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Title: An Illustrated Dictionary of Words used in Art and Archaeology: Explaining terms frequently used in works on architecture, arms, bronzes, Christian art, colour, costume, decoration, devices, emblems, heraldry, lace, personal ornaments, pottery, painting, sculpture, &c., with their derivations.
Author: Mollett, John W. (John William)
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Illustrated Dictionary of Words used in Art and Archaeology: Explaining terms frequently used in works on architecture, arms, bronzes, Christian art, colour, costume, decoration, devices, emblems, heraldry, lace, personal ornaments, pottery, painting, sculpture, &c., with their derivations." ***

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                       AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY
                            OF WORDS USED IN
                          ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.

                        [_All rights reserved._]




  [_See_ BASILICA, _p. 37_.

                       AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY
                            OF WORDS USED IN
                          ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.
                        WITH THEIR DERIVATIONS.

                         By J. W. MOLLETT, B.A.

             _Officier de l’Instruction Publique (France)_;


                  CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET.



This Dictionary was commenced as an amended edition of that written by
M. Ernest Bosc, architect of Paris, and contains the 450 engravings
published in the French work, to which about 250 more have been added.
Little or nothing, however, of the text of M. Bosc’s work has been left
standing; his definitions having, in the process of revision under
reference to original works, almost entirely disappeared. The whole
work, as it now stands, has been drawn from, or carefully corrected by,
the best authorities in each of its special branches. Considerable
prominence has been given to ARCHITECTURE, from the French original
corrected from English writers; to CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES from
_Martigny_, and the Dictionary of _Dr. Smith and Professor Cheetham_,
and other authorities; to MEDIÆVAL ARMOUR, and terms of CHIVALRY,
chiefly from _Meyrick’s Ancient Armour_; to COSTUME from _Planché_ and
_Fairholt_; to HERALDRY from _Boutell’s_ and _Mrs. Bury Palliser’s_
works; to POTTERY, the substance of the articles on this subject being
derived from _M. Jacquemart’s_ work; to NEEDLEWORK, IVORIES, MUSICAL
AND MODERN, COLOUR, &c., with references to the several authorities
referred to.

The GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES, which are the principal part of M.
Bosc’s work, have been in this volume reduced to the smallest possible
compass: the Dictionaries of Dr. Smith and Rich must be referred to by
those who require fuller definitions upon this subject, which would of
itself fill ten such books as the present.

A few INDIAN, CHINESE, and JAPANESE TERMS, which have come into ordinary
use in art, have been sought out and inserted: in the first-mentioned
_Dr. Birdwood’s Handbooks_ have been a most useful guide. Finally, it is
necessary to state, that many words essential to the completeness of the
work would have been in danger of omission, if I had not had before me
_Mr. Fairholt’s_ admirable _Dictionary of Art Terms_, which, occupying a
more restricted ground than this, is so thorough and accurate in dealing
with all that it professes to include, that the only _raison d’être_ of
this work is the very much wider and different ground that it covers,
and the greater condensation of its definitions. Obviously the substance
of every statement in the work is borrowed from some previous writer on
the subject, and it is evident that a Dictionary of Reference is not a
convenient vehicle for theory or invention.

direction of the authorities of the South Kensington Museum, will have
the additional use of referring the reader to the fountain-head at which
he can verify and amplify the condensed information that this work

                                                          J. W. MOLLETT.

 _October, 1882._


                                 IN THE


                         _ISSUED BY AUTHORITY._

      LACE AND NEEDLEWORK, 1_d._; ORNAMENT, 6_d._; PAINTING, 4_d._;

  _These Catalogues may be had on application to the Secretary of the
          Science and Art Department, South Kensington, S.W._

                                USED IN
                          ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.

 ABBREVIATIONS—Arch. _Architectural_; Chr. _Christian_; Egyp. _Egyptian_;
 Fr. _French_; Gr. _Greek_; Her. _Heraldic_; It. _Italian_; Lat. _Latin_;
  Med. _Mediæval_; O. E. _Old English_; Orient. _Oriental_; R. _Roman_.

                  *       *       *       *       *

=Aar= or =Aarou=, Egyp. A plain in a supra-terrestrial region, which
corresponded, with the Egyptians, to the Elysian Fields of the Greeks
and the Asgard of Scandinavian mythology.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Abaculi used as pavement.]

=Abaculus=, Gr. and R. (a diminutive of _abacus_, q.v.). A small square
or cube of glass, or some vitreous composition made to imitate stone or
glass of various colours. _Abaculi_ were employed for the inlaid-work of
pavements, or the incrustations of mosaic.

=Abacus=, Gr. and R. (ἄβαξ, a slab or board). 1. In general a
rectangular slab of stone, marble, or terra-cotta. 2. A board or tray
used in arithmetical calculations, and constructed for reckoning by
tens. 3. A play-board divided into compartments, a kind of backgammon in
use in antiquity. The same term was also applied to a board used for
another game of skill, the _ludus latrunculorum_, which was more like
our chess. 4. A side-board on which were displayed, in the _triclinium_,
or dining-room, silver plate and other table utensils. 5. A slab of
marble, used for a coating in the decoration of a room or apartment of
any kind. 6. A square slab of terra-cotta or wood, placed by the
earliest builders at the top of wooden columns, in order to give them a
broader head, and so afford a better support to the beams which rested
on them. It was this motive that gave rise to the formation of the
_abacus of the capital of a column_.

=Abaton= or =Abatos=, Gr. (α, βᾰτὸς, inaccessible). A term used
generally to denote any inaccessible place, such as the _cella_ of a
temple, an adytum from which the profane were excluded. The term
_Abaton_ denoted more particularly a building in the city of Rhodes,
which contained, together with two statues in bronze, a trophy
commemorating a victory gained over the Rhodians. This memorial had been
placed in the building by queen Artemisia, who had consecrated it to a
divinity. To destroy it would have been a sacrilege, and as no one could
be allowed to penetrate into the interior of the _Abaton_, without the
defeat of the Rhodians becoming known, all access to it was forbidden.

=Abezzo, Olio di=, It. Strasburg Turpentine (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Ewer for ablutions (Persian).]

=Ablutions=, Chr. There were various ablutions: that of the head
(_capitilavium_), as a preparation for unction in baptism; that of the
hands (_aquamanile_), during Mass, &c.; that of the feet (_pedilavium_),
including the ceremony of washing the feet of the poor, performed on
Maundy Thursday, by the Pope. (Fig. 2.)

=Abococke=, Med. Cap of estate, worn by kings on their helmets: “a huge
cappe of estate, called Abococke, garnished with two rich crownes;” 15th

[Illustration: Fig. 3. A Lictor with the fasces, wearing the _abolla_.]

=Abolla=, Gr. and R. (ἀναβολὴ, a throwing back and around). A cloak made
of a piece of cloth folded double and fastened round the throat by a
brooch. _Abolla major_ was the name given to the ample blanket in which
the Greek philosophers were accustomed to wrap themselves. This cloak
was adopted by the philosophers as an instance of their humility,
because it was mostly worn by the poorer classes at Rome. Fig. 3 is a
representation of one of the lictors, with his fasces on his shoulder,
and wearing the _abolla_.

=Abraxas=, Gr. (a mystical or cabalistic word formed of the Greek
letters α, β, ρ, α, ξ, α, ς). Cut stones or gems of very various shapes,
upon which are engraved the words Abraxas, Abrasax. They are also known
as _Basilidian_ stones or gems, because they constituted the symbols of
the gnostic sect of the Basilidians. Certain peoples looked upon them as
magic amulets against particular maladies and demoniacal influences. The
impressions on these stones are very varied; cabalistic figures, the
signs Α and Ω, and the word ΙΑΩ, which designates the Supreme Being.
Numerous explanations have been sought for this term _abraxas_; some
philologists assert that it comes from the Persian [or Pehlvi], and that
it signifies _Mithra_; others derive it from the Hebrew, or the Coptic,
while others again recognize in it only a numerical sign, the letters of
which, added together, would give the number 365, or the number of days
that make up the year, and in this case _abraxas_ would symbolize the
annual revolution of the sun. A figure often found upon Abraxas stones
is that of a serpent with a radiated lion’s head (Chnouphis), which
rears itself amid seven stars. The reverse of these stones often bears
the inscription ΤΩ ΧΝΟΥΦΙ, “To Chnouphis.”

=Absidiole.= Diminutive of _apse_, and thus used to denote a small apse
terminating a lateral nave, while the apse closes the central or chief
nave. (See ABSIS.)

=Absis= or =Apse=, R. (ἁψὶς, a bow or vault). Any enclosure of
semicircular form terminating a room, hall, &c. There was an _absis_ in
the _Basilica_ (q.v.), or court of justice, and it was in the
semicircular recess thus formed that the judges’ seats were placed. Many
temples also had an _absis_ attached to them, and there is one in
particular of this description well known to all archæologists. This is
the _absis_ of the temple of Venus at Rome, which was built by the
emperor architect Hadrian. (See APSE.)

=Abutment=, Arch. called also =Impost=. The solid part of a pier from
which an arch immediately springs.

=Abydos, Tablets of=, Egyp. Under this term are designated two
hieroglyphic inscriptions containing the names of Egyptian kings. These
tablets were graven upon the walls of a _cella_ in a small temple at
Abydos, in Upper Egypt; hence their name. The first tablet, the
beginning of which was destroyed at the time of its discovery, contains
the names of the kings of the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties; this
inscription was discovered in 1817 or 1818 by J. W. Bankes, and drawn by
Caillund in 1832; it had been taken down from the wall of the temple by
Mimaut, the French consul at Alexandria. It is now at the British
Museum. The second tablet, which begins with Menes, who is generally
supposed to have been one of the first kings of Egypt, contains a
complete list of the two first dynasties, as well as a great number of
names belonging to kings of the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, ninth,
tenth, and eleventh dynasties. This tablet was discovered in 1864 by M.
Mariette. It is reproduced in De Rougé’s treatise on the six first

=Abyssus=, Egyp. A Coptic word, read by some archæologists as NOUN
(q.v.), and which signifies the _abyss_, the immensity of the celestial
waters upon which sails the solar bark.

=Acacia=, R. A term employed by some antiquaries to denote an object
held in the hand of the statue of an emperor of the Lower Empire. It
usually consists of a piece of cloth, which the emperor unfurled as a
signal for the games to commence.

=Academies of Italy.= Literary societies established during the middle
ages. The principal were the Accesi, Affidati, Amorevole of Verona,
Animosi of Milan, Arcadi of Rome, Ardenti of Pisa, Ardenti of Naples,
Ardenti of Viterbo, Catenati of Macerata, Chiave of Pavia, Crusca of
Florence, Elevati of Ferrara, Eterea of Padua, Florimontana of Annecy,
Granelleschi of Venice, Infiammati of Padua, Infocati, Insensati of
Perugia, Intronati of Siena, Lincei of Rome, Occulti, Offuscati,
Ostinati, Rinovati, Sonnachiosi of Bologna, Trasformati of Milan,
Travagliati, Unanimi. Their devices are described under the respective

=Acæna=, Gr. (ἀκαίνη), a measuring-rod; ten Greek feet in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Architectural acanthus.]

=Acanthus=, Gr. and R. (ἀκὴ a point, and ἄνθος, a flower). A plant, the
ornamental foliage of which has been largely employed as an
architectural decoration by different peoples. The acanthus has been
applied to the ornamentation of friezes, cornices, modillions, and
various other members of architecture, but in especial to the decoration
of modillions (projecting brackets) (Fig. 4) and of Corinthian and
composite capitals. There are several varieties of the acanthus; those
most in use are the cultivated acanthus, or Brankursine (_Acanthus
mollis_), and the spring acanthus (_Acanthus spinosa_), the foliage of
which is much less beautiful, and furnished with small spikes which make
the plant resemble a thistle. This last has also often been applied to
decoration, in the Romano-Byzantine and lanceolated styles of
architecture. An English name for this ornament is the “bear’s claw.”

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Bracket decorated with acanthus.]

=Acapna=, Gr. (α, priv., and καπνὸς, i. e. without smoke). Wood for
fuel, which had undergone several operations to hinder it from smoking
when put on the fire. One of the methods employed consisted in stripping
the bough of the bark, immersing it in water for some days, and then
leaving it to dry. In a second method, the surface was rubbed with oil
or oil-lees, or else the piece of wood was plunged into the oil for a
few moments. A third method consisted in slightly charring the surface
of the wood by passing it through the flame. The wood prepared by this
last process was also called _cocta_ and _coctilia_.

=Acatium=, Gr. and R. (ἀκάτιον, dimin. of ἄκατος, a light boat). A
description of vessel belonging to the class called _actuariæ_, i. e.
were propelled either by sails or oars. The _acatium_ was a fast-sailer
much employed by the Greek pirates. The stern was of a rounded concave
form (_inflexa_), and the prow was adorned with a beak (_rostrum_). (See
also ACTUARIÆ.) The name _acatium_ was also given to a drinking-vessel
which was in the form of a boat. The Roman _scapha_ was a similar

=Acca.= A word used in the 14th century for a cloth of gold shot with
coloured silk, figured with animals: from Acre in Syria.

=Accesi=, It. (_inflamed_). One of the Italian Literary Academies. Their
device was a fir-cone placed over a fire, with the motto “hinc odor et

=Accetta=, Med. Lat. A battle-axe, or hache-d’armes.

=Accidental= or =complementary colour=, the prismatic complement of a
ray of light: such are _orange_ to _blue_, _green_ to _red_, and
_purple_ to _yellow_.

=Accidental light.= An effect of light in a picture independent of the
principal light, such as that on the Holy Child in the _Notte_ of
Correggio, or that of a candle, &c.

=Acclamations=, Chr. Formulas employed by the first Christians to
express their grief on the occurrence of some misfortune, or on the
other hand, to testify their joy at some piece of good fortune. These
acclamations were imitated from the nations of antiquity [e. g. at
_marriages_, “Io Hymen, Hymenæe, Talassio:” at _triumphs_, “Io,
triumphe,” &c.].

=Accollée=, Her. (1) placed side by side: (2) entwined about the neck.

=Accosted=, Her. Side by side.

=Accrued=, Her. Grown to maturity.

=Accubitum=, R. (_ad_ and _cubitum_, an elbow). A bed or rather couch of
a peculiar kind, upon which the Romans reclined at meals, and which
replaced the _lectus triclinarius_. It was a kind of sofa holding only a
single person, while the _lectus triclinarius_ held two or three. The
act of reclining on this sofa was called _accubitio_ or _accubitus_, a
term derived from _accubo_, to recline at table.

=Acerra= or =Acerna=, R. (prob. from _acer_, maple). A small square box
with a hinged lid; a coffer used to hold the incense for sacrifices;
whence its Latin names _arca turalis_, _arcula turalis_, _acerra turis
custos_. The _acerra_ appears on certain bas-reliefs among the sacred
utensils. It is to be seen represented on the altar of the small temple
of Quirinus, at Pompeii, underneath a garland, and above an augur’s
wand. It is generally met with, as being carried by the officiating
priests, at religious ceremonies. The attendant carried the _acerra_ in
the left hand and employed the right hand to sprinkle the incense on the
flame of the altar; whence the expression _libare acerra_. The term
_acerra_ was also used to denote a small portable altar placed before
the dead, on which incense was burnt during the time the corpse was
exposed to view (_collocatio_). The altar was also named, from this
circumstance, _ara turicrema_.

=Acetabula=, R. A kind of bronze cymbals, attached to the hands and
feet, as also to the knees. The same name was also given to silver
cymbals which were played by striking them with a stick of hard wood.

=Acetabulum=, R. (from _acetum_, vinegar). A cup for vinegar used by the
Romans at meals.

The _acetabulum_ was also a goblet used by jugglers among the Greeks and
Romans to make nutmegs disappear. By the latter these jugglers were
called _præstigiatores_, by the former ψηφοκλέπται or ψηφοπαίκται.
Lastly, we find in Pliny the Elder that _acetabulum_ was the name given
to a dry measure of capacity, equal to the quarter of a _hemina_ or the
half of the _quartarius_, and equivalent to .1238 of a pint. [The Greek

=Acha=, =Achia=, =Hachia=, Lat. A battle-axe.

=Achelor=, =Achlere= or =Ashlar=. (Arch.) Hewn stone.

=Achromatic=, Gr. (α priv. χρομος, colour). The effect of an arrangement
of lenses by which a coloured ray of light is rendered colourless.

=Acicula=, Gr. (dimin. of _acus_, a needle or pin). In particular a
bodkin used by the Roman ladies to keep the hair in its place when
curled or plaited, and to keep on false hair. The words _acicula_ and
_acus_ are however all but synonymous. The former does not denote a
bodkin of smaller size than the _acus_, but an object made of an
inferior material; the _acus_ being of silver, ivory or gold, while the
_acicula_ was simply of bone or some hard wood such as box, myrtle,
olive, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Acinaces.]

=Acinaces=, Orient. (ἀκινάκης; orig. a Persian word). A straight poniard
resembling a very short Roman sword, used by the Eastern nations of
antiquity, especially, the Medes, Persians and Scythians. It was worn by
soldiers suspended from a belt round the waist, but the weapon hung
either at the right or the left side, according to the nationality and
accoutrements of the soldier. When, however, he wore a sword, this was
always placed at the left, and the _acinaces_ at the right side of the
body. The handles of these weapons are generally extremely rich.

=Acisculus=, R. (Diminutive of _ascia_, an adze = a small adze). A small
pick employed by stone-cutters and masons in early times.
Representations of it may be seen pretty frequently on medals, in
especial those of the Valerian family. [See ASCIA.]

=Acketon=, Fr. A quilted leathern jacket, worn under the armour,
introduced from the East by the Crusaders.

=Aclis= or =Aclyx=, R. A sort of harpoon, consisting of a thick short
stock set with spikes. This massive weapon was chiefly employed by
foreign nations, but not by the Romans. It was launched against the
enemy, and drawn back by means of a cord to which it was attached, to be
launched a second time. This weapon bears some resemblance to a
particular kind of _angon_ (or trident). (See ANGONES.)

=Acoustic Vases=, R. (Gr. ἀκουστικὸς, pertaining to the sense of
hearing). Vases of earthenware or more often of bronze, which, in the
theatres of antiquity, served the purpose of strengthening the voices of
the actors. Vases of this kind would also seem to have been employed for
the same purpose during the middle ages, for the architect Oberlin, when
repairing the vault of the choir, in the ancient church of the
Dominicans at Strasburg, discovered some acoustic vases there.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Acratophorum, Roman.]

=Acratophorum=, Gr. and R. (ἀκρατο-φόρος, holding unmixed wine). A table
vessel for holding pure wine, while the crater (κρατὴρ), on the other
hand, contained wine mixed with water. These vessels were often
dedicated to Bacchus. They were made in earthenware and metal, but those
that were dedicated to the gods were of gold and silver, and had their
place among the treasures of the temples. Fig. 7 represents a silver
acratophorum found at Hildesheim.

=Acrolith=, Gr. (ἄκρον, end, and λίθος stone). A statue covered with
garments which in many cases were gilded. The extremities of these
statues were of marble or stone—whence their name—more rarely of gold
and ivory. The Minerva of Areia, at Platæa in Bœotia, described by
Pausanius, was an _acrolith_. This was by Pheidias. The _acrolith_
period is the infancy of the Greek plastic art.

=Acropodium=, Gr. (ἄκρον, end or point; and πόδιον, a foot). A low
square plinth serving for basement to a statue and often forming part of

=Acropolis=, Gr. (ἀκρό-πολις, upper or higher city). From its primary
meaning the term came to signify a fortified city. They were very
numerous, in ancient times, in Italy, Greece and the colonies of Asia
Minor. Most ancient Greek cities were built upon hills, and the citadel
on the summit of the hill was called the _acropolis_.

=Acrostic=, Chr. (ἄκρον, end, and στίχος, a row or line). A combination
of letters formed out of some word, which is thus made to express a
thought differing from its own meaning. For instance, the Greek word
ΙΧΘΥΣ (ICHTHUS, fish), symbolizes, in the primitive church, the name of
Christ. The following is the acrostic of this word: Ιησους, Χριστος,
Θεου, Υἱος, Σωτηρ I, CH, TH, U, S.

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Roman acrostolium.]

=Acrostolium=, Gr. and R. (ἀκροστόλιον, extremity of beak of a ship). An
ornament employed by the ancients to decorate the upper extremity of the
prows of ships. This ornament often figured among trophies, since it was
the custom for the victor in a naval combat to take the _acrostolia_
from the captured ships. It is frequently to be met with on the
bas-reliefs of triumphal monuments. Fig. 8 shows an _acrostolium_ taken
from a bas-relief in the Museum of the Capitol. The object seen
projecting from the acrostolium is a sounding lead.

=Acroterium=, Gr. and R. (ἀκρωτήριον, the extremity of anything). In a
signification more restricted than the primary one, yet generally
admitted, the term _acroteria_ is applied to the plain socles and
pedestals placed at the summit of buildings to support statues, groups,
or other crownings. ACROTERIUM was the common name for the
_acrostolium_, and the taking of it away as a trophy was called

=Actia=, Gr., festivals held every fourth year, at Actium, in Epirus, in
honour of Apollo.

=Actinic= (rays of light:) chemically active.

=Actuariæ=, R. (See NAVES). Open boats, built to attain a high degree of
speed, propelled by sails and sweeps, and never fitted with less than
eighteen oars. Pirates used this class of vessel exclusively.

=Actuarii=, R. The shorthand writers who took down speeches in the
senate. Also certain officials who answered to our commissariat

=Acuminated=, Arch. Finishing in a point, like a lofty Gothic roof.

=Acus=, R. (Gr. ἀκὴ, a point). A bodkin, needle, or pin. The _acus_
denoted both a needle for sewing and a pin for fastening anything. When
used for the hair it was called _acus crinalis_ or _comatoria_. In
Christian archæology the word applies to the jewelled pins used as
fastenings to papal or archiepiscopal vestments. The Roman _acus_ is
worn in the hair by the Italian peasant woman of the present day.

=Addorsed=, Her. (1) Back to back; (2) pointing backwards.

=Adespotoi=, Gr. (ἀ-δέσποτοι, i. e. without masters). A name given to a
certain class of freedmen at Sparta.

=Adobare=, Med. To entrust with arms (to “dub” a knight). Meyrick.

=Adobes.= Bricks manufactured by the ancient Peruvians.

=Adramire=, Med. To challenge to a duel or tournament. (Meyrick.)

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Plan of a Roman temple, showing the adytum.]

=Adytum= or =Adyton=, Gr. and R. (ἄδυτον, from α, priv., and δύω, to
enter). An obscure and secret sanctuary in certain temples from which
the public was excluded, and into which the priests alone might enter.
The little temple of Pompeii possessed an _adytum_, and it was here that
was discovered the Portici Diana now in the Naples Museum. There was
also an _adytum_ in the temple of Delphi, which was burnt down in the
first year of the 58th Olym., and rebuilt by the Corinthian Spintharus.
The temple of Paphos contained in its _adytum_ a representation of the
goddess under the form of a column pointed at the top and surrounded by
candelabra. The engraving shows the position of the adytum of a small
Doric temple, now destroyed, which once stood near the theatre of
Marcellus at Rome. The _adytum_ was the name given to the _cella_ of a
temple, in which oracles were given, or the worship was connected with
mysteries. See ABATON and CELLA.

=Ædicula=, R. (dimin. of _Ædes_, q.v.). A small house, temple, chapel,
tabernacle, or even shrine. Thus the name was given to a small wooden
shrine, constructed to imitate the front of a temple, and in which were
preserved the ancestors of the family (_imagines majorum_), together
with the Lares and tutelar divinities.

=Ægicranes=, Gr. (αἴγειος, of a goat; κρανίον, the skull). A goat’s [or
ram’s] head employed as a decoration by ancient sculptors. It was used
chiefly to adorn altars which were dedicated to rural divinities.

=Æginetan marbles.= Two remarkable groups of very early (archaic) Greek
sculpture, in the Glyptothek at Munich—discovered in the temple of
Pallas-Athene at Ægina, and arranged by Thorwaldsen. They illustrate
“the infancy of art, which lingers round symbolic representation, and
has not yet grasped the full meaning and truth of nature.” (_Butler’s
Imitative Art._) The anatomy of the bodies and limbs at this period is
greatly superior to the expression of the heads.

=Ægis=, Gr. In its primary meaning, a _goat-skin_. The primitive
inhabitants of Greece used the skins of goats and other animals for
clothing, and defence. At a later period the _Ægis_ became a protective
mantle; the shield of Minerva, beneath which the goddess sheltered those
whom she wished to protect from the enemy’s missiles. Later still the
_Ægis_ denoted the breastplate of a divinity, in especial that of
Jupiter or Minerva, as opposed to the _lorica_, which was the
breastplate of a mere mortal. The ægis bore in its centre the Gorgon’s
head, of which the serpents were arranged round the border. Minerva is
generally represented wearing it, either as a cuirass or a scarf passed
over the right shoulder.

=Aëneator= (Lat. _aëneus_, brazen). The name given to any musician who
played on an instrument of brass (_aëneum_); such as the _buccinatores_,
_cornicines_, _liticines_, _tubicines_, &c. They formed a college.

[Illustration: Fig. 10 Eolipyle.]

=Æolipilæ= or =Æolipȳlæ=, Gr. (αἴολος, the wind; and πύλη, an orifice).
A metal vase with a narrow orifice, which was filled with water and
placed upon the fire, either to make the chimney draw better, or,
according to Vitruvius, to show which way the wind blew.

=Æolian Harp=, Gr. A musical instrument that is played on by the wind
passing over its strings.

=Ærarium=, R. (_æs_, money). The public treasury as distinguished from
the private treasury of the Emperors (_fiscus_). Under the Republic the
temple of Saturn served as the public treasury, and here were preserved
the produce of the revenue, the public accounts and other public
records. The army had a separate treasury of its own called _ærarium
militare_, entirely distinct from the _ærarium publicum_. It was
established by Augustus to provide for the special expenditure of the

=Aerial perspective.= The realization of the effect of intervening
atmosphere in the distances of a landscape.

=Æro=, R. A basket made of rushes or broom, but still more commonly of
osier, and used for conveying sand. It was employed by the Roman
soldiery when at work on intrenchments, excavations, or fortifications,
as may be seen from bas-reliefs; more particularly some of those which
adorn the column of Trajan.

=Æruca=, R. (_æs_, bronze). A very brilliant green colour artificially
made to imitate _verdigris_.

=Ærugo=, R. _Verdigris_, the same colour as _æruca_ (q.v.), but obtained
from oxide of bronze. It is difficult to establish a real distinction
between the two terms, as Pliny gives the name of _ærugo_ (the rust of
bronze) to what Vitruvius calls _æruca_. It is probable, however, that
_æruca_ was a kind of verdigris obtained by artificial means, while
_ærugo_ was the natural verdigris. This has given rise to the two terms,
which by many archæologists are confused together. _Æruca_, the
artificial copper rust, formed by the action of wine refuse upon copper,
is an acetate of copper (verdigris): while the genuine copper rust,
_Ærugo_, is a carbonate of copper.

=Ærumna=, R. A kind of fork by which travellers carried their baggage
over the shoulder. 2. An instrument of punishment for slaves. (See

=Æs.= A term used in antiquity to denote brass, copper, bronze, or any
alloy of these metals. It also serves, in various connexions, to denote
a number of different objects. Such as _æs candidum_, a brass mixed with
silver; _æs Corinthum_, a brass mixed with gold; _æs Cyprium_, the
ancient name for copper. (See also BRONZE.)

=Æs grave=, R. A general term current in Rome to denote any bronze money
at the period when the _as_ was equal to about a pound in value.

=Æs rude=, R. The name given to the bronze ingots employed at Rome as
ready money in exchanges and other commercial transactions.

=Æs thermarum=, Gr. and R. A bronze gong or metal bell hung up in the
public baths, the sound of which, when struck, gave notice to the public
that the baths were sufficiently warm to be ready for use.

=Æs ustum.= Peroxide of copper, or calcined copper.

=Æsthetics=, Gr. (αἰσθάνομαι, to comprehend). The science of the
instinctive apprehension of the harmonies.

=Aetos=, Gr. (Ἀετός). A Greek word signifying _eagle_, and by analogy, a
gable, pediment, or higher part of a building generally, so called from
the resemblance which these parts bear to an eagle with outstretched
wings. In the same way the Greeks gave the name of πτερὰ (wings), to the
outer rows of columns flanking each side of a temple.

=Affidati=, It. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was
a nautilus, with the motto “tutus per suprema per ima.”

=Affrontée=, Her. Showing the full front.

=Agalma=, =Agalmata=, Gr. (ἄγαλμα, from ἀγάλλω, to glorify). Any work of
art dedicated to a god, whether it were placed in his temple or not;
such as tripods; [braziers for incense], or other accessories of a
temple. The low pillar placed over a tomb, or the statue of a god might
be _agalmata_.

=Agate.= A variety of quartz often employed by the engravers of
antiquity. The term is a corruption of the word _Achates_, a river of
Sicily, on the banks of which numerous varieties of the stone abound.
Among these maybe mentioned the _cerachates_, or white wax-like agate;
_dendrachates_, or arborescent agate; _hemachates_, or blood-agate, so
called from its blood-like spots; and _leucachates_, or white agate.
Agates were often carved into scarabæi by the Egyptians, and Babylonian
cylinders have been found, made of the same material. The oriental agate
is semi-transparent, the occidental is opaque, of various tints, often
_veined_ with quartz and jasper; hence its fitness for cutting cameos.

=Agathodæmon, Cup of=, Gr. (Ἀγαθο-δαίμων). A name given by the Greeks to
a cup consecrated to Bacchus, and meaning literally, the “Cup of the
Good Genius.” It was sent round after a feast, in order that each guest
might partake of the wine.

=Agea=, R. A narrow passage or gangway in a boat, by means of which the
boatswain (_hortator_) communicated with the rowers.

=Agger=, R. A general term to denote a mound of any materials, such as
that formed by a dyke, quay, roadway, or earthwork; and particularly a
rampart composed of trunks of trees and employed in offensive or
defensive warfare. A celebrated _agger_ was that of Servius Tullius at
Rome. The art of constructing _aggeres_ and other fortifications, had
been learnt by the Romans from the Greeks, who in their turn had derived
it from the East. It was after having penetrated into the heart of Asia
under Alexander the Great, that the Greeks learned the use of siege
works employed in the attack or defence of strong places, and became
acquainted with various kinds of warlike engines such as the

=Agnus Bell=, Chr. A sacring bell.

=Agnus Dei=, Chr. THE LAMB OF GOD, or lamb bearing the banner of the
cross. The term is also used to denote certain ornaments or medallions
of wax impressed with a figure of the lamb. They represented the ancient
custom of distributing to worshippers, on the first Sunday after Easter,
particles of wax from the consecrated paschal taper.

=Agolum, R.= A long sharp-pointed shepherd’s stick used by the Roman
herdsmen for driving their cattle. The _agolum_ was made out of a
straight shoot of the prickly pear; it is still in use among the
herdsmen of the Roman campagna at the present day.

=Agonalia= or =Agonia=, R. A Roman festival, which derived its name from
the word _agone_ (shall I proceed?) the question asked of the _rex
sacrificulus_ by the attendant, before he sacrificed the victim. The
Quirinal was called _Mons agonus_, from a festival being held there on
the 17th or 18th of March, in honour of Mars. The day itself was called
_Agonium martiale_ or day of the Liberalia. Another explanation of the
etymology of the name is that the sacrifice was offered on the Quirinal
hill, which was originally called _Agonus_. (Consult Ovid. Fasti, i.
319–332, he suggests several explanations.)

=Agonistic=, (ἀγωνιστικὴ, from ἀγὼν, a contest). With the ancients, that
part of gymnastics in which athletes contended with arms.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Agora of Antiphellus.]

=Agora=, Gr. (ἀγορὰ, from ἀγείρω, to assemble). A place of assembly or
public market. The _agora_ was to the Greeks what the _forum_ was to the
Romans. There were numerous agoræ in Greece and Asia Minor. Fig. 11,
represents the plan of the _agora_ of Antiphellus; in which _a_ and _b_
indicate the sites of the corn-pits; _c_, that of a basilica. _Agora_ is
also used to denote the general assembly of freemen in contradistinction
to the _Boulè_ (q.v.).

=Agraulia.= An Athenian festival.

=Agrenon=, Gr. and R. A net, or garment of netted wool, worn over their
other dress by the priests of Bacchus and by soothsayers.

=Aguinia=, Med. A corruption of _ingenia_, engines of war. (Meyrick.)

=Aguzo=, It. A spear-head; a spear.

=Ahenum= or =Aenum=. A bronze vessel furnished with a handle for
suspending it over the fire, and so named from the material out of which
it was made. (2) The coppers used in the public baths for heating the
water in.

[Illustration: Fig. 12 Aiglets.]

=Aiglet=, Fr. (_aiguillette_). A metal tag or point to a lace; sometimes
used to signify the lace itself, as in the military costume of the
present day. They were formerly used to fasten the slashed dresses of
the middle ages; and sometimes to fasten armour, when they were made of
leather with metal points. In civilian costume they were of silk. The
term Aiguillette is also applied to the shoulder-knot worn by soldiers
and livery servants.

=Ailettes= (little wings). Armour worn on the shoulders to protect the
back of the neck; found in monumental brasses of the 13th century.

=Aisle= (_ala_, a wing). The wing of a building; the side passages of a
Roman house. In buildings of vast size, such as a basilica or temple,
comprising a central and two lateral naves, the latter are called

=Alabarda=, Med. A halberd.

=Alabaster= or =Alabastrum=, (ἀλάβαστρον). A small vase for holding
precious perfumes; so called from the alabaster of which it was
generally made. It was of various shapes, but chiefly assumed an
elongated form resembling a long pear, a pearl-drop, &c. [Many of these
perfume vessels are made of stalactite.] (2) A calcareous substance of
white colour, translucent or semi-transparent, and presenting, according
to the variety, undulating and continuous veins. The various kinds of
ancient alabaster are very numerous; the following may be named;
flowered alabaster (_alabastro fiorito_); golden (_dorato_); quince
coloured (_cotognino_); eyed (_occini_); tortoise-shell (_tartaruga_);
foam-white (_pecorella_); Busca de Palombara (_palombara_); onyx
(_onice_), &c. The Egyptians used alabaster for making statues, phials,
panegyric vases, canopea, small figures, and even sarcophagi; of which
last that of Seti I., now in the British Museum, is an example.
Alabaster was at one time frequently used for tombs and carved figures,
and is now used for pulpits and other ecclesiastical purposes. False
alabaster is the name given to a gypseous variety of this substance, of
which there are rich quarries at Volterra, in Tuscany. It is called
“Gesso Volterrano,” and is much used in Italy for the _grounds_ of

=Alabastrotheca=, R. (θήκη, a chest). A box or casket containing
alabaster flasks or vases.

=Aland=, =Alant=, Her. A mastiff with short ears.

=Alapa.= The blow on the shoulder in dubbing a knight.

=Alba creta.= Latin for white chalk, a term used by writers on art for

=Albani stone.= A pepper-coloured stone used in ancient buildings at
Rome before the introduction of marble.

=Albarium= (opus), R. (_albus_, white). A white coating or kind of
stucco with which brick walls were covered after a previous application
of ordinary cement. This stucco, which was also called simply
_albarium_, was made by a mixture of chalk, plaster, and white marble.

=Albalista=, =Arbalest=. A cross-bow.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. Albe.]

=Albe=, (_albus_, white). An ancient ecclesiastical vestment, common in
old brasses. It was a long white linen gown, reaching to the feet, and
secured by a girdle. The surplice is an _albe_ with wider sleeves. (Fig.

=Alberk=, for =Hauberk=. A cuirass.

=Album=, Gr. and R. (_albus_, white). A space on the surface of a wall
covered with white plaster, upon which were written advertisements or
public announcements. By analogy the term was used to denote any kind of
white tablets bearing an inscription, such as edicts, decrees, &c. These
tablets were very numerous; there were the _album pontificis_,
_prætoris_, _centuriæ_, _decurionum_, _judicum_, _senatorum_, &c.

=Alcato=, Arab. In armour, a gorget.

=Alcora pottery= (See DENIA.)

=Alcove.= A niche or recess in a room.

=Aldobrandini, Marriage=, R. A celebrated fresco from the gardens of
Mecænas, discovered at Rome near the church of Santa Maria Maggiore,
whence it was conveyed to the villa Aldobrandini, and afterwards sold to
the Borghese family. This painting which indisputably dates from the
reign of Augustus, consists of a group of ten figures, representing,
according to some, the marriage of Peleus and Thetis; and according to
others, that of Manlius and Julia.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Point d’Alençon.]

=Alençon, Point d’.= Lace formerly known as Point de France. It is the
only French lace not made on the pillow, but worked entirely by hand
with a fine needle, on a parchment pattern; it is called “Vilain” in the
French provinces, and in England is known as needle point. (Fig. 14.)

=Alerion=, Her. An eagle, in early Her., represented without feet or
beak. (See EAGLE.)

=Ale-stake.= In the middle ages the roadside ale-house was distinguished
by a stake projecting from the house, on which some object was hung for
a sign.

=Alexandrinum= (opus), R. A kind of mosaic employed especially for the
pavement of rooms. The distinctive feature of these mosaics is that the
lines or figures composing the designs are in two colours only, the
prevailing ones being red and black upon a white ground. A large number
of mosaics of this description exist at Pompeii, which are also called

=Alexikakos= (Apollo). Another name of the celebrated statue generally
called the Belvedere Apollo; from Nero’s villa at Antium.

=Algaroth powder.= An ingredient in the manufacture of an Antimony white

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Alhambraic ornament.]

=Alhambraic.= Ornamentation in the Moorish style of the Alhambra, the
characteristic of which is a faithful imitation of natural combinations
of form and colour, with a rigid avoidance of the representation of
natural objects. (Fig. 15.)

=Alicula=, R. A kind of large mantle, furnished sometimes with a hood.
The term is derived from the Greek ἄλλιξ, the name given to the
Thessalian chlamys. (See CHLAMYS.)

=Alizarin=, the colouring principle of the madder.

=Allecret= or =Hallecret=. A light armour for cavalry and infantry,
consisting of a breastplate and tassets (or gussets), 16th century.

=Allegory= in art, is allegorically represented as a female figure

=All Halowes= or =All Hallowes=. O. E. for All Saints.

=Alloys= of Gold. Gold is found alloyed with various metals, never
without silver, often with copper, iron, or other substances in small
quantities, and sometimes with mercury, when it is called an _amalgam_.
Gold alloyed with silver is called _native gold_. See ELECTRUM.

=Allouyère= Fr. (Lat. _alloverium_). A purse or pouch often carried at
the girdle, for holding papers, jewels, and money.

=Almayne Rivets= (German Rivets). Rivets used in plates of armour made
to slide and thus give play to the arms and legs, invented in the 17th
century, in Germany; hence their name.

=Almery=, =Aumery=, or =Ambry=, Arch. Chr. A niche or cupboard by the
side of an altar, to contain the utensils belonging thereto.

=Almond=, Chr. An aureole of elliptic form, which is frequently met with
encircling representations of saints, or of God the Father, God the Son,
or the Virgin. A more common name, however, for this aureole is VESICA
PISCIS (q.v.). The term of _mystical almond_ was applied to the symbol
expressive of the virginity of the Virgin Mary. The mystical meaning
attached to this symbol is explained by reference to the rod of Aaron,
which consisted of the bough of an almond-tree that had flowered in a
single night and produced an almond on the morrow.

=Almonry=, =Almonarium=, Arch. Chr. A room where alms were distributed.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Almuce.]

=Almuce=, =Aumuce=, =Amess=, Chr. (_almutium_). A furred hood worn by
the clergy for the sake of warmth, from the 13th to 16th centuries.
Common in brasses of the 15th century. (Fig. 16.)

=Aloa=, or =Haloa=. An Attic festival, in honour of Demeter and

=Alostel=, O. E. A cry of heralds at the close of a tournament, ordering
the combatants to quit the lists and retire to their lodgings.

=Alpha= and =Omega=, Chr. (ἄλφα and ὠμέγα). These two letters,
respectively the first and the last of the Greek alphabet, symbolize our
earthly life, since this has a beginning and an end. They are also a
symbol of God as being the beginning and end of everything.

=Altar.= A kind of platform or table upon which sacrifices were offered
to the gods. Hence, in Christian art, the table upon which the
Eucharistic sacrifice is offered. (See ANTEPENDIUM, CIBORIUM, REREDOS,
&c. See ALTARE and ARA.)

=Altar cards=, Chr. Portions of the service of the mass printed
separately on cards, and placed against the reredos of an altar.

=Altar cloth=, Chr. The linen coverings, and embroidered hangings of an

=Altare=, R. (_alta ara_, high altar). A raised altar as
contradistinguished from the _ara_ which was of no great height. (Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Circular Roman altar.]

=Altar front=, Chr. An antependium (q.v.).

=Altar screen=, Chr. The partition behind the high altar, separating it
from the Lady Chapel.

=Alto-rilievo= (Ital.) High Relief. See RILIEVO.

=Alum= is used in many processes—in the preparation of paper for
water-colour painting, and of _lakes_, and _carmine_, from cochineal.
_Roche alum_, or roach alum, _Roman alum_, and _Turkey alum_, are
varieties of the common alum, described by mediæval writers as

=Alumen= (Lat.), Greek, (_stypteria_). Mediæval writers confused this
word with the alums. The name was applied by the classics to several
salts of the nature of vitriols, and among them to the natural sulphate
of iron (_copperas_ or _green vitriol_ of commerce).

=Alur=, =Aloring=, or =Alurde=, &c., O.E. Parapet wall.

=Alvéole=; see NIMBUS.

=Alveus=, R. (_alvus_, the belly). (1) A bath constructed in the floor
of a room, the upper part of it projected above the floor, the lower
part being sunk into the floor itself. (2) A playing-board, which was
divided in the same manner as the ABACUS (q.v.). (3) A canoe hollowed
out of the trunk of a tree, the Greek μονόξυλον. (4) The hull of a ship.
(5) A wooden trough or tray.

=Ama= or =Amula=, Chr. A long phial for holding the wine presented at
the altar at the moment of offering.

=Amassette=, Fr. An instrument of horn used for spreading colours on the
stone in the process of grinding.

=Amatito=, Ital. Lapis Amatita. Amatito is the _soft_ red hæmatite, and
is called also _matita rossa_. _Lapis amatita_ is the _compact_ red
hæmatite, and is also called in Italy _mineral cinnabar_, and in Spain
_albin_. When this word is used by early writers on art, it probably
indicates _red ochre_, the red hæmatite of mineralogists. (Fairholt.)

=Amber.= There are two varieties of this substance, viz., the grey and
the yellow amber, of which the latter only need here be more
particularly noticed. Its use may be traced back to a very early
antiquity, the purposes to which it was applied being the setting of
jewels and furniture. It was employed by the Jews for making amulets.
Amber was also used by the Egyptians in the fabrication of necklaces
composed of pearls or other delicate materials. By the Romans it was
sculptured into vases or statuettes. The name of _vasa electrina_ was
given to amber vases set with silver, and that of _electrina patera_ to
pateræ made of amber alone. Amber was largely used by early painters as
a _varnish_, and also as a _vehicle_. It is harder than copal, and is
said to be the most durable of all varnishes. It requires a long time to
fit it for _polishing_. Amber is supposed to be a vegetable fossil; it
is washed up by the sea, especially on the shores of the Baltic.

=Amber Yellow=, is an _ochre_ of a rich amber colour in its raw state;
when burned it yields a fine _brown red_.

=Ambitus=, Gr. R. and Chr. (_ambio_, to go round about). A small niche
in underground Greek or Roman tombs forming a receptacle for a cinerary
urn. In the Middle Ages these niches were so far enlarged as to admit
coffins; the name under which they then went being ENFEUS (q.v.). During
the same period the term _ambitus_ was also applied to the consecrated
ground by which a church was surrounded. It served as a place of asylum
as well as for burial. The term is also applied to the process of
canvassing for votes.

=Ambivium=, R. (_ambi_ and _via_, a way round). Any road or street
leading _round_ a place.

[Illustration: Fig. 18. The ambo of St. Lawrence at Rome.]

=Ambo=, Chr. (perhaps from ἀναβαίνειν, to ascend). A tribune of stone or
marble in the ancient Latin basilicas, a pulpit. Fig. 18 gives a
representation of the ambo in the church of St. Lawrence without the
walls at Rome.

=Ambrices=, R. The cross laths (_regulæ_) inserted between the rafters
and the tiles of a roof.

=Ambry=; see ALMERY.

=Ambulant=, Her. In the act of walking.

=Ambulatory=, Chr. (_ambulo_, to walk). Part of a cloister, forming a
kind of gallery for taking exercise in.

=Amenti= or =Amenthi=, Egyp. One of the names given to the nether world
of the Egyptians. It means the _unseen region_. We learn from Plutarch’s
treatise on Osiris that, “the subterranean regions whither souls betake
themselves after death is called _Amenthes_.” Osiris is the lord and god
of Amenti, which was also called by the Egyptians the _country of

=Amentum=, R. A thong attached to the shaft of a lance at the centre of
gravity. The soldier placed the fingers of his right hand between the
two ends of the thong, gave the weapon a rapid turn, and then hurled it.
_Amentum_ was also used to denote the leather strap by which certain
kinds of boots, such as the _crepidæ_, _solæ_, &c., were fastened above
the instep.

=Amess.= (See ALMUCE.)

=Amethyst=, (ἀμέθυστος, without intoxication.) A precious stone of a
more or less deep violet colour. The engravers of antiquity carved
figures upon it, in especial those of Bacchus, since the stone was also
used, in preference to any other, for making drinking-cups, from a
belief that it possessed the virtue of dispelling intoxication. This was
the origin of the Greek term. Among the ancient Jews the amethyst was
one of the twelve stones composing the breastplate of the high priest;
it occupied the eighth or ninth row. In Christian symbolism the amethyst
(or the colour violet) signifies humility and modesty.

=Amiantus=, (ἀμίαντος [? undefiled]). A fibrous uninflammable mineral
substance. It was used by the ancients for making fire-proof clothing.
It was known by the name of _asbestus_ (ἄσβεστος, uninflammable).

=Amice.= A piece of fine linen in the form of an oblong square,
suspended over the shoulders of the clergy. _Pugin_ says it is “a white
linen napkin or veil worn by all the clergy above the four minor
orders.” _Durand_ says it is a proper covering for the head, typical of
the helmet of salvation alluded to by the apostle; or of the cloth with
which the Jews covered the Saviour’s face, when they asked him to
prophecy who struck him. Milton, in _Paradise Regained_, alludes to it,—

                                          “Morning fair
            Came forth with pilgrim steps, in _amice_ grey.”

=Amma=, Egyp. (1) A measure of length in use among the ancient
Egyptians. It was about sixty feet. (2) A kind of line used in land

=Ammah=, Egyp. The door which formed the exit from the abode of the
dead. Chapters lxxiii. and cxv. of the _Book of the Dead_ are
entitled,—_On passing Ammah_; i. e. _directing one’s course to heaven by
stepping over the Ammah_.

=Amorevole= of Verona. One of the Italian literary academies. Their
device was a hedgehog with its spines laden with grapes (for its young).
Motto, “non solum nobis.”

=Amorini=, Ital. Cupids.

=Ampelitis=, Gr. (ἄμπελος, a vine). A black pigment prepared by the
ancients from the burnt branches of the vine.

=Amphibalus=, Chr. A vestment, used on Sundays and high festivals;
peculiar to the Gallican Church.

=Amphidromia.= Family festival held by the Athenians upon the occasion
of the birth of a child. The carrying of the child round the hearth gave
the name to the festival.

=Amphimallum=, Gr. and R. (ἀμφί-μαλλον, woolly on both sides). A
description of woollen cloth more or less rough, and having a nap on
both sides.

=Amphiprostylos=, Gr. and R. (ἀμφι-πρόστυλος). A temple or other
building having two open porticoes (_porticum_ and _posticum_), both in
front and rear. They are so constructed as to project beyond the
_cella_, or main body of the building.

=Amphitapus=, Gr. and R. (ἀμφί-ταπος, hairy on both sides). A particular
kind of cloth, made of some material resembling Vicuna wool, and having,
like the _amphimallum_, a nap on both sides. It was probably of Eastern

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Ground-plan of an amphitheatre.]

=Amphitheatre=, R. (ἀμφι-θέατρον). A building which was at first
constructed for the purpose of exhibiting gladiatorial shows to the
Roman populace; but later on any kind of spectacle, even to a
_naumachia_, or sea-fight, was exhibited there. In the engraving, A
shows the ground-plan of an amphitheatre, and B the plan of the seats.

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Greek Amphoræ.]

=Amphora=, Gr. and R. (ἀμφὶ-φορέω). A large earthenware vessel, having a
handle on each side of its neck (whence the name), and terminating in a
point. Amphoræ were used for holding various kinds of produce,
especially wine; they were placed side by side in an upright position in
the cellar, the floor of which was covered with a deep bed of sand. The
engravings represent amphoræ from Cnidus, Chio, and Samos. Amphoræ were
also made of glass; and a specimen is mentioned by Nepos of one made of
onyx. Homer mentions them of gold and stone; and the Egyptians had them
of brass.

=Amphotis=, Gr. and R. 1. A brass cap lined with cloth inside. 2. A
simple woollen cap worn by athletes to protect their temples and ears
from the blows of the _cestus_, in a boxing match. 3. A wooden vessel in
use among the ancient Greek peasants, as a milking-pail. It derived its
name from having two handles or ears.

=Ampulla=, Gr. and R. A phial or flask with short and narrow neck and
spherical body, which was used to hold the oil requisite for bathers
(_ampulla oleria_); it could also be used to hold vinegar, wine, and
other beverages, and was then called _ampulla potaria_. The ampulla
generally took the form of a globe or bladder, but not invariably; a
lentil-shaped variety with rounded sides was very common. _Ampulla
rubida_ was the name given to the leather-covered flasks which were made
use of by travellers or sportsmen to carry wine, vinegar, or oil. The
vessel or cruet used in Christian churches for the consecrated oil or
wine was hence called the AMPUL.

=Ampyx=, Gr. and R. (ἄμπυξ, from ἀμπέχω, to surround). Latin _frontale_.
A general term to denote any net composed of strings, bands, or ribbons,
which forms a head-band. It thus denotes at once a woman’s head-dress,
or the ornamental strips of leather which serve as head-band for a
horse. The _ampyx_ worn by women was in some cases very costly, being
made of gold or silver, and adorned with precious stones. The term was
also applied, by analogy, to the cover of a vase. Another word for it is

=Amulets.= Objects of a very heterogeneous description, to which is
superstitiously attributed the power of healing certain diseases, or
averting them from men and animals. This is the meaning which attaches,
in its widest sense, to the term amulet (_amuletum_). Amulets are
unquestionably of Eastern origin; by the Egyptians they were looked upon
as preservatives against dangers, unlucky days, enemies, &c. The
varieties of them were very numerous; among others, were scarabæi, small
columns, cartouches, symbolic eyes, interlacing fingers, heads of uræus,
&c. A large number of stones were also employed as amulets; those of
commonest occurrence are hematite, jasper, lapis lazuli, amethysts,
diamonds, heliotropes, &c. Each of these amulets had its special virtue;
for instance, the clear crystal worn during prayer rendered the god
propitious, and compelled him to give ear to the suppliant. Coral kept
every evil influence away from a house; and in Italy it is looked upon,
even at the present day, as a preservative against the evil eye. In
Christian archæology, the name of amulets, or in some instances,
ENCOLPIA (q.v.), was given to relics, or objects of devotion, such as
crosses, medals, wood from the true cross, the bones of saints, &c.
Amulets were also called _periapta_ (περίαπτα), i. e. suspended, because
they were hung round the neck, and also _pyctacium_, because some
amulets were folded in two. The Arabic word amulet means the same as
_periapta_, that which is suspended.

=Amussis=, R. The exact sense of this term is not clearly defined by
ancient authors, beyond the fact that it denotes generally any kind of
instrument employed by builders—especially masons—for testing the
accuracy, regularity, and evenness of their work. The term is used to
denote sometimes the plumb-line, rule, or square; sometimes the level,
measuring-line, &c.

=Anabathra=, Gr. and R. (ἀνά-βαθρα, steps up). Steps or stairs; a raised
step; a mounting block. These last were often placed along the high

=Anabologium=, Chr. Another name for the Humerale or AMICE (q.v.).

=Anaceia= or =Anakeia=, Gr. (from ἄναξ, a king). A festival held at
Athens in honour of Castor and Pollux, who were also called _Anaktes_
and _Anakestes_. (See ANACEIUM). Similar festivals were held at Sparta,
Argos, and other cities of Greece.

=Anaceium=, Gr. A temple of ancient Athens, dedicated to Castor and
Pollux. Slaves used to be sold there.

=Anaclinterium=, Gr. (ἀνακλιντήριον). The head-board of a sofa or bed,
which served as a support for the bolster and the pillow on which the
sleeper’s head rested.

=Anadem=, Gr. (ἀνάδημα). In general a fillet or head-band; but in a more
restricted acceptation, an ornamental band, such as was worn by women
and youths among the Greeks. It was thus distinguished from the
_diadema_ and the _vitta_, which were also head-bands, but worn solely
as the insignia of honorary, regal, or religious distinctions.

=Anaglyph=, (ἀνὰ and γλύφειν, to carve). A general term to denote any
work of art that is sculptured, chased, carved, or embossed, such as
cameos, bas-reliefs, or other raised work, whether in metal, marble, or
ivory. When such sculptures or chasings are incised or sunk, they are
called INTAGLIOS or DIAGLYPHS (q.v.). According to St. Clement of
Alexandria, anaglyphs were employed by the Egyptians when they wished to
hand down a panegyric of any king under the form of a religious myth.
Although the words of St. Clement are very obscure, and have furnished
materials for countless discussions, it is now admitted that the
anaglyphs in question belong to the group of hieroglyphics which may be
deciphered on the cartouches of the Pharaohs, and in which we have, in
fact, panegyrics of the Egyptian kings veiled in religious myths. The
Egyptians also gave the name of anaglyphs to a kind of secret writing,
understood only by the initiated; even at the present day it remains
undecipherable, owing to our imperfect knowledge of Egyptian mythology.

=Anagogia.= A festival at Eryx, in Sicily, in honour of Aphrodite.

=Analemma=, Gr. and R. (ἀνάλημμα). Any raised construction which serves
for a support or rest, and more particularly a pier, wall, or buttress.
(2) The pedestal of a sun-dial, and so the sun-dial itself.

=Anancœum=, R. A drinking-cup of great capacity, the form of which is
unknown. If we may credit Varro it was sometimes richly chased.

=Anankaion=, Gr. (ἀναγκαῖον, from ἀνάγκη, restraint). A kind of prison
the purpose of which is not exactly known. According to some
archæologists it was a private prison for slaves, or for freedmen, who,
from some fault, were reduced to servitude again; others assert that it
was a public prison.

=Anapiesma=, Gr. and R. (ἀνα-πίεσμα, that which is pressed back). An
appliance used in ancient theatres. It was a kind of trap-door by means
of which deities were raised from beneath the stage so as to make them
visible to the spectators. The _proscenium_ contained a certain number
of these trap-doors; one of them, leading from the orchestra to the
front of the stage, enabled the Furies to appear; by another, marine
deities made their appearance; while that through which passed the
shades who ascended Charon’s staircase was called _Charon’s anapiesma_.

=Anastatic.= An ingenious modern process of reproducing copies of
printed matter, engravings, ink drawings, &c., by transferring them to a
sheet of polished zinc.

=Anathēma=, Chr. (ἀνάθημα, an offering). Anything offered up in churches
by the faithful; as, for instance, vases and other utensils for
sacrifice, altar ornaments, &c.

=Anathĕma=, Chr. The greater excommunication, answering to the Hebrew

=Anchor.= In Christian Art, the emblem of Hope. The attribute of S.
Clement, the Pope, who was bound to an anchor, and thrown into the sea.

=Ancile=, R. A shield of the shape of a violin case. It was the sacred
shield which, according to tradition, had fallen from heaven into the
palace of Numa. It occurs frequently on medals, especially those of
Augustus. The two incavations of the shield were more or less deep, and
usually semicircular. But Ovid describes it as of an entirely different
shape, being cut evenly all round; _Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni
parte recisum est_ (Ovid, Fast. iii. 377). The SALII, or twelve priests
of Mars Gradivus, had twelve such shields. The form was oval, with the
two sides curving evenly inwards, so as to make it broader at the ends
than in the middle. They used to beat their shields and dance.

=Anclabris=, Gr. and R. A small table used instead of an altar at
sacrifices; it was slightly concave, so as to adapt it to hold the
entrails of the victim for the inspection of the diviners. (See ALTAR.)

=Ancon=, Gr. and R. (αγκων). A term admitting various meanings, (1) A
small console on each side of a door supporting an ornamental cornice.
(2) The arm of a chair or arm-chair. (3) A cramp of wood or metal
serving to connect together courses of masonry or blocks of stone. (4)
The prongs or forks at the end of the props employed by hunters to hang
their nets upon. (5) An earthenware vessel used in Roman taverns for
holding wine. According to the etymology of the word which in Greek
signifies hollow or elbow, this bottle must have been shaped like a
retort. (6) The arms or branches of the square used by carpenters and
stone masons, which form an angle similar to that formed by the bent

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Roman anchor, from a bas-relief.]

=Ancora=, Gr. and R. (ἀγκύρα, from ἄγκος, a bend). An anchor or piece of
iron used to stop a ship. Like those now in use, the ancient anchors
were generally furnished with two flukes or arms, but sometimes they had
only one. In the latter case they were called _terostomos_, a term
corresponding to our modern blind anchor. A bas-relief on the column of
Trajan represents an anchor placed at the bow of the vessel. In
Christian archæology the anchor is a symbol of hope; an anchor is
frequently met with, among Christian symbols, associated with a fish;
the emblem of the Saviour (See ACROSTIC).

=Ancorale=, Gr. and R. Literally the cable of an anchor, and then the
buoy-rope, or even the buoy itself. The ancient anchors had a ring at
the end of the shank to which the buoy-rope was attached. The latter
served not only to indicate the place where the anchor lay, but also to
drag the flukes out of the ground when the anchor was raised.

=Andiron.= Iron standards with bars for supporting logs of wood fires,
frequently richly ornamented, and sometimes made partly of silver.

=Andriantes=, Gr. (ἀνδριάντες, images of men). Statues set up by the
Greeks in honour of the victors in the public games. This custom dated
from 50 Olym., or 584 B.C.

=Androgeonia.= An Athenian annual festival, in honour of Androgeus, the
son of Minos.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Plan of a Greek house, showing the andron.]

=Andron=, =Andronitis=, Gr. and Gr.-R. (ἀνδρὼν, from ἀνὴρ, a man). That
part of the Greek or Græco-Roman house exclusively set apart for men.
Fig. 22 represents the ground-plan of a Greek house; the _andron_
occupies all that part of the building which surrounds the open court,
and consists of the apartments numbered 1 to 9. The Romans applied the
term simply to a passage separating a house or part of a house from

=Anelace=, O. E. A knife or dagger worn at the girdle; broad, two-edged
and sharp.

               “An _anelace_ and a gipciere all of silk,
               Hung at his girdle, white as morwe milk.”
                 (CHAUCER, _Canterbury Tales_.)

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Angel of the reign of Elizabeth.]

=Angel.= A gold coin current in England and France in the 15th and 16th
centuries. It derived its name from the figure of an angel stamped upon
it. A similar coin, either of gold or silver, was current in France at
various periods. From the time of Louis IX. to that of Louis XI., the
gold angel was equal in value to a crown of fine gold, or a little more
than fourteen francs. It was stamped with a figure of St. Michael,
holding in his right hand a sword, and in his left a shield with three
fleur-de-lys. Henry VI., king of England, when he was in possession of
Paris, had a gold angel struck which was not above seven francs in
value. It was stamped with the figure of an angel holding in his hand
the shields of France and England. The same king also had a silver angel
struck which was only worth about five and a half francs.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Arms of France with Angels as supporters. XIV.

=Angels=, (Gr. ἄγγελος, a messenger) in Christian Art are represented in
nine degrees, which are divided into three categories. The first
consists of Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones; the second of Dominations,
Virtues, Powers; and the third of Princedoms, Archangels, and Angels.
They are represented as young, to show their continued strength; winged
as messengers of speed; barefooted and girt to show their readiness; in
robes of white indicative of purity, or in cloth of gold for their
glory; the cloth of gold diapered with bands of precious stones; the
emerald, emblem of _unfading youth_; the crystal, of _purity_; the
sapphire, of _celestial contemplation_; and the ruby, of _divine love_.
During the renaissance, Pugin complains, “the edifying and traditional
representations of angelic spirits were abandoned, and, in lieu of the
albe of purity and golden vests of glory, the artists indulged in pretty
cupids sporting in clouds, &c.” The proper attributes of the angels are
trumpets, for the _voice of God_; flaming swords, for the _wrath of
God_; sceptres, for the _power of God_; thuribles or censers for the
_prayers of saints_, and musical instruments to emblem their _felicity_.

=Angiportus= or =Angiportum=, R. A narrow road passing between two
houses or rows of houses, or an alley leading to a single house.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Point d’Angleterre.]

=Angleterre, Point d’.= Lace made by Flemish makers who were invited to
settle in England in the reign of Charles II., the English Parliament
having passed an act prohibiting the importation of all foreign lace.
England, however, could not produce the necessary flax, and the lace was
of inferior quality. The merchants of the time remedied this by
smuggling large quantities of lace from the Brussels market, selling it
as English Point or Point d’Angleterre, by which latter name it is still
known, effacing the old name “Point de Bruxelles.” (Fig. 25.)

=Anglicanum Opus.= (See EMBROIDERY.)

=Angones.= French weapons of the Middle Ages furnished with three
blades, one of which was straight, broad and keen, the remaining two
curving outwards. Some angons have a lozenge-shaped head-blade. They
were used as a kind of pike, and sometimes hurled like javelins. The
latter kind somewhat resembled the _aclis_.

=Anguilla=, R. A whip made use of by Roman schoolmasters for punishing
their scholars. It was so called because made from the skin of an eel

=Anguis=, R. A serpent which among the Romans symbolized the local
spirit (_genius loci_). Serpents were painted upon a wall to deter the
public from defiling the spot thus indicated. At Pompeii these
representations of serpents are found in the bakehouses, kitchens, and
similar places where cleanliness is peculiarly desirable. The same term
was applied to a military ensign in the shape of a serpent.

=Anime.= Gum anime is a resin, which is mixed with copal in making
varnish, causing it to dry quickly and firmly.

=Animosi of Milan.= One of the Italian literary academies. Their device
was “stags passing a river, resting on the heads of each other.” Motto,
“Dant animos vices.” (Mutual help gives strength.)

=Anklets=, Gr. (See PERISCELIS.)

=Annealing.= The process of tempering brittle glass and metals by heat.

=Annulet=, Her. A plain ring, or false roundle.

=Annulets=, Arch. The rings or mouldings about the lower part of the
echinos or ovolo of Doric capitals.

=Annulus= or =Anulus=, Gr. and R. (dimin. of _anus_, a ring). A
finger-ring. They were originally made of iron, and used as a signet for
sealing. Later on they were made of gold. Among the Greeks and Romans
they were worn on the fourth finger of the left hand, whence the
expression _sedere ad anulos alicui_, to be seated at any one’s left
hand. The _anulus bigemmis_ was a ring set with two precious stones;
_anulus velaris_ was a curtain ring. A plait of hair arranged in circles
round the back of the head was also called _anulus_. In architecture the
term was formerly employed instead of _anulet_. The stone most
frequently used for rings was the onyx, upon which devices were carved
with wonderful skill. The _bezel_, or part of the ring which contained
the gem, was called PALA. (See RINGS.)

=Ansa=, Gr. and R. A term signifying both haft and handle, and even
eyelet or hole. Any vessel or vase which has large ears or circular
handles on the neck or body, is said to be furnished with _ansæ_. _Ansa
ostii_ was the term applied to the handle by which a door is pulled or
shut to. The bronze or iron eyelet on the top of a steelyard were also
called _ansæ stateræ_. The holes or eyelets made in the side leathers of
a Greek or Roman shoe were called _ansæ crepidæ_; the handle of the
rudder, _ansa gubernaculi_; lastly an iron cramp was called _ansa

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Templum in antis.]

=Antæ=, R. Square or rectangular pilasters supporting the walls of a
temple, which was thence called _templum in antis_. (Fig. 26.) The
_antæ_ thus formed the end of the walls of the _cella_. The capitals of
_antæ_ and the friezes abutting on them were sometimes richly
ornamented, as may be seen by referring to Fig. 27, which represents, in
their restored state, the frieze and one of the antæ in the temple of
Augustus, at Ancyra, in Galatia.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Capital and frieze of one of the Antæ in the
temple of Augustus.]

=Antarius=, =Antarii funes=, R. Ropes employed for raising into the
proper position any object of considerable weight, such as a column,
mast, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Archaic Antefixa in terra-cotta.]

=Antefixa.= Ornaments of terra-cotta which were placed above the
cornice, at the end of each row of tiles on a roof (Fig. 29). They were
also used in ancient times for decorating the ridge of a roof. We
possess specimens of antefixa remarkable for delicacy of design and
execution; such were the antefixa of the temple of Diana Propylæa at
Eleusis, and the various Etruscan specimens to be found in our museums.
They were decorated with masks, leaves, and especially palms painted to
imitate nature or in different colours. The Etruscans employed coloured
antefixa only; many specimens of these last may be seen at the Louvre,
and in the museums of Perugia, Florence, and Naples. The Antefixa of the
Parthenon were of marble. (Fig. 30.)

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Antefixa in marble from the Parthenon.]

=Antemural.= A term referring either to the outworks protecting the
approach to a castle, or to the wall surrounding the castle.

=Antenna=, R. The yard-arm of a ship.

=Antepagmentum=, R. The jamb of a door. _Antepagmentum superius_, the

=Antependium.= Richly ornamented hangings of precious metal, wood, or
textile fabrics, in front of a Christian altar.

=Anteportico.= A synonym of PORCH (q.v.); but little used.

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Anterides of the Cloaca Maxima at Rome.]

=Anterides=, Gr. and R. (? ἀντερείδω, to stand firm). A structure
employed to strengthen a weaker one. It consisted of a kind of buttress
placed against an outer wall, chiefly in subterranean constructions,
such as a sewer or aqueduct. Fig. 31 represents the _anterides_ of the
Cloaca Maxima at Rome.

=Anthony, Cross of St.=, in the form of the letter T. It is the
idealized representation of a crutch. (See CROSSES.)

=Anthropomorphic.= Man-shaped; said for example of the character of the
Greek Religion, whose gods and demi-gods were only ideal men, from which
circumstance the representation of the human form became the first
object of their plastic art.

=Antia.= The iron handle of a shield.

=Antiæ=, R. The ringlets of hair worn by men and women which hung about
the ears and the temples.

=Antick.= Strange, irregular, or fantastic in composition.

=Antilena=, R. An appliance attached to the pack-saddle of a beast of
burden. It was a broad strap passing in front of the animal’s breast so
as to prevent the saddle from slipping backwards. It was employed
especially in mountainous districts.

=Antimensium=, Chr. A consecrated altar cloth.

=Antimony.= The oxide of this metal is employed in the preparation of
yellow pigments for enamel or porcelain painting. Glass is coloured
yellow by antimony. (See NAPLES, GUIMET’S YELLOWS.)

=Antipendium=, Chr. (See ANTEPENDIUM.)

=Antiphoner=, Chr. An antiphonarium; a book of responses set to music.

=Antique.= Pertaining to ancient Greek or Roman art: more freely used in
recent times to describe the quality of ancient art in general, but
properly applicable only to classical art.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Opus Antiquum.]

=Antiquum Opus=, Arch. An ancient kind of stone-work or masonry composed
of irregular stones. Another name for it was _opus incertum_.

=Antiseptic varnish.= A glazing composed to protect vegetable or animal

=Antitype.= The realization of the _type_.

=Antonine Column.= One of the most valuable architectural monuments in
Rome. It is a lofty pillar ornamented with a series of bas-reliefs
extending spirally from the base to the summit, representing the
victories of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

=Anulus.= (See ANNULUS.)

=Anvil.= In Christian art the attribute of St. Adrian, and of St. Eloy,
the patron saint of the smiths.

=Apalare=, R. A kitchen utensil; a sort of large metal spoon or ladle.

=Ape.= In Christian art the emblem of malice and of lust. Common in
illuminations of the penitential psalms, in allusion to David’s fall.

=Apex=, R. (_apex_, the top). A piece of olive wood pointed at the end,
and set in a flock of wool. It formed the head-dress of the _Flamines_
and _Salii_. By analogy, the term was further used to denote a cap, and
also the ridge on the top of a helmet to which the horsehair crest was

=Aphractus=, Gr. and R. (ἄφρακτον, lit. unguarded). A vessel without a
deck, or only partly decked fore and aft.

=Aphrodisia=, Gr. (Ἀφροδίσια). A general term under which were comprised
all the festivals held in honour of Venus (_Aphroditè_).

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Aplustre and anchor of a Roman ship.—From

=Aplustre=, Gr. and R. (ἄφλαστον). An ornament placed at a ship’s stern.
It was constructed of flexible wooden planks, in imitation of the
feather of a bird’s wing.

=Apobates=, Gr. (Lat. _Desultor_). One who dismounts. (1) Soldiers in
chariots who leaped in and out in the fight. (2) The circus riders who
leaped from one horse to another.

=Apodyterium=, R. and Gr.-R. (from ἀπὸ δύω, to put off). In a general
sense, an undressing-room, and more particularly the apartment in the
baths where the bathers undressed. As little light penetrated from
without, there was generally a lamp burning in a niche. An _apodyterium_
such as that just described may still be seen at Pompeii.

=Apollino=, It. The name usually given to the beautiful “Apollo of
Florence,” attributed to Praxiteles.

=Apophyge= or =Apophysis=, Arch. The small fascia or band at the top and
base of the shaft of columns.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Apostle Mug.]

=Apostle Mug.= The mug or tankard shown in the engraving is of Nanconian
or Nuremberg stone-ware, with figures of the twelve apostles enamelled
in colours upon it. (Fig. 34.) APOSTLE SPOONS are well known to have
received their names from the figures of the Apostles forming the

=Apostyls Coats=, O. E. Probably garments used for mystery plays.

=Apotheca=, Gr. and R. (ἀποθήκη, a granary). A store-room or magazine
for containing any kind of stock. The Romans also applied the term
specially to a wine store-room situated in the upper part of the house;
this was sometimes called the _fumarium_. Here the wine was placed in
amphoræ to ripen it more quickly, whereas when stored in the _cella
vinaria_, it was placed in CUPÆ and DOLIA (q.v.).

=Apotheosis=, Gr. (ἀπὸ, θεὸς god, to deify). A deification; the ceremony
by which a mortal was introduced among the number of the gods. The
proper term in Latin is _consecratio_ (q.v.). The funeral pile, in such
cases, was built several stories in height, and an eagle was let loose
from the top storey, to carry the soul of the emperor from earth to
heaven. This is commemorated upon the medals struck on the occasion,
which represent an altar with a fire on it, from which an eagle ascends.

=Apparel=, Chr. Embroidered additions to the vestments of the clergy.

=Appaumée=, Her. Said of a _hand_, open, erect, and showing the palm.

=Appianum=, Lat. Appian green, a pigment used by the ancients, prepared
from green earth, now known as _Cyprus_ or _Verona green_, because the
best is found at those places.

=Apple.= The emblem in classical art of victory, and in Christian art of
the fall of man.

=Appliqué=, Fr. Applied ornament, as of metal or porcelain upon wood. In
embroidery, Appliqué work is used, when a pattern cut out of one colour
or stuff is applied, or laid on, to another.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Apse of St. William in the Desert, a monastery
in the South of France.—Built about A. D. 820.]

=Apse=, =Apsis=, or =Chevet= (ἁψὶς, bow or vault). The termination of a
church. It is generally of semicircular form, and surmounted by a
demicupola, but there are instances of rectangular apses. Fig. 35
represents the apse of St. William in the Desert. (See ABSIS.)

=Apsis gradata=, Chr. The chair occupied by bishops in the early
Christian basilicas.

=Apteral=, Arch. Without wings. A temple without columns on the sides.

=Aqua fortis= (nitric acid). Used by engravers and etchers for biting-in
on copper and steel.

=Aqua marina.= A transparent green stone, frequently used by the gem
engravers of antiquity.

=Aquæmanalis.= (See AQUIMINARIUM.)

=Aquamanile=, Chr. The basin used for washing the hands of the celebrant
in the liturgy. A. of great splendour are frequently mentioned in the
ancient records. The corresponding ewer was called URCEUS.

=Aqua-tint.= A method of engraving with the help of mastic. (_Consult_
Fielding’s “Art of Engraving.”)

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Pont-du-Gard, a Roman aqueduct near Nismes.

=Aqueduct=, Gen. (_aqua_, water, and _duco_, to lead). An artificial
canal for conveying water from one point to another, and often to a
considerable distance from the source. Many ancient nations have
executed works of this description, but the Roman aqueducts are
especially celebrated. The most perfect is that which still exists, in a
ruined state, over the river Gard, near Nismes in the South of France,
called _Pont-du-Gard_. (Fig. 36.) Aqueducts were often discharged into

=Aquilæ=, R. The eagles, or ensigns, of the Roman legion under the
Empire. They were of silver or bronze, and had the wings outstretched.
As an architectural term _aquila_ denotes the triangular face formed by
the tympanum of a pediment, because the latter was often ornamented with
an eagle. (See ENSIGN.)

=Aquiminarium=, R. An ewer for pouring water over the hands of the
guests after a banquet. Other terms for this ewer were _aquæmanalis_ and

=Ara=, R. The Latin term for ALTAR. (See this word and ALTARE.)

=Arab Pottery.= (See GARGOULETTE.)

=Arabesque=, Gen. An ornament of a pattern more or less intricate,
composed of stems, foliage, leaves, fruits, scrolls, or leafage, as well
as of curious and fantastic animals. It is an error to suppose that
arabesque, as its name might seem to indicate, was an Arab invention; it
was known to the Greeks and Romans, and was largely employed in
Græco-Roman architecture.

=Aræostylé=, Arch. An order of temples, in which the space between the
columns is four diameters in width.

=Arbalest.= (See CROSS-BOW.)

=Arca=, R. (_arceo_, to enclose, preserve). (1) A kind of box or strong
chest used by the ancients as a receptacle for money, clothes, or any
valuable effects. (2) A strong box or money chest; (3) a rough chest
used for a coffin; (4) a cage for criminals, made of oak; (5) a wooden
caisson, answering the purpose of a modern coffer-dam.

=Arcade.= A series of arches.

=Arcadi.= A Literary Academy established at Rome in 1690. The members
adopted pastoral names. Their device was a Pandæan pipe, surrounded by a
wreath of olive and pine.

=Arcatures=, Arch. A series of blind arcades represented on a wall, in
relief or painting. Carved arcatures are those forming a kind of screen;
they are detached from the wall, and have an inner and outer face.

=Arcera=, R. A cart boarded all over so as to resemble a huge chest
(_arca_). The inmate reclined on cushions and pillows covered with
drapery; and the exterior was covered with hangings, the richness of
which varied with the rank and fortune of the owner.

=Arch= (_arcus_, a bow). A structure the form of which is based on the
segment of a circle. The kinds of arches are named according to the
curve which they make. _Round-headed arches_; semicircular, segmental or
stilted, introduced by the Romans. _Triangular arches_, of very early
date. _Horse-shoe arches_; the Moorish, the common horse-shoe and the
pointed (which is also a Moorish form). Then the _trefoil arch_ of the
Early English style: with its variations, including the square-headed
trefoil of the 13th century. The _lancet_ or acute-pointed; the
_equilateral_; the _pointed trefoil_; the _ogee_, of the 14th and 15th
century; the _Tudor_ arch, of the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII.; and
the decorative forms, not used in construction; the _flamboyant_, the
_cinquefoil_ and the _multifoil_ are all described under the headings
printed above in _Italics_.

=Archaic= (art). The first period of Art is distinguished by stiffness
and conventionality of treatment, directed much more to the symbolic
representation of an idea than to beauty or true imitation. It is
properly called also the _hieratic_ type, from its intimate relation to
religious symbolism. See SELINUNTIAN; ÆGINETAN MARBLES.

=Archangels.= The seven angels of the Christian hierarchy who stand in
the presence of God. _St. Michael_, sometimes in complete armour, bears
a sword and scales, as the Angel of Judgment, also a rod with a cross;
_St. Raphael_ bears a fish, and a pilgrim’s staff and gourd; _St.
Gabriel_ bears a lily; _Uriel_ carries a parchment roll and a book, as
the interpreter of prophecies; _Chamuel_ bears a cup and a staff;
_Zophiel_ a flaming sword; and _Zadchiel_ the sacrificial knife which he
took from Abraham. The Archangels are generally represented with the
nimbus, and clothed as princes and warriors; their ensign is a banner
and cross, and they are armed with a sword and a dart in one hand.

=Arched= or =Archy=, Her. Bent or bowed.

=Arched-buttress= or =Flying Buttress=, Arch. An incomplete arch
supporting the spandrels of a roof. It springs from a BUTTRESS (q.v.).

=Archeria=, Med. Lat. A vertical loophole from which arrows could be

=Archibault.= (See ARCHIVOLT.)

=Architrave=, Gr. and R. (ἀρχὸς, chief; and Ital. _trave_, a beam). That
part of a structure which rests immediately on the capital of a column
or pilaster. Architraves are surmounted by a frieze and a cornice.

=Archivium=, Gr. and R. A building in which archives (charters and
records) of a city or state were deposited. It was also called ARCHEION
or TABULARIUM (q.v.).

=Archivolt= or =Archibault=, (_arcus_, and _volutus_, rolled round). The
whole of the mouldings decorating an arch or arcade, and following the
contour of the same.

=Archlute=, old Eng. A kind of _theorbo_, or double-necked lute. 16th

=Archy.= (See ARCHED.)

=Arcosolium=, Chr. (_arcus_, and _solium_, a coffin). An arched or
vaulted sepulchral chamber in the catacombs, sanctified by the interment
of martyrs and holy persons; and in later generations often richly
decorated, as with marble incrustations, paintings, and mosaics. The
_arcosolia_ in which Christians of small means were buried are
constructed in the walls of the passages in the catacombs. The wealthier
Christians, however, had _arcosolia_ specially excavated for their
family and friends; the following inscription is frequently found on
them: _Nobis et nostris et amicis_.

=Arcuatio=, R. A structure formed by means of arches or arcades, and
employed to support a construction of any kind, such as a bridge,
aqueducts, &c.

=Arcubalista=, R. (βάλλω, to throw). A machine for hurling arrows,
somewhat similar to a cross-bow.

=Arcubus.= (See ARQUEBUS.)

=Arcula=, R. Diminutive of ARCA (q.v.). (1) A small chest. (2) A
colour-box used by encaustic painters. (3) A small sepulchre, or stone

=Arculum=, R. A garland which the _Dialis_ (Priest of Jupiter) wore on
his head while sacrificing; it consisted of one or two pomegranate
boughs bent into a circle and fastened with fillets of white or red

=Arcuma=, R. A small carriage constructed to hold only one person. (See

=Arcus=, R. (1) A bow for discharging arrows. There were many kinds in
use among the ancients. Those of the Greeks and Romans presented on the
whole much analogy with each other, while the Scythian bow differed
entirely from both. (2) An arch of masonry; the _arcus triumphalis_ was
a triumphal arch. The Romans never used any other form of arch than the

=Ardenti.= Literary Academies of this name existed at Pisa, at Naples,
and at Viterbo.

=Area=, R. (1) Any broad, open and level space, and so a square or
parade. _Areæ_ were adorned with fountains and statues set up in honour
of some divinity, who frequently gave his name to the spot. Thus at Rome
there were the _area Apollinis_, _area Mercurii_, &c. (2) A
threshing-floor in a field.

=Arena=, R. (1) Sand; a material employed in building. (2) The level
space forming the area of an amphitheatre.

=Arenaria=, R. A Roman game of ball for two persons; it derived its name
from the fact that the ball was made to rebound from the ground

=Areste.= A cloth of gold, elaborately figured, used for vestments. 13th
century. It is not to be confounded with _arras_.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Arezzo vase.]

=Arezzo Vase.= Many fine examples of old Etruscan pottery have been
found in or near the town of Arezzo in Tuscany. They are of red lustred
ware ornamented in relief, and show evident traces of Greek origin.
(Fig. 37.)

=Argei=, R. (1) Certain sites at Rome, having a small temple attached to
them. (2) Images or lay-figures made of bulrushes, which were cast into
the Tiber, on the Ides of May, from the Sublician bridge. This custom is
still kept up in the south of France, where, in certain towns, on
Ash-Wednesday, they drown an image called _Caramentran_ who represents
the god of the carnival.

=Argent=, Her. The metal silver, represented in engravings by a plain

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Point d’Argentan.]

=Argentan, Point d’.= Lace made much in the same way as Point d’Alençon,
but having the flowers bolder and larger in pattern and in higher
relief; the foundation, called the bride-ground, is also coarser. It
takes its name from the little town of Argentan in Normandy, where it
was made. (Fig. 38.)

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Argentella lace.]

=Argentella.= A name given to a lace made in Genoa, but worked much like
Point d’Alençon.

=Argive.= A school of sculpture, contemporary with the ATTIC SCHOOL of
Pheidias; of which Polycletus was the head. He was the author of the
_Canon_, or law of proportion in sculpture, exemplified in his
_Doryphorus_ (spear-bearer); he worked principally in bronze, and was
famous for his chryselephantine statues. A specimen of the Argive school
of sculpture is the _Discobolus_ of Myron (a contemporary of Polycletus)
in the British Museum. It is an ancient copy in marble from the original
bronze statue. Closeness to Nature is a distinguishing characteristic of
the Argive School.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Battering-ram.]

=Aries= or =Ram=. A battering-ram. It consisted of a stout beam,
furnished at one end with an iron head, shaped like that of a ram, and
was used to batter the walls of a city till a breach was effected. The
battering-ram was at first worked by men, who simply carried it in their
arms, but in course of time it was suspended from a wooden tower (Fig.
40), or a vertical beam, and worked with the aid of ropes. When the
battering-ram was enclosed in a kind of wooden shed bearing some
resemblance to the shell of a tortoise, it was called by the name of
that animal (_testudo_) (Fig. 41).

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Battering-ram in _testudo_.]

=Ark=, Chr. A symbol of the church.

=Armanahuasi=, Peruv. The baths of the ancient Peruvians. They were
remarkable for the elegance and luxury displayed in their ornamentation.
They were furnished with magnificent fountains, some of which threw
their jets upwards (_huraea_), others in a horizontal direction

=Armarium=, R. A cabinet, cupboard, or bookcase. Originally a place for
keeping arms. Some were ornamented with plates of brass set in links of
gold; others were made of gold inlaid with precious stones of various
shapes. (See also ALMERY.)

=Armatura=, R. (1) In a general sense, armour of every kind. Thus
_armatura levis_ denoted the light infantry; and soldiers armed only
with a _hasta_, and the dart, _gæsa_ (of Gallic invention) were called
_leves milites_. (2) The art of fencing. (3) The pieces of iron or
bronze which connect stones or the parts of a structure. (4) The iron
framework in a window or casement.

=Armed=, Her. Having natural weapons of offence, &c. A lion is _armed_
of his claws and teeth, a bull of his horns, &c.

=Armenian Green.= (See CHRYSOCOLLA.)

=Armet=, Old Eng. A kind of helmet of the 16th century, worn with or
without the _beaver_.

=Armilausa=, Lat. A classical garment adopted in England and elsewhere,
worn by knights over their armour. Strutt describes it as “a round
curtal weed, which they called a cloak, and in Latin _armilausa_, as
only covering the shoulders.”

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Armilla. Celtic Bracelet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Armilla. Gaulish Bracelet.]

=Armilla.= In general, any circlet of gold or silver which forms a
bracelet for men or women, whether worn on the wrist, arm, or ankle.
Bracelets worn by men often consisted of three or four massive bands of
bronze, silver, or gold, and thus covered a considerable portion of the
arm. Bracelets were worn by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Medes,
the Persians, the Celts (Fig. 42), and the Gauls (Fig. 43). The
Egyptians in some instances employed ivory and porcelain in their

=Armillum=, R. A kind of _urceolus_, or small pitcher for holding a
particular kind of wine. It was among the number of the sacrificial
vessels, and was well known from the Latin proverb: _Anus ad armillum_
(an old woman returns to her bottle).

=Armilustrium.= A Roman festival for the purification of arms.

=Arming Points.= The “points” or ties of armour.

=Armins.= Cloth or velvet coverings for pikehandles.

=Armory=, Her. (1) Heraldry. (2) A list of names and titles with the
arms belonging to them.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Primitive Roman Armour.]

=Armour=, =Arms=. In almost every deposit where _prehistoric_ remains
are buried, we find clubs, hatchets, arrows, hammers, or other arms,
mostly, even in the _stone age_, carefully ornamented. The ancient
_Egyptians_ were armed with “the bow, spear, two species of javelin,
sling, a short and straight sword, dagger, knife, falchion, axe or
hatchet, battle-axe, pole-axe, mace or club, &c. Their defensive arms
consisted of a helmet of plate, or quilted head-piece, a cuirass, or
coat of armour made of metal plates, or quilted with metal bands, and an
ample shield” (_Wilkinson_). Among the Greeks, the heavy-armed warrior
wore the greaves, cuirass, with the mitra underneath, and the zone or
cingulum above; his sword, ensis or gladius, hung on his left side, and
the large round shield, sacus, aspis, clipeus or scutum, hung from his
shoulder; his helmet, corys, cunea, cassis or galea; his spear, enkus,
doru or hasta, or two spears. The defensive armour, the shield and
thorax, were called hopla, and the man hoplites. The light-armed,
psiloi, anoploi, gymnai, gymnetai, had a slighter covering of skins, or
cloth, and fought with darts, stones, bows and arrows or slings. There
were also the peltastæ, so called from their small shield pelte. All the
above-mentioned parts of classical armour, and their modifications in
that of mediæval times are described under their respective headings; as
well as much of mediæval armour.

=Arnis=, Gr. and R. An expiatory festival held in honour of Linus and
his mother Psamathê, the daughter of Crotopus, king of Argos. Various
legends are extant regarding the origin of this festival, which was
called _Arnis_ from the sheep (ἀρνειὸς) that were sacrificed.

=Arotoi-Hieroi=, Gr. Literally: _sacred labours_, a term used to denote
three agricultural festivals which took place in Attica; the first was
held in commemoration of the first sowing; the second, on occasion of
reaping the earliest crop of barley in a field near Eleusis; the third,
by way of invoking the blessings of Ceres on the field of corn specially
set apart for the worship of Athena.

=Arquebus.= A hand-gun, larger than a musket. The man using it was
called an _arquebusier_.

=Arra= or =Arrha=, R. A deposit, or earnest-money to a contract.

=Arras.= Tapestry. Textile hangings for walls; first made at Arras in
the 14th century. It was originally called Opus Saracenicum.

=Arrhæ Sponsalitiæ=, called also ARRABO, was the name of the betrothal
money paid to the parents of a bride; a practice of the Hebrews,
continued by Christians.

=Arrhephoria=, Gr. (Ἀρρηφόρια). A festival held at Athens in the month
of June or _Scirophorium_. The maidens who took part in it were called
ἑροηφόροι or ἑροηφόροι. Four little girls and a priestess carried some
sacred vessels to a grotto.

=Arricciate=, Ital. One of the coats of mortar laid on to a wall to
receive fresco-painting.

=Arrondie=, Her. Curved, round.

=Arrows=, in Christian art, are the emblems of pestilence, death, and

=Arsenicon=, Greek for _orpiment_ (q.v.).

=Artemisia=, Gr. A general term to denote all the festivals of _Diana
Artemis_. The most celebrated were those held at Ephesus, Delphi, and

=Articulation.= The anatomical study of the juncture of the bones.

=Artolaganus=, R. (ἀρτο-λάγανον, i. e. bread-cake). A kind of dough-cake
made with wine, milk, oil, and pepper. Cicero, in one of his letters,
asserts that it was delicious.

=Artophorium= (bread-bearer), Chr. Another name for the ciborium or
costly box prepared to contain the consecrated Host.

=Artopta=, Gr. and R. (from ἀρτάω, to bake). A mould in which bread and
pastry were baked.

=Artopticius=, R. (sc. _parús_). A roll or loaf of bread baked in an
_artopta_, many examples of which may be seen in the small museum at
Pompeii; owing to their having become hardened, these loaves have
retained their shape perfectly when taken from the oven after eighteen

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Arundel device.]

=Arundel Device.= A chapeau _or_, and _gules_, surmounted by a fret
_or_, and an acorn leaved _vert_. This is only one of the numerous
badges of the house of Arundel, which is peculiarly rich in armorial

=Arundel Marbles.= A collection of ancient sculptures found in Greece
and Asia Minor in the early part of the 17th century and brought to
England at the expense of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. In 1667 his
grandson presented them to the University of Oxford.

=Arundo=, R. A term with various significations. (1) A reed or cane. (2)
An arrow or bow made of cane. (3) A fishing-rod. (4) A cane rod tipped
with bird-lime for catching birds. (5) A reed pen for writing. (6) A
Pan’s pipe in which the reeds were joined together by wax; whence its
name _arundo cerata_. (See CALAMUS.)

=Arx=, R. (_arceo_, to enclose). A citadel or fortress. _Arx_ is almost
equivalent to ACROPOLIS (q.v.), since citadels were usually built on
elevated sites, thus forming an upper city (ἀκρόπολις).

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Greek Aryballos.]

=Aryballos.= A Greek flask or vase used for oil or wine. It was commonly
of a bladder shape with a thin neck. The example engraved (Fig. 46) is
painted in the Asiatic style. On some of these vases the ornament is

=Arystichos=, Gr. and R. (from ἀρύω, to draw water). A vessel for
drawing water, especially from the AMPHORA (q.v.). It was also called
_ephebos_ (ἔφηβος), because, at banquets, it was the duty of youths to
mix the wine with water before handing it to the guests. This term has
as synonyms _aruter_, _arusane_, _arustis_ and _oinerusis_.

=Arzica.= (1) An artificial pigment of a yellow colour, used for
miniature painting. (2) A yellow lake made from the herb “reseda
luteola.” (3) A yellow earth for painting, of which the moulds for
casting brass are formed; it yields an ochreous pigment of a pale yellow
colour, which, when burned, changes to an orange colour.

=Arzicon.= A contraction of _Arsenicon_, for _orpiment_ (q.v.).

=As=, R. The unit of value in the bronze currency of the Romans.
Originally the _as_ weighed one pound, whence its name _as liberalis_;
and as it was composed of a mixture of copper and tin (_æs_), it was
also called _æs grave_. At a later period the _as_ had much declined in
value; under Augustus it was only worth somewhat less than a penny.

=Asaminthos=, Gr. (ἀσάμινθος). A large vase of the Homeric epoch, large
enough to admit of a person bathing in it. It is supposed that this was
the _tub_ of Diogenes.

=Asbestus.= (See AMIANTUS.)

=Ascendant=, Her. Issuing upwards, as a flower.

=Ascia=, Gr. and R. A term applied to instruments of various shapes and
employed for different purposes, but all bearing a general resemblance
to a carpenter’s adze. The expression _sub ascia dedicavit_, which is
frequently found engraved on tombs together with the representation of
an _ascia_, has given rise to numerous interpretations. It is supposed
that this expression signified: This tomb [never before used] has been
dedicated to the memory of the person in whose honour it was erected; or
possibly the formula implied that the plot upon which the memorial stood
had been granted in perpetuity. After all the discussion to which the
formula has given rise, these are the two hypotheses most generally
accepted. (See ACISCULUS.)

=Ascopera=, Gr. and R. (ἀσκὸς, leathern bag or wine-skin; πήρα, a
pouch). A large bag made of undressed leather, carried as knapsack by
foot-travellers, and thus distinguished from the HIPPOPERA (q.v.).

=Ascolia=, =Ascolias=, Gr. and R. (from ἀσκὸς, a wine-skin). An Athenian
game which consisted in leaping upon a wine-skin, filled with wine and
greased over with oil, during the festivals in honour of Dionysus.

=Ashlar=, =Achelor=, &c.; also ASTLER or ESTLAR, O. E. Hewn stone for
the facings of walls. “Clene hewen Ashler.”

=Asilla=, R. A yoke, like a milkman’s, or the Malay _picol_, for
carrying burdens; is a common object in Egyptian and all other ancient
representations of domestic appliances.

=Asinarii.= A term of reproach inherited by the early Christians from
the Jews, who were accused of worshipping an ass.

=Askos=, Gr. and R. (ἀσκός). A vessel, originally shaped like a leather
bottle (_uter_) for holding water or wine. It was furnished with a
handle at the top, and had sometimes two mouths, one of which served to
fill, the other to empty it. Later on, the _askos_ assumed the form of
an earthenware pitcher.

=Asor=, Heb. A musical instrument of ten strings played with the

=Asp.= In Egyptian art the emblem of royalty; in Christian art, under
the feet of saints, of conquered malice.

=Aspectant=, Her. Looking at one another.

=Asperges=, =Aspergillum=, Chr. The rod for sprinkling holy water.

=Aspersed=, Her. Scattered over,—the same as Semée.

=Aspersorium=, Chr. The stoup, or holy water basin.

=Asphaltum.= A brown carbonaceous pigment used in painting. It is found
in various parts of the world, more particularly in Egypt, China,
Naples, and Trinidad. The best is the Egyptian. (See BITUMEN, MUMMY.)

=Aspic.= (See OIL OF SPIKE.)

=Ass=, Chr. An emblem of patience and sobriety; but also of idleness and
obstinacy; sometimes of the Jewish nation.

=Ass, Festival of the.= A grotesque Christian festival of the Middle
Ages, connected with the prominence of the ass in religious history.

=Asser=, R. (1) A beam, pole, or joist. (2) The rafters of a wooden
roof. (3) _Asser falcatus_ was a kind of ram which was launched, with
the aid of machinery, by the garrison of a fortified town, against the
enemy’s siege works.

=Assett=, O. E. A salver.

=Assommoir=, Fr. A sort of gallery built over a door or passage of a
fortified place, from which stones, lead, and other heavy objects could
be hurled down to _overwhelm_ (_assommer_) the besiegers. Hence the

=Asterisk=, Chr. Sometimes called STELLULA. A kind of crossed framework
made of gold or silver, consisting of two arched bands which are
sometimes surmounted, at the point of intersection, by a cross. The
asterisk is placed upon the patera for the purpose of keeping up the
cloth which covers the consecrated wafers of the host.

=Astler.= (See ASHLAR.)

=Astragal= (ἀστράγαλος, knuckle-bone). A small semicircular moulding, so
called from its resemblance to a row of knuckle-bones placed side by
side. As it is decorated with beads, or berries of laurel or olive,
separated by discs, it is now commonly known as a _chaplet_. Astragals
are placed at the top of a column, beneath the capital, and divide the
architrave into two or three parts. They are also used to decorate any
kind of base. (See TORUS.)

=Astragalus=, R. The ancient game of knuckle-bones; a common subject in
classical sculpture, called also TALI.

=Astreated=, Arch. Star-shaped ornaments, used in Norman mouldings.

=Asylum=, Gr. and R. (ἄ-συλον, safe from violence). A place of refuge,
to which was attached the privilege of inviolability called _asulia_.
This privilege belonged to certain temples, woods, or other sacred
enclosures. There were a considerable number of such retreats in Greece
and the Greek colonies.

=At Gaze=, Her. Said of animals of the chase “standing still and looking
about them.”

=Atach-gah=, Pers. The fire-altar of the ancient Persians; mentioned in
the writings of Pausanias and Strabo.

=Atellanæ= (sc. _fabulæ_), R. A farce, so called from its having
originated in _Atella_, a city of the Osci, in Campania. Hence the name
of Oscan games (_ludi Osci_). _Atellanæ_ were played by youths of good
family, on the conclusion of a tragedy. They were introduced into Rome
in the fourth century B.C. These farces were distinguished by their
refinement, and freedom from low buffoonery.

=Athenæum.= A university for literary and scientific studies at Rome, on
the Capitoline Hill.

=Athyr=, Egyp. One of the months of the ancient Egyptians. It was the
third of the four months called the months of inundation.

[Illustration: Fig. 47. One of the Atlantes of the Theatre of Bacchus at

=Atlantes=, Gr. and R. (from τλῆναι). Human figures so called, in
allusion to the story of the Titan Atlas, which were employed instead of
columns to support entablatures (Fig. 47). The Latin equivalent for the
term is TELAMONES. Similar _female_ figures were CARYATIDES.

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Atlas, a device used by Philip II. of Spain.]

=Atlas.= One of the several devices adopted by Philip II. of Spain was a
figure of Hercules bearing on his shoulders and kneeling beneath, the
weight of the world; a feat recorded to have been performed by him in
order to give relief to Atlas from his customary burden. The motto “Ut
quiescat Atlas,” is written on a ribbon.

=Atramentale=, =Atramentarium=, Gr. and R. (_atramentum_, q.v.). An
inkstand, of any shape or material whatsoever. Inkstands were made of
terra-cotta, bronze, and silver. There is a Pompeian painting in which a
_double_ inkstand is represented, one side of which contains black ink,
the other an ink of some different colour. There were also portable
inkstands called _theca_. (See THECA.)

=Atramentum=, Gr. and R. (_ater_, black). A general term to denote any
kind of black liquid; such were _atramentum scriptorum_, _atramentum
librarium_, or simply _atramentum_—all terms for writing ink;
_atramentum sutorum_, the black used by shoemakers for dyeing their
leather, another name for which was _chalcamentum_ (q.v.); and
_atramentum tectorium_, a kind of ink used for writing inscriptions with
a brush. In ancient times, all descriptions of ink were made with soot
and gum, forming a kind of Indian ink which was diluted with water.
Vitruvius (Book VII.) thus describes the process by which _atramentum_
was obtained: “Soot is first procured by burning rosin in a vaulted
chamber, and the black (_atramentum_) thus obtained is then mixed with

=Atriolum=, R. (dimin. of _Atrium_). (1) A small atrium. It might be
either a smaller atrium adjoining the principal one in a house, or the
atrium of a dwelling of inferior size. (2) A small antechamber forming
the entrance of a tomb.

[Illustration: Fig. 49. Atrium, with Ionic columns.]

=Atrium=, R. and Mod. A term perhaps derived from _Atria_, a city of
Tuscany in which structures of this description were first built. It
consisted of a kind of covered court (_cavædium_), round which were
grouped the different apartments of the house. In the centre of the roof
was an aperture with sloping sides called the _compluvium_, and in the
court beneath, a basin which collected the rain-water from the roof.
This was called the _impluvium_. There were besides, the _atrium
displuviatum_ and the _atrium testudinatum_. The atrium was
unquestionably the most essential and the most interesting part of a
Roman mansion; it was here that numbers assembled daily to pay their
respects to their patron, to consult the legislator, to attract the
notice of the statesman, or to derive importance in the eyes of the
public from an apparent intimacy with a man in power.—_Moule._

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Atrium, with Doric columns.]

During the Middle Ages the term _atrium_ was used to denote the open
plot of ground surrounding a church, which served for a cemetery, and
the close or courtyard of certain churches.

=Attegia=, R. A hut or cabin made of reeds, and covered with thatch.

=Attic-order=, Arch. An arrangement of low pilasters, surmounting a

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Atticurge doorway at Agrigentum.]

=Atticurge=, Arch. (Ἀττικουργὴς, wrought in Attic fashion). A doorway,
the uprights of which, instead of being perpendicular, inclined slightly
inwards, so that the opening was wider at the threshold than immediately
under the lintel. Fig. 51 represents the doorway of an ancient monument
at Agrigentum, in Sicily.

=Attires=, =Attired=, Her. The antlers of a stag or “hart” having

=Attributes.= Conventional symbols of the character, or the agency, or
the history, of subjects of art representation.

=Auditorium=, R. (a place for hearing). A lecture-room, assembly-room,
court of justice, or generally any place in which orators, poets. &c.,
were heard. The BASILICÆ contained halls so named, in which courts of
justice were held.

=Augmentation=, Her. An honourable addition to a coat of arms.

=Augurale=, R. (_augur_, a soothsayer). In a Roman camp the _augurale_
was a place situated to the right of the general’s tent or PRÆTORIUM
(q.v.). It was so called because the augurs there took their station to
observe the flight of birds. In Greece, the _oracles_ were consulted;
but in Rome questions were addressed to Jupiter, who answered simply
“_Do_” or “_Do not_,” by his messengers the birds. They gave no

=Augustine’s Oak=, at Aust on the Severn; the scene of the conference
between St. Augustine and the British bishops, A. D. 602.

=Aula=, Gr. and R. (αὐλή). (1) An open court attached to a house. It was
usually in front, and on either side of it were the stables and offices.
When it belonged to a farm it was round this courtyard that the
stabling, sheepfolds, and other outhouses were arranged. (2) _Aula
regia_ was the central part of the scene in a Greek or Roman theatre.

=Aulæa= or =Aulæum=, R. (_aula_, a hall). (1) Hangings or tapestry used
to decorate the dining-room or _triclinium_, or generally, any piece of
tapestry used as a curtain, whether to cover a doorway, act as a screen,
or hide the stage in a theatre. (2) The covering of a sofa or
dining-couch, also called, from the way in which it hung all round it,
_peristroma_ (περίστρωμα). Aulæa is almost synonymous with VELUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Aulmonière.]

=Aulmonière.= The Norman name for the pouch, bag, or purse appended to
the girdle of noble persons, and derived from the same root as “alms”
and “almoner.” It was more or less ornamented and hung from long laces
of silk or gold; it was sometimes called Alner. (Fig. 52.) (See

                   I will give thee an _alner_
                   Made of silk and gold clear.
                             (_Lay of Sir Launfal._)

=Aulos=, Gr. The Greeks gave this name to all wind instruments of the
_flute_, or _oboe_, kind; it was not blown at the side like a flute, but
by a vibrating reed in the mouthpiece, like a clarionet. The single
flute was called _monaulos_, and the double one _diaulos_.

=Aumbrie=, =Aumery=, =Almery=, O. E. A cupboard or closet.

=Aumery of Here=, O. E. A cupboard with hair-cloth sides for
ventilation. A meat-safe.

=Aureola=, Chr. (_aurum_, gold). A quadrangular, circular, or elliptic
halo surrounding the bodies of Christ, the Virgin, or certain saints.
Another name for this ornament is the _mystical almond_ or VESICA PISCIS
(q.v.). When it envelopes the head only it is called the NIMBUS.

=Aureole.= (See AUREOLA.)

=Aureus=, R. (sc. nummus, golden). The unit of value for gold currency
under the Roman emperors, worth about a guinea.

=Auripetrum.= A cheap imitation of gold leaf; made of tinfoil coloured
with saffron.

=Auspicium=, R. (_aves aspicio_). Divination from observation of the
flight of birds. (_Auspicium ex avibus_, _signa ex avibus_.) There was
also the _auspicium cœleste_ or _signa ex cœlo_, of which the most
important was a flash of lightning from a clear sky. Besides these there
were the _auspicia pullaria_, or auspices taken from the sacred
chickens; the _auspicia pedestria_, _caduca_, &c. (See AUGURALE.)

=Authepsa=, Gr. and R. (αὐθέψης). Literally a _self-boiler_; it was a
sort of kettle or cauldron, which was exposed to the rays of the sun, to
heat the water within it; whether, however, the ancients had attained
the art of raising water to boiling heat, in this manner, it is
impossible to say. The apparatus is mentioned by Cicero and Lampridius,
but neither of them gives any description of it.

=Avellane.= A variety of the heraldic cross. (See CROSSES.)

=Avena=, R. (oats). A Pandæan pipe, made of the stalk of the wild oat.

=Aventail=, Fr. (_avant taille_). The movable front of a helmet.

=Aventurine.= A kind of brown glass, mixed with bright copper filings,
formerly made at Venice.

=Averta=, R. A trunk, bag, or portmanteau, carried on the crupper by
travellers who rode on horseback.

=Aviarium=, R. (_avis_, a bird). (1) A poultry-yard. (2) An aviary in
which birds—and more particularly those of rare breeds—were kept.

=Axis=, R. (1) The axle-tree of a carriage. (2) _Axis versatilis_ was a
cylinder worked by a crank, and used for drawing water from a well by
means of a cord which rolled round it as it revolved. (3) The upright
pivot upon which a door turned. It worked in two sockets, placed
respectively in the upper and lower lintels.

=Azarcon.= The Spanish name for red lead.

=Azure.= A blue colour known from the very earliest times. Azure stone
was the name given to the lapis lazuli. The name is given also to
COBALT. In heraldry it is the name for the blues in the arms of persons
whose rank is below that of a baron; it is represented in heraldic
engraving by regular horizontal lines.

=Azyme=, Chr. Unleavened bread.


=Baccalarii=, Med. Lat. A contraction of bas-chevaliers: poor knights;
distinct from knights bannerets, who were also termed rich knights.

=Baccelleria=, Med. Lat. The order of bachelors. Thus we read,

                 “La flor de France et la bachelerie.”

Bachelor or Bachelier has been derived from _bas échelle_, the lowest
step of the ladder. (_Meyrick._)

=Baccha=, Gr. and R. A Bacchante; a woman who celebrates the mysteries
of Bacchus, in the temples of the god, or in the Bacchic orgies. In the
numerous representations of Bacchantes which occur on monuments of
ancient art, they carry the _thyrsus_ in their right hands, and wear a
wreath of ivy or vine-leaves on their heads. They appear also in the
disguise of Lenæ, Thyades, Naiads, Nymphs, &c.

=Bacchanalia=, R. (Greek, _Dionysia_). Festivals held in honour of
Dionysus or Bacchus.

=Bacchos=, Gr. and R. A short, richly ornamented _thyrsus_, carried by
the Mystæ, at Eleusis, on occasion of their being initiated in the
mysteries. There was a proverb in Greece which said: “Many carry the
_Bacchos_, but few are inspired by the gods.”

=Bacillum= (dimin. of BACULUM, q.v.). A small wand, especially the
lictor’s wand.

=Backgammon=, originally called _table board_, is mentioned in a MS. of
the 13th century. The name of _bag-gamon_ is first found in 1646.

=Baculum=, =Baculus=, R. A general term to denote any kind of staff,
except such as form the insignia of any rank or office, or are employed
in certain professions.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Badge of King Henry V. in his chantry in
Westminster Abbey.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53. Planta genista, or broom.]

=Badges.= Small heraldic shields, worn by servants and others, showing,
in embroidered cloth or silver, a figure or device; common also “in the
furniture of houses, on robes of state, on the caparisons of horses, on
seals, and in the details of Gothic edifices.” (_Lower_, “_Curiosities
of Heraldry_.”) Fig. 54 from the cornice of King Henry’s chantry in
Westminster Abbey shows the adaptation of heraldic badges in
architectural ornament. (The description is inserted under BLAZON, q.v.)
The Badges worn by the military followers of the feudal leaders answered
the purpose of our modern uniforms. Among remarkable badges are the
“Bear and ragged staff” of the Earls of Warwick, the red and white roses
of Lancaster and York, the sprig of broom (Fig. 53) of the Plantagenets.

=Badgers.= Brushes of badger’s hair, for blending or softening. (See

=Bagordare=, Med. It. A burlesque tournament in which the combatants
were attended by fools instead of heralds and esquires.

=Bagpipe.= This ancient and favourite instrument of the Celtic races is
represented in an O. E. MS. of the 14th century. Several of the Hebrew
instruments mentioned in the Bible and in the Talmud were kinds of
bagpipes. So was a Greek instrument called “Magadis.” In Russia and
Poland, and in the Ukraine, it used to be made of a whole goat’s skin,
and was called “Kosa,” a goat. It is of high antiquity in Ireland, and a
pig playing the bagpipe is represented in an illuminated Irish MS. of A.
D. 1300.

=Baijoire.= (1) A medal or coin on the obverse or reverse of which were
two faces in profile, placed one over the other. (2) An ancient silver
coin of Genoa, and an ancient Dutch gold coin. The term is certainly
derived from an old word Baisoire [_baiser_, to kiss].

=Bai-Kriem=, Hindoo. Literally, roasted rice; a stone employed in some
of the monuments of the ancient Cambodia. (See BIEN-HOA.)

=Bailey.= (See BALLIUM.)

=Bainbergs= (Germ. _Bein-bergen_). Shin-guards or modern greaves.

=Baisoire.= (See BAIJOIRE.)

=Balance= or =Scales=. In Christian symbolism the balance symbolizes the
Last Judgment. The Scales and Sword are also, generally, the attribute
of personified Justice.

=Balandrana.= A large cloak, of the 12th and 13th centuries.

=Balayn=, O. E. Whalebone for crests of helmets.

=Baldachin=, It. A canopy of wood, stone, or metal over seats and other
places of honour, common also over fireplaces and beds, and carried in
coronation and other processions over the most honoured persons.

=Baldric=, =Baudrier=, or =Baudrick=, O. E. A girdle or sash, usually a
belt of leather, and worn over the shoulder. They were sometimes hung
with bells. (See BALTEUS.)

=Balea=, =Balia=, Med. Lat. (from βάλλω, to throw). (1) A sling. (2) A
_ballista_. From their skill in the use of slings, the inhabitants of
Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica had the appellation Baleares.

=Bales=, O. E. (Lat. _balascus_; Fr. _balais_). An inferior kind of

=Baleyn.= (See BALAYN.)

=Balista.= (See BALLISTA.)

=Balista a pectore=, Med. Lat. A hand cross-bow.

=Balistrariæ=, Med. Lat., Arch. Cruciform openings in the wall of a
fortress to shoot quarrels through from cross-bows.

=Balletys= or =Tuptai=, Gr. A ceremony consisting in a mock combat with
stones, which took place at the Eleusinian festival.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. Ball-flower.]

=Ball-flower.= An ornament characteristic of the Decorated style of the
14th century. It represents the “knop” of a flower. _Ball-flowers_ may
be seen in the Cathedrals of Bristol, Gloucester, and Hereford.

=Ballista= or =Balista=, Gr. and R. (βάλλω, to throw). A military engine
for hurling large missiles. It was constructed of wood, and consisted of
two uprights connected horizontally by a double cross-beam. Strands of
twisted fibre formed the motive power of the engine, which was fitted
with an iron groove. The cord was drawn back by men, with the aid of a
drum or pulleys. The ancient balista was used to shoot _stones_; the
catapult to project _heavy darts_. Some balistæ threw stones weighing
three cwt. The mediæval balistæ threw _quarrels_ or stones.

=Ballistarium= or =Balistarium=, Gr. and R. A shed or magazine in which
_ballistæ_ were kept.

=Ballium=, Med. Lat. (1) (from Ital. _battaglia_). The _Bailey_ or
courtyard of a castle. (2) The bulwark which contained such a Bailey.

=Balneæ= or =Balineæ=. (See BALNEUM.)

=Balnearia=, R. A general term for all the utensils used in a bath, such
as strigils, _unguentaria_, _guttæ_, oils, perfumes, essences, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Balneæ. The Caldarium.]

=Balneum=, =Balneæ=, =Thermæ=, Gr. and R. _Balneum_ meant originally a
tub or other vessel to bathe in; next, the room in which it was placed;
when there were many such rooms the plural _balnea_ was used. _Balneæ_
were the public baths, under the Republic, when they consisted of
ordinary baths of hot and cold water. _Thermæ_ were the magnificent and
luxurious buildings adapted for the hot air system. They contained (1)
the _Apodyterium_, or dressing-room; (2) the _Frigidarium_, where the
cold bath was taken; (3) the _Tepidarium_, a bath of warm air; (4) the
_Caldarium_, with a vapour bath at one end, a warm water bath at the
other, and a _Sudatorium_, or sweating bath in the middle. The pavement,
called _suspensura_, was over a furnace, _hypocaustum_. The bathers were
currycombed with _strigils_, which the Greeks called _stlengis_ or
_xystra_; and they dropped oil over their bodies from narrow-necked
vessels called _guttus_ or _ampullæ_. The _Thermæ_ contained _exedræ_,
or open air chambers, where philosophers lectured, and libraries, and
had gardens, and shady walks, and fountains, with statuary attached to
them. The ruins of the _Thermæ_ built by Titus, Caracalla, and Domitian
remain visible (Fig. 56).

=Balon=, =Balein=, =Balayn=, O. E. Whalebone.

=Balsam of Copaiba.= An oleo-resin, used as a _varnish_, and as a
vehicle, for oil painting.

=Balteolus.= Dimin. of BALTEUS (q.v.).

=Balteus= or =Balteum= (a belt), R. (1) A baldric or wide belt which
passed over one shoulder and beneath the other, for the purpose of
suspending a sword, buckler, or any other arm. (2) The ornament on the
baldric on which was marked the number of the legion to which a soldier
belonged. (3) A richly ornamented band of leather placed round a horse’s
breast, below the MONILE, or throat-band (q.v.). (4) The broad belt in
the sphere, which contains the signs of the Zodiac. (5) The bands
surrounding the volutes of an Ionic capital. (6) The _præcinctiones_, or
small walls, or parapets, separating the different tiers in a theatre or
amphitheatre. (Generally a BELT.)

=Baltheus=, Med. Lat. for BALTEUS.

=Baluster.= A small pillar, swelling in the centre or towards the base.

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Balustrade.]

=Balustrade=, Arch. An enclosure or parapet composed of ballisters
(q.v.), and by analogy, an enclosure consisting of any other ornament,
such as trefoils, carved work, &c. Fig. 57 represents a balustrade of
the pointed Gothic style.

=Bambino=, It. A babe. Image of the infant Christ.

=Bambocciata=, It. The style of genre painting of Teniers, Van Ostade,
Wilkie, and others. It was introduced into Rome in 1626 by Peter Van
Laar, who was called, from an unfortunate deformity that he had, Il
Bamboccio, or the Cripple.

=Banded=, Her. Encircled with a band.

=Banderolle.= (1) A small flag, about a yard square, upon which arms
were emblazoned, displayed at important funerals. (2) In architecture of
the Renaissance, a flat scroll, inscribed.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Falling-Band.]

=Bands.= Originally the name given to the collars which (in the 17th
century) replaced the ruff of Elizabeth’s reign. At first they were made
of stitched linen or cambric edged with lace, stiffened so as to stand
up round the neck. Contemporary with these were the falling bands. The
engraving (by Hollar, 1640) shows a merchant’s wife with collar or
falling band of cambric edged with lace. The term bandbox has descended
to us from those days, when similar boxes were made expressly for
keeping bands and ruffs in. (Fig. 58.)

=Bands=, Arch., are either small strings round shafts, or a horizontal
line of square, round, or other panels used to ornament towers, spires,
and other works. (See BALTEUS.)

=Bandum=, =Banderia=, Med. Lat. A small banner. The French poets called
it “_ban_,” a word probably of Celtic origin, signifying “exalted.”

=Bankard=, O. E. (Fr. _banquier_). A carpet or cloth covering for a
table, form, or bench.

[Illustration: Fig. 59. The Royal Standard, or Banner.]

=Banner.= In heraldry, a square, or narrow oblong flag, larger than the
pennon (q.v.), charged with the coat of arms of the owner displayed over
its entire surface, precisely as it is blazoned on a shield, as in the
illustration of the Royal Standard, which should properly be styled the
Royal _Banner_. (See STANDARD.) The Union Jack is also a banner, in
which the blazonry of the two nations of England and Scotland are
combined, not by “quartering,” but by an earlier process of “blending”
the cross and the saltire in a single composition. The profusion of
banners at tournaments, in feudal times, when each noble planted his own
in the lists, was an element of picturesque effect. The term applies to
all kinds of flags, or colours, proper to individuals, or corporations,
&c., who display them. It does not appear that _military_ banners were
used by the ancients. The banners used in Roman Catholic countries bear
the representation of patron saints, or symbols of religious mysteries.

=Banner-cloth=, Chr. A processional flag.

=Banneret.= A knight entitled to display a banner.

=Baphium=, Gr. and R. (βάπτω, to dye). A dyer’s workshop.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Baptistery of St. Jean, Poitiers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Baptistery of St. Constance, Rome.]

=Baptisterium=, R. (from βάπτω, to dip). A kind of cold plunging-bath,
constructed in the FRIGIDARIUM (q.v.), or the room itself. In Christian
archæology, _baptistery_ was the name given to a building adjoining a
basilica, or situated near it, in which baptism was administered. Such
is the baptistery of St. John Lateran at Rome. One of the most ancient
baptisteries in France is that of St. Jean, at Poitiers, represented in
Fig. 60. It dates from the fourth century; that of St. Constance, at
Rome (Figs. 61, 62), belongs to the same period.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Interior of the Baptistery of St. Constance.]

=Bar=, Her. A horizontal line across a shield.

=Barathron= or =Orugma=, Gr. (βάραθρον). A deep cleft behind the
Acropolis at Athens, into which criminals were thrown, either under
sentence of death by this means, or after they had been put to death by
hemlock or other poisons. It was situated near the temple of Diana

=Barba=, Gen. The beard, whence the attributive _barbatus_, frequently
employed to denote one who wears a beard. Thus _bene barbatus_, a man
with a well-trimmed beard; _barbatulus_, a young man whose youthful
beard had never been touched with the razor. Among many nations of
antiquity the custom prevailed of curling the beard artificially, so as
to obtain long curls or ringlets, _cincinni_. (See CINCINNUS.) The
Assyrians, Egyptians, Jews, Persians, Greeks, and Romans may be
particularly enumerated. Shaving the beard was introduced into Rome
about B.C. 300, and became the regular practice. In the later times of
the republic many persons began to wear it trimmed, and the terms _bene
barbati_ and _barbatuli_ were applied to them. Under Hadrian the
practice of wearing beards was revived, and the emperors until
Constantine wore them. The Romans let the beard grow as a sign of
mourning; the Greeks shaved. The beard is an attribute of the prophets,
apostles, and evangelists (excepting St. John); and, in ancient art, of
Jupiter, Serapis, Neptune, &c. Neptune has a straight beard; Jupiter a
curly silky one. The early Britons shaved generally, but always had long
moustachios. The Anglo-Saxon beard was neatly trimmed or parted into
double locks. The Normans originally shaved clean, but when settled in
England let all their beard grow. Close shaving prevailed among the
young men in England in the 14th century; older men wore a forked beard.
After sundry changes, clean shaving obtained in the reign of Henry VI.,
and the beard was rarely cultivated from then until the middle of the
16th century. The most extravagant fashions arose in Elizabeth’s reign,
and were succeeded by variations too numerous to detail.

=Barbatina=, It. A preparation of clay mixed with the shavings of
woollen cloth, used in the manufacture of pottery to attach the handles
and other moulded ornaments. (_Fortnum._)

=Barbed=, Her. Pointed, as an arrow.

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Barbican.]

=Barbican=, Mod. (1) A long narrow opening made in a wall, especially in
a foundation wall, to let the water flow away. (2) The term also denotes
an outwork placed in front of a fortified castle or any other military
post. In the latter acceptation the term ANTEMURAL (q.v.) is also used.
The illustration is taken from the arms of Antoine de Burgundy. In this
instance the barbican is a small double tower, or out-post watch-house,
and the shutter-like pent-house protection of the unglazed window
openings bears a striking resemblance to a modern sun-blind.

=Barbitos=, Gr. and R. (βάρβιτος). A stringed instrument which dates
from a very high antiquity; it was much larger than the CITHARA (q.v.).
To strike the long thick strings of the _barbitos_, a PLECTRUM (q.v.)
was used instead of the fingers. The invention of this instrument is
attributed to Terpander; Horace, on the contrary, says it was invented
by Alcæus, and Athenæus by Anacreon. It was a kind of lyre with a large

=Barbotine=, Fr. A primitive method of decorating coarse pottery with
clays laid on it in relief. (_Jacquemart._)

=Barca.= A boat for pleasure, or for transport. It was also a long-boat.
(See BARI.)

=Barde=, =Barred=, Her. In horizontal stripes.

=Barded=, Her. Having horse-trappings, or—

=Bardings=, which were often enriched with armorial blazonry.

=Bardocucullus=, R. and Gaul. (_bardus_ and _cucullus_, i. e. monk’s
hood). A garment with sleeves and hood worn by the poorer classes among
the Gauls. It bore some resemblance to the Roman PÆNULA (q.v.).

=Barge-board=, or =Verge board=, is the external gable-board of a house;
which is often elaborately ornamented with carvings.

=Bari= or =Baris=, Gr. and Egyp. (βᾶρις). A shallow Egyptian boat, used
on the Nile to transport merchandise, and in funeral processions. The
Egyptian sacred barks, with which they formed processions on the Nile,
were made of costly woods, and ornamented with plates of gold or silver,
and carried a miniature temple (_naos_), which contained the image of a
divinity. The prow and the poop were ornamented with religious symbols
of the richest workmanship.

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Barnacles or Breys.]

=Barnacles= or =Breys=. An instrument used in breaking horses.

=Baron=, in heraldic language, signifies a husband. The rank of Baron in
the peerage corresponds with that of the Saxon Thane; it is the lowest.

=Baronet=. An hereditary rank instituted by James I. in 1612.

=Baron’s Coronet=, first granted by Charles II., has, on a golden
circlet, six large pearls; of which four are shown in representations.

=Baroque.= In bad taste, florid and incongruous ornamentation. The same
as _rococo_.

=Barrulet=, Her. The diminutive of a BAR (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Barry of six.]

=Barry=, Her. Divided into an even number of bars, which all lie in the
same plane.

=Barry-Bendy=, Her. Having the field divided by lines drawn _bar-wise_,
which are crossed by others drawn _bend-wise_.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Bartizan.]

