best to put the prepared onion
cases into boiling dripping and cook in a quick oven twenty-five
minutes. Then place the kidney (half in each onion) and replace in the
oven in the baking tin another ten minutes. Care should be taken not
to overcook the kidney so that the gravy runs into the onion as it
finishes cooking. Serve very hot in a stone dish.


_32. Jugged Hare_

Cut the hare up. Rub the pieces in flour. Put one and a half ounces
of butter into a large enamelled frying pan, and lightly fry the hare
for ten minutes. Then place your hare in a stone jar with one Spanish
onion stuck with three cloves, some salt, a piece of loaf sugar, and a
little finely scraped carrot. Add two glasses of port wine and a little
Worcester sauce. Cover the jar with a plate and stand in a quick oven
for three hours. Dish into a flat dish, garnish all round with half
slices of lemon and serve with currant jelly.


_33. Yorkshire Pudding for Baked Beef or Mutton_

Separate the white of one egg from the yolk. Put the latter in an
earthenware bowl and stir it lightly. Beat the white separately with a
freshly cleaned knife in a plate. It is most important that a perfectly
clean knife be used or the white of the egg will not rise. Beat it to a
stiff froth and stir it into the yolk of the egg; and only afterwards
add half a teacupful of milk and a little pepper and salt.

Stir in a breakfast-cupful of self-raising flour vigorously and work
it perfectly smooth. If it is not then quite the consistency of very
thick cream add a little milk to make it so. Turn into a baking tin and
bake under the meat, which would be already three parts cooked then.
Do not forget to turn most of the fat out of the baking tin before the
pudding is poured in. Three-quarters of an hour is the time required
for cooking a Yorkshire pudding.


_34. Welsh Rarebit_

Take half a pound of good Cheddar cheese, not too strong, and cut it
into a flat meat dish with pepper and salt. Pour over a sufficient
quantity of bottled ale to fill the dish. Stand in a quick oven and
bake until the cheese is all melted. Have ready some buttered toast
about a quarter of an inch thick. Remove the cheese from the dish
leaving the beer and spread the cheese lightly on the toast. Replace in
the oven, and serve very hot. The object of the beer is to flavour the
cheese only and if the cheese were to be cooked in a frying pan over
the fire it would absorb all the beer and be rendered very bitter.


_35. Spaghetti_

Put half a pound of spaghetti into boiling water with a good pinch of
salt. If you carefully put the spaghetti upright in the saucepan and
give them a twist they won’t break. Boil gently, being careful to add
boiling water as needed to keep the same amount. It is important never
to add cold water as that chills the spaghetti and causes it to become
tough. Cook for one hour and meantime prepare the following sauce:

Put six good-sized tomatoes cut in quarters into a saucepan (or a
pudding basin may be used in the oven), with one large round of Spanish
onion chopped fine, three pieces of loaf sugar, a pinch of salt and
pepper, half a bottle of tomato catsup, and an ounce of fresh butter.
Stew gently on the side of the stove for three-quarters of an hour.
Strain all the water off the spaghetti with the lid, into a salad bowl
(or good-sized dish), stir in the tomato sauce which has been strained
thoroughly, and serve very hot with some grated cheese in another dish.


_36. Risotto_

Remove all the fat from a pint of good clear beef or mutton stock and
put it on the stove to boil. Wash a teacupful of Patna rice through
four waters and put it into the boiling stock and cook for half an
hour gently. Chop two thin rashers of bacon into small pieces, add
half an onion chopped very finely and put this into the stock while
it is boiling. Care should be taken, if the stock is already salted,
that very little salt is added. Drain the rice dry and have ready a
teacupful of Parmesan and Gruyère cheese (grated) and some good tomato
sauce made with skinned tomatoes. Stir the cheese and tomato sauce into
the rice in the saucepan and have ready some stone or metal moulds
rinsed in cold water but not wiped. Put some of the mixture into each
mould and place in a cold place for about two hours. Then put the
moulds into the oven with a dish over the top and serve when hot.


_37. Cauliflower au Gratin_

Remove all the stump of a young cauliflower and boil for fifteen
minutes in a large saucepan with a pinch of salt and a small pinch
of soda. When cooked, turn it into a cullender and break it into
small pieces (not too small) on a flat pie-dish. Take one and a half
tablespoonfuls of butter. Have ready half a pint of milk boiling.
Turn the boiling milk into the paste and stir well till quite smooth.
Put it back in the saucepan and bring to a boil. Stir four good
tablespoonfuls of grated Gruyère cheese into the sauce and turn it over
the cauliflower in the dish. Dust a little more cheese over it and
stand the dish in a quick oven for ten minutes to brown. The browning
can also be done with a Salamander.


_38. Macaroni au Gratin_

Have ready three pints of freshly boiling water with a good pinch of
salt in a saucepan for about half a pound of straight macaroni which
must be broken up to a convenient size. Macaroni should always be put
straight into boiling water. Boil gently for forty minutes to an hour
but be careful not to let it boil over, adding boiling water from time
to time as the macaroni swells. Strain the water off with the lid, and
stir into the saucepan a breakfast-cupful of grated Gruyère cheese
(a little grated Parmesan cheese is a great improvement added to the
Gruyère). Turn into a stone dish. Dust a little more cheese over the
top, put a piece of butter about the size of two good-sized walnuts and
place in a quick oven to brown slightly.


_39. Marrow Toast_

Take some good marrow bones and tie the ends in freshly scalded muslin
after previously salting slightly the end where the marrow is. Put them
into a large saucepan of boiling water with a cut onion. Boil for one
hour and then take the bones out. Remove the muslin and take the marrow
out on to a plate and season with a little pepper and salt and spread
on hot buttered toast. Replace in oven for a few minutes and serve very
hot. This makes a good savoury dish.


_40. Sage and Onion Stuffing_

(_For goose, fowl, beef, veal, or breast of mutton_)

Put into an enamelled frying pan about two ounces of fresh butter
ready for melting. (Salt butter always leaves a deposit in the pan
which causes the things to burn.) Take five large Spanish onions, cut
carefully on a board into thin slices, and put into the hot butter.
Place on the fire with the stove top on and boil for half an hour
without allowing them to brown. Take the soft part of one loaf, rub it
fine on a grater, chop ten or twelve large leaves of sage, mix with the
breadcrumbs, pour the onion hot into the centre, mix thoroughly and
stuff.

This stuffing will be found not to smell in the cooking, or to be
unpleasant after eating.


_41. Truffled Stuffing for Fowls_

For two fowls take the soft part of half a loaf of bread, eight small
sprigs of parsley (not the stalk), the yolk of one egg, the livers of
the fowls, one rasher of bacon not too fat, pepper and salt, one round
of Spanish onion, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and one
small bottle of truffles. Rub the bread very fine on a cheese-grater
and chop onion and parsley very small. Fry the liver, bacon, and onion
very lightly, chop them very small and turn on to the board to mix
thoroughly with crumbs. Add the chopped truffles and a piece of butter,
break the yolk of the egg into it and stir the mixture well when the
stuffing will be ready to put into the fowl.


_42. Sauce Piquante for Leg of Mutton Cutlets_

After dishing the cutlets (rec: 86) turn the butter out of the pan and
put a little water into it as meat juice adheres to the pan. Into this
put a slice of Spanish onion chopped very fine, half a claret glass of
white wine, the juice of half a lemon, a little salt and pepper, half
a teaspoonful of Worcester sauce. Thicken with half a teaspoonful of
carefully mixed flour and water. Place the pan over the fire and bring
the mixture to boiling point, no more. Take it off and strain through a
gravy strainer over the meat and serve at once.


_43. Horseradish Cream_

Have a nice fresh horseradish rubbed finely on a coarse cheese-grater
having sufficient radish when grated for three large tablespoonfuls.
Place it in a basin and add half a large teacupful of thick cream. Stir
well and add three good teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar, a little salt,
and one and a half tablespoonfuls of good malt vinegar. Serve with cold
roast or boiled beef in a sauce boat. Never add anything to the radish
till the cream has been well stirred in and always add the vinegar last.


_44. Mustard Sauce_

This sauce has the great advantage that it does not require any cooking
and can be produced within a few moments if desired.

Two yolks of eggs carefully separated from the whites and placed in a
stone basin, and two teaspoonfuls of dry mustard stirred together till
perfectly smooth with two large tablespoonfuls of best salad oil and
two tablespoonfuls of best malt vinegar and a pinch of salt. Sprinkle
on it a little finely chopped parsley the last thing.


_45. Sauce Piquante_

Two or three thin slices of Spanish onion fried lightly in a little
good beef dripping. Two large tablespoonfuls of bovril added to the
onion which must be allowed to adhere lightly to the pan. Half a teacup
of hot water and a tablespoonful of best malt vinegar. Let the whole
come to a boil and thicken slightly with a little carefully mixed flour
and water. Strain and serve in a sauce boat.


_46. Egg and Lemon Sauce for Fish or Calf’s Head_

Melt in an enamelled frying pan about two ounces of fresh butter, add
quickly the yolks of two eggs and half a teacup of fresh cream. The
object of adding the cream with the yolks of the eggs is to prevent
the egg from becoming solid. Stir well together with a little salt the
juice of one lemon and a little milk. This sauce should be thick enough
without any added thickening.


_47. Apple Sauce_

Put six apples cut very small into a stone saucepan with a little cold
water. Add a teacupful of powdered sugar and half an ounce of butter.
Stew gently for one hour. Strain off some of the juice with the lid of
the saucepan and beat the apples with a fork until reduced to a paste.


_48. Tomato Sauce_

Put the tomatoes into a deep basin or jug and scald with boiling water.
They can then be peeled easily, the skin coming off like a glove from
the hand. Place in a rather deep frying pan with half an ounce of
butter and a piece of loaf sugar, pepper and salt. Mash with knife till
fairly smooth and serve, after steaming, with cutlets, veal, or mutton.


_49. Sauce Ravigotte_

(_For cold meat or boiled calves’ feet, cold_)

Chop together very small the yolk and white of one hard-boiled egg, add
the yolk of one raw one, six spring onions, a little parsley, pepper
and salt. Mix with one tablespoonful of vinegar and two of best salad
oil.


_50. Bread Sauce_

Peel and cut into quarters one onion and let it simmer in a pint of
milk till perfectly tender. Break one-fourth pound stale bread into
small pieces or grate it into crumbs, put it into a clean saucepan and
strain the milk from the onion over it; cover it with the lid and let
it remain an hour to soak. Beat it briskly with a fork, add a little
salt, a small pinch of cayenne pepper and either a little cream or a
piece of butter the size of a walnut.


_51. Brandy Sauce for Christmas Pudding_

Bring to a boil half a pint of milk, mix in a large basin one
tablespoonful of cornflour with a little cold milk, to a very stiff
paste, pour into it the boiling milk, stirring one way all the time,
add two large tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, two wineglasses of
brandy and serve in a sauce boat, very hot. _Note_: If the cornflour
is mixed very stiff and the milk is poured in while boiling, the sauce
will thicken and there will be no need to return it to the saucepan to
boil again.


_52. Curries_


_Rice._ The cooking of rice is the principal part in preparing a dish
of curry.

The rice must be snowy white in appearance and so dry when cooked that
each grain is perfectly detached.

