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Title: A guide to the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine in the city of New York: Fifth Edition
Author: Hall, Edward Hagaman
Language: English
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A Guide to The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine in the City of New


(From Architect’s Design)]

                             A Guide to the
                            Cathedral Church
                          Saint John the Divine
                         in the City of New York
                      Edward Hagaman Hall, L. H. D.

                                New York
                   The Laymen’s Club of the Cathedral

                             Fifth Edition.

                  Copyright, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1924, by
                          The Laymen’s Club of
              The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine,
                             New York, N. Y.

Introductory Note

This Guide to the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine purposely departs
from the conventional guide book in several respects. The Cathedral
of St. John the Divine is not centuries old like those in Europe, but
is in the building; and it has seemed appropriate in the first place
to express something of its Spirit before describing the details of
its Fabric. In the next place, the great majority of visitors to the
Cathedral are strangers, people of other denominations, and, on account
of its proximity to one of the leading American universities, students.
For this reason, an effort has been made to avoid technical terms as far
as possible; to explain the significance of much symbolism not generally
understood; and to insert Bible references freely for the benefit of
those who wish to study further the meaning of the scenes and objects
described. Lest some of the explanations—as, for instance, that in
regard to the probable date of the completion of the Cathedral—be deemed
superfluous, it may be said that this, as well as nearly every other
statement in the following pages, is an answer to some question asked
among the thousand and one interrogations which manifest popular interest
in the Cathedral’s growth. In response to more than one request, “some
of those little things that one would tell informally in explaining the
Cathedral to a friend” have been included. Among these are the incident
of the blind woman who “saw” the Cathedral, which possesses a touching
human interest; and the story of the Dove of Peace, in which may be
seen the beginning of the traditional lore that will grow up around the
Cathedral as the years roll on.

For their valuable cooperation in the preparation of the Guide, grateful
acknowledgment is made to the Very Rev. Howard C. Robbins, D.D., Dean
of the Cathedral, and to the Rev. George F. Nelson, D.D., and the
Rev. Robert Ellis Jones. D.D., Canons. Many thanks for courtesies and
accommodations in photographing and studying the Cathedral are also due
to Mr. Thomas Meatyard, the Verger.

[Illustration: The Cathedral Flag

(See Page 56)]



    The Real Cathedral                          11

    Praise in its Greatness                     12

    Praise in its Beauty                        12

    Praise in its Service                       13

    The Spirit of Democracy                     14

    A Civic Institution                         15

    A Great Symbol                              16

    A Sign of Stability                         16


    Name and Namesake                           19

    Location and Access                         20

    Administration and Clergy                   22

    Seals                                       23

    Services                                    25

    Visitors                                    26

    Architecture                                27

    Plan and Size                               27

    Progress of Construction                    28

    Funds for Building                          29

    Foundation and Structure                    31

    Exterior of Chapels                         31

    Clerestory of Choir                         33

    Stone Shields                               33

    West Front                                  34

    Nave                                        36

    Crossing                                    40

    Pulpit                                      42

    Tapestries                                  46

    Litany Desk                                 46

    Choir                                       48

    Choir Parapet                               49

    Pavements                                   51

    Lectern                                     52

    Choir Stalls                                54

    Organ                                       55

    Cathedral Flag                              56

    High Altar                                  56

    Credence Table                              58

    Great Columns                               59

    Clerestory Windows                          60

    Ambulatory                                  66

    Founder’s Tomb                              68

    Choir Boys’ Stone                           69

    Seven Chapels of Tongues                    69

    Chapel of St. James                         71

    Chapel of St. Ambrose                       76

    Chapel of St. Martin                        80

    Chapel of St. Saviour                       84

    Chapel of St. Columba                       87

    Chapel of St. Boniface                      90

    Chapel of St. Ansgarius                     95

    Corner Stone                               100

    Crypt                                      100

    Summary of Dimensions                      101

    Bishops of New York                        102

             _III. OTHER BUILDINGS, ETC._

    Bishop’s House                             104

    Deanery                                    104

    Choir School                               106

    St. Faith’s House                          110

    Synod House                                110

    Open Air Pulpit                            114

    Cathedral Organizations                    115

    Guide Book                                 116

[Illustration: PLAN

     1. West Front, not begun
     2. Nave, foundation laid
     3. Crossing
     4. North Transept, not begun
     5. South Transept, not begun
     6. Altar Sacristy, not begun
     7. Baptistery, begun May 29, 1924
     8. Choir Sacristy, not begun
          Dotted lines indicate cloisters connecting with Choir School
     9. Dean’s Office, with Canons’ Offices adjoining, not begun
    10. Choir
    11. Sanctuary
    12. Ambulatory

_Seven Chapels of Tongues_

    13. Chapel of St. James
    14. Chapel of St. Ambrose
    15. Chapel of St. Martin of Tours
    16. Chapel of St. Saviour
    17. Chapel of St. Columba
    18. Chapel of St. Boniface
    19. Chapel of St. Ansgarius

    A. Bishop’s House
    B. Deanery
    C. Choir School
    D. St. Faith’s House
    E. New Synod House
    F. Open Air Pulpit

The Old Synod House (formerly the Leake & Watts Orphan Asylum) stands on
the site of the South Transept (5) and is not represented on this plan.]


    Cathedral from northeast, complete exterior design, from
        architect’s drawing                                  _Frontispiece_

    Flag of the Cathedral                                                6

    Plan of the Cathedral and Close                                    8-9

    East end of Cathedral (exterior)                                    18

    Seal of the Diocese                                                 24

    Seal of the Cathedral                                               24

    ΙϹ-ΧϹ-ΝΙ-ΚΑ symbol “Jesus Christ Conquers”                          34

    SP-SF-SS symbol, “Holy Father, Holy Son, Holy Spirit”               34

    Symbols of St. Luke                                                 34

    West Front, from architect’s drawing                                35

    Nave (exterior), from composite photograph of model                 37

    Nave (interior), from composite photograph of model                 39

    Nave foundation and Crossing (exterior)                             41

    Pulpit (indoors)                                                    43

    Barberini tapestry, “The Last Supper”                               45

    Crossing and Choir (interior)                                       47

    Choir Stalls, south side                                            53

    High Altar                                                          57

    Credence Table with Magna Charta Stones                             58

    The Founder’s Tomb                                                  67

    Chapel of St. James (interior)                                      73

    Coats of Arms in windows of Chapel of St. Martin:

        City of Rheims                                                  82

        Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris                                   82

        Archbishop of Tours                                             82

        Chapter of Poitiers                                             82

        St. Martin of Tours                                             82

        Archdiocese of Rheims                                           82

        Dukes of Orleans                                                82

    Niche of England Cathedral Stones                                   95

    The Sacrifice                                                       99

    Bishop’s House                                                     105

    Deanery                                                            107

    Choir School                                                       109

    Synod House                                                        111

Part One

The Spirit of the Cathedral

The Real Cathedral

On Morningside Heights, in the City of New York, on ground consecrated
by the blood of our forefathers in the War for Independence, stands a
trinity of institutions which represent with singular completeness the
three-fold nature of man: Columbia University, which ministers to the
Mind; St. Luke’s Hospital, which ministers to the Body; and the Cathedral
of St. John the Divine, which ministers to the Soul.

This little book is designed to assist visitors to understand the
meaning and purpose of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. Some such
aid, either written or oral, is needed, for a great cathedral cannot
be comprehended in the glance of an eye. Certain features, such as its
magnitude and general beauty, are obvious; but inwrought with these is
a wealth of meaning which is the _soul_ of the Cathedral—the _real_
Cathedral—and which reveals itself only on intimate acquaintance. When
Ruskin called Amiens Cathedral “The Bible of Amiens,” he used a figure of
speech applicable to all cathedrals. The Cathedral of St. John the Divine
is “The Word in stone.” It is a sacred book, written in massive pier and
ponderous arch, in sculptured marble and carved oak, in stained glass
window and inlaid mosaic, in embroidered fabric and woven tapestry, whose
pages are full of delight, inspiration and help for those who will take
the trouble to read them.

The Cathedral performs its function as a place for the praise and worship
of Almighty God in two ways—statically in the grandeur and beauty of the
temple, and actively in the services held within it.

Praise in its Greatness

Like other great cathedrals, St. John the Divine first impresses by its
size. Its magnitude is not only becoming to its rank as the chief church
of the great Diocese of New York and necessary for the accommodation
of large congregations, but it also has a spiritual purpose, for it
gives one the feeling of something bigger than one’s self and of a
Power greater than one’s own. “The Cathedral gives me a feeling of
humility,” said a man to Bishop Greer one day. “When I go in,” said a
college girl to him, “I forget myself.” And a man whom the Bishop met
in the Ambulatory said to him: “If I came here regularly, something
about it,—its size, its spaciousness, its loftiness, its great receding
Choir—something about it would compel me to be a churchman.”

Praise in its Beauty

The Cathedral is designed also to praise God in the glory of its Beauty.
Ruskin, in “The Laws of Fesole,” says that “all great art is praise.”
Here we have the three great and enduring arts of Architecture, Sculpture
and Painting (the latter as yet only in stained glass,) combined in
a wonderful Te Deum of Beauty. For centuries the great cathedrals of
the world have been the caskets of certain kinds of art—or, rather,
of certain kinds of expression of art—not elsewhere to be found; and
in this respect the Cathedral of St. John the Divine fills a place in
our American life which no secular building can fill. In the beauty of
its general form, in the beauty of its detail, in the beauty of its
symbolism, and in the record of human achievement in godly living which
these express, the Cathedral stirs the most reverent emotions and creates
the noblest aspirations.

Praise in its Service

But these silent though eloquent physical features are only adjuncts
and helps to the active expression of praise in the Cathedral Service.
In this, the impressive rites of the church and the congregational
participation are aided by music brought to a high degree of perfection,
and the preaching from the pulpit aims to interpret the Christian
religion in terms of the practical every-day life of to-day.

In short, the Cathedral endeavors to employ all that is beautiful and
majestic in Art and Service to bring God closer to men and to draw men
closer to God.

Those who live near enough to the Cathedral to be able to attend its
services frequently can appreciate the words of a man who lived most of
his life in one of the great cathedral towns of England, and who said:

“I account it one of the greatest blessings of my life, and a
circumstance which gave a tone to my imagination which I would not resign
for many earthly gifts, that I lived in a place where the cathedral
service was duly and beautifully performed.... If the object of devotion
be to make us _feel_, and to carry away the soul from all earthly
thoughts, assuredly the grand chaunts of our cathedral service are not
without their use. I admire—none can admire more—the abstract idea of
an assembly of reasoning beings offering up to the Author of all good
things their thanksgivings in a pure and intelligible form of words; but
the question will always intrude, Does the heart go along with this lip
service? and is the mind sufficiently excited by this reasonable worship
to forget its accustomed associations with the business and vanities
and passions of the world? The cathedral service _does_ affect the
imagination and through that channel the heart.”

The Spirit of Democracy

While the Cathedral of St. John the Divine is a Protestant Episcopal
Cathedral, its ministrations are not restricted. “Our democratic age,”
said Bishop Henry C. Potter, “demands a place of worship that will not
disregard the teachings of the Founder of Christianity. In this Cathedral
there will be no pews, no locked doors, no pre-payment for sittings,
no reserved rights of caste or rank, but one and the same welcome for
all.” And what Bishop Potter prophesied when the Cathedral was first
planned is literally true to-day. The charter of the Cathedral requires
that “the seats for worshippers in said Cathedral Church shall always be
free;” and the Cathedral welcomes everybody to its services, irrespective
of denominational affiliations, nationality or worldly estate. The
Cathedral also welcomes those who belong to no denomination. Its appeal
to the latter was particularly contemplated when Bishop Potter said:
“The person in the period of suspense as to certain fundamental beliefs
needs something larger, higher, wider and roomier, more impersonal for
the time being, than the parish church.” It is hardly necessary to add
as a corollary of the foregoing that there are no “strangers’ pews”
in the Cathedral; and nobody, however unaccustomed to the Cathedral
service, needs to feel any timidity or hesitation about attending. The
large proportion of men in the Cathedral congregations is particularly

A Civic Institution

In its present state of incompletion, without Nave and Transepts,
the capacity of the Cathedral is taxed to the utmost by its ordinary
congregations, and on special occasions thousands are turned away unable
to enter. The completion of the Cathedral is therefore imperative; and
this is so for more than denominational reasons, for the many notable
special services held during and immediately following the late war
already foreshadow the position which it is destined to occupy as a
great Civic and National Institution. The Board of Trustees recently
said: “The city requires a religious edifice where people can gather
together in large numbers to express in a corporate way their religious
promptings and to find spiritual interpretation of great events.” Such
were the gatherings,—to mention but a few instances,—on the occasion
of the Kossovo Day service June 16, 1918; the thanksgiving for the
withdrawal of Austria from the war November 10, 1918; the thanksgiving
for the cessation of hostilities November 17; the thanksgiving of the
twelve Liberated Nationalities of middle Europe November 24; the great
Thanksgiving Day service for victory November 28;[1] the rendering of
Gounod’s “Death and Life” December 1, 1918, and Dvorak’s “Requiem” March
30, 1919, for all who died in the war; the memorial service of the
107th (including the former 7th) regiment April 27, 1919; the Lusitania
memorial service May 7; the New York Letter Carriers’ memorial service
May 25; etc. People rarely think of the English cathedrals as belonging
to the Church of England or of the French cathedrals as belonging to the
Roman Catholic church. They are regarded as belonging to everybody. And
such, it is believed, is the place which the Cathedral of St. John the
Divine will occupy in the minds of the people of the city and nation.

A Great Symbol

The symbolism of various details of the Cathedral will be mentioned
hereafter; but it should be said here that the Cathedral as a whole is a
great and wonderful symbol. “The religion which is inwrought with all the
history of the American people,” said Bishop Potter, “stands for certain
lofty ideals of truth, purity, honesty, loyalty and self-sacrifice.
Every ideal must have some visible expression or symbol, and this ideal
of our religious faith from the very nature of it demands expression,
incarnation, visible and material utterance worthy of its majesty and
grandeur.” And the Trustees not long ago said: “New York is the chief
city of the Western World. It impresses the imagination at every turn
by visible evidence of the power and splendor of material achievements
in American life. Such a city should be dominated by a building which,
in its greatness, dignity and beauty, bears witness to those spiritual
forces without which material achievement is valueless because soulless.”

A Sign of Stability

This ever-changing city also needs the Cathedral as an evidence of
stability. Business structures and apartment houses rise and disappear
in a generation under the exigencies of the city’s growth. Even parish
churches give way under this seemingly irresistible pressure. There is
consequently little upon which to fasten permanently one’s memories,
affections and historical traditions. Amid the changes and uncertainties
of human life, man instinctively looks to the Church for something of
permanence—something after all to which he can fasten his faith and upon
which he can anchor his hopes. The Cathedral of St. John the Divine,
resting in its massive solidity upon the ancient rocks of Morningside
Heights, gives an idea of firmness and stability in contrast with the
fleeting changes around it and symbolizes Eternity as nearly as anything
erected by the hands of man can. It will stand for unmeasured time as
an eloquent memorial of the best and noblest of human effort and will
serve as a visible bond to bind together generations of high endeavor.
“A cathedral,” said Dean Robbins in a sermon on December 17, 1916, “is a
symbol of continuity of life through the ages. It is a reminder of the
relatedness in which men stand not only to one another but also to those
who have preceded them, to all that is still memorable in a not quite
vanished past.” And looking to the future he spoke of the meaning of the
Cathedral to coming generations when it should have become adorned with
associations growing like ivy over walls made venerable by time. “Perhaps
they will be greater memories, more glorious associations, than our best
hopes can now forecast.... Who can tell what the hidden, wonderful,
all-possible future may have in store for our Cathedral, what hopes and
purposes and sorrows and rejoicings will receive their consecration
within its slowly aging walls?”


(Choir School at left)]

Part Two

The Fabric of the Cathedral

Name and Namesake

The legal title of the Cathedral is “the Cathedral Church of Saint
John the Divine in the City and Diocese of New York.” The adjective
“cathedral,” commonly used as a noun, is derived from the Greek word
“cathedra” which means “seat.” In the Cathedral is the cathedra of the
Bishop of the Diocese of New York. It is not a parish church and has no
members in the sense in which a parish church has members; but persons
desiring to assist in cathedral work may join the auxiliary organizations
mentioned on page 115 following. The Cathedral is the chief church of the
Diocese which embraces 294 different parishes and missions.

The Cathedral is named after the author of the fourth Gospel, the three
“epistles general” bearing the name of John, and the book of “The
Revelation of St. John the Divine.” The word “Divine” in the title is
not an adjective[2] but is a noun in apposition with “St. John” and is
rendered in the seal of the Cathedral by the Latin word “theologus,”
meaning “theologian.” St. John was one of the twelve Apostles, and a
brother of St. James the Great. He was “the Disciple whom Jesus loved”
(John xiii. 23), an expression implying exceptional sweetness and
lovableness of character. He founded the seven churches in Asia referred
to in the Book of Revelation. Toward the end of his ministrations, in
which he suffered many persecutions, he was banished to the Isle of
Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. When he returned from this
exile, he continued his work until he died at the advanced age of over
90 years. His traditional grave is at Ephesus. The two principal symbols
of St. John are the eagle with book, (explained in connection with the
symbols of the four Evangelists on page 44) and the chalice, the latter
sometimes having a serpent issuing from it. The sacramental cup without
the serpent is sometimes interpreted to refer to Christ’s reply to James
and John: “Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of” (Mark x.
39). The cup with the serpent refers to the tradition related by St.
Isidore to the effect that at Rome an attempt was made to poison St. John
in the communion wine, but that by a miracle the poison vanished from the
chalice in the form of a serpent. The Memorial Day for St. John is kept
on December 27.

Location and Access

The Cathedral is located between Cathedral parkway (110th street,)
Amsterdam avenue, 113th street, and Morningside drive.

The Cathedral can be reached by taking the Broadway subway to 110th
street and walking one block east and two north; the Broadway surface
line to 112th street and walking one block east; the Amsterdam avenue
surface line to the entrance at 112th street; the 6th and 9th avenue
elevated line to 110th street and walking two blocks west and two north;
or Fifth avenue omnibuses marked route “4” via 110th street, or ’buses
transferring thereto.

Morningside Heights being 100 feet above the level of the adjacent Harlem
Plain, the Cathedral commands a sweeping prospect toward the northeast,
east, and southeast, over the roofs of the city and past the trees of
Central Park to the regions beyond the Harlem and East rivers; while from
the main entrance at Amsterdam avenue and 112th street, one can look
westward to the Hudson and see the columned Palisades on the New Jersey
shore beyond. Morningside Heights is the modern name for the ground on
which the battle of Harlem Heights was fought on September 16, 1776.
Washington, whose figure occupies a niche in the Choir Parapet (page 51)
and adorns the entrance to the Synod House (p. 114), personally directed
the troops in this engagement. At that period an old colonial road ran
through the Cathedral site and down the Heights of Morningside Park to
the ancient King’s Highway or Post Road. During the War of 1812, the
Cathedral grounds were immediately within the lines of defence erected in
1814, one of the blockhouses of which stood on the bluff on the eastern
side of Morningside drive just northeast of 113th st.[3]

The Cathedral grounds,—called the “Close,” from the practice in olden
times of securing the privacy of the cathedral precincts by enclosing
them with a wall and gates,—comprise 11½ acres. Upon them are situated,
besides the Cathedral, the Old Synod House (brick with columned portico,
formerly the Leake & Watts Orphan Asylum,) the Bishop’s House and
Deanery, the Choir School, the New Synod House, and St. Faith’s Training
School for Deaconesses. See plan and descriptions of buildings hereafter.
The Close cost $850,000 and the buildings other than the Cathedral about
$1,000,000. A portion of the Close is set apart for recreation grounds
for the boys of the choir; and a portion of the lawn as a playground for
small children.