=Bartizan=, =Watch-turret=, Arch. A small watch-tower made to project
from the top of a tower or a curtain-wall, generally at the angles.
City-gates were in some instances furnished with bartizans. Originally
they were of wood, but from the 11th century they were made of masonry,
and so formed part of the structure on which they rested; they were, in
fact, turrets. (Fig. 67.) (Compare BARBICAN.)

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Bar-wise.]

=Bar-wise=, Her. Disposed after the manner of a BAR (q.v.).

=Barytes.= A heavy spar, or sulphate, the _white_ varieties of which are
ground and made into paint (_constant_ or _Hume’s white_). Mixed with an
equal quantity of _white lead_, it produces _Venice white_, and with
half as much “_Hamburg_,” or with one-third _“Dutch” white_.

=Basalt= is a very hard stone, much like lava in appearance, and black
or green in colour, used for statuary. The principal specimens are
Egyptian and Grecian.

=Basanos=, Gr. (1) (Lat. _lapis Lydius_) The touchstone; a dark-coloured
stone on which gold leaves a peculiar mark. Hence (2) trial by torture.
(3) A military engine, the form of which is not exactly known.

=Bascauda=, R. A basket, introduced from Britain as a table utensil,
considered as an object of luxury. It was the old Welsh “basgawd,” and
served to hold bread or fruits.

=Bascinet.= A light helmet, round or conical, with a pointed apex, and
fitting close to the head, mentioned in the 13th century.

=Bascule=, O. E. (1) The counterpoise to a drawbridge. (2) A kind of
trap-door. (A badge of the Herbert family.)

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Ionic Base.]

=Base=, Arch. The lower part of a pillar, wall, &c.; the division of a
column on which the shaft is placed. The Grecian Doric order has no

=Base.= Her. The lowest extremity.

=Baselard=, Fr. An ornamental short dagger, worn at the girdle; 15th
century. With such a weapon the Lord Mayor of London “transfixit Jack
Straw in gutture.” The weapon is preserved by the Fishmongers’ Company.

=Bases.= A kind of embroidered mantle, which hung down from the middle
to about the knees, or lower; worn by knights on horseback. (_Narcs._)

=Basileia=, Gr. (βασίλεια). A festival instituted in honour of Jupiter
_Basileus_. It was in commemoration of the victory which the Bœotians
had won at Leuctra, and in which success had been promised them by the
oracle of

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Basilica at Pompeii (restored).]

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Ground-plan of a Basilica.]

=Basilica= (sc. aula), Gr. and R. (βασιλικὴ, sc. στοὰ, i. e. royal
hall). This term owes its original meaning to the fact that in Macedonia
the kings, and in Greece the archon Basileus dispensed justice in
buildings of this description. The Romans, who adopted the basilica from
the above-named countries, used it as a court of justice, but besides
this it became a branch of the forum, and even when it did not form a
part of the latter was constructed near it, as was the case at Pompeii.
Fig. 71 represents the ground-plan of this basilica, and Fig. 70 a view
of the same building restored. The ground-plan of the basilica is
rectangular, the width not more than half nor less than a third of the
length. It was divided by two single rows of columns into three naves,
or aisles, and the tribunal of the judge was at one end of the centre
aisle. In the centre of the tribunal was the _curule chair_ of the
prætor, and seats for the judices and advocates. Over each of the side
aisles there was a gallery, from which shorter columns supported the
roofs; these were connected by a parapet wall or balustrade. The central
nave was open to the air. Under Constantine the basilicæ were adopted
for Christian churches. The early Norman churches were built upon the
same plan, and the circular apsis, where the judges originally sat, used
for the central altar, was the origin of the apsidal termination of the
Gothic cathedrals. The first basilica was built at Rome, B.C. 182. In
the Middle Ages structures resembling small churches erected over tombs
were called Basilica.

=Basilidian Gems.= (See ABRAXAS.)

=Basilinda=, Gr. and R. (βασιλίνδα). Literally, the game of the king; it
was often played by Greek and Roman children. The king was appointed by
lot, the rest being his subjects, and bound to obey him, during the

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Basilisk.]

=Basilisk.= A fabulous animal, having the body of a cock, beak and claws
of brass, and a triple serpent tail. The emblem of the Spirit of Evil.
In heraldry, a cockatrice having its tail ending in a dragon’s head.

=Basilium=, Gr. (βασίλειον). A royal diadem, of a very tall form, of
Egyptian origin. Isis-Fortuna is often represented wearing the
_basilium_ on her head.

=Basinet.= (See BASCINET.)

=Basons= for ecclesiastical ceremonies, for collecting alms or for
holding the sacramental vessels, were a favourite subject for the
goldsmith’s art. Some beautifully enamelled basons of the 13th century
represent subjects of hawking and hunting, &c.

=Bas-relief=, =Basso-relievo=, sculptured figures projecting less than
half of their true proportions; =Mezzo-relievo= projecting exactly half;
=Alto-relievo= more than half, from the ground upon which they are

=Bassara= or =Bassaris=, Gr. (a fox, or fox-skin). A long tunic of
Lydian origin worn by the Mænads of Lydia and Thrace, who were often
called, from this circumstance, _Bassaræ_ and _Bassarides_.

=Basterna=, R. A closed litter appropriated especially to the use of
ladies, as the _Anthologia Latina_ says: “The gilded basterna conceals
the chaste matrons.” It was carried by two mules harnessed in shafts,
one in front and one behind; the LECTICA (q.v.), on the contrary, was
carried by men. During the Middle Ages the same form of litter was a
common means of conveyance in England.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Ground-plan of the Bastile.]

=Bastile=, Arch. An outwork placed so as to defend the approach to a
castle or fortified place. A famous Bastile which had been converted
into a state prison was that of Paris, destroyed in 1789. Fig. 73 shows
the ground-plan of it. The diminutive of this term is Bastillon, which
has been changed into _Bastion_.

=Bastion=, Mod. A projecting polygonal buttress on a fortification. The
anterior portions of a bastion are the _faces_; the lateral portions,
the _flanks_; the space comprised between the two flanks, the _gorge_;
and the part of the fortification connecting two bastions together, the

=Bastisonus=, Med. Lat. A bastion or bulwark.

=Batagion= or =Batagium=. (See PATAGIUM.)

[Illustration: Fig. 74. Naval and Military Badge of the “Bath.”]

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Civil Badge of the “Bath.”]

=Bath, Order of the=, numbers 985 members, including the Sovereign; viz.
_First Class_: Knights Grand Cross—G.C.B.—50 Naval and Military and 25
Civil Knights. _Second Class_: Knights Commanders—K.C.B.—120 Naval and
Military and 50 Civil. _Third Class_: Companions—C.B.—525 Naval and
Military and 200 Civil.

=Batiaca= or =Batioca=, Gr. and R. A vase of a very costly description,
used as a drinking-vessel.

=Batière=, Fr., Arch. (See SADDLE-ROOF.) A roof is said to be “_en
batière_” when it is in the form of a pack-saddle; that is, when it has
only two slopes or eaves, the two other sides being gables.

=Batillum= or =Vatillum=, R. (1) A hand-shovel used for burning scented
herbs to fumigate. (2) Any kind of small shovel.

=Baton.= In heraldry, a diminutive of the BEND SINISTER couped at its

=Baton.= The military baton, or staff, was of Greek origin. (See

=Batter=, Arch. Said of walls that slope inwards from the base. Walls of
wharfs and of fortifications generally _batter_.

=Battle-axe= is one of the most ancient of weapons. The _pole-axe_ is
distinguished by a spike on the back of the axe. (See BIPENNIS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 76. Embattled.]

=Battled=, =Embattled=, Her. Having battlements.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. Battlement.]

=Battlement=, =Embattailment=, =Bateling=, O. E. (Fr. _Créneau, Merlet,
Bretesse_). A parapet in fortifications, consisting of a series of
rising parts, called MERLONS or COPS, separated by spaces called

=Batuz.= Norman French for _battus_, beaten with hammered up gold; said
of silken stuffs so adorned.

=Baucalia= or =Baucalis=, Gr. and R. (βαυκάλιον, βαύκαλις). A
drinking-vessel, which varied in shape and material.

=Baucens=, =Bauceant=, Med. A black and white banner used in the 13th
century. (_Meyrick._)

=Baudekyn=, O. E. A fabric of silk and gold thread.

=Baudekyn= (Lat. _Baldakinus_). Cloth of gold, brocade: “pannus omnium

=Baudrick= or =Baldrock=, O. E., of a church bell. The strap by which
the clapper is hung in the crown of the bell.

=Baukides=, Gr. (βαυκίδες). A kind of shoe worn by women; it was of a
saffron colour. This elegantly-shaped shoe was highly esteemed by
courtezans, who often placed cork soles inside their _baukides_, to make
themselves appear taller.

=Baxa= or =Baxea=, Gr. Sandals made of textile plants, such as the palm,
rush, willow, papyrus, and a kind of alfa. They were worn by comic
actors on the stage.

=Bay=, Arch. (Fr. _Travée_). A principal compartment or division in a
structure, marked off by buttresses or pilasters on the walls, or by the
disposition of the vaulting, the main arches, &c. The French word _baie_
means an opening made in a wall for a door or window.

=Bayeux Tapestry.= A roll of unbleached linen worked in coloured worsted
with illustrations of the Norman Conquest (about A. D. 1068); preserved
in the public library at Bayeux. A full-sized copy may be seen in the
South Kensington Museum.

=Bayle=, Arch. The open space contained between the first and second
walls of a fortified castle. These buildings often had two bayles; in
this case, the second was contained between the inner wall and the

=Bayonet.= A weapon, so called after the town of Bayonne in France,
where it was invented about A. D. 1650.

=Bay-stall=, Arch. The stall or seat in the bay (of a window).

=Beads=, Arch. An architectural ornament of mouldings consisting of
small round carved beads, called also Astragal. Another name for this
ornament is Paternosters.

=Beaker= (Fr. _cornet_). A trumpet-shaped vase, or drinking-cup.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Moulding with Beak-heads and Tooth-ornament.]

=Beak-heads= (Fr. _becs d’oiseau_), Mod. An ornament peculiar to English
architecture, representing heads and beaks of birds. The ancient
Peruvians used the same ornament in their architecture, as shown in Fig.
79, taken from the decoration of the monolithic door of Tianuaco.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Peruvian ornament (Beak-heads).]

=Bear.= Dancing bears are represented in Anglo-Saxon MSS.

=Beards.= (See _barba_.)

=Beaver.= The movable face-guard of a helmet.

=Beds.= Anglo-Saxon beds usually consisted merely of a sack (_sæccing_)
filled with straw, and laid on a bench or board, which was ordinarily in
a recess at the side of the room, as we still see in Scotland. The word
_bedstead_ means only “a place for a bed.” _Tester beds_, or beds with a
roof, were introduced by the Normans. Early in the 13th century beds
were covered much as now, with ‘quilte,’ counterpane, bolster, sheets,
and coverlet; and stood behind curtains which hung from the ceiling. In
the 15th century the beds became much more ornamental, having canopy and
curtains, and these, as well as the _tester_ or back, decorated with
heraldic, religious, or other devices. At the sides were _costers_, or
ornamental cloths. Between the curtains and the wall a space was left
called the _ruelle_, or little street.

=Beech Black.= A blue-black vegetable pigment.

=Bees=, in Christian art, are an attribute of St. Ambrose.

=Belfry= (Fr. _Beffroi_). The campanile or bell-tower of a church.
Frequently detached from the church, as at Chichester Cathedral. (See

=Bell.= An attribute of St. Anthony, referring to his power of
exorcising evil spirits. In heraldry, the bell is drawn and blazoned as
a church bell.

=Bell-cot=, Arch. A BELL-GABLE (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 80. Belled.]

=Belled=, Her. Having bells attached, like the cows in the device of the
city of Béarn. (Fig. 80.)

=Bell-gable=, Arch. A turret raised over the west end of small churches
and chapels that have no towers to hang a bell in. This is distinct from
the smaller turret at the east end of the nave for the SANCTUS BELL

=Bellicrepa=, Med. Lat. A military dance, of Italian origin.

=Bellows= were called in A.S. _bælg_ or _blastbælg_. A MS. of the 14th
century represents a man blowing at a three-legged caldron with a
perfectly modern-looking pair of bellows. Bellows, in Christian art, are
an attribute of Ste. Geneviève.

=Bell-ring=, Mod. The ring in the CROWN of a bell from which the clapper

=Bells= on the caparisons of horses were common in the Middle Ages. A
passage in the romance of Richard Cœur de Lion describes a messenger
“with five hundred belles rygande.” Chaucer’s monk has also bells on his
horse’s “bridel” which “gyngle as lowde as doth the chapel belle.”

=Belt=, Chr. A girdle used to confine the alb at the waist.

=Belt of Beads=, Chr. A rosary was sometimes so called.

=Belvidere=, It. A prospect tower over a building.

=Bema=, Gr. (1) A stone platform or hustings, used as a pulpit in early
Christian churches. (2) The term is synonymous with sanctuary. (3) It
also serves to denote an ambo and a bishop’s chair. (See AMBO.) The
Athenian _bema_ was a stone platform from which orators spoke at the
assemblies (_ecclesiæ_) in the Pnyx.

=Bembix=, Gr. and R. (Lat. _Turbo_). (1) A child’s whipping-top. (2) The
whorl of a spindle.

=Benches=, for seats, are represented in the 14th century formed by
laying a plank upon two trestles.

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Bend. _Arms of Le Scrope._]

=Bend=, Her. One of the Ordinaries. It crosses the field diagonally,
from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as in Fig. 81, the arms of
Richard Le Scrope: _Azure, a bend or_.

=Bendideia=, Gr. (Βενδίδεια). A festival held in the Piræeus in honour
of the goddess _Bendis_ (the Thracian name of Artemis or Diana).

=Bendlet=, Her. The diminutive of Bend.

=Bend-wise=, or =In bend=, Her. Arranged _in the direction of a_ bend.

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Bendy.]

=Bendy=, Her. Parted bend-wise into an even number of divisions.

=Benna=, Gaul. and R. This term, borrowed either from the Welsh or the
Gauls, denoted among the Romans a four-wheeled cart or carriage made of
wicker-work. A _benna_ may be seen on the bas-reliefs of the column of
Marcus Aurelius.

=Bennoŭ=, Egyp. A mythical bird resembling the phœnix, which sprang from
its own ashes, and was made the emblem of the resurrection. It
symbolized the return of Osiris to the light, and was therefore
consecrated to that god.

=Benzoin.= A gum-resin used as an ingredient in _spirit varnishes_.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Berlin porcelain jug.]

=Berlin Porcelain.= The manufactory was first founded in 1750, under
Frederick the Great. Fig. 83 is a specimen of Berlin hard porcelain.

=Beryl.= A gem of an iridescent green colour.

=Bes=, R. (_bi_, twice, and _as_). A fraction of value equivalent to
two-thirds of an _as_.

=Besa=, Gr. and R. A drinking-vessel, also called _bessa_ and _bession_.
It was wider at the bottom than at the top, and in shape much resembled
the BOMBYLOS (q.v.).

=Bessa= (Fr. _beysse ferrée_), Med. An instrument like a pickaxe or
mattock used by the pioneers of an army; 15th century. (_Meyrick._)

=Bession.= (See BESA.)

=Bestions=, Arch. This term is applied by Philibert Delorme to the
fantastic animals which occur in sculptures of the decorative or florid
period of architecture.

=Beten=, O. E. Embroidered with fancy subjects.

            “A coronall on her hedd sett,
            Her clothes with beasts and birdes were _bete_.”

=Beveled=, Arch. Having a sloped surface. (See SPLAY.)

=Bever.= A Norman word for “taking a drink” between breakfast and
dinner; elsewhere called “a myd-diner under-mete.”

[Illustration: Fig. 84. Bezant.]

=Bezant=, Her. A golden “roundle” or disk, flat like a coin.

=Biacca=, It. White carbonate of lead; a pigment.

=Biblia=, Med. Lat. A war engine for attack.

=Bibliotheca=, Gr. and R. (βιβλίον, book, and θήκη, case). Primarily the
place where books were kept, and hence used for the collection of books
or MSS. itself. The most celebrated library of antiquity was that
founded by the Ptolemies at Alexandria, destroyed by the Arabs, A. D.

=Bibliothecula=, Gr. and R. (dimin. of _bibliotheca_). A small library.

=Bice.= The name of certain very ancient blue and green pigments, known
also as _Mountain_ (or _Saunders’_) _blue_, and _Mountain green_, and by
other names. (See CARBONATES OF COPPER.)

=Biclinium=, Gr. and R. A couch or sofa on which two persons could
recline at table.

=Bicos=, Gr. (See BIKOS.)

=Bidens=, R. (_dens_, a tooth). Literally, with two teeth, forks, or
blades. The term was applied to a hoe, a pair of scissors, and an anchor
(_ancora bidens_). A two-forked weapon of the same name occurs in some
representations of Pluto.

=Bidental=, R. (_bidens_). A structure consecrated by the augurs or
haruspices, through the sacrifice of an animal. This was generally a
sheep of two years old, whence the name _bidens_ applied to the victim.
The _bidental_ was often an altar surrounded with a peristyle, as may be
seen from the remains of one of them at Pompeii. A _bidental_ was set up
in any place which had been struck by lightning. A cippus or _puteal_
placed on the exact spot which had been struck bore the inscription:
_Fulmen_ or _fulgur conditum_.

=Bien-hoa= or =Ben-hoa=, Hind. A kind of stone employed by the Khmers or
ancient inhabitants of Camboja for their sculpture; they also called it
_baï-kriem_ (roasted rice), which it exactly resembles. Its deep yellow
colour recalls in a striking degree that of old white marbles which have
been long exposed to the sun and air in warm countries.

[Illustration: Fig. 85. Bifrons.]

=Bifrons=, R. (_frons_, a forehead). Having two fronts or faces.
Libraries and picture galleries generally contained statuary of heads or
busts coupled together back to back, but especially of Janus, emblematic
of his knowledge both of the past and the future. The illustration
represents a Greek vase, in imitation of the statuary described.

=Biga=, R. (_bi_ and _juga_, double-yoked). A car drawn by two horses.
_Bigæ_ also denoted, like _bijugus_ or _bijugis_, two horses harnessed
together. [The Greeks called this method “Synoris.”]

=Bigatus=, R. (sc. _nummus_). A silver denarius (one of the earliest
Roman coins) which had a BIGA on the reverse. Other denarii were
_quadrigati_, having a _four-horse chariot_ on the reverse.

=Biggon=, O. E. “A kind of quoif formerly worn by men;” hence
“Béguines,” the nuns at the Béguinage at Ghent, who still wear the

=Bikos=, Gr. and R. A large earthenware vase adapted to hold dry
provisions, such as figs, plums, &c.

=Bilanx=, R. (double-dish). A balance with two scales. (See LIBRA.)

=Bilbo.= A light rapier invented at Bilboa.

=Bilix=, R. (double-thread). A texture like “twill,” or “dimity,” made
by a double set of leashes (_licia_).

[Illustration: Fig. 86. Bill-head.]

=Bill=, O. E. A weapon made of a long staff with a broad curved blade, a
short pike at the back, and a pike at the top, used by infantry of the
14th and 15th centuries. (Fig. 86.)

=Billet=, Her. A small oblong figure.

=Billet=, Arch. A moulding of the Roman epoch, consisting of short rods
separated from each other by a space equal to their own length. Some
billets are arranged in several rows.

=Bilychnis=, Gr. and R. A double lamp with two beaks and two wicks, so
as to give out two separate flames.

=Binio=, R. A gold coin current at Rome. It was worth two _aurei_ or
fifty silver _denarii_. (See AUREUS.)

=Bipalium=, R. A spade, furnished with a cross-bar, by pressing the foot
on which the instrument could be pushed into the ground. Representations
of this tool occur pretty frequently on tombs.

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Bipennis.]

=Bipennis= or =Bipenne=, Gen. (_penna_, a wing). An axe with a double
blade or edge, used as an agricultural implement, an adze, or a military
weapon. The Greeks, who called it βουπλὴξ, never made use of it. It was
used especially by barbarous nations, such as the Amazons, Scythians,
Gauls, &c. Fig. 87 represents a Gaulish _bipennis_ taken from one of the
bas-reliefs on the triumphal arch at Orange.

=Bird=, in Egyptian hieroglyphics, signified the soul of man, and in
Christian art had _originally_ a similar meaning afterwards forgotten.

=Bird-bolt.= A short thick arrow, with a blunt head, about the breadth
of a shilling.

=Biremis=, R. (_remus_, an oar). A pair-oared boat, or a vessel having
two banks of oars.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Biretta. (Portrait of a Rector of Padua.)]

=Biretta=, It. A cap. In its restricted meaning the term is applied to
that worn by priests and academical persons. The illustration shows the
state costume of the Rector of the University of Padua, who wears a
sacerdotal biretta.

=Birotus= and =Birota=, R. (_rota_, a wheel). Anything having two
wheels, and so a two-wheeled carriage, car, or chariot.

=Birrus= and =Byrrus=, R. A russet-coloured capote with a hood. It was
made of a coarse cloth (_bure_) with a long nap. Such was, at first, the
meaning of the term, but in course of time _birri_ of a fine quality
were made.

=Bisaccium= (It. _bisacce_). Saddle-bags of coarse sacking.

=Biscuit=, Fr. A kind of porcelain, unglazed. The finest is the so
called Parian porcelain.

=Bisellium=, R. (_sella_, a seat). A seat of honour or state chair,
reserved for persons of note, or who had done service to the state.
There was room on the seat for two persons.

=Bishop’s Length.= Technical name for a portrait-canvas of 58 inches by
94 inches.

=Bismuth.= The pigment, called pearl white, which is the sub-nitrate of
this metal, is very susceptible to the action of sulphurous vapours,
which turn it black.

=Bisomus=, Chr. A sarcophagus with two compartments; that is, capable of
holding two dead bodies. (See SARCOPHAGUS.)

=Bistre.= A warm brown water-colour-pigment, made of the soot of
beech-wood, water, and gum. It is the mediæval fuligo and fuligine.

=Biting-in.= The action of aqua fortis upon copper or steel in

=Bitumen.= This pigment _should_ be genuine _Asphaltum_, diluted and
ground up with drying oil or varnish. It dries quickly. There is a
substance _sold as bitumen_ which will not dry at all. (See ASPHALTUM.)

=Bivium=, R. (_via_, a way). A street or road branching out into two
different directions; at the corner there was almost always a fountain.

=Bizarre=, Fr. Fantastic, capricious of kind.

=Black= is the resultant of the combination in unequal proportions of
blue, red, and yellow.

=Black=, in Christian art, expressed the earth; darkness, mourning,
wickedness, negation, death; and was appropriate to the Prince of
Darkness. White and black together signify purity of life, and mourning
or humiliation; hence adopted by the Dominicans and Carmelites. In
blazonry, black, called sable, signifies prudence, wisdom, and constancy
in adversity and love, and is represented by horizontal and
perpendicular lines crossing each other.

=Black Pigments= are very numerous, of different degrees of
transparency, and of various hues, in which either red or blue
predominates, producing brown blacks or blue blacks. The most important
are _beech black_, or _vegetable blue black_; _bone black_, or _Paris
black_, called also _ivory black_; _Cassel_ or _Cologne black_, _cork
black_, _Frankfort black_, and _lamp-black_. (See ASPHALTUM.)

=Blades=, Arch. The principal rafters of a roof.

=Blasted=, Her. Leafless, withered.

=Blautai=, Gr. (Lat. _soleæ_). A richly-made shoe; a kind of sandal worn
by men.

=Blazon=, Her. Armorial compositions. To blazon is to describe or to
represent them in an heraldic manner. The representation is called
Blazonry. For example, the _blazoning_ of the BADGES on the cornice of
King Henry’s chantry in Westminster Abbey is as follows:—On the dexter,
a white antelope, ducally collared, chained, and armed _or_; and on the
sinister a swan gorged with a crown and chain. The beacon or cresset
_or_, inflamed proper. (See Fig. 54.)

=Blending.= Passing over painting with a soft brush of badger’s hair
made for the purpose, by which the pigments are fused together and the
painting softened.

=Blindman’s Buff.= Called “hoodman-blind,” _temp._ Elizabeth.

=Blind-story=, Arch. The TRIFORIUM in a church. Opposed to the CLEAR or

=Blocking-course=, Arch. The last course in a wall, especially of a
parapet. The surface is made slightly convex to allow of water flowing
off more easily.

=Blodbendes= (O. E. for blood-bands). Narrow strips of linen to bind
round the arm after bleeding.

=Blodius=, O. E. Sky-blue.

=Bloom.= The clouded appearance which varnish sometimes takes upon the
surface of a picture.

=Blue.= One of the three primary colours, the complementary to orange.
Blue, in Christian art, or the sapphire, expressed heaven, the
firmament, truth, constancy, fidelity. Its symbolism as the dress worn
by the Virgin Mary is of _modesty_. In blazonry it signifies chastity,
loyalty, fidelity, and good reputation. Engravers represent it by
horizontal lines.

=Blue Black=, or =Charcoal Black=, is a pigment prepared by burning
vine-twigs in close vessels. Mixed with _white lead_ it yields very fine
silvery _greys_. (See also BLACK PIGMENTS.)

=Blue Pigments.= Minerals:—see ULTRAMARINE, COBALT, BLUE VERDITER.
Vegetable:—_Indigo_. Animal:—_Prussian blue_. (See CARBONATE OF COPPER,

=Blue Verditer.= (See VERDITER.)

[Illustration: Figs. 89, 90. Boars. Gallic ensigns.]

=Boar.= In mediæval art, emblem of ferocity and sensuality. In heraldry
the boar is called Sanglier. The military ensigns of the Gauls were
surmounted by figures of the wild boar.

=Boclerus=, Med. Lat. A buckler; 14th century. The word is derived from
the German Bock, a goat. Compare ÆGIS.

=Bodkin=, Saxon. A dagger, a hair-pin, a blunt flat needle.

             “With _bodkins_ was Cæsar Julius
             Murdred at Rome, of Brutus, Cassius.”
                         (_The Serpent of Division_, 1590.)

  “He pulls her bodkin that is tied in a piece of black ribbon.” (_The
  Parson’s Wedding_, 1663.)

The Latin name for this classical head-dress was _acus_.

=Body Colour.= In speaking of oil colours the term applies to their
solidity, or degree of opacity; water-colour painting is said to be in
body colours when the pigments are laid on thickly, or mixed with white,
as in oil painting.

=Boedromia=, Gr. and R. A festival instituted in honour of Apollo the
Helper—βοηδρόμος. It was held at Athens on the sixth day of September, a
month thence called _Boedromion_.

=Bohemian Glass.= The manufacture of a pure crystal glass well adapted
for engraving became an important industry in Germany about the year
1600, and the art of engraving was admirably developed during the
century. Of Johann Schapper, especially, Jacquemart says that he
produced “subjects and arabesques of such delicacy of execution that at
first sight they seemed merely like a cloud on the glass.”

=Bohordamentum=, Med. Lat. A joust with mock lances called “bouhours.”

=Bojæ=, R. (_bos_, an ox). (1) A heavy collar of wood or iron for
dangerous dogs. (2) A similar collar placed round the necks of criminals
or slaves.

=Boletar=, R. A dish on which mushrooms (_boleti_) were served, and
thence transferred to dishes of various forms.

=Bolevardus=, Med. Lat. A boulevard or rampart.

=Bombard=, O. E. A machine for projecting stones or iron balls; the
precursor of the cannon. First used in the 14th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 91. Bombards worn by King James I. of England.]

=Bombards=, O. E. Padded breeches. In Elizabeth’s reign the breeches,
then called BOMBARDS, were stuffed so wide that a gallery or scaffold
was erected to accommodate members of Parliament who wore them. The
engraving shows James I. (painted 1614) attired for hawking. (Fig. 91.)

=Bombax=, O. E. The stuff now called Bombasin. “A sort of fine silk or
cotton cloth well known upon the continent during the 13th century.”

=Bombé=, Fr. Curved furniture, introduced in the 18th century.

=Bombulom= or =Bunibulum=, O. E. (from the Greek βόμβος, a hollow deep
sound). A musical instrument consisting of an angular frame with metal
plates, which sounded when shaken like the _sistrum_ of the Egyptians.

=Bombylos= and =Bombylê=, Gr. and R. A vase so called from the gurgling
noise which the liquid makes in pouring out through its narrow neck.

=Bone Black.= (See IVORY BLACK.)

=Book.= In mediæval art an attribute of the fathers of the Church; in
the hands of evangelists and apostles it represents the Gospel. St.
Boniface carries a book pierced with a sword. St. Stephen, St.
Catherine, St. Bonaventura, and St. Thomas Aquinas also carry books.

=Bordure=, Her. A border to a shield.

=Boreasmos=, Gr. A festival held at Athens in honour of Boreas, the god
of the north wind.

=Borto= or =Burdo=, Med. Lat. A lance.

=Boss.= The centre of a shield; also an architectural ornament for
ceilings, put where the ribs of a vault meet, or in other situations.

[Illustration: Fig. 92. Greek Bossage.]

[Illustration: Fig. 93. Bossage.]

=Bossage=, Arch. An arrangement of plain or ornamental projections on
the surface of a wall of dressed masonry. Figs. 92 and 93 represent two
Greek walls finished in this manner.

=Boston=, O. E. A flower so called.

=Botéga=, It. A manufactory or artist’s workshop where pottery is made.

[Illustration: Fig. 94. Botonée Fitchée.]

=Botonée, Fitchée=, Her. Varieties of the heraldic cross, called also
treflée. (Fig. 94.)

[Illustration: Fig. 95. Coffee-pot of Bottcher Ware.]

=Bottcher Ware.= Early Dresden pottery. (1) A very hard red stone-ware,
made of a red clay of Okrilla, invented at Meissen by John Frederick
Bottcher. (2) Porcelain. Bottcher, finding his wig very heavy one day,
examined the powder upon it, and discovered it to be the fine kaolin of
Aue, from which the Dresden (or Meissen) china is made. Bottcher’s first
object was to obtain a paste as white and as perfect as that of the
COREA; he succeeded at his first trial, and produced pieces with archaic
decoration so perfectly imitated, that one would hesitate to declare
them European.

[Illustration: Fig. 96. Bottle-mouldings.]

=Bottle=, =Boutell=, =Bowtell=, or =Boltell=, Arch. An old English term
for a bead moulding; also for small shafts of clustered columns resting
against the pillars of a nave, in the Romano-Byzantine and Gothic
periods. These shafts spring from the ground and rise to the height of
the bend of the roof, the diagonal ribs of which they receive on coupled
columns. Probably from _bolt_, an arrow.

[Illustration: Fig. 97. Water Bouget.]

=Bougets= or =Water Bougets=, Fr., were pouches of leather, which were
used by the Crusaders for carrying water in the deserts. Fig. 97 is a
heraldic representation of the coat of arms of De Ros.

=Boulé=, =Bouleuterion=, Gr. An assembly composed of the foremost men of
the nation. It was a kind of senate or higher council which deliberated
on the affairs of the republic. The popular assembly, on the other hand,
composed of all the males of free birth, was called _agora_, and was
held in a place called by the same name. (See AGORA.)

=Boule.= A peculiar kind of marquetry, composed of tortoise-shell and
thin brass, to which are sometimes added ivory and enamelled metal.
Named from its inventor, André Charles Boule, born 1642.

=Boulting-mill.= A mill for winnowing the flour from the bran
(_crusca_); the device of the Academy of La Crusca. (See CRUSCA.)

=Bourdon.= A pilgrim’s staff. On the walls of Hôtel Cluny, at Paris, the
pilgrim’s _bourdon_ and cockle-shells are sculptured. Piers Plowman
describes a pilgrim’s

                            “_burdoun_ y-bounde
                With a broad liste, in a withwynde wise
                Y-wounden about.”

=Bourginot.= A close helmet of the 15th century, first used in Burgundy.

[Illustration: Fig. 98. Bourgogne Point Lace.]

=Bourgogne, Point de=, is a beautifully fine and well-finished pillow
lace resembling old Mechlin. No record remains of its manufacture. (Fig.

=Bovile.= (See BUBILE.)

=Bow.= Represented in the most ancient monuments. In classical art an
attribute of Apollo, Cupid, Diana, Hercules, and the Centaurs.

=Bow=, Arch., O. E. A flying buttress, or arch-buttress.

=Bowed=, Her. Having a convex contour.

=Bower= or =Bowre=, O. E. The Anglo-Saxon name for a bed-chamber, “_bird
in bure_” = a lady in her chamber. The bed-chambers were separate
buildings grouped round or near the central hall.

                 “Up then rose fair Annet’s father,
                   Twa hours or it wer day,
                 And he is gane into the _bower_
                   Wherein fair Annet lay.”
                                     (_Percy Ballads._)

=Bowls of metal=, generally bronze or copper, found in early Anglo-Saxon
_barrows_ or graves, are probably of Roman workmanship. Some beautiful
_buckets_ (A.S. _bucas_) were made of wood, generally of ash, whence
they had another name _æscen_. They are ornamented with designs, and
figures of animals, and were probably used at festivities to contain ale
or mead.

=Bowtell= or =Boutell=, Arch. (See BOTTLE.)

=Brabeum=, =Brabium=, or =Bravium=, Gr. (βραβεῖον, from βραβεὺς, judge).
Three terms denoting the prize assigned to the victor in the public

[Illustration: Fig. 99. Figures with Braccæ.]

=Braccæ=, =Bracæ=, or =Bragæ= (Celtic _breac_). Trousers worn
principally by barbarous nations, such as the Amazons, Gauls, Persians,
and Scythians. _Anaxyrides_ was the name given to close-fitting
trousers, _braccæ laxæ_ to wider pantaloons, such as those worn by the
Gaul in the left-hand corner of Fig. 99, from a bas-relief taken from
the sarcophagus of the _vigna_ Ammendola. The _braccæ virgatæ_ were
striped pantaloons worn especially by Asiatics; _braccæ picta_,
variegated or embroidered trousers. (See BREECHES.)

[Illustration: Fig. 100. Three diamond rings interlaced.]

=Braced= or =Brazed=, Her. Interlaced, as in the illustration of the
arms of Cosmo, the founder of the Medici family. (Fig. 100.) (See also
the illustration to FRET.)

=Bracelet.= Bracelets were, among the ancients, a symbol of marriage.

=Bracelets.= (See PERISCELIS.)

=Brachiale=, R. (_brachium_, the arm). An armlet, or piece of defensive
armour covering the _brachium_ or forearm. It was worn by gladiators in
the circus. Some beautifully ornamented specimens were found among the
excavations at Pompeii.

=Brackets=, Arch., in mediæval architecture, are usually called Corbels.
(See Fig. 5.)

=Braconniere=, O. E. A skirt of armour, worn hanging from the breast and
back plates; 16th century.

=Bractea= or =Brattea=, R. Leaves of metal, especially of gold, beaten

=Braga=, =Bragæ=. (See BRACCÆ.)

=Bragamas=, O. E. (See BRAQUEMARD.) “Un grant coustel, que l’en dit
bragamas;” 14th cent.

=Braggers=, O. E. An obsolete term for timber BRACKETS.

=Brake=, O. E. A quern or hand-mill.

=Brand=, A.S. A torch; hence, from its shining appearance, a sword.

=Brandrate=, O. E. An iron tripod fixed over the fire, on which to set a
pot or kettle.

=Braquemard=, O. E. A kind of sabre—“un grant coustel d’Alemaigne, nommé
braquemart;” 14th century.

=Brass=, Gen. An alloy made by mixing copper with tin, or else with zinc
or silver. Another name for it is BRONZE (q.v.). Corinthian brass is
very celebrated, but little is known of its composition even at the
present day. Mosaic gold, pinchbeck, prince’s metal, &c., are varieties
of brass differing in the proportions of the ingredients. Brass beaten
into very thin leaves is called Dutch Metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 101. Brassart.]

=Brassart.= Plate armour for the arm. (Fig. 101.)

=Brasses.= Engraved metal plates inlaid in the pavements or walls of
churches as monuments. The material was called _cullen_ (or Cologne)
plate. The engravings were made black with mastic or bitumen, and the
field or background was coarsely enamelled in various colours.

=Brattach=, Celtic. A standard; literally, a cloth.

=Braunshid=, O. E. Branched.

=Breadth= “in painting is a term which denotes largeness, space,
vastness,” &c. (Consult J. B. Pyne “_On the Nomenclature of Pictorial
Art_,” Art Union, 1843.)

=Breccia=, It. A conglomerate used by the ancients in architecture and

=Breeches= (_breac_ Celtic, _braccæ_ Lat.). The word breeches in its
present acceptance was first used towards the end of the 16th century;
previously, breeches were called hose, upper socks, and slop. (See

=Bremen Green.= (See VERDITER.)

=Breys=, Her. (See BARNACLES.)

=Bridges=, O. E. A kind of satin manufactured at Bruges.

[Illustration: Fig. 102. Bridle-device of the Arbusani.]

=Bridle.= A favourite Scriptural emblem of self-restraint and
self-denial. The illustration is the device of Benedetto Arbusani of
Padua; with the motto which, according to Epictetus, contains every
essential to human happiness. (Fig. 102.) (See “_Historic Devices_.”)

=Broach= or =Broch=, O. E. A church spire, or _any sharp-pointed
object_, was frequently so called.

[Illustration: Fig. 103. Broad arrow.]

=Broad Arrow=, now used as the Royal mark on all Government stores, &c.,
was first employed as a regal badge by Richard I. (Fig. 103.)

[Illustration: Fig. 104. Gold Brocade State or “Ducal” costume of the
Dogeressa of Venice.]

=Brocade.= A stout silken stuff of variegated pattern. Strutt says it
was composed of silk interwoven with threads of gold and silver. The
state or “ducal” costume of the Dogeressa of Venice, represented in the
illustration, consisted principally of an ample robe of the finest gold
brocade, lined with ermine. (Figs. 88, 104.)

=Broella.= Coarse cloth worn by monks in the Middle Ages.

=Bromias=, Gr. A drinking-vessel of wood, or silver, resembling a large
SCYPHUS (q.v.).

=Bronze.= _Antique_ bronze was composed of tin and copper; the _modern_
bronze contains also zinc and lead, by which the fluidity is increased,
and the brittleness diminished.

=Bronzes= (ancient Chinese) are rarely seen out of the province of
Fokien. The lines of metal are small and delicate, and are made to
represent flowers, trees, animals of various kinds, and sometimes
Chinese characters. Some fine bronzes, inlaid with gold, are met with in
this province. As a general rule, Chinese bronzes are more remarkable
for their peculiar and certainly not very handsome form than for
anything else.

=Bronzing.= The art of laying a coating of bronze powder on wood,
gypsum, or other material. Another method is the electrotype process.
(Consult Walker’s _Electrotype Manipulation_.)

[Illustration: Figs. 105 to 112. Gallic and Merovingian brooches.]

=Brooch.= (See FIBULA.) Anglo-Saxon and Irish specimens of magnificent
workmanship are described in the _Archæological Album_. In the Middle
Ages brooches bore quaint inscriptions: Chaucer’s “prioress” wore

                           “_a broche_ of gold ful shene,
               On which was first y-wretten a crouned A,
               And after, _Amor vincit omnia_.”

Leather brooches for hats are mentioned by Dekker in _Satiromastix_,
1602. Figs. 105, 106, 107 represent different brooches found in France
of the Gallic and Merovingian periods. (Compare FIBULA, PHALERÆ.)

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Gallic brooch.]

=Brown=, in Egyptian art, was the colour consecrated to Typhon; in
ancient times it was the sign of mourning. Regarded as a compound of red
and black, BISTRE, it is the symbol of all evil deeds and treason. In a
monastic costume it signifies renunciation. With the Moors it was
emblematic of all evil. Christian symbolism appropriates the colour of
the dead leaf for the type of “spiritual death,” &c. (Consult Portal,
_Essai sur les Couleurs symboliques_.)

=Brown Madder.= (See MADDER.)

=Brown Ochre.= A strong, dark, yellow, opaque pigment. (See OCHRES.)

=Brown Pigments= are _asphaltum_, _bistre_, _umber_, _sienna_, _Mars
brown_, _Cassel earth_, _Cappagh brown_, _brown madder_, and burnt
_terra verde_;—chiefly calcined earths. (See also INDIGO.)

=Brown Pink= (Fr. _stil de grain_). A vegetable yellow pigment. (See

=Brown Red= is generally made from burnt _yellow ochre_, or _Roman
ochre_, or from calcined sulphate of iron. (See MARS.)

=Brunswick Green.= A modification of MOUNTAIN GREEN (q.v.).

=Bruny=, =Byrne=, or =Byrnan=. Saxon for a breastplate or cuirass,
called by the Normans “_broigne_.”

=Brushes.= (See HAIR PENCILS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Brussels Lace.]

=Brussels Point à l’Aiguille= differs somewhat from the lace usually
known as Brussels Lace or Point d’Angleterre, but resembles Point
d’Alençon in the réseau ground. (Fig. 114.) (See POINT D’ANGLETERRE.)

=Buccina= (Gr. βυκάνη). A kind of trumpet anciently made of a
conch-shell, represented in the hands of Tritons.

=Buccula=, R. (_bucca_, a cheek). The chin-piece or cheek-piece of a
helmet, which could be raised or lowered by the soldier at will.

=Bucentaur.= A monster, half man and half ox. The name of the Venetian
state galley.

=Buckets=, Anglo-Saxon. (See BOWLS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Heraldic buckle.]

=Buckle=, Her. The crest of the Pelham family, now represented by the
Earls of Chichester. It is a common ornament of ecclesiastical
buildings, houses, and other objects in Sussex. (Fig. 115.)

=Buckler.= (See CLIPEUS and SCUTUM.)

=Buckram.= A cloth stiffened with gum, so called from Bokhara, where it
was originally made.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. Bucranium.]

=Bucranium=, R. (βουκράνιον). An ox’s head from which the flesh has been
stripped; an ox-skull employed in the decoration of friezes by Greek and
Roman architects. Fig. 116 represents a _bucranium_ in the temple of
Vespasian at Rome.

=Budge=, O. E. Lambskin with the wool dressed outwards. Mentioned by

=Buffett-stoole=, O. E. A stool with three legs.

=Buffin=, O. E. Coarse cloth of Elizabeth’s time.

=Bugles=, O. E. Glass beads in the hair, _temp._ Elizabeth and James I.

=Buldiellus=, Med. Lat. A baudric.

=Bulga=, R. A purse or leathern bag for money which was carried on the
arm. According to Festus the word is of Gallic origin.

[Illustration: Fig. 117. Bulla (on a door).]

=Bulla=, R. (_bullo_, to bubble). A term denoting objects of various
kinds, but all more or less approximating in shape to a water-bubble.
The heads of certain nails were called _bullæ_; Fig. 117 shows one of
the _bullæ_ decorating an ancient bronze door in the Pantheon at Rome.
The _bulla aurea_ was an ornament of globular shape, worn round the neck
by children of patrician family. The _bulla scortea_ was an ornament
made of leather, worn by freedmen or individuals of the lower orders.

=Bulting-pipe=, O. E. A bolting-cloth for sifting meal.

=Bullula=, R. (_bulla_). Diminutive of BULLA (q.v.).

=Bur.= A term in etching for the rough edge of a line, commonly removed,
but by Rembrandt and other great masters made effective.

=Burdalisaunder=, =Bourde de Elisandre=. Burda, a stuff for clothing
(mentioned in the 4th century) from Alexandria. A silken web in
different coloured stripes; 14th century.

=Burgau.= A univalve shell, _Turbo marmoratus_, producing a
mother-of-pearl; and hence all works in mother-of-pearl, of whatever
material, are called “burgau.” (_Jacquemart._)

=Burin.= An instrument for engraving on copper.

=Burnisher.= A steel instrument used by engravers to soften lines or
efface them. An agate is used to burnish gold.

=Burnt Sienna.= (See SIENNA.)

=Burnt Terra Verde.= (See GREEN EARTH.)

=Burnt Umber.= (See UMBER.)

=Burr=, O. E. (1) The broad iron ring on a tilting-lance, just below the
gripe, to prevent the hand slipping back. (2) Projecting defences at the
front of a saddle. (_Meyrick._) (3) The rough edge produced on the metal
by an incised or etched line in an engraving.

=Buskin.= (See COTHURNUS.)

=Bustum=, R. (_buro_, to burn). An open spot upon which a pyre was
raised for burning the corpse of a person of distinction. When the area
adjoined the burying-ground, it was called _bustum_; when it was
separate from it, it was called _ustrina_.

[Illustration: Fig. 118. Arch-buttress.]

=Buttress=, Arch. An abutment employed to increase the solidity or
stability of a wall; it may either immediately abut on the wall, or be
connected with it by a flying or arch-buttress (Fig. 118). In the
Romano-Byzantine and lanceolated styles buttresses are largely employed
to strengthen the walls of naves which have to support high vaulted

=Buxum=, R. (πύξος). Box, an evergreen, the wood of which was used for
various purposes, as with us. By analogy, the term _buxum_ was applied
to objects made of this wood, such as combs, flutes, children’s shoes,
and waxed tablets for writing.

=Buzo=, O. E. The arrow for an arquebus, or cross-bow. French, _boujon_:
“a boult, an arrow with a great or broad head.” (_Cotgrave._)

=Byrrus.= (See BIRRUS.)

=Byssus=, Gr. and R. (βύσσος). The precise meaning of this term is
unknown; there is no doubt it was a texture made of some very costly
material, since we learn from Pliny that the byssus cloth which he calls
_linum byssinum_ was exceedingly dear. Everything leads us to suppose
that it was a linen material of the finest quality. This opinion would
seem to be confirmed by Herodotus and Æschylus. The word comes from the
Hebrew _butz_.

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Byzantine ornament on an English font.]

[Illustration: Fig. 119. Byzantine Font.]

[Illustration: Fig. 121. Roman-Byzantine Cross at Carew.]

=Byzantine Period.= Time, about 6th to 12th century A. D. (_Byzantium_,
the Latin name of Constantinople.) Byzantine Architecture is noteworthy
for a bold development of the plan of Christian places of worship. It
introduced the cupola, or dome, which was often surrounded by
semi-domes; an almost square ground-plan in place of the long aisles of
the Roman church; and piers instead of columns. The apse always formed
part of Byzantine buildings, which were richly decorated, and contained
marble in great profusion. St. Sophia, Constantinople (A. D. 532–537),
is the finest example of Byzantine architecture. St. Mark’s, Venice (A.
D. 977), and the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (A. D. 796–804), are also
of pure Byzantine style. Byzantine Painting was that which succeeded the
decline of the early Christian Art in the catacombs and basilicas of
Rome, and which preceded and foreshadowed the Renaissance of Art in
Italy. In style it was based on that of the catacombs, but with a
reminiscence of the excellence of ancient Greece; it was, however,
restrained and kept within narrow limits by the conventionalities which
were imposed upon it by the Church, and which almost reduced it to a
mechanical art. The mosaics of the 10th and 11th centuries in St.
Mark’s, Venice, are perhaps the best existing examples of the Byzantine
period. Specimens are also to be seen in St. Sophia, Constantinople; and
at Ravenna.


=Caaba=, Arabic (lit. square house). The sacred mosque at Mecca. The
temple is an almost cubical edifice, whence its name. It is a favourite
subject of representation upon Mussulman works of art.

=Caballaria=, =Cavalherium=, =hevallerie= (Gr. κλῆρος ἱππικὸς), Med. A
meadow set apart for military exercises.

=Caballerius=, Med. Lat. A cavalier, or knight.

=Cabeiri= were the personification of the element of fire. The precise
nature attributed to them is unknown. There were two principal branches
of their worship, the Pelasgian and the Phœnician. It is probable that
this religion originated in Asia Minor, and penetrated to the island of
Samothrace, in remote antiquity; it was very popular throughout Greece
in the Pelasgic period. The principal temples were at Samothrace,
Lemnos, Imbros, Anthedon, and other places.

=Cabeiria=, Gr. (καβείρια). Annual festivals in honour of the Cabeiri.

=Cabinet Pictures.= Small, highly-finished pictures, suited for a small

[Illustration: Fig. 122. Cable and tooth-mouldings.]

=Cabling=, or =Cable-moulding=. A moulding in Roman architecture, made
in imitation of a thick rope or cable.

[Illustration: Fig. 123. Lion’s head cabossed.]

=Cabossed=, Her. Said of the head of an animal represented full-face, so
as to show the face only. (Fig. 123.)

=Cabulus=, Med. Latin (Old French, _chaable_). A machine for hurling
stones; a large BALLISTA.

=Caccabus=, Gr. and R. (κάκκαβος or κακκάβη). A sort of pot or vessel
for cooking any kind of food. It was made of bronze, silver, or
earthenware, and assumed a variety of forms; but the one in ordinary use
resembled an egg with an opening at the top which closed by a lid. The
_caccabus_ rested upon a trivet (_tripus_).

=Cadafalsus=, =Cadafaudus=. (See CAGASUPTUS.)

=Cadas=, O. E. An inferior silken stuff used for wadding; 13th century.

=Cadency=, Her. Figures and devices, by which different members and
branches of a family are distinguished.

=Cadet=, Her. Junior.

=Cadlys-drain=, Welsh. Chevaux-de-frise.

=Cadmium Yellow= is the sulphide of cadmium, the finest and most
permanent of all the yellow pigments in use.

=Cadpen=, Welsh. A chief of battle; captain.

=Cadrelli=, Med. Lat. Cross-bow quarrels. (See CARREAUX.)

=Cādūceus= or =Caduceum=. A wand of laurel or olive, given by Apollo to
Mercury in exchange for the lyre invented by the latter. Mercury, it is
said, seeing two snakes struggling together, separated them with his
wand, whereupon the snakes immediately twined themselves round it. This
was the origin of the caduceus, as we know it; it was always an
attribute of Mercury, who thence obtained his name of _Caducifer_, or
caduceus-bearer. The caduceus was an emblem of peace.

=Cadurcum=, R. This term is applied to two distinct things: (1) the fine
linen coverlets, and (2) the earthenware vases, manufactured by the
Cadurci, or Gauls inhabiting the district now called Cahors.

=Cadus=, Gr. and R. (from χανδάνω, to contain), (1) A large earthenware
jar, used for the same purposes as the amphora; especially to hold wine.
An ordinary _cadus_ was about three feet high, and broad enough in the
mouth to allow of the contents being baled out. (2) The ballot-urn in
which the Athenian juries recorded their votes with pebbles, at a trial.

=Cælatura= (_cælum_, a chisel). A general term for working in metal by
raised work or intaglio, such as engraving, carving, chasing, riveting,
soldering, smelting, &c. Greek, the _toreutic_ art. Similar work on
wood, ivory, marble, glass, or precious stones was called SCULPTURA.

=Cæmenticius=, =Cæmenticia= (structura). A kind of masonry formed of
rough stones. There were two methods of construction to which this name
applied. The first, called _cæmenticia structura incerta_, consisted in
embedding stones of more or less irregular shape in mortar, so as to
give them any architectural form, and then covering the whole over with
cement. The second, called _cæmenticia structura antiqua_, consisted in
laying rough stones one on the top of the other, without mortar, the
interstices being filled by drippings or smaller stones.

=Cæmentum.= Unhewn stones employed in the erection of walls or buildings
of any kind.

=Caer=, British (Lat. _castrum_; Saxon, _chester_). A camp or fortress.

=Cæsaries= (akin to Sanscrit _keça_, hair, or to _cæsius_, bluish-grey).
This term is almost synonymous with COMA (q.v.), but there is also
implied in it an idea of beauty and profusion, not attaching to _coma_,
which is the expression as well for an ordinary head of hair.

=Cæstus=, =Cestus=. A boxing gauntlet. It consisted of a series of
leather thongs, armed with lead or metal bosses, and was fitted to the
hands and wrists.

=Cætra.= (See CETRA.)

=Cagasuptus=, Med. Lat. A CHAT-FAUX, or wooden shed, under which the
soldiers carried on the operations of attack. (_Meyrick._)

=Cailloutage=, Fr. Fine earthenware; pipe-clay; a kind of hard paste;
opaque pottery. “Fine earthenware is most frequently decorated by the
‘muffle;’ the oldest specimens, those made in France in the 16th
century, are ornamented by incrustation.” (_Jacquemart._)

=Cairelli=, Med. Lat. (See CADRELLI.)

=Cairn.= A heap of stones raised over a grave, to which friends as they
pass add a stone. The custom still prevails in Scotland and Ireland.

=Caisson=, Arch. A sunken panel in a ceiling or soffit. (See COFFER.)

=Calamarius= (_calamus_, q.v.). A case for carrying writing-reeds
(_calami_). Another name for this case was _theca calamaria_.

=Calamister= and =Calamistrum=. A curling-iron, so named because the
interior was partly hollow like a reed (_calamus_), or perhaps because
in very early times a reed heated in the ashes was employed for the
purpose; hence, CALAMISTRATUS, an effeminate man, or discourse. (Compare

=Calamus= (κάλαμος, a reed or cane). A haulm, reed, or cane. The term
was applied to a variety of objects made out of reeds, such as a Pan’s
pipe, a shepherd’s flute (_tibia_), a fishing-rod (_piscatio_), a rod
tipped with lime, for fowling, &c. (See ARUNDO.) It was specially used,
however, to denote a reed cut into proper shape, and used as a pen for

=Calantica.= (See CALAUTICA.)

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Calash.]

=Calash= (Fr. _calèche_). A hood made like that of the carriage called
in France _calèche_, whence its name. It is said to have been introduced
into England in 1765 by the Duchess of Bedford, and was used by ladies
to protect their heads when dressed for the opera or other

=Calathiscus= (καλαθίσκος). A small wicker basket.

=Calathus= (κάλαθος, a basket; Lat. _qualus_ or _quasillus_). A basket
made of rushes or osiers plaited, employed for many purposes, but above
all as a woman’s work basket. The _calathus_ was the emblem of the
γυναικεῖον or women’s apartments, and of the housewife who devoted
herself to domestic duties. The same term denoted earthenware or metal
vases of various shapes; among others a drinking-cup.

=Calautica= or =Calvatica=, R. (Gr. κρήδεμνον, from κρὰς and δέω;
fastened to the head). A head-dress worn by women; the Greek MITRA

=Calcar= (_calx_, the heel). A spur. It was also called _calcis aculeus_
(lit. heel-goad), a term specially applied to the spur of a cock. The
latter, however, was just as often called _calcar_. In mediæval Latin
_calcaria aurea_ are the golden, or gilt, spurs which were a distinctive
mark of knighthood; _calcaria argentea_, the silver spurs worn only by
esquires. _Calcaria amputari_, to hack off the spurs, when a knight was

               “Li esperons li soit copé parmi
                 Prés del talon au branc acier forbi.”
                                   (_Roman de Garin MS._)

=Calcatorium= (_calco_, to tread under foot). A raised platform of
masonry, set up in the cellar where the wine was kept (_cella vinaria_),
and raised above the level of the cellar-floor, to a height of three or
four steps. On either side of this platform were ranged the casks
(_dolia_) or large earthenware vessels in which the wine was made. The
_calcatorium_ served as a receptacle for the grapes when crushed (whence
its name), and as a convenient place from whence to superintend the
making of the wine.

=Calceamen.= Synonym of CALCEUS (q.v.), a term far more frequently

=Calceamentum.= A general term denoting any description of boot and
shoe. (Each will be found separately noticed in its place.)

=Calcedony= or =Chalcedony= (from the town _Chalcedon_). A kind of
agate, of a milky colour, diversified with yellow, bluish, or green
tints. The Babylonians have left us a large number of chalcedony
cylinders, covered with inscriptions. (See also AGATE, CAMEOS.)

=Calceolus= (dimin. of CALCEUS, q.v). A small shoe or ankle-boot worn by
women. There were three kinds: the first had a slit over the instep,
which was laced up when the boot was on. A second shape had a very wide
opening, and could be fastened above the ankle by a string passed
through a hem round the top. In the third description there was neither
cord, lace, nor slit. The shoe was always low in the heel, and was worn
like a slipper.

=Calceus= (_calx_, the heel). A shoe or boot made sufficiently high to
completely cover the foot. The Romans put off their shoes at table;
hence _calceos poscere_ meant “to rise from table.”

=Calculus= (dimin. of _calx_, a small stone or counter). A pebble, or
small stone worn by friction to present the appearance of a pebble.
_Calculi_ were used in antiquity for recording votes (for which purpose
they were thrown into the urn), for reckoning, and for mosaic paving
(hence the English word “calculation”).

=Caldarium= (_calidus_, warm). The apartment in a set of Roman baths
which was used as a kind of sweating-room. This chamber, which is
constructed nearly always on the same plan in the different baths which
have been discovered, included a LACONICUM, a LABRUM, a SUDATORIUM, and
an ALVEUS. (See these words.) Fig. 56 (on p. 32) represents a portion of
the _caldarium_ of Pompeii, restored.

=Caldas Porcelain= is from the Portuguese factory of that name,
specialized for faiences in relief; the greater number are covered with
a black coating; the others with the customary enamels of the country,
violet, yellow, and green.

=Caldron=, for domestic use of the 14th century, is depicted as a tripod
with a globular body, and broad mouth and two handles.

=Calibre= (or =Caliper=) =Compasses=. Compasses made with arched legs.

=Caliga.= A military boot worn by Roman soldiers and officers of
inferior rank. The _caliga_ consisted of a strong sole, studded with
heavy pointed nails, and bound on by a network of leather thongs, which
covered the heel and the foot as high as the ankle.

=Caliptra.= (See CALYPTRA.)

=Caliver.= A harquebus of a standard “calibre,” introduced during the
reign of Queen Elizabeth.

=Calix.= A cup-shaped vase, used as a drinking-goblet. It was of
circular shape, had two handles, and was mounted on a tolerably high
stand. The term also denotes a water-meter, or copper tube of a
specified diameter, which was attached like a kind of branch-pipe to a
main one.

=Calliculæ.= A kind of very thin metal disk, more or less ornamented,
worn by rich Christians, and especially priests, as an ornament for the
dress. _Calliculæ_ were also made of purple-coloured cloth. Many of the
pictures in the catacombs represent persons wearing _calliculæ_ on their
_colobia_ and other garments. (See COLOBIUM.)

=Callisteia= (καλλιστεῖα). A Lesbian festival of women, in which a prize
was awarded to the most beautiful.

=Callot.= A plain coif or skull-cap (English).

=Calones= (κᾶλα, wood). (1) Roman slaves who carried wood for the
soldiers. (2) Farm servants.

=Calote=, Fr. A species of sabre-proof skull-cap worn in the French

=Calotype.= A process of printing by photography, called also

=Calpis=, Gr. A water-jar with three handles, two at the shoulders and
one at the neck.

=Calthrops.= (See CALTRAPS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Caltrap.]

=Caltraps= (for _cheval_-traps). Spikes of metal thrown on the ground to
resist a charge of cavalry. In Christian art, attributes of St.

=Calvary=, Chr. An arrangement of small chapels or shrines in which the
incidents of the progress to the scene of the crucifixion are
represented. To each such “station” appropriate prayers and meditations
are allotted.

=Calvatica.= (See CALAUTICA.)

=Calyptra= (from καλύπτω, to hide). A veil worn by young Greek and Roman
women over the face. It is also called _caliptra_, but this term is less

=Camail= (for cap-mail). A tippet of mail attached to the helmet. In
mediæval Latin called _camale_, _camallus_, _camelaucum_, _calamaucus_,

=Camara.= (See CAMERA.)

=Camayeu.= Monochrome painting, i. e. in shades of one colour, or in
conventional colours not copied from nature.

=Camber=, Arch. A curve or arch.

=Camboge= or =Gamboge=. A gum-resin, forming a yellow water-colour. The
best gamboge is from Siam, and the kingdom of Camboja (whence its name).
It should be brittle, inodorous, of conchoidal fracture, orange-coloured
or reddish yellow, smooth and somewhat glistening. Its powder is bright
yellow. An artificial gamboge, of little value, is manufactured with
turmeric and other materials.

=Cambresian Faience.= The “poterie blance” of Cambrai is mentioned in a
MS. of the 16th century. It was an enamelled faience.

=Camella.= An earthenware or wooden vessel employed in certain religious
ceremonies. It probably served for making libations of milk.

=Cameo= (Ital. _cammeo_). A precious stone engraved in relief; it is
thus opposed to the INTAGLIO (q.v.), which is cut into the stone. Cameos
are generally carved from stones having several layers. They were
employed in the decoration of furniture, vases, clasps, girdles, and to
make bracelets, rings, &c. Cameos were largely made by the Egyptians,
Greeks, and Romans; by the two latter generally of sardonyx and onyx.

=Cameo-glass.= (See GLASS.)

=Camera=, more rarely =Camara=. The vault or vaulted ceiling of an
apartment. _Camera vitrea_, a vaulted ceiling, the surface of which was
lined with plates of glass. The term was also used to denote a chariot
with an arched cover formed by hoops; an underground passage; a
pirate-vessel with a decked cabin; and, in short, any chamber having an
arched roof, as for instance the interior of a tomb.

=Camera Lucida.= An optical instrument for reflecting the outlines of
objects from a prism, so that they can be traced upon paper by a person
unacquainted with the art of drawing.

=Camera Obscura.= A darkened room in which the coloured reflections of
surrounding objects are thrown upon a white ground.

=Camfuri=, =Camphio=, Med. Lat. A decreed duel: from the German “kampf,”
battle; and the Danish “vug,” manslaughter. (_Meyrick._)

=Camies=, O. E. A light thin material, probably of silken texture.

[Illustration: Fig. 126. Caminus.]

=Caminus.= Literally, a smelting furnace, and then an oven for baking
bread; also, a hearth or fireplace. Fig. 126 represents a baker’s oven
at Pompeii.

=Camisado=, O. E. A sudden attack on a small party; a Spanish term.

  “To give camisadoes on troupes that are lodged a farre off.” (_Briefe
  Discourse of Warre._)

=Camisia= (a Gallic word, whence prob. Ital. _camicia_). A light linen
tunic worn next the skin (_tunica intima_).

=Camlet= or =Chamlet=, O. E. Originally a tissue of goat’s and camel’s
hair interwoven. In Elizabeth’s reign the name was given to a cloth of
mixed wool and silk, first manufactured in Montgomeryshire, on the banks
of the river Camlet.

=Cammaka.= A cloth of which church vestments were made, _temp._ Edward

=Camoca=, O. E., 14th century. A textile probably of fine camel’s hair
and silk, and of Asiatic workmanship, much used for church vestments,
dress, and hangings.

=Campagus= or =Compagus=. A kind of sandal. It was worn especially by
the Roman patricians.

=Campana=, It. A bell; hence, CAMPANOLOGY, the science or study of

=Campanile.= A belfry.

=Camp-ceiling.= Where all the sides are equally inclined to meet the
horizontal part in the centre (as in an attic).

=Campestre=, R. (from _campester_, i. e. pertaining to the Field of
Mars). A short kilt worn by gladiators and soldiers when going through
violent exercises in public. The kilt fitted close to the body, and
reached two-thirds down the thigh.

=Campio Regis=, Engl. The king’s champion, who on the day of the
coronation challenges any one who disputes the title to the crown.

=Campus Martius= (i. e. Field of Mars). At Rome, as in the provinces,
this term had the same meaning which it bears in some countries at the
present day; i. e. a ground on which soldiers went through their
exercises. In ancient times, however, the Field of Mars, or simply the
Field, served also as a place of assembly for the _comitia_.

[Illustration: Fig. 127. Canaba.]

=Canaba=, Gr. and R. A Low Latin name for the slight structures common
in country places, such as we should now call sheds or hovels. Those who
lived in them were called _canabenses_. Fig. 127 is from a terra-cotta
vase found near the lake Albano.

[Illustration: Fig. 128. Canaliculus.]

=Canaliculus= (dimin. of CANALIS, q.v.). A small channel or groove; or a
fluting carved on the face of a triglyph. (Fig. 128.)

=Canalis= (akin to Sanscrit root KHAN, to dig). An artificial channel or
conduit for water. The term _canalis_ is also given to the fillet or
flat surface lying between the abacus and echinus of an Ionic capital.
It terminates in the eye of the volute, which it follows in such a way
as to give it the proper contour.

=Canathron= (Gr. κάναθρον). A carriage, of which the upper part was made
of basket-work.

=Canberia=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _jambières_). Armour for the legs.

=Cancelli= (from _cancer_, a lattice). A trellis, iron grating, or
generally an ornamental barrier separating one place from another. In
some amphitheatres the PODIUM (q.v.) had _cancelli_ at the top. In a
court of law the judges and clerks were divided from the place set apart
for the public by _cancelli_ (hence “_chancel_”).

=Candela.= A torch, made of rope, coated with tallow, resin, or pitch.
It was carried in funeral processions (hence “_candle_”).

[Illustration: Fig. 129. Candelabrum.]

=Candelabrum.= A candlestick, candelabrum, or generally any kind of
stand by which a light can be supported. There were many different
kinds. The same term is also used to denote the tall pedestal of a
portable lamp (Fig. 129). (See CANDLEBEAM.)

=Candellieri=, It. A style of grotesque ornamentation, characteristic of
the Urbino majolica ware.

=Candlebeam=, O. E. A chandelier of the Middle Ages with “_bellys of
laton_” (or brass cups) slung by a pulley from the ceiling.

=Candles.= The A.S. poets called the sun “rodores candel,” the candle of
the firmament, “woruld candel,” “heofon candel,” &c. Originally, no
doubt, the candle was a mere mass of fat plastered round a wick
(candel-weoc) and stuck upon a “candel-sticca,” or upright stick; when
the candlestick had several branches, it was called a candle-_tree_.
There were iron, bone, silver-gilt, and ornamented candlesticks. Through
the Middle Ages candles were stuck on a spike, not in a socket, and a
chandelier of the 16th century shows the same arrangement.

[Illustration: Fig. 130. Persian Candys.]

=Candys= (κάνδυς). A Persian cloak of woollen cloth, generally purple in

=Canephoria.= Greek festivals of Diana; _or_ an incident of another
feast, called _pratelia_, in which virgins about to marry presented
baskets (_canea_) to Minerva. The name, CANEPHORUS, or “basket-bearer,”
was common to the virgins who attended processions of Ceres, Minerva,
and Bacchus, with the consecrated cakes, incense, and other sacrificial
accessories, in the flat baskets called _canea_.

[Illustration: Fig. 131. Canette of white stone-ware, 1574.]

=Canette.= A conic-shaped German drinking-mug, resembling the modern
“schoppen,” of which highly ornamented examples in white stone-ware have
been produced by the potters of Cologne and other parts of Germany.
(Fig. 131.)

=Caniple=, O. E. A small knife or dagger.

=Canis= (akin to Sanscrit ÇVAN, Gr. κύων). A dog. This term has numerous
diminutives: _catulus_, _catellus_, _canicula_. However ancient any
civilization, the dog is always met with as the companion of man, and in
each nation it follows a particular type. Thus a distinct difference is
perceptible in the dogs of the Etruscans, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians,
Indians, and Gauls. The Egyptians had terriers and greyhounds,
wolf-dogs, and others for hunting or watchdogs. All these breeds are met
with on the bas-reliefs of Egyptian monuments. The Egyptian name for a
dog, _wou_, _wouwou_, is evidently onomatopoietic or imitative. (See
also DOG.)

=Canistrum=, =Canister=, or =Caneum= (κάνιστρον, from κάνη, a reed). A
wide shallow basket for carrying the instruments of sacrifice and
offerings for the gods. It was generally carried on the head by young
girls, who were called _Canephoræ_ (κανηφόραι, i. e. basket-bearers),

=Canon= (κανὼν, from κάνη, i. e. anything straight like a reed). A fixed
rule or standard which is supposed to have served, in antiquity, as a
basis or model in forming statues, the various members of which bore a
definite proportion one to the other. The Greeks had some such _canon_.
The δορυφόρος (spearman) of Polycletus was, it is said, looked upon as
affording a standard for the proportions of the human body. The
Egyptians are also supposed to have had a canon, in which the middle
finger formed the unit of measurement.

=Canopea= or =Canopic Vases=. An Egyptian vase, made of clay, and so
named from its being manufactured at Canopus, a town of Lower Egypt, the
present Aboukir. The same name was given to funereal urns made in the
shape of the god _Canopus_, who is described by Russin as _pedibus
exiguis, attracto collo, ventre tumido in modum hydriæ, cum dorso
æqualiter tereti_ (i. e. having small feet, a short neck, a belly as
round and swelling as a water-jar, and a back to match). Canopean vases
were made of earthenware, alabaster, and limestone. They were placed at
the four corners of tombs or sarcophagi containing mummies. In them were
deposited the viscera of the dead, which were placed under the
protection of the four genii, symbolized each by the head of some animal
which served at the same time for the lid of the canopea.

=Cant=, Arch. (1) To truncate. (2) To turn anything over on its angle.

=Cantabrarii=, Med. Lat. Standard-bearers: from CANTABRUM, a kind of
standard used by the Roman emperors. (Consult _Meyrick_.)

=Canted Column=, Arch. A column polygonal in section.

=Cantellus=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _chanteau_ and _cantel_; Lat. _quantillus_).
(1) A cut with a weapon, or the portion cut away. (2) Heraldic for the
fourth part of a shield, since called a canton. (3) The hind part of a

=Canteriolus= (dimin. of _canterius_, a prop). A painter’s easel. The
term, which is of doubtful Latinity, corresponds to the Greek ὀκρίβας.

=Canterius=, R. This term has numerous meanings; it serves to denote a
gelding, a prop, the rafters forming part of the wood-work of a roof,
and a surgical contrivance, of which the form is unknown, but which was
used for suspending horses whose legs chanced to be broken, in such a
way as to allow the bone to set.

[Illustration: Fig. 132. Cantharus (Greek).]

=Cantharus= (κάνθαρος, a kind of beetle). A two-handled vase or
drinking-cup, of Greek invention. It was particularly consecrated to
Bacchus, and accordingly, in representations of the festivals of that
god, it figures constantly in the hands of satyrs and other personages.
(Fig. 132.)

=Cantherius.= (See CANTERIUS.)

=Canthus= (κανθὸς, the felloe of a wheel). A hoop of iron or bronze
forming the _tire_ of a wheel. The Greeks called this tire ἐπίσωτρον (i.
e. that which is fastened to the felloe).

=Canticum.= An interlude of music in a Roman play.

=Cantilevers= or =Cantalivers=, Arch. Blocks framed into a wall under
the eaves, projecting so as to carry a moulding. (See MODILLION.)

=Cant-moulding=, Arch. Any moulding with a bevelled face.

=Canum.= A Greek basket, more generally called CANISTRUM (q.v.).

=Canvas= prepared for painting is kept stretched upon frames of various
sizes: e. g. _kit-cat_, 28 or 29 inches by 36; _three-quarters_, 25 by
30; _half-length_, 40 by 50; _bishop’s half-length_, 44 or 45 by 56;
_bishop’s whole length_, 58 by 94.

=Cap-a-pie= (Fr.). In full armour, from _head to foot_.

=Caparison=. The complete trappings of a war-horse.

=Capellina=, Med. Lat. The chapeline or small CHAPEL DE FER.

=Capellum=, Med. Lat. A scabbard (_not_ the hilt of a sword).

=Capellus ferreus.= (See CHAPEL DE FER.)

=Capillamentum=, R. A wig of false hair, in which the hair was long and
abundant. (See COMA.)

=Capillus= (from _caput_, the head). Hair; the hair of the head in
general. (See COMA.)

=Capis=, R. A kind of earthenware jug, with a handle. Vessels of this
kind were used in sacrifices, and the _capis_ is often found represented
on medals. Other names for it were _capedo_, _capeduncula_, and

=Capisterium= (deriv. from σκάφη or σκάφος, i. e. that which is scooped
out). A vessel resembling the _alveus_, or wooden trough, and which was
employed for cleansing the ears of corn after they had been threshed and

=Capistrum= (from _capio_, i. e. that which takes or holds). (1) A
halter or head-stall. (2) A rope employed for suspending the end of the
beam in a wine-press. (3) A muzzle made to prevent young animals from
sucking after they have been weaned. (4) A broad leather band or
cheek-piece worn by flute-players. It had an opening for the mouth to
blow through.

=Capita aut Navia= (lit. _heads or ships_; of coins having the head of
_Janus_ on one side and a ship on the reverse). A game of “heads or
tails” played by the Romans and Greeks.

=Capital= (_caput_, a head). A strip of cloth worn round the head, in
primitive times, by Roman women, to keep in their hair. Later on it was
worn only by women attached to the service of religion. (See CAPITULUM.)

=Capitellum.= (See CAPITULUM.)

=Capitium.= An article of female dress; a kind of corset or bodice.

=Capitolium= (i. e. the place of the _caput_; because a human head was
supposed to have been discovered in digging the foundations). The
Capitol, or enclosure containing the temple raised in honour of Jupiter.
The first Capitol of Rome was built on the _Mons Capitolinus_ or
_Capitolium_. The chief cities of Italy possessed each its _Capitolium_.

[Illustration: Fig. 133.]

[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

=Capital.= A term which denotes the member of architecture crowning the
top of a column, pillar, or pilaster. Figs. 133 and 134 represent
cushion capitals of the Romano-Byzantine epoch. Orders of Architecture
are known by their Capitals. (See COMPOSITE, CORINTHIAN, DORIC, IONIC,
and TUSCAN.)

=Capo di Monte=, Naples. A manufactory of faience, established by
Charles III.

=Cappagh Browns, Light= and =Dark=. Rich brown pigments, made of a
bituminous earth from Ireland. Called also _Mineral_ or _Manganese

=Capreolus=, R. (lit. a wild goat or roebuck). A fork for digging, with
two prongs converging together like the horns of a roebuck. The term is
also used for a strut or brace. The tie-beams and king-posts in the
frame of a roof are often connected by _capreoli_.

=Capriccio=, It. Caprice in art.

[Illustration: Fig. 135. Capricornus. The device of Cosmo de’ Medici.]

=Capricornus.= The zodiacal sign of September employed by Augustus Cæsar
in commemoration of his victory at Actium on the day when the sun enters
that sign. The same device was used by Cosmo de’ Medici, and by the
Emperor Rodolph II. of Germany, with the motto, “Fulget Cæsaris Astrum.”
(Fig. 135.)

=Caprimulgus=, Lat. A goat-milker, a common device on antique gems and
bas-reliefs, representing a man or a faun milking a goat.

=Capronæ=, R. (from _caput_ and _pronus_, i. e. that which hangs down
the forehead). The forelock of a horse, and by analogy, a lock of
curling hair falling down over the centre of the forehead, in a man or

=Capsa= or =Scrinium=, R. A box or case of cylindrical form, used for
several purposes, but more particularly for the transport of rolls or
volumes (_volumina_). The _capsæ_ were generally provided with straps
and locks, the former serving as a handle.

=Capsella= and =Capsula=, R. (dimin. of CAPSA, q.v.). A case or casket
for jewels, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 136. Capuchon and mantle. _From an Italian painting
of the 13th century._]

=Capuchon.= A hood with neck-piece and mantle. The engraving (Fig. 136)
is a portrait of Cimabue.

=Capula.= Dimin. of CAPIS (q.v.).

=Capularis=, R. The straight handle or hilt of any kind of instrument or
weapon, in contradistinction to _ansa_, which signifies a curved haft or
handle. The term _capularis_ was applied indifferently to the handle of
a sword, a sceptre, &c.

=Car=, =Chariot=, or =Carriage=. (See CARRUS and CURRUS.)

=Carabaga=, Med. Lat. Also CALABRA. A kind of catapult or balista.

=Carabine.= (See CARBINE.)

=Carabus= (κάραβος). A small boat made of wicker-work; a kind of shallop
covered with raw hides. It was either propelled by itself or attached to
the stern of a larger vessel. Similar to the coracle.

=Caracalla= (a Celtic word). A military garment introduced from Gaul
into Rome by the Emperor Antonine, who obtained thus his surname of

=Caracole=, Arch. A spiral staircase.

=Carbassus= or =Carbassum= (κάρπασος, fine Spanish flax). This term was
used indifferently to denote all textures made of the fine Spanish flax.
Thus any kind of linen garment, the sails of a ship, the awning of a
theatre or amphitheatre, all came under the term of _carbassus_.

=Carbatinæ= (καρβάτιναι). A rough kind of boot in common use, made of a
single piece of leather, and worn by peasants.

=Carbine=, or =Carabine=, or =Caraben=. A short gun with a wheel lock
and a wide bore, introduced in the 16th century.

=Carbonate of Lead=, or _white lead_, is the principal white pigment. It
is prepared by exposing sheets of lead to the action of acetic and
carbonic acids. It is called also _Ceruse_, _Flake-white_, _Krems_ (or
_Vienna_) _white_, _Nottingham white_. It is also known, under different
modifications of colour, as _Venice_, or as _Hamburg_, or as _Dutch
white_. It is a pigment very liable to injury from exposure to certain
gases. (See OXIDE OF ZINC.)

=Carbonates of Copper= yield blue and green pigments, known from the
earliest times, and under many names, as _Mountain_ blue and green, blue
and green _Ash_, or _Saunders’_ (for _cendres’_) blue and green. These
names are also applied to the manufactured imitations of the native
carbonates of copper. Powdered _Malachite_ is a form of the native green
carbonate. The colours called _Emerald Green_ and _Paul Veronese Green_
are artificial.

=Carbuncle= (Lat. _carbunculus_). A gem of a deep red colour. A jewel
shining in the dark. (_Milton._)

=Carcaissum=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _carquois_; It. _carcasso_; Mod. Gr.
γαρκάσιον). A quiver.

=Carcamousse=, Med. A battering-ram. The name is onomatopoetic.

=Carcanet=, O. E. A necklace set with stones, or strung with pearls.

=Carcass=, Arch. The unfinished frame or skeleton of a building.

[Illustration: Fig. 137. Carceres. Roman prisons.]

=Carcer= (akin to _arceo_, i. e. an enclosure (Gr. ἕρκος). (1) A prison.
(2) The circus. At Rome the prisons were divided into three stages: the
first, which formed a story above ground (_carcer superior_), was for
prisoners who had only committed slight offences; the _carcer interior_,
or stage on a level with the ground, served as a place of confinement in
which criminals were placed to await the execution of their sentence;
lastly there was the _carcer inferior_, or subterranean dungeon called
_robur_, for criminals condemned to death. Fig. 137 represents the
_carcer_ built at Rome by Ancus Martius and Servius Tullius; Fig. 138
the _carceres_ of the circus.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Carceres. Stables in the circus at Rome.]

=Carchesium= (καρχήσιον). (1) A drinking-cup of Greek invention, and
having slender handles rising high over the edge, and reaching to the
foot. It was an attribute of Bacchus, and was used in the religious
ceremonies. (2) A scaffolding in the shape of the _carchesium_ at the
masthead of a ship. (Anglicè, “crow’s-nest.”)

=Cardinalis.= (See SCAPUS.)

=Cardo.= A pivot and socket used for the hinge of a door. The term was
also used in carpentry to denote a dove-tailed tenon; this was called
_cardo securi-culatus_, i. e. a tenon in the shape of an axe, the
dove-tail bearing some resemblance to the blade of that tool.

=Care-cloth=, O. E. A cloth held over the bride and bridegroom’s heads
at a wedding.

=Carellus= (Fr. _carreau_). A quarrel or arrow for cross-bows, the head
of which was either four-sided or had four projections.

=Carillon=, Fr. A set of large bells, arranged to perform tunes by
machinery, or by a set of keys touched by a musician. Antwerp, Bruges,
and Ghent are celebrated for the carillons in their steeples.

=Caristia= (from χάρις, favour or gratitude). A Roman feast, at which
the members of a family came together. It lasted three days: on the
first, sacrifices were offered to the gods; the second was consecrated
to the worship of deceased relations; and on the third the surviving
members of the family met at a banquet. Strangers were not allowed in
these gatherings.

=Carminated Lakes.= Also called _Lake of Florence_, _Paris_, or
_Vienna_. Pigments made from the liquor in which cochineal and the other
ingredients have been boiled to make _carmine_. (See MADDER.)

=Carmine.= A beautiful pigment prepared from the insect, cochineal.
Carmine is the richest and purest portion of the colouring matter of
cochineal. The various kinds of carmine are distinguished by numbers,
and possess a value corresponding thereto; the difference depending
either on the proportion of the _alumina_ added, or on the presence of
_vermilion_ added for the purpose of diluting and increasing the
quantity of the colour: the alumina produces a paler tint, and the
vermilion a tint different to that of genuine carmine. The amount of
adulteration can always be detected by the use of liquor ammoniæ, which
dissolves the whole of the carmine, but leaves the adulterating matter
untouched. Carmine is chiefly used in miniature painting and in
water-colours. It is made in large quantities in Paris.

=Carmine-madder.= (See MADDER.)

=Carnarium=, R. (_caro_, flesh). (1) A larder for fresh or salted
provisions. (2) The iron hooks on which they were hung.

=Carnificia= or =Carnificina=, R. (_carnifex_, executioner).
Subterranean dungeons, in which criminals were put to the torture, and,
in many cases, executed.

=Carnix= or =Carnyx= (Celtic and Gaulish word). A trumpet in the form of
a long horn, of which the mouth was curved so as to resemble the mouth
of an animal. This instrument gave out a peculiarly loud strident sound,
and was used more particularly by the Celtic nations, notably the Gauls.
It is constantly found represented on the coins of these nations, and on
bas-reliefs. Some archæologists have mistaken the _carnices_ on medals
for _cornucopiæ_.

=Carol=, Chr. An enclosed place; a circular gallery. In old French,
_carole_ signified a round dance, or a circle of stone. In the last
century the term was applied to the ambulatory, or circular gallery,
behind the choir in churches.

=Carpentum=, R. A two-wheeled carriage of Gaulish invention; it was
often covered with an awning, resembling in form that of the CAMARA
(q.v.). The _carpentum funebre_ or _pompaticum_ was a hearse. It was
made to resemble a shrine or small temple. Lastly, the term _carpentum_
was used to denote a cart, with two wheels, employed for agricultural

=Carrago= (i. e. formed of _carri_ or carts). A kind of intrenchment
peculiar to certain barbarous nations. It was constructed by drawing up
waggons and war-chariots in a curved line, approaching a circle as
nearly as the nature of the ground permitted. It formed a first line of
defence, behind which the combatants sheltered themselves in order to
defend the camp proper, which lay in the centre of the _carrago_.

=Carreaux=, Med. Fr. Quarrels for cross-bows, so called from their
square form.

=Carriolum.= (See CARROCIUM.)

=Carroballista= or =Carrobalista= (_carrus_, a car). A _ballista_
mounted upon a carriage, to be transported from place to place. (See

=Carrocium=, =Carrocerum=, Med. Lat. A standard fixed on a carriage.

=Carrotus.= A quarrel. (See CARELLUS, &c.)

=Carruca=, =Carrucha=, or =Carucha=. A carriage of costly description,
richly ornamented with bronze and ivory carvings and chased gold. It
differed widely from the ESSEDO and the RHEDA (q.v.).

=Carrus= or =Carrum= (Celtic root). A cart or chariot of Gaulish
invention, on two wheels, used in the army as a commissariat waggon. A
_carrus_ occurs among the sculptures on the column of Trajan.

=Cartamera= (Gaulish word). A Gaulish girdle made of metal, and used to
support the _braccæ_, or trousers. It was made sometimes in the form of
a serpent with its tail in its mouth, but more generally resembled a
fringe of twisted hemp, like the _torques_, by which name accordingly it
was known among the Romans. (See TORQUES.)

=Cartibulum=, R. (corrupted from _gertibulum_, i. e. that which bears or
carries). A side-board, consisting of a square slab of stone or marble,
supported in the middle by a pedestal or stem. The _cartibulum_ always
stood against a wall.

[Illustration: Fig. 139. Egyptian Cartouche.]

[Illustration: Fig. 140. Egyptian Column with Cartouche.]

=Cartouche=, Egyp. An elliptical tablet of scroll-like form, containing
the names of the Pharaohs. Fig. 139 represents the cartouche of King
Artaxerxes. Cartouches were applied to decorate columns, an illustration
of which may be seen on the abacus and capital of the column in Fig.

=Caryatides= (Καρυάτιδες, i. e. women of Caryæ). Female figures, in an
upright posture, which were employed in lieu of columns to support
entablatures or any other members of architecture. One of the finest
instances of the application of caryatides to this purpose is to be
found in the portico of the temple of Pandrosos, at Athens.

=Caryatis.= A festival in honour of Artemis Caryatis, which was
celebrated at Caryæ, in Laconia.

=Case Bags=, Arch. The joists framed between a pair of girders, in naked

=Cash.= A Chinese coin.

[Illustration: Fig. 141. Casque.]

[Illustration: Fig. 142. Casque.]

=Casque=, Fr. Helmets of every description, from those of classical
times to the present, have been called casques by the poets; but the
head-piece specially so designated is first seen in English armour of
the reign of Henry VIII. The casque was generally without a visor, and
worn more for parade than warfare. The engraving Fig. 141 represents a
Gaulish and Fig. 142 an Oriental casque.

=Casquetel.= A small open helmet without beaver or visor, having a
projecting umbril, and flexible plates to protect the neck behind.

=Cassel Black.= (See BLACK.)

=Cassel Earth.= A brown pigment.

=Cassel Yellow.= (See TURNER’S YELLOW.)

=Cassida.= (See CASSIS.)

=Cassilden=, O. E. Chalcedony.

=Cassis= or, rarely, =Cassida= (perhaps an Etruscan word). A casque or
helmet made of metal, and so distinguished from GALEA (q.v.), a helmet
made of leather. Figs. 141 and 142 represent respectively a Gaulish and
an Eastern _cassis_ (the latter, however, is considered by some
antiquaries to be Gaulish). The war-casque of the Egyptian kings,
although of metal, was covered with a panther’s skin; it was ornamented
with the URÆUS (q.v.).

=Cassock= signifies a horseman’s loose coat, and is used in that sense
by the writers of the age of Shakspeare. It likewise appears to have
been part of the dress of rustics. (_Stevens._) It was called a “vest”
in the time of Charles II. Later on it became the distinguishing dress
of the clergy.

=Cassolette=, Fr. A perfume box with a perforated lid; the perforations
in a censer.

=Cassone.= An Italian chest, richly carved and gilt, and often decorated
with paintings, which frequently held the _trousseau_ of a bride.

=Castanets.= Various peoples have employed flat pieces of wood to
produce a certain kind of noise during religious ceremonies. The
Egyptians seem to have had for this purpose “hands” of wood or ivory,
which were struck one against the other to form an accompaniment to
chants or rhythmic dances. (See CROTALA, &c.)

[Illustration: Fig. 143. Cup of Castel Durante (1525), in the Museum of
the Louvre.]

=Castel Durante.= An ancient manufactory of Urbino ware, established in
the 14th century. Fig. 143, from a cup in the Louvre, is a fine specimen
of Castel Durante majolica of the 16th century.

=Castellum= (dimin. of CASTRUM, q.v.; i. e. a small castle). A small
fortified place or citadel; also a reservoir for water. The ruins of
_castella_ still existing are very few in number; one of the most
perfect, as far as the basin is concerned, is that of the _castellum
divisorium_ or _deversorium_, at Nismes.

=Casteria.= A storehouse in which the rudder, oars, and movable tackle
of a vessel were kept.

=Castor.= The beaver; hence applied to beaver hats.

=Castoreæ=, R. Costly fabrics and dresses made of the fur of beavers.

=Castra=, R. (plur. of _castrum_, which, like _casa_, = the covering
thing). This term was applied solely to an encampment, a fortified or
intrenched camp, while the singular _castrum_, an augmentative of CASA
(q.v.), denotes a hut, or strongly-constructed post, and consequently a
fort, or fortress; but for this last the Romans preferred to use the
diminutive _castellum_.

=Castula= or =Caltula=, R. A short petticoat worn by Roman women, held
up by braces.

=Casula=, R. (dimin. of _casa_). (1) A small hut or cabin. (2) A hooded
cloak, or capote.

=Cat.= The Egyptian name for the cat (_maaou_) is evidently
onomatopoetic. As a symbol, this animal played a part which has hitherto
not been clearly determined. Certain papyri show us the cat severing the
serpent’s head from its body, a symbol which would seem to point out the
cat as the destroyer of the enemies of the daylight and the sun. Again,
the goddess _Bast_ is represented with a cat’s head, the animal being
sacred to her.

=Cat= (Med. Lat. _cattus_ or _gattus_). A covering under which soldiers
lay for shelter, while sapping the walls of a fortress, &c.

=Cataclista=, R. A close-fitting garment worn by Roman ladies, bearing a
great resemblance to those which are to be seen on Egyptian statues.

=Catacombs=, Chr. This term, the etymology of which is uncertain, serves
to denote disused stone quarries, made use of by the early Christians
for their meetings, and as subterranean cemeteries. We meet with
catacombs in several cities, but the most celebrated are unquestionably
those of Rome. Catacombs also exist at Syracuse, Catana, Palermo,
Naples, and Paris.

=Catadromus=, R. (from κατὰ and δρόμος, i. e. a running down). A
tight-rope for acrobats in a circus or amphitheatre. The _catadromus_
was stretched in a slanting direction from a point in the arena to the
top of the building.

=Catafaltus=, Med. Lat. (See CAGASUPTUS.)

=Catagrapha=, Gr. and R. (κατα-γραφὴ, i. e. a drawing or marking down).
A painting in perspective (rarely met with in the works of the ancient

=Cataphracta=, Gr. and R. (κατα-φράκτης, i. e. that which covers up). A
general term to denote any kind of breastplate worn by the Roman
infantry. [Cataphracti were heavy-armed cavalry, with the horses in

=Cataphracti.= Decked vessels, in opposition to _aphracti_, open boats.

=Catapirates=, Gr. and R. (κατα-πειρατὴς, i. e. that which makes trial
downwards). A sounding lead, of an ovoid form, with tallow or a kind of
glue at the end, by means of which sailors were able to ascertain the
nature of the bottom.

=Catapulta=, Gr. and R. (κατα-πέλτης, i. e. that which hurls). A
military engine for discharging heavy missiles. The _ballista_ projected
stones; the _catapult_, darts; the _scorpio_ (uncertain). They were all
called _tormenta_, from the _twisting_ of the ropes of hairs or fibres
which supplied the propelling force.

=Catascopium=, Gr. and R. (dimin. of CATASCOPUS, q.v.). A post of
observation or sentry tower.

=Catascopus=, Gr. and R. (κατάσκοπος, i. e. that which explores or
spies). (1) A post of observation. (2) A vessel employed as a spy-ship;
and by analogy (3) a scout, i. e. a soldier whose duty is to act as a
spy on the enemy.

=Catasta= (from κατάστασις, i. e. a place of presentation). A platform
upon which slaves were placed to be publicly sold. Some scaffolds of
this kind were made to revolve, so that the purchaser might thoroughly
inspect every part of the slave at his leisure. _Catasta arcana_ was the
name given to a gridiron, or iron bed, upon which criminals were laid to
undergo torture. (See GRIDIRON.)

=Cateja= (Celtic word). A missile made of wood hardened in the fire. It
was employed by the Gauls, Germans, and other barbarians in the way of a
harpoon, a rope being fastened to one end of the weapon, by means of
which it could be recovered after it had been launched.

=Catella= (dimin. of CATENA, q.v.). A term specially used to denote the
finer sorts of chains made of bronze, silver, and gold. Chains made of
the precious metals were worn as trinkets. [The use of the diminutive
indicates elegance and delicacy.]

=Catellus=, R. (dimin. of CATENA, q.v.). A chain used to shackle slaves,
or perhaps merely attached to them in the way of a clog.

=Catena=, R. (1) A chain, especially (2) a chain of gold or silver worn
as an ornament round the body, like a _balteus_ (shoulder-belt), by
certain goddesses, dancing girls, bacchantes, or courtezans.

=Catenarius.= The chained dog kept at the entrance of their houses by
the Romans.

=Catharmata= (καθάρματα, from καθαίρω, i. e. that which is thrown away
in cleansing). Sacrifices in which human victims were offered up, in
order to avert the plague or similar visitations. [They were thrown into
the sea.]

=Cathedra= (καθέδρα, from κατὰ and ἕδρα, i. e. a place for sitting
down). A chair having a back, but without arms. There were various kinds
of _cathedræ_: the _cathedra strata_ was a chair furnished with
cushions; _cathedra supina_, a chair with long sloping back; _cathedra
longa_, a chair with long deep seat. The _cathedra philosophorum_ was
the equivalent of our modern term, a professor’s chair.

=Catherine Wheel.= In Gothic architecture, a large circular window,
filled with radiating divisions; called also rose-window.

=Cathetus=, Arch. (1) The axle of a cylinder. (2) The centre of the
Ionic volute.

[Illustration: Fig. 144. Catillus for grinding corn.]

=Catillus= and =Catillum= (dimin. of CATINUS, q.v.; i. e. a small bowl).
(1) The upper part of a mill for grinding corn, which served both as
grindstone and hopper or bowl. Fig. 144 represents an ancient mill, a
fourth part of the _catillus_ being suppressed in order to show the
reader the mechanism. (2) A small dish having much resemblance to the
_catinus_, and so by analogy (3) a flat circular ornament employed to
decorate the scabbard of a sword.

=Catinus= and =Catinum=, R. (akin to Sicilian κάτινον). Dishes used for
cooking, and for the table. _Catina_ might be of earthenware or metal,
of glass or other precious material, and were employed as sacrificial
vessels to hold incense, &c.

=Catty.= A Chinese weight = 1⅓ lb.

=Catulus=, R. When a slave ran away from his master, and was retaken, he
was led back in chains, the _catulus_ being the chain which was attached
to an iron collar passing round his neck. A slave was thus said to be
led back _cum manicis, catulo, collarique_, i. e. with manacles, leading
chain, and neck-collar.

=Caudex.= (See CODEX.)

=Caudicarius=, =Codicarius=, R. (from _caudex_, a tree-trunk). A wide
flat barge employed in river transport. It was of rough construction,
and was broken up on arriving at its destination.

=Caudicius=, R. A vessel of the same kind as the _caudicarius_, employed
on the Moselle.

=Caughley-ware= (Shropshire). A soft porcelain; 18th century.

=Caul=, O. E. A cap or network enclosing the hair.

=Cauliculi= or =Caulicoli=, R. (dimin. of _caulis_, a stalk). Acanthus
leaves springing from the capital of a Corinthian column.

=Caupolus.= (See CAUPULUS.)

=Caupona=, R. (_caupo_, an innkeeper). An inn or hostel for the
accommodation of travellers. The _cauponæ_ bore a general resemblance to
our roadside inns. [Also, a cooked-meat shop.]

=Cauponula=, R. (dimin. of _caupona_). A small tavern, or low wine-shop
of mean appearance.

=Caupulus=, R. A kind of boat, classed by authors among the _lembi_ and

=Caurus=, R. An impersonation of the North-West wind; represented under
the form of an old man with a beard, pouring down rain from an urn.

=Causia=, Gr. and R. (καυσία, from καῦσις, i. e. that which keeps off
heat). A broad-brimmed felt hat, of Macedonian invention, and adopted by
the Romans. It was especially worn by fishermen and sailors.

=Cauter= (καυτὴρ, i. e. that which burns). A cautery or branding-iron.
The _cauter_ was (1) an instrument used by surgeons; it was also used
for branding cattle and slaves. (2) An instrument employed to burn in
the colours in an encaustic painting.

=Cauterium= = CAUTER (q.v.).

=Cavædium=, R. (from _cavum_ and _ædes_, i. e. the hollow part of a
house). An open courtyard. In early times the Romans had an external
courtyard to their houses. In course of time, however, the increase of
luxury and comfort brought about a change in the _cavædium_, which was
partially covered in with a roof supported by columns, a partial opening
being left in the centre, which was called the _compluvium_. When thus
altered, the _cavædium_ went under the name of ATRIUM (q.v.).

=Cavalherium.= (See CABALLARIA.)

=Cavallerius= or =Cavallero=, Med. Lat. A knight or cavalier.

=Cavea=, R. (from _cavus_, i. e. a hollow place or cavity), (1) A wooden
cage with open bars, of wood or, more generally, of iron, used for the
transport and exhibition of the wild beasts of a menagerie. (2) A
bird-cage. (3) A frame of wicker-work employed by fullers and dyers. (4)
A palisade to protect young trees when growing up, and (5) the vast
reversed cone formed by the successive stages of a theatre or
amphitheatre. This might be divided, according to the size of the
building, into one, two, or three distinct tiers, called respectively
upper, lower, and middle (_summa_, _ima_, _media cavea_). (6) A warlike
machine used in attacking cities.

=Cavetto=, Arch. (deriv. from Ital. _cavo_). A concave moulding formed
of a segment of a circle.

=Cavo-relievo.= Intaglio-sculpture cut into the stone, as in Egyptian

=Ceadas= or =Cæadas= (κεάδας or καιάδας). A deep cave into which the
Spartans thrust condemned prisoners.

=Ceinture= or =Ceint=. A girdle. (See CINCTUS.)

=Celadon.= A peculiar tinted porcelain, described by Jacquemart as the
earliest tint of Chinese pottery.

=Celebê= (Κελέβη). A vase of ovoid form and with two handles. The lower
part is shaped elegantly, like an amphora, but the upper part resembles
a pitcher with a sort of projecting lip. Its peculiarity is in the
_handles_, which are “pillared” and “reeded.”

=Celes=, R. A racing or saddle horse, as opposed to a draught horse. The
same term was also applied to a vessel or boat of a peculiar form,
propelled by oars, in which each rower handled only a single oar. It was
also called _celox_.

[Illustration: Fig. 145. Plan of temple showing the Cella.]

=Cella=, R. (from _celo_, to hide). The interior of a temple, i. e. the
part comprised within the four walls. In Fig. 145 _a_ represents the
portico, _b_ the _cella_. The term is also used to denote a niche,
store-room, or, in general, any kind of cellar; e. g. _cella vinaria_,
_cella olearia_, and even a tavern situated in a cellar. The term was
also applied to slaves’ dormitories, the parts of the public baths, &c.

=Cellatio.= A suite of apartments in a Roman house set apart for various
purposes, but especially as quarters for slaves.

=Cellula= (dimin. of CELLA, q.v.). A small sanctuary, i. e. the interior
of a small temple, and by analogy any kind of small chamber.

=Celox.= (See CELES.)

=Celt.= A variety of chisels and adzes of the flint and bronze periods.

=Celtic= (Monuments) were usually constructed of huge stones, and are
known, for that reason, as _megalithic monuments_. Such are STANDING
&c. (See these words.)

=Cembel.= A kind of joust or HASTILUDE.

=Cendal=, =Sandal=, &c., O. E. The name, variously spelt, of a silken
stuff used for vestments, and for banners, &c.; 13th century. We now
call this stuff _sarcenet_.

=Cenotaph= (κενο-τάφιον, i. e. an empty tomb). A monument raised to a
Roman citizen who had been drowned at sea, or who, from any other cause,
failed to receive burial.

=Censer.= A sacred vessel used for burning perfumes.

[Illustration: Fig. 146. Centaur.]

=Centaur= (κένταυρος, according to some, from κεντέω and ταῦρος, i. e.
herdsman; but prob. simply from κεντέω, i. e. Piercer or Spearman). The
Centaurs are represented with the body of a horse, and bust, head, and
arms of a man. (Fig. 146.) In Christian archæology, the Centaur is a
symbol of the swift passage of life, the force of the instincts, and in
a special sense, of adultery. The war of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ is
the subject of the frieze at the British Museum, from a temple of Apollo
in Arcadia. _Hippo-centaurs_ were half horse; _Onocentaurs_, half ass;
and _Bucentaurs_ or _Tauro-centaurs_, half ox.

[Illustration: Fig. 147. Centaur and young.]

=Cento= (κέντρων, patchwork). A covering made of different scraps of
cloth, and used as clothing for slaves. The same term denotes a coarse
cloth which was placed beneath the saddle of a beast of burden, to keep
the back of the animal from being galled by the saddle. In Christian
archæology the term was used to denote a coarse patchwork garment, and,
by analogy, a poem composed of verses taken from various authors, like
the _Cento nuptialis_ of Ausonius.

=Centunculus= (dimin. of CENTO, q.v.). A motley garment of various
colours, like that of our harlequin. It was worn, according to Apuleius,
by the actors who played in burlesques, and there are certain vases on
which Bacchus is represented, arrayed in a similar costume.

=Cepotaphium= (κηπο-τάφιον). A tomb situated in a garden.

=Cera= (akin to κηρός). Wax, and, by analogy, any objects made of wax,
such as images of the family ancestors (_imagines majorum_); or the wax
tablets for writing on with the _stylus_. These were called respectively
_ceræ duplices_, _triplices_, _quintuplices_, according as they had two,
three, or five leaves. The first, second, third, and last tablet were
called respectively _prima_, _secunda_, _tertia_, _ultima_ or _extrema

=Ceramic.= Appertaining to POTTERY (q.v.).

=Cerberus.= The three-headed dog who guarded the gates of hell.

=Cercurus= (κέρκουρος, perhaps from Κέρκυρα, the island Corcyra). A
Cyprian vessel propelled by oars. Its form is unknown.

=Cerebrerium.= An iron skull-cap, _temp._ Edward I.

=Cere-cloth= (_cera_, wax). Cloth saturated with wax, used for
enveloping a consecrated altarstone, or a dead body.

=Cereus= (_cera_, wax). A wax candle, made either with the fibres of
cyperus or papyrus twisted together and dipped in wax, or with the pith
of elder, or rush, covered with the same material.

=Ceriolare= (_cera_, wax). A stand, holder, or candelabrum for wax
candles. There were a great variety of this kind of vessel. (See

=Cernuus= (from _cer_ = κάρα, and _nuo_, i. e. with head inclined to the
ground). A tumbler who walks upon his hands with his feet in the air.
Women even used to turn series of summersaults, resting alternately on
the feet and hands, among a number of swords or knives stuck in the
ground. This exhibition was called by the Greeks εἰς μαχαίρας κυβιστᾶν,
i. e. lit. to tumble head over heels between knives).

=Cerōma= (κήρωμα, a wax-salve). A room in which wrestlers rubbed
themselves over with oil and fine sand. The room was so named from the
unguent employed, which consisted of wax mixed with oil [which was also
called _cerōma_].

=Cero—plastic.= The art of modelling in wax.

=Cero-strotum= or =Cestrotum=, Lat. A kind of encaustic painting upon
ivory or horn, in which the lines were burnt in with the cestrum, and
the furrows filled with wax.

=Certosina Work.= Florence, 15th century. Ivory inlaid into solid
cypress-wood and walnut. The style is Indian in character, and consists
in geometric arrangements of stars made of diamond-shaped pieces, varied
with conventional flowers in pots, &c.

=Certyl.= Old English for kirtle.

=Ceruse.= A name for white lead. (See CARBONATE OF LEAD.)

=Cervelliere.= (See CEREBRERIUM.)

=Cervi= (lit. stags). Large branches of trees with the forks still left
upon them, but cut down close to the stock, so that the whole presented
the appearance of a stag’s antlers. _Cervi_ were employed to strengthen
a palisade, so as to impede the advance of infantry, or resist attacks
of cavalry.

=Cervical= (from _cervix_, a neck). A cushion or pillow for supporting
the back of the head on a bed or dining-couch. (See PULVINAR.)

=Cervus.= (See STAG.)

=Ceryceum= (κηρύκειον, a herald’s staff). It is a synonym of CADUCEUS

=Cesticillus= (dimin. of CESTUS, q.v.). A circular pad used as a rest by
persons who had to carry burdens on their heads.


=Cestrosphendonè=, Gr. (a dart-sling.) A dart fixed to a wooden stock
with three short wooden wings, discharged from a sling.

=Cestrotum.= (See CERO-STROTUM.)

=Cestrum= or =Viriculum= (κέστρον, i. e. that which pricks or pierces).
A graver used in the process of encaustic painting on ivory. It was made
of ivory, pointed at one end and flat at the other. (See CERO-STROTUM,

=Cestus= (κεστὸς, embroidered), (1) In general any kind of band or tie;
but specially the embroidered girdle of Venus. (2) A boxing gauntlet.

=Cetra= (prob. a Spanish word). A small round shield in use among
several barbarous nations, but never by the Romans.

=Chaable=, Old Fr. A large ballista. (See CABULUS.) Trees blown down by
the wind are still called “caables” in France. (_Meyrick._)

=Chabasite= (χαβὸς, narrow, compressed). A crystal of a white colour.

=Chaconne=, Fr. (Sp. _chacona_; It. _ciacona_). A modification of the
dance _chica_ (q.v.).

=Chadfarthing=, O. E. A farthing formerly paid among the Easter dues,
for the purpose of hallowing the font for christenings. (_Halliwell._)

=Chafer=, O. E. (1) A beetle or May-bug. (2) A saucepan.

=Chafer-house=, O. E. An ale-house.

=Chafery=, O. E. A furnace.

[Illustration: Fig. 148. Chaffagiolo ware. Sweetmeat plate, with
arabesques, about 1509.]

=Chaffagiolo=, or =Caffagiolo=, is the place where Cosmo the Great
established the first Tuscan manufactory of majolica, and where Luca
della Robbia acquired his knowledge of the stanniferous enamel. Fig. 148
is a specimen of Chaffagiolo ware of the 15th century.

=Chain-moulding=, Arch. An ornament of the Norman period, sculptured in
imitation of a chain.

=Chain-timbers=, Arch. Bond timbers, the thickness of a brick,
introduced to tie and strengthen a wall.

=Chair.= (See SELLA.)

=Chair de Poule= (chicken’s flesh). An ornamentation of the surface of
pottery with little hemispheric points; a Chinese method.

=Chaisel=, Old Fr. (1) An upper garment. (2) A kind of fine linen, of
which smocks were often made.

=Chalameau=, Fr. Stem or straw-pipe. The lower notes of the clarionet
are called the _chalameau_ tone, from the ancient _shawm_.

=Chalcanthum= (χάλκ-ανθον, i. e. that which is thrown off by copper).
Shoemaker’s black or copperas, used for imparting a dark colour to
boot-leather. (See ATRAMENTUM.)

=Chalcedony.= (See CALCEDONY.)

=Chalcidicum= (Χαλκιδικὸν, i. e. pertaining to the city of Chalcis). The
exact meaning of this term is unknown. According to some, it was a
portico; according to others, a kind of long hall or transept.

=Chalciœcia= (χαλκι-οίκια, brazen house). A Spartan festival in honour
of Athena under that designation.

=Chalcography= (χαλκὸς, copper). Engraving on copper. _Chalcography_ was
discovered in Florence, in the 15th century, and early introduced into
England. Caxton’s “Golden Legend,” containing copper-plate prints, was
published in 1483. The process is as follows:—A perfectly smooth plate
of copper, having been highly polished, is heated in an oven, and then
white wax rubbed over it until the whole surface is covered with a thin
layer. A tracing is laid over the wax, with the black-lead lines
downwards, which transfers the design to the wax. Then the tracing-paper
is removed, and the engraver goes over the lines lightly with a fine
steel point, so as just to penetrate the wax, and scratch a delicate
outline upon the copper. The wax is then melted off, and the engraving
finished with the _graver_, or _burin_, a steel instrument with a
peculiar pyramidal point. Should the lines be cut too deeply, a smooth
tool, about three inches long, called a _burnisher_, is used to soften
them down, and to burnish out scratches in the copper. The _ridges_ or
_burrs_ that rise on each side of the engraved lines are scraped off by
a tool about six inches long, called a _scraper_, made of steel, with
three sharp edges. This method has for printing purposes been generally
superseded by other processes, principally _etching_.

=Chalcus= (χαλκοῦς). A Greek copper coin, somewhat less than a farthing.

[Illustration: Fig. 149. Chalice, silver-gilt—14th century.]

=Chalice=, Chr. (deriv. from _calix_, a cup). A sacred vessel used in
the celebration of the mass. There were many different kinds, called
_ministeriales_, _offertorii_, _majores_, and _minores_. The
_ministeriales_ served to distribute the wine; the _offertorii_ were
employed by the deacons to hold the wine offered by the faithful.
Lastly, they were distinguished according to their size, as large or
small (_majores_ and _minores_). Vessels called _calices_ were also
frequently suspended from the arches of the ciborium, and other parts of
the church, as ornaments. In Christian symbolism the chalice and serpent
issuing from it are an attribute of St. John the Evangelist.

=Chalon=, O. E. A coverlet. (_Chaucer._)

=Chamade=, Fr. A beat of drum or trumpet inviting the enemy to a parley.

=Chamber Music=, as opposed to concert music. Madrigals were probably
the earliest specimens of chamber music.

=Chambers=, O. E. Small cannon for firing on festive occasions.

=Chamberyngs=, O. E. Bedroom furniture.

[Illustration: Fig. 150. Chameleon and Dolphin.]

=Chameleon= (χαμαὶ, on the ground, and λέων, a lion). In Christian
symbolism, the emblem of inconstancy; in Chemistry, manganate of potass
is called _chameleon_ from the changes of colour which its solution
undergoes. The chameleon with a dolphin on its back (Fig. 150) was the
device of Pope Paul III.

=Chamfer=, Arch. (1) The angle of obliquity (of the sides of a steeple,
&c.). (2) A hollow channel or gutter, such as the fluting of a column.

[Illustration: Fig. 151. Chamfron.]

=Chamfron=, O. E. (Med. Lat. _chamfrenum_; Fr. _champ-frein_). A frontal
of leather or steel to a horse’s bridle. (Fig. 151.)

=Chamlet=, O. E. (See CAMLET.)

=Chammer=, O. E. (Fr. _chamarre_). A gown worn by persons of rank,
_temp._ Henry VIII.

=Champ=, Arch. A flat surface.

=Champ-levé.= A form of enamelling in which the pattern is cut out of
the metal to be ornamented.

=Chamulcus=, R. and Gr. A heavy dray for the transport of building
materials, such as blocks of marble, columns, obelisks, &c.

=Chance=, O. E. The game of hazard.

=Chancel=, Chr. (from _cancelli_, a lattice). A term anciently used to
denote the _choir_. It derived its name from the _cancelli_ or stone
screen by which it was enclosed.

=Chandaras= (Sanscrit, _chanda-rasa_, lit. moonjuice). An ancient name
for _copal_.

=Chandeleuse=, Fr. Candlemas Day.

=Chandi= (from _chand_, the moon). Indian name for silver.

=Chand-tara= (lit. moon and stars) is the name of an Indian brocade,
figured all over with representations of the heavenly bodies.

=Changeable Silk=, O. E., was woven of two colours, so that one of them
showed itself unmixed and quite distinct on one side, and the second
appeared equally clear on the other; mentioned A. D. 1327, 1543, &c.

=Changes.= The altered melodies produced by varying the sounds of a peal
of bells.

[Illustration: Fig. 152. Chante-pleure.]

=Chante-pleure=, Fr. A water pot, made of earthenware, about a foot
high, the orifice at the top the size of a pea, and the bottom full of
small holes. Immersed in water, it quickly fills. If the opening at the
top be then closed with the thumb, the vessel may be carried, and the
water distributed as required. The widow of Louis I., Duke of Orleans,
adopted this as her device, after the murder of her husband, in 1407.

=Chantlate=, Arch. A piece of wood under the eaves of a roof, by which
two or three rows of overhanging slates or tiles are supported.

=Chantry=, Chr. (Fr. _chanter_, to sing). A chapel to which is attached
a revenue as provision for a priest, whose duty it is to sing masses for
the repose of the founder’s soul.

=Chape=, O. E. (Spanish _chapa_, a thin plate of metal). (1) The
transverse guard of a sword. (2) A metal plate at the end of a scabbard.
(3) A catch by which a thing is held in its place.

[Illustration: Fig. 153. Chapeau.]

=Chapeau=, Her. Also called a _cap of dignity, of maintenance, or of
estate_. An early symbol of high dignity.

=Chapeau Chinois=, Fr. A set of small bells arranged in the form of a
Chinese hat.

=Chapel= or =Chapelle de Fer=. Iron helmet of knights of the 12th
century. The diminutive is _chapeline_.

=Chaperon=, Fr. A hood or small cap for the head.

=Chapiter=, Arch. The upper part of a capital.

[Illustration: Fig. 154. Chaplet Moulding.]

=Chaplet=, Arch. (Fr. _chapelet_). (1) A small cylindrical moulding,
carved into beads and the like. (See Fig. 154.) (2) _Chaplets of
flowers_, which were worn in England, by both sexes, on festive
occasions, during the Middle Ages, and chaplets of jewels in earlier
times. (3) Chr. It was anciently the custom to crown the newly baptized
with a chaplet or garland of flowers. (4) Chr. A succession of prayers
recited in a certain order, regulated by beads, &c. (5) In Heraldry. A
garland or wreath. (See CRANCELIN.)

=Chapter=, Chr. (Lat. _capitulum_). The body of the clergy of a
cathedral, united under the bishop.

=Chapter-house=, Chr. A place of assemblage for a CHAPTER of the clergy.
That of Westminster contains some fine wall paintings of the middle of
the 14th century.

=Chaptrel=, Arch. The capital of a column supporting an arch; an impost.

=Character=, Gr. and R. Generally, any sign or mark impressed, painted,
or engraved on any object. In a more restricted sense, it denotes the
instrument of iron or bronze with which such marks were made. In Art,
the expression means a faithful adherence to the peculiarities of
objects represented.

=Charbokull=, O. E. A carbuncle.

=Charcoal Blacks= are made of ivory, bones, vine-twigs, smoke of resin,
&c., burned in a crucible excluded from the air. The best charcoal
_crayons_ are made of box and willow; the former produces a dense hard
crayon, the latter a soft friable one. (_Fairholt._) (See BLUE BLACK.)

=Chare Thursday=, O. E. Maundy Thursday.

=Charge=, Her. Any heraldic figure or device.

=Charisia=, Gr. (Χάριτες, the Graces). Nocturnal festivals held in
honour of the Graces, at which cakes and honey were distributed to those

=Charisteria=, Gr. (χάρις, gratitude). Festivals celebrated yearly at
Athens, in remembrance of the Athenian general Thrasybulus, the saviour
of his country.

=Charistia.= (See CARISTIA.)

=Charistion.= An instrument of Archimedes for weighing. Whether it bore
most resemblance to the balance (_libra_), or the steelyard (_statera_),
is uncertain, as its form is entirely unknown.

=Charles’s Wain= (Anglo-Saxon, _carles-waen_, the churl’s waggon). The
seven stars forming the constellation generally called the Great Bear.

=Charnel=, O. E. Apex of the basinet.

=Charnel-house.= A small building attached to a cemetery, for a
receptacle for the human bones disinterred when fresh graves were dug.

=Charta=, Gr. and R. Writing-paper in use among the ancients. There were
eight different kinds, which were classed as follows in the order of
their quality: (1) _Charta Augustana_ or _Claudiana_; (2) _Liviana_; (3)
_hieratica_; (4) _amphitheatrica_; (5) _Saitica_; (6) _leneotica_; (7)
_fanniana_; (8) _dentata_. The last was so called from being polished by
means of the tooth (_dens_) of some animal, or a piece of ivory. There
was also a _charta emporetica_ or packing-paper, and lastly a _charta
bibula_. It is uncertain whether this last was blotting-paper, or a kind
of transparent paper which had been steeped in oil or some other fatty

=Charter-room= or =Charter-house=. A place in which the charters of a
particular family or house were preserved.

=Chartophylax=, Chr. A man who had charge of the charters of a church.

=Chasing=. (See CÆLATURA.)

=Chasse=, Chr., Fr. A reliquary in the form of a box with a ridged top.

=Chastelain=, O. E. The lord of a castle.

=Chastons=, O. E. Breeches of mail; 13th to 16th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 155. Chasuble.]

=Chasuble= (Lat. _casula_, a cottage). Part of ancient ecclesiastical
costume common to all the Roman Catholic clergy, from the priest to the
Archbishop. It was originally made of wool, and in one piece throughout,
without sleeves, and without slit or opening in front, and perfectly
circular; but the shape varied with the material; and from the 6th
century downwards we hear of chasubles of brilliant colour and costly
materials, such as silk or thickly-embroidered cloth of gold, and oval
in form, hanging no longer in graceful folds as in the 11th century. The
engraving (Fig. 155) shows a chasuble of the year 1387. (Compare PÆNULA,

=Chatai=, Hindoo. Mats, a common manufacture all over India. Those of
Midnapore, near Calcutta, are remarkable for their fineness and
classical design of the mosaic, like patterns of stained glass.

=Chat-faux=, Med. A wooden shed—modern scaffold. (See CAGASUPTUS.)

=Chatrang= (Sanscrit _chatur-anga_, the four _angas_ or soldiers; or
_chaturaji_, the four kings). The Persian name for a very ancient game
of the “Four Kings,” supposed to be the origin of the four suits of
playing-cards. (_Rev. E. S. Taylor_, “_History of Playing-cards_.”)

=Chatzozerah=, Heb. A Jewish trumpet mentioned by Moses, used chiefly
for religious and warlike occasions.

=Chauffault=, Old Fr. A tower of wood.

=Chausses=, O. E. (1) Pantaloons of mail used by the Danes. (2) Tight
pantaloons worn by the Normans and mediæval English.

=Chaussetrap.= (See CALTRAPS.)

=Chaussons=, O. E. Breeches of mail (or of cloth).

=Chavarina=, Med. Lat. A carbine.

=Checkere=, O. E. A chess-board.

=Checkstone=, O. E. A game played by children with small round pebbles.

=Checky=, Her. (See CHEQUÉE.)

=Cheese=, Chr. St. Augustine says that a sect called the Artotyrites
offered bread and _cheese_ in the Eucharist, saying “that the first
oblations which were offered by men, in the infancy of the world, were
of the fruits of the earth and of sheep.” (_Aug. de Hæres._ c. xlviii.)

=Chef-d’œuvre=, Fr. A work of the highest excellence.

=Chekelatoun.= (See CICLATOUN.)

=Chekere=, O. E. Chess (q.v.).

=Chele= (χηλὴ, prob, from a root χα- meaning cloven). This term is
applied to a great variety of objects; it signifies a cloven foot, a
hooked claw, or anything presenting a notched or serrated appearance.
Thus a breakwater, the irregular projections of which bore some
resemblance to the teeth of an immense saw, was also called _chêlê_.
There were, besides, various engines and machines which went under this

=Chelidoniacus=, sc. _gladius_ (from the Greek χελιδὼν, a swallow). A
broad-bladed sword with a double point like a swallow’s tail.

=Chelidonize=, Gr. (lit. to twitter like a swallow). Singing the
“Swallow Song” (χελιδόνισμα), a popular song sung by the Rhodian boys in
the month Boedromion, on the return of the swallows, and made into an
opportunity for begging. A similar song is still popular in Greece.
(_Fauriel_, “_Chants de la Grèce_.”) (See CORONIZE.)

=Cheliform= (χηλὴ, a claw). In the form of a claw.

=Chelonium= (a tortoise-shell, from χελώνη, a tortoise), (1) A kind of
cramp or collar placed at the extremities of the uprights of certain
machines. (2) A part of a catapult, also called _pulvinus_. (See

=Chelys= (χέλυς, a tortoise). (1) The lyre of Mercury, formed of strings
stretched across a tortoise-shell. (2) In the 16th and 17th centuries, a
bass-viol and division-viol were each called _chelys_. (See also

=Chemise de Chartres=, Fr. A kind of armour mentioned among the
habiliments proper for knights who should engage in single combat.

=Chenbele.= (See CEMBEL [hastilude].)

=Cheng=, Chinese. A musical instrument, consisting of a box or bowl,
into which a series of tubes of different length and pitch are inserted;
the tubes have holes in them to be played upon with the fingers.

=Chêniscus= (χὴν, a goose). An ornament placed at the bow, and sometimes
the stern of ships. In shape it resembled the neck of a swan or goose.

=Chequée=, =Checky=, Her. Having the field divided into contiguous rows
of small squares; alternately of a metal (or fur) and a colour.

=Chequers=, O. E. (See CHECKSTONE.)

=Cherub=, pl. =Cherubim=, Heb. According to the classification of
Dionysius, the first _hierarchy_ of Angels consists of three _choirs_
called SERAPHIM, CHERUBIM, and THRONES, and, receiving their glory
immediately from Deity, transmit it to the second hierarchy. The first
hierarchy are as councillors; the second as governors; the third as
ministers. The SERAPHIM are absorbed in perpetual love and worship round
the throne; the CHERUBIM know and worship; the THRONES sustain the
throne. The SERAPHIM and CHERUBIM are in general represented as _heads_
merely with two or four or six wings, and of a bright red or blue
colour, &c. (Cf. _Mrs. Jameson’s Legendary Art_.) (See ANGELS, SERAPHIM.

=Cherubic Hymn=, Chr. A hymn sung in the Greek Church before the great
entrance (see ENTRANCE); so called from its first words, οἱ τὰ χερουβὶμ
μυστικῶς εἰκονίζοντες, κ.τ.λ.

=Chesible=, for CHASUBLE (q.v.).

=Chesnut Brown.= A brown lake pigment prepared from the horse chesnut;
very durable for oils and water-colour painting.

=Chess.= Writers immediately after the Conquest speak of the Saxons as
playing at chess, which, they say, they learned from the Danes. The game
of chess is very prominent in the romances of the Middle Ages. The
Scandinavian navigators introduced some remarkable elaborately carved
chessmen, of walrus ivory, from Iceland, in the 12th century. The
castles are replaced by warriors on foot, called _hrokr_, from the
Saracen _roc_, Persian _rokh_, our _rook_. In the Saracen game the
_vizier_ represented our queen, and the _elephant_ our bishop, the
_roc_, or hero, as aforesaid, our rook. Beautifully carved chessmen in
the costumes of the 13th and 14th century exist in England. They were
all very large, a king being four inches in height and seven in
circumference. The _chess-boards_ were of corresponding size, and made
of all materials, including the precious metals, crystal, sapphires, and
topazes. The pieces varied in form: the mediæval rook had a head like a
_fleur-de-lis_, the knight was represented by a small upright column
with the upper part bent on one side. The _aufin_ or bishop was of the
same shape, but the bent end was cleft to indicate a mitre. The figures
of the 16th century much more nearly resemble those now in vogue.