Wash your rice in ten waters so as to get rid of all floury dust. Have
a saucepan ready with boiling water (in the proportion of three pints
to a quarter of a pound of rice) with a good pinch of salt. Pour the
rice into the saucepan and boil fast with the lid partly off (so that
it does not boil over) for twelve minutes. Drain off nearly all the
water, then shutting the lid tight, put the saucepan at the side of the
stove for the rice to finish cooking in its own steam. At the end of
twenty minutes the rice will be cooked and dry. Care must be taken not
to let it burn.


_Curried Eggs._ Fry lightly together one large Spanish onion cut
into rings and one or two tomatoes cut in four for about ten minutes
without allowing the onion to brown. Add a little good beef stock and
go on cooking in the frying pan for another twenty minutes, add then a
tablespoonful or more of curry powder and stir in the sauce. Four to
six hard-boiled eggs each cut into four are to be laid in the centre
of the frying pan and sauce turned over them with a spoon, after being
thickened with a little flour and water mixed smoothly. At the end of
five minutes lay the eggs down the centre of a dish and pour the curry
over them.

For meats or chicken, which would be already cooked, or for prawn
curries, proceed as above but take care to put meat or prawns in the
pan ten minutes after the stock has been added, and boil for ten
minutes before adding the curry and five minutes more afterwards.


_53. Mayonnaise_

_For Salmon, Lobster, and Cold Fowl_


_Salmon._ Cover with cold water in an earthenware saucepan two pounds
of salmon cutlets. A strainer should be laid at the bottom of the
saucepan. Add a little salt and a teaspoonful of vinegar. Cook for
thirty minutes. Dish on a flat dish and place on ice. Arrange on a bed
of sliced cucumber and lettuce and pour the mayonnaise over.

To make the mayonnaise put the yolks of two eggs in a pastry bowl, and,
while stirring with a spoon, keep adding drop by drop the best Lucca
salad oil to the amount of a teacupful. When all the oil is used, stir
in a teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar. It is imperative that nothing
should be added to the yolks before the oil, or the mayonnaise will
not rise. For the same reason you must stir always the same way. To
make a larger quantity add half a teacupful of oil for each yolk, and a
quarter of a teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar. If possible a mayonnaise
should not be made more than half an hour before it is required.


_Fowl._ The chicken should be carved and laid on a bed of mixed salad
with a few slices of beet-root round the outside of the dish.


_Lobster._ The lobster should be taken out of the shell and laid on a
bed of lettuce.


_54. Salmon and Cucumber Sandwiches_

Pound some fresh salmon in a mortar with a drain of anchovy sauce.
Spread it lightly on some thin bread and butter. Add a couple of thin
slices of cucumber and a little salt. Salmon and shrimp paste can be
used if preferred.


_55. Prawn Sandwiches_

Cut thin some bread and butter. Cut the prawns very fine and lay them
on the buttered bread with a little mustard and cress, pepper and salt.


_56. Sardine Sandwiches_

Scrape the sardines and remove the bones. Take eight slices of toast
about an inch thick, trim round the edges, and split with a knife.
Butter lightly while hot and lay the sardines between the split toast
not too thickly. Add a little red or white pepper if preferred and then
close the toast which should be then cut into two and served hot.


_57. Sardines on Toast_

Take the sardines out of the box and scrape off the scales, split them
and remove the backbone. Lay two sardines (four halves) on each slice
of buttered toast, sprinkle with a little red pepper and place in the
oven. Serve very hot.


_58. Beef and Tomato Sandwiches_

Take a sandwich loaf and cut the crust off on three sides. Pass the
knife down between the back crust and the crumb and slice the bread
against it. Butter each slice of bread and lay a thin slice of beef on
it, then a thin slice of tomato. Lay the other bread and butter on the
top with a pinch of pepper and salt.


_59. Caviare Savoury_

Take some slices of buttered toast, spread lightly with caviare and put
into the oven for a few seconds before serving.


_60. Hard-Boiled Eggs for Garniture of Sandwiches_

Have the water boiling, put the eggs into it and boil for fifteen
minutes quickly. Remove with a spoon and plunge them into cold water;
if the eggs are fresh this should avoid the green line which usually
forms round the white.


_61. Hors d’œuvres_

Hors d’œuvres make a nice beginning to a meal, do not give much trouble
to prepare, and dress the table laid out for lunch in an interesting
manner. My practice was to use four to six glass dishes.


_Sardines._ Remove carefully from the tin and lay on the dish with
their tails in the middle of the dish and the head part of the fish
towards the outer edge of the dish.


_Anchovies._ The French ones bottled in oil are the most profitable and
will keep quite a long time if carefully corked and the oil covers the
fish. Unroll them and split them lengthwise, laying them four or five
lengths one way of the dish and four or five the other, leaving little
squares of the dish visible. Fill each of these with the chopped up
white of an egg boiled hard.

A caviare hors d’œuvre should be served in the pot, packed in crushed
ice and plain toast provided on the table for it.


_Stuffed Eggs._ Have three or four eggs boiled hard. Place them in a
basin of cold water. Remove the shells as soon as they are cool enough
to hold in the fingers. Rinse in the water and cut each egg across the
middle, and cut a thin slice from each rounded end of the egg to enable
it to stand in an upright position. Remove the yolks into a plate and
mash them with a dinner fork, adding two teaspoonfuls of anchovy
sauce (bottled), one tablespoonful of cream, half a teaspoonful of dry
mustard. Work all together with the fork, and when perfectly mixed,
fill in the whites with the mixture. Cut a French olive into strips
lengthwise round the stone and place one piece across the top of each
egg to resemble a handle.


_Eggs with a Mayonnaise Sauce._ Cut lengthwise four hard-boiled eggs
after removing the shells as directed and lay them white side up on
the dish, which must be rather deep. Make a little mayonnaise sauce
(proportion of one yolk of an egg to half a teacup of salad oil stirred
into it drop by drop and half a teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar), pour
the sauce over the eggs.


_Beet-root._ Boiled whole and cut into thin rings, pour over it a
little vinegar and dust a little powdered sugar on it and a little
finely chopped onion.


_Tomatoes._ Skinned and prepared as directed for tomato salad.


_Celery._ Cut or rather curled as you would peel rhubarb and dressed
either with oil and vinegar or with a little mayonnaise sauce to which
has been added half a teaspoonful of dry mustard.

Then there are olives, stuffed or otherwise, tunny fish or smoked
salmon which can be bought in small tins and do not require any
dressing. Simply serve on the dish.


_62. Chocolate_

Place a quarter of a pound of Chocolate Menier in a stone saucepan for
ten minutes covered with cold water. Let it stand on the side of the
stove. Work it into a smooth paste and add water or milk to make it a
pint. No sugar. Place it over the fire and bring it to a boil. Do this
six times, lifting it from the fire each time it boils.


_63. Coffee for Four Persons_

Put into an earthenware saucepan a teacupful of roasted coffee freshly
ground, and pour over one pint and a half of boiling water. Bring to a
boil twice. Tip a tablespoonful of cold water into the boiling coffee.
Let it stand for five minutes and strain through a strainer into a
warmed coffee pot.



SOUPS, STOCKS


_General Remarks_

If the vegetables are used for flavouring only, they may remain in
the soup all the time it is cooking. If, on the other hand, they are
intended to be dished in the soup they should be put in only in time to
be cooked thoroughly.

Every kitchen should contain in a cupboard always a bottle of cooking
sherry, a bottle of mushroom catsup, one of Worcester sauce, one of
tomato (bottled) sauce, some fresh lemons, vinegar, the best salad oil,
a packet of sweet herbs, bovril, nutmeg, cloves, and spice.

The object in adding sugar is to clear the soup or stock and will be
found as effective as eggshells.

In preserving stocks for soups, gravies, etc., care should be taken
never to allow the receptacle containing it to be covered--after it is
strained--except with a perforated meat cover.

Stock cannot be kept for more than two days without being reboiled.
Never neglect to dash cold water into it while still boiling or the
object of settling the solid particles and raising the fat will not be
attained.


_64. Beef Tea_

Take one pound of leg of beef not fat. One pound makes about a pint of
good beef tea. Cut the meat several times across, taking care not to
cut it through. Sprinkle with a half teaspoonful of salt, put into a
stone jar or saucepan with one piece of loaf sugar, add one and a half
pints of cold water and place in a steady oven to cook for two hours.
Always put it into the oven as soon as it is prepared as the salt
otherwise would draw the juice out of the meat. Directly it is cooked,
dash about one tablespoonful of cold water into it. Place in a cold
place for the fat to rise, remove with a sheet of white paper the fat
which will have risen to the top and make hot as required.


_65. Mutton Broth_

This can apply to either the short ends of cutlet bones, the shank
end of a leg of mutton, or the scrag end of the neck. Remove the fat
and place, with an onion (not cut), into a saucepan a turnip cut into
small pieces, a pinch of salt, one piece of loaf sugar, and if no fresh
parsley is obtainable a pinch of mixed sweet herbs that have been
rinsed in cold water. (If herbs are used they must be added as soon as
the broth boils; if fresh parsley it should never be added till it is
within ten minutes of being ready to serve.) More salt may be added
to taste. Bring to a boil quickly and then put a quarter teacupful of
washed pearl barley into it and boil gently for three and a half hours.
Strain and serve.

It will be noticed that some of the soup will boil away and a little
hot water will have to be added. This broth can be made with the
remains of cold potatoes added instead of the barley, in which case it
requires to be stirred through a cullender so as to avoid any pieces of
potato remaining whole.


_66. Chicken Broth_

Take the remains of any cold chicken, giblets, feet, and put into an
earthenware saucepan with one piece of loaf sugar, a pinch of salt,
one small onion (whole), cover with cold water. Keep boiling gently
for three hours adding from time to time a little water to keep the
saucepan about half full. Strain through a cullender and put in the
larder to get cool, after adding a little cold water to make the fat
rise to the top.


_67. Lentil or Split-Pea Soup_

If for pea soup, take the bone of a ham, or the small bones of a piece
of pickled pork and add about a quart of cold water and one onion.
Have ready two large teacupfuls of split peas (that have soaked for
two hours). Boil steadily for three or four hours, stirring from time
to time to prevent burning. Strain through a cullender and serve with
fried bread, very hot. Proceed in the same way for lentil soup, only in
that case the bones of either beef or veal may be used instead of pork.


_68. White Bean Soup_

Have ready one pint of white beans boiled soft in water with a piece of
common soda the size of a pea. Put them into a saucepan with remains of
cold meat--beef, mutton, or veal--one uncut onion, one turnip, pepper
and salt to taste, and if not objected to, a few cold potatoes. Boil
gently about three hours, then pass the whole through a fine cullender
to strain the skins from the beans. Replace in a saucepan and bring
to a boil; then serve very hot. Have ready some slices of stale bread
about half an inch thick cut into dice. Have a little beef (or veal)
dripping, bring to a boil in an enamel frying pan and drop the bread in
while it boils, fry till a light brown and quite crisp. Serve in a hot
dish with a strainer under. This bread is good for either pea, lentil,
haricot, or potato soup.