Administration and Clergy

The affairs of the Cathedral are in the hands of a Board of 25 Trustees
which constitutes the Corporation, and is composed of the Bishop of New
York, 12 other clergymen and 12 laymen. The Bishop is President of the

The Clergy of the Cathedral are the Bishop, Dean, Canon Bursar, Canon
Sacrist, Canon Precentor, and the Honorary Canons, not to exceed seven
in number. The _Bishop_ is elected by the Diocesan Convention and the
election must be confirmed by a majority of the Bishops and Dioceses of
the Episcopal Church. The Dean and Canons are nominated by the Bishop
and elected by the Trustees. The Bishop, besides his diocesan duties,
has general direction of the services of the Cathedral, which direction
he expresses through the Dean. The use of the Cathedral for worship and
for charitable and benevolent work is entrusted to the Dean and Chapter.
The Chapter consists of the Dean, the Bursar, the Sacrist, and such other
Canons as may be elected. The _Dean_ is Chairman of the Cathedral Chapter
and the executive head of the Cathedral, leading and co-ordinating the
various branches of its work. The _Canon Bursar_ is the agent of the
Treasurer of the Corporation, receives the offerings and sees that they
are applied to their proper objects, and is Supervisor of Buildings and
Grounds. The _Canon Sacrist_ has the care of the Cathedral as a place
of worship and is Master of Ceremonies on all occasions. The _Canon
Precentor_ is responsible for the fitting performance of the musical
parts of the Cathedral services. The offices of Canon Sacrist and Canon
Precentor are vacant, their duties being performed by the _Precentor_.
The Dean and Canons may have Vicars as assistants.

Following is the Cathedral Staff:

_Bishop of New York_

    The Right Rev. William Thomas Manning, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L.


    The Very Rev. Howard Chandler Robbins, D.D.

_Canon Bursar_

    The Rev. Robert Ellis Jones, D.D.


    The Rev. Henry Purcell Veazie, M.A. (Oxon.)

_Honorary Canons_

    The Rev. George Francis Nelson, D.D.
    The Rev. George William Douglas, D.D.
    The Rev. George Frederick Clover, M.A.
    The Rev. Harold Adye Prichard, M.A.
    The Rev. Pascal Harrower, M.A.

_Head Master of the Choir School_

    William Lester Henry, A.B.

_Organist and Master of the Choristers_

    Miles Farrow, M.A., Mus. Doc.

_Head Verger_

    Thomas Meatyard.

The post-office address of any of the above mentioned is “The Cathedral
of St. John the Divine, New York, N. Y.”

The Bishop’s office is in the new Synod House at the corner of Amsterdam
Avenue and Cathedral Parkway. The offices of the Dean, Canon Bursar,
etc., are in the old Synod House which stands on the site of the South
Transept. (See page 9).

Seals of Diocese and Cathedral

The seal of the Diocese is in the form of a pointed oval, or vesica,[4]
and is as follows:

Quarterly _gules_ and _argent_, over all a cross counter-changed of the
same. In dexter chief the American eagle with wings displayed _or_; in
sinister chief and dexter base the sails of a windmill _proper_ from the
arms of the City of New York. In sinister base two swords in saltire _or_
from the arms of the see of London. Surmounted by an episcopal mitre
_proper_. The arms surmounted on a field _purpure_ and enclosed by a
bordure _azure_ lined (or edged) _or_ bearing the legend “Seal of the
Diocese of New York MDCCLXXXV” _or_.

The red color (gules) and the swords are historically reminiscent
of the fact that prior to the Independence of the United States the
church throughout the American Colonies was under the ecclesiastical
jurisdiction of the Diocese of London.

[Illustration: Diocesan Seal]

[Illustration: Cathedral Seal]

The seal of the Cathedral, also vesica-shaped, is as follows:

Tierce in pairle reversed. 1st, from the arms of the City of New York:
_argent_ four sails of a windmill in saltire, between the ends in chief
and base a beaver couchant, in fess dexter and sinister a barrel of flour
all _proper_. 2d, from the arms of the State of New York: _azure_ in a
landscape the sun in fess rising in splendor _or_ behind a range of three
mountains the middle one the highest, in base a ship and sloop under sail
passing and about to meet on a river bordered below by a grassy shore
fringed with shrubs all _proper_. 3d, _azure_ seven six-pointed stars
_argent_ between as many candlesticks _or_. Surmounted by an episcopal
mitre _proper_. Enclosed by a bordure _gules_ edged _or_ bearing the
legend “Sigil. Eccles. Cath. S. Johann. Theol. N. Ebor.” _or_.

The seven stars and candlesticks refer to the Revelation of St. John the
Divine, i. 20.


The Cathedral is open for private prayer and meditation every day of
the year from 7.30 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. There is a service in one of the
chapels every week-day at 7.30 a. m. The principal Sunday services are
at 8 a. m., 11 a. m. and 4 p. m., the latter two being with full choral
service and sermon. Other services are held on week-days and Sundays as
announced from time to time. As before stated, all seats are free, and
residents and strangers of all denominations are cordially welcome.

The Cathedral service is neither “high” nor “low.” It is the prescribed
liturgy of the Church, with a fully choral rendering and congregational
participation. Except during the vacation season, there are usually about
60 persons in the procession. The processional hymn is begun in the
Ambulatory, through the south gate of which the procession enters the
Crossing and goes to the Choir. First comes the crucifer, followed in
order by the boys of the choir, the men of the choir, the Head Master of
the Choir School, the Verger and the clergy in inverse order of their
rank. The Bishop, if present, comes last, and is immediately preceded
by the Verger and an acolyte bearing the Bishop’s pastoral staff.[5]
If the Bishop is absent, the Dean comes last, preceded by the Verger.
If neither Bishop nor Dean is present, the Verger precedes all the
clergy. The Verger (in black gown with purple facings), carries a silver
staff surmounted by the figure of an angel holding a tablet on which is
engraved the symbol of St. John the Divine, the chalice with emerging
serpent. When preceding the Bishop he carries his staff upright at his
right shoulder, but when going before the other clergy he carries it in
the hollow of his left arm. The organist and Master of the Choristers,
wearing the gown and hood of Doctor of Music, is usually invisible, being
seated at the console in the gallery on the screen at the south side of
the Choir. At extraordinary musical services, an orchestra is seated in
the Choir, between the stalls, and then the Master of the Choristers
stands in the Choir, from which point he directs the singers, orchestra
and assistant organist. The recessional is in the same order as the
processional. After entering the Ambulatory, the procession halts while
a dismissal prayer or hymn is said or sung there, and the solemn service
ends with a far-away “Amen” from the unseen choir.[6]


Visitors may see the Cathedral at all times between 7.30 a. m. and 5.30
p. m. except during the hours of service. The Verger is usually in


The architects of the Cathedral have been: Messrs. George L. Heins and
C. Grant LaFarge from July, 1891, until Mr. Heins’ death in September,
1907;[7] Mr. LaFarge from September, 1907, until the completion of the
Choir in April, 1911; and Messrs. Cram & Ferguson from April, 1911,
to the present time. Mr. Henry Vaughan was architect of three of the
Seven Chapels of Tongues, Messrs. Heins & LaFarge of two, Messrs. Cram
& Ferguson of one and Messrs. Carrere & Hastings of one, as mentioned

The prevailing style of the Cathedral will be French Gothic. The north of
France, it will be remembered, is the birthplace of Gothic architecture.
There, in the region so recently devastated by war, Gothic architecture
rose and reached the flower of perfection in such monuments as Amiens,
Rheims, Notre Dame (Paris), Chartres, Beauvais, and Rouen Cathedrals and
many other churches, great and small.

Plan and Size

The plan of the Cathedral is cruciform (symbolism, the cross on which
Christ was crucified;) and is oriented so that the priest standing at the
High Altar faces the east (the rising sun symbolizing the resurrection,
and the orientation also connoting the ideas of Christ “the Sun of
Righteousness,” “the Dayspring from on High,” and the “Morning Star”).[8]
Seven chapels, called the Chapels of Tongues, radiate from the Apse, or
semi-circular eastern end of the Choir.

The loftiest features of the elevation are the two towers of the West
Front (q. v.) and the great Central Tower above the Crossing. The
latter, in the design now under consideration, consists of a dodecagonal
lantern, carried up from the square Crossing in two stages, the upper
smaller than the lower, and surmounted by a flèche or open-work spire
rising to a height of 500 feet (including cross) above the ground.

When completed, the Cathedral will extend from Morningside drive to
Amsterdam avenue, more than a tenth of a mile. It will be 601 feet long
and 315 feet wide across the Transepts, and, with an area of 109,082
square feet, will be the third largest in the world, St. Peter’s at Rome
being first and Seville Cathedral second.

The seating capacity of the Crossing in which the congregation ordinarily
sits is 1,500; but on special occasions, when chairs are placed in the
Ambulatory and people are admitted to the Choir Stalls, the Cathedral can
accommodate about 3,500. When the church is finished, it will seat 7,000
and will accommodate several thousand more standing.

Progress of Construction

The Founder of the Cathedral was the Right Rev. Horatio Potter,
(Provisional Bishop 1854-1861 and Bishop of New York 1861-1887), who
proposed it in 1872. The charter was granted by the Legislature of the
state of New York in 1873. The Right Rev. Henry Codman Potter, (Assistant
Bishop 1883-1887 and Bishop of New York 1887-1908), nephew and successor
of Bishop Horatio Potter, actively forwarded the movement for raising
funds in 1886. The Close was purchased from the Leake & Watts Orphan
Asylum by deed dated October 31, 1891. The first service on the ground
was held January 1, 1892. The corner-stone was laid on St. John’s Day,
December 27, 1892.[9] The first service was held in the Crypt January
8, 1899, and the first service in the Choir and Crossing (being the
consecration service) April 19, 1911. Ground was broken for the Nave
May 8, 1916, by the Right Rev. David Hummell Greer, (Bishop Coadjutor
1904-1908 and Bishop of New York 1908-1919). The parts thus far built
are the Crypt, Choir, seven Chapels of Tongues, Crossing and foundation
for the Nave. The Mohegan golden granite for the walls of the Nave is
now being quarried near Peekskill, N. Y., and is being delivered on the
grounds. Some details of the Choir and Crossing are unfinished. The
completed portion of the Cathedral has cost about $4,000,000, and it is
estimated that the Nave, West Front, Transepts, Spire, etc., will cost
about $15,000,000, making the total estimated cost about $19,000,000.

Funds for Building

Visitors to the Cathedral repeatedly ask when it will be finished. It is
impossible to answer this question definitely. Some of the cathedrals
of the Old World have been seven hundred years in building and are not
yet completed. The things which endure the longest are generally of slow
growth,[10] and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine is no exception to
this rule. It is not a steel-frame structure, but is of massive masonry
in the best traditions of Gothic architecture and is being built to stand
for ages. Its physical construction must therefore necessarily be slow.

It is to be remembered, also, that the financial resources for the
building of a modern cathedral are different from those which supplied
the means for building many of the Old World churches. Westminster Abbey
was built almost entirely from revenues of the Kings from Henry III.
to Henry VII. St. Paul’s in London was partly built by the gifts of
penitents who performed their penances in money. Occasionally an ancient
shrine grew into a great church in consequence of some tradition or
superstition which caused a continuous stream of illustrious persons to
shower wealth, privileges and honors upon it. Pope Honorius prescribed
collections in all Christendom for the building of Rheims Cathedral. The
metropolitan church of St. Rombold’s, in Malines, Belgium, was built with
money paid by pilgrims who flocked thither in the 14th and 15th centuries
to obtain indulgences issued by Pope Nicholas V.; and the Tour de Beurre
(butter tower) of Bourges Cathedral, like the tower of the same name at
Rouen, “derives its name from having been erected with money paid for
indulgences to eat butter in Lent.” (Baedeker.)

To-day, however, reliance is placed entirely upon voluntary
contributions. Some of the larger gifts to the Cathedral of St. John
the Divine are mentioned hereafter, but there have been many other
large ones and innumerable smaller ones equally acceptable from donors
irrespective of denominational affiliations who have caught the civic
and patriotic as well as the religious inspiration of what is to be
America’s greatest cathedral. In a general way, it may be said that the
Cathedral will be finished as fast as funds are provided;—and no faster,
for the authorities have rigidly maintained the provision of the statute,
building only what can be paid for, and worshippers are therefore not
kneeling on any debt. Anyone desiring here to enshrine a loving memory or
to embody the offering of a grateful heart may place a donation to the
Building Fund in the alms-basin or in the box at the door, or send it to
the Dean at the Cathedral offices in the old Synod House, at Amsterdam
avenue and 112th street, New York City.

Foundation and Superstructure

The foundation of the Cathedral is of Maine granite. Although the
bed-rock of Morningside Heights (Manhattan schist) lies near the surface,
it is so disintegrated near the top that it was necessary to go down 72
feet in some places in order that the Cathedral might rest securely on
the “living rock.” The excavation and foundation alone cost a quarter
of a million dollars. The main walls of the superstructure are also
of granite, faced on the outside of the finished portion with Mohegan
golden granite quarried near Peekskill, N. Y., and on the inside with
a soft buff-colored limestone or dolomite called Frontenac stone from
Pepin county, Wis. The great flying buttresses and massive piers of the
Crossing, exposed in their rugged unfinished state, exhibit the dark
Maine granite. Local materials are mentioned in their appropriate places.

Exterior Survey

Before entering the Cathedral the visitor should make a circuit of
the Close (beginning on the south side and going eastward), comparing
the outlines of the Cathedral with the plan and noting the location
of the other buildings. This will give him a better understanding of
the interior of the Cathedral and of its ultimate connection with the
Bishop’s House and the Choir School by means of cloisters. It will be
noted that the Old Synod House (brick, with Ionic-columned portico)
occupies the site of the South Transept.

=The Seven Chapels of Tongues=, (see page 69 et seq.,) may be identified
on the exterior by the following characteristics (south to north):
_Chapel of St. James_, rectangular plan, crenelated parapet of roof, and
pinnacles on buttresses. _Chapel of St. Ambrose_, half round window
arches. _Chapel of St. Martin of Tours_, fleurs de lis in quatrefoils
above large windows; narrow pointed arch windows with single lights
in basement. _Chapel of St. Saviour_ (easternmost), rectangular plan;
cross on gable; statues in niches of buttresses and wall. _Chapel of St.
Columba_, angel on roof; statues in niches of buttresses. _Chapel of St.
Boniface_, statues in niches of buttresses; small mullioned windows of
three lights in basement. _Chapel of St. Ansgarius_, rectangular plan;
parapet of quatrefoil tracery; pinnacles on buttresses.

Three of the chapels have the following sculptures by Mr. Gutzon Borglum:
_Chapel of St. Saviour_: On eastern wall above the great window, the
Christ Child; in niches of buttresses on either side of window, Angels
of the Resurrection; and beneath the window, the Virgin, seated between
(left) St. Simeon who blessed the infant Jesus (Luke ii. 25-35) and
(right) St. Zacharias, father of John the Baptist (Luke i. 67-80).[11]
_Chapel of St. Columba_: On roof, an angel with hands joined in prayer;
in upper part of great window, St. Columba with tamed wolf, recalling
how he subdued wild beasts as well as wild tribes; and in niches of
buttresses the four patron saints of the British Isles (left to right):
St. David of Wales in beretta and fringed gown: St. George of England in
armor with cross on shield and dragon at feet; St. Andrew of Scotland
with diagonal cross[12]; and St. Patrick of Ireland, in Bishop’s
robes, with crozier in right hand and shamrock in left. _Chapel of St.
Boniface_: In niches of buttresses, Charlemagne, with crown and sword;
Alcuin, Charlemagne’s preceptor, in monastic garb with manuscripts in
right hand; Gutenberg, with book in each hand, his initials “J.G.” on
one; and Luther, in scholar’s gown, with book between hands.

=The Clerestory of the Choir= rises above the roofs of the chapels.
In the canopied niches near the top of the turrets and buttresses
are 10 stone figures 9½ feet high by Mr. Borglum, as follows (south
to north): St. James the Less with fuller’s club (indicating manner
of his martyrdom), and St. Philip with Latin cross (symbol of his
crucifixion), together on turret; St. Bartholomew[13]; St. Thomas with
square (spiritual architect); St. James the Great with staff (pilgrim);
St. Peter with key (to the kingdom of Heaven); St. Andrew with diagonal
cross; St. Matthew[13] with drapery over head; and St. Simeon with saw,
and St. Jude with spear, (indicating manner of their death), together on

=Fourteen Stone Shields= (only 12 in place), in the spandrels of the
clerestory windows above the seven Chapels of Tongues, bear (or will
bear) the following devices (south to north:) Above Chapel of St. James,
(left) winged ox; and (right) artist’s palette, brushes and maulsticks,
and lily, symbolizing St. Luke.[14] Above Chapel of St. Ambrose (left)
lily, and (right) rose, both symbols of the Virgin Mary. Above Chapel of
St. Martin of Tours, (left) eagle, and (right) chalice, symbols of St.
John. Above Chapel of St. Saviour, (left) letters ΙϹ, ΧϹ, ΝΙ, ΚΑ, in four
quarters formed by a Greek cross, signifying Jesus Christ Conquers; and
(right), initials SP, SF, SS, of the Latin words Sanctus Pater, Sanctus
Filius, Sanctus Spiritus, (Holy Father, Holy Son, Holy Spirit,) in a
trefoil, symbolizing the Trinity.[15] Above Chapel of St. Columba, (left)
crossed keys, symbol of St. Peter, and (right) crossed swords, symbol of
St. Paul. Above Chapel of St. Boniface, (left) winged lion; and (right)
fig tree, both symbols of St. Mark. Above Chapel of St. Ansgarius, (left)
winged man and (right) axe and book, both symbols of St. Matthew.

[Illustration: 1. Jesus Christ Conquers. 2. Holy Father, Holy Son, Holy
Spirit. 3 and 4. Saint Luke.]

Surmounting the roof of the Choir, and facing eastward, is a bronze
statue, 9½ feet high, by Mr. Borglum, representing St. Gabriel as Angel
of the Resurrection, blowing a trumpet.

[Illustration: THE WEST FRONT

(From Architect’s Drawing)]

West Front

Returning to Amsterdam avenue at 112th street, we come to what will be
the main entrance of the Cathedral. In the space (now unoccupied) between
the sidewalk and the foundation of the Nave will be the West Front (see
figure 1 of plan). The tentative design for the West Front provides for
three large and two smaller recessed portals, similar to the plan of
Bourges Cathedral. Above the north and south portals rise two heavily
buttressed square towers, named after St. Peter (north) and St. Paul
(south), presenting strong relief. Above the central portal is the great
Rose Window, flanked by the mullioned Gothic windows of the towers. Above
these, a gallery of niches containing statues extends entirely across the
façade, after the manner of the Gallery of Kings at Rheims Cathedral.
Above this rise the belfries of the two towers, each surmounted by
pointed turrets at the four corners, while between them, just above the
gallery, appears the gable of the Nave. The West front is 220 feet wide
and 80 feet deep, including the buttressing. The towers are 50 feet
square, 235 feet high to the top of the parapets and 265 feet high to the
top of the pinnacles.