=Chesse=, O. E. (Fr. _chasse_). A border, a circlet.

=Chest of Viols=, O. E. A set of instruments complete for a “consort” of
viols, i. e. two trebles, two tenors, and two basses.

=Chester=, O. E. A person who places corpses in their coffins.

=Chests= and =Coffers=, in Norman times, were adorned with elaborate
carving and richly inlaid. They were still the general depositories for
clothes and treasures. _Cupboards_ (armoires) were introduced by the
Normans, and filled with household utensils.

=Chevalet=, Fr. The _bridge_ of a violin or other stringed instrument.

=Cheval-traps.= (See CALTRAPS.)

=Chevaucheurs.= Anglo-Norman horsemen, or running messengers.

=Chevaux-de-frize.= An arrangement of iron spikes for the defence of a
battlement against assault.

=Cheveril=, O. E. Kid leather, proverbially _elastic_; hence, a
_cheveril conscience_ (that will stretch).

=Chevesaile=, Old Fr. A necklace.

=Chevetaine=, Old Fr. A captain; hence the mediæval _cheuptanus_.

=Chevron.= (1) Arch. One of the mouldings frequently used in Norman
architecture, usually called _zigzag_ (q.v.). (2) A badge on the
coatsleeve of a non-commissioned officer. (3) Her. One of the
ordinaries; the lower half of a SALTIRE (q.v.).

=Chevronel=, Her. A diminutive of the CHEVRON, of half the size.

=Chevroter=, Fr. A musical term: “to skip, quiver, to sing with
uncertain tone, after the manner of goats,” _alla vibrato_.

=Chiaroscuro=, It. (_chiaro_, light, and _oscuro_, dark). Light and

=Chiave= of Pavia. One of the Italian literary academies, composed
entirely of noble and illustrious persons, who wore a golden key
suspended round the neck, and had for a motto, _Clauditur et aperitur
liberis_, and the text from Rev. iii. 7.

=Chica.= A dance popular in Spanish South America, of a _jig_-like
character; the origin of the _Fandango_. (See CHACONNE.)

=Chief=, Her. One of the ordinaries; the _chief_ bounded by a horizontal
line contains the uppermost third of the field of a shield. _In chief_,
arranged horizontally across the upper part of the field.

=Childermas=, O. E. Innocents’ Day.

=Chilled= (Fr. _chancissure_). Said of a moisture on the varnish of a
picture by which the defect of cloudiness called _Blooming_ is caused.

=Chimæra=, Gr. A monster described by Homer, with a lion’s head, a
goat’s body, and a dragon’s tail. In Christian art it is a symbol of
cunning. (See also DOG OF FO.)

=Chime.= (1) To play bells by swinging the _hammers_, opposed to
_ringing_ by swinging the _bells_. (2) A chime of bells is a CARILLON.

=Chimere=, Chr. The outer dress of a Protestant bishop. It is made of
black satin, without sleeves.

=Chimneys= (Gr. χιμήνη, winter), carried up in the massive walls of the
castles, were first introduced into England by the Normans. The fire was
still piled up in the middle of the hall, but fireplaces were built
against the side walls in the more private apartments—the original of
the well-known mediæval fireplace and “chymené.” Leland, in his account
of Bolton Castle, which was “finiched or Kynge Richard the 2 dyed,”
notices the _chimneys_: “One thynge I muche notyd in the hawle of
Bolton, how chimeneys were conveyed by tunnells made on the syds of the
walls, betwyxt the lights in the hawle, and by this means, and by no
covers, is the smoke of the harthe in the hawle wonder strangely

=Chin-band=, =Chin-cloth=. A muffler of lace worn by ladies, _temp._
Charles I.

=China.= (See POTTERY.)

=China= (or =Chinese=) =Ink=. (See INDIAN INK.)

=Chinese Paper.= A fine absorbent paper of a yellowish tint, used for
proofs of engravings, &c. Japanese paper is now frequently preferred.

=Chinese White.= OXIDE OF ZINC (q.v.). It is more _constant_ than white

=Chinny-mumps.= A Yorkshire music made by rapping the chin with the

=Chints= or =Chintz= (Hindoo, _chhint_, spotted cotton cloth). Cotton
cloth printed in more than two colours.

=Chiramaxium=, Gr. and R. (χειρ-αμάξιον, i. e. hand-cart). An invalid’s
chair mounted upon two wheels, and drawn or pushed by slaves.

=Chiridota=, Gr. and R. (from adj. χειριδωτὸς, i. e. lit. having
sleeves). Tunics with long sleeves, worn in especial by the Asiatic
races and by the CELTS. The early Britons, before the Roman invasion,
wore close coats checkered with various colours in divisions, open
before and with _long close sleeves to the wrist_.

=Chirimia=, Sp. (from _chirimoya_, a pear). An oboe.

=Chirography=. The art of writing with hands.

=Chirology=. The art of talking with the hands.

=Chiromancy= (μάντις, a soothsayer). Divination from the lines of the
palms of the hands.

=Chironomia=, Gr. and R. (χειρο-νομία, i. e. measured motion of the
hands). The mimetic art. By this term is expressed not only the art of
speaking with gestures and by means of the hands, but also the action of
speaking combined with gesticulation. This art dates from a high
antiquity. It was originally part of the art of dancing,—clapping the
hands in rhythm; also a gymnastic exercise, for pugilists and others.

=Chiroplast.= An instrument for teaching fingering of musical
instruments, invented by Logier in 1810.

=Chirothecæ= (Gr. χειροθήκη; Lat. _gantus_). Gloves were unknown to the
early Greeks and Romans, but in use among the ancient Persians. In
Christian archæology they are first met with in the 12th century. (See

=Chisleu=, Heb. The ninth month of the Jewish year. It begins with the
new moon of our December.

[Illustration: Fig. 157. Diana wearing the Greek chiton.]

=Chiton= (χιτών). The Greek tunic. (Fig. 157.)

=Chitte=, O. E. A sheet.

=Chivachirs= (Chevaucheurs). Old Fr. Running messengers.

=Chlaina= (Lat. _læna_). A kind of cloak, of ample size, worn by the
Greeks in campaigning. In time of peace it served as a bed coverlet. The
diminutive χλανίδιον appears to have been a woman’s mantle.

=Chlamyda.= (See CHLAMYS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 158. Apollo wearing the chlamys folded round his

[Illustration: Fig. 159.]

=Chlamys=, Gr. A short light mantle, which was worn by Greek youths (not
by Romans) until they arrived at manhood. It was the regular equestrian
costume, and was of an oblong square shape. (Fig. 159.) The chlamys is
seen in representations of men hunting or fighting with beasts, as a
shield wrapped round the left arm, the right poising the spear. (Fig.
158.) In Botany, the floral envelope.

=Chœnix= (χοῖνιξ). A Greek measure of capacity, variously valued from a
pint and half to two quarts.

=Choir=, =Quire=, or =Quere=, Arch. The part of the church for the
singers and _clerks_, i. e. the space between the NAVE (for the people),
and the BEMA, or presbytery, for the celebrating clergy. But in mediæval
writings the term includes the BEMA. (See CHANCEL.)

=Choir Wall= or =Choir Screen= (Fr. _clôture_). The wall or screen
between the side aisles and the choir.

=Choosing-stick= (a Somersetshire provincialism). A divining-rod.

=Chopines=, It. Clogs or high shoes, of Asiatic origin, introduced from
Venice in the 16th century.

=Choragic Monuments.= Small pedestals or shrines erected by the winner
of a choral contest to display the _tripod_ which was his prize. At
Athens there was a street lined with such monuments, called the “Street
of the Tripods.” The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, still existing in
Athens, is one of the most valuable remains of Greek architecture.

=Choragium=, Gr. and R. (χορηγὸς, or chorus-leader). A large space in a
theatre, situated behind the stage. It was here that the “properties”
were kept and the rehearsals of the chorus took place. The term is also
used to denote the furniture, costumes, decorations, and, in a word, all
the accessories required in the production of a piece.

=Chordaulodion.= A self-acting musical instrument invented by Kauffmann
of Dresden in 1812.

=Chorea=, Gr. and R. (χορὸς, q.v.). A choral dance, in which the dancers
took each other by the hand and danced to the sound of their own voices.

=Chorus=, Gr. and R. (χορὸς, i. e. prop. a circle). (1) A choir of
singers in a dramatic entertainment. (2) A band of dancers who went
through their movements to the sound of their own singing. (3) A round
choral dance; in this last signification _chorea_ may equally well be

=Chorus= or =Choron=, O. E. An instrument somewhat resembling a bagpipe;
the name was also applied to certain stringed instruments. The word
_choron_ originally designated a horn. (Hebrew, _Keren_.)

=Chous=, Gr. and R. (χόος, contr. χοῦς, i. e. that from which one
pours). An amphora, forming a measure of exact capacity. Another name
for it was CONGIUS (q.v.). It held twelve COTYLÆ (q.v.).

=Choutara=, Hindoo. A kind of guitar with four wire strings.

=Chrism=, Chr. (from χρίω, to smear). A composition of balsam and oil of
olives used by Christians of various denominations at the administration
of the sacraments.

=Chrismal=, =Chrismatory=, Chr. (1) The vessel made to contain the
consecrated oil. (See LABARUM.) (2) A vessel for the reservation of the
consecrated Host. (3) A cloth used to cover relics. (4) Old English
_chrisom_, a white linen cloth put upon the child’s head in baptism.

=Chrismarium=, Chr. (See CHRISMAL, 1.)

=Chrisom.= O. E. (1) See CHRISMAL, 4. (2) A child that dies within a
month after birth.

=Christ-cross=, O. E. (1) The Alphabet; so named from a school lesson
beginning “Christe Crosse me spede in alle my worke.” (2) The mark made
for his signature by a person who cannot write.

=Christemporeia=, Chr. Literally, the selling of Christ, simony.

=Christian Horses=, O. E. Bearers of sedan chairs.

=Christmas-boxes.= So called from the old practice of collecting them in

=Chromatic Scale= (χρῶμα, colour). In Music, the scale that proceeds by
semi-tones; so called from the practice of printing the intermediate
notes in various colours.

=Chromatics.= The science of colours.

=Chromatrope.= An optical instrument for assisting the invention of
combinations of colours.

=Chrome, Chromium.= An important mineral, the green oxide of which
furnishes the _Chrome Green_.

=Chrome Green.= A dark green pigment prepared from oxide of chromium;
mixed with Prussian blue and chrome yellow it is called _Green

=Chrome Ochre.= Oxide of chromium of a fine yellowish green.

=Chrome Red.= A chromate of lead; a durable pigment used in oil
painting. (See RED LEAD.)

=Chrome Yellow.= A chromate of lead, which makes a bad pigment for oil
painting. It is very poisonous and not durable; when mixed with white
lead it turns to a dirty grey. As a water-colour pigment it is less

=Chromite.= Chromate of iron; a mineral consisting of protoxide of iron
and oxide of chromium, used in the preparation of various pigments.

=Chronogram= (χρόνος, time). An inscription which includes in it the
date of an event.

=Chryselephantine Statues= of ivory and gold. The most celebrated were
that of _Minerva_, by Pheidias, which stood in the Acropolis at Athens,
and was 40 English feet in height; and that of Zeus, 45 feet high,
likewise by Pheidias, in the temple of Olympia. A reproduction of this
statue was shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1855.

=Chrysendeta=, R. (χρυσένδετα, i. e. set or inlaid with gold). A very
costly description of plate-service employed by wealthy Romans. Of its
precise character nothing unfortunately is known, but to judge from the
epigrams of certain authors, it must have been chased and embossed.

=Chrysoberyl= (βήρυλλος, a beryl). A gem of a yellowish green colour; a
species of _corundum_ (q.v.).

=Chryso-clavus= (Lat. _golden nail-head_). All rich purple silks, woven
or embroidered with the _clavus_ in gold, were so named. They were used
for altar frontals, and the _clavi_ were sometimes made so large that a
subject was embroidered upon them; they were then called _sigillata_ or
_sealed_. (See CLAVUS.)

=Chrysocolla= or =Gold Green= (χρυσόκολλος, inlaid or soldered with
gold). (1) Native verdigris. Its principal use was for the preparation
of a solder for gold. (See SANTERNA.) (2) The Greek term for _Green
Verditer_ and _Armenian Green_ (Latin, _Armenium_); a pigment obtained
from _malachite_ and green carbonate of copper. It was also called _pea
green_ or _grass-green_.

=Chthonia=, Gr. and R. (χθὼν, the earth). Festivals held every spring at
Argos in honour of Ceres, at which four aged women sacrificed heifers.

=Church=, in Christian art, is the attribute of a founder thereof, who
is frequently represented holding it in his hand. The most ancient
symbol of the Church is the _ark of Noah_, subsequently a _ship_, often
covered with the waves, &c., very frequent in the catacombs. On tombs it
is held to imply that the dead expired in full communion with the

=Churcheard=, =Church-haw=, =Church-litten=. Old English provincialisms
for a churchyard or burial-ground.

=Church-stile=, O. E. A pulpit.

=Chymbe=, O. E. A cymbal:—

                “As a _chymbe_ or a brazen belle,
                That nouther can undirstonde my telle.”

=Chymol=, =Gemell=, O. E. A hinge, still called the eastern counties a

=Chytra=, Gr. and R. (from χέω, to pour). A common kind of pot, of Greek
origin, made with red clay. It was used for cooking.

=Chytria=, Gr. An Athenian festival, which derived its name from the
χύτρα, or common pot in which were cooked the vegetables or other
provisions offered to Bacchus and Mercury in memory of the dead.

=Chytropus=, =Chytropous=, Gr. (χυτρό-πους, lit. a pot-foot). A _chytra_
with three or four feet.

=Cibilla=. (See CILLIBA.)

=Ciborium=, Gr., R., and Chr. (κιβώριον, the pod of the καλοκασία, or
Egyptian bean). (1) A drinking-vessel so called because it resembled the
Egyptian bean in shape. (2) In Christian archæology a kind of baldachino
or canopy, supported by a varying number of columns, which forms the
covering of the high altar in a church. Called also the _Tabernacle_,
_Sacrament house_, _God’s house_, or _holyroof_. (See SEVEREY.) (3)
Ciborium also signifies a vessel in which the consecrated wafer is

=Ciclatoun= or =Siklatoun=. The Persian name, adopted in England, for a
textile of real gold thread; 12th century.

=Ciconia=, R. (lit. a stork). (1) A sign made in dumb show by bending
the forefinger into the form of a stork’s neck. (2) An instrument, in
shape like an inverted T, employed by farmers to make sure that trenches
dug by the spade were of uniform depth. (3) _Ciconia composita_ was the
name given to a more elaborate instrument of the same kind invented by

=Cicuta=, R. (i. e. lit. the hemlock). A term used by analogy to denote
anything made out of the hemlock plant, especially the _Pan’s pipes_.

=Cidaris=, Gen. (κίδαρις or κίταρις, a Persian tiara). A sort of diadem
or royal bonnet worn by Eastern princes. It was tall, straight and stiff
in shape, and was ornamented with pearls or precious stones. The same
name was also applied to the bonnet worn at ceremonies by the high
priest of the Jews. (See TIARA.)

=Cilery=, Arch. Drapery or foliage carved on the heads of columns.

=Cilibantum=, R. (See CILLIBA.) A stand or table with three legs.

=Cilicium=, R. (1) A coarse cloth made of goat’s hair, and manufactured
in Cilicia. It was much used in the army and navy: in the former for
making the soldiers’ tents; in the latter for clothes for the sailors or
for sails. (2) During the time of mourning, or when suffering under any
calamity, the Jews put on a kind of _cilicium_ made of coarse canvas.
(3) A cloth mattress stuffed with sea-weed or cow-hair, which was placed
outside the walls of besieged cities to deaden the blows of the
battering-ram or of projectiles. (4) In Christian archæology the
_cilicium_ or hair-shirt is a sleeveless jacket made with a material of
horsehair and coarse hemp. The Dominicans, Franciscans, and certain
Carthusians wear the _cilicium_ to mortify the flesh.

=Cilliba=, Gr. and R. (κίλλος, an ass) A trestle, and by analogy a
dining-table supported by trestles. This form of table, which was
commonly used by the early Romans, was replaced later on by the circular

=Cimbal.= An old name for the DULCIMER (q.v.).

=Cimeter=, =Cymetar=, =Scimeter=, &c. A short curved sword used by the
Persians or Turks, mentioned by Meyrick as adopted by the Hussars,
_temp._ Elizabeth.

=Cincinnus=, R. A long ringlet or corkscrew curl of hair produced with
the curling-irons. (See HAIR.)

=Cincticulus=, R. (dimin. of CINCTUS, q.v.). A kind of short petticoat
worn by youths.

=Cinctorium=, R. (from _cinctus_, a girdle). (1) A sword-belt worn round
the waist, and thus distinguished from the BALTEUS or baldric, which
passed over the shoulder. The _balteus_ was worn by private soldiers,
while the _cinctorium_ was the distinctive badge of an officer. (2) The
dagger, so called because it was suspended from or put into the girdle.

=Cincture=, Arch. The fillet, at each end of the shaft of a classical
column (q.v.).

=Cinctus=, R. (from _cingo_, i. e. a girding). A short petticoat (or
kilt) worn by men; also in the same sense as _cingula_ and cingulum, a
_girdle_. _Cinctus gabinus_ was a particular manner of arranging the
toga, by throwing one end over the head, and fastening the other round
the waist like a girdle. As an adjective, _cinctus_ was applied to any
individual of either sex who wore any kind of belt or girdle. (See

[Illustration: Fig. 160. Cineraria.]

=Cinerarium=, R. (i. e. a place of ashes). A niche in a tomb,
sufficiently roomy to hold an urn of large size, or a sarcophagus. The
following was the disposition of one, or in many cases, three sides in a
Roman tomb: in the centre of the wall was a large niche (_cinerarium
medianum_) for a sarcophagus, and on each side of this two small niches
(_columbaria_), and above each of the latter was a much larger recess
for large urns. (See also COLUMBARIUM, CUBICULUM, CUPELLA.)

=Cinerarius.= A hair-dresser (who heated his tongs in the _cinders_).

=Cingulum=, R. A girdle or other fastening round the waist. In modern
archæology, _cingulo militari decorare_ signifies to create a knight,
from the practice of investing him with the military girdle; and
_cingulum militare auferre_ is to degrade a knight. (See DISCINCTUS.)

=Ciniflo=, R. A synonym for CINERARIUS (q.v.).

=Cinnabar.= Sulphide of mercury; an ancient red pigment used for sacred
and imperial purposes. (See CHROME GREEN, DRAGON’S BLOOD, VERMILION.)

=Cinnamon-stone.= A variety of lime-garnet of a clear cinnamon-brown

=Cinque-cento= (literally, 500). The Italian art of the 16th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 161. Heraldic Cinque-foil.]

=Cinque-foil=, Arch. (Fr. _cinque_ and _feuille_, a leaf). An ornamental
foliation or feathering of the lanceolated style, consisting of five
projecting points or cusps. (Fig. 161.)

=Cinta=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _enceinte_). The outside wall of a fortress.

=Cinyra.= An old term for a harp.

[Illustration: Fig. 162. Cippus (Tomb-stone).]

=Cippus=, R. (1) A short stone pillar of cylindrical form, employed to
mark the boundaries between adjoining estates or nations. (2) A pillar
of cylindrical or rectangular form, and sometimes perfectly plain,
sometimes richly ornamented, erected for a tomb-stone. (Fig. 162.) In
some instances the cippus enclosed a cavity in which the urn containing
the ashes of the dead person might be placed. A _cippus_ was placed at
the corner of a cemetery, and the measurements of the burying-ground
were recorded upon it. In Med. Lat. the word is used for the keep of the

=Circenses Ludi=, R. Games in the circus. (See CONSUALIA.)

=Circinate.= Curled in the manner of the Ionic volute, or like the
fronds of young ferns rolled inwards from the summit to the base.

=Circinus=, R. A compass; an instrument employed, as now, by architects,
sculptors, masons, and various other trades. The Romans were also
acquainted with reduction compasses.

=Circle.= The emblem of Heaven and eternity.

=Circumlitio.= An ancient Greek varnish, with which the statues of the
Greeks were tinted. (_Eastlake._)

=Circumpotatio=, R. (from _circum_ and _poto_, i. e. a drinking-around).
A funeral feast in which the guests passed round the wine from hand to
hand. It took place at the tomb of the person in whose memory it was
held, and on the anniversary of his death.

=Circumvallation.= A fortification made round a blockaded place by a
besieging army.

[Illustration: Fig. 163. Model of a Roman Circus.]

=Circus=, Gr. and R. (i. e. a circle). A flat open space near a city,
round which were raised scaffoldings for the accommodation of the
spectators. This was the form of the earliest circuses; but as
civilization advanced, they were regularly constructed of stone. The
arena was in the form of a vast rectangle terminating at one extremity
in a semicircle, and surrounded by tiers of seats for the spectators. At
the end fronting the semicircular part was a rectangular pile of
buildings, underneath which were the _carceres_ or stalls for the
horses, and down the centre of the circus ran a long low wall called the
_spina_, adorned with statues, obelisks, &c. This _spina_ formed a
barrier by which the circus was divided into two distinct parts, and at
each end of it was a _meta_ or goal, round which the chariots turned.
(See META and OVUM.) The Romans constructed circuses in England,
wherever they had a large encampment. The ruins exist at Dorchester,
Silchester, Richborough, and other places.

=Cirrus=, R. (1) A lock of hair; a ringlet curling naturally, and so
distinguished from the _cincinnus_, a curl produced by means of the
curling-iron. (2) A tuft; the forelock of a horse when tied up above its
ears. (3) A tuft of flowers forming a bunch or head, such as _phlox_,
_calceolaria_, &c. (4) Light _curled_ clouds in the sky, portending
wind, are hence called _cirri_.

=Ciselure=, Fr. Chasing. (See CÆLATURA.)

=Cissibium= or =Cissybium=, Gr. and R. (κισσύβιον, i. e. made or
wreathed with ivy). A drinking-vessel, so called because the handle was
made of ivy-wood, or more probably because it had an ivy-wreath carved
upon it.

=Cissoid= (lit. ivy-shaped). A celebrated curve, applied in the
trisection of an angle, invented by Diocles the geometer.

=Cissotomiæ=, Gr. (κισσο-τόμοι, sc. ἡμέραι, i. e. the days of
ivy-cutting). A festival held in Greece, in honour of Hebe, goddess of
youth, and a youth called Cissos, who, when dancing with Bacchus, had
fallen down and been changed into ivy. Accordingly at this festival
youths and girls danced with their heads wreathed with ivy.

=Cista=, =Cistella=, =Sitella=, R. (κίστη, a chest). (1) A large
wicker-work basket in which the voters deposited their voting-tablets at
the comitia. It was of a cylindrical shape, and about four or five feet
high. (2) A smaller basket into which the judges cast the tablets
recording their sentence. (3) A wicker-work basket in which children
carried about their playthings. (4) The cist which was carried in
procession at the Eleusinian festival, and which might be either a
wicker basket or a box of metal. It was filled with corn, rice, sesame,
salt, and pomegranates. Richly ornamented chests or boxes, with bronze
mirrors in them, found among Etruscan ruins, are called _cistæ mysticæ_.
The _sitella_, or _situla_, was a different vessel; viz. a _bucket_ of
water, into which the lots (_sortes_) were thrown. The situla had a
narrow neck, so that only one lot could come to the surface when it was
shaken. It was also called _Urna_ or _Orca_.

=Cistella=, R. A dulcimer; _lit._ a little box. (See CISTA.)

=Cistellula=, R. (dimin. of CISTA, q.v.). A very small _cista_.

=Cistophorus=, Egyp., Gr., and R. (κιστοφόρος, i. e. bearing a _cista_
or _cistus_). A silver coin, current in Asia, and worth about four
drachmæ. It was so called from bearing the impression of a _cista_
(chest), or, more probably, of the shrub _cistus_. [Value four francs of
French money.]

=Cistula=, R. Dimin. of CISTA (q.v.).

=Citadel= (It. _cittadella_, a little town). A fortress within a city.

=Cithara=, =Cither=, Gr. and R. (κιθάρα). A stringed instrument of great
antiquity, resembling our modern guitar. It was played with a
_plectrum_. The name was afterwards applied to many stringed instruments
of varied form, power of sound, and compass. The mediæval _Rotta_ was
called _C. teutonica_; the harp was called _C. Anglica_.

=Cithara Bijuga.= A guitar with a double neck.

=Citole=, O. E. A kind of guitar.

         “A _citole_ in hir right hand had sche.” (_Chaucer._)

=Cittern.= A stringed instrument, like a guitar, strung with wire
instead of gut. The _cittern_ was at one time a part of the furniture of
every barber’s shop, and customers played on it while waiting for their
turns. (Niche 1 of Exeter Gallery. See CLARION.)

=Civery=, Arch. (See SEVEREY.) A bay or compartment of a vaulted

=Civic Crown=, Her. A wreath of oak leaves and acorns. (See CORONA.)

=Ckuicui=, Peruvian. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun
(_Inti_), so named as being dedicated to the rainbow (_Ckuichi_). (See

=Clabulare.= (See CLAVULARE.)

=Clack= or =Clap-dish=, O. E. A box with a movable lid used and rattled
by beggars to attract attention:—

             “His tongue moves like a beggar’s _clapdish_.”

=Cladeuteria.= A Greek festival held in honour of Bacchus, at the time
when the pruning of the vines took place.

[Illustration: Fig. 164. Clerestory and Triforium in Worcester

=Claire-voie= (Anglicè, =Clerestory=), Arch. (i. e. clear-storey). A row
of large windows, forming the upper storey of the nave of a church,
rising clear above the adjoining parts of the building.

=Clan= (Gaelic, _klann_, children). A tribe of persons of one common
family, united under a chieftain.

=Clap-bene=, O. E. _Bene_ signifies a prayer, and children were invited
by this phrase to _clap_ their hands together, as their only means of
expressing their prayers.

=Clap-dish.= (See CLACKDISH.)

=Clappe= or =Clapper=, O. E. A wooden rattle used to summon people to
church on the last three days of Passion Week, when the bells were not

=Clarenceux=, Her. The title of one of the three kings of arms at
Heralds’ College. The others are called GARTER and NORROY.

=Clarichord=, O. E. A stringed instrument, in the form of a spinet, of
mediæval times. At the marriage of James of Scotland with the Princess
Margaret, A. D. 1503, “the king began before hyr to play of the
_clarychordes_, and after of the lute. And upon the said clarychorde Sir
Edward Stanley played a ballad, and sange therewith.” (_Wharton_,
“_History of English Poetry_.”) It is identical with the _clavichord_,
the origin of the spinet, harpsichord, and pianoforte.

[Illustration: Fig. 165, 166. Clarions (heraldic).]

=Clarion=, O. E. A small trumpet, with a shrill sound. (Represented in
the third niche of the “Minstrels’ Gallery” of Exeter Cathedral, of
which there is a cast in the South Kensington Museum.)

=Classic Orders of Architecture.= The _Grecian_: Doric, Ionic, and
Corinthian;—and the _Roman_: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and
Composite orders (q.v.) are generally thus distinguished.

=Clathrate.= Latticed like a grating (_clathri_).

[Illustration: Fig. 167. Clathri over bronze doors.]

=Clathri=, R. A grating or trellis formed of wooden or metal bars;
_clathri_ were employed to form the imposts over hypæthral doors, and to
light the stables (_carceres_) under the circus, &c. Fig. 167 represents
one of the bronze doors of the Pantheon at Rome with the grating above.

=Claude Glass.= A dark convex glass for studying the effect of a
landscape in reverse. Its name is supposed to be derived from the
similarity of the effects it gives, to those of a picture by Claude

=Clausula=, R. The handle of any instrument whatsoever, when made in
such a way that the hand can be inserted into it, as for instance with a
ring or sword-hilt. The STRIGILIS (q.v.) had a handle of this
description. _Clausula_ is thus to be distinguished from _capulus_ (a
straight handle), and _ansa_ (a handle affixed to another object).

=Clava=, R. (1) A stout knotty stick, growing much thicker towards one
end. (2) A very heavy club with which young recruits went through their
exercises. (3) A club like that of Hercules, or a mace or war-club with
an iron head, and studded with nails or (more commonly) sharp spikes.

=Clavate.= Club-shaped; tapering down from the top.

=Clavesignati=, Med. Lat. The Papal troops were so called, who had the
keys of St. Peter on their standards and uniforms.

=Claviary.= In Music, an index of keys.

[Illustration: Fig. 168. Clavichord—18th century.]

=Clavichord.= A stringed instrument in the form of a spinet. (Fig. 168.)

=Clavicula.= Dimin. of CLAVIS (q.v.).

=Clavier.= Of a musical instrument, the key-board.

=Clavis=, R. A key. The _clavis clausa_ was a small key without a neck
or lever; _clavis laconica_, a key of Egyptian invention, having three
teeth; _clavis adultera_, a false key; _clavis trochi_, a curved stick
made of iron and having a hook at the end, which was used by Greek and
Roman boys for trundling their hoops.

=Clavius.= A walled plain in the moon, more than a hundred miles in

=Clavulare= or =Clabulare=, R. A large open cart used for carrying
provisions, especially _dolia_ (casks) filled with wine. The body of the
carriage was formed by a wooden trellis-work (_clavulæ_)—whence its
name—and was of a semi-cylindrical shape, adapted to accommodate wine

=Clavus=, R. A nail. In Christian archæology, a purple hem or band
applied as an ornament to a dress, which was then called _vestis
clavata_. (See CHRYSO-CLAVUS.)

=Claymore= (Gaelic, _claidheamb_, a sword, and _mor_, great). The
highland broadsword.

=Clechée=, Her. (See UNDÉE.) A variety of the heraldic cross.

=Clef= or =Cliff=, Music. A figure indicating the pitch to be adopted
for the key-note of a piece of music; an invention of the 13th century.

=Clepsydra=, Gen. (κλεψ-ύδρα, i. e. a stealing-away of water). A
water-clock, and by analogy an hour-glass or _sand_-clock. The
_clepsydra_ was used as an hour-glass in the courts of justice at
Athens, to measure out the time allowed to each orator.

=Clerestory.= (See CLAIRE-VOIE.)

=Cleystaffe=, O. E. A pastoral staff.

=Clibanus=, R. (1) A basket used for baking bread; the bread itself,
when thus baked, being called _clibanicius_. (2) Med. Lat. A short
hauberk, which the later Greeks called κλίβανον, because it covered the
breast. (_Meyrick._) (3) Med. Lat. A tower.

=Clicket=, O. E. A key.

                         “With his _clicket_
             Damian hath opened this wicket.” (_Chaucer._)

=Cliff.= (See CLEF.)

=Clipeolum.= Dimin. of CLIPEUS (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 169. Clipeus.]

=Clipeus= and =Clipeum=, R. (akin to καλύπτω, to cover or conceal). A
large broad shield of circular shape and concave on the inside. It was
of great weight, and formed part of the special equipment of the
cavalry. The original _clipeus Argolicus_ was circular, and often
likened to the sun: in Roman sculpture it is often oval. The outer rim
was termed _antyx_; the _boss_ in the centre, _omphalos_, or _umbo_; a
leather strap for the arm, _telamon_. It was replaced, subsequently, by
the SCUTUM (q.v.). Fig. 169 is an ornamented bronze _clipeus_, thought
to be Gaulish. This term also serves to denote (1) a shield of metal or
marble which was employed as an ornament (Fig. 170 represents an
ornamental shield, such as was placed on the frieze of a building, and
especially in the metopes of the Doric entablature); and (2) an
apparatus employed in the _laconicum_ (q.v.) to regulate the
temperature. In the illustration to _Caldarium_ a slave may be seen
pulling the chains of the _clipeus_.

[Illustration: Fig. 170. Ornamental Clipeus.]

[Illustration: Fig. 171. Cloaca Maxima at Rome.]

=Cloaca=, R. (from _cluo_, i. e. the cleanser). A subterranean sewer or
canal constructed of masonry. The _Cloaca Maxima_, or Main Sewer of
Rome, was constructed by the elder Tarquin to drain a marsh lying at the
foot of the Palatine and Capitoline Hills. Fig. 171 represents one of
its mouths. It was formed of three tiers of arches, the innermost being
fourteen feet in diameter.

=Clocks=, O. E., “are the gores of a ruff, the laying in of the cloth to
make it round, the plaites;” also ornaments on stockings and on hoods.

=Clog-almanacks.= The Anglo-Saxons calculated by the phases of the moon,
set down on square pieces of wood, a foot or two long. These _clogs_ are
still common in Staffordshire. (Cf. _Plott’s History of Staffordshire_;
_Gough’s Camden’s Britannia_, ii. 379.)

=Cloish=, or =Closh=, O. E. A kind of ninepins played with a ball.
(_Strutt_, p. 202.) Cf. CLUB-KAYLES.

=Cloisonné.= A form of enamelling by incrustation, in which the pattern
is raised by strips of metal or wire welded on.

[Illustration: Fig. 173. Cloisters in the Church of Mont St. Michel.]

=Cloister=, Chr. (from Lat. _claustrum_, q.v.). A kind of court or
quadrangle surrounded by a covered way, and having much analogy to the
_atrium_ of a Roman house. The cloister was an essential appendage to an
abbey. One of its sides was usually bounded by the church, with which it
easily communicated. The walls of the cloisters were often adorned with
frescoes, and the court was occasionally planted with trees, the centre
being occupied by a fountain. A monastery was often called a _cloister_.
The sides of the cloister were anciently termed the PANES of it, and the
walks its alleys or deambulatories. (Fig. 173.)

=Cloister Garth.= The quadrangular space enclosed by the cloisters. The
_cloister garth_ at Chichester is still called the _Paradise_, and that
at Chester the _Sprise_ garden. (See PARADISE, SPRISE.)

=Close=, Her. With closed wings.

=Close-gauntlets.= Gauntlets with immovable fingers.

=Closet=, Her. A diminution of the BAR, one half its width.

=Cloths of Estate.= Costly embroidered hangings for the canopy of a

=Clouée=, Her. Fastened with nails, and showing the nail-heads.

=Clouts.= Old name for kerchiefs.

=Clown=, in pantomime. _Harlequin_ is Mercury, the _Clown_ Momus, and
the painted face and wide mouth taken from the ancient masks;
_Pantaloon_ is Charon, and _Columbine_ Psyche. (_Clarke’s Travels_,
viii. 104–7.)

=Club=, Gr. and R. (Gr. φάλαγξ). This weapon being used in close fight
gave its name to the compact body of troops so called. The Scythians
united it with the mace, both being spiked. _Ducange_ mentions the
_vulgastus_, a crooked club; the _plumbata_, loaded with lead, the
_spontonus_ with iron. In the army of Charles I. rustics untrained were
called clubmen. (See CLAVA.)

=Club-kayles=, O. E. Skittles played with a club, instead of a ball.

=Clubs=, at cards, are the ancient _trèfles_, the trefoil or
clover-plant. (See TREFLE.)

=Cluden=, Gr. and R. A sword, the blade of which was contrived to recede
into the handle. It was used for theatrical representations.

[Illustration: Fig. 174. Clunaculum.]

=Clunaculum=, R. (1) A dagger so called because it was worn at the back;
“_quia ad clunes pendet_,” as Festus says. (2) The sacrificial knife
with which the victim was ripped up. The dagger represented in Fig. 174,
taken from the arch of Carpentras, was probably a Gaulish _clunaculum_.

[Illustration: Fig. 172. Clustered column in Nave of Wells Cathedral.]

=Clustered Column=, Arch. A pier formed of a congeries of columns or
shafts clustered together, either attached or detached. It is also
called a COMPOUND PIER. Fig. 172 is a specimen from Wells Cathedral.

=Clypeate.= Shaped like a shield.

=Cnopstara.= A weapon used by the Caledonians; a ball filled with pieces
of metal swung at the heads of their lances, to frighten cavalry.

=Coa Vestis=, or simply =Coa= (i. e. the Coan robe). A very fine robe
[made of silk, spun in _Cos_], of such light texture as to be almost
transparent. It was worn by _hetairai_ and singing and dancing girls,

=Coactilis=, sc. _lana_ (from _cogo_, i. e. that which is forced
together). A kind of felted cloth made of wool closely pressed together.
It formed a texture analogous to our felt. Another name for it was

=Coal= as an ancient pigment was used both in water-colours and in oil;
it furnishes a brownish tint. “The shadows of flesh are well rendered by
pit-coal, which should not be burnt.” (_De Mayerne._)

=Coassatio= (from _coasso_, to join planks together). A general term for
planks joined together, such as the flooring of a room, the top of a
table, the deck of a ship, the roadway of a wooden bridge, &c. (See

[Illustration: Fig. 175. Coat Armour.]

[Illustration: Fig. 176. Coat Armour. Devices on shield.]

=Coat Armour=, Med. Embroidery of heraldic devices upon costume; hence a
term for heraldry in general. (Figs. 175 and 176.)

=Coat Cards=, O. E. Court cards and tens, so named from the _coat
armour_ worn by the figures.

=Cob.= Irish name of a Spanish coin formerly current in Ireland; value
about 4_s._ 8_d._

=Cobalt.= A metal found in various combinations, from which various
colouring matters are obtained of great use in the arts. _Cobalt blue_,
a beautiful blue pigment, is obtained by mixing a salt of pure cobalt
with a solution of pure alum, precipitating the liquid by an alkaline
carbonate, washing the precipitate with care, drying and igniting it
strongly. A fine green, known as _Rinmann’s green_, is similarly
prepared. The chloride, the nitrate, and the sulphate of cobalt form
_sympathetic inks_, which only become visible when the moisture is
absorbed by the application of heat. From phosphate of cobalt a
beautiful blue pigment is produced, called _Thenard’s blue_. It is said
to have all the characters of ultramarine. Oxide of cobalt has the
property of colouring glass blue; hence a glass formed of this oxide
under the name of _smalt_ is the blue colouring matter used for
ornamenting porcelain and earthenware, for staining glass, for painting
on enamel, &c.

=Cobalt-bloom.= (See ERYTHRINE.)

=Cobbards=, O. E. The irons supporting a spit.

=Cob-wall=, Arch. A wall formed of unburned clay mixed with straw.

=Cochineal.= (See CARMINE.)

=Cochineal Lakes.= (See CARMINATED LAKES.)

=Cochlea= (κοχλίας, i. e. a snail with spiral shell). Any object of
spiral shape, like a screw; and so a worm and screw as a mechanical
power in oil-, wine-, &c. presses; the “Archimedean Screw,” or
“water-snail” for raising water; the revolving door through which the
wild beasts were let out into the amphitheatre; and other contrivances
similar to the Italian _ruota_, by which persons can be introduced
through a wall without opening a door; also a spiral staircase, &c.

=Cochlear=, =Cochleare= (from κόχλος, a shell-fish). (1) A spoon having
at one extremity a sharp point, and at the other a sort of small bowl.
(2) A measure of capacity of very small size.

=Cochlearium=, R. A pond or nursery for fattening snails for the table.
(English “cockles.”)

=Cochlis=, sc. _columna_ (κοχλὶς, i. e. lit. a snail). A hollow
monumental column, the interior of which was fitted with a cockle or
spiral staircase, like the “Monument” of London.

=Cock.= In Christian art, the emblem of St. Peter, and of watchfulness.

=Cockatrice.= In Christian art, the emblem of sin; attribute of St.
Vitus. (Her.: see the illustration to BASILISK.)

=Cock-bead=, Arch. A bead which projects from the surface of the timber
on both sides.

=Cockers=, O. E. Ploughmen’s laced boots.

=Cocket=, O. E. A seal formerly attached to goods which had paid customs
dues. Ancient _cockets_ bear such inscriptions on them as “_God
willing_,” “_If God please_,” &c.

=Cockle-stairs=, O. E. Winding stairs. (Cf. COCHLEA.)

=Coctilis=, =Cocta=, =Coctus=, R. (prepared by fire). _Later coctilis_
was a brick hardened artificially by fire, in contradistinction to one
dried in the sun; _murus coctilis_, a wall built of hardened bricks.

=Cocurra=, Med. Lat. A quiver.

=Cocytia= (from Κωκυτὸς, the river of weeping). A festival held in
honour of Proserpine, who had been carried off by Pluto. The latter, as
king of the infernal regions, included in his sway the river Cocytus.
The Cocytus and Acheron, two rivers of Epirus, remarkable for
unwholesome and muddy water, and subterranean currents, were hence
called the rivers of Hell. “Cocytia virgo” was Alecto, one of the

=Cod=, Scotch. A pillow (also _pod_).

=Codex= (_caudex_, the trunk of a tree). (1) A blank book for writing
in, consisting of thin tablets of wood covered with wax; the term thus
came to mean _code_, that is, a book containing laws, since these were
inscribed in a book, the leaves of which were composed of thin leaves of
wood. When parchment or paper was introduced, the term was still
applied; and hence, later, became appropriate to any code of laws, e. g.
the Gregorian, Theodosian, Justinian, &c. (2) An early manuscript book,
such as the Codex of the Greek New Testament and of “Virgil” in the
Vatican. (3) The term was also applied to the heavy logs attached to the
feet of slaves; these were of various shapes, sometimes even serving the
purpose of a seat.

=Codicillus= (dimin. of CODEX, q.v.). A small book, or small leaves of
wood covered with wax. The plural _codicilli_ denoted a number of such
sheets put together so as to form a sort of memorandum-book for taking
rough notes. Any supplemental note made on the margin of the leaves
composing a will, or added to them, was also called _codicillus_

=Codon= (Gr. κώδων). A bell; the bell of a trumpet; a trumpet with a

=Cod-piece= (from O. E. “cod,” a pillow or stuffed cushion; Fr.
_braguette_); introduced _temp._ Henry VIII. An appendage to the taces
over the os pubis, copied in the armour of the period. It continued in
use to the end of Elizabeth’s reign.

=Cœlum.= In Architecture, that part of a building which was placed over
any other part, and so a ceiling, or soffit.

=Cœmeterium=, =Cemetery=, Chr. (κοιμητήριον, from κοιμάω, i. e. a
sleeping-place; Lat _dormitorium_). This term is an exclusively
Christian one; it signifies a field of rest or refuge; the last
resting-place of man. (See HYPOGÆUM.)

=Cœna= (from Sanscr. _khad-_, to eat). The principal meal among the
Romans, consisting of several courses termed respectively _prima_,
_altera_ or _secunda_, _tertia_, _quarta cœna_. The hour at which the
_cœna_ took place varied with the habits of the master of the house, but
it was usually about four or five o’clock. It was the third meal of the
day, being preceded by the _jentaculum_ (breakfast), and the _merenda_
or _prandium_ (luncheon or early dinner). The corresponding Greek meal
was called _deipnon_, which closed with a libation to Zeus; after which
the drinking party that remained was called _Symposium_. (See LAST

=Cœnaculum.= In early times this term was used for the TRICLINIUM
(q.v.); later on it came to mean the upper stories of houses inhabited
by the poor, our attic or garret. In the plural, _cœnacula_ denotes the
whole suite of rooms on the upper story of a house, and _cœnacula
meritoria_ such apartments let out on hire.

=Cœnatio=, like _cœnaculum_, a dining-room situated upstairs. It thus
differed from the TRICLINIUM (q.v.), which was a dining-room on the
ground floor; the former was used in winter, the latter in summer. The
_cœnatio_, or _diæta_, was a very magnificent apartment. Nero had one in
his golden palace, constructed like a theatre, with a change of scenery
for every course.

=Cœnatoria=, =Cœnatoriæ Vestes=. The garments worn by the Romans at the

=Cœnobium= (κοινό-βιον, i. e. a life in common). A monastery; a convent
of monks who lived in common.

=Cœur=, =Carreau=, =Pique=, and =Trèfle=. The four French suits of
cards, corresponding with our Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs,
probably introduced in the reign of Charles VII. of France (15th
century). (_Taylor._) Cœur is sometimes derived from _Chœur_. (See COPPE

  “The hearts are the ecclesiastics, whose place is in the _choir_; the
  pike the military, &c.” (_Menestrier._)

=Coffer.= (See ARCA.) (1) In Architecture, a sunken panel in a ceiling
or soffit. (2) A chest.

=Cognizance=, Her. Synonym for _Badge_.

=Cogware=, O. E. A coarse narrow cloth like frieze; 16th century.

=Cohors=, =Cohort=, R. A body of infantry forming the tenth part of a
legion. The number of men composing a cohort varied at different periods
between 300 and 600 men, according to the numerical strength of the
legion. The first cohort of a legion was called a military cohort; the
prætorian cohort formed the general’s body-guard, while to the city
cohort was entrusted the protection of the city. The term was sometimes,
though very rarely, applied to a squadron of cavalry.

=Coif= or =Quoif=. A close hood.

=Coif de Fer=, =Coiffette=. A skull-cap of iron of the 12th and 13th

=Coif de Mailles.= A hood of mail worn by knights in the 12th century.

=Coiffe=, Arch. A term employed during the 16th and 17th centuries to
denote the vaulted ceiling of an apse.

=Coillon.= (See COIN.)

=Coin= or =Coigne=, Arch. The corner of a building. (See QUOIN.)

=Coin-stones=, Arch. Corner-stones.

[Illustration: Fig. 177. Helmet with Cointise behind.]

=Cointise= or =Quintise=. (1) A scarf wrapped round the body, and
sometimes attached to the helmet. (2) Quaintly-cut coverings for the
helmet. Fig. 177 represents a helmet decorated with PANACHE, CORO. E.,
and _cointise_. This is the origin of _mantling_ in heraldry. (3) A
garment worn over armour, _temp._ Edward II., was so termed. (4) Horses’

=Colatorium.= A colander. (See COLLUM VINARIUM.)

=Colayn Riban=, O. E. An ecclesiastical textile, or _orphrey web_, for
the manufacture of which Cologne was famous in the 15th century.

=Colcothar of Vitriol.= A red pigment formerly called _caput mortuum_.

=Cold-harbour.= This common topical name is the Anglo-Saxon
_ceald-herberga_, cold “_herberge_” or shelter, and probably indicates a
place where the ruins of a Roman villa or station were the only
available shelter for travellers, in the ancient scarcity of inns.

=Collar= (of a shaft), Arch. The ANNULET (q.v.). (See also COLLAR-BEAM.)

[Illustration: Fig. 178. Collar of Lancaster.]

=Collar=, Med. (1) A defence of mail or plate for the neck. (2)
Generally. An ornament for the neck. The Egyptians, Persians, Greeks,
Romans, and Gauls wore collars, which were named variously _streptos_
(στρεπτὸς), _torquis_, _torques_, &c. Collars were ornamented with
heraldic _badges_ in the Middle Ages. (3) Heraldic. One of the insignia
of the orders of knighthood. (See Fig. 178.)

[Illustration: Fig. 179. Collar of S.S.]

=Collar of S.S.= Originally adopted by Henry IV., on the canopy of whose
tomb it is employed as decoration over the arms of himself and his
queen. Its significance is doubtful. Camden says the letters are the
initials of Sanctus Simo Simplicius, an eminent Roman lawyer, and that
it was particularly worn by persons of the legal profession.

=Collar-beam=, Arch. A horizontal tie, connecting a pair of rafters
together, across the vault of a roof.

=Collare=, R. (_collum_, neck). A collar made of iron or leather, and
studded with spikes. It was used both to confine slaves, and as a
dog-collar. When a slave ran away from his master, an iron collar, with
a leading-chain attached to it, was put round his neck.

=Collarium=, Med. Armour for the neck.

=Collegium=, R. A religious or industrial corporation in ancient Rome.
The corresponding Greek institutions were the _Hetairiai_. The
_collegia_ included trade companies or guilds.

=Collet.= The setting which surrounds the stone of a ring. (See

=Colliciæ=, =Colliquiæ=. (1) Broad open drains through fields. (2)
Gutters of hollow tiles (_umbrices_) placed beneath the roof of a house
to receive the rain-water, and convey it into the IMPLUVIUM.

=Colliciaris= (sc. _tegula_). A hollow tile employed in the construction
of _colliciæ_.

=Collodion.= A solution of gun cotton in ether, used in photography.

=Collum Vinarium= (from _collum_, a neck). A colander or wine-strainer.
The custom of straining wine dates back beyond our era, and Christ made
an allusion to it when he told the Pharisees that their _colla_ allowed
a camel to pass, while they kept back a gnat. Snow was put into a
strainer or a bag, called respectively _collum nivarium_, _saccus
nivarius_, through which the wine was allowed to filter, not only to
cool it, but because the intense cold cleared the wine, and rendered it
sparkling and transparent; it was then called _vinum saccatum_. The
Christian Church from the first adopted this instrument in its liturgy;
another name for it was _colatorium_. (See NASSA.) The colander for wine
was made of silver, or bronze, or other metal. The linen cloth called
_saccus_ was not used for wine of any delicacy, as it spoiled its

=Colluviarium=, R. An opening made at regular intervals in the channel
of an aqueduct, for ventilation. As this opening formed a kind of well,
it was also called PUTEUS (q.v.).

=Collyra=, Gr. and R. A kind of bread made in a special manner, which
was eaten with soup or sauce; there was also a cake so called.

=Collyris= (κολλυρὶς, synonym of κολλύρα, q.v.). A head-dress worn by
Roman ladies, resembling in shape the bread called κολλύρα; the latter
was called κολλυρὶς as well.

[Illustration: Fig. 180. Collyrium or unguent Vase; Egyptian. Museum of
the Louvre.]

=Collyrium= (κολλύριον, dimin. of κολλύρα, q.v.). (1) A term denoting
anything we should now call an unguent, but especially the salve
_collyrium_, which was a liquid medicament. (2) _Collyria_ was a term
applied to Egyptian vases of terra-cotta, with or without enamel; to
small quadrangular boxes of wood or pottery; and, lastly, to small
cylindrical cases of wood or bronze divided into compartments. There
were three prevailing forms of the vases. The Egyptians used antimony to
make their eyes look larger, and had some medicament for the relief of
toothache; and inscriptions indicating these uses may be read upon
vessels of this kind. (Fig. 180).

=Colne=, O. E. A basket or coop.

[Illustration: Fig. 181. Roman Plebeian wearing the Colobium.]

=Colobium= (from κολοβὸς, docked or curtailed). A tunic with short
sleeves, which scarcely covered the upper part of the arm. At Rome it
was worn by men of free birth. The _colobium_ appears to have been the
first dress adopted by Christian deacons, and in the liturgical writings
it is often met with under the name of _levitonarium_; when it was of
fine linen, it was also called _lebiton_ and _lebitonarium_. (Fig. 181.)
Later on the sleeves were lengthened, and it became known as the
DALMATIC (q.v.).

=Cologne Black.= (See BLACK.)

=Cologne Earth.= A bituminous earth of a violet-brown hue, transparent
and durable in water-colour painting.

=Colonica.= Synonym of _villa rustica_. A farmhouse.

=Color=, Lat. (1) The term is used in several senses in mediæval
treatises upon music, with a general idea of a quality of tone obtained
by striking variations. (2) The coloured lines used in transcribing
music. (See NEUMES.)

=Colores Austeri.= Ancient pigments, not _floridi_.

=Colores Floridi.= Ancient expensive and brilliant pigments. They were
chrysocollum, indicum (or indigo), cæruleum (smalt), and cinnabar.

=Colossus= (κολοσσός). The word was used for all statues larger than
life; that at Rhodes was ninety feet high. The Minerva and Jupiter
Olympus of Pheidias, the Farnese Hercules, and the Flora of the
Belvidere, were all colossal.

=Colours=, in Heraldry, are five: Blue or Azure, Red or Gules, Black or
Sable, Green or Vert, Purple or Purpure. In French heraldry Green is
Sinope. The uses and general symbolism of each colour are described
under its own heading. The best work on _symbolic colours_ is the
“Essay” of M. Portal. One of the best on the _theory of colours_ is that
of Chevreuil.

=Colubrina=, Med. Lat. (from _coluber_, a snake). A culverin.

=Columbar=, R. A kind of pillory used for punishing slaves. The
instrument derived its name from the holes in it, which bore some
resemblance to pigeon-holes.

[Illustration: Fig. 182. Columbarium.]

=Columbarium.= A dove-cote or pigeon-house, often constructed to hold as
many as 4000 or 5000 birds. In the plural the term has many meanings.
(1) It denotes the pigeon-holes or cells for the nests in a
pigeon-house. (2) In a sepulchral chamber, the niches for holding the
cinerary urns (_ollæ_). Fig. 182 represents the numerous _columbaria_ in
the tomb of the freedmen of Octavia. In the sepulchral architecture of
the Jews, the rock-hewn walls forming the vestibules of certain tombs
were honey-combed with minute _columbaria_, in which only lamps were
placed. Fig. 183 represents cells of this character taken from the tomb
of _Quoublet-el-Endeh_. (3) The openings in the side of a ship through
which the oars passed. (4) The holes made in a wall to receive the head
of a tie-beam. (5) The openings of the scoops in a particular kind of
hydraulic wheel called TYMPANUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 183. Columbaria in rock-hewn walls.]

=Columella.= Dimin. of _columna_. (See COLUMN, CIPPUS.)

=Columen=, Gr. and R. The highest timber in the framework of a roof,
forming what is now called the ridgepiece.

[Illustration: Fig. 184. Ionic column.]

=Column=, Arch. A column consists of three principal parts: the base
(_a_), the shaft (_b_), and the capital (_c_). In the _Doric_, or most
ancient style, the columns in a row rest upon a common base (_podium_).
In the Ionic and Corinthian, each column has its own base (_spira_). The
shaft of all columns _tapers_ gradually from the base to the capital.
Any swelling introduced to modify the straightness of the line was
called _entasis_. On the summit of a row of columns rests the
_architrave_, or chief beam (_d_); above this the _frieze_ (_e_), and
the _cornice_ (_f_) projects above the frieze. These three together are
called the _entablature_. The triangular gable-end of the roof, above
the entablature, is called the _pediment_. A circuit of columns,
enclosing an open space in the interior of a building, was called a
_peristyle_. A temple of two stories, with one peristyle upon another
(Ionic or Corinthian columns over the heavier Doric), was called
_hypæthral_. In Christian archæology the column is a symbol of the
Church, which was called, so early as St. Paul, _columna et firmitatum
veritatis_ (the column and support of truth).

=Colures.= In Astronomy, the two circles which pass through the four
cardinal points of the ecliptic—the equinoctial and solstitial points.

=Coluria=, Arch. Circular segments of stone, in the construction of a
column, such as are now called tambours or disks.

=Colus.= A distaff. With the Romans it consisted of a thick cane
(_arundo_, _donax_), split at the end in such a way that the opening
formed a basket. _Compta_, _plena_, or _lana amicta_ were the epithets
applied to a _colus_ when filled with wool. The thread obtained from it
was called _stamen_. The ball of loose wool at one end, prepared for
spinning, was called _glomus_. The lower end of the distaff rested under
the left arm; the right hand spun and wound the thread on to the
spindles (called _fusus_). (See DISTAFF.)

=Colymbion=, Chr., Med. A vessel for holy water at the entrance of a

=Colymbus=, Gr. and R. A basin or reservoir used either as a
swimming-bath or for washing linen in.

=Coma= (κόμη). (1) The hair; hair of the head. (2) The mane of animals.

=Comatorius= or =Comatoria= (sc. _acus_). A long pin or bodkin of gold,
silver, bronze, or ivory, used by the Roman ladies to keep up their hair
when plaited. It was also called Acus CRINALIS (q.v.). (Compare

=Combattant=, Her. Said of lions, or other animals of prey, rampant and
face to face.

[Illustration: Fig. 185. Ancient Carved Ivory Comb.]

=Combs= (Lat. _pecten_, Gr. κτεὶς), as used for combing the hair, but
not for wearing upon the head, are found in Pompeian and Egyptian tombs,
and in the early British, Roman, and Saxon barrows. In the Middle Ages
ivory combs were richly carved, and the ceremonial combs for use in
ecclesiastical ceremonies are especially splendid. Greek and Roman combs
were of box-wood; Egyptian combs were of ivory. Uncombed hair was a
general sign of mourning. (See DISCERNICULUM.)

=Commentaculum= (from _commento_, to strike on the face). A staff or
wand carried in sacred processions by the Roman priests to assist them
in clearing a way and preventing the people from pressing in on them too
closely. _Commotaculum_ was also used.

=Commissatio= (from _commissor_, to revel). A revelling or feasting
which began after the CŒNA (q.v.), and lasted far on into the night.

=Commistio= or =Commixtio=, Chr. The placing of a portion of the bread
into the chalice of wine, during the ceremony of consecration.

=Common-house.= The part of a monastery in which a fire was kept for the
monks during winter.

=Communicales=, Chr. Communion vessels, made especially to be carried in
procession in Rome.

=Compass.= In Music, the whole range of sounds capable of being produced
by a voice or instrument.

=Compass-headed=, Arch. A semicircular arch.

=Compass Roof=, Arch. An open timber roof.

=Compass Window=, Arch. A bay-window on a circular plan.

=Compes.= (1) A ring of gold or silver worn by the Romans round the leg,
just above the ankle. (2) The chains or shackles worn round the ankle by
slaves or prisoners.

=Compitalia=, =Compitales=. A festival held by the Romans in honour of
the _Lares compitales_, celebrated in the cross-roads, _compitia_, where
the images of those deities were often placed in niches.

=Complement=, Her. Applied to the moon, when full.

=Complement.= In Music, the interval to be added to another interval to
make an octave; e.g. a third to a sixth; a fourth to a fifth, &c.

=Complementary Colours.= If the whole of the light which is absorbed by
a coloured body were reunited with the whole of the light which it
reflects, white light would result; in this case the absorbed colours
are complementary to those which are reflected. The colour given by a
mixture of the colours of any portion of a spectrum is the _complement_
of the remaining portion. _Red_ is complementary to _Green_, _Orange_ to
_Blue_, _Greenish-Yellow_ to _Violet_, _Indigo_ to _Orange Yellow_, and,
in each case, _vice versâ_.

=Completorium=, Chr. The last of the _Hours of Prayer_.

=Compline=, Chr. Short evening prayers completing the daily round of
devotion prescribed by the _Hours of Prayer_.

=Compluvium=, R. An opening in the roof of the _atrium_, furnished with
gutters all round, which collected the rain-water from the roof, and
conveyed it into the basin (_impluvium_) in the middle of the atrium.

=Compon-covert=, O. E. A kind of lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 186. Capital of the Composite Order.]

=Composite Order of Architecture.= The last of the five Roman orders,
composed of the Ionic grafted upon the Corinthian order. The examples at
Rome are in the arch of Septimus Severus, the arch of the Goldsmiths,
the arch of Titus, the temple of Bacchus, and the baths of Diocletian.

=Compound Arch=, Arch. A usual form of mediæval arch, which “may be
resolved into a number of concentric archways, successively placed
within and behind each other.” (_Prof. Willis._)

=Compound Pier=, Arch. A clustered COLUMN (q.v.).

=Compounded Arms=, Her. Bearings of two or more distinct coats combined,
to produce a single compound coat.

=Comus= (Gr. κῶμος). (1) A revel, or carousal which usually ended in the
guests parading the streets crowned with garlands, &c. (2) Festal
processions instituted in honour of Bacchus and other gods, and of the
victors at the games. (3) Odes written to be sung at such processions,
e. g. those of Pindar.

=Comus= (Gr. κομμὸς, from κόπτω, to strike). (1) A beating of the head
and breast in lamentation; a dirge. (2) A mournful song sung in
alternate verses by an actor and a chorus in the Attic drama.

=Concædes.= A barricade constructed of trees which have been cut down
and placed across the road (to impede the enemy’s march).

=Concamerate=, Arch. To arch over; to vault.

=Concave.= Hollowed in; opposed to _convex_, bulging out.

=Concha= (lit. a muscle or cockle). (1) A shell or shell-fish. (2) A
Triton’s conch. In works of art, the Triton, or sea-god, has for a
trumpet the _buccina_, remarkable for a spiral twist, long and straight;
or the _murex_, equally twisted, but short and wide-mouthed. (3) The
term was applied, by analogy, to various objects having the shape of a
shell, such as cups or vases used for holding perfumes or for other
purposes. (4) In Architecture, an apse, or a plain concave of a dome, is
so called.

=Conchoid.= A mathematical curve in the form of the outline of a shell.

=Conclave= (with a key), Chr. (1) A meeting of cardinals assembled to
elect a pope; and (2) the hall or apartment in which such meeting is
held. The institution of the conclave dates from Gregory X.

=Concrete=, Arch. A mixture of gravel, pebbles, or broken stone with

=Condalium= (κονδύλιον, dimin. of κόνδυλος, a knob or joint). A ring
generally worn upon the first joint of the forefinger on the right hand.

=Conditivium=, =Conditorium=. (1) An underground vault in which were
chests or coffins for holding bodies which had not been reduced to
ashes. (2) A sarcophagus in which the body was placed. (3) A kind of
arsenal or magazine in which military engines were kept.

=Condrak=, O. E. A kind of lace.

=Condyle.= A knuckle; the rounded end of a bone; hence—

=Condyloid.= Shaped like a _condyle_; and

=Condylus.= Synonym of CONDALIUM (q.v.).

=Cone.= A figure broad and round at the base, tapering upwards regularly
towards a point.

=Coney=, =Cony=, O. E. (1) A variety of the rabbit. (2) A beehive.

=Confessio=, Chr. Originally the place where a saint or martyr was
buried; thence the altar raised over his grave; and subsequently the
chapel or basilica built there.

=Congé=, Arch. The cavetto (hollow moulding) which unites the _base_ and
_capital_ of a column to its shaft.

=Congius= (deriv. doubtful). A Roman measure containing six _sextarii_
or twelve _heminæ_. It was used especially for measuring liquids.
_Angl._ a pint and a half.

=Conic Sections.= Curves formed by the intersection of a _cone_ and a
_plane_; the circle, the ellipse, the hyperbola, and the parabola.

=Conisterium=, Gr. and R. A room in which wrestlers, after having had
oil applied to their bodies, were rubbed over with fine sand (κόνις).
The _conisterium_ was an appendage to a palæstrum, gymnasium, &c.

=Conopeum=, =Canopium=, Gr. and R. (from κώνωψ, a gnat). A musquito-net,
of very light material, introduced into Rome from Egypt. [This is the
origin of the English word _canopy_.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187. Consecrated pyre on Roman medal.]

=Consecratio=, R. A kind of apotheosis or deification by which a mortal
was enrolled in the number of the gods. It was unknown under the
republic, and was only instituted in the time and on behalf of the
emperors. The ceremony was solemnized in the Field of Mars, and with the
greatest splendour. A magnificent pyre was raised, from the top of
which, when kindled, an eagle was let fly, which was supposed to carry
up to the skies the soul of the deified emperor. Fig. 187, taken from a
medal, represents one of these pyres.

=Consentiæ=, Gr. and R. Festivals held in honour of the twelve principal
divinities of Rome or Greece.

=Consignatorium Ablutorum=, Chr. In early times there were baptisteries
near churches, with a place closely adjoining in which to administer the
rite of confirmation; it was the place specially set apart for the
administration of this rite that was called _consignatorium ablutorum_.

=Console.= A projecting ornament, in wood or stone, used as a bracket.

=Constant White.= SULPHATE OF BARYTES (q.v.).

=Constellations.= Groups of stars, mostly with classical names. _Ancient
C._, forty-eight formed by Ptolemy in A. D. 150, with two others added
by Tycho Brahe; _Modern C._, fifty-nine others since formed, many by
Helvetius at the end of the 17th century. (_Rossiter._)

=Constratum=, R. A flooring constructed of planks. (See COASSATIO.)

=Consualia=, R. A festival of ancient Rome held in honour of the god
_Consus_. It was from this festival that the games of the circus took
their rise. Livy calls the god Neptunus Equestris. The feast was held
with horse and chariot races. Horses and mules did no work, and were
crowned with garlands during its celebration. The Rape of the Sabines
took place at the first Consualia.

=Contabulatio=, R. The long parallel folds formed in any garment of
ample size, such as the _toga_, _palla_, and _pallium_.

=Contignatio=, R. (a joining together of beams). The wood-work of beams
and joists supporting the flooring in a building of several stories. The
term is also used to denote the flooring and sometimes the story itself.

=Continuous Impost=, Arch. In Gothic architecture, the mouldings of an
arch, when carried down to the ground without interruption, or anything
to mark the impost-joint. (_Newlands._)

=Contoise=, Fr. A flowing scarf worn attached to the helmet before 1350.

=Contomonobolum=, R. A game which consisted in leaping over a wide space
by aid of a pole (_contus_) which was used as a fulcrum.

=Contorniate.= A class of antique medals having the _contour_, or edge,
marked with a deep cut. They generally have monograms on the obverse,
and scenes of mythology on the reverse.

=Contour=, Fr. Outline.

=Contournée=, Her. Facing to the sinister.

=Contra=, in compound words in music, signifies _an octave below_:
_contra-basso_, a double bass, &c.

=Contra Votum=, Chr. (i. e. against one’s desires). A formula of grief,
placed by the ancients on tombs, columns, and other sepulchral
monuments, and adopted by Christians in the 5th century. (See

=Contractura=, R. The tapering of the column, which begins from the
upper part of the shaft, and gradually widens as it reaches the base.

=Contralto=, It. In Music, the voice of deepest tone in females, allied
to the tenor in men.

=Contrapuntal=, Mus. Relating to COUNTERPOINT (q.v.).

=Contre-imbrications.= An ornament cut in the form of fishes’ scales
overlapping one another, the scales being indented. In the
_imbrications_ they stand out.

=Contrepoint=, O. E. (See POURPOINT.)

=Contubernium=, R. (1) A tent capable of accommodating ten soldiers and
their corporal (_decanus_). (2) A dwelling-place, especially for slaves.
Hence _contubernales_ came to mean comrades, and generally persons
living in intimacy under one roof together.

=Contus= (κοντὸς), Gr. and R. (1) A punting-pole, used also for taking
soundings; each trireme was furnished with three poles of different
lengths. (2) A cavalry pike or lance.

=Conus=, Gen. (κῶνος, a cone). (1) In general, any object of a conical
form. (2) A kind of sun-dial described upon a hollow cone. (3) The metal
ridge at the top of a helmet, to which the plume was attached. (See Fig.

=Convivium=, R. A banquet which generally took place at about the same
hour as the _cœna_, but which was never followed by a _commissatio_.

=Coopertorium=, R. (that which covers). A rug of coarse cloth; a kind of

=Cop=, O. E. Generally the top of anything; a mound or heap. (See

=Copal.= A hard resin, which, dissolved in boiling linseed oil, forms an
excellent varnish for pictures. It is also used as a vehicle for
painting. The South African copal is the finest in quality. (See

=Copatain=, O. E. A sugar-loaf hat; “a copped-crown hat.”

=Cope=, Chr. A sacerdotal garment, also called a _pluvial_, because it
was originally worn by priests in processions as a protection against
the rain. It was open in the front, and fastened on the breast by a
“morse” or clasp. In the primitive Church the cope was furnished with a
hood, and hence mentioned as CUCULLA.

=Cope=, Arch. To top a wall with thin bricks or stone.

=Coperone=, O. E., Arch. A pinnacle.

=Cop-halfpenny=, O. E. The game of “heads and tails.”

=Cop-head=, O. E. A crest of feathers or hair on an animal’s head.

=Coping=, Arch. The capping or covering of a wall, generally sloping to
throw off rain. In Fig. 77 two of the merlons are coped.

=Cophinus.= Gr. and R. A large shallow wicker basket used for
agricultural purposes. _Cophinus et fænum_, “a basket of hay,” is
Juvenal’s word for the poor man’s bed. Compare English _coffin_.

=Coppa Puerpera=, It. Caudle-cup.

=Coppe= (It.), =Cups= (Sp. _copa_). The early Italian suit of playing
cards corresponding to hearts. The _Rev. E. S. Taylor_ suggests, “The
notion of hearts, as the seat of the affections, &c., is in connexion
with the office of the _clergy_;” hence the _chalices_. (See CŒUR.)

=Copped=, O. E. Crested. (For COP-HEAD, q.v.)

=Copperas= (white) is considered the safest metallic _drier_ for
pigments and varnish.

[Illustration: Fig. 188. Ewer and basin of enamelled copper (Turkish).]

=Copper-enamelling.= (Fig. 188.) (See ENAMELS.)

=Copper-plate Engraving.= (See CHALCOGRAPHY.)

=Coppet=, O. E. Saucy.

=Coppid=, O. E. Peaked; referring to the fashion of the long peaked toe.

=Copple-crowned=, O. E. With a head high and rising up, said of a boy
“with his hair on end.”

=Coppull=, O. E. A hen’s name (in the Turnament of Tottenham).

=Cops= or =Merlons=, Arch. The raised parts of a battlement. (See Fig.

=Coracle=, O. E. A boat of wicker-work covered with hides.

=Coracoid= (κόραξ, a crow). In the form of a crow’s beak, e. g. a bone
in the shoulder-blade.

=Coral= (see AMULETS) is mentioned in the Lapidarium of Marbodus as a
very favourite and potent amulet.

           “Wondrous its power, so Zoroaster sings,
           And to the wearer sure protection brings.
           And, lest they harm ship, land, or house, it binds
           The scorching lightning and the furious winds.
           Sprinkled ‘mid climbing vines or olives’ rows,
           Or with the seed the patient rustic sows,
           ’Twill from thy crops avert the arrowy hail,
           And with abundance bless the smiling vale.”
                                     (KING, _Antique Gems_.)

=Coranach=, =Coronach=, Gaelic (_corah-rainach_, a crying together). A

=Coranto=, It. An Italian form of the country dance or jig.

=Corazza=, O. E. A cuirass.

=Corbel=, Arch. A projecting bracket supporting a pier, cornice, or

=Corbel Steps=, Arch. Steps into which the outlines of a gable are
sometimes broken; also called CORBIE STEPS.

=Corbel Table.= A term in mediæval architecture, applied to a projecting
course and the row of corbels which support it.

=Corbie=, Scotch. A raven; hence a “corbie messenger,” one that is long
upon his errand, like the raven sent from the ark, who returned not

=Corbie Steps.= (See CORBEL STEPS.)

=Corbis=, R. A wicker basket of conical shape, used especially for
agricultural purposes. A similar basket in every-day use in parts of
Italy is still called “la corbella.” Cf. the German “Korb.”

=Corbita=, R. A merchantman of the larger class, so called because it
hung out a basket at the masthead. These vessels were also called

=Corbona Ecclesiæ=, Chr. The treasure of a church, accumulated from the
offerings of communicants at the Sacrament. The Greek synonym for this
term is _gazophylacium_.

=Corbula.= Dimin. of CORBIS (q.v.).

=Corce=, O. E. The body, stomach.

               “He start to hym with gret force,
               And hyt hym egurly on the _corce_!”
                                             (_Old MS._)

=Cordate=, =Cordiform=. Heart-shaped.

=Cordax=, Gr. and R. A dance of the ancient Greek comedy of a ridiculous
and indecent character. Fauns and satyrs are constantly represented
dancing the _cordax_.

=Cordeliers=, Fr. The Franciscan friars are so called from the _rope_
girdles they wear.

=Cordevan=, O. E. A leather of goat-skin, originally from Cordova in
Spain. Spelt also _Cordewayne_; hence _cordwainer_ or _cordiner_, a

=Cordigard=, Med. (from the French _corps de garde_). A detachment of
troops appointed for a particular service.

[Illustration: Fig. 189. Corean tea-pot. (About A. D. 1562.)]

=Corean Porcelain=, from a country intermediate between China and Japan,
combines the qualities of the most ancient art of each. The tea-pot
represented in Fig. 189 is covered with gravings in the paste imitating
the waves of the ocean, and shows four times repeated an imperial
Japanese device, by which it appears that the piece was destined for the

[Illustration: Fig. 190. Capital of the Corinthian Order.]

=Corinthian Order of Architecture.= This order originated in Greece, and
the capital is said to have been suggested by observing a tile placed on
a basket left in a garden, and an acanthus growing round it. The
principal distinction of this order is its capital, richly ornamented
with leaves and flowers. Among the principal Corinthian examples are the
temple of Vesta, the basilica of Antoninus, and the temples of Jupiter
Tonans and Jupiter Stator; all at Rome.

=Corium=, R. Leathern body-armour cut into scale form.

=Cork= burned forms the pigment called _Spanish Black_.

=Corn.= In pagan art, the attribute of Ceres and Justitia and Juno

=Cornal.= The head of a tilting-lance. (See CORONEL.)

=Cornelian=, =Carnelian=, Gen. A variety of chalcedony of a horny
transparency and a more or less deep red. Engraved cornelians have
perpetuated much information about the manners and customs of the
ancient Greeks and Romans. (See SARDS.)

=Cornemuse.= A French form of the bagpipe.

=Cornet.= (1) A kind of heraldic banner. (2) The bearer of the colours
of a regiment. (3) Square caps worn in the Universities. (4) Any object
having _corners_, or angular extremities. (5) An obsolete musical
instrument, once in common use in Germany and in England, something like
a HAUTBOY, but larger and of a coarser tone. (See WAITS.)

=Cornice.= (See CORONIS.)

=Cornichon=, Fr. A kind of game at “quoits.”

[Illustration: Fig. 191. Coin showing the Corniculum.]

=Corniculum=, R. (dimin. of _cornu_, and so a small horn). It was a mark
of distinction conferred on a soldier who had distinguished himself by
his conduct or courage, and was worn on his helmet. On Thracian and
other coins we find representations of this horn as part of the royal

=Cornish=, O. E. The ring placed at the mouth of a cannon.

=Cornlaiters=, O. E. Newly-married peasants begging corn to sow their
first crop with.

=Cornu=, =Cornus=, and =Cornum=, R. (1) The horn of an animal. (2) Any
object made of horn or of a horn-like shape. The musical _cornu_ was
curved; the straight horn was called _tuba_.

=Cornu Altaris= (horn of the altar), in Christian archæology, means
merely the _corner_ or _angle_ thereof. _Cornu Evangelii_ is the angle
to the left, _c. Epistolæ_ that to the right, of the celebrating priest.

=Cornu-copiæ=, R. Horn of abundance, a symbol of concord, prosperity,
and good fortune. It was represented as a wreathed horn, filled to
overflowing with corn and fruit.

=Corolla=, R. (dimin. of CORONA, q.v.). The _corolla_ denoted in a
general sense a small crown or even a garland; in a more restricted
acceptation it was a garland of artificial flowers made of horn shavings
and painted various colours. Women used to wear this kind of wreath
during winter.

=Corollarium=, R. (dimin. of CORONA, q.v.). It denoted especially a
wreath made out of thin metal leaves, which the audience in a theatre
presented to their favourite actors.

[Illustration: Fig. 192. Mural crown.]

[Illustration: Fig. 193. Naval crown.]

[Illustration: Fig. 194. Celestial crown.]

=Corona= (κορώνη), R. A crown or garland made with natural or artificial
leaves and flowers (of horn, parchment, &c., or metal). There were many
different kinds of _coronæ_, of which the principal were the following:
_corona civica_; _corona classica_, _navalis_, or _rostrata_; _corona
castrensis_ or _vallaris_; _corona longa_; _corona muralis_; _corona
obsidionalis_; _corona natalitia_; _corona oleagina_; _corona ovalis_;
_corona pactilis_, _plectilis_, or _plexilis_; _corona triumphalis_;
_corona sutilis_, &c. The most honourable was the _c. obsidionalis_,
presented by a beleaguered army, after its liberation, to the general
who raised the siege. It was made of grass, or wild flowers plucked on
the site. The _c. civica_ was presented to a Roman soldier who had saved
the life of a citizen in battle. It was made of oak leaves. The _c.
navalis_ was made of gold. The _c. muralis_, presented to the first man
over the wall of a besieged city, was also made of gold, and it was
ornamented with turrets. The _c. castrensis_, presented to the first
soldier who forced an entrance into an enemy’s camp, was of gold
ornamented with palisades. Of the _c. triumphalis_ there were three
kinds: one of laurel or bay leaves, worn by the commanding officer
during his triumph; one of massive gold held over his head; and a third
of still greater value, also of gold. The _c. ovalis_, to commemorate an
ovation to an officer, was made of myrtle leaves. The _c. oleagina_, of
olive leaves, was given to common soldiers. Besides these, there were
the various sacerdotal _coronæ_, emblematical of their functions: the
funereal chaplets of leaves and flowers for the dead, called _c.
funebres_ or _sepulchrales_; the wreaths of roses, violets, myrtles,
ivy, &c., worn at convivial meetings, _c. convivialis_; and the bridal
wreath, of Greek origin, made of flowers not bought, but plucked by the
bride herself, the verbena being the chosen flower among the Romans, _c.
nuptialis_; and finally the _c. natalitia_ suspended over the door of a
house where a child was born. At Athens this was of olive for a boy, and
of wool for a girl. At Rome the wreath was made of laurel, ivy, or
parsley. The various crowns used in heraldry are described under their
respective headings. (See CROWN.)

=Corona= or =Drip-stone=, Gen. A moulding forming part of a cornice, the
lower part or drip of which is grooved, so as to throw off the
rain-water from the structure. Drip-stones are sometimes plain,
sometimes decorated with rich sculptures.

=Corona Lucis=, Chr. A lamp or chandelier suspended above the altar of a
church, from which usually depended a jewelled cross.

=Coronach=, Scotch. A dirge.

=Coronarium= (aureum), R. The gold for a triumphal crown (_corona
triumphalis_): it was sent by the provinces to a victorious chief or

=Coronarium= (opus), R. Stucco-work applied to the decoration of a
cornice or projecting moulding.

=Coronel=, Med. The head of a jousting-lance, so called from its
resemblance to a little crown. Twelve were allowed to a tilter in the
time of Henry VI. (_Meyrick._)

=Coronell=, O. E. A colonel.

[Illustration: Fig. 195. Prince of Wales’s coronet.]

=Coronets.= Ensigns of nobility worn upon the head, introduced into
England about the middle of the 14th century. (See BARON, DUKE, EARL,
&c.) Ladies also wore them surmounting the horned head-dress of the
reign of Henry V. The engraving (Fig. 196) represents Beatrice, Countess
of Arundel, with coronet.

[Illustration: Fig. 196. Coronet of Countess of Arundel, _temp._ Henry

=Coronis= (κορωνίς). Anything curved; the _cornice_ of an entablature.

=Coronize= (Gr. κορωνίζω, from κορώνη, a crow). To beg for the crow;
said of strollers who went about begging with a crow, singing begging
songs. (See CHELIDONIZE.)

=Corporal=, O. E. The fine linen cloth or veil for the pyx, sometimes
embroidered with golden thread and coloured silks. With such a
“corporal” Mary, Queen of Scots, bandaged her eyes for her execution.

=Corpse-candle=, O. E. A thick candle used formerly at _lake-wakes_.

[Illustration: Fig. 197. Corpse or Lich-gate.]

=Corpse-gate= or =Lich-gate=. A shed over the gate of a churchyard to
rest the corpse under. (Fig. 197.)

=Corrugis=, R. (_corrugo_, to wrinkle). Literally, wrinkled; a loose
garment which was wrapped round the body, and fell into numerous folds,
so as to present the appearance of a wrinkled surface.

=Cors=, Arch. The shaft of a pinnacle.

=Corsæ=, R. The mouldings decorating the surface of a marble door-post.

=Corse=, O. E. (See CORCE.)

=Corse of Silk=, O. E. Probably a silk ribbon.

=Corselet=, Fr. A light breastplate; 16th and 17th centuries.

=Corspresant=, Med. A mortuary.

[Illustration: Fig. 198. Cortina.]

=Cortina=, R. (1) A deep circular vessel in the shape of a saucepan,
used for various purposes. (2) The snake’s skin spread over the tripod
of the Pythoness at Delphi. (3) An altar of marble, bronze, or the
precious metals, in the form of a tripod. (4) The vault over the stage
in a theatre was called _cortina_, from its resemblance to the lid of a
tripod. (5) Tables of marble or bronze, made to imitate the slab upon
which the Delphic priestess sat, were also called _cortinæ_ Delphicæ.
(See Fig. 199.)

[Illustration: Fig. 199. Cortina (Etruscan).]

=Cortinale=, R. A cellar in which wine was boiled in caldrons
(_cortinæ_) to preserve it.

=Corundum.= The Indian name for a very hard mineral called adamantine
spar. The ruby and sapphire are varieties of _corundum_.

=Corven.= O. E. for carven, cut.

               “_Corvene_ wyndows of glase,
               With joly bandis of brase.”
                                         (_Lincoln MS._)

=Corvus=, R. (lit. crow). A crane or _grappling-iron_, used in naval
warfare. It was a strong piece of iron with a spike at the end, which,
being violently let down upon a ship from the yard-arm, or a special
mast made for the purpose, went through the bottom and sank it, or at
any rate grappled it fast. A variety of _corvus_ was also made use of in
the assault of fortified places.

=Corybantica=, Gr. and R. Festivals celebrated at Cnossus, in Crete, by
the Corybantes, in honour of Atys and his mother Cybele. The priests ran
through town and country carrying torches and uttering savage cries to
the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. They performed frenzied dances
known under the name of _Corybantic dances_.

=Corycæum=, Gr. and R. A large apartment in a gymnasium or a large
bathing establishment, for the _Corycobolia_ or sack-throwing, a game
which consisted in suspending from the ceiling of the _corycæum_, at the
height of about a yard from the ground, a sack filled with sand, bran,
or seeds, to be thrust away with blows of the fist, and when it was in
full swing to be stopped with the hands, back, or breast. The exercise
was also called _Corycomachia_.

=Corymbus=, R. (κόρυμβος, a cluster). (1) A bunch of any fruit that
grows in clusters, such as ivy-berries. (2) A head-dress or wig arranged
in the form of _corymbi_, in a knot at the top of the head, as that of
Venus is represented in the Medici statue. (3) The term is also
sometimes used as a synonym of APLUSTRE (q.v.).

=Corynalle=, Arch. (See CORNAL.)

                   “The schafte was strong over alle,
                   And a well-shaped _corynalle_.”

=Coryphæus=, Gr. (lit. at the head). (1) Any leader. (2) Esp. the leader
of the chorus of the Attic drama. (3) An epithet of Jupiter Capitolinus.

=Corytus=, Gr. and R. A bow-case. The quiver for arrows was called

[Illustration: Fig. 200. Cos—a Roman Grindstone.]

=Cos=, R. A hone, whetstone, or grindstone. Fig. 200 is taken from an
engraved gem.

=Cosmi= (κόσμοι). The supreme magistrates in Crete.

=Costanti=. One of the Italian literary academies. They had for their
device the sun shining on a column, with the motto _Tantum volvitur
umbra_ (the shadow only revolves).

=Cote=, O. E. A woman’s gown; 15th century.

=Cote Armour.= (See COAT ARMOUR, TABARD.)

=Cote-hardie.= A tight-fitting gown; 14th century.

=Cothurnus=, Gr. and R. The Buskin; a high boot of Greek invention, met
with on representations of certain divinities and of some of the
emperors covered with rich ornamentation. It is an attribute of the
huntress Diana. The sole was thickened with cork for tragic actors, to
make them taller. Horsemen wore it as high as the knee.

=Cotillion= (Fr. _cotte_, an under-petticoat). A dance introduced from
France, where it usually terminated a ball.

=Cotise=, Her. A diminutive of the Bend, being one-fourth of its width.

=Cotta.= A short surplice.

=Cottabus=, =Cottabê=, =Cotabos=, Gr. and R. A game of Greek origin,
played in various manners, by throwing wine into empty cups swimming on
a basin of water, or into scales suspended above a bronze ornament. The
man who drowned most cups won a prize, or he who made the best sound had
a good omen. There were other methods.

=Cotyla=, Gr. and R. A measure of capacity equal to half a pint English.

=Cotyttia= (κοττύτια). Nocturnal festivals celebrated by the Edonians of
Thrace in honour of a goddess called Cotytto (Cybele).

[Illustration: Fig. 201. Hart _couchant_.]

=Couchant= or =Dormant=, Her. In repose. The illustration gives the
device of King Richard II., a white hart _couchant_ on a mount, &c.
(Fig. 201.)

=Coucher=, O. E. A book kept _couched_ or lying on a desk, e. g. books
of the church services left in the places where they were used.

=Coudières=. (See COUTERE.)

=Coufic=. (See CUFIC.)

=Coulisse=, Tech. A piece of timber with a channel or groove in it, such
as that in which the side-scenes of a theatre move.

=Counter=, Her. Reversed or opposite.

=Counterfort=, Arch. A buttress.

=Counterpoint=, Music. The art of combining melodies, or rather of
adding to a melody harmonious parts. _Double Counterpoint_ is “a kind of
artificial composition, where the parts are inverted in such a manner
that the uppermost becomes the lowermost, and _vice versâ_.” (See
_Stainer and Barrett_, _Dic. of Musical Terms_.)

=Counter-proof.= An impression of an engraving printed from a wet proof.

=Counter-seal= or =Secretum=. A seal on the reverse or back of another
seal. Early seals were generally impressed on both sides.

=Countess=, Arch. A roofing slate, 20 inches by 10 inches.

=Couped=, Her. Cut off smoothly. The reverse of _erased_.

=Coupled= (columns), Gen. Two columns are said to be _coupled_ when they
are placed quite close to each other without touching. _Coupled heads_
is the term applied to two heads placed back to back upon the same
pedestal or the same trunk. Many pedestals ornamented with HERMÆ (q.v.)
are surmounted by coupled heads.

=Courant=, Her. Running.

=Course=, Arch. One range, or stratum, of bricks, stones, or other
material in the construction of a wall.

=Court Cards.= The king, queen, and knave of a suit. They were
originally _named_ in France; e. g. the four _kings_ were Charlemagne,
Cæsar, Alexander, and David; the four _queens_, Judith, Rachel, Argine,
and Pallas; and the _valets_, Lahire, Hector, Lancelot, and Hogier. Of
these the _kings_ were said to represent the four ancient monarchies of
the Jews, Greeks, Romans, and Franks; and the _queens_, wisdom, birth,
beauty, and fortitude. (_Taylor._) (See CHATRANG.)

=Court Cupboards=, O. E. Richly carved and large cupboards for plate and
other valuables, _temp._ Charles I.

=Court Dish=, O. E. A kind of drinking-cup.

=Courtepy= (Teutonic). Short cloak or gown.

=Coussinet=, Arch. The crowning stone of a pier, lying immediately under
the arch.

=Coutel=, Fr. A short knife or dagger in use in the Middle Ages.

=Coutere= or =Coutes=. The elbow-piece in armour.

[Illustration: Fig. 202. Couvre-feu (Curfew).]

=Couvre-feu=, Angl. =Curfew=. A screen used, as its name implies, for
covering the fire; introduced with the famous Curfew-bell, _temp._
William Rufus. (Fig. 202.)

=Cove=, Arch. A name for concave mouldings or other concavities.

=Coved Ceiling=, Arch. A ceiling springing from the walls with a cove.

=Coventry Blue.= A celebrated “blew threde” made at Coventry, _temp._

=Covert=, Her. Partly covered.

=Covinus=, R. (Celtic, _kowain_). A war-chariot. The spokes of its
wheels were armed with scythes. [It was used by the ancient Britons. The
Romans gave the name to a close travelling carriage covered in all
round.] (Compare CURRUS, CARPENTUM.)

=Coward= or =Cowed=, Her. An animal with its tail between its legs.

=Cow-lady=, O. E. The lady-bird.

               “A paire of buskins they did bring
               Of the _cow-ladye’s_ corall wyng.”
                                     (_Musarum Deliciæ._)

=Cowl=, Mod. (from _cuculla_, CUCULLUS, q.v.). A priest’s hood.

=Cox= or =Cokes=, O. E. A fool; hence _Coxcomb_, for the top of a fool’s

=Crackle Porcelain= or =Cracklin=. A kind of china, the glaze of which
has been purposely cracked all over in the kiln. The Chinese have many
kinds of this manufacture, some of which are extremely rare and
valuable. White and grey are the common colours amongst modern crackle.
The yellow and cream-coloured specimens are much prized: these are
seldom seen in Europe. The greens, light and dark, turquoise, and reds
are generally finely glazed, and have the crackle lines small and
minute. In colouring, these examples are exquisite, and in this respect
they throw our finest specimens of European porcelain quite into the
shade. The green and turquoise crackle made in China at the present day
are very inferior to the old kinds. Perhaps the rarest and most
expensive of all ancient crackles is a yellowish stone-colour.

=Crackled Glass.= (See GLASS.)

=Cracowes.= Long-toed boots and shoes, introduced in 1384.

=Cradle Vault=, Arch. A cylindrical vault.

=Cradling.= A builder’s term for a timber frame for a ceiling, &c.

=Craig=, Scotch. (1) A rock. (2) The neck; throat.

=Crampet.= The decorated end of a scabbard.

=Crampon.= The border of gold which keeps a stone in a ring. (See

=Cramp-ring=, O. E. A ring consecrated on Good Friday, an amulet against

=Crancelin=, Her. (from the German _Kranzlein_, a small wreath). The
chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony. It is said to be an
augmentation conferred by the Emperor Barbarossa, who took from his head
his own chaplet of rue, and threw it across the shield of the Duke of
Saxony. (_Boutell._)

=Crane’s-bills.= Geraniums, so called from the shape of their

=Crannogs=, Irish. Lake fortresses constructed on artificial islands.

=Crapaudine Doors.= A technical name for doors that turn on pivots at
top and bottom, or are hung with so called _centre-pin_ hinges.

=Crash.= The grey linen used for the kind of embroidery called

[Illustration: Fig. 203. Silver Crater (Roman). Found at Hildesheim.]

=Crater=, Gr. and R. (κρατὴρ, from κεράννυμι, to mix). (1) A large and
beautiful vase with a wide open mouth, in which the wine and water was
mixed which was handed round at banquets and sacrifices. It was into
vases of this description that slaves dipped a ladle (_cyathus_), with
which they filled the cups. The beautiful silver _crater_ shown in the
illustration (Fig. 203), of a date not later than the 1st century, was
found with other treasures of a similar kind at Hildesheim, near
Hanover, in 1869. It is now in the Berlin Museum. (2) The mouth of a
volcano is named from its resemblance to the Greek crater. (3) A small
constellation of the southern hemisphere called the Cup.

=Crates=, R. A frame or basket made of hurdles, and so a hurdle itself.
(English, “_crate_.”)

=Craticula=, R. (dimin. of _crates_). A small hurdle, and by analogy, a
gridiron, which looks like a small hurdle.

=Creag=, O. E. The game of ninepins.

=Creagra.= Gr. (κράγρα, from κρέας and ἀγρέω, i. e. a flesh-hook). A
synonym of the Latin term HARPAGO (q.v.).

=Creasing.= A builder’s word for a row of tiles under the coping of a

=Credence Table.= The small table beside an altar, on which the
communion was placed before consecration.

=Creme-box=, O. E. A chrismatory (q.v.).

=Cremesyn=, O. E. Crimson velvet.

=Cremium=, R. (_cremo_, to burn). Small wood, made up into bundles, used
by bakers, and for lighting the hypocausts under the baths.

=Crenel.= The peak at the top of a helmet.

=Crenellated=, Her. Embattled. (See BATTLEMENT.)

[Illustration: Fig. 204 Crenellated walls at Pompeii.]

=Crenelle=, Fr. A cutting or indentation of the walls of a fortress or
tower, &c. The spaces between the solid masonry are called _embrasures_,
and the solid portions themselves _merlons_; usually the tops of the
merlons are coped to throw off rain. (See COPING.) Fig. 204 shows a
portion of the crenellated walls of Pompeii restored. (See Fig. 77.)

=Crepida=, Gr. and R. (κρηπίς). A slipper made of a strong leather sole,
to the edges of which was fixed a piece of leather with eyelet-holes
(_ansæ_) for the laces (_corrigiæ_) or a strap (_amentum_). This shoe
was of Greek origin. _Crepida carbatina_ was the name given to a shoe of
the simplest and plainest description. (See CARBATINA.) [This shoe is
only found represented on figures clothed with the _pallium_, not the

[Illustration: Fig. 205. Crepido in a street in Pompeii.]

=Crepido=, Gr. and R. (κρηπίς). In a general sense, any kind of base or
stand upon which another object rests, and by analogy the embankment of
a quay, a dike, or jetty. The term is also applied to the raised
causeway for foot passengers at the side of a road or street. Fig. 204
represents a _crepido_ on a high road near Pompeii, and Fig. 205 a
_crepido_ in the streets of the same town.

=Crepitaculum=, R. (_crepo_, to creak). A child’s rattle, made in the
form of a circle to which bells were attached. These rattles have been
found in the excavations of Pompeii. Some authors apply the term to the
SISTRUM of the Egyptians.

=Crepitus= (sc. _digitorum_), R. A snapping of the fingers made by
pressing the tip of the thumb firmly against the tip of the middle

=Crepundia=, R. A general term for playthings for children, as well as
for necklaces of various ornaments, or amulets. These were in some
instances of great length, and were worn by the children like

=Créquier=, Her. The wild plum-tree: the device of the Créquy family.

[Illustration: Fig. 206. Crescent.]

=Crescent=, Her. The _difference_ of the second son. The moon is a
crescent when she appears as in Fig. 206. (Compare DECRESCENT,

=Cresolite=, O. E. Crystal.

=Crespine=, Fr. A network to confine the hair of ladies; the _calantica_
of the ancients. It is found in mediæval monuments in a variety of

=Cressets.= A small pan or portable fireplace, filled with combustibles,
used for illuminating purposes; 16th century. Her., a beacon. (See Fig.

=Crest=, Arch, (_crista_). A running ornament, more or less incised and
perforated, which is placed on the ridge of roofs. Many monuments of
antiquity have been adorned with terra-cotta crests; in the
Romano-Byzantine architecture examples occur which are made of stone,
while in Pointed or Renaissance art they were made of lead.

[Illustration: Fig. 207. Royal crest of England.]

=Crest=, Her. (Lat. _crista_). This word, familiar to us as the name of
an ornament surmounting the helmet and the insignia of a gentleman of
coat armour, signified in classic times a comb terminating in a peak in
front of the casque decorated with horsehair or plumes. (See CRISTA,
Fig. 252.) The earliest appearance of a crest in England is on the
second seal of Richard I. Fig. 207 illustrates the manner in which the
crest is worn upon the royal crown of England. Crests are not worn by
ladies, excepting by the Sovereign. (See PANACHE.)

[Illustration: Fig. 208. Crest-coronet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 209. Crest-wreaths.]

=Crest-coronet=, =Crest-wreath=, or =Orle=, Her. A coronet or wreath to
support a crest. (Fig. 208 and 209.)

=Crest-tiles.= Tiles used for covering the ridge of a roof.

=Creta Lævis.= A crayon of permanent colour for chalk drawing.

=Crewel-work.= (See CRASH.)

=Crewels.= A worsted of two plies adapted for embroidery.

=Crewetts.= Small vessels used at the altar, to hold the wine and water
for consecration.

=Crimson= (Arab, _cremisi_, the cochineal insect). A deep tone of red,
tinged with blue.

=Crinale=, R. (_crinis_, the hair). A large convex comb worn by women
and children at the back of the head.

=Crined=, Her. Having a mane or hair.

=Crinetts=, O. E. The long small black feathers on a hawk’s head. (_H._)

=Crinze=, O. E. A drinking-cup. (_H._)

=Criobolè=, Gr. (κριοβόλη). A sacrifice to Cybele, so called because the
victim was a ram (κριός).

=Crista=, R. The crest of the helmet, which was attached to an elevated
ridge (generally of horsehair). A fine example is given in the head of
“Rome,” on the Tazza of Diruta. (Fig. 252.) (See CREST.)

=Cristatus=, R. (_crista_). Having a ridge and a crest. (Fig. 252.)

=Cristendom=, O. E. Baptism.

            “And that bastard that to the ys dere,
            _Crystyndome_ schalle he none have here.” (_H._)

=Cristygrey.= A kind of fur much used in the 15th century.

              “Of no devyse embroudid hath hire wede,
              Ne furrid with ermyn ne with _cristygrey_.”

=Crites= (κριτής). A judge in _equity_, as opposed to DIKASTES, a judge
in _law_.

=Croakumshire.= An ancient name for the county of Northumberland. (_H._)

=Crobbe=, O. E. Knops of buds hung as ornaments from a roof.

=Crobylus=, Gr. and R. (κρωβύλος). A method of arranging the hair
peculiar to the inhabitants of Athens. The hair, rolled up in a knot on
the top of the head, was fastened with golden clasps in the shape of
grasshoppers. The name applies only to men’s hair; the same fashion for
women was called _Corymbus_.

=Croc= or =Crook=. A curved mace.

=Crocea.= A cardinal’s cloak.

=Crochet.= Knitting done with linen thread, and used under the name of
_nun’s lace_ from the 16th century for bordering altar-cloths, albs, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 210. Crocket.]

=Crocket.= (1) An architectural enrichment, generally of leaves or
flowers; an ornamentation peculiar to the pointed style of architecture.
(Fig. 210.) (2) A large roll of hair, much worn in the time of Edward I.

                 “His _crocket_ kembt, and thereon set
                 A nouche with a chapelet.”

=Crocota=, Gr. and R. (from κρόκος, crocus). A very rich robe of saffron
colour, whence its name. It was worn by Greek and Roman women as a gala
dress, especially at the Dionysia.

[Illustration: Fig. 211. Cromlech.]

=Cromlec’h=, Celtic (from _cromm_, curved, and _lec’h_, place). An
enclosure formed by _menhirs_, or huge stones planted in the ground in a
circle or semicircle. These enclosures (Fig. 211) were consecrated
places used as burying-grounds. (See STANDING STONES, DOLMENS, MENHIRS,

[Illustration: Fig. 212. Cross _Recercelée_.]

[Illustration: Fig. 213. St. Andrew’s Cross (_Saltire_).]

[Illustration: Fig. 214. St. George’s Cross _fimbriated_.]

[Illustration: Fig. 215. Victoria Cross.]

=Cross=, Chr. (_Crux_). The symbol of the Christian religion. The
ordinary or primitive type of cross has no summit. It is called
_commissa_ or _patibulata_, and sometimes the _Tau_ cross, from its
resemblance to the Greek letter so named (T). Fig. 121 represents a
stone cross of the Romano-Byzantine period, at Carew, in England. The
St. Andrew’s cross has the form of an X. The Greek cross is of four
equal parts. The Latin cross has the foot longer than the summit or
arms. The Maltese cross and the cross of Jerusalem are varieties of the
Greek cross. The Patriarchal cross (heraldic) has two cross pieces, the
triple cross has three, &c. PER CROSS, in heraldry, is the division of a
shield _quarterly_ (a combination of pale and fesse). (Figs. 212 to

=Cross and Pile=, O. E. The game of “heads and tails.”

=Cross-aisled=, Arch. Having TRANSEPTS.

=Cross-bows= were brought to England by the Crusaders. They were
frequently richly carved and inlaid.

=Cross-days=, O. E. The three days before Ascension Day.

=Cross-gartered.= Having the garters crossed on the leg. (_H._)

=Cross-hatching.= A term in engraving applied to lines which intersect
at regular angles, to increase depth of shadow.

=Crossos=, Gr. (κρωσσός). A wide-bodied vessel narrowing towards the
mouth; it is furnished with a stand and two handles or ears (δίωτοι).

=Cross-row=, O. E. The alphabet. (See CHRIST-CROSS.)

=Cross-springer=, Arch. In vaulting, the diagonal rib of a GROIN.

=Cross-vaulting=, Arch. That which is formed by the intersection of two
or more simple vaults. When the vaults spring at the same level, and
rise to the same height, the cross vault is termed a GROIN. The
illustration (Fig. 173), the cloisters of the church of Mont St. Michel
in France, shows the cross-vaulting.

[Illustration: Fig. 216. Crotalia. Greek necklace.]

=Crotalium=, Gr. and R. (from κροτέω, to rattle). A small rattle. The
Greek and Roman ladies gave this name to their pendants formed of two or
four pear-shaped pearls (_elenchi_), which rattled softly as the wearer
moved about. (Fig. 216.)

=Crotalum= Gr. and R. (κρόταλον). Castanets made of slit cane, used by
dancers in the worship of Cybele. The Middle Ages also had their
_crotala_, which consisted of a metal rod, in which were inserted rings,
which sounded when the instrument was shaken.

=Crow= or =Raven=. The attribute of St. Vincent.

=Crowde= or =Croud=, O. E. (1) The crypt of a church. (2) A fiddle.

=Crown.= (See CORONA. See also MURAL CROWN, NAVAL CROWN, CREST, &c.)

[Illustration: Fig. 217. Crown of Her Majesty the Queen.]

=Crown= (of a bell). The top of the inside of a bell, in which the ring
is fixed from which the clapper is suspended. In architecture the spire
of a steeple is said to _crown_ the tower, or a fleuron to crown a
gable, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 218. Crown of the Rose.]

=Crown.= An old English coin, the value of which has varied at different
periods. The illustration represents the gold crown of Henry VIII.,
dated 1462, called a crown of the Rose, value 4_s._ 6_d._ Other crown
pieces were called, from the mint-mark, crowns of the Sun.

=Croyle=, O. E. Crewel; tightly-twisted worsted.

=Crozier=, Chr. The name is often _improperly_ applied to the bishop’s
crooked pastoral staff; it belongs to the staff surmounted by a cross
which is borne before an archbishop. The Byzantine crozier was that of
the T-shaped cross; it had sometimes curved serpents on both sides.

=Crucifix.= The representation of the Saviour on the Cross was first
introduced in the time of Constantine. It has undergone considerable
variation at different periods.

[Illustration: Fig. 219. Porcelain Cruciform Box (Egyptian).]

=Cruciform.= Shaped to form a cross. The illustration represents a
specimen of ancient Egyptian porcelain, of this shape, ornamented with
the lotus. (See EGYPTIAN POTTERY.)

=Crumata.= (See CRUSMATA.)

=Crumena=, R. A leather pouch for carrying money. The _balantion_ of the
Greeks was worn suspended from the neck by a strap.

=Crumenal=, O. E. A purse.

=Crupezia=, Gr. (κρούω, to strike). A kind of sandal with a double sole,
in the middle of which were castanets with springs. (See CROTALUM.)
Greek flute-players used them in the theatre to beat time to the singing
and declamation of the chorus.

[Illustration: Fig. 220. Device of the Della Cruscan Academy.]

=Crusca, Accademia della.= A literary academy established in Florence in
the 15th century by Cosmo de’ Medici; their device, a bolting-mill,
represented in Fig. 220, was symbolical of their object to cultivate the
Italian language by winnowing the flour from the bran; and in allusion
to it, the members called themselves by appropriate names, as
Infarinato, Rimenato, Gramolato, Insaccato, &c. On the top of the shield
is the Marzocco, or Lion of Florence, the emblem of the city.

=Crusilée=, =Crusily=, Her. Having the field semée of small crosses.

=Cruske=, O. E. An earthen vessel; cf. the Irish _cruishkeen_.

=Crusmata=, =Crumata=, Gr. and R. (κρούω, to strike). Castanets.

=Crustæ=, R. In the finest works of the chaser, the ornamental pattern
was frequently distinct from the vessel, to which it was either fastened
permanently, or so that it could be removed at pleasure, the vessel
being of silver, and the ornaments of gold, which were called _crustæ_
or _emblemata_ (Dr. Smith). Of these the former were the figures
embossed in low relief, and the _emblemata_ were those in high relief.

=Crustulum=, R. (dimin. of _crustum_). Anything baked; plaster
mouldings; a cheap kind of decoration in bas-relief.

=Crutch.= An attribute of St. Anthony, to denote his age and feebleness.

=Crux.= The Latin equivalent for CROSS (q.v.).

=Crwth= (A.S. _crudh_, Eng. _crowd_). A Welsh instrument, a sort of
violin, similar to the _rébek_ of the Bretons.

[Illustration: Fig. 221. Crypt at Lanmeur (France).]

=Crypta=, =Crypt=, Chr. (κρύπτω, to bury). In ancient times the crypt
was really a cloister; it formed, in fact, a long and narrow gallery
surrounded by buildings, and itself surrounding a building, garden, or
court. The courtyards of _villæ_ were surrounded by crypts; the ruins of
Diomed’s _villa_, at Pompeii, afford a curious instance of the kind. In
modern archæology the term crypt is applied to a subterranean chapel
underneath a church. (Figs. 221 and 222.) Among the Romans the word
meant (1) a covered portico, or arcade, called _crypto-porticus_. (2) A
grotto, or more accurately a tunnel. (3) A subterranean vault used for
secret worship. (4) In the catacombs, a tomb in which a number of bodies
were interred together.

[Illustration: Fig. 222. Crypt of St. Mary’s Church, Warwick.]

=Crypteia= (κρυπτεία). A systematic massacre of Helots at night, by
young Spartans, who hid themselves during the day.

=Crystal.= Rock crystals are frequently found large enough to make
vessels of. The Romans had crystal drinking-cups of extraordinary size
and beauty. Crystal ornaments were especially chosen for ecclesiastical
purposes, and for mediæval bookbinding, &c., and are frequently found in
early British graves.

=Crystalotype.= A sun-picture taken and fixed on glass by the collodion

=Cubiculum=, R. and Chr. (_cubo_, to recline). (1) A bedroom. (2) The
emperor’s pavilion or tent at the amphitheatre or circus. (3) In
Christian archæology, the sepulchral chambers of the catacombs. (See

=Cubile=, R. (_cubo_). A bed, or chamber containing a bed.

=Cubit= (Gr. πῆχυς, Lat. _cubitus_, an elbow). A measure of length among
the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. In Egypt there were two cubits; the
_natural cubit_, or small cubit, was equal to 18 inches (6 palms or 24
fingers); the _royal cubit_ to 21 inches (7 palms or 28 fingers). Each
of the subdivisions of the cubit was consecrated to a divinity. The
Greek cubit was equal to about 18¼ inches; the Roman cubit to very
nearly 17½ inches.

=Cubital=, R. A bolster or cushion used by the Romans to rest the elbow
on when reclining.

=Cubit-arm=, Her. A human arm couped at the elbow.

=Cubitoria=, =-æ= (sc. _vestimenta_, _vestes_). (See CŒNATORIA.)

=Cucullus=, R. Literally, a piece of paper rolled into the shape of a
funnel, used at Rome by apothecaries and other tradespeople for wrapping
up certain kinds of goods; and hence, by analogy, the hood affixed to
certain garments, such as the _lacerna_, _pænula_, _sagum_, &c. (See

=Cucuma=, R. A term applied to various earthenware or metal vessels,
when they were used to heat water or any other liquid.

=Cucurbita=, R. A pumpkin or gourd, and thence a cupping-glass.

=Cudo=, =Cudon=, R. A skull-cap made of soft leather or furs.

=Cuerpo= (Span.). Body clothing, i. e. a jacket.

=Cufic= (characters), Arab. The Cufic is the most ancient form of
Arabian writing, and bears a great resemblance to the Syriac writing
called _estranghelo_; it appears to have originated in the city of Cufa
or Coufa, whence the name.


=Cuir-boulli=, Fr. Boiled leather, frequently mentioned by mediæval
writers. It has lately been revived under the name of _impressed
leather_, and brought to a high state of perfection. (_Fairholt._)

=Cuirbouly=, O. E. Tanned leather.

[Illustration: Fig. 223. Cuisse.]

=Cuisses=, Fr. Armour for the thighs, introduced about the middle of the
14th century. In early examples they consisted of one, two, or three
pieces of plate overlapping; later on they were formed of one piece
only, and finally were finished with a back piece, enclosing the whole
of the thigh in armour.

=Cuitikins=, =Cutikins=, Scotch. Guêtres, gaiters.

=Cuker=, O. E. Part of a woman’s horned head-dress, “furred with a cat’s

=Culcita=, R. A mattress of horsehair, wool, wadding, or feathers.

=Culettes=, Fr. Plates of armour protecting the back, from the waist to
the saddle.

=Culeus= or =Culleus=, R. The largest liquid measure of capacity used by
the Romans, containing 20 amphoræ, or about 119 gallons. The same name
was also applied to a very large sack, of skin or leather, used for oil
or wine. It was in the _culei_ that parricides were sewed up.

=Culigna=, R. A vessel for holding wine. It was a kind of amphora of a
broader form, its width exceeding its height.

=Culina=, R. A kitchen.

=Cullis=, Arch. Same as COULISSE (q.v.).

=Culme=, O. E. The summit.

=Cultellus=, R. (dimin. of CULTER, q.v.). A knife. _Cultellus ligneus_,
a wedge of wood.

=Culter= or =Culta=, R. A knife. _Culter coquinaris_ was a
kitchen-knife; _culter venatorius_, a hunting-knife; _culter tonsorius_,
a razor; _culter vinitorius_, or _falx vinitoria_, a vine-dresser’s
pruning knife. The term denoted as well (1) the knife with which the
officiating priest cut the victim’s throat; (2) a knife for carving,
also called _cultellus_; (3) the _coulter_ of a plough fixed in front of
the plough-share.

=Culullus=, R. (_culeus_, q.v.). Generally, any drinking-vessel, and
more particularly any earthenware vessel used by priests and vestals at

=Culver=, A.S. A dove.

=Culver-house.= A pigeon-house.

=Cumera=, R. A kind of large box or basket employed by country people
for keeping their seed-wheat in.

=Cumerum=, R. A bridal basket containing the presents of the bride and
bridegroom; it was carried by a _camillus_ in the bridal procession.

=Cumpi-coptra=, Peruv. One of the divisions in the royal arsenals of the
ancient Peruvians. It contained llama-wool, and textures of alpaca,
embroidered in the college of the Virgins of the Sun (PASUA-HUASI),

=Cunabula=, R. Literally, a child’s cradle, and thence a bird’s nest, a
beehive, a native city; any place, in short, in which a living thing is
born. A synonym for this term is CUNÆ. Bibliologists call early
specimens of printing by this name, or INCUNABULA (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 224. Cuneiform characters.]

=Cuneiform= (characters). Oriental characters formed by a single symbol,
which is in the shape of a wedge (_cuneus_). This kind of writing has
been in use among many nations; more particularly the ancient Persians,
Persepolitans, Babylonians, and Ninevites. Fig. 224 represents the first
cuneiform characters which found their way to Europe.

=Cuneus=, R. (1) A wedge of wood, iron, or any other metal. (2) In a
theatre or amphitheatre, a set of tiers comprised within two staircases
(_scalæ_), so called from its wedge-like form. (3) A body of soldiers
drawn up in the form of a wedge to break through the enemy’s line. The
common soldiers called the formation _caput porcinum_, a pig’s head.

=Cuniculus=, R. (_cuneus_). An underground passage to a fortified place.

=Cupa=, R. A barrel or hogshead. _Vinum de cupâ_ was wine which had not
been drawn off in amphoræ; it was wine from the cask, new wine. The cupa
was sometimes made of earthenware like the dolium. It was used for many
purposes besides that of a wine-vat. (See CUPELLA.)

=Cupel.= A melting-pot for gold.

=Cupella=, R. and Chr. (dimin. of CUPA, q.v.). In Christian archæology,
a tomb. The word occurs on a catacomb marble, inscribed with grotesque
Latin: “I, Secunda, erected this _cupella_ to my two children,” &c. [The
cupa was sometimes used by the Romans as a sarcophagus.] (See

=Cupola=, It. A concave roof, circular or polygonal.

=Cups.= (See COPPA.)

=Curb Roof=, Arch. A Mansard roof; a roof with a double set of rafters
on each side, of peculiar construction.

=Curch=, Gael. A kerchief.

=Curfew.= (See COUVRE-FEU, Fig. 202.)

=Curia=, =Curiæ=, R. (1) A building in which the people met together to
offer sacrifices and take part in the festivities on certain days of
festival. (2) The _senatorial curiæ_ were buildings in which the senate
usually assembled. (3) The _Salian curia_ was a place situated on the
Palatine Hill, which formed the place of assembly for the _Salian_
priests who guarded the _anciles_ or sacred shields. (4) _Curia calabra_
was a small temple founded, almost simultaneously with the building of
Rome, on the Palatine; it formed the observatory for the petty pontiffs
whose duty it was to watch the appearance of the new moon. In Christian
archæology the _Roman curia_ denotes the pontifical tribunals

=Curliewurlies=, Scotch. Fantastical circular ornaments.

=Currach=, Scotch. A coracle or small skiff; a boat of wicker-work
covered with hides.

[Illustration: Fig. 225. Currus. The Chariot of the Sun. The device of
Philip II. of Spain.]

=Currus=, =Chariot= (Gr. ἅρμα). A two-wheeled car or carriage in use
among nearly all the nations of antiquity. There were racing-chariots,
riding-chariots, and triumphal chariots. Some of these were profusely
decorated with ivory (_currus eburnei_). War-chariots armed with scythes
or sharp blades were called _falcati_. (See COVINUS.) The illustration
(Fig. 225), a device of Philip II. of Spain, represents Apollo driving
the chariot of the Sun.

=Cursores.= “Runners” before their masters’ carriages; messengers

=Curtail Dog=, O. E. A dog belonging to a person not qualified to hunt
game, which, by the forest laws, must have its tail cropped.

=Curtail Step=, Arch. The first step of a stair, when its outer end is
finished in the form of a scroll; when it has a circular end, it is
called a round-ended step.

=Cushat=, Scotch. A wood-pigeon.

=Cushion-capital=, Arch. (1) A capital resembling a cushion pressed by a
weight. (2) A cube rounded off at its lower angles; the capital most
prevalent in the Norman style.

=Cusp.= In Astrology, the “entrance” of a “house.”

[Illustration: Fig. 226. Cuspis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 227. Cuspis—Flint lance.]

[Illustration: Figs. 228, 229, 230. Cuspides—Roman lances.]

=Cuspis=, R. A point, more particularly the point of a lance, or
javelin, since these were not barbed. Fig. 226 represents a javelin-head
which gives a complete idea of the character of the point called
_cuspis_; Fig. 227 shows a flint lance; and Figs. 228 to 230 the
lance-headed _cuspides_ affixed to the top of the Roman ensigns. (See

=Cusps.= The foliations of architectural tracery, such as are formed by
the points of a trefoil.

=Custodia.= The shrine or receptacle for the host in Spanish churches.

=Cutlass=, =Coutel-hache=, or =Coutel-axe=, O. E. This weapon was
introduced at the end of the 15th century.

=Cut-work.= Also called “opus consutum;” _Ital._ “di commesso.”
Open-work embroidery came into universal use in England in the 16th
century. In the reign of Richard II., however, we are told,—

          “Cut werke was greate both in court and townes,
          Bothe in mene’s hoddies, and also in their gownes.”


=Cyanogen.= A gaseous compound of carbon and nitrogen, necessary to the
formation of _Prussian blue_.

=Cyathus=, Gr. and R. A vase or ladle with one handle, used for taking
wine from the crater (κρατὴρ), in order to fill the cups (_pocula_,
_calices_) of the guests, at feasts and banquets. The term was also used
to denote a small measure containing the twelfth part of the
_sextarius_, or ·0825 of a pint. The cyathus was used in medicine to
measure drugs with accuracy. [It is often represented, on vases, in the
hands of Bacchus, in place of his proper goblet the Cantharus.]

=Cybistic= (dance), R. (κυβιστάω, to tumble). A part of the military
exercises in which the performer threw himself at intervals on his
hands, so as to rebound on his feet.

=Cyclas=, R. (κυκλὰς, circular). A long and loose piece of drapery, of a
very fine texture; it was hemmed with purple or gold embroidery. The
_cyclas_ formed part of a woman’s costume, but it was also worn by men
of an effeminate or dissolute character; hence—

=Cyclas=, O. E. The name of a long sleeveless gown worn by knights over
their armour (from _ciclatoun_, q.v., of which it was made).

[Illustration: Fig. 231. Cyclopean Masonry.]

=Cyclopean= (masonry, monuments), Gr. and R. (κυκλώπειον). Ancient
structures, also known as _Pelasgian_, as being the work of Pelasgians
who had learned in the school of Phœnician workmen called Cyclopes.
These ancient structures are formed of enormous irregularly-shaped
stones (Fig. 231), placed one above the other without cement or mortar.
Remains of them are found in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy; they consist
chiefly of the walls of acropoles.

[Illustration: Fig. 232. Cylix. A Gallic drinking-cup.]

=Cylix=, Gr. and R. A vase also known as a _calix_ or _cup_. It was a
wide flat drinking-cup, very shallow, of a circular form, with two
handles, and mounted on a tolerably tall foot. Fig. 232 shows a silver
cylix or Gaulish cup, found in the ruins of Alisia.

[Illustration: Fig. 233. Decorated Cyma.]

=Cyma=, =Cymatium= (Eng. =Ogee=, Gr. κυμάτιον). An architectural
moulding, named from the Greek κῦμα (wave or billow), the moulding
consisting of an undulation. A cyma, the outline of which is convex at
the top and concave below, is called _cyma reversa_; when it is hollow
in the upper part, it is called a _cyma recta_. (Fig. 233.)

=Cymatile=, R. (κῦμα). A Roman female dress, of a changing sea-green
colour, like the waves.

=Cymba=, R. (κύμβος, a hollow). (1) A small boat. (2) A vase of metal or
clay in the form of a small boat. (See CYMBIUM.)

=Cymbals=, O. E. A contrivance of a number of metal plates, or bells,
suspended on cords.

=Cymbalum=, R. (from κύμβος). The cymbals; a musical instrument made of
two disks of bronze or brass. (See CROTALUM, FLAGELLUM.)

=Cymbe=, Gr. An ointment-pot, similar in shape to the _Ampulla_ (q.v.).

=Cymbium=, R. (κυμβίον). A boat-shaped drinking-cup with two handles.
(See CYMBA.)

=Cynocephalus=, Egyp. An ape with a dog’s head; a sacred animal,
representing Anubis in the Egyptian mythology.

=Cynophontis= (sc. ἑορτὴ), Gr. (derived from the Greek κύων, dog, and
φόνος, slaughter). Festivals held at Argos during the dog-days, when
dogs found straying in the city were killed.

=Cynopolites=, Egyp. (κυνοπολίτης). A nome of Upper Egypt.

[Illustration: Fig. 234. Branch of Cypress and of Myrtle. Device of M.
A. Colonna.]

=Cypress.= In Persian art, this tree is the frequently-occurring emblem
of the religion of Zoroaster, and of the soul aspiring to Heaven. In
Christian and modern symbolism it is the emblem of mourning. The device
of _cypress_ and _myrtle_ assumed by Marc Antonio Colonna on the
occasion of the defence of Ravenna is emblematic of “_death_ or
_victory_.” The wood of the cypress-tree was much used for statuary by
the ancients. Carved chests of cypress were especially used, in the
Middle Ages, for keeping clothes and tapestry; its aromatic properties
were considered a specific against moth. (Fig. 234.)

=Cyprus.= Thin stuff of which women’s veils were made.

=Cyprus= or =Verona Green=. A pigment mentioned by Pliny as _Appian
Green_: it is prepared from green earths found at Cyprus or Verona,
which are coloured by oxide of copper. (See APPIANUM.)

=Cysts= or =Cists=, Etrus. (κίστη, a chest). Offerings dedicated by
women in the temple of Venus, of cylindrical caskets of enchased bronze.
The handles of these caskets represent small figures, and the feet the
claws of animals. Those which have been found in Etruscan tombs, chiefly
at Præneste, are in many cases decorated with _a graffito_ designs.

=Cyzicenæ=, Gr. (κυζικηναί). Large and richly-decorated apartments,
built for the first time at Cyzicus, which had their principal fronts to
the north, and were situated in a garden.


=Dabber.= A tool used in etching to distribute the etching-ground over a
plate of metal in the first process of engraving, and, in printing from
copper-plate engraving and woodcuts, to spread the ink.

=Dactyliography= or =Dactyliology=, Gen. (δακτύλιος, a ring). The study
of rings.

=Dactyliotheca=, Gr. (δακτυλιο-θήκη, a ringbox). (1) A glass case or
casket containing rings. (2) A collection of rings, engraved stones, or
precious stones. (See GLYPTOTHECA.)

=Dactylus=, Gr. (δάκτυλος, a finger). The Roman _digitus_; a
finger-breadth, the 16th part of a foot.

=Dado=, Arch. (1) The part of a pedestal between the base and the
cornice. (2) In apartments, an arrangement of moulding, &c., round the
lower part of the wall.

=Dædal.= A fanciful word coined by the poet Spenser, for “variegated in

=Dædala=, Gr. Ancient images preserved in sanctuaries in memory of
Dædalus, to whom were attributed the greater number of those works of
art the origin of which was unknown. Hence the name was especially
attributed to certain wooden statues, ornamented with gilding, bright
colours, and real drapery, which were the earliest known form of images
of the gods.

=Dædala=, Gr. (δαίδαλα). Festivals in honour of Hera, celebrated in

=Dæmon=, =Daimon=, Gr. (δαίμων). The good genius who watched over an
individual during his whole life, like the Latin _Lar_ and _Genius_. It
was the belief of Socrates that he was guided by his Daimon in every
important act and thought of his life. The word has a general meaning of

=Dag= or =Dagge=. Old English name of a pistol.

=Dagges=, O. E. Ornamental cutting of the edges of garments, introduced
into England about 1346. (See the illustration to COINTISE, Fig. 177).

=Dagob=, Hindoo. A conical tumulus or shrine in which relics and images
of Buddha were worshipped.

=Dag-swain=, O. E. A sort of rough material of which coverlets for beds,
tables, or floors were made.

=Daguerreotype=. A kind of photography on plates of silver, named after
M. Daguerre, the inventor.

=Daidies=, Gr. (from δαίω, to kindle). A festival held at Athens, during
which torches were lit; it lasted three days.

[Illustration: Fig. 235. Dais.]

=Dais=, Chr. An architectural structure, decorated with sculptures and
ornaments, which serves as a canopy for an altar, throne, pulpit, chair
(_cathedra_), statue, or group. Fig. 235 represents a stone dais of the
St. Anne door in the cathedral of Paris.