_69. Chicken Soup_

Take the remains of any cold roast or boiled fowls, salt and pepper to
taste; a whole onion, half a rasher of very lean bacon, one piece of
loaf sugar, one quart of water. Put all together into a saucepan and
bring to a boil, keeping the meat or bones covered. Boil two hours.
Take one and a half flat tablespoonfuls of flour, one ounce of fresh
butter, and put the butter and flour into a smooth china or earthenware
bowl (enamel bowl will do), work the two together with a tablespoon
till a perfectly smooth paste is made, then pour the soup through a
cullender on to the paste, stirring all the time; add a little milk and
if possible a little fresh cream. Replace the soup in the saucepan, put
it back on the stove and stir one way till it boils, when it is ready
to serve.


_70. Game Soup_

Take a rabbit and wash it in a little water with a pinch of salt, then
cut it up. Put it into a stone saucepan with one quart to three pints
cold water, salt and pepper to taste, one piece of loaf sugar, one
onion whole (or three or four spring onions), one carrot, about half
a pound of gravy beef, and the remains of any cold game. Boil gently
for three hours, strain, and place in the saucepan again, bring to a
boil, thicken with flour and butter mixed as for chicken soup, bring
to a boil while stirring. Strain and serve. If not dark enough add
teaspoonful of bovril.


_71. Asparagus Soup_

Take the remains of cold veal, the bottom ends of asparagus, one onion,
salt and pepper, one piece of loaf sugar, and two pints of cold water.
Let it boil gently for three hours. Have ready, well mixed into a
smooth paste, two tablespoonfuls of flour with one and a half ounces
of fresh butter. Strain the soup, while still boiling, through a
strainer on to the paste, stir gently till perfectly smooth, add half
a teacupful of cream and a little milk. Care should be taken that the
soup is not too thick or thin. Replace in the saucepan and stir gently
over a clear fire till it boils. It is then ready to serve and should
be perfectly smooth.


_72. Tomato Soup_

Take the remains of cold chicken, beef, or veal; add two pounds of
fresh tomatoes cut into slices, one onion, pepper and salt, five pieces
of sugar. Put all into a stone saucepan and boil gently two hours (in
about a quart of water); have ready the same mixture of butter and
flour as for asparagus soup, strain the tomato soup on to it, add the
half teacupful of cream and a little milk, put back into the saucepan
and stir till it boils. This should be about a quart of soup.

It will be noticed that most of these recipes are made with the remains
of cold meat instead of buying especially to make the soup, and in this
way most things can be used up without any waste.


_73. Clear Ox Tail Soup_

Soak a fresh ox tail in cold water for two hours. Then cut at each
joint, remove all the fat, and lay in three pints of cold water in
a saucepan with a pinch of salt, two pieces of loaf sugar, and a
teaspoonful of mushroom catsup. Boil for three hours, then add one
sliced carrot and a finely cut onion; boil for another half hour. The
soup is then ready to be served with the meat in it.


_74. Thick Ox Tail Soup_

Proceed in the same manner as for the clear soup, adding a good
teacupful of strong beef stock. Put in whole an onion and a carrot with
a teaspoonful of Worcester sauce. Boil for three hours, then dash in a
cupful of cold water and remove from the fire to stand in a cool place.
Carefully remove all the fat and the vegetables. Bring the soup to a
boil again and add a carrot cut into oblong pieces, boil for another
half hour, thicken with a little carefully mixed flour and water, and
serve with the meat in it.


_75. Julienne Soup_

Take one pound of lean gravy beef not cut up, put it into a saucepan
with one piece of loaf sugar, an onion (whole), a little pepper and
salt, and three pints of water. Boil for two hours. Dash a teacupful
of cold water in to cause the fat to rise. Allow it to cool, skim the
fat, and strain the soup into another saucepan. Put in one carrot, cut
into slices and then into tiny strips, half a turnip, in strips, and
a few green peas. These last may be from a bottle if it is impossible
to obtain the fresh. Boil for half an hour and serve the soup with
the vegetables in it. This soup will turn out perfectly clear if the
directions are carefully followed.


_76. To Use Roast Beef Bone for Soup_

Remove all the fat; put the bone in a saucepan with about a quart of
water, a piece of loaf sugar (to clear it), salt, pepper, one carrot
cut into narrow strips, one onion sliced, and a little cut cabbage.
Boil steadily for an hour and a half. Remove the bone and then serve
the soup with the vegetables in it.



BEEF

_Roasting. Boiling_


_General Remarks_

  Sirloin          7 lbs.              1½ to 2 hours.
  Fillet       say 4 lbs.                     1 hour.
  Round            4 to 5 lbs.              1¼ hours.
  Rolled Ribs      7 lbs.             2¼ to 2½ hours.
  Aitchbone        7 lbs.              2½ to 3 hours.

The first and the two last joints should be bought large, not under
seven pounds, on account of the bone they contain.

In roasting or rather in baking, as is the general practice of small
households (either in gas stove or coal), attention should be paid
that the oven is not too fierce as it reduces the joint greatly and of
course spoils the taste and appearance.

On the other hand, an oven not sufficiently hot spoils the meat by
making it hard.

The proper degree of heat is best learned by experience but as a guide
it may be said that a joint should begin to splutter and sizzle within
fifteen minutes after the oven door is shut.

If the meat does not appear to be cooking satisfactorily at the end of
fifteen minutes the baking tin should be stood on the stove over the
fire (top off) after putting a little beef dripping into the tin.

While on the fire turn the joint over several times with the fork. At
the end of ten to fifteen minutes the meat may be put back into the
oven.

The dripping should be preserved as follows:--

After the meat is cooked, place the joint on the dish. Turn the fat out
of the baking tin into a basin and dash into it at once a tablespoonful
of cold water. This will separate the meat juice from the fat.

In this way you obtain perfectly clear fat and the meat juice under
it will be found useful for colouring sauces or improving soups. This
applies to all roast meat--beef, veal, and mutton--providing the joint
is not stuffed.

As to obtaining gravy for the joint itself, proceed as follows:--

After pouring off the fat into the basin as directed, put half a
teacupful of cold water into the baking tin and let it stand on top of
the fire till it boils, which will happen almost at once. Turn over the
joint in the dish.

Should the gravy appear not dark enough, the meat juice separated as
above from the fat of other joints may be added.

_N.B._ Never flour the joint before putting it in the oven. The
practice has nothing to recommend it and it would make it impossible to
obtain dripping or preserve the very useful meat juice.


_77. Salt Beef and Carrots_

Soak over night in cold water a piece of salt beef, say about four
pounds. Put it into a saucepan three parts full of boiling water. Time
for cooking: one and a half hours. When the meat has been boiling for
half an hour add four carrots cut in four lengthwise. Make about six
suet dumplings in the same way as suet crust for pudding and put in the
saucepan twenty minutes before the meat is ready. Care must be taken
that no salt is added to anything. Serve with the dumplings and carrots
round the dish.


_78. Stuffed Steak with Thick Sauce_

Take two pounds of rump steak, free it from sinews; make about four
large cuts in it without cutting it right through, with a sharp knife.
Lay the stuffing (sage and onion according to rec: 40) on the steak,
cover with a piece of flare, or if not available a piece of buttered
paper tied round with string, and bake for one hour. Lay the meat on a
dish and remove the string and paper. Put a pinch of pepper and salt
into the baking tin and about a teacupful of water. Place over the top
of the stove until it boils, stir into it a tablespoonful and a half of
carefully mixed flour, bring it to the boil again and carefully strain
it through a gravy strainer over the meat. Serve with baked or boiled
potatoes.


_79. Rump Steak with Kidney and Mushroom Sauce_

Melt over a clear fire an ounce of butter in an enamelled frying pan,
then put in one and a half pounds of rump steak to fry briskly for
five minutes, turning over once. Put the stove top on then and cook
the steak for fifteen to twenty minutes more. Prepare half an ox
kidney cut into dice, half a Spanish onion chopped very fine, and six
or seven mushrooms (which have been previously placed in salted water
for a short time to remove all grit). After dishing the steak put the
kidney in the pan first, then the onion, then the mushrooms and fry
very briskly but lightly for ten to fifteen minutes. Then add half a
teaspoonful of Worcester sauce, six tablespoonfuls of water, and half a
tablespoonful of flour mixed very smooth and thin with a little water.
Bring to a boil and turn over the steak before serving.


_80. Stewed Steak_

Cut into pieces about a finger’s length one and a half pounds of rump
steak. Have ready in an enamelled frying pan about an ounce of fresh
butter made hot, or dripping. Lay the steak in this and fry briskly
on a clear fire for ten minutes. Remove the meat and put it into an
earthenware saucepan with a slice. Fry in the same butter or dripping
one large Spanish onion. Cut two large or six small carrots into
pieces; add this and the onion to the steak with a piece of loaf sugar,
pepper and salt, and half a teaspoonful of Worcester sauce or mushroom
catsup. Cover with cold water and stew gently for two hours. Thicken
with a little carefully mixed flour and water. Best served in the
earthenware saucepan wrapped in a napkin.


_81. Marinaded Beef_

This recipe will be useful when the question arises of keeping a
joint over a Sunday. Get your butcher to cut you about four pounds of
undercut of beef. Make the marinade as follows: For a pint of best
malt vinegar one whole onion, one carrot (onion and carrot to be left
whole), one-fourth pint of cold water, two bay leaves, six or seven
peppercorns, salt and pepper to taste; put into an enamel saucepan and
bring to a boil. Simmer gently for half an hour then turn into a deep
basin to get cold. When quite cold place the beef in it and turn it
over five or six times in the course of the two days it has to wait for
cooking. When required for the table take some good dripping--either
beef or mutton according to which joint you wish to cook--put it into a
baking tin and when quite hot place the meat in it and cook in a nice
hot (but not fierce) oven for three-quarters of an hour to one hour.
Place the meat on a hot dish, turn out the fat which is no longer of
any use. For the gravy put four or five tablespoonfuls of the marinade
into the hot baking tin with a teaspoonful of bovril and bring to a
boil. Add to the boiling gravy, if possible, two or three teaspoonfuls
of cream (not preserved) thickened with a little flour and water mixed
smoothly, and serve either poured over the meat or in a sauce boat.

_Note._ The above will do for loin of mutton.


_82. Steaks on Toast_

Take a nice thick steak, beat it lightly with the blade of a firm
knife, cut into rounds say about the size of the foot of a large
wineglass, allowing two little steaks per person. Sprinkle with a
little salt. Have a deep frying pan with some good beef dripping ready
melted. Cut some rounds of dry bread a little bigger than the meat. Fry
these a crisp brown in the dripping. Drain them on a strainer. Put some
more fresh dripping in the pan and fry the little steaks which should
be cooked so as to allow the gravy to run red when cut. Place each on
the round of toast and serve very hot with some thick brown gravy.


_83. Scraped Meat Steak_

Take about two pounds of lean steak cut very thick. Scrape it free from
all fat or other particles with a sharp knife on to a big flat dish.
Add pepper and salt to taste, about half a finely sliced and minced
onion, a tablespoonful of Worcester sauce. Work all together with the
blade of the knife pressing the meat, etc., on the dish. In this way
the onion should entirely disappear. Form into little round cakes the
size of a small round dinner biscuit only three times as thick. Roll in
egg and breadcrumbs and fry lightly from three to seven minutes. Place
on a hot dish and serve. A welcome addition is the whole yolk of an
egg served on each, and it is quite palatable prepared in this way and
served quite raw.