(Composite Photograph of Model. Human figure shows scale)]

The Nave

Crossing the space to be occupied by the West Front, we ascend temporary
steps to the foundation of the Nave (figure 2 of plan). Superstructure
not yet begun (June 15th, 1924). Here the visitor should pause and
imagine himself entering the western limb of the Cathedral, 225 feet
long, 132 feet wide, 175 feet high outside and 130 feet high inside,
built in pure 13th century Gothic adapted to the requirements of the
plan. The central aisle,[16]—as wide between the centers of piers as
112th street is between building lines—has two narrower aisles on each
side. Instead of the closely-grown-up forest effect produced by the
columns of many Gothic cathedrals, an air of openness and spaciousness,
which distinguishes this Cathedral throughout, is given by the relatively
small number of piers and columns and their ingenious disposition. In
this arrangement the architect has made two notable departures from
the ordinary Gothic type: One is the erection of the clerestory on
the secondary line of columns (those nearest the side walls,) which
modifies the exterior system of flying buttresses, and the other is
the introduction of intermediate slender columns in the primary line
of piers, resolving the Nave into a system of four squares or double
bays instead of eight rectangular bays. As the primary ranges of piers
and columns rise to the spring of the arches which support the roof
of the Nave, instead of being shortened to support the clerestory, an
effect of great spaciousness and lofty aspiration is produced; and this
arrangement, together with the rhythmic alternation of great piers and
relatively small clustered columns, allows a play of light and shade
surpassing that of any mediaeval cathedral. Under the roofs of the north
and south aisles runs the triforium gallery; and there are many beautiful
details of ornament, including the tracery, panelling, capitals, niches,
pinnacles and sculptures. A light and cheerful effect is produced by the
illumination through 32 stained glass windows—eight in the aisle and
eight in the clerestory on each side,—and the great Rose Window in the
west end.

While standing at the west end of the foundation, the visitor should
survey the great area of floor space that lies before him; then, looking
eastward 225 feet (the length of a city block and half the width of a
street) imagine the present temporary west wall of the Crossing removed,
and the view extended about 225 feet farther to the High Altar in the
Sanctuary. He will then have an idea of the great vista of the completed


(Composite Photograph of Model. Figures of choristers show scale)]

Speaking of the building of the Cathedral in general and of the Nave in
particular, in his address to the 138th Annual Convention of the Diocese
of New York on May 11, 1921, Bishop Manning said: “As to the practical
value and importance of the Cathedral, no one who knows anything of its
work or of the multitudes that gather here for worship can entertain a
question. Large as it is, the present space is insufficient. The Nave
is urgently needed, not only that the great ideal which the building
embodies may be carried forward, but that there may be room for the
people who come for spiritual help, and that the Cathedral may meet
its unequalled missionary opportunity. I hope that our people, and
especially those who have the stewardship of wealth, will keep this
great spiritual and missionary enterprise in mind, and that many may be
moved to aid it. The building waits only for the necessary funds. And in
the revised drawings, we at last have plans which by their majesty and
beauty worthily express the aim and ideal of this great structure ...
I believe that we have now a plan worthy of the unequalled opportunity
of this glorious Temple of God, and of its relation to the greatest and
most complex city in the world. I believe that for the carrying forward
towards completion of such a building as this, of which the whole country
may be proud, and for the upholding of the spiritual, social and civic
ideals which it embodies, not only the people of our own Church but many
others in this metropolis and elsewhere will be glad to make their gifts
and to have their part and share with us.”

The Crossing

Walking the length of the Nave foundation (2 on plan) we pass through
temporary doorways and enter the Crossing (3), so-called from its
location at the intersection of the long and short arms of the cruciform
ground plan. In this space, 100 feet square, floored with concrete, are
1500 chairs for the congregation. To the eastward, the Crossing opens
into the Choir (10) and Ambulatory (12-12). On the north, west and south
sides the spaces between the ponderous piers of Maine granite are filled
with temporary windows and concrete walls which will be removed when
the Nave (2) and the North and South Transepts (4 and 5) are built. The
removal of these temporary walls will improve the acoustics. The rough,
unadorned piers on the north, west and south sides will eventually be
faced with Frontenac stone like those on the east side. The massiveness
of this masonry may be judged by the fact that a single pair of these
piers with their connecting arch weighs 4000 tons. _The Dome_ of the
Crossing, 162 feet (just the height of Niagara Falls) above the floor,
is a remarkable piece of construction, the tiles having been laid by
the ingenious Gustavino method without the support of scaffolding. The
present dome is temporary; the permanent vault will be 200 feet above
the floor. Mr. J. P. Morgan, Mr. George S. Bowdoin and Mr. Harris C.
Fahnestock were large contributors to the building of the Crossing.


=The Pulpit=, a memorial of Bishop Henry Codman Potter, is made of
Knoxville, Tenn., marble, an uncrystalline limestone favorable for very
fine work. On the newel posts of the stairs are the figures of the two
great prophets of the Old and New Testaments, Isaiah (south) and John
the Baptist (north.) In the five principal Gothic niches are as many
scenes in the life of Christ (north to south): The Nativity, Jesus Among
the Doctors, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, and the Supper at Emmaus
(Luke xxiv. 30-31). In the smaller niches are the figures of eight great
exponents of the Holy Scriptures and champions of human freedom (north
to south); St. Jerome, St. Gregory, St. Chrysostom, St. Peter, St. Paul,
Hugh Latimer, Bossuet, and Bishop Phillips Brooks of Massachusetts.[17]
Beneath these niches runs a moulding of grape-vine design symbolizing
Christ the true vine[18] (John xv. 1) and beneath this one of roses
symbolizing Christ the Rose of Sharon (Cant. ii. 1). On the base are the
symbols of the four Evangelists: The winged man for St. Matthew, winged
lion for St. Mark, winged ox for St. Luke, and eagle for St. John.[19]
The pulpit is surmounted by a carved oak canopy of Gothic tracery, upon
which is the beginning of the Gloria in Excelsis:

    “Glory be to God on high and on ‖ earth ‖ peace ‖ good will
    towards ‖ men. We praise thee ‖ we bless thee, we ‖ worship
    ‖ thee, we glorify thee, we give thanks ‖ to thee for thy
    great glory. O Lord God, heavenly King.”

[Illustration: THE PULPIT]

On the side of the stairs is inscribed:

    “In Memory of ‖ Henry Codman Potter ‖ the gift of ‖ Mrs.
    Russell Sage ‖ A.D. 1916.”

The pulpit, which cost $30,000, was designed by Mr. Henry Vaughan and
executed by Messrs. John Evans & Co. of Boston.


=Barberini Tapestries.= The tapestries in the Crossing and Ambulatory
were woven in the first half of the 17th century on the papal looms
founded by Cardinal Barberini under the patronage of his uncle Pope
Urban VIII. They were executed under the direction of the master weaver
Jacques della Riviera from cartoons painted by Jean Francois Romanelli.
The cartoons are now in the Vatican. The tapestries, originally designed
for the throne room of the Barberini Palace at Rome, afterward a part
of the Ffoulke Collection in Washington, and finally presented to the
Cathedral by Mrs. Elizabeth U. Coles, are twelve in number and represent
scenes in the life of Christ. Four of them hang in the Crossing as
follows: In the northeast corner, the Delivery of the Keys to St. Peter;
southeast corner, the Last Supper; southwest corner, the Adoration of
the Shepherds; and northwest corner, the Flight of Joseph and Mary with
the infant Jesus into Egypt. Seven hang in the Ambulatory, as follows
(north to south): Christ’s Baptism, the Annunciation, the Adoration of
the Magi, the Crucifixion (directly behind and above the High Altar,)
the Transfiguration, the Resurrection, and the Agony in the Garden. The
twelfth, a map of the Holy Land, is not at present hung. These works are
all 15 feet 8 inches high and average 14 feet 1 inch wide. The Delivery
of the Keys to St. Peter, the Last Supper, and the Flight into Egypt are
more than 17 feet wide. These tapestries appear more like paintings than
products of the loom.


=The Litany Desk= at the eastern end of the middle aisle (often removed)
is of carved oak. Surmounting the ends are two praying angels, while on
the front are statues of St. Michael with sword, St. John with chalice,
and St. Gabriel with lilies, all facing the Altar. An inscription reads:

    “We beseech Thee to ‖ hear us Good Lord ‖ Grant us Thy Peace
    ‖ Have Mercy Upon us.”

The desk was given by the Laymen’s Club.

The Choir

=Architecture.= The Choir (10) may best be surveyed from the eastern
end of the Crossing. (Visitors not admitted to Choir during service
time except by permission.) The half-round arches and other features
exhibit a late Romanesque style with Byzantine influence, which is
not inappropriate to the eastern end of the Cathedral, and which will
relatively become a local detail as the prevailing Gothic style of the
whole Cathedral develops.[20] The interior facing is of Frontenac stone.
Numerous symbols from the Revelation of St. John the Divine will appear
as the description of the Choir and its environs proceeds. The first to
attract attention is the broad course of red jasper from South Dakota
seen at the base of the piers of the great Choir arch. This foundation
course, which appears in the Ambulatory (12-12-12) running entirely
around the Choir, recalls St. John’s description of the Heavenly City:
“And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all
manner of precious stones. The first foundation was of jasper” (Rev. xxi.
19). The green moulding above the jasper is Pennsylvania serpentine.
The floor of the Choir has three principal levels. From the Crossing 5
steps lead to the Choir proper, which contains the stalls for the clergy
and choristers and which occupies the first two bays. An ascent of six
more steps leads to the second level which may be designated as the
Presbytery. Upon it are the two thrones hereafter mentioned and the altar
rail, the latter a step higher.[21] In the Sanctuary within the altar
rail, 4 steps lead to the third level upon which stands the Altar with
its 3 white steps.[22] Around the Sanctuary stand eight Great Columns
described hereafter. The principal donor to the building of the Choir was
the late Hon. Levi Parsons Morton (Vice-President of the United States
1889-93, Governor of the State of New York 1895-96) who, after the Great
Columns were erected, gave $600,000 toward the completion of the fabric
and the installation of the Altar, Reredos, Organ, Choir Stalls, Bishop’s
Throne, and some other furnishings. This sum was generously supplemented
by Mrs. Morton. The ornate _Altar Rail_ of English oak is inscribed:

    “To the Glory of God ‖ and in loving memory of ‖ Anna
    Livingston Morton ‖ May 18, 1846-August 14, 1918 ‖ Given by
    her daughter ‖ Edith Morton Eustis 1920.”

=The Parapet= at the entrance to the Choir is designed to represent
outstanding characters of 20 centuries of the Christian Era. It is in
two sections, one on each side of the steps leading from the Crossing
to the Choir, each section being 18½ feet long and 4 feet high. It is
built mainly of Champville (France) marble, in modified French Gothic
style. The twelve marble columns, alternately green, red and yellow, are
of Alps Green from Italy, Rouge de Rance from Italy, and Numidian from
Africa, respectively. The figures, from right to left, are as follows
(authorities differing slightly as to some of the dates given): (1) St.
Paul (died A. D. 66) with sword symbolizing his decapitation; (2) St.
Justin Martyr (100-165) with axe and block; (3) St. Clement of Alexandria
(150-220) holding cross in left hand; (4) St. Athanasius (296-373)
pouring baptismal water from a sea-shell, referring to a playful
incident of his boyhood which led to his calling; (5) St. Augustine of
Hippo (354-430) with miter, pen and tablet; (6) St. Benedict (480-543)
in habit of Benedictine monk pointing to scroll; (7) St. Gregory the
Great (550-604) with slave child in broken shackles, referring to his
intercession for pagan children in the slave market; (8) Charles Martel
(688-741) with crown, battle-axe and pennant; (9) Charlemagne (742-814)
with crown, scepter and orb; (10) Alfred the Great (849-901) crowned,
with sword by side, holding three burnt cakes on book;[23] (11) Godfrey
of Bouillon (1061-1100) crowned, with Crusader’s sword and shield;
(12) St. Bernard (1091-1153) in monk’s habit, holding aloft a cross in
his right hand and clasping a book in his left; (13) St. Francis of
Assisi (1182-1226) in Franciscan monk’s garb, contemplating a cross
in left hand, and preaching to birds[24] in tree; (14) John Wyckliffe
(1325-1384) with book and staff; (15) Columbus (1435-1506) lifting the
veil from the globe, symbolizing the age of discovery; (16) Archbishop
Cranmer (1489-1556) with right hand thrust voluntarily into the flame,
symbolizing his martyrdom; (17) Shakespeare (1564-1616) standing amidst
growing laurels; (18) Washington (1732-1799) in civilian attire as
President; (19) Lincoln (1809-1865) standing by a burial cross delivering
his Gettysburg Address; (20) uncarved block. The basis for selecting the
figures was the representative character of the nineteen men selected
in conjunction with their contribution to the development of Christian
civilization. The Parapet was designed by Messrs. Cram & Ferguson, and
the figures, modelled by Ferrari, were carved by John Evans & Co., of
Boston. The Parapet bears the following inscription:

    “To the Glory of God and in Memory of ‖ Richard Delafield, ‖
    Brigadier-General, Chief of Engineers, ‖ Brevet Major-General,
    United States Army. ‖ Born September 1, 1798, Died November 5,
    1873, ‖ This Parapet is Erected by his Children, ‖ Albert,
    Juliet Covington and Emma Delafield. ‖ Righteousness Exalteth
    a Nation: But ‖ Sin is a Reproach to any People.”

=The Pavements= of the Ambulatory and Choir, designed by Mr. C. Grant
LaFarge in Romanesque and Byzantine motives, are related in their
symbolism. The colors in the Ambulatory are reddish, or earthy; while
those in the three ascents of the Choir progress through increasingly
rich designs of greens and whites (hope and purity) to greens, whites and
blues (hope, purity and heaven) until they reach the pure white steps of
the Altar. The risers of the steps leading from the Crossing to the Choir
proper are of yellow Numidian marble and the treads of green Pennsylvania
marble. The pavement of the Choir is richly inlaid with Numidian, Swiss
and other marbles and Grueby Faience tiles. The steps to the Presbytery
are of marble from Hauteville, France. In the center of the floor of the
Presbytery is a magnificent mosaic rug of tiles and marbles, 32½ feet
long and 10 feet wide, with smaller patterns at the ends. In the center
is an oval of black Belgian marble surrounded by violet marble from
Italy, while Grueby tiles of many colors, and Grecian, red Numidian and
other marbles form the rest of the design. The pavement of the Sanctuary,
within the communion rail, in addition to its rich designs of tiles and
marbles, contains, immediately in front of the steps to the Altar, a red
tile surrounded by a square brass border, inscribed:

    “Whoever shall have prayed at this spot will have pressed with
    his feet a tile from the ancient Church of St. John the Divine
    at Ephesus, built by the Emperor Justinian in the year DXL over
    the traditional site of St. John’s grave.”

The tile was presented to the Cathedral by Bishop Kinsman of Delaware,
its authenticity being attested by Prof. George Weber of Smyrna, who
procured it from the ruins on the hill of Ayassolouk and who, in his
lifetime, was a leading authority on Ephesian archaeology.

=The Eagle Lectern= of bronze at the north side of the Choir steps is a
replica of an ancient lectern found near St. Albans Cathedral, England,
in a lake into which it had been cast when that structure was destroyed
in the Saxon invasion. The eagle, standing on a globe, is the symbol of
St. John in his capacity as an Evangelist. Around the lectern are the
figures of the four Evangelists: St. Matthew with open book, St. Mark
with closed book and pen, St. Luke with open book in one hand and pen
in other, and St. John with chalice. Below are their respective symbols
(p. 44). The lectern was made by the Gorham Co. It bears the following
inscription, the initials at the end being those of the donor, Mary
Gertrude Edson Aldrich:

    “In Memoriam ‖ Horatio Potter ‖ Bishop of New York ‖
    1854-1887 ‖ M. G. E. A.”


=The Choir Stalls=, rising in four tiers on either side of the Choir
proper, are of carved American oak. The canopies are after studies of
those in the Chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey used as the Chapel
of the Knights of the Order of the Bath. The finials of the stalls are
figures of great musicians and composers of church music, as follows:


     _Left._           _Right._

    Bortniansky       Mendelssohn
    Handel            Haydn
    Bach              Purcell
    Tallis            Palestrina
    Pope Gregory      St. Cecelia
    Asaph             King David


The figures, modeled by Mr. Otto Jahnsen, are represented in the costumes
of their day; and the features of all but those of David and his chief
musician Asaph are from portraits.

The high canopied stall nearest the Crossing on the south side of the
Choir is the _Dean’s Stall_.[25] It was designed in the office of Messrs.
Cram & Ferguson and is a very skillful blending of styles to harmonize
with the Jacobean canopies of the Choir Stalls and the Flamboyant note
in the stalls themselves. It has many interesting details of carving,
notably the three panels depicting the Good Shepherd (front), Learning
(east side), and Charity (west side). On the back of the stall is

    “In the Name of the ‖ Father Son & Holy Ghost ‖ This Stall
    is Dedicated by ‖ The Head Mistresses Association ‖ to the
    Memory of ‖ Agnes Irwin ‖ 1841-1914 ‖ Holding fast the
    faithful word as she ‖ had been taught herself being not
    dis- ‖ obedient unto the heavenly vision ‖ Head Mistress of
    the Agnes Irwin School 1867-1894 ‖ First Dean of Radcliffe
    College 1894-1909 ‖ First President of the ‖ Head Mistresses
    Association ‖ 1911-1914.”

In the Presbytery, on the south side, is the lofty _Bishop’s Throne_ of
carved oak, while opposite to it is one with a little lower canopy for
the use of a bishop other than the Diocesan.

On one of the Choir Stalls is inscribed:

    “These Stalls are Erected to ‖ the Glory of God ‖ and in
    Loving Memory of ‖ Susan Watts Street ‖ 1818-1893 ‖ By her
    Daughter ‖ Anna L. Morton.”

On a tablet in the Choir is inscribed:

    “The Stalls ‖ of the Sanctuary ‖ and the Choir ‖ are Erected
    to ‖ the Glory of God ‖ and in Memory of ‖ Susan Watts
    Street ‖ 1818-1893 ‖ By her Daughter ‖ Anna Livingston ‖

The stalls and the cathedra of the Diocesan were made by the John Barber
Co., of Philadelphia, and the corresponding Bishop’s throne on the north
side by Messrs. Irving & Casson, of Boston.

=The Organ=, seen in the upper arches on either side of the Choir,
contains 7,000 pipes and a chime, connected by electric wires with the
console located in the gallery on the south choir screen. The console has
four manuals and two octaves of pedals, 106 speaking stops, 31 couplers,
and 33 pistons. The organist, invisible to the congregation, can see the
choir and clergy either directly or by means of mirrors. A Gothic tablet
in the south Ambulatory is inscribed:

    “This Organ ‖ is Dedicated ‖ to the Praise of ‖ the Blessed
    Trinity ‖ and ‖ in Loving Memory of ‖ Lena Kearny Morton ‖
    1875-1904 ‖ By her Parents ‖ Levi Parsons Morton ‖ and ‖
    Anna Livingston Morton.”

The organ was built by the Ernest M. Skinner Co., of Boston. (See also
Choir School, page 106).