=Dais.= In Anglo-Saxon houses, and generally; a covered seat of honour,
at the upper end of the hall, on a raised floor. (“In all the houses of
the wealthy _in China_ there are two raised seats at the end of the
reception-room, with a table between them.” _Fortune_.) (See DEAS.)

=Dalmahoy=, O. E. A kind of bushy bob-wig, worn especially by chemists;
18th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 236. Ecclesiastical Dalmatic.]

=Dalmatic.= A long robe or upper tunic partly opening at the sides, so
named from its being of Dalmatian origin; an ecclesiastical vestment;
also a portion of the coronation robes of sovereign princes. It was
usually made of white silk with purple stripes, occasionally of other
colours, the left sleeve only being ornamented; the right was plain for
convenience. As early as the reign of Richard I., the dalmatic is
mentioned amongst the coronation robes. (Fig. 236.) (See COLOBIUM,

=Damara= or =Dammar=. A resin used for varnishes. It is a valuable
substitute for mastic.

=Damaretion.= A Sicilian coin, supposed to have been of gold, equal in
value to a half-_stater_.

=Damas= (or =Damascus=) =Pottery Ware=. The commercial name in the 16th
century for a large class of wares, now generally known as Persian.

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Specimen of Arabic Damascening (full size).]

=Damascening=, or =Damaskeening=, is the art of incrusting one metal on
another, not in _crusta_, but in the form of wire, which by undercutting
and hammering is thoroughly incorporated with the metal it is intended
to ornament. (See DAMASK, DAMASCUS BLADES.) The process of etching
slight ornaments on polished steel wares is also called Damascening.
(Fig. 237.)

=Damascus Blades= are prepared of a cast steel highly charged with
carbon, which, being tempered by a peculiar process, assumes the
manycoloured _watered_ appearance by which they are known. The process
is called DAMASCENING (q.v.).

=Damask.= A rich fabric, woven with large patterns, in silk, linen,
wool, or even cotton, originally made at Damascus. (See Fig. 88.)

=Dames=, O. E. The old name for the game of draughts, represented early
in the 14th century. The pieces were originally square.

=Danace= (δανάκη). The _obolus_ which was placed in the mouth of the
dead to pay the passage of the Styx.

=Dance of the Corybantes.= (See CORYBANTICA.)

=Dance of Death=, =Danse Macabre=, Chr. Paintings, illuminations, or
sculptures in bas-relief, representing men dancing under the eye of
Death, who presides at this dance. In some instances the performers are
skeletons and corpses. The most celebrated Dance of Death was that
painted in fresco by Holbein in the cloister of the Dominicans at Basle.
It has been destroyed by fire, but the etching-needle has preserved it
for us. Other examples that may be named are, that in the new church at
Strasburg, that of Lucerne, that in the palace at Dresden, and—most
ancient of all—that at Minden, in Westphalia, which dates from 1380.

=Dancette=, Arch. The chevron or zigzag moulding peculiar to Norman
architecture. (See CHEVRON.)

=Dangu Faience.= Pottery from a manufactory near Gisors in France,
established in 1753.

=Daphnephoria= (δάφνη, a laurel). A festival held in honour of Apollo
every ninth year at Thebes, in which the assistants carried laurel

=Dara=, Ind. A kind of tambourine.

=Darabukkeh.= An Egyptian drum, unaltered from ancient times.

=Daric Money.= A Persian gold coin, stamped on one side with the figure
of an archer kneeling, and on the other with a deep cleft, and to which
the name of _Daric money_ has been given by numismatists. Its proper
name is the Stater of Dareius I., king of Persia. Its value is about
1_l._ 1_s._ 10_d._

=Darned Netting= (needlework). (See LACIS.)

=Datatim ludere=, R. To play with a ball (“_catch-ball_”).

=Davenport Pottery= is the produce of a manufactory of fine faience
established at Longport in England by John Davenport in 1793.

=Day=, Arch. Part of a window: the same as BAY.

=Deacon=, Chr. A dalmatic, or an alb; i. e. a _deacon’s_ vestment.

=Dead-boot=, O. E., Chr. Prayers for the dead.

=Dealbatus=, R. (_dealbo_, to whiten over). Covered with a coating of
stucco (_albarium opus_). The builders of antiquity made great use of
stucco, both in the interior and exterior of buildings. All the
buildings of Pompeii are stuccoed.

=Deambulatory=, Arch. (_deambulo_, to walk about). The lateral nave
which surrounds the choir of a church; it is usually separated from the
aisles by a grating (_cancelli_).

=Deas=, =Dais=, =Dees=, Scotch, (1) A table, especially the great hall
table. (2) A pew in a church. (3) A turf seat erected at the door of a
cottage. (See DAIS.)

=Death’s-man=, O. E. The executioner.

=Debased=, Her. Reversed.

=Decadence.= The term in ancient art is applied to the period after the
fall of Rome, and before the _Renaissance_ in the 14th century; in
modern art to the period of the _rococo_ style of Louis XV.

=Decaduchi= (δεκα-δοῦχοι), Gr. A council of ten, who ruled Athens from
B.C. 403 until the restoration of democracy.

=Decan=, Egyp. A period of ten days, which was ruled by a star called
its _Decan_. The month was divided into three decans, and the year into
thirty-six, each being presided over by its own inferior divinity. On
zodiacs they are arranged in groups of three above the twelve superior
gods. The decans were the tutelary genii of the horoscope.

=Decarchia= (δεκ-αρχία). A council of the Lacedæmonians.

=Decastellare=, Med. Lat. To dismantle.

=Decastylos=, Arch. A building of which the portico has ten columns; a
decastylic pediment is a pediment supported by ten columns.

=Decemjugus= (sc. _currus_), R. A chariot drawn by ten horses abreast;
represented on the medals of the later emperors.

=Decempeda=, R. A ten-foot measuring-rod used by architects and

=Decemremis=, R. (_remus_, an oar). A vessel with ten banks of oars. It
is certain that the different ranks of rowers, who had each his own
seat, sat one above the other; the lowest row was called _thalamos_, the
middle _zuga_, and the uppermost _thranos_; but it is very difficult to
understand in what manner so many ranks could have been arranged, and
the question has been the subject of infinite discussion.

=Decennalia= or =Decennia=. A festival at Rome in commemoration of the
refusal of Augustus to become emperor for a longer period than ten years
at a time.

=Decollation= (= beheading). An ecclesiastical expression applied to St.
John the Baptist and other martyrs.

[Illustration: Fig. 238. Decorated window.]

=Decorated Style of Architecture.= The second of the POINTED or GOTHIC
styles of architecture used in England. It was developed from the EARLY
ENGLISH at the end of the 13th century, and gradually merged into the
PERPENDICULAR during the latter part of the 14th. Its most
characteristic feature is the geometrical traceries of the windows.

[Illustration: Fig. 239. Decrescent.]

=Decrescent=, =In Detriment=, Her. A half-moon having its horns to the

=Decursio=, R. (_decurro_, to run or march). Military manœuvres; a
review, sham fight, or any exercise for training soldiers; the term
_decursus_ was also used.

=Decussis=, R. (_decem_, ten, and _as_). A piece of money marked with
the numeral X (10), and which was worth ten asses (post-Augustan; see

=De Fundato= or =Netted=. A name given to certain silks, which were dyed
of the richest purple, and figured with gold in the pattern of netting.

=De-gamboys=, O. E. A musical instrument. (See VIOL DE GAMBO.)

=Degradation=, Gen. The diminishing of the tones of colour, light, and
shade, according to the different degrees of distance. (A term used
especially in reference to glass painting.)

=Degreed=, =Degraded=, Her. Placed on steps.

=Deice=, =Deas=, or =Deis=, O. E. (See DAIS.)

=Deinos=, Gr. A vessel with a wide mouth and semi-spherical body,
something like the _cacabus_.

=Delf.= Common pottery from Delft in Holland.

[Illustration: Fig. 240. Oil cruet, Delft ware.]

=Delft Faiences= are remarkable for the beauty of their paste and of
their enamel, but spurious imitations are said to be abundant. Fig. 240
is a representative specimen of the real Delft ware. The date of the
establishment of this manufacture is uncertain, but earlier than 1614;
the ornamentation is inspired by Japanese art. (Consult _Jacquemart’s
History of the Ceramic Art_.)

=Delia=, Gr. Festivals and games at Delos.

=Delphica= (sc. _cortina_), R. A table of a very costly description,
made of white marble or bronze. It was used as a drinking-table, and had
only three feet richly ornamented. [Explained under the heading

=Delphinia.= A Greek festival in honour of Apollo.

=Delphinorum Columnæ=, R. The two columns at one end of the _spina_ of a
circus, on which marble figures of dolphins were placed. The seven _ova_
(eggs) on similar columns at the end of the _spina_ opposite to these
dolphins, served to indicate the number of turns made by the chariots
round the goal. (See OVUM.) [The figure of the dolphin was selected in
honour of Neptune.] (Cf. CIRCUS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 241. Dolphin. Used as an ornament.]

[Illustration: Fig. 242. Dolphin. Medal of Syracuse.]

=Delphinus=, =Dolphin=, Gen. (δελφίν). The dolphin was often used as an
ornament, and especially as a hand-rest or banister to the _vomitoria_
or entrances of the theatres and amphitheatres. Fig. 241 represents a
dolphin utilized in this manner at the theatre of Puzzoli. Many medals,
as for instance those of Syracuse (Fig. 242), are stamped with a
dolphin. (See also DOLPHIN.)

=Delphis=, R. A heavy mass of iron or lead used in naval warfare, to
drop on board of a hostile ship and sink it. (Compare CORVUS.)

=Delubrum=, R. (_deluo_, to cleanse). A shrine; the part of a temple
which contains the altar or statue of the deity, and thence a temple
containing an altar.

=Demembered=, =Dismembered=, Her. Cut into pieces, but without any
alteration in the form of the original figure.

[Illustration: Fig. 243. Demi-lion, _rampant_.]

=Demi=, Her. The half; the upper, front, or dexter half, unless the
contrary is specified.

=Demi-brassarts=, =Vambraces=, or =Avant-braces=. Half-armour for the

=Demi-culverin.= A cannon of four inches’ bore. (_Meyrick._)

=Demi-hag.= A smaller kind of hackbut (arquebus).

=Demi-haque=, O. E. A fire-arm, smaller than the arquebus; 16th century.

=Demi-jambes.= Armour for the shins.

=Demi-placcate.= The lower part of a breastplate.

=Demi-relievo.= Sculpture in relief, in which one half of the figure
projects; generally called _Mezzo-relievo_. (See BASSO-RELIEVO.)

=Demiurgi= (δημι-ουργοί). Popular magistrates.

=Demosii.= Slaves belonging to the state, at Athens.

=Demotic= (writing), Egyp. (δημοτικὰ, sc. γράμματα, i. e. popular
writing). A mode of writing among the ancient Egyptians, differing from
the _hieroglyphic_ or sacred writing. This writing, which was employed
for civil records, was introduced under the twenty-fifth dynasty, being
derived from the _hieratic writing_, the first abbreviation of the

=Demster=, O. E. A judge.

=Demyt=, O. E. An old word for dimity; a kind of fustian. Perhaps so
called because first manufactured at Damietta.

=Denarius=, R. (_deni_, by tens). The silver coin principally in use
among the Romans. Until the reign of Augustus the denarius was worth ten
asses, and afterwards sixteen. _Denarius aureus_ was a gold denarius,
equal in value to twenty-five silver denarii.

=Denia.= A city of Valencia in Spain, which disputes with Alcora the
production of a remarkable kind of pottery, of which Jacquemart mentions
a vase with two handles of Arab form, resembling the alcarazas, upon a
smooth white enamel decorated with birds and flowers coarsely painted.

=Dens=, R. Literally, a _tooth_; hence the prongs of a fork, the flukes
of an anchor, the barbs of a lance, the teeth of a saw or rake.

=Dentale=, R. (_dens_, a tooth). The piece of wood in a plough on which
the plough-share (_vomer_) is fastened.

=Dentatus=, R. Armed with teeth.

=Dentelle Decoration.= Of French pottery, a light lace pattern, more
delicate than the “_lambrequin_.”

=Dentels=, Fr. (See DENTILE.)

=Dentile=, =Dentils= (Latin, _denticuli_), Arch. Ornaments in the form
of small cubes or teeth, used in the moulding of cornices, in the IONIC,

=Depas=, R. A bowl with two handles, the foot of which is made of a low
flat moulding like the Doric fillet.

=Depressed=, Her. Surmounted, placed over another.

=Derby Porcelain.= Manufactory established in 1750. Jacquemart says,
“Derby has made fine porcelains and statuettes which have nothing to
fear by comparison with the groups of Saxony or Sèvres.”

=Dere=, O. E. Noble, honourable.

                “Syr Cadore with his _dere_ knyghttes.”

=Derring do=, O. E. Deeds of arms.

=Deruncinatus=, R. Smoothed and polished with the _runcina_ or
carpenter’s plane.

=Desca=, Lat. A stall or desk in a church.

=Descobinatus=, R. Rasped with the SCOBINA or carpenter’s rasp.

=Destrere=, Anglo-Norman. A war-horse.

=Desultorius= (sc. _equus_), R. (_desilio_, to leap off). A horse
trained for equestrian performances in a circus by the _desultor_.
_Desultorius_ is itself sometimes used as a synonym for _desultor_. The
_desultor_ rode two horses at once, and got his name from his _leaping_
or vaulting from one to the other.

=Desvres=, Pas de Calais, France. An interesting manufactory of faience
established in the 17th century, of a style originating in Flanders.

=Detached.= A term in painting applied to figures which stand out well.

=Detriment=, Her. (See DECRESCENT.)

=Deunx=, R. (_de_ and _uncia_, a twelfth part off). A nominal value not
represented by any coin. The term means literally eleven _unciæ_, or
eleven-twelfths of anything [i. e. ounces or twelfths of a pound].

=Developed=, Her. Displayed, unfurled.

=Devil=, Chr. Mediæval representations of the devil (especially in
painting) were taken from those of the satyrs of the ancients. They
were, however, subject to no canon of symbolism at all, and varied from
the likeness of a beautiful woman to every imaginable variety of the
grotesque and repulsive.

[Illustration: Fig. 244. Old Devonshire Lace.]

=Devonshire Lace (Old).= This lace is said to have been first introduced
into England by the Flemings in 1567–73, and it long preserved its
Flemish character. The engraving shows a specimen of old Devonshire
lace, made at the beginning of the last century.

=Devs=, Pers. Evil genii, servants of Ahriman, in the religion of
Zoroaster; they were twenty-eight in number, and were opposed to the
ministers of the amchaspands or IZEDS (q.v.).

=Dextans=, R. (_de_ and _sextans_, i. e. a sixth part off). A nominal
value not represented by any coin. The literal meaning of the term is
ten _unciæ_, or ten-twelfths of anything [ounces].

=Dexter=, Her. The right side, i. e. to the spectator’s or reader’s

[Illustration: Fig. 245. Dextrochere or bracelet.]

=Dextrale=, R. (_dexter_, right). A bracelet worn by Greek and Roman
women on the right arm, and differing from the _dextrocherium_ (Fig.
245), which was worn on the wrist. The latter ornament was often of
gold. (See ARMILLA.)

=Dholkee=, Hindoo. A kind of tom-tom, or small drum. (See TOM-TOM.)

=Diabathrum=, Gr. and R. (βάθρον, that on which one stands). A sandal or
light shoe worn by women, especially such as were tall. The comic poet
Alexis, talking of courtesans, says, “One is too short, and so she puts
cork in her _baukides_; another is too tall, and she puts on a light

=Diaconicum=, =Scevophylacium=, and =Bematis Diaconicon=, Chr. A room in
an ancient basilica near the altar, where the priests put on and took
off their vestments, and the deacons (διάκονοι) prepared the vessels and
sacred ornaments to be used in the service. _Diaconicum majus_ was the

=Diadema=, R. (diadeô, to bind round). Originally the white fillet worn
by Eastern monarchs round the head. It was made of silk, wool, or yarn,
narrow, but wider in the centre of the forehead. The Greeks presented a
diadem to every victor in the public games, and it was worn by priests
and priestesses. As the emblem of sovereignty it is an attribute of
Juno. Afterwards the term came to mean a diadem.

=Diæta=, Gr. and R. (i. e. a living-place). That part of a house in
which a Roman received his guests. The same term was applied to a
captain’s cabin in the after-part of a ship.

=Diætæ=, R. Summer-houses. (See HORTUS.)

=Diaglyph=, Gr. and R. (διαγλύφω, to carve through). An intaglio, or
design cut into the material on which it is executed. (See INTAGLIO.)

=Diaglyphic.= (Sculpture, engraving, &c.) in which the objects are sunk
below the general surface.

=Diagonal Rib=, Arch. A cross formed by the intersection of the ribs
which cut one another according to the groins of a groined roof.

=Dialia=, Gr. and R. (διάλια, from Δὶς, old form for Ζεύς). Festivals
held in honour of Jupiter by the Flamen Dialis (the priest of Jupiter).

=Diamastigosis=, Gr. (διαμαστίγωσις, i. e. a severe scourging). A
festival held at Sparta in honour of Artemis Orthia, during which boys
were flogged at an altar in order to harden them to the endurance of

[Illustration: Fig. 246. Diamicton.]

=Diamicton=, Gr. and R. (διαμίγνυμι, to mix up). A wall, of which the
outside surface was made of brickwork or regular layers of masonry, and
the centre was filled up with rubble. Fig. 246.

=Diamond=, for glass-cutting, was not used till the 16th century,
although suggested in a Bolognese MS. of a century earlier. Its
discovery is attributed to Francis I., who, to let the Duchesse
d’Estampes know of his jealousy, wrote on the palace windows with his

                        “Souvent femme varie;
                        Mal habil qui s’y fie.”

The art of cutting and polishing diamonds with diamond powder was
discovered by Louis de Berquem in 1476.

=Diamond=, in Christian art. (See WHITE.)

=Diamond Fret=, Arch. The descriptive name for a decorated moulding in
Norman architecture.

[Illustration: Fig. 247. Di-amante, Punning device of Pietro de’

=Diamond Rings= were used as seal and bearings on his escutcheon
(represented in Fig. 100) by Cosmo de’ Medici, the founder of the famous
Florentine family. The device in various forms was invariably adopted by
his descendants. Fig. 247 is the device of Pietro de’ Medici († 1470),
the son of Cosmo: a falcon with a ring, and the punning motto, “Semper,”
forming with the device the words “_Semper fa-’l-con di_ (Dio)

=Diapasma=, Gr. and R. (διαπάσσω, to sprinkle). A powder made of dried
flowers and odoriferous herbs, which was put in a sachet for use as a
perfume, or rubbed over the body.

=Diaper=, Arch. Ornament of sculpture in low relief, sunk below the
general surface.

=Diaper=, O. E. A mode of decoration by a repeated pattern, carved or
painted, generally in squares, representing flowers and arabesques.

[Illustration: Fig. 248. Diapered surcoat of a Herald, with the

=Diaper= or =Damask=, a name given to a fine linen cloth made at Ypres,
is spoken of as early as the 13th century.

             “Of cloth making she had such a haunt,
             She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunte.”
                         (_Prologue of Canterbury Tales._)

The peculiarity of this cloth, as of that of Damascus, was in the
pattern. “_To diaper_” is, in heraldry, to cover the field of an
escutcheon with devices independent of the armorial bearings. The
engraving shows a surcoat diapered, on which are embroidered armorial
bearings. (Fig. 248.)

=Diasia=, Gr. Festivals in honour of Zeus, held at Athens, outside of
the walls of the city, for the purpose of averting epidemics and other
ills (ἄση).

=Diastyle=, Arch. An intercolumniation, in which the columns are
separated from each other by a space of three diameters.

=Diathyrum=, Gr. A passage leading at one end to the street door of a
house, and at the other to the door of the courtyard. The Romans called
this space PROTHYRUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 249. Diatonoi.]

=Diatoni=, =Diatonoi=, Gr. and R. (διατείνω, to extend through). Long
stones extending from one face of a wall to the other (to which modern
architects give the name of _perpenders_ or _perpend-stones_), and which
were employed in the method of construction called EMPLECTON (q.v.). In
Fig. 249 one is represented by the stone placed between b and c.

=Diatreta=, Gr. (διάτρητα, i. e. bored through). A drinking-cup made of
glass, cut in such a way that the designs or ornaments upon it stand out
completely from the body of the vase, and form a tracery, which is only
united to the vase itself by small ties or pins left for the purpose.

=Diatriba=, Gr. and R. (διατρίβω, to spend time). Places in which
learned discussions were held, such as lecture or assembly rooms.

=Diaulos=, Gr. The double flute. (See AULOS, FLUTE.) One in the British
Museum, found in a tomb at Athens, is of cedar-wood, with tubes fifteen
inches in length.

=Diazoma=, Gr. (διάζωμα, that which girdles). A Greek synonym of the
Latin term PRÆCINCTIO (q.v.).

=Dicasterion=, =Dicastery=, Gr. (δικαστήριον; δίκη, justice). A tribunal
at Athens in which the people themselves administered justice without
the intervention of the magistrates.

=Dicastes.= A judge, or rather juryman, chosen annually from the
citizens at Athens.

=Dicerion=, Chr. (δι-κέραιον, with two horns). A candlestick with two
branches, holding which in their hands the Greek priests bless the
people. The _dicerion_ is symbolical of the two-fold nature of Christ.

=Dichalcon=, Gr. (δίχαλκος, i. e. double-chalcos). A small Greek copper
coin worth only one-fourth or one-fifth of an obolus.

=Dichoria=, Gr. (δι-χορία, i. e. division of chorus). When the ancient
choruses divided into two, to recite in turn a part of the action of a
play, or mutually to interchange sentiments, this action was called
_dichoria_; each half of the chorus was called _hemichoria_ (ἡμιχορία),
and each stanza _antichoria_ (ἀντιχορία).

=Dicken=, O. E. The devil. “Odds dickens!”

=Dicker=, O. E. Half a score.

=Dicomos=, Gr. (κῶμος, a feast). A banqueting-song, which was sung at
the second course of the feast at the festivals of Bacchus.

=Dicrotos=, =Dicrotus=, Gr. (δί-κροτος, lit. double-beating). The Greek
name for a vessel with two banks of oars, the Roman _biremis_.

=Dictynnia= (δίκτυον, a hunter’s net). A Cretan festival in honour of

[Illustration: Fig. 250. Dictyotheton.]

=Dictyotheton=, Gr. (from δίκτυον, a net). A kind of masonry composed of
regularly-cut square stones, forming, in a wall so constructed, a
network or chess-board pattern. It answered to the _opus reticulatum_ of
the Romans.

=Didrachma=, =Didrachmum=, Gr. (δί-δραχμον). A double silver drachma of
the Greek coinage, which was worth about two shillings.

=Die.= In Architecture, for _dado_, or the part of a pedestal that would
correspond to the _dado_ (q.v.).

=Die-sinking.= The art of engraving on steel moulds, medals, coins, and

=Difference=, =Differencing=, Her. An addition to, or some change in, a
coat of arms, introduced for the purpose of distinguishing coats which
in their primary qualities are the same. Differencing is sometimes used
in the same sense as Cadency; but, strictly, it is distinct, having
reference to alliance and dependency, without blood-relationship, or to
the system adopted for distinguishing similar coats of arms.

=Digitale=, R. (_digitus_, a finger). A kind of glove worn by the
Sarmatians, an example of which may be seen on Trajan’s Column.

=Diglyph=, Gr. and R. (δί-γλυφος, doubly indented). An ornament
consisting of two _glyphæ_ (γλυφαὶ) or grooves channelled out on
consoles. (See TRIGLYPH.)

=Diipoleia= (πολιεὺς, of the city). A very ancient Athenian festival,
celebrated annually on the Acropolis, in honour of Zeus Polieus.

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Rose dimidiated. Device of James I.]

=Dimidiated=, Her. Cut in half per pale, and one half removed. Fig. 251
is a device placed by James I. on some of his coins, in which the
thistle and rose are respectively _dimidiated_. The legend was, “_Fecit
eos in gentem unam_.”

=Diocleia.= A festival of the Megarians, held about the grave of an
ancient Athenian hero, Diocles. There was a prize for kissing.

=Dionysia.= The celebrated orgies of Dionysus or Bacchus, suppressed
B.C. 186, and substituted by the Liberalia. (See BACCHANALIA.)

=Dioptra=, Gr. and R. (δίοπτρα; διοράω, to see through). An instrument
used in surveying to measure distances and to take levels.

=Dioscuria=, Gr. and R. (Διοσκούρια). Games instituted at Rome in honour
of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), who, at the battle of Lake Regillus
against the Latins (496 B.C.), were supposed to have fought on the side
of the Romans.

=Diospolites=, Egyp. One of the nomes or divisions of Lower Egypt.

=Diota=, Gr. (δί-ωτα, with two ears). A name applied indifferently to
any kind of vase furnished with two handles, such as _lagenæ_,
_amphoræ_, _canthari_, &c.

=Diplinthus=, R. (πλίνθος, a brick). Masonry two bricks thick.

=Diploïs=, Gr. and R. Folded in two; an upper garment which was doubled
in the same manner as a woman’s shawl at the present day; it was much
worn among the Greeks.

=Diploma=, Gr. and R. (δίπλωμα, i. e. double-folded). A passport
consisting of two leaves (whence its name). The term is also used to
denote a diploma by which any right or privilege is conferred.

=Dipteral=, Arch. A building having double wings. The term is applied to
any building having a double intercolumniation all round it.

=Diptheræ=, Gr. and R. (διφθέραι; δέφω, to make supple). (1) Prepared
skins for writing on. (2) A kind of garment; an overcoat of skin or
leather which Greek slaves put on over their tunic.

=Diptych=, Gr. (δί-πτυχα, i. e. double-folded). Double tablets united by
means of strings or hinges. _Diptycha consularia_, _ædilitia_,
_prætoria_ had engraved on them portraits of consuls, ædiles, prætors,
and other magistrates. These consular diptychs were a part of the
presents sent by new consuls on their appointment to very eminent
persons. The series of them is a very valuable record of the progress of
the art of ivory carving. In Christian archæology diptychs were
decorated with scenes from biblical history. There were also diptychs of
the baptized; of the bishops and benefactors of a church, living or
dead; of saints and martyrs; and, lastly, of deceased members of the
congregation, whose souls were to be remembered at mass. (See TRIPTYCH.)

=Directors=, or =Triangular Compasses=. A mathematical instrument
adapted for taking three angular points at once.

=Diribitorium=, R. (_diribeo_, to sort or separate). A place or building
in which a public officer inspected the troops, distributed the pay, and
enrolled the conscripts in their respective regiments.

=Dirige=, Chr. A psalm forming part of the burial service, “Dirige
gressus meos,” &c.; hence =Dirge=, for funereal music or hymns in

=Dirk.= A Scotch dagger.

[Illustration: Fig. 252. Tazza of Diruta, with head of “Rome.”]

=Diruta.= An important porcelain manufactory in the Papal States,
established by a pupil of Luca della Robbia in 1461.

=Discerniculum=, R. (_discerno_, to divide). A bodkin used by Roman
women in the toilet to part their hair. (See COMBS.)

=Discharging Arch.= An arch built into the structure of a wall, to
relieve the parts below it of the pressure of those above it; such
arches are common over flat-headed doors or other openings.

=Discinctus=, Gr. and R. (_discingo_, to ungird). A man who is _ungirt_,
that is, who does not wear a girdle round the waist of his tunic; for a
man, this was a mark of effeminate manners. _Discinctus miles_ denoted a
soldier who had been stripped by his commander of his sword-belt, as a
mark of disgrace. (Compare CINGULUM.)

=Disclosed=, Her. With expanded wings, in the case of birds that are not
birds of prey. The contrary to CLOSE.

[Illustration: Fig. 253. Discobolus of Myron copied on a gem.]

=Discobolus=, Gr. and R. (δισκο-βόλος, i. e. discus-throwing). A man
throwing the DISCUS (q.v.). [A celebrated statue of the sculptor Myron
so called.]

=Discus=, R. (δίσκος; δικεῖν, to throw). This term denoted (1) the
discus hurled by the DISCOBOLUS (q.v.); that is, a circular plate of
metal or stone, about ten or twelve inches in diameter. (2) A sun-dial.
(3) A shallow circular vessel for holding eatables.

=Disk.= (See WINGED DISK.)

=Disomum=, Chr. (δί-σωμον, double-bodied). An urn or tomb which held the
ashes or bodies of two persons; _bisomum_ was also used. Both terms are
met with in Christian inscriptions.

[Illustration: Fig. 254. Falcon Displayed.]

=Displayed=, Her. Birds of prey with expanded wings. Fig. 254 represents
the crest of Edward IV., the falcon and fetterlock.

=Displuviatus=, =Displuviatum=, R. An atrium, the roof of which was
sloped outwards from the COMPLUVIUM (q.v.), instead of being sloped
towards it. (See IMPLUVIUM and ATRIUM.)

=Disposed=, =Disposition=, Her. Arranged, arrangement.

=Distaff.= A common object in ancient art. It is an attribute of the
Fates, and generally distaffs of gold were given to the goddesses. It
was dedicated to Minerva. (See COLUS.) The name of St. Distaff’s Day was
given to the day after Twelfth Day in England.

=Distance.= In a picture, _the point of distance_ is that where the
visual rays meet; _middle distance_ is the central portion of a picture,
between the _foreground_ and the _extreme distance_.

=Distemper.= A kind of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an
aqueous vehicle, such as _size_. Distemper is painted on a dry surface.

=Ditriglyph=, R. (δὶς, twice, and τρίγλυφος). The space between two
triglyphs in the Doric order. The term is therefore a synonym of METOPE

=Dividers.= Ordinary compasses for taking off and transferring

=Dividiculum=, R. A reservoir in the form of a tower, in which the water
of an aqueduct was collected, and whence it was afterwards distributed.

=Docana= (δοκὸς, a beam). An ancient Spartan symbol of Castor and
Pollux. It consisted of two upright beams, with cross pieces.

=Doccia.= An important Italian manufactory of soft porcelain founded in
1735. Jacquemart says, “Doccia now inundates Europe with spurious
majolica of the 16th century, and with false porcelain of Capo di Monte,
of which she possesses the moulds.”

=Dodecahedron=, Gr. A solid figure of twelve equal sides.

=Dodecastyle=, Gr. and R. (δώδεκα, twelve, and στῦλος, pillar). A
building, the arrangement of which admits of twelve columns in front. A
dodecastyle pediment is a pediment supported by twelve columns.

=Dodra=, R. (_dodrans_, nine parts). A kind of beverage, or rather soup,
composed of nine ingredients. We learn from Ausonius that it was made of
bread, water, wine, oil, broth, salt, sweet herbs, honey, and pepper.

=Dodrans=, R. (i. e. three-fourths). Nine _unciæ_, or three-quarters of
an _as_. There was no coin of this value. As a measure of _length_, nine
inches. (See AS.)

=Doff= or =Deff=, Egyp. The square tambourine of the ancient Egyptians;
the _toph_ of the Hebrews, still in use among the Arabs, especially in
the Barbary States.

=Dog.= An emblem of fidelity and loyalty. In mediæval art, the attribute
of St. Roch; also of St. Dominic, the founder of the Dominican order; of
St. Bernard, St. Wendelin, and St. Benignus. As an emblem of fidelity,
it is placed at the feet of the effigies of married women upon
sepulchres. It was common to represent, in painting or mosaic, a chained
watch-dog at the doors of Roman houses. The DOG OF FO is a sacred emblem
in China, sometimes called a _Chimera_; it is placed as the guardian of
the thresholds of temples, and of the Buddhist altars. In the Chinese
zodiacal system the dog is the sign for the month of September.

=Dog Latin.= Barbarous Latin; e. g. “Verte canem ex” (turn the dog out).

=Dog’s-nose=, O. E. A cordial used in low life, composed of warm porter,
moist sugar, gin, and nutmeg. (_Halliwell._)

=Dog’s-tooth Moulding=, Arch. A characteristic ornament of Early English
architecture, formed of four leaves with small spiral fillets, which
bear some resemblance to teeth. (See TOOTH-ORNAMENT.)

[Illustration: Fig. 255. Bronze Dolabra or hatchet (Celtic).]

[Illustration: Fig. 256. Hatchet, flint-stone.]

[Illustration: Fig. 257. Gallic hatchet.]

=Dolabra=, R. (_dolo_, to hew). An instrument like a pick or hatchet,
which varied in form according to the different purposes for which it
was employed. The _dolabra_ was used for digging, cutting, breaking, and
chopping, and was thus a pick, a hatchet, an adze or _ascia_, &c.
Dolabra of flint or other hard stone, called Celts, are of remote
antiquity. (See CELT.) (Figs. 255 to 257.)

=Doliolum.= Dimin. of DOLIUM (q.v.).

=Dolium= or =Culeus=, Gr. and R. A large earthenware vessel with a wide
mouth, and of rounded, spherical form. It was used to contain wine and
oil when first made, before they were transferred into smaller vessels
for keeping.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. Dolmen.]

=Dolmen=, Celt. A term which, in the Celtic language, means literally a
stone table. It consists of a number of stones, of which some are fixed
in the ground, and the others laid transversely over them. These
structures were used as sepulchres. Figs. 258 and 259 represent two
different types of dolmens. (See CROMLECH.)

[Illustration: Fig. 259. Dolmen, in the forest of Rennes.]

=Dolon= or =Dolo=, R. (δόλων). (1) A long stick armed with an iron
point. (2) A cane, in the hollow of which a poniard was concealed. (3)
The fore-topsail of a vessel.

[Illustration: Fig. 260. Heraldic Dolphin.]

=Dolphin=, Her. A favourite fish with heralds. It is best known as the
armorial ensign of the Dauphin, the eldest son and heir apparent of the
kings of France—_Or_, a Dolphin _az_. In Christian archæology the
dolphin is the symbol of swiftness, diligence, and love; it is often met
with entwined with an anchor. The first Christians often wore these two
symbols united in a ring, which was known as a _nautical anchor_. (See
also DELPHIN.)

=Dome=, It. (1) Literally, the _house_ of God. When a city possesses
several churches, the name is applied to the cathedral only. (2) The
interior of a _cupola_.

=Dominions=, in Christian art. (See ANGELS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 261. Plan of a Greek house.]

=Domus=, Gr. and R. (Gr. δόμος, οἶκος). A house, in contradistinction to
_insula_, a group of houses. The Greek house is divided into two parts
by the central chambers. The external, the ANDRONITIS, contains the
men’s, and the inner, or GYNÆCONITIS, the women’s apartments. The whole
building was generally long and narrow, occupying a comparatively small
frontage to the street, and the outside wall was plain without windows.
Outside the door was often an altar of Apollo Agyieus, or an obelisk, or
sometimes a laurel-tree, or a bust of the god Hermes. A few steps,
called ANABATHMOI, led up to the house door (αὐλεία θύρα), over which
there was generally a motto inscribed: the passage (θυρωρεῖον, πυλὼν,
θυρὼν) (A B in the plan) had the stables on one side, and the porter’s
lodge opposite, and led to C, the PERISTYLE or AULA of the men’s
quarters, a HYPÆTHRAL, or open air court, surrounded by porticoes called
STOAI, and by the men’s apartments, which were large banqueting-rooms
(οἶκοι, ἀνδρῶνες), smaller sitting-rooms (ἐξέδραι), and
sleeping-chambers (δωμάτια, κοιτῶνες, οἰκήματα). The door to the passage
D was called μέταυλος or μέσαυλος (i. e. the middle of the aulæ), and
gave admission to E, the peristyle or aula of the Gynæconitis. The rooms
numbered 10 to 17 were the chambers of the women; P P were called the
Thalamos and Amphithalamos; H H and G were the ἱστῶνες, or rooms for
working in wool; and at I was the garden door (κηπαία θύρα). There was
usually an upper story where guests and slaves were lodged (ὑπερῷον,
διῆρες), the stairs leading to which were outside the house. The roofs
were flat, and it was customary to walk upon them. The floors were of
stone, in later times ornamental or coloured. The construction and
decoration varied with the ages; painted ceilings were a late

[Illustration: Fig. 262. Plan of a Roman house.]

Of a Roman house, the principal parts were the VESTIBULUM, or court
before the door, open to the street; the OSTIUM, JANUA, or FORES, the
entrance; the ATRIUM, CAVUM ÆDIUM, or CAVÆDIUM, with the COMPLUVIUM open
over the central tank (termed the IMPLUVIUM); the ALÆ (wings), TABLINUM,
FAUCES, and PERISTYLIUM: of each of which a notice will be found in its
alphabetical place in this work. (See also CUBICULA, TRICLINIA, EXEDRÆ,
&c.) The floors of a Roman house were either of the composition called
RUDERATIO, and, from the process of beating down _pavita_, were then
called PAVIMENTUM, or of stone or marble or mosaics (MUSIVUM OPUS). The
inner walls were usually covered with frescoes. The ceilings left the
beams visible, which supported the roof, and the hollow or unplanked
spaces (LACUNARIA or LAQUEARIA) were often covered with gold and ivory,
or with paintings. (See CAMARA.) The principal apartments had no
windows, deriving their light from the roof; in the upper stories there
were windows either open or latticed, or later filled with mica, and
finally glass.

[Illustration: Fig. 263. Atrium with Doric columns. (_See also_ Fig.

=Don Pottery.= A name given to the productions of a porcelain
manufactory established in 1790 at Swinton on the Don.

[Illustration: Fig. 264. Donjon.]

=Donjon=, Mod. The principal tower of a Norman or mediæval castle. It
was generally separate from the other parts of the building. The greater
number of feudal fortresses originally consisted merely of a donjon
erected on an artificial earthwork. This donjon was surrounded by an
open space walled, called the Inner Bailey, and another beyond called
the Outer Bailey. Beneath were the dungeons. Fig. 264 represents a
donjon called the Tower of Loudun. The White tower is the donjon of the
Tower of London.

=Doom.= In Christian art, the Last Judgment; a subject usually painted
over the chancel arch in parochial churches.

=Dorelot.= A network for the hair, worn by ladies in the 14th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 265. Column and Capital of the Doric Order.]

=Doric Order of Architecture.= The earliest and simplest of the three
Greek orders. “The Grecian Doric order, at its best period, is one of
the most beautiful inventions of architecture—strong and yet elegant,
graceful in outline and harmonious in all its forms, imposing when on a
great scale, and pleasing equally when reduced in size, by the exquisite
simplicity of its parts.” (_Newlands._) The columns of this order had no
pedestal, nor base; the capital, which was half a diameter in height,
had no _astragal_, but a few plain fillets, with channels between them,
under the _ovolo_, and a small channel below the fillets. The _ovolo_ is
generally flat, and of great projection, with a _quirk_, or return. On
this was laid the ABACUS, which was only a plain tile, without fillet or
ornament. A peculiarity of this order was the _flutings_ of the column,
twenty in number, shallow, and with sharp edges. The best examples of
the Grecian Doric of which we have descriptions and figures are the
temples of Minerva (called the Parthenon) and of Theseus at Athens, and
that of Minerva at Sunium. The ROMAN DORIC differs in important
particulars from the Grecian. (See ROMAN DORIC.)

=Dormant= or =Couchant=, Her. Asleep. (See COUCHANT.)

=Dormer= (Fr. _dormir_, to sleep). The top story in the roof of a house.

=Dormer Window.= A gabled window in the sloping side of a roof,
projecting _vertically_; when it lies in the slope of the roof, it is a

=Dorneck=, =Dornex=, or =Dornyks=, O. E. An inferior damask, wrought of
silk, wool, linen thread, and gold, at Tournay or _Dorneck_; 15th

=Dorsale=, =Dosser=, =Dossier=, Chr. (_dorsum_, the back). Pieces of
tapestry or hangings put up in the arches or bays surrounding the choir
of a church in order to screen the clergy and choristers from draughts
of air. Also pieces of tapestry hung upon parapets, the panels of
pulpits and stalls, and sometimes the backs of side-boards. It was the
custom to hang tapestry, cloth of Arras, or needlework round the lower
half of all the ancient dining-halls to a height of about five feet
above the basement.

=Dorsualia=, R. (_dorsum_). An embroidered saddle-cloth, which was laid
across the back of a horse on the occasion of a triumphal entry, or on
the backs of victims for sacrifice. Examples of _dorsualia_ occur on
several monuments, in especial on a bas-relief of the arch of Titus, at

=Doryphorus=, Gen. (δορυ-φόρος). Literally, spear-bearer. Fig. 130
represents a Persian spearman. A celebrated statue of Polycletus (of the
Argive school) is called the _Doryphorus_. “Polycletus advanced his art
in several respects, chiefly by fixing a law of proportion, of which his
Doryphorus, a youth bearing a spear, was called the CANON (q.v.); and
also by his making the weight of the body rest on one foot, in
contradistinction to the ancient practice, thereby producing a contrast
between the supporting, weight-bearing side of the body, and the
supported, freely-resting side.” (_Butler’s Imitative Art._) The statue
by Polycletus is lost. The proportions handed down to us by Vitruvius
are thus described by Bonomi:—

  (1) The length of the horizontally extended arms equals the height of
  the figure.

  (2) The head is an _eighth_, the face a _tenth_ of the whole height.

  (3) From the top of the scalp to the nipples is _one-fourth_.

  (4) From the nipples to horizontal line across the centre of the
  square—the pubes—is _one-fourth_.

  (5) From that line to one just below the knee-cap is _one-fourth_.

  (6) From that line to the ground is _one-fourth_.

  (7) The forearm (from the elbow) is a _fourth_ of the height; the hand
  a _tenth_.

=Dose= or =Dosall=, O. E. (Lat. DORSALE, q.v.).

=Dossar.= (See DORSALE.)

=Douai.= A manufactory of modern faience established in 1784, producing
stone-wares and “cailloutages.”

=Doublé=, Fr. (1) The term is applied to precious stones, when cemented
upon glass. (2) The inside lining of a well-bound book.

[Illustration: Fig. 267. Doublet costume, _temp._ Elizabeth.]

=Doublet=, although deriving its name from the French word _doublée_
(lined), is in that language more generally known as “Pourpoint,” of
which, in fact, it is merely a variety. It first appeared in England in
the 14th century made without sleeves, which for convenience were
afterwards added; and being universally adopted, it superseded the
tunic. The engraving shows a doublet with stuffed sleeves of the time of
Elizabeth. They were worn of varied forms till the reign of Charles II.
(Fig. 267.)

=Doubling=, Her. The lining of a mantle or mantling.

[Illustration: Fig. 268. Two Doves. Device of Giovanna de’ Medici.]

=Dove.= A Christian symbol of frequent occurrence; it expresses candour,
gentleness, innocence, faith, and, in especial, the Holy Spirit. It is
also a symbol of martyrdom and grief, and in this signification appears
frequently represented on tombs and sarcophagi. With an olive-bough in
its mouth it is a symbol of peace, and accordingly the inscription PAX
(Peace) is often found accompanying representations of the dove, more
particularly in the catacombs. With the Assyrians and Babylonians the
dove was the symbol of Semiramis, who, according to them, took this
shape on leaving earth. The dove was the favourite bird of Venus. As a
symbol of conjugal fidelity, the device of two turtle-doves was adopted
by Giovanna of Austria on her marriage with Francesco de’ Medici. (Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 269. Dove-tailed Masonry.]

=Dove-tail= or =Swallow-tail=, Gen. A method of joining employed for
wood, stone, or iron, and so called because the tenon by which the joint
is effected is cut in the shape of a dove-tail or swallow-tail. This
tail fits into a notch (Fig. 269). The ancients employed double
dove-tails for joining stones together; this method of construction was
called _Opus_ REVINCTUM (q.v.).

=Dove-tail Moulding=, Arch. (Norman; called also TRIANGULAR FRETTE).
Decorated with running bands in the form of dove-tails.

=Doves, the Eucharistic.= Sacred vessels of gold, silver, gilded bronze,
or ivory, in the form of a dove, a tower, &c., which served as
receptacles for the reserved Host; they were hung up in the middle of
the CIBORIUM (q.v.). At the Amiens Museum a dove of this kind is to be
seen dating from the 12th century, and at the church of St. Nazaire at
Milan there is one of silver, gilded within and enamelled without, which
is also very ancient.

=Dowlas=, O. E. Coarse linen cloth made in Brittany; “_filthy dowlas!_”

=Drachma=, Gr. (δραχμή; δράσσομαι, to hold in the hand). A drachm, the
principal silver coin of the Greeks. There were two kinds of
_drachmata_, which differed in value: the Attic drachm and the Æginetan.
The Attic _drachma_ was equal in value to a franc, equal to six
_oboloi_. The piece of four drachmas was called a _stater_. As a weight
the drachma was the eighth of an _uncia_; about = our modern _drachm_.

=Draco=, Gen. (1) A dragon; the ensign of the Roman cohort in the time
of Trajan, adopted from the Parthians. (2) A fantastic animal of Pagan
mythology: the garden of the Hesperides, the Golden Fleece, and the
fountain of Castalia were all guarded by dragons. (3) In Christian
archæology the dragon symbolizes sin, especially idolatry. (4) The
Chinese give to several immortals the figure of a dragon. They
distinguish the long dragon of heaven, a being especially sacred; the
Kau, dragon of the mountain; and the Li, dragon of the sea. The dragons
are represented as “gigantic saurians, with powerful claws, and
terminated by a frightful head, scaly and strongly toothed.” There are
the scaly dragon, the winged dragon, the horned and the hornless
dragons, and the dragon rolled within itself which has not yet taken
flight to the upper regions. In their zodiacal system the dragon is the
sign for the month of March. (See TCHY.)

=Draconarius=, R. The standard-bearer who carried the _draco_.

=Dracontarium=, R. A band for the head, so called because it was twisted
in imitation of the _draco_ which was used as an ensign.

[Illustration: Fig. 270. Heraldic Dragon.]

=Dragon=, Her. A winged monster having four legs. (See DRACO.)

=Dragon.= A short carbine (hence “dragoons”).

=Dragon’s Blood.= A resinous astringent extract of a deep red colour,
used as a colouring ingredient for spirit and turpentine varnishes and
paints, &c. The Roman _cinnabar_ was Dragon’s Blood.

=Draught= (or =Drawte=) =Chamber=, O. E. The with _drawing_ room.

=Draughts, Game of.= (See DAMES, LATRUNCULI.)

=Dravid’ha=, Hind. A Hindoo temple constructed on an octagonal plan.

[Illustration: Fig. 271. Dresden milk-jug.]

=Dresden Porcelain=, made at the Royal Manufactory established at
Meissen in Saxony in 1709, is most excellent anterior to 1796, since
when its ancient perfection has been lost. The mark of the best period
is two crossed swords, with a sloped cross or a small circle beneath.
The later mark has a star beneath the swords. On rejected pieces the
swords were cut across with a line; but the manufactory at the present
day counterfeits its old marks. Fig. 271 is a specimen of the best
period, later than 1720 and before 1778.

[Illustration: Fig. 272. Pot-pourri vase, Dresden china.]

=Dressoir= or =Dressouer= (the _buffet_ of the 15th century, the
_évidence_ of the 16th) was the principal object of the dining-room, on
which were displayed all the ornamental plate of the owner of the house,
costly vases, &c. Kings had often three dressers, one for silver,
another for silver-gold, and the third for gold plate. In form they
varied; but they were made of the most valuable woods, and enriched with
the finest carving. They were sometimes covered over with cloth of gold:
the city of Orleans offered one in gold to Charles IV., which was valued
at 8000 livres Tournois.

=Drilbu=, Hind. A bell used in Buddhist worship.

=Drinking-cups of Glass= are frequently found in the Saxon barrows or
graves in England. They are ornamented in various patterns, and rounded
at the bottom. The Anglo-Saxons were also rich in cups of the precious
metals. They used horn cups also, as did the Normans. In the 15th
century flat-shaped cups or bowls were used.

=Drip=, Arch. The edge of a roof; the eaves; the corona of a cornice.

=Drip-stone=, Arch. The moulding in Gothic architecture which serves as
a canopy for an opening and to throw off the rain. It is also called
_weather-moulding_ and _water-table_. (See also CORONA.)

=Dromo=, =Dromon=, R. (δρόμων; δραμεῖν, to run). A vessel remarkable for
its swift sailing; hence—

=Dromon= or =Dromound=, O. E. A mediæval ship, propelled by oars and one
sail, used for the transport of troops. The Crusaders called it a

=Dromos=, Gr. and Egyp. (δρόμος). (1) The Spartan race-course. (2) An
avenue leading to the entrances of Egyptian temples; that leading to the
great temple of Karnac contained 660 colossal sphinxes, all of which
were monoliths.

=Drop Lake= is a pigment obtained from Brazil wood, which affords a very
fugitive colour.

=Drops=, Arch. (Lat. _guttæ_). Ornaments resembling drops, used in the
Doric entablature, immediately under the TRIGLYPH and MUTULE.

=Druidic= (Monuments), Celt. Celtic monuments, also known by the name of
The most ancient and probably the largest Celtic or Druidical temple was
at Avebury in Wiltshire. _Dr. Stukeley_, who surveyed it in 1720, says
that “this may be regarded as the grand national cathedral, while the
smaller circles which are met with in other parts of the island may be
compared to the parish or village churches.”

=Drum=, Arch. (1) Of a dome or cupola, the STYLOBATE (or vertical part
on which the columns rest). (2) Of the Corinthian and Composite
capitals, the solid part; called also BELL, VASE, BASKET.

=Dry Point.= Direct engraving upon copper with the sharp etching-needle
itself, without the plate being covered with etching-ground, or the
lines bit in by acid. This method produces very soft and delicate work,
but it is not so durable in printing as the etched line.

=Dryers.= In painting, substances imparted to oils to make them dry
quickly. The most general in use is OXIDE of LEAD, but white copperas,
oxide of manganese, ground glass, oxide of zinc, calcined bones,
chloride of lime, and verdigris have all been used at various times.

=Drying Oil.= Boiled oil, used in painting as a vehicle and a varnish.
It is linseed oil boiled with litharge (or oxide of lead).

=Dryness.= A style of painting in which the outline is harsh and formal,
and the colour deficient in mellowness and harmony.

=Duck-bills=, O. E. Broad-toed shoes of the 15th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 273. Duke’s coronet.]

=Duke=, Her. The highest rank and title in the British peerage; first
introduced by Edward III. in the year 1337, when he created the Black
Prince the first English duke (in Latin “dux”). The coronet of a duke,
arbitrary in its adornment until the 16th century was far advanced, is
now a circlet, heightened with eight conventional strawberry-leaves, of
which in representation three and two half-leaves are shown.

=Dulcimer.= A musical instrument, the prototype of our pianoforte. It
was very early known to the Arabs and Persians, who called it _santir_.
One of its old European names is the _cimbal_. The Hebrew _nebel_, or
perhaps the _psanterin_ mentioned by Daniel, is supposed to have been a
dulcimer; the _psalterion_ of the Greeks also. A hand organ of the
Middle Ages was called a dulcimer.

=Dunkirk.= A manufactory of modern faience which only existed for a
short time in the 18th century, and was closed within a year. The works
are therefore very rare. Jacquemart mentions a clock bearing a close
resemblance to certain Dutch products, inscribed _Dickhoof_ and _A.
Duisburg_, and by the latter name identified as Dunkirk work.

=Duns=, Celtic. Ancient hill forts of the simplest kind, consisting of a
round or oval earthen wall and ditch on a rising ground, probably
contemporary with the pit dwellings.

=Dunster=, O. E. Broad cloth made in Somersetshire, _temp._ Edward III.

=Dutch Pink.= (See PINKS.)


=Dwararab’ha=, =Dwaragopouras=, =Dwaraharmya=, =Dwaraprasada=,
=Dwarasala=, Ind. (See GOPOURAS.)


[Illustration: Fig. 274. Eagle—Ensign of France.]

=Eagle=, Her. The eagle (called in heraldry _Alerion_) appears in the
earliest English examples of arms, and his appearance often denotes an
alliance with German princes. Both the German emperors and Russian czars
adopted the eagle for their heraldic ensign in support of their claim to
be considered the successors of the Roman Cæsars. The eagle borne as the
ensign of Imperial France sits, grasping a thunderbolt, in an attitude
of vigilance, having its wings elevated, but the tips of the feathers
drooping, as they would be in a living bird. In remote antiquity the
eagle was an emblem of the sun, and the double-headed eagle typifies the
rising and the setting sun. The eagle was the attribute of Jove as his
messenger. The eagle killing a serpent or a hare is an ancient symbol of
victory. In Christian art the eagle is the attribute of St. John the
Evangelist, the symbol of the highest inspiration. St. John is sometimes
represented with human body and eagle head. The lectern in Christian
churches is commonly in the form of an eagle. Elisha the prophet is
represented with a two-headed eagle. (See AQUILÆ.)

[Illustration: Fig. 275. Earl’s coronet.]

=Earl=, Her. (from the Gaelic _iarflath_, “a dependent chief” = _iar_,
“after,” and _flath_, “lord”; pronounced _iarrl_). Before 1337 the
highest, and now the third degree of rank and dignity in the British
peerage. An earl’s coronet has eight lofty rays of gold rising from the
circlet, each of which supports a large pearl, while between each pair
of these rays there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representation five
of the rays and pearls are shown. Elevated clusters of pearls appear in
an earl’s coronet as early as 1445; but the present form of the coronet
may be assigned to the second half of the following century.

=Earl Marshal.= In England, one of the great officers of state, who
regulates ceremonies and takes cognizance of all matters relating to
honour, arms, and pedigree.

=Early English Architecture.= The first of the pointed or Gothic styles
of architecture used in England. It succeeded the NORMAN towards the end
of the 12th century, and gradually merged into the DECORATED at the end
of the 13th. Its leading peculiarity is the long narrow lancet window.

=Earn=, Scotch. An eagle.

[Illustration: Fig. 276. Greek or Etruscan ear-rings in gold.]

=Ear-rings= (Lat. _inaures_, Gr. ἐνώτια) were a common ornament for
ladies in Greece and Rome, and among the early Saxons: they were worn by
men during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.

=Earth Tables=, Arch. The projecting course of stones in a wall,
immediately above the surface of the ground, now called the plinth.

=Earthenware.= (See POTTERY.)

=Easel= (from the German _esel_, an ass). A frame with movable rest for
resting pictures on.

=Easel-picture.= A small portable picture.

=Easter=, Chr. (A.S. _eastre_). From the goddess “Eostur,” whose
festival fell in April. The Latin name “Paschal” refers to the Jewish
feast of the Passover. The Paschal season originally extended over
fifteen days, from Palm Sunday to Low Sunday. (See _Smith and Cheetham’s
Dict. of Christian Ant._)

=Eaves= (A.S. _efese_, the edge). The overhanging “edge” of the roof of
a house.

=Ebénistes=, Fr. Workers in fine cabinet-making.

=Ebony.= A heavy, hard, black wood, obtained from the Diospyrus ebenus.
Ebony and other exotic woods came into general use in Europe from the
end of the 17th century—subsequently to 1695, when the Dutch settled in
Ceylon. The black ebony is the most valuable, but there are green and
yellow varieties. Old carved ebony furniture found in English houses
dates generally from the early years of the Dutch occupation of Ceylon.

=Eburnean.= Made of ivory.

=Ecbasios= (ἐκβαίνω, to disembark). A sacrifice offered to Apollo after
a favourable voyage.

=Ecclesia=, Gr. General assembly of the citizens of Athens. (See _Smith
and Cheetham’s Dict. of Christian Ant._)

=Echea=, Gr. and R. (ἦχος, sound or noise). Earthenware or bronze
vessels used to strengthen the sound in theatres. (See ACOUSTIC

=Echinate.= Armed with spines or bristles like a hedgehog.

[Illustration: Fig. 277. Echinus or egg and tongue on the ovolo of a
Greek cornice.]

=Echinus=, Arch. (Gr. ἐχῖνος, a hedgehog). The _egg and dart_ or _egg
and tongue_ ornament frequently carved on the round moulding, much used
in classic architecture, called the _ovolo_. (Fig. 277.)

=Echometry= (μέτρον, a measure). The art of measuring the duration of

=Ecorchée=, Fr. (lit. flayed). Said of an anatomical model specially
prepared for the study of the muscular system.

=Ecphonesis=, Chr. That part of a devotional office which is said
_audibly_, in contrast with that said _secreté_.

=Ectypus=, R. A hollow mould which produces an impression in relief
which is called _ectypum_.

[Illustration: Fig. 278. Ecuelle, Venetian porcelain.]

=Ecuelle=, Fr. A porringer. Fig. 278 is a specimen in the best style of
Venetian porcelain.

=Edward-Shovelboards=, O. E. Broad shillings of Edward VI., formerly
used in playing the game of shovelboard. (_Halliwell._)

=Effeir of War=, Scotch. Warlike guise.

=Effigies=, R. An image or effigy. The word is usually applied to the
heads upon coins or medals.

=Egg and Dart=, or =Egg and Tongue, Ornament=, Arch. (Fr. _aards et
oves_). A carving commonly inserted on the ovolo moulding. (See

=Egg-feast= or =Egg-Saturday=, O. E. The Saturday before Shrove Tuesday.

=Egg-shell Porcelain.= A very thin white porcelain of the “Rose family,”
to which the Chinese have given the name of “porcelain without embryo.”

=Eggs=, as a Christian emblem, are supposed to represent “the immature
hope of the resurrection.” (_Martigny._)

=Egret= (Fr. _aigrette_). A small white heron, marked by a _crest_ on
his head.

=Egyptian Architecture= and =Sculpture= can be studied in the monuments
remaining from remotest antiquity to about A. D. 300. Great varieties of
style occur, which can be easily attributed to their respective periods
by the hieroglyphical inscriptions. The three primitive motives of all
Egyptian buildings are the _pyramid_, _caves_, and _structures of
timber_; all contemporary with the most ancient relics. In sculpture,
the most ancient works of all are also those most remarkable for
fidelity to nature. The conventionality introduced afterwards with the
_canon of proportions_ is still combined with a close imitation of
Nature in the details. The Grecian or Ptolemaic period begins B.C. 322.
[See _Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians_, _Canina’s Egyptian Architecture_;
and the works of _Brugsch_, _Marriette_, _Soldi_, _Ebers_, &c.]

=Egyptian Blue=, the brilliant blue pigment found on the monuments, is
found by analysis to consist of the hydrated protoxide of copper, mixed
with a minute quantity of iron. The green colour was derived from
another oxide of copper; violet from manganese or gold; yellow from
silver, or perhaps iron; and red from the protoxide of copper.

[Illustration: Fig. 280. Lenticular Phials. Louvre Museum.]

[Illustration: Fig. 279. Oviform bottle. Egyptian.]

=Egyptian Pottery= of great beauty is found in great quantities along
with the costly ornaments in the tombs. It is intermediary between
porcelain and stone-ware, and its colouring demonstrates a high degree
of skill, science, and precision of execution. Among the forms
frequently found are the oviform, long-necked bottles (Fig. 279),
lenticular phials, with royal cartouches (Fig. 280), lamps (Fig. 281),
&c. (See also Fig. 219.)

[Illustration: Fig. 281. Lamp in blue enamelled earthenware. Egyptian.]

=Eikon=, Gr., or =Icon=, Lat. An image; hence iconoclasts or

=Eileton=, Chr. (from εἴλω, to wind or fold). The cloth on which the
elements are consecrated in the Eucharist. “The _eileton_ represents the
linen cloth in which the body of Christ was wrapped when it was taken
down from the cross and laid in the tomb.” (_Germanus_).

=Eisodos=, Chr. A ceremony of the Greek Church, of two parts. (1) The
bearing into the church in procession of the book of the Gospels is
called the _Lesser Entrance_. (2) A similar bearing in of the elements
of the Eucharist is called the _Greater Entrance_.

=Elæolite= (lit. oil-stone). A mineral having a fatty resinous lustre.

=Elæothesium=, Gr. and R. A room in a suite of baths where oils,
perfumes, and essences were kept, and the bathers were anointed and

=Elaphebolia=, Gr. Athenian festivals held in the month called
_Elaphebolion_, or the ninth month of the year, when a stag (ἔλαφος) was
sacrificed to Diana.

=Elbow-gauntlet.= A long gauntlet of plate armour, adopted from the
Asiatics in the 16th century.

=Elbow-pieces= (Fr. _coudières_). Plate armour to cover the joint at the

=Elbows=, Mod. (Fr. _accoudoirs_). The divisions between the stalls in a
church, also called by the French “museaux,” from the fact of their ends
being ornamented with an animal’s head.

=Electoral Bonnet=, Her. A cap of crimson velvet guarded with ermine,
borne over the inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover from 1801 to 1816.

=Electrotint.= A method of preparing engraved copper plates for the
printing-press by the electrotype process. (See _Art Journal_, 1850.)

=Electrotype.= The process whereby works in relief are produced by the
agency of electricity, through which certain metals, such as gold,
silver, and copper, are precipitated from their solutions upon moulds in
so fine a state of division as to form a coherent mass of pure metal,
equal in toughness and flexibility to the hammered metals. (_Fairholt._)
At the present day electrotypes are generally taken from engravings on
wood for printing from.

=Electrum= (ἤλεκτρον). In Homer and Hesiod this word means _amber_.
Pliny says that when gold contains a fifth part of silver, it is called
electrum. Its colour was whiter and more luminous than that of gold, and
the metal was supposed to betray the presence of poison. Specimens are
rare. A beautiful vase of electrum is preserved in the St. Petersburg
Museum. Some coins in electrum were struck by the kings of Bosporus, and
by Syracuse and some Greek states.

=Elements=, Chr. The bread and the wine in the Lord’s Supper. In the
Eastern liturgies the unconsecrated elements are called “the MYSTERIES,”
and the bread alone the SEAL (σφραγὶς), from its being divided by lines
in the form of a cross. The interesting subject of the composition and
form of the elements in the early churches is fully discussed in the
“Dictionary of Christian Antiquities” (Smith and Cheetham).

=Elemine.= A crystallized resin used to give consistency to the varnish
which forms part of the composition of lacquer.

=Elenchus=, R. (ἔλεγχος). (1) A pear-shaped pearl highly esteemed by the
Roman ladies, who wore such pearls mounted as drops or pendants to
brooches and rings. (See the illustration to CROTALIUM.) (2) An index to
a book.

=Elephant.= In mediæval heraldry this animal is a symbol of piety, from
an ancient legend, mentioned by Ælian, Pliny, and others, that it has in
religious reverence, with a kind of devotion, not only the stars and
planets, but also the sun and moon.

=Elephant Paper.= Drawing-paper manufactured in sheets, measuring 28
inches by 23. _Double Elephant Paper_ measures 40 inches by 26¾.

=Eleusinian Mysteries.= The holiest and most venerated of the Greek
festivals. The Lesser Eleusinia, held at Agræ in the month Anthesterion,
were a preparation for the Greater, which were celebrated at Athens and
Eleusis. The _Mystæ_ were the initiated at the Lesser, of which the
principal rite was the sacrifice of a sow, previously purified by
washing in the Cantharus. The Greater were celebrated every year in the
month Boedromion, and lasted nine days. On the first day the Mystæ
assembled at Athens; on the second they went through a ceremony of
purification at the sea-coast; the third was a day of fasting; on the
fourth there was a procession of a waggon drawn by oxen, followed by
women who had small mystic cases in their hands; on the fifth, or torch
day, the Mystæ went in the evening with torches to the temple of
Demeter, where they passed the night; on the sixth, which was the most
solemn of all, a statue of Iacchos, the son of Demeter, was borne in
procession to Eleusis, and the Mystæ were there initiated in the last
mysteries during the following night. There was something in the secrets
of this part of the ceremony which excited greatly the imagination of
the ancient writers, especially Christians, who describe them “in an
awful and horrible manner.” Each of the initiated was dismissed by the
_mystagogus_ with the words κόγξ, ὄμπαξ. On the next day they returned
to Athens, and resting on the bridge of Cephisus engaged in a contest of
ridicule with the passers-by: the eighth and ninth days were

=Eleutheria.= A Greek festival in honour of Zeus Eleutherios (the

=Elevati= of Ferrara. One of the Italian literary academies. Their
device was from the fable of Hercules and Antæus, with the motto from
Horace, “_Superat tellus, sidera donat_” (Earth conquers us, but gives
us Heaven).

=Elevation.= (1) In Architecture, &c., a perpendicular plan drawn to a
scale. (2) In Christian archæology, the _lifting up_ of the elements at
certain points in the Eucharistic service, universally prescribed in the
early Oriental liturgies, and introduced into the Western Church with
the doctrine of transubstantiation.

[Illustration: Fig. 282. Bas-relief from the frieze of the Parthenon.
One of the Elgin Marbles.]

=Elgin Marbles.= Friezes and metopes from the Parthenon at Athens,
brought to the British Museum by Lord Elgin. They are adorned with
sculptures in relief; those on the frieze represent the Panathenaic
procession in honour of Athena; those on the metopes, chiefly the
contests of the Centaurs and Lapithæ. There are also statues and
friezes, especially from the temple of the Wingless Victory and the
CHORAGIC MONUMENT of Lysicrates. They are admirably described by Mr.
Newton in his “Guide” to these sculptures published by the authorities
of the British Museum. (Fig. 282.)

[Illustration: Fig. 283. Great Seal of Queen Elizabeth.]

=Elizabeth, Queen.= The costume and the royal appurtenances of this
monarch are well illustrated by the Royal Seal. In the Royal Arms we see
the lions and the lilies (_France modern and England quarterly_). On the
reverse (Fig. 284) the Tudor Rose, fleur-de-lis, and harp appear
separately crowned for England, France, and Ireland. Elizabeth was fond
of allegory and devices. In her portrait by Zoffany “the lining of her
robe is worked with eyes and ears, and on her left sleeve is embroidered
a serpent—all to imply wisdom and vigilance.” In her other hand is a
rainbow with the motto, “_Non sine sole iris_” (no rainbow without the

[Illustration: Fig. 284. Great Seal of Queen Elizabeth.]

=Elizabethan.= The style of architecture and decoration gradually
developed during the reign of the Tudors in England. Its characteristics
are a mixed revival of classical forms with quaint and grotesque relics
of the Gothic. Typical examples are Crewe Hall, Speke, in Lancashire,
Haddon Hall, Kenilworth Castle, Raglan Castle, &c.

=Ellipsis=, =Ellipse=. A figure formed by cutting a cone obliquely
across its length; hence—

=Ellipsograph.= An instrument for describing a semi-ellipse.

=Ellotia= or =Hellotia=. A Corinthian festival with a torch-race, in
honour of Athena as a goddess of fire.

=Ellychnium=, R. (λύχνος, a light). The wick of an oil lamp; it was made
of flax fibres or papyrus.

=Emarginated.= Having the _margin_ broken by a notch or notches.

=Embalming= was frequently practised by the early Christians, especially
with the bodies of martyrs. The practice was derived from the Jews. As a
pagan ceremony embalming was intended to facilitate _cremation_.

=Embalon=, Gr. and R. A beak, corresponding to the modern _ram_, under
the bows of a war galley, for the purpose of sinking the enemy.

=Embas=, Gr. A shoe of white felt, used esp. by the Bœotians.

=Ember Days=, Chr. (in Anglo-Saxon, _ymbren dagas_, “recurrent days;” in
Latin, _jejunia quatuor temporum_; in French, _les quatre temps_, &c.).
Special fasts appointed to be observed at the commencement of each of
the _four seasons_ of the year. In the Eastern Church there is no trace
of such an observance. (The word has no connexion with _embers_ in the
sense of ashes.)

=Emblazon=, Her. (See BLAZON.)

[Illustration: Fig. 285. Emblemata.]

=Emblemata=, Gr. (ἐμβάλλω, to put in). INLAID-WORK, or (1) Mosaic made
of coloured cubes of glass or vitreous enamel. (See SECTILE,
TESSELLATUM, VERMICULATUM.) Fig. 285 represents _emblemata_ of different
kinds of glass. (2) _Crusts_ exquisitely wrought on the surface of
vessels or other pieces of furniture; as, for instance, alabaster on
marble, gold on silver, silver on bronze. The Romans generally used the
term _crustæ_ for this kind of work. From EMBLEMATA is derived our word
EMBLEM, the true meaning of which is “a symbolical figure or composition
which conceals an allegory.” Thus an _ape_ symbolized malice and lust; a
_pelican_ piety, and the Redeemer’s love for the world. &c. The most
important books of Emblems are by Alciati, Paradin, and Sambuco.

=Embolismus=, =Embolis=, or =Embolum=, Chr. (1) An inserted or
intercalated prayer in a liturgy. (2) The number of days required to
make up the lunar year to the solar. (See EPACT.)

=Embolium=, Gr. and R. (lit. something thrown in). An interlude or comic
piece recited by an actress (_emboliaria_) between the acts of a drama.

=Embolos=, Arch., Chr. A covered portico or cloister surrounding the
external walls of a church.

=Embolum=, Gr. The Greek term answering to the Latin ROSTRUM (q.v.).
(See also EMBOLISMUS.)

=Embolus=, R. (ἔμβολος). The piston in the chamber of a pump.

=Embossing=, =Embossment=. A prominence like a boss; raised ornamental

=Embowed=, Her. Bent. An arm embowed has the elbow to the dexter.

=Embrasure=, Arch. (1) The interval between the COPS of a battlement.
(2) An expansion of doorways, windows, &c., given by slanting the sides.
(See SPLAY.)

[Illustration: Fig. 286. Indian Embroidery. In the Indian section of the
South Kensington Museum.]

=Embroidery= is one of the oldest of the ornamental arts. Some specimens
of ancient _Egyptian_ embroidery are exhibited in the Louvre, and
Herodotus mentions the embroidered vestments of the gods in Egypt. The
_Israelites_ appointed Aholiab, “a cunning workman, and an embroiderer
in blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen,” to be _chief
embroiderer_ to the sacred ark. The prophet Ezekiel mentions the
embroidery of _Tyre_. It was the principal domestic occupation of ladies
in _Greece_, from the days when Penelope embroidered a garment for
Ulysses, representing a dog chasing a deer. The _Romans_ called
embroidery “Phrygium,” and imported it largely from the East. In later
times _Byzantium_ was celebrated for its embroidered ecclesiastical
vestments. Pope Paschal, in the 9th century, was the greatest patron of
the art. When the Caliph Omar pillaged the _Persian_ palace of Khosroes,
he found there a carpet of silk and cloth of gold, sixty cubits square,
having a garden depicted upon it, and rubies, emeralds, sapphires,
beryls, topazes, and pearls arranged with consummate skill to represent
trees, fruit and flowers, rivulets, fountains, roses and shrubs. Our
English word “embroidery” is derived from the Celtic “brouda,” to prick.
Anglo-Saxon embroidery was celebrated throughout Europe as _Opus
Anglicanum_. The celebrated Bayeux tapestry is attributed to the 12th
century. A copy of it may be seen in the South Kensington Museum. The
art decayed in England during the Civil War of the 17th century.

=Embrued=, Her. Stained with blood.

=Embu.= A French term for the _loss of tone_ in an oil sketch, caused by
the absorption of the oil whilst it is drying. It is easily corrected by
a glaze.

=Emerald.= A precious stone of various shades of green, much used by the
ancients for gem-engraving. The less brilliant varieties are known as
beryls. For its significance in Christian art, see GREEN.

=Emerald Green.= A vivid bright green pigment, prepared from the
arseniate of copper, and used both in oil and water-colours; called also
_Paul Veronese Green_.

=Emissarium=, R. (_emitto_, to send forth). A channel, natural or
artificial, for letting off stagnant water. Some of these channels are
the most wonderful monuments of Roman ingenuity. The lakes of Trasimene,
Albano, Nemi, and Fucino were all drained by EMISSARIA. The last is open
to inspection, and is described as “a stupendous work of engineering,
planned by Julius Cæsar, and completed by the Emperor Claudius.”

=Empaistic=, Gr. _Damascening_ (q.v.) or _in crusta_ work practised by
the ancients, as opposed to TOREUTIC ART (q.v.).

=Emperor Paper.= The largest kind of drawing-paper manufactured in
sheets measuring 66 inches by 47.

=Emphotion=, Chr. (from ἐμφωτίζω, to enlighten). A name given in the
early Church to the white robe with which persons were invested in
baptism; as it were, “a robe of light.”

=Emplecton=, Gr. and R. (lit. inwoven). A method of building,
originating in Greece and adopted by the Romans, in which a space left
in the interior of the wall was filled in with rubble, the whole block
of masonry being bound together at intervals by ties (_diatonoi_). In
the engraving, _c_ and _b_ are the _square stones_, the parts between
them being the ties or diatonoi, and _o_ the rubble. (See Fig. 249.)

=Emporium=, Gr. and R. (ἔμπορος, a passenger in a ship). A place at a
sea-port where imported merchandise was warehoused and exposed for sale.
The remains of the ancient _emporium_ of Rome have been discovered on
the banks of the Tiber. The name is sometimes applied to a town, but
applies properly only to a certain place in a town.

=Enafota= or =Enafodia=, Chr. (Gr. ἐννεάφωτα). A corona or chandelier of
“nine lights.”

=Enaluron=, Her. (See ENTOIRE.)

[Illustration: Fig. 287. Pendant of gold, enamelled and enriched with

=Enamel= (Fr. _esmail_; Ital. _smalto_). A glassy substance of many
brilliant colours, melted and united to gold, silver, copper, bronze,
and other metals in the furnace. Enamel is coloured _white_ by oxide of
tin, _blue_ by oxide of cobalt, _red_ by gold, and _green_ by copper.
Different kinds of enamel are (1) inlaid or incrusted. (2) Transparent,
showing designs on the metal under it. (3) Painted as a complete
picture. “Many fine specimens of ancient Chinese enamel were seen in the
Exhibition of 1851. They have the enamel on copper, beautifully coloured
and enlivened with figures of flowers, birds, and other animals. The
colouring is most chaste and effective. The Chinese say that no good
specimens of this manufacture have been made for the last six or eight
hundred years.” (_Fortune._) Beautiful transparent enamels are made in
India. They look like slices of emerald or sapphire laid in beds of
gold, having tiny figures of beaten gold let into their surfaces. (See
also CLOISONNÉ, CHAMP-LEVÉ, BASSE-TAILLE, &c.) The beautiful example of
enamel-work, Fig. 287, is attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. (See Fig.

=Enamel.= Painting in enamel is done by means of colours that are
vitrifiable, a quality that is communicated to them by combining them
with a vitreous base, which is called their flux. These are fused and
fixed on the enamel by the action of fire, which produces in the colours
applied such changes as the artist has previously learned to calculate.

=Enamelled Glass.= (See GLASS.)

=Enamelled Wares.= (See GLAZED WARE.)

=Encænia=, Chr. A dedication festival.

[Illustration: Fig. 288. Encarpa (Festoons) on the Temple of Vesta at

=Encarpa=, Gr. An architectural decoration formed of festoons or
garlands of flowers and fruits (καρποὶ), whence its name. Fig. 288 shows
an example from the temple of Vesta at Tivoli.

=Encaustic=, R. (lit. burning in). The art of painting in encaustic.
Pliny says, “The colours were applied with wax on marble, and
transparent gum on ivory. Coloured wax was applied to the wall in the
form of a paste, and in the manner of mosaic or enamels. This was then
melted or fused with hot irons (_cauteria_), a small fillet of a
different tint being inserted between each flat tint.” Fairholt says,
“There is no antique painting extant which is properly called ENCAUSTIC;
all those supposed to be so have, on closer examination, proved to be in

=Encaustic Tiles.= Ornamental tiles for floorings, extensively used in
the Middle Ages.

=Encheirion=, Chr. The napkin with which the priest wipes his hands;
worn at the girdle.

=Encoignure=, Fr. A table made with an angle to fit into a corner.

=Encolpia=, Chr. (lit. worn on the breast, or from the Gr. ἐγκολπίζω, to
contain in the womb). (1) Small caskets containing relics or a copy of
the Gospels, worn by the early Christians suspended from the neck. (See
EPOMADION.) Their use is of the highest antiquity, and specimens have
been found in the tombs of the ancient cemetery of the Vatican,
belonging to the 4th century. These were square in form, having on one
side the sacred monogram ΙΧΡ for ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ between the letters Α
and Ω. (2) The pectoral crosses worn by bishops are also called
_encolpia_. Reliquaries in the form of a cross are first mentioned by
Gregory the Great. He sent one of them to Queen Theodelinda.

=Encomboma=, Gr. (i. e. girt on). A Greek apron, tied round the waist,
worn chiefly by young maidens and by slaves to keep the tunic clean.

=Encyclical Letters.= (1) Chr. Letters “sent round” to all who should
read them, and not addressed to any particular person (from the members
of a council, &c.). (2) Gen. The same words, γράμματα ἐγκύκλια, apply to
the subjects which the Greeks included in the “circle of the sciences,”
or encyclopædia.

=Encysted.= Enclosed in a cyst.

=Endecagon= (ἕνδεκα, eleven; γωνία, an angle). A plane figure having
eleven sides and eleven angles.

=Endorse=, Her. A diminutive of the PALE (q.v.), one-fourth of its

=Endothys.= (See ENDYTIS.)

=Endromis=, Gr. and R. (δρόμος, a course or running). In Greek this name
is given to hunting boots of Cretan origin, such as Diana is represented
wearing by the Greek sculptors. Among the Romans the _endromis_ was an
ample blanket of coarse wool, introduced from Gaul, in which athletes
wrapped themselves when they were heated with the exercises. _Endromis
Tyria_ was the name given to a large woollen wrap much finer than the
ordinary _endromis_, and which was worn by the Roman ladies after their
gymnastic exercises.

=Endytis=, Chr. (ἐνδύω, to put on). This term, in the Middle Ages,
denoted an altar-covering; other terms for it were _endothis_ and

=Energumens=, Chr. Men possessed with devils.

=Enfeu=, Fr. A sepulchral vault usually placed under the choir of a
church; it assumed the form of a large niche. Originally bishops were
interred by “droit d’enfeu” in tombs of this kind. The term is derived
from the Latin _infodere_ (to dig).

=Enfiled=, Her. Pierced with the sword.

=Engageants=, Fr. “Double ruffles that fall over the wrists.” (_Ladies’
Dictionary_, 1694.)

=Engineer’s Cartridge.= Drawing-paper manufactured in sheets measuring
30 by 22 inches. _Double Engineer’s Cartridge_ measures 46 inches by 30.

=Engobe=, Fr. A “slip” or thin coating of white clay used to coat
pottery before the invention of the tin glaze.

=Engrailed=, Her. A border line indented in semicircles.

=Engraving.= Copper-plate engraving is called CHALCOGRAPHY (q.v.) (Gr.
χαλκὸς, copper); wood-engraving, XYLOGRAPHY (q.v.) (Gr. ξύλον, wood);
and engraving on stone, LITHOGRAPHY (q.v.) (Gr. λίθος, a stone). [Each
process is described under its own heading. See also ETCHING.]

=Enhanced=, Her. Raised towards the CHIEF, or upper part of the shield.

=Enneapylæ=, Pel. (ἐννέα and πύλαι). Literally, nine gates; a fortified
enclosure constructed by the Bœotian Pelasgians round the Acropolis of
Athens, some years after the Trojan war. Xerxes destroyed the
_enneapylæ_ after the capture of Athens. A few fragments of it remain to
this day, not far from the temple of the Wingless Victory.

=Enotia=, Gr. (Lat. _inaures_). EAR-RINGS (q.v.).

=Enseniator=, Med. Lat. (from the Italian _insegna_, an ensign). A
mounted ensign-bearer.

=Ensiculus=, R. A small sword, or child’s sword, used as a plaything. It
is the diminutive of ENSIS.

=Ensigned=, Her. Adorned; having some ensign of honour placed above, as
a coronet above a shield.

[Illustration: Figs. 289, 290. Gallic Ensigns.]

=Ensigns=, Gen. (Lat. _signa militaria_; Gr. σημεῖα). Military symbols
beneath which soldiers are ranged according to the different regiments
to which they belong. The most ancient Roman ensign was a bundle of
straw, hay, or fern. Then came the eagle, the wolf, the minotaur, the
horse, and the boar. Afterwards the eagle alone was displayed (B. C.
104); it was made of silver or bronze, with expanded wings. The serpent
or dragon was used as a particular ensign by the several _cohorts_, and
the centuries had also each its ensign; but these were cloth flags.
Under Constantine the LABARUM (q.v.) was introduced. (See CUSPIS, Figs.
228 to 230.)

[Illustration: Fig. 291. Gallic Ensign.]

=Ensiludium=, Med. Lat. A contest in sport with swords. (See CEMBEL,

=Ensis, Sword.= A synonym of GLADIUS (q.v.).

=Ensis a Estoc=, Med. A stabbing-sword, usually carried at the

[Illustration: Fig. 292. Entablature with leaf ornament.]

=Entablature.= A member of architecture placed as a crown to another.
The entablature is composed of _architrave_, the part immediately above
the column; _frieze_, the central space; and _cornice_, the upper
projecting mouldings. (See Fig. 184.)

[Illustration: Fig. 293. Entablature with honeysuckle ornament.]

=Entalma=, Chr. The document by which a bishop confers the right of
hearing confessions.

[Illustration: Fig. 294. Egyptian Column, showing entasis.]

=Entasis=, Gr. and R. (ἔντασις, a stretching tight). The _swelling_ of a
balustre or of the shaft of a column. The narrowing of the shaft is
called CONTRACTURA (q.v.).

=Enterclose=, Arch. A passage between two rooms in a house.

=Enthronisation=, Chr. (Lat. _incathedrare_). (1) The ceremony of
placing a newly-ordained bishop upon his throne. (2) That of placing the
relics in the altar of a church on consecration. (3) The installation of
a presbyter in his church is sometimes called _enthronisation_.

=Entire=, Her. Said of a charge when it extends to the border lines of a
shield, coat, or banner; also of a shield, coat, or banner of arms, when
borne without any difference or mark of cadency.

=Entoire=, =Entoyre=, Her. A bordure charged with a series of inanimate
figures or devices, as crosslets, roundles, &c. To a similar bordure of
living figures the term ENALURON is applied.

=Entrance=, Chr. (See EISODOS and INTROIT.)

=Entrecoupe=, Fr. When two vaults are superimposed, and both spring from
the same walls, “entrecoupe” is the term applied to the arched
interval—if any—between them.

=Enveloped=, =Environed=, Her. Surrounded.

=Eolian (Æolian) Harp.= A musical stringed instrument arranged to be
played upon by the wind (from Eolus [or properly Æolus], the ruler of
the winds).

=Eolodicon.= A musical instrument similar to a harmonium, invented in
the last century by Eschenbach.

=Eolophone.= A musical instrument similar to a harmonium.

=Eōra=, Gr. (ἐώρα). A festival held at Athens in honour of Icarius and
his daughter Erigonê. It was known also by the names of _Æora_ (αἰώρα)
and _Aletis_ (Ἀλῆτις). The last appellation originated in a hymn which
was sung at the festival, and which had been composed by Theodorus of
Colophon. It was sometimes called “Eudeipnos,” from the rich banquets
usually given during its celebration.

=Epact= (Gr. ἐπακταὶ, sc. ἡμέραι; in Med. Lat. _adjectiones Lunæ_). The
number of days required at the end of a lunar year to complete the solar
year. (See EMBOLISMUS.)

=Epagomenæ= (sc. days), Gen. (ἐπαγόμεναι ἡμέραι, i. e. intercalated
days). The name given to the five supplementary days of the year among
those nations who divided the year into twelve months of thirty days

=Epaullière= or =Epaullets=, Er. Shoulder-plates; also the
shoulder-knots formerly worn by gentlemen, but now restricted to
domestic servants. (See AIGLET.)

=Ependytes=, Chr. (ἐπενδύτης, i. e. worn above). The “fisher’s coat” of
St. Peter. A coarse cloak worn by the monks of the Middle Ages over
another garment; it is also called, in the ancient MSS., _superaria_,
_superindum_, and _sagus rusticus_. It is frequently described,
especially in the East, as made of skins (μηλωτὴς, pelliceus).

=Epergne= (Fr. _épargne_, economy). An ornamental stand, with dish and
branches, for the centre of a table.

=Epernay Ware.= At Epernay were specially made glazed wares in relief
for the service of the table, in shapes such as a hare, a fowl, &c., in
half relief; also surprise or puzzle jugs.

=Epha= or =Ephah=, Heb. A measure of capacity, about 3 pecks and 3

=Ephebeum=, Gr. (ἐφηβεῖον). The large hall of a gymnasium, situated in
the centre of the building, in which the youths (_ephebi_) practised
gymnastic exercises.

=Ephippium=, Gr. (ἐφίππιον, i. e. for putting on a horse). A saddle.
Among the Greeks and Romans it was a kind of pad, square or round in
shape, and regularly stuffed. Saddle-cloths hung from it, but it had no
stirrups. The word _sella_, or _sella equestris_, became common in later

=Ephod=, Hebrew. A short upper garment worn by the Jewish priests. The
ephod, which was also worn by the Jewish judges and kings, was made of
fine linen; that of the high priest consisted of a sleeved tunic, woven
with gold thread, purple, hyacinth, and twisted flax. Two sardonyx
stones set in gold adorned the clasps by which this tunic was fastened
round the shoulders.

=Epi= or =Girouette=, Fr. The complicated iron ornament with which
steeples and pointed roofs were surmounted in the architecture of the
Renaissance period, replaced in modern times by the weathercock. A
similar spiked ornament, of pottery or metal, is still common on the
gables of houses in Normandy.

=Epic.= In Art, the graphic representation of an “epos,” or event,
cardinal in history.

=Epichysis=, Gr. and R. (ἐπίχυσις, i. e. that which pours in). A Greek
pitcher with a long neck and a handle; it was used for pouring wine into

=Epicopus=, Gr. and R. (ἐπίκωπος, i. e. furnished with oars). A vessel
with oars. (See NAVIS.)

=Epicrocum=, Gr. and R. A woman’s garment, of a saffron yellow (crocus),
whence its name.

=Epicycloid.= “A curve described by the movement of the circumference of
one circle on the convex or concave part of the circumference of
another.” (_Stormonth._)

=Epideipnis=, Gr. (i. e. following the dinner). The last course of a
dinner or any kind of banquet.

=Epidemia=, Gr. (lit. among the people). Festivals held at Argos in
honour of Juno, and at Delos and Miletus in honour of Apollo. They
received their name from the fact that these deities were supposed to be
present at them, and to mingle with the people (ἐπὶ, among; δῆμος,

=Epidote.= A mineral of a green or greyish colour: of the garnet family.

=Epidromos=, Gr. (1) The mizen, or sail on the mast nearest to the
stern, in vessels with several masts. (2) A part of the oil-press. (3) A
running rope passing through the rings of a large net for catching
birds, by means of which the huntsman, who was on the watch, closed the
net when the game had found their way into it.

=Epigonation=, Gr., Chr. An ornament peculiar to the Eastern Church; a
lozenge-shaped piece of some stiff material, hanging from the girdle on
the right side as low as the _knee_ (whence its name).

=Epigrus.= (See EPIURUS.)

=Epiphany=, Chr. This festival is known by various names in the
different European languages; and the names are either (1) mere
reproductions of the Latin name, or renderings of it; or (2) refer to
the manifestation to the Magi as the three Kings, as the Dutch
Drie-Koningendag, &c.; or (3) indicate it as the final day of the
Christmas festivity, _Twelfth Day_, &c. (See _Smith and Cheetham’s
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities_.)

=Epiphi=, Egyp. The third month of summer, called the season of

=Epirhedium=, R. (ἐπὶ Gr., and _rheda_ Gallic). A kind of chariot. The
word was formed by the Romans as above, and is explained as _Ornamentum
rhedarum, aut plaustrum_. (See RHEDA, PLAUSTRUM.)

=Episcenium=, Gr. and R. (ἐπι-σκήνιον, i. e. above the stage). A room
situated above the stage, in ancient theatres, for the machinery.

=Episcopalia=, Chr. The ring and the pastoral staff, the distinctive
marks of the authority of a bishop.

=Episotron= (ἐπί-σωτρον). (See CANTHUS.)

=Epistle Side= (of a church). The south side.

=Epistomium=, R. (στόμα, a mouth). The cock of a vessel or water-pipe,
which let out only a little water at a time.

=Epistylium=, Gr. and R. (ἐπι-στύλιον). An epistyle; literally, on the
column (ἐπὶ, on, and στῦλος, a column); that is, the architrave or lower
beam of an entablature laid horizontally upon columns. By analogy the
term is used to denote the entire ENTABLATURE (q.v.).

=Epitaph= (ἐπιτάφιος). (1) A eulogy pronounced at a funeral. (2)
Memorials of art in churches, in remembrance of the dead. (3)
Inscriptions on tombs.

=Epithalamium=, Gr. A nuptial song. A fragment of verses from one of
these songs, written by Hesiod, has come down to us.

=Epithedes= or =Sima=, Arch. The upper member of the cornice of an

=Epitoga=, R. A cloak worn over the toga.

=Epitoxis=, Gr. and R. That part of the catapult in which the missile
was laid.

=Epitrachelion=, Chr. (i. e. on the neck). The Greek name for the stole.
(See STOLE.)

=Epiurus=, R. (ἐπίουρος). A wooden peg used as a nail.

=Epoch.= A fixed and important period of novelty or change, which gave a
new and distinctive character to Art. (_Fairholt._)

=Epomadion=, Gr., Chr. The cord or ribbon by which relics, or crosses
(ENCOLPIA), were suspended from the neck.

=Eques=, R. Generally, any one on horseback, a rider, and by analogy a
knight, that is, a patrician or man of distinguished family. _Eques
alarius_ was the name given to the cavalry of the allies; _eques
cataphractus_ was a knight whose horse, as well as himself, was clad in
complete armour; _eques extraordinarius_ were the picked cavalry in the
service of the consuls; _eques legionarius_, _eques prætorianus_, the
prætorian cavalry; _eques sagittarius_, the mounted archers.

=Equipped=, Her. Fully armed, caparisoned, or provided.

=Equiria=, R. (_equus_). Games instituted by Romulus, and celebrated at
Rome in the Field of Mars on the third of the calends of March (27th
February). These games, held in honour of Mars, consisted of chariot
races. There were two festivals of this name; the second was on the eve
of the ides of March (14th March).

=Equuleus= or =Eculeus=, R. (lit. a colt, a young horse). This was an
instrument of torture on which slaves were placed astride. The law
prescribed that all slaves called as witnesses should be examined under

=Equus=, R. A horse; properly a stallion, as opposed to _cauterius_, a
gelding, and _equa_, a mare.

=Eradicated=, Her. Torn up by the roots.

=Erased=, Her. Torn off with a ragged edge.

=Eremites=, Gr., Chr. Hermits.

=Ergastulum=, R. (ἐργάζομαι, to work). A private prison attached to a
farm or _villa rustica_, in which insubordinate and ill-conducted slaves
were kept in chains; they were under the superintendence of a gaoler,
who was himself a slave, and who was called ERGASTULARIUS. _Ergastula_
were built underground, and thus formed subterranean dungeons.

=Ergata=, Gr. and R. (ἐργάτης, i. e. worker). A strong capstan used for
moving heavy weights; among other things, for hauling vessels on shore.

=Ericius=, R. (lit. hedgehog). A military engine, a cheval-de-frise or
long beam studded with iron spikes, whence its name. It was placed
across a door or other opening to which it was desired to bar ingress.

[Illustration: Fig. 295. The Ermine. Arms of Anne of Brittany.]

=Ermine=, =Ermines=, =Erminois=, Her. The animal, the ermine, sometimes
appears in blazon, and an ermine spot is borne as a charge. Generally
the ermine is an emblem of royalty, purity, and honour. The illustration
(Fig. 295) is of the arms of Anne of Bretagne, the Queen of Charles

=Erotidia=, Gr. (ἐρωτίδια). Festivals held every fifth year at Thespiæ
in Bœotia, in honour of Eros, the principal divinity of the Thespians.

=Erpa=, Egyp. A title in use among the Egyptians implying authority
generally; the crown prince was so designated, and the high priest was,
in the same manner, called _erpa_ of the priests.

[Illustration: Fig. 296. Escallop.]

=Escallop= or =Scallop Shells= were emblems worn by pilgrims, and of St.
James the Great, from the 13th century.

=Escape=, Arch, (or Apopyge). The small curvature given to the top and
bottom of the shaft of a column where it expands to meet the edge of the
fillet above the torus of the base, and beneath the astragal under the

[Illustration: Fig. 297. Escaufaille, or portable brazier.]

=Escaufaille=, Fr. A small portable brazier on wheels, which was taken
from room to room as required.

=Eschelles=, Fr. “A stomacher laced or ribboned in the form of a
ladder.” (_Ladies’ Dict._, 1694.)

=Escoinson=, Med. Fr. The interior edge of the window-side or jamb. This
was often decorated with a pilaster called the “pilastre des écoinsons.”

=Escroll=, Her. A ribbon charged with a motto; also a ribbon, coiled at
its extremities, borne as a charge.

[Illustration: Fig. 298. Escutcheon of the Sforzas.]

=Escutcheon.= (1) The heraldic shield. (2) Metal plates on doors.
Escutcheons are abundantly used in Gothic architecture, and are
frequently carved on the bosses of ceilings and at the ends of weather
mouldings, &c. Sometimes. instead of armorial bearings, escutcheons have
the instruments of the Crucifixion or other devices carved on them.

=Escutcheon of Pretence=, Her. A shield charged upon the field of
another shield of larger size, and bearing a distinct coat of arms.

=Espadon.= A long Spanish sword. It was the weapon used for decapitation
of criminals.

=Espietus=, =Expiotus=, Med. Lat. A dart (1361).

=Espringale=, =Springale=, =Espringold=. A machine for throwing darts.

=Esquire=, Her. A rank next below that of knight.

=Esseda=, =Essedum=, R. (from the Celtic _ess_, a carriage). A chariot
of Gaulish origin, drawn by two horses, which was used by the Britons
and the Germans in war. It was mounted on two wheels, and was open in
front, but closed behind. The pole was broad, and the rider used to run
to and fro upon it in the battle. The Romans constructed carriages of a
similar kind. A similar chariot drawn by one horse was called the
_cisium_. (See CURRUS.)

=Essonite.= The cinnamon-stone, a variety of the garnet. It is of a
reddish yellow tint, resembling the colour of cinnamon. These stones
come principally from Ceylon, and are frequently sold for hyacinths or
jacinths, from which, however, they differ in many important
peculiarities. (_H. Emanuel._)

=Este.= A manufactory in Italy of soft porcelain; also of fine faience
and pipe-clay.

=Estivation=, Bot. The arrangement of the unexpanded leaves of the
flower-bud which burst in Summer; as opposed to VERNATION, the
arrangement of the leaves of the bud which burst in Spring.

=Estoc=, Fr. (Med. Lat. _estoquum_). A short sword worn at the girdle;
also called a “tuck” (_temp._ Elizabeth).

=Estoile=, Her. A star with wavy rays or points, which are six, eight,
or sometimes more in number.

=Estrade=, Fr., Arch. A platform raised three or four inches above the
rest of the floor of a chamber, upon which to place a bed or a throne,

=Estrif= or =Estref=, Med. A kind of arrow for the balista.

=Etching.= In this process the copper plate is covered with an
_etching-ground_, which is a preparation of bees’-wax, Burgundy pitch,
black pitch, and asphaltum (or other ingredients); and the lines of the
design are traced out with _etching-needles_, which remove the
etching-ground from the copper wherever they pass, and slightly scratch
the surface of the plate. Next, a border of _banking-wax_ is put round
the sides of the plate, making a trough of it. The _banking-wax_ is made
of bees’-wax, common pitch, Burgundy pitch, and sweet oil melted in a
crucible and poured into cold water. The next operation is to pour in
nitrous acid reduced with water to a proper strength (about one part
acid to four parts water). When the acid has been on a sufficient time
to corrode the fainter parts of the subject, it is to be poured off, the
plate washed with water, and left to dry. These fainter parts are then
to be varnished with a mixture called _stopping-ground_, made of
lamp-black and Venice turpentine, applied with a camel’s-hair pencil.
This stops the further action of the acid on these parts. When the
surface is dry, fresh acid is poured on to _bite in_ the bolder parts,
and the processes of _stopping_ and _biting-in_ are alternated for every
gradation of tint. The wax is removed from the plate by heat, and
cleaned away with a rag moistened with olive oil; and the work is then
complete, or it may be finished off with the _graver_. _Etching-points_
or _needles_ resemble common needles, fixed in handles four or five
inches long; some are made oval to produce broader lines. The _dry
point_ is only a very fine-pointed needle for the delicate lines.
Imitations of chalk and pencil drawings are sometimes produced by
_etching on soft ground_. _Etching on steel_ is done in the same way as
on copper. For _etching on glass_, a ground of bees’-wax is laid on, and
the design traced as above. Sulphuric acid is then poured on, and
fluor-spar sprinkled on it, or fluoric acid may be at once used; this is
allowed to remain four or five hours, and is then removed with oil of
turpentine. (See also STIPPLE, MEZZOTINTO, AQUATINTA.)

=Eterea= of Padua. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device,
a charioteer in his car in the air, drawn by a white and black horse,
the one endeavouring to touch the earth, the other to ascend. Motto,
“_Victor se tollit ad auras_.”

=Etiolation.= The process of blanching to which plants are subject in
dark places.

=Ettwee.= O. E. for ETUI (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 299. Etui.]

=Etui=, Fr. (by contraction _Twee_, Boyer). A case formerly worn at the
girdle by ladies. They were made of gold or silver, or ornamented with
paintings in enamel. The richly-decorated example represented in Fig.
299 was the property of a granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell.

=Euripus=, R. (εὔριπος). An artificial canal or watercourse in the
gardens of a Roman villa, generally stocked with fish and aquatic or
amphibious animals. The same term was applied to a moat dug at the foot
of the _podium_ in an amphitheatre or circus, which was intended, in
conjunction with the metal railings or trellis-work placed at the top of
the _podium_, as a protection to the spectators, when wild beasts were
exhibited in the arena. _Euripus_ is also applied by Tertullian and
other authors to the _spina_ of a circus.

=Eustyle=, Arch. (εὔ-στυλος). An intercolumniation in which the columns
are separated by a width of two diameters and a quarter, measured at the
lower part of the column, excepting the central intercolumn, which is of
three diameters. It is the form of columniation which, according to
Vitruvius, satisfied the demands at once of solidity of structure,
beauty of appearance, and general harmony of effect.

=Euterpean.= Pertaining to music: from the Muse Euterpe.

=Everriculum=, R. (_everro_, to sweep out). A fishing-net.

=Ewery=, Med. An office of household service, where the ewers, &c., were
kept: our modern _scullery_.

=Exacisculatus=, R. Destroyed by means of a pick (_acisculus_). The term
is of frequent occurrence in sepulchral inscriptions, its purpose being
to serve as a notice to the thieves who broke into tombs.

=Examen=, R. (_exigo_, to examine). The tongue or index on the beam of a

=Exasciatus=, R. Hewn or fashioned with the adze (ascia); whence the
expression _opus exasciatum_ for work which only required to be finished
or polished.

=Excalceatus=, R. (lit. without shoes or boots). A comic actor or
comedian who wore sandals. The tragic actor, on the other hand, who wore
on the stage the laced boot or _cothurnus_, was called _cothurnatus_.

=Excubitorium=, R. The post or guard of the _excubitores_; of these
there was one in each quarter of the city, or fourteen in all.

[Illustration: Fig. 300. Exedra.]

=Exedra=, Gr. and R. An assembly-room or hall for discussion or
conversation, forming part of a gymnasium, palæstra, or private house.
In many cases _exedræ_ were in the open air, consisting merely of
circular marble benches. (Fig. 300.) When an exedra was covered in, one
of the sides often terminated in a circular apse (_absis_). [Larger
rooms were called “_Leschai_.”]

=Exedrium=, R. Diminutive of EXEDRA (q.v.).

=Exequiæ.= (See EXSEQUIÆ.)

=Exergue.= The bottom space on a coin, where the date is engraved.

=Exiteria=, Gr. and R. (ἐξιτήρια, concerning departure or result).
Sacrifices offered to propitiate the gods on the eve of an important
enterprise, or in gratitude for success.

=Exomis=, Gr. and R. (ἐξ-ωμὶς, i. e. off the shoulders). A short tunic,
of Greek origin, adopted by the Romans. It left the right shoulder and
arm exposed, and had only a short sleeve for the left arm. The term was
also applied to the _pallium_, when so arranged upon the person as to
resemble the tunic just described.

=Exonarthex.= (See NARTHEX.)

=Exostra=, Gr. and R. (ἐξώστρα). (1) A flying bridge thrown from a
movable tower (_acrobaticon_) on to the walls of a besieged town, by
means of which the assailants made their way into the place. (2) A
theatrical machine which was pushed to the front of the stage from
behind a curtain which concealed it until it was wanted.

=Expeditus= (opposed to _impeditus_), R. Free, unencumbered; light-armed
troops (_velites_) were thus called (_expediti_), [or any other troops,
when they left their _impedimenta_ behind for a forced march, &c.]

=Expositories.= (See MONSTRANCES.)

=Exsequiæ=, R. (_exsequor_, to follow after). A funeral conducted with
great pomp. (See =Funus=.)

=Extispicium=, R. (_exta_ and _inspicio_, to inspect). Divination by
inspection of the entrails of victims sacrificed on the altar; called
also _haruspicina_.

=Extra-dos=, Arch. The exterior curve of an arch; opposed to the SOFFIT

=Extremities.= In Art, the head, feet, and hands: compare _acrolithes_.

=Ex-voto=, Gen. Offerings of any kind in fulfilment of a vow (_ex

=Eye.= In Christian art, the emblem of Providence. Attribute of St.
Lucia, as a symbol, _not_ of her martyrdom, but of the meaning of her
_name_ (“light”). (See OUDJA, OCULUS.)


=Fabaria=, R. Offerings of bean-flour (_faba_) made by the Romans on the
1st of June to the goddess Carna; from these offerings the calends of
June took the name of _fabariæ_.

=Fabatarium=, R. A large earthenware vessel in which bean-flour (_puls
fabacia_) was served, boiled up with water or broth. It formed a kind of

=Fabrica=, R. (_faber_, an artisan). The shop in which an artisan works,
chiefly a joiner’s or carpenter’s shop.

=Fabrilia=, R. A general term, including all the different kinds of
tools used by an artisan.

=Façade=, Arch. The _face_ or front of a building.

=Face-guard.= On a helmet, a bar or bars of iron protecting the face.

=Face-painting=, O. E. Portrait painting.

=Facets= (Fr. _facette_, a little face). The flat surfaces cut upon
precious stones.

=Facial Angle.= The angle formed by two lines, one horizontal from the
nostrils to the ear, the other perpendicular from the nostrils to the

=Fac-simile= (from Latin _factum_, made, and _simile_, like). A
perfectly exact copy.

=Factorium= (sc. _vas_), R. A vessel containing exactly a _factum_, or
quantity of grapes or olives proper to be placed under the press
(_torcular_) at one _factum_ or making.

=Faculæ=, R. Little torches.

[Illustration: Fig. 301. Faenza sweetmeat-dish.]

=Faenza.= A manufacture of pottery considered by some writers to be the
most ancient in Italy. _Garzoni_, writing in 1485, says, “The majolicas
of F. are white and polished, and one can no more confound them with
those of Treviso, than one would take puff-balls for truffles.”
_Vincenzo Lazari_ says they are distinguished by the softness of the
tints, the correctness of the drawing, and the whiteness of the enamel
at the back. For a long and interesting account of this most important
botega, see _Jacquemart_, _Hist. of the Ceramic Art_. The name of
_Fayence_ is derived from Faenza, and _not_ from the little town of
Fayence in France. (Fig. 301.)

=Faience.= (See FAYENCE.)

=Fairy Butter=, O. E. (1) A fungous excrescence about the roots of
trees, and (2) a species of _tremella_ found on furze and broom are so

=Fairy Circles.= Circles of coarse green grass common in meadows, and
attributed to the dancing of the fairies.

=Fairy Dances= = FAIRY CIRCLES (q.v.).

=Fairy Darts.= Small flints in the form of arrow-heads, possibly of the
stone age.

=Fairy Faces.= Fossil _echini_ or sea-urchins.

=Fairy Groats.= A country name for certain old coins. (See _Harrison’s
England_, p. 218.)

=Fairy Loaves.= Fossils found in the chalk, called also _fairy faces_.

=Fairy Money.= Treasure trove was so called.

=Fairy Pipes.= Small old tobacco-pipes, frequently found in the north of

=Fairy Rings.= (See FAIRY CIRCLES.)

=Fairy Sparks.= Phosphoric light seen on various substances in the night
time. (_Halliwell._)

=Fairy Stones.= (See FAIRY LOAVES.)

=Faith=, in Christian art, is represented by a female figure holding the
Eucharistic cup.

=Fala=, R. A wooden tower used in the siege of a fortified place, but
the exact form of which is unknown; it differed from the ACROBATICON.

=Falarica= or =Phalarica=, R. A heavy spear, used by the Saguntines,
which was generally discharged from a _balista_. Its shaft was sometimes
enveloped with sulphur and resin, and with tow steeped in oil; and it
was launched blazing against wooden towers for the purpose of setting
them on fire.

=Falbala.= (See FURBELOW.)

=Falcastrum=, R. (_falx_, a sickle). An agricultural tool with a curved
blade for tearing up weeds.

=Falcatus=, R. Furnished with scythes (_falces_). (See CURRUS.)

=Falchion.= A broadsword, spelt “fawchon;” 14th century. (See FALX.)

=Falcicula.= Dimin. of _falx_.

=Falcon=, in mediæval art, is the attribute of a gentleman, in allusion
to the restrictions of the sumptuary laws.

=Falcula.= Dimin. of _falx_.

=Faldestol=, O. E. An elbow-chair of state; modern “_fauteuil_.” (See

=Falding= (A.S. _feald_). A kind of coarse cloth, like frieze.

=Faldstool=, =Faldistory=, O. E. A folding-stool, like a modern
camp-stool, used in cathedral church services in Saxon times.

=Fall= or =Falling-band=. A large collar falling on to the shoulders;
16th and 17th centuries. (See BANDS.)

=Fallals=, O. E. The falling ruffs of a woman’s dress.

=False=, Her. Said of any charge when its central area is removed; thus
an annulet is a “false roundle.”

=False Roof=, Arch. The space between the ceiling of the garret and the

=Falx=, R. A scythe, sickle, bill-hook, &c.; any instrument with a
curved edge used for cutting grass, wood, or other objects. There were
many different kinds, which were called respectively _arboraria_ and
_sylvatica_, _denticulata_, _fænaria_ or _veruculata_, _vinitoria_,
_vineatica_, and _putatoria_. The term _falx_ was also applied to a
falchion strongly curved at the end. _Falx supina_ was a dagger with a
keen and curved blade; _falx muralis_ was an instrument employed in
warfare, both by sea and land, either to cut the masts and rigging of a
vessel, or to sweep the ramparts clear of defenders. [_Culter_ is a
knife with one straight edge; _falx_, one with the edge curved. Hence
our _falchion_, &c.]

=Familia=, Med. Lat. An old term for a set of chessmen. Among the jewels
in the wardrobe-book of Edward I. occur “una _familia_ de ebore, pro
ludendo ad scaccarium,” and “una familia pro scaccario de jaspide et

[Illustration: Fig. 302. Feather Fan—Italian.]

=Fan=, Egyp. With the _Egyptians_, the fan of ostrich feathers for
brushing away flies was looked upon as the insignia of princes and
chieftains; the _flabellum_ or _umbellum_ (parasol) was carried by
inferior officers. Both kinds of fan are frequently represented on the
sacred barges. The use of the fan was first introduced into England in
the 16th century; they were first made of feathers with long handles of
gold, silver, or ivory of elaborate workmanship, and sometimes inlaid
with precious stones. The engraving shows one from a portrait of Queen
Elizabeth. The _Greeks_ and _Romans_ had fans of various elegant
materials, often of peacock’s feathers; sometimes of wings of birds, or
of linen stretched on a frame. _Italian_ fans, mediæval, were square
flags, as in Fig. 303. Folding fans were first introduced in the 17th
century. Inventories of churches and monasteries of the 14th century
include ecclesiastical fans or _flabella_. These are still used in the
Catholic Church in the East. An illumination at Rouen represents the
deacon raising the flabellum, a circular fan with a long handle, over
the head of the priest at the altar. In the accounts of the
churchwardens of Walberswick, Suffolk, of 1493, is the entry “for a
bessume of pekok’s fethers, IVd.” (Figs. 302, 303.)

[Illustration: Fig. 303. Venetian lady, with a square fan of the 16th

=Fan-crest=, Her. An early form of decoration for the knightly helm.

=Fandango.= A Spanish dance.

=Fane.= (1) A vane or weathercock; “a fayne of a schipe,” i. e. a vane
on the top of a mast. “Of sylver his maste, of golde his _fane_.” (2)
_Anglo-Saxon._ A banner. (3) The white flower-de-luce. (_Gerard._) (4)
Enemies. (_Halliwell._) (See also FANUM.)

=Fanfare=, Fr. A flourish of trumpets.

=Fannel= or =Phannel=, O. E. The FANON (q.v.).

=Fanon=, Chr. The maniple or napkin worn by the priest at mass. It was
originally nothing but a plain strip of linen worn on the left wrist. In
later times it was highly decorated, and often made of the richest

=Fan-tao=, Chinese. A fabulous peach-tree, which blossoms every 3000
years; represented on pottery as an attribute of Cheou-Lao, the god of
longevity, who holds in his hand a fruit of it.

=Fan-tracery.= In Gothic architecture, elaborate carved work spread over
an arched surface, like a fan with the handle resting on a corbel or
stone bracket below.

=Fanum=, R. (_fari_, to speak); Eng. =Fane=. A term synonymous with
TEMPLUM (q.v.), but implying also the idea of a place which had been
consecrated by the solemn formula of the augurs. The _fanum_ thus
comprised not only the building itself, the temple, but also all the
consecrated ground surrounding it [“_locus liberatus et effatus_.”]

=Farrago=, R. (i. e. made of _far_, spelt). Fodder for horses and
cattle, consisting of the green ears of different kinds of grain.

[Illustration: Fig. 304. Farthingale of the time of Elizabeth.]

=Farthingale= (Fr. _vertugale_) is first spoken of in 1547. It was a
sort of cage made of whalebone worn under the petticoat, increasing the
size of the hips. In Elizabeth’s reign it reached to a preposterous
size, giving the wearer the appearance of “standing in a drum,”
according to “Sir Roger de Coverley.” There were _wheel-farthingales_
and _tub-farthingales_. Farthingales were worn during the reign of
Charles I., but of more moderate dimensions; and in Charles II.’s reign
the fashion vanished to reappear in the hoop of the 18th century. The
engraving gives an example of a moderate farthingale. (Fig. 304.)

=Fartura=, R. (_farcio_, to stuff). The act of fattening poultry; and
thence applied to a kind of structure, the centre of which was filled
with rubble.

=Fasces.= (See FASCIS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 305. Roman lictor carrying the fasces.]

=Fascia=, R. Any strip of cloth used for a bandage; such as (1) the
swathes (Gr. σπάργανον) in which newly-born children were wrapped; (2) a
white band, or for women, a purple, worn as a diadem (DIADEMA); (3) (_f.
pectoralis_) a bandage worn by young Roman girls to prevent excessive
development of the breast; (4) (_f. cruralis_) a bandage wound closely
round the leg from the ankle to the knee, &c.; these were adopted in
Europe in the Middle Ages; (5) (_f. pedulis_, Gr. ποδεῖον) a sock; (6)
see ZONA. (7) In _architecture_ the term _fascia_ or _facia_ is applied
to three flat parallel _bands_ of stone, introduced to break the
monotony of architraves, more especially of the Ionic, Corinthian, and
Composite Orders.

=Fasciculus=, R. (dimin. of _fascis_). A small bundle, or number of
objects tied up into small bundles.

=Fascina= (_fascinum_ = fascination). Amulets worn to avert the “evil
eye.” “Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos.” (_Virgil._)

=Fasciola= (dimin. of _fascia_). A small bandage. (See FASCIA.)

=Fascis=, R. A bundle; a small packet; a small faggot of wood, or
fascine. In the plural _fasces_ denoted the bundle of rods, with an axe
in the middle, carried by the lictors before certain of the Roman
magistrates. (See Fig. 305.) _Fasces laureati_ were the fasces crowned
with laurel leaves, which were carried before a victorious general;
_fasces versi_, the reversed fasces, which were carried axe downwards,
in token of mourning, at funerals. The fasces were carried by the
lictors on their shoulders, as shown in Fig. 305; and when an inferior
magistrate met a superior one, the lictors of the former lowered their
fasces to him; hence the expression _submittere fasces_, to yield or
confess inferiority.

=Faselus.= (See PHASELUS.)

=Fasti=, R. (_fas_, divine law). Archives or calendars engraved on stone
or marble; they were of two kinds. (1) The _fasti sacri_ or
_kalendares_, a kind of almanack or calendar, setting out the _dies
fasti_, or lawful days on which certain kinds of business might be
transacted without impiety; also the religious festivals, &c. The
calendars were entirely in the keeping of the priests. (2) The _fasti
annales_ or _historici_, which contained the names of the consuls and
magistrates, and a short account of the most remarkable events. Some
important lists of this kind of the time of Tiberius are preserved in
the capitol at Rome, and called the Fasti Capitolini.

=Fastigium=, R. (_fastigo_, to raise to a point). The top of a pediment,
and thence the entire pediment itself. In a building this term also
signifies the _ridge_, or top of a roof whose two sides rise up to a

=Faun= (Lat. _Faunus_). A woodland god, frequently represented with
sharp ears and with the feet of a goat.

=Fauteau=, Fr. A military engine used in the Middle Ages; it was a kind
of battering-ram suspended in a tower. (See ARIES.)

=Faux=, R. Any narrow passage, lobby, corridor, or entrance to a house,
in especial the passage which formed the communication between two
blocks of a house. In the plural, _fauces_, like _carceres_, denoted
stalls or stables for horses. (See CARCER.)

=Favissæ=, R. Pits or cellars under a temple, in which all the furniture
and sacred implements which had become unfit for use were kept.

=Favour=, O. E. A love-gift; a ribbon or glove, &c., worn on the crest
of the favoured knight at a tournament, &c.

=Favourite=, O. E. A lock of hair: “a sort of modish lock, dangling on
the temples.” (_Ladies’ Dictionary_, 1694.)

=Favus=, R. A flagstone or tablet of marble cut into a hexagon, like the
cell of a honeycomb (_favus_), whence its name. [Pavements of this
pattern were called Sectilia.]

=Fax=, R. A torch. This consisted either of pieces of wood joined
together and steeped in resin, or a metal tube filled with inflammable
materials, such as resin, pitch, tallow, tow impregnated with wax, &c.
[The early evening was hence called _prima fax_, and as marriages were
celebrated at that time of day, the _torch_ was made an attribute of
Hymen, and a symbol of marriage. The torch was also carried at funerals
to fire the pile with.]

=Fayence.= Pottery.

=Feather.= In Christian art (German) an attribute of St. Barbara; it is
generally a peacock’s feather. This refers to an old German version of
her legend, which relates that when St. Barbara was scourged by her
father, angels changed the rods into feathers.

=Featherings=, in Architecture, are lacelike ornaments along the edges
of arcs in windows, canopies, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 306. Ostrich feathers. (An escroll for a coronet.)]

=Feathers=, Her. The feathers borne as crests and badges are generally
those of the ostrich, sometimes of the swan, the turkey, and a few other
birds. Fig. 306 is a representation of an early plume of ostrich
feathers, as they are carved, with an escroll in place of a coronet, in
the Abbey Church of St. Albans. From the time of the accession of the
House of Stuart to the crown of the United Kingdom, the coroneted plume
of three ostrich feathers appears to have been regarded, as it is at
this present day, as the special badge of the Princes of Wales.

=Februa=, =Februales=, R. A festival in honour of the dead instituted by
Numa; it was celebrated every year on the ides of February.

=Feet.= In Christian art the feet of Our Lord, also of angels and of the
Apostles, should always be represented naked, without shoes or sandals.

=Felt= (Fr. _feutre_). A sort of coarse wool, or wool and hair. Felt
hats were first made in England by Spaniards and Dutchmen, in the
beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. Felt was also used for the
stuffing of garments.

=Feminalia= or =Femoralia=, R. (_femur_, the thigh). Short breeches or a
kind of drawers which reached from the waist to about the knee. [Worn by
Augustus Cæsar, who was very susceptible to cold.]

=Fendace= (armour). The old name for the gorget.

=Fenestella=, Chr. (lit. a small window). A niche made in the wall of a
church, near the altar, and containing the stone basin in which the
priest poured away the water in which he had washed the chalice.

=Fenestra, Window.= _Fenestra biforis_ is a _Gemel-window_, formed by a
double bay. _Fenestra_ was the name given to the hole pierced in the
ears to receive the ear-rings, as also to the loop-holes made in the
walls of a fortress.

=Fenestration=, Arch. A term which expresses the disposition and
arrangement of all the windows in a house.

=Fengite.= Transparent alabaster used for glass in windows.

=Ferculum=, R. (_fero_, to carry). Contracted form of _fericulum_, a
tray, and thence the dishes carried upon a tray; a _course_ or _remove_.
In a triumphal procession the term was applied to a platform for
displaying an enemy’s spoils, a rich booty, images of the gods, &c.; or
the ashes of the dead in a funeral.

[Illustration: Fig. 307. Silver Feretory or Reliquary, of good English
work, for the most part in repoussé.]

=Feretory=, Chr. (1) A richly ornamented shrine, often of solid gold and
set with jewels, in which the relics of saints are carried in Roman
Catholic processions. (2) The enclosure or chapel in which the shrine
was kept.

=Feretrum= or =Pheretrum=, Gr, R., and Chr. (Lat. _capulus_). A bier;
sometimes a shrine. The term was used at a period when coffins were
uncommon; more properly the FERETORY, 1 (q.v.).

=Feriæ=, R. Days of festival among the Romans; they were classed as
follows: (1) _Feriæ statæ_ or _stativæ_, which were held regularly on
the days indicated in the calendar; these were the _immovable
festivals_, such as the Agonalia, Carmentalia, Lupercalia, &c. (2)
_Feriæ conceptæ_ or _conceptivæ_, which were held every year, but at
uncertain intervals; these were the _movable festivals_, such as the
Latinæ, Sementivæ, Paganalia, and Compitalia. (3) Lastly, there were the
_feriæ imperativæ_ or _official festivals_, which were held by order of
the dictators, consuls, or prætors. All _feriæ_ were _dies nefasti_, on
which lawsuits, political transactions, &c. were impious, and slaves
were relieved of their labour. The _feriæ Latinæ_ were the most
important of all Roman festivals.

=Fermail=, Her. A buckle.

=Ferr=, Her. A horse-shoe.

=Ferrara.= A manufactory of majolica in North Italy, described by
Jacquemart as “one of the most brilliant in Italy;” established by
Alfonso I. with artists imported from Faenza, circa 1495.

=Ferrea Solea.= A horse-shoe. (See SOLEA and HIPPOSANDALIUM.)

=Ferriterium.= A prison for slaves. Synonym of ERGASTULUM (q.v.).

=Ferula=, R. The fennel; a plant with which children were beaten for
slight faults, and thence a cane or stick with which slaves were

[Illustration: Fig. 308. Fesse.]

=Fesse=, Her. One of the ordinaries. A broad band of metal or colour
crossing the shield horizontally.

=Fesse-point=, Her. The central point of an escutcheon.

=Fesse-wise=, =In Fesse=, Her. Disposed in a horizontal line, side by
side, across the centre of a field, and over the fesse-point of a

[Illustration: Fig. 309. Festoon of foliage.]

=Festoon=, Arch. Garland of flowers. (Fig., 309.) (See ENCARPA.)

=Festra=, R. An abbreviation anciently employed for FENESTRA (q.v.).

=Festuca= or =Vindicta=, R. The rod which the lictor held over the head
of a slave during the ceremony of _manumissio_, by which he was given
his freedom. (See MANUMISSIO.)

=Fetter-lock=, Her. A shackle, padlock; a Yorkshire badge.

=Fibrinæ= (vestes), =Fibrinæ= (lanæ). (See CASTOREÆ.)

[Illustration: Fig. 310. Fibula. Gallic.]

[Illustration: Fig. 311. Fibula. Gallic.]

=Fibula=, Gen. (_figo_, to fix). (1) A clasp, buckle, or brooch; any
contrivance made of gold, silver, bronze, ivory, &c., used for fastening
male or female attire. (2) The buckle of a head-band (_tænia_, _vitta_).
Figs. 310 and 311 represent buttons and clasps belonging to the Gaulish
and Merovingian periods. [The girdles of the _Franks_ and _Saxons_,
found in English tombs, were usually ornamented most profusely. Not only
were the buckles (_fibulæ_) of the richest workmanship, and conspicuous
for size and decoration, but they are sometimes supplemented by enchased
plates, or plates set with precious stones. (_Roach Smith._)] (See Figs.
105 to 113.)

=Fictile Ware=, =Keremania=, R. (_fingo_, to mould). Any object made of
terra-cotta or pottery, such as tiles, bricks, vases, &c. (See POTTERY.)

=Fiddle= (A.S. _fithele_), or =Viol=, is represented in an Anglo-Saxon
MS. of the 11th century, of a pear-shape, with four strings. The
fiddle-bow probably originated in Hindustan, where the _Hindus_ claim
that the ravanastron was invented about 5000 years ago by Ravanon, a
king of Ceylon. Almost identical with this is the _Chinese_ fiddle
called _urheen_, which has only two strings, and its body consists of a
small block of wood, hollowed out and covered with a snake-skin. A
German fiddle of the 9th century, called _lyra_, has only one string. In
the Nibelungen Lied Volker is described as dexterous in playing the
fiddle. Interesting representations of performers on the fiddle are
painted on the roof of Peterborough Cathedral. They are attributed to
the 12th century.