MUTTON

_Roasting._ _Boiling_


_General Remarks_

  Leg             7 lbs.                1¾ hours.

(This can be cut in half across and used as two joints if desired, thus
doing away with a lot of cold meat for succeeding days)

  Shoulder        7 to 8 lbs.      1¾ to 2 hours.
  Loin            4 to 6 lbs.      1 to 1¾ hours.

For roasting mutton the oven must be brisk. No joint of mutton should
be put on the top of the stove.

For dishing and gravy proceed as for beef.

Shank end of leg of mutton makes very good mutton broth.


_83. Boiled Mutton_

Boil the bottom half of a leg of mutton in a saucepan three parts full
of water for one and a half hours with a teaspoonful of salt. Serve on
a flat dish with a little parsley as garniture.

Serve with caper sauce. Proceed as per No. 110 but adding half a cupful
of capers (bottled) instead of the parsley, ten minutes before serving
in a boat.


_84. Boiled Mutton for an Invalid_

Take a little of the best end of the neck of mutton and, after removing
the fat, put it in a stone saucepan which has been previously rinsed
in cold water, with half a pint of fresh milk and a little salt. While
boiling add half an onion cut up small. Boil gently for an hour and a
half. Thicken with a little flour and serve.


_85. Breast of Mutton Stuffed_

Lay the breast of mutton on the pastry board and put sage and onion
stuffing (recipe 40) into it. Roll and tie with string and bake for one
hour.


_86. Leg of Mutton Cutlets_

Cut the leg of mutton in half, the top part for roasting and the rest
of the leg cut into cutlets of about an inch thick (it should cut into
four cutlets). Put half an ounce of butter into a pan and melt it over
the fire. Fry the cutlets over a clear, brisk fire for five minutes,
and turn over once during that time. Put the stove top on and cook the
cutlets for fifteen minutes more. Then dish.


_87. Mutton Cutlets and Mashed Potatoes_

Cut three pounds of best end of neck of mutton (it is always best to
cut your own cutlets), carefully remove the line of fat and scrape the
bone which should not be longer than three inches. Chop the rest off.
Put one ounce of fresh butter in an enamelled frying pan and make it
hot. Lay the cutlets in the butter and put over a brisk fire for three
minutes. Turn once and place on the stove with the top on. Cook for
another fifteen minutes. If any doubt is felt as to their being done,
it is well to cut one to see whether it is cooked perfectly. It should
look red not purple, and the gravy should run. Arrange the mashed
potatoes in a pyramid in the centre of the dish and stand the cutlets
round it with a little paper frill on each bone.


_88. Boiled Mutton with Mushrooms or Olives_

Take some mutton cutlets from which all the fat has been removed. Put
them into a frying pan with a little good dripping and some finely
sliced onion. Fry to a light brown. Cut into dice one or more sound
turnips and a carrot and put into a small saucepan together with one or
two stoned olives or mushrooms cut up, unless the button ones are used.
Add the fried meat and onion and if possible a little strong meat gravy
to just cover the whole. (The stones of the olives should be put in as
well and removed before serving). Add pepper and salt and allow to stew
gently an hour and a half. Thicken with a little smoothly mixed flour
and water stirred into it. Bring to a boil and serve in a deep dish.


_89. Hot Pot_

Take about two and half pounds of best end of neck of mutton and after
removing the bones (which will make mutton stock) cut the meat in two
(each cutlet); have two sound turnips and two carrots cut into dice
and one large onion finely sliced. Put the vegetables in a pile in the
centre of a stone (deep) saucepan. Place the meat round it and add
pepper and salt. Pour in a small breakfast cup of cold water and cover
the whole with slices of partly cooked boiled potato. Spread liberally
with some good beef dripping and cover with the saucepan lid. Put into
a good oven and allow two and a half hours for it to cook. Then remove
the lid and leave to brown, when it will be ready to serve. It is best
served in the saucepan with a white serviette wrapped round it.


_90. Hashed Mutton_

Take the remains of cold roast mutton. Remove the fat and cut the meat
into nice small slices not too thin. Fry lightly a large onion cut into
thin slices, a little diced turnip, and half a dozen dry chillies.
Put all together into an enamelled saucepan and if possible a little
mutton stock made from the bone. Stew gently for an hour, add two
tablespoonfuls of washed rice, thicken with a little flour and water
mixed smooth, and serve hot.


_100. Stewed Lamb and Green Peas_

Take two and a half pounds of lean lamb cutlets; put them into an
enamelled saucepan with an onion cut into thin slices, one or two
fresh young turnips peeled and cut into squares, salt and pepper, and
a piece of loaf sugar. Stew gently for an hour, add a breakfast-cupful
of freshly shelled green peas and let them boil all together for twenty
minutes. Thicken with a little smoothly mixed flour and water. Serve
very hot with a little chopped parsley dusted over the top.


_Roast Lamb_

To roast lamb proceed as for mutton, only the joints, being smaller,
will not require so long to cook. A nice way to serve a leg of lamb is
as follows: have some bacon lard cut into strips about an inch long,
cut little slits in the outside of the leg and insert a piece of bacon
lard in each. Cook in a nice steady oven, allowing about an hour and a
half for a leg of four pounds.

If you wish to serve a leg of lamb or any other joint cold it is well
to choose a joint not too large for your purpose and to cook it the
day before it is required. Avoid cutting it while it is hot. In this
way the gravy should run freely when the cold joint is cut and the
flavour will be much better. The same applies to any joint intended to
be used cold.

The proper sauce for roast lamb is the mint sauce. Take twenty-four
leaves of mint chopped very fine, a teacupful of vinegar, and two good
teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar. Dissolve the sugar in vinegar and put
it with the mint into a sauce boat.



VEAL AND PORK

_Roasting. Boiling_


_General Remarks_

  Fillet       5 to 6 lbs.                       2 to 2½ hours.
  Shoulder     half shoulder from 7 to 9 lbs.      2 to 2¾ hrs.
  Loin         4 lbs.                                   1 hour.

If fillet piece is too large to cook for one joint you may cut off
a slice one and a half inches thick, horizontally, to be used later
either as veal cutlets or for veal olives.

For dishing and obtaining gravy and dripping proceed as for beef.

Generally speaking, a piece of veal wants a longer time for cooking
than a piece of beef or mutton of the same size.


_101. Veal Cutlets_

Chop off the long bones of two pounds of veal cutlets and put them to
stew in a stone saucepan with a little salt to make gravy. Melt an
ounce of fresh butter or dripping in an enamelled frying pan in the
stove with the top off and lay the cutlets in it. Fry briskly for ten
minutes turning once or twice. Replace the stove top and cook for
another twenty minutes. Place on a dish, pour the gravy already made
over them, and serve.


_102. Stuffed Fillet of Veal_

Take about three pounds of veal cut rather flat, score it several times
with a sharp knife. Lay the sage and onion stuffing (as per recipe 40)
on it and cover with flare or a buttered paper. Tie it with string, put
it into a baking tin, and bake for one and a half hours. Place on a hot
dish and pour the gravy over.


_103. Roast Pork_

A small leg of pork or about four pounds of loin must be scored on the
outside with a sharp knife. Put it into a baking tin and put in the
oven for two to two and a half hours. Dish up and treat the dripping as
directed for beef or mutton. Serve with onion or apple sauce.


_104. Boiled Shoulder of Pork_

Put into boiling water without salt, and boil for one and a half hours
if only half a shoulder; for two hours if whole.


_105. Boiled Ham_

Must be put into boiling water. If a whole ham, boil for three to three
and a half hours. Let it steam for a few minutes on a dish (with a
strainer under it) and then roll in baked breadcrumbs. Never put the
paper collar on the knuckle till thoroughly cold.


_106. Blanquette de Veau_

Take two pounds of breast of veal, cut it in squares about two inches,
put into a saucepan, cover with cold water, add a large pinch of salt.
Bring to a boil, then skim carefully. Add one whole onion stuck with
four cloves, one carrot cut in halves, a teacupful of white wine, a
bouquet of laurel, thyme, and parsley. Cook for half an hour, then
strain the meat and keep the stock boiling. Mix two ounces of butter
with the same of flour quite smoothly, stir it in the boiling stock
while over the fire. The resulting sauce must be perfectly smooth and
not too thick. Put the meat without the vegetables or herbs back into
the saucepan and continue to cook for an hour and a half till quite
tender, taking the greatest care that it should not burn. Stir the
yolks of two eggs and half an ounce of butter and the juice of a lemon
together and add it to the meat in the saucepan. Bring to a boil.
Arrange the meat in a deep dish and pour the sauce over it. Surround
the whole with six croutons of bread cut in the form of triangles and
fried a golden brown, in butter.


_107. Calf’s Head_

Half a calf’s head is more than enough for three or four persons. The
best plan is to soak the head in a bowl of cold water and a little
salt all night, previously removing the brains. It will take from two
and a half to three hours’ gentle boiling and care must be taken that
the cooking vessel is large enough to allow the head to lie flat and
the water to cover it. It must be put into cold water with a good
piece of salt, a knob of loaf sugar, one onion (large and whole), two
carrots (whole), and two teacupfuls of white wine. Serve with the meat
carefully removed from the bone, either cold with ravigote sauce or
with the cooked vegetables cut into small squares and a few button
mushrooms which have been cooked in the stock. Arrange this on the dish
and pour over it the following brown gravy: Fry lightly two slices of
onion in a little butter allowing it to get brown a little. Add some
of the stock from the head, a few drops of A. 1. sauce, and a good
teaspoonful of bovril, or meat juice from some other joint. Thicken
with a little mixed flour and water, pour into the frying pan, bring
to a boil and strain over the meat and vegetables in the dish. The
brains may be cooked separately and beaten into this gravy after it is
strained.


_108. Calf’s Feet_

Calf’s feet are of great use in the cooking for invalids. Soak as for
calf’s head over night. Put into a saucepan with cold water and a good
piece of salt, one onion whole and one whole carrot. This will make an
excellent soup served with the meat cut into nice little pieces and
the vegetables cut as directed for calf’s head. But if the feet are
intended for jelly it is better to omit the vegetables. Half a pint of
good port wine can be added to the stock after it is cooked. Before
straining add a teacupful of cold water to clear it.


_109. Pig’s Trotters_

Pig’s trotters can be served as an addition to a dish of tripe and
onions in which case they require soaking over night as they would be
already salted. Boil them without salt until tender and add to the
cooked tripe. As a separate dish you must, when cooked, roll them in a
freshly beaten egg and then in baked breadcrumbs and fry a golden brown
in a little butter.



FISH

_Frying. Boiling_


_General Remarks_

Raw fish should be kept in an uncovered dish in the icebox. Always wash
in a little vinegar and water before cooking. _Smoked fish_ such as
haddock should be boiled always in a deep frying pan allowing the water
to cover it.


_Kippers_ are difficult to cook without smell and to keep moist. The
best way is to lay the kipper on its back in a flat meat dish. A small
piece of butter should be always put into the dish first and a larger
piece on the open side of the kipper, with a little white paper. Put
into a quick oven for fifteen to twenty minutes. There will be no smell.


_Dried Sprats_, to be treated in the same way but they require only
twelve to fifteen minutes in the oven, and a little more butter.


_Bloaters_, like kippers, after removing the head and cleaning and
wiping on a damp cloth.