=The Cathedral Flag= which hangs above the choir stalls on the north
side of the Choir opposite the American flag, bears upon a purple field
a white Latin cross, on the crossing of which is a shield displaying
the arms of the Cathedral. The shield is divided by radial lines into
three parts: In the upper left-hand part (as viewed) are the arms of the
city of New York, in the upper right-hand part the arms of the state;
and at the bottom the seven candlesticks and seven stars of the Book of
Revelation (ii. 1) symbolizing the seven churches and seven spirits of
the churches founded by St. John the Divine in Asia Minor. The Cathedral
flag and the American flag were given by Mrs. J. Herman Aldrich. The
American flag which is sometimes carried in the procession and which was
first used in the victory celebration in 1918, was given by Mrs. William
Iselin. (See page 6).

=The High Altar= is of white Vermont marble. The beautiful Gothic
_Reredos_ is of pierre de Lens, quarried in the vicinity of the city of
that name in the north of France which was so terribly ravaged in the
late war. In the center is a majestic figure of Christ. On His left, (in
order from center to spectator’s right) are Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and
Moses, representing the Old Testament; and on His right (in order from
center to spectator’s left) are St. John, St. James, St. Peter and John
the Baptist, representing the New Testament. The scale of the Cathedral
may be judged from the size of the figure of our Saviour, which is seven
feet high. Those of Moses and John the Baptist are 6 feet 10 inches high.
In smaller niches on the front and sides are 16 angels holding various
emblems—palm, sword, shield, swinging lamp, crown, trumpet, etc. Under
the pedestals of the statues are clusters of grapes, symbolizing Him who
gave His body and blood for man. The statue of Christ was made by Sig.
Leo Lentelli under the direction of Mr. Carl Bitter. The other figures
were made by Mr. Otto Jahnsen. The great rectangular panel in the lower
part of the Reredos is filled with a rare Spanish embroidery in arabesque
design, 200 years old. The Altar and Reredos were built by the Barr, Thaw
& Fraser Co. Upon the Altar is the following inscription:

    “To the Glory of God ‖ and in Memory of ‖ Anna Livingston ‖
    Morton ‖ 1846-1918.”

[Illustration: THE HIGH ALTAR]

=The Credence Table=, at the right (south) side of the High Altar, is
supported by a shaft composed of three stones from the ruins of the
ancient Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, England, in which the Barons met on
November 20, 1214, and swore before the altar to secure from King John
the liberties which they embodied in _Magna Charta_. These relics are of
Caen stone, and may be recognized by their gray color. They were given to
the Cathedral in 1922, with the consent of the Abbey authorities, by the
Marquis of Bristol through Dr. Raphael Constantian of New York. Near the
shaft is the following inscription:

    “The Adjoining Shaft ‖ Was Once a Part of ‖ the High Altar
    of the ‖ Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds ‖ Upon Which on ‖
    November 20, 1214, ‖ the Barons Swore Fealty ‖ to Each Other
    in Wresting ‖ the Great Charter ‖ from King John. ‖ It is
    Placed Here ‖ as a Symbol of ‖ the Community of ‖ Political
    Tradition, ‖ Laws and Liberties, ‖ Which is the Inheritance
    ‖ of the English Speaking ‖ Commonwealths ‖ Throughout the

[Illustration: Credence Table with Shaft made of Magna Charta Stones]

=The Eight Great Columns= standing in a semicircle around the Sanctuary
and forming seven interspaces opposite the seven Chapels of Tongues, are
among the marvels of the Cathedral. They are approached in size only
by those in St. Isaac’s Cathedral, Petrograd. The shafts of light gray
granite from Bear Island, near Vinal Haven on the coast of Maine, were
quarried as monoliths and turned on a special lathe which cost $50,000.
When the first two were subjected to the pressure of polishing they
broke, and the contractor then obtained permission to make the shafts in
two pieces. The lower stone in each shaft is 38 feet high and weighs 90
tons, and the upper stone is 17 feet high and weighs 40 tons, the total
height between base and capital being 55 feet and the weight 130 tons.
The octagonal capitals of pierre de Lens by Mr. Post represent singing
angels. The columns were given as memorials of the men whose names are
carved on the bases seen in the Ambulatory (south to north:) “Alonzo
Potter,[26] Bishop of Pennsylvania, 1800-1865;” “Colonel Richard Tylden
Auchmuty, U. S. V., 1831-1893;” “Harry Manigault Morris, 1817-1892;”
“Eugene Augustus Hoffman, 1829-1902;” “John Jacob Astor, 1763-1848;”
“John Divine Jones, 1814-1895;” “Josiah Mason Fiske, 1823-1892;” and
“Joseph Lawrence, 1788-1872.” Each column cost $25,000, not including the
expense of erection. They were made by Mr. John Pierce of Vinal Haven,

=The Clerestory Windows= of the Choir, nine in number, of which seven
are above the entrances to the seven Chapels of Tongues, are designed
to depict the Book of Revelation of St. John the Divine. Seven of them
are in place. They are of painted mosaic glass made by Messrs. James
Powell & Sons of Whitefriars, London, according to the methods used in
the thirteenth century and cost $10,000 and upwards apiece. Each window
is of three lights with rose window at the top, and is 28 feet high and
17 feet wide. The seven windows above the entrances to the Seven Chapels
of Tongues (north to south) are designed to symbolize in their circular
lights the messages to the seven churches in Asia mentioned in the
Book of Revelation (i. 11), in the order there named: Ephesus, Smyrna,
Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. They are connected
by the inscriptions in their lower borders which read consecutively as

    “Grace be unto you and Peace from Him ‖ Which is and Which was
    and Which is to come ‖ From the Seven Spirits which are before
    His throne ‖ Jesus Christ the Faithful Witness ‖ The First
    Begotten of the Dead ‖ The Prince of the Kings of the Earth.
    ‖ To Him be Glory and Dominion for ever and ever” (Rev. i.

These windows, which are of surpassing charm to the unaided eye, flash
out with extraordinary brilliancy of color and affecting beauty of
composition and execution, particularly those called “Christ Reigning
in Glory” and “the Woman in the Sun,” when examined with long distance
glasses (apply to Verger), although the less brilliant windows contain
subtle details well worth studying, as, for instance, the symbolisms of
the elements held by the angels in the window above the Chapel of St.
Boniface. Individually, from north to south:

=St. John and the Seven Churches= are the subject of the window above the
_Chapel of St. Ansgarius_. In the upper part of the central light, St.
John between two praying angels is depicted in the character of Apostle,
beardless, and holding the sacramental cup—the young St. John, symbolical
of love and high ideals and the feeling which filled all his writings;
while in the lower part he appears as the aged exile on the Isle of
Patmos, sitting with book in lap and pen in hand, listening to the angel
behind him who commands him to write (Rev. i. 11). In the side lights
are the angels of the seven churches (i. 11), bearing on scrolls their
names: (Upper left) Ephesus; (lower left) Smyrna and Pergamos; (upper
right) Thyatira and Sardis; (lower right) Philadelphia and Laodicea. In
the circular light at the top are the name “Ephesus” and a shield bearing
the seven candles mentioned in the message to the church of Ephesus (ii.
1). In the lower border of the three lights runs the inscription: “Grace
be ‖ unto you and Peace ‖ from Him.” The window was given by Mrs. E. C.
Ludlow Johnson in memory of Gabriel Ludlow.

=The Natural Elements= upon which the vials of the wrath of God were
poured (Rev. xvi. 2-17) are the principal subject of the window above
the _Chapel of St. Boniface_. In the lower part of the left side light
is an angel holding between his hands the earth (green foliage); in the
middle light three angels respectively holding the air (invisible), the
sun (yellow glow), and the sea (green waves); and in the right side light
an angel holding the rivers and fountains (blue currents). In the upper
part of the middle light is the Lamb that was slain (v. 12) between the
four beasts (iv. 7) which are in the side lights—on the left, the lion
and the beast with the face of a man; and on the right, the ox and the
eagle.[27] In the circular light at the top are the word “Smyrna” and a
shield bearing the crown of life mentioned in the message to the church
in Smyrna (ii. 10). In the bottom border is the inscription: “Which is
and ‖ Which was and Which ‖ is to come.” A tablet in the Ambulatory
reads as follows:

    “The Clerestory Window Above ‖ the Chapel of Saint Boniface ‖
    is Dedicated ‖ to the Glory of God ‖ and ‖ in Loving Memory
    of ‖ Annie Allen Wallace ‖ February 14, 1853-August 25,

=The Seven Angels with Trumpets= (Rev. viii. 2) are the main subject of
the window above the _Chapel of St. Columba_. Three of them are in the
lower part of the middle light and two in each of the side lights. In
the upper part of the middle light is the mighty angel of the cloud,
overarched by the rainbow, standing upon the sea, and holding aloft in
his left hand the little open book (x. 1, 2). In the upper part of the
left side light is the angel with the seal of the living God (vii. 2) and
in the right side light the angel with the golden censer (viii. 3). In
the middle of the side lights are four angels (two left and two right)
blowing the four winds of the earth (vii. 1). In the circular light at
the top are the name “Pergamos” and a shield bearing the sharp two-edged
sword of Him who sent the message to the church in Pergamos (ii. 12)
between the Greek letters ΙΗϹ and ΧΡϹ (Jesus Christ.)[29] In the bottom
border are the words: “From the seven ‖ Spirits which are before ‖ His
throne.” A tablet in the Ambulatory reads as follows:

    “The Clerestory Window Above the ‖ Chapel of Saint Columba‖
    is Erected ‖ to the Glory of God ‖ and ‖ in Loving Memory ‖
    of ‖ 1797 John Williams Leeds 1873 ‖ 1800 Eliza Leeds 1885 ‖
    Emily Irene Hardenbergh 1899 ‖ By Their Daughter and Sister ‖
    Josephine Eliza Leeds ‖A. D. 1915.”

=Christ Reigning in Glory=, as described in the first chapter of the
Book of Revelation, is the principal subject of the great central window
above the _Chapel of St. Saviour_. In the central light is the Son of
Man, with up-raised hands, vested as King and Priest, wearing a royal
crown, a crimson mantle and a golden pallium. He stands in the midst of
the seven candlesticks (i. 13), holds in his right hand the seven stars
(i. 16, 20), and is surrounded by winged seraphim. Beneath him a rainbow
(iv. 3) over-arches the sea of glass (iv. 6). In the side lights are the
four principal archangels: St. Michael (left, above,) is depicted in
armor as the Prince of the Celestial Armies, while the balance in his
left hand, supposed to contain the souls of the dead, symbolizes his
character as Guardian Angel of Departed Spirits. St. Raphael, below him,
with pilgrim’s staff, is represented as the friendly traveller, recalling
Milton’s “affable archangel.” St. Gabriel (right, above,) appears as
Angel of the Annunciation, as indicated by the lilies (symbol of purity)
in his right hand; and below him is St. Uriel, as Angel of Light, holding
the sun.[30] In the circular window at the top are two angels holding the
morning star mentioned in the message to the church in Thyatira (ii. 28),
but the name “Thyatira” is lacking. In the border at the bottom of the
three lights are the words: “Jesus Christ ‖ the Faithful ‖ Witness.”
The window was given by Mrs. Whitelaw Reid. A tablet in the Ambulatory

    “The East Window ‖ is Erected in Memory of ‖ Whitelaw Reid ‖
    October 27, 1837-December 15, 1912.”

=The Seven Last Plagues= (Rev. xv. 1) are the principal subject of the
window above the entrance to the _Chapel of St. Martin of Tours_. These
are represented in the lower part of the window by seven angels holding
the seven vials containing the plagues, three in the central light and
two in each of the side lights. In the upper part of the middle light
is an angel holding aloft in his right hand the everlasting Gospel
(xiv. 6) in the form of a scroll bearing (obscurely) the symbols of
the four Evangelists. In the upper part of the left side light is the
angel with the measuring rod (xi. 1), and in the right side light is the
angel standing in the sun (not to be confused with the woman in the sun
mentioned in the next window,) calling the fowls of the air to the supper
of the great God (xix. 17). In the circular light at the top are the name
“Sardis” and a shield bearing a white dove in the midst of the seven
stars (the seven Spirits of God,) mentioned in the message to the church
in Sardis (iii. 1). In the border at the bottom of the three lights
are the words: “The First ‖ Begotten of ‖ the Dead.” A tablet in the
Ambulatory reads:

    “The Clerestory Window Above ‖ the Chapel of St. Martin of
    Tours ‖ is Erected to the Glory of God ‖ and in Loving
    Memory of ‖ Sophia R. C. Furniss ‖ and ‖ Mary B. Hubber ‖
    by ‖ Margaret E. Zimmerman ‖ nee Furniss ‖ Blessed are the
    peace-makers for they ‖ shall be called the children of God.”

=The Woman in the Sun= is the title of the window above the entrance to
the _Chapel of St. Ambrose_. In the central light is the woman clothed
with the sun and wearing the crown of twelve stars (Rev. xii. 1). She is
surrounded by a dazzling radiance of flaming rays. Above her, a cloud
of glory is carrying her Child up to the throne of God (xii. 5). In
the left side light, above, is the angel proclaiming the fall of Babylon
(xiv. 8), and below, symbolizing that wicked city, the woman in scarlet
holding the golden cup of abominations and seated on the beast from the
bottomless pit (xvii. 4, 18). In the right side light, above, is the
angel with the sharp sickle and the clusters of the vine (xiv. 18),
and below, the angel with the keys to the bottomless pit and the chain
to bind the dragon (xx. 1). The whole window symbolizes the triumph of
Christ over the forces of evil. In the circular light at the top are the
name “Philadelphia” and a shield upon which, between six D’s, is the key
of David mentioned in the message to the church in Philadelphia (iii. 7).
In the border at the bottom are the words: “The Prince ‖ of the Kings of
‖ the Earth.” A tablet in the Ambulatory is inscribed:

    “The Clerestory Window Above ‖ the Chapel of Saint Ambrose ‖
    is Erected to ‖ the Glory of God ‖ and in Loving Memory of
    ‖ Morgan Lewis Livingston ‖ 1800-1869 ‖ and ‖ Catharine
    Manning Livingston ‖ 1810-1886 ‖ By Their Daughter ‖ Julia
    Livingston ‖ 1916.”

=The Heavenly City= is the principal subject of the window above the
entrance to the _Chapel of St. James_. In the lower part of the middle
light is the angel showing to St. John the Heavenly City (Rev. xxi. 10 et
seq.) and in the upper part is a glorified figure symbolizing the holy
city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven prepared as a
bride adorned for her husband (xxi. 2). Beneath this figure in the upper
part is the pure river of water of life, and on either side of it is the
tree of life whose leaves are for the healing of the nations (xxii. 1-2).
In the lower part of the left-hand light is the angel with the Alpha, and
in the corresponding part of the right-hand light is the angel with the
Omega (xxii. 13); while above each of them is a beckoning angel saying
“Come” (xxii. 17). In the circular light at the top are the name of the
church of Laodicea and the word “Amen”—the latter being the name of the
sender of the message to the Laodiceans (iii. 14) and the word with which
the Book of Revelation and the Bible end (xxii. 21). In the bottom border
of the three lights is the inscription: “To Him be Glory ‖ and Dominion
for ‖ Ever and Ever.” The window was given in memory of Mary C. and Dr.
John D. Ogden by their children Francis L. Ogden, Margaret Ogden, Mrs.
Gardiner Sherman and Mrs. Francis C. McNutt.

The Ambulatory

The Ambulatory (12-12-12) is a passage about 20 feet wide leading
entirely around the Choir and giving access to the seven Chapels of
Tongues, the Sacristy, and other environments of the Choir. Some of the
features have already been described. The symbolism of the earthly life
in the pavement, before mentioned (p. 51), is noticeable in the large
areas of clay-red tiles with borders of grassy green serpentine and green
marble from Pennsylvania. The beautifully colored wainscoting between
the great pillars is of Grecian marble from the island of Scyrus. The
Ambulatory is entered through elaborately wrought steel gateways, 30 feet
high, in the archways on either side of the great arch of the Choir. The
gates, made by Messrs. Warren & Wetmore, were presented by the Cathedral
League and the Diocesan Auxiliary. In the south Ambulatory gateway is
a white marble tablet, showing in relief two angels and two portrait
medallions of Mr. and Mrs. Levi P. Morton, and bearing the following

    “To the Glory of God ‖ and ‖ in Enduring Memory of ‖ Levi
    Parsons Morton ‖ 1824-1920 ‖ Vice-President of the United
    States ‖ Governor of the State of New York ‖ and ‖ of His
    Wife ‖ Anna Livingston Morton ‖ 1846-1918 ‖ Whose Gifts Made
    Possible the ‖ Building and the Furnishing of ‖ the Choir of
    this Cathedral ‖ Yea saith the Spirit that They ‖ May Rest
    from Their Labours ‖ and Their Works do Follow Them.”

[Illustration: THE FOUNDER’S TOMB]

=The Founder’s Tomb=, containing the remains of Bishop Horatio Potter,
sixth Bishop of New York,[31] in the Ambulatory between the fourth and
fifth great pillars opposite the entrance to St. Saviour’s Chapel, is a
beautiful example of an “altar tomb” such as are seen in many English
churches. Its position, immediately behind the High Altar, is that
traditionally reserved for the Founder of a cathedral. It is designed in
the English Gothic style of the 15th century after studies of the tomb of
Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey. The sarcophagus, the recumbent
figure of the Bishop and the figures of the five ornamental niches of
the front are of Indiana limestone. The figures, from left to right, are
those of (1) Edward the Confessor, with crown, scepter and orb; (2) St.
Remigius, with cup and scourge; (3) St. John the Divine, with pen, book
and eagle; (4) St. Isidore, with miter, pallium and crozier; and (5) St.
Theodosius of the Eastern Church, wearing a coronet with cross, holding
a staff and reading from a scroll. Above the niches is a decorative
moulding of oak leaves and acorns[32] with little squirrels at the ends.
On the edge of the slab on which the Bishop’s figure rests is inscribed:

    “Horatio Potter, D.D., D.C.L., Oxon. ‖ Sixth Bishop of New
    York, Founder of this Cathedral. Died 2d Jany. 1887, Aged 85

On the rear of the sarcophagus is inscribed “St. John’s Day ✠ Anno
Domini 1921,” the day on which the Bishop’s remains were transferred
from Poughkeepsie to this tomb. Above the tomb, reaching to a height
of 15 feet above the pavement, is a canopy of American oak with richly
carved frieze and cresting, supported on corbels springing from the great
granite columns on either side. A narrow stairway behind the columns and
the tomb leads to a landing which permits a closer view of the figure
of Bishop Potter. The architect was Mr. Thomas Nash of New York and the
sculptor of the figures was Mr. Isidore Konti of Yonkers, N. Y.

=The Brownell Memorial Tablet= on the wall of the bay at the entrance to
the Chapel of St. Ansgarius reads as follows:

    “In Memory of ‖ The Right Reverend ‖ Thomas Church Brownell,
    S.T.D., LL.D. ‖ Born 1779 Died 1865 ‖ Third Bishop of
    Connecticut 1819-1865 ‖ Presiding Bishop 1852-1865 ‖ and ‖
    in Grateful Remembrance of the Foundation of ‖ the Bishop
    Brownell Memorial Fund for the ‖ Endowment of the Cathedral by
    His Daughter ‖ Frances Johnston Holland.”

=The Choir Boys’ Stone= on one of the piers of the Ambulatory near the
Chapel of St. Ansgarius, is the bust of a boy of the class of 1911,
carved by Mr. William Scott. It represents the choir boys’ contribution
to the building of the Cathedral.