=Fidelia=, R. An earthenware vessel or jar used as a receptacle for

=Fides= or =Fidis=, R. A general term comprising all stringed or gut
instruments (from _sphidé_, catgut).

=Fidicula=, R. (dimin. of _fides_). A very fine catgut string, a
_treble-string_. The plural _fidiculæ_ denotes an instrument of torture
for slaves, the form of which is unknown.

=Field.= In Numismatics, the surface of a coin on which objects were
engraved; in Heraldry, the entire surface of a shield or banner.

=Figure-paintings.= Paintings of the human figure.

[Illustration: Fig. 312. Silver Filigree. Reliquary, belonging to Lord
Hastings, said to have been dug up in the foundations of St. Paul’s,

=Filagree=, =Filigree=, or =Filigraine= (It. _filigrana_ = _filum_ and
_granum_, or granular network; so called because the Italians, who first
introduced this style of work, placed beads upon it. [_Ure._]). This
work is of gold or silver wire plaited and soldered into delicate
arabesques and flower patterns. In the 15th century the Spanish Moors
“made admirable chiselled, enamelled, and gilt work, and applied
filigree work on the surface, a system kept up at Salamanca and Cordova
to the present day.” The Eastern nations have always been famous for
filigree work.

=File=, Her. A label (from the Latin _filum_, a narrow ribbon).

=Filfot=, called also the =Gammadion=. (See FYLFOT.)

=Filigree Glass.= (See GLASS.)

=Fillet=, Her. A diminutive of a chief.

=Fillets=, Gen. Strips of linen employed for various purposes. The
victims which were conducted by priests to sacrifice were adorned with
sacred fillets. Among the Egyptians fillets were employed to swathe
mummies, the strips being repeatedly wound by the embalmers round the
corpse, till it reassumed the appearance it had presented before being
dried. (See DIADEM, FASCIA.) In Architecture, a small round or
rectangular moulding which separates two others which are larger and
more prominent; the fillet also separates the flutings of columns. (See

=Fimbria=, R. The border or fringe of a cloth or garment. [These were
more common among the Egyptians and Assyrians than the Greeks and
Romans, and are mentioned in the Bible.]

[Illustration: Fig. 313. Cross fimbriated.]

=Fimbriated=, Her. Bordered; the border (which is narrow) lying in the
same plane with the object bordered. (Fig. 313.)

[Illustration: Fig. 314. Finial.]

=Finial.= In Gothic architecture, an ornament of carved work
representing foliage, on the apex of a spire or pinnacle. (See CROCKET.)
(Fig. 314.)

=Fir-cone= upon a stem was the form of vases special to the majolica
manufactory of Deruba; “a form,” says Jacquemart, “quite special to that
manufactory, and directly imitated from the extreme East and from Asia

=Fire.= Flames of fire placed near St. Anthony signify his spiritual aid
as patron saint against fire in all shapes, in the next world and in
this. _Tongues of fire_ are, of course, depicted on the heads of the
Apostles, in representations of the Day of Pentecost.

=Fire-dog.= (See ANDIRON.)

=Fire-lock.= The musket fired by flint and steel, invented in France
about the year 1630. (See MATCH-LOCK.)

=Fire-stommer=, O. E. A poker.

=Fiscus=, R. A wicker-work basket used for gardening purposes,
especially for gathering in the olive and grape crops. The Romans also
made use of this basket for transporting sums of money; hence _fiscus_
came to mean a moneychest, and was the name given to that part of the
revenue which was applied to the civil list of the emperors [opposed to
_ærarium_, the property of the senate]; but at last the word was used to
signify generally the property of the state.

=Fish.= In Christian art, the symbol of water and the rite of baptism.

=Fistuca=, R. A pavior’s ram or beetle; a wooden bar or pile used to
consolidate floorings, masonry, and pavements.

=Fistula=, R. (1) A water-pipe of lead or earthenware. (2) A writing-pen
made of reed, and thence a Pan’s pipe. (3) A rolling-pin for making
pastry. (4) A probe. (5) A machine for bruising corn, which was called
_fistula farraria_.

=Fitch.= The best of paint-brushes are made of the hair of the _fitch_
or polecat. They are black, elastic, and firm though soft. They are made
flat or round, and are used also for varnishing.

=Fitchée=, Her. Pointed at the base.

=Flabelliform=, Arch. (_flabellum_). Fan-shaped. The term is usually
applied to an ornament composed of leaves and palms, which is of
frequent occurrence on Romano-Byzantine monuments.

=Flabellum=, Gen. (_flo_, to blow). A fan. (See FAN.)

=Flagellum=, Gen. (_flagrum_). A whip or scourge made with thongs of
leather, especially thongs of the ox’s hide, or twisted or knotted
cords, &c., used in antiquity for punishing slaves or culprits. It was a
terrible weapon, and the lash was often knotted with bones, or heavy
metal _hooks_ to tear the flesh (_scorpio_). Gladiators used to fight in
the arena with _flagella_.

=Flagon=. A vessel with a long neck covered at top, and a spout. The
flagons of the 15th and 16th centuries are the best in design and

=Flail.= A weapon like a flail, of wood and iron armed with spikes,
_temp._ Henry VIII.

=Flake-white.= So called from its form, in commerce, of _flakes_ or
scales. As a pigment it possesses great body, and enters largely into
numerous compound tints. (_Fairholt._) (See CARBONATE OF LEAD.)

=Flamboyant= (style), Mod. The style of French architecture peculiar to
the 15th century, so called because the mullions and tracery of the
windows in the monuments belonging to that period are curved and twisted
like the waving of flames. This style was contemporary with that called
“the perpendicular” in England.

=Flamen=, R. A priest devoted to the service of any one god; e. g.
_Flamen Martialis_, the priest of Mars. Their characteristic dress was
the APEX, the LÆNA, and a laurel wreath.

=Flaming Heart=, in Christian symbolism, expresses fervent piety and

=Flammeolum= (dimin. of _flammeum_). A term denoting a texture much
finer than that of the _flammeum_.

=Flammeum=, R. A bridal veil worn by the bride on the day of her
marriage; it was of light gauze, and in colour of a vivid and brilliant
yellow, like a flame; whence its name. It covered the lady from head to
foot, and was removed by the bridegroom on their arrival home after the

=Flammula=, R. A small flame; a small banner borne by light cavalry
regiments; it was of a vivid and brilliant yellow colour, like the
bridal _flammeum_; whence its name. (Modern ORIFLAMME, q.v.)

=Flanches=, =Flasques=, Her. Subordinaries.

[Illustration: Fig. 315. Flat-heads.]

=Flat-heads=, =Projecting-heads=, Mod. An ornament peculiar to the
Romano-Byzantine period, which decorates archivolts. Fig. 315 gives an
example of flat-heads; Fig. 316 of projecting-heads.

[Illustration: Fig. 316. Projecting-heads.]

=Flaying-knife.= An attribute of St. Bartholomew, signifying the manner
of his martyrdom. In Croyland Abbey it was anciently the custom to
present all members of the community with small flaying-knives on St.
Bartholomew’s Day (Aug. 24).

[Illustration: Fig. 317. Old Flemish Lace.]

=Flemish Lace.= Flanders and Italy dispute the invention of pillow lace.
It is certain, however, that lace of home manufacture was worn in the
15th century in the Low Countries, and from that time to the present
lace-making has formed a source of national wealth to Belgium. The
engraving shows a fine specimen of old Flemish lace composed of six
different designs joined together, commonly known as “Trolle Kant.” A
similar lace is made in some of our own counties, and called “Trolly.”
(Fig. 317.)

[Illustration: Fig. 318. “Cosse de Genest,” showing a Cross fleurettée.]

=Fleur-de-lis= (Fr.), the royal insignia of France, was first adopted by
Louis VII. (about A. D. 1137) _semée_, or scattered over the field. This
shield is blazoned as “France Ancient.” On the occasion of his marriage,
in 1234, St. Louis instituted the order of the “Cosse de Genest” (Fig.
318), and, as an emblem of his humility, took for his badge the
broom-flower with the motto _Exaltat humiles_. The collar of the order
was composed of broom-flowers enamelled, intermixed with fleurs-de-lis.
In the reign of Charles VI. four collars of the order of the Cosse de
Genest were sent as presents to King Richard II. and his uncles the
Dukes of Lancaster, Gloucester, and York. The fleur-de-lis entered the
English insignia in 1275 with the marriage of Edmund with Blanche of
Artois, and was erased on January 1, 1801.

=Fleurettée=, Her. Terminating in, or bordered with fleurs-de-lis, like
the cross in Fig. 318.

=Fleuron.= A small full-blown rose placed in the centre of the abacus of
the capital in certain orders of architecture.

=Flexed=, Her. Bowed, bent.

=Flighted=, Her. Feathered, as arrows are.

=Flo=, O. E. An arrow.

                   “Robin bent his joly bowe,
                   Therein he set a _flo_.”
                       (_Wright’s Songs and Carols._)

=Floralia=, or =Florales Ludi=. A Roman festival in honour of Flora,
said to have been instituted B.C. 238, to invoke the protection of the
goddess upon the spring blossoms.

=Florentine Fresco.= A peculiar method of fresco-painting, by which the
lime is kept moistened during the process.

=Florentine Lake.= (See CARMINATED LAKES.)

=Florentine Mosaic.= Inlaid-work in coloured stones, and precious stones
combined into beautiful patterns.

=Florid= (style), Arch. This term, now disused, has been replaced by
that of FLAMBOYANT style (q.v.).

=Florimontana.= A literary society established at Annecy in 1606. They
took for their device an orange tree, with the motto, “_Flores,
fructusque perennes_.”

=Fluor-spar= or =Derbyshire-spar=. A mineral rock very common in
Derbyshire, where it is made into ornaments, &c., with the lathe.

=Flute=, Gen. Said to have been invented by Apollo or Mercury. The
simplest form of flute was made with an oat-stalk (_avena_) or a hollow
reed (_calamus_); in the course of time it was made of ivory, bone, or
the shin-bones of animals; whence its Latin name of TIBIA (q.v.). The
Greek flute (_aulos_) was held like a flageolet, and a vibrating reed
was inserted into the mouthpiece. The single flute was called
_monaulos_; the double one _diaulos_. A specimen of the last in the
British Museum was found in a tomb at Athens. It is made of cedar, and
the tubes, which are fifteen inches in length, have each a separate
mouthpiece and six finger-holes, five of which are at the upper side,
and one underneath. The flutes of the _Etruscans_ were often of ivory;
those used in religious ceremonies were of box-wood, ass’s bone, bronze,
and silver. The _Persian_ flute called “_nay_,” and the “_surnay_” a
kind of oboe, are still popular in the East. In _Mexico_, the young man
sacrificed to the god was taught to play the flute, and as he went to
his death he broke a flute on each of the steps of the temple. The
practice of making flutes of the bones of their enemies was common with
many Indian tribes in America.

[Illustration: Fig. 319. Flutings.]

=Flutings= or =Flutes=, Arch. Small semicircular indents or grooves cut
perpendicularly, by way of ornament, in the shafts of columns and
pilasters. Flutings may be either decorated or plain. When filled with a
bead moulding, they are said to be _cabled_. Fig. 319 represents
flutings decorated with leaves twined round a reed.

=Fly=, Her. The length and also the side of a flag furthest from the

=Fo=, Chinese. (See DOG OF FO.) The “Hand of Fo” is a fragrant fruit, a
kind of _cédrat_, generally styled the Chinese hand-plant, used to
perfume apartments.

=Focale=, R. (_fauces_, the throat). A square piece of cloth which was
wrapped round the neck, and covered the ears.

[Illustration: Fig. 320. Foculus.]

=Foculus=, R. (dimin. of _focus_). A portable fireplace; a brazier or
chafing-dish. (Fig. 320.)

=Focus=, R. The hearth or fireplace of a house, consecrated to the Lares
or household gods.

=Foil=, in Architecture. (See TREFOIL, QUATREFOIL, &c.)

[Illustration: Fig. 321. Foliage of the Acanthus.]

=Foliage=, Gen. Nearly every style of architecture has made use of
foliage for purposes of ornamentation. In antiquity, the leaves of the
acanthus, palm, laurel, olive, ivy, &c., were thus employed; the
Romano-Byzantine, Byzantine, and Pointed styles utilized for the same
purpose the vine, oak, cinquefoil, parsley, mahonia, mullein, thistle,
&c. Foliage has been applied to the decoration of capitals, archivolts,
bands, cornices, and friezes; and it has also been used to form CROCKETS
(q.v.), crownings, pinnacles, &c. Architectural work thus enriched is
said to be FOLIATED, and the ornament itself is called FOLIATION.

[Illustration: Fig. 322. Foliage on moulding.]

=Folliculus=, R. A leather cap encircling the hole by which an oar
protruded from a ship. The term is a diminutive of FOLLIS (q.v.).

=Follis=, R. A small ball of leather inflated with air, which also went
by the name of _folliculus_; used for a plaything.

=Fong-hoang=, Chinese. A fabulous bird which is immortal, lives in the
highest regions of the air, and only approaches men to announce to them
happy events and prosperous reigns. It is easily recognized (on pottery,
&c.) by its carunculated head, its neck surrounded by silky feathers,
and its tail partaking of the Argus pheasant and the peacock.

[Illustration: Fig. 323. Pompeian fountain.]

=Fons=, =Fountain=, Gen. In antiquity, natural springs and fountains
were objects of religious worship. Fig. 323 represents a Pompeian
fountain known as the Fountain of Abundance.

[Illustration: Fig. 324. Baptismal font (Romano-Byzantine).]

=Font=, Chr. The vessel which contains the consecrated water used in the
administration of baptism, by sprinkling or aspersion (Fig. 324),
introduced in lieu of the original mode of immersion (Fig. 325).
(Compare PISCINA.)

[Illustration: Fig. 325. Early English Font.]

[Illustration: Fig. 326. The Fontange Head-dress.]

=Fontange=, Fr. “A modish head-dress,” deriving its name from
Mademoiselle de Fontange, a lady of the court of Louis XIV., who
invented it. (Fig. 326.)

=Font-cloth=, O. E. (1) The hanging with which the font was ornamented.
(2) The CHRISMALE (q.v.).

=Fools.= In Church architecture and decoration, grotesque figures of men
with fool’s cap and bells are frequently seen under the seats of
choir-stalls and _miserere_ seats. (See the article OBSCŒNA.)

=Foolscap.= A fool’s cap was the device of the Italian society called
the Granelleschi, formed at Venice in 1740 to oppose the corruption of
the Italian language. A sheet of foolscap paper is 17 in. by 13½ in.

=Forceps.= Tongs or pincers, the attributes of some of the martyrs. (See

=Foreshortening.= The art of representing objects on a plane surface as
they appear to the eye in perspective.

[Illustration: Fig. 327. Roman Forfex.]

[Illustration: Fig. 328. Forfex.]

=Forfex=, R. (1) Large scissors or shears used to cut hair or shear
animals. (2) A clip, in the form of shears, for raising weights. (Fig.
327.) Fig. 328 represents a shears described by Vitruvius, which was
used to raise stones.

=Fori=, R. This term, which is the plural of _forus_, denotes (1) the
flooring of a ship; (2) the flooring of a bridge; (3) the
standing-places on a temporary platform; (4) the shelves forming the
divisions or different stories of a beehive; (5) the narrow parallel
furrows drawn in a garden by means of the hoe.

=Foricula.= A little door. Dimin. of FORIS (q.v.).

=Foris=, R. The door as distinguished from the frame in which it hung.
In the plural, _fores_ denotes a folding-door with two leaves, as, for
instance, _fores carceris_, the door of the stalls in a circus.

=Forks= were not in general use earlier than the 14th century. One of
the earliest occasions on which a fork is mentioned informs us that
John, Duke of Brittany in 1306, had one “to pick up soppys.”

=Forlon.= A Spanish carriage with four seats.

=Forma=, R. (_fero_, to produce). A mould, form, or model; a mould for
making bricks or other objects in clay, such as (1) antefixa, masks,
&c.; (2) a shoemaker’s last; (3) the waterway of a subterranean
aqueduct. _Diminutive_, =Formella=, R. A small shape or mould used
especially by the Romans to give an artificial form to the fish which
was served as one of the courses at dinner.

=Fornacalia=, R. A festival of bakers in honour of the goddess _Fornax_
(oven-goddess). It took place in February, the day being given out by
the _curio maximus_, who announced, in tablets which were placed in the
forum, the part which each _curia_ had to take in the festival. Those
persons who did not know to which curia they belonged, performed the
rites on the last day, called _Stultorum feriæ_ (the feasts of fools).

=Fornacula= (dimin. of FORNAX, q.v.). (1) A small furnace for smelting
metals. (2) A small furnace for a bath-room.

=Fornax=, R. A furnace; an oven; a kiln for baking pottery: _fornax
calcaria_, a lime-kiln; _fornax æraria_, a blast-furnace for smelting
metals; _fornax balnei_, a hypocaust or bathfurnace; this was also
called FORNACULA (q.v.). FORNAX is also the name of the goddess of

=Fornix=, R. A term having the same meaning as ARCUS (q.v.). It also
denotes (1) a triumphal arch (_arcus triumphalis_); (2) a vault or
vaulted room; (3) a vaulted gate.

=Forril.= A kind of parchment, specially prepared for bookbinding.

=Forulus=, R. (dimin. of _forus_, a shelf). A cupboard, cabinet, or
dwarf bookcase.

[Illustration: Fig. 329. Ground-plan of the Forum at Pompeii.]

=Forum=, R. A large open space used by the Romans as a market; it
answered to the Greek AGORA (q.v.). Fig. 329 represents the _forum
civile_ of Pompeii, unquestionably one of the most complete examples
bequeathed to us by antiquity. _A_ is the principal entrance; _B_, a
Corinthian temple; _C_, the public prison (_carcer publicus_); _D_ is
supposed to have been a horreum, or public granary; _E_, the temple of
Venus, the guardian goddess of the city; _F_, the basilica; _G_, _H_,
_I_, the curiæ, which were a kind of civil and commercial tribunals; _K_
is a rectangular building which probably served the purpose of a shop
for money-changers; _L_, a portico terminating in an absis; _M_, the
temple of Mercury or Quirinus; _N_, a building with a large semicircular
tribune, which probably formed the residence of the AUGUSTALES.

=Forus.= A synonym of FORUM (q.v.). _Forus aleatorius_ was the term
applied to a dice-table.

=Fossil Ivory.= The tusks of the mammoth—the extinct _elephas
primigenius_—found in great quantity in Siberia, are the material of
which nearly all the ivory-turner’s work in Russia is made. The ivory
has not undergone any petrifying change like other fossils, and is as
well adapted for use as that procured from living species.

=Fote= (or =Foot=) =Mantel=. An outer garment of the petticoat kind,
bound round the hips (of a woman on horseback) “to keep her gown or
surcoat clean.” (_Strutt._)

          “A _fote-mantel_ about hir hips large.” (_Chaucer._)

=Fountain=, Her. A circular figure or ROUNDLE that is _barry wavy_ arg.
is so blazoned.

=Fourchée=, Her. Divided into two parts; said of a lion with a double

=Fraces=, R. A kind of fuel made of the tan obtained from the residuum
of oil-presses; it was thus the pulp of olives.

=Frænum=, =Frenum=, R. A horse’s bridle, including the bit and the
reins. [The bit was called _orea_ or Greek στόμιον.]

=Framea=, R. (1) A German spear, the iron head of which was short but
very sharp; it was employed by them as a pike. (2) A weapon used by the

=Francisca.= A kind of battle-axe used by the Franks.

=Frankfort Black.= A German pigment prepared like _blue black_ (q.v.).

=French Ultramarine.= (See GUIMET’S ULTRAMARINE.)

=Fresco-Painting= (i. e. _al fresco_, upon fresh or wet ground),
generally employed for large pictures on walls and ceilings, is executed
with mineral and earthy pigments upon a freshly-laid ground of stucco.
It was known to the ancients, and must be distinguished from DISTEMPER
PAINTING (q.v.) on plaster, which is a different process. “_Buon_ (or
genuine) _fresco_,” painted on the fresh surface of plaster, is
distinguished from “_fresco secco_,” or a process of painting on dry
plaster commonly practised in Italy and Munich. It is argued that the
latter was the process used at Pompeii, and generally by the ancients,
because (1) lime is found in nearly all the colours, and (2) the nature
of the joinings in the work indicates that each compartment does not
contain only one day’s work, as it must in _buon fresco_.

[Illustration: Fig. 330. Greek Fret.]

[Illustration: Fig. 331. Greek Fret.]

[Illustration: Fig. 332. Greek Fret.]

=Fret=, Arch. An angular, interlaced architectural ornament of the Greek
and Romano-Byzantine period, also known as _broken batoon_ and
_Vitruvian scroll_, and presenting some analogy with _chevron_ or
zigzag. There are _crenelated_ or _rectangular frets_, _triangular_,
_nebulated_, _undulated frets_, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 333. Undulated Fret.]

[Illustration: Fig. 334. Scroll Fret.]

=Fret=, O. E. A _caul_ of gold or silver wire.

        “A _fret_ of golde she had next her hair.” (_Chaucer._)

[Illustration: Fig. 335. Badge of the Arundel family, with fret.]

=Fret= or =Frette=, Her. One of the subordinaries. The illustration is
one of the badges of the Arundel family: a chapeau or and gules,
surmounted by a _fret_ or, and an acorn leaved vert.

=Frieze=, Arch. That part of the entablature which is included between
the architrave and the cornice. (See Fig. 184.) Another name for it is
ZOOPHORUS (q.v.). It was generally richly sculptured. The finest frieze
ever found is that of the Parthenon, the ornamentation of which may be
studied in the Elgin-marble room at the British Museum. (See Fig. 282.)

=Frieze=, =Frize=. A coarse woollen cloth, first mentioned 1399.

              “Cloth of gold, do not despize
              To match thyself with cloth of frize.
              Cloth of frize, be not too bold,
              Though thou be matched with cloth of gold.”

=Frigidarium=, R. (_frigidus_, cold). (1) A cool apartment in a bathing
establishment. (2) A cool place used as a larder.

=Frisquet.= In wood-engraving, a piece of paper laid over the
proof-paper in the act of printing, to keep clean the parts not intended
to be exposed to the ink.

=Fritillus=, R. A dice-box of a cylindrical form, called also
_turricula_ or _pyrgus_ (Greek φιμός).

[Illustration: Fig. 336. Frog. The device of Mæcenas.]

=Frog.= An ancient emblem of silence and secrecy, from a legend quoted
by Ælian that the frogs of Syriapha never croak in their own marshes.
Hence it was adopted by Mæcenas, the friend of Augustus, for his device.
(Fig. 336.)

[Illustration: Fig. 337. Frontale of a bridle.]

=Frontale=, Gen. (_frons_, the forehead). (1) A frontlet or head-band
worn by Greek women, and to be seen principally on the statues of
goddesses. (2) A plate or band of metal placed across the forehead of
horses (Fig. 337) as a protection for the frontal bone. The Medes,
Persians, Greeks, and Romans made use of the _frontale_ for their
cavalry horses. For the ecclesiastical =Frontal=, Mediæval, see
ANTEPENDIUM. Henry III. gave a FRONTAL to the high altar at Westminster
Abbey, upon which, besides carbuncles in golden settings, and several
large pieces of enamel, were as many as 866 smaller pieces of enamel.

=Frontispiece.= In Architecture, the façade or face of a building. The
engraved title-page of a book was originally called the frontispiece.

=Frote=, O. E. To rub; to stir.

=Frountere=, O. E. FRONTAL (q.v.).

=Fucus=, Gr. Cosmetic paint, much used by the Greek and Roman ladies.
They stained their eyebrows black with a preparation of sulphuret of
antimony called _stimmi_, or of soot, _asbolos_. The Roman ladies, in
addition to rouge and white for the complexion, used to trace out the
veins on their temples with a blue paint, and they wore the patches of
Queen Anne’s time (_splenia_). “From beef without mustard, a servant
which overvalues himself, _and a woman which painteth_,—good Lord
deliver us!” (_Stubbes._)

=Fuller’s Bat= or =Club=. Attribute of St. James the Less, who was
killed with such an implement.

=Fullonica=, =Fullonum=, R. (_fullo_, a fuller). A fuller’s
establishment. An example of one, in perfect preservation, is preserved
at Pompeii. The _fullones_ acted as laundrymen to Greek and Roman
families, washing linen as well as woollen clothes by treading in tubs
(using urine for soap, which was unknown to them); hence _saltus
fullonicus_, a fuller’s dance.

=Fulmen.= The thunderbolt of Jove. (See also ILLAPA.) It is generally
represented as a double cone of flame, with lightnings on each side, or
frequently with wings.

=Fumarium=, R. (_fumus_, smoke). A chamber in the upper part of a Roman
house, into which the smoke from the fires was conducted. The smoke-room
was used for drying wood and ripening wine. The “Rauchkammer” or smoke
attic is still a common institution in good houses in Germany.

=Funale=, R. (_funis_, a rope). A link or torch made of various

=Funalis= or =Funarius= (sc. _equus_). The tracehorse, so called because
its traces, instead of being of leather, were of rope (_funis_).

=Funarius.= (See FUNALIS.)

=Funda, Sling=, Gen. The sling has been employed by most of the peoples
of antiquity as a weapon of warfare for hurling stones, chiefly flints
or leaden bullets (_glandes_). The slings of the Egyptians were made of
leather thongs or plaited cord. The _funaitores_, or slingers, of the
Greek and Roman armies carried each a provision of stones in the folds
(_sinus_) of his pallium, a shield on his left arm, and brandished his
sling in the right hand. The most celebrated slingers were the
inhabitants of the Balearic Islands, which took their ancient name from
this circumstance.

[Illustration: Fig. 338. Fundibalus—Onager.]

=Fundibalus=, =Fundibalum=, R. (βάλλω, to throw). A machine for hurling
stones; a kind of _balista_ (q.v.). (Fig. 338.)

[Illustration: Fig. 339. Street at Pompeii.]

=Fundula=, R. A blind alley or _cul-de-sac_. Fig. 339 represents one of
the kind at Pompeii.

=Fundulus=, R. The piston of a hydraulic machine.

=Funeral Ceremonies.= 1. Greek. The expressions τὰ δίκαια, νομιζόμενα,
or προσήκοντα, the just and lawful rites, are expressive of the Greek
idea that the proper burial of the dead was a most sacred duty to them.
The first act was to place in the mouth of the corpse an _obolus_, with
which the spirit would pay the ferryman in Hades. This coin was then
called _danaké_. The body was then washed and anointed, the head crowned
with flowers, and the handsomest robes put on. All this was done by the
women of the family. By the side of the bed upon which the corpse was
then laid (πρόθεσις) were placed painted earthen vessels (_lecuthoi_;
see LECYTHUS), which were afterwards buried with the corpse. (These
vases are frequently disinterred in modern excavations.) A honeycake
(_melittouta_) to throw to the dog Cerberus was laid on the bed. Before
the door a vessel of water (_ostracon_ or _ardalion_) was set, to be
used, like the holy water of Catholic times, by persons _leaving_ the
house, for purification. On the third day after death, the _ecphora_, or
carrying out for burial, took place in the morning before sunrise. The
men walked before the corpse, and the women behind. Hired mourners
(_threnodoi_) accompanied the procession, playing mournful tunes on the
flute. The bodies were either buried or burned, until cremation gave way
to a Christian prejudice. The body was placed for burning on the top of
a _pyre_ (Gr. πῦρ, fire); and, in remote ages, animals, prisoners, or
slaves were burned with it. Oils and perfumes were thrown into the
flames. Finally, the smouldering ashes were quenched with wine, and
relatives and friends collected what remained of the bones. The bones
were then washed with wine and oil, and placed in urns, often golden.

2. Roman. _Funera justa_ conveys the same idea as the Greek _dicaia_ of
the right and title of the dead to a proper observance. With the Romans,
the washing, anointing, &c. of the body was done by slaves
(_pollinctores_) of the undertakers, who were called _libitinarii_,
because they dwelt near the temple of Venus Libitina, in which all
things requisite for funerals were sold and a mortuary register was
kept. The coin having been duly placed in the mouth, the body was laid
out in the vestibule dressed, of ordinary citizens in a white toga, and
of magistrates in their official robes, and the couch was strewn with
flowers, and a branch of _cypress_ was placed at the door of the house.
All funerals were, in ancient times, performed at night, but afterwards
only those of the poor. At a great funeral the corpse was carried out on
the eighth day, preceded by musicians (_cornicines_, &c.) and mourning
women (_præficæ_), who chanted a funeral hymn (_nænia_); players and
buffoons (_histriones_, _scurræ_) followed, and a procession of the
freed slaves wearing the cap of liberty (_pileati_). Images of the
deceased and of his ancestors were borne before the corpse, which was
carried on a litter (_feretrum_). The common bier of the poor was called
_sandapila_, and its bearers _vespillones_, because they bore it forth
in the evening (_vespere_). The couches of the rich were of ivory,
richly ornamented with gold and purple. The relations walked behind in
mourning, sons with the head veiled, and daughters with dishevelled
hair. At the forum a funeral oration (_laudatio_) was delivered, and
thence the procession went to the place of burial or cremation. Those
who were buried (as all were subsequently to the 4th century A. D.) were
placed in a coffin (_arca_ or _loculus_), often of stone. The Assian
stone, from Assos in Troas, was said to consume all the body, with the
exception of the teeth, in forty days, whence it was called sarcophagus
(q.v.). For cremation the pyre, or _rogus_, was built like an altar, and
the corpse in its splendid couch being placed on the top, the nearest
relation, with averted face, fired a corner of the pile. Perfumes were
forbidden by the Twelve Tables. Sometimes animals were slaughtered, and
in ancient times, captives and slaves, but afterwards gladiators were
hired to fight round the blazing pile. (Compare BUSTUM.) When the pyre
was burnt down, the embers were soaked with wine, and the bones and
ashes collected into urns. (See URNA.) The solemnities continued for
nine days after the funeral, at the end of which time a sacrifice was
performed called the _novemdiale_. Men wore _black_ for mourning, and
women white; but at all banquets given in honour of the dead the guests
were clothed in white.

[Illustration: Fig. 340. Covered urn of red pottery. Ohojepore.]

=Funeral Urns= of Indian pottery are found of extremely ancient date.
That represented in Fig. 340 is a covered jar, of primitive make, with
an inscription in ancient characters; its date is probably from 260 to
240 B.C. (_Jacquemart._)

=Fur.= _Strutt_ says that “the furs of sables, beavers, foxes, cats, and
lambs were used in England before the Conquest; to which were afterwards
added those of ermines, squirrels, martens, rabbits, goats, and many
other animals.” In the Middle Ages the more precious furs, as ermine and
sable, were reserved for kings, knights, and the principal nobility of
both sexes. Inferior ranks used “vair” and “gris,” or gray; while
citizens, burgesses, and priests wore the common squirrel and
lamb-skins. The peasants wore cat-skins, badger-skins, &c. In after
times were added the skins of badgers, bears, beavers, deer, fitches,
foxes, foynes (or martens), grays, hares, otters, sables, squirrels,
weasels, wolves, &c. The mantles of our kings and peers, and the furred
robes of municipal officers are the remains of this fashion, which in
the 13th century was almost universal.

[Illustration: Fig. 341. Shield with Ermine.]

=Fur=, Her. The _furs_ are of comparatively rare appearance in heraldry,
and do not appear in the best ages. _Vair_ and _ermine_ are common. In
Fig. 341 is an example of the treatment of ermine from the monument of
Edward III.

=Furbelow=, O. E. An ornament on the petticoat of a woman’s dress,
described as a “puckered flounce,” to display which it became the
fashion to roll back the skirts of the gown. “The Old Mode and the New,
or the Country Miss with her Furbelow,” is the title of an old play,
_temp._ William and Mary.

=Furca=, R. A fork with two teeth (_bidens_), or two prongs; a hay-fork:
_furca carnarii_, a fork used for taking down the meat hung up in the
_carnarium_. The term _furca_ was further applied to a kind of fork by
aid of which a foot-traveller carried his baggage, but the more usual
name for this kind of fork was _ærumna_ (q.v.). Also, a wooden fork
placed for punishment across the shoulders of slaves and criminals, to
the prongs of which the hands were tied. Reversed it formed a cross upon
which criminals were executed, either by scourging or by crucifixion
with nailing. The patibulum was a similar instrument of punishment
formed like the letter H.

=Furgon=, O. E. (Fr. _fourgon_). A fork for putting faggots and sticks
on to the fire.

=Furnus=, R. (1) A baker’s oven. (2) A baker’s shop. (See FORNAX.)

=Fuschan in Appules=, O. E. Fustian of Naples. (See FUSTIAN.)

=Fuscina=, R. (1) A fork with three prongs used for spearing fish. (2)
The trident of the _retiarius_. Originally it was called _tridens_, and
used as a goad to drive horses. Neptune always carries one.

=Fuscinula= (dimin. of _Fuscina_, q.v.). A carving-fork.

=Fusée=, Fr. A gun with a wide bore, like a blunderbuss.

=Fusiform= (_fusus_, a spindle). In the form of a spindle.

[Illustration: Fig. 342. Fusil. Device of Philip of Burgundy (D. 1467).]

=Fusil=, Fr. The steel for striking fire from a flint; an ancient device
of the Dukes of Burgundy, the motto inculcating the worthlessness of
latent virtues never brought into action.

=Fusi-yama.= The sacred mountain of the Japanese, often depicted on
their porcelain.

=Fustian.= “A species of cotton cloth much used by the Normans,
particularly by the clergy, and appropriated to their chasubles.”
(_Strutt._) It was originally woven at Fustat, on the Nile, with a warp
of linen thread, and a woof of thick cotton, so twilled and cut that it
showed on one side a thick but low pile. In the 14th century Chaucer
says of his knight,—

                     “Of fustian he wered a gepon.”

In the 15th century Naples was celebrated for fustian. An old English
account of this date has “Fuschan in Appules” (for Fustian from Naples).

=Fustibalum=, R. A pole about four feet long, furnished with a sling
(_funda_) in the middle. It was wielded by both hands, and was used to
hurl huge stones to a distance.

=Fusus= (Gr. ἄτρακτος). A spindle. It was generally made of wood; but
some nations, as for instance the Egyptians, had spindles of pottery.

=Fygury=, O. E. An old name for silks _diapered_ with _figures_ of
flowers and fruit. A cope in the York fabric rolls is described “una
capa de sateyn fygury.”

[Illustration: Fig. 343. Fylfot.]

=Fylfot= or _Filfot_. This mysterious ornament exactly resembles the
Hindu _arani_ of remote antiquity, i. e. the instrument of wood by which
fire was obtained by friction; which is the symbol of _Agni_. This
symbol has never been lost, and occurs sixty times on an ancient Celtic
funereal urn; also on monumental brasses and church embroidery of the
Middle Ages. It is generally called the GAMMADION.


=Gabardine= or =Gallebardine=, It. “A rough Irish mantle, or horseman’s
coat; a long cassock.” It was, and is, a favourite outer garment of the

=Gabion=, Fortification. A basket filled with earth, used in the
construction of earthworks for defensive purposes.

=Gable=, Arch. (German _Giebel_, point). The triangular end of a house
from the eaves to the top.

=Gablet.= Diminutive of gable—applied to furniture and niches.

=Gadlyngs=, O. E. Spikes on the knuckles of gauntlets, like the modern

=Gæsum=, R. A weapon of Celtic origin. It was a strong, heavy javelin
with a very long barbed iron head, used rather as a missile than a

=Gage=, Med. A glove or cap thrown to the ground as a challenge to

=Galages=, O. E. (modern, _goloshes_). Clogs fastened with _latchets_.

=Galaxia=, Gr. (Γαλάξια). Festivals in honour of Apollo, who was
surnamed _Galaxios_; they were so called because the principal offering
consisted of a barley cake cooked with milk (γάλα).

=Galaxy= (Gr. γάλα, milk). In Astronomy, the Milky Way. It passes
between Sagittarius and Gemini, dividing the sphere into two parts.

=Galbanum=, R. (_galbus_, yellow). A yellow garment worn by women; men
who adopted this kind of dress were looked upon as foppish and

=Galbe=, Fr. The general contour or outline of any member of
architecture; in especial, the shaft of a column. (See CONTRACTURA.) It
also denotes the lines of a vessel, console, baluster, &c.

=Galea=, R. A helmet; especially one of skin or leather, in
contradistinction to CASSIS, which denoted a metal helmet.

=Galeated.= In Heraldry, wearing a helmet.

=Galeola=, R. A very deep vessel in the shape of a helmet. It was used
for holding pure wine, and was a kind of ACRATOPHORUM (q.v.).

=Galerus=, =Galerum=, R. A peasant’s cap made of fur, and thence a wig.
It was a round leather cap, ending in a point, originally peculiar to
the priesthood.

=Galgal=, Celt. A Celtic or megalithic monument, more commonly called

=Galiot=, =Galliot= (dimin. of _galère_). A ship moved by both sails and

=Gall= (A.S. _gealla_). In an animal, a bitter yellowish green fluid
secreted by the gall-bladder. Ox-gall, clarified by boiling with animal
charcoal and filtering, is used in water-colour and in ivory painting to
make the colours spread more evenly upon the paper, ivory, &c.: mixed
with gum-arabic it thickens, and fixes the colours. A coating of it
_sets_ black-lead or crayon drawings. This word is also applied to
anything exceedingly bitter, especially to the bitter potion which it
was customary among the Jews to give to persons suffering death under
sentence of the law, for the purpose of rendering them less sensible to
pain. ὄξος μετὰ χολῆς, “vinegar to drink mingled with gall.” (Matt.
xxvii. 34.)

=Galle= (Tours de), Celt. A name applied to certain ancient monuments in
France, built by the Gauls.

=Galleon= (Sp. _galeon_). A large Spanish ship, formerly used in trading
to America as a war vessel.

=Gallery=, Gen. A covered place much longer than it is wide. In
Christian archæology it is a kind of tribune situated above the side
aisles, and having bays over the nave; it is also called TRIFORIUM

[Illustration: Fig. 344. Device of Cardinal Richelieu, from the Galerie
d’Orléans, Palais Royal.]

=Galley= (Icelandic _galleyda_). A one-decked vessel, navigated with
sails and oars, in Heraldry called a LYMPHAD (q.v.). The prow of a
galley (Fig. 344), one of the devices adopted by Cardinal Richelieu, may
still be seen among the architectural decorations of his palace.

=Galloon= (Sp. _galon_). A narrow kind of lace made of silk woven with
cotton, gold, or silver; or of silk only.

=Gallow-balk=, O. E. (See GALOWS.)

=Gally-gascoynes=, O. E. Broad loose breeches; 16th century.

                “His galligaskins were of corduroy,
                And garters he had none.”
                            (_The Weary Knife-grinder._)

=Galows=, O. E. An iron bar fastened inside an open chimney, from which
the _reeking-hook_ was hung, for suspending pots and vessels over the


=Gamashes.= “High boots, buskins, or startups.” (_Holme_, 1688.)

=Gambeson= (Saxon _wambe_, the belly). A quilted tunic, stuffed with
wool. It answered the purpose of defensive armour, and was subsequently
called a _pourpoint_.

=Gamboge.= A gum-resin of a forest tree called Garcinia Cambogia,
generally imported in cylindrical rolls. It forms a beautiful yellow
pigment, used for water-colour; it is used to stain wood in imitation of
box, and the tincture enters into the composition of the gold-coloured
varnish for lacquering brass; it also gives a beautiful and durable
stain to marble. (_E. B._)

=Gamelion.= The seventh month of the ancient Athenian year,
corresponding to our January. It was so called because it was a
favourite season for marriages (γάμη).

=Gammut.= (See GAMUT.)

=Gamut.= The musical scale; so called from the first tone, UT (our DO),
of the model scale of Guido, which was represented by the Greek _gamma_.

=Ganoid= (γάνος, brightness). A name applied to an order of fishes,
having angular scales, composed of bony plates, covered with a strong
shining enamel.

=Gantlet.= (See GAUNTLET.)

=Garb=, Her. A sheaf of wheat, or of any other grain to be specified.

[Illustration: Fig. 345. Garde de Bras.]

=Garde de Bras.= An additional protection for the left arm, to the
elbow-piece of which it was fastened by straps and a screw. It was used
only for jousting, and first appears at the end of the 15th cent. The
example shown is of the 16th cent., from the Meyrick collection. (Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 346 Gargoulette. Arab.]

=Gargoulette.= An Arab vase, or water-cooler, with one handle, furnished
with a spout adapted for drinking through. The piece in the illustration
is from the Arabian potteries of Maghreb in Africa. This pottery is
described by M. Jacquemart as “covered with a pinkish grey enamel of
rose colour, and heightened by a polychrome decoration in zones,
generally consisting of bands of scrolls, flowers, denticulations,
rosettes, &c.; where citron, yellow, manganese brown, green, and blue
form the most charming harmony.”

[Illustration: Fig. 347. Gargoyle, Antique.]

[Illustration: Fig. 348. Gargoyle, Gothic.]

=Gargoyle=, Mod. The projecting extremity of a gutter. In antiquity
terra-cotta masks were used for the purpose. (Fig. 347.) During the
Gothic period any kind of representation was employed. Fig. 348 shows an
upright gargoyle from the church of St. Remy at Dieppe.

=Garland=, Arch. A term employed by some authors as synonymous with
foliage; but it denotes rather heavy festoons tied with fillets, and
consisting of leaves, fruits, and flowers, as shown in Figs. 287 and
309, taken from the temple of Vesta at Tivoli. (See ENCARPA, FESTOONS.)

=Garnet.= This gem, on account of its brilliant colour and hardness, is
much used in jewellery, and although an abundant supply renders it of
little value, the gem nevertheless possesses every quality necessary for
ornamental purposes. It occurs in many colours—red, brown, yellow,
white, green, black; the streak is white; the diaphaneity varies from
transparent to sub-translucent, or nearly opaque, and it has a
subconchoidal or uneven fracture. The varieties used in jewellery are
called _carbuncle_, _cinnamon-stone_ (or _essonite_), _almandine_, and
_pyrope_ or Bohemian garnet. _Garnets_ are not much used for engraving,
being of splintery, bad grain under the tool. (_A. Billing_, _Science of
Gems_, &c.; _H. Emanuel_, _Diamonds and Precious Stones_.)

=Garnished=, Her. Adorned in a becoming manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 349. Order of the Garter. Lesser George.]

=Garter, Order of the=, instituted by Edward III. in 1350, consists of
the Sovereign and twenty-five knights companions, of whom the Prince of
Wales always is one. Knights of the Garter place K.G. after their names;
and these letters take precedence of all other titles, those of royalty
alone excepted. The stalls of the knights are in the choir of St.
George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, where their garter-plates are fixed and
their banners are displayed. The insignia are the garter itself, the
badge of the order; the collar, and the Lesser George or jewel. (Fig.
349.) It was this jewel that Charles I., immediately before he suffered,
delivered to Archbishop Juxon, with the word “Remember!” The ribbon of
the order is dark blue; it passes over the left shoulder, and the Lesser
George hangs from it under the right arm.

=Garter King of Arms=, Her. The chief of the official heralds of
England, and officer of arms of the Order of the Garter.

=Gastrum=, R. An earthenware vessel with a round _belly_; whence its

=Gaulus=, R. A vessel used for drinking and other purposes. The same
term was also applied to a broad-built ship employed by the Phœnicians
and by pirates.

[Illustration: Fig. 350. Gauntlet.]

=Gauntlet.= The knight’s gauntlet was made of leather covered with
plates of steel. It was not originally divided into fingers. (Fig. 350.)

=Gausapa=, =Gausape=, =Gausapum=, R. (γαυσάπης). (1) A garment
introduced from Egypt into Rome, in the time of Augustus; it was made of
a woollen cloth with a long nap on one side, and was worn on leaving the
bath; it was white or dyed purple. Gausapa was used not only for
articles of dress, but for table linen, napkins, dusters, and mattings.
(2) A wig made of human hair, worn at Rome during the Empire.

=Gauze.= A light, transparent silk texture, supposed to have been
invented at Gaza in Palestine; whence the name.

=Gavotte= (It. _gavotta_). A lively dance-tune in two-fourth time,
consisting of two sections, each containing eight measures.

=Gehenna= (Heb. _Ge-hin-nom_, i. e. the valley of Hinnom). In this
place, on the north of Jerusalem below Mount Zion, is a place called
Tophet, where children were sacrificed to Moloch. King Josiah made it
the common receptacle for rubbish and carcases, and a fire was kept
constantly burning there; hence the Jews used this term to signify
“hell.” (Compare HADES.)

=Gemellar=, R. (_gemellus_, twin). A case for holding oil; it was called
_gemellar_ from the fact of its being divided into two compartments.

=Gemelled=, Arch. Double; thus a _gemelled bay_ is one divided into two
parts; _gemelled arches_, those which are joined two and two.

=Gemelles=, Her. In pairs. (See BARS-GEMELLES.)

=Gemmæ=, Lat. (1) Precious stones, esp. cut or engraved. (2)
Drinking-vessels or objects made of precious stones. (3) Pearls. (4) The
eyes of a peacock’s tail. The original meaning of the word is a _bud_,
_eye_, or _gem_ on a plant; anything _swelling_ and bright.

=Gemoniæ=, or =Gemoniæ Scales=, R. (i. e. steps of sighs). Steps leading
to the prison in the forum, on the stairs of which the corpses of
criminals were exposed for several days.

=Gems.= Precious stones, especially when carved. (See CAMEOS.)

=Genet=, Her. A spotted animal, something like a marten.

=Genethliaci=, Gr. and R. (γενέθλη, birth). Astrologers who cast

=Genius=, R. (_geno_, to beget). The Romans believed the existence of a
good genius, or guardian angel, born with every mortal, and which died
at the same time with him. _Genius loci_ was the name given to the
guardian spirit of a place. [See JUNONES, LARES, PENATES, &c. The
superstition has many forms in Christian as well as in pagan art.]

[Illustration: Fig. 351. Genoa Point Lace—Pillow-made.]

=Genoa Lace.= Mention is made of Genoa Lace as early as the 15th
century. Genoa was as celebrated for its pillow lace as Venice for its
needle-made. The characteristic of this lace was its design, a kind of
barleycorn-shaped pattern, radiating into rosettes from a centre. It was
particularly adapted for the large turnover collar of Louis XIII., and
was produced by plaiting, and made entirely on the pillow.

=Genouillières=, Fr. (1) Steel coverings for the knees. From the 13th
century. They were often richly ornamented. (2) In _Fortification_, the
sill of the embrasure.

=Genre Pictures.= Those representing scenes of every-day life and

=Geodes.= In Mineralogy, hollow lumps of chalcedony found deposited in
the cavities of flints, formed by the chemical action of water.

[Illustration: Fig. 352. “George” Gold Noble, Henry VIII.]

=George.= A gold noble of the time of Henry VIII. (Fig. 352.)

=George, Saint=, Her. The patron saint of England. His red cross on a
silver field first appears in English heraldry in the 14th century. (See
Fig. 349.)

=George, The=, Her. A figure of St. George on horseback, worn as a
pendant to the collar of the Order of the Garter. (See GARTER.)

=Georgic= (γεωργικὸς, rustic; from γῆ, earth, and ἔργον, work). Poems on
the subject of husbandry.

=German Silver.= An alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper. The proportions
recommended are nickel 25, zinc 25, copper 50.

=Gerrhæ.= Persian shields made of wicker-work.

=Ghebres=, Pers. Fire-worshippers.

=Ghibellines.= An Italian faction, 13th century, who supported the
German Emperors against the _Guelphs_, who stood by the Pope. The
war-cry of the Guelphs was taken from the name of Henry the Lion, Duke
of Saxony, of the house of _Wolf_; that of the Ghibellines from
_Weiblingen_, a town of Würtemberg, the seat of the Hohenstauffen
family, to which Conrad, Duke of Franconia, belonged. These two dukes
were rivals for the imperial throne of Germany.

=Ghoul=, =Ghole=, Pers. A demon who fed on dead bodies of men.

=Giallo=, =Giallolino=, =Gialdolino=, It. Pale yellow. (See MASSICOT.)

=Giaour=, Turkish. An unbeliever in Mohammed.

=Gigantomachia=, Gr. A favourite subject of Greek art, representing the
War of the Giants, sons of Cœlus and Terra, against Jupiter. They
“heaped Ossa on Pelion” to scale heaven, and were defeated by Hercules.
They are represented as of vast stature and strength, having their feet
covered with scales. A beautiful cameo in the Naples Museum represents
Jove in his chariot subduing the giants. In 1875 the German expedition
found among the ruins of a temple at Pergamus a series of sculptures of
almost colossal proportions, representing, as Pliny describes them, the
Wars of the Giants. These sculptures are now in the Berlin Museum.

=Gillo=, R. A wine-cooler, of earthenware.

[Illustration: Fig. 353. Gimmel Rings. The device of Cosmo de’ Medici.]

=Gimmel Ring=, Her. Two, sometimes three annulets interlaced. (Fig.

=Gingham= (Javanese _ginggan_). Cotton cloth, woven from dyed yarns;
distinguished from cloth printed or dyed _after_ weaving.

=Ginglymus=, R. (γίγγλυμος). A hinge moving in a socket.

=Gingrinus=, R. (γίγγρας). A flute used at funerals.

[Illustration: Fig. 354. Gipcière.]

=Gipcières.= Richly ornamented leather purses of the 14th and 15th
centuries. They were often engraved with religious mottoes. (Fig. 354.)

=Gipon.= Probably the same as _gambeson_.

=Girandole.= A large kind of branched candlestick.

=Girdled=, =Girt=, Her. Encircled or bound round.

[Illustration: Fig. 355. Girdle of a Flemish lady of the 15th century.]

=Girdles.= These were the most beautiful and costly articles of dress
during the Middle Ages. They were frequently made entirely of gold or
silver, decorated with cameos, precious stones, &c. Besides the knightly
sword; the purse, dagger, rosary, or penner and ink-horn and other
objects were suspended from the girdle. From this word the waist was
called the _girdlestead_, or place (_sted_) of the girdle. The girdles
of ladies were equally splendid, and frequently depended nearly to the
ground, as in Fig. 355. The girdle is an attribute of St. Thomas, from a
legend that the Virgin, pitying his weakness of faith, threw down to him
her girdle, after her assumption into heaven.

=Girgillus=, R. A roller turned by a windlass, for drawing up the bucket
of a well. (See JACK.)

=Girouette.= (See EPI.)

=Girt=, Her. (See GIRDLED.)

=Gisarme.= A scythe-shaped weapon with a pike, fixed on a long staff.

=Gittern=, O. E. A small guitar, strung with catgut.

=Givre.= (See WYVERN.)

=Glabrous= (Lat. _glaber_). Smooth, bald.

=Glade= (Norman _glette_, a clear spot among clouds). An opening or
passage in a wood through which the light may shine.

=Gladiators= were first exhibited at Rome, B.C. 264, at a funeral. The
practice had its origin in that very ancient one of slaughtering slaves
and captives on such occasions. Subsequently it became more general. The
different classes of gladiators, distinguished by their arms and other
circumstances, were: _Andabatæ_, who wore helmets without any opening
for the eyes, and therefore fought blindfold; _Essedarii_, who fought
from chariots (ESSEDÆ); _Hoplomachai_, who wore heavy defensive armour;
_Laqueatores_, who carried a sort of lasso or noose; _Meridiani_, who
fought in the middle of the day, and were very slightly armed;
_Mirmillones_, so called from their having the image of a fish (mormyr)
on their helmets; _Retiarii_, armed with a trident and a net. Others, as
_Samnites_, _Thraces_, &c., were named from the nation whose fashion of
armour they adopted. The fights of gladiators were favourite subjects of
Roman art, and it is assumed that in cases where no actual combats took
place at a funeral, they were represented on the walls of tombs in
sculpture or paint. The most celebrated statues of the kind are the so
called “Dying Gladiator” in the museum of the capitol at Rome, and the
Gladiator of the Borghese collection.

=Gladiolus.= Diminutive of GLADIUS, and synonym of LIGULA. (See both

[Illustration: Fig. 356. Roman sword.]

[Illustration: Fig. 357. Gallic swords.]

=Gladius=, R. A general term, including all the different kinds of
swords or glaives, but denoting more particularly the two-edged swords
used by the Greeks, Romans, and Gauls. Fig. 357 represents two Gaulish
swords, the form of which may easily be guessed, even though they are in
the scabbard; Fig. 356 is a Roman _gladius_.

=Glaive.= A blade on a pole having its edge on the outside curve, used
by foot-soldiers in the 15th century.

=Glans=, Gr. and R. (lit. an acorn). A large leaden slug, of long oval
form, which was hurled by a sling in place of stones.

[Illustration: Fig. 358. Venetian Glass Vase, 16th century.]

=Glass.= The discovery is lost in remote antiquity. Pliny gives a legend
which ascribes it to chance. Glass bottles in Egypt are represented upon
monuments of the 4th dynasty (at least 2000 years B.C.). A vase of
greenish glass found at Nineveh dates from B.C. 700. Glass is found in
the windows at Pompeii; and the Romans stained it, blew it, worked it on
lathes, and engraved it. Pliny mentions, as made by the Romans in his
time, glass coloured opaque, red, white, black (like _obsidian_), or
imitating jacinths, sapphires, and other gems; also _murrhine glass_.
This last was either an imitation of fluor-spar, or a kind of agate, or
fluor spar. The Romans also made _mosaic_ or _millefiori_, in which the
threads of colour are melted into a rod, so that at every section the
whole pattern appears; and _cameo glasses_, in which a paste of one
colour is laid over another, and the whole then carved into the required
design; _gold leaf_ was also worked into the substance or fixed on the
surface. A gate at Constantinople took its name from the glass works
near it, but little is known of the Byzantine art, nor of earlier
European art than the 13th century. In mediæval times stained glass
windows, in leaden frames, were constructed with great success in
England, France, and Flanders. In the 13th century they appear in Italy.
The Venetian art took its impulse from the capture of Constantinople in
1204. Its peculiar beauty is derived from the curved forms and tenuity
of substance obtained in blowing. (Fig. 358.) There are six kinds of
Venetian glass. (1) Vessels of colourless or _transparent glass_, or of
single colours, generally blue or purple. (2) _Gilt_ or _enamelled
glass_. (3) _Crackled glass_, having a surface rough and divided
irregularly into ridges. (4) Variegated or _marbled opaque glass_,
called _schmeltz_; the most common variety is a mixture of green and
purple, sometimes resembling jasper, sometimes chalcedony; other
varieties are imitations of lapis lazuli and tortoise-shell; and
_avanturine_, which is obtained by mingling metallic filings or
fragments of gold leaf with melted glass. (5) _Millefiori_, or _mosaic
glass_, in imitation of the old Roman process. (6) _Reticulated_,
_filigree_, or _lace glass_. The varieties contain fine threads of
glass, generally coloured, but sometimes milk-white, included in their
substance. The lightness and strength of the Venetian glass are due to
its not containing lead like our modern flint glass. Venetian _mirrors_
were for a long period widely celebrated. The oldest example of the
German _drinking-cups_, ornamented with paintings in enamel, is of the
date of 1553. The designs are commonly armorial bearings. From the
beginning of the 17th century the Bohemian manufactories supplied
_vases_ enriched with ornamental subjects, particularly with portraits
engraved upon the glass. The art of _wheel engraving upon glass_
flourished in France under Louis XVI. In modern times this kind of
ornamentation is produced by the agency of hydrofluoric acid. “Coarse
glass-making in England was, in Sussex, of great antiquity.” (_Fuller._)
“The first making of Venice glasses in England began in London, about
the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by one Jacob Vessaline,
an Italian.” (_Stow._)

=Glass-glazed Wares.= (See GLAZED WARES.)

=Glaucous= (γλαυκός). Of a sea-green colour, or a greyish blue.

[Illustration: Fig. 359. Flemish stone-ware Cruche, 17th century.]

=Glazed Wares.= Almost immediately after the invention of Ceramic
manufacture, the application of _glaze_ or _coloured enamel_ must have
improved it. What we term _glaçure_ is a light varnish which enlivens
and harmonizes the porous surface of terra-cotta. In its simple state it
is a mixture of silex and lead, and in this state it is transparent, as
we find it on _antique vases_; when vitrifiable, and mixed with tin, as
in the case of _majolicas_, it is called enamel; and when of vitrifiable
and earthen substance, such as can only be melted at the temperature
required for the baking of the paste itself, it is known as GLAZE, or
_couverte_, and can be identified in the Persian faiences and Flemish
stone-ware. (Figs. 359, 360.) (See _Burty_, _Chefs-d’œuvre of the
Industrial Arts_.)

[Illustration: Fig. 360. German enamelled stone-ware Cruche, date first
half of the 16th century.]

=Glazing.= In oil painting, the application of thin layer of colour to
finally modify the tone. In pottery, a vitreous covering over the
surface. (See GLAZED WARES.)

=Globe=, held in the hand, is the emblem of power.

=Globus=, R. A military manœuvre employed by a body of Roman soldiers
when surrounded by superior forces; it consisted in forming a circle
facing in every direction.

[Illustration: Fig. 361. Glory. Vesica Piscis in Ely Cathedral.]

=Glory=, =Nimbus= or =Aureole=, the Christian attribute of sanctity, is
of pagan origin, common to images of the gods, and Roman, even
Christian, emperors. Satan in miniatures of the 9th to 13th century
wears a glory. The earliest known Christian example is a gem of St.
Martin of the early part of the 6th century. The glory round the head is
properly the nimbus or aureole. The oblong glory surrounding the whole
person, called in Latin “vesica piscis” (Fig. 361), and in Italian the
“mandorla” (almond) from its form, is confined to figures of Christ and
the Virgin, or saints who are in the act of ascending into heaven. When
used to distinguish one of the three divine Persons of the Trinity, the
glory is often cruciform or triangular: the square nimbus designates a
person living at the time the work was executed. In other instances it
is circular. Coloured glories are variously symbolical. (_Mrs. Jameson_,
“_The Poetry of Sacred and Legendary Art_.”)

=Gloves.= In the 14th century already _gloves_ were worn, jewelled on
the back, as a badge of rank. “They were worn in the hat,” says
Steevens, “as the favour of a mistress, or the memorial of a friend, and
as a mark to be challenged by an enemy.” A glove of the 17th century is
described “of a light buff leather, beautifully ornamented with spangles
and needlework in gold and silver threads, with a gold lace border, and
silk opening at the wrist.” Gloves were called “cheirothecæ,”
hand-coverers, by the Greeks and Romans; they were made without separate
fingers, the thumb only being free. A legend current at Grenoble affirms
that St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, was a knitter of gloves.

=Gluten.= In wax painting, the compound with which the pigments are

=Glyphs=, Arch. The flutings of an ornament or grooving forming the
segment of a circle. (See DIGLYPH, TRIGLYPH.)

=Glyptics.= The art of engraving on precious stones.

=Glyptotheca=, Gr. and R. (1) A gallery for sculpture. (2) A collection
of engraved stones.

=Gnomon=, Gr. and R. The iron pin or index, which, by the projection of
its shadow, marks the hour upon a sun-dial.

=Goal.= (See META.)

=Goat.= The emblem of lasciviousness.

=Gobelins.= Celebrated Royal French manufactory of tapestry, named from
the successors of Jean Gobelin, who brought the art to Paris in the 15th
century from Rheims. [See _Burty_, _Chefs-d’œuvre of Industrial Art_.]

=Godenda=, O. E. A pole-axe, having a spike at its end; 13th century.

=Goderonné=, =Gouderonné= (Needlework). A fluted pattern of embroidery
in vogue in the 16th century.

[Illustration: Fig. 362. Egyptian Diadem of gold and lapis lazuli of the
ancient Empire, found in the tomb of Queen Aah-Hotep.]

=Gold.= It is probable that the earliest recorded mark upon units of
value was the image of a sheep or an ox; hence money in Latin is called
_pecunia_, from _pecus_, cattle, the original form of barbaric wealth,
for which gold was the substitute. The wealth of Abraham in silver and
gold, as well as in cattle, is mentioned in Genesis. No coins of gold or
silver have been found in EGYPT or NINEVEH, although beautiful specimens
of the goldsmith’s art have been recovered from the tombs of both
countries. The HEBREWS, taught by the Egyptians, made their ark,
mercy-seat, altar of incense, seven-branched candlestick, and other
golden ornaments, even in the desert of Sinai. The seven-branched
candlestick is represented in sculpture on the arch of Titus at Rome. At
BABYLON and NINEVEH gold is said to have been lavishly applied in
gilding sculpture, and even walls; but it is suggested that an alloy of
copper, the _aurichalcum_ of the Greeks, was the metal in reality used
for this purpose. The heroes of the Greek epic had golden shields and
helmets; breastplates and other large pieces of golden armour are among
the recent discoveries at Mycenæ; at Kourioum in the island of Cyprus
also great stores of golden ornaments of a very early age have been
discovered. In SCYTHIAN tombs in Russia also, about Kertch, beautiful
relics of Grecian work in gold have been found, showing that in the very
earliest ages the skill and taste applied to this art were not less than
those of later times. The gold jewellery of ancient India also excelled
that of modern date, but none, before or since, ever equalled the great
age of GREEK art. Pausanias describes a statue of Athene, made by
Pheidias, and kept in the Parthenon at Athens, of ivory and
gold—_chryselephantine_—delicately worked all over; and a still larger
statue of Jupiter, of the same materials. Native gold alloyed with
one-fifth silver was greatly prized by the Greek artists, who gave it
the name of _electrum_. Examples of this electrum are rare; there is a
vase at St. Petersburg. The ROMANS used to pay enormous prices for their
household plate; for an example, the bowl of Pytheas, on which were
represented Ulysses and Diomed with the palladium, fetched 10,000
denarii, or about 330_l._ _per ounce_. Few specimens of Roman art have
escaped destruction. (Fig. 7.) Of the age of BYZANTINE splendour we are
told that the Emperor Acadius, early in the 5th century, sat on a throne
of massive gold, his chariot being also of gold, &c. In the 9th century
the throne of Theophilus was overshadowed by a tree of gold, with birds
in the branches, and at the foot two lions all gold. The lions roared
and the birds piped in the branches. A remarkable wealth of ancient
goldsmith’s work has been found in IRELAND, consisting principally of
personal ornaments. In the 9th and 10th centuries the Irish workmanship
was unsurpassed in Europe. It consisted principally of objects for
religious use, and is characterized by a filagree of extraordinary
richness, akin to the intricate traceries of the Irish illuminated work
on MS. of the same date and derivation. In the 10th and 11th centuries
there was a great revival of art throughout Europe. In GERMANY, the
abbey of Hildesheim, under Bishop Bernward, became the centre of a
school of goldsmiths, and some beautiful specimens of hammered gold, by
the bishop’s hand, are preserved.

[Illustration: Fig. 363. Greek Ear-ring of gold, and part of a necklace.
(_See also Fig. 276._)]

=Gold=, in Christian art. (See YELLOW.)

=Gold, Cloth of=, is mentioned in the Pentateuch, and was common
throughout the East in all ages. It was originally wrought, not in
rounded wire but flat, as the Chinese, the Indians, and the Italians
(their _lama d’oro_) weave it now. The early Roman kings wore tunics of
gold, and the Romans used it as a shroud for burial. King Childeric, A.
D. 482, was buried at Tournai in a mantle of golden stuff. It was much
favoured in England for church vestments, and by royalty, especially by
Edward IV. and Henry VIII. and the nobility of their time. (The
different varieties are described in their order. See ACCA, ARESTE,

=Goldbeater’s Skin=, prepared from a membrane found in the stomach of
the ox, is used to separate leaf-gold in the process of gold-beating.

=Golden Fleece.= An Order of Knighthood instituted on the 10th of
January, 1429, by Philip, Duke of Burgundy. The COLLAR is composed of
double steels, interwoven with flint-stones, emitting sparks of fire, at
the end whereof hangs on the breast a Golden Fleece. The fusils are
joined two and two together, as if they were double BB’s (the cyphers of
Burgundy). The _flint-stones_ are the ancient arms of the Sovereigns of
Burgundy, with the motto “_Ante ferit quam flamma micet_.” (See Fig.
342.) The motto of the Order is “_Pretium non vile laborum_.” There are
four great officers, viz. the Chancellor, Treasurer, Register, and a
King of Arms, called _Toison d’Or_. The BADGE consists of a Golden
Fleece, suspended from a flint-stone, which is surrounded with flames of

=Golden Spur.= An Order of Knighthood said to have been instituted by
Pius IV., at Rome, in 1559. They are sometimes spoken of as the
CHEVALIERS PIES or PIORUM, and must be distinguished from those who are
created knights on the coronation or marriage days of Emperors and
Kings, and who receive at the same time the _Spurs of Honour_. These
alone are entitled to the appellation of EQUITES AURATI. [Cf. _Peter de
Bellet_, _Favin_, &c.]

=Golden Stole= of Venice. (See STOLA D’ORO.)

=Golione=, O. E. A kind of gown.

=Gondola=, It. A Venetian pleasure-boat or barge.

=Gonfalon= or =Gonfanon=, Fr. (1) A richly-worked pointed banner carried
upon a lance; 13th century. (2) An ecclesiastical banner.

=Gonfalonier=. The bearer of a gonfalon.

=Goniometer= (γωνία, an angle, &c.). An instrument for measuring the
angles of crystals.

=Gonjo=, O. E. (14th century). Said to be the _gorget_.

=Gopouras=, Hind. The pyramid-shaped door of the Hindoo temples.
_Dwararab’ha_, or door of splendour, was the name given to a door with
one or two tiers; _dwarasala_, or door of the dwelling, a door with two
or four tiers; _dwaraprasada_, or propitious door, a door with three to
five tiers; _dwaraharmya_, or door of the palace, a door with five to
seven tiers; lastly, _dwaragopouras_, or door-tower with seven to
sixteen tiers.

=Gorged=, Her. Wearing a collar.

=Gorget=, Fr. A defence or covering for the neck.

[Illustration: Fig. 364. Gorgoneia.]

=Gorgoneia.= Masks of the Gorgon’s head, which were fixed as bosses upon
walls or shields.

=Gossamer=, O. E. (properly _God’s summer_). The name is attributed to
an old legend that the fine filaments so called are the fragments of the
winding-sheet of the Virgin Mary, which fell away from her as she was
taken up to heaven.

=Gothamites=, O. E. The inhabitants of the village of Gotham in
Northumberland, renowned for their stupidity. A reprint of the tale
called “The Wise Men of Gotham” appeared in 1840.

=Gouache=, Fr. This term is applied to the use in water-colour painting
of opaque colours more or less mixed and modified with white. The
process is extremely ancient, known to the Chinese and Indians of the
earliest times, and to the Greeks and Romans. It was the method used by
mediæval illuminators. Its result is a velvety reflection of the light.

[Illustration: Fig. 365. Gourd-shaped bottle. Anatolian.]

=Gourd of Noah.= A piece of ancient blue faience from Asia Minor.
According to the tradition current in the country, these vessels, which
are in great veneration, would go back to such remote antiquity that it
was by one of them that Noah was betrayed into the first act of
inebriety recorded in history. (_Jacquemart._)

=Gouttée=, =Guttée=, Her. Sprinkled over with drops of gold, silver,
blue (tears), red (blood), or black (_poix_).

=Gown= (British _gwn_, Norman _gunna_). The men wore gowns in the Middle
Ages, the women at all times.

=Grabatus=, R. (κράβατος). A sort of low framework, consisting of a
network of cords, used to support a mattress; it was the least
comfortable kind of bed; whence the French word _grabat_ to denote a
sorry kind of bed.

=Gradient=, Her. Walking.

=Gradus=, R. A flight of steps leading to a temple; the tiers of seats
in a theatre or amphitheatre, &c.

=Græcostasis.= A part of the Roman forum, where the Greek ambassadors
stood to hear the debates.

=Graffiti=, It. Lines drawn with a graver upon clay or plaster. (See

=Grafted=, Her. Inserted and fixed.

=Grand-garde=, Plate armour to cover the breast and left shoulder, worn
outside the usual armour in jousting at tournaments.

=Grand Quarters=, Her. The four primary divisions of a shield when it is
divided per cross or quarterly.

=Graphite.= Plumbago.

=Graphometer.= A mathematical instrument, called also a semicircle.

=Graphotype.= A method of producing book illustrations for printing
along with type, without the art of an engraver.

=Grass-green.= (See CHRYSOCOLLA.)

=Graver= or =Burin=. An engraving-tool. (See CHALCOGRAPHY.)

=Grazioso=, It. In Music, an intimation to perform the music smoothly
and gracefully.

=Greaves.= Plate armour for the legs.

=Grece=, O. E. A step, or flight of stairs. (See GRYSE.)

=Greeces=, Her. Steps.

=Greek Lace.= A kind of cutwork, described under LACE (q.v.).

=Green=, in Christian art, or the emerald, is the colour of spring;
emblem of hope, particularly hope in immortality; and of victory, as the
colour of the palm and the laurel.


=Green Bice.= Green cinnabar. (See CHROME GREEN.)

=Green Earth= (burnt terra verde) is a brown pigment, very useful for
landscape painting in oil colours; it is not affected by exposure to
strong light or impure air.

=Green Lakes.= (See PURPLE LAKES.)

=Green Verditer.= (See VERDITER.)

=Gregorian Calendar.= The calendar as reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. in

=Gregorian Music.= A collection of chants, originally compiled by
Gregory I. (the Great), A. D. 600. “It was observed by St. Gregory, a
great musician of his time, that the _Ambrosian Chants_, handed down
traditionally to a great extent, had become corrupted; he therefore
subjected them to revision, and added other modes and scales to those
four which Ambrose had retained. This was done by taking away the upper
tetrachord from the Ambrosian scales, and placing it below the lower
tetrachord.” (See _Music_, by the Rev. J. R. Lunn, B.D., in _Dictionary
of Christian Antiquities_.)

=Grey=, in Christian art, the colour of ashes, signified mourning,
humility, and innocence accused.

=Greybeards=, O. E. Stone-ware drinking-jugs, with a bearded face on the

=Gridiron= (It. _la graticola_). The attribute of St. Lawrence.

=Griffin.= (See GRYPHUS.)

=Grinding.= Pigments are generally ground in poppy or nut oil, which dry
best and do not deaden the colours. It is essential that these oils be
in the purest state, bright and clear. A good oil ought to be so dry in
five or six days that the picture can be repainted.

=Griphus=, Gr. and R. (γρῖφος). Literally, a fishing-net, and thence a
riddle propounded by guests at a banquet.

=Grisaille=, Fr. A style of painting _in grey_, by which solid bodies
are represented as if in relief; adapted for architectural subjects.

[Illustration: Fig. 366. Groat of Edward III.]

=Groat.= An old English silver coin, equal to 4_d._ In England, in the
Saxon times, no silver coin larger in value than a penny was struck, nor
after the Conquest till the reign of Edward III., who about 1351 coined
_grosses_ or great pieces, which went for 4_d._ each; and so the matter
stood till the reign of Henry VII., who in 1504 first coined shillings.

=Grogram= (Fr. _gros-grains_). A coarse woollen cloth with large woof
and a rough pile. Grogram gowns were worn by countrywomen, 15th to 17th
centuries. _Fairholt_ says that the mixed liquor called _grog_ obtained
its name from the admiral who ordered it to be given to the sailors; who
from wearing a grogram coat was called “Old Grog.”

=Groin=, Arch. The angular curve formed at the intersection of a vaulted
roof; the line made by the intersection of arched vaults crossing each
other at any angle. (See Fig. 173.)

=Grolier Scroll.= A beautiful and elaborate style of decoration for
bookbinding, introduced by _Grolier_, a celebrated patron of
bookbinding, in the 15th century.

=Groma= and =Gruma=, R. A quadrant; an instrument used by
land-surveyors. In the plural, _grumæ_ denotes the intersection of two
roads cutting each other at right angles.

[Illustration: Fig. 367. Grotesque from a stall in Rouen Cathedral.]

=Grotesques=, Arch. (It. _grottesco_, the style in which grottoes were
ornamented). Figures of a monstrous, comic, or obscene character, which
were spread in profusion over the façades of churches by mediæval
artists (_ymaigiers_); in stone and in wood; on choir-stalls and the
wood-work and wainscoting of interiors. Figs. 367, 368 represent figures
upon the stalls and columns in Rouen Cathedral.

[Illustration: Fig. 368. Grotesque decoration from the Cathedral at

=Grounds= or =Priming=. In painting, the first coat of colour laid all
over the canvas, upon which the picture is to be painted.

=Grus=, Lat. (_a crane_). A constellation of the southern hemisphere.

=Gry.= A measure containing ⅒ of a _line_. A _line_ is ⅒ of a _digit_, a
_digit_ is ⅒ of a foot, and a (philosophical) foot is ⅓ of a pendulum
whose vibrations, in the latitude of 45°, are each equal to one second
of time, or ¹⁄₆₀ of a minute.

[Illustration: Fig. 369. Heraldic Griffin.]

=Gryphus=, =Griffin=, Gen. (γρύψ). A fabulous animal, represented with
the body of a lion, and the head and wings of an eagle. In ancient art
it was applied in the decoration of friezes, one of the finest specimens
being that at the temple of Antoninus and Faustina at Rome. It was a
heraldic symbol among the Scythians, and is the ancient crest of the
city of London. As an emblem this monster symbolizes the destroying
power of the gods.

=Gryse=, =Grece=, =Tredyl=, or =Steyre=, O. E. A step, a flight of

=Guacos= or =Huacos=, Peruv. The consecrated burial-places of the
ancient Peruvians.

[Illustration: Fig. 370. Passant guardant.]

=Guardant=, Her. Looking out from the field, as the lions in Fig. 370.

=Guazzo=, It. A hard and durable kind of distemper painting, used by the
ancients, calculated to resist damp and to preserve the colours.

[Illustration: Fig. 371. Gubbio Cup, 1519. Louvre Museum.]

=Gubbio=. A celebrated Italian botega of ceramic art, founded in 1498 by
Giorgio Andreoli, the reputed inventor of the secret of metallic
lustres. Fig. 371 is a cup bearing upon a fillet the inscription “_Ex o
Giorg._,” “of the fabric of Giorgio.”

=Gubernaculum=, R. (_guberno_, to direct). A rudder; originally an oar
with a broad blade, which was fixed, not at the extremity, but at each
side of the stern. A ship had commonly two rudders joined together by a

=Guelfs= or =Guelphs=. (See GHIBELLINES.)

[Illustration: Fig. 372. Badge of the Gueux.]

=Gueux, Badge of the.= The celebrated Netherlandish confraternity of the
Gueux (or Beggars), which had its origin in a jest spoken at a banquet,
assumed not only the dress, but the staff, wooden bowl, and wallet of
the professional beggar, and even went so far as to clothe their
retainers and servants in mendicant garb. The badge represents two hands
clasped across and through a double wallet.

=Guidon=, Fr. (1) The silk standard of a regiment; (2) its bearer.

=Guige=, Her. A shield-belt worn over the right shoulder.

=Guild=, O. E. (Saxon _guildan_, to pay). A fraternity or company, every
member of which was _gildare_, i. e. had to pay something towards the
charges. Merchant guilds first became general in Europe in the 11th
century. (See _Anderson’s History of Commerce_, vol. i. p. 70.)

[Illustration: Fig. 373. Base ornamented with guilloche.]

=Guilloche.= A series of interlaced ornaments on stone, resembling

[Illustration: Fig. 374. Band with the guilloche ornament.]

=Guilloched.= Waved or engine-turned.

=Guimet’s Ultramarine.= A valuable substitute for the more costly
preparation. It is transparent and durable.

=Guimet’s Yellow= is the deutoxide of lead and antimony, useful in
enamel or porcelain painting.

=Guinea.= An English coin first struck _temp._ Car. II., and so called
because the gold was brought from the coast of _Guinea_ (the Portuguese
_Genahoa_). It originally bore the impress of an elephant. The sovereign
superseded it in 1817.

=Guisarme.= An ancient weapon of the nature of a pike or bill. (See

=Guitar= (Spanish _guitarra_). A stringed musical instrument, played as
a harp with the fingers.

=Gules=, Her. (Fr. _gueules_). Red, represented in engraving by
perpendicular lines.

=Gum-arabic= dissolved in water constitutes the well-known vehicle for
water-colour painting—_gum-water_.

=Gunter’s Line.= A line of logarithms graduated on a ruler, for
practical use in the application of logarithms to the ordinary
calculations of an architect, builder, &c. Other similar instruments
invented by the great mathematician (+ 1626) are _Gunter’s Quadrant_ and
_Gunter’s Scale_, used by seamen and for astronomical calculations.

=Gurgustium=, R. A cave, hovel, or any dark and wretched abode.

=Gussets= were small pieces of chain mail at the openings of the joints
beneath the arms.

=Guttæ=, Arch. (drops). Small conical-shaped ornaments, used in the
Doric entablature immediately under the mutule beneath the triglyph.
(See Fig. 265.)

=Guttée=, Her. (See GOUTTÉE.) Sprinkled over.

=Gutturnium=, R. (_guttur_, the throat). A water-jug or ewer; it was a
vessel of very elegant form, and was used chiefly by slaves for pouring
water over the hands of the guests before and after a meal. (See

=Guttus=, R. (_gutta_, a drop). A vessel with a very narrow neck and
mouth, by means of which liquids could be poured out drop by drop;
whence its name. It was especially used in sacrifices, and is a common
object upon coins of a religious character.

=Gutty=, Her. Charged or sprinkled with _drops_.

=Gwerre=, O. E. The choir of a church.

=Gymmers=, O. E. Hinges. (The word is still used.)

=Gymnasium=, Gr. (γυμνάσιον; γυμνὸς, stripped). A large building used by
the Greeks, answering to the Roman _palæstra_, in which gymnastics were
taught and practised. There were also attached to it assembly rooms for
rhetoricians and philosophers.

=Gynæceum=, Gr. (from γυνὴ, a woman). That part of the Greek house which
was set apart for the women. (See DOMUS.)

=Gypsum= (Gr. γύψος). The property of rapid consolidation renders gypsum
very available for taking casts of works of art, &c. It is much employed
in architectural ornaments. The gypsum of Paris is called
_Montmartrite_, and forms the best _Plaster of Paris_, as it resists the
weather better than purer sorts. It contains 17 per cent. of carbonate
of lime. (See also ALABASTER.)

=Gyron=, Her. A triangular figure, one of the subordinaries.

[Illustration: Fig. 375. Gyronny.]

=Gyronny=, Her. A field divided into gyrons.


=H=, as an old Latin numeral, denotes 200, and with a dash above it (H̅)

=Habena=, R. (_habeo_, to hold). A term with numerous meanings, all of
which were connected more or less with the idea of a thong or strap. In
the singular, it signifies a halter; in the plural, _habenæ_, reins.

=Habergeon=. A coat of mail, or breastplate.

=Habited=, Her. Clothed.

=Hackbut= or =Hagbut=. Arquebus with a hooked stock.

=Hackney Coach= (from the French _coche-à-haguenée_). The _haguenée_ was
a strong kind of horse formerly let out on hire for short journeys.

=Hadrianea=, R. Small buildings in which Christians were allowed to
meet, in virtue of an edict granted in their favour by the Emperor

=Hæmatinon=, R. (αἱμάτινον, of blood). A kind of glassy substance of a
beautiful red, and susceptible of taking a fine polish. It was used to
make small cubes for mosaic or small works of art.

=Hagiographa= (_sacred writings_). A name applied to those books of
Scripture which, according to the Jewish classification, held the lowest
rank in regard to inspiration. These are the books of Ruth, Psalms, Job,
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther,
Ezra, and Chronicles.

=Hair.= The _Assyrian_ monarchs are represented with beard elaborately
plaited, and hair falling in ringlets on the shoulder, which may have
been partly artificial, like that of the Persian monarchs, who,
according to Xenophon, wore a wig. Both the hair and beard were dyed,
and the eyes blackened with kohl, &c. (_Layard._) The _Egyptians_ kept
the head shaved, and wore wigs and beard-boxes. The _Hebrews_ generally
wore the hair short, but the horse-guards of King Solomon “daily strewed
their heads with gold dust, which glittered in the sun.” (_Josephus._)
The ancient _Greeks_ wore their hair long. The _Athenians_ wore it long
in childhood, had it cut short at a solemn ceremony when they became
eighteen years of age, and afterwards allowed it to grow, and wore it
rolled up in a knot on the crown of the head, fastened with golden
clasps (_crobylus_, _corymbus_). Women wore bands or coifs (_sphendone_,
_kekryphalus_, _saccus_, _mitra_). Youths and athletes are represented
with short hair. The favourite colour was blonde (_xanthus_); black was
the most common. The ancient _Romans_ also wore long hair; about 300
B.C. the practice of wearing it short came in (_cincinnus_, _cirrus_).
The Roman women anciently dressed their hair very plainly, but in the
Augustan period adopted some extravagant fashions. Each of the gods is
distinguished by his peculiar form of hair: that of Jupiter is long and
flowing; Mercury has close curling hair, &c. The _Danes_, _Gauls_, and
_Anglo-Saxons_ wore long flowing hair, and the shearing of it was a
punishment: when Julius Cæsar conquered the Gauls, he cut off their long
hair. Among the early _Frankish_ kings long hair was the privilege of
the blood royal. From the time of _Clovis_ the French nobility wore
short hair, but as they grew less martial the hair became longer.
François I. introduced short hair, which prevailed until the reign of
Louis XIII., which was followed by the period of periwigs and perukes of
Louis XIV. The variations from the Conquest to the last generation in
_England_ are so striking and frequent that each reign may be
distinguished by its appropriate head-dress. (Consult _Fairholt’s
Costume in England_, _Planché’s Cyclopædia of Costume_, &c.)

=Hair-cloth.= (See CILICIUM.)

=Hair Pencils= or =Brushes= are made of the finer hairs of the marten,
badger, polecat, camel, &c., mounted in quills or white iron tubes. The
round brushes should swell all round from the base, and diminish upwards
to a fine point, terminating with the uncut ends of the hair. (See

=Halbert.= A footman’s weapon in the form of a battle-axe and pike at
the end of a long staff.

=Halcyon.= The ancient name of the _Alcedo_ or king-fisher; hence—

=Halcyon Days=, i. e. the calm and peaceful season when the king-fisher
lays its eggs in nests close by the brink of the sea; i. e. seven days
before and as many after the winter solstice.

       “Seven winter dayes with peacefull calme possest
       _Alcyon_ sits upon her floating nest.”
                                   (_Sandy’s Ovid, Met._ b. xi.)

=Hall-marks.= The Goldsmiths of London formed their company in 1327, and
were incorporated by charter in 1392. The hall-marks, in the order of
their introduction, are as follows:—1. The leopard’s head, called the
king’s mark. 2. The maker’s mark, originally a rose, crown, or other
emblem with or without initials. 3. The annual letter, in the order of
the alphabet from A to V, omitting J and U. This mark is changed every
twenty years. 4. The lion _passant_, added in 1597. 5. Instead of the
leopard’s head (1) for the king’s mark, the lion’s head _erased_,
introduced in 1697 when the standard was changed, and, 6, a figure of
Britannia substituted for the lion _passant_ (4) at the same time. Plate
with this mark is called _Britannia_ plate. The old standard (of 11 oz.
2 dwt. pure gold in the lb.) was restored in 1719. 7. The head of the
reigning sovereign in profile, ordered in 1784, when a fresh duty was
laid upon plate.

=Halling=, O. E. Tapestry.

=Hallowmas=, Chr. The feast of All Souls, or the time about All Souls’
and All Saints’ Days, viz. the 1st and 2nd of November; and thence to
CANDLEMAS, or the 2nd of February.

=Halmos=, Gr. and R. A vessel of round form, supported on a raised stand
entirely distinct from the vessel itself; it was used as a drinking-cup.

=Halmote= or =Halimote=. The Saxon name for a meeting of tenants, now
called a _court baron_.

=Halteres= (Gr. ἁλτῆρες), in the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks and
Romans, were masses of lead, iron, or stone held in the hands to give
impetus in leaping, or used as dumb-bells.

=Ham= (Scotch _hame_). A Saxon word for a place of dwelling, _a home_;
hence “HAMLET.” “This word,” says Stow, “originally meant the seat of a
freeholder, comprehending the mansion-house and adjacent buildings.”

=Hama=, Gr. and R. (ἄμη or ἅμη). A bucket used for various purposes.

=Hamburg White.= (See CARBONATE OF LEAD, BARYTES.)

=Hames= or =Heames=, Her. Parts of horses’ harness.

=Hammer= or =Martel=, Her. Represented much like an ordinary hammer.

=Hamus= or =Hamulus=. A fish-hook.

[Illustration: Fig. 376. Hanaper.]

=Hanaper=, O. E. (Mod. _hamper_). A wicker basket. (Fig. 376.) Writs in
the Court of Chancery were thrown into such a basket (_in hanaperio_),
and the office was called from that circumstance the Haniper Office. It
was abolished in 1842.

=Handkerchiefs= embroidered in gold were presented and worn as favours
in the reign of Elizabeth. Paisley handkerchiefs were introduced in

[Illustration: Fig. 377. Bronze door-handle. Roman.]

=Handle=, Gen. In antiquity the leaves of a door were fitted with
handles like those of our own day. Fig. 377 represents a bronze handle
consisting of a double ring. Of these, the inner one could be raised so
as to allow a person’s hand to take hold of it, and draw the door his
own way. This work of art is at the present time in the Museum of

=Handruffs=, O. E. Ruffles.

=Handseax=. The Anglo-Saxon dagger.

=Hanger=, O. E. A small sword worn by gentlemen with morning dress in
the 17th century.

=Hangers= or =Carriages=, O. E. Appendages to the sword-belt from which
the sword hung, often richly embroidered or jewelled.

=Hanselines= (15th century). Loose breeches. (See SLOP.)

=Haphe=, Gr. and R. (ἁφὴ i.e. a grip). The yellow sand with which
wrestlers sprinkled themselves over after having been rubbed with oil.
The object of this sprinkling was to enable the wrestlers to take a
firmer grasp one of the other.

=Hara=, Gr. and R. A pig-sty, especially for a breeding sow. The term
also denoted a pen for geese.

=Hare=, Chr. In Christian iconography the hare symbolizes the rapid
course of life. Representations of this animal are met with on lamps,
engraved stones, sepulchral stones, &c.

=Harlequin= (It. _Harlequino_, or little Harlay). The name is derived
from that of a famous Italian comedian, who appeared in Paris in the
time of Henri III., and from frequenting the house of M. de Harlay was
so called by his companions. (_Ménage_.)

=Harmamaxa=, Gr. and R. (ἁρμ-άμαξα). A four-wheeled carriage or litter
covered overhead, and enclosed with curtains. It was generally large,
and drawn by four horses, and richly ornamented. It was principally used
for women and children.

=Harmonica.= A musical instrument consisting of a number of glass cups
fixed upon a revolving spindle, and made to vibrate by friction applied
to their edges. These “musical glasses” are described in a work
published in 1677. A _harpsichord-harmonica_ is a similar instrument, in
which finger-keys like those of a pianoforte are used. (See the article
in _Encyl. Brit._, 8th edition.)

=Harmonium.= A musical instrument having a key-board like a pianoforte,
and the sounds (which resemble those of organ pipes) produced by the
vibration of thin tongues of metal.

=Harp.= The EGYPTIANS had various kinds of harps, some of which were
elegantly shaped and tastefully ornamented. The name of the harp was
_buni_. Its frame had no front pillar. The harps represented on the
monuments varied in size from 6½ feet high downwards, and had from 4 to
28 strings. A beautiful Egyptian harp, in the Louvre collection, is of
triangular shape with 21 strings, but, like all the harps represented on
the monuments, it has no fore-pillar. The strings were of catgut.
ASSYRIAN sculptures also represent harps. These also had no front
pillar, and were about 4 feet high, with ornamental appendages on the
lower frame. The upper frame contained the sound-holes and the
tuning-pegs in regular order. The strings are supposed to have been of
silk. The GREEK harp, called _kinyra_, resembled the Assyrian, and is
represented with 13 strings: it is an attribute of Polyhymnia. The
ANGLO-SAXONS called the harp the _gleo-beam_, or “glee-wood;” and it was
their most popular instrument. King David playing a harp is represented
on an A.S. monument of the 11th century. It was the favourite instrument
of the GERMAN and CELTIC bards, and of the SCANDINAVIAN skalds. It is
represented with 12 strings and 2 sound-holes, and having a fore-pillar.
A curious IRISH harp of the 8th century, or earlier, is represented in
Bunting’s “Ancient Music of Ireland,” having no fore-pillar. The FINNS
had a harp (_harpu_, _kantele_) with a similar frame, devoid of a front
pillar. In CHRISTIAN ART a harp is the attribute of King David and of
St. Cecilia. St. Dunstan is also occasionally represented with it. In
Heraldry the harp is the device and badge of Ireland. The Irish harp of
gold with silver strings on a blue field forms the third quarter of the
royal arms.

=Harpaga=, =Harpago=, Gr. and R. A general term, including any kind of
hook for grappling; more particularly a military engine invented by
Pericles, and introduced into the Roman navy by Duillius. It consisted
of a joist about two yards and a half long, each face of which was
coated with iron, and having at one end a harpoon of iron or bronze; the
other end was fitted with an iron ring, to which a rope was attached, so
as to enable it to be drawn back when it had once grappled a ship or its
rigging. _Harpago_ or _wolf_ was the term applied to a beam armed with a
harpoon, which was employed to break down the tops of walls, or widen a
breach already made. [A flesh-hook used in cookery to take boiled meat
out of the caldron.]

=Harpastum=, R. A small ball employed for a game in which the players
formed two sides. They stationed themselves at some distance from a line
traced on the ground or sand where the _harpastum_ was placed. At a
given signal each player threw himself upon the ball, in order to try
and send it beyond the bounds of the opposite party.

=Harpies=, Gen. (Ἅρπυιαι, i. e. the Snatchers). Winged monsters,
daughters of Neptune and Terra, three in number, viz. _Aëllo_ (the
tempest), _Ocypetê_ (swift-flying), and _Cêlêno_; representing the
storm-winds. They had the faces of old women, a vulture’s body, and huge
claws; they were the representatives of the Evil Fates, and the rulers
of storms and tempests. In Christian iconography the Harpies symbolize
the devil and repentance. [In the so called “Harpy tomb” in the British
Museum they are represented carrying off Camiro and Clytia, the
daughters of Pandarus of Crete, as a punishment for his complicity with
Tantalus in stealing ambrosia and nectar from the table of the gods.]

=Harpsichord.= A musical instrument intermediate between the _spinet_,
_virginals_, &c., and the _pianoforte_, which supplanted it in the 18th
century. It may be described as a horizontal harp enclosed in a sonorous
case, the wires being struck with jacks armed with crow-quills, and
moved with finger-keys.

=Harquebus.= An improvement of the hand-gun introduced in the 15th
century, applying the invention of the _trigger_.

=Hart.= A stag in its _sixth_ year.

=Hart= or =Hind=, in Christian art, originally typified solitude and
purity of life. It was the attribute of St. Hubert, St. Julian, and St.

[Illustration: Fig. 378. Heraldic Hart.]

=Hart=, Her. A stag with attires; the female is a hind.

[Illustration: Fig. 379. Hasta—Roman ceremonial spear.]

=Hasta= (Gr. ἔγχος). A spear used as a pike for thrusting, or as a
missile for hurling from the hand, or as a bolt from an engine. Homer
defines the spear as “a pole heavy with bronze.” The _hasta amentata_,
for hurling, had a leathern thong for a handle (_amentum_) in the
middle; _hasta pura_ was a spear without a head, and was a much-valued
decoration given to a Roman soldier who had saved a citizen’s life;
_hasta celibarium_ was a spear which, having been thrust into the body
of a gladiator as he lay dead in the arena, was afterwards used at
marriages to part the hair of the bride. A spear was set up before a
place where sales by auction were going on, and an auction-room was
hence called HASTARIUM. Different kinds of spear were the _lancea_ of
the Greeks; the _pilum_, peculiar to the Romans; the _veru_, _verutum_,
or “spit,” of the Roman light infantry; the _gæsum_, a Celtic weapon
adopted by the Romans; the _sparrus_, our English spar or _spear_, the
rudest missile of the whole class; and many others mentioned under their
respective headings in this work.

=Hasta Pura.= In Numismatics, a headless spear or long sceptre, an
attribute of all the heathen deities; a symbol of the goodness of the
gods and the conduct of providence, equally mild and forcible.

=Hastarium=, R. A room in which sales were made _sub hasta publica_,
that is, by public auction, under the public authority indicated by the
spear. The term also denoted a list or catalogue of sale.

=Hastile=, R. (_hasta_). The shaft of a spear, and thence the spear
itself, a goad, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 380. Costume of a nobleman in Venice (16th century),
showing the Hat of the period.]

=Hat= (A.S. _haet_, a covering for the head). Froissart describes hats
and plumes worn at Edward’s court in 1340, when the Garter order was
instituted. Hats were originally of a scarlet-red colour, and made of “a
fine kinde of haire matted thegither.” A remarkable series of changes in
the fashion of hats is given in _Planché’s Encyclopædia of Costume_. Our
illustration represents a young Venetian noble of the Middle Ages. (See
also the illustrations to POURPOINT, BIRETTA, BOMBARDS, CALASH,

=Hatchment=, Her. (for _atchievement_). An achievement of arms in a
lozenge-shaped frame, placed upon the front of the residence of a person
lately deceased, made to distinguish his rank and position in life.

=Hauberk= (Germ. _Hals-berg_, a throat-guard). A military tunic of
ringed mail, of German origin, introduced in the 12th century.

=Haumudeys=, O. E. A purse.

[Illustration: Fig. 381. Hauriant.]

=Hauriant=, Her. Said of fishes upright, “sucking the air.” (Fig. 381.)

=Hautboy.= A wind instrument of the reed kind.

=Haversack= (Fr. _havre-sac_). A soldier’s knapsack.

=Hawk=, Egyp. This bird symbolizes the successive new births of the
rising sun. The hawk is the bird of Horus. It stood, at certain periods,
for the word _God_, and, with a human head, for the word _soul_. The sun
(_Ra_) is likewise represented with a hawk’s head, ornamented with the

=Head-piece.= An ornamental engraving at the commencement of a new
chapter in a book.

=Head-rail.= The head-dress worn by Saxon and Norman ladies.

=Healfang=, A.S. The pillory, or a fine in commutation. “_Qui falsum
testimonium dedit, reddat regi vel terræ domino_ HEALFANG.”

=Heang-loo=, Chinese. An incense-burner.

[Illustration: Fig. 382. Inscription, with hearts, found at Alise.]

=Heart.= On numerous Christian tombs hearts maybe seen sculptured. Many
archæologists have attempted to explain their meaning as symbols, but
without entering on an unprofitable discussion of that question, it may
be noticed that, in many cases, what archæologists have supposed to be
hearts were nothing but ivy-leaves, which served as marks of separation
between different words or sentences. Fig. 382 represents an inscription
at Alise in which ivy-leaves figure, together with an ornament which
some would insist were flames, if they were to take the leaves for
hearts. When inscriptions, however, are defaced, the shape of the leaves
is not nearly so distinguishable as in the figure. [One of the most
frequent methods in which this emblem is introduced in Christian art is
that the Saviour, or the Virgin Mary, is represented opening the breast
to display the living heart—the natural symbol of Love, Devotion, or
Sorrow. The Heart is an attribute of St. Theresa, St. Augustine, and
other saints. The flaming heart is the emblem of charity. The heart
pierced by seven daggers symbolizes the “seven sorrows” of Mary.]

=Hecatesia=, Gr. (Ἑκατήσια). Festivals held at Athens in honour of

=Hecatomb=, Gr. and R. (ἑκατόμβη). A sacrifice offered in Greece and
Rome under special circumstances, and at which a hundred head of cattle
(ἑκατὸν) were slain; whence the name of the festival. [The term was
generally applied to _all_ great sacrifices, of much less extent than
that implied by its etymological meaning.]

=Hecatompylæ=, Gr. (ἑκατόμ-πυλαι). The city with a hundred gates; a name
given to the Egyptian Thebes.

=Hecatonstylon=, =Hecatonstyle=, Gr. and R. (ἑκατὸν and στῦλος). A
portico or colonnade with a hundred columns.

=Hecte= or =Hectæus=, Gr. = a sixth (R. _modius_). In dry measure, the
sixth part of the medimnus, or nearly two gallons English. Coins of
uncertain value bore the same name; they were sixths of other units of

=Hegira= (Arabic _hajara_, to desert). The flight from Mecca, 16th July,
A. D. 622, from which Mohammedan chronology is calculated.

=Helciarius=, R. One who tows a boat. He was so called because he passed
a rope round his body in the way of a belt, the rope thus forming a
noose (_helcium_).

=Helepolis=, Gr. and R. (ἑλέ-πολις, the taker of cities). A lofty square
tower, on wheels, used in besieging fortified places. It was ninety
cubits high and forty wide; inside were nine stories, the lower
containing machines for throwing great stones; the middle, large
catapults for throwing spears; and the highest other machines. It was
manned with 200 soldiers. The name was afterwards applied to other siege
engines of similar construction.

=Helical=, Arch. (ἕλιξ, a wreath). A spiral line distinguished from
_spiral_. A staircase is _helical_ when the steps wind round a
cylindrical newel; whereas the _spiral_ winds round a cone, and is
constantly narrowing its axis. The term is applied to the volutes of a
Corinthian capital. (See HELIX.)

=Heliochromy= (Gr. ἥλιος, the sun, and χρῶμα, colour). Process of taking
coloured photographs.

=Heliopolites=, Egyp. One of the nomes or divisions of Lower Egypt,
capital An, the sacred name for Heliopolis near Cairo.

=Heliotrope.= The _Hæmatite_ or _blood-stone_; a siliceous mineral of a
dark green colour, commonly variegated with bright red spots.

=Heliotropion=, Gr. A kind of sun-dial. (See HOROLOGIUM.)

=Helix=, Arch. (ἕλιξ, anything spiral). A small volute like the tendril
of a vine placed under the Corinthian abacus. They are arranged in
couples springing from one base, and unite at the summit.

=Hellebore.= A famous purgative medicine among the ancient Greeks and
Romans. Philosophers prepared for work by drinking an infusion of the
black hellebore, like tea. The best grew in the island of Anticyra in
the Ægean Sea, and the gathering of it was accompanied by superstitious

[Illustration: Fig. 383. Helm of a Gentleman or Esquire.]

=Helm=, =Helmet=, Her. Now placed as an accessory above a shield of
arms. Modern usage distinguishes helms according to the rank of the
wearer. The term _helm_ was applied by both Saxons and Normans, in the
11th century, to the conical steel cap with a nose-guard, which was the
common head-piece of the day, and is depicted in contemporary
illuminations, sculptures, and tapestries. Afterwards it was restricted
to the _casque_, which covered the whole head, and had an aventaile or
vizor for the face. The use of the _helm_ finally ceased in the reign of
Henry VIII.

[Illustration: Fig. 384. Helmet or Burgonet of the 16th century.]

=Helmet.= The diminutive of HELM, first applied to the smaller
head-piece which superseded it in the 15th century. (See GALEA, ARMET,

=Hemi-= (Gr. ἡμι-). Half; used in composition of words like the Latin
_semi_ or _demi_.

=Hemichorion= (ἡμιχόριον). (See DICHOREA.)

=Hemicyclium=, Gr. and R. (ἡμι-κύκλιον). A semicircular alcove, to which
persons resorted for mutual conversation. The term was also used to
denote a sun-dial.

=Hemina=, Gr. and R. (ἡμίνα, i. e. half). A measure of capacity
containing half a sextarius (equal to the Greek _cotyle_ = half a pint

=Hemiolia=, Gr. and R. (ἡμι-ολία, i. e. one and a half). A vessel of
peculiar construction employed especially by Greek pirates.

[Illustration: Fig. 385. Sun-dial (Hemisphærium).]

=Hemisphærium=, R. A sun-dial in the form of a hemisphere; whence its
name. (Fig. 385.)

=Hemlock=, the _Conium maculatum_ of botanists, was the poison used by
the ancient Greeks for the despatch of state prisoners. Its effects are
accurately described in Plato’s description of the death of Socrates.

=Heptagon= (Gr. ἑπτὰ, seven, and γώνη, an angle). A seven-sided figure.

=Hepteris=, Gr. and R. (ἑπτ-ήρης). A ship of war with seven ranks of

=Heræa.= Important Greek festivals, celebrated in honour of Hera in all
the towns of Greece. At Argos, every fifth year, an immense body of
young men in armour formed a procession, preceded by a HECATOMB of oxen,
to the great temple of Hera, between Argos and Mycenæ, where the oxen
were slaughtered, and their flesh distributed to the citizens.

=Herald= (Germ. _Herold_). An officer of arms. The heralds of England
were incorporated by Richard III. The college now consists of three
kings of arms, six heralds, and four pursuivants. The office of Earl
Marshal, the supreme head of the English heralds, is hereditary in the
family of the Duke of Norfolk. There is another herald king styled
“Bath,” who is specially attached to that order; he is not a member of
the college. The chief herald of Scotland is styled Lord Lyon King of
Arms; that of Ireland, Ulster King of Arms. _Chester herald_ is
mentioned in the reign of Richard II., _Lancaster king of arms_ under

=Heralds’ College.= A college of heralds was instituted in Rome by Numa
Pompilius, and the office was held sacred among the most ancient
Oriental nations. The institution was imported into England in the
Middle Ages from Germany, a corporation of heralds, similar to the
_collegium fetialium_ of Rome, having been established in England in
1483 by Richard III. (See _Pitiscus_, tom. i., and _Hofmann_, tom. ii.)

=Hermæ=, Gr. and R. (Ἑρμαῖ). Hermæ, a kind of pedestals surmounted only
by the head, or, in some cases, the bust of Hermes. Great reverence was
felt for these statues. Houses at Athens had one before the doors; they
were also placed in front of temples, near tombs, at street corners, or
as mile-stones on the high roads. _Hermuli_, or small _Hermæ_, were a
common ornament of furniture, as pilasters and supports. The same name
is applied to similar statues having a man’s head. This statue was
probably one of the first attempts of art at plastic representation. The
_phallus_ and a pointed beard originally were essential parts of the
symbol. In place of arms there were projections to hang garlands on.
Then a mantle was introduced from the shoulders. Afterwards the whole
torso was placed above the pillar; and finally the pillar itself was
shaped into a perfect statue. All these gradations of the sculptor’s art
are traceable in existing monuments.

=Hermæa.= Festivals of Hermes, celebrated by the boys in the gymnasia,
of which Hermes was the tutelary deity.

=Hermeneutæ=, Chr. (ἑρμηνευταί). Literally, interpreters. In the
earliest ages of the Church, these were officials whose duty it was to
translate sacred discourses or portions of Holy Scripture.

=Herne-pan=, O. E. (for _iron-pan_). Skull-cap worn under the helmet.

=Heroum=, Gr. (ἡρῷον, i. e. place of a hero). A kind of ÆDICULA (q.v.),
or small temple, which served as a funeral monument. Several
representations of Roman HEROA may be seen in the British Museum,
representing funeral feasts in a temple, carved on the face of a
sarcophagus (in the Towneley collection).

=Herring-bone Masonry.= Common in late Roman or early Saxon walls, where
the ornamental lines take a sloping, parallel, zigzag direction.

=Herygoud=, O. E. A cloak with hanging sleeves.

=Heuk= or =Huque=, O. E. (1) Originally a cloak or mantle worn in the
Middle Ages; then (2) a tight-fitting dress worn by both sexes.
(_Fairholt_; see also _Planché_, _Encyclopædia_.) There appears to be
great uncertainty as to the character of this garment.

=Hexaclinon=, Gr. and R. (ἑξά-κλινος). A dining or banqueting couch
capable of holding six persons.

=Hexaphoron=, Gr. and R. (ἑξά-φορον). A litter carried by six porters.

=Hexapterygon=, Chr. (ἑξα-πτέρυγον). A fan used by Greek Catholics, and
so named because it has on it figures of seraphim with six wings. (See

=Hexastyle=, Arch. (ἑξά-στυλος). A façade of which the roof is supported
by six columns.

=Hexeris=, Gr. (ἑξ-ήρης). A vessel with six ranks of oars.

=Hiberna= or =Hyberna=, R. A winter apartment. The halls in a Roman
country house were built to face different ways according to the
seasons; _verna_ and _autumnalis_ looked to the east; _hyberna_, to the
west; _æstiva_, to the north.

=Hidage=, =Hidegild=, A.S. A tax payable to the Saxon kings of England
for every _hide_ of land. The word is indifferently used to signify
exemption from such a tax.

=Hidalgo= (Span. _hijo d’algo_, son of somebody). An obsolete title of
nobility in Spain.

=Hieroglyphics=, Egyp. (ἱερὸς, sacred, and γλύφω, to carve). Characters
of Egyptian writing, the letters of which are figurative or symbolic.
There are three kinds of Egyptian writing, the _hieroglyphic_, the
_hieratic_, and the _demotic_. Clement of Alexandria says that in the
education of the Egyptians three styles of writing are taught: the first
is called the epistolary (_enchorial_ or _demotic_); the second the
_sacerdotal_ (_hieratic_), which the sacred Scribes employ; and the
third the _hieroglyphic_. Other nations, as for instance the ancient
Mexicans, have likewise employed hieroglyphics.

=Hieromancy=, Gr. and R. Divination from sacrifices.

=Hieron=, Gr. (ἱερὸν, i. e. holy place). The whole of the sacred
enclosure of a temple, which enclosed the woods, the building, and the
priests’ dwelling-place.

=High-warp Tapestry.= Made on a loom, in which the warp is arranged on a
vertical plane,, as the Gobelins. _Low-warp tapestry_ is made on a flat
loom, as at Aubusson, Beauvais, and other places. It is made more
rapidly, and is inferior in beauty to the former.

=Hilaria.= A great Roman festival in honour of Cybele, celebrated at the
vernal equinox. It consisted chiefly of extravagant merry-making to
celebrate the advent of spring.

=Hippocampus=, Gr. and R. A fabulous animal, which had the fore-quarters
of a horse ending in the tail of a dolphin. [It is imitated from the
little “sea-horse” of the Mediterranean, now common in aquariums; and in
mural paintings of Pompeii is represented attached to the chariot of

=Hippocentaur.= A fabulous animal, composed of a human body and head
attached to the shoulders of a horse. (See also CENTAUR.)

=Hippocervus=, Chr. A fantastic animal, half horse and half stag; it
personifies the pusillanimous man who throws himself without reflection
into uncertain paths, and soon falls into despair at having lost himself
in them.

=Hippocratia=, Gr. Festivals held in Arcadia in honour of Neptune, who,
by striking the earth with his trident, had given birth to the horse.

[Illustration: Fig. 386. Ground-plan of a Hippodrome.]

=Hippodromus=, Gr. and R. The Greek name for an arena for horse and
chariot races, in contradistinction to the stadium, which served for
foot-racing. Fig. 386 represents the hippodrome at Olympia, taken from
Gell’s _Itinerary of the Morea_. The following is the key to the
plan:—1, 2, and 3 are _carceres_; A, the space included between the
stalls or _carceres_; B, starting-place for the chariots; C, the
colonnade; D, the arena; E, the barrier; F, the goal; G, the space
occupied by the spectators. [The word was also applied to the races
themselves.] (See also CIRCUS.)

=Hippogryph.= A mythical animal represented as a winged horse with the
head of a _gryphon_.

=Hippopera=, Gr. and R. (ἱππο-πήρα). A saddle-bag for travellers on
horseback. (See ASCOPERA.)

=Hippotoxotes= (ἱππο-τοξότης). A mounted archer. The Syrians, Persians,
Medes, Greeks, and Romans had mounted archers among their light cavalry.

=Histrio.= An actor. The GREEK dramas were originally represented on the
stage by one performer, who represented in succession the different
characters. Æschylus introduced a second and a third actor. The actors
were all amateurs, and it was not until a later period that the
histrionic profession became a speciality. Sophocles and Æschylus both
probably acted their own plays. The ROMAN name for an actor, _histrio_,
was formed from the Etruscan _hister_, a dancer. The earliest
_histriones_ were dancers, and performed to the music of a flute; then
Roman youths imitating them introduced jocular dialogue, and this was
the origin of the drama. After the organization of the theatres, the
_histriones_ were subjected to certain disabilities; they were a
despised class, and excluded from the rights of citizenship. The
greatest of _histriones_ in Rome were Roscius and Æsopus, who realized
great fortunes by their acting.

=Hobelarii=, Med. Lat. (See HOBLERS.)

=Hoblers=, A.S. Feudal tenants bound to serve as light horsemen in times
of invasion.

=Hob-nob=, O. E. (Saxon _habban_, to have; _næbban_, not to have). “Hit
or miss;” hence a common invitation to reciprocal drinking.

=Hock-day=, =Hoke-day=, or =Hock Tuesday.= A holiday kept to commemorate
the expulsion of the Danes. It was held on the second Tuesday after
Easter. _Hocking_ consisted in stopping the highway with ropes, and
taking toll of passers-by.

=Hocus-pocus.= Probably a profane corruption of the words _hoc est
corpus_ used in the Latin mass.

=Holocaust.= A sacrifice entirely consumed by fire.

=Holosericum= (Gr. ὅλον, all; σηρικόν, silk). A textile _all silk_.

=Holy Bread=, =Holy Loaf=, or =Eulogia= (Lat. _panis benedictus_). This
was not the eucharistic bread (which was used in the wafer form for the
Communion), but ordinary leavened bread, blessed by the priest after
mass, cut up into small pieces and given to the people.

=Holy-bread-skep=, O. E. A vessel for containing the holy bread.

=Holy Water Pot=, Chr. A metal vessel frequently found at the doors of
Roman Catholic churches, to contain the consecrated water, which was
dispensed with the _aspergillum_.

=Holy Water Sprinkler= or =Morning Star=, O. E. A military club or flail
set with spikes, which _sprinkled_ the blood about as the _aspergillum_
sprinkles the holy water.

[Illustration: Fig. 387. Holy Water Stone (Renaissance).]

=Holy Water Stone= or =Stoup=, Chr. A stone receptacle placed at the
entrance of a church for holding the holy water.

=Honeysuckle Pattern.= A common Greek ornament, fully described by its
name. (See FLEURON.)

[Illustration: Fig. 388. Honiton Guipure.]

=Honiton Guipure.= Lace was made in Devonshire, as well as in other
parts of England, of silk and coarse thread until 1567, when the fine
thread now used was introduced, it is said, by Flemings, who had escaped
from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. (See OLD DEVONSHIRE.) Honiton
lace owes its great reputation to the sprigs made separately on a
pillow, and afterwards either worked in with the beautiful pillow net or
sewn on it. This net was made of the finest thread from Antwerp, the
price of which in 1790 was 70_l._ per pound. (See MECHLIN LACE, 18th
century.) Heathcoat’s invention, however, dealt a fatal blow to the
trade of the net-makers, and since then Honiton lace is usually made by
uniting the sprigs on a pillow, or joining them with a needle by various
stitches, as shown in the engraving.

=Honour=, Legion of. Instituted 3rd June, 1802, by Napoleon I. as first

=Hoodman-blind.= Old English for BLINDMAN’S BUFF (q.v.).

=Hoods= (A.S. _Hod_) were probably introduced by the Normans. They are
constantly represented, with great variation of fashion, in
illustrations of the 11th to 18th century, as a part of the costume of
both sexes. They were finally displaced by caps and bonnets in the reign
of George II. (See CHAPERON, COWL.)

=Hoops=, in ladies’ dress, were introduced in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, displacing the FARTHINGALE; and were finally abandoned in
that of George III.

=Hop-harlot=, O. E. A very coarse coverlet for beds.

=Horatia Pila=, R. A pillar erected at the west extremity of the Roman
forum to receive the trophy of the spoils of the three Curiatii brought
back by Horatius.

=Horns.= A portion of a lady’s head-dress, mentioned in the 13th
century. They appear to have been formed by the foldings of the _gorget_
or _wimple_, and a disposition of the hair on each side of the head into
the form of rams’ horns. For the horned head-dress of the 15th century,
see the illustration to CORONET.

=Horologium.= (1) _Sundials_ preceded all other instruments for the
measurement of time. The _gnomon_ or _stocheion_ of the GREEKS was a
perpendicular staff or pillar, the shadow of which fell upon a properly
marked ground; the _polos_ or _heliotropion_ consisted of a
perpendicular staff, in a basin in which the twelve parts of the day
were marked by lines. (2) The _clepsydra_ was a hollow globe, with a
short neck, and holes in the bottom; it measured time by the escape of
water, and was at first used like an hour-glass to regulate the length
of speeches in the Athenian courts. The escape of water was stopped by
inserting a stopper in the mouth, when the speaker was interrupted.
Smaller _clepsydrata_ made of glass and marked with the hours were used
in families. A precisely similar history applies to the _horologia_ of

=Horreum= (dimin. _horreolum_), R. (1) Literally, a place in which ripe
fruits were kept; a granary, or storehouse for grain; _horreum publicum_
was the public granary. (2) Any storehouse or depôt; _horrea
subterranea_, cellars. (3) It was applied to places in which _works of
art_ were kept, and Seneca calls his library a _horreum_.

=Horse.= In Christian art, the emblem of courage and generosity;
attribute of St. Martin, St. Maurice, St. George, and others. The
Chinese have a _sacred horse_, which is affirmed to have appeared from a
river to the philosopher Fou-hi, bearing instruction in eight diagrams
of the characters proper to express certain abstract ideas.

=Horse-shoe=, Arch. A form of the stilted arch elevated beyond half the
diameter of the curve on which it is described. (See ARCH.)

=Hortus= (dimin. _hortulus_), R. A pleasure-garden, park, and thence a
kitchen garden; _horti pensiles_ were hanging gardens. The most striking
features of a Roman garden were lines of large trees planted in regular
order; alleys or walks (_ambulationes_) formed by closely clipped hedges
of box, yew, cypress, and other ever greens; beds of acanthus, rows of
fruit-trees especially of vines, with statues, pyramids, fountains, and
summer-houses (_diætæ_). The Romans were fond of the art of cutting and
twisting trees, especially box, into figures of animals, ships, &c.
(_ars topiaria_). The principal garden-flowers seem to have been violets
and roses, and they had also the crocus, narcissus, lily, gladiolus,
iris, poppy, amaranth, and others. Conservatories and hot-houses are
frequently mentioned by Martial. An ornamental garden was also called
_viridarium_, and the gardener _topiarius_ or _viridarius_. The common
name for a gardener is _villicus_ or _cultor hortorum_. (Consult
_Smith’s Dict. of Ant._)

=Hospitium=, R. (_hospes_, a guest). A general term to denote any place
in which a traveller finds shelter, board, and lodging. [The word had a
very wide meaning of _hospitality_, regulated in all its details by the
religious and social and politic sentiments of the nations.]

=Hostia=, R. (_hostio_, to strike). A victim offered in sacrifice.

=Hot Cockles=, O. E. A game common in the Middle Ages.

=Hot-houses=, O. E. The name for Turkish baths; 16th century.

=Houppeland=, O. E. A very full loose upper garment with large hanging
sleeves; 14th century. It was probably introduced from Spain, and was
something like a cassock.

=House.= (See DOMUS.)

=Houseling Bread=, O. E., Chr. (See SINGING-BREAD, HOWSLING BELL.)

=Housia= or =Housse=, O. E. An outer garment, combining cloak and tunic;
a tabard.

=Howsling Bell=, O. E. The bell which was rung before the Holy
Eucharist, when taken to the sick.

=Howve= (Saxon, from the old German _hoojd_). A hood. A common phrase
quoted by Chaucer, “to set a man’s _howve_,” is the same as to “set his
cap,” _cap_ him or cheat him.

=Huacos.= (See GUACAS.)

=Huircas= or =Pinchas=, Peruv. Subterranean aqueducts of the ancient
Peruvians, distinct from the _barecac_ or open conduits.

=Hullings= or =Hullyng=. Old English name for hangings for a hall, &c.

=Humatio=, R. (_humo_, to bury). The act of burying, and thence any mode
of interment whatever.

=Hume’s Permanent White.= SULPHATE OF BARYTES (q.v.).

=Humerale.= (See ANABOLOGIUM, AMICE.)

=Humettée=, Her. Cut short at the extremities.

[Illustration: Fig. 389. Hunting Flask of Jaspered Ware, 1554–1556.
Louvre Museum.]

=Hunting Flask.= M. Jacquemart thinks that that represented in Fig. 389
may be reasonably attributed to Palissy. It is glazed in green, and
diapered with little flames of a deeper shade. Upon the body, in relief,
is the escutcheon of the celebrated Anne de Montmorency, round it the
collar of St. Michael, and on each side the Constable’s sword supported
by a mailed arm and the motto of his house, “A Planos” (unwavering). A
mask of Italian style and rayonnated suns complete the decoration of
this curious sealed earthenware.

=Hurst=, Her. A clump of trees.

=Hurte=, Her. A blue roundle.

=Hutch=, O. E. (Fr. _huche_). A locker, which generally stood at the
foot of the bed, to contain clothes and objects of value. It was
commonly used for a seat.

=Huvette=, Fr. A close steel skull-cap.

=Hyacinth.= (1) A precious stone of a violet colour. (2) The colour
formed of red with blue, blue predominating. (3) The flower hyacinth
among the ancient Greeks was the emblem of death.

=Hyacinthia=, Gr. A national festival, celebrated annually at Amyclæ by
the Amyclæans and Spartans, in honour of the hero Hyacinthus, who was
accidentally killed by Apollo with a quoit.

=Hyalotype= (ὕαλος, glass, and τυπεῖν, to print). An invention for
printing photographs from the negative on to glass, instead of paper.

=Hycsos=, Egyp. (lit. impure). A people of unknown origin, nomad tribes,
but not savages, as has hitherto been believed, who came from Sinai,
Arabia, and Syria. They are known as _Poimenes_ (the Shepherds),
_Mentiou Sati_, _Asian Shepherds_, and even _Scourges_, from their
invasion of some part of Eastern Egypt.

[Illustration: Fig. 390. Hydra with seven heads.]

=Hydra=, Gr. (a water-serpent). A hundred-headed monster of Greek
mythology, sprung, like the Chimæra, from Typhon and Echidna; he was
killed by Hercules. In Heraldry the hydra is represented with only nine
heads. The illustration (Fig. 390) is of the device adopted by Curtio
Gonzaga, an Italian poet, to symbolize the constancy of his love, with
the motto, “If I kill it, more strong it revives.”

=Hydraletês=, Gr. (1) A mill for grinding corn, driven by water. (2) A
waterfall or current of water.

=Hydraulis=, Gr. (ὕδρ-αυλις). A water-organ. The hydraulic organ,
invented about B.C. 200, was really a pneumatic organ; the water was
only used to force the air through the pipes. It is represented on a
coin of Nero in the British Museum. Only ten pipes are given to it, and
there is no indication of any key-board. It had eight stops, and
consequently eight rows of pipes; these were partly of bronze, and
partly of reed. It continued in use so late as the 9th century of our

[Illustration: Fig. 391. Hydria, or Water-jug, in black glaze.]

=Hydria=, Gr. A large, heavy vessel, used principally for holding a
store of water. It is represented urn-shaped, with a broad base and a
narrow mouth, sometimes with one and sometimes with two handles at the
top, and smaller ones on the belly. The name is applied to other pails
of bronze or silver, &c. (Fig. 391.)

=Hydriaphoria=, Gr. (water-bearing). (1) Funereal ceremonies performed
at Athens in memory of those who had perished in the deluges of Ogyges,
Deucalion, &c. (2) A service exacted from married alien women in Athens
by the female citizens, when they walked in the great procession at the
Panathenaic feasts, and the former carried vessels of water for them.

=Hydroceramic= (vessels), Gr. Vessels made of a porous clay, in which
liquids were put for the purpose of cooling them; they were a kind of

=Hydroscope.= Another name for the clepsydra. (See HOROLOGIUM.)

=Hypæthral=, Gr. and R. (lit. under the sky, or in the open air). The
term was applied to any building, especially a temple, the _cella_ of
which had no roof. On the roofs of Egyptian temples, hypæthral temples
are arranged with regard to astronomical observations, by which the
calendar was regulated.

[Illustration: Fig. 392. Hypæthrum.]

=Hypæthrum=, Gr. and R. A grating or _claustra_ placed over the
principal door of a temple for the purpose of admitting light into a
part of the _cella_. Fig. 392 shows one of the bronze doors of the
Pantheon at Rome, with its _hypæthrum_.

=Hyperthyrum=, Gr. and R. (over the door). A frieze and cornice arranged
and decorated in various ways for the decoration of the lintel of a

=Hypocastanum.= Greek for CHESNUT BROWN (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 393. Hypocausis of a Roman villa at Tusculum.]

=Hypocaust=, Gr. and R. (ὑπό-καυσις and ὑπό-καυστον). A furnace with
flues running underneath the floor of an apartment or bath, for heating
the air. Fig. 393 represents the sectional elevation of a bath-room
discovered in a Roman villa at Tusculum. Fig. 394 represents a
_hypocausis_ discovered at Paris in the old Rue de Constantine, near
Notre Dame.

[Illustration: Fig. 394. Hypocausis discovered at Paris.]

=Hypogeum=, Arch. A building underground; a sepulchral vault. They form
a principal part of Egyptian architecture of every period. The Greek
term is a synonym of the Latin CONDITORIUM (q.v.)

=Hyporchema=, Gr. A lively dance, accompanied by a mimic performance, at
the festivals of Apollo among the Dorians. A chorus of singers danced
round the altars, and others acted comic or playful scenes.

=Hypotrachelium= or =Cincture=, Arch. The part of the Doric capital
included between the astragal and the lower annulets or fillets.

=Hysteria=, Gr. (from ὗς, a pig). Greek festivals, in which swine were
sacrificed in honour of Venus.