_110. Boiled Fish and Melted Butter_


_Plaice._ Lay your fish on a perforated white stone strainer in a
fish kettle. Cover with cold water, add a teaspoonful of salt and a
teaspoonful of vinegar. Put over a quick fire, bring to a boil and keep
it boiling for about fifteen minutes. Have ready the following sauce:--

Mix one dessertspoonful of flour smoothly with one ounce of butter. Add
sufficient boiling milk to make up to half a pint, and a little salt.
Put it into a double saucepan the bottom half containing boiling water.
Stir with a spoon always the same way until it thickens. Chop about six
sprigs of parsley (not stalk) and add to the sauce. Dish the fish in a
flat dish and serve the sauce in a sauce boat.


_Cod_ may be cooked in the same way only it must boil for fully half an
hour after it has been brought to the boil.


_Hake._ As for cod but boil only for twenty-five minutes.


_Halibut._ Is seldom bought whole. Buy say two pounds and boil for
twenty-five to forty minutes according to the thickness.


_Turbot._ Say two pounds. Must be put into _boiling_ water and boiled
gently for thirty minutes. Oyster sauce, foundation as above, only the
oysters (each cut in two) must be added after the sauce has thickened
and kept stirred for four to five minutes.


_111. Fried Fish_


_Plaice._ Cut about two pounds of filleted plaice into four pieces.
Beat an egg in a plate, white and yolk together. Put the fish into it
and then into rolled rusk crumbs. Have ready in an enamelled frying pan
about half a pound of best tub lard and when thoroughly hot (it can be
found out by dropping a crumb into the fat when it will sizzle) it is
ready for the dish. Lay the fish into it and fry for ten to fifteen
minutes. Dish with a slice on a flat dish and serve with a garniture of
lemon.

This recipe applies to soles--unless the sole is very thick, when it
must fry for twenty minutes. Whiting for twenty minutes and halibut for
twenty-five minutes.


_112. Fried Smelts_

Make a batter of one teacupful of flour mixed carefully with milk till
it is quite thin enough to run. Add a pinch of salt. Have ready in an
enamelled frying pan a quarter pound of best tub lard boiling. Dip each
smelt well into the batter and fry in the hot lard for ten to fifteen
minutes.


_113. Whitebait_

Are treated like smelts but the batter must be only half as thick and
the time required for cooking is from seven to ten minutes. Take up the
fish from the batter with a slice and scatter into the boiling fat. Do
not crowd the pan on any account.


_114. Stewed Eels_

Two or three freshly skinned eels cut into small pieces about two
inches long. Put into a stone saucepan with a little salt and a piece
of loaf sugar, one claret glass of white claret or cooking sherry, and
about a teacupful of good beef stock. Cover the eels with water and
slice a small Spanish onion into it. Stew gently for three-quarters of
an hour, thicken with a little flour mixed with water and serve in the
stone saucepan. Care must be taken not to break the fish when stirring
in the thickening.


_115. Salmon or Cod Cutlets_

One and a half to two pounds in three or four cutlets, dip into a
beaten egg and then roll in crumbs, made preferably of German rusks.
Have ready a quarter of a pound of best tub lard in an enamelled frying
pan and when hot put the fish in and fry for a quarter of an hour to
twenty minutes, turning over once. To ascertain if properly cooked pass
the knife down by the side of the bone and if cooked the knife will
pass quite easily. Dish with a slice on a flat dish and garnish with
parsley and lemon cut in quarters.


_116. Sole for an Invalid_

Lay a filleted sole in a rather deep meat dish and cover with milk and
a little salt and a piece of butter the size of a walnut. This will
make the sauce. Cover with another dish (flat) and bake in a quick oven
for about half an hour. Serve very hot with the sauce and a little
chopped parsley sprinkled over it.


_117. Crimped Skate and Black Butter_

Take about one and a half pounds of crimped skate. Have ready in
an enamelled frying pan about two ounces of butter made hot and a
tablespoonful of vinegar. Put it over the fire and let it slightly
burn. Fry the skate in it for twenty minutes and then serve on a hot
dish with a few slices of lemon laid round it.


_118. Pickled Herrings or Mackerel_

Have eight fresh herrings or four large mackerel cleaned and remove
the heads. Lay not very closely together with the backs upwards in a
pie-dish. Fill the dish with vinegar and a few peppercorns, a little
salt, an onion (sliced), and a piece of butter about the size of a
walnut. Bake in a moderately quick oven for about one and a half hours.
Serve in a glass dish and strain the vinegar over them.


_119. Herrings in Paper_

Have ready cleaned and beheaded say six herrings with soft roes if
possible. Lay six pieces of paper (buttered) on the hot shelf of the
oven to melt the butter, then wrap each fish in a piece of paper. Have
ready about a quarter of a pound of tub lard melted in an enamelled
frying pan and lay the fish in the papers in the boiling fat. The fire
must not be too fierce. Fry for about twenty or twenty-five minutes
over a brisk fire. Dish up and serve in the papers.


_120. Red Mullet_

Take for four persons two good-sized mullets. (Remove the head if
desired; never split them open.) Have a deep enamelled frying pan
ready. Put into it three ounces of butter, four or five wafer-thin
slices of onion, two tablespoonfuls of bottled tomato sauce or catsup.
Bring to a boil and lay the fish gently in the hot pan. Keep the
butter boiling lightly round the fish. Baste frequently with a large
spoon; then carefully turn the fish, taking care not to tear the skin
(thus spoiling the appearance). Generally it will take from thirty to
forty minutes to cook the fish through. This can be easily ascertained
by passing the blade of a fine knife gently through the fish by the
side of the bone. Have a little more butter and tomato catsup melted
together in a basin. Place the fish on a hot dish and pour the melted
butter and tomato sauce you have ready over the fish and serve very
hot. It should never be allowed to brown, so as to retain its pretty
red colour.



FOWLS AND GAME BIRDS

_Roasting and Between Boiling_


_General Remarks_

In roasting birds the great point is to avoid dryness.

Butter should be put _into_ the bird as well as outside.

The fowl should never be washed with water after being trussed but
wiped with a damp cloth.

On no account should a fowl intended for roasting be floured on the
outside. It is an abominable practice, causing the skin to become
leathery and thick.

Fowls or any birds already plucked and trussed cannot be kept for more
than two days. But before trussing they may be kept _hanging_ for three
or four days providing the weather is not thundery or hot.


_121. Roast Goose_

Have a goose of seven or eight pounds trussed for roasting. Stuff with
sage and onion stuffing (rec: 40), butter the breast well and cook in
a quick but not fierce oven for three and a half hours. Garnish with
sausages.


_122. Roast Duck_

If not stuffed put a piece of butter inside and butter the breast
liberally. Cook in a quick oven for one and a half hours. Dish as for
roast fowl and serve with green peas as per recipe. If stuffed it must
be cooked for one and three quarters hours.


_123. Wild Duck_

Put some butter inside the duck, butter the breast, and fasten a slice
of very fat bacon to the breast with a skewer. Bake in a quick oven for
one and a half hours. Serve garnished with parsley.


_124. Roast Fowl_

Put inside a properly trussed fowl about an ounce of butter and spread
butter also over the breast. Do not flour your fowl. Bake in a quick
oven for one and a quarter hours (roast one and a half hours). When the
fowl is done lay on a dish, strain the butter out of the meat tin, boil
up a little water in it to make gravy and pour over the fowl in the
dish. If to be stuffed see recipe: 41.


_125. Roast Pheasant_

Should be cooked in the same way as chicken and served with cranberry
sauce or black currant jelly. To make cranberry sauce take half a
pound of cranberries, a good teacupful of powdered sugar and just cover
with hot water. Boil gently for an hour. Sometimes the sugar is omitted.


_126. Snipe and Quail_

Snipe must not be trussed, but quail is always trussed. Butter the
breasts; a quail should have a piece of butter inside as well. Bake
in a quick oven for half an hour. Lay the birds on slices of thick
buttered toast. Serve them on toast with red or black currant jelly.


_127. Roast Partridge_

Butter the breast and inside. Bake in a tin in the oven for
three-quarters of an hour. Lay the bird on a thick slice of toast. Pour
the fat out of the tin, boil up in it a very little water and serve the
gravy thus made in a sauce boat.

The best toast for all game birds is made as follows: Remove the crust
from as many pieces of bread as required. When the birds are cooked
place them in another tin or dish and bring the fat in which they have
been cooked to a boil on the stove. Place the slices of bread in the
boiling fat and fry till they are a crisp brown.


_128. Roast Pigeons_

Take say two pigeons trussed for roasting. Put a good-sized piece of
butter into each and liberally butter the breasts. Put into a baking
tin and bake for half an hour to three-quarters. For dishing, split in
halves down the breast (it will be easy if the birds are well done)
and lay on hot buttered toast. Strain the fat out of the tin and put a
little good meat juice into it. Stir in a little well-mixed flour and
water and serve with green peas.


_129. Boiled Fowl_

Take a lean fowl and fasten a slice of lean bacon over the breast with
a small skewer. Put into a saucepan, with enough boiling water to
cover it, with an onion and a little white wine. Stew gently for an
hour. Remove the fowl whole and serve with melted butter sauce as for
fish without the parsley. The liquid in which it boiled should make
excellent soup if you boil in it any remains of chicken carcass just
for flavouring, or add some good beef stock.


_130. Venison_

Melt an ounce of butter or dripping in a baking tin and when hot lay in
it about three pounds of venison not too fat. Bake in a fairly quick
oven for two hours, basting it from time to time with the butter out
of the tin. Make the gravy as for beef. Serve with red currant jelly.


_131. Roast Turkey_

Have ready a turkey of about seven pounds trussed for roasting. Stuff
it with the best sausage meat and some truffles cut up very small.
Butter the breast very liberally and bake in a quick oven for three
hours. Garnish with sausages.


_132. Chicken Jelly_

Take an old fowl trussed and slash it well across the breast and thighs
with a sharp knife. Place it in a large saucepan, cover with cold
water, add a little salt, two big pieces of loaf sugar, and one whole
onion. Stew gently for three hours, strain from the fowl into a deep
basin, add quickly a teacupful of cold water and set it to get cold. It
can be used either as chicken broth or, with the addition of a glass of
good white wine, as a jelly in which to serve a young roast fowl.


_133. Chicken Rissoles_

Mince finely the remains of cold chicken with a slice of onion. Make
a little sauce, stirring smoothly one ounce of fresh butter into a
tablespoonful of flour, and pouring half a pint of boiling milk into
it. Return it to the saucepan and allow it to boil (a double saucepan
is best for all milk cooking); it will then thicken; put the chicken
into it, with a pinch of salt. Make some deep light pastry cases and
put a thick finger of larded bread into each till the pastry is cooked.
If the top edge of the pastry is moistened with a little milk, the lid
can be easily removed when cooked. Put the chicken mixture into the
cases after removing the bread, replace the top, and serve very hot, in
a meat dish.



VEGETABLES AND SALADS


_Green Vegetables_

_Always_ boil without a lid on.

_Always_ put straight into boiling water.

_Never_ add salt or soda till the vegetables are in the water.

_Never_ have green vegetables lying in cold water more than half an
hour before they are to be cooked.