The Seven Chapels of Tongues

The seven Chapels of Tongues, built around the Choir on lines converging
toward the Sanctuary and deriving their name from the fact that they were
intended for services of the church in the languages of the principal
ethnological groups or regions of the world, are one of the noblest
conceptions of the Cathedral. In early Gothic churches, the fundamental
idea of the apse with radiating chapels was Christ in the company of his
Saints. Here, in the great cosmopolitan Diocese of New York, this idea
has appropriately been carried a step further in these chapels to include
the idea of all the nations of the earth gathered around the Altar of the
Saviour of Mankind. They recall the cry of the multitude in Jerusalem at
Pentecost: “How hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born
... the wonderful works of God” (Acts ii. 8, 11). Among the interesting
services held in these chapels are those in the eastern (St. Saviour’s)
chapel for the Japanese and Chinese in their languages and for colored
people in English. The spirit fostered by these chapels is occasionally
reflected in great congregations, entirely of Italians, entirely of
negroes, or predominantly of some other race, at services held in the
main part of the Cathedral filling it to its utmost capacity.[33]
Services in English are held in one or more of the chapels every day of
the year, and oftentimes weddings and baptisms are held in them. As a
group, the seven Chapels of Tongues eloquently express the catholic and
democratic spirit of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine referred to on
page 14. They may be visited in order either from south to north or north
to south; but by beginning on the south side they will be seen in the
order in which they were observed on the exterior (p. 31), and by looking
through the archways of the Choir to the opposite side of the Ambulatory,
glimpses may be had of the tapestries and the clerestory windows in the
order in which they have been described. The chapels are all separate
gifts and are memorials of the persons mentioned under their respective
headings following:

The Chapel of St. James

ST. JAMES, the Apostle, after whom this chapel is named, was the son of
Zebedee and was a Galilean fisherman. He is sometimes called St. James
the Great to distinguish him from another Apostle called St. James the
Less. He was a brother of St. John the Divine. He went almost everywhere
with the Lord. After the ascension, he preached a while in Judea and
then in Spain. After his mission there, he was beheaded by the Jews,
and, according to tradition, his body was miraculously transported
back to Spain, where his relics are said to rest at Compostella.
Spanish historians chronicle 38 instances in which he is believed to
have descended from heaven and in shining white armor led the Spanish
armies against the Moors. Under the Spanish equivalent of his name, St.
Iago or Santiago, he became the patron saint of Spain and his name was
adopted as the Spanish war-cry. His shrine at Compostella was one of
the most popular for pilgrimages in the Middle Ages, and it was said
that two visits to Compostella equaled one to Rome. St. James is usually
represented in the dress of a pilgrim with a peculiar staff. His Memorial
Day is July 25.

The Chapel of St. James (13 on plan), designed by Mr. Henry Vaughan, is
in pure English Gothic _Architecture_ of the 14th century; 66 feet long
and 39 wide, with a sort of transept on the north side 15 feet wide;
seats 250 persons, and cost about $200,000. Its interior walls are of
Bedford, Ind., limestone. On the front of the _Altar_ of gray Knoxville,
Tenn. marble, is sculptured DaVinci’s Last Supper. The central feature
of the limestone _Reredos_ is a relief representing the Transfiguration,
after Raphael. In four niches, two on either side of the Transfiguration,
are statues of the four Evangelists with their appropriate emblems
at their feet (left to right:) St. Matthew with winged man; St.
Mark with lion; St. Luke with ox; and St. John with eagle. Beneath
the Transfiguration is a smaller sculpture of the Nativity, with an
alleluia angel on each side. On four escutcheons, two on each side of
the Nativity, are emblems of the condemnation and crucifixion (left to
right:) (1) Crown of thorns and spear (John xix. 2, 5, 34); (2) pillar to
which Christ was bound for scourging, cord, knotted scourge (John xix. 1)
and sponge on reed (John xix. 29); (3) ladder, sponge on reed and spear;
and (4) hammer, pincers, coat, and three dice (Mark xv. 24). Beautifully
carved canopies surmounted by six adoring angels crown the Reredos. The
stained glass _East Window_, by C. E. Kempe & Co. of London above the
Reredos, depicts in its three lights (left to right) St. Lawrence, St.
James and St. Vincent. In two walled-up panels of the window, one on
each side of the glass, are statues of St. Peter with keys (left) and
St. Paul with sword (right). _The Saint James Window_ in the middle bay
of the south aisle portrays in its four lights scenes in the life of
the patron saint of Spain (see page 71) and other subjects, as follows,
reading from left to right: Bottom, (1) Coat-of-arms of St. John and the
words, “James, servant of God;” (2) St. James preaching to the natives of
Spain; (3) St. James before the judge, forgiving his accuser and giving
him his blessing, “Peace be with thee;” (4) Coat-of-arms of King Ramira
I of Spain, and the words (to be read with those first quoted), “And of
the Lord Jesus Christ.” Middle, (1) “Unto his shrine the mighty and the
lowly fared on pilgrimage;” (2) “St. James, the radiant knight, upon
a great white horse;” (3) “Before the banner of his name the Moorish
warriors fled;” (4) “At Compostella still men serve Santiago’s shrine.”
Top, (1) angel with ΙϹ-ΧϹ symbol; (2) “They bore his body to a ship that
sailed for Spain;” (3) “Over his tomb they built a chapel passing fair;”
(4) Angel with Ichthus symbol.[34] In the tracery at the extreme top is
a representation of the Crucifixion. The window was given by Bishop
Potter’s daughters and was designed and made by Mr. Henry Wynd Young,
glass-painter, of New York City. In niches of the walls of the chapel
are the following statues and symbols: _East Wall_, St. Augustine of
England with crozier (left) and St. Gregory the Great (who sent him to
England) with papal tiara and papal cross (right) _West Wall_, end of
main aisle, above, Christ between his kinsmen St. James the Great (left)
and St. James the Less (right); and at end of south aisle, the Venerable
Bede. On four escutcheons, two on each side of the west door, are: (1)
A floriated cross (emblematic of the flowering or productiveness of the
Christian religion); (2) the monogram =ihc= (representing the first two
and last letters, uncial form, of the Greek word for Jesus[35]); (3) the
Greek cross form of the chi rho monogram (first two Greek letters of the
name Christ); and (4) the Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters
of the Greek alphabet, (Rev. i. 8). _North Wall_, statue of William of
Wykeham. In the upper part of the north wall is the gallery of the organ,
which is independent of the great organ of the Cathedral. Choir Stalls
near the Altar are a distinctive feature of this chapel. Two clustered
columns divide the south aisle into three bays in the middle one of which
is _Bishop Potter’s Tomb_, of Siena marble. On the tomb is a recumbent
figure of the Bishop in Serevezza marble, by Mr. James E. Frazer. The
Bishop is represented in his episcopal robes, and the execution is so
fine that even the texture of the lawn sleeves is apparent. On the front
of the tomb is inscribed:

    “Henry Codman Potter ‖ MDCCCLXXXIII Assistant Bishop of New
    ‖ Upholder of Righteousness and Truth ‖ Soldier and Servant
    of Jesus Christ.”


On the rear:

    “He laboured that this Cathedral Church ‖ Should rise to the
    Glory of God and as ‖ A witness to the Life of our Lord and
    Master Jesus ‖ Christ that here the prayers of the children ‖
    of many lands should rise to that ‖ Father in whom alone all
    men are brothers ‖ Whose service is perfect freedom.”

Around the edge of the top slab:

    “I saw the Holy City coming down from God out of Heaven ‖ and
    I heard a great voice saying ‖ Behold the tabernacle of God is
    with men and he will dwell with them ‖ and they shall be his

On the west wall is inscribed:

    “The Chapel of St. James ‖ Consecrated ‖ May 2, 1916 ‖ To
    the Worship of ‖ Almighty God ‖ And in Loving Memory of ‖
    Henry Codman Potter ‖ Bishop of New York ‖ Born May 25, 1834
    ‖ Died July 21, 1908 ‖ The Gift of His Wife ‖ Elizabeth
    Scriven Potter ‖ Born September 30, 1848 ‖ Died March 4,

=Story of the Blind Woman.= A beautiful and touching incident occurred
in the Chapel of St. James a few years ago. One day, a woman who was
blind, deaf, and could make only a few hardly articulate sounds, but who
was cultured and could read by touch, visited the Cathedral with another
woman. The Verger, the late Charles F. Barnard, first led her the full
length of the Cathedral in order that she might comprehend its size.
Then the general features of the edifice were communicated by her friend
by the touch of their hands. The wood and stone carvings, however, she
read with her own fingers. When she came to the Chapel of St. James, she
wished to feel of Bishop Potter’s features as reproduced in the effigy
on his tomb, but on account of the delicacy of the marble, visitors are
not allowed to touch it. The blind woman, however, produced from her bag
a pair of thin white gloves, and by signs asked if she might feel of the
statue if she put them on. The Verger assenting, she ran her fingers
deftly over the Bishop’s countenance, felt of the signet ring on his
finger, etc., and then, satisfied, proceeded to the Altar. Here she knelt
down and began to feel of the relief representing DaVinci’s Last Supper.
As soon as she recognized the work, she threw up her hands in ecstasy and
exclaimed in broken accents, the best she could utter, “Vinci! Vinci!”
The venerable Verger, in relating this incident, said that he was moved
to tears by the spectacle of the blind woman, kneeling before the Altar,
with up-raised hands, “seeing” the Cathedral through the sense of touch.
One may well ask, if this blind woman could see so much spiritual beauty
in the Cathedral without eyes, how much more ought those to see who have
the blessed gift of sight.

The Chapel of St. Ambrose

ST. AMBROSE, or Ambrogio, the namesake of this chapel, was born in Treves
about 340, the son of a Roman Prefect in Gaul (now France). While in his
cradle one day, a swarm of bees settled upon him, clustering around his
mouth, but doing him no harm. A similar thing having happened to Plato,
it was considered an omen of future greatness. He studied law at Rome,
became a magistrate in upper Italy with court at Milan, and by his wisdom
and gentleness won such popular esteem that when called upon to settle of
succession of the bishopric of Milan between the Arians and Catholics he
himself was chosen by both parties to be Bishop of that see. He was one
of the most celebrated fathers of the church. His most distinctive symbol
is the bee-hive, although two human bones, the scourge, the crozier, the
mitre, etc. are sometimes used. The Memorial Day for St Ambrose is kept
on April 4.

The Chapel of St. Ambrose (14 on plan), designed by Messrs. Carrere &
Hastings, is in modern Renaissance _Architecture_. It is about 50 feet
long and 27 wide, seats 100 persons and cost over $150,000. The floor
is inlaid with grey Siena and red Verona marbles, bordered with cream
colored Cenere marble. The walls are lined with Rosato marble. On the
under side of the marble archway at the entrance are reliefs representing
the Three Persons of the Trinity with angels, as follows: (Left) the
Father in human form[36], with triangular nimbus, holding the globe of
sovereignty; angel with lute; angel with lily; (top) the Holy Ghost in
form of the dove; angel with trumpet; angel praying; and (right) the Son
in form of the Paschal Lamb. The false perspective of the side walls
is similar to that in the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Siena. In the
spandrels of the false arches of the left-hand wall (as one faces the
Altar) are figures in relief (reading from entrance toward Altar) of:
Moses and the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel; and on the opposite
wall, in same order, St. Matthew with cherub, St. Mark with lion, St.
Luke with ox, and St. John with eagle. The ceiling is of white marble
carved in low relief. From the ceiling hang four silver lamps, one an
antique Italian lamp and the others copied from it. On the front of the
_Altar_ of alabaster are three golden ornaments, representing the Paschal
Lamb (Christ) between two angels swinging censers, the latter symbolizing
the prayers of all saints (Rev. viii. 3). The _Reredos_, not copied from
any one European prototype but inspired by many examples found in the
transitional and early Renaissance period in Italy, is of carved wood
overlaid with gold leaf. The lower part consists of a triptych, covered
by an elaborate canopy and flanked by niches in which are statues of St.
Francis (left) and St. Ambrose (right). In niches at the left of the
canopy are figures (left to right) of a kneeling angel, St. Benedict with
crozier, St. Agnes in female apparel, and Dante in red gown and hood; and
at the right (same order) Fra Angelico, Galileo with globe, Savonarola,
and kneeling angel. Upon the cross of the canopy is a dove, symbolizing
God the Holy Ghost; above that is the all-seeing eye in a triangle within
a sun-burst, symbolizing God the Father; and on the top-most spire is the
figure of God the Son, holding a cross and pronouncing a benediction.
_The Apse Windows_, one on each side of the Altar, transmit a soft amber
light which gives a peculiar charm to this chapel. Each has a border
of Italian Renaissance tracery, within which is a field of many small
panes of leaded glass. In the _left window_ these panes are ornamented
with repeated designs representing the chalice with emerging serpent and
the eagle (symbols of St. John), flowers, and the chi-rho monogram. In
the upper part are the seven stars and candlesticks from the Cathedral
seal, and the legend, “Sigil. Eccles. Cath. S. Johan;” and in the lower
part the words, “For God is the King of all the Earth. Sing ye Praises
with Understanding.” In the _right window_ the panes are ornamented
with repetitions of the bee-hive, mitre and scourges (symbols of St.
Ambrose), the cross and wreath, flowers, and the ΙϹ-ΧϹ and IHS symbols.
Near the middle is a small fragment of brown glass, marked with an “R”,
from Rheims Cathedral. In the upper part is the coat-of-arms of St.
Ambrose—the bee-hive, mitre and croziers—with the legend, “Sigil. Sanct.
Ambrosii,” and in the lower part are the words, “God is our Refuge and
Strength, a Very Present Help in Trouble.” The windows were made by Mr.
Henry Wynd Young, glass-painter, under the supervision of Messrs. Godwin
& Sullivant, architects, of New York. Along the side walls are _Stalls
and Wainscoting_ of dark Italian walnut, inlaid with pear-wood in designs
including the star of the east, chalice, Latin cross, patriarchal cross,
and Bishop’s mitre. Inlaid in the top border of the wainscoting is this

    (Left) “Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth
    are ‖ full of thy glory. Glory be to Thee, O Lord Most High.
    ‖ Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosannah
    in the Highest. ‖ (Right) O Lamb of God, that takest away the
    sins of the world, grant us thy peace. ‖ Glory be to God on
    high, and on earth peace, good will towards men. ‖ Thou only,
    O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the Glory of
    God the Father.”

The wrought iron _Italian Screen_ at the entrance to the chapel is
best seen from the inside. Upon the finials at either end are angels
blowing trumpets, and the space between them is divided by seven tall
candlesticks into eight spaces, in which are bronze groups representing
scenes in the life of St. Ambrose (left to right:) (1) His youth; (2)
settling the succession of the bishopric of Milan; (3) his baptism; (4)
nuns and (5) monks, listening to the preaching of St. Ambrose, who stands
between them facing the Altar; (6) the public penance before St. Ambrose
of Emperor Theodosius who caused the massacre of the Thessalonians; (7)
laying the corner-stone of the Church of St. Ambrogio in Milan; and (8)
his death. Beneath the figure of St. Ambrose who stands between the nuns
and monks is a bee-hive with crossed croziers. The screen was designed by
Mr. Thomas Hastings and was made by Messrs. E. F. Caldwell & Co., of New
York. On the south wall is inscribed:

    “To the ‖ Glory of God ‖ and in ‖ Loving Memory ‖ of ‖
    Augustus Whiting ‖ Sarah Swan Whiting ‖ Jane Whiting ‖
    Amelia Whiting Davis ‖ Augustus Whiting, Jr., ‖ Natica Rives
    Burden ‖ This Chapel ‖ has been Erected by ‖ Sara Whiting

The Chapel of St. Martin of Tours

ST. MARTIN, after whom this chapel is named, born in 316, in his young
manhood was a Roman soldier in Gaul. One wintry day, (according to
the traditional story related by Ruskin in his “Bible of Amiens,”)
when Martin was riding forth from the city of Amiens, he saw a beggar
shivering by the roadside; whereupon he divided his cloak with his sword
and gave one half to the beggar. That night in a vision he saw Christ
wearing the half cloak and surrounded by angels. And Christ said to the
angels: “Know ye who hath thus arrayed me? My servant Martin, though yet
unbaptized, hath done this.” After this, Martin was baptized; but he
remained a soldier for 17 years. Then, after several years of religious
works, he was made Bishop of Tours. It is related that one day, when
going to church in his full robes, he practically repeated the charitable
act beforementioned by giving his stole to a ragged beggar; and when St.
Martin was at the altar, elevating the Host, a globe of light appeared
above him and angels descended and hung chains of gold and jewels (not of
earth) on his bare arms. Sweet, serene and dearly beloved, he was Bishop
and Knight of the Poor, and the divided cloak and sword are his special
symbols. The Memorial Day for St. Martin is kept on November 11.

The Chapel of St. Martin of Tours (15 on plan), designed by Messrs. Cram
& Ferguson, is in early 13th century Gothic _Architecture_; about the
same size as the Chapel of St. Ambrose; and cost about $150,000. Its
interior walls are faced with light colored Bedford, Ind. limestone. The
lower half of the walls is occupied by Gothic arcatures, in the trefoiled
arches of which are fleurs de lis. Under the fleurs de lis, in mediaeval
text, runs the inscription:

    (Left side:) “They that ‖ be wise ‖ shall shine ‖ as the
    bright- ‖ ness of ‖ the firm- ‖ ament ‖ and they ‖ that
    turn ‖ many to ‖ righteous-‖ ness as the ‖ stars forever ‖
    and ever ‖ (Right side:) The Peace ‖ of God which ‖ passeth
    ‖ all under- ‖ standing ‖ shall keep ‖ your hearts ‖ and
    minds ‖ through ‖ Christ ‖ Jesus.”