=Ich Dien.= I serve. The popular belief that Edward the Black Prince
adopted this motto and the “Prince of Wales’s feathers,” at the battle
of Cressy, from the blind King of Bohemia, is not sustained by
investigation. It was at the battle of Poitiers that he first adopted
this crest, joining to the family badge the old English word _Ic den_
(Theyn), “I serve,” in accordance with the words of the Apostle, “The
heir, while he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant.” (_Mrs.
Palliser_; _Historic Devices_.)

=Ichnography.= The art of making maps or plans.

=Iconic= (sc. _statues_), Gr. and R. (εἰκονικὰ, i. e.) Portrait-statues;
especially statues raised in honour of athletes who had been victorious
in the contests.

=Iconoclasts=, Chr. Image-breakers. The name originated in the 8th or
9th century in the Eastern Empire, from which finally Theophilus
banished all the painters and statuaries in 832. It has been since
generally applied to those who, at various outbreaks of fanaticism, have
destroyed ecclesiastical objects of art, and is especially applicable to
the disciples of Savonarola in 1497, and to the Puritans of Scotland and
England during the civil wars.

=Iconography= (i. e. image-description). The science that deals with
statues and images, bas-reliefs, busts, medals, &c. Thus we have an
Egyptian, Greek, Roman, mediæval iconography, &c. The best work on this
science is “Christian Iconography; or the History of Christian Art in
the Middle Ages,” by M. Didron. The second volume contains a manual on
the subject by a painter of the 12th century.

=Iconostasis=, Chr. The screen of the chancel in ancient churches, so
called because it was there that images (εἰκόνες) were displayed for the
adoration of the faithful.

=Ideal= and =Real.= “Any work of art which represents, not a material
object, but the mental conception of a material object, is in the
primary sense of the word _ideal_; that is to say, it represents an
_idea_, not a _thing_. Any work of art which represents or realizes a
material object is, in the primary sense of the term, _un-ideal_.”
(_Modern Painters_, vol. ii. chap. 13.) In a practical sense an _ideal_
picture or statue (e. g. the Medici Venus) is not the portrait of an
individual model, but the putting together of selected parts from
several models. Raphael said, “To paint a beautiful woman I must see
several, and I have also recourse to a certain _ideal_ in my mind;” and
Guido said, “The beautiful and pure _idea_ must be in the mind, and then
it is no matter what the model is.”

=Ides=, =Idus=, R. One of the monthly divisions in the Roman year; it
fell on the 15th in months of thirty-one days, excepting January,
August, and December; in months with only twenty-nine or thirty days,
the _ides_ fell on the 13th. The _kalends_ are the first of every month;
the _nones_ are the 7th of March, May, July, and October, and the 5th of
all the other months; and the ides always fall eight days later than the
nones; and the days are reckoned backwards: thus the 13th of January is
the ides of January, and the 14th of January the 19th day _ante diem_
(or before) the February kalends. The morrow of the ides was looked upon
as an unlucky day (_nefas_).

=Illapa=, Peruv. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun (_Inti_)
among the ancient Peruvians, so called because it was dedicated to the
thunder (_Illapa_). (See INTI.)

=Illumination.= This art originated simply in the application of
_minium_ (or red lead) as a colour or ink, to decorate a portion of a
piece of writing, the general text of which was in black ink. The term
was retained long after the original red lead was superseded by the more
brilliant _cinnabar_, or vermilion. Ornaments of all kinds were
gradually added, and the term includes the practice of every kind of
ornamental or ornamented writing. From the 3rd century Greek and Roman
specimens exist of golden lettering upon purple or rose-coloured vellum,
and the art prevailed wherever monasteries were founded. Anglo-Saxon and
Irish MSS. of the 6th and 7th centuries exhibit a marvellous perfection,
characterized by wonderfully minute interlacements of the patterns.
Nearly all the best specimens of illumination were destroyed on the
dissolution of monasteries. (Consult “_The Art of Illuminating_,” _by W.
R. Timms_.)

=Imagines a vestir=, It. Wooden images set up in Italian churches, with
the heads and extremities finished, and the bodies covered with real

=Imagines Majorum=, R. Portraits of ancestors, or family portraits; they
usually consisted of waxen masks, which were kept in the cases of an
_armarium_ or in an _ædicula_; or small statues which were carried
before the corpse in a funeral procession.

=Imbrex=, R. A ridge-tile of semi-cylindrical form, and thus distinct
from the _tegula_, which was a flat tile. It was called _imbrex_ from
its collecting the rain (_imber_). _Imbrex supinus_ was the name given
to a channel or gutter formed of ridge-tiles laid on their backs.

=Imbrications.= Architectural ornaments which take the form of fishes’
scales, or of segmental ridge-tiles (_imbrices_) which overlap; whence
the name given to them.

=Imbricatus=, R. Covered with flat and ridge-tiles (_tegulæ_ and

=Imbrothered=, O. E. Embroidered.

=Imbrued=, Her. Stained with blood.

=Immissarium=, R. (_immitto_, to send into). A stone basin or trough;
any receptacle built upon the ground for the purpose of containing water
supplied from the _castellum_.

[Illustration: Fig. 395. Device of Philip and Mary. Arms of Tudor and
Aragon Impaled (_Rayonnant_).]

=Impale=, Her. To conjoin two separate coats of arms on one shield (as a
husband’s and wife’s, &c.). The device of Queen Mary (Fig. 395) is the
_impalement_ of the double Tudor rose with the arms of Catherine of

=Impannata=, It. Oiled paper.

=Impasto=, It. The thickness of the body of pigment laid on to a
painting. Rembrandt, Salvator Rosa, and others used a thick _impasto_;
Raphael, Guido, and others, one extremely thin.

=Imperial.= Anything adapted by its excellence for royal uses, or
distinguished in size, is generally so called. (1) O. E. A sort of
precious silk, wrought partly with gold, used by royalty and for
ecclesiastical purposes, brought to England from Greece in the 12th
century. (2) The largest kind of slate for roofing. (3) Paper 27 inches
by 23. (4) Sp. The roof of a coach; hence, in English, a trunk made to
fit the top of a carriage. (5) Russian. A gold coin of 10 silver

=Impluviata=, R. A cloak of square shape and brown in colour, worn as a
protection against rain.

=Impluvium=, R. (1) A cistern on the floor of the atrium in a Roman
house, into which the rain was conducted. (2) The aperture in the roof
of the atrium. (See DOMUS.)

=Impost=, Arch. The horizontal mouldings on a pillar, from which an arch
is projected.

=In antis=, Arch. A name given to those temples, the pronaos or entrance
porch of which was formed by two antæ or pilasters, and two columns.
(See ANTÆ.)

=Inauguratio=, R. Generally the term applies to the ceremony by which
the sanction of the gods was invoked upon any decree of man, such as the
admission of a new member into a corporation or college, or the choice
of the site of a theatre, city, or temple, &c.

=Inaures=, R. (_auris_, the ear; Gr. _enotion_). Ear-rings. Among the
Greeks and Romans they were worn only by women. (See EAR-RINGS.)

=Incensed=, =Inflamed=, Her. On fire. (See FOCULUS.)

=Incisura=, R. (_incido_, to cut). Hatchings made by means of a brush.

=Incitega=, R. A kind of tripod or stand for vessels rounded or pointed
at the bottom.

=Incle=, =Inkle=. A sort of tape used as a trimming to a dress.

=Incrustation.= The word has a general signification, “a coat of one
material applied to another.” Technically it should be applied to marble
alone; thus a thin slab of marble is _incrusted_ upon a body of slate or
stone, metals are DAMASCENED, fused pigments are ENAMEL, and woods are

=Incubones=, R. Genii who were supposed to guard treasure hidden under
the earth.

=Incunabula.= (1) Swaddling clothes for infants. (2) Ancient specimens
of printing are so called.

=Incus=, R. (_incudo_, to beat on). An anvil.

[Illustration: Fig. 396. Indented.]

=Indented=, Her. One of the dividing and border lines. It resembles the
teeth of a saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 397. Printed Calico (Indian) illustrating the
treatment of flowers.]

=Indian Art.= The study of the forms and principles of Indian Art is
indispensable to an appreciation of the true principles of ornamental
design in general. The excellence of Indian manufactures is due to the
system of Guilds rigidly adhered to for ages, which has resulted in the
production of a race of hereditary craftsmen unequalled for their skill
and taste in execution and design. Their pottery is distinguished above
all others for purity and simplicity of form, obvious fitness to
purpose, and individual freedom of design. Its origin antedates the
Institutes of Manu, and is lost in antiquity. Indian gold and metal work
is supposed by Dr. Birdwood to owe its origin to Greek influence, but
has acquired in its development a purely Oriental character. The Hindoos
exhibit the greatest skill in the Oriental arts of damascening and
enamelling, as well as in lacquer work and wood and ivory carving. All
their designs are deeply symbolical, and closely interwoven with the
primitive religious impulses of humanity. India was probably the first
country in which the art of weaving was brought to perfection, and the
fame of its cloudy gauzes and its gold and silver brocades is more
ancient than the Code of Manu. The art is repeatedly mentioned in the
Vedas. The purity of Indian Art is endangered in modern days by the
introduction of machine-made goods and European design. (Consult _Dr.
Birdwood’s Handbook of Indian Art_.)

=Indian Ink= or =Chinese Ink=. A black pigment for water-colour
painting, made from oil and lamp-black, thickened with some vegetable
gum, and scented with musk or camphor. Many cheap and poor imitations of
it are made.

=Indian Ochre.= A red pigment. (See RED OCHRES.)

=Indian Paper.= A delicate yellowish paper used for proof impressions in
engraving. A Japanese paper of a similar quality is now frequently used.

=Indian Red= or =Persian Red=. A purple earth commonly sold under this
name is the peroxide of iron. It is of a deep hue, opaque and permanent,
and useful both in oil and water-colour painting; mixed with white it
forms valuable flesh-tints. (_Fairholt._) (See OCHRE, AMATITA.)

=Indian Rubber=, =Caoutchouc=. An elastic gum; the sap of the _Siphonia
elastica_, and several of the fig tribe in India and South America. It
was brought into use early in the 18th century. In its natural state it
is of a pale yellow brown.

=Indian Yellow.= A golden yellow pigment and dye, said to be procured
from the urine of the cow, or else from camel’s dung. It is used in
water-colour painting, but is not usually permanent. In some parts of
the East it is called PURREE.

=Indigetes= (sc. _Di_), R. Indigenous gods. Heroes who were deified and
worshipped as protectors of a place. The term is derived from _inde_ and
_genitus_, meaning born in that place. Æneas, Faunus, Romulus, &c., were
indigenous gods.

=Indigo.= A deep blue pigment prepared from the leaves and branches of a
small shrub; it is transparent, tolerably permanent, and mixes well with
other pigments, forming excellent greens and purples. A deep brown,
known as _indigo brown_ and a deep red resin, known as _indigo red_, may
be extracted by purifying the blue colour obtained from this dye. The
old blue dye of the aboriginal Britons was produced from _woad_ (isatis
tinctoria). (_Fairholt._) (See INTENSE BLUE.)

=Inescutcheon=, Her. An heraldic shield borne as a charge.

=Inferiæ=, R. Sacrifices or offerings made at the tombs of the dead.

=Infiammati.= A literary society of Padua in Italy. Device: Hercules
upon the funeral pile on Mount Œta. Motto: “_Arso il mortal al ciel n’
andrà l’ eterno_.”

=Infocati.= One of the Italian literary societies. Device: a bar of hot
iron on an anvil, beaten by two hammers. Motto: “_In quascunque

=In Foliage=, Her. Bearing leaves.

=Infrenatus= (sc. _eques_), R. A horseman who rides without a bridle
(_frenum_), controlling his horse solely by the voice or the pressure of
the knees upon its side. (Fig. 282.)

=Infula=, R. A flock of red and white wool worn by priestesses and
vestals and other Romans on festive or solemn occasions. In sacrificing
also an infula was tied with a white band (_vitta_) upon the victim.

=Infulæ=, Chr. Ribands hanging from a bishop’s mitre.

=In Glory=, =In Splendour=, Her. The sun irradiated.

=Inlaying.= Inserting ornaments in wood-work for decorative furniture.

=In Lure=, Her. Wings conjoined, with their tips drooping.

=Inoa.= Greek festivals in honour of Ino, esp. on the Corinthian
Isthmus; they consisted of contests and sacrifices. (See MATRALIA.)

=In Pretence=, Her. Placed upon, and in front of.

[Illustration: Fig. 398. Peacock in pride.]

=In Pride=, Her. Having the tail displayed, as a peacock’s. The
illustration is the device of Joan of Castile: “A peacock, in his pride,
upon the terrestrial globe.” (Fig. 398.)

=Insensati of Perugia.= One of the Italian literary academies. Their
device was a flock of cranes, arranged in order, flying across the sea,
each with a stone in its foot and sand in its mouth. Mottoes, “_Vel cum
pondere_” (even with this weight), or “_Iter tutissimum_,” in allusion
to Pliny’s statement that the cranes used stones and sand for _ballast_,
“wherewith they fly more steadily and endure the wind.”

=Insignia=, R. (_in_, and _signum_, a mark). Generally, any object which
serves as a mark or ornament for distinguished persons; a ceremonial
badge, a badge of office, &c. (See ENSIGNS.)

=Insubulum=, R. A weaver’s beam or roller, round which he rolled the
cloth as it was made.

=Insula=, R. A house, or block of houses, having a free space all round
them. [Under the emperors the word _domus_ meant any house, detached or
otherwise, where a family lived; and _insula_ meant a hired lodging.]

=Intaglio=, It. A stone in which the engraved subject is sunk beneath
the surface, and thus distinguished from a cameo, which is engraved in

=Intaglio-relievato= (It.), or _cavo-relievo_. Sunk-relief, in which the
work is recessed within an outline, but still raised in flat relief, not
projecting above the surface of the slab; as seen in the ancient
Egyptian carvings.

=Intense Blue.= A preparation of indigo, very durable and transparent.

=Intense Madder Purple.= (See MADDER.)

=Intercolumniation=, Arch. The space between two columns. This space
varies according to the orders of architecture and the taste of the
architect. According as the space is greater or less between the columns
of a temple, the latter is called _aerostyle_, _eustyle_, _systyle_, and
_pycnostyle_. Generally speaking, in the monuments of antiquity,
whatever be the intercolumniation adopted, the space comprised between
the two columns which face the door of the building is wider than the
intercolumniation at the sides.

=Intermetium=, R. The long barrier running down the arena of a circus
between the two goals (_metæ_). (See META.)

=Intermodillions=, Arch. The space included between two modillions
(projecting brackets in the Corinthian order). This space is regular,
and often decorated with various ornaments. In the Romano-Byzantine and
Renaissance styles, modillions are often united by arcades.

=Intertignium=, R. The space between the tie-beams (_tigna_) in the
wood-work of a roof.

=Interula=, R. (_interior_, inner). An undertunic; a kind of flannel
chemise worn by both men and women.

=Intestinum= (opus), R. (_intus_, within). The inner fittings or work of
any kind in the inside of a house, and thence wood-work, JOINERY.

[Illustration: Fig. 399. Part of the Façade of the Peruvian temple

=Inti= or =Punchau=, Peruv. The Sun or supreme god, inferior deities
being called _conopa_ and _canopa_. The temple of the Sun was called
_Inti-huasi_ (house of the Sun); it comprised seven principal divisions;
the _inti_ or sanctuary, situated in the centre of the temple; the
second division was called _mama-quilla_, from the fact of its being
dedicated to the moon, which was thus named; the third was dedicated to
the stars, called _cayllur_; the fourth to the thunder, and called
_illapa_; the fifth to the rainbow, and called _ckuichi_; the sixth
division was occupied by the chief priest (_huilacuma_); the seventh and
last division formed the dwelling of the priests.

=Intronati of Siena.= One of the Italian literary academies. Their
device was a gourd for containing salt, with the motto, “_Meliora
latent_” (the better part is hidden).

=Iodine Scarlet= (_pure scarlet_). A pigment more brilliant than
vermilion, very susceptible to metallic agency.

=Iodine Yellow.= A very bright yellow pigment, very liable to change.

[Illustration: Fig. 400. Ionic capital. From the Erechtheium, Athens.]

=Ionic=, Arch. One of the orders of Grecian architecture, distinguished
principally by the ornaments of its CAPITAL, which are spiral and are
called VOLUTES, four in number. The Ionic SHAFT is about nine diameters
high, including the BASE (which is half a diameter) and the CAPITAL, to
the bottom of the volute. The PEDESTAL is a little taller and more
ornamented than the Doric. The BASES used are very various. The Attic
base is very often used, and, with an _astragal_ added above the upper
_torus_, makes a beautiful and appropriate base for the Ionic. The
CORNICES are (1) plain Grecian, or (2) the _dentil_ cornice, or (3) the
_modillon_ cornice. The Ionic shaft may be fluted in twenty-four
semicircular flutes with fillets between them. The best Ionic example
was the temple on the Ilissus at Athens. The temple of Fortuna Virilis
at Rome is an inferior specimen. (See also Figs. 69, 184.)

=Irish Cloth=, white and red, in the reign of King John was much used in

=Iron.= _Indian red_, _Venetian red_, _Mars red_, _Mars orange_, _Mars
yellow_ are all coloured by iron (see MARS), and are valuable for their
great durability. (See METALLURGY.)

=Irradiated=, Her. Surrounded by rays of light.

=Iseia=, Gr. and R. (Ἴσεια). Festivals in honour of Isis. Among the
Romans they degenerated into mere licentiousness, and were abolished by
the senate.

=Iselastici Ludi=, Gr. and R. Athletic contests which gave the victor
the right of returning to his native city in a chariot (εἰσελαύνειν);
whence the name _iselastici_. These contests formed part of the four
great games of Greece, viz. the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean

[Illustration: Fig. 400 a. Isodomum opus.]

=Isodomos= or =Isodomum=, Gr. and R. (ἰσόδομος, i. e. equal course). A
structure built in equal courses, that is, in such a way that the
surface of each stone is of one uniform size, and that the joints of one
layer are adjusted with those of another so as to correspond

=Isokephaleia= (Gr. ἴσος, equal; κεφαλὴ, head). A rule in Greek
sculpture by which the heads of all the figures on a bas-relief were of
the same height from the ground.

=Isometrical Perspective=, used for representing a bird’s-eye view of a
place, combines the advantages of a ground-plan and elevation; only the
lines of the base are made to converge, leaving the whole figure
cubical, and without the expression of _distance_ from the point of

=Ispahan Tiles=, of the period of Shah-Abbas—16th century—are remarkable
for exquisite design.

=Italian Earth.= Burnt _Roman ochre_; resembles Venetian red in colour;
and, mixed with white, yields valuable flesh-tints. (_Fairholt._)

=Italian Pink=, or _yellow lake_. A transparent bright-coloured pigment,
liable to change. (See YELLOW LAKE, PINKS.)

=Italian Varnish.= A mixture of white wax and linseed oil, used as a
vehicle in painting. It has good consistency, flows freely from the
pencil, and is useful for glazing.

=Ivory Black.= A pigment prepared by heating ivory shavings in an iron
cylinder; when from bone, it is called _bone black_ (q.v.). The real
ivory black is a fine, transparent, deep-toned pigment, extremely
valuable in oil and water-colour painting. The _bone black_ (commonly
sold as _ivory black_) is much browner.

[Illustration: Fig. 401. Ivory carving. Sword-hilt of the 16th century.]

[Illustration: Fig. 402. Ivory carving. Spoon of the 16th century.]

=Ivory Carving.= This art, in considerable perfection, was known to
prehistoric man at the period of the so called stone age. Egyptian and
Assyrian specimens of the art are of a date at least as early as that of
Moses. From the year 1000 B.C. down to the Christian era, there was a
constant succession of artists in ivory in the western Asiatic
countries, in Egypt, in Greece, and in Italy. From the time of Augustus,
ivory carving shared in the general decline of art. Increasing in number
as they come nearer to the Middle Ages, we can refer to carved ivories
of every century, preserved in museums in England and abroad. The most
important ivories up to the 7th century are the consular _diptychs_,
originally a favourite form of presents from newly-appointed consuls to
eminent persons; subsequently adapted to Christian uses, or as wedding
presents, &c. In the Middle Ages, from the 8th to the 16th century, the
use of ivory was adopted for general purposes. The favourite subjects of
the carvings are those drawn from the romances of the Middle
Ages—especially the romance of the Rose—and in the 15th century, scenes
of domestic life, illustrating the dress, armour, and manners and
customs of the day. Combs of every date, from the Roman and Anglo-Saxon
period, and earlier, are found in British graves. In short, from the
time when the first prehistoric carvings of antediluvian animals were
made to the present, every age of human civilization appears to be more
or less fully illustrated in carvings upon ivory and bone. (See also
CHESSMEN.) The earliest material was found in the tusks of the mammoth:
from Iceland we have beautiful carvings of the 7th century in the teeth
of the walrus. Fossil tusks of the mammoth are found in great quantities
in Siberia, and are almost the only material of the ivory-turner’s work
in Russia. African and Asiatic elephant ivory are the best, and differ,
the former, when newly cut, being of a mellow, warm, transparent tint.
Asiatic ivory tends to become yellow by exposure. A fine specimen of
carving in ivory is given in Fig. 403 from a MIRROR-CASE of the 15th
century. (See also Fig. 185, and illustrations to PYX, TRIPTYCH, &c.)

[Illustration: Fig. 403. Ivory carving, 15th century.]

=Ivy=, Chr. The symbol of eternal life.

=Iwbwb=, Celt. The ancient military cry, which has given name to many
places; as Cwm Iwbwb, in Wales, the Jujupania of Ptolemy. (_Meyrick._)

=Izeds=, Persian. Beneficent genii of the mythology of Zoroaster.
Ormuzd, the supreme god, created twenty-eight of them to be the
attendants of the _amchaspands_.


=Jacinth.= A precious stone. (See HYACINTH.)

=Jack-boots= (O. E.) were introduced in the 17th century.

=Jackes=, O. E. (1) Towels. (2) The roller for a well-rope.

=Jacket= or =Jack=, =Jerkin=, &c., O. E.; worn over the doublet; but the
names are applied indiscriminately to a great variety of such garments.

=Jacob’s Staff=, O. E. A pilgrim’s staff.

=Jacobus.= An English coin of James I., value 25_s._, weighing 6 dwt. 10
grains. The _Carolus_, a similar coin, value 23_s._, weighed 5 dwt. 20

=Jaculatores=, R. Soldiers armed with a javelin (_jaculum_), who formed
part of the light troops of the Roman army.

=Jade.= Spanish _piedra de la yjada_. A green stone, closely resembling
jasper, much used by prehistoric man, and to which supernatural virtues
have in all ages been attributed, especially by the ancient Mexicans.
Fine specimens of jades are carved in China, where they are of a whitish
colour, and are called _Yu_. The clear white and green specimens are the
most prized by collectors. (See NEPHRITE, SAUSSURITE.)

=Jagerant.= (See JAZERINE.)

=Jamb=, Arch. The side of any opening in a wall.

=Jambe=, =Gambe=, Her. The leg of a lion or other beast of prey.

=Jambes.= Armour for the legs; 14th century.

=Janua=, R. (_Janus_). The front door of a house opening on the street.
The inner doors were called _ostia_, in the singular _ostium_, while the
city gates were called _portæ_.

=Januales=, =Janualia=, R. Festivals held at Rome, in honour of Janus,
on the first or kalends of January in each year; the offerings consisted
of incense, fruits, and a cake called _janual_.

=Japanese Paper= of a creamy tint is frequently used for proof
impressions of etchings, &c.

=Japanning.= A species of lac-varnishing, in imitation of the lacquered
ware of Japan. (See LAC, LACQUER.)

=Jasper.= A kind of agate, the best known description of which is of a
green colour. Many colours and varieties are used for gem-engraving,
such as agate-jasper, striped jasper, Egyptian red and brown, and
porcelain jasper. In the Christian religion the jasper symbolizes faith;
its hardness expresses the firmness of faith; its opaqueness the
impenetrability of the mysterious.

=Jasponyx.= An onyx mixed with jasper.

=Javelin.= A light hand-spear. (See HASTA.)

=Jayada.= (See VIMANA.)

=Jazel.= A precious stone of an azure blue colour.

=Jazerine= (It. _ghiazerino_). A jacket strengthened with overlapping
plates of steel, covered with velvet or cloth, and sometimes ornamented
with brass; 13th century.

=Jennet.= A Spanish or Barbary horse.

=Jerkin=, O. E. The jerkin was generally worn over the doublet; but
occasionally the doublet was worn alone, and in many instances is
confounded with the jerkin. Either had sleeves or not, as the wearer

               “My jerkin is a doublet.” (_Shakspeare._)

=Jessant=, Her. Shooting forth, as plants growing out of the earth.

[Illustration: Fig. 404. Jessant-de-lys.]

=Jessant-de-lys=, Her. A combination of a lion’s face and a

=Jesse=, O. E. A large branched chandelier.

=Jesse, Tree of=, Chr. An ornamental design common in early Christian
art, representing the genealogy of our Lord in the persons of his
ancestors in the flesh.

=Jesseraunt.= (See JAZERINE.)

[Illustration: Fig. 405. Hawk’s bells and Jesses.]

=Jesses.= Straps for hawk’s bells. (See Fig. 405.)

=Jet.= A variety of soft bituminous coal, admitting of a fine polish,
which is used for ornaments. It is, in its natural state, soft and
brittle, of a velvet-black colour, and lustrous. Ornaments of jet are
found in ancient _tumuli_.

=Jet d’Eau=, Fr. A fountain. That at Chatsworth springs 267 feet in the
air, and is the highest in existence.

=Jew’s Harp= or =Jew’s Trump= (from the French _jeu_ and _trompe_). A
small musical instrument, known for centuries all over Europe,
consisting of a metal frame with two branches, and a vibrating tongue of
steel in the middle. It has suggested a number of modern instruments,
including the HARMONIUM.

=Jew’s Pitch.= A kind of _asphaltum_ used as a brown pigment. It
attracts dust, and never dries perfectly.

=Jewes Light=, O. E. (See _Judas Light_.)

=Jogues= or =Yugs=. In Hindoo chronology, eras or periods of years. (1)
The _Suttee Yug_, or age of purity, lasted 3,200,000 years; the life of
man being then 100,000 years, and his stature 21 cubits. (2) The _Tirtar
Yug_, in which one-third of man was corrupted, lasted 2,400,000 years;
the life of man being then 10,000 years. (3) The _Dwapaar Yug_, in which
half the human race became depraved, lasted 1,600,000 years; the life of
man being 1000 years. (4) The _Collee Yug_, in which all mankind are
corrupt, is the present era, ordained to subsist 400,000 years (of which
about 5000 have elapsed); the life of man being limited to 100 years.
There are, however, conflicting accounts of the duration of the
different _Jogues_. (See _Halhed’s Preface to the Gentoo Laws_.)

=Joinery= (in Latin, _intestinum opus_) has to deal with the addition in
a building of all the fixed wood-work necessary for convenience or
ornament. The most celebrated work on the subject is _Nicholson’s
Carpenter’s Guide, and Carpenters and Joiner’s Assistant_, published in
1792. The _modern art_ of joinery properly dates from the introduction
of the geometrical staircase, or stair supported by the wall only, the
first English example of which is said to have been erected by Sir
Christopher Wren in St. Paul’s. [See JOINERY in _Ency. Brit._ 8th ed.]

=Joseph=, O. E. A lady’s riding-habit, buttoned down the front.

=Jousting-helmets= were made wide and large, resting on the shoulders,
and decorated with a crest. It was common to make them of comical,
fantastic designs; such as weathercocks with the points of the compass,
immense figures of birds and beasts, &c.

=Jousts= or =Justs=. Duels in the tilting-ground; generally with blunted
spears, for a friendly trial of skill.

=Jousts à Outrance.= Jousts in which the combatants fought till death

=Jousts of Peace= (_hastiludia pacifica_; Fr. _joutes à plaisance_).
These differed from real jousts or tournaments in the strength of the
armour worn, and the weapons used. The lance was topped with a _coronel_
instead of a steel point; the sword was pointless and blunted, being
often of whalebone covered with leather silvered over.

[Illustration: Fig. 406. Chinese vase decorated with signs of

=Jouy= (wishes of good fortune). Chinese porcelain vases so called, used
for birthday and other presents. In the vase represented on Fig. 406,
the handles form the word expressive of the greeting above mentioned.

=Jowlopped=, Her. Having wattles and a comb, as a cock.

=Joys of the Virgin=, Chr. The seven joys and seven sorrows are
frequently painted together in churches. The joys are, (1) The
Annunciation. (2) The Visitation. (3) The Nativity. (4) The Adoration of
the Three Kings. (5) The Presentation in the Temple. (6) The finding of
Christ, by his mother, in the Temple. (7) The Assumption and Coronation
of the Virgin. The seven sorrows are, (1) The prophecy of Simeon. (2)
The Flight into Egypt. (3) The loss of the child in the Temple. (4) The
Betrayal. (5) The Crucifixion. (6) The Deposition from the Cross. (7)
The Ascension.

=Jubé= (Arch. Mod.). A structure of carved stone-work, separating the
chancel from the choir in a church. From this position the daily lessons
were chanted, preceded by the words “_Jube_, Domine, benedicere;” hence
its name. In English it is called indifferently, the rood-loft,
holy-loft, rood-screen, or jubé.

=Jubilee.= (1) Heb. (from _jobel_, a ram’s horn (trumpet); or from
_jabal_, to recall). A Jewish festival celebrated every fifty years,
when slaves were restored to liberty, and exiles recalled. (2) Chr. A
commemoration ceremony at Rome, during which the Pope grants plenary
indulgences; held at irregular intervals.

=Judas Light=, =Judas Candlestick=, =Jewes Light=, O. E. The wooden
imitation of a candlestick which held the Paschal candle.

=Jugalis= (sc. _equus_). A horse harnessed to a yoke (_jugum_), instead
of traces (_funalis_).

=Jugerum.= A Roman superficial measure, 240 feet by 120 feet. In the
original assignment of landed property, two _jugera_ were allotted to
each citizen, as heritable property.

=Jugum= (Gr. ζυγόν). (1) A yoke for draught cattle. (2) Metaphorically,
subjugation—“_sub jugum mittere_” = to pass under the yoke, as nations
conquered by the Romans were made to. This ceremonial yoke was
constructed of a horizontal supported by two upright spears, at such a
height that those passing under it had to stoop the head and shoulders.
(3) In a general sense the word signifies that which joins two things
together, a cross-beam, &c.

=Jugumentum.= Door-head, transverse beam on the uprights (_limen

=Jumps=, O. E. (1) A loose bodice for ladies.

         “Now a shape in neat stays, now a slattern in jumps:
         Now high on French heels, now low in your pumps;
         Like the cock on the tower that shews you the weather,
         You are hardly the same for two days together.”
                               (_Universal Magazine_, 1780.)

(2) A jacket or loose coat reaching to the thighs, buttoned down before,
with sleeves to the wrist. A precisely similar lounging-coat, still in
vogue at Cape Colony, is called a _jumper_.

=Junones.= Tutelary genii of women, as the _genii_ were of men. They are
represented as females, clothed in drapery, having bats’ wings.

=Jupon=, Fr. Another name for a _pourpoint_, or close tunic, worn over
the armour by knights in the Middle Ages. (See Fig. 463.)

=Juruparis= (Amer. Indian). A mysterious trumpet of the Indians, an
object of great veneration. Women are never permitted to see it; if any
does so, she is put to death by poison. No youths are allowed to see it
until they have passed through an ordeal of initiatory fastings and
scourgings. It is usually kept hidden in the bed of a stream, deep in
the forest; and no one dares to drink of the water of that stream. It is
brought out and blown at feasts. The inside of the instrument is a tube
made of slips of the Paxiaba palm, wrapped round with long strips of
bark. A specimen is preserved in the museum at Kew Gardens.

=Juvenalia=, R. Scenic games instituted by Nero in commemoration of his
shaving his beard for the first time. They consisted of theatrical
performances in a private theatre erected in a pleasure-ground
(_nemus_). The name was afterwards given to the JANUALIA.


_For Greek words not found under this initial, see C._

=Kalathos=, Gr. (κάλαθος). Literally, made of wicker-work. A
drinking-cup, so called because it resembled the wicker-work basket of
the Greek women. It was usually furnished with a ring, through which a
finger might be put in order to lift it. The word is also written

=Kaleidoscope= (καλὸς, beautiful; εἶδος, a form; σκοπέω, to see). An
optical instrument invented in 1814 by Sir David Brewster, which by
means of mirrors inserted in it exhibits repetitions of objects placed
within it, in certain symmetrical combinations. There are several
different kinds, called _polycentral_, _tetrascopes_, _hexascopes_,
_polyangular_, &c., according to their construction.

=Kang=, Hind. A bracelet or ring; _kang-doy_, a bracelet for the wrist
or arm; _kang-cheung_, a bracelet or ring worn by the Khmers above the

=Kaolin.= The name first applied by the Chinese to the fine white
porcelain earth derived from the decomposition of the feldspathic
granites; used for fine pottery.

=Kayles= (Fr. _quilles_). Modern ninepins, represented in MSS. of the
14th century.

=Keep= of a castle. The DONJON (q.v.).

=Keeping= in a picture. Harmony and the proper subordination of parts.

=Kendal.= A kind of green woollen cloth or baize, first made at the town
of Kendal, in Westmoreland; 16th century.

              “Misbegotten knaves in _Kendal green_.”

=Kerchief of Pleasaunce.= An embroidered cloth worn by a knight for the
sake of a lady, in his helmet, or, in later times, round his arm; which
is the origin of crape being so worn for mourning.

  “Moreore there is ykome into Enlond a knyght out of Spayne wyth a
  kercheff of plesunse i-wrapped about hys arme, the gwych knyght wyl
  renne a course wyth a sharpe spere for his sov’eyn lady sake.”
  (_Paston Letters_, vol. p. 6.)

=Kerchiefs= or =Coverchiefs= (_chief_ = the head), O. E. Head-cloths of
fine linen worn by ladies.

=Kermes= (Arabic = little worm). An insect produced on the _Quercus
coccifera_. The dead bodies of the female insect produce a fine scarlet
dye stuff.

=Kern.= The Irish infantry were formerly so called.

=Kersey.= A coarse narrow woollen cloth; hence “Kersey-mere,” so called
from the _mere_ (or miry brook) which runs through the village of Kersey
in Suffolk, where this cloth was first made.

=Kettle-drum.= A drum with a body of brass.

[Illustration: Fig. 407. Kettle-hat.]

=Kettle-hat=, O. E. The iron hat of a knight of the Middle Ages; also
the leather _burgonet_ of the 15th century.

=Kettle-pins=, O. E. (See KAYLES.)

=Key-note.= In Music, the foundation or lowest note of the scale.
Whatever note this is, the _intervals_ between the third and fourth
notes, and between the _seventh_ and _eighth_ above it, must be

=Key-stone=, Arch. The central stone of an arch.

=Keys.= In Christian art, the attribute of St. Peter, signifying his
control over the entrances of Heaven and Hell; hence the insignia of the
Papacy. They also denote, _in heraldry_, office in the State, such as
that of chamberlain of the court.

=Khan=, Orient. The name used by Eastern nations to denote a

=Kher=, Egyp. The quarter of tombs; the whole number of burial-places or
_hypogæa_ collected together at one spot.

[Illustration: Fig. 408. Khmer Architecture. Base of a pillar in a
Temple of Cambodia, showing the god Brahma with four faces.]

=Khmers=, Hind. The ancient inhabitants of Cambodia, a territory in
South-East Asia, who had attained a high stage of civilization, to judge
by the artistic remains of the Khmer nation which survive.

=Khopesh=, Egyp. The dagger of the Egyptian kings; its curved blade bore
some resemblance to the thigh of an ox, which was called in Egyptian
_khopesh_ or _khopesk_.

=Kin-chung=, Chinese. A golden bell.

=King-fisher.= (See HALCYON.)

=King-post.= The central upright post supporting the gable of a roof.

=King’s Yellow.= (See ORPIMENT.)

=Kings of Arms.= Officers of Heralds’ College. There are three—_Garter_,
_Clarenceux_, and _Norroy_.

=Kinnor=, Heb. A stringed instrument of the Hebrews; it had eight, ten,
or twenty-four strings, which were played either with the fingers or a

=Kinschall.= A small curved Turkish dagger.

=Kiosk=, =Kiosque=. A Turkish pleasure-house.

=Kircher=, =Kirchowe=, O. E. A kerchief.

=Kirtel=, O. E. A loose gown, a tunic or waistcoat; also a monk’s gown.

=Kiste=, O. E. A chest.

=Kistvaen=, Celt. A Celtic monument more commonly known as a DOLMEN

=Kit-cat.= Canvas for portraits—28 or 29 inches by 36—of the size
adopted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, in painting the portraits of the Kit-cat
Club. The club had taken its name from Christopher Cat, a pastrycook,
who supplied them at their meetings with mutton-pies. Addison, Steele,
Walpole, Marlborough, and other staunch Whigs were the principal
members. It dissolved about 1720.

=Klaft=, Egyp. A royal head-dress of striped cloth forming a kind of
hood, and terminating in two flaps which fall over the breast. A great
many Egyptian statues are represented with the _klaft_. It is suggested
by M. Soldi that the invention of this ornament was for the purpose of
strengthening the figure, by avoiding the thinness of the shape of the

=Knapsack.= A case for a foot-soldier’s stores, carried at the back.
_Knap_ means a protuberance.

=Knife=, Chr. (See FLAYING-KNIFE.) This is also the attribute of Sts.
Agatha, Albert, and Christina; and a sacrificing-knife of St. Zadkiel
the Angel.

=Knighthood.= The principal English orders are of the GARTER,
established 1343, and the _Bath_ shortly afterwards; of ST. PATRICK for
Ireland, established in 1783; and the _Order of the Thistle_, at least
as ancient as Robert II. of Scotland. There is a French order of the
_Thistle_, founded in 1463; but the most ancient French order is the
_Gennet_, in 706. In France are also the orders of _St. Michel_ and of
_St. Louis_; but these French orders are now all superseded by the
Legion of Honour. [See _An Accurate Historical Account of all the Orders
of Knighthood_.]

=Knight-service=, O. E. A tenure of lands formerly held by knights, on
condition of performing military service

=Knol=, Hind. A road or high road which frequently passes over very low

=Knop=, O. E. A button.

=Knop=, =Knob=, Arch. A boss.

[Illustration: Fig. 409. Architectural _Knop_ or _Boss_.]

=Knop and Flower Pattern.= An ornament of remote antiquity, original
basis of a great branch of decorative art in all nations, common on
early Indian monuments, and with different variations in the art of
Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The variations are regulated according
to the flora of the various countries, the _knop_ (or bud) and _flower_
being always the radical idea.

[Illustration: Fig. 410. Bourchier Knot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 410 a. Dacre Knot and Badge.]

=Knot=, Her. An intertwined cord, borne as a badge. Cords intertwined
about other figures and devices form so called compound badges, which
significantly declared the union of two houses; thus the Dacre knot is
entwined about the Dacre escallop and the famous “ragged staff” of
Beauchamp and Neville. An ORDER OF THE KNOT was established at Naples in
1252. The badge of silk, gold, and pearls was tied in a knot upon the
arm, and those who were invested with it made a vow to untie it at
Jerusalem. (Fig. 410 and 410 a.)

=Knuckle-bones.= (See TALUS.)

=Koope=, O. E. A cope.

=Koukim=, Heb. Kilns for the cremation of the dead, such as are
occasionally found in the ancient tombs of the Valley of Hinnom

=Kourganes=, Or. Grassy mounds, such as are frequently met with in
Russia in Europe, and which bear a strong resemblance to _tumuli_ and
_barrows_. (See TUMULUS.)

=Krems White= or =Vienna White=. A pigment manufactured at Krems in
Austria. It is the finest white lead used in oils.

=Krouts=, Hind. An ornament resembling embroidery. The monuments of
Khmer art are adorned with krouts of a rich ornamentation, somewhat
similar to certain ornaments of the French Renaissance. (See Fig. 408.)

=Krumhorn.= An old musical instrument of the cornet kind.

=Kufic.= (See CUFIC.)

=Kussier.= A Turkish musical instrument, consisting of five strings,
stretched over a skin that covers a kind of basin.

=Kymbium.= (See CYMBIUM.)

=Kyphi=, Egyp. A perfume which was burnt before the statues of the gods;
it was composed of sixteen different ingredients.


=Labarum=, =Chrism=, R. The standard of the Roman emperors from the time
of Constantine; in form it resembled the _vexillum_ of the cavalry. The
Labarum is the banner of the Chrism, or sign that appeared to
Constantine, viz. the Greek letters XP in a monogram (the two first
letters of the Name ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ); sometimes followed by the Roman letters
IHSV, or the motto in full, “_in hoc signo vinces_.” It is, under
several variations, a common ecclesiastical emblem.

=Labellum.= Dimin. of LABRUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Heraldic Labels.
Fig. 411. Labels of 3 points.       Label of 5 points.]

=Labels=, in heraldry, are marks of _cadency_. (1) A band crossing the
shield, with three points depending, marks the coat of an eldest son.
(2) Broad ribands hanging from a knight’s helmet. (3) In mediæval
architecture and church decoration, images of saints and angels bear
_labels_ inscribed with texts and mottoes.

=Labis.= (See SPOON.)

=Labrum=, R. (lit. a lip). A general term to denote any kind of vessel
the brim of which turned over on the outside like the lip of the human
mouth; a wide flat basin which stood in the thermal chamber or CALDARIUM
(q.v.) of the Roman baths.

[Illustration: Fig. 412. Labyrinth.]

=Labyrinth=, Gen. (λαβύρινθος). A building of considerable size, usually
underground, containing streets and cross-roads, like the catacombs, &c.
The term is also applied to intricate designs executed on the
grass-plots of gardens, and on the mosaic or glazed tiles in pavements.
(Fig. 412.) (See MINOTAUR.)

=Lac= or =Gum Lac= (Arabic, _lakah_). A resin produced on an East Indian
tree by the punctures of the _Coccus lacca_ insect. It forms a brittle
substance of a dark red colour, and when in grains is called _seed lac_,
and in thin flat plates _shell-lac_. (See LACQUER.) The chief use of
_lac_ in Europe is for making sealing-wax, and as a basis for _spirit
varnishes_ and _French polish_.

[Illustration: Fig. 413. Point de France (pillow-made), 17th century.]

=Lace= was originally of a heavy texture, more like embroidery. It was
of two kinds, _lacis_, or “darned netting,” and “_cutwork_.” _Lacis_,
often worked in coloured silks and gold thread, was also called “opus
araneum” or “spider-work.” In “_cutwork_,” a net of threads was laid on
to cloth, and the cloth sewn to it in parts, and the other parts cut
away; or, by another method, the threads were arranged on a frame, all
radiating from a common centre, and then worked into patterns. This was
the old convent lace of Italy, called “_Greek lace_.” _Point laces_ are
lace made with a needle on a parchment pattern. The principal are the
ancient laces of Italy, Spain, and Portugal; and the modern _point
d’Alençon_ of France. _Pillow laces_ are made by the weaving, twisting,
and plaiting of the threads with bobbins on a _cushion_; such are
Mechlin, Lille, Valenciennes, Honiton, Buckingham, and many
manufactories in France. _Brussels lace_ is both _point_ and _pillow_.
The thread is scarcely visible for fineness, and costs 240_l._ per
pound. This lace is called in France _point d’Angleterre_, or _English
point_. (Fig. 414.)

[Illustration: Fig. 414. Old Brussels or Point d’Angleterre.]

=Lace Glass.= (See GLASS.)

=Lacerna=, R. An open cloak worn by the Romans over the _toga_, and
fastened on the right shoulder with a brooch or fibula. It frequently
had a cowl attached. (See ABOLLA, PÆNULA, PALLIUM.)

=Lachrymatory.= A tear-bottle; so called from the use attributed to it
of holding tears consecrated to the dead. These phials are made of glass
or earthenware, with a long neck, and the mouth formed to receive the
eye-ball. The figure of one or two eyes has sometimes been found
impressed upon them.

=Lacinia=, R. The two excrescences, like a divided dewlap on the throat
of a goat, which were represented on the necks of fauns and satyrs.

=Laciniæ=, Gr. and R. The hanging corners of the _toga_ and _chlamys_,
and the metal knobs attached to make them hang straight.

=Lacis.= A kind of embroidery, of subjects in squares, with counted
stitches (called also “point conté,” darned netting, &c.). (See LACE.)

=Laconicum=, R. A semicircular termination to a room in a set of baths
(_caldarium_), so called because of Spartan origin. Under the word
BALNEÆ will be found the _laconicum_ of Pompeii, restored. (Fig. 56.)

=Lacquer= (Fr. _laque_) is made of a solution of shell-lac and alcohol,
coloured with saffron or other colouring matters. Specimens of ancient
Chinese red lacquer deeply carved with figures of birds, flowers, &c.,
and generally made in the form of trays, boxes, and sometimes vases, are
met with in the more northern Chinese towns, and are much prized. What
is called the _old gold Japan lacquer_ is also esteemed by Chinese
connoisseurs, and the specimens of this are comparatively rare at the
present day. (_Fortune._)

=Lacs d’amour=, Fr. True lovers’ knots.

=Lacuna=, R. (_lacus_, a hollow). An ash-pit placed beneath a lime-kiln
to receive the ashes from the kiln.

=Lacunar=, Arch. A flat roof or ceiling, in contradistinction to a
_camera_, vaulted roof.

=Lacunaria=, Arch. Panels in a flat ceiling (_lacunar_), formed by the
rafters crossing one another at right angles. The edges of these panels
are often decorated with carved and gilt ornaments, and the centres
filled in with paintings.

=Lacus=, R. (λάκκος). A lake, and thence a large, shallow, open basin,
or artificial reservoir; also, a pit made below the level of a
wine-cellar (_cella vinaria_), or of an oil-cellar (_cella olearis_), to
receive the wine or oil as it comes from the presses.

=Lady.= A word of Saxon origin, generally supposed to signify
“loaf-giver,” from _klaf_, a loaf. As a title it belongs to the
daughters of all peers above the rank of a viscount, but is extended by
courtesy to the wives of knights.

=Lady Day=, Chr. The 25th of March. Festival of the Annunciation.

=Læna=, R. (1) A cloth with a long nap. (2) A thick woollen cloak worn
over the toga for the sake of warmth. In later times the læna was often
worn as a substitute for the toga.

=Lagena=, Gr. and R. An earthenware vessel with a swelling body, used
for holding wine or vegetables and dried fruits.

=Laid Papers.= Papers with a ribbed surface; as cream-laid, blue-laid,

=Lake, Cloth of=, O. E. Linen for under-garments.

=Lakes.= (See CARMINE.) Pigments of a fine crimson red colour, of which
there are several kinds; they are prepared from cochineal, kermes, lac,
and the best from madder-root. Common lake is obtained from Brazil wood,
which affords a very fugitive colour. (See YELLOW LAKE, PURPLE LAKES,
MADDER, &c.)

=Lakes= of _Florence_, _Paris_, _Vienna_, &c. (See CARMINATED LAKES.)

=Lamb.= The peculiar symbol of the Redeemer, generally the emblem of
innocence, meekness, modesty. It is properly called the Paschal Lamb,
and with a flag, or between two stars and a crescent, was the badge of
the Knights Templars. (See AGNUS DEI.)

=Lamboys= (Fr. _lambeau_). A kind of skirt over the thighs, worn over
the armour. (See Fig. 463.)

=Lambrequin.= A covering for the helmet. (See MANTLING.)

=Lamb’s-wool=, O. E. A drink of ale with the pulp of roasted apples in

=Lames=, Fr. Flexible plates or _blades_ of steel, worn over the hips.

=Lametta.= Brass, silver, or gold foil or wire.

=Lamiæ=, Gr. and R. Vampires who fed at night on the flesh of human
beings. The Lamiæ of Pliny are animals with the face and head of a
woman, and the tail of a serpent, inhabiting the deserts of Africa.

=Laminated.= Disposed in layers or plates.

=Lammas=, O. E. The 1st of August.

[Illustration: Fig. 415. Roman Lamp.]

=Lamp=, =Lantern=, or =Taper=, in Christian art, was an emblem of piety;
an attribute of St. Lucia. (See LUCERNA, LYCHNUS, LANTERN.)

=Lampadephoria=, Gr. (torch-bearing). A game common throughout Greece,
in which the competitors raced, either on foot or horseback, six stadia
(about three-quarters of a mile), carrying lamps prepared for the
purpose. (See LAMPAS.)

=Lampas=, Gr. and R. A general term denoting anything which shines or
affords light; a torch, a lamp, and especially a link. The word was
frequently used for _lampadephoria_, the _torch-race_.

=Lamp-black.= A soot used as a pigment. It is very opaque, and dries
slowly in oil. It is also the basis of all printing and lithographic

[Illustration: Fig. 416. Device of Catherine de’ Medicis.]

=Lance.= In Christian art, the attribute of St. Matthias, in allusion to
the method of his martyrdom. (See AMENTUM, LANCEA, HASTA.) A shivered
lance with the motto “Lacrymæ hinc, hinc dolor,” was a device adopted by
Catherine de’ Medicis after the fatal accident to her husband, Henry
II., in a tournament. (Fig. 416.)

=Lance-rest.= A projecting iron fixed to a breastplate to support the
end of the lance in a joust or tournament.

=Lancea=, R. A long, light spear, serving both as a pike and a missile.

=Lanceola.= Dimin. of LANCEA (q.v.).

=Lanceolated=, Arch. Having the form of a spear-head. The term is
applied to lancet windows, arches, and members of architecture forming a

[Illustration: Fig. 417. Lancet Arch. 13th century.]

=Lancet Arch.= A pointed arch, obtuse at the point, resembling a
surgeon’s lancet, from which a style of architecture, common in England
in the 13th century, is named. (Fig. 417.) (See EARLY ENGLISH

[Illustration: Fig. 418. Lancula.]

=Lancula=, R. (dimin. of LANX). The scale which was placed, when
necessary, at one of the ends of a Roman steelyard (_statera_). (Fig.

=Landgrave= (Germ. _Land, Graf_). A title given to those Counts of
Germany who take their rank from a large tract of land. The first
_Landgraves_ were those of Thuringia, Hesse, Alsace, and Leuchtenberg.

=Langue-de-bœuf=, Fr. A blade fixed to a pikestaff; named after its

=Langued=, Her. To denote the tincture of an animal’s tongue.

=Laniarium=, =Laniena=, R. (_lanius_, a butcher). A slaughter-house or
butcher’s shop.

=Laniers=, O. E. Leather straps for various uses; as armlets to a
shield, or as garters or bands, &c.

=Lanipendia=, R. (_lana_, wool, and _pendere_, to weigh). A woman whose
duty it was to weigh the wool for spinning, and distribute it among the
slaves for their daily tasks.

=Lanista=, R. A man who trained gladiators for the Roman circus. They
were frequently his own property, and he let them out for hire; or he
received them from their owners into his _school_ (ludus) for training.

=Lansquenet=, Fr. A game at cards.

[Illustration: Fig. 419. Old English Horn Lantern.]

=Lantern.= In Christian art, the attribute of St. Gudula, in allusion to
the legend of her miraculous lantern, which her prayers rekindled as
often as Satan extinguished it. In Architecture, a small turret above
the roof of a building, having windows all round it.

[Illustration: Fig. 420. Lanterne des Morts.]

=Lanterne des Morts= or =Churchyard Beacon=, Arch. A small tower raised
upon a base, and generally round, but sometimes square or polygonal;
with windows at the top to emit the shining rays from the lamp inside.
Fig. 420 represents a “lanterne des morts” at Ciron, France.

=Lanx=, R. This term denotes (1) a circular dish of silver or other
metal, often embossed, used especially at banquets. (2) The scale of a
balance (_libra_). (3) A salver for handing fruits or other dainties at

=Laocoon.= A magnificent sculpture, found in 1506 among the ruins of the
palace of Titus, now in the Vatican. It represents Laocoon and his two
sons struggling in the folds of two monster serpents. According to Pliny
it is the work of three Rhodian sculptors, Agesander, Polydorus, and
Athenodorus, and stood in the palace of Titus. He said that it was made
of one stone, but the joining of five pieces has been detected. [See
_Lessing’s_ “_Laokoon_.”]

=Laphria=, Gr. An annual festival, celebrated at Patræ in Achaia, in
honour of Artemis, surnamed Laphria.

=Lapidary.= An artist who cuts, grinds, and polishes gems and stones. In
the lapidary’s _scale of hardness_ of minerals there are 10 standard
degrees, represented as follows:—No. 1, _talc_, which is very easily
cut; No. 2, _compact gypsum_; No. 3, _calc-spar_; No. 4, _fluor-spar_;
No. 5, _apatite_; No. 6, _felspar_; No. 7, _quartz_; No. 8, _topaz_; No.
9, _sapphire_; No. 10, _diamond_. Diamonds are for the most part cut at

=Lapis Lazuli.= A beautiful blue mineral stone of various shades of
colour. (See ULTRAMARINE.)

=Laquear=, =Laqueare=. Synonym of LACUNAR (q.v.).

=Laqueatores=, R. An order of gladiators who used a noose to catch their

=Laqueatus=, R. A ceiling decorated with panels (_lacunar_).

=Lararium=, R. A small shrine consecrated to the gods called Lares; a
room in which the images of the Lares or tutelary genii of the house
were placed. It is said to have been customary for religious Romans,
immediately after they rose in the morning, to pray in the Lararium.

=Larentalia=, =Larentinalia=, or =Laurentalia=, R. A Roman festival in
honour of Acca Larentia, the nurse of Romulus and Remus; or, according
to another tradition, a festival instituted by Ancus in honour of a
wealthy courtezan named Larentia, who had bequeathed all her property to
the Roman people. It was celebrated on the 10th of December.

=Lares=, R. The Lares Privati, Domestici, or Familiares, were the
guardian deities of the house. The spot peculiarly sacred to them was
the _focus_, or hearth, in the Atrium, where the altar for domestic
sacrifice stood, and near it was a niche, containing little images of
these gods, to whom offerings of flowers, frankincense, and wine were
made from time to time, and regularly on the kalends of each month.
There were many classes of Lares Publici: (1) The Lares rurales, who
presided over the flocks, herds, &c. (2) The Lares compitales,
worshipped where two cross-roads met, &c. [Cf. Ovid, Fasti, v. 129.]

=Larghetto=, It. In Music, less slow than _largo_.

=Largo=, It. In Music, a slow movement, one degree quicker than

=Latch=, O. E. A cross-bow.

=Lateen Sail.= A triangular mainsail on a tall sloping yard, which
reaches down to the deck.

=Later=, R. A brick; the πλίνθος of the Greeks. Among the Romans bricks
were of various forms; the largest was called _pentadorum_; the next
size, _tetradorum_. _Later coctus_, _coctilis_ was the term applied to a
baked brick; _later crudus_ was an unbaked brick, i. e. one dried in the
sun. Pliny calls the brick-field LATERARIA.

=Latericium= (opus), R. A structure built of bricks.

=Laterna=, =Lanterna=. A LANTERN (q.v.).

=Laton= or =Latten=, O. E. An alloy of brass, of which candlesticks,
sepulchral monuments, crosses, &c., were made in the Middle Ages. White
Laton was a mixture of brass and tin.

=Latrunculi=, R. (Gr. πεσσοί). The ancient game of draughts. It is
mentioned by Homer. The Romans often had twelve lines of squares
(_mandræ_) on the draught-board. The number of pieces varied from five
to twelve, and in later times the game was played with the _tesseræ_ or

=Lattice=, Arch. A trellis or cross-barred work; a network window.

=Laura=, Chr. The origin of the name is obscure. It signifies a
collection of separate cells in a wilderness, where a community of monks
lived each in his own cell, meeting together only during two days of the
week. The most celebrated _lauras_ were in Palestine.

=Laurel=, Gen. The emblem of glory and victory. Sacred also to Apollo.
In modern times an emblem of peace.

=Lautumiæ=, R. (λα-τομία). A stone-quarry, and thence a prison hewn out
of a quarry, more particularly the public prison of Syracuse, hewn into
the solid cliff, but roofless. The Tullianum at Rome was called Lautumiæ

=Lava.= The scoria from an active volcano, which is well adapted to
ornamental carving.

=Lavabo.= (See LAVATORIUM.)

=Lavacrum=, R. (_lavo_, to wash). A bath of hot or cold water, in
contradistinction to a vapour bath (_caldarium_).

=Lavatorium=, R. (_lavo_, to wash). A small building in a monastery, in
which the monks washed their hands before and after a repast. The
_lavatorium_ was usually placed near the refectory.

=Lawn.= This fine linen fabric was introduced in the reign of Queen

=Lay Figure.= A large wooden jointed doll, used by artists to display

=Lead-glazed Wares.= (See POTTERY.)

[Illustration: Fig. 421. Stamped gilt and painted leather hangings
illustrating a pictorial arrangement of pattern.]

=Leather= was used instead of tapestry for the hangings of rooms in the
16th century, and was beautifully gilded and chased. (Consult “L’Art de
travailler les Cuirs dorés ou argentés,” by M. Fougeroux de Bondary, in
“Description des Arts et Metiers,” 1762.) (Fig. 421.)

=Leaves=, Her. Their peculiarities are blazoned as laurel leaf, oak
leaf, &c.

=Leaves=, =Leafage=. (See FOLIAGE.)

=Lebes=, Gr. (λέβης; λείβη, to pour out). A brass saucepan or caldron
(_pelvis_, _ahenum_); it was a deep vessel with swelling sides. It was
sometimes made with a pointed bottom to fit into a stand, which was
called INCITEGA.

=Lebiton=, =Lebitonarium=. (See COLOBIUM.)

=Lecanê=, Gr. A drinking-bowl used by the Etrurians (basin-shaped, with
a lid).

=Lectern.= A reading-desk in a Christian church; most frequently of
brass in the form of an eagle, but often decorated with more elaborate

=Lectica=, R. (_lectus_, a couch). A couch or litter carried by bearers,
used both by men and women; it was introduced from the East, and was
quickly adopted in Greece and Rome. The Greek litter had a roof made of
the skin of an ox, and the sides covered with curtains. Among the Romans
it was seldom used excepting for travelling, until the luxurious days of
the empire, when the lectica became a very splendid affair. It was
sometimes constructed with gold and ivory, and instead of curtains it
was closed at the sides, with windows of transparent stone (_lapis
specularis_). When standing, it rested on four feet. It was borne upon
poles (_asseres_) by two or more slaves, and was called hexophron,
octophron, &c., according to the number of _lecticarii_ employed to
carry it.

=Lecticula.= Dimin. of _lectica_; it denoted a litter for the conveyance
of the sick, or a bier on which a dead body was carried out.

=Lectisternium=, R. (_lectus_, and _sterno_, to spread out). A religious
ceremony consisting of a banquet offered to the gods, at which the
statues of the latter were present stretched out on couches, with tables
and viands before them as if they were partaking of the feast.

=Lectorium=, Chr. (_lector_, a reader). An old term afterwards replaced
by that of AMBO (q.v.).

=Lectrin=, Chr. An old term now replaced by _jubé_ or rood-loft and

=Lectrum=, Chr. An old term denoting a praying-desk.

=Lectus=, R. (_lego_, to put together). A bed or couch complete; _lectus
cubicularis_, a sleeping-couch; _lectus genialis_, a nuptial bed;
_lectus adversus_, a symbolical marriage-bed; _lectus triclinaris_, a
dining-couch, a couch for three persons, placed in the _triclinium_ or
dining-room; _lectus funebris_, a funeral bier. The diminutive of this
term is _lectulus_. The _lectus cubicularis_ resembled an old-fashioned
sofa with a high back; being of considerable height, it was reached by
means of a footstool (_scamnum_), or a set of steps (_gradus_). The
_lectus genialis_ (Gr. εὐνὴ) or marriage-bed was still higher, larger,
and handsomely decorated; it is represented with a flight of steps at
the foot. The _lectus adversus_ was a symbolical marriage-bed, and stood
in the atrium, opposite to the entrance of the house, and was, as it
were, the throne or seat of office, from which the housewife
superintended the spinning, weaving, and similar duties of the servants.
The _lectus triclinaris_ used at meals is described under the article.
_Lectus funebris_ is the name of the bier upon which the dead were borne
to burial or the pyre.

[Illustration: Fig. 422. Lecythus.]

=Lecythus=, Gr. A cylindrical vase made to contain oil or perfumes. It
often figures in the hands of goddesses, or of females at the toilet;
and is mostly ornamented with delicate paintings and choice subjects.
(Fig. 422.)

=Ledger=, Arch. A stone slab.

=Ledger Lines.= In Music, extra lines above or below the five ruled

=Ledgment=, Arch. A horizontal course of stone or mouldings,
particularly the base moulding.

=Leet=, O. E. An ancient Anglo-Saxon court of justice; a manor court.

=Legato=, It. Literally, “bound;” in Music signifies “in a smooth and
gliding manner.”

=Legend.= In Numismatics, the words round the _edge_ of a medal or coin.

=Leghorn.= A kind of straw plait, first invented at Leghorn.

=Legio=, R. (_lego_, to collect). A Roman legion; a division of the army
consisting of from three to six thousand heavy-armed soldiers, who were
called _legionarii_. Twelve thousand legionaries were required to make
up a consular army. The legion contained troops of all arms; infantry,
cavalry, and the ancient substitutes for artillery; and was an army
complete in itself. The numbers varied, as well as the organization, at
different periods. Livy speaks of legions of 5000 infantry and 300
horse. The subject is one demanding voluminous description. The legion
was subdivided into Cohortes, Manipuli, Centuriæ, Signa, Ordines,

=Leice=, Celt. Also called _meanal leice_. The stone of destiny; a large
crystal kept by the Druids for soothsaying.

=Leister= or =Lister=, Scotch. A trident or many-pronged spear for
striking fish.

=Leming Star=, O. E. (from A.S. _leme_, brightness). A comet.

=Lemman= (A.S. _leof_=loved, and _man_). A sweetheart, &c.

=Lemnian Reddle.= An _ochre_ of a deep red colour and firm consistence,
used as a pigment.

=Lemniscus=, R. (λημνίσκος; λῆνος, wool). A fillet or ribbon awarded, as
a mark of honour, to a person who had distinguished himself in any way.
The person who wore it was called _lemniscatus_. It hung down from
crowns or diadems at the back of the head. _Lemnisci_ were also worn,
without _coronæ_, by ladies for ornament. Hence, in Geometry, a curve of
the form of the figure 8 is called _lemniscata_.

=Lemon Yellow.= A bright pigment, brighter and clearer than Naples
yellow or masticot, and not liable to change.

=Lemures= or =Manes=, R. The souls of the dead, who, according to the
religious belief of the Romans, were transformed into beneficent or evil
genii, according as the individual had been during his life good or bad,
virtuous or worthless. “_Lares_ si meriti boni sint; _Lemures_ sive
_Larvas_ si mali; _Manes_ autem cum incertum est,” says St. Augustine.

=Lemuria.= Festivals in honour of the Lemures celebrated at Rome, at
night and in silence, on the 9th, 11th, and 13th of May. During them the
temples of the gods were closed, and marriage was considered unlucky;
hence the proverb, _Mense Maio male nubent_. Those who celebrated the
Lemuria walked barefooted, washed their hands three times, and threw
black beans nine times behind their backs. On the second of the three
days there were games in the circus in honour of Mars, and on the third
day the images of the thirty Argei, made of rushes, were thrown from the
Pons Sublicius into the Tiber by the Vestal virgins. On the same day
there was a festival of merchants.

=Lenn= or =Linn=, Celt. A woollen wrap with a long nap, or simply the
skin of some animal, worn in severe weather as a kind of upper garment
by the poorer class of Gauls.

=Lens= (lit. a lentil). A convex or concave glass, which, by changing
the direction of rays of light, magnifies or diminishes objects.

=Lent= (A.S. _lencten_, Spring), Chr. The forty days’ fast preparatory
to Easter. Pope Gregory the Great speaks of this fast as of thirty-six
days’ duration; i. e. six weeks, not counting the Sundays, which, it is
suggested, amounts to one-tenth, or a _tithe_ of the year.

=Lent Rose= or =Lent Lily=, O. E. The daffodil.

=Lentiform.= Shaped like a double convex lens.

=Lentiner=, O. E. A hawk taken in Lent.

=L’Envoy.= “The conclusion of a ballet, or sonnet, in a short stanzo by
itselfe, and serving oftentimes as a dedication of the whole.”

=Leonine Verses.= Rhyming Latin compositions, very popular in the Middle
Ages. In the 3rd century a piece of 1200 such verses was written by
Commodianus. St. Augustine and the venerable Bede also wrote some. The
proper _leonine_ consists of a couplet rhyming at the end; but the
rhymes may be otherwise distributed: e. g.—

             “O miseratrix! O dominatrix! præcipe dictu;
             Ne devastemur, ne lapidemur, grandinis ictu.”

=Leontarium=, Chr. A fountain of lions spouting water; frequently placed
in the courtyard or atrium of basilican churches.

=Leopard=, Her. A lion in any other attitude than “rampant” was blazoned
by the early heralds as a “leopard.” Till the 14th century the lions of
the Royal Shield of England were designated leopards.

=Leou=, Chinese. (1) A building of many stories, like a pagoda. (2) An
upper floor in a Chinese house.

=Lepastê=, R. (λεπὰς, a limpet; Lat. _patella_). A large vessel, in form
like the _cylix_, but resting on a broad stand; employed from the
earliest times for holding pure wine.

=Leporarium=, R. (_lepus_, a hare). A hare warren; a walled paddock in
which four-footed game were preserved.

[Illustration: Fig. 423. The Leschê at Delphi.]

=Leschê=, Gr. (λέσχη, i. e. a place for talking). A public place of
assembly and conversation, or a small exchange for transacting business,
&c. The leschê of Delphi (Fig. 423) was celebrated for the painting
which it contained by Polygnotus (470 B.C.). At Athens there were 360
leschai, small buildings or porticoes furnished with seats and exposed
to the sun, where the poor could rest in warmth and shelter.

=Lesina=, It. An awl. The device of the Lesina Academy, with the motto,
“_L’assotigliar la più, meglio anche fora_.”

=Lettern=, Arch. The _Lectern_ of a church is often so called, when made
of _Latten_ or brass. The word is used instead of _Latten_.

=Letters of the Alphabet= are sometimes used as charges in heraldry. The
practice of weaving letters into the ornamentation of textile fabrics is
very ancient in the East. Pliny says, “Parthi _literas_ vestibus
intexunt.” Fanciful designs imitating or copying oriental letters
without meaning were worked in church textiles in early Christian times;
and the artists of Italy up to the middle of the 16th century
represented such devices on the hems of the garments of great personages
in their paintings.

=Leucite= (λευκὸς, white). _White spar_, or _white garnet_; a white
stony substance found among volcanic productions.

=Leucomb=, O. E. A dormer window.

=Leucopyrite.= A mineral used in the production of artificial

=Levacion=, O. E. The elevation of the host in the mass.

=Levant.= The Eastern shores of the Mediterranean.

=Levecel=, O. E. A pent-house or projecting roof over a door or an open

=Levesele=, O. E. A lattice. The original of the _chequers_ on the
door-posts of inns.

=Levitonarium.= (See COLOBIUM.)

=Lew=, O. E. (modern _lea_). Sheltered from the wind; hence =Lewe Water=
(modern _luke_-warm water).

=Lewins=, O. E. A kind of bands put about a hawk.

=Libbard=, O. E. A leopard.

=Libella=, R. (_libra_, a level or balance). (1) A level, or instrument
employed by masons, joiners, and carpenters, in the same way as with us,
for testing the evenness of the surface of their work. (2) A small Roman
silver coin, afterwards substituted by the _As_, which it equalled in

=Libellus= or =Libellulus=, R. A small book, pamphlet, letter, or

=Liber= (literally, the _rind_ of the papyrus; Gr. βιβλίον, from the
Egyptian word _byblos_, the papyrus plant). A book.—Parchment
(_membrana_) was invented by Eumenes, king of Pergamos; hence its name
of _pergamentum_. The paper (_charta_) or parchment was only written
upon on one side; the other side was stained yellow. Writings were
frequently washed off, and the parchment used again was called
_palimpsestus_. The sheets forming a book were joined together and
rolled round a staff, and then called a _volume_ (_volumen_). The stick
was usually ornamented with balls or bosses, ornamented or painted,
called _umbilici_. The ends of the roll, carefully cut, polished with
pumice-stone, and coloured black, were called _geminæ frontes_. The
reader held the staff in his left hand to unroll the sheet (_evolvere
librum_), as he proceeded, with his right. The roll, if valuable, was
kept in a parchment case, which was stained with a purple colour, or
yellow. The title of the book (_titulus_ or _index_) was written on a
small strip of papyrus or parchment with a light red colour (coccum or
minium); and this practice was the origin of the art of illumination.

=Liber Pontificalis=, _seu de gestis Romanorum pontificum_. A work of
the 15th century, of great value to the student of early Christian art
work, and in particular of textiles and embroidery.

=Libra=, R. (1) A balance with two scales (_lanx_), depending by chains
from the ends of the beam (_jugum_); in the centre of the latter was a
handle (_ansa_). (2) The As or pound; the unit of weight. (See AS.)

=Libretto=, It. The words of an opera, oratorio, &c.

=Librile=, R. (_libra_). A term denoting the ends of the beam (_jugum_)
in a balance, and thence the balance itself; it is thus synonymous with
LIBRA (q.v.).

=Liburna=, =Liburnica=, R. A vessel of war so called from the fact that
it was built on a model invented by the Illyrian pirates, or Liburni.

=Lichanos=, Gr. (_forefinger string_). The note below the MESE of the
seven-stringed lyre. (See MESE.)

=Lich-gate.= A shed over the gate of a churchyard to rest the corpse
under. (See CORPSE-GATE.) (Fig. 197.)

=Lich-stone=—near a churchyard gate, for resting coffins on—is generally
raised about three feet from the ground, shaped like a coffin, and has
stone benches round it for the bearers to rest upon.

=Liciæ=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _lices_), from the Italian _lizza_, palings. The
lists; an enclosed space surrounding a camp or castle.

=Licium=, R. A leash, or thick thread, employed to divide in two a set
of threads in a warp, in order to allow the shuttle to pass through
them. By analogy, any kind of thread or cord used for fastening.

=Lictor=, R. (See FASCES.)

=Lieberkuhn.= A reflecting mirror on a microscope, named after the

=Lierne Rib= (in a vault), Arch. (From _lier_, to bind.) “Any rib that
does not arise from the impost, and is not a ridge rib, but crosses from
one boss or intersection of the principal ribs to another. Vaults in
which such _liernes_ are employed are termed LIERNE VAULTS.” (_Parker’s

=Light Red.= A pigment of a russet orange tint, produced from burnt

=Lights.= The openings between the mullions of a window. (See DAYS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 424. Ligula.]

=Ligula=, R. (1) A small tongue-shaped sword. (Fig. 424.) The term is
derived from _lingua_, a tongue. (2) A liquid measure, a _large_
spoonful, distinguished from _cochlear_, which is a _small_ spoonful.
(3) The leather tongue of a shoe.

=Lilies=, in Christian art, are the symbols of purity; the special
attribute of the Virgin Mary. They are frequent in the catacombs on the
tombs of Christian virgins.

=Lily= or =Iris Green= (It. _verde giglio_). A pigment anciently used in
Italy. It was prepared by dipping linen rags into the juice of plants,
and then preserving them dry.

=Lima=, R. (1) A file or rasp, applied to the same purposes as at the
present day. (See SCOBINA.) (2) In Med. Lat., a tool or weapon worn by
archers in the French service, either as a kind of sword or for
sharpening arrows with. (_Meyrick._)

=Limbeck=, O. F. An alembeck.

=Limbo=, O. E. Hell.

  “Beholde now what owre Lord Jhesu dide one the Saturday, as sune as he
  was dede. He went downe to helle to owre holy fadyrs that ware in
  _lymbo_ to tyme of his Resureccione.” (_MS. Lincoln._ A. i. 17, f.

=Limbus=, R. An ornamental band or border resembling scroll-work or
architectural foliage, employed as an ornament on dress, vases
(especially on Etruscan vases), &c.; and thence (1) a ribbon worn as an
ornament in the hair; (2) the zodiacal circle described on a globe (see
Fig. 48); (3) a stout cord forming the main rope in a fishing-net; (4)
in Med. Latin, a military tunic—the German _Wapenrock_; or a wrapper
worn by soldiers round the head, _temp._ John, usually termed _cargan_.

=Lime.= Slaked lime, alone or mixed with pulverized white marble, was a
white pigment used in fresco-painting.

=Lime-hound=, O. E. A sporting-dog in a _lime_ or leash.

=Limen=, R. The threshold or step laid down before the entrance of a
door; the same term is also applied to the lintel. _Limen superius_ is
the lintel, and _limen inferius_ the threshold properly so called.

            “Limen superum inferumque, salve!” (_Plautus._)

=Limer=, O. E. A bloodhound. “A dogge engendred betweene an hounde and a
mastyve, called a _lymmer_, or a mungrell.”

=Limitour=, O. E. A begging friar.

=Limning=, O. E. Painting, especially portrait painting.

=Limoges Enamel.= A kind of incrusted enamel on the system called
_champlevé_; perfected at Limoges, in France, in the 15th century, and
hence called _Opus de Limogia_. (See ENAMEL.) The enamels and METAL WORK
of LIMOGES, in furniture, decoration of armour, and church utensils, are
very important. The monument of Aylmer de Valence in Westminster Abbey
is Limoges workmanship.

=Limus=, R. A kind of apron bordered with a purple hem, worn by the
_popa_ or attendant who killed the animal offered at a sacrifice.

=Lincei.= An academy for natural history, founded in Rome in 1603. They
adopted the lynx for their device “because the academicians should have
the eyes of a lynx to penetrate the secrets of nature.” (_Mrs. Bury

=Line of Beauty.= A curve like an elongated S. (See _Hogarth’s Analysis
of Beauty_.)

=Line of Life.= One of the lines in the hand; a term in palmistry.

=Linea=, R. (_linum_, a flax-thread). A line or any kind of string;
_linea alba_, a rope whitened with chalk and stretched across the arena
in a circus for the purpose of giving a fair start to runners, chariots,
or riders.

=Lined=, Her. (1) Having a cord attached. (2) Having a lining.

=Lineleon.= Linseed oil. “_Lineleon ex semine lini fiet._”

=Linen.= Painting on linen was largely practised in England during the
14th century; and a drawing sent by Albert Durer to Raphael is described
by Vasari as having been painted “in water-colours on a fine linen
cloth, which showed the transparent lights on both sides, without white;
water-colours only being added, while the cloth was left for the lights;
which thing appeared wonderful to Raphael.” (_Vasari_, _Vita di

=Linen-scroll.= A decorative ornament, common in German wood-carving of
the 15th and 16th centuries. It resembles a napkin stood on end, and
partly opened into scroll-shaped cylinders.

=Linset=, O. E. The stool on which women sat while spinning.

=Linsey-woolsey= (O. E. Lylse-wulse). Coarse woollen stuff first made at
Linsey in Suffolk.

=Linstock=, O. E. (15th century). A pike, with branches on each side to
hold a lighted match for firing artillery.

=Lintel.= The stone or beam placed across a door or window overhead
(_limen superius_).

=Linteolum=, R. and Chr. (_linteum_). Any small piece of linen, such as
a napkin or handkerchief.

=Linter=, R. A flat boat, frequently formed of the trunk of a tree, used
in shallow waters for the transport of produce; it was also used in the
construction of bridges of boats.

=Linum=, R. (λίνον). Flax, and thence anything made of that fibre.

=Lion=, O. E. (from _lie on_). The main beam of a ceiling.

[Illustration: Fig. 425. Heraldic Lions.]

=Lion.= In Heraldry, the lion _couchant_ represents sovereignty;
_rampant_, magnanimity; _passant_, resolution; _guardant_, prudence;
_saliant_, valour; _seiant_, counsel; and _regardant_, circumspection.

=Lioncel=, Her. A lion drawn to a small scale, generally rampant.

=Lions=, in Christian art, typify the resurrection of the Redeemer;
because, according to an oriental fable, the lion’s cub was born dead,
and in three days its sire licked it into life. The lion also typifies
solitude, and is therefore the attribute of hermits; and as the type of
fortitude and resolution it was placed at the feet of martyrs.

=Lip Moulding=, Arch. So called from its resemblance to an overhanging
lip. It is common in the Perpendicular period.

=Liquid Madder Lake= or =Rubiate=. A brilliant rose-coloured pigment,
used in oil or water-colour painting.

[Illustration: Fig. 426. Liripipes. Italian, 16th century.]

=Liripipes=, O. E. The long tails of hoods, which hung down the back.
Worn also by the Italians. (Fig. 426.)

=List=, Arch. A straight upright ring encircling the lower part of a
column, just above the torus, and next to the shaft.

[Illustration: Fig. 427. Listels.]

=List=, =Listel=, Arch. A small square moulding, also called a _fillet_.
Fig. 427 represents a base, the ornamentation of which is made up of
numerous _listels_ or fillets.

=Litany Stool.= In a church, a small low desk at which the Litany was

  “The priest goeth from out of his seat into the body of the church,
  and (at a low desk before the chancel door, called the _faldstool_)
  kneels and says or sings the Litany.” (_Eliz._ xviii. 1559.)

=Literatus= or =Litteratus=, R. (_litera_, a letter). In general,
anything that is marked with letters; and thence (1) a slave who has
been branded on the forehead with a hot iron, also called _inscriptus_,
_notatus_, _stigmatus_. (2) A grammarian, learned man, or commentator.

=Litharge.= An ingredient of _drying oil_ (q.v.).

=Lithochrome.= Another name for CHROMOLITHOGRAPHY, or colour-printing.

=Lithography=, or drawing on stone, was invented by Aloys Senefelder of
Munich in 1796. Drawings are made on a polished surface of calcareous
stone, with ink and chalk of a soapy nature. The _lithographic ink_ is
made of tallow-soap, pure white wax, lamp-black, and a small quantity of
tallow, all boiled together, and, when cool, dissolved in distilled
water; the ingredients for the _lithographic chalk_ are the same, with a
small quantity of potash added during the boiling. After the drawing on
the stone is perfectly dry, a very weak solution of sulphuric acid is
poured over it, which takes up the alkali from the ink or chalk, and
leaves an insoluble substance behind it, while it lowers in a slight
degree the surface of the stone not drawn upon, and prepares it for the
free absorption of water. Weak gum-water is next applied to close the
pores of the stone, and to keep it moist. The stone is then washed with
water, and the printing-ink applied in the ordinary way. It then passes
through the press, the washing with water and daubing with ink being
repeated after every impression. As many as 70,000 copies have in this
way been taken from one stone, the last being nearly as good as the
first. Copper-plate and steel engravings can be transferred to stone.
(See the article “Lithography” in the _Encyclopædia Britannica_, 8th

=Lithostrotum=, R. (λιθό-στρωτον). The pavement of a Roman road, and
thence any ornamental pavement, mosaic, incrusted marble, coloured
inlaid-work, &c.

=Litmus= or =Lacmus=. The red, violet, and blue colours known as
_archil_, _cudbear_, and _litmus_, are derived from certain lichens;
_litmus_ from the _roccella tinctoria_.

=Liturgy= (λειτουργός). The printed formulary according to which the
public services in a church are performed.

=Lituus=, R. (an Etruscan word, signifying _crooked_). (1) A brass
trumpet formed of a long, straight tube, but curved and opening out wide
at the end like a tobacco-pipe. The _tuba_ was straight, the _cornu_
spiral. (2) An augur’s staff curved into the form of a crook, with which
they divided the expanse of the sky into regions in their divinations.

=Livery= (Fr. _livrée_). Literally, the _distribution_; that is to say,
of clothes to be worn by the servants of palaces, &c. (See BADGES.)

=Livery Colours.= In the Middle Ages all great houses had their own
livery colours. Thus those of the House of York were blue and crimson,
those of the House of Lancaster white and blue, of the House of Tudor
white and green, of the House of Stuart scarlet and gold.

=Loaves=, in Christian art, are the emblems of charity to the poor; the
attribute of St. Philip the Apostle and other saints.

=Lobe= (of an arch), Fr.; Anglicé _foil_; e. g. a trefoil arch is _arc

=Local Colour= is the real fundamental colour of an object, considered
apart from all accidental variations of light and reflexion.

=Locellus=, R. A box or casket; this term is a diminutive of LOCULUS.

=Lochaber Axe.= A short pole with a sharp axe at one end, an ancient
weapon of the Highlanders of Scotland.

=Locker=, Chr. Arch. A cupboard for sacred vessels generally left in the
thickness of the wall on the north side of the altar of a church. (See

=Locking up.= Any process by which a colour, liable to be affected by
damp, can be rendered durable.

=Loculamentum=, R. (_loculus_, a little place). Any box, chest, or case,
the interior of which is divided into compartments.

=Loculus=, R. (dimin. of _locus_, a place). (1) A coffin, generally of
stone. (See SARCOPHAGUS.) (2) A compartment in the manger of a stable.
(3) A small chest fitted with compartments.

=Locutorium=, Chr. Of a convent, &c., the _parlour_.

[Illustration: Figs. 428, 429. Badge of Richard II. in Westminster

=Lodged=, Her. Said of animals of the chase _in repose_. The
illustration shows the favourite badge of Richard II.: a white hart
chained, and in an attitude of rest. “This device is repeated in
_Westminster Hall_ 83 times; and all are equally consistent with
heraldic truth and accuracy, without any of them being an exact
counterpart of any other.” (_Boutell_, _English Heraldry_.) (Fig. 428.)

=Loegria=, O. E. England. (_Geoffry of Monmouth._)

=Logan Stones= (properly _logging stones_, from O. E. _log_, to
oscillate). ROCKING STONES (q.v.).

=Logeum=, Gr. (λογεῖον). A Greek term synonymous with PULPITUM (q.v.).

=Loggia=, It. The gallery, or corridor, of a palace.

=Lombard Architecture.= “A style invented by the Lombards (Longobardi)
in the 7th century in imitation of the Roman. It continued in use till
the 10th century, and gave place to the Norman style. It is rude, heavy,
and massive, with small narrow windows.” (_Parker._) The above is only
one application of the term, which is applied by different writers to a
great number of different styles. The _Lombardesque_ style (It. _lo
stile Lombardesco_) applies to the architectural works of the family of
Pietro _Lombardo_ (15th century). The _Lombard Gothic_ is still another
style (of the 12th century).

=Loops=, =Loups=, Arch. Another name for CRENELS (q.v.), or embrasures.

=Lord.= The word is Saxon; from _hlaf_ or _klaf_, a loaf of bread; and
_ford_, to give; hence it means originally _bread-giver_.

[Illustration: Fig. 430. Gallic cuirass in the Louvre.]

[Illustration: Fig. 431. Fragment of a Gallic cuirass.]

=Lorica=, Gr. and R. (_lorum_, a thong). A cuirass; it was made either
for officers, of two γύαλα, the breast and back-pieces; or, for the
soldiers, of a number of small metal scales or bands, fastened together
with rivets or rings, and flexible. Among the Asiatics the cuirass was
frequently made of cotton; and among the Sarmatians, and other nations,
of horn.

=Lorimers=, O. E. Bit-makers.

=Lorraine Cross.= A cross with two projecting arms on each side.

=Lorraine Glass= for painted windows; obtained from the Vosges as early
as the 13th century, and then called Burgundy glass. “When any one means
to paint, let him choose the Lorraine glass, which inclines to the white
yellow because that bears the fire best, and receives the colour better
than any other.” (_Félibien_, 1619.)

=Lota.= A sacred utensil in India, used in ceremonial and other
ablutions. It is a globular bowl with a low narrow neck, sometimes
chased or engraved and incrusted.

[Illustration: Fig. 432. Lotus-flowers.]

=Lotus= (λωτός). The lotus is a frequently recurring _cyma_ in Hindoo
architecture. In Egyptian archæology, the lotus, of which two partially
opened buds may be seen in Fig. 432, was the symbol of the rising of the
sun, of fertilization, life, and resurrection. The lotus appears in the
ornamentation of the largest as well as of the smallest monuments of
Egyptian art; and is the motive of many of the columns and capitals of
the temples and palaces of a certain period, as well as of the
decoration of vases and other small objects. Three lotus-stems issuing
from a basin symbolized Upper Egypt.

=Louis d’Or=, Fr. A gold coin, value about 20_s._, first struck in 1640.

=Louis Treize Style= (Arch.), a French version of Italian art, prevailed
from 1625 to 1650, and produced _Jean le Pautre_, the ornamentist, and
the following styles:—

[Illustration: Fig. 433. Heraldic Decoration at Versailles—Louis

=Louis Quatorze=, Arch. A style of ornament developed towards the close
of the 17th century (1643–1715). It is described as “essentially an
_ornamental_ style, its chief aim being effect by a brilliant play of
light and shade; colour, or mere beauty of form in detail, having no
part in it. This style arose in Italy, and the Chiesa del Gesù at Rome
is mentioned as its type or model. The great medium of the Louis
Quatorze was gilt stucco-work, which, for a while, seems to have almost
wholly superseded decorative painting; and this absence of colour in the
principal decorations of the period seems to have led to its more
striking characteristic,—infinite play of light and shade.” (_Wornum_,
_Analysis of Ornament_.) In this style symmetry was first systematically
avoided. In the _Furniture_ of the period the characteristic details are
the scroll and shell. The classical ornaments and all the elements of
the _Cinque-cento_, from which the Louis Quatorze proceeded, are
admitted under peculiar treatment, as accessories; the panels are formed
by chains of scrolls, or a combination of the scroll and shell.
Versailles is the great repertory of the Louis Quatorze (Fig. 433), and
the designs of Watteau its finest exemplification.

=Louis Quinze=, Arch. This style (1715–74) is the exaggeration of the
Louis Quatorze, rejecting all symmetry, and introducing the elongation
of the foliations of the scroll, mixed up with a species of crimped
conventional _coquillage_ or shell-work. The style found its culmination
in the bizarre absurdities of the Rococo.

=Louvre=, Arch. The open turret in the roofs of ancient halls, through
which the smoke escaped before the introduction of modern chimneys.

=Louvre-boarding= or =Luffer-boarding=, Arch. A series of overlapping
boards sloping from the top downwards, and from within outwards, and
fixed in a framework of timber. They are placed in the apertures of
towers and belfries for the sake of ventilating the timbers, and are
sloped to prevent rain and snow from penetrating within, and to direct
the sound of the bells downwards. Sometimes the wooden boardings are
covered with lead, slate, or zinc, in order to preserve them.

=Louvre-window=, =Belfry-arch=, Arch. The large lights fitted with
louvre-boarding in belfries.

=Love-apple.= The tomato is so called.

=Love-feast.= An annual feast celebrated in some parishes in England on
the Thursday before Easter. (See _Edwards’s Old English Customs_.)

=Love-in-Idleness=, O. E. The heart’s-ease.

=Love-knot.= A complicated figure by which an interchange of affection
is supposed to be figured.

=Love-lies-bleeding=, O. E. A flower; a kind of amaranth.

=Love-lock.= A long ringlet of hair worn on the left side of the head,
and allowed to stream down the shoulder sometimes as far as the elbow.
The love-lock is mentioned in Queen Elizabeth’s reign. “Will you be
Frenchified, with a love-lock down to your shoulders, wherein you may
weave your mistress’s favour?” (_Quip for an Upstart Courtier._)

         “Why should thy sweete love-locke hang dangling downe,
         Kissing thy girdle-stud with falling pride?
         Although thy skin be white, thy haire is browne;
         Oh, let not then thy haire thy beautie hide.”
                               (_The Affectionate Shepheard._)

=Lovel=, O. E. A dog.

              “The Ratte, the Catte, and Lovell our dogge.
              Rule all England under the hogge.” (1484.)

=Low Side-window=, Arch. A peculiar small window found in many churches
near the west end of the chancel, and very near the ground. It was never
glazed, but closed with wooden or iron gratings. Its object has never
been ascertained. Most of the examples are of the 13th or 14th century.
(See _Archæological Journal_, vol. iv. p. 314.)

=Low Sunday=, Chr. The Sunday next after Easter.

=Lozenge.= In Heraldry, the diamond-shaped figure used for a shield to
display the arms of spinsters and widows. The _lozenge_ is always placed
upright on the shield, and its true proportions are as 5 to 4. (See

=Lozenge Moulding= or =Lozenge Fret=. An ornament used in Norman
architecture, presenting the appearance of diagonal ribs, enclosing
diamond-shaped panels.

=Lozenges.= A term in wood-engraving for a class of fine gravers used
for outlines and very fine shading.

[Illustration: Fig. 434. Shield of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent.]

=Lozengy=, Her. A field divided lozenge-wise. (Fig. 434.)

=Lucariæ=, R. Festivals instituted at Rome to commemorate the refuge
which the Roman army had once found in a wood (_lucus_) between the Via
Salaria and the left bank of the Tiber. At the time of the invasion of
the Gauls in the year 365 B.C., the Roman army would have been entirely
cut to pieces but for this refuge.

=Lucarne=, Fr. Arch. A dormer or garret window.

=Luce=, Her. The fish now called a pike. (Fig. 380.)

[Illustration: Fig. 435. Bronze Lucerna. Roman.]

=Lucerna=, R. (_luceo_, to shine). An oil lamp of terra-cotta or bronze.
(Fig. 435.) On one side they had a handle, and on the other one or more
places for wicks (_myxæ_). The oil was poured in through an opening in
the centre. _Lucerna bilychnis_, _trilychnis_, _polylychnis_, and
_lucerna bimyxos_, _trimyxos_, or _polymyxos_, were respectively lamps
with two, three, or several nozzles, or with two, three, or several
wicks; _lucerna pensilis_ was a hanging lamp. (See Fig. 435.)

=Lucidæ=, Med. Lat. Lustrous varnishes.

=Lucifer= (_lux_, light; _fero_, to bring). The morning or evening star.

=Lucta=, =Luctamen=, =Luctatio= (Gr. πάλη, πάλαισμα, παλαισμοσύνη, or
καταβλητική). Wrestling. In the Homeric age the wrestlers contended
naked, excepting the _perizoma_ round the loins; about B.C. 720 (the
15th Olympiad) this was discarded. The Cretans and Lacedæmonians, and
afterwards the Greeks, anointed the body with oil, and then strewed it
over with sand or dust. The Lucta or Palé differed from the
_Pancratium_. In the latter, boxing and wrestling were combined, and the
contest continued until one party was killed, or unable to continue. In
wrestling, on the other hand, the victory was awarded to the man who
first threw the other three times. The most famous wrestler of antiquity
was Milo of Crotona, who flourished B.C. 509, and was seven times
crowned at the Pythian games, and six times at Olympia.

=Lucullite.= A variety of black marble, first brought to Rome from an
island at Assouan on the Nile by Lucullus.

=Ludi.= Games at festivals, or a general name for such festivals as
consisted entirely of games and contests. _Ludi circenses_ were games
held in the circus, gladiatorial and other. (See CIRCUS.) _Ludi scenici_
were theatrical representations. _Ludi stati_, like the _Feriæ statæ_,
were those held regularly on certain days marked in the calendar. _Ludi
imperativi_, on the other hand, were held by special appointment, and
_votivi_ in fulfilment of vows. The games were superintended by the
ÆDILES. The principal games will be found described under the headings
Apollinares, Augustales, Capitolini, Circenses, Compitalia, Floralia,
Funebres, Liberales or Dionysia, Megalesia, Plebeii, Sæculares, &c.

=Ludus=, R. A game or pastime; _ludus litterarius_, or _ludus_ simply,
was a school for the instruction of youth; _ludus duodecim scriptorum_,
a kind of backgammon played by the ancients; _ludus fidicium_, a music
school; _ludus gladiatorius_, a school for gladiators directed by a

=Lumachel= (It. _lumachella_, a little snail). A marble full of fossil
shells, and of beautiful iridescent colours, sometimes a deep red or
orange; called also _fire marble_.

=Luna=, R. (lit. moon). An ivory or silver shoe-buckle worn by Roman
senators. (Compare LUNULA.)

=Lunated.= Crescent-shaped.

=Lunette.= (1) In Fortification, a work with two _faces_ and two flanks,
i. e. a REDAN to which flanks or lateral wings have been added; in form,
therefore, it resembles a BASTION. (2) In Architecture, a crescent or
semicircular window, or space above a square window beneath a rounded
roof. Hence the _paintings_ on such a space are called _lunettes_; e. g.
those of Raffaelle in the Vatican.

=Lunula=, R. (dimin. of _luna_). (1) An ornament in the form of a
crescent worn by women round the neck. (2) The white moon-shaped marks
at the roots of the finger-nails. (Cf. MENIS.)

=Lupatum=, R. A jagged bit with teeth like a saw (_lupus_); whence its

=Lupercalia=, R. Festivals held at Rome on the fifteenth of the calends
of March (15th of February), in the _Lupercal_, a sacred enclosure or
cave on the Palatine, regarded as the den of the she-wolf who nursed
Romulus and Remus. The _luperci_ assembled together and sacrificed goats
and young dogs, with the skins of which they ran through the streets
half naked. [Lupercus, or Februus, was the god of fertility. The
festival was originally a shepherd festival; the ceremony was symbolical
of a purification of shepherds, and commemorated the time when Rome was
a nation of shepherds.]

=Lupus=, R. (lit. wolf). (1) A hand-saw. (2) _Lupus ferreus_, a huge
iron hook, lowered from the walls of a besieged place to catch the point
of the battering-ram. (See HARPAGA.)

=Lura=, R. Literally, the mouth of a large leathern sack for wine and
oil, and thence the sack itself.

[Illustration: Fig. 435 a. Hawk’s Lure.]

=Lure.= A falconer’s decoy, made of feathers on a cord, to attract a
hawk back to the wrist. The illustration is a heraldic _lure_. (See Fig.
91. See also IN LURE.)

=Lusiad.= The great epic of the Portuguese poet Camoens.

=Lustratio= (Gr. κάθαρσις). A purification, originally by water,
afterwards by solemn ceremonies of sprinkling, or the smoke of
sacrifice; made privately after deaths or accidental pollutions, and
publicly on the occasion of public disasters, prodigies, or the like;
and at certain fixed periods, especially at the close of every

=Lustricus= (sc. _dies_), R. (_lustrum_, a lustration). The day of
purification for a new-born infant, when it received its name.

=Lustrum=, R. (_luo_, to wash). A solemn purification performed by the
censors on laying down their office, that is to say, every _five years_;
whence the term was used to denote that space of time.

=Lute= (Arabic, _el oud_). A stringed instrument of great antiquity,
first mentioned in Persia in 682 A. D. Before the 10th century the lute
had only four strings, or four pairs producing four tones, each tone
having two strings tuned in unison. About the 10th century a string for
a fifth tone was added. The strings were made of silk neatly twisted.
The neck of the instrument was provided with frets of string, regulated
according to the system of seventeen intervals to an octave. The Chinese
god of music is represented playing on a lute with four strings. The
lute was very popular in England in Elizabeth’s time. Originally it had
eight catgut strings, arranged in four pairs, each pair being in unison.
The number of strings varied from time to time, and in the 17th century
they were twenty-four. The size of the lute also varied; the treble lute
was the smallest, and the bass lute the largest. There were also the
ARCHLUTE, the CHITARRONE, THEORBO, &c. (Consult Thomas Mace’s _Musick’s
Monument_, 1676.)

=Lycæa.= A festival of the Arcadians in honour of Zeus Λυκαῖος.

=Lyceium.= A sacred enclosure at Athens, dedicated to Apollo Lycius,
where the _polemarch_ originally held his court. It was decorated with
fountains, plantations, and ornamental edifices by Peisistratus,
Pericles, and Lycurgus. Here Aristotle delivered his lectures, as he
_walked about_ with his followers, hence called “_Peripatetics_.”

[Illustration: Fig. 436. Lychnus.]

=Lychnus=, =Lychnuchus=, R. (λύχνος, λυχνοῦχος). The former of these
terms is of by far the most frequent occurrence. It denotes a kind of
lantern or candlestick made to support oil lamps (_lucernæ_). Fig. 436
represents a lychnus supporting three _lucernæ_.

=Lydian.= _Of music_, soft and slow; _generally_ effeminate.

=Lydian Stone= (_Lydius lapis_ or _Heraclius lapis_) was a kind of
flinty slate used by the ancients as a touchstone for the trial of gold
and silver.

[Illustration: Fig. 437. Lymphad.]

=Lymphad=, Her. An ancient galley, the feudal ensign of the house of
Lorn, and as such quartered by the Dukes of Argyle. It is borne also by
the Prince of Wales as “Lord of the Isles.” (Fig. 437.)

=Lynx Sapphire.= A lapidary’s term for dark-grey or greenish-blue
varieties of the sapphire.

=Lyon King at Arms.= The Scotch Herald, Lord Lyon. The regalia of this
officer are, a crown of gold, with a crimson velvet cap, &c.; a velvet
robe reaching to his feet, with the arms of the kingdom embroidered
thereon, both before and behind, in the proper tinctures; a triple row
of gold chains round his neck, with an oval gold medal pendent thereto,
on one side of which is the royal bearing, and on the other St. Andrew
with his cross enamelled in proper colours, and a baton of gold
enamelled green, powdered with the badges of the kingdom.

=Lyra=, Gr. and R. (λύρα). A lyre; a stringed instrument which assumed
various forms. On Assyrian monuments the lyre occurs in three different
forms, and is held horizontally in playing. Its front bar was generally
either oblique or slightly curved. It was played with a _plectrum_ or
with the fingers. The HEBREW lyre is represented on coins of Judas
Maccabæus. Some have three strings, others five, and others six. The two
sides of the frames appear to have been made of horns of animals. The
Hebrew square-shaped lyre is probably the PSALTERION, the KINNOR, a lyre
of triangular shape, the instrument of King David, is named in the Bible
as the oldest stringed instrument, the invention of Jubal. The Rabbis
record that King David used to suspend his over his pillow at night. On
Egyptian monuments, at Beni Hassan, a Hebrew lyre is represented,
probably of the date of Joseph, 1700 B.C. The GREEKS had lyres of many
kinds, distinguished by different names; LYRA, a generic term, and also
the lyre oval at the base, to be held in the lap; KITHARA, with a square
base, to be held against the breast; CHELYS, a small lyre with body made
of tortoise-shell; PHORMIX, a large lyre, &c. Some lyres have a bridge,
others have none; the largest were probably held on or between the
knees, or were tied by a band to the left arm. The strings of catgut or
sinew were twanged with a _plektron_ or short stem of ivory or metal,
pointed at both ends. The lyre was the most favourite instrument of the
ROMANS, under various names. The CORNU had a frame ending at the top in
two long horns; the BARBITOS was a lyre with a large body; the
PSALTERIUM was of an oblong square shape, &c. The lyre is represented in
early CHRISTIAN monuments of the 4th century. In one of them the Saviour
is represented as Apollo touching the lyre. ANGLO-SAXON MSS. of the 9th
century also represent the lyre. A GERMAN fiddle of the 9th century,
with only one string, is called _lyra_ in the MS. In Christian symbolism
the lyre represented “the attractive power of the Lord.” (See MESE.)

=Lysis=, Arch. A plinth, or step above the cornice of the _podium_ which
surrounds the PEDESTAL.


=M-roof=, Arch. A roof formed by the junction of two common roofs, with
a valley between them.

=Macabre.= (See DANCE OF DEATH.)

=Macaronic Verses.= A burlesque of Latin, chequered with Italian,
Tuscan, and plebeian words, described by the author:—

  “Ars ista poetica nuncupatur Ars Macaronica, a Macaronibus derivata;
  qui Macarones sunt quoddam pulmentum, farina, caseo, butyro
  compaginatum, grossum, rude et rusticanum. Ideo Macaronica nil nisi
  grossedinem, ruditatem, et _Vocabulazzos_ debet in se continere.”

=Macchia=, It. (lit. a spot or stain). “The blocking out of the masses
of light and shade.” (See _Eastlake’s Materials_, &c., ii. 355.)

=Mace= (Fr. _masse_ or _massue_). A military club or staff, generally of
iron with a wooden handle, useful for breaking defensive armour. The
mace was generally worn at the saddle-bow; and was subsequently
perforated to form a pistol, and finally superseded by the pistol. In
the Middle Ages the mace became an emblem of office; and is so
still—usually surmounted by a crown. (See CLAVA, CLUB.)

=Macellarius=, R. (_macellum_, a market). A keeper of a shop for the
sale of fruit and cooked provisions. His shop was called _taverna

=Macellum=, Gr. and R. (μάκελλον). A covered market in which were sold
all kinds of provisions, such as fish, poultry, and game; it was
distinct from the open market called FORUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 438. Maceria.]

=Maceria=, R. (1) A rough wall formed of materials of every description,
and having no _facing_. (2) An enclosed place unroofed. (Fig. 438.)

=Machæra=, Gr. and R. (μάχαιρα). A sword with only one edge, made rather
for cutting than thrusting.

=Machærium=, Gr. and R. (μαχαίριον). Dimin. of _machæra_, a knife
employed chiefly by fishermen.

=Machærophorus=, Gr. and R. (μαχαιρο-φόρος). Literally, _armed with the
hunting-knife_, the _machærium_; an epithet of the so called _barbarous_
nations, such as the Egyptians, Persians, Medes, Thracians, and Gauls.

=Machicolated=, Arch. Furnished with machicolations.

=Machicolations= (Fr. _machicoulis_), Arch. Openings or grooves made
under the parapet of a fortified place, through which stones, pitch,
boiling water, or hot sand were thrown down.

=Macrochera=, Gr. (μακρό-χειρ, long-armed). A tunic with long sleeves,
called by the Romans CHIRIDOTA.

=Macrocolum=, =Macrocollum=, R. Paper of the largest size, that is to
say, in sheets formed of a number of pieces of parchment or papyrus
glued together.

=Macula=, R. The mesh of a net; in the plural _maculæ_.

=Madder.= The root of “rubia tinctoria” (Fr. _garance_), from which a
number of valuable pigments are made, which are transparent and
permanent, working equally well in oil and in water-colours. They vary
from the lightest and most delicate rose to the deepest purple, and are
known as _rose madder_, _pink madder_, _madder-carmine_, _purple
madder_, _brown madder_, _intense madder purple_, and _orange madder

=Madonna=, It. The Virgin Mary. (See JOYS.)

=Mæander=, Gr. (Μαίανδρος). An ornamental design so called from the
numerous windings it described, like the river _Mæander_. Its proper
name is the GREEK FRET. (Figs. 334 to 336.)

=Mælium.= (See MELIUM.)

=Mæmacteria=, Gr. (μαιμακτήρια). Festivals held at Athens in honour of
the boisterous or stormy Zeus (Μαιμάκτης), with the object of obtaining
a mild winter.

=Mænad=, Gr. (μαινάς). Literally, a frenzied woman, and thence a
bacchante. (See BACCHA.)

=Mænhir.= (See MENHIR.)

=Mænia Columna=, R. A column situated in the Roman forum, near which
certain magistrates (_triumviri criminales_) judged criminals, slaves,
and vagrants.

=Mæniana=, =Mænianæ Scholæ=, R. Celebrated schools of Gaul founded by
Augustus at Autun (_Augustodunum_ or _Bibracte_), so called because the
buildings were furnished with balconies (_mæniana_). (See MÆNIANUM.)

=Mænianum=, R. A structure supported on corbels; a balcony projecting
from the wall of a house; in a theatre or amphitheatre, one range of
seats comprised between two landing-places (_præcinctiones_). Originally
a balcony erected round the Roman forum, B.C. 318, to give accommodation
to the spectators of gladiatorial contests. Afterwards balconies in
general were so called.

=Maes=, Celt. A Welsh word for a field of battle, common in
topographical nomenclature.

=Mafil.= (See MAHFIL.)

=Mafors= or =Mavors= (Gr. μαφώριον) was a short veil covering the head
and neck and flowing down on the shoulders, such as nuns wear in
imitation of the Virgin Mary.

=Magadis=, Gr. (μάγαδις). A musical instrument invented by the Lydians;
it was a kind of harp, which changed its form and was afterwards called
SAMBUCA (q.v.). (See LYRA.)

=Maghreb Pottery.= (See GARGOULETTE.)

=Magi.= The adoration of the Magi (commemorated on Christmas Day) is the
subject of some of the earliest specimens of Christian art. A fresco in
the catacomb of St. Agnes, representing the Magi before Herod, is
attributed to the 2nd century, and the mosaics of St. Maria Maggiore at
Rome, in which the same subject occurs, are of the 5th century.

=Magnase Black.= A colour which dries rapidly when mixed with oil, and
is of intense body.

=Mahfil=, Arab. A raised seat in a mosque, for the _imaum mocri_ who
reads the Koran, and for the _imaum khatib_, who recites prayer,
preaches, and acts as the minister of the services generally.

=Mahl-stick.= A stick with a pad at the end, upon which the painter
rests the wrist of his right arm while working.

=Mahogany.= Wood of the _Swietenia mahogoni_ of Jamaica and Honduras.
Satin-wood, or green mahogany, is the _Chloroxyllon_; mottled, or
African mahogany, is the _Khaya_; Indian mahogany is the _Cedrela

=Mahoitres=, O. E. The name of a singular fashion of the 15th
century—“of prankyd gownes, and _shoulders up set_, moss and flocks
sewed within”—of padding up the shoulder to give a broad appearance to
the chest. (See Figs. 51, 355, and 469.)

=Mail= (from the Fr. _maille_, the meshes of a net). Applied to chain or
ringed armour. “Rich _mayles_ that ronke (_strong_) were and round.”

=Mainefaire=, O. E. The covering for a horse’s _mane_. It was made of
overlapping plates, like a lobster’s tail; and was fastened to the
_testière_ by buttons, and round the animal’s neck by straps.

=Maintenance, Cap of=, Her. (See CHAPEAU.)

[Illustration: Fig. 439. Majolica Plate (Urbino Ware).]

=Maiolica= or =Majolica=. The Italian name for the glazed earthenware
introduced by Moorish potters from the island of Majorca. Originally
these terms were only applied to “_lustre wares_,” but from the 16th
century they were generally applied to the _glazed earthenware_ of
Italy. A coarser lead-glazed lustred ware was known as mezza-majolica.
The distinguishing characteristics of the Majolica ware are “coarseness
of ware, intricacy of pattern, and occasionally prismatic glaze.” It is
also named FAIENCE, from the _botega_ at FAENZA, and, when decorated
with subjects after designs of Raphael, “Raffaelle-ware.” FAYENCE,
_terraglia_, as distinct from PORCELAIN, is formed of potter’s clay
(hence its English name Pottery) mixed with marl and sand, and is _soft_
or _hard_ according to the nature of the composition, and the degree of
heat under which it is fired in the kiln. English _earthenware_ is soft,
while _stone-ware_, _Queen’s ware_, &c., are hard. Soft wares are either
unglazed, or _lustrous_, or _glazed_, or enamelled. The Italian lustrous
ware is properly, and the glazed ware improperly, but generally called

=Majesty= (It. _Maesta_), Chr. A conventional representation of the
Saviour in glory, on a throne, encompassed by a _nimbus_, and surrounded
by cherubim, and the four evangelistic symbols, and the letters Α and Ω.
“The only existing document relating to Cimabue shows that he was
employed in 1301 on a mosaic ‘Majesty’ in the tribune of the Duomo at
Pisa.” (_Eastlake._)

=Mala Pioba.= Irish (_mala_, a bag). The bagpipe.

=Malachite.= A native carbonate of copper, forming a beautiful and
permanent green pigment, used for oils and water-colours. _Incrusted_
upon other materials it is used for articles of ornament. _Blue_
malachite is pure carbonate of copper; _green_ malachite is green
carbonate of copper; _emerald_ or _royal_ malachite is dioptase of
copper, a still rarer green and the best of all, which is a mixture of
copper and silica; _false_ or _pseudo_-malachite is phosphate of copper,
soft and silky, and of a rich velvet green marred by black spots or
lines, and not so rich as the three kinds of true malachite.

=Malchus=, R. An old term for a confessional having only one stool for
penitents; it signified that which has only one ear, from the fact that
Malchus, Caïaphas’ servant, was deprived of his right ear by Peter.

=Malleability.= The property of extension under the hammer (_malleus_).
_Gold_ is the most malleable of metals. The art of rendering _glass_
malleable was discovered by an architect in the reign of Tiberius.
Buried treasures of glass vessels have been found to be malleable when
first disinterred, but to harden quickly on exposure to the air.

=Malleus=, R. (1) A hammer. (2) Med. The MAULE (Gothic _Miölner_),
Thor’s hammer; a military weapon.

=Malluvia, Malluvium.= R. A wash-hand basin.

[Illustration: Fig. 440. Malus of an Amphitheatre.]

=Malus=, R. (_malus_, an apple-tree). (1) The mast of a vessel. (2) In
theatres and amphitheatres (Fig. 440) _mali_ were the poles over which
the _velarium_ was stretched.

=Malveisin=, Med. (Fr. _malvoisin_, a disagreeable neighbour). A
military engine for projecting stones or arrows.

=Mama-quilla=, Peruv. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun,
INTI (q.v.); so called because it was dedicated to the moon,

=Mamillare=, R. (_mamilla_, the breast). (1) A broad band made of soft
leather, a kind of small stays, used by the Roman ladies to support the
breasts. (2) In Mediæval Latin, circular plates on the surcoat with
rings from which two chains depended, one of which was attached to the
sword and the other to the sheath. The fashion was introduced under
Edward I., and continued until Henry V.

=Mancop Oly=, Dutch. Poppy oil, “a very white oil used by the painters
in the Netherlands, who execute delicate works requiring lively colours,
such as the vases of flowers of De Ghein, &c.” (_Eastlake._)

=Mandorla=, Chr. (lit. an almond). (See AUREOLE and VESICA PISCIS.)

=Mandra=, Chr. (lit. _a fold_). A favourite appellation for monastic
establishments in the East.

=Manducus=, R. (_mando_, to chew). A comic masked character,
distinguished by his ugliness and _voracity_ (whence his name). (See

=Mandyas=, Chr. In the Greek Church, an outer garment worn by monks. It
is a long cloak, reaching almost to the feet, and fastened at the
throat. It is originally a Persian dress, and is frequently mentioned as
worn by emperors and kings.

=Manefaire=, O. E. A covering of armour for a horse’s _mane_.

=Manes=, R. The shades of the dead. (See LEMURES.)

=Manganese Brown.= A rich semi-opaque brown pigment, permanent and
drying well. (See CAPPAGH.)

=Manger=, Chr. The boards of the manger in which the Infant Saviour was
laid, are said to be preserved in the crypt of the church of St. Maria
Maggiore at Rome. They are called the _culla_, and are the object of a
solemn procession on Christmas Eve.

=Mangonell=, Med. A military machine for hurling stones; the spelling is
frequently varied:—

                “Vous peussez bugles, mangoniaux
                Veoir pardessus les carniaux.”
                                  (_Roman de la Rose._)

=Manica=, R. (_manus_, a hand). (1) An armlet, or piece of armour which
protected the arm of the gladiator. (2) A leather glove worn by
barbarous nations. In the plural, _manicæ_ denotes (1) manacles; (2) a
grappling-iron called HARPAGA (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 441. Manicore.]

=Manicora=, =Manicore=, Chr. In Christian iconography, the manicora is a
hybrid animal with a human head, and a globular body ending in a
serpent. It is a symbol of the World, the Flesh, and the Devil. (Fig.

=Maniple=, Chr. A short stole held in the left hand, originally used as
a napkin by the officiating priest. Afterwards it was worn pendent from
the wrist, and richly decorated. (See FANON.) The word is derived from—

=Manipulus=, R. (lit. a handful). (1) A maniple, the earliest ensign of
the Roman legion; it consisted of a handful of hay attached to the end
of a pole. (2) A body of infantry in a legion, consisting of about 180
to 200 men.

=Mansard Roof=, Arch, (so called from _Mansard_, the French architect,
who introduced it), or =Curb Roof= (from the French _courber_, to bend).
A roof with two sets of rafters, of which the upper part is, as it were,
broken off, and not so steep as the lower. According to _Mesanges_,
Mansard took the idea of his roof from a frame composed by Segallo, and
Michael Angelo employed it in the construction of the dome of St.
Peter’s. The houses in Lower Brittany were covered with these roofs in
the end of the 15th century.

=Manse=, O. E. The parsonage-house.

=Mansio=, R. (_maneo_, to remain). Stations placed at intervals along
the high roads, to serve as halting-places for the troops on a march.

=Mantapa=, Hind. A _porch_ to a temple.

=Mantel-piece=, Arch. (formerly _mantil_). A cloak or covering; hence
the slab which covers a part of the fireplace; the canopy over a shrine
(Latin _mandualis_).

=Mantelet= or =Mantlet=. A shed used for protecting soldiers from
missile weapons. (See PLUTEUS.)

=Mantica=, R. (_manus_, the hand). A double wallet serving as a
portmanteau for riders or pedestrians.

=Mantle.= A flowing robe worn over the armour, as shown in the costume
of the knights in the ivory mirror-case. (Fig. 463.)

=Mantling= or =Lambrequin=. A small mantle, of some rich materials,
attached to the helmet, and worn hanging down, and ending in tassels.
(See Fig. 177.) It is usually represented, in Heraldry, with jagged
ends, to represent the cuts it would be exposed to in actual battle.

=Manuale=, R. (_manus_, the hand). A wooden case for a book.

=Manuballista=, R. A hand-ballista. (See ARCUBALLISTA.)

=Manubrium=, R. (i. e. what is borne in the hand). A general term for a
handle of any kind. (See Fig. 377.)

=Manus Ferrea=, R. Literally, a _hand of iron_; an iron hook which
served as a grappling-iron, differing from the _harpaga_, as it was
launched at the end of a chain, while the _harpaga_ was fixed on a long
beam (_asser_).

=Marble.= The finest for statuary, from _Carrara_, is of a pure white;
that from _Paros_ is of a waxy cream colour; others coloured with
metallic oxides are available for ornamental purposes. Many cements have
been produced as “artificial marble.” (See SCAGLIOLA.)

=Marble Silk= had a weft of several colours so woven as to make the
whole web look like _marble_ stained with a variety of tints. On the 6th
of November, 1551, “the old qwyne of Schottes rod thrught London; then
cam the lord tresorer with a C. great horsse and ther cotes of
_marbull_.” Its use prevailed for three centuries.

=Marbling= “is an art which consists in the production of certain
patterns and effects by means of colours so prepared as to float on a
mucilaginous liquid. While so floating they form into patterns, which
are taken off on to a sheet of paper (for book-covers), or to the
smoothly cut edges of a book, by dipping.” (_Woolnough_, _The Whole Art
of Marbling_, 1881.)

=Marcus=, R. A blacksmith’s hammer; a sledge-hammer. (See MALLEUS.)

=Mardelles=, =Margelles=, or =Marges=, Celt. Excavations met with in
several parts of Europe, supposed to be Celtic.

=Mark=, O. E. An ancient coin, value 13_s._ 4_d._; formerly the
equivalent of 30 silver pennies.

=Marmouset=, Arch. Fr. (monkey). A grotesque figure introduced into
architectural decoration in the 13th century.

=Marouflage=, Fr. (_maroufler_, to line). A method of house-painting in
France, upon a lining of prepared canvas fixed upon the surface to be

[Illustration: Fig. 442. Marquess’s coronet.]

=Marquess=, =Marquis=, Her. The second order of the British peerage, in
rank next to that of duke, was introduced into England in 1387 by
Richard II. The coronet, apparently contemporary in its present form
with that of the dukes, has its golden circlet heightened with four
strawberry-leaves and as many pearls arranged alternately.

[Illustration: Fig. 443. Shaft ornamented with Marquetry.]

=Marquetry.= Inlaid-work of ornamental woods and stones of various
colours put together and mixed with metals. The art has existed from the
earliest ages; but no nation has brought it to a higher degree of
perfection than the Italians of the 15th century. The Florentines
especially have produced work of this kind which is unapproached; the
Medici chapel at Florence may be particularly instanced. Figs. 443 and
444 represent specimens of antique work. The Venetian marquetry, derived
from Persia and India, is a fine inlay of ivory, metal, and woods,
stained to vary the colour. This work is in geometric patterns only. In
France, in the early marquetry designs, picturesque landscapes, broken
architecture, and figures are represented. Colours are occasionally
stained on the wood. Ivory and ebony are the favourite materials. In
England, it is an art imported from Holland in the reign of William and
Mary. The older designs on Dutch marquetry represent tulips and other
flowers, foliage, birds, &c., all in gay colours, generally the self
colours of the wood used. Sometimes the eyes and other salient points
are in ivory and mother-of-pearl. (Compare BOULE, CERTOSINA WORK,

[Illustration: Fig. 444. Marquetry.]

[Illustration: Fig. 445. Marra.]

=Marra=, R. A kind of hoe with indented teeth, used for tearing up
weeds. (Fig. 445.)

=Mars Brown.= A brown pigment.

=Mars= (=Reds=, &c.). Calcined earths of which the brightness of the
redness is regulated by the duration of the roasting.

[Illustration: Fig. 446. Teapot of Marseilles faience.]

=Marseilles Faience.= This ancient city has at all times been celebrated
in the ceramic arts. Fig. 446 gives a representative specimen of modern
polychrome work, decorated with flowers easily recognized by the
disposition of their long stalks. These flowers are, in other specimens,
accompanied by marine landscapes. Other polychrome services are called
from their designs “services aux insectes.”

=Marsupium=, R. (μαρσύπιον). A purse for containing money; it was made
of leather and shaped like a pear, being confined at the top with a
string. (Hence the adjective _marsupial_ applied to the kangaroo, &c.)

=Martel de Fer=, Med. A weapon which had at one end a pick, and at the
other a hammer, axe-blade, half-moon, mace-head, or other fanciful
termination. (_Meyrick._)

[Illustration: Fig. 447. Early Heraldic Martlet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 448. Heraldic Martlet.]

=Martlet=, Her. Bird, usually represented without feet. (Figs. 447,

=Martyrium=, Chr. An altar erected over the tomb of a martyr.

[Illustration: Fig. 449. Il Marzocco, the bronze Lion now in the
Bargello at Florence. By Donatello (about A. D. 1420).]

=Marzocco=, It. The Lion of Florence. The heraldic emblem of the city.
(Fig. 449.)

[Illustration: Fig. 450. Etruscan Mask in terra-cotta.]

=Mascaron=, Arch. Fr. A mask; the face of a man or animal employed as an
ornamentation for decorating the key-stones of arches or vaults, or the
stones of an arch, &c. (Fig. 450.)

=Mascle=, Her. The central _lozenge_ of a diapered surface; it is drawn
with right angles.

=Maser= or =Mazer=, O. E. A bowl of maple-wood. The name is applied to
similar bowls or goblets of other woods.

                            “The mazers four,
                    My noble fathers loved of yore,”

are mentioned by Scott in “The Lord of the Isles.” They were richly
ornamented, frequently with legends on the rim, such as

                    “In the name of the Trinitie
                    Fille the kup and drinke to me,”

and the rim was often covered with silver or gold.

=Massicot.= The name of an ancient pigment of a dull orange colour.

=Mastaba=, =Mastabê=, Egyp. An outer chapel attached to Egyptian
burial-places; it was generally a small quadrangular building, the door
of which faced the East.

=Master Arch=, O. E. The central or widest arch of a bridge.

=Mastic.= A resin used for varnish. (Dissolve one part of mastic resin
in two of oil of turpentine.) (See VARNISH.) In France, the term is
applied to a cement used to fill up joints in masonry; in _joinery_, to
a composition of wax, resin, and pounded brick, applied to fill up knots
and chinks in the wood. Putty is also so called.

=Mastigophorus=, Gr. and R. (μαστιγο-φόρος). A slavedriver, and thence
an officer who fulfilled the same functions as our policemen. The
mastigophori were so named because they carried a whip (μάστιγα φέρειν),
in order to put down any crowding or tumult; it was also part of their
duty to repress any infringement of the regulations at the public games.

=Match-lock.= A gun which was exploded by means of a match, before the
introduction of the flint and steel. (See FIRE-LOCK.)

=Materiatio=, R. (_materia_, materials). The timber-work of a roof,
consisting of two principal rafters (_canterii_), a tie-beam (_tignum_),
a ridgepiece (_calcimen_), beams (_trabes_), struts (_capreoli_),
purlines (_templa_), and common rafters (_asseres_).

=Materis=, R. A Celtic javelin with a broad head.

=Matralia=, R. (i. e. pertaining to a mother). The festival of _Matuta_
(the Ino of the Greeks), which was held at Rome every year on the third
of the ides of June (11th of June). Prayers were offered by the Roman
matrons on behalf of their nephews, they being afraid to pray for their
own children, since those of Matuta had turned out so unfortunately.

=Matronalia=, R. A festival of the Roman matrons held on the calends of
March, at which matrons offered sacrifices to Mars and Juno Lucina.

=Mattucashlash.= An ancient Scotch weapon, sometimes called the _armpit
dagger_, being worn on the arm ready to be used on coming to close

=Maule.= (See MALLEUS.)

=Maunde=, O. E. A basket.

[Illustration: Fig. 451. Mausoleum of Hadrian at Rome. In its original

=Mausoleum=, R. The tomb of Mausolus, king of Caria, at Halicarnassus,
ranked among the seven wonders of the world. The name was afterwards
applied to tombs of an imposing size and splendour, such as the tomb of
Augustus in the Field of Mars, and that of Hadrian, on the banks of the
Tiber, now known as Fort St. Angelo. A representation of it, in its
original state, is shown in Fig. 451.

=Mauve= is the colour of a peach blossom; obtained as a dye from
_aniline_ found in gas tar.

=Maze=, Chr. Labyrinthine figures in the pavements of churches and on
the turf of greens. To trace the former kneeling was a species of

=Mazmorra=, Sp. A tank lined with cement, sunk in the ground and used
for storing grain. (See _Murray’s Handbook, Spain_, p. 361, _Granada_,

=Mazonum=, Gr. (μαζο-νομεῖον; μᾶζα, barley-bread). A wooden platter for
domestic use, and thence a salver of bronze or gold on which perfumes
were burnt in the religious processions of Bacchus.