Cabbage, savoy, cauliflower should be steeped for ten minutes in a
pan of cold water with a good tablespoonful of salt. Time to boil
twenty-five to thirty minutes.

Potatoes must lie in cold water without salt.

Onions should never lie in water or be wet before being used.

Turnips, carrots, and parsnips should be washed but never allowed to
lie in cold water.

Celery should be treated like cabbage.

Spinach, on the contrary, requires to be washed in seven different lots
of cold water and only the last lot without salt.

Fresh beans or peas should never pass through any cold water.


_134. Dry Vegetables_

Haricot beans should be put to soak for at least twelve hours in cold
water--pint of beans to three pints of cold water. No salt.

Dry peas (not split) the same.


_133. Salads and Their Dressings_

There are many green salads, and a salad is always a very welcome
addition to a meal if there should be cold meat or fowl in any form.
Lettuce, endive, watercress, corn salad, chicory or tomato, can be
dressed as follows: Having washed and dried the salad (by means of a
wire salad basket swung vigorously), place it in the salad bowl with a
little chopped onion or several young spring onions according to the
season. To two salad-spoonfuls of vinegar dissolve one salt-spoonful
of salt and a little pepper, turn into the salad and add three
salad-spoonfuls of best salad oil. Turn the salad over for five minutes
with the spoon and fork. The bowl should then appear quite dry, the
dressing having been taken up on the green salad. If dressing tomatoes
alone, place the tomatoes which must be firm and sound in a large basin
and pour over them some boiling water. The skin will then peel off
easily leaving the fruit whole. Cut them into slices, put into a glass
dish and sprinkle over them a little freshly chopped onion. Mix in a
breakfast cup the oil and vinegar, salt and pepper (always taking care
to add the oil last); stir well and pour over the tomatoes in the dish.
It is best not to attempt to turn this salad as the tomatoes so easily
get broken and the appearance of the salad is then spoiled. Sprinkle
over all a little finely chopped parsley.


_Potato Salad._ Take some boiled potatoes, cut into slices not too thin
and a little chopped onion. Place in a salad bowl. Mix the oil and
vinegar as before directed only allow exactly double the quantity of
dressing as the potatoes absorb it. Turn over well before serving.


_Chicory as Salad._ Will need the dressing prepared as for tomato.


_Russian Salad._ Any remains of cold beans, peas, carrots, beet-root,
etc., with the addition of one hard-boiled egg, the white chopped
separately from the yolk and added to the salad only after it is
dressed. Put into a large basin all the cold vegetables it is intended
to use together with a little finely chopped onion. Mix in a cup the
raw yolk of one egg, two teaspoonfuls of cream if possible, two
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and three of oil, pepper, and salt. Work
all together and add a teaspoonful of powdered sugar. Turn it into the
vegetables and turn the salad very carefully once or twice. Sprinkle
the chopped egg over all.


_136. Asparagus_

This delightful vegetable is a welcome and useful addition to either
a lunch or dinner and can be served either hot or cold. If cold, then
with a nice mayonnaise sauce or with oil and vinegar. If hot, then as
follows: Prepare the asparagus, carefully cutting each stick slanting
thus removing about an inch from each. (These short ends can be washed
and put into stock to flavour it for asparagus soup. A few of the
tops being added for the sake of appearance.) Boil in plenty of water
till tender, strain carefully and serve with melted butter in which a
few dry brown breadcrumbs have been added, or quite clear butter as
desired. If any asparagus is left over from the meal it should be used
in an omelette.


_137. Indian Corn_

Take the corn and after cutting the stump end close to the green leaf,
put into a saucepan of boiling water sufficient to cover it and boil
gently with a good piece of salt for four hours. When cooked, pare off
the green leaves and serve on a clean serviette with melted butter in a
sauce boat.


_138. Salsify_

Carefully wash and remove shoots from the salsify. Place it in boiling
stock and boil till tender. Serve very hot in a vegetable dish either
with a white sauce or with a little melted butter over it in two lots
as they must not be crowded.


_139. New Potatoes_

Carefully select potatoes about the same size, have them scraped and
put into boiling water with a little piece of mint and some salt.
Boil for fifteen to twenty minutes or until quite tender, turn into a
vegetable dish and put a piece of butter the size of a walnut melted
over the potatoes, and dust a little finely chopped parsley over them.


_140. Potatoes Sautés_

Take some potatoes which have been boiled and cut them into thin
slices. Melt in a frying pan about an ounce of fresh butter and when
this boils lay the potatoes in it, not on top of each other but
perfectly flat, while the pan stands on the stove. Allow the potatoes
to brown first one side and then the other. Dish with a slice into a
vegetable dish and dust over with a little finely chopped parsley.


_141. Mashed Potatoes_

Boil the potatoes carefully, strain, and shake vigorously with the lid
on. Break them up then and beat with a carving fork, with two ounces of
fresh butter; then add fresh milk and continue beating till they attain
the consistency of very thick cream. They will then be ready to serve
with cutlets or as a bed for sausages.


_142. Stuffed Potatoes_

Peel your potatoes and cut the ends so that they are flat. Scrape the
centre out of each potato leaving a wall of about a quarter of an inch
thick all round. Mince finely any cold beef, mutton, or veal you may
have by you with one large ring of Spanish onion chopped very small,
pepper and salt, and a little mushroom if possible. Moisten slightly
with a little meat juice. Fill in each potato with this mixture. Melt
in a baking tin sufficient beef dripping, a quarter of a pound to every
six or eight potatoes would be right, and when boiling, but not beyond
boiling point, stand the potatoes in it. The baking tin should be small
enough to allow the dripping to come well up the sides of the potatoes.
Cook in a fairly quick oven from thirty to forty minutes. When cooked
brush very lightly over the top with the beaten white of an egg. Dish
very carefully so as not to take up the fat.


_143. French Fried Potatoes_

Cut your peeled potatoes into long strips about half an inch in
thickness and leave them in the cold water. Melt about half a pound of
tub lard (not bladder lard as this has always flour mixed with it which
causes the things to burn in the frying pan). When the lard is hot,
drop a small crumb into it and if the fat sizzles round it is ready for
the potatoes. Put the pan over a brisk fire and drop the potatoes as
you take them out of the water straight into the pan. If the pan is not
large enough to take them all flat, cook in two lots.


_144. Savoury Potatoes_

Have the potatoes boiled and not broken. Cut into dice some fat bacon.
Put a piece of butter into a small enamelled frying pan and when melted
put the bacon fat into it and let it brown slightly. Pour over the
potatoes in the dish and serve at once. This is a good way to serve
potatoes with cold meat.


_145. Potato Croquettes_

Have ready about two or three breakfast-cups of nicely mashed potato.
Form into either small round cakes or sausage-shaped ones. Roll in a
plate of well-beaten egg and some fine crumbs made from rolled rusk
crumbs; fry a light brown in some good dripping or lard, and serve
piled up in a dish, garnished with a little fresh parsley.


_146. Baked Potatoes_

Cut your peeled potatoes in four pieces lengthwise. Melt in a baking
tin half a pound of beef or veal dripping (mutton dripping will not
do) on the top of the stove, and when boiling put the potatoes into
it. Turn them once and only then sprinkle with a little salt. Place in
a brisk oven and bake for twenty minutes or half an hour. Dish with a
slice.


_147. Green Peas_

Put into a saucepan of boiling water half a vegetable dish of green
peas. Add two lumps of loaf sugar, a small sprig of mint, a pinch of
soda, and a flat teaspoonful of salt. Young peas should cook from
twenty to thirty minutes over a clear fire with the saucepan lid
off. Strain through a cullender and when dished sprinkle with a good
dessertspoonful of powdered sugar; add a piece of butter about the size
of a walnut and turn over with a spoon several times before serving.

Bottled peas treated in this manner very closely resemble fresh peas.
They must be washed in three waters before cooking.


_148. Scarlet Runner and Broad Beans_

Have four pounds of beans, trim them all round with a knife to remove
all the string and cut them lengthwise into thin slices. Do not put
them into cold water. Have ready the saucepan three parts full of
boiling water. Put in the beans with a little salt and a tiny piece
of soda. Boil for twenty minutes if the beans are young and a little
longer if they are not quite fresh. Strain into a cullender then into a
vegetable dish.

Broad beans should be treated in the same way after shucking them. Add
a piece of butter when dished and sprinkle over with a little chopped
parsley.

Never allow vegetables of any kind to be prepared over night. It will
be found that peas or beans will be hard, cabbage or other greens
offensive, and potatoes become flabby.


_149. Cauliflower_

Take a young cauliflower with a firm head. Take off the thick outside
leaves and cut a cross on the bottom of the stump. Stand it in boiling
water with the flower uppermost allowing the water to come right over
it. Add some salt and a tiny bit of soda. Boil until tender (from
fifteen to twenty minutes). Dish without breaking, upright in the dish.
Pour half a teacupful of clarified butter over the cauliflower and dust
a few rolled breadcrumbs, which have been browned in the oven, over the
top.


_150. Boiled Onions and White Sauce_

Cut eight Spanish onions into rings. Put them into a saucepan three
parts full of boiling water with a dessertspoonful of salt and boil for
one hour. Strain into a cullender.

Take two large tablespoonfuls of flour and mix smoothly with one and
a half tablespoonfuls of butter. Add boiling milk to the paste, about
half a pint, return it to the saucepan and stir till it boils; then
turn the onions into the sauce and serve very hot.


_151. Mushroom Rissoles_

Cut half a pound of fresh mushrooms into very small pieces. Put into a
small enamelled saucepan with one slice of Spanish onion chopped very
fine, a pinch of salt and a little pepper. Add a little meat juice and
a teacup of water and stew gently until the mushrooms have absorbed all
the moisture. Turn out into a plate and allow to cool. Prepare some
light paste, cut out with a teacup into rounds, brush the rims of each
round with a little milk. Put a small teaspoonful of the mushrooms into
each and fold over into lozenge shape. Take the shelf out of the oven
while it is hot and lay upon it a sheet of paper (white) which has been
previously buttered. As soon as the butter has melted lay the rissoles
on and bake in quick oven from fifteen to twenty minutes. To be eaten
hot.


_152. Stuffed Tomatoes_

Cut a thin slice off eight large tomatoes. Remove part of the inside
with a teaspoon. Put half an ounce of fresh butter into a frying pan
(must be fresh butter). Take one large rasher of bacon, fat and lean,
and half a Spanish onion; chop very fine, add a pinch of mixed herbs,
pepper and salt, and the inside of the tomatoes. Make the butter hot
in the pan and place the tomatoes (the cut side downwards) in it and
stand on the stove with the top on. Leave for one minute and a half.
Turn them and place the stuffing in the corner of the pan. Cook both
together in this way for ten minutes more taking care not to let
burn. Take out the tomatoes with a slice and place on a fairly deep
meat dish; fill them with the stuffing, having carefully taken it up
with the slice so as to avoid grease. Pour over all about half a small
teacupful of meat juice.


_153. Bubble and Squeak_

Chop lightly with a knife in a dish any cold greens and potatoes you
may have left. Melt in an enamelled frying pan one ounce more or less
of fresh butter. Turn the vegetables into it. While cooking use a large
dinner fork to press the vegetables into a smooth paste, turning it
over and over with the fork all the time to prevent it sticking to the
pan. Vegetables so treated should work into a perfectly smooth, stiff
paste and leave the pan as clean as when they went into it. Add a
little pepper and salt.