A little above the arcature is a border of roses. The upper half of the
side walls presents a unique feature in a sort of triforium gallery
built in the thickness of the wall. The pavement of Knoxville, Tenn.
pink marble is bordered with black Belgian marble. The simple marble
_Altar_ in the form of a table resting on red marble pillars has no
reredos. The _Seven Windows_, three in the Sanctuary and four in the
clerestory, by Mr. Charles Connick of Boston, Mass., are of grisaille[37]
work in geometrical designs, the Sanctuary windows being inset with
pictorial medallions in painted mosaic glass in the mediaeval style.
In the central window over the Altar the medallions depict scenes in
the life of St. Martin as follows, beginning at the bottom and reading
upward: In the left-hand light (1) St. Martin receives sword and enters
army; (2) divides his cloak with the beggar; (3) has vision of Christ
wearing the severed cloak which he had given to the beggar; and (4) is
baptized. In the middle light, (1) He converts the robber; (2) revives
the dead man; (3) is affectionately welcomed on his return to Tours;
and (4) destroys the heathen temple. In the right-hand light, (1) He
intercedes with Count Avitianus for the release of prisoners; (2) pleads
for Priscillian’s life; (3) dies; and (4) the ship bearing his body is
mysteriously propelled. In the middle light of the window at the left of
the Altar are scenes in the life of St. Louis: (1) His coronation; (2)
his release of prisoners at Paris; (3) his ministration to sick soldiers
during the first Crusade; and (4) his departure on the second Crusade.
In the middle light of the window at the right of the Altar are scenes
in the life of Joan of Arc: (1) Her vision; (2) the capture of Orleans;
(3) the coronation of Charles VII.; and (4) her martyrdom at the stake.
In the circular lights at the top of the seven windows are the following
coats-of-arms (left to right): (1) On a blue field, three golden
fleurs de lis above a white wreath of oak and laurel with red fruit,
representing the City of Rheims.[38] (2) On a blue field sprinkled with
golden fleurs de lis, the Mother and Child, representing the Cathedral
of Notre Dame in Paris. (3) Seven horizontal bars, alternately blue and
gold, being the arms of Bertrand d’Eschaux, Archbishop of Tours. (4) On
a blue field, a white Latin cross with trefoiled ends, being the arms of
the Chapter of Poitiers. (5) On a blue cloak surrounded by red, a white
sword, cross-hilt upward, emblematic of St. Martin. (6) On a blue field
sprinkled with golden fleurs de lis, a red Greek cross, representing
the Archdiocese of Rheims.[39] (7) On a blue field, three golden fleurs
de lis under a white “label” or mark of cadency of eldest son,[40]
being the royal arms of the Dukes of Orleans. A _Statue of Joan of Arc_,
expressing her spiritual character, by Miss Anna Vaughn Hyatt, was placed
in this chapel in 1922. It was given by Mr. J. Sanford Saltus through
Dr. George F. Kunz, President of the Joan of Arc Statue Committee which
erected the equestrian statue of the Maid by the same sculptress in
Riverside Drive. Near it are two rough stones from the Chateau de Rouen
in which the Maid was imprisoned at the time of her trial and from which
she was led to the stake. The wrought-iron _Screen_ of beautiful tracery
at the entrance, designed in the office of Messrs. Cram & Ferguson and
made by Messrs. F. Krasser & Co., of Boston, is a particularly lovely
example of this form of art. While not copied from any existing mediaeval
prototype, it shows the influence of the wrought-iron work of the
Romanesque and early Gothic periods of France. The shell ornament in the
section below the cornice is symbolical of St. Martin as a pilgrim, while
the finials and cresting, blossoming with roses, signify the flowering
of the Christian religion. In the frieze are four panels depicting four
scenes which are described in a quaintly lettered inscription in the
moulding above:

    “S. Martin shares cloak with Beggar ‖ Our Lord appears in
    cloak to S. Martin ‖ S. Martin receives holy baptism ‖ Saint
    Martin journeys to Rome.”

[Illustration: Coats of Arms in Windows of Chapel of St. Martin of Tours.]

An inscription on the wall of the chapel reads:

    “The Chapel of ‖ Saint Martin of Tours ‖ Consecrated 1918 ‖
    To the worship of ‖ Almighty God ‖ and in Loving Memory of
    ‖ William P. Furniss ‖ and His Wife ‖ Sophia Furniss ‖ and
    their Daughter ‖ Sophia R. C. Furniss.”

In another panel is this inscription:

    “To the ‖ Glory of God ‖ and in Loving Memory of ‖
    Clementina Furniss ‖by Whose Gift ‖ this Chapel ‖ was
    Erected ‖ and ‖ Margaret Elizabeth Zimmerman ‖ Daughters of
    ‖ William P. Furniss ‖ and his wife ‖ Sophia Furniss.”

The Chapel of St. Saviour

SAINT SAVIOUR, the name of this chapel, means Holy Saviour, the word
Saint being used in its primary sense as an adjective, derived from the
Latin “sanctus.” The Memorial Day for St. Saviour is kept on December 25.

The Chapel of St. Saviour (16 on plan,) is the easternmost of the seven
Chapels of Tongues and forms the eastern extremity of the Cathedral.
Among the languages in which services are held in this chapel are
Japanese and Chinese. When the royal Abyssinian Commission to the United
States Government was formally received at the Cathedral on July 24,
1919, its members knelt at this altar. The chapel is in the English
Decorated Gothic style of _Architecture_ after designs by Messrs. Heins
& LaFarge. It is 56 feet long and 30½ feet wide, seats 150 persons,
and cost about $200,000. Its interior walls are of Minnesota dolomite,
around the base of which runs a foundation course of red jasper with
green serpentine moulding like those which run around the Choir. The
pavement is of stone from Hauteville, France, with a mosaic border. The
Sanctuary steps are of pink marble from Georgia. The _Altar_, made by
Messrs. Batterson & Eislie and carved by Mr. Schwartz, is of snow-white
Carrara marble. Its face and front corners are adorned by the figures of
six angels singing “Holy, Holy, Holy.” Carved on the face of the retable
is the crown of thorns, supported by two cherubs. The _Reredos_ is of
polished red Siena marble, bordered with Venetian mosaic. The _Chair and
Prayer Desk_ of black walnut at the left side of the Sanctuary have an
interesting history recited on a brass tablet on the desk as follows:

    “The first use of ‖ this chair and prayer desk was made by ‖
    the Most Reverend Randall Thomas Davidson, D.D., ‖ Archbishop
    of Canterbury ‖ in the Crypt of the Cathedral of St. John the
    Divine ‖ on Wednesday morning, September 28th, A. D. 1904 ‖
    at the celebration of the Holy Communion at which ‖ His Grace
    was the celebrant and which preceded the ‖ opening of the One
    hundred and twenty-first Convention ‖ of the Diocese of New
    York, being also the first opening ‖ of the Diocesan Synod

The _East Window_, a glorious work in stained glass by Mr. Hardman of
Birmingham, Eng., completely fills the end of the chapel. Its central
light is occupied by a representation of the Transfiguration (Mat.
xvii. 1-3). In the middle of the scene is the radiant Saviour, with
Moses (left) holding the Ten Commandments, and Elias (right) holding
the receptacle of the scrolls, representing respectively the Law and
the Prophets.[41] Surrounding the group are angels; and below it are
the three Disciples who were with Jesus on the mount: St. Peter (left)
looking up, St. James (middle) covering his eyes, and St. John, the
beardless Disciple (right), shading his face. In the left side light,
above, is Moses putting off his shoes on the holy ground before the
burning bush from which the angel of the Lord appears (Ex. iii. 5); and
below, Moses raising the brazen serpent for healing (Num. xxi. 9). The
serpent, seen indistinctly coiled around the pole, is by artistic license
represented in green. In the right side light, above, is the angel
appearing to Elijah (I. Kings xix. 5-8); and below, Elijah’s sacrifice
miraculously consumed by the fire of the Lord (I. Kings xviii. 30-38).
In niches on either side of the window are the following _Statues_ of
Bishops, saints and scholars of the Eastern church:

          _Left._                        _Right._

        St. Polycarp                 St. Chrysostom
        b. 69 d. 155                  b. 347 d. 407
      Bishop of Smyrna          Archbp. of Constantinople

       St. Athanasius                   St. Basil
        b. 296 d. 373                 b. 329 d. 379
      Primate of Egypt             Bishop of Caesarea

           Origen                St. Clement of Alexandria
        b. 185 d. 253             b. circ. 150 d. 213-220
    Great eastern scholar         Celebrated Church Father

    St. Gregory Nazianzen             St. Ignatius
        b. 330 d. 389              b. circ. 50 d. 107
     Bishop of Nazianzus            Bishop of Antioch

In a niche in the upper part of the north wall is a statue of St. Peter
with key; and in a corresponding niche in the south wall one of St. Paul
with sword. Turning toward the entrance to the chapel, one sees in niches
between the clustered columns at the sides of the great archway in array
of angels, five on each side, one above the other, corresponding to as
many on the Ambulatory side,—twenty in all—representing the Heavenly
Choir. These lovely figures are worthy of more than passing notice. All
the statuary is by Mr. Gutzon Borglum. The four _Lamp Standards_ of
Carrara marble surmounted by alabaster bowls standing in the four corners
of the chapel, and carved in relief with many symbolical details, were
made by Messrs. E. F. Caldwell & Co. and carved by Messrs. F. Ruggeri and
P. Giuntini of New York. The elaborate wrought iron _Screen_, made by the
Wm. H. Jackson Co. of New York, at the entrance, is in the Italian style
after one in Orvieto, Italy. It is embellished in its upper part by two
golden angels holding a wreath at the foot of the cross. Looking outward
through the screen, one sees the back of the High Altar of the Cathedral.
On one of the walls of the chapel is inscribed:

    “This Chapel is Erected to ‖ the Glory of God ‖ and in
    Loving Memory of ‖ Bessie Morgan Belmont ‖ by her Husband ‖
    August Belmont.”

The Chapel of St. Columba

ST. COLUMBA was born in County Donegal, Ireland, in 521, of royal blood.
After study and religious work in Ireland, he set out in 563 with twelve
disciples and planted upon the Island of Iona, on the west coast of
Scotland, which he received from his kinsman Conal, King of Scots, a
monastery which, from the 6th to the 8th centuries, was second to hardly
any other in Great Britain. From it was conducted a wonderful missionary
work in Scotland, Ireland, the north of England, and small adjacent
islands. Many miracles are attributed to him, and he was accredited with
power to subdue not only wild tribes of men but also the beasts of the
wilderness (see p. 32). He died in 597, and his body was buried at Iona,
which is regarded as one of the great shrines of Christianity in Great
Britain. The Memorial Day for St. Columba is kept on June 9.

The Chapel of St. Columba, (17 on plan), designed by Messrs. Heins &
LaFarge, is in the Norman style of _Architecture_. It is 50 feet long
and 27 wide, seats 100 persons, and cost about $150,000. The interior
walls are of Minnesota dolomite, separated from a base course of polished
Mohegan granite by a moulding of yellow Verona marble. The pavement is a
fine grained gray stone from Illinois. The semi-circular arched window
heads, and particularly the six large cylindrical pillars diversified by
spiral and diaper patterns, convey the idea of the Norman style which
one sees exemplified on a larger scale in Durham Cathedral and other
churches of that period in England. The vaulting over the _Sanctuary_ is
lined with gold mosaic, upon which appear black and white Celtic crosses.
The lectern, communion rail, Glastonbury chairs, and other wood work of
the Sanctuary were designed by Mr. Charles R. Lamb and made by J. & R.
Lamb of New York. They are carved in low relief with ornament expressive
of English Gothic feeling. The lectern shows a composition of three
figures: Christ in the center, between John the Baptist, his Forerunner,
and St. John the Divine, namesake of the Cathedral, who closes the
biblical record with the Book of Revelation. The _Altar_, of cream
colored Italian marble, is in the form of a table supported by marble
pillars. It has no _Reredos_. The _Sanctuary Windows_, three in number,
were made by Messrs. Clayton & Bell of London. In the central light of
the window above the Altar is represented the baptism of Christ by John
the Baptist, and in the side lights are St. John with cup (left), and St.
Paul with sword, (right.) In the bottom of the three lights are the four
symbols previously explained (p. 74), namely, the ΙΗϹ, the Alpha, the
Omega, and the Chi Rho. The windows on either side of the middle window
are in grisaille, copied from the famous lancet windows called the Five
Sisters in the North Transept of York Cathedral, although these windows
have only two lights each instead of five. The six wonderfully graceful
seven-branched _Candelabra_, after Donatello, were brought from Italy
by Mr. George Gordon King. Turning toward the entrance, in which is a
wrought iron _Screen_ in the Spanish style, designed by Mr. Samuel Yellen
and made by the Industrial Ornamental Iron Works of Philadelphia, Penn.,
one sees an extremely interesting feature in the _Statues_ by Mr. Gutzon
Borglum of representatives of the successive stages of the development of
Christianity in England, which stand in the niches between the clustered
columns at the sides of the great entrance archway.[42]

The figures, five on each side, one above the other, and corresponding
to as many on the Ambulatory side,—twenty in all,—are in the following
relative positions, it being understood that the left side as seen from
the chapel is the same as the right side as seen from the Ambulatory.

                       _Seen from Chapel._

             _Left._                        _Right._

            St. Aidan                    St. Augustine
     Bishop of Northumbrians       Archbishop of Canterbury
          ac. 635 d. 651                ac. 597 d. 604

            St. Anselm                    King Alfred
     Archbishop of Canterbury           King of Wessex
         ac. 1093 d. 1109                b. 849 d. 901

          Thomas Cranmer              William of Wykeham
     Archbishop of Canterbury        Bishop of Winchester
         b. 1489 d. 1556               ac. 1367 d. 1405

          Joseph Butler                  Jeremy Taylor
         Bishop of Durham           Bishop of 3 Irish sees
         b. 1692 d. 1752                b. 1613 d. 1667

            John Keble                  Reginald Heber
    leader in Oxford movement         Bishop of Calcutta
         b. 1792 d. 1866                b. 1783 d. 1826

                     _Seen from Ambulatory._

             _Left._                        _Right._

           St. Alban                   Theodore of Tarsus
       promartyr of Britain         Archbishop of Canterbury
          d. circ. 304                    ac. 668 d. 690

        The Venerable Bede               Stephen Langton
      chronicler and priest          Archbishop of Canterbury
          b. 673 d. 735                  b. 1150 d. 1228

          John Wyckliffe                  Matthew Parker
    morning-star of Reformation      Archbishop of Canterbury
          b. 1325 d. 1384                b. 1504 d. 1575

           Richard Hooker                George Berkeley
        Anglican theologian          Bishop of Cloyne, etc.
          b. 1554 d. 1600                b. 1684 d. 1753

            John Wesley              Frederic Denison Maurice
       evangelical revivalist           preacher and leader
          b. 1703 d. 1791                b. 1805 d. 1872

The Cathedral has in its possession a _Stone from the Cathedral, or
Church of St. Mary_ (dating from the 13th-16th centuries) _on the Island
of Iona_, which may fittingly be placed in this chapel at some future

Upon the wall of the chapel is inscribed:

    “Chapel ‖ of ‖ Saint Columba ‖ To the Glory of God ‖ and
    ‖ in Loving Memory of ‖ Mary Leroy King ‖ The Gift of Her
    Mother ‖ Mary Augusta King ‖ Consecrated ‖ April 27th, 1911.”

The Chapel of St. Boniface

ST. BONIFACE, whose original name was Winifred, was born in Devonshire,
England, about the year 680. He entered a Benedictine monastery at the
age of 13, learned rhetoric, history and theology, and became a priest
at the age of 30. At a time when England and Ireland were sending
missionaries to the heathen parts of Europe, Winifred was authorized
by Pope Gregory II. to preach the Gospel to the tribes of Germany,
and he is called the Apostle of Germany. While engaged in this work,
Gregory made him a Bishop and gave him the name of Bonifacius, or
Boniface, which means Doer of Good. The Bishoprics of Ratisbon, Erfurt,
Paderborn, Wurzburg, Eichstadt, Salzburg, and several others, owe their
establishment to his efforts. In 746 he was made Archbishop of Mainz. In
755, while carrying on his work in Dokkum, in West Friesland, he and his
congregation of converts there were slain by a mob of armed heathen. His
remains are buried in the famous abbey of Fulda, which he founded. In
art, he is depicted holding a book pierced by a sword, referring to the
manner of his death. The Memorial Day for St. Boniface is kept on June 5.

The Chapel of St. Boniface, (18 on plan), designed by Mr. Henry Vaughan,
is a very pure specimen of English Gothic _Architecture_ of the 14th
century. It is about 48½ feet long and 28 wide, seats about 100 persons,
and cost about $175,000. The interior walls are of Indiana limestone;
the pavement of pink marble from Knoxville, Tenn., with heavy black
border of Belgian marble; and the steps to the Sanctuary also of pink
Knoxville marble. The _Altar_ is of gray marble from the same source. In
the three ornate panels on its face are the monogram IHS (see p. 74),
the floriated Greek cross (see note below), and the Greek cross form
of the Chi Rho (p. 74). The richly carved _Reredos_ has three canopied
niches, in the central one of which is represented the Adoration of the
Magi. In each of the side niches is an angel with scroll. In the recesses
of the windows on either side of the Altar are carved clergy stalls of
dark oak, with wainscoting of the same wood as high as the window sills.
There are six stained glass _Windows_, three in the Sanctuary and three
smaller ones in the clerestory. Each has three lights. In the middle
light of the central window above the Altar Christ is represented as
the Great Teacher. His robe is sprinkled with the =IHS= monogram (p.
74) and in His nimbus appear the ends of a floriated cross.[43] Above
His head are two angels, and above them the dove, symbolizing the Holy
Spirit. Below the figure of Christ is a scene representing Him teaching
the multitude. In the left side light is St. Boniface with mitre,
archiepiscopal staff,[44] and Bible pierced with sword; and below him a
scene representing him hewing down an oak in Geismar accounted sacred
by the idolators. In the right side light is St. Paul with sword; and
below him a scene representing him preaching to the men of Athens. In
the left window of the Sanctuary are three figures with scenes below
as follows (left to right): St. Birinus, Bishop of Dorchester, holding
a monstrance, and (below) St. Birinus baptizing King Cynegils of the
West Saxons; St. Augustine of Canterbury with archiepiscopal staff,
holding a tablet representing the crucifixion, and (below) St. Augustine
announcing the Word of Life to King Ethelbert; and St. Felix, Bishop of
Dunwich, with crozier and torch, and (below) St. Felix receiving the
blessing of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the right Sanctuary window,
similarly, are: St. Chad, Bishop of Lichfield, holding crozier and model
of Lichfield Cathedral,[45] and (below) St. Chad listening to the songs
of angels; St. Columba in monastic garb with crozier and with monastery
(Iona) at his feet, and (below) St. Columba converting the Picts; and
St. Aidan with crozier, and (below) St. Aidan instructing the youthful
St. Chad and others. In the west clerestory window are: St. Patrick
with crozier ornamented with shamrocks; St. Gregory of Rome with papal
staff, holding an open music book displaying the Sursum Corda (referring
to him as founder of the Gregorian music), with Pere Marquette below;
and St. Martin of Tours with crozier and Bible. In the east wall are
two clerestory windows. In the left hand window of the two are: St.
Cyprian, Archbishop of Carthage, holding his staff and his best known
book concerning Church Unity, or the universal church; St. Ambrose,
Bishop of Milan, with crozier and open book displaying the words “Te Deum
Laudamus” (we praise Thee, O God,) and pen in hand, with the missionary
Robert Hunt below; and St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo Mundia, with
crozier. In the right hand clerestory window in the east wall are: St.
Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, with book and staff; St. John Chrysostom,
Bishop of Constantinople, with staff, chalice and Book of Homilies,
with the missionary John Robinson below; and St. Ignatius, Bishop of
Antioch, holding a palm. The windows were made by Messrs. C. E. Kempe &
Co. of London. In two canopied niches in the west wall are _Statues_ of
Thomas a Becket (left) and St. Boniface (right); and in a niche in the
east wall is one of Erasmus. Three wrought iron _Lamps_ are suspended by
iron chains from the ceiling; and at the entrance is a handsome wrought
iron _Screen_ adorned with escutcheons bearing the =ihc= monogram and
surmounted by a floriated cross before explained. On one of the walls is

    “The Chapel of St. Boniface ‖ Consecrated ‖ February 29, 1916
    ‖ Erected to ‖ the Glory of God ‖ by ‖ George Sullivan
    Bowdoin ‖ and His Wife ‖ Julia Grinnell Bowdoin ‖ and Their
    Children ‖ Temple Bowdoin ‖ Fanny Hamilton Kingsford ‖ Edith
    Grinnell Bowdoin.”