[Illustration: Fig. 452. Old Mechlin Lace, 17th century.]

[Illustration: Fig. 453. Mechlin Lace, 18th century.]

=Mechlin Lace= is fine, transparent, and effective. It is made in one
piece on the pillow; its distinguishing feature is the flat thread which
forms the flowers, and gives to the lace the character of embroidery. In
1699—when Charles II.’s prohibition to the introduction of Flanders lace
was removed—Mechlin lace became the fashion in England, and continued so
during the succeeding century. In the 17th century the Beguinage nuns
were celebrated for their lace-making, and they supported their house by
their work. Previous to 1665 the name of Mechlin was given to all pillow
lace, and much of it was made like our modern insertion. The engraving
shows a specimen of old Mechlin lace formerly in great favour as
head-dresses and other trimmings.

=Medallion.= (1) A medal of a larger size than the ordinary coinage. (2)
In Architecture, a circular or oval tablet on the face of a building.

=Mediæval.= (See MIDDLE AGES.)

=Medimnus=, Gr. (μέδιμνος). The principal Greek measure of capacity,
holding as much as six Roman _modii_. It was especially used for
measuring corn.

=Meditrinalia=, R. (_medeor_, to remedy). Roman festivals in honour of
Meditrina, the goddess of healing, celebrated on the 11th of October, at
which new wine was tasted, it being looked upon by the Romans as a
preservative of health.

=Medium.= The liquid in which pigments are ground. The best are linseed
oil and nut oil.

[Illustration: Fig. 454. Medusa Head on a shield.]

=Medusa Head= was frequently used as an ornament for the centre of a
shield. (Cf. GORGONEIA.)

=Megalartia=, Gr. (μεγαλάρτια). Festivals held at Delos in honour of
Ceres, who was called _Megalartos_ (Μεγάλαρτος) from her having bestowed
bread on mankind.

=Megalesian= (games), R. (_Ludi megalenses_). Festivals celebrated
annually on the 4th of April in honour of Cybelê, who was called the
Great (Μεγαλεῖα), in which the people went in procession to the Field of
Mars to witness scenic spectacles. The magistrates attended these
spectacles in a purple toga, or “toga prætexta;” hence the expression
“Purpura Megalensis.”

=Megylp.= A vehicle used by some oil-painters, condemned as tending to
destroy the permanency of the picture.

=Melides=, Gr. Nymphs of fruit-trees. (Cf. HAMADRYADES.)

=Melina=, R. A pouch made out of the skin of a marten (or a badger,

=Melium=, R. A collar for sporting-dogs, studded with nails and iron
spikes (_clavulis_, _capitatis_).

=Mell.= (See MALLEUS.)

=Melotte=, O. E. A garment worn by monks during laborious occupation.

=Membrana=, R. (_membrum_, skin). Parchment for writing on was
introduced as a substitute for the Egyptian papyrus by Eumenes II., king
of Pergamus. It was usually written over on one side, and the back was
stained with saffron. The writings were frequently erased, and the paper
or parchment used again. It was then called a _palimpsest_. All the
sheets used for one work were joined together into a long scroll, which
was folded round a staff, and then called _volumen_; usually there were
ornamental balls or bosses, projecting from the ends of the staff,
called _umbilici_ or _cornua_. The ends of the roll were carefully cut
and blackened; they were called _geminæ frontes_. The roll itself was
kept in a parchment case, which was stained purple or yellow. (See also

=Membranula=, R. (dimin. of _membrana_). A small strip of parchment on
which the title or contents of a volume were inscribed in minium.

=Menat=, Egyp. An Egyptian amulet worn on a necklace. The menat
evidently formed some symbol, the meaning of which has hitherto not been

=Menehis= or =Minihis=, Fr. This term, derived from the Celtic
_menech-ti_ (house of a monk), or _manach-li_ (free spot of earth), was
formerly used in Brittany to denote a place of asylum which had been
consecrated in any way.

=Menhir=, Celt. A Celtic monument consisting of a huge stone fixed
upright in the ground. Menhirs are found associated with _dolmens_,
_tumuli_, and circles of stones. (Consult _Bertrand_, _Archéologie
Celtique et Gauloise_, p. 84.)

=Menis=, =Meniscus=, Gr. and R. (μηνίσκος; μήνη, the moon). A
crescent-shaped piece of metal which was placed on statues of the gods
to hinder birds from settling on them. The same term was used to denote
an ornament, likewise in the shape of a crescent, placed by the Romans
at the beginning of their books; hence the expression a _menide_, from
the beginning. (Cf. LUNA.)

=Mensa=, R. (Gr. τράπεζα). A board, tablet, or table; _mensa escaria_,
or _mensa_ simply, a dining-table; _mensa prima_, _secunda_, the first,
second course of a meal; _mensa tripes_, a table with three feet, in
contradistinction to _monopodium_, a table with a single leg; _mensa
vinaria_, a drinking-table (see DELPHICA); _mensa sacra_, an
altar-table; _mensa vasaria_, a table for holding vessels; _mensa
publica_, a public bank; hence _mensarii_, bankers.

=Mensao=, Celt. A Celtic monument more usually called MENHIR (q.v.).

=Mensole=, Arch. A term denoting the key-stone of an arch.

=Menzil=, Orient. Houses in the East for the reception of travellers, in
places where there are neither caravanserais nor _khans_.

=Mereack=, Hind. A sort of thick black varnish employed by the Khmers to
coat over statues made of any soft stone, which are exposed to the
changes of the weather. This varnish was, in many instances, itself
covered with gold leaf.

=Merkins=, O. E. A name given to ringlets of false hair, much worn by
ladies _temp._ Charles I.

=Merlons=, Arch. The Cops or raised parts of a battlement. Figures of
warriors or animals are sometimes carved on the tops. (See BATTLEMENT.)

[Illustration: Fig. 455. Mermaid and Pillars of Hercules. Arms of the
Colonna family.]

=Mermaid.= An ancient device of the Colonna family was the mermaid
between the pillars of Hercules, with the motto _Contemnit tuta

=Mesaulæ= (μέσ-αυλα). (1) The narrow passage or corridor which, in a
Greek house, connected the _andron_ with the _gynæceum_. (2) The door in
this passage.

=Mese= (the middle, sc. χορδή). The central note of the seven-stringed
lyre. The Greeks had no names to distinguish musical notes. They were
expressed by the names of the strings of the lyre. Thus, NETE, _d_;
PARANETE, _c_; PARAMESE, _b_ flat; and MESE, _a_, in the treble or upper
tetrachord; and LICHANOS, _g_; PARHYPATE, _f_; and HYPATE, _e_, in the
base or lower tetrachord.

=Mesjid=, Arab. A small mosque. These exist in great numbers. The Sultan
Mohamet II. alone consecrated 170 _mesjids_ in Constantinople.

=Messe=, A.S. The Mass.

=Messle-house= or =Meselle-house=, O. E. (from the obsolete word
_measle_, a leper). A hospital or lazar-house.

[Illustration: Fig. 456. Meta of a Roman race-course.]

=Meta=, R. (_metior_, to measure). Any object with a circular base and
of conical shape; in a circus the term _meta_, or rather _metæ_ (for
there were two sets of goals), was applied to a set of three cones
placed together upon a pedestal, as shown in Fig. 456, to mark the
turning-points of the race-course. In a mill for grinding corn the name
of _meta_ was applied to the lower part of the mill, which was hewn into
the form of a cone. (See CIRCUS, OVUM, SPINA, &c.)

=Metal=, Tech. (1) A mass of glass in the state of paste, adherent to
the pipe and already blown; it may be regarded as the first stage in the
production of a piece. (2) Broken glass. (3) Broken stones for repairing

=Metal=, Her. The tinctures _or_ and _argent_.

=Metallic Canvas.= A combination of metal and canvas; waterproof for
various uses.

=Metallic Lava.= A composition of gravel, pounded chalk, tar, and wax,
forming an artificial stone to be cast into ornamental shapes in moulds.
The vestibule of the Euston Station is paved with this preparation.
(_Builder_, vi. 502.)

=Metallurgy.= It was at a comparatively late period of human
civilization that the art of working in iron was brought to perfection.
The ancient Egyptians, probably aware of its resources, had a
superstitious objection to its use; but they hardened bronze to a degree
unknown to later ages, and their bronze statuary of the most ancient
period is worthy of any age. The bronze-work of Britain and Ireland is
as ancient as any; and, in beauty of form and perfection of casting,
rivals the best modern work. Of the work in Greece we are told that
Athens alone contained 3000 bronze statues in the year 130 B.C., and
vast treasures of metallurgy have been discovered in Herculaneum and
Pompeii. In mediæval times Ireland was famous for metallurgy, and of its
admirable copper-works of the 11th century many splendid relics remain,
especially the so called Bell of St. Patrick. Oriental bronzes, of
characteristic design, are plentiful from all ages; especially beautiful
and perfect in execution are those of China and Japan. The best period
of workmanship in _Iron_ is the Middle Ages; gates and hinges, keys, and
especially weapons and defensive armour being the chief objects
produced. (Consult _Pugin_, _Digby Wyatt_.) (See also BRONZE, COPPER,

[Illustration: Fig. 457. One of the carved Metopes of the Parthenon,
representing the War of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ.]

=Metope=, Arch. (μετ-όπη, i. e. the space between the ὀπαί). A kind of
panel between the triglyphs in the Doric frieze (Fig. 458); in some
Greek examples quite plain, in others ornamented with sculpture. The
metopes of the Parthenon in the British Museum are carved with
representations of the war of the Centaurs and Lapithæ. (Fig. 457.) (See
ELGIN MARBLES.) In Roman buildings the metopes are usually carved, and
are exact squares; but in the Greek Doric this was not necessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 458. Metopes and Triglyphs (Doric).]

=Metreta=, Gr. (μετρητὴς, i. e. measurer). The unit in the Greek
measures of capacity; it held two _cotylæ_, or about eight gallons.

=Meurtrière=, O. E. “A black knot, that unties and ties the curles of
the hair.” (_Ladies’ Dict._, 1694.)

=Mews=, O. E. Originally a courtyard for “mewing” (i. e. moulting)

[Illustration: Fig. 458 a. Mexican temple—_Teocalli_.]

=Mexican Architecture.= The principal monuments of the valley of Mexico
are situated in a small tract in the centre of the table-land of
Anahuac. These consist of pyramidal temples (_teocallis_) formed in
terraces, with flat tops, and always surmounted by a chamber or cell,
which is the temple itself. In _Yucatan_ there are more architectural
remains than anywhere in the world, with palaces of all dates, generally
pyramidal, and often rich with elaborate carvings. (See _Stephens’s
Incidents of Travel in Yucatan_.) (Fig. 458 a.)

=Mezza-majolica= was the coarser majolica ware formed of potter’s earth,
covered with a white “slip,” upon which the subject was painted, then
glazed with the common lead glaze, over which the lustre pigments were
applied; the _majolica_, on the other hand, being the tin-enamelled ware
similarly lustred. (See MAJOLICA.)

=Mezzanine=, =Entresole=, =Half-story=, Arch. A small story intermediate
between two others of larger size. A mezzanine or Flemish window was a
window either square or broader than it was long, made in an attic, or
in a lower story lying between two higher stories.

=Mezzo-relievo=, It. Sculpture in relief, in which one half of the
figure projects; sometimes called DEMI-RELIEVO.

=Mias=, Hind. A commemorative monument.

=Mica=, =Micatio=, R. (_mico_, to move quickly). A game called by the
Italians of the present day _mora_; two players simultaneously
stretching out one or more fingers, and each guessing the number held up
by his adversary.

=Middle Ages.= The mediæval period—of transition between ancient and
modern times—between the 10th and the 15th centuries is one of the
grandest periods in art. It begins with the decay of Rome, and merges
into the _Renaissance_.

=Middle Distance=, in a landscape:—between the foreground and the
background. Great skill is displayed in the expression of distance by
the effects of intervening atmospheres, and by the design of
intermediate _plans_ carrying the eye onward and suggesting space.

=Middle Ground= in a landscape. (See MIDDLE DISTANCE.)

=Middle Pointed Period= of Architecture is a name given to that period
of Gothic architecture in England, which is generally described as “_the
Decorated Period_.”

=Middle Post.= The KING-POST in the truss of a roof.

[Illustration: Fig. 459. Jardinière—Milan Faience.]

=Milan Faience.= Fig. 459 is an illustration of the Oriental imitations
for which Milan was famous. “It is,” says M. Jacquemart, “of such
beautiful enamel that it might be taken for porcelain. The upper and
lower edges are decorated with shells, scrolls, and rocailles in relief,
heightened with gold; the whole surface has a decoration of peonies and
sprigs in blue, red, and gold, which rival in beauty the richest
specimens of old Delft.”

[Illustration: Fig. 460. Milan Reticella Lace.]

=Milan Lace.= The engraving shows a specimen of Old Milan Point or
Reticella from the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in that city.
(See RETICELLA.) (Fig. 460.)

=Miliarium=, R. (1) A tall narrow copper vessel employed in baths for
heating the water. (2) The column of an olive-press (_trapetum_), which
rose from the centre of the mortar (_mortarium_).

=Military Architecture.= The science of building fortresses and
fortifying town walls, &c. [See _Viollet le Duc_, “_Essai sur
l’Architecture militaire au Moyen Age_.”]

=Milled Money=, with grooved edges, was first coined in this country in

=Millefiori.= Mosaic glass. (See GLASS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 461. Roman Mile-stone at Nic-sur-Aisne in France.]

=Milliarium=, R. (_mille_, a thousand, sc. paces). A column placed at
intervals of a mile (1618 English yards) along a Roman road to indicate
the distance. (Fig. 461.) It was also called _lapis_. _Milliarium
aureum_ was the name given to the golden mile-stone erected by Augustus
in the Forum, where the principal roads of the Empire terminated. A
stone, called the “London Stone,” in Cannon Street, E.C., is supposed to
have marked the centre of the Roman roads in Britain.

=Mill-rind=, =Fer-de-Moline=, Her. The iron fixed to the centre of a

=Millstone-grit.= The name of a good building stone, plentiful in the
north of England. It is supposed to be formed by a re-aggregation of the
disintegrated materials of granite. (See the _Builder_, vol. ix. 639.)

=Millus=, R. (See MELIUM.)

=Mimbar=, Arabic. A pulpit in a mosque. A finely-carved mimbar is in the
South Kensington Museum.

=Minah=, =Minar=, Hind. A tower or pillar. The _Surkh Minar_ and _Minar
Chakri_, among the topes at Cabul, are almost the only _pillars_
existing in India. They are generally ascribed to Alexander the Great,
but are probably Buddhist monuments of the 3rd or 4th century of our

=Minaret= (Arabic _menarah_, a lantern). A feature peculiar to
Mohammedan architecture. A tall, slender shaft or turret, rising high
above all surrounding buildings of the _mosque_ to which it is attached;
in several stories, with or without external galleries, but usually
having three. From these galleries the _muezzin_ summon the faithful to
prayer. Blind men are generally selected for this duty, because the
minaret commands a view of the house-tops used as sleeping-chambers in
the East.

=Mineral Black.= A native oxide of carbon.

=Mineral Blue.= A native carbonate of copper which is liable to change
its tint to green, if mixed with oil. (_Fairholt._)

=Mineral Brown.= (See CAPPAGH.)

=Mineral Green.= MALACHITE (q.v.). (See CARBONATES OF COPPER.)

=Mineral Lake= is a French pigment, a kind of orange chrome.

=Mineral Yellow.= A pigment of chloride of lead, which becomes paler by
time. The name has also been applied to YELLOW OCHRE and YELLOW ARSENIC

=Minerval=, R. A present or fee which Roman scholars took to their
masters every year, on the fourteenth of the calends of April (19th of
March), that is, on occasion of the festivals of Minerva.

=Minever=, O. E. (1) Either the pure white fur with which the robes of
peers and judges are trimmed—“_minever pure_;” or (2) the ermine with
minute spots of black in it—_minutus varius_—in lieu of the complete
tails; or (3) the fur of the ermine mixed with that of the small weasel.
(Consult _Planché’s Cyclopædia_; see also VAIR.)

=Miniature.= Literally, a painting executed in _minium_ (vermilion). Now
used for any small picture, and especially for a small portrait.

=Ministerium=, Chr. All the sacred ornaments and utensils of a church
taken collectively.

=Minium.= A kind of _red lead_ obtained by exposing lead or its
protoxide to heat, till it is converted to a red oxide. It is a fine
orange pigment, but fugitive and liable to decomposition when mixed with
other pigments. The ancient _minium_ was _cinnabar_, or vermilion. (See

=Minnim=, Heb. Stringed musical instruments of the lute or guitar kind.

[Illustration: Fig. 462. Minotaur. Device of Gonzalvo Perez.]

=Minotaur=, R. A monster, half man, half bull, confined in the labyrinth
constructed by Dædalus in Crete. It was assumed as a device by Gonzalvo
Perez, with the motto from Isaiah xxx. 15. (Fig. 462.)

=Minster=, =Abbey-church=, O. E. (Germ. _Münster_). A church to which a
monastery was attached; a cathedral. The name survives in

=Minstrel Gallery=, O. E. The LOFT in a church was so called.

=Minuscule.= (See SEMI-UNCIALS.)

=Minute=, It. A subdivision of the _module_ in the measurement of
architectural proportion. It is the twelfth, the eighteenth, or the
thirtieth part of the MODULE.

=Mirador=, Sp. A belvedere, or overhanging bow-window.

[Illustration: Fig. 463. Mirror-case of carved ivory—14th cent.]

=Mirror.= In the Middle Ages mirrors were often enclosed in cases of
metal or carved ivory. The example (Fig. 463) gives a representation of
the Siege of the Castle of Love from one of the romances of the period.
(See GLASS.)

=Mirror=, Arch. A small oval ornament cut into the deep mouldings, and
separated by wreaths of flowers.

=Miserere.= A projecting bracket, on the _sellette_ of a church stall,
on which, when the seat was turned up, there was a leaning-space,
available to the infirm during the parts of the service required to be
performed standing. (See SELLETTE.)

=Misericorde.= The narrow-bladed dagger used to put the victory with
sword or lance to the test, by obliging a fallen antagonist to cry for
_mercy_, or by despatching him.

=Mis’rha=, Hind. Hindoo temples built with two kinds of materials;
whence their name of mixed (_mis’rha_). (See SUD’HA, VIMANA, and

=Missilia=, R. (i. e. things thrown). Presents of cheques or tickets
thrown by the emperor and wealthy persons among the people. The cheques
were payable to the bearer at the magazine of the donor. (See

=Mistarius=, =Mixtarius=, R. Any vessel of large size used for mixing
water with wine.

=Mitella=, Gr. (dimin. of _mitra_). (1) A head-band or coif of peaked
form worn by Greek women. (2) A scarf used as a bandage or support for a
broken arm.

=Mithriatic= (Festivals), Pers. and R. Festivals held in honour of
Mithras, the Persian sun-god.

=Mitis Green.= (See EMERALD GREEN.)

=Mitra=, Gr. and R. (μίτρα). (1) A mitre or head-dress of the Galli or
priests of Cybelê; it was a Phrygian cap of felt, which was tied under
the chin by lappets; it was also called a _Phrygian tiara_. (2) A cable
fastened round the hull of a vessel to strengthen the timbers.

[Illustration: Fig. 464. Mitre. Arms of St. Alban’s Abbey.]

=Mitre=, Chr. Her. The ensign of archiepiscopal and episcopal rank,
placed above the arms of prelates of the Church of England, sometimes
borne as a charge, and adopted by the Berkeleys as their crest. The
contour of the mitre has varied considerably at various times, growing
continually higher and more pointed. It was first worn by bishops about
the close of the 10th century. Bishops had three kinds of mitres: the
_simplex_, of plain white linen; the _aurifrigata_, ornamented with gold
orphreys; and the _pretiosa_, enriched with gold and jewels, for use at
high festivals. (Fig. 464.) In Architecture, the corner line formed by
the meeting of mouldings intercepting each other at an angle.

=Mitten=, =Mitaine=, Anglo-Norman. A glove; not restricted to gloves
without fingers. “Gloves made of linnen or woollen, whether knit or
stytched: sometimes also they call so gloves made of leather without
fingers.” (_Ray._) (See MUFFETEE.)

=Moat=, =Mote=. (1) Originally a heap or hillock; the _dune_ on which a
tower was built, forming the original castle. The Saxons assembled on
such _moats_ or mounds to make laws and administer justice; hence their
word _witten-mote_ for parliament. (2) Mod. Usually applied to the fosse
of a rampart, the side next the fortress being the _scarp_, and the
opposite the _counterscarp_.

=Mobcap=, O. E. A cap tying under a woman’ chin by an excessively broad
band, generally made of the same material as the cap itself. (_H._)

=Moccinigo.= A small Venetian coin, worth about 9_d._ (_H._)

=Mochado=, =Mokkado=, O. E. (1) A silk stuff, commonly called “mock
velvet,” much used in the 16th and 17th centuries. (_Fairholt._) (2) A
woollen stuff of the same kind. (_Halliwell._) It was probably a mixture
of silk and wool. (_Planché._)

=Modena Pottery.= The antique pottery of Modena is referred to by Pliny
and Livy, but there is no exact record or marked example of wares
produced there during the Renaissance. The manufacture flourishes now at
_Sassuolo_, a town ten miles south of Modena.

=Modesty Bit= or =Piece=, O. E. “A narrow lace which runs along the
upper part of the stays, before, being a part of the tucker, is called
the modesty piece.” (_Guardian._) “Modesty bits—out of fashion” is an
announcement in the _London Chronicle_, vol. xi. 1762.

[Illustration: Fig. 465. Modillion.]

=Modillions=, Arch. Small brackets under the coronæ of cornices; when
_square_ they are called MUTULES. In the Corinthian order they have
carved leaves spread under them. Fig. 465 is taken from the temple of
Mars the Avenger, at Rome.

=Modius=, R. (_modus_, a measure or standard). The largest Roman measure
of capacity.

=Module=, Arch. A measure adopted by architects to determine by the
column the proportions of the different parts of a work of architecture.
It is usually the diameter or the semi-diameter of the shaft of the

=Mœnia=, R. A term synonymous with MURUS (q.v.); but more comprehensive,
in that it implies not merely the idea of walls, but also of the
buildings attached to them.

     “_Mœnia_ lata videt, triplici circumdata _muro_.” (_Virgil._)

=Mogul Architecture= is that of the buildings erected in the reigns of
the Mogul emperors, kings of Delhi, from A. D. 1531 to the present

=Moilon= (Fr. _moellon_), Arch. Rubble-masonry.

=Mokador=, =Mocket=, O. E. A napkin, handkerchief, or bib.

           “Goo hom, lytyl babe, and sytt on thi moderes lap,
           And put a _mokador_ aforn thi brest,
           And pray thi modyr to fede the with the pappe.”
                           (_Twentieth Coventry Mystery._)

[Illustration: Fig. 466. Mola versatilis.]

=Mola=, R. (_molo_, to grind). A mill; _mola manuaria_, a hand-mill;
_mola buxea_, a box-wood mill, or mill for grinding pepper; _mola
aquaria_, a water-mill; _mola asinaria_, a mill worked by a beast of
burden; _mola versatilis_, a grindstone (Fig. 466 represents Love
sharpening his arrows, from an engraved gem); _mola olearia_, a mill for
crushing olives.

=Mold=, O. E. (for _mould_). Earth; ground. The word is constantly
applied to the _ground_ in works of art. (See _Degrevant_, 1039;

=Moline=, Her. A cross terminating like the MILL-RIND. In modern cadency
it is the difference of the eighth son.

=Mollicina=, =Molochina= (sc. _vestis_), R. (μολόχινα, i. e.
mallow-coloured). A garment made from the fibres of a mallow

=Mona Marble=. A beautiful marble of a greenish colour, obtained in the
Isle of Anglesea.

=Monastic Orders= consisted of Benedictine or black monks, and
Cistercian or white monks. There were the _Regular Orders_, the
_Military Orders_, the _Conventual Orders_, _Colleges_, &c.

=Monaulos=, Gr. and R. (μόν-αυλος, single-flute). A Greek pipe made of a
reed, of Egyptian origin, blown at the end without a reed mouthpiece,
and remarkable for the sweetness of its tone.

=Monelle=, =Monial=, =Moynel=, Arch. (See MULLIONS.)

=Moneris=, Gr. (μον-ήρης, single). A galley or ship with a single bench
of rowers.

[Illustration: Fig. 468. Monile. A Gaulish collar.]

[Illustration: Fig. 467. Monile. Details of ornament.]

=Monile=, Gr. and R. A necklace or collar. Fig. 468 represents a bronze
necklace belonging to the Gaulish period, and Fig. 467 a part of the
same necklace on a larger scale. By analogy the term was applied to the
ornaments worn by horses about the neck. (See NECKLACES.)

=Monks=, Chr. In the religious iconography of the Gothic period,
especially the 14th and 15th centuries, there frequently occur grotesque
representations of monks. (See Fig. 351.)

=Monmouth Cap=, O. E. A cap worn by soldiers and sailors.

=Monochord.= A one-stringed musical instrument, much used for measuring
the proportions of length which yield the various sounds within an

=Monochrome Painting.= (1) Painting in a single colour, as, for
instance, red upon a black ground, or white upon a red ground. The most
numerous class of specimens of this kind of painting are upon
terra-cotta, as the Etruscan vases. (2) The term is applied to paintings
in tints of one colour, in imitation of bas-reliefs.

=Monogram.= A combination of two or more letters into one design,
illustrated especially in ecclesiastical decoration of the 14th and 15th
centuries, &c. The abbreviation IHS is said to have been invented by St.
Bernardino of Siena about 1437. For _Artists’ monograms_, see
_Stellway_, _Heller_, _Brulliot_ (_Dictionaries of Monograms_).

=Monolith= (μονό-λιθος). An object formed of a single block of stone.

=Monolium=, =Monolinum=, R. A necklace formed with a single string of
pearls. (See MONILE.)

=Monoloris=, R. (Gr. μόνος, one, and Lat. _lorum_, a thong. A hybrid
word). Decorated with a single band of purple and gold, like the

=Monopodium= (sc. _mensa_), R. (μονο-πόδιον). A table with a single

=Monopteral=, Arch. (μονό-πτερος). With a single wing; a circular temple
or shrine, consisting of a roof supported on columns, without any

=Monostyle=, Arch. (1) Piers of a single shaft are sometimes
distinguished by this name from _compound piers_, then called for
distinction _polystyle_. (2) A building which is of one _style_ of
architecture throughout; or (3) surrounded by a single row of pillars.

=Monota=, Gr. A vase with one _ear_ (or handle).

=Monotriglyph=, Arch. The intercolumniation in the Doric order, which
embraces one triglyph and two metopes in the entablature. (_Parker’s
Glossary of Architecture._)

=Monoxylos=, =Monoxylus=, Gr. and R. (μονόξυλος). Literally, hewn or
made out of a single piece of wood.

=Monsters=, in Architecture. (See CENTAUR, GRIFFIN, GROTESQUES, SPHINX,

=Monstrance=, =Expositorium=, Chr. (_monstrare_, to show). An ornamental
vessel of gold, silver, silver-gilt, or gilded or silvered copper,
representing usually a sun with rays, in the centre of which is a
_lunule_ or glass box in which the consecrated wafer is carried and
exposed on the altars of churches. The earliest monstrances, which are
now called _expositories_, do not date beyond the 12th century. Very
ancient specimens exist at Rheims, Namur, &c.

=Montem.= An annual custom at Eton; a procession of boats _ad montem_.
(See _Brand_, i. 237.)

=Montero.= “A close hood wherewith travellers preserve their faces and
heads from frostbiting and weather-beating in winter.” (_Cotgrave._)

=Monteth=, O. E. A vessel used for cooling wine-glasses in.

=Mont-la-haut.= “A certain wier (wire) that raises the head-dress by
degrees or stories.” (_Ladies’ Dict._, 1694.)

=Montmorency Escutcheon.= (See the illustration to HUNTING FLASK.)

=Monumentum=, R. (_moneo_, to remind). In general, any token,
statue, or monument intended to perpetuate the memory of anything.
_Monumentum sepulchri_ is the name given to a tomb. The Monument of
the Great Fire of London, erected by Sir Christopher Wren, is of the
Italo-Vitruvian-Doric order, of Portland stone, and consists of a
_pedestal_ about 21 feet square, with a _plinth_ 27 feet, and a
fluted shaft 15 feet at the base; on the _abacus_ is a balcony
encompassing a moulded cylinder, which supports a flaming vase of
gilt bronze, indicative of its commemoration of the Great Fire.
Defoe describes it as “built in the form of a _candle_ with a
handsome gilt frame.” Its entire height is 202 feet, and it is the
loftiest isolated column in the world. Its interior contains a
spiral staircase of 345 black marble steps. (See COCHLIS.)

=Monyal=, O. E. for MULLION (q.v.).

=Moorish Architecture=, or Arabian or Mohammedan architecture, arose at
the beginning of the 7th century in the East, and in Spain, Sicily, and
Byzantium in Europe. The style originated in a free adaptation of
different features of Christian architecture, and their earliest mosques
were built by Christian architects. The horse-shoe arch is a very early
characteristic of their style, and the pointed arch appears at Cairo and
elsewhere three centuries earlier than in Europe. The most perfect
specimen of the luxury of decoration of which this style is capable is
found in the Alhambra. (See ALHAMBRAIC ARCHITECTURE; consult the _Essai
sur l’Architecture des Arabes et des Mores_, by _Girault de Prangy_,

=Moor-stone.= A very coarse granite found in Cornwall and some other
parts of England, and of great value for the coarser parts of building;
it is also found in immense strata in Ireland. Its colours are chiefly
black and white.

=Moot-hall=, O. E. A public assembly-house; a town hall, &c. (See MOAT.)

=Mora=, R. (_mora_, an obstacle). A projection or cross-bar on a spear
to prevent its penetrating too far.

=Mordaunt=, Fr. The catch for the tongue of the buckle of a belt.

=Moresco-Spanish=, or Saracenic =Textiles= wrought in Spain, are
remarkable for an ingenious imitation of gold, produced by shreds of
gilded parchment cut up into narrow flat strips and woven with the silk.

=Moresque= or =Moresco-Spanish Architecture= is the work of Moorish
workmen, executed for their Christian masters in Spain. The most
remarkable examples are in the city of Toledo (described by _Street_,
_Gothic Architecture in Spain_).

=Morion.= A head-piece of the 16th century, introduced by the Spaniards,
who had copied it from the Moors, to the rest of Europe about 1550. It
was worn as late as the reign of Charles I. There were peaked morions,
coming to a point at the top; and high combed morions, surmounted by a
kind of crest or ridge.

=Moriones=, R. (1) Idiots, dwarfs, or deformed persons, used as slaves,
to afford amusement in the houses of the great. (2) A dark-brown gem;
perhaps the smoky topaz.

=Morisco=, O. E. (See MORRIS DANCE.)

=Moristan=, Arab. A hospital.

=Morne=, =Mornette=. The head of a blunted tilting-lance, the point
being turned back.

=Morning Star=, O. E. A club called also a HOLY WATER SPRINKLER (q.v.).

=Morris Dance=, O. E. (or Moorish). A very ancient dance, of masked and
costumed performers, with bells, &c.

=Morris Pike=, O. E. (for Moorish). Long pikes copied from those of the
Moors, the staves of which were covered with little nails.

=Morse=, Chr. (Fr. _mordre_, to bite). The clasp or brooch which
fastened the cope on the breast. (See the illustration to POPE.)

=Mort=, O. E. (death). The notes blown on the horn at the death of a

=Mortuary Palls=, in the Middle Ages, for the covering of the biers of
dead people were richly decorated. One at Amiens is decorated, upon
white stripes on a black ground, with skulls and bones and the words
“memento mori” interspersed.

=Mosaic=, or more correctly =Musaic Work=. OPUS MUSIVUM, glass mosaic;
OPUS TESSELATUM, clay mosaic; OPUS LITHOSTROTUM, stone mosaic.

=Mosaic Glass=, =Millefiori=. (See GLASS.)

=Mose.= (1) Probably a dish (“Dyschmete” made of apples was called
“Appulmoce”). (2) For MORSE (q.v.).

=Moton=, O. E. A piece of armour intended to protect the right armpit,
used in the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III.

=Mottoes=, in Heraldry, are words, or very short sentences, sometimes
placed above the crest, but generally below the shield. Mottoes are
sometimes emblematical or allusive, and frequently punning, as the “Set
on” of the Setons, the “Tight on” of the Tittons, and the “Est hic” of
the Eastwicks. (See LABELS [2].)

=Mould.= (See MOLD.)

=Mouldings.= A general term for the varieties of outline given to
subordinate parts of architecture, such as _cornices_, _capitals_,
_bases_, &c. These (described in their places) are principally: the
RECTA or CYMA, the CAVETTO or _hollow moulding_, the OVOLO or _quarter
round_, the SCOTIA or TROCHILUS. These are frequently enriched by
_foliage_, _egg and tongue_ and other ornaments, &c. (See the article in
_Parker’s Glossary of Architecture_ for a history of the diversities of
the mouldings in the different styles.)

=Moulinet.= A machine for winding up a cross-bow.

=Mound=, Her. A globe encircled and arched over with rich bands, and
surmounted by a cross-patée; an ensign of the royal estate. (See CROWN,

=Mountain= or =Mineral Blue= (=Green=). (See CARBONATES OF COPPER.)

[Illustration: Fig. 469. Mug of Moustiers make.]

=Moustiers Faience.= Moustiers in Provence is one of the most important
of the French ceramic centres. The mug represented in Fig. 469 is
coloured with varied enamels, and ornamented with medallion and wreaths.

=Muckinder=, =Muckinger=, O. E. A pocket-handkerchief (sc. dirty).

=Mueta=, Med. Lat. (Old Fr. _muette_). A watch-tower.

=Muffler.= A handkerchief covering the chin and throat, and sometimes
used to cover the face (_muffle_ or _muzzle_).

       “I spy a great peard under her _muffler_.” (_Shakspeare._)

=Muffs= were introduced into England from France in the reign of Charles
II. They were previously known in England, but were subsequently more
common, and used by both sexes. Very little variation has occurred in
their manufacture.

=Muglias=, Arab. A kind of pastilles; a substance employed in the Middle
Ages for making odoriferous beads; they were burnt for fumigations.

=Mulctra=, =Mulctrale=, =Mulctrum=, R. and Chr. (_mulgeo_, to milk). A
milk-pail for milking cows. In Christian archæology it is a pastoral
vessel which is a eucharistic symbol.

[Illustration: Fig. 470.]

[Illustration: Fig. 471.]

=Mullets=, Her. Stars generally of five, but sometimes of six or more
rays. Fig. 470 is of the date 1295, and Fig. 471 its development in

=Mulleus=, =Mule=, R. (_mullus_, a red mullet). A red half-boot, which
only certain magistrates had the right of wearing, viz. the ancient
dictators, consuls, prætors, censors, and ædiles.

=Mullions= or =Munnions=, Arch. The slender piers which separate a
window into several compartments.

=Multifoiled=, Arch. Having many FOILS (q.v.). This term is synonymous

=Mummy.= This pigment _should_ be made of the pure Egyptian asphaltum,
ground up with drying oil or with amber varnish.

=Mummy-cloths= (=Egyptian=) were of fine unmixed flaxen linen,
beautifully woven, of yarns of nearly 100 hanks in the pound, with 140
threads in an inch in the warp, and about 64 in the woof.

=Muniment-rooms=, to be strong and fire-proof, were erected over
porches, gateways, &c. They contained charters, archives, &c. (See

=Munnions=, Arch., for MULLIONS (q.v.).

=Mural.= Generally, on a wall; as—

=Mural Arch.= An arch against a wall, frequent in the aisles of mediæval

[Illustration: Fig. 472. Mural crown.]

=Mural Crown= (Her.) represents masonry, and is embattled. (See CORONA.)

=Mural Monument.= A tablet fixed to a wall, &c.

=Mural Painting.= (See FRESCO, TEMPERA, &c.)

=Murex=, R. (1) A Triton’s horn or conch; (2) _murex ferreus_, a
caltrap, thrown down to hinder the advance of cavalry, its long spikes
being so arranged as to pierce into the horses’ feet, and so disable
them. (See CALTRAPS.)

=Murrey=, O. E. A reddish purple or mulberry colour. The livery of the
House of York.

=Murrhina=, =Murrhea=, and =Myrrhina=, R. Murrhine vases; they are
spoken of by Pliny, and have given rise to interminable treatises and
discussions, with the sole result that no light whatever has been thrown
on the nature of these vases.

=Murrhine Glass.= (See GLASS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 473. Walls of Megalopolis.]

=Murus=, R. Walls as defences and fortifications, in contradistinction
to _paries_, the wall of a building. Fig. 473 represents a portion of
the walls of Megalopolis. (See MŒNIA.)

=Muscarium=, R. (_musca_, a fly). (1) A fly-flap. Hence (2) The tail of
a horse. (3) A case in which papers were shut up in order to preserve
them from fly-stains.

=Muses=, the personifications of the liberal arts, are represented
conventionally as follows:—

Calliope. The Muse of epic poetry; a tablet and stylus, sometimes a

Cleio. The Muse of history; seated in an arm-chair with an open roll of
paper, sometimes with a sun-dial.

Euterpe. The Muse of lyric poetry; with a double flute.

Melpomene. The Muse of tragedy; with a tragic mask, the club of
Hercules, and sword; crowned with the vine-leaves of Bacchus, and shod
in the _cothurnus_; often heroically posed with one foot on a fragment
of rock.

Terpsichore. The Muse of choral dance and religious song; with lyra and
_plectrum_. As the Muse of religious poetry, her expression is dignified
and earnest.

Erato. The Muse of erotic poetry and soft Lydian music; sometimes has
the lyre, sometimes is represented dancing, always gentle and _feminine_
in expression.

Polyhymnia. The Muse of the sublime hymn and divine tradition; usually
appears without any attribute, in an attitude of meditation; sometimes
the inscription ΜΥΘΟΥΣ (_of the myth_).

Urania. The Muse of astronomy; points with a staff to a celestial globe.
(Lachesis, one of the Parcæ, has the same attributes.)

Thaleia. The Muse of pastoral life, of comedy, and of idyllic poetry;
appears with the comic mask, a shepherd’s staff, and a wreath of ivy, or
basket; sometimes dressed in a sheepskin.

The Muses are sometimes represented with feathers on their heads,
alluding to their contest with the Sirens, whom they stripped of their
wing feathers, which they wore as ornaments. (_Hirt. Mythologisches
Bilderbuch_, p. 203.)

=Museum=, Gr. and R. (Μουσεῖον). Literally, a temple of the Muses. The
term was afterwards applied to an establishment founded by Ptolemy I.,
called Soter, at Alexandria in Egypt, in which scholars and literary men
were maintained at the public expense. In a villa, it was a grotto or
retreat to which people retired for meditation.

[Illustration: Fig. 475. Opus musivum.]

[Illustration: Fig. 474. Opus musivum.]

=Musivum= (opus), R. (μουσεῖον). This term was used by the Romans to
denote a mosaic of small cubes of coloured glass or enamel, in
contradistinction to LITHOSTROTUM (q.v.), which was a pavement made of
real stones and marbles of different colours; but in a more extended
sense, the term Musivum denotes any kind of mosaic. Figs. 474 and 475
show examples of various kinds. Fig. 476 is a mosaic forming a border.

[Illustration: Fig. 476. Opus musivum—bordering.]

=Muslin=, originally esteemed for the beauty with which gold was woven
in its warp, took its name from the city of Mousull in Turkey in Asia.

=Musquet.= A long heavy match-lock gun, introduced from Spain in the
Dutch wars of the 16th century, which eventually displaced the
harquebus. (See SNAPHAUNCE and WHEEL-LOCK.)

=Musquet-rest.= A staff with a forked head required to support the
musquet. It was trailed by a string from the wrist.

=Mustarde Villars=, O. E. Either (1) a kind of cloth, probably so named
from Moustier de Villiers, near Harfleur; or else (2) (as Stowe says) “a
colour, now out of use.” _Mustard_ was a favourite colour for liveries
and official dresses in the 15th century.

=Mutatio=, R. Literally, _change_. The Romans gave the name of
_mutationes_ to the posthouses for relays of horses established along
the high roads for the service of the state.

=Mutch=, O. E. An old woman’s close cap. (_Fairholt_.)

=Mute=, Fr. This term, derived from the Latin _muta_, is employed by
ancient authors as a synonym for _belfry_, _turret_, or _bell-tower_.

=Mutule=, Arch. In a general sense, any stone or wooden projection which
stands out beyond the surface of a wall, such as a rafter, for instance.
In a more restricted sense, it denotes an architectural ornament
characteristic of the Doric order, consisting of a square block placed
at equal intervals above the triglyphs and metopes in a Doric cornice.
In the Corinthian order _mutules_ are replaced by modillions.

=Mynchery=, A.S. A nunnery. The word survives in local dialects, and is
applied to the ruins; e. g. of the ancient _mynchery_ at Littlemore,
near Oxford.

=Myrtle Crown= for bloodless victors. The _myrtle_ was sacred to Venus.
It flourished on the sea-coast of Italy and Greece. The wood is very
hard, and is used for furniture, marquetry, and turning. Another myrtle
wood from Van Diemen’s Land is beautifully veined for cabinet-work.

=Myth=, Gen. (μῦθος, lit. that which is spoken). The name given to
obscure traditions handed down from remote antiquity, antecedent to
written or precise history; opposed to _legendary_ record (which can be


=Nablia=, =Nablum=. A stringed musical instrument; a kind of _cithara_
in the shape of a semicircle.

=Nacre=, Fr. Mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner lining of the pearl
mussel or oyster.

=Nacreous Shells.= Iridescent shells. Several kinds are used for
manufactures, as some species of _Meleagrina_, _Turbo_, _Nautili_, &c.

=Nadir= (Arab. _nadhir_, opposite). The part of the heavens directly
under our feet; opposite to the ZENITH.

=Nænia.= (See NENIA.)

=Naga=, Malay. Jars with the figure of a dragon traced on them.

=Naga Architecture= (Hind. _naga_, a poisonous snake). Temples dedicated
to the worship of the seven-headed snakes are found in Cashmere,
remarkable for their identity of style with the Grecian Doric, unlike
anything found in any other part of India. [Consult _Fergusson_,
_History of Architecture_, ii. 703–732.]

=Nagara.= A Hindoo name for a music-gallery in front of the Jain

=Nahinna.= A Persian manufacture of majolica. The Comte de Rochechouart
says that the ancient faience of Persia is as admirable as the modern is
detestable, though it retains a degree of oriental elegance.

=Naiad.= A water-nymph.

=Nail.= In cloth measure, 2¼ inches.

=Nail-head Moulding=, Arch. An ornament formed by a series of
projections resembling round or angular _nail-heads_.

=Nainsook=, Hind. A thick sort of jaconet muslin.

=Naipes=, Sp. Playing-cards. The word is supposed to be derived from the
initials of Nicolao Pepin, the inventor. (_Diccionario de la Lengua
Castellana._) Hence the Italian _naibi_.

=Naked Flooring=, Arch. The timber-work which supports a floor.

=Namby-pamby.= Affectedly pretty. The term originated in criticism of an
English poet of the 17th century—Ambrose Phillips.

=Nancy Biscuit.= A peculiar porcelain made at Nancy. The faïencerie was
established in 1774 by Nicolas Lelong.

=Nankeen.= A buff-coloured cotton cloth, introduced from the province of
Nankin, in China.

=Nân-mo=, Chinese. A beautiful wood, resembling cedar, used for temples,
palaces, and houses of state.

=Nantes.= Manufactories of white faience were established here in 1588
and 1625; and that of Le Roy de Montilliée and others in the 18th

=Naology.= The science of temples. (See _Dudley’s Naology, or a Treatise
on the Origin, Progress, and Symbolical Import of the Sacred Structures
of the World_.)

=Naos=, Gr. The interior apartment of a Greek temple; the _cella_ of the
Roman temple.

=Napery.= A general term for made-up linen cloth.

=Naphthar=, Heb. (lit. _thick water_). The name given by Nehemiah to the
substance that they found in the pit where the sacred fire of the temple
had been hidden during the Captivity. This “thick water, which” (the
legend says) “being poured over the sacrifice and the wood, was kindled
by the great heat of the sun and then burnt with an exceedingly bright
and clear flame,” was the naphtha of modern commerce.

=Napiform= (Lat. _napus_, a turnip). Turnip-shaped.

=Napkin= (little _nape_). A pocket-handkerchief.

               “Your napkin is too little.” (_Othello._)

=Napkin Pattern.= A decorative ornament very common in German
wood-carving of the 15th and 16th centuries. (See LINEN-SCROLL.)

=Naples Majolicas= were already celebrated early in the 16th century. M.
Jacquemart describes some vases of colossal size, evidently constructed
for “la grande décoration,” being painted on only one face; handles in
the form of caryatids add to the majestic appearance of these vases; the
subjects are scriptural, executed in blue camayeu picked out in black;
the design is free, elegant though rather straggling, and the touch is
bold and spirited.

=Naples Yellow= (It. _giallolino_). A compound of the oxides of lead and
antimony, having a rich, opaque, golden hue. As a pigment for oil
painting and for porcelain and enamel, it is now superseded by chromate
of lead. As a water-colour pigment it is liable to blacken upon exposure
to damp or bad air.

=Napron.= An apron used by mediæval masons. _Limas_ was another kind of
apron worn by them.

=Nard= (Lat. _nardus_). Ointment prepared from the spikenard shrub.

=Nares=, Lat. (the nostrils). (1) The perforations in the register-table
of an organ, which admit air to the openings of the pipes. (2) The issue
of a conduit.

[Illustration: Fig. 477. Narghilly—Persian.]

=Nargilé= or =Narghilly=, Persian. A tobacco-pipe with an arrangement
for passing the smoke through water. The illustration is the bowl of a
Persian pipe of this description, in Chinese porcelain. (Fig. 477.)

=Nariform= (Lat. _naris_, the nostril). Nose-shaped.

=Narthex=, Chr. The vestibule of a church; sometimes within the church,
sometimes without, but always further from the altar than the part where
the “faithful” were assembled. Hence it was a place for the catechumens.
The narthex communicated with the _nave_ by the “beautiful gates,” and
with the outside by the “great gates.” In monastic churches the narthex
was the place for the general public.

=Nasal=, O. E. The bar of a helmet which protected the nose.

=Nask=, Hind. A _quoin_, or coin-stone.

=Natalitii Ludi=, R. Games in the circus in honour of an emperor’s

=Natatorium.= A cold swimming-pool in the baths. That at Pompeii is of
white marble twelve feet ten inches in diameter, and about three feet
deep, with three marble steps, and a seat round it raised about ten
inches from the bottom. There is a platform or _ambulatory_ round the
bath, also of marble. (See SIGMA.) The ceiling is vaulted, with a window
in the centre. (See BAPTISTERIUM.)

=Natatorium=, Chr. A baptismal font; Gr. κολυμβήθρα (_piscina probata_).

=Natinz.= A Persian manufacture of majolica. (See NAHINNA.)

=Nativity.= While the Adoration of the Magi is one of the commonest
subjects of early Christian art, the Nativity is one of the rarest. It
is not found in any catacomb frescoes, or the mosaics of any basilicas
or churches. The only examples are sculptural, and this on ivories,
gems, &c. On these generally the Child is seen wrapped in swaddling
clothes as the central object, the star appears above, the Virgin on a
rude couch, and sometimes St. Joseph rapt in thought, his head resting
on his hand; the ox and the ass appear behind, and shepherds with curved
staves stand by adoring.

=Natural.= In Music, a character marked ♮ used to correct the power of a
previous _sharp_ or _flat_. A _natural scale_ is a scale written without
sharps or flats.

=Naturalisti=, It. Artists who work on the principle of a close
adherence to the forms and colours actually combined in natural objects.
The epithet was particularly applied as a term of reproach to the
founders of the modern Dutch school of painting. (See IDEAL.)

[Illustration: Fig. 478. Naumachia, from a coin of Domitian.]

=Naumachia= (ναῦς, a ship, and μάχη, a battle). (1) A spectacle
representing a sea-fight, a subject frequently represented on coins and
sculptures. (2) A building erected for such shows. Napoleon I. had a
theatre at Milan filled with water for a sea-fight.

[Illustration: Fig. 479. Nautilus. Device of the Affidati Academy.]

=Nautilus.= A shell-fish that sails on the surface of the sea in its
shell. Its spiral univalve shell is a common motive in ornamental

         “Learn of the little nautilus to sail,
         Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.”

The illustration is the device of the Affidati, an Italian literary
Academy, with the motto “Safe above and below.”

[Illustration: Fig. 480. Naval crown.]

=Navalis Corona.= (See CORONA NAVALIS.) (Fig. 480.)

=Nave=, Arch. (so called from its vaulted roof resembling in shape an
inverted ship (_navis_); or from _nave_, the centre of anything). The
middle part or body of a church between the aisles, extending from the
_choir_ to the principal entrance. The Germans call this part of a
church “Schiff.”

=Navette=, =Navicula=, Chr. The vessel, in the shape of a boat, in which
incense is placed for the supply of the thurible.

=Navicella=, Chr. A celebrated mosaic, at Rome, of a ship tossed by
storms and assailed by demons; emblematic of the Church.

=Neanderthal.= A valley near Dusseldorf, in which bones and skulls were
found of men asserted to have been _præadamite_.

=Neat-house=, O. E. A cattle-shed.

=Nebris=, Gr. (from νεβρὸς, a fawn). A fawn’s skin, worn originally by
hunters; an attribute of Dionysus, and assumed by his votaries. It is
represented in ancient art as worn not only by male and female
_bacchanals_, but also by Pans and Satyrs. It was commonly put on in the
same manner as the _ægis_, or goat’s skin, by tying the two fore-legs
over the right shoulder, so as to allow the body of the skin to cover
the left side of the wearer.

=Nebular= (Lat. _nebula_, a mist). Belonging to the nebulæ, or clusters
of stars only visible as a light, gauzy appearance or mist in the skies.

[Illustration: Fig. 481. Nebule Moulding.]

=Nebule Moulding.= A decorated moulding of Norman architecture, so
called from the edge forming an undulating or waving line. (See Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 482. Nebulée.]

=Nebulée=, Her. A dividing and border line, as represented in Fig. 482.

=Nebulous.= Cloudy or hazy.

=Nebuly=, Her. Ornamented with light wavy lines.

=Neck=, Arch. The plain part at the bottom of a Roman Doric or other
capital, between the mouldings and the top of the shaft. (See

[Illustration: Fig. 483. Necklace. Costume of a Roman lady of the 16th

=Necklaces.= An ornament common to all ages and nations. The ancient
EGYPTIANS of both sexes wore them of gold or beads, generally with a
large drop or figure in the centre, and strung of the various religious
emblems; amethysts, pearls, gold or cornelian bottles, imitations of
fish, shell, and leaves; finally, an infinite variety of devices. (See
_Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians_, ii. 343.) An illustration of a common
form of GREEK necklaces is given under _Crotalium_. The BRITISH women of
the earliest ages wore necklaces of jet, ivory, and amber, beads,
shells, &c., besides gold links hooked together. (See also MONILE,
TORQUE.) The Anglo-Norman ladies do not appear to have worn necklaces,
and no mediæval examples are found earlier than the 15th century. (See
Figs. 303, 304, 483.)

=Neck-mouldings=, Arch. The mouldings at the bottom of the capital, in
Gothic architecture.

=Necrodeipnon=, Gr. A feast after a funeral; a common subject on tombs.
A horse’s head is usually placed in one corner of the representation, as
an emblem of death as a journey.

=Necrologium=, Chr. A book kept in religious houses for the names of the
founders and benefactors to be mentioned in the prayers.

=Necromancy= (Gr. νεκρὸς, the dead, and μαντεία, prophecy). Calling up
the spirits of the dead for divination; hence generally applied to
conjuring. Necromancy was practised in two ways: by inspection of the
entrails, and by invoking the dead.

=Necropolis=, Gr. A city of the dead; a cemetery.

=Nectar=, Gr. The drink of the gods.

=Necysia=, Gr. Offerings of garlands of flowers and other objects made
at the tombs of deceased relatives on the anniversary of the day of
death, or, as some suppose, on their birthdays. (See GENESIA.)

=Needfire=, or Fire of St. John Baptist (Old Germ. _Nodfyr, Niedfyr_). A
superstitious practice of the ancients, derived from a pagan source, of
celebrating the birthday of St. John Baptist at the midsummer solstice
(St. John’s Eve) by lighting fires, carrying about firebrands, or
rolling a burning wheel. The practice is one of many examples of the
caution with which the evangelizing ecclesiastics of the Middle Ages
refrained from abruptly disturbing the deeply-rooted superstitions of
the ancient Germans. [Consult _Grimm’s German Mythology_; _Brand_,
_Popular Antiquities_.]

=Needle=, Arch. An _obelisk_ (q.v.)

[Illustration: Fig. 484. Needle Point Lace.]

=Needle Point in relief.= To Venice belongs the invention of the two
most perfect productions of the needle—“Point coupé,” and Venetian point
in relief. Various other wonderful products of the needle are included
under the general name of Venetian point, all of exquisite workmanship.
The needle point in relief is made by means of cotton placed as thick as
may be required to raise the pattern; an infinity of beautiful stitches
are introduced into the flowers, which are surrounded by a pearl of
geometric regularity. The engraving is an exquisite specimen of the fine
raised needle point.

=Nef= or =Ship=. A costly and curious piece of plate for the table, used
as an épergne in the Middle Ages. In the 16th century they were perfect
models of actual ships, with masts, yards, shrouds, and sailors climbing
in the rigging. They were filled with sweetmeats, and were sometimes put
on wheels; and there is one at Emden in Hanover from the hull of which
wine was drunk.

=Negative.= In Photography, a picture on glass having the lights and
shadows reversed, from which _positives_ may be printed.

=Neginoth=, Heb. A general term for stringed musical instruments.

=Nehiloth=, Heb. (root _chalal_, to perforate). A general term for
perforated wind instruments of music.

=Nelumbo=, Chinese. A fruit-tree closely connected with the Buddhist
legends, and from its symbolical significance and adaptability to
ornamentation, commonly represented on porcelain. (See _Jacquemart_,
_Hist. de la Céramique_.)

=Nenia=, R. The funeral song which the hired mourners sang at a Roman
funeral, in praise of the deceased. _Lessus_ was their wailing or cry of

=Nenuphar= (It. _nenufar_). The great white water-lily of Europe.

=Neocori=, Gr. and R. (1) Originally sweepers of the temple. (2) In
early times applied to the priests in charge of temples. (3) Under the
Roman emperors, to all Asiatic cities which had temples dedicated to an
emperor; it occurs in this sense (Νεωκόρος) on the coins of Ephesus,
Smyrna, and other cities.

=Neoteric=, Gr. Of recent origin; modern.

=Nepaul Paper.= A strong unsized paper, made in Nepaul from the
pulverized bark of the _Daphne papyracea_. Sheets of this paper are
sometimes made many yards square.

=Nephrite.= A mineral. (See JADE.)

=Neptunalia.= Festivals celebrated at Rome on the 23rd of July, in
honour of Neptune. The people built huts of branches and foliage about
the streets.

=Nereids=, Gr. Nymphs of the sea, who were the constant attendants of

=Nero Antico=, It. Antique marble of Egyptian and other ancient
statuary, of an intense black, probably the result of ages of exposure,
as no marble of the same intensity of blackness is found in any
quarries. Marble, called also _nero antico_, of two degrees of beauty,
is quarried at Aubert (Girons) in France; and the mausoleum of Napoleon
I. is constructed of this stone.

=Nerved=, Her. Having fibres, as leaves.

=Nerves=, Arch. The name is sometimes applied to the ribs and mouldings
on the side surface of a vault.

=Nessotrophium=, Gr. A place in a Roman villa for breeding domestic
ducks. It was surrounded by a high wall, on which was a high ledge with
nests for the birds. A pond was dug in the middle of the enclosure,
which was planted with shrubs.

=Net Tracery=, Arch. A simple and beautiful form of tracery of the
_Decorated_ period, consisting of a series of loops resembling the
meshes of a net, each loop being quatrefoiled. An example occurs in the
east cloister of Westminster Abbey.

=Nete=, Gr. The shortest string, or highest note, of the seven-stringed
lyre. (See MESE.)

=Netherstocks=, O. E. The name given to _stockings_ in the 16th century,
as continuations of the trunk-hose or _upper stocks_.

=Nethinim=, Heb. (from _nathan_, to give). The servants of the priests
and Levites about the Temple.

=Nettle-cloth.= A material made in Germany of very thick cotton, used as
a substitute for japanned leather, on the peaks of caps, &c.

=Network= (_filatorium opus_). An ancient method of embroidery in
England, used for church use or household furniture, by darning or
working the subject upon linen netting. This method chiefly prevailed in
the 14th century.

=Neuma= or =Pneuma= (lit. a breath). A musical passage consisting of a
number of notes sung to one syllable, or simply to a sound, as “āh”
prolonged. “In hujus fine _neumatizamus_, id est jubilamus, dum finem
protrahimus, et ei velut caudam accingimus.”

=Neutral Colour= is that resulting from a combination of blue, red, and
yellow, resulting in grey.

=Neutral Tint.= An artificial pigment used in water-colours, composed of
sepia, and indigo and other blues, with madder and other lakes;
producing a scale of _neutral colours_.

=Neuvaines=, Fr. Chr. Set prayers repeated for _nine_ consecutive days.

=Nevers Faience.= (See NIVERNAIS.)

=Newcastle Glass.= A _crown_ glass, held the best for windows from 1728
to 1830, when it was superseded by the improved make of _sheet_ glass.
It was of an ash colour, subject to specks, streaks, and other
blemishes, and frequently warped.

=Newel=, Arch. The upright central pillar supporting a geometrical

=Newel Stairs=, Arch. Where the steps are _pinned_ into the wall, and
there is no central pillar, the staircase is said to have an open or
hollow newel. (See JOINERY.)

[Illustration: Fig. 485. _Niche_ in the _Sigma_ of the _Caldarium_.]

=Niche=, Arch. (It. _nicchia_, a sea-shell). A recess in a wall for a
statue or bust. (Fig. 485.)

=Niche-vaulting=, Arch. (Germ. _Muschelgewölbe_). A form of roofing in a
semi-cupola design, common in the choirs of churches.

=Nick=, =Old Nick=, O. E. (Icelandic _nikr_; A.S. _nicor_, a water-god).
The devil.

=Nickel= (contraction of _Kupfernickel_, or Nick’s copper, a term of
derision given to it by the German miners). A white or reddish-white
metal, from which nickel-silver is made. It is used to a large extent in
the arts, being remarkable for the peculiar whiteness and silver-like
lustre which it communicates to other metals when alloyed with them.

=Nickel-silver.= German silver, or white metal, a compound of tin and

=Niello.= The art of chasing out lines or forms, and inlaying a black
composition called _nigellum_ or niello, was probably well known to the
Greeks. The Byzantines compounded for this purpose silver, lead,
sulphur, and copper, and laid it on the silver in a powder; being then
passed through the furnace, it melted and incorporated with the solid
metal. A process producing a similar result of black tracery is
practised in porcelain painting, and called NIELLO-ENAMEL.

=Nigged Ashlar=, O. E. Stone hewn with a pick or a pointed hammer,
presenting a gnawed or nibbled surface: from the Swedish _nagga_, to

=Nilometer.= A building erected, A. D. 847, in the island of Rhoda,
opposite to Cairo, for recording the annual rise of the Nile (i. e. 16
cubits). It is a slender octagonal shaft about 20 feet in height, with a
Corinthian capital. (See the _Builder_, xvii. 255.)

=Nimbed=, Her. Having the head encircled with a _nimbus_; usually
represented by a circular line.

=Nimbus= (Lat. _nimbus_, a bright or black cloud). In Christian art, a
disc or plate, commonly golden, sometimes red, blue, or green, or banded
like a rainbow, placed vertically behind the heads of persons of special
dignity or sanctity as a symbol of honour. After the 8th century living
persons were, in Italy, distinguished by a square nimbus, which
sometimes assumed the form of a scroll partly unrolled. The nimbus is of
heathen origin. Virgil describes Juno as “nimbo succincta.” The heads of
the statues of the gods, and the Roman emperors, after they began to
claim divine honours, were decorated with a crown of rays. On medals of
the Christian emperors also the nimbus is found, e.g. Constantine. In
illuminated MSS. it is found on Pharaoh, Ahab, and other kings. It is a
familiar symbol of dignity or power in the East, but does not appear as
a Christian emblem before the 6th century. [See the article NIMBUS in
the _Dict. of Christian Antiquities_.] (See AUREOLE, GLORY, VESICA
PISCIS, &c.)

=Nincompoop=, O. E. A corruption of the Latin _non compos_; a fool.

=Ninth.= In Music, an interval consisting of an octave and a tone, or

=Nisan=, Heb. The month in the Jewish calendar answering to our April.

=Nitrate of Silver=, used in photography, is silver dissolved in nitric

=Nivarius= (saccus), R. A bag of snow used as a wine-cooler. (See COLLUM

[Illustration: Fig. 486. Jar. Nivernais Faience.]

=Nivernais Faience.= An important branch of the ceramic art, established
in 1608 at Nevers in France by the brothers Conrade. (Fig. 486.)

=Nobbled Stone=, Arch. Stone roughly rounded at the quarry to diminish
its bulk for transport.

[Illustration: Fig. 487. Noble of Henry V.]

=Noble.= A gold coin worth 6_s._ 8_d._ (Fig. 487.)

=Nodes.= In Astronomy, the two points where the orbit of a heavenly body
intersects the ecliptic.

=Nodus=, Arch. The Latin name for a key-stone, or a _boss_ in vaulting.

=Nog=, O. E. Timbers built into walls to strengthen the structure. They
show on the plastering of houses in ornamental patterns. In Kent these
houses are called “wood noggen” houses.

=Noggin=, O. E. “A mug or pot of earth with a large belly and narrower

=Nogging=, Arch. Brickwork in panels carried between quarters.

=Nome=, Egyp. (νομός). A division or district of Egypt; there were
forty-four in all. Each nome was placed under the protection of a
special divinity, and ruled by a resident military governor.

=Nonagon.= A nine-sided polygon.

=Nones.= (1) R. One of the three divisions of the Roman month; the ninth
days before the IDES of each month. (2) Chr. One of the HOURS OF PRAYER

=Nonunia=, O. E. A quick time in music, containing nine crotchets
between the bars. (_Halliwell._)

[Illustration: Fig. 488. Norman Architecture. The Round Church,

=Norman Architecture.= It was introduced into England at the Conquest,
A. D. 1066, and was superseded in the 12th century by the Early English
style. Solid massive masonry, round-headed doors and windows, and low
square central tower are (broadly) its characteristics. Among details
the zigzag and the billet mouldings are the most noticeable. (Fig. 488.)

[Illustration: Fig. 489. Incrusted Tile. Norman. Middle Ages.]

=Norman Pottery=, Mediæval. The illustration is from a pavement of a
church of the 12th century. “Nothing,” says Jacquemart, “is more curious
than the study of these tiles, in which, with rudimentary means, art
already begins to manifest its power. There, in a graceful chequer-work,
the fleur-de-lis of France heightens at intervals a semé of trefoils and
rosettes; scrolls of notched leaves combine in graceful borders; circles
divided crossways receive in their sections stars and heraldic suns;
here are armour-clad warriors, mounted upon horses richly caparisoned,
&c.—all that picturesque fancy assisted by the resources of heraldry
could invent to animate the cold compartments of the pavement, and give
a meaning to the vast naves trodden every day by the Christian
multitude.” (_Histoire de l’Art Céramique._) (Fig. 489.)

=Norns=, =Nornas=, Icelandic. The three Fates, whose names signify the
Past, the Present, and the Future.

=Norroy King at Arms.= The third of the kings at arms, whose
jurisdiction lies to the north of the Trent.

=North Side= of a church “was regarded as the source of the cold wind,
and the haunt of Satan. In some Cornish churches there is an entrance
called the devil’s door, adjoining the font, which was only opened at
the time of the renunciation made in baptism, for the escape of the
fiend. In consequence of these superstitions, and its sunless aspect,
the northern parts of churchyards are usually devoid of graves.”
(_Wallcott_, _Sacred Archæology_.)

=Norwegian Architecture.= The timber-built churches are of great
interest, and exhibit the wonderful durability of the Norwegian pine.
They are generally in the form of a cross, with a tower in the centre
ending in a cupola or spire, and with high pitched roofs. The ornamental
details are elaborate and richly carved. The whole is often painted of a
rich brown colour; sometimes of a bright red. Some of these churches
date from the 11th or 12th century, and are an imitation in wood of the
masonic style of the period.

=Nosocomium=, R. (νοσο-κομεῖον). A hospital.

=Notatus=, R. (_noto_, to mark). A slave branded with a hot iron.

=Note of a Room.= The vibrations of the air in a chamber or vaulted
space produce a musical _note_ proper to the dimensions and other
conditions of the place, which a good musical ear can recognize and
identify. [See _T. R. Smith’s Acoustics_, pp. 83–87.]

=Nottingham White.= White lead. (See CARBONATE OF LEAD.)

=November= (Lat. _novem_, nine). The _ninth_ month of the Roman year,
which began with March. It consisted originally of thirty days, but
Julius Cæsar added one to it. Augustus, however, reduced it to its
original number.

[Illustration: Fig. 490. Nowed. Device of the House of Savoy.]

=Nowed=, Her. Coiled in a knot, as a snake. The illustration (Fig. 490)
is the ordinary device of the house of Savoy—the “true lovers’ knot;”
with the Latin motto, “It binds but constrains not.”

=Nowel=, O. E. (Fr. _noel_, from _natalis_). A cry of joy; properly that
at Christmas, of joy for the birth of the Saviour. It originally
signified the feast of Christmas.

=Nubilarium=, R. A shed used as a barn; it was situated close to the

=Numella=, =Numellus=, R. A kind of pillory for keeping men and animals
in a fixed position. It was made use of in surgical operations, and as
an instrument of torture.

=Numismatics= (_numisma_, coined money). The science of coins and
medals. The earliest known coins were issued by the Greeks, probably in
the 8th century B.C. (See the Article in the _Encyclopædia Britan._, 8th
edition, from which reference can be taken to exhaustive treatises on
the various ramifications of this science.)

=Nummud=, Persian. A carpet of felt much used in Persia.

=Nun’s Thread.= A kind of thread formerly made to a large extent in

=Nun’s Work= (Fr. _œuvre de nonnain_). As early as the 14th century
needlework was generally so described. Ancient lace is still so called
in many parts of the country.

=Nundinæ= (_novemdinæ_; from _novem_, nine, and _dies_, days). Roman
weeks; the nomenclature including the day before and that after the
seven days. The name was given to the weekly _market_-days at Rome.

=Nupta=, R.(_nubo_, to wed). A married woman.

[Illustration: Fig. 491. Nuremberg Vase, enamelled in relief.]

=Nuremberg Vase.= Fig. 491 is one of the gems, of the Renaissance
period, issued from Nuremberg; a vase with portraits heightened with
enamels and gold. (_Jacquemart_.)

=Nurhag= (Sardinian _Noraga_). Primitive buildings in the island of
Sardinia, of remote antiquity, having turrets as high as 30 to 60 feet,
and containing stones of 100 cubic feet each in their structure. [See
_Waring_, _Stone Monuments_.]

=Nurspell.= An old English game like trap, bat, and ball. It is played
with a _kibble_, a _nur_, and a _spell_. When the end of the _spell_ is
struck with the _kibble_, the _nur_ rises into the air, &c.

=Nut.= In Christian symbolism, an emblem of the Divinity of Christ
hidden in His manhood. St. Augustine has a long treatise on the
symbolism of the husk, shell, and kernel of the nut. (_Serm. de temp.
Dominic. ante Nativ._)

=Nut Oil.= This medium for colour-grinding is derived from the walnut;
as a vehicle it is preferred to linseed oil, and is the quickest dryer.

=Nutmeg Ornament=, Arch. A common feature in Early English work in the
_north_ of England, but not in the south. It resembles half a nutmeg,
and is carved at certain distances apart in the hollow of a dripstone at
St. Mary’s Church, Nunmonkton, Yorkshire.

=Nuttoo=, Hind. A nose-stud or ornament worn by Indian women, often set
with brilliants, rubies, emeralds, and pearls.

[Illustration: Fig. 492. Nymphæum of Egeria, near Rome.]

=Nymphæum=, =Nympheum= (νύμφαιον and νυμφεῖον). Literally, _a building
consecrated to the nymphs_. It was a large and richly-decorated chamber,
with columns, niches, and statues, and a fountain in the centre. Nymphæa
were often erected near the head of a spring, and formed cool and
agreeable retreats. Fig. 492 represents a portion of the ruins of the
nymphæum of Egeria, near Rome; and Fig. 493 the interior of the nymphæum
at Nismes, restored. In Christian times the fountains or cisterns common
at the doors of churches were called _nymphæa_.

[Illustration: Fig. 493. Nymphæum at Nismes (restored).]

=Nymphs.= Inferior goddesses of the mountains, forests, waters, or
meadows. Those presiding over rivers, &c., were OCEANIDES, NAIADS,
NEREIDS; those over mountains, OREIADS; those over woods and trees,
DRYADS and HAMADRYADS; those over valleys, NAPÆÆ, &c. They were
represented in art as beautiful young women. The waters of Hades had
their presiding nymphs, the AVERNALES.


=O= was used as a numeral by the ancients to represent 11, and with a
dash over it (Ō) to denote 11,000.

=O=, O. E. Anything circular. Shakspeare calls the stars “those fiery

=Oak-apple Day=, O. E. The 29th of May, in commemoration of the escape
of King Charles in the oak-tree.

=Oak-tree=, the emblem of virtue, force, and strength, is frequently
introduced in ancient sculpture. In Christian art an attribute of St.
Boniface, in allusion to his cutting down a Druidical oak.

=Oasis= (from the Coptic _ouah_, a resting-place). One of the verdant
spots that occur at intervals in the deserts of Africa; hence any
fertile spot in a desert, with the obvious symbolical application.

=Oast-house=, O. E. A kiln for drying hops.

=Oban.= The principal gold coin of Japan, worth about 4_l._ 2_s._

=Obba=, Gr. and R. (ἄμβιξ). A drinking-vessel of earthenware or wood,
probably funnel-shaped; hence—

=Obbatus=, Gr. and R. Made in the shape of an _obba_, that is,
terminating in a point. The term is often applied to the cap of the

[Illustration: Fig. 494. Egyptian Obelisk.]

=Obelisk= (ὀβελίσκος, lit. a small spit). Also called a needle. A tall,
rectangular, monolithic column, of slightly pyramidal shape, invented by
the Egyptians; in nearly every case they are covered from the base to
the top, and on all four sides, with hieroglyphic symbols. (Fig. 494.)

=Oberon.= The king of the fairies.

=Obex=, R. (_objicio_, to obstruct). Any contrivance to keep a door
closed, such as a bolt, lock, latch, iron bar, &c.

=Oblata=, Chr. The sacred bread. This word was more commonly applied to
the _unconsecrated_ loaf, and HOSTIA to the _consecrated_. (For
particulars respecting the preparation and the form of _oblates_, see
the article ELEMENTS in _Smith and Cheetham_, _Dict. of Christian
Antiquities_.) In the same manner OBLATI were lay-brothers in a
monastery who had not taken the vows.

=Oblate.= Flattened or shortened like the earth at the poles. The earth
is an _oblate_ spheroid.

=Oblationarium=, Chr. A small table placed near the high altar, or at
the end of one of the side aisles, on which the people laid their
offerings. It was also used, when in the choir, to hold the sacred
utensils in place of the _credence table_. In the Greek Church the
_oblationarium_ is still used for the bread, wine, and sacred vessels
required in the mass.

=Oble=, =Oblete= (Lat. _oblata_), O. E. The consecrated wafer
distributed to communicants at mass.

                  “Ne Jhesu was nat the _oble_
                  That reysed was at the sacre.”
                                        (_Harl. MS._)

Hence, a wafer-cake, sweetened with honey, and made of the finest
wheaten bread.

=Oboe= or =Hautboy= (from Fr. _haut_, high, and _bois_, wood). A wind
instrument like a flute, sounded through a reed.

=Obolo=, Mod. A copper coin, worth about a halfpenny, circulated in the
Ionian Islands.

=Obolos=, Gr. (derived from ὀβολὸς, a brooch, originally). A small
copper coin worth the sixth part of a drachm. The obolos in later times
was of bronze; but in the best times of Athens it was of silver. Its
value in the Æginetan standard was 1·166 of a penny.

=Obscœna=, Chr. Obscene representations frequently met with in Christian
iconography, which, according to De Canmont, are “to warn the faithful
that they ought to enter the temple with pure hearts, leaving outside
all the passions that soil the soul.”

=Obsidian.= A volcanic glass found near volcanoes, used in antiquity for
the manufacture of mirrors, axes, knives, &c. (See GLASS.)

=Obstragulum=, R. A long leather strap (_amentum_) worn as a fastening
to the _crepida_.

=Obstrigillum=, R. A shoe, the sides of which were lengthened into a
lappet over the instep.

=Obturaculum=, =Obturamentum=, R. (_obturo_, to stop up). A stopper for
the neck of a bottle or the mouth of a vessel.

=Obverse.= Of a coin, the face, or side which bears the principal
symbol. The other side is the REVERSE.

=Ocal=, Span. Coarse silk.

=Occabus=, R. (ὄκκαβος). A kind of spoon.

=Occidental Diamond.= A precious stone of inferior hardness and beauty.

=Occultation.= The disappearance or eclipse of one heavenly body behind

=Ocellata=, R. (lit. marked with _ocelli_ or spots). Marbles used as
playthings by children.

=Ocellated.= Full of eyes; said of a peacock’s tail. (See Fig. 398.)

=Ochre.= Argillaceous earth of different colours which, when finely
ground, is used as a pigment. _Red ochre_ is a form of specular iron
ore; _brown ochre_ is a variety of hæmatite. The _yellow ochres_ become
red when calcined, but the finest reds are made from those which are
brown in the bed. Native red ochre is called _red chalk_ or _reddle_ in
England. _Spanish Brown_, _Indian Red_, _Venetian Red_, and the yellow
ochres have nearly the same composition. The other ochres are known as
_Oxford_, _Roman_, and _stone ochres_, and as _terra di Sienna_ and
_umber_. They are all valuable and durable pigments for oil, water, or
enamel painting. (See AMATITA.)

=Ocrea=, R. A greave; a piece of armour which covered the shin-bone from
below the knee to the ankle. It was generally richly ornamented by
designs embossed or chased upon it. (Modern JAMBES.)

=Octagon.= A figure of eight equal sides, considered as an emblem of
regeneration; consequently the proper form for baptistries and fonts.

=Octahedron.= A solid contained by eight equal sides, which are
equilateral triangles.

=Octastyle=, R. (ὀκτά-στυλος). An _octastyle_ portico is a portico
having eight columns in front; _octastyle_ pediment, a pediment
supported by eight columns. The pediment of the Parthenon at Athens,
from which the Elgin Marbles come, is an _octastyle_.

=Octave.= (1) In Music, the longest interval in the diatonic scale; as
from _do_ to _do_, or C to C. (2) Chr. Eight days, or the eighth day
after a Church festival (the festival being included) kept as a
repetition or prolongation of the festival. It is a Western custom
unknown to the Eastern Church.

=October.= The eighth month of the old Roman year, but the tenth in the
calendar of Numa, Julius Cæsar, &c. It was sacred to Mars, and a horse
called the _October equus_ was annually sacrificed to Mars.

=Octofoil=, Her. A double _quatrefoil_; the _difference_ of a ninth son.

=Octophoron= or =Octaphoron=, Gr. and R. (ὀκτώφορον). A litter
(_lectica_) borne by eight slaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 495. Ocularium in a helmet.]

=Ocularium=, Med. Lat. The narrow slit or opening for the sight in a
helmet. (See Fig. 495.)

=Oculus=, Chr. A round window of frequent occurrence in the tympanum of
the pediment in Latin basilicas, and occasionally in certain churches of
the 11th century.

=Ode= (ᾠδὴ, a song). A short lyrical poem, intended to be sung to the
accompaniment of an instrument, especially the _lyre_; hence the
expression _lyric_ poetry.

[Illustration: Fig. 496. Ground-plan of the Odeon at Athens.]

=Odeon= (ᾠδεῖον; ᾠδὴ, a song). A small theatre at Athens, built by
Pericles for musical performances. By analogy, the name was applied to
any theatre built on a circular plan and covered with a roof, like that
of Athens, shown in Fig. 496.

[Illustration: Fig. 497. Ground-plan of a Greek house.]

=Œcos=, =Œcus=, Gr. (οἶκος). A Greek house; the term, however, denoted
rather a large apartment resembling the atrium, but entirely shut in,
that is to say, without impluvium. In Fig. 497, A is the œcus; B, C, two
rooms forming offices; D, a tablinum; E, a portico; G, the entrance to
the house; H, work-rooms; J, the triclinium. _Œcus tetrastylos_ was a
house in which four columns supported the roof; _œcus Corinthius_,
having one order of columns supporting an architrave, cornice, and an
arched roof; _œcus Egyptius_, in which the pillars supported a gallery
with a paved floor, forming a walk round the apartment; above these
pillars others were placed, one-fourth less in height; and between the
upper columns were placed windows; and the _œcus Cyzicenus_, which
looked to the north, and, if possible, faced gardens, to which it opened
by folding doors, was a summer-house. (See DOMUS.)

=Œil-de-bœuf=, Arch. A small round or oval window in a roof.

=Œillets.= (See OILLETS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 498. Œnochoê, decorated with _zoophori_, or bands of

[Illustration: Fig. 498 a. Œnochoê, or Wine-jug, in black glazed

=Œnochoê= (Gr. οἶνος, wine, and χέω, to pour). An earthen vase used to
take the wine out of the crater and distribute it into cups. It is the
vase carried by the goddesses, and used for libations. (Figs. 498, 498

=Œnophorum=, Gr. and R. (οἰνοφόρον). A light case or basket for carrying

=Œnopolium=, Gr. and R. (οἰνοπώλιον). The shop of a dealer who sold wine
to be carried away; distinct from the _taberna meritoria_ or
_deversoria_, which was a public tavern.

=Offendix=, R. A string by which the _apex_, or cap worn by the flamens,
Salians, or other members of priestly colleges, was fastened under the

=Offertoria=, Chr. (1) The anthems sung in a Christian church while the
oblations were received; mentioned by Isidorus, A. D. 595: “Offertoria
quæ in sacrificiorum honore canuntur.” (2) Large plates, which, in the
Christian churches of Gaul, served to collect the bread which the
Christians had just laid on the altar. A beautiful specimen of such
dishes, found in Siberia in 1867, and described by Rossi, is 6 inches in
diameter, and weighs 1½ lbs. It has a relief in _repoussé_ work,
consisting of a cross planted on a small globe studded with stars,
beneath which issue the four rivers of Paradise; and on either side
stand two nimbed angels, holding a rod in the left hand, and raising
their right hand towards the cross in token of adoration. De Rossi
regards this dish as the work of Byzantine goldsmiths of the 6th
century. (3) At Rome, acolytes went in and out among the people, and
collected the offerings in napkins of line linen or richer material
called also _offertoria_.

=Offertories=, in Egyptian archæology, are offerings made to the gods,
of various shapes; such as outstretched hands supporting a cup, or
spoons of ivory, wood, or bronze, the handle of which is formed by a
human figure.

=Officina=, R. A workshop, in contradistinction to _taberna_, a store,
and _apotheca_, a shop; thus, _officina ærariorum_ was a goldsmith’s
workshop; _officina fullonum_, a fuller’s establishment.

[Illustration: Fig. 499. Device of the Offuscati Academy.]

=Offuscati.= One of the Italian literary academies. They bore for their
device a bear, roused from his natural heaviness by the stings of bees,
with the motto, “Stings (or points) will sharpen steel.” (Fig. 499.)

=Ogam=, Celtic. The sacred writing of the Druids. (Cf. OGHAM.)

=Ogee Arch= or =Contrasted Arch= or =Moulding=, Arch. An arch or
moulding described by means of four centres, so as to be alternately
concave and convex. It was frequently employed in fifteenth-century
monuments, and its constant recurrence in the _later Gothic_ or
_flamboyant_ architecture has given rise to its French name of _ogival_.

=Ogham.= A kind of shorthand writing or cipher in use among the ancient
Irish. (_S._)

=Ogivale=, Fr. A French architectural term of constant occurrence,
applied to the architecture of the mediæval period in France, during
which the _pointed arch_ was used.

=Ogive=, Fr. Arch. A _pointed_ arch; _not_ the OGEE.

=Ogivette=, Arch. A small ogee.

=Ogress=, Her. A pellet or black roundle.

=Oil Painting= was introduced in Flanders by the brothers Van Eyck in
1410, and in Italy by Antonello da Messina in or about 1455.

=Oillets= or =Oylets=. Loopholes.

=Oils.= The fixed oils used in painting are _linseed_, _walnut_, and
_poppy_, purified and rendered drying by the addition of _litharge_.
They should be pale in colour, limpid, and transparent, and should dry
quickly: _nut oil_ in a few hours, _linseed_ in a day, and _poppy oil_
in thirty-six to forty hours. The essential oils used in painting are
_turpentine_, for diluting the pigments ground in oil, and _spike_, or
_lavender_, for wax and enamel painting.

=Oinerusis=, Gr. (οἰν-ήρυσις). (See ARYSTICHOS.)

=Ointment-box=, in Christian art, is the attribute of St. Mary
Magdalene, St. Joseph of Arimathæa, and other saints.

[Illustration: Fig. 500. Covered Tazza; Faience of Oiron. In the

=Oiron=, a small town in France (so named from the flocks of geese which
circle round it _Oi-rond_ in winter), is the place where the fine
faiences, usually called Henri II. ware, were made. “Here is France,”
says M. Jacquemart, “in the 16th century in possession of a pottery, the
discovery of which is attributed 200 years later to England.” There are
only about fifty pieces known, five of which may be seen in the South
Kensington Museum.

=Okel=, Egyp. A caravanserai. A large covered court surrounded by two
stories of galleries, of which the lower is used as shops, &c., and the
upper one as lodging-rooms.

=Oldham.= A coarse kind of cloth originated at Oldham in Norfolk,
_temp._ Richard II.

=Olibanum.= A gum-resin used for incense.

=Oliphant=, A.S. An elephant; hence a hunting-horn of ivory.

=Olive.= A blue-grey colour; violet mixed with green.

=Olive=(-tree). (1) In Christian art, the emblem of peace and concord,
and frequent on early Christian tombs in the catacombs, with or without
the dove. (2) Arch. Its leaf was introduced into sculpture by the
ancients, in wreaths or garlands. The Corinthian order is enriched with
_olive_-leaves, as are almost all the antiques at Rome of this order.
(3) R. The _corona oleagina_, an honorary wreath made of olive-leaves,
was conferred by the Romans on soldiers and commanders through whose
instrumentality a triumph had been obtained when they were not
personally present in the action. (4) Gr. It was the _olive_-tree that
Minerva caused to spring from the ground in the citadel at Athens. (5)
The colour and grain of the wood, and of the root portion especially,
are very beautiful, and valuable for decorative and cabinet-work.

=Olivette.= A Flemish name for _poppy oil_.

=Olivine.= A variety of _chrysolite_ of a dark green, commonly called
bottle-green colour.

=Olla=, R. An earthenware vessel of very common make. It resembled our
flower-pots, but had swelling sides, and was covered with a lid. It was
used for cooking meat and vegetables and for preserving grapes (_uva
ollaria_), and as a cinerary urn (_olla ossuaria_ or _cineraria_).

=Olla-podrida=, Sp. A stew of meat and vegetables mixed, common in
Spain. The word is used to describe any other incongruous mixture.

=Ollarium=, R. A niche in a sepulchral chamber, in which the _olla
ossuaria_ was placed. (See CINERARIUM, Fig. 160.)

=Olpê=, Gr. (ὄλπη). A kind of _aryballos_ with a curved handle, but no
spout (originally a leather oil-flask).

=Olympiad=, Gr. (Ὀλυμπίας). The period of four years between two
consecutive celebrations of the Olympic games. The first Olympiad began
B.C. 776.

=Olympic Games=, Gr. Games instituted by Hercules in honour of Jupiter
Olympius; they were the most ancient and celebrated in all Greece. They
derived their name from Olympia, in Greece, where they were celebrated.
They were finally suppressed by Theodosius, A. D. 394.

=Ombre.= A kind of damask.

=Ombros.= The name for a particular quality of _madder_.

=Omophagi=, Gr. (ὠμο-φάγοι, sc. δαῖτες, i. e. flesh-eating banquets).
Festivals held at Chio and Tenedos in honour of Bacchus.

=Omophorion.= (1) An article of female dress, worn on the _shoulders_.
(2) A vestment of the Greek Church, consisting of a long woollen band
with embroidered crosses. It is typical of the lost sheep borne home on
the shoulders of the Shepherd.

=Onager=, =Onagrus=, R. An engine for hurling stones of great size.

=Onicolo= or =Nicolo=. A variety of the onyx, with a deep-brown ground,
on which is a band of bluish white, used for making cameos.

=Onocentaurs.= Fabulous animals, half man, half ass.

=Onychomancy= (_onyx_, a nail). Divination by means of the marks on the
nails of the hands.

=Onyx= (ὄνυξ, a finger-nail). (1) A general name for the varieties of
the agate which consist of alternate layers of white, brown, or black,
greatly valued by the ancients for cameos. In the Christian symbolism
the onyx typifies innocence and candour. (See ONICOLO.) (2) The name has
also been applied by the ancients to Oriental alabaster. (3) Onyx marble
was a name given to Algerian marble from Oran, of which “pure white,
brilliant red, golden yellow, and hues of green, with every variety of
striation and flocculence, exist.” [See the _Building News_, xiv. 489.]

=Opa=, =Opê=, Gr. Arch. (ὀπή). A cavity in which a tie-beam (_tignum_)
rests; whence the space included between two ὀπαὶ or _tigna_ was called
_metopa_ or _intertignum_.

=Opacity.= Want of transparency.

=Opaion=, Gr. Arch. The panels on a ceiling formed by the intersection
of its beams.

=Opal.= A semi-transparent stone, remarkable for the play of colours
that it exhibits. Three varieties are, the _oriental opal_, called also
the _noble_ opal and the _harlequin_ opal, remarkable for its flashes of
brilliant colours having a triangular disposition. The affection that
the ancients entertained for this beautiful gem was unbounded. The Roman
senator Nonnius preferred exile to parting with a brilliant opal the
size of a filbert which Marc Antony coveted. The _fire opal_ is
furnished principally by Mexico. Its colour, more pronounced than that
of the _oriental_ opal, and the carmine or vinous red tint of its fires,
permit it to be easily recognized. The _common opal_ displays very
little fire; its colour is milk-white, which, joined to a texture
extremely homogeneous, renders it semi-transparent. [_L. Dieulafait._]

=Opal Glass=, called also Milk-white Glass; prepared for globes to
lamps, &c.

=Opales=, =Opalia=, R. Festivals of Ops, the wife of Saturn, which were
held every year on the fourteenth of the calends of January (19th of

=Opalescent.= Having a play of colours like the _opal_.

=Open-tide=, O. E. The season between Epiphany and Ash-Wednesday, when
marriages were publicly solemnized.

=Opera.= A lyrical drama set to music; originated at Florence in the
16th century. [Consult _Doni_ (passim), _Arteaga Manfredini_,
_Signorelli_, &c.; also _Dr. Burney’s Tours and Correspondence_, and
_Grimm’s Correspondence_.]

=Operculum=, R. A cover for any kind of earthenware vessel.

=Ophicleide= (ὄφις, a serpent, and κλεὶς, a key). A wind instrument of
brass or copper made in the form of a serpent. Generally, the bass of a
military band.

=Ophiomancy=, Gr. Divination by snakes.

=Ophiomorphous.= Snake-shaped.

=Ophite= or =Ophiolite=. Green porphyry or SERPENTINE.

=Ophites=, Chr. A sect which arose in the 2nd century in the Christian
Church. They believed that the Serpent who tempted Eve was Christ
himself. They are also called SERPENTINIANS. (_S._)

[Illustration: Fig. 501. Opima Spolia. Trophy of Gallic Ensigns.]

=Opima Spolia=, R. The “spoils of honour,” consisting of armour set up
as a trophy and dedicated in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius at Rome.
These were spoils taken from the chief of a hostile army, who had been
killed by the hand of a Roman general. Plutarch asserts that the _spolia
opima_ were actually taken only three times.

=Opinicus=, Her. A fabulous heraldic monster; a dragon before and a lion
behind, with a camel’s tail.

=Opisthodomos=, Gr. (ὀπισθό-δομος). Latin, =Posticum=. A small chamber
placed at the back of a temple, to which the priests alone had access.

=Oporotheca=, Gr. (ὀπωρο-θήκη). A storehouse for fruits.

=Oppidan.= At Eton College, a boy who is not a king’s scholar, and
boards in the town.

[Illustration: Fig. 502. Oppidum and carceres of the circus of

=Oppidum=, R. A fortified town, and thence the mass of buildings
occupying the extremity of a circus, in which were the stalls for the
chariots and horses (_carceres_). Fig. 502 gives a representation of the
_oppidum_ in the circus of Caracalla.

=Optical Correction= is a name given to the task of adapting art
objects, or architectural proportions and ornaments, to the
circumstances of distance or comparison in which they are to be
exhibited. Belzoni observes that the heads of colossal Egyptian statues
are proportionally larger than the lower members. (For numerous examples
of this contrivance, see the article in the _Architectural Publication
Society’s Dictionary_.)

=Optics= (Gr. ὄπτομαι, to see). The science of the nature and properties
of light; of its changes as it penetrates or is reflected or absorbed by
bodies; of the structure of the eye, and the laws of vision; and of
instruments in connexion with sight. It is thus closely connected with
the science of colour, and the arts in general. The earliest treatise
extant on this science is Euclid’s _Optica et Catoptrica_. (Cf. _Dr.
Smith’s Optics_, &c.)

=Optigraph.= A telescope for copying landscapes. (See CLAUDE GLASS.)

=Optostratum=, R. (ὀπτὸς, brick, and στρωτὸν, strewn). A brick pavement,
often arranged in a herring-boned pattern, as in the OPUS SPICATUM.
(Fig. 509.)

=Opus Albarium.= (See STUCCO.)

[Illustration: Fig. 503. Alexandrinum opus.]

=Opus Alexandrinum.= A mosaic flooring much used by the Romans,
consisting of geometric figures, and generally of only two kinds of
tessera, red and black on a white ground. (See MUSIVUM OPUS.)

=Opus Araneum= (spider-work). A kind of embroidery, 13th century; modern
“guipure d’art.”

=Opus Consutum.= Appliqué work in embroidery. (See APPLIQUÉ.)

=Opus Filatorium.= A kind of embroidery, 14th century; modern “filet

=Opus Græcum=, R. Inlaid pavement. (See MUSIVUM OPUS.)

=Opus Incertum=, R. A Roman method of building; the construction of
walls of very small rough stones, not laid in courses, but held together
by the mortar.

[Illustration: Fig. 504. Pseud-iso-domum opus, with a course of opus

=Opus Insertum=, R. A Roman method of building, of courses of flat
tiles, the most durable of all. Such courses were also introduced in the
other kinds of stone and brick walls, in which they served as
bond-courses, and also kept the damp from rising from the ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 505. Musivum opus.]

=Opus Musivum.= Mosaic. (See MUSIVUM.)

=Opus Pectineum= (comb-wrought). Woven work imitating embroidery.

=Opus Phrygianum=, R. Fine embroidery. (See ORPHREY.)

=Opus Plumarium= (feather-stitch). Embroidery of which the stitches
overlap one another like the feathers of a bird.

[Illustration: Fig. 506. Pseud-iso-domum opus.]

=Opus Pseud-iso-domum=, Gr. (lit. _quasi-equal_ structure). A Greek
method of building in which the courses are (1) parallel and unequal,
but regular among themselves, as in Fig. 506; or (2) irregular
altogether, as in the Gate of Lions at Mycenæ, Fig. 507 (or in Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 507. Gate of Lions at Mycenæ. Pseud-iso-domum opus.]

=Opus Pulvinarium= (cushion-style). Embroidery like modern Berlin work,
generally used for cushions.

[Illustration: Fig. 508. Structura reticulata.]

=Opus Reticulatum=, R. A Roman method of construction, with an
ornamental surface resembling the meshes of a _net_.

[Illustration: Fig. 509. Spicatum opus.]

=Opus Spicatum=, R. Herring-bone masonry.

=Or=, Her. The metal gold, expressed in engraving by small dots, as on
Fig. 375.

=Or basané=, Fr. Leather stamped in gold, used as hangings in the 16th
and 17th centuries.

=Ora=, R. The cable which fastened the stern of a ship to the shore,
while the ANCORALE kept her head out to sea.

=Ora.= An old Saxon coin of 16 or 20 pence in value.

=Orange.= The colour formed by the mixture of 5 parts of red and 3 parts
of yellow. It is the complementary of blue. The nearest pigment is
_cadmium yellow_.

=Orange Chrome.= A sub-chromate of lead, which yields a beautiful orange

=Orange Madder lake.= (See MADDER.)

=Orange Minium.= (See MINIUM.)

=Orange Vermilion.= A durable pigment for oil and water-colours, in
colour resembling _red lead_.

=Orange Yellow.= A yellow inclining to red, represented by molybdate of
lead. (_Ansted_, _Elementary Course_.)

=Orange tree.= In Christian art, symbol of the “Heavenly Bride.”

=Oranti=, It. The name given to certain male and female figures found in
the catacomb frescoes at Rome, represented with the hands spread in the
Eastern attitude of prayer.

=Orarium=, R. A scarf or handkerchief thrown to the crowd in a circus,
to wave to the chariot-drivers. In Christian archæology, (1) A scarf
affixed to the pastoral staff; as early as the 13th century. (2) The
stole. (3) The border of an ecclesiastical vestment. (_Planché._) (See
=Stole=, =Sudarium=.)

=Orb.= One of the emblems of sovereignty with which kings are solemnly
invested at their coronation. It is a globe surmounted by a cross, and
is held in the palm of the left hand. In Art it is a common attribute of
the Infant Saviour.

=Orca=, Gr. and R. (ὄρκη or ὕρχα). An earthenware vessel of large size,
but smaller than the amphora; it was used for holding salted fish. The
diminutive is _orcula_; the modern Italian _orcio_.

=Orchestra=, Gr. and R. (ὀρχήστρα, i. e. dancing-place). The lowest part
of the Greek and Roman theatres; usually occupied by the chorus. It
contained an altar, on which sacrifices to Bacchus were sometimes made.

=Orchestrino.= A modern musical instrument invented by Poulleau. It was
shaped like a pianoforte with similar finger-keys, and the sounds were
produced by the friction of a bow upon strings.

=Orchestrion.= A modern portable organ, invented by the Abbé Vogler
about 1789. A similarly-named instrument invented in 1796 by Kunz, a
Bohemian, consisted of a pianoforte combined with some organ-stops.

=Orcula.= Diminutive of _orca_.

=Order.= In classical architecture, a column entire; i. e. base, shaft,
capital, and entablature. There are usually said to be five _orders_:
the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite.

=Orders of Knighthood.= (See KNIGHTHOOD.)

=Ordinary=, Her. An early principal charge of a simple character.

=Oread.= A mountain-nymph.

=Oreæ=, R. (_ora_, the mouth). A snaffle-bit for horses.

=Oreiller=, Her. A cushion or pillow.

=Oreillettes=, Fr. Ear-pieces on helmets; 15th and 16th centuries.

=Orfrays.= The gold, silver, or silk embroidery on rich garments,
chiefly sacerdotal ornaments. The term has two derivations; some derive
it from _aurum Phrygium_, because the Phrygians, who were excellent
embroiderers, were considered to have invented the style; others take it
to be from _aurum fractum_ (broken). In mediæval Latin the term for
orfrays was _aurifrigia_, _aurifrisa_, _aurifrisus_, and _aurifrixus_.

[Illustration: Fig. 510. Regals or Portable Organ.]

=Organ.= Organs are said to have been first introduced into France, A.
D. 289, from Greece. A large organ existed in Westminster Abbey in the
10th century. Portable organs called also REGALS were also common. The
antique organs had no key-boards, which were introduced in the 11th
century, simultaneously with the invention of the musical _stave_. (Cf.
HYDRAULA.) The REGALS or portable organ is an attribute of St. Cecilia.
(Fig. 510.)

=Organdi.= A kind of muslin.

=Organistrum=, O. E. A musical instrument, resembling the modern
hurdy-gurdy, played by two persons, of whom one turned the handle, while
the other played the keys.

=Organolyricon.= A musical instrument invented in Paris in 1810 by M. de
St. Pern. It consists of a pianoforte with two rows of keys, and
contains twelve different wind instruments, viz. three flutes, an oboe,
a clarionet, a bassoon, horns, trumpet, and fife.

=Organzine.= Thrown silk of a very fine texture. (_S._)

=Orgies=, Gr. (ὄργια). Festivals of Bacchus at which all who were
present were carried away by frenzy. The same term was also used to
denote the festivals of Ceres and those of the CABIRI.

=Orgues=, Fr. Med. (1) Pieces of timber, pointed and shod with iron,
hung like a portcullis over a gateway, to be let down in case of attack.
(2) An arrangement of gun-barrels, the precursor of the mitrailleuse.

=Orgyia= (from ὀρέγω, to extend). A Greek measure of length,
representing the distance from end to end of the _outstretched_ arms, or
the height of the human figure. It was equal to four cubits or six feet,
and was one-hundredth of a stadium.

=Orichalcum= (from ὄρος and χαλκὸς, i. e. _mountain bronze_). A metallic
compound, akin to copper and bronze, which was highly prized by the
ancients. It was probably _brass_.

=Oriel= or =Oriole=, Chr. (_oriolum_, a little entrance). A projecting
angular window, generally triangular or pentagonal in shape. A large bay
or recessed window in a church or in an apartment. The word has been
used in many senses, with the general meaning of a recess within or a
projection from a building. A small oratory.

=Orientation=, Chr. The arrangement of a church by which a worshipper
faces the _east_ at prayers.

=Oriflamme.= The ancient royal banner of France, coloured purple-azure
and gold. It was split into five points, and sometimes bore upon it a
_saltire_ wavy, from the centre of which golden rays diverged.

=Orillon=, Fr. A mass of earth lined with a wall on the shoulder of a
bastion, for the protection of a gun.

[Illustration: Fig. 511. Orle or crest-wreath.]

=Orle.= (1) Arch. A fillet or listel placed beneath the ovolo of a
capital. (2) In Heraldry, a subordinary formed of a border of a shield
which is charged upon another and a larger shield. (3) The wreath or
torse which encircled the crest, composed ordinarily of silk of two
colours twisted together, and representing the principal metal and
tincture in the wearer’s armorial bearings. (_Planché._)

=Orleans.= A cloth made of worsted and cotton.

=Orlo.= A Spanish musical instrument.

=Orlop-deck= of a ship. That over the hold, on which the cables are

=Ormolu=, Fr. (_or_, gold, and _moulu_, ground). 72·43 copper, 25·2
zinc, and 2·65 tin; used for cheap jewellery, &c. _Mosaic gold_, another
name for such a metal, is composed of 65 copper and 35 zinc.

=Ormolu Varnish.= A copper, bronze, or imitation-gold varnish.

=Ornithon=, R. (ὀρνιθών). A poultry-yard or aviary.

=Orpharion=, O. E. A kind of lute. (_Halliwell._)

=Orpheon.= A musical instrument.

=Orphrey.= An old English word for gold embroidery, from the Latin
_auriphrygium_. (See ORFRAYS.)

=Orpiment= (Lat. _auripigmentum_; Ang. _king’s yellow_). A yellow
pigment of arsenic with sulphur, or, when the arsenic predominates, an
orange colour. The finest native orpiment comes from Persia, and is
called _golden orpiment_.

=Orpin=, O. E., contraction of =Orpiment=. Yellow arsenic.

=Orrery.= A machine for representing in a model the motions and relative
positions of the heavenly bodies.

=Orrice= or =Orris=. A peculiar pattern in which gold or silver lace is
worked. The edges are ornamented with conical figures, placed at equal
distances, with spots between them.

[Illustration: Fig. 512. Orthostata. Facing of a Greek wall.]

=Orthostata=, Gr. (ὀρθόστατα, i. e. standing upright). (1) The facings
of a wall, consisting of different materials from the internal part of
it. (Fig. 512.) (2) An anta or pilaster.

=Orthron.= (See HOURS OF PRAYER.)

=Oscen=, _plur._ =Oscines=, R. (_os_, mouth, and _cano_, to predict). A
bird or birds from whose singing it was possible to draw auguries.

=Oschophoria=, Gr. (ὀσχο-φόρια, i. e. vine-branch-bearing). Athenian
vintage festivals, instituted in honour of Bacchus and Ariadne by
Theseus, or according to other authorities, in honour of Dionysus and
Athena, in which those who took part carried vine-boughs loaded with
grapes. The festival was concluded by a race on the seashore from the
temple of Bacchus to that of Minerva. The victor’s prize was a cup
called PENTAPLOA, because it contained _five_ ingredients: wine, honey,
cheese, meal, and oil.

=Oscillatio=, R. A swing. The Roman swings are represented having legs
like a chair.

=Oscilla=, R. (dimin. of _os_, mouth or face). Small images or masks,
generally of Bacchus, hung up in vineyards to ensure a good crop, and
practically useful to scare off birds from the grapes.

=Osculare=, =Osculatorium=, Chr. (See PAX.)

=Ossarium= and =Ossuarium=, R. (_os_, a bone). A sarcophagus of
earthenware, stone, or marble, in which the vessel containing the
cremated ashes of the dead was placed.

=Ossature=, Arch. (from the Italian _ossatura_, skeleton). The skeleton
or framework of a Gothic roof or a window. In the roof, the ossature
comprises the nerves, the transverse or longitudinal arches, the
diagonal rib, &c.; in a window, the iron framing.

=Osteau=, Arch. An old term used to denote the rose placed in the upper
part of a mullioned window; it was also applied to a rosace and a

=Ostinati.= An Italian literary academy, whose device was a pyramid
blown from all quarters by the winds, with the _obstinate_ motto,
“_Frustra_” (in vain).

=Ostium=, R. A lobby inside the entrance door of a Roman house, deep
enough to contain a small porter’s lodge on one side, and leading to an
inner door which opened on the ATRIUM. The street door was called JANUA.
(See DOMUS.)

=Ostrich Eggs=, Chr. The practice of suspending eggs of ostriches in
churches was probably introduced from the East by Crusaders.

  “In some churches two eggs of ostriches, and other things which cause
  admiration, and which are rarely seen, are accustomed to be suspended:
  that by their means the people may be drawn to church, and have their
  minds the more affected.” (_Durandus on Symbolism._)

=Ostrum=, R. A purple colour used by the ancients, produced from the
juice of the _murex_ fish.

=Othone=, Chr. (See STOLE.)

=Ottone=, It. Brass.

=Oubliettes=, Fr. Subterranean dungeons, into which prisoners were
thrown to be _oubliés_ (forgotten). The side walls were in some cases
armed with strong sharp blades, which cut the victims to pieces as they
fell. It should be mentioned that in many cases cesspools have been
mistaken for oubliettes.

=Ouch= or =Nouche=, O. E. An ornament of the brooch kind; a jewel.
(Mod.) The setting of a precious stone.

=Oudenardes.= Tapestry landscapes first made at that place; called also
“_tapisseries de verdure_.”

=Ourania=, Gr. (οὐρανια, i. e. in the air). A game at catch-ball.

=Outline=, which has no real existence in nature, is defined by
Aristotle as πέρας στερεοῦ, “the boundary of solid form.” The only light
and shade used in outlines is the greater lightness or darkness of the

=Outré=, Fr. Exaggerated, fantastic, absurd.

=Oval= (Lat. _ovum_, an egg). The oval, formed of a continuous curve,
differs from the ELLIPSE, which is equally broad at both ends, in having
one end narrower than the other, and is sometimes called a false
ellipse. _Ovals_ in windows, arches, and other parts of architecture
exist, but are rare.

=Ovatio.= A lesser triumph distinguished from TRIUMPHUS. The general
entered the city _on foot_, and dressed in the toga prætexta of a
magistrate, attended only by musicians, and knights and plebeians; and
the sacrifice by which the ceremony concluded was a _sheep_ (ovis)
instead of a bull; hence the word _ovation_.

=Overstory=, Arch. The CLERESTORY.

=Overture= (Fr. _ouverture_, an opening; It. _sinfonia_). Instrumental
music preceding an opera, &c.

=Ovile=, R. Literally, a _sheep-fold_, and thence an enclosure in the
Campus Martius in which each century assembled before proceeding to
place its votes (_tabellæ_) in the urn (_cista_). It was divided into
compartments approached through narrow passages called _pontes_ of
_ponticuli_. On entering, the citizens received their voting-tablets
(_tabellæ_), and when they had consulted within the enclosure, they
passed out by another _pons_, at which they threw their votes into the
chest (_cista_).

[Illustration: Fig. 513. Ovolo or Quarter-round.]

=Ovolo=, Arch. (from the Latin _ovum_). (1) A convex moulding showing
the quarter of a circle, and thence called quarter-round. (2) The
echinus of the Doric capital. (3) An ornament composed of eggs,
separated either by tongues (Fig. 277) or by darts (Fig. 514). (See

[Illustration: Fig. 514. Egg and dart moulding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 515. Ovum. Egg-shaped balls.]

=Ovum=, =Egg=, R. Conical egg-shaped balls which were placed upon the
_spina_ of a circus, on a stone table supported by four columns. (Fig.
515.) There was a second table at the other end of the _spina_, on which
were placed small marble dolphins. _Ovum Orphicum_, or Orphic egg, was
the mysterious symbol employed by Orpheus to denote the procreative
principle with which the whole earth is pervaded. _Ovum anguinum_ was an
oval ball of glass worn by the Druids round their neck; so named
because, as was asserted, it was produced from the mingled saliva of two
serpents (_angues_).

=Owl.= With the Athenians the owl was the emblem of prudence and wisdom;
the bird of Athenê. In Christian art it symbolizes darkness and
solitude, and hence unbelief.

=Ox.= In Christian art the attribute of St. Luke; the emblem of the
priesthood and of sacrifice. In representations of the Nativity an ox
and an ass are commonly introduced.

=Ox-gall.= The bile or bitter fluid secreted by the liver of the ox;
when refined it is used in oil and water-colour painting to fix and
thicken the colours. (See GALL.)

=Oxford Ochre.= An oxide of iron used as a pigment of a brownish yellow
in oil and water-colours. (See OCHRE.)

=Oxide of Zinc.= A _white_ pigment which is more permanent in resisting
gases than the white lead.

=Oxides of Copper.= The pigments derived from these were well known to
the ancients. Modern pigments are _Blue Verditer_, _Brunswick Green_,
_Verdigris_, and _Emerald_ or _Scheele’s Green_ (q.v.).

=Oxybaphoi=, Gr. Small cymbals in the shape of vinegar-saucers.

=Oxybaphon= (ὀξυβάφον). A Greek term applied to a bell-shaped vase with
a plain foot and a moulded rim, synonymous with the Latin ACETABULUM

=Oyelet=, =Oylet=. (See OILLETS.)

=Oyer= and =Terminer=. Ancient law-French. The words mean _to hear and
to determine_, and express the authority or commission given to an
appointed court of justice.


=Packfong= or =Pakfong=. A Chinese name for Argentine, or German silver.

=Pæan= (Gr. παιάν). A hymn to Apollo, of gratitude or propitiation. It
was also used as a battle-song before and after an engagement.

=Pænula=, R. A thick cloak with a hole to put the head through; it was
furnished with a hood, and was worn in travelling, or as a protection
against cold and rain.

=Pagai=, Hind. A kind of short double oar, with broad ends resembling
small scoops.

=Paganalia=, =Paganales=, R. A rustic festival which took place yearly
towards the end of January or the beginning of February, seven days
after the _Sementivæ_. It was the festival of villages (_pagi_) and of
villagers (_pagani_), whence its name. Sacrifices were offered in honour
of Proserpine, goddess of vegetation. As the old religion continued to
prevail in the villages long after that of Christ was established in the
towns, the words _pagan_ and unbeliever gradually became synonymous.

=Paganica= (sc. _pila_), R. A ball covered with leather and stuffed with
feathers or down; it took its name from the peasants or country people
(_pagani_), who used it for playing a game the nature of which is not

=Pagina=, R. (lit. a thing fastened). This term, when synonymous with
_scheda_, signifies a page of paper, the page of a volume; or else it
serves to denote one of the columns of writing which cover a sheet of

=Pagoda=, Hind. (1) A religious building of the Hindoos. The great
ancient pagodas of India are monolithic temples hewn out of rocky
mountains; but the term is also applied to temples built in the open
air. (2) Gold coins formerly current in India were called pagodas.

=Pagoda-stone.= A limestone containing tapering fossil shells shaped
like a Chinese pagoda at the top.

=Pagodite.= A stone much used by the Chinese for carving into pagodas
and other ornaments.

=Pagus=, R. Any lofty site in the country capable of being easily turned
into a fortified post by means of a few siege works. The name was
extended to the country surrounding a fortified village; and each of the
country tribes was divided by Numa into a certain number of pagi.

=Paile.= An old term used to denote a striped cloth of floss silk
manufactured at Alexandria in Egypt, and thence a mantle, canopy, or

=Pala=, It. An altar front. The _Pala d’oro_ of St. Mark’s, Venice, is a
celebrated specimen of Byzantine art. It is of silver-gilt ornamented
with gems and enamels, with Greek and Latin inscriptions in niello, and
representations from sacred and profane history. It was originally made
at Constantinople in 976, but has been repaired in 1105, in 1209, and in
1345, by which it has lost much of its original character.

=Pala=, R. A spade, or scoop in the form of a spade, and thence the
bezil of a ring.

=Palæstra= (παλαίστρα). A place for wrestling, formerly part of the
gymnasium. (See GYMNASIUM.)

=Palanga.= (See PHALANGÆ.) Hence:—

=Palanquin.= A covered conveyance for one person, carried on the
shoulders of men in India and China. They are often very splendidly
carved, and decorated with tapestry, ornamental woods, and inlaid-work.

=Palaria=, R. An exercise practised by young Roman recruits, which
consisted of hurling javelins (_pila_) against a stake (_palus_) fixed
in the ground. (See PEL.)

=Palè=, Gr. (πάλη). A Greek term having the same meaning as LUCTA,

=Pale=, Her. One of the ordinaries. =Palewise= or =In Pale=, arranged
vertically one above the other, as the lions of England. (See PER.)

=Paleste=, Gr. (παλαιστὴ, i. e. palm of the hand). A lineal measure used
by the Greeks equal to the quarter of a foot, or a little more than
three inches. (See PALMUS.)

=Palette.= “Setting the palette” is arranging the colours for use. This
is always done in a certain order regulated by the key in which the
picture is to be painted. The order generally recommended is to begin
with white, and then proceed through the yellows, reds, and blues to
black. The Egyptians used palettes of a long rectangular form; one side
higher than the other, had two or three saucers sunk in it to hold cakes
of colour or ink; the other side was notched to receive the _calami_ or
cut reeds used as writing-pens.

=Palettes= or =Roundels=, in Armour, are round plates or shields hung on
the armour to defend the joints of the arm, necessarily left free for

=Palilia=, R. A festival in honour of Pales, the goddess of shepherds
and flocks; it was held on the 21st of April.

=Palimpsest= (παλίμ-ψηστος, lit. scraped again). A parchment the writing
on which had been erased, so that it might be used again. Monumental
brasses are found to have been reversed and used a second time. In both
cases the most ancient writing or inscription is generally the most
valuable and interesting.

=Palindrome= (πάλιν, again, and δρόμος, a course). A sentence which
reads the same when read backwards or forwards. Such is the Greek
inscription on the ancient font in the chapel of Dulwich College:
“νιψονανομημαμημονανοψιν.” “Purify the heart and not the countenance

[Illustration: Fig. 516. Palissy jug.]

=Palissy Ware.= The pieces to which Palissy owes his reputation, in the
first place, are the so called “rustic pottery” (_rustiques figulines_),
“dishes or vases where upon a rough ground strewn with fossil shells,
lizards and salamanders are running, frogs jumping, snakes crawling or
sleeping, or more still, in a streamlet of water wriggling eels,
pointed-nosed pikes, trout with spotted scales, and a thousand others of
our fresh-water fishes are swimming.” When afterwards he worked in the
capital, he did not give up his rustic compositions, but mixed them with
the human figure. “There is an identity of style in all his figures and
compositions; such as the Diana, Plenty, &c., framed round with delicate
and ingenious ornaments drawn in the taste of the period.”

=Paliurus.= A thorn-bush with long sharp spikes, common on the coasts of
the Mediterranean, where it is called _Christ’s thorn_, because it is
said to have furnished material of which the Crown of thorns was woven.

=Palla=, Gr. and R. A robe of state worn by patrician ladies, and
frequently represented on statues of goddesses. _Palla citharœdica_ was
the name given to a long robe which musicians wore upon the stage;
Apollo is often represented with this garment, especially when he is
surnamed _Citharœdus_ and _Musagetes_. _Palla Gallica_ was a short
garment like a TABARD, open in front and behind; it was worn by the
Gauls and adopted by the Romans, who called it CARACALLA (q.v.).

=Palla Corporalis=, Chr. The veil for the Pyx. (See CORPORAL.)

=Palladium.= (1) An image of Pallas Athenê, kept carefully hidden, and
revered as the safeguard of the place where it lay. The most celebrated
was the _Palladium_ of Troy, said to have been thrown from Olympus by
the hand of Zeus. It was about three cubits high, and represented the
goddess sitting with a spear in her right hand, and in her left a
distaff and spindle. (2) The term has been applied to a metal discovered
by Dr. Wollaston in 1803, obtained from platinum, which it resembles in
colour and lustre.

=Pallium= (Gr. ἱμάτιον). A large square woollen sheet or blanket worn by
the Greeks over the shoulders, and fastened like the ABOLLA round the
neck with a brooch (_fibula_); it formed the principal article of the
_amictus_ or Greek dress. (Hence the expression to _palliate_, or cloak
over, an offence.) (2) Chr. A vestment bestowed by the Pope on all
patriarchs and archbishops on their accession to office as the symbol of
their ecclesiastical power. The material is obtained from the wool of
two lambs slain on the Eve of St. Agnes. The modern pallium of the
Church is a short white cloak ornamented with a red cross, which
encircles the neck and shoulders, and falls down the back. The pall or
pallium is a charge in the arms of the Sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and

=Pall-mall.= The ancient form of the game of croquet, “wherein a round
box bowle is with a mallet strucke through a high arch of yron standing
at either end of an ally.” (_Cotgrave._) “This game is used at the long
alley near St. James’s, and vulgarly called Pell-Mell.” (_Blount’s
Glossary_, 1681.)

=Palm.= The ancient classical emblem of victory and triumph was early
assumed by the Christians as the universal symbol of martyrdom. In
England we understand by palm, not the leaves of a palm-tree, but “the
yelowe that groweth on wyllowes.”

[Illustration: Fig. 516 a. Palm-leaf Ornament.]

[Illustration: Fig. 516 b. Architectural Palm-leaf Ornament.]

=Palm-leaf=, Arch. An architectural ornament bearing more or less
resemblance to a palm-leaf, employed for mouldings, and for the
decoration of the corners of the ceilings in Doric cornices; and in
antefixæ, as crownings for the pediment and as acroteria. Figs. 516a and
516b represent palm-leaves of terra-cotta.

=Palmus=, Gr. and R. A measure of length. Of the Greek _palmus_ the
greater (σπιθαμὴ) contained nine finger-breadths, and the less
(παλαιστὴ) four. The greater Roman _palmus_ contained twelve
finger-breadths or about nine inches, and the less four finger-breadths.
The greater _palmus_ was taken from the length of the hand or span, the
less from the breadth of it.

=Palstave=, Celt. A wedge-shaped axe used by the Celtic nations in war
for battering the armour of the enemy. (See Fig. 255.)

=Paltock= (modern _paletôt_). “A short cloake with sleeves,” i. e. a

=Paludamentum=, R. A military cloak worn over their armour by the
generals and superior officers of the Roman army; an officer thus
dressed was said to be _paludatus_. (See Fig. 44.)

=Palus=, R. (_pango_, to fix). A stake planted in the earth, against
which recruits hurled their javelins (_pila_). The mediæval PEL (q.v.).

=Pam=, O. E. The knave of clubs. (HALLIWELL.)

=Pammachium= (παμμάχιον). A synonym for PANCRATIUM (q.v.).

[Illustration: Fig. 517. Panache.]

=Panache=, Her. A plume of feathers set upright and borne as a crest.
Fig. 517 is from the seal of Edward Courtenay, A. D. 1400.

=Panarium=, R. (_panis_, bread). A bread-basket; a pantry in which bread
was kept.

=Panathenæa=, Gr. (Παναθήναια). Festivals of Minerva Athenê among the
Athenians, so called because they formed the festival of all the peoples
placed under the protection of Minerva (πᾶν, all, and Ἀθήνη). There were
the Greater and Lesser Panathenæa; the former being held every five
years, the latter every three years. The procession at the Greater
festival is the subject of the friezes from the Parthenon now in the
British Museum. (See ELGIN MARBLES.) They represent the solemn
transportation of the _peplus_ of Athenê to her temple, in which nearly
the whole of the population took part, on foot, on horseback, or in
chariots. Old men carried olive-branches, young men attended in armour,
and maidens carried baskets of flowers.

=Panaulon.= An enlarged German flute with sixteen finger-keys; invented
recently by Trexler of Vienna. It is available as a bass to other

=Pancratium=, R. (from πάν every: and κράτος force). A wrestling and
boxing match, in which the combatants employed every means to disable
each other; and the contest was continued until one of the combatants
owned himself disabled by holding up a finger, or was killed.

=Paned=, O. E. Striped.

=Paned Hose.= Breeches formed of stripes, with small panes or squares of
silk or velvet. (_Halliwell._)

=Panegyris=, Egyp. (πανήγυρις). A popular festival of Egypt, to which
the whole country was summoned in order to celebrate the thirtieth
anniversary of the reigning monarch.

=Panels=, Arch. The sunken compartments in wood and stone-work; very
abundant in Gothic architecture as ornaments on walls, ceilings, &c.
After the expiration of Gothic architecture, panelling in great measure
ceased to be used in stone-work.

=Panel Picture.= A painting on a board or panel.

=Panisci=, R. (Πανίσκοι, dimin. from Πάν). Literally, _small Pans_,
small rustic gods no bigger than pigmies.

=Pannetier Green.= A handsome and durable emerald green, prepared by a
secret process by its inventor, M. Pannetier. It is sold at a high

=Panoply= (πανοπλία). A complete suit of armour. (See ARMOUR.)

=Pantables= (for PANTOFLES). Slippers.

  “Hee standeth upon his _pantables_, and regardeth greatly his
  reputacion.” (_Saker’s Narbonus_, 1580.)

=Pantaloon.= From the Italian, _pianta leone_ (plant the lion); the
Venetian standard-bearers (of the _lion_ of St. Mark) being so called,
who wore tight hose, the name came to be given to tight hose in general.
In ancient pantomimes, Pantaloon was always a Venetian. (See HARLEQUIN.)

=Pantaloons=, O. E. “Garments made for merry-andrews, that have the
breeches and stockings of the same stuff, and joined together as one
garment.” (_Halliwell._)

=Panthea=, Gen. (πάν-θεια). Statues or figures which combine the symbols
of several divinities.

=Pantheon= (πᾶν, every, and θεὸς, god). A temple dedicated to all the
divinities collectively. That at Rome is now a Christian church. It is
circular, 150 feet in height and in diameter, with a domed roof.

=Pantherinæ=, R. Panther-tables; of wood striped like the skin of a
panther. (See TIGRINÆ.)

=Pantobles=, =Pantoffles=, O. E. Slippers.

=Pantofles=, O. E. Slippers or wooden pattens.

=Pantograph.= An instrument for enlarging or reducing plans and designs,
largely used in the arts, e. g. in machine embroidery.

=Pantomine= (παντὸς, of everything; μῖμος, mimic). Gesture and action
applied, without speech, to represent emotion; hence applied to the form
of theatrical performance which consists entirely or principally of
gesture and action.

=Paper.= (See CHARTA.)

=Papier-maché=, Fr. Paper-pulp; made by compressing the pulp, or by
pasting together different thicknesses of paper, to the hardness and
consistency of wood. It is an invention of the 18th century, and
originated in snuff-boxes called after their manufacturer “Martins.” The
process has since been developed to great perfection by the invention of
new varnishes and methods of ornament, the principal of which are
gilding and bronzing, pearl and gem inlaying, &c. (See a paper by _R.
Hunt_ in the _Art Journal_, 1851.)

=Papilio=, R. (lit. a butterfly). A military tent, so called because the
curtains opened and shut like the wings of a butterfly.

=Papyrus.= The paper made of the papyrus plant, used by the Egyptians
and other nations of antiquity. The _Papyrus rolls_ on which important
relics of Egyptian literature and art have come down to us, were formed
of a sheet of papyrus rolled on a slender wooden cylinder. They have
mostly been discovered in mummy cases, and contain illustrations of
funeral ceremonies and religious emblems relating to the future of the
soul. Others are historical or literary, and some have been discovered
containing caricatures and comic illustrations. (Cf. LIBER.)

=Parada=, Celt. A tent or awning stretched over the deck of a vessel,
and thence a cabin hung with tapestry.