Be careful to remove all stumps of cabbage before using.


_154. To Use up Cold Vegetables_

Cold boiled French beans, cold carrots, cabbage, and a little chopped
onion may be put into an enamelled frying pan in which one and a
half ounces of fresh butter has been melted. Fry the vegetables very
lightly, not making them brown. Turn into a deep dish and pour a
little meat gravy over them. This may be served as a dish by itself or
with cold meat.


_155. Spinach as a Separate Dish_

Wash through several waters, into which a little salt has been added,
four pounds of fresh spinach after having removed all stalks. The last
water should be without salt. The spinach would have absorbed enough
moisture to cook it in but nevertheless have ready a saucepan half full
of boiling water and put the spinach into it. This will prevent a most
disagreeable smell being emitted while the spinach is cooking. Boil for
twenty minutes, keeping the spinach pressed down with a fork. It should
then be quite tender; if it is not so, boil for five minutes longer.
Strain through a cullender, pressing hard with a plate or wooden
vegetable press to get all the water out; put into a bowl and beat well
with a fork and then work it into another bowl through a hair sieve
using a large wooden spoon. Then work in half a gill of cream, a small
piece of butter and a little milk. The spinach ought then to have the
consistency of thick cream. Put it into a dish and serve with croutons
of lightly fried French roll or garnished with hard-boiled eggs cut in
quarters.



PASTRIES, SWEETS, AND CAKES


_General Remarks_

For Tarts the fruit of all kinds must always be cooked first by itself.
Bottled fruits should also be brought to a boil with sugar before being
put into the pastry, except for baked apple dumplings.

For Puddings the fruit should not be cooked before. Suet crust should
be mixed with water with just the chill off but not hot.

Milk puddings always require to be cooked in a very slow oven.

Never use brown sugar for sweetening except for Christmas pudding and
apple pudding.


_156. Pastry for Meat Pies_

For meat pies, sausage rolls, etc., the following pastry is
recommended. Put two and a half cupfuls of flour into a bowl and work
into it a quarter of a pound of butter. Mix with a little tepid water.
Roll out on the board and spread it thickly with a quarter of a pound
of lard (half at a time). Turn over the ends of the pastry, roll out
again and spread the rest of the lard. Turn in the ends again and roll
finally for the crust of your pie.


_157. Pastry for Puddings_

Put into the pastry bowl two and a half to three breakfast-cupfuls of
flour and half a teaspoonful of baking powder (unless self-raising
flour is being used in which case no baking powder is necessary). Have
a quarter of a pound of beef suet carefully separated from all skin
and chopped very finely. Work the suet smoothly into the flour, add a
pinch of salt, and mix to a good stiff paste with a little tepid water.
Roll out on the board to the thickness required. Carefully butter the
basin before putting the pastry into it, and moisten the edge of the
paste at the top of the basin to make the top crust adhere and thus
enclose the meat or fruit securely. Place over the basin a wet pudding
cloth and tie firmly with a string. Use always a pudding basin that has
a good groove round it to prevent the string from slipping off. The
best material for a pudding cloth is a new piece of unbleached calico
that has been well scalded to remove all the dressing from it, and the
easiest way to keep it clean is to place it in a bowl of cold water to
soak each time it has been used. Scrape off with a knife any particles
of paste that may remain on it and rinse well through several warm
waters. No soap must be used. Dry thoroughly and pass through a mangle.


_158. Pastry for Pies and Tarts_

Three breakfast-cupfuls of self-raising flour, a quarter of a pound of
fresh butter, and two ounces of lard. Work the butter and lard into
the flour with a good pinch of salt and mix to a smooth elastic paste
with milk (sour milk may be used with advantage). Roll the paste on
the board about half an inch thick. Rub a little butter lightly round
the rim of the dish and put a border of paste round it. Brush a little
milk on the top of that to allow the other crust to stick to it. Roll
out an amount of paste sufficient to form a crust over the top, press
the edges well together, allowing plenty of room in the paste so that
it does not slip off at the edges. Pare with a floured knife round the
rim the edges of the pastry and cook for three quarters of an hour in a
brisk oven.


_159. Chocolate Pudding_

A nice, fresh moulded sponge cake, half a pound of chocolate, in
blocks, the whites of four eggs, and half a small teacupful of powdered
sugar. Put half the chocolate into a stone or enamelled saucepan, just
cover it with cold water and let it cook for ten minutes. Then add two
tablespoonfuls of water, place on the stove and work it with a dessert
spoon to a stiff paste. Turn this into a small bowl to get cold. Cut
the sponge cake into slices and spread between the pieces all of the
chocolate paste. Beat then the whites of the four eggs in a plate with
a knife to a stiff froth and, after having added the sugar to the
remaining chocolate which has been grated into powder, work it smooth,
pour it with the whites into the bowl, stir for fifteen minutes and
then pour over the moulded cake.

_Note._ The four yokes can be used either for custard or mayonnaise on
the same day. They would keep till next day if covered closely in a cup.


_160. Apples in Syrup_

Take a half pound tin of golden syrup, put it in an enamelled saucepan,
rinse the tin with half a tin of boiling water. Bring to a boil, add
two teaspoonfuls of raspberry essence. Carefully peel and core six or
seven sound apples. Drop them, cut in halves, into the boiling syrup
and stew gently without the lid for a good half hour or longer if not
quite soft. The pieces should remain whole and be almost transparent.


_161. Pears in Syrup_

Make your syrup of one and a half breakfast-cupfuls of powdered sugar
and the same quantity of hot water, to which must be added eight good
cloves. When boiling add your peeled pears which should retain their
stalks and should not be cored. A small glass of claret or any red wine
will greatly improve both taste and appearance. Cook for an hour and a
half or till tender.


_162. Plum Dumplings_

Take one and a half pounds of sound big plums and make paste for
dumpling as follows: One large breakfast-cup of flour mixed with a
little butter, make into a stiff paste with a little water. Wrap each
plum in its case using a little milk to cause the edges to stick close.
Boil in a large saucepan of boiling water fifteen or twenty minutes. If
care is taken the dumplings should remain whole. Dish carefully into a
flat dish and serve very hot with a large bowl of well-beaten cream and
sifted sugar.


_163. Boiled Apple Dumplings_

Make a good pudding crust of a large breakfast-cupful of flour and a
quarter of a pound of beef suet rubbed into it. Mix to a stiff paste
and roll out on a board in thin pieces. Put into each a small peeled
apple, moisten the edges with a little milk, taking care that the apple
is completely encased in the paste. Drop into a saucepan of boiling
water and boil gently for two to three minutes. Serve very hot with a
bowl of beaten cream and another of finely sifted sugar.


_164. Baked Apple Dumplings_

Make a nice piecrust as for tarts. Have ready the apples required and
put one into each piece of crust. Bake in a steady oven from three to
four minutes. Serve with cream and sugar.


_165. Pancakes_

Beat together two eggs, add a teacupful of milk. Mix into it one and a
half ounces of flour and work it with a spoon to a smooth paste with a
pinch of salt. Have your fire nice and hot and perfectly clear. Keep
the top of the stove on all the time. Take a piece of best tub lard
and melt it in a frying pan (kept for pancakes only), run it well over
the surface of the pan when it is quite hot. Turn the fat out and pour
about a third of a teacupful of the batter into the pan taking care
that it runs all over the pan, which should be only about the size of
a pudding plate. Loosen the edges with the blade of a knife and shake
it from time to time to prevent it from sticking to the pan. Turn with
a slice if unable to toss. Tossing is perfectly easy but requires some
practice. It is done by a turn of the wrist, and if these directions
are carefully followed the pancake should leave the pan perfectly
clean. Turn on to a flat dish and serve either with jam or sugar, or if
savoury pancakes are desired the following hint is a good one: Melt in
a cup on the stove about an ounce of fresh butter with a little finely
shredded onion in it; put it into a hot sauce boat and serve with the
pancakes.

Each pancake takes from five to seven minutes to cook.


_166. Apple Pudding_

Take about a quarter of a pound of finely chopped beef suet, two and a
half breakfast-cupfuls of self-raising flour, a little pinch of salt.
Mix with chilled water to a stiff paste. Roll three parts of this into
a large piece on the pastry board. Have ready a pudding basin buttered
by putting a piece of butter the size of a walnut into it and standing
it on the stove to melt. Then let it run over every part of the inside
of the basin. This will prevent the paste sticking. Line the basin
with the paste. Peel, say eight apples, and cut them all round the
core. Fill the basin with them. Add three cloves or, if preferred,
a little rind of lemon, sweeten with brown sugar (about four or five
good tablespoonfuls), cover with another layer of the paste, working
the ends together well so as to prevent the apples coming through. Tie
a wet cloth over and stand the basin in a saucepan of boiling water to
boil for three hours.


_167. Treacle or Jam Pudding in a Basin_

Have the paste ready as for apple pudding and the basin buttered as
above. Roll the pastry in thin layers and line the basin with one
layer, then add a layer of golden syrup or jam and repeat until the
basin is full. Cover with paste, tie up in cloth and boil in a saucepan
of boiling water for three and a half hours.


_168. Apple Soufflé_

Pare and cut up say eight nice-sized apples. Put them in a stone
casserole with a breakfast-cupful of sugar and a piece of fresh butter
the size of a nutmeg. Stir gently now and then and, when cooked, beat
with a fork to break up the lumps and make all quite smooth. Take the
whites of four fresh eggs and place them on a large dinner plate; beat
these with a freshly _cleaned_ knife to a stiff froth which should
stand up. Put the whites into the apples in the saucepan (from which
the moisture should have been drained as much as possible) and stir
well with a large spoon. Turn the soufflé into a rather deep dish,
sprinkle about a teaspoonful of powdered sugar over the top, and place
in a moderate oven. Care must be taken not to slam the oven door or
place anything heavily on the top of the stove for fear the soufflé
will go down. It must not remain in the oven for more than ten to
fifteen minutes. Serve in the dish in which it was cooked.


_169. Apple Charlotte_

Prepare the apples as for the soufflé. Take about four rather thin
slices of nice bread and cut them into diamond shapes. Put about one
ounce of fresh butter in an enamelled frying pan and lightly fry the
bread to a golden brown. Dust with a little powdered sugar and place
the bread on the dish to form a pyramid with the apples in the centre.
Put into the oven for about half an hour (slow oven) and serve on a
flat dish.


_170. Apple Tart_

Take about six apples and pare finely. Do not core them but cut them
in slices round the core. Put a teacupful of powdered sugar in a stone
saucepan. Add a very little cold water. Stew gently for half an hour
to three-quarters and turn into a pie-dish. Pastry as recipe No. 177.
Fresh fruit is always better cooked first before putting into the
pastry.


_171. Apple Fritters_

Pare, core, and cut into thin rings two good-sized apples. This should
not be done before they are wanted as they would quickly turn brown
if left standing. Have ready in a pastry bowl about a teacupful of
flour mixed with milk, smooth but very slack. Put about a quarter of a
pound of fresh tub lard in a frying pan and melt it over the fire till
hot, but guard against burning. Dip each slice of apple into the mixed
flour and then drop it into the hot lard. The fire should be hot enough
to allow these to cook with the top of the stove on. Turn over each
fritter once, and after three minutes dish them with a slice into a
dish with a strainer underneath. Dust over with a little powdered sugar
and serve. If they have to be kept hot till wanted, take care that the
dish is not covered or the oven door shut, as in that case they will
lose their crispness.