=Story of the Dove Of Peace=. During the last year of the World War, an
incident interesting in itself and illustrative of the origin of the
legends and traditions which often grow up around cathedrals, occurred in
connection with the chapel bearing the name of the Apostle of Germany.
In the spring of 1918, some weeks after the great German drive of March
21 had begun and before the beginning of the counter-offensive of the
second battle of the Marne in July, the large stained glass window in the
clerestory of the Choir above the entrance to the Chapel of St. Boniface
arrived from England. All the ventilation openings in the Cathedral
windows are screened to exclude birds, which, however interesting in
their natural habitats, are a practical nuisance in the Cathedral. When
the stained glass window above mentioned arrived, the temporary window
filling the space above the entrance to the chapel was removed for its
installation. While the window was thus open, and at a period in the war
when the issue trembled in the balance and the world fairly held its
breath in fearful expectation of the event, a white dove,—very generally
recognized as a symbol or harbinger of Peace—flew into the Cathedral
over this chapel. On the following Sunday it soared around in the great
dome of the Crossing and in the Choir, alighting in the most interesting
places. When Dean Robbins ascended the stairs of the great marble pulpit,
he found the dove perched on the edge of the pulpit directly before
him. The dove then flew down and alighted on the back of a vacant chair
between two occupied chairs in the midst of the congregation on the south
side of the Crossing, and there remained quietly during the sermon. When
the ushers started toward the Altar with the offertory, the bird soared
across the congregation and alighted on the hat of a woman dressed in
mourning who was sitting near the middle aisle, its snow white plumage
contrasting strikingly with the sombre attire of the bereaved woman who
seemed not to be disturbed by what perhaps she regarded as a happy omen.
In a moment the dove flew to another part of the Crossing. It remained
in the Cathedral a few days longer; and then one day, went out through
an open door. Soon after this occurrence, the Allies facing the Marne
salient, including the Americans at Chateau Thierry, began the great
counter-movement which finally brought peace.[46] It was at least an
interesting coincidence that this white dove came into the Cathedral over
this chapel, at the very crisis of the war, and that almost immediately
thereafter began that series of determining events which led the Germans
to make overtures for Peace.

The Chapel of St. Ansgarius

ST. ANSGARIUS, or St. Ansgar, was born in Picardy in 801. With his
co-laborer Autbert he went to preach Christianity to the northmen of
Sleswick. In spite of much persecution, he was so successful that in 831
the Pope established an archbishopric in Hamburg, (afterwards transferred
to Bremen,) and Ansgarius was appointed first Archbishop. He made several
missionary tours in Denmark, Sweden and other parts of the north, and
died at Bremen in 865. He is called the Apostle of the North. The
Memorial Day for St. Ansgarius is kept on February 3.

The Chapel of St. Ansgarius (19 on plan), designed by Mr. Henry
Vaughan, architect of the Chapel of St. James, is in the same style of
_Architecture_, 14th century Gothic, and about the same size, being
66 feet long and 41 wide, with a seating capacity of 250. It differs,
however, from the Chapel of St. James in plan, the bay east of the turret
stairs being here thrown into the Ambulatory, while in the Chapel of St.
James it is included as a sort of transept; and the north side of the
Chapel of St. Ansgarius being divided into only two bays, while the south
side of the Chapel of St. James is divided into three. On account of the
amount of work required to secure a firm foundation, the Chapel of St.
Ansgarius cost about $225,000, making it the most expensive of the seven
Chapels of Tongues.

[Illustration: Niche in St. Ansgarius Chapel made of old Cathedral

The interior walls are of Indiana limestone; and the pavement of pink
Knoxville, Tenn., marble and mottled Vermont marble. The _Altar_ is of
gray Knoxville marble. On its front is carved the Madonna of the Chair
on the left of which, from the spectator’s standpoint, is St. Michael
with sword and on the right St. Gabriel with lilies. In the middle of the
sculptured _Reredos_, (above) is represented Christ holding the globe
(symbol of sovereignty), and (below) the baptism of Christ by John the

On the left of the figures are St. Ansgarius with crozier (above) and
Gustavus Adolphus with sword (below), while on the right are St. Olaf
with crown and scepter (above) and Luther in gown with book (below).
The Altar and Reredos were given by Mrs. Julia Grinnell Bowdoin. In the
left (northern) wall of the Sanctuary is a niche made of _stones from
Worcester and Ely Cathedrals_, England. On the upper surface of the stone
bracket forming the shelf of the niche is carved “Ely 1320.” The stones
from the Lady Chapel of Worcester Cathedral were given to the Cathedral
of St. John the Divine by Canon George William Douglas of New York who
procured them from Canon J. M. Wilson, Archdeacon of Worcester.[47] On
the stones on either side of the recess is carved:

    “These Stones from ‖ the Cathedral ‖ of Christ and ‖ St.
    Mary the Virgin ‖ Worcester, England, ‖ are Memorials to ‖
    William Reed ‖ Huntington ‖ Sometime Rector ‖ of All Saints
    ‖ in Worcester ‖ Massachusetts.”

Three small _Windows_ of two lights each in the Sanctuary contain
(from left to right) representations of: (1) St. Willibrod with mitre,
archiepiscopal staff, and model of cathedral; and St. Lucian with crown,
scepter and sword; (2) St. Ansgarius with mitre and crozier; and King
Olaf with crown and scepter; and (3) above the Reredos, St. Eric with
crown and scepter; and St. Wilifred with mitre and archiepiscopal staff.
The window spaces at the right of the latter are walled up because they
are blanketed by the adjacent chapel. In the two bays of the north aisle
are two noble stained glass windows, each having five lights and each
light depicting two scenes. In the left hand or western window, the upper
tier of scenes is chiefly devoted to Old Testament subjects as follows
(left to right): Adam and Eve (Gen. ii. 7-25); the visit of the three
angels to Abraham bearing the promise of the birth of Isaac (Gen. xviii.
2-22); St. Michael fighting the dragon with a cross-shaped spear (Rev.
xii. 7); Abraham offering to sacrifice Isaac (Gen. xxii. 9-13); and
Jacob’s dream of the ladder (Gen. xxviii. 12). In the lower tier are five
scenes prophetic of the birth of the Forerunner of Christ and of Christ
himself: The angel’s visit to Zacharias to foretell the birth of John the
Baptist (Luke i. 13); the annunciation to the Virgin Mary of the coming
birth of Christ (Luke i. 28); St. Gabriel with lilies as Angel of the
Annunciation (Luke i. 28); the angels’ visit to the shepherds (Luke ii.
8-12); and the angel’s visit to Joseph, husband of Mary, to foretell the
birth of Christ (Mat. i. 20). The right hand or eastern window depicts
Acts of the Apostles. In its upper tier are: St. Peter preaching to the
Disciples (Acts i. 15); St. Peter healing the lame man (Acts iii. 2-8);
St. Peter with key; the stoning of St. Stephen (Acts vii. 59); and St.
Philip baptizing the eunuch (Acts viii. 26-38); and in the lower tier:
St. Peter raising Tabitha (Acts ix. 40); the conversion of St. Paul’s
jailer at Philippi (Acts xvi. 23-31); St. Paul with sword; St. Paul
laying hands on the Disciples (Acts xix. 6); and St. Paul before Felix
(Acts xxiv. 24-25). All the windows are by Messrs. C. E. Kempe & Co. of
London. In two high niches in the south wall are _Statues_ of Eric, King
of Sweden (left) and Canute, King of the English, Danes and Norwegians
(right;) and in a niche at the west end of the north aisle is a statue
of King Eskiel, all crowned. On the Ambulatory side of the entrance
bay are two statues: John the Baptist (above) and St. Ansgarius with
crozier and mitre, holding a small cathedral (below). The sculptures are
by Mr. John Evans of Boston. In a bay of the chapel temporarily rests
a symbolic group executed in Caen stone by Miss Malvina Hoffman of New
York, entitled _The Sacrifice_. It is intended for Harvard University
at Cambridge, Mass., as a memorial of Robert Bacon, sometime U. S.
Ambassador to France and a Trustee of the University, and of the Harvard
men who lost their lives in the World War. It represents a dead Crusader,
such as those who went from Cambridge, Eng., in the 12th century, and
gave their lives for an ideal, lying upon a cross with his head pillowed
in a woman’s lap. According to the traditional position of the feet of
the Crusader, he was one of those who never reached Jerusalem, those
who did so being traditionally represented with their feet crossed. The
woman may typify Alma Mater as well as those women who gave their best to
a great cause and made their lonely grief their glory. The two figures
symbolize mutual sacrifice. This chapel has an independent _Organ_ played
from a movable console on the floor. The chapel, which is the gift of
many persons, was dedicated on April 3, 1918. On one of the walls is

[Illustration: THE SACRIFICE]

    “The Chapel of Saint Ansgarius ‖ Consecrated April 3, 1918 ‖
    to the Worship of ‖ Almighty God ‖ and in Loving Memory of ‖
    William Reed Huntington ‖ for 25 Years Rector of Grace Church
    ‖ and for 22 Years Trustee of this Cathedral.”

=The Corner Stone= of the Cathedral, which was laid by Bishop Henry
C. Potter on St. John’s Day, December 27, 1892, is imbedded in the
northwestern pier of the Chapel of St. Ansgarius and is only partly
visible in the chamber under the chapel. It is a block of gray Quincy
granite, 4 feet 4 inches square and 2 feet 4½ inches thick. Upon the
angle of the visible corner are inscribed a Greek cross and “I. H. S. St.
John’s Day, Decem. XXVII, A. D. 1892.” It contains, among other things,
a fragment of a _Spanish Brick_ from Hispaniola (Hayti) which was given
to the Cathedral by Mr. Malcolm McLean, Senior Warden of St. Andrew’s
Church, New York City, and upon which is a silver plate inscribed:

    “From the Ruin of the First Christian Church in the New World
    where the First Church was Erected by Christopher Columbus,
    1493. Isabella, Hispaniola.”[48]

The Crypt

The Crypt, located beneath the Choir, is closed, pending work on other
parts of the Cathedral. And on account of the consequent dampness, the
delicate furnishings were removed in September, 1916, and entrusted to
the care of Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, who designed them, and who has placed
them temporarily in the private chapel on his large country estate at
Laurelton, L. I. The Crypt has a seating capacity of 500, and the first
services in the Cathedral were held in it from January 8, 1899, until
the Choir and Crossing were opened on April 19, 1911. In its furnished
state, it contains an Altar, Reredos, font, lectern, and five stained
glass windows which were exhibited by Mr. Tiffany at the World’s Fair at
Chicago in 1893 and which were called collectively the _Tiffany Chapel_.
The top and retable of the _Altar_ are of Carrara marble, while the front
and sides are adorned with medallions of mother of pearl, four smaller
discs containing emblems of the four Evangelists, a central shield set
with sapphires, topazes and mother of pearl, and 150,000 pieces of glass
mosaic. The _Reredos_ is of iridescent glass mosaic, as are the twelve
_Pillars_ back of the Altar symbolizing the twelve Apostles. The general
effect is Byzantine. The Altar, Reredos, font, lectern and windows were
given by Mrs. Celia Hermione Wallace in memory of her son. The following
interments have been made in the Crypt: The Very Rev. William M.
Grosvenor, D.D., Dean of the Cathedral, December 13, 1916; the Right Rev.
David H. Greer, D.D., eighth Bishop of New York, May 23, 1919; and the
Right Rev. Charles S. Burch, D.D., ninth Bishop of New York, December 23,

Summary Dimensions

Following are the principal dimensions of the Cathedral. As cathedrals
are compared in size by their areas, the Cathedral of St. John the Divine
will rank, after St. Peter’s at Rome and Seville Cathedral, the third
largest in the world.


    Western Towers                          50 feet
    Nave                                   225  ”
    Crossing                               100  ”
    Choir                                  170  ”
    St. Saviour’s Chapel                    56  ”
    Total length                           601  ”


    West Front (including buttresses)      220 feet
    Nave and Aisles (exterior)             132  ”
    Transepts                              315  ”
    Crossing                               100  ”
    Choir                                   56  ”
    Ambulatory                              20  ”


    Western Towers                         265 feet
    Ridge of Nave Roof                     175  ”
    Nave Vaults (above floor)              130  ”
    Choir Vaults (above floor)             127  ”
    Crossing Vault (above floor)           200  ”
    Central Fleche                         470  ”
    Final Cross (30 feet)                  500  ”
    Final Cross above tide-water           631  ”


    Area of Cathedral           109,082 square feet

Bishops of New York

Following is a list of the Bishops of New York since the erection of the

_First_: The Right Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D.; born February 24, 1742;
Bishop of New York 1787-1815; died September 6, 1815.

_Second_: The Right Rev. Benjamin Moore; born November 5, 1748; Assistant
Bishop 1801-1815; Bishop of New York 1815-1816; died February 29, 1816.

_Third_: The Right Rev. John Henry Hobart, D.D.; born September 14, 1775;
Assistant Bishop 1811-1816; Bishop of New York 1816-1830; died September
12, 1830.

_Fourth_: The Right Rev. Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk; born July 15, 1791;
Bishop of New York, active 1830-1845, inactive 1845-1861; died April 30,

_Fifth_: The Right Rev. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright, D.D., D.C.L.; born
February 24, 1792; Provisional Bishop 1852-1854; died September 21, 1854.

_Sixth_: The Right Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., D.C.L., Oxon.; born
February 9, 1802; Provisional Bishop 1854-1861; Bishop of New York
1861-1887; died January 2, 1887.

_Seventh_: The Right Rev. Henry Codman Potter, D.D., LL.D.; born May 25,
1834; Assistant Bishop 1883-1887; Bishop of New York 1887-1908; died July
21, 1908.

_Eighth_: The Right Rev. David Hummell Greer, D.D., S.T.D., LL.D.; born
March 20, 1844; Bishop Coadjutor 1904-1908; Bishop of New York 1908-1919;
died May 19, 1919.

_Ninth_: The Right Rev. Charles Sumner Burch, D.D., L.H.D., LL.D.; born
June 30, 1855; Bishop Suffragan 1911-1919; Bishop of New York 1919-1920;
died December 20, 1920.

_Tenth_: The Right Rev. William Thomas Manning, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L.; born
May 12, 1866; Bishop of New York 1921.

Part Three

Other Buildings, Etc.

The Bishop’s House

The Bishop’s House (A. on plan) is in French Gothic architecture of
the chateau type, with lofty roof and high dormer windows, and is built
of Germantown micaceous schist. It is designed to be connected with the
Cathedral by cloisters, and is connected with the Deanery by a vaulted
porch above which is to be built the Bishop’s private chapel. The extreme
outside dimensions of the Bishop’s House are 77 by 126 feet, including
the porch. The architects were Messrs. Cram & Ferguson.[49] The occupants
of the house have been Bishop Greer from the time of its opening in 1914
until his death May 19, 1919; Bishop Burch from his installation October
28, 1919, until his death December 20, 1920; and Bishop Manning since his
consecration on May 11, 1921.

The Deanery

The Deanery (B. on plan) adjoins the Bishop’s House as above mentioned.
It is by the same architect, is in the same style but of a more domestic
type, forms a part of the same architectural composition, and is built of
the same kind of stone. It is not so lofty a structure as the Bishop’s
House, but has many interesting details, particularly on the southern
façade. Its extreme outside measurements are about 79 by 93 feet. The
late Dean Grosvenor occupied the Deanery from the time of its erection
until his death December 9, 1916, and was succeeded by Dean Robbins in
June, 1917. A tablet in the porch is inscribed:

    “The Deanery ‖ erected in ‖ Faithful Remembrance ‖ of ‖
    Clinton Ogilvie ‖ 1838-1900 ‖ by his wife ‖ Helen Slade
    Ogilvie ‖ A. D. 1913.”

[Illustration: THE BISHOP’S HOUSE]

The Choir School

The Choir School (C. on Plan) has a special interest for everyone who
goes to the Cathedral, for here are educated and trained the boys who
sing in the Cathedral services. The school was founded by Bishop H. C.
Potter in 1901 and was formerly located in the Old Synod House. The
present building, erected in 1912 and built of the same kind of stone
as the Bishop’s House and Deanery, is in the English Collegiate Gothic
style of architecture; is three stories high, and has extreme outside
dimensions of 83 by 150 feet. Messrs. Walter Cook and Winthrop A. Welch
were the architects. The building contains offices, a general school
room which is equipped with apparatus for both stereopticon and moving
pictures, a choir rehearsal room with stalls, individual rooms for vocal
and instrumental practice, a fine large common room with open fire-place
for reading and social intercourse, dining room, kitchen, dormitories,
a big gymnasium, a sick room to which a boy is transferred upon the
first sign of any illness, etc. Accommodations are provided for 40
resident scholars and 20 day scholars. Their musical training is under
the personal direction of the organist and Master of the Choristers,
and their general education under the direction of the Head Master
and staff of under-masters. A sympathetic House Mother looks out for
the personal wants of the boys and directs the domestic service; and
competent physicians and trained nurses are in attendance when necessary.
Boys are admitted to the school at the age of 9 and remain until their
voices change, which is usually between the ages of 13 and 14. They come
from all parts of the United States and possessions, two boys recently
having come from Alaska. An applicant is first received on probation,
and if he manifests a good character and disposition, and gives promise
of a good voice, he is accepted as a chorister. Until they become full
choristers, vested with cassock and cotta, probationers sit in separate
choir stalls in the Cathedral services and wear only their black student
gowns. During their residence at the school, the boys are under strict
but gentle discipline and have the finest education and musical training
that can be given them. Their board, education and musical training are
free, in return for which they give their services as choristers. When
they leave the school, they are followed by the interest of the Cathedral
organizations which endeavor to secure scholarships for their higher
education. The men of the choir, of whom there are about 20, do not
reside at the Choir School. The usual number of choristers, men and boys,
in the Cathedral services is about 60, except during the summer vacation
when the number is somewhat reduced. There is probably no finer choir
school in the world, and the Cathedral music is the highest expression of
this form of musical art in this country.

[Illustration: THE DEANERY]

[Illustration: THE CHOIR SCHOOL]

The Choir School building, which cost nearly $180,000, is the gift
of Mrs. J. Jarrett Blodgett in memory of her father Mr. John Hinman
Sherwood. At Eastertide, 1914, the late Commodore Frederick G. Bourne,
who had sung as a boy in Trinity Church and in later years in the
Church of the Incarnation, endowed the school with $500,000; and by his
will, probated March 15, 1919, gave $100,000 to the Cathedral toward
the building of the Nave and about the same amount to the Choir School
endowment. Members of the Diocesan Auxiliary to the Cathedral contributed
generously toward the furnishing of the school. A tablet in the porch

    “In Faithful Memory of ‖ John Hinman Sherwood ‖ Just Upright
    True ‖ Erected by his daughter ‖ 1912.”

St. Faith’s House

St. Faith’s House (D. on plan) is the home of the New York Training
School for Deaconesses, an independent corporation which was founded in
1890 by the late Rev. William Reed Huntington, D.D., and which occupies
a site in the Cathedral Close by permission of the Trustees of the
Cathedral. The building of Indiana limestone and brick is in Tudor Gothic
architecture, and measures 68 by 137 feet on the outside. It is the gift
of Archdeacon Charles C. Tiffany in memory of his wife. The architects
were Messrs. Heins & LaFarge.