=Paradise= or =Parvise=, Chr. (1) A vestibule or courtyard in front of a
church. The term must thus, at a certain period, have been synonymous
with _narthex_ or porch. At the present day the term is applied to the
open space to be found in front of cathedrals or public buildings. (2)
The word is sometimes applied to the room that is often found above
church porches. (See CLOISTER GARTH.)

=Paradisus= (παράδεισος). A Persian park or pleasure-garden, enclosed
within a wall, elaborately planted and irrigated, and stocked with
animals for the chase. Hence the Garden of Eden was so called.

=Paragauda=, =Paragaudis=, R. An embroidered band of silk or gold thread
sewn on to a tunic.

=Paraison=, Fr. A term in glass, equivalent to the English METAL (q.v.).

=Paralus= (πάραλος). The name of an Athenian state vessel, kept, like
that of the Doge of Venice in modern times, for state and religious
ceremonies. A sister vessel was named the SALAMINIA; they were both
fast-sailing triremes.

=Paramese=, Gr. (next to middle), or TRITE (third). The third treble
note, immediately above the mese, of the seven-stringed lyre. (See

=Paranete=, Gr. (beside the shortest). The second treble note of the
seven-stringed lyre. (See MESE.)

=Parapet=, It. (_parare petto_, to defend the breast). A wall
breast-high on a fortification, roof, or other gallery. (See CRENELS.)

=Paraphernalia= (from the Greek παράφερνα). That which a wife brings
besides her dower; i. e. her personal attire and ornament.

=Parasang.= A Persian measure of distance, about 30 Greek stadia or 3¾
English miles.

=Paratorium.= (See OBLATIONARIUM.)

=Parazonium=, R. (παραζώνιον). A short sword or kind of dagger worn by
the tribunes and superior officers of the Roman army attached to their
belt on the right side. This sword was shorter than the _gladius_ worn
by the common soldier on the right side.

=Parchment.= The finer kind of parchment known as _vellum_ is from the
skins of calves, kids, and dead-born lambs. The stout parchment of
drum-heads is from the skin of the wolf, although that of the ass or
calf is sometimes used. The parchment of battledores is from the skin of
the ass, and that used for sieves from the skin of the he-goat. The
green parchment used in bookbinding is coloured by means of Verdigris.
(See LIBER.) The name comes from the Latin Pergamentum. Eumenes, King of
Pergamus, has the honour of the invention.

=Parentales=, =Parentalia=, R. Festivals, also called _Februales_, which
were held by the Romans in honour of deceased ancestors.

=Pargetting=, =Parge-work=, O. E. In Architecture, an old term for the
ornamental plasterwork common on the outside walls of timber-built
houses of Queen Elizabeth’s and earlier periods.

=Parhypate=, Gr. (beside the longest). The second bass note of the
seven-stringed lyre (See MESE.)

=Parian Chronicle.= A slab of Parian marble, among the so called ARUNDEL
MARBLES in the University of Oxford, containing a chronological record
of Greek history from B.C. 1582 to B.C. 264.

=Parian Marble= from the island of Paros was of extremely fine grain,
easy to work, and of a creamy white. The marble _now_ called Parian has
a coarse sparkling grain, which, however, takes a high finish.
(_Redford_, _Ancient Sculpture_.)

=Paries=, R. The wall of a house or any building, in contradistinction
to _murus_, _muri_, which denoted the walls of a city.

=Paris Black.= A name for IVORY BLACK (q.v.).

=Paris Blue.= A very handsome dark violet-blue pigment. “Its great
qualities of body and intensity of coloration will always ensure it a
large sale; moreover, its mixture with chrome yellow produces a fine
_green cinnabar_ or _leaf-green_.” (_Habich._)

=Paris Lake.= (See CARMINATED LAKES.)

=Parlour= (Lat. _parlatorium_). (1) The old “speke-house” in a convent
for inmates to speak with their friends. (2) Any private room.

=Parma=, R. (πάρμη). A shield, usually of circular form, carried in the
Roman army by the light-armed troops or light infantry (_velites_) and
the cavalry (_equites_). The _parma thracidica_ used by the class of
gladiators called _Thraces_ was not round, but in the form of a small
SCUTUM (q.v.).

=Parquet.= French flooring of inlaid wood-work.

=Parsley=, Arch. In every period, but especially in Romano-Byzantine and
Gothic art, parsley-leaves have been abundantly made use of in
architectural decoration.

=Parthenon.= The famous temple of Minerva in the Acropolis at Athens.
The finest example of the GRECIAN DORIC style of architecture; built by
Pheidias, 454–438 B.C. Fergusson says, “For beauty of detail, and for
the exquisite perception of the highest and most recondite principles of
art ever applied to architecture, it stands utterly and entirely alone
and unrivalled—the glory of Greece.” (_Hist. of Architecture._) The
celebrated frieze, 525 feet in length, ran all round the outer wall of
the _cella_ close up to the ceiling. The best work on the Parthenon
sculptures is by Michaelis (_Der Parthenon_, Leipzig, 1871). (See ELGIN

=Partisan=, O. E. A kind of short pike, introduced _temp._ Edward III.

=Partlet=, O. E. A ruff. “A maydens neckerchefe or lynnen partlette.”

=Party=, =Parted=, Her. Divided. (See PER.)

=Parvise.= (See PARADISE.)

=Paschal Taper=, Chr. A large wax candle which was consecrated during
the service on Easter Eve, and lighted on Sundays from Easter to
Whitsuntide, with five grains of incense attached to it to indicate the
five movable feasts of the year.

=Pasquinade=, It. A lampoon; so called from _Pasquino_, an Italian
barber at Rome, whose door was opposite to the statue of a gladiator on
which such satirical writings were posted.

=Passamen=, O. E. A kind of lace. (_Hall._)

[Illustration: Fig. 518. Passant.]

[Illustration: Fig. 519. Passant guardant.]

=Passant=, Her. Walking and looking forward. _Passant guardant_, walking
and looking out from the shield; _passant reguardant_, walking and
looking back; _passant repassant_, walking in opposite directions. (Fig.
518, 519.)

=Passe-partout=, Fr. A light picture-frame of cardboard, having the
inner edges generally gilt.

=Passementerie=, Fr. Trimming, lace, or tape of gold, silver, lace, or

=Passion, Instruments of the=—a frequent subject in ecclesiastical
decoration of the Middle Ages—are, the PITCHER from which Jesus poured
water; the TOWEL—represented as hanging on a ring—wherewith He wiped the
Apostles’ feet; the TWO SWORDS which they showed Him, when He said, “It
is enough;” the EAR of Malchus; ST. PETER’S SWORD, represented as a
small _falchion_; the POST to which the Saviour was bound; the SCOURGE;
the CROWN OF THORNS; the REED wherewith He was smitten on the head; the
CROSS; the LADDER; the NAILS; the SPEAR of Longinus, crossed by the REED
with the SPONGE; the FIRE at which St. Peter warmed himself; the COCK;
the PINCERS, and a HEART pierced with five wounds.

=Passus=, R. A pace, from the point where the heel leaves the ground, to
where the same heel is set down; five Roman feet. _Mille passuum_, or a
thousand such paces, formed the Roman mile.

=Pasta Verde=, It. Sap-green; a vegetable green pigment prepared from
the berries of the buckthorn.

=Pastel.= The French name for coloured crayons. Pastel-painting was much
used for portraits in the beginning of the 19th century.

=Pasticcio=, It. An imitation of the style of another painter in an
independent design.

=Pastophori=, Gr. and Egyp. (παστο-φόροι). Priests who, at certain
ceremonies, carried small shrines (ναὸς) containing the image of a
deity, which were hidden from the eyes of the crowd by a veil of
different colours called παστὸς, whence παστὸν φέρειν (to carry the
_pastos_), the term applied to the priests who performed this duty. The
keepers of the temple were also so called.

=Pastophoria=, Chr. Small apses flanking the principal apse in a
basilica, in which the consecrated bread was kept.

[Illustration: Fig. 520. Bishop’s Pastoral Staff.]

=Pastoral Staff=, Chr. The _pedum_ of antiquity and emblem of a bishop’s
pastoral responsibility is distinct from the CROZIER (q.v.) of an
archbishop, and has a crook head.

=Pastouraux=, Cubical stones, usually of two colours, applied in the
ornamentation of Romano-Byzantine architecture.

=Patagium=, R. A band of purple, or with gold ornaments or embroidery,
which was placed round the neck and down the front of a woman’s tunic
(_tunica muliebris_).

=Patee= or =Pattee=, Her. A small cross with the arms widening towards
the ends.

=Patella.= Diminutive of PATERA (q.v.).

=Patena=, R. and Chr. A manger of wood, stone, or marble for holding
food for horses; when it was divided into several compartments, these
were called _loculi_. (See LOCULUS.) In Christian archæology, _patena_
was the term applied to a small plate of gold or silver, used in the
celebration of mass to cover over the chalice, and to hold the pieces of
the host after it has been broken by the priest.

=Patent Yellow.= (See TURNER’S YELLOW.)

[Illustration: Fig. 521. Patera.]

=Patera=, dimin. =Patella= (φιάλη). Flat plates or dishes for holding
fluids for domestic use, and wine for libations in the sacrifices. The
common kinds were of red earthenware, ornamented with designs in black.
Others were of bronze or silver, often richly decorated with chasing,
&c. (Compare PATINA.) In Architecture, a great variety of flat ornaments
used in all styles of architecture are improperly called _pateræ_, the
word applying properly to circular ornaments resembling the classical
dish often found on friezes of classical architecture. (Fig. 521, 522.)

[Illustration: Fig. 522. Side view, showing the depth of the patera.]

[Illustration: Fig. 523. Paternosters.]

=Paternosters= or =Bead-ornament=. (1) A rosary. (2) Architectural
ornaments in the form of berries or beads (Fig. 523), which decorate
bands or other mouldings, and which often occur above ovolos.

=Patibulum=, R. An instrument of punishment in the form of a fork
(_furca_), between the prongs of which the criminal’s neck was placed.
His hands were fastened to the prongs of the fork, and in this condition
(_patibulatus_) he was flogged through the city. The name of
_patibulum_, or _crux patibularia_, was also given to a cross to which
criminals were nailed.

=Patina.= The rust of antiquity found on bronzes and coins; it cannot be
removed by rubbing or wetting it. It varies with the nature of the soil,
and in some cases the surface acquires the smoothness and colour of

=Patina=, R. An earthenware vessel, used generally for cookery. It was
deeper than the _patera_, but less deep than the _olla_.

=Patonce=, Her. A variety of the heraldic cross.

=Patriarchal=, Her. A variety of the heraldic cross, with a short
cross-bar on the upper limb.

[Illustration: Fig. 524. Badge of St. Patrick.]

=Patrick, Order of St.=, indicated by the letters K.P., was instituted
by George III. in 1783. The badge or jewel is of gold enamelled and oval
in form, and is worn suspended from a collar formed of alternate roses
and harps, or from a broad sky-blue ribbon.

=Patten=, Fr. (1) A woman’s clog. (2) The base of a column.

=Patulous.= Spreading.

=Paul Veronese Green.= An _arsenite_ or _arseniate of copper_. A fine
and durable colour, used either for oil or water-colour painting. (See

=Pavilion=, Arch. A projecting apartment, usually with a dome or turret.

[Illustration: Fig. 525. Pavimentum (sectile).]

=Pavimentum=, R. A pavement formed by means of pieces of tile, crushed
stones, flints, and other materials set in a bed of ashes or cement, and
consolidated by beating down with the rammer (_pavicula_), whence its
name of _pavimentum_. There were various kinds of pavimenta: the sectile
(Figs. 525, 526), the _tessellatum_ or _tesseris structum_, the
_vermiculatum_, the _sculpturatum_, and the _testaceum_, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 526. Pavimentum (sectile).]

=Pavo.= (See PEACOCK.)

=Pavonaceum= (sc. _opus_), R. An arrangement of materials placed so as
to overlap one another, and bearing more or less resemblance to the
feathers in a peacock’s tail.

=Pavonine.= Coloured like a peacock’s tail.

=Pax=, =Paxboard=, Chr. A representation of the Crucifixion upon a piece
of wood or metal, with a handle at the back. It was kissed by the priest
in the mass at the words “_Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum_,” and
afterwards passed round to be kissed by the congregation. It was also
spelt _Paxbrede_. Also called OSCULATORIUM.

=Peach-stone Black=, prepared from calcined stones of fruits, is a
handsome colour, but has a reddish tinge. Ground with oil and white
lead, the colour called _old gray_ is obtained.

=Peacock=, R. and Chr. In antiquity the peacock was sacred to Juno, and
is called _Junonia avis_. It is represented on Roman imperial coins
bearing the empresses up to heaven, as the eagle does the emperors; and
hence in Christian archæology is the symbol of the resurrection. (Her.,
see Fig. 398, IN PRIDE.)

=Pea-green.= (See CHRYSOCOLLA.)

=Pean=, Her. One of the furs; represented in gold spots on a black

=Pean= or =Pæan=. A song or shout of triumph.

=Pearl.= A secretion of the mollusc; in its normal development a
thickening of the shell, which supplies _mother-of-pearl_; abnormally,
forming globules for the purpose of encysting foreign substances
intruded within the shell, which are the precious pearls used in

=Pearl=, in Chinese the emblem of _talent_, is put by the Chinese on
porcelains destined for rewards of poets and other _laureati_ in China.

=Pebble.= A name given by lapidaries to many different stones.

=Pechblende= or =Pech-urane=, Germ. An ore of uranium and iron, used in
porcelain painting and glass, producing a handsome greenish-yellow

=Pecten=, Egyp. and R. (_pecto_, to comb). (1) A comb for the hair;
among the Egyptians and Romans they were made of box-wood or ivory. (See
COMB.) (2) A weaver’s comb for pressing the threads of the web firmly
together. (3) A comb for carding flax or wool. (4) A reaper’s “comb,”
used in several countries, especially Gaul, instead of a sickle, for
plucking the ears of wheat from the stalk. (5) A haymaker’s rake, &c.

=Pectinated.= Having teeth like a comb.

=Pectoral=, Gen. (_pectus_, the breast). A plate forming the front of a
cuirass, and thus covering the chest.

=Peculium=, R. Property or earnings which a slave or a _filius familias_
was permitted to acquire and consider as his own, although in strict law
it belonged to the master or father. The slave was sometimes allowed by
agreement to use this peculium for the purpose of purchasing his

=Pecunia=, R. Money; so called from _pecus_, a herd of cattle, Man’s
primitive medium of exchange.

=Pedal.= In Music, a passage where the harmony moves upon a sustained
sound, which is either the dominant or the tonic of the key.

=Pede-cloth=, Chr. A carpet laid on the space between the altar and the

[Illustration: Fig. 527. Pedestal of Trajan’s Column.]

[Illustration: Fig. 528. Pedestal of Column of Antoninus Pius.]

[Illustration: Fig. 529. Pedestal of the Androsium at Athens.]

=Pedestal=, Gen. The base of a structure; the base supporting a statue,
group, or monumental column. A pedestal has three parts: the _base_ or
_foot_ next the ground, the _dado_ or _die_ forming the centre, and the
_cornice_ or _surbase_ mouldings at the top. Fig. 527 represents a
half-section of the base of Trajan’s column at Rome; Fig. 528 a
half-section of the base of the column dedicated to Antoninus Pius, and
preserved in the Pio Clementino Museum at Rome; lastly, Fig. 529 gives a
part of the pedestal or base of the Pandrosium at Athens; when, however,
pedestals support caryatides or columns, they are more commonly called

=Pedica=, R. (1) A snare by which an animal is caught by the foot
(_pes_). (2) Fetters or irons worn on the feet by slaves.

=Pediculated=, Arch. Sustained or supported by a PEDICULE (q.v.).

=Pedicule=, Arch. A small pillar which serves as a support to anything;
whence the expressions _monopediculated_ (with a single pedicule) (Fig.
387), and _polypediculated_ (with several pedicules).

=Pediluvium.= (See ABLUTIONS.)

=Pediment=, Arch. The triangular crowning of a portico, usually
supported by a row of columns. (Fig. 26.) The temples of antiquity
generally had two pediments, one on each face. The inner part of the
pediment is called the TYMPANUM (q.v.).

=Pedum=, Gen. (_pes_, a foot). A shepherd’s crook, or curved stick for
catching goats or sheep by the leg. Fauns and satyrs are often
represented carrying the pastoral crook, and it is the attribute of
Thalia, as the muse of pastoral poetry. (See under PEPLUM.) In Egyptian
archæology it is a symbol of authority, and is frequently to be seen in
the hands of Osiris and the Pharaohs; the Egyptian term for it is _hyq_.
(Cf. HYCSOS.) In early Christian art it is an attribute of Our Lord as
the _Good Shepherd_. Representations of the pedum are of frequent
occurrence in the catacomb paintings. (See PASTORAL STAFF.)

[Illustration: Fig. 530. Pegasus. Device of Cardinal Bembo.]

=Pegasus.= A horse with wings; emblem of fame, eloquence, poetic study,
and contemplation. A bronze medal of Cardinal Bembo, the great Italian
author of the 16th century, in the Museum at South Kensington, shows his
device given above. (Fig. 530.)

=Pegma=, R. (πῆγμα, i. e. a thing fastened). (1) This term denotes
generally anything made of a number of boards joined together. (2) In a
more restricted sense it means a theatrical machine of several stages
(_tabulata_), one above the other, which could be raised or lowered by
balance weights. On such stages gladiators called _pegmares_ fought in
the amphitheatres, and battles and other scenes were represented. When
they were used in sacrifices, the victim was slaughtered in an upper
stage and the priest stood in one under the ground, and was afterwards
brought up to be shown to the people with the blood of the victim upon
him. In theatres similar _pegmata_ were employed for the purpose of
changing the scenery. (3) Lastly the term was used to denote any kind of
wooden furniture or joinery in a house, such as shelves, side-boards,
bookcases, &c.

=Pegola=, It. Greek pitch; boiled resin for varnishes.

=Pel=, O. E. (Lat. _palus_). A post, six feet in height, set firmly in
the ground, to be hewn at with sword or mace for exercise. The weapons
were double the ordinary weight, and the swordsman had to cover himself
from imaginary blows in return with a shield, called a _fan_, also of
double weight. (See QUINTAIN.) (Consult _Meyrick_, vol. i. 145.) The pel
was in the same way set up as a mark to throw spears at, and for archery

=Pelecinon=, Gr. A sun-dial so called because it ended in a “dove-tail”

[Illustration: Fig. 531. A Pelican in its piety.]

=Pelican= tearing open her breast to feed her young with her own blood
was an early symbol of the Redemption and of the virtue of Charity. As a
device it was borne by William of Orange, with the appropriate motto
“_Pro lege, grege et rege_” (for the law, the people, and the king); a
slight modification of that of Alphonso the Wise. (Fig. 531.) It is
described in Heraldry as “_a pelican in its piety_.”

=Pelisse= (from _pellis_, a skin). A robe made of fur.

=Pellet=, Her. A black ROUNDLE.

=Pellicatus=, R. (_pellis_, a skin). Literally, covered with _skin_. The
term was specially applied to earthenware vessels which were covered
over with skin in order to keep the provisions they held fresh.

=Pellitus=, R. (_pellis_, skin). Clothed by means of skins; dressed in

=Pelluvia=, =Pelluvium=, R. (_pes_, a foot, and _luo_, to wash). A basin
in which the feet were washed, in contradistinction to the vessel called

=Pelta=, Gr. (πέλτη). A small shield made of some light material, such
as wood or wicker-work, and covered with leather. In shape it was
sometimes elliptical, but more often cut away at the top, so that at
that part it resembled a crescent. (Compare CLIPEUS.)

=Pelvis=, R. A general term used in ancient times to denote any kind of
circular-shaped vessel. The term corresponded to the Greek πελίκα.

=Penates= (_penus_, food). Household gods who were believed by the
ancients to be the bestowers of all the worldly blessings enjoyed by a

=Pencil.= A collection of rays of light converging to a point is so

=Pendant.= In Heraldry, drooping.

=Pendant Key-stone.= A synonym of PENDENTIVE. (See this word and FURCA.)

=Pendants=, Arch. Ornaments hanging down from the ceilings and roofs of
Gothic architecture. Generally, a pair of pictures or statues
appropriate to each other are called _pendant_ each of the other.

=Pendentives=, Arch. In a spherical roof intersected with groined
compartments, the term _pendentives_ was applied to the surfaces
included between such compartments. The same term is applied to the
surfaces included in the angles formed by a groined vaulting at its

=Penetrale=, R. An inner apartment. (Cf. ADYTUM.)

=Penicillum=, =Penicillus=, R. (_penis_, a tail). (Gr. ὑπογραφίς.) A
painter’s pencil or brush. The brushes of the ancients were made either
with hair or a kind of sea-weed or sponge.

=Peniculus.= Synonym of PENICILLUM.

=Penna=, R. A quill, a large and strong feather, in contradistinction to
_pluma_, which denotes the small feathers spread over a bird’s body; and
thence a writing-pen, which was used instead of the _arundo_ or

=Penna=, Med. During the Middle Ages this term was used to denote the
battlements of a castle wall, and thence the castle itself.

[Illustration: Fig. 532. Pennon.]

=Pennon=, Her. An armorial lance-flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at the
fly, borne by knights.

=Pentachord.= Any musical instrument having five strings; a system of
five sounds.

=Pentacle= (It. _pentacolo_). A talisman; a figure formed of two
triangles, intersecting so as to form a six-pointed star. A frequent
object in early ornamental art.

=Pentagon.= A figure of five sides and five angles.

=Pentagraph.= A mechanism contrived to facilitate the copying of
drawings on a different scale, invented by Christopher Scheiner, a
Suabian Jesuit, in the 16th century.

=Pentahedron.= A solid figure having five equal sides.

=Pentalpha.= The pentacle was so called.

  “A star of five points, composed of five A’s interlaced, was formerly
  made by physicians the symbol of health, under the name of Pentalpha.”

=Pentaptych.= An altar painting of five or more leaves. (See DIPTYCH.)

=Pentaspastos=, Gr. (παντά-σπαστος). A kind of pulley, the _block_ of
which contains a system of five pulleys (_orbiculi_). This engine was
employed to lift great weights.

=Pentastyle=, Arch. A portico of five columns.

=Pentathlon=, Gr. Greek games similar to the QUINQUERTIUM (q.v.) of the
Romans, frequently represented on ancient vases.

=Pentelic Marble= from a mountain of that name near Athens, of which the
Parthenon and other temples are built, has a beautiful _warm_ yellowish
tone, comparable to ivory. All the Athenian statues are of this marble.

=Penteloris.= (See PARAGAUDA.)

=Pent-roof=, Arch. A roof sloping only from one side; hence a
_pent-house_ for a house or shed covered by such a roof.

=Penula.= (See PÆNULA.)

=Penumbra= (Lat. _pene_, almost, and _umbra_, shade). The part of a
picture where the light and shade blend together.

=Peperino=, It. (_pepe_, pepper). A pepper-coloured building stone much
used in the construction of ancient Rome, formerly called _Lapis

[Illustration: Fig. 533. Thalia, the Muse of Comedy. _Wearing the chiton
and peplos._]

=Peplum= and =Peplus=, Gr. (πέπλον and πέπλος). The robe peculiarly
proper to Minerva. (See PANATHENÆA.) A large full robe or shawl worn by
women, corresponding to the _himation_ or _pallium_ of the men. On
occasions of funerals or weddings this shawl was thrown over the head as
a veil. The choicest productions of the loom in antiquity were _pepli_;
and the most splendid dyes, and curious workmanship, and skilful designs
were lavished upon their manufacture. They were a common form of
offering to the treasures of the temples. A fine statue in the British
Museum represents the Muse Thalia wearing the _peplos_ and _chiton_, and
holding the pastoral _pedum_ in her hand. (Fig. 533.)

=Per=, Her. In blazoning the divisions of a shield the term “_per_,”
signifying “by” or “by means of,” is employed sometimes alone, and
sometimes (having the same signification) with the word “party” or
“parted.” The following are the primary divisions of a shield:—Fig. _a_,
_Per Pale_, or _Parted per Pale_, or _Party per Pale_; Fig. _b_, _Per
Fesse_ or _Parted per Fesse_; Fig. _c_, _Per Cross_ or _Quarterly_ (_Per
Pale_ and _Per Fesse_ together); Fig. _d_, _Per Bend_; Fig. _e_, _Per
Bend Sinister_; Fig. _f_, _Per Saltire_ (_Per Bend_ and _Per Bend
Sinister_); Fig. _g_, _Per Chevron_; Fig. _h_, _Per Tierce_ or _Tiercée_
(divided into three equal divisions by two vertical lines). (_Boutell._)

[Illustration: Fig. 534. Divisions of the heraldic shield.]

=Pera=, R. (πήρα). A wallet or haversack of leather or hide, which was
carried, slung over the shoulder, by travellers, peasants, and beggars.
The Cynic philosophers, anticipating the fraternity of the GUEUX,
adopted the wallet as a distinctive part of their costume.

=Pergula=, R. (_pergere_, to continue on). Generally, any construction
added to another beyond the original plan, generally in the way of a
lean-to; e. g. a balcony built over the colonnades of a forum, or a
gallery placed on a house-top; a room in which paintings were exhibited;
a lecture-room, &c.

=Periactos=, R. (περί-ακτος, i. e. that turns round). A theatrical
machine used by the ancients; it was of very simple construction, being
formed of three frames arranged so as to form a triangular prism, on
each face of which a different scene was painted. At each side of the
stage there was a _periactos_ which turned on pivots as required, so as
to admit of a rapid change of scene.

=Periapts=, O. E. Charms worn about the neck. (_Shakspeare._)

=Peribolê=, Gr. and R. (περιβολὴ, an enclosing). The sacred enclosure of
a temple, which was in some instances of sufficient size to contain not
only altars and statues of the god, but shrines and a sacred wood. In
Christian architecture the word was used for the wall of enclosure of
the choir, &c.

=Peridot=, Fr. A yellow gem supposed to be the _topaz_ of the ancients.

=Peridromê=, Gr. and R. (περι-δρομὴ, a running round). A gallery or
covered promenade which ran round a temple or other building.

=Perigee.= Near the earth; _figuratively_ “at its lowest.”

=Perihelion.= Near the sun; _figuratively_ “at its highest.”

=Perimeter.= The outline of a rectilinear figure.

=Peripatetics.= Disciples of Aristotle, who _walked about_ during his
lectures in the Lyceum at Athens.

=Peripetasma= (περι-πέτασμα). A general term including anything that is
flat and hung up or spread out, such as a covering, tapestry, hangings,
curtains, &c.

=Periphery=, Gr. and R. (περι-φέρεια). (1) The circumference of a
curvilinear figure. (2) Ornaments in relief executed on the sides of
vases, _running round_ them. (See CRUSTÆ.)

[Illustration: Fig. 535. Ground-plan of a _pseudo-peripteral_ temple.]

=Periptery=, Arch, (περί-πτερος, lit. with wings around). A building
surrounded by columns at equal distances one from the other; the
distance between the wall of enclosure and the colonnade being equal to
that between the columns. _Peripteral temples_ are distinguished as
_monopteral_, or those with a single row of columns; _dipteral_, those
with two rows; _pseudo-dipteral_, or buildings with one row of columns
standing apart and one embedded; lastly, _pseudo-peripteral_ (Fig. 535),
or buildings whose columns are embedded in the wall.

=Periscelis=, Gr. (περι-σκελίς). (1) An anklet worn by Oriental and
Greek women, and less frequently by Roman ladies also. (2) The word is
sometimes used for _feminalia_ (q.v.).

=Peristerium=, Chr. A kind of canopy surrounding the sacred vessels
containing the host. The eucharistic doves are called _peristera_.

=Peristroma=, R. (περί-στρωμα). In general, anything used as a covering,
in especial that which is spread over a bed, and thence curtains,
carpets, or hangings.

=Peristyle=, Arch. (περί-στυλον). A building the _interior_ of which is
surrounded with columns, the opposite of PERIPTEROS; a building may,
however, be peripteral and yet possess a peristyle. The term is also a
Greek name for the ATRIUM.

=Perivalium=, Med. A Latin word used in the Middle Ages to denote the
choir of a church, or the stalls of the choir.

=Permanent White.= (See CONSTANT WHITE.)

=Pero=, R. A tall boot reaching to the calf, made of untanned leather
with the fur on, worn by shepherds and agricultural labourers, and still
common in Italian villages.

=Perogue.= (See PIROGUE.)

=Perpend-stone=, Arch. A large stone reaching through the wall, visible
on both sides.

=Perpendicular Style of Architecture.= The third and last of the pointed
or Gothic styles of architecture used in England. It was developed from
the Decorated during the latter part of the 14th century, and continued
in use till the middle of the 16th, when it gave way to the style called
ELIZABETHAN. It is peculiar to England. Its chief characteristics are a
general prevalence of perpendicular lines, panelling of flat surfaces,
and the multiplicity of small shafts with which the piers, &c., are

=Perron=, Arch. A staircase, or flight of steps, outside a building.

=Perse=, Fr. Chintz.

=Persian.= A thin inferior _silk_ used for lining garments.

=Persian Blinds= (Fr. _Persiennes_). Venetian blinds.

[Illustration: Fig. 536. Persian Bowl.]

[Illustration: Fig. 537. Flask. Persian.]

=Persian Pottery.= The illustrations (from Jacquemart’s _History of the
Ceramic Art_) are (Fig. 536) a bowl of soft porcelain, blue externally
and decorated with abundant vegetation and fantastic birds with
peacocks’ tails; (Fig. 537) a flask, also of soft porcelain,
characterized by a blackish-blue scroll encircling the principal
subject; and (Fig. 538) a faience tile which M. Jacquemart considers
pure Mohammedan art, is very interesting for the subject that it
represents—the caaba or sacred mosque of Mecca, the object of the
Mohammedan pilgrimage. (Consult _Souvenir d’un voyage en Perse_, _Comte
de Rochchouart_.)

[Illustration: Fig. 538. Persian Plaque, with polychrome decoration.]

=Persian Red.= (See INDIAN RED.)

=Persiana=, It. (1) A silk with a pattern of large flowers. (2) Venetian
blinds; Persiennes.

=Persians=, Gr. and R. (περσικά). Columns the shafts of which consist of
figures of Persian slaves; they are also known as _Persian columns_.

[Illustration: Fig. 539. Persona comica.]

=Persona=, Gr. and R. A mask worn by actors upon the stage; there were
_personæ tragicæ_, _comicæ_ (Fig. 539), _mutæ_, &c., that is, masks for
tragic, comic, or mute persons, &c. The custom is attributed to that of
smearing the face with certain juices and colours, and appearing in
disguise at the festivals of Dionysus; and is probably as old as the
drama itself.

=Perspective.= The art of representing on a flat surface the appearance
of objects from one given point of view. _Linear perspective_ is the
science by which the principles of geometry are applied in this art.

=Pertica=, R. A rod, pole, or stick; a foot, or measure of length
divided into twelve inches (_unciæ_) and sixteen fingers (_digiti_).

=Perticæ=, Chr. In mediæval architecture, beams behind the altar in a
church, from which relics were suspended on days of festival.

=Peruque.= (See WIGS.)

=Peruvian Architecture.= The Peruvian temples and palaces were generally
low and spacious, constructed of great blocks of stone often 38 feet by
18 and 6 feet in thickness. The interiors were richly ornamented, the
sides of the apartments being thickly studded with gold and silver.
Niches in the walls were filled with images of plants and animals, also
of the precious metals. The Western wall of the temple was placed to
receive the first rays of the rising sun upon a statue of the god
engraved on a plate of gold and thickly studded with emeralds and
precious stones.

=Pes=, R. A foot; the standard measure of length, composed of 12 _unciæ_
or _inches_, or 16 _digiti_, _finger-breadths_. It equalled 11·6496
inches English.

=Pesante=, It. A weight = half a drachm.

[Illustration: Fig. 540. Vase of Pesaro Ware.]

=Pesaro Ware.= The particular characteristic of the mother-of-pearl
majolica of Pesaro is a pale, limpid yellow, associated with a pure
blue; under the effect of luminous rays these colours become animated
and shoot out in pencils of red, golden yellow, green, and blue of
remarkable intensity. (_Jacquemart._) (Fig. 540.)

=Peseta=, Sp. A silver coin, about the fourth of a Mexican dollar; about

=Pesillo=, It. Small scales used for weighing gold and silver, and gems.

=Pessi= (Gr. πεσσοί). Draughts. (See LATRUNCULI.)

=Pessulus=, R. A bolt for a door.

=Petasus=, Gr. and R. (πέτασος, i. e. that which spreads out). (1) A
soft felt hat with broad brim. (2) The winged cap of Mercury. Most of
the horsemen in the Panathenaic procession (see ELGIN MARBLES) wear the
petasus. In Greek art it is a conventional sign of a traveller. (Compare

=Petaurum=, R. (πέταυρον, lit. a perch for fowls). A machine employed in
the Roman games; probably a fixed “see-saw.”

=Peter-boat=, O. E. A river _fisherman’s_ wherry.

=Petit Canon=, Fr. A kind of printing-type; _two-line_ in English.

=Petit Gris=, Fr. Minever fur. (See VAIR.)

=Petit Texte=, Fr. A kind of printing-type; _brevier_.

=Petoritum=, R. An open four-wheeled carriage, a kind of cart used for
conveying slaves. Its Gallic origin is indicated by the etymology of the
word, viz. _petoer_, four, and _rit_, a wheel.

=Petronel= (Fr. _poictrinal_). A piece of artillery or fire-arm, used in
the 16th century, which was afterwards converted into a clumsy gun
called a _blunderbuss_. It was the medium between the arquebus and the

=Petunse=, Chinese. A fine clay used for porcelain; a kind of kaolin.

=Peulvan=, Celt. (See MENHIR.)

=Pewter.= An alloy of 100 parts of tin to 17 of antimony; or 89 tin, 7
antimony, and 2 copper. Tin and zinc, and lead and tin, are sometimes
used to make pewter. The ancient guild of the Pewterers’ Company have
their hall in Lime Street.

=Phæcasia=, Gr. and R. (φαικάσιον). White shoes worn by different
classes among the Greeks and Romans, but more especially by the priests
and gymnasiarchs.

=Phalæ= or =Falæ=, R. Wooden towers which were erected temporarily in a
circus for the display of sham fights and captures of cities. (Compare

=Phalangæ=, =Palangæ=, R. (φάλαγξ). A pole employed for carrying
purposes. Two men took the ends of this pole upon the shoulders, the
burden being suspended from it in the middle. The same term was also
applied to the rollers placed beneath objects whose weight rendered them
difficult to move. The persons who made use of _phalangæ_ for carrying
anything were called _phalangarii_.

=Phalanx=, Gr. A close compact mass of infantry soldiers drawn up in
files, usually eight deep. The Theban phalanx was twenty-five in depth.

=Phalarica.= (See FALARICA.)

[Illustration: Fig. 541. Gallic Phalera.]

=Phaleræ=, R. (φάλαρα). Medals of gold, silver, or bronze (Fig. 541),
worn upon the breast as a military decoration, and frequently displayed
on the harness of the horses.

=Phannel=, O. E. (See FANON.)

=Phantasmagoria.= Literally, a procession of images. A name applied
especially to dissolving views shown by the alternate use of each of two
magic lanterns.

=Pharetra=, Gr. and R. (φαρέτρα). A quiver. This was made of hide or
leather, often richly ornamented with gold, painting, or braiding. It
had a lid, and hung, from a belt over the right shoulder, on the left

=Pharos=, =Pharus=, Gr. and R. (φάρος). A lighthouse; the name was
derived from that which Ptolemy Philadelphus erected in the island of
Pharos, at the entrance to the harbour of Alexandria, in Egypt.

=Phaselus=, Egyp. (φάσηλος). A light Egyptian boat, long and narrow in
shape, and made of very slight materials, such as osier, papyrus, and
terra-cotta; it derived its name from the resemblance it bore to the pod
of a bean (φάσηλος).

[Illustration: Fig. 542. Phaskon.]

=Phaskon=, Gr. A vessel of a flattened ovoid form, with a long spout,
and a handle at the top, like the askos.

=Phenakistoscope= (φενακιστικὸς, deceptive, and σκοπέω, to view), or
=Spectroscope=. A toy for illustrating the duration of impressions on
the retina of the eye. (See SPECTRA.)

=Phenicine.= An indigo purple pigment.

[Illustration: Fig. 543. Pheon.]

=Pheon=, Her. A pointed spear-head borne with the point in base.
(_Boutell._) “The _peon_, or _pheon_, was a barbed javelin; the heads of
these are still heraldic bearings, and from their figure, we find the
barbs _escalloped_, or _invecked_ as the heralds term it, aside.”

=Pheretrum.= (See FERETRUM.)

=Phiala=, =Phialê=, Gr. (φιάλη). The Greek term synonymous with the
Latin PATERA. But _Jacquemart_ says, “Quant à la phiale, sorte de
_petite bouteille_ qui nous a donné le mot _fiole_; elle figure assez
souvent dans les mains des divinités.”

[Illustration: Fig. 544. Part of the Frieze of the temple of Apollo
Epicurius near Phigalia.]

=Phigalian Marbles.= Friezes in the Hellenic room of the British Museum,
from a temple to Apollo Epicurius, near the ancient Phigalia in Arcadia.
There are twenty-three slabs in high relief, eleven representing the
battle between the Centaurs and the Lapithæ, and the rest the contest of
the Greeks and Amazons. They are attributed to the same period as the
Parthenon, but are considered inferior in style and workmanship. (Fig.

=Philactery.= (See PHYLACTERY.)

=Philomel.= Poetical for the nightingale.

=Philyra= and =Philura=, Gr. (φιλύρα). Strips of papyrus used for making
a sheet of writing-paper; ten or twelve strips of papyrus were first
glued together lengthwise, and at the back of these a sufficient number
of strips were fastened crosswise to double the thickness of the surface
so obtained.

=Phimus=, Gr. (φιμός). A Greek term synonymous with FRITILLUS (q.v.).

=Phiolæ Rubricatæ.= (See SANGUINOLENTA.)

[Illustration: Fig. 545. Phœnix. Device of Cardinal Trent.]

=Phœnix=, Chr. In Christian archæology the phœnix, which is consumed by
concentrating the sun’s rays in its body, and immediately rises again
from its ashes, represents the mystery of the resurrection after death.
In this sense it was adopted frequently as a device by ecclesiastics.
(See BENNOU.) In blazon it is always represented as issuant from flames.
(Fig. 545.)

=Phorminx=, Gr. (φόρμιγξ). Homer’s epithet for the ancient _lyre_. It
was a large lyre, and resembled the _cithara_ of later times, or the
modern guitar. It was used at an early period singly, or for
accompanying recitations.

=Photogalvanography.= An art invented by Mr. Paul Pretsch, of Vienna,
for printing from photographs by the medium of gutta percha. For a
description of the process, see the _Manual of Photography_, 5th
edition, pp. 269, 270.

=Photoglyphic Engraving.= An invention of Mr. Fox Talbot (1858) for
engraving on metal plates by the action of light. (See _Photographic
Journal_, vol. v. p. 58.)

=Photography.= A great many processes of producing pictures by the
action of the sun’s rays upon a sensitive surface are included under
this general term, such as the Daguerreotype, the Talbotype, &c.
[Consult in the first instance _R. Hunt’s Manual of Photography_, from
which reference can be taken to other authorities.]

=Photolithography.= The art of preparing lithographic stones for
printing from, by the medium of photography.

=Photometallography.= A process of etching on metal plates, by the
action of light, invented by Mr. C. J. Burnett (1858). (See
_Photographic Journal_, vol. v. p. 97.)

=Photometer.= An instrument for measuring the _intensity_ of light.

=Phototype.= A plate, like an engraved plate, produced from a
photograph, for printing from.

=Photozincography.= The art of preparing zinc plates for printing from,
by the medium of photography.

=Phrase.= In Music, a passage of melody or harmony containing a musical
idea, more or less complete in respect of cadence.

=Phrygian.= Applied to music of a lively kind. (Cf. LYDIAN.)

=Phrygian Work=, O. E. Embroidery. (See ORFRAYS.)

=Phrygianum= (opus). A name given to all fine embroidery by the Romans,
at a period when the work of the Phrygian women was most perfect.

=Phrygio=, R. A Phrygian, or embroiderer, because the inhabitants of
Phrygia had the reputation of being excellent embroiderers.

=Phylactery=, Gen. (φυλακτήριον, a preservative). (1) A general term
which included any kind of amulet worn about the person as a protection
against dangers of all kinds. (2) Strips of parchment or vellum, upon
which the Jews transcribed passages from the sacred books, and which
they either wore upon the arm or the forehead, in a small leather box.
(3) In the Middle Ages the term was applied to the scrolls held in the
hands of angels or other persons represented in painting or sculpture.
These scrolls bore inscriptions. (See LABELS.)

=Phylaka=, Gr. (φυλακή). A prison; a Greek term corresponding to the
Latin words CARCER and ERGASTULUM (q.v.).

=Phytography.= A process of nature-printing from plants, by passing them
between soft metal plates through a rolling press.

=Piazza=, It. A square or open place surrounded by buildings, generally
supported by pillars, and forming a vaulted promenade; hence the term is
sometimes applied to the archways of a colonnade.

=Pibroch=, Scotch. Bagpipe music.

=Pica= (_pic_). Printing-type of the size formerly used in printing the
_pic_, or service-book.

=Piccadilly=, Old Fr. A high, broad, peaked collar or ruff, _temp._
James I. The tailor who made these ruffs is said to have built the
street called by this name.

=Piccagium=, Med. Lat. (English use). Money paid in fairs for breaking

=Piccolo=, It. A small flute. Small pianofortes are so called also.

=Pictura=, R. (_pingo_, to paint). The art of painting; _pictura in
tabula_, a painting on wood; _pictura in linteo_ or _in sipario_, a
painting on canvas; _pictura inusta_, a painting in encaustic or wax;
_pictura udo tectorio_, a fresco-painting. Embroidery was called
_pictura textilis_.

=Picturatus=, R. Painted; _tabella picturata_, a painted panel; _linteum
picturatum_, embroidered linen.

=Pièce de Maitrise=, Fr. A test-work produced by an apprentice to prove
his competence to become a _master_ of his art or craft.

=Piedouche=, Fr. A bracket-pedestal.

=Pieds de Hérisson=, Fr. Fabulous animals so called represented on
Persian pottery, mentioned by Jacquemart (p. 152); having the legs of a
stag, the tail of a tiger, and the head of a woman. The legend is that
Mohamet and Ali will mount such beasts on the Day of Judgment.

=Piers=, in Architecture, are the perpendicular supports from which
_arches_ spring.

=Pietà=, It. A picture or statue of the Body of Christ, attended by the
Virgin Mary, or by holy women and angels.

=Pietra Dura.= Mosaic panelling of hard pebbles of variegated colours,
representing fruit, birds, &c. in relief, and used as a decoration for
coffers and cabinets in the 15th century.

=Pietré Commesse=, It. Costly inlaid-work representing flowers, fruit,
&c., in precious stones—such as agates, jaspers, lapis lazuli,
&c.—introduced in Florence in the 17th century, and still maintained in
the royal manufactory of that city. The finest examples are in the
chapel of the Medici attached to the cathedral church of St. Lorenzo.

=Pig.= A black pig was represented at St. Anthony’s feet, representing
his victory over sensuality and gluttony. The monks of the order of St.
Anthony used to keep herds of consecrated pigs.

=Pigments.= The colours used in painting. A large number are described
in their order. Standard works on ancient and modern pigments are
_Eastlake’s Materials for a History of Painting_; _Merrifield’s Ancient
Art of Painting_; _Hundertpfund’s Art of Painting restored to its
Simplest and Surest Principles_. An exhaustive catalogue of other works
on the subject has been issued by the Librarian of the South Kensington

=Pike.= A celebrated infantry weapon now replaced by the bayonet,
consisting of a strong spear or lance with a spike at the butt for
fixing in the ground. The shape of the head has varied at different

=Pila=, R. This word has different meanings, according as the first
syllable is long or short. In the first case it denotes (1) a mortar;
(2) a pillar or conical pier for supporting the superstructure of a
bridge; (3) a breakwater. When the first syllable is short, the word
denotes (1) a playing-ball. The game of ball, from the earliest times to
the fall of the Roman Empire, was one of the favourite exercises of the
Greeks and Romans. In the baths and the gymnasiums a room
(_sphæristerium_) was set apart for the purpose. _Pila_ was a small
ball; _follis_, a large one filled with air: other balls were the
_paganica_ and the _harpastum_. (2) _Pila vitrea_, a glass globe. (3) A
dummy made to roughly imitate the human form.

=Pilaster=, It. A square pillar on a wall, partly embedded in it,
one-fourth or one-fifth of its thickness projecting.

=Pile.= (1) Her. One of the ordinaries, in form like a wedge. (2) An
arrow used in hunting, with a round knob below the head, to prevent it
penetrating too far. (3) The nap or surface on velvet.

=Pileatus=, R. One who wears the _pileus_, or skull-cap of felt; it was
specially worn by the seafaring classes, and also by the Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux).

=Pilentum=, R. A state carriage in which the Roman ladies rode when
attending any ceremony, whereas for purposes of recreation or for
visiting they made use of the _carpentum_ or the _harmamaxa_.

=Pileolus=, R. Diminutive of PILEUS; it was a small felt skull-cap which
hardly covered the top of the head.

=Pileus=, =Pileum=, R. (πῖλος, felt). A kind of close-fitting felt cap
worn more particularly by the seafaring classes. The _pileus_ varied in
form amongst the different nations by whom it was adopted; it was worn
exclusively by men. The most familiar form of the pileus, in art, is the
Phrygian bonnet, or cap of liberty. (Cf. PETASUS.)

=Pillar Dollars= are Spanish silver coins, stamped on the obverse with
the royal arms of Spain supported by two columns.

=Pillion=, O. E. A soft pad-saddle with a footrest, for a woman or child
to ride on behind a man.

=Pillow= or =Head-stool=, Egyp. A kind of rest for the head, made
sometimes of stone (onyx, alabaster, or sandstone), but more generally
of wood, and used by the Egyptians to support and raise the head during
sleep. In form it was a half-cylinder, and the base was more or less
raised above the ground. This kind of pillow is still in use at the
present day among various peoples, particularly the Nubians, the
Japanese, and the Ashantees of Western Africa.

=Pillow-beres=, O. E. Pillow-cases. They were at all times an object of
rich ornamentation.

=Pillow Lace.= Lace worked by hand, by throwing _bobbins_ upon a cushion
or pillow. (See LACE.)

=Pilum=, R. A javelin; the missile weapon of the Roman infantry, but
used likewise as a pike for charging the enemy. It was a thick strong
weapon, 6 feet 3 inches in length, half of wood and half of iron, with a
barbed head of 9 inches of solid iron. The term also denotes a heavy
pestle for bruising things in a mortar.

=Pilus=, Med. Lat. (Fr. _pieu_). A pointed club or javelin.

=Pina=, Sp. An amalgam of silver.

=Pinacotheca=, Gr. and R. (πινακο-θήκη). A picture-gallery, one of the
ordinary adjuncts to Greek or Roman houses of wealthy private persons.

=Pinaculum=, Gr. and R. (a ridge or crest). A roof terminating in a
ridge, the ordinary covering for a temple, whereas private houses had a
flat roof.

=Pinchbeck.= An alloy of 85 per cent. copper or brass, and 15 per cent.
zinc; named after its inventor. It is sometimes called _tomback_.

=Pindaric.= Of verses, irregular in metre; like the verses of the lyric
poet Pindar.

=Pingle Pan=, Scotch. A small tin ladle used for mixing children’s food.

=Pink Madder.= (See MADDER.)

=Pinking.= Stamping out borders and edges upon textile fabrics with a
cutting instrument.

=Pinks= (Fr. _stil de grain_). These are water-colour pigments of a
yellow or greenish-yellow colour produced from the precipitation of
vegetable juices, such as saffron, aloes, buckthorn-berries,
broom-flowers, &c., upon chalk or whiting. They are _Italian pink_,
sometimes called _yellow lake_; _brown pink_, _rose pink_, and _Dutch

=Pinna=, R. (lit. a wing). (1) The top of an embattled wall, the
_battlements_. (2) The blade of a rudder.

=Pinnacle=, Arch. A small spire, generally with four sides and
ornamented; it is usually placed on the tops of buttresses, both
external and internal.

=Pins.= Metal pins were introduced into this country from France in
1543, previous to which ladies were accustomed to fasten their dresses
with skewers of box-wood, ivory, or bone.

=Pipe.= A musical wind instrument, represented in the 14th century, in
_Strutt’s Sports and Pastimes_, as used with the TABOR to accompany
mountebanks, &c. (See also AULOS, PITO, &c.)

=Pipe-clay.= An oily clay found in large quantities in Devonshire; used
for moulding earthenware, but chiefly for tobacco-pipes.

=Piriform=, Arch. Pear-shaped. The term is applied to roofs domed in the
form of a pear; the Baptistery of Parma may be cited as an example.

=Pirogue.= An Indian canoe, hollowed out of a solid tree.

=Piscina=, R. (_piscis_, a fish). (1) A fishpond, an indispensable
appendage to the villa of a wealthy Roman. (2) A large uncovered tank in
the open air used as a swimming-bath, and distinct from the
_baptisterium_, which was under cover. (3) _Piscina limaria_ was the
reservoir of an aqueduct. In mediæval archæology the name was given (1)
to credence-tables; (2) to baptisteries. (See BAPTISTERIUM, NATATORIUM.)

=Pisé-work.= A method of constructing very durable walls of blocks of
_kneaded earth_. It was probably suggested by the building processes of
the ants, and Pliny calls such walls _formaciæ_.

=Pistillum=, =Pistillus=, R. A pestle for a mortar.

=Pistol.= Invented at Pistoia in Tuscany. (See _Pallas Armata_, _Sir
James Turner_, 1670; _Meyrick_, iii. 76.)

=Pistole.= A Spanish gold coin, worth about 16_s_.; the fourth of a

=Pistolese=, It. A long dagger or stabbing-knife of Pistoia.

=Pistrina=, =Pistrinum=, R. (_pistor_, a miller). Originally this term
denoted a mill for grinding grain; later on it was used exclusively to
denote a house of correction for slaves who had to turn the mill. The
work was of a most laborious kind.

=Pistris=, =Pistrix=, R. (πίστρις). (1) A marine monster,
representations of which are to be seen on the walls of several houses
at Pompeii (in the legend of Theseus and Andromeda). It is always
represented with the head of a dragon, and the fins and tail of a fish;
and was adopted in early Christian art for the fish that swallowed
Jonah. (2) A military engine.

=Pitch-blende.= An ore used in porcelain painting. It produces a fine
orange colour; also a black.

=Pitch-pipe.= A sort of whistle for ascertaining the _pitch_ of a
musical instrument, or for setting the key-note.

=Pithos=, R. (πίθος). A large earthenware jar with a narrow neck, used
in ancient and modern times for storing wine and oil. It appears upon a
bas-relief in the Villa Albani as the tub of Diogenes.

=Pito=, Sp. A Mexican name for the _pipe_ of the Aztecs, which resembled
a _flageolet_. It was made of red clay, and had four finger-holes. The
young man selected as a victim at the sacrifice to Tezcatlepoca was
carefully instructed before his death in the art of playing this
instrument, and as he ascended the temple or TEOCALLI to the sacrifice,
he broke a flute upon each of the steps of the temple.

=Piu=, It. Rather; used in Music, as _piu forté_, _rather_ loud.

=Pix= or =Pyx=, Chr. (πυξίς). (1) A box to keep the unconsecrated altar
breads in. It was generally circular, with a pointed cover, and richly
enamelled. (2) The vessel in which the holy eucharist was suspended over
the altar. (3) The box kept at the British Mint to contain the coins
selected to be tried in assay, to ascertain whether the coinage is of
the standard purity. (See CIBORIUM [3], MONSTRANCE, &c.)

=Pizzicato= (It.). An expression in music; playing on the violin like a

=Placage=, Fr. Veneering or inlaying.

=Plack=, Scotch. A small copper coin formerly current in Scotland; equal
to the third of an English penny.

=Placket=, O. E. A petticoat. (_Shakspeare._)

=Plafond=, =Plafonner=, Fr. Arch. (_plat-fond_). The French term for a
ceiling, often the subject of elaborate architectural, carved, or
painted decoration. The peculiar foreshortened perspective
characteristic of figure-pictures on a ceiling is hence described as
“plafonné;” and it is generally said of a painter distinguished for bold
foreshortenings, “Il excelle à _plafonner_.” _Plafonds_ of different
periods are found of wood, lath and plaster, or stone.

=Plaga=, R. A hunting-net, the diminutive of which is _plagula_ (small
net); the latter term also denotes the curtains hung round a couch or
litter, a width of cloth, a strip of paper, &c.

=Plagula.= (See PLAGA.)

=Planchet.= A name for the smooth coin prepared for stamping before it
has passed under the die.

=Planeta.= A robe worn by _priests_, resembling the DALMATIC (see Fig.
236) worn by _deacons_. (See CHASUBLE.)

=Planetary Machine.= (See ORRERY.)

=Planisphere.= A projection of the sphere and its various circles on a
plane surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 546. Planta Genista.]

=Planta Genista=, Her. The broom-plant badge of the Plantagenets.

=Plaque=, Fr. A flat plate of metal or painted china. Limoges enamels of
the 15th century are described as _plaques_.

=Plasm.= A mould or matrix.

=Plasma.= A green transparent chalcedony found in India and China.

=Plaster of Paris.= The cement or plaster obtained from gypsum,
originally prepared near Paris. It is usually sold in the form of white
powder, and is largely used in the arts. Verrocchio (1435–1488) is said
to have been the first sculptor to cast moulds in plaster of Paris. (See

=Plastic Art.= Sculpture; opposed to _Graphic Art_, or painting, &c.

=Plastron=, Fr. A fencing-pad to cover the body. _Plastron-de-fer_ was
an iron breastplate worn under the hauberk, especially when the latter
was of ringed mail.

=Plat-band.= (See TÆNIA.)

=Plata=, Sp. Silver (hence our _plate_).

=Plate=, Her. A silver roundle.

=Plate armour=, consisting entirely of metal _plates_, became general
during the 15th century.

=Plate-glass.= A superior kind of thick glass, used chiefly for mirrors
and for large windows.

=Plate-jack=, O. E. Coat armour.

=Plate-marks.= (See HALL-MARKS.)

=Plate-paper= is a thick soft paper expressly prepared for printing
engravings upon.

=Platea=, Gr. and R. (πλατεῖα, i. e. broad). A wide fine street in a
city, in contradistinction to a small street called _angiportus_, which
means literally a narrow street.

=Platen.= Of a printing-press, the flat part by which the impression is

=Plateresca=, Sp. A name given to goldsmiths’ work of the 14th and 15th
centuries, which reflected the complicated and delicate forms of
ornament applied in the pointed architecture of the period.

=Plates= are properly illustrations taken from copper or steel
engravings; _cuts_ are impressions from wood-blocks.

=Platina.= Twisted silver wire.

=Platina Yellow.= Two pigments, one of a pale yellow colour, the other
resembling _cadmium yellow_, are sold under this name.

=Plating= is the art of covering metals with a thin surface of silver or
gold for ornament.

=Platinum= (Sp. _plata_, silver). A white metal exceedingly ductile,
malleable, and difficult of fusion. It is found in the Ural Mountains
and in South America, and is much used in goldsmiths’ work in Russia.

=Plaustrum=, R. (_plaudo_, to rumble). A two-wheeled cart drawn by two
oxen, and used for conveying agricultural produce; _plaustrum majus_ was
a much larger cart mounted on four wheels. It had a long pole projecting
behind, on which blocks of stone or other cargo could be balanced on
planks attached. The wheels (_tympana_) were of solid wood nearly a foot
in thickness, and their creaking was heard to a great distance (hence
the name).

=Plectrum= or =Plektron=, Gr. and R. (from πλήσσειν, to strike). A short
stem of ivory or metal pointed at both ends, used to strike the chords
of the lyre, the _barbiton_, the _cithara_, and some other stringed

=Plemochoê=, Gr. and R. (πλημο-χοὴ, i. e. that pours a flood). A vessel
in the shape of a top; it resembled the _cotylê_.

=Plenitude=, Her. Said of the moon when in full.

=Plenshing-nail.= A large nail for fastening the planks of floors to the

=Plethron=, Gr. The basis of land measurement, being 100 feet square, or
10,000 square feet. As a lineal measure, 100 feet, or about 101 of
English measurement.

=Plinth=, Arch. (πλίνθος). Lit. a _tile_ or _brick_, and thence the
lower projecting base of a column, pedestal, or wall, which resembles a
strong square tile placed beneath the last torus at the base of a
column. (See ABACUS.)

=Plinthium=, R. (πλινθίον). A sun-dial, so called because its divisions
were marked on a flat surface (πλίνθος).

=Plocage=, Fr. Carding-wool.

=Plombage.= Lead work.

=Plombagine.= Plumbago.

=Plostellum.= Diminutive of PLAUSTRUM.

=Ploughs= are mentioned in Deuteronomy (1451 B.C.), and represented on
Egyptian sculptures of still earlier date. The Roman plough of the date
of our era is described by Virgil.

=Plough Monday= was the name given by our ancestors to the first Monday
after the Epiphany, the return to labour after the Christmas holiday.

=Plumæ=, R. (lit. feathers). The scales of armour, arranged to imitate
feathers. (See PENNA.)

=Plumarium Opus.= (See OPUS P.)

=Plumbago.= A carburet of iron commonly known as black-lead, also called
GRAPHITE, used for making crucibles and black-lead pencils.

=Plumbeous Wares.= Lead-glazed, by the addition of an oxide of lead in
the preparation of the glaze. (See POTTERY.)

=Plumbum=, R. (lit. lead). A general term denoting anything that is made
of lead, such as a lead pipe, a slinger’s bullet, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 547. Pluteus.]

=Pluteus=, R. A general term including anything made of boards adapted
to afford a support, cover, passage, &c.; and thus sometimes used as a
synonym for _musculus_ or protective shed. Fig. 547, a _pluteus_ upon
three wheels, was used for protecting soldiers conducting an approach at
the foot of a rampart. These _plutei_ were covered with the skins of
animals, which were wetted to protect the machines from fire; and helped
to deaden the shock of missiles.

=Plynteria=, Gr. (πλυντήρια, washing). Festivals held at Athens in
honour of Athena Aglauros, in which the statue of the goddess was
stripped of its garments and ornaments and washed. It was carefully
concealed in the mean time, and the city being thus in a manner deprived
of its protecting divinity, the day was considered an ill-omened one.

=Pnigeus=, R. (πνιγεὺς, lit. a choker). A kind of funnel employed to
stop or repress the air in a hydraulic organ.

=Pnyx=, Gr. The site in Athens where the ECCLESIÆ were held. It was a
semicircular rising ground, with an area of 12,000 square yards,
levelled with a pavement of large stones, and surrounded by a wall,
behind which was the BEMA or platform from which speakers addressed the

=Pocillum= or =Poculum=, R. Any cup or glass for drinking, distinct from
the CRATER for mixing, and the CYATHUS for ladling the wine. (Cf.

=Poddisoy=, =Padusoy=, O. E. (Fr. _pou de soie_). A rich plain silk.

=Podera=, Gr. (ποδήρης, i. e. reaching to the feet). A rich linen dress
worn by Greek women, the edges of which were indented.

[Illustration: Fig. 548. Podium running round a sepulchral chamber.]

=Podium=, Arch. (πόδιον, lit. a small foot). A low wall or basement,
generally with a _plinth_ and _cornice_, running round a room or in
front of a building, forming a sort of shelf or seat. Fig. 548 shows the
_podium_ of a sepulchral chamber. In an amphitheatre, _podium_ was the
name for a raised basement which ran like a high enclosure round the
whole circumference of the arena. Lastly, the term is sometimes used as
a synonym for a socle, and a console or bracket.

=Poële=, Fr. (lit. a frying-pan). A square shield with a raised edge and
a grating on it, which resembled the German baking-dish. In a
tournament, the joust “_à la poële_” was the most dangerous of all, as
the champions fought bare-headed and without armour. Their horses were
blindfolded, and a coffin was brought into the course before the combat
commenced. (_Meyrick._)

[Illustration: Fig. 549. Point Lace à bride picotée.]

=Point Lace= _à bride picotée_ ground. This lace is made with the needle
(see NEEDLE POINT), some parts of the pattern only slightly raised in
relief being united by stitches called _bride picotée_. (Fig. 549.)

=Point of Sight.= The principal vanishing point, in perspective, to
which the horizontal lines converge.

=Pointed= or =Christian Architecture= is generally called GOTHIC; and is
a general term, descriptive of all the styles that have prevailed
subsequent to the introduction of the _pointed arch_, commencing with
the 11th century.

=Pointel.= The mediæval _stylus_ or _graphium_ (q.v.).

=Points.= In the 15th and 16th centuries, before the introduction of
buttons, the different parts of dress were fastened with ribands, having
ornamental _points_ or metal tags at the end. (See Fig. 559.)

=Poitrine=, Fr. A breastplate for man or horse.

[Illustration: Fig. 550. Pokal, or German Tankard.]

=Pokal=, Germ. (Lat. _poculum_). A drinking-cup. (Fig. 550.)

=Poke=, O. E. A bag; modern pocket.

=Poker Pictures.= Drawings burned upon wood with hot irons; much
patronized in the 18th century.

=Pol=, =Edepol=, R. A familiar oath or adjuration especially employed by
the Roman women; it was an abbreviation of _By Pollux!_

=Polariscope.= An instrument for exhibiting the polarization of light.

=Pole-axe.= A weapon of the 15th century, combining a hatchet, a pike,
and a serrated hammer. Used principally by cavalry.

=Poleyns=, Fr. (See GENOUILLIÈRES.)

=Pollubrum= and =Polubrum=, R. An old term for which there was
substituted later on _malluvium_, _aquimanale_, _aquiminarium_,
_trulleum_; it was a kind of basin for washing the hands, the χέρνιψ,
χερόνιπτρον of the Greeks.

=Polos=, Gr. A kind of sun-dial. (See HOROLOGIUM.)

=Polyandrion=, Chr. (Gr. πολυ-άνδριον). A common sepulchre in which more
than four bodies were buried. (See LOCULUS.)

=Polychord.= An instrument for application to the pianoforte for
coupling together the strings of two octave notes.

=Polychromy.= Colouring statuary, bas-reliefs, and architecture; to be
distinguished from forming them of variously-coloured materials. This
was not done by painting with an opaque colour, but a sort of staining
of the surface by thin, transparent colouring matter. M. de Quincy
states that the fine preservation of the surface of some antique
statues, such as the Apollo Belvedere, Hercules of Glycon, and Venus de
Medici, is attributable to the use of wax colouring. Stones of various
colours were used to represent different parts of the figure, and in
busts of the Roman emperors the dress is frequently of coloured marble,
while the flesh is of white. [Consult _Redford’s Ancient Sculpture_.]

=Polyhedron.= A solid with many faces or planes.

=Polyptyca=, Gr. (πολύ-πτυχα). (1) Tablets, a sufficient number of which
are put together to form what we now call a note-book. (2) A polyptych;
a picture with several compartments. (Cf. DIPTYCH.)

=Polystyle=, Arch. Surrounded by several rows of columns, as in Moorish
architecture. The porticoes of a Greek temple had never more than ten
columns in front (decastyle).

[Illustration: Fig. 551. A Silver Engraved Pomander, or Scent-box, shown
open and closed.]

=Pomander=, O. E. (from _pomme d’ambre_, perfume apple). A scent-box
worn at the end of the hanging girdles of the 16th century. (See
POUNCET-BOX.) (Fig. 551.) Consult an interesting monograph by _R. H.
Soden Smith_, “_Notes on Pomanders_.”

=Pomme=, Her. A green roundle.

=Pomœrium=, R. (_post_ and _mœrium_ (_murus_) behind the walls). A line
enclosing a town, marked out at intervals by stone pillars. When the
limits of the town were extended, the _pomœrium_ could not be changed
without augury by the _jus pomœrii_, and, in any case, only by a town
whose inhabitants had contributed to the extension of the limits of the

=Pompa=, R. and Gr. (πομπή). A solemn procession, especially that with
which the games of the circus were preceded.

=Pondus=, =Weight=, R. (_pendo_, to suspend). An object used for
weighing, either with the balance (_libra_), or the steelyard
(_statera_). The same term was also applied to a weaver’s weights; these
were of stone, terra-cotta, or lead.

[Illustration: Fig. 552. Pons.]

=Pons=, R. (Gr. γέφυρα). (1) A bridge; the causeway (_agger_) which
traversed the Roman bridge was paved with large polygonal stones; on
either side of it was a pathway (_crepido_). Fig. 552 shows the Roman
bridge at St. Chamas, at the ends of which were erected triumphal arches
(_fornices_). (See FORNIX.) _Pons sublicius_ was a wooden bridge built
upon piles; _pons suffragiorum_, the voting-bridge over which the
electors passed as they came out of the _septum_ to cast their vote
(_tabella_) into the urn (_cista_). It is probable that the Greek
bridges were of wood. (2) A wharf or landing-stage by the water-side.

=Poongi=, Hindoo. A curious musical instrument made of a gourd, or sort
of cocoa-nut, into which two pipes are inserted. It is the instrument
played by the Sampuris, or snake-charmers, to the performing cobras.

[Illustration: Fig. 553. Pope in full pontificals.]

=Pope.= The illustration represents the Pope of Rome in full
pontificals, viz. the _tiara_, consisting of three crowns of gold
decorated with precious stones and surmounted by a cross, and over a
_rochet_ (surplice) of silk a mantle of gold-work plentifully ornamented
with pearls. The under vestment, which is long, is of hyacinth colour.
The slippers are of velvet with a cross of gold, which all who wish to
speak to the Pope reverently kiss. Late mediæval artists attributed this
costume to the First Person of the Trinity. It is given also to St.
Clement, St. Cornelius, St. Fabian, St. Gregory, St. Peter, and St.

=Popina=, R. A tavern or refreshment-place where food was sold, in
contradistinction to _caupona_, which was a shop for selling wine.

=Popinjay=, O. E. A parrot.

=Poplin.= A textile of modern introduction, woven of threads of silk and

=Poppy=, Chr. This plant, the seed of which affords a soporific oil,
symbolizes, in Christian iconography, death.

=Poppy Oil.= A bland drying oil, obtained from poppy-seed, and used in
painting. (See OILS.)

=Poppy-head.= A term in decorative art for the carved ornaments with
which the tops of the uprights of wood-work, such as the ends of
benches, backs of chairs, bedposts, &c., were crowned.

=Popularia=, R. The second _mænianum_ or tier of seats in an

=Porcelain= (Ancient Chinese) (from the Portuguese _porcellana_, little
pigs; a name given to cowrie-shells by the early traders, and applied to
porcelain, which they thought was made of them, or because it resembled
the interior of a shell). A fine species of transparent earthenware, the
chief component part of which is silex. (_Fairholt._) The most ancient
examples of porcelain in China are circular dishes with upright sides,
very thick, strong, and heavy, and which invariably have the marks of
one, two, or three on the bottom thus: I. II. III. The colours of these
rare specimens vary. The kinds most highly prized have a brownish-yellow
ground, over which is thrown a light shot sky-blue, with here and there
a dash of blood-red. The Chinese say there are but a few of these
specimens in the country, and that they are more than a thousand years
old. (_Fortune._) The first imitations of Chinese porcelain in Europe
date from the 16th century, under the Medici family, and include
specimens supposed to have been designed by the immediate pupils of
Raffaelle. (See RAFFAELLE-WARE.) Among the next earliest produced is
that of Fulham, by Dr. Dwight, in 1671, and of St. Cloud in France about

[Illustration: Fig. 554. Pent-house Porch.]

=Porch=, Arch. A structure placed in front of the door of a church or
other building, and very variable in form. In the ancient basilicas the
vestibule is more commonly called NARTHEX (q.v.). Fig. 554 shows a
wooden porch also called a _pent-house porch_, and Fig. 555 a plan of
what is called a _cupola_ porch, from the fact that, its ground being
circular, it is surmounted by a dome.

[Illustration: Fig. 555. Ground-plan of a Cupola Porch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 556. Porcupine. Device of Louis XII.]

=Porcupine= (Fr. _porc epic_). Hereditary device of the Valois family.
The “Order of the Porcupine” was instituted in 1397 by Louis, Duke of
Orleans, and abolished by Louis XII., who retained the badge (Fig. 556),
and had his cannon marked with a porcupine. In numismatics his golden
“écus au porc epic” are rare and highly valued.

=Porcupine-wood.= The ornamental wood of a palm, the markings of which
in the horizontal section resemble porcupine quills.

=Porphyry.= A hard stone much used in Egyptian sculpture, and for
sarcophagi. It was of a fine red colour, passing into purple and green,
and susceptible of a fine polish. (See also _Rosso Antico_.)

=Porporino=, It. A yellow powder substituted for gold by mediæval
artists. It was compounded of quicksilver, sulphur, and tin.

[Illustration: Fig. 557. Porta (Gate of Perusium).]

=Porta=, R. This term denotes the gate of a city, a large gate in any
enclosure, in contradistinction to JANUA and OSTIUM (q.v.), which denote
the doors of a building. Fig. 557 shows the ancient gate of Perugia.

=Portcullis.= A kind of iron grating, forming an outer door, which
slided up and down perpendicularly in the grooves of a bay. It was
suspended by a chain, which could instantly be lowered, as occasion
required, in order to prevent ingress and cut off all communication. By
the Greeks and Romans they were called _portæ cataractæ_, and in the
Middle Ages they were known as Saracenic gates.

[Illustration: Fig. 558. Portcullis.]

=Portcullis=, Her. A defence for a gateway, borne as a badge by the
Houses of Beaufort and Tudor. Motto, “_Altera securitas_.” (Fig. 558.)

=Porticus=, =Portico=, R. (_porta_). A long colonnade serving as a
covered promenade. In an amphitheatre, the covered gallery at the top
which was appropriated to women or slaves. A wooden gallery covered over
with a roof, but in some cases entirely open on the side of the country.

=Portisculus=, R. A director’s staff wielded on board ship by the
officer who gave the time to the rowers to make them row in unison.

=Portrait Painting.= The earliest portrait on record is that of
Polygnotus, painted by himself, B.C. 400. Giotto is said to have been
the earliest successful portrait painter of modern times. The different
sizes of portraits are the following:—

                                      ft. in.    ft. in.
                Bishop’s whole length   8  10 by   5 10.
                Whole length            7  10 „    4 10.
                Bishop’s half-length    4   8 „    3  8.
                Half-length             4   2 „    3  4.
                Small half-length       3   8 „    2 10.
                Kit-cat                 3   0 „    2  4.
                Three-quarter size      2   6 „    2  1.
                Head size               2   0 „    1  8.

=Portula.= A wicket made in a large gate in order to give admittance
into a city without opening the _porta_ or large gate.

=Posnett=, O. E. A little pot.

=Postergale=, Chr. A DORSAL (q.v.).

=Postern= (_posterna_, a back door). A private gate in a rampart, either
upon the platform or at the angle of a curtain, and opening into the
ditches, whence it was possible to pass by the _pas-de-souris_, without
being seen by the besiegers, into the covered way and the glacis.

=Posticum=, R. (Gr. παραθύρα). (1) A back door to a Roman house. (2) In
Architecture, the part of a building opposite to the façade; the
posterior façade.

=Postis=, R. The jamb of a door, supporting the lintel or _limen

=Postscenium=, R. The part of a Roman theatre behind the stage, in which
the actors dressed, and the appointments and machines were kept.

=Potichomanie.= A process of ornamenting glass with coloured designs on
paper, in imitation of painted porcelain.

=Potter’s Clay=, found in Dorsetshire and Devonshire, is used for
modelling and for pottery; mixed with linseed oil, it is used as a
_ground_ in painting.

=Pottery= (=Fayence=, =Terraglia=), as distinct from porcelain, is
formed of potter’s clay mixed with marl of argillaceous and calcareous
nature, and sand, variously proportioned, and may be classed under two
divisions: _Soft_ (Fayence à pâte tendre), and _Hard_ (Fayence à pâte
dure), according to the nature of the composition or the degree of heat
under which it has been fired in the kiln. What is known generally in
England as _earthenware_ is soft, while _stone-ware_, _Queen’s ware_,
&c., are hard. The characteristics of the soft wares are a paste or body
which may be scratched with a knife or file, and fusibility generally at
the heat of a porcelain furnace. These soft wares may be again divided
into four subdivisions: _unglazed_, _lustrous_, _glazed_, or
_enamelled_. Among the three first of these subdivisions may be arranged
almost all the ancient pottery of Egypt, Greece, Etruria, and Rome; as
also the larger portion of that in general use among all nations during
mediæval and modern times. The _glazed wares_ may be again divided into
_silicious_ or _glass-glazed wares_, and _plumbeous_ or _lead-glazed_.
In these subdivisions the foundation is in all cases the same. The mixed
clay or “paste” or “body” is formed by the hand or on the wheel, or
impressed into moulds; then slowly dried and baked in a furnace or
stove, after which, on cooling, it is in a state to receive the glaze.
This is prepared by fusing sand or other silicious material with potash
or soda to form a translucent glass, the composition of the glaze upon
vitreous or _glass-glazed_ wares. The addition of oxide of lead
constitutes the glaze of _plumbeous_ wares; and the further addition of
the oxide of tin produces an enamel of an opaque white of great purity,
which is the characteristic glazing of _stanniferous_ or _tin-glazed
wares_. Most of the principal seats of the manufacture of pottery, and a
description of the objects manufactured, and methods used in the
manufacture, will be found mentioned under their respective headings.

=Poulaines=, Fr. Long-toed boots and shoes, introduced in 1384. (See

=Pounce-paper.= A kind of transparent tracing-paper, free from grease,
&c.; made in Carlsruhe.

=Pounced.= In Engraving, _dotted_ all over.

=Pouncet-box=, O. E. A perfume box, carved with open work. (See

=Pouranamas=, Hind. Very ancient books of India, which give a part of
Hindoo history from the beginning of the Hindoo monarchy, or the time of
the king Ellou or Ella.

[Illustration: Fig. 559. Pourpoint. Worn by a Venetian youth of the 16th

=Pourpoint=, Fr. A quilted doublet, worn in the 14th and 15th centuries.
The illustration represents a Venetian gallant of the 16th century. (See

=Powder-blue= is pulverized pipe-clay, a good “pounce” for transferring
designs upon linen for embroidery.

=Powdered=, Her. (See SÉMÉ.)

=Powers=, Chr. Guardian angels, usually represented bearing a staff.

=Præcinctio=, E. (_præcingo_, to gird). A lobby running quite round the
circle formed by the _caveæ_ in the interior of a theatre or
amphitheatre; the same term is also used to denote the passages between
the tiers of seats comprised within each _mænianum_. According to their
importance, theatres and amphitheatres were divided into two, three, and
sometimes four præcinctiones.

=Præfericulum=, R. A metal basin without handles, used for holding
sacred utensils.

=Præficæ=, R. Women hired as mourners at the funerals of wealthy

[Illustration: Fig. 560. Præfurnium hypocaust.]

=Præfurnium=, R. The mouth of a furnace placed beneath a _hypocausis_ or
heating-stove in a set of baths. Fig. 560 shows the _præfurnium_ of a
hypocausis which was drawn upon the walls of a _laconicum_ situated near
the church of St. Cecilia at Rome. (See HYPOCAUSIS.)

[Illustration: Fig. 561. Roman maiden wearing the _toga prætexta_.]

=Prætexta=, R. A TOGA with a broad purple border. It was introduced by
the Etruscans, and was the costume assigned to priests and magistrates,
to boys before they came of age, and to women before their marriage.
(See TOGA.) (Fig. 561.)

=Prætorium=, R. The tent of the commander-in-chief of the army; it was
so called because in the earliest times of Rome the consul who commanded
the army bore the title of _prætor_. The residence of a governor of a
province was also called _prætorium_, and finally the name was given to
any large house or palace.

=Prandium=, R. (_prandeo_, to breakfast). The midday meal, which came
between breakfast (_jentaculum_) and dinner (_cœna_).

=Prastura.= (See UPAPITHA.)

=Préa-koul=, Hind. An upright stone or sacred boundary among the Khmers.

=Préasat=, Hind. The tower of the Khmers; _préasat-stupaï_ means little
tower; _préasat-phradamrey_, the elephant tower of the king.

=Precarium=, Chr. A temporary benefice granted to a layman by the
Church; the holder of the benefice was, however, bound to pay the Church
certain dues.

=Predella=, It. A ledge behind the altar of a church on which the
altar-piece was placed, containing small pictures, of similar subjects
to the altar-piece.

=Prefericulum=, R. A shallow metal bowl used in sacrifices for carrying
the sacred vessels. Its shape resembled the _patera_.

=Premier Coup.= (See PRIMA PAINTING.)

=Pre-Raphaelites.= A modern school of painters, who, throwing aside all
conventional laws and traditions in art, direct their study to the forms
and colours of Nature.

=Presentoir=, Fr. An épergne or table-stand for flowers; made very
shallow, on a tall and richly-decorated stem. A favourite subject of the
goldsmith’s art in the 16th century.

=Pressed Glass.= Glass pressed into a mould by a machine; differing from
_blown glass_.

=Presto=, It. In Music, quickly.

=Priapeia=, R. (πριάπεια). Festivals in honour of Priapus; they were
held chiefly at Lampsacus.

=Pricket.= A young stag of two years, when his horns begin to sprout.

=Prie-Dieu.= A kneeling-desk for prayers.

=Prima Painting= (in French, _peinture au premier coup_) is a modern
style directed to the avoidance of extreme finish, described in a work
by _Hundertpfund_, “_The Art of Painting restored to its Simplest and
Surest Principles_.”

=Primary Colours.= Blue, yellow, and red, from which all colours are

=Primero=, O. E. A game at cards mentioned by Shakspeare.

=Primicerii=, Chr. This term had several meanings, but it was usually
employed to denote the first person inscribed on a list, because the
tablet on which the names were written was covered with wax; whence
_primicerius_ (from _cera_, wax), the first upon the wax. In cathedral
churches the primicerius presided over the choir, and regulated the
order and method of the ceremonies.

=Priming.= (See GROUNDS.)

=Prince’s Metal= or =Prince Rupert’s Metal=. An alloy of 72 parts of
copper and 28 parts of zinc, which has a resemblance to gold.

=Princedoms= or =Principalities=, Chr. An order of THRONES of angels;
usually represented in complete armour, carrying pennons. (See Fig. 24.)

=Principes=, R. A body of heavy-armed foot-soldiers; thus named,
because, in the order of battle, they were placed first.

=Principia=, R. (_princeps_, chief, foremost). The headquarters in a
Roman camp, comprising not only the tents of the general and the
superior officers, but also an open space in which justice was
administered and sacrifices offered to the gods; it was in the same open
space that all the standards of the legion were set up.

=Priory=, Chr. A monastery attached, as a rule, to an abbey; there were
also, however, priories which formed the _head of an order_. In the
order of Malta each _tongue_ comprehended several great priories.

[Illustration: Fig. 562. Prismatic mouldings.]

=Prismatic= (mouldings). A kind of moulding resembling the facets of a
prism (Fig. 562), which is sometimes met with in archivolts of the
Romano-Byzantine period. The same term is likewise applied to mouldings
characteristic of the flamboyant style, which assume, especially in
their base, the form of prisms.

=Proaron=, Gr. and R. (πρόαρον; ἀρύω, to draw water). A vessel of a
flattened spheroid form, with two handles.

=Proaulium=, R. (_pro_, in front of). The vestibule of any building.

=Prochous=, Gr. (πρόχοος, i. e. thing for pouring out). A small jug for
pouring liquid into a cask; it had a narrow neck, a very large handle,
and a pointed mouth.

=Procœton=, Gr. and R. (προ-κοιτών). An antechamber or room preceding
other rooms or chambers.

=Prodd=, O. E. A light cross-bow, used by ladies, _temp._ Elizabeth.

=Prodomos=, Arch. (πρό-δομος). The façade of a temple or building, and
sometimes the porch of a church.

=Profile.= The side view of the human face. It is observed by Fairholt
that “a face which, seen directly in front, is attractive by its rounded
outline, blooming colour, and lovely smile, is often divested of its
charms when seen in profile, and strikes only as far as it has an
_intellectual_ expression. Only where great symmetry exists, connected
with a preponderance of the intellectual over the sensual, will a
profile appear finer than the front face.”

=Projectura=, R. The beaver of a helmet.

=Proletarii=, R. The proletariate, or Roman citizens of the lowest class
of the people, so called because they contributed nothing to the
resources of the republic except by their offspring (_proles_); being,
as they were, too poor to pay taxes.

=Prom=, Hind. An ornamented carpet in Khmer art.

=Prometheia.= An Athenian festival in honour of Prometheus, with a
torch-race (_lampadephoria_).

=Promulsis.= The first course at a Roman dinner, arranged to stimulate
the appetite; eggs were a principal ingredient, whence the proverb _ab
ovo usque ad mala_ (from first to last).

=Pronaos=, R. (πρό-ναος). A portico situated in front of a temple; it
was open on all sides, and surrounded only by columns, which, in front,
supported not only the entablature, but the pediment (_fastigium_).

=Proper=, Her. Said of a thing exhibited in its natural, or proper,

=Proplasma=, Gr. and R. (πρό-πλασμα). A rough model or embodiment of the
sculptor’s first idea, executed by him in clay.

=Propnigeum=, Gr. and R. The mouth of the furnace of the HYPOCAUSIS

=Propylæa=, Gr. The open court at the entrance to a sacred enclosure; e.
g. an Egyptian temple, or especially the Acropolis at Athens.

=Prora=, R. (πρῷρα). The prow or fore-part of a ship, whence _proreta_,
a man who stood at the ship’s head; _proreus_ was a term also used. (See

=Proscenium=, R. (προ-σκήνιον). The stage in a Greek or Roman theatre;
it included the whole platform comprised between the _orchestra_ and the
wall of the stage; the term was also used sometimes to denote the wall
of the stage itself.

=Proscenium=, Mod. The ornamental frame on which the curtain hangs.

=Prostylos=, Gr. (πρό-στυλος). A building or temple which has a porch
supported by a row of columns.

=Proteleia=, Gr. (προ-τέλεια). Sacrifices which were offered to Diana,
Juno, the Graces, and Venus prior to the celebration of a marriage.

[Illustration: Fig. 563. Entrance (Prothyrum) of a Roman house.]

=Prothyrum=, Gr. (πρό-θυρον). With the Greeks, the vestibule in front of
the door of a house, where there was generally an altar of Apollo, or a
statue or laurel-tree; with the Romans, the prothyrum was the corridor
or passage leading from the street to the atrium (Fig. 563).

=Prototype= (πρῶτον, first; τύπον, mould). The model of a plastic
design; hence figuratively, a _type_ or forerunner.

=Protractor.= An instrument for laying down and measuring angles upon

=Protypum=, Gr. and R. (πρό-τυπον). A model, first model or mould for
making any object in clay, such as antefixæ.

=Prussian Blue.= A valuable pigment of a greenish-blue colour, of great
body, transparency, and permanency; a mixture of prussiate of potash and
rust, or oxide of iron. (See CYANOGEN.)

=Prussian Brown.= A deep-brown pigment, more permanent than madder.

=Psaltery.= A stringed instrument or kind of lyre of an oblong square
shape, played with a rather large plectrum.

=Pschent=, Egyp. The head-dress of the ancient kings of Egypt, which
should properly be called _skhent_, since the _p_ only represents the
article _the_. This head-dress is the emblem of supreme power, the
symbol of dominion over the south and north. It is a diadem composed of
the united crowns of the Upper and Lower Egypts.

=Psephus=, Gr. (ψῆφος). A round stone used by the Athenian voters to
record their votes.

=Pseud-iso-domum= (_opus_). (See OPUS PSEUD-ISO-DOMUM.)

[Illustration: Fig. 564. Ground-plan of a Pseudodipteral Temple.]

=Pseudodipteros=, Gr. and R. (ψευδο-δίπτερος). A building or temple
which presents the appearance of being surrounded by a double colonnade,
though it possesses only a single one, which is separated from the walls
of the cella, as in the dipteral arrangement. (Fig. 564.)

=Pseudoperipteros=, Gr. and R. (ψευδο-περίπτερος). A building or temple
which presents the appearance of being surrounded by a colonnade,
although in reality it does not possess one, the columns being embedded
in the walls of the cella. (See PERIPTEROS, under which an example of
this kind of temple is given.)

=Pseudothyrum=, Gr. and R. (ψευδό-θυρον). Literally, a false door, and
thence a secret door, or door hidden by some means or other.

=Pseudourbana= (sc. _ædificia_), R. The dwelling-house of the owner of a
farm, which was distinct from the buildings set apart for the farm
people and the slaves, the _familia rustica_.

=Psili=, Gr. (ψιλοί). Light-armed troops, who wore skins or leather
instead of metal armour, and fought generally with bows and arrows or

=Psychè=, Fr. A cheval-glass or mirror.

=Psycter=, Gr. (ψυκτήρ). A metal wine-cooler, often of silver,
consisting of an outer vessel to contain ice, and an inner vessel for
the wine.

=Pterotus=, R. (πτερωτός). That which has wings or ears; an epithet
applied to the drinking-cup called _calix_.

=Puggaree=, Hind. A piece of muslin worn as a turban.

=Pugillares=, R. Writing-tablets small enough to be held in the hand
(_pugillus_), whence their name.

=Pugio=, R. (Gr. μάχαιρα). A short dagger, without a sheath, worn by
officers of high rank.

=Pulpitum=, R. The tribune of an orator, or the chair of a professor. In
a theatre the term was used to denote the part of the stage next to the
_orchestra_. (See PROSCENIUM.)

=Pulvinar=, R. (_pulvinus_, a cushion). A cushion or bolster, and thence
a state couch or a marriage-bed.

=Pulvinarium=, R. (1) A room in a temple, in which was set out the
_pulvinar_ or couch for the gods at the feast of the LECTISTERNIUM. (2)

[Illustration: Fig. 565. Pulvinatus.]

=Pulvinatus=, R. Having a contour similar to that of a cushion or
bolster, and thence the cylinder formed by the swelling of the volute at
the side of the Ionic capital. (Fig. 565.)

=Pumice-stone.= A kind of lava of less specific gravity than water. The
dome of the mosque of St. Sophia at Constantinople is built of

=Punchau.= (See INTI.)

=Punctum=, R. A vote or suffrage, because in early times each citizen,
instead of laying down a _tessera_ or tablet with his vote, passed in
front of the _rogator_, or voting officer who had the list of candidates
before him, and pricked a hole (_punctum_) in the tablet against the
name of the candidate for whom the vote was given.

=Punkahs.= Swinging fans suspended from the ceilings of houses in India,
often richly embroidered and decorated with feathers, brilliant insects,
gold and silver, &c.

=Puntilla=, Sp. A narrow point-lace edging.

=Pupa=, R. A doll; a child’s plaything. Dolls of terra-cotta have been
found in various countries. In Egypt dolls have been found, made out of
wood, painted, and in perfect proportion, with glass beads on the head
in imitation of hair. As a rule, the ancient dolls are made with movable

=Puppis=, R. The poop or after-part of a vessel as opposed to the
_prora_ or prow. (See PRORA.)

=Purbeck-stone.= A rough grey sandstone from Dorsetshire, largely used
for building purposes in London.

=Purim= (Festivals of), Heb. Jewish festivals called _Festivals of the
Lots_, instituted in memory of Esther, who had averted the peril with
which Haman threatened the Jews; they were so called because the
favourite of Ahasuerus was to have decimated the Jews by casting lots to
see who should be put to death.

=Purple=, Gen. An insignia of authority pertaining to certain
magistrates who wore purple robes or bands of purple on their attire.
There were two kinds of purple, the amethyst and the Tyrian; the former
was a deep violet, and obtained from a shell-fish (_murex trunculus_);
the Tyrian was more brilliant and had a redder tinge; it was obtained
from the _murex brandaris_.

=Purple= is red graduated with blue, the red predominating; red with
black makes purple-black. Purple pigments are _madder purple_, _violet
mars_, _burnt carmine_ (for water-colours).

=Purple Lakes= and _Green Lakes_ are made by mixing _yellow_ lakes with
blue pigments. (See YELLOW LAKE.)

=Purple Madder.= (See MADDER.)

=Purple-wood.= A beautiful deep-coloured Brazilian wood, used for
marquetry and inlaid-work, but principally for the ramrods of guns.

=Purpure=, Her. Purple.

=Purree=, Hind. A bright golden yellow pigment prepared from camel’s
dung. (See INDIAN YELLOW.)

=Pursuivants.= The lowest order of officers in Herald’s College; of whom
there are four, called respectively Rouge Croix, Rouge Dragon, Blue
Mantle, and Portcullis. In the Middle Ages these officers were attached
to the households of the nobility, and bore titles generally taken from
the armorial insignia of their lords.

=Puteal=, R. A place struck by lightning, and thus rendered sacred; in
order to keep it from the tread of profane feet, it was surrounded by a
low wall similar to that which protected a well (_puteus_); whence the
name of _puteal_.

[Illustration: Fig. 566. Puteus. Manhole of an Aqueduct.]

=Puteus=, R. (1) A well fed by a spring or an underground stream of
water; (2) an opening or manhole of an aqueduct (Fig. 566); (3) a pit
for preserving grain.

=Puticuli=, =Puticulæ=, R. Common pits in which the bodies of those
slaves and paupers were buried, who had not the means to pay for a
funeral pyre or a private tomb.

=Puttock=, O. E. A base kind of hawk. (_Shakspeare._)

=Pyanepsia=, Gr. (πυανέψια). Ancient “Beanfeasts.” Athenian festivals in
honour of Apollo, instituted by Theseus after his victory over the
Minotaur; they were so called because beans were cooked for the banquet
in honour of the god (πύανος, a bean, and ἕψειν, to cook).

=Pyat=, O. E. A magpie.

=Pykers=, O. E. A kind of fishing-boats.

=Pylon=, Egyp. (πυλών). A monumental gate composed of two lofty and
massive pyramidal towers, forming the entrance to the enclosure of the
great Egyptian temples. The interior of a pylon contained staircases and
chambers. A splendid example in full preservation is that of the temple
at Esneh on the Nile.

=Pyra=, Gr. and R. (πυρὰ, lit. the burning-place). A funeral pile before
it was set on fire, in contradistinction to _rogus_, a funeral pile
which has been lighted. It was built in the form of an altar with four
equal sides, which were frequently covered with foliage of dark leaves;
and cypress-trees were placed in front of the pile. The corpse was
placed on the top, in the bier (_lectica_) on which it had been borne to
the place. (See FUNERAL CEREMONIES.)

=Pyræum=, Pers. (πυρεῖον). A place in which the Persians kept the sacred
fire (_puros_, fire). At Bactria there were seven pyræa, in honour of
the seven planets.

=Pyramid= (Egyptian, _Pi-rama_, a mountain). In the hieroglyphics called
_Abumer_, “a great tomb,” which it essentially is, or rather a great
cairn over the cave tomb excavated in the live rock immediately under
its apex. This sepulchral chamber having been connected with the upper
world by a passage sloping downwards from the north, the graduated
structure was regularly built over it, the proportions of the base to
the sides being constantly preserved, and the whole forming always a
perfect pyramid; so that the building could be continued during the
whole lifetime of its destined tenant, and covered and closed in
immediately upon his death. It is on record that from Seneferoo, the
first king whose name has been found upon monuments, to the last of the
Sixth Dynasty, i. e. during the whole period of the Ancient Empire,
every king of Egypt built a pyramid. (Consult _Vyse_, _Pyramids of

=Pyrotechny= (πῦρ, fire, and τέχνη, art). The art of making fireworks.
The Chinese had great skill in this art long before its introduction
into Europe, and are at this day unrivalled in it. The best English work
on the subject is perhaps that by _G. W. Mortimer_ (London, 1853).

=Pyrrhica=, Gr. (πυρρίχη). A war-dance in great favour with the early
Greeks, and frequently represented in sculptures, in which warriors
brandished their weapons and went through a mock combat.

=Pythia=, Gr. (πύθια). (1) A priestess of Apollo at Delphi, represented
seated on the sacred _tripod_. (See CORTINA.) (2) Games instituted at
Delphi in honour of Apollo, and of his killing the Pytho, the monstrous
serpent born from the waters in Deucalion’s flood.

=Pythoness.= Synonym of PYTHIA (q.v.). The term was also used to denote
certain sorceresses, such as the pythoness of Endor.

=Pyx=, or =Pix Cloths=. (See =Corporals=.)

[Illustration: Fig. 567. Small Ivory Pyx. Ninth Century (?).]

=Pyx.= The word in its earliest meaning included any small box or case,
and often in the Middle Ages it contained relics. Thus in the Durham
treasury there was “a tooth of St. Gengulphus, good for the falling
sickness, in a small ivory pyx.” The pyx used for the sacrament was
usually ornamented with religious subjects, other than the incidents of
the lives of saints. (Fig. 567.)

=Pyxis=, Gr. and R. (πυξὶς, lit. a box-wood box). A casket, trinket-box,
or jewel-case.


_Many Old English words are indifferently spelt with_ qu, ch, _and_ c;
_such as_ quire, choir; quoif, coif, _&c._

=Quadra=, R. Generally, any square or rectangular object; such as a
table, plinth, or abacus.

=Quadragesima=, Chr. Lent is so called, because it has _forty_ days.

=Quadrans=, R. (a fourth part). A small bronze coin worth the quarter of
an _as_, or about a farthing.

=Quadrant.= An instrument for measuring celestial altitudes; superseded
by the CIRCLE. (See SEXTANT.) (Consult _Lalande_, _Astronomie_, § 2311,
&c., 3me edition).

=Quadrantal=, R. A square vessel used as a measure, the solid contents
of which were exactly equal to an amphora. A standard model was kept in
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

=Quadrelle=, O. E. A mace, with four lateral projections, ornamental
like the leaves of a flower. (See _Planché_, _Cycl. of Costume_, Plate
xii. 16.)

=Quadrellus=, Med. Lat. A quarrel for a cross-bow.

=Quadriforis=, R. A door folding into four leaves.

=Quadriga=, R. Generally =Quadrigæ= (Greek τετραορία or τέθριππος). A
chariot in which four horses were yoked abreast. The two strongest
horses were harnessed under the yoke in the centre; the others were
fastened on each side by means of ropes. (See CURRUS.)

=Quadrigatus=, R. A silver denarius, so called from its having a
quadriga on the reverse.

=Quadrilateral.= Four-sided.

=Quadriliteral.= Consisting of four letters.

=Quadrille=, Med. (It. _squadriglia_, dimin. of _squadra_—our
“squadron”—a small party of troops drawn up in a square). Small parties
of richly-caparisoned horsemen, who rode at tournaments and public
festivals. The modern dance so called was introduced in 1808.

=Quadriremis=, R. A galley with four banks of rowers.

=Quadrisomus=, Chr. A sarcophagus with compartments for four bodies. One
discovered in the Vatican cemetery at Rome contained the bodies of the
first four popes called Leo. (Cf. BISOMUS.)

=Quadrivalves=, Arch. (See QUADRIFORIS.)

=Quadrivium= (lit. of four ways). The four minor arts of arithmetic,
music, geometry, and astronomy. (See TRIVIUM.)

=Quadrivium=, R. A place where four roads meet.

=Quadrumane.= Having four prehensile hands or feet, like monkeys.

=Quadruplatores=, R. Public informers, who were rewarded with a _fourth
part_ of the criminal’s property on obtaining a conviction.

=Quæstiones Perpetuæ=, R. Permanent tribunals established at Rome to
take cognizance of criminal cases.

=Quæstorium=, R. In a Roman camp, the _quæstor’s_ tent; this was in some
cases near the porta decumana, or the rear of the camp; in others, on
one side of the PRÆTORIUM (q.v.).

=Quaich=, =Queish=, or =Quegh=, Scotch. An old-fashioned drinking-cup or
bowl, with two handles. (English MASER [?].)

=Quality-binding=, Scotch. A kind of worsted tape used in the borders of

=Qualus=, R. (Gr. KALATHOS, q.v.). A wicker-work basket.

=Quandary=, O. E. (from Fr. _qu’en dirai-je_?). Doubt and perplexity.

=Quannet.= A tool for working in horn and tortoise-shell.

=Quarnellus=, Med., in fortification. (See CRENEL.)

=Quarrel= (Fr. _carreau_), Arch. A lozenge-shaped brick, stone, or pane
of glass; a glazier’s diamond.

=Quarrel=, O. E. An arrow for the cross-bow with a four-square head.

=Quarter-deck=, on a ship of war. The deck abaft the mainmast,
appropriated to the commissioned officers. These were originally of
great height, corresponding with the lofty forecastle for soldiers, and
helped to make the ships top-heavy and unmanageable. A commission on
ship-building in 1618 says,—

  “They must bee somewhat snugg built, without double gallarys, and too
  lofty upper workes, which overcharge many shipps, and make them coeme
  faire, but not worke well at sea.”

=Quarter-gallery= of a ship. A balcony round the stem.

=Quarter-round=, Arch. The ovolo moulding (q.v.).

=Quarter-tones= (Gr. _diesis_), in Music, were the subject of much
discussion among the ancient Greeks, but they were used on the lyre for
an occasional “grace-note.” Aristoxenos says “no voice could sing three
of them in succession, neither can the singer sing _less_ than the
quarter-tone correctly, nor the hearer judge of it.” (Consult
_Chappell’s Hist. of Music_.)

[Illustration: Fig. 568. Royal Arms of England, _temp._ Edward III.,
quartered with the fleur-de-lys of France.]

=Quartering=, Her. Marshalling two or more coats of arms in the
different quarters of the same shield. (Fig. 568.)

=Quartet=, =Quartetto=, It. A piece of music for four performers, each
of whose parts is _obligato_, i. e. essential to the music.

=Quartile.= In Astronomy, distant from each other 90 degrees, or a
_quarter_ of a circle.

=Quasillum= (dimin. of QUALUS, q.v.) was a small basket in which the
quantity of wool was measured, which was assigned to a slave to spin in
a day’s work.

[Illustration: Fig. 569. Quatrefoil.]

=Quatrefoil.= An ornament in pointed architecture consisting of four
foils. The term is likewise applied to a rosace formed of four
divisions, which figures frequently in the upper part of pointed

=Quatrefoil= or =Primrose=, Her. A flower or figure having four foils or
conjoined leaves.

=Quattrocento=, It. (lit. _four hundred_). A term applied to the
characteristic style of the artists who practised in the 15th century;
it was hard, and peculiar in colour as well as in form and pose. It was
the intermediate of that progressive period of art, which, commencing
with Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Mantegna, Botticelli, and other celebrated
painters, between A. D. 1400 and 1500, reached excellence in the 16th
century (the _cinque-cento_) with Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael.

=Quaver.= A musical note of very short time = half a crotchet.

[Illustration: Fig. 570. Crown of Her Majesty the Queen.]

=Queen.= Crown of Her Majesty. (See Fig. 570.)

=Queen-post= (anciently _prick-post_ or _side-post_), Arch. An upright
post similar in use and position to the KING-POST, but rising, not in
the centre to the point of the gable, but midway between the wall and
the centre.

=Queen’s Boots.= The interesting fact in English archæology is not
generally known, that Her Majesty’s _boots_ are provided for by an
annual tax of two shillings (on the whole) upon the village of Ketton in
Rutlandshire “_pro ocreis reginæ_.”

=Queen’s Ware.= A cream-coloured glazed earthenware of the Wedgwood
manufacture at Burslem, 1759–70.

=Queen’s Yellow.= A colour formed from the subsulphate of mercury.

=Queintise=, O. E. A dress curiously cut or ornamented. (See COINTOISE.)

=Querpo= (for =Cuerpo=). Partly undressed.

=Querpo-hood.= A hood worn by the Puritans. (_P._)

           “No face of mine shall by my friends be viewed
           In Quaker’s pinner, or in _querpo_-hood.”
                                 (_Archæologia_, vol. xxvii.)

=Queshews=, O. E. _Cuisses_; armour for the thighs.

=Queue=, Fr. A support for a lance. It was a large piece of iron screwed
to the back of the breastplate, curved downward to hold down the end of
the lance.

=Queue Fourchée=, Her. Having a double tail, or two tails.

=Quichuas.= Remarkable specimens of pottery, from this Peruvian coast
province, doubtless of remote antiquity, resemble in their freedom from
conventionality and successful imitation of natural forms all primitive
Egyptian and other sculpture. Jacquemart describes the vase of the
illustration (on page 214) as the _chef-d’œuvre_ of American ceramics;
and, from the close resemblance of the features of the figure
represented to certain groups of prisoners on the Egyptian bas-reliefs,
as well as to the ethnic type of the ancient Japanese kings, makes
important deductions with reference to the dispersion of mankind, and
the commerce of the old and new worlds in prehistoric times.

=Quicksilver=, alloyed with tinfoil, forms the reflecting surface of
looking-glasses, and is largely used in the operations of gilding and
silvering metals.

=Quilled=, Her. A term used to blazon the quills of _feathers_; thus a
blue feather having its quill golden is blazoned—a feather _az., quilled
or_. (_Boutell._)

=Quilts= for bed-coverings, in England, were formerly made of
embroidered linen with emblems of the evangelists in the four corners.
At Durham, in 1446, in the dormitory of the priory was a quilt “cum
iiij^{or} evangelistis in corneriis.” The Very Rev. Daniel Rock
(_Textile Fabrics_) suggests that this gave rise to the old nursery

                    “Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
                    Bless the bed that I lie on.”

=Quinarius.= A Roman coin = half a _denarius_, or five asses.

=Quincaillerie=, Fr. A general term for all kinds of metallurgical work
in copper, brass, iron, &c.

[Illustration: Fig. 571. Quince. Device of the Sforzas.]

=Quince=, Her. The “_Pomo cotogno_,” the emblem of the town of
Cotignola, adopted by the founder of the Sforza family who was born
there. The Emperor Robert of Bavaria added a lion in 1401 as a reward of
an act of bravery, to “support the _quince_ with his left hand and
defend it with his right,” adding “guai a chi lo tocchi!” (Fig. 571.)

=Quincunx=, R. (i. e. five-twelfths of anything). (1) A Roman bronze
coin, equivalent to five-twelfths of an _as_, and weighing five ounces
(_unciæ_). (2) An arrangement of five objects in a square; one at each
corner, and one in the middle. (3) In _gardening_, said of trees planted
in oblique rows of three and two, or in a _quincunx_ (No. 2).

=Quincupedal=, R. A rod five feet in length, for taking measurements in

=Quindecagon.= A plane figure having fifteen sides and fifteen angles.

=Quinite.= A Spanish textile of hair with silk or other thread.

=Quinquagesima=, Chr. The _fiftieth_ day before Easter; Shrove Sunday.

=Quinquatrus= (or —=ia=), R. Festivals of Minerva, celebrated on the
19th of March. They lasted five days; on the first no blood was shed,
but on the last four there were contests of gladiators. Another festival
called _Quinquatrus minores_, also in honour of Minerva, was celebrated
on the ides of June.

=Quinquennalia=, R. Games celebrated every four years at Rome;
instituted by Nero, A. D. 60. They consisted of music, gymnastical
contests, and horse-races.

=Quinqueremis=, R. A galley with five banks of oars.

=Quinquertium=, R. (Gr. _Pentathlon_). A gymnastic contest of Greek
origin, so called because it consisted of five exercises, viz.
_leaping_, _running_, _wrestling_, _throwing the discus_, and _throwing
the spear_. Introduced in the Olympic games in Ol. 18.

=Quintain=, O. E. A post set up to be tilted at by mounted soldiers;
sometimes a man turning on a pivot; sometimes a flat board, on a pivot,
with a heavy bag of sand at the other end, which knocked the tilter on
the back if he charged unskilfully. (See _Strutt_, _Sports and
Pastimes_, p. 89, Plates ix. and x.)

=Quintana=, R. A causeway fifty feet wide in a Roman camp.

=Quintetto=, It. A piece of music for five performers, _obligati_. (Cf.

=Quintile.= In Astronomy, distant from each other 72 degrees, or a
_fifth_ of a circle.

=Quippa=, Peruv. (lit. a knot). A fringe of knotted and particoloured
threads, used to record events in ancient Mexico.

=Quippos= or =Quippus=, Peruv. A plaited cord of strings of different
colours and lengths, used as a substitute for writing among the ancient

=Quire.= O. E. for CHOIR.

=Quirinalia=, R. A festival sacred to Romulus—Quirinus—held on the 17th
of February, as the anniversary of the day on which he was supposed to
have been carried up to heaven. The festival was also called _Stultorum
feriæ_. (See FORNACALIA.)

=Quirk=, Arch. An acute channel by which the convex parts of Greek
mouldings (the ogees and ovolos) are separated from the fillet or soffit
that covers them. In Gothic architecture quirks are abundantly used
between mouldings.

=Quishwine=, =Quusson=, and =Qwissinge=. Old ways of spelling the word

=Quivers.= The ancient Greeks and Etruscans, the Normans and Saxons wore
quivers (_pharetra_) on a belt slung over the shoulder. Archers of the
12th to 14th century carried their arrows stuck in their belts.

            “A shefe of peacock arwes bryght and kene
            _Under his belt_ he bare ful thriftely.”

Quivers were probably introduced into England in the 15th century.

=Quoif= or =Coif=, O. E. A close-fitting cap worn by both sexes, and by
lawyers, _temp._ Elizabeth.

=Quoin= or =Coin=. (1) Arch. The external angle of a building. (2) O. E.
A wedge.

=Quoits.= A very ancient game derived from the Roman DISCUS (q.v.).


=Ra.= The sun-god with hawk head is a common object of Egyptian pottery
and architectural ornament, subsequent to the Asiatic invasions. It
typifies the union of the yellow Asiatic and the native Egyptian races.

=Rabato=, Sp. A neck-band or ruff. (See REBATO.)

=Rabbet= (from _rebated_). In Joinery a groove in the edge of a board.

=Rabyte=, O. E. (for Arabyte). An Arab horse.

=Racana=, Chr. A blanket of hair-cloth prescribed for the couches of
monks, &c., in summer.

              “Pro anis _rachinis_ propter æstus utantur.”

=Rack=, O. E. The last fleeting vestige of the highest clouds.

=Racon=, O. E. The pot-hook by which vessels are suspended over a fire.

=Radiant=, =Rayonée=. Encircled with rays. (Fig. 395.)

=Radius=, R. A pointed rod employed by certain professors of astronomy
and mathematics for tracing figures on the sand. Also the spoke of a
wheel, a ray of light, and lastly, a stake used in constructing
intrenchments (_valla_).

=Radula=, R. A scraper, an iron tool used for paring or scratching off.

=Raffaelle-ware.= A fine kind of Urbino majolica, the designs for which
were probably furnished by pupils of the great master.

=Rag.= In Masonry, stone that breaks in jagged pieces.

=Ragged Staff=, Her. (See RAGULÉE.)

=Ragman’s= or =Rageman’s Roll=, O. E. (1) In History, a roll of the
nobles of Scotland, who swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick, in 1296;
hence (2) a game of chance, in which a number of versified descriptions
of character were drawn from a roll by the members of a company; 13th to
15th century. The game survives among children of the present age in the
custom of drawing _Twelfth-Night_ characters.

=Ragstone.= A rough kind of sandstone found in Kent.

[Illustration: Fig. 572. Ragulée.]

[Illustration: Fig. 573. Bear and Ragged Staff.]

=Ragulée=, =Raguly=, Her. Serrated. A “ragged staff,” or “staff
_ragulée_,” is a part of a stem from which the branches have been cut
off roughly. The illustration is the well-known device of the Earls of
Warwick, originating with Arthgal, one of the Knights of the Round
Table; because, says Leland, “this Arthgal took a bere in his arms, for
that, in Britisch, soundeth a bere in Englisch.” (Fig. 573.)

=Rahal=, Arabic. A load for a camel; about 5 cwt.

=Rains=, or =Raynes=, =Cloths= (A. D. 1327–1434, &c.). Fine linen woven
at _Rennes_ in Brittany.

=Rajeta=, Sp. A coarse cloth of mixed colours.

=Rallum=, R. A piece of iron on the end of a stick, used to scrape off
earth from the plough-share.

[Illustration: Fig. 574. Assyrian Battering-ram.]

=Ram=, in Christian iconography, is a symbol not fully explained. It was
probably connected with the idea of a manful _fight_ with the powers of
evil. Two rams face to face with a cross between them are a frequent
symbol. (Consult _Martigny_, _Dict. des Antiq. Chrét._ s. v. Belier.)

=Ram=, O. E. for rain. (_Shakspeare._)

=Ram= or =Battering-ram=. (See ARIES.) The illustration (Fig. 574) is
from the Assyrian sculptures, showing the invention of the _testudo_ to
be of great antiquity.

=Ramadhan.= The ninth month of the Arabian calendar, and the Mohammedan
month of fasting; it is followed by the festival of the _Little Bairam_.

=Ramalia=, R. (_ramus_, a ram) Roman festivals instituted in honour of
Ariadne and Bacchus.

=Ramillete=, Sp. A nosegay; a pyramid of sweetmeats and fruits.

[Illustration: Fig. 575. Lion Rampant.]

[Illustration: Fig. 576. Demi-lion Rampant.]

=Rampant=, Her. Erect, one hind paw on the ground, the other three paws
elevated; the animal looking forward, and having his tail elevated.

=Rampant guardant=, Her. The same as rampant, but looking out of the

=Rampant reguardant=, Her. The same as rampant, but looking backwards.

=Ranseur=, Fr. A sort of partisan in use in the time of Edward IV.,
having a broad long blade in the centre, and projecting shorter blades
on each side.

=Rantle-tree=, Scotch. (1) The beam in the chimney from which the crook
is suspended, when there is no grate (Angl. GALOWS. See also
REEKING-HOOK). (2) A tree chosen with two branches, which are cut short,
and left in the shape of a Y, built into the gable of a cottage to
support one end of the roof-tree.

=Rapier=, introduced from Spain in the 16th century, remained the
favourite weapon of gentlemen. It is a light sword with a narrow blade
adapted only for thrusting. It used to be called a _tuck_.

=Rapier-dance.= A theatrical dance still practised in Yorkshire,
consisting of evolutions of the dancers with naked rapiers round a
performer who kneels in the centre and finally simulates death. (Compare

=Raploch=, Scotch. Coarse undyed woollen cloth.

=Rareca.= Peruvian aqueducts; distinct from the subterranean aqueducts
called HUIRCAS or _Pinchas_ (q.v.).

=Rash.= “A species of inferior silk, or silk and stuff manufacture.”

=Raster=, =Rastrum=, R. (_rado_, to scrape). A rake.

=Rat.= In Chinese symbolism, the month of November. (See TCHY PERIODS.)

=Rath=, Celtic. An ancient fortress or castle of the Irish chiefs,
consisting of a circular intrenched enclosure, with buildings in the

=Rational=, Heb. A square piece of richly embroidered cloth worn by the
Jewish high priest upon the breast, above the ephod.

=Ratis=, R. A raft of strong beams or planks; and thence a flat boat, a
bridge of boats, &c.

=Raunle-tree.= Scotch; for RANTLE-TREE (q.v.).

=Raven=, the ensign of the ancient Danes, was the bird of Odin. In
Christian art, the emblem of Divine Providence (in allusion to the
history of Elisha); attribute of certain saints, especially of ascetics.
(See CROW.)

=Ray=, Chr. The fish (_rina diaudan_) which was burned by Tobias (vii.
2, 3), and the eggs of which are still burnt for intermittent fevers
among the Greeks. (_Harris_, 408.)

=Ray=, O. E. (i. e. _rayed_). Striped cloth much worn in the 13th and
14th centuries.

=Raynes=, O. E. (from Rennes in Brittany). Fine linen.

            “Cloth of raynes to sleep on soft.” (_Chaucer._)

=Rayonnée=, Her. (See RADIANT.)

=Real= (Eng. ROYAL). A Spanish coin. There are two kinds: a _real of
plate_, worth 4¾_d._, and a _real of vellon_, worth 2½_d._ (Cf. RIAL.)

=Realgar.= A red pigment, formed of arsenic in combination with sulphur.
A fugitive and _corrosive_ pigment. (See _Merimée_, _De la Peinture à
l’huile_, p. 124.)

=Realism=, =Realistic=, in Art. (See IDEAL and REAL.)

=Rebated.= Turned back, as the head of a MORNE or jousting-lance.

=Rebato=, Sp. The turn-down collar of the 15th and 16th centuries.

=Rebec=, Sp. A musical instrument of three strings, tuned in fifths, and
played with a bow like a fiddle. It was originally introduced into Spain
by the Moors.

=Rebiting.= A process of renewing the lines of a worn-out plate, by
etching them over again; a difficult and delicate operation, which is
rarely performed with entire success.

[Illustration: Fig. 577. Rebus (Prior Bolton). The Bolt and Tun.]

=Rebus=, Her. An allusive charge or device. A _ton_ or _tun_ pierced by
a bird-bolt is in the church of Great St. Bartholomew, of which Prior
Bolton was the last prior.

                        “Prior Bolton
                  With his bolt and tun.”
                                      (_Ben Jonson._)

=Recamo=, Sp. Embroidery of raised work.

=Recel=, Sp. A kind of striped tapestry.

=Receptorium=, R. (_recepto_, to receive). A kind of parlour, also
called _salutatorium_, which generally adjoined the ancient basilicas.

[Illustration: Fig. 578. Cross _Recercelée_.]

=Recercelée=, Her. A variety of the heraldic cross.

=Recheat=, O. E. A sound on the horn to call dogs away from the chase.

=Recinctus.= Equivalent in meaning to DISCINCTUS (q.v.).

=Recorders.= A musical instrument mentioned by Shakspeare. It resembled
a very large clarionet. Milton also speaks of

                   “the Dorian mood
             Of flutes and _soft recorders_.”
                                 (_Paradise Lost_, i. 550.)

=Recta=, R. A straight tunic, made out of a single piece, which took the
form of the body; it hung from the neck, and fell down as far as the

=Rectilinear= figures are those composed entirely of straight or _right_

=Red.= One of the three primary colours, producing with YELLOW,
_orange_, and with BLUE, _violet_. The principal red pigments are
_carmine_, _vermilion_, _chrome red_, _scarlet lake_, _madder lake_,
_light red_, _burnt sienna_, for _yellow_ reds; and _Venetian red_,
_Indian red_, _crimson lake_, for _blue_ reds. Red, in Christian art,
represented by the ruby, signified fire, divine love, the Holy Spirit,
heat or the creative power, and royalty. In a bad sense, red signified
blood, war, hatred, and punishment. Red and black combined were the
colours of purgatory and the devil. (See REALGAR, INDIGO.)

=Red Chalk= or =Reddle= is a mixture of clay and red iron OCHRE, used as
a crayon in drawing. (See OCHRE.)

=Red Lake.= (See CARMINE.)

=Red Lead.= A pigment which mixes badly with other pigments. (See

=Red Ochre= includes _Indian red_, _scarlet ochre_, _Indian ochre_,
_reddle_, &c.

=Red Orpiment.= (See REALGAR.)

=Redan=, the simplest kind of work in field fortification, generally
consists of a parapet of earth, divided on the plan into two faces,
which make with one another a salient angle, or one whose vertex is
towards the enemy.

=Reddle.= (See RED CHALK.)

=Redimiculum=, R. (_redimio_, to bind round). A long string or ribbon
attached to any kind of head-dress.

=Redoubt= is a general name for nearly every kind of work in the class
of field fortifications.

=Redshank=, Scotch. A Highlander wearing buskins of red-deer skin, with
the hair outwards.

=Reduction.= In Art, a copy on a smaller scale. The work is done
mechanically by a process of subdivision of the original into segments
or squares.

=Reekie=, Scotch. Smoky; hence _Auld Reekie_, the city of Edinburgh.

=Reeking-hook=, O. E. A pot-hook hung in the chimney, to suspend vessels
over an open fire. (See GALOWS.)

=Re-entering=, in Engraving, is the sharpening or deepening with a
graver the lines insufficiently _bitten in_ by the acid.

=Refectory=, Mod. (_reficio_, to refresh). A hall in which the monks of
a monastery assembled to take their meals; one of the most important
rooms of the establishment; it was often divided into two naves by a row
of columns called the spine (_spina_), which received the spring of the
vaultings forming the roof of the refectory.

=Reflected Lights= thrown by an illuminated surface into the shadows
opposed to it, modify the LOCAL COLOUR of every object that we observe
in nature, and should accordingly be made to do so in painting.

=Reflexed=, =Reflected=, Her. Curved and carried backwards.

=Refraction= is the diversion of a ray of light which occurs when it
falls obliquely on the surface of a medium differing in density from
that through which it had previously moved. The differently-coloured
rays have different degrees of refrangibility. Refraction is the cause
of the phenomena of the _mirage_, _Fata Morgana_, &c., and presents to
us the light of the sun before his actual emergence above the horizon.

[Illustration: Fig. 579. Regals or Portable Organ.]

=Regal= or =Regals=, O. E. (1) A small portable organ, with single or
double sets of pipes (the attribute of St. Cecilia, and of saints and
angels of the heavenly choir). The illustration (Fig. 579) of an angel
playing the regals, is taken from an ancient MS. (2) A kind of
harmonica, with sonorous slabs of wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 580. Regalia. Grand Duke of Tuscany in state
costume, with crown and sceptre, &c.]

=Regalia.= The ensigns of royalty. The regalia of England are the crown,
sceptre, verge or rod with the dove, St. Edward’s staff, the orb or
mound, the sword of mercy called Curtana, the two swords of spiritual
and temporal justice, the ring of alliance with the kingdom, the armillæ
or bracelets, the spurs of chivalry, and some royal vestments; and are
kept in the Jewel Office in the Tower of London. The Scottish insignia,
a crown, a sceptre, and a sword of state, are kept in the Crown-room at
Edinburgh. The illustration shows the regalia and state vestments of the
Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the 16th century. (Fig. 580.)

=Regifugium=, R. (lit. flight of the king). An annual festival held on
the sixth day of the calends of March (24th of February), in
commemoration of the flight of Tarquin and the establishment of the
Roman republic.

=Regioles=, Fr. Chr. Small doors in the _confessio_ or _martyrium_ of an
altar, containing relics of a saint or martyr. The faithful used to
introduce handkerchiefs by these doors, that they might consecrate them
by contact with the relics.

=Regrating= or =Skinning=, in Masonry, is the process of scraping or
hammering off the outer surface of old stones to make them look white
and new; it has been greatly abused in the restoration of ancient

=Reguardant=, Her. Turning the head and looking back; emblematic of
circumspection and prudence.

=Regula=, R. A straight rule used by artisans.

=Regulares=, Chr. Horizontal _rods_ of wood or metal in churches for the
suspension of veils or curtains. These were often made of gold or
silver, with a row of images on the upper part.

=Regulus= (in Greek βασιλίσκος) is the name given by ancient astronomers
to a line drawn from the polar star, between the pointers, &c., to the
bright star called α Leonis or Cor Leonis (the lion’s heart).

=Reindeer=, Her. A hart with double antlers, one pair erect, the other

=Reisner-work.= A corrupt spelling of the name of Riesener, a celebrated
worker in marquetry in France in the 18th century.

  “Riesener used tulip, rosewood, holly, maple, laburnum, purple-wood,
  &c. Wreaths and bunches of flowers, exquisitely worked and boldly
  designed, form centres of his marquetry panels, which are often plain
  surfaces of one wood. On the sides, in borders and compartments, we
  find diaper patterns in three or four quiet colours.” (See _Pollen_,
  _Ancient and Modern Furniture_, &c.)

=Relief= (It. _rilievo_). Sculpture projecting—ALTO-RELIEVO, more than
half; MEZZO-RELIEVO, exactly half; BASSO-RELIEVO, less than half. (See

=Reliquary=, Chr. A portable shrine or casket made to contain relics. A
reliquary made to be worn round the neck was called _encolpium_ (ἐν
κόλπῳ, in the bosom), _phylacterium_, &c.; one to be carried
processionally, _feretrum_. (See FERETORY, Fig. 307.)

=Remarque=, Fr. A slight sketch on the margin beneath an etching or
engraving, to denote the earliest proof impressions.

=Removed=, Her. Out of its proper position.

=Remuria=, R. A Roman festival in honour of Remus, held on the third of
the ides of May (13th of May) on the Palatine mount, on the spot where
Remus had taken the auspices, and where he was buried.

=Renaissance= (lit. new-birth or revival). The term is popularly applied
to the gradual return to classical principles in Art in the 13th and
14th centuries. The Italian renaissance, begun by NICCOLA PISANO in
architecture and sculpture, and by GIOTTO in painting, was fostered by
the Medici family, and culminated in Leonardo, Michelangelo, and
Raphael. Teutonic art (Flemish, German, and Dutch) had also their
periods of revival. It is, however, impossible to indicate their
representatives without entering upon debateable questions. Goldsmith’s
work, pottery, and other useful arts passed through parallel periods of
revival concurrent, or nearly so, with those in painting.

=Rengue=, Sp. A kind of gauze worn on official robes in Spain.

=Reno= and =Rheno=, R. A very short cloak, often made of skins, peculiar
to the Gauls and Germans, and adopted by the Roman soldiery.

=Repagula=, R. (lit. fastening back). A double fastening to a door; of
two bolts (_pessuli_), one of which was shot towards the right, and the
other to the left.

=Replica.= A duplicate of a picture, done by the same painter.

=Repose.= (See RIPOSO.)

=Repositorium=, R. (_repono_, to lay down). A side-board for plates and
dishes in a dining-room; it was divided into several stories, and formed
a kind of dinner-wagon; and many examples were richly ornamented, and
inlaid with variegated woods, or tortoise-shell and silver, &c.

=Repoussé=, Fr. Metal-work hammered out from behind into ornaments in

=Requiem=, Chr. The Roman _Missa pro Defunctis_, or service for the
dead, beginning