_172. Boiled Custard_

Mix with milk two tablespoonfuls of flour till perfectly smooth. Add
three beaten eggs, whites and yolks together, and about a pint of milk
with sugar to taste. Turn into a stone jar, and place the jar in a
saucepan three parts full of boiling water. Stir the mixture always one
way, till it thickens. Serve in custard cups.


_173. Tapioca or Sago Pudding_

Put the tapioca or sago about an inch thick at the bottom of the
pie-dish. Pour boiling milk on to it to about half a dishful and leave
it to soak for about half an hour. When cold add a beaten egg, sugar to
taste, and fill up the dish with cold milk. Put a little grated nutmeg
over the top and bake for two hours in a slow oven.


_174. Compote of Fresh Fruit_

Put six large pears, cut into quarters, into boiling syrup made of half
a pint of water and two breakfast-cupfuls of white sugar. Let the pears
stew for about twenty minutes and then put in six apples, cut in eight
pieces each, taking care not to core them before cutting but after.
Stew gently for another twenty minutes. Add three bananas cut in rings
just before dishing the compote. Serve cold in a glass dish.


_175. Rice Pudding_

Cover the bottom of a pie-dish with rice about an inch thick, and add
sugar to taste. Beat an egg in a cup and add it to the rice, mixing
it all together. Fill the dish with cold milk and add a little grated
nutmeg or several small pieces of lemon peel if preferred. Cook in a
slow oven for not less than two and a half hours.


_176. Stewed Prunes_

Put half a pound of prunes into a large pudding basin with cold water
and rub them gently with the fingers till thoroughly cleansed. Leave
them in the water for about ten minutes. Then turn the prunes with half
a teacup of powdered sugar into a saucepan and just cover them with hot
water. Cook from thirty to forty minutes. The juice should be perfectly
clear when cooked and the prunes whole.


_177. Christmas Pudding_

Take one and a half pounds of finely chopped beef suet, one quartern of
best pastry white (_not_ self-raising) flour, three pounds of stoned
raisins, two pounds of sultanas and two pounds of currants carefully
washed and picked, one and a half pounds of the best mixed peel, ten
well-beaten eggs, and four pounds of brown sugar. Stir all these
ingredients together with a pint of ale and half a bottle of brandy.
Stir fairly slack. This should make six very large puddings. Fill as
many buttered pudding basins as required, taking care that each basin
is full. Tie a wet cloth over each, and boil for twelve hours. Pour a
little neat brandy over the top of each and these puddings will then
keep for six months. Always boil again for four hours to make hot.


_178. Coffee Cream_

Let a half pint of freshly made coffee cool thoroughly. Mix three
tablespoonfuls of flour in milk till quite smooth. Turn three eggs well
beaten together into the milk and flour. Add the cold coffee and half a
pint of milk, sugar to taste. Cook as for custard.


_179. Plums or Damsons for a Tart or as Stewed Fruit_

Carefully look over one pound of plums or damsons, removing any unsound
ones. Put them into an earthenware saucepan with a teacupful of cold
water and two teacupfuls of sugar to the plums or three teacupfuls to
the damsons. Stew for one hour the damsons, or forty minutes the plums.


_180. Jam Tarts_

A breakfast-cupful and a half of self-raising flour, three ounces
of fresh butter, a well-beaten egg, and a little salt. Mix these
ingredients with milk into a stiff paste. Roll it very thin and have
ready a plate greased with hot butter and when cool lay a thin layer of
pastry on the plate, rub a little milk round the rim and spread the jam
over it not too thick. Cut some pastry in thin strips and lay across
like the spokes of a wheel. Bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Be
careful the jam is not too juicy.


_181. Stewed Rhubarb_

Remove the leaves and cut the other end of the rhubarb crosswise and
skin it. Cut it into pieces of about two inches long. Put it into a
saucepan (either earthenware or enamelled) and allow a small teacupful
of sugar to each three or four sticks of rhubarb. Add half a teacupful
of water, put over a brisk fire for forty minutes, when the rhubarb
should attain a rich red colour. This can be used either as stewed
rhubarb or put into a pie.


_182. Stewed Gooseberries_

Carefully pick a quart of gooseberries, discarding the unsound ones.
Put them into an earthenware saucepan with a teacupful of cold water
and three teacupfuls of sugar. Boil for about an hour, stirring now
and then to prevent them from burning. Serve either as stewed fruit or
for a pie.


_183. Macaroons_

Take half a pound of almonds peeled and dried in the oven, half a pound
of powdered sugar, three or four whites of eggs, one grated lemon.
Pound the almonds, moistening them from time to time with the beaten
whites of eggs. When they are reduced to a fine paste add the lemon
and sugar; work all perfectly together. Form the macaroons by putting
small pieces the size of a walnut upon a buttered baking tin. Cook in
a moderate oven till they have taken a beautiful brown tint. Let them
cool before taking them off the tin. Pass a thin-bladed knife under
them to remove them from the tin.


_184. Swiss Roll_

A good sponge powder is the very best and most reliable of all cake
mixtures. Directions for use will be found on every packet and the only
thing that to my mind improves it is the addition of a tablespoonful
of cream after the beaten eggs are mixed to the cake-powder. Nothing
could be easier than the following, and I have never had a failure:
Break two eggs into a large pudding basin, beat well with a fork, then
stir the cake-powder into the eggs quite smoothly. Add the cream. Have
ready the buttered tin, pour the mixture into it. Place in a quick oven
and bake for about ten minutes. Turn on to a sheet of clean white paper
which has been lightly dusted with a little powdered sugar. One packet
of cake mixture and two eggs will make either one nice-sized Swiss Roll
or a complete sponge sandwich.

It will often be much easier to make a successful cake or light pastry
if the butter and lard are reduced to a cream before being added to
the other ingredients. Put your proportion of butter and lard (half
of each) into your pastry basin. Stir with the _hand_, one way only,
till it has become the consistency of a thick cream. Mix the rest of
the ingredients for your cake into it and moisten either with milk or
water. Cakes mixed by hand are much more satisfactory than those mixed
with a spoon. One is also much more sure of success if the mixture is
kept very stiff.


_185. Simple Recipe for a Chocolate Cake_

Take a quarter of a pound best white flour, a quarter of a pound
butter, the same of sifted fine white sugar, two ounces of grated
chocolate, and two eggs. Stir the butter in a pastry bowl with the
hand, one way as directed, till the butter is reduced to a smooth
cream. When this is done add the sugar (still stirring the one way).
Have the two eggs well beaten in a cup, stir them into the sugar
and flour, lastly the chocolate powder. Pour the mixture into a
well-buttered cake tin and bake in a moderate oven for an hour.


_186. Plain Christmas Cake_

Take one pound flour (household, not self-raising), half a pound of
currants which have been carefully washed and dried (this is best done
in a cullender under the tap and rubbed dry on a clean white cloth),
half a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, two ounces of candied
lemon peel cut into thin strips, two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder,
three eggs well beaten, whites and yolks together, and half a pint of
milk, sour will do.

Place the flour in the pastry bowl, thoroughly mix the baking-powder
into it, rub in the butter, add the sugar and currants and peel, stir
in the eggs, and mix all together with the milk. Butter your cake tin
and line it with a buttered sheet of white cooking paper, bake in a
steady but gentle oven for one and a half hours.


_187. Madeira Cake_

Take a quarter of a pound of household flour, one teaspoonful of
baking-powder, three ounces of butter, three ounces of fine white
sugar, and two eggs. Cream the butter, add first the sugar, then the
flour with the baking-powder, lastly the well-beaten eggs and half a
teacupful of milk. Care should be taken that the mixture is not mixed
too slack. Pour the mixture into a buttered cake tin and bake in a
gentle oven from thirty to forty minutes.


_188. Glengarry Cake_

Half a pound of best household white flour, two teaspoonfuls of
baking-powder, five ounces of butter, five ounces of powdered sugar, a
quarter of a pound of sultanas carefully washed and stalked. Reduce the
butter to cream in the bowl, add the sugar, flour, and baking-powder,
then the sultanas, mix well with the two beaten eggs, adding a little
milk if required. Place in a well-buttered cake tin, and bake in a
steady oven one and a half hours.

_Note._ Carraway seeds can be used instead of sultanas if a seed cake
is required and a little sliced candied peel always put on the top of
the cake if desired.


_189. Surrey Cake_

Take three eggs, their weight in flour, powdered sugar, and butter,
half a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla or almonds.

Reduce the butter to cream in the bowl, add the flour and sugar, keep
stirring and beating the mixture without ceasing till it is quite
smooth, add the eggs well beaten. Butter and paper a cake tin, which
should never be more than half full of the cake. Bake in a steady oven
from three-quarters of an hour to an hour.


_190. Gâteau de Milan_

Take half a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of butter, quarter of
a pound of sugar, one whole egg, one yolk, a little salt, a grated rind
of lemon, and a teaspoonful of rum. Place the flour on a pastry board;
form it into a hillock with a hole in the centre; put into this the
butter, sugar, and eggs, lemon rind, beaten egg, and rum. Mix with the
hand with butter and sugar, then the flour and eggs and make all into
a ball. Roll it out to the thickness of little more than a quarter of
an inch, form into little cakes with a cake cutter; arrange them on a
baking-sheet of paper lightly buttered, brush them over lightly with
the yolk of the egg; bake in a steady oven for about fifteen to twenty
minutes. These cakes will keep well for some days if kept in a closed
tin.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._ It is a golden rule worth remembering that all biscuits or
rusks (also cakes) will keep perfectly crisp if kept in a closed tin.
Cakes, of course, should not be placed under any cover till quite cold.

The same cake mixture as for Gâteau de Milan may be treated in the
following manner to make quite a different cake.

Instead of cutting the mixture into small cakes, make two rounds only
of the same size and thickness. Place them on a buttered baking tin,
but do not allow them to touch. From one of these pieces cut a round
out of the centre with a small cake cutter. Bake them in a steady oven
till they are a beautiful light brown colour; let them get cold. Upon
the piece that is not cut in the centre spread a layer of smooth jam,
place the other piece over it, trim the edges to have both exactly the
same size; on this border spread some more jam, then sprinkle with a
little sugar, not finely powdered but in grains. Arrange on a dish and
fill the hole in the centre with a little fruit jelly.


_191. Tea Cakes_

Take half a pound of flour, six ounces of butter, two yolks of eggs,
one whole egg, one and a half ounces of sugar, a quarter of a pint of
cream, and a little salt. Make the paste the same as for the Gâteau
de Milan, let it rest from ten to fifteen minutes. Roll out the paste
about an inch thick. Form into little cakes with a pastry cutter about
two inches round, brush lightly with the yolk of an egg and bake in a
good oven from twenty-five to thirty minutes.


  THE END


  PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY
  WOODS AND SONS, LTD., LONDON, N.1



Transcriber’s Notes

In a few cases, obvious omissions or errors in punctuation were
corrected.

The recipe for roast lamb is not numbered in the original.

The recipe numbering in the original skips 91-99.

Page 110: “be to prepared” changed to “to be prepared”



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