The Synod House

The Synod House, (E. on plan), standing in the southwestern angle of the
Close on the corner of Cathedral parkway and Amsterdam avenue, is the
meeting place of the Diocesan Convention and other secular gatherings
of the Diocese. It also contains the Bishop’s office and the offices of
the Suffragan Bishops, the Rt. Rev. Arthur Selden Lloyd, D.D., and the
Rt. Rev. Herbert Shipman, D.D. It is of Kingwood. W. Va., sandstone with
pink tinges, quite unlike any other stone in the Cathedral group. The
_Architecture_ is pure French Gothic of the 13th century, Messrs. Cram &
Ferguson being the architects. Its outside dimensions are 73 by 171 feet.
The _Western Entrance_ is a fine example of a mediaeval recessed porch
in its architecture and an interesting illustration of the progress of
Civilization and Christianity in its sculptures. It contains 43 figures
in the round and a relief of 12 figures in the tympanum. The key-note
to the composition is the relief in the _Tympanum_ representing Christ
sending out his Disciples to baptize and teach all the nations of the
world. Beneath this is the inscription:

    “All power is given unto me in heaven and earth ‖ Go ye
    therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing ‖ them in the
    name of the Father, and of the Son, and ‖ of the Holy Ghost;
    teaching them to observe all ‖ things whatsoever I have
    commanded you; and lo ‖ I am with you always even unto the end
    of the world” (Mat. xxviii. 18-20).

[Illustration: THE SYNOD HOUSE]

The archivolt outside of the tympanum is composed of three ranges of
Gothic niches in the voussoirs, containing 36 little figures in the
round. The outer range represents 14 ancient and modern _Apostles of
Christianity_ as follows, beginning at the lowest figure on the left-hand
side and reading upward to the center, and thence downward to the lowest
right-hand figure: (1) Count Zinzendorf, 1700-1760, German reformer,
founder of Moravian Brethren, missionary to American Indians; (2) St.
Boniface, 680-755, Apostle of Germany; (3) St. Francis Xavier, 1506-1552,
Apostle of the Indies, one of the founders of the Society of Jesus; (4)
St. Denis, 3d century, Apostle of the Gauls, Patron Saint of France; (5)
St. Olaf, 995-1030, Patron Saint and King of Norway; (6) St. Augustine,
died 604, missionary to Britain, first Archbishop of Canterbury;
(7) Innocent of Moscow, 1797-1879, Apostle of Alaska and Kamchatka,
Archbishop of Moscow; (8) St. Patrick, circ. 372-460, Apostle and Patron
Saint of Ireland; (9) John Eliot, 1604-1690, Apostle of American Indians,
translator of Bible into Indian language; (10) St. Willibrod, 658-739,
Apostle of the Frisians, Archbishop of Utrecht; (11) St. Cyril, 827-869,
Apostle of the Slavs, inventor of the Cyrillic alphabet; (12) David
Livingstone, 1813-1873, British explorer and missionary in Africa; (13)
St. Columba, 521-597, Apostle of Caledonia; (14) Charles George Gordon,
“Gordon Pasha,” 1833-1885, British General, promoter of Christianity in
China and Egypt. The 12 figures in the middle range represent the _Arts
and Sciences_. In the same order they are: (1) Natural Science, man with
microscope; (2) Sculpture, man with mallet and chisel; (3) Medicine,
man with book and skull; (4) Literature, woman reading a book; (5)
Chemistry, woman holding aloft a retort; (6) Industrial Art, man with
vase; (7) Painting, man with palette; (8) Astronomy, man with globe; (9)
Mathematics, man wearing spectacles and gown, holding cone and truncated
pyramid; (10) Physics, woman with telephone; (11) Music, man with
violoncello; (12) Architecture, man[50] holding model of building. The
10 figures in the innermost range represent the _Crafts and Industries_,
as follows: (1) Bookbinding, man making a book; (2) Agriculture, man
sowing seed; (3) Metal Industry, man pouring molten metal from ladle; (4)
Textile Industry, woman with distaff and shuttle; (5) Navigation, sailor
holding telescope with rope at feet; (6) Building, man laying brick;
(7) Engineering, man holding tape measure; (8) Fishing, sailor with
seine; (9) Mining, man with pickaxe and miner’s cap; (10) Shoemaking,
cobbler at his last. Below these, in niches in the splays and central
pilaster of the door-way, are 7 larger figures representing _Seven Famous
Christian Rulers_ who have carried out the injunction in the tympanum,
as follows, (left to right): (1) Emperor Constantine, once ruler of the
Roman World and founder of Constantinople, who proclaimed religious
toleration and presided over the council which adopted the Nicene Creed;
(2) Charlemagne, King of the Franks, Emperor of the revived western Roman
empire, who introduced Christianity into conquered countries, maintained
popular assemblies, and promoted science, art and letters; (3) Alexis,
one of the ablest Emperors of Byzantium and friend of the Crusaders; (4,
in center) George Washington, to whose character as Christian soldier,
statesman and first President of the United States, attaches local
interest from the fact that he commanded the American troops in the
Battle of Harlem Heights which was fought partly on the ground occupied
by the Cathedral Close; (5) Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, one of
the greatest generals, who, with his army in Germany, saved the cause of
Protestantism in the Thirty Years War; (6) St. Louis, King of France,
the most distinguished monarch of his age, who was noted for his piety,
justice and mercy, and who died on a Crusade; and (7) Alfred the Great,
King of Wessex, who bore the brunt of the Danish invasions and was a
promoter of education and Christianity. The sculptures are by John Evans
& Co. of Boston. The _Interior_ decoration of the high roof and open
timbers of the truss-work in polychrome is typical of the Middle Ages
and the wood panelling is a reminder of 15th century work. The latter is
by Messrs. Wm. F. Ross & Co., of Cambridge, Mass. The grisaille windows
are by Mr. Charles J. Connick of Boston. The main hall, which seats 800
on the floor and 400 in the gallery, has a large pipe organ built by the
Ernest M. Skinner Co. of Boston. The Undercroft (basement) is equipped
for use as a refectory. The building cost about $350,000. In the main
vestibule, over the outer door-way, is this inscription:

    “To the Glory of God and for the Service of His People ‖
    This Synod House was Given in the year A. D. 1912 by ‖ John
    Pierpont Morgan and William Bayard Cutting.”

Open Air Pulpit

The Open Air Pulpit (F. on plan) standing in the midst of the Cathedral
Close, is in the form of an open-work Gothic spire 40 feet high, built
of Daytona stone. On its four sides are the usual symbols of the four
Evangelists. The pulpit was designed by Messrs. Howells and Stokes and
was presented by Miss Olivia Phelps Stokes in memory of her sister Miss
Caroline Phelps Stokes. It was suggested by the outdoor services held
here before the Choir and Crossing were ready, and by the open air pulpit
attached to the cathedral church at Perugia.


The following organizations of men and women aid in the Cathedral work:

_The Diocesan Auxiliary to the Cathedral_: President, Mrs. Henry W.
Munroe; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. John Greenough, Mrs. Haley Fiske, Mrs.
W. M. V. Hoffman; Secretary, Mrs. Louis Mansfield Ogden; Assistant
Secretary, Mrs. Francis C. Huntington; Treasurer, Mrs. Harold F. Hadden.

_The Cathedral League_: President, Mr. John S. Rogers; Vice-President,
Hon. Thomas C. T. Crain; Treasurer, Mr. John A. Hance; Secretary, Dr.
John B. Walker.

_The Laymen’s Club_: President, Mr. Theophilus Barratt; Vice-Presidents,
Messrs. William W. Borman, Henry M. Sperry, Robert Livingston Stedman;
Treasurer, Mr. Charles P. Dietz; Secretary, Mr. J. Hardwick Stagg.
Organized 1908, incorporated 1920, “to promote and stimulate interest
in the influence, growth and completion of the Cathedral; to bring the
Cathedral and its work more completely within the knowledge of the
community; and to promote the general welfare of the Cathedral.” Among
its activities are the publication of this Guide Book and the Cathedral
post-cards, the improvement of the Cathedral grounds, the assisting
of a choir boy to complete in some well-known preparatory school his
preparation for college, the training of the Cathedral Troop of Boy
Scouts, the giving of free lectures, the ushering in the Cathedral, etc.

_The Cathedral Ushers_ are members of the Laymen’s Club as stipulated
in a resolution of the Cathedral Trustees passed April 25, 1911, and
are designated from week to week by the Canon Sacrist. The badge of
the Ushers is a vesica-shaped[51] gold medallion, having in the center
an episcopal mitre, surrounded by the legend “Ecclesia Cathedralis S.
Johannis Theologi;” suspended by a purple ribbon from a gold bar bearing
the word “Usher.”

Guide Book

Copies of this Guide Book may be procured at the Cathedral from the
Verger or the Ushers, or will be sent by mail upon request addressed to
the Verger (p. 23). In stiff paper covers 50 cents (by mail 60 cents); in
purple cloth covers stamped with gold $1.00 (by mail $1.10).


[1] The service on Nov. 24, when the flags of 12 liberated nationalities
were carried in the procession, and that on Thanksgiving Day when the
flags of 27 allied nations were carried, were two of the most moving
religious services ever held in this country. The liberated peoples
represented in the former were the Armenian, Albanian, Czecho-Slovak,
Jugo-Slav, Greek Irredentist, Italian Irredentist, Lithuanian, Polish,
Rumanian, Uhro-Rusin, Ukranian, and Zionist.

[2] The quality of divinity appertaining only to the Deity.

[3] This was a stone tower similar to the one so well preserved in
Central Park. The remains of another are at the northern end of
Morningside Park.

[4] See note on page 116.

[5] The pastoral staff was presented to Bishop Manning in 1923 by the
Bishop, clergy and laity of the Diocese of London. See reference to the
Diocese of London on page 24.

[6] The processional cross, a memorial of the late Walter D. Davidge,
Chairman of Ushers, is overlaid with pure gold, and mounted upon a carved
mahogany staff. In its center is a large topaz jewel with many facets. It
was made by Messrs. J. & R. Lamb.

[7] Mr. Heins was born May 24, 1860, in Philadelphia, Penn., and died
September 25, 1907, at Mohegan Lake, N. Y., where there is a church
erected in his memory.

[8] Morningside Heights are so named because they front eastward.

[9] See description of corner-stone on page 100.

[10] This is true in both the natural and the spiritual worlds. The oak
grows more slowly than the pine; and the moral achievements which are
worth the most and last the longest are the hardest to accomplish.

[11] The figures of the Virgin and the Child suggest the fact that the
Chapel of St. Saviour occupies the position usually given to the Lady
Chapel in European cathedrals.

[12] The diagonal cross of St. Andrew symbolizes not only the mode of his
martyrdom but also humility. The legend is that when condemned to death,
he asked to be nailed to a cross of a form different from the Saviour’s,
as he was not worthy to die on the same kind.

[13] The usual symbol of St. Bartholomew, the knife with which he was
flayed alive, and that of St. Matthew, the money bag, indicating his
occupation before he was called, are not apparent.

[14] There is a tradition that St. Luke painted the first portrait of
Christ. Pictures of the Madonna attributed to Luke are not uncommon in
southern Italy. There is one such in the Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul
at Citta Vecchia, Malta. See article entitled “Knights and Sights of
Malta” in Harper’s Magazine for July, 1923, p. 159.

[15] ΙϹ and ΧϹ are the Greek letters iota sigma and chi sigma, (uncial
form,) being the first and last letters in each case of the Greek words
for Jesus Christ. The letters ΝΙΚΑ are read together and spell the Greek
word which means “conquers.” Mrs. Jenner, in her “Christian Symbolism,”
says that this inscription “is stamped upon every altar-bread of the
Orthodox Eastern Church, and it occurs on every eikon of our Lord.”

[16] What is here informally called the central aisle is sometimes called
by architects the Nave, to distinguish it from the parallel passages
called aisles.

[17] These sculptures are surpassingly beautiful. The Supper at Emmaus
has a particularly dramatic quality. Note the amazement of the two
Disciples as they recognize the Saviour after his crucifixion, their
attitudes and facial expressions, and the vein standing out on the neck
of the one in the foreground.

[18] The use of the grape-vine to symbolize Christ dates from the very
beginning of the Christian era. A silver chalice found in Antioch by
Arabs in 1910 and believed to date from the 1st century, is covered with
a grape-vine of twelve branches in the midst of which are figures of
Christ and the writers of the Gospels and Epistles (See N. Y. Evening Sun
of Jan. 3, 1920, and N. Y. Times of May 14, 1922.)

[19] These symbols, supposed to be derived from the Revelation of
St. John (iv. 7) and the prophecy of Ezekiel (i. 10), are variously
interpreted. One explanation of each follows: The man or cherub is given
to St. Matthew because he dwells on the human side of Christ; the lion
to St. Mark because he is called the historian of the resurrection, and
ancient naturalists believed that the lion was born inanimate and came to
life three days after birth; the ox, the emblem of sacrifice, to St. Luke
because he dwells on the priesthood of Christ; and the eagle to St. John
because he soared in the spirit to heaven and saw God.

[20] These Romanesque features are part of the original design which was
subsequently abandoned. There is a plan for changing them to Gothic.

[21] There is much ambiguity in the use by architects of terms to
indicate the sub-divisions of the eastern limb of a cathedral which is
called comprehensively the Choir. The designations here used—the Choir
proper, the Presbytery, and the Sanctuary—are sufficient for present
purposes without confusing the reader with conflicting definitions.

[22] For details of intentional departures from absolute levels, and
from regularity of height and spacing of arches, see “Temperamental
Architecture” in “The New York Architect” for April, 1911.

[23] See Abbott’s “History of King Alfred” for legends concerning the
cakes. One is, that Alfred, when a fugitive from the Danes, was hiding
one day in a peasant’s cottage, and while sitting by the fire-place
mending his bow, he was requested by the house-wife to watch her cakes
which were baking. Absorbed in thoughts of his kingdom, he forgot the
cakes, and for his neglect was roundly scolded by the woman who little
realized his character.

[24] St. Francis, founder of the Franciscan Order, literally interpreted
the text “Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every
creature” (Mark xvi. 15) and a famous fresco by Giotto in the church of
San Francesco, at Assisi, represents him preaching to the birds.

[25] “Cathedral Choirs ... have for ages been divided into two portions
facing each other and respectively named Decani, or the side of the Dean,
... and Cantoris, or the side of the Cantor” or Precentor.—Hunt’s Concise
History of Music.

[26] Brother of Horatio Potter and father of Henry Codman Potter, Bishops
of New York.

[27] See reference to the symbols of the four Evangelists on page 44.

[28] See page 93 for anecdote of the Dove of Peace connected with this

[29] See page 74 following.

[30] The poetic beauty of this window tempts one to re-read Milton’s
“Paradise Lost.” The beautiful legend of St. Raphael, the friendly
traveller, a favorite subject of art, is to be found in the Book of
Tobit, in the Apochrypha.

[31] Uncle of Bishop Henry Codman Potter, seventh Bishop of New York,
whose tomb is in the Chapel of St. James.

[32] The symbolism applicable to Bishop Potter’s work is that of the
familiar adage, “Great oaks from little acorns grow.”

[33] The congregational singing, always a feature of the Cathedral
services, is remarkable on these occasions, especially with the colored
congregations, among whom are often heard voices of exceptional quality.

[34] Concerning the ΙϹ-ΧϹ symbol, see page 34. Concerning the Ichthus
symbol, see page 116.

[35] These letters ihc and the corresponding capitals ΙΗϹ (iota, eta,
sigma,) are the first two and last letters of the Greek word for Jesus.
They are frequently associated with the letters ΧΡϹ (chi, rho, sigma,)
the first two and last letters of the word for Christ. When converted
into the Roman form of ihs or IHS, they are sometimes construed to be the
initials of the words Jesus Hominum Salvator (Jesus Saviour of Men).

[36] This rare representation of God the Father in human form is after
examples developed during and confined almost entirely to the 14th-16th
centuries. The triangular nimbus is peculiarly the symbol of God the
Father. Note description of Reredos.

[37] Grisaille, from the French “gris” meaning “gray,” so-called on
account of the grizzled or grayish brown glass often employed. Windows in
geometrical designs are also called pattern windows. Other examples of
grisaille windows are those in St. Columba Chapel.

[38] The designer has taken artistic license with these colors. Strictly,
the arms of the City of Rheims are: On a silver field, a green wreath of
oak and laurel with red fruit; on a blue chief three fleurs de lis of

[39] Strictly, the arms of the Archbishop of Rheims are: On a blue field
sprinkled with golden fleurs de lis, a silver cross over all.

[40] In 1376, Charles V. fixed the number of fleurs de lis in the royal
arms at three “to symbolize the Holy Trinity.” Some persons consider that
the three leaves of the conventional fleur de lis also symbolize the

[41] This representation of the Transfiguration, like that in the reredos
of the Chapel of Saint James described on page 71, is after Raphael’s
last work, the original of which is in the Vatican. In both cases the
poses of the six figures have been adapted to the spaces occupied.

[42] In the following table _ac._ indicates date of accession to title.
Some of the dates here and on page 86 are only approximate.

[43] Only the nimbus of the Deity is ornamented with the cross. In a
front view, but three arms of the cross appear; and sometimes these are
represented as rays of light. A few writers, including G. J. French
and W. & G. Audsley, contend that the three rays on the nimbus of the
Deity have no connection with the cross, but symbolize the Trinity. The
similarity of the floriated terminals to the French fleur de lis has no
special meaning, the real significance being, as stated on page 74 the
flowering or productiveness of the Christian religion.

[44] A Bishop’s crozier is usually in the form of a pastoral staff, or
ornate shepherd’s crook; an Archbishop’s staff has a cross instead of a
crook at the upper end; and a papal staff has a double cross at the upper

[45] The founder of a see is usually represented holding the model of a

[46] As an illustration of a peace legend connected with a European
church may be mentioned that of the Golden Virgin of the basilica of
Notre Dame de Brebieres, in Albert, France. In the bombardment of 1914,
the figure of the Virgin and Child which surmounted the spire was thrown
over and remained suspended at right angles for over three years; during
which time the belief sprang up locally that when the Golden Virgin fell,
peace would come. The Virgin fell during the bombardment of 1918, and
peace ensued a few months later.

[47] Some years ago, when Canon Douglas was visiting Worcester Cathedral,
England, Canon Wilson pointed to a spot in the wall where an ancient
carved stone had been replaced by a modern stone, and said: “A good while
ago a man of the name of Huntington, who introduced himself as Rector of
a church in Worcester, Mass., begged me to give him a bit of carved stone
as a symbol of the ties between England and America.” This led Canon
Douglas to ask for a similar gift to be placed in St. Ansgarius’ Chapel,
which is a memorial of Dr. Huntington, in a House of God where Englishmen
and Americans often meet and where members of the Daughter Church have
constant occasion to recall their indebtedness to the Mother Church of

[48] The Corner Stone also contains a Bible, a Prayer Book, a Hymnal,
Journals of the Diocesan Conventions 1882-1892, Journals of the General
Conventions 1889-1892, Centennial History of the Diocese of New York,
several church periodicals, three different almanacs for 1893, Catalogue
of the General Theological Seminary and St. Stephen’s College 1892-1893,
New York daily papers of December 27, 1892, the form of service for
laying the Corner Stone, names of the Cathedral Trustees, several charges
and addresses delivered by Bishop Potter on various occasions, letters
from the Bishop to the clergy and others concerning the Cathedral, the
badge and rules of prayer of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, medal of the
Missionary Society, lists of principal officers of the United States, N.
Y. State and N. Y. City governments, and a list of the objects placed in
the stone.

[49] For details, see description in the Architectural Record for August,

[50] Ralph Adams Cram.

[51] Several ideas associated with the fish-shape of the vesica piscis
have caused it to be recognized as a symbol of Christ. In an ingenious
rebus of a very early date, the five letters of the Greek word for “fish”
ἰχθύς, form the initials of the Greek words Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς, Θεοῦ Υἱὸς,
Σωτήρ, which mean “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.”